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Sample records for young homeless women

  1. Pregnancy and Mental Health of Young Homeless Women

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Devan M.; Trotter, Emily C.; Hartshorn, Kelley J. Sittner; Whitbeck, Les B.

    2012-01-01

    Pregnancy rates among women in the U.S. who are homeless are much higher than rates among women who are housed (Greene & Ringwalt, 1998). Yet little research has addressed mental health, risk and resilience among young mothers who are homeless. This study utilizes a sample of women from the Midwest Longitudinal Study of Homeless Adolescents (MLSHA) to investigate pregnancy and motherhood over three years among unaccompanied homeless young mothers. Our data are supplemented by in-depth interviews with a subset of these women. Results show that almost half of sexually active young women (n = 222, µ age = 17.2) had been pregnant at baseline (46.4%), and among the longitudinal subsample of 171 women (µ age = 17.2), almost 70.0% had been pregnant by the end of the study. Among young mothers who are homeless, only half reported that they helped to care for their children consistently over time, and one-fifth of the women reported never seeing their children. Of the young women with children in their care at the last interview of the study (Wave 13), almost one-third met criteria for lifetime major depressive episode (MDE), lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and lifetime drug abuse, and one-half met criteria for lifetime antisocial personality disorder (APD). Twelve-month diagnoses are also reported. The impacts of homelessness on maternal and child outcomes are discussed, including the implications for practice, policy, and research. PMID:21486259

  2. Does a Baby Help Young Women Transition out of Homelessness? Motivation, Coping, and Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruttan, Lia; Laboucane-Benson, Patricia; Munro, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    Homeless young women experience high levels of stress, challenges to mental health, substance use and abuse, and a lack of housing or of secure housing. This article explores one of the findings from a longitudinal qualitative study designed to follow homeless young women for a 2-year period as they make efforts to transition out of homelessness.…

  3. Sexual health: the role of sexual health services among homeless young women living in Toronto, Canada.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Vanessa; Cheff, Rebecca

    2012-05-01

    Recent statistics indicate limited condom use, high STI (sexually transmitted infection) rates, and a general lack of knowledge about reproductive and sexual health among homeless youth. This research focuses on the experiences of homeless female and transgendered youth, providing an insider's perspective on shaping sexual health interventions. This qualitative research is based on life history interviews and participant observation with eight homeless young women who reflect the diversity of the homeless population in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Their particularized sexual experiences and health-seeking behaviors illustrate the range of issues faced by this community, speaking to the efficacy of current health promotion strategies. Too often faced with judgmental health and social service providers who they perceive to undermine their agency and empowerment, these women highlight the challenges they face when seeking sexual and reproductive health services and information. In addition to speaking to the struggles and frustrations they face in regard to their sexual health and the services with which they choose to interact, the women provide suggestions for improved care. From these, the authors include key recommendations for the provision of culturally competent, sex-positive, and nonjudgmental health services with the hope that health practitioners and promoters can learn from these experiences, both positive and negative, when caring for and supporting young women living in exceptional circumstances.

  4. A pilot of a tripartite prevention program for homeless young women in the transition to adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Wenzel, Suzanne L.; D'Amico, Elizabeth J.; Barnes, Dionne; Gilbert, Mary Lou

    2009-01-01

    Background Among young women who are impoverished and homeless, the transition to adulthood (ages 18 through 25) is associated with alcohol and drug (AOD) use, risky sexual activity, and increased risk of being victimized by intimate partner violence (IPV). Methods “The Power of YOU”, a program using motivational interviewing, was designed to address these problems. We tested the “Power of YOU” with 31 homeless women (ages 18 - 25) in seven focus groups. Women completed questionnaires assessing background characteristics and satisfaction at the end of each group. Each group was followed by a feedback session which was audiorecorded and transcribed. Key themes were identified. Results During a past-6 month period, 38.7% of women reported alcohol intoxication, 19.3% reported two to three male sex partners, and 22.2% reported major physical violence from a partner. Women expressed satisfaction and provided consistently positive feedback on the intervention, reporting, for example, that it was “helpful to know how to put a condom on” and that they appreciated the attention paid to safety planning. Conclusions Results from this pilot suggest that “The Power of YOU” may hold promise in helping homeless young women in the transition to adulthood make healthier choices and plan and prepare for high risk situations, and that the non-confrontational, non-judgmental approach of motivational interviewing appeared appropriate for this population. PMID:19345588

  5. The Social Network: Homeless Young Women, Social Capital, and the Health Implications of Belonging outside the Nuclear Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Vanessa; Cheff, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the means through which homeless young women are able to improve their flow of social capital by attaining a sense of belonging and forming positive attachments to supportive people and places. In so doing, they also develop relationships with health and social services and improve their overall physical and mental health…

  6. Negative Cultural Capital and Homeless Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Justin David

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the ways in which homeless young people find a sense of self-worth and dignity within the conditions of youth homelessness. It notes that, while homeless young people seek a space where they do not feel marginalised and can attain a form of social status and cultural competence, they also engage in practices and acts of…

  7. Long-term and chronic homelessness in homeless women and women with children.

    PubMed

    Zlotnick, Cheryl; Tam, Tammy; Bradley, Kimberly

    2010-09-01

    The Chronic Homelessness initiative has directed millions of federal dollars to services for single "unaccompanied homeless" individuals, specifically excluding women living with their children. Using a data set with a nationally representative sample of homeless adults, we calculated the prevalence rates and profiles of long-term homelessness in homeless women (n = 849). With the exception of the criterion of being a single "unaccompanied individual," many women, including women with children, met the criteria for chronic homelessness including having a disability of mental health or substance abuse problems. Our findings suggest that the federal definition of chronic homelessness needs to be revised.

  8. Young Children and Families Experiencing Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Allison B.; Squires, Jane

    2014-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of homelessness among young children and families in the United States is described, as is the developmental impact on young children and cost to society. Although services are mandated for this population under the McKinney­-Vento Act, Education of Homeless Children and Youth Program, and the Individuals With…

  9. Correlates of adult assault among homeless women.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Angela L; Wright, Kynna; Bhattacharya, Debika; Sinha, Karabi; Nyamathi, Adeline; Marfisee, Mary

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess predictors of sexual and physical assault among homeless women. A multivariate, correlation design was utilized to identify independent correlates of adult physical and sexual assault. The sample consisted of 202 homeless women residing in shelters or living on the street in the Skid Row area of Los Angeles. Respondents reporting a history of child sexual abuse were almost four times more likely to report being sexually assaulted as adults and were almost two and one third times more likely to report being physically assaulted as adults. A range of factors increase homeless women's risk of adult physical and sexual victimization, including child sexual abuse, substance use, lifetime sex trade activity, and previous incarceration. It is important for homeless service providers to develop an individual risk profile for homeless women and to intervene in order to decrease their risk of re-victimization. PMID:21099076

  10. Homeless Women, Street Smarts, and Their Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Carole

    2001-01-01

    A qualitative study of four homeless women depicted their self-perceptions, instability of relationships, decision-making processes, and resourcefulness. Their informal learning included situational and intentional learning applied to survival. (SK)

  11. Exploring the Lived Experiences of Homeless Families with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Stephanie; Cassel, Darlinda

    2013-01-01

    This study researched the experiences of homeless families with young children between the ages of four and eight. Many families experience homelessness every year; therefore, it is important for early childhood educators to have an understanding of how homelessness affects families with young children so that educators can effectively serve the…

  12. Homeless women's experiences of service provider encounters.

    PubMed

    Biederman, Donna J; Nichols, Tracy R

    2014-01-01

    Service providers are gatekeepers to health-sustaining services and resources, although little is known about service encounters from the perspective of homeless women. We conducted in-depth semistructured interviews with 15 homeless women to better understand their experiences of service encounters. Using a phenomenological method, 160 significant statements were extracted from participant transcripts; more positive than negative interactions were reported. The 10 themes that emerged fall along a dehumanizing/humanizing continuum primarily separated by the power participants experienced in the interaction and the trust they felt in the service provider. Implications for nursing practice and research are offered. PMID:24528122

  13. Perceptions of Resiliency and Coping: Homeless Young Adults Speak Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sanna J.; Ryan, Tiffany N.; Montgomery, Katherine L.; Lippman, Angie Del Prado; Bender, Kimberly; Ferguson, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the perceptions of resilience and coping among homeless young adults, a focus that differs from previous research by considering the unconventional resilience and coping of this high-risk population. Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 45 homeless young adults. Individual interviews were audio recorded,…

  14. Spaces of Trauma: Young People, Homelessness and Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Lucinda

    2012-01-01

    Little contemporary research has examined young people's experiences of violence and homelessness in detail within the Australian context. This article draws upon qualitative research with 33 homeless youth in Melbourne and seeks to enhance understanding of the impact of violence on young people. It argues that everyday experiences of violence…

  15. Young People, Drug Use and Family Conflict: Pathways into Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallett, Shelley; Rosenthal, Doreen; Keys, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    Young people who experience homelessness, in Australia and in other western contexts (US, Canada, England), are widely perceived to use and abuse alcohol and drugs. The available research indicates that homeless young people use all drug types, whether injected or otherwise, more frequently than their home-based peers. Debate exists in the…

  16. Strengthening At-Risk and Homeless Young Mothers and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medeiros, Debra; Vaulton, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    The Strengthening At Risk and Homeless Young Mothers and Children Initiative, funded by the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation, aims to improve the housing, health, and development of homeless and at-risk young families. This article describes the services provided in four program sites (Pomona, CA; Antelope Valley, CA; Minneapolis, MN; and Chicago, IL)…

  17. Psychopathology in Young People Experiencing Homelessness: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, Katherine H.; van den Bree, Marianne B. M.; Los, Férenc J.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding mental health issues faced by young homeless persons is instrumental to the development of successful targeted interventions. No systematic review of recent published literature on psychopathology in this group has been completed. We conducted a systematic review of published research examining the prevalence of psychiatric problems among young homeless people. We examined the temporal relationship between homelessness and psychopathology. We collated 46 articles according to the PRISMA Statement. All studies that used a full psychiatric assessment consistently reported a prevalence of any psychiatric disorder from 48% to 98%. Although there was a lack of longitudinal studies of the temporal relationship between psychiatric disorders and homelessness, findings suggested a reciprocal link. Supporting young people at risk for homelessness could reduce homelessness incidence and improve mental health. PMID:23597340

  18. Pregnancy and Sexual Health among Homeless Young Injection Drug Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hathazi, Dodi; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Sanders, Bill; Bloom, Jennifer Jackson

    2009-01-01

    Research on pregnancy and sexual health among homeless youth is limited. In this study, qualitative interviews were conducted with 41 homeless young injection drug users (IDUs) in Los Angeles with a history of pregnancy. The relationship between recent pregnancy outcomes, contraception practices, housing status, substance use, utilization of…

  19. From Homelessness to Community: Psychological Integration of Women Who Have Experienced Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemiroff, Rebecca; Aubry, Tim; Klodawsky, Fran

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined psychological integration of women who were homeless at the study's outset. Participants (N = 101) were recruited at homeless shelters and participated in 2 in-person interviews, approximately 2 years apart. A predictive model identifying factors associated with having a psychological sense of community within…

  20. Access to women's health care: a qualitative study of barriers perceived by homeless women.

    PubMed

    Gelberg, Lillian; Browner, C H; Lejano, Elena; Arangua, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    Homelessness is an escalating national problem and women are disproportionately affected. Nevertheless, few studies have focused on the special circumstances associated with being a homeless woman. For instance, while both genders experience serious barriers to obtaining health care, homeless women face an additional burden by virtue of their sexual and reproductive health needs. The current study was conducted as the first stage of a qualitative/quantitative investigation of homeless women's access and barriers to family planning and women's health care. We interviewed 47 homeless women of diverse ages and ethnic backgrounds. A qualitative approach was initially taken to explore the factors homeless women themselves perceive as barriers to their use of birth control and women's health services, and factors they believe would facilitate their use. Key findings are that health is not a priority for homeless women, that transportation and scheduling can be particularly burdensome for homeless women, and that being homeless leads some to feel stigmatized by health care providers. Despite being homeless, having children was extremely important to the women in our study. At the same time, those interested in contraception confronted significant barriers in their efforts to prevent pregnancies. We conclude with suggested interventions that would make general, gynecological, and reproductive health care more accessible to homeless women.

  1. Formerly homeless, older women's experiences with health, housing, and aging.

    PubMed

    Waldbrook, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    The perspectives of formerly homeless, older women are absent in the academic literature on aging and homelessness. In this study, a group of formerly homeless women, aged 45 years and older were surveyed (N = 15) and interviewed (n = 11) about their experiences with health, housing, and aging. The qualitative themes to be explored include the women's perceptions of their current health, coping with low incomes, dealing with addictions to alcohol and drugs, and the importance of supportive housing and other community services. The female participants' views on adapting to home, planning for their elderly years, and views on growing older are also explored.

  2. Correlates of Depressive Symptoms among Homeless Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Marfisee, Mary; Slagle, Alexandra; Greengold, Barbara; Liu, Yihang; Leake, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent homelessness has received increasing attention due to its fast growth throughout the United States and the poor mental outcomes experienced by homeless young people. This cross-sectional study (N = 156) identified correlates of depressive symptomatology among homeless young adults and investigated how depressive symptoms are influenced by the coping strategies these young adults employ. The findings are based on analysis of baseline data collected for a hepatitis vaccination intervention pilot study conducted in partnership with a young adult’s drop-in center in Santa Monica, California. Standardized tools assessed drug use history, coping ability, and psychiatric symptomatology. Linear regression modeling was used to identify correlates of depressive symptom severity. Poor perceived physical health, recent crack cocaine use and recent use of tranquilizers were significantly associated with increased severity of depressive symptoms. Self-destructive escape, non-disclosure/avoidance, passive problem-solving and thoughts of harming self were also associated with increased severity of depressive symptoms. PMID:21131507

  3. Stressful Life Event Experiences of Homeless Adults: A Comparison of Single Men, Single Women, and Women with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zugazaga, Carole

    2004-01-01

    This article describes stressful life events experienced by a multi-shelter sample of 162 homeless adults in the Central Florida area. Participants included homeless single men (n = 54), homeless single women (n = 54), and homeless women with children (n = 54). Subjects were interviewed with a modified version of the List of Threatening…

  4. Trajectories of women's homelessness in Canada's 3 northern territories

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Rose; Hrenchuk, Charlotte; Bopp, Judie; Poole, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Background Repairing the Holes in the Net was a 2-year, multilevel action research project designed to inform the development of culturally appropriate and gender-specific services for northern women who are homeless or marginally housed and who face mental health and substance use concerns. The study was designed to learn about the barriers and supports experienced by homeless women in the North when accessing mental health care, shelter, housing and other services; and to inform the work of northern service providers and policy advocates in a position to implement adjustments in their praxis. Methods This article describes the trajectories of women's service access and their ideas for service improvement from 61 qualitative, semi-structured interviews conducted with homeless women in Whitehorse, Yukon (YT), Yellowknife, Northwest Territories (NT), and Iqualit, Nunavut (NU). Results Unresolved trauma, poverty and social exclusion, inability to find and maintain housing and ineffective services emerged as interconnected and multifaceted challenges related to women's service engagement. In the face of these challenges, women displayed significant resilience and resistance, and offered important ideas for service improvement. Conclusions The 4 interconnected systemic challenges identified in the research, coupled with specific ideas for change cited by the resilient homeless women interviewed, offer points of entry to improve service policy and delivery. Implementing trauma-informed approaches emerged as a key example of how access to, and quality of, services could be improved for homeless women in the North. PMID:26700413

  5. Association of Childhood Abuse with Homeless Women's Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Harold D., Jr.; Tucker, Joan S.; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P.; Ryan, Gery W.; Zhou, Annie J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Childhood abuse has been linked to negative sequelae for women later in life including drug and alcohol use and violence as victim or perpetrator and may also affect the development of women's social networks. Childhood abuse is prevalent among at-risk populations of women (such as the homeless) and thus may have a stronger impact on…

  6. Developmental Status and Social-Emotional Functioning of Young Children Experiencing Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskett, Mary E.; Armstrong, Jenna Montgomery; Tisdale, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The developmental status and social-emotional functioning of young children who are homeless has received inadequate attention in spite of high rates of homelessness among families with young children and the potentially negative impact of homelessness and associated stressors on children's well-being. The aim of this study was to gain…

  7. Issues and Strategies Involved in Helping Homeless Parents of Young Children Strengthen Their Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swick, Kevin J.

    2009-01-01

    Homeless parents of young children face many stressors that erode their self-esteem. This article articulates these stressors and how they negatively impact homeless parents and their children. Strategies for helping parents empower themselves and their children are explained.

  8. The Dynamics of Violence and Homelessness among Young Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swick, Kevin James

    2008-01-01

    Violence is one of the most prevalent elements in the lives of homeless families with young children. This violence may come in various forms: domestic violence, street violence, violence in one's childhood, witnessing violence, and other avenues and modes. Violence disrupts the normal bonding between parent and child. It isolates and degrades…

  9. HIV risk, seropositivity and predictors of infection among homeless and non-homeless women sex workers in Miami, Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Surratt, H L; Inciardi, J A

    2004-07-01

    Although homelessness has frequently been associated with substance abuse, and has been established as a predictor of HIV risk among substance abusers, little is known about the impact of homelessness on HIV risk among female sex workers. This analysis investigated the contribution of homelessness to sexual risk taking among a sample of 485 female sex workers recruited into an HIV prevention programme in Miami, Florida, 41.6% of whom considered themselves to be currently homeless. Findings indicated that in comparison to non-homeless sex workers, significantly more homeless sex workers were daily users of alcohol and crack, and their past month sex work reflected significantly more frequent vaginal and oral sex acts, higher levels of unprotected vaginal sex and more numerous sexual activities while 'high' on drugs. At the same time, a significantly greater proportion of homeless sex workers encountered customers that refused to use condoms than did the non-homeless sex workers. There were no significant differences in HIV seropositivity between the homeless and non-homeless women (22.5 and 24.9%, respectively), primarily because the majority of the women in the study cycled in and out of homelessness. PMID:15223529

  10. Homeless Women's Personal Networks: Implications for Understanding Risk Behavior.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Joan S; Kennedy, David; Ryan, Gery; Wenzel, Suzanne L; Golinelli, Daniela; Zazzali, James

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this exploratory study was to examine the composition of homeless women's personal networks in order to better understand the social context of risk behavior in this vulnerable population. Twenty-eight homeless women residing in temporary shelters in Los Angeles County provided detailed information about their extended personal networks. Women named 25 people with whom they had contact during the past year, and then were asked a series of questions about each one of these named network members. Results indicate that the personal networks of homeless women are larger and more diverse than suggested by previous research. About one-third of women's relationships were with high-risk individuals (i.e., people perceived to drink heavily, use drugs, or engage in risky sex). However, most women also reported having relationships that could be characterized as both "low risk" (e.g., involving individuals perceived as not drinking heavily, using drugs, or engaging in risky sex) and "high quality" (e.g., long-term, emotionally close, or supportive), although these relationships tended to be rather tenuous. Our results suggest a need to assist homeless women in strengthening these existing low-risk/high-quality relationships, and extending the diversity of their networks, in order to increase women's exposure to positive role models and access to tangible support and other needed resources. PMID:20351796

  11. Characteristics of Home: Perspectives of Women Who Are Homeless

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Christine A.; Rutherford, Gayle E.; Kuzmak, Natasha

    2009-01-01

    We employed participatory, community-based research methods to explore the perceptions of home among women who are homeless. Twenty women engaged in one or more techniques including qualitative interviews, digital story telling, creative writing, photovoice, and design charrette to characterize their perceptions of home. Analysis of the data…

  12. Women Speak: Healing the Wounds of Homelessness through Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Karen Anne; And Others

    1997-01-01

    The Women Speak writing project explored the use of writing as therapy for homeless women at an urban drop-in center. By sharing experiences, a sense of empowerment began. Nursing students and faculty were challenged to rethink the traditional clinical relationship that gives highest priority to the needs of students and faculty rather than the…

  13. Family Histories and Multiple Transitions Among Homeless Young Adults: Pathways to Homelessness

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Schmitz, Rachel M.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the early family histories of homeless young adults, the types and number of transitions they experienced, and their pathways to the street. Intensive qualitative interviews were audio taped and transcribed with 40 homeless young adults 19 to 21 years of age in the Midwest. Findings show that family backgrounds were generally characterized by substance use, child maltreatment, and witnessing violence, all of which provide social context for understanding why so many of these young people opted to leave home in search of an alternative living situation. The current findings also reveal that while some young adults ran away from home as adolescents, others were “pushed out” (i.e., told to leave), or removed by state agencies. Current study findings illustrate that young adults’ trajectories are marked by multiple living arrangements such as home, foster care, detention facility, and drug rehabilitation. Overall, study results show that young adults’ family histories place them on trajectories for early independence marked by multiple transitions and numerous living situations, culminating in a lack of a permanent residence to call home. PMID:24151346

  14. Homeless and Disabled: Rights, Responsibilities, and Recommendations for Serving Young Children with Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gargiulo, Richard M.

    2006-01-01

    Homelessness is a growing social problem in the United States. Especially vulnerable to this phenomenon are young children because homelessness is viewed as a breeding ground for disabilities. Despite federal legislation ensuring educational opportunities, the educational needs of children who are homeless are frequently unfulfilled. This article…

  15. Art Messaging as a Medium to Engage Homeless Young Adults Art Messaging as a Medium to Engage Homeless Youth

    PubMed Central

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Slagle, Alexandra; Thomas, Alexandra; Hudson, Angela; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Avila, Glenna; Orser, Julie; Cuchilla, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Background Art has been shown to be an empowering and engaging entity with numerous benefits to vulnerable populations, including the homeless persons and young adults. Yet, little is known how homeless young adults perceive the use of art as messages that can communicate the danger of initiating or continuing drug and alcohol use. Objectives The purpose of this study was to solicit perspectives of homeless drug-using young adults as to how art can be used to design messages for their peers about the danger of initiating or continuing drug and alcohol use. Methods Qualitative methodology via focus group discussions was utilized to engage 24 homeless young adults enrolled from a drop-in site in Santa Monica. Results The findings revealed support for a myriad of delivery styles, including in person communication, flyers, music, documentary film and creative writing. The young adults also provided insight into the importance of the thematic framework of messages. Such themes ranged from empowering and hopeful messages to those designed to scare young homeless adults into not experimenting with drugs. Conclusions The findings indicate that in addition to messages communicating the need to prevent or reduce drug and alcohol use, homeless young adults respond to messages that remind them of goals and dreams they once had for their future, and to content that is personal, real and truthful. . Our research indicates that messages that reinforce protective factors such as hope for the future and self-esteem may be as important to homeless young adults as information about the risks and consequences of drug use. PMID:21441664

  16. Gender, coping strategies, homelessness stressors, and income generation among homeless young adults in three cities.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Kristin M; Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J

    2015-06-01

    This study examined gender differences among homeless young adults' coping strategies and homelessness stressors as they relate to legal (e.g., full-time employment, selling personal possessions, selling blood/plasma) and illegal economic activity (e.g., selling drugs, theft, prostitution). A sample of 601 homeless young adults was recruited from 3 cities (Los Angeles, CA [n = 200], Austin, TX [n = 200], and Denver, CO [n = 201]) to participate in semi-structured interviews from March 2010 to July 2011. Risk and resilience correlates of legal and illegal economic activity were analyzed using six Ordinary Least Squares regression models with the full sample and with the female and male sub-samples. In the full sample, three variables (i.e., avoidant coping, problem-focused coping, and mania) were associated with legal income generation whereas eight variables (i.e., social coping, age, arrest history, transience, peer substance use, antisocial personality disorder [ASPD], substance use disorder [SUD], and major depressive episode [MDE]) were associated with illegal economic activity. In the female sub-sample, three variables (i.e., problem-focused coping, race/ethnicity, and transience) were correlated with legal income generation whereas six variables (i.e., problem-focused coping, social coping, age, arrest history, peer substance use, and ASPD) were correlated with illegal economic activity. Among males, the model depicting legal income generation was not significant yet seven variables (i.e., social coping, age, transience, peer substance use, ASPD, SUD, and MDE) were associated with illegal economic activity. Understanding gender differences in coping strategies and economic activity might help customize interventions aimed at safe and legal income generation for this population. PMID:25942470

  17. Gender, coping strategies, homelessness stressors, and income generation among homeless young adults in three cities.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Kristin M; Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J

    2015-06-01

    This study examined gender differences among homeless young adults' coping strategies and homelessness stressors as they relate to legal (e.g., full-time employment, selling personal possessions, selling blood/plasma) and illegal economic activity (e.g., selling drugs, theft, prostitution). A sample of 601 homeless young adults was recruited from 3 cities (Los Angeles, CA [n = 200], Austin, TX [n = 200], and Denver, CO [n = 201]) to participate in semi-structured interviews from March 2010 to July 2011. Risk and resilience correlates of legal and illegal economic activity were analyzed using six Ordinary Least Squares regression models with the full sample and with the female and male sub-samples. In the full sample, three variables (i.e., avoidant coping, problem-focused coping, and mania) were associated with legal income generation whereas eight variables (i.e., social coping, age, arrest history, transience, peer substance use, antisocial personality disorder [ASPD], substance use disorder [SUD], and major depressive episode [MDE]) were associated with illegal economic activity. In the female sub-sample, three variables (i.e., problem-focused coping, race/ethnicity, and transience) were correlated with legal income generation whereas six variables (i.e., problem-focused coping, social coping, age, arrest history, peer substance use, and ASPD) were correlated with illegal economic activity. Among males, the model depicting legal income generation was not significant yet seven variables (i.e., social coping, age, transience, peer substance use, ASPD, SUD, and MDE) were associated with illegal economic activity. Understanding gender differences in coping strategies and economic activity might help customize interventions aimed at safe and legal income generation for this population.

  18. The Impact of Being Homeless on Young Children and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Tenisha L.

    2012-01-01

    Families with young children are the fastest growing population of the homeless. Homeless young children (under the age of 5) are especially vulnerable as early childhood professionals consider the early years to be the most critical developmental period in all domains (cognitive, social-emotional, physical, and language). The disruptions to a…

  19. Exploring the Psychosocial and Behavioral Adjustment Outcomes of Multi-Type Abuse among Homeless Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Kristin M.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the psychosocial and behavioral adjustment outcomes associated with verbal, emotional, physical, and sexual abuse among homeless young adults as well as the associations among abuse types. Convenience sampling was used to select 28 homeless young adults (ages 18 to 24) from one drop-in center. Overall, subjects experienced…

  20. Adapting the Individual Placement and Support Model with Homeless Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Kristin M.; Xie, Bin; Glynn, Shirley

    2012-01-01

    Background: Prior research reveals high unemployment rates among homeless young adults. The literature offers many examples of using evidence-based supported employment models with vulnerable populations to assist them in obtaining and maintaining competitive employment; yet few examples exist to date with homeless young adults with mental…

  1. Perceived racial, sexual identity, and homeless status-related discrimination among Black adolescents and young adults experiencing homelessness: Relations with depressive symptoms and suicidality.

    PubMed

    Gattis, Maurice N; Larson, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    There is a dearth of empirical evidence that addresses how racial minority, sexual minority, and homeless statuses, with their accompanying experiences of stigma and discrimination, are related to mental health in adolescent and young adult populations. The current study addresses this gap by examining the associations between multiple forms of discrimination, depressive symptoms, and suicidality in a sample of 89 Black adolescents and young adults (52% female; 47% nonheterosexual, ages 16-24) experiencing homelessness. Results from a series of ordinary least squares and logistic regressions suggested that perceived homelessness stigma and racial discrimination were associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms, controlling for gender, age, and other types of discrimination, while perceived sexual identity discrimination showed no association. Having ever spent a homeless night on the street, an indicator of homelessness severity, accounted for a substantial amount of the association between homelessness stigma and depressive symptoms. In contrast, suicidality was not significantly associated with any measure of discrimination, homelessness severity, or personal characteristics. We also found no indication that the associations between perceived discrimination targeted at racial and homelessness statuses and mental health differed by sexual minority status. Our results suggest that depressive symptoms and suicidality are prevalent among Black homeless youth, and that depressive symptoms are particularly associated with racial discrimination and indicators of homelessness. The roles of discrimination and a lack of safe housing may be taken into account when designing programs and policies that address the mental health of Black adolescents and young adults experiencing homelessness.

  2. Perceived racial, sexual identity, and homeless status-related discrimination among Black adolescents and young adults experiencing homelessness: Relations with depressive symptoms and suicidality.

    PubMed

    Gattis, Maurice N; Larson, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    There is a dearth of empirical evidence that addresses how racial minority, sexual minority, and homeless statuses, with their accompanying experiences of stigma and discrimination, are related to mental health in adolescent and young adult populations. The current study addresses this gap by examining the associations between multiple forms of discrimination, depressive symptoms, and suicidality in a sample of 89 Black adolescents and young adults (52% female; 47% nonheterosexual, ages 16-24) experiencing homelessness. Results from a series of ordinary least squares and logistic regressions suggested that perceived homelessness stigma and racial discrimination were associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms, controlling for gender, age, and other types of discrimination, while perceived sexual identity discrimination showed no association. Having ever spent a homeless night on the street, an indicator of homelessness severity, accounted for a substantial amount of the association between homelessness stigma and depressive symptoms. In contrast, suicidality was not significantly associated with any measure of discrimination, homelessness severity, or personal characteristics. We also found no indication that the associations between perceived discrimination targeted at racial and homelessness statuses and mental health differed by sexual minority status. Our results suggest that depressive symptoms and suicidality are prevalent among Black homeless youth, and that depressive symptoms are particularly associated with racial discrimination and indicators of homelessness. The roles of discrimination and a lack of safe housing may be taken into account when designing programs and policies that address the mental health of Black adolescents and young adults experiencing homelessness. PMID:26460699

  3. The lived experience of homeless women: insights gained as a specialist practitioner.

    PubMed

    Fordham, Maria

    2015-04-01

    ABSTRACT In this article, insights into the lived experience of homeless women arising from a PhD study on the specialist role of the SCPHN in homelessness are presented. A key narrative text of a rough sleeping pregnant woman is included. The reflexive narrative study, used an eclectic, philosophical framework which included reflective practice/guidance, narrative inquiry, and storytelling methodologies. Story texts uniquely illuminated complex knowledge about homelessness and homeless health care. Homeless women were found to be a heterogeneous group which included former health professionals. The women's stories were often shocking; they were frequently contextualised against a background of service exclusion, including GP services, learning disability services, mental health services, housing services and social services. The role of the specialist nurse (SCPHN) in engagement with homeless people is illuminated. A therapeutic model of 'Effective Engagement with Homeless People and Homeless Families' is presented to guide health professionals in holistic care. The author invites the reader to dialogue within their teams on how homeless people are included or excluded from SCPHN services. In this way, the term 'audiencing' rather than transferability of findings is used in a continuing dialogue with the reader to improve the health and wellbeing of homeless women.

  4. The lived experience of homeless women: insights gained as a specialist practitioner.

    PubMed

    Fordham, Maria

    2015-04-01

    ABSTRACT In this article, insights into the lived experience of homeless women arising from a PhD study on the specialist role of the SCPHN in homelessness are presented. A key narrative text of a rough sleeping pregnant woman is included. The reflexive narrative study, used an eclectic, philosophical framework which included reflective practice/guidance, narrative inquiry, and storytelling methodologies. Story texts uniquely illuminated complex knowledge about homelessness and homeless health care. Homeless women were found to be a heterogeneous group which included former health professionals. The women's stories were often shocking; they were frequently contextualised against a background of service exclusion, including GP services, learning disability services, mental health services, housing services and social services. The role of the specialist nurse (SCPHN) in engagement with homeless people is illuminated. A therapeutic model of 'Effective Engagement with Homeless People and Homeless Families' is presented to guide health professionals in holistic care. The author invites the reader to dialogue within their teams on how homeless people are included or excluded from SCPHN services. In this way, the term 'audiencing' rather than transferability of findings is used in a continuing dialogue with the reader to improve the health and wellbeing of homeless women. PMID:26601433

  5. HIV-related risk behaviors and seropositivity among homeless drug-abusing women in Miami, Florida.

    PubMed

    Metsch, L R; McCoy, C B; McCoy, H V; Shultz, J M; Lai, S; Weatherby, N L; McAnany, H; Correa, R; Anwyl, R S

    1995-01-01

    This article examines the multifaceted interactions among homelessness, HIV, substance abuse, and gender. Data were collected on 1,366 chronic drug users using a nationally standardized validated instrument within the Miami CARES project of a multisite federally funded program. HIV testing accompanied by pretest and posttest counseling was conducted on-site by certified phlebotomists and counselors. In addition to descriptive analyses and corresponding tests of significance, logistic regression analyses were used to clarify the complex associations between the outcome variables of homelessness and HIV, recognizing difficulties of determining temporal sequence. HIV infection was found to be 2.35 times more prevalent among homeless women than homeless men and significantly higher for homeless women. The findings indicate that among women, homelessness and HIV have a highly interactive effect increasing the vulnerability of this population and thus rendering them an extremely important priority population on which to focus public health efforts and programs. PMID:8788698

  6. Poor Parenting and Antisocial Behavior among Homeless Young Adults: Links to Dating Violence Perpetration and Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Melander, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    Though research has examined risk factors associated with street victimization among homeless young people, little is known about dating violence experiences among this group. Given homeless youths' elevated rates of child maltreatment, it is likely that they are at high risk for dating violence. As such, the current study examined the association…

  7. A qualitative study of pregnancy intention and the use of contraception among homeless women with children.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Sara; Grewal, Mandeep; Roberts, Elizabeth M; Steinauer, Jody; Dehlendorf, Christine

    2014-05-01

    We undertook a qualitative analysis informed by grounded theory to explore pregnancy intention and the barriers to contraceptive use as perceived by homeless women with children. Semi-structured interviews (n = 22) were performed in English and in Spanish. The dominant theme emerging from the interviews was a strong desire to avoid pregnancy while homeless. However, few women in our sample used contraception or accessed reproductive health care consistently. There were multiple barriers to using contraception and to accessing reproductive health care services that homeless women reported: (1) inability to prioritize health due to competing demands, (2) shelter-related obstacles and restrictive provider practices that impede access to reproductive health care services and the use of contraception, and (3) change in the power dynamics of sexual relationships while homeless, making women more vulnerable to sexual exploitation. Findings suggest a multifactorial approach is needed to help homeless women use contraception and access reproductive health services.

  8. Homelessness-Related Traumatic Events and PTSD Among Women Experiencing Episodes of Homelessness in Three U.S. Cities.

    PubMed

    Whitbeck, Les B; Armenta, Brian E; Gentzler, Kari C

    2015-08-01

    In this article, we report the prevalence of traumatic events (TEs), lifetime and 12-month posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among 148 women experiencing homelessness in 3 midsized cities in the United States (Omaha, NE, Pittsburgh, PA, and Portland, OR). The women ranged in age from 19 to 54 years with an average age of 38.89 years (SD = 10.18). The sample was 42.6% White/European American. We investigated the mediation of distal TEs (i.e., childhood maltreatment) by more proximal TEs associated with being homeless (i.e., homelessness-related stressors) for meeting diagnostic criteria for 12-month PTSD. Results indicated that 42.6% of the women met criteria for lifetime PTSD and 39.7% met criteria for past-year PTSD. The number of TEs reported ranged from 0 to 16 in order of prevalence with a median of 6 TEs. The correlations between childhood maltreatment and 12-month PTSD ranged from .16 to .20 and the correlations between homelessness-related stressors and 12-month PTSD ranged from .21 to .30. The mediation analysis was consistent with the association between childhood maltreatment and past-year PTSD being fully mediated by homelessness-related trauma.

  9. When the Bough Breaks: The Effects of Homelessness on Young Children. Early Childhood Highlights. Volume 3, Issue 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy-Roth, Marci; Mackintosh, Bonnie B.; Murphey, David

    2012-01-01

    Living without permanent, long-term housing creates a number of stressors for children and families, but being homeless can be particularly detrimental to the healthy development of young children. The National Center on Family Homelessness reports that more than 1.6 million children--or one in 45 children--were homeless annually in America…

  10. Souls in Extremis: Enacting Processes of Recovery from Homelessness Among Older African American Women.

    PubMed

    Moxley, David P; Washington, Olivia G M

    2016-06-01

    In a midwestern city of the USA, the authors implemented the Leaving Homelessness Intervention Research Project-and its eight subprojects-to further understand homelessness as experienced by older minority women, develop intervention strategies to facilitate the movement of the participants out of homelessness, and illuminate the women's recovery process. After reviewing the social issue of homelessness among older African American women in the USA, and offering a framework on recovery and qualitative themes of recovery among participants involved in the Telling My Story subproject, the authors present a four-factor model of recovery-focused practice. The model reflects two recovery paradigms: one that is responsive to the negative consequences people experience as a result of their exposure to extreme situations, such as homelessness, and a proactive one in which assistance is designed to help people in recovery advance their own self-development and move forward their process of individuation. PMID:26781673

  11. Physical and sexual abuse history in women seeking treatment at a psychiatric clinic for the homeless.

    PubMed

    Holt, Richard L; Montesinos, Sylvia; Christensen, Richard C

    2007-01-01

    The rate of lifetime exposure to physical and/or sexual abuse among homeless women is very high, and the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and substance abuse is greater in this population than in the general population. The relationship between abuse and mental illness in homeless women is incompletely understood. Using multivariable logistic regression, the present study examines this relationship in a retrospective study of women seeking treatment at a psychiatric clinic for the homeless in Jacksonville, Florida. The results of this study indicate a strong association between abuse history and anxiety disorders, especially posttraumatic stress disorder. PMID:17242595

  12. Adapting an Evidence-Based Intervention for Homeless Women: Engaging the Community in Shared Decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Cederbaum, Julie A.; Song, Ahyoung; Hsu, Hsun-Ta; Tucker, Joan S.; Wenzel, Suzanne L.

    2014-01-01

    As interest grows in the diffusion of evidence-based interventions (EBIs), there is increasing concern about how to mitigate implementation challenges; this paper concerns adapting an EBI for homeless women. Complementing earlier focus groups with homeless women, homeless service providers (n = 32) were engaged in focus groups to assess capacity, needs, and barriers with implementation of EBIs. Deductive analyses of data led to the selection of four EBIs. Six consensus groups were then undertaken; three each with homeless women (n = 24) and homeless service providers (n = 21). The selected EBI was adapted and pretested with homeless women (n = 9) and service providers (n = 6). The structured consensus group process provided great utility and affirmed the expertise of homeless women and service providers as experts in their domain. Engaging providers in the selection process reduced the structural barriers within agencies as obstacles to diffusion. PMID:25418227

  13. Women negotiating sexual identity in the face of homelessness: from silence to satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Loates, Mandy; Walsh, Christine A

    2010-01-01

    Women confront unique challenges when faced with homelessness, not the least of which is negotiating how to express their sexuality. Research has tended to look at the sexuality of women who are homeless pathologically, yet in housed women a healthy sex life is an important predictor of happiness and well-being. The complex relationship between health and sexuality is significant, yet under-researched for women experiencing poverty and homelessness. This study presents findings from a national study in six Canadian cities: Halifax, Montreal, Ottawa, Toronto, Calgary and Vancouver, the goal of which was to identify precedents and guidelines to inform the design of homeless shelters for women. In qualitative interviews, seventy-six women responded to questions about sexual orientation and in doing so described their expression of sexuality and intimate relationships. The participants were diverse in age, sexual orientation and ethnicity and results indicated multiple opinions on relationships, gender separation in shelters, sexual reproduction and definitions of sexual orientation. This paper describes the variability in how women express their sexuality and their understanding of intimate relationships in the context of homelessness and consuming shelter services. Results indicate the need for further research on sexuality to inform practice with women who are homeless. PMID:20390586

  14. Making the invisible visible: a Photovoice exploration of homeless women's health and lives in central Auckland.

    PubMed

    Bukowski, Kate; Buetow, Stephen

    2011-03-01

    Women and the concept of homelessness are weakly connected in the international discourses on health and housing. This PhotoVoice study gave a sample of homeless women in central Auckland a camera with which to photograph their lives in order to voice their felt health needs as advocates and agents for positive change. Interviews explored the meanings given to street lives captured in the photographs and reveal threats to the women's mental health and worsening addictions. Their tight-knit, resilient community, including dogs, was seen as 'family' who provide support and protection. The women perceived social services as helping them survive and support their health, but not ending their homelessness. Barriers to them getting and staying off the street included a shortage of affordable, secure housing, which has also tended to become overcrowded. They identified their own leaders who could link with state housing services to implement and evaluate new homelessness programmes, such as Housing First.

  15. Occupational concerns of women who are homeless and have children: an occupational justice critique.

    PubMed

    Vanleit, Betsy; Starrett, Rebecca; Crowe, Terry K

    2006-01-01

    SUMMARY The purpose of this exploratory study was to describe the occupational goals and concerns of women who are homeless with children. Twenty-seven women with children living in homeless shelters completed interviews using the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM). Occupational issues and concerns were identified for each participant, and then they were pooled. A total of 169 occupational concerns were described and analyzed. The most common occupational issues identified by participants concerned finances, employment, education, transportation, housing, time for self, personal appearance, home management, and parenting. Analysis of identified occupational concerns suggests that the homeless women with children experienced a range of institutional and social barriers to occupational participation: essentially a form of occupational injustice. This study raises questions concerning the most effective roles for occupational therapists to facilitate empowerment so that women who are homeless may fully participate in the communities where they live. PMID:23926932

  16. Effects of Abusive Parenting, Caretaker Arrests, and Deviant Behavior on Dating Violence among Homeless Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Schmitz, Rachel M.

    2016-01-01

    Though dating violence is widespread among young adult homeless populations, its risk factors are poorly understood by scholars. To address this gap, the current study uses a social learning theory to examine the effects of abusive parenting and caretaker arrests on dating violence among 172 homeless young adults. Results from path analyses revealed that child physical abuse and caretaker arrests were positively associated with engaging in a greater number of school fights, which, in turn, was strongly and positively correlated with participating in more deviant subsistence strategies (e.g., stealing) since being on the street. Young people who participated in a greater number of delinquent acts were more likely to report higher levels of dating violence. Study results highlight the extent of social learning within the lives of homeless young adults, which is evident prior to their leaving home and while they are on the street. PMID:26989342

  17. Employment Status and Income Generation among Homeless Young Adults: Results from a Five-City, Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Kristin M.; Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J.; Maccio, Elaine M.; Pollio, David

    2012-01-01

    This mixed-methods study identified correlates of unemployment among homeless young adults in five cities. Two hundred thirty-eight homeless young people from Los Angeles (n = 50), Austin (n = 50), Denver (n = 50), New Orleans (n = 50), and St. Louis (n = 38) were recruited using comparable sampling strategies. Multivariate logistic regression…

  18. Correlates of depressed mood among young stimulant-using homeless gay and bisexual men.

    PubMed

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Branson, Catherine; Idemundia, Faith; Reback, Cathy; Shoptaw, Steven; Marfisee, Mary; Keenan, Colleen; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Liu, Yihang; Yadav, Kartik

    2012-10-01

    Homeless gay and bisexual (G/B) men are at risk for suicide attempts and have high risk of depressed mood, defined as elevated level of depressive symptoms. This study describes baseline socio-demographic, cognitive, psychosocial, and health- and drug-related correlates of depressed mood in 267 stimulant-using homeless G/B young men who entered a study designed to reduce drug use. G/B men without social support were 11 times more likely to experience depressed mood than their counterparts who had support; those who reported severe body pain were almost six times more likely to report depressed mood than those without pain. Other factors that increased risk of depressed mood included being homeless in the last four months, injecting drugs, reporting poor or fair health status, and high levels of internalized homophobia. This study is one of the first studies to draw a link between pain experienced and depressed mood in homeless young G/B men. Understanding the correlates of depressed mood among homeless G/B young men can help service providers design more targeted treatment plans and provide more appropriate referrals to ancillary care services.

  19. Correlates of depressed mood among young stimulant-using homeless gay and bisexual men.

    PubMed

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Branson, Catherine; Idemundia, Faith; Reback, Cathy; Shoptaw, Steven; Marfisee, Mary; Keenan, Colleen; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Liu, Yihang; Yadav, Kartik

    2012-10-01

    Homeless gay and bisexual (G/B) men are at risk for suicide attempts and have high risk of depressed mood, defined as elevated level of depressive symptoms. This study describes baseline socio-demographic, cognitive, psychosocial, and health- and drug-related correlates of depressed mood in 267 stimulant-using homeless G/B young men who entered a study designed to reduce drug use. G/B men without social support were 11 times more likely to experience depressed mood than their counterparts who had support; those who reported severe body pain were almost six times more likely to report depressed mood than those without pain. Other factors that increased risk of depressed mood included being homeless in the last four months, injecting drugs, reporting poor or fair health status, and high levels of internalized homophobia. This study is one of the first studies to draw a link between pain experienced and depressed mood in homeless young G/B men. Understanding the correlates of depressed mood among homeless G/B young men can help service providers design more targeted treatment plans and provide more appropriate referrals to ancillary care services. PMID:23017039

  20. Community characteristics and violence against homeless women in Los Angeles County.

    PubMed

    Heslin, Kevin C; Robinson, Paul Langham; Baker, Richard S; Gelberg, Lillian

    2007-02-01

    Research on violence against homeless women has focused mainly on individual rather than community-level risk factors. Using an ecological conceptual framework, we estimated the independent association of community characteristics with sexual and physical assault in a probability sample of 974 homeless women. Participants were interviewed at 66 assistance programs in Los Angeles County, California in 1997. Individual responses were linked to community-level data from land use files and the U.S. Census by the facility ZIP codes. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that women using service providers in closer proximity to Skid Row had higher odds of physical assault (OR=1.48; 95% CI=1.03, 2.14). A number of individual characteristics were also associated with violent victimization. To reduce violence against homeless women, ensuring the safety of locations for shelters and other assistance programs should be a planning priority for local housing authorities. PMID:17337808

  1. "They just asked me why I became homeless": "failure to ask" as a barrier to homeless women's ability to access services post-victimization.

    PubMed

    Huey, Laura; Broll, Ryan; Hryniewicz, Danielle; Fthenos, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    As "access brokers" to resources for their clients, homeless shelter workers are often in a position to aid victimized homeless women in securing medical and psychological services post-victimization. Given high rates of victimization within this population, we would expect that a routine part of a shelter's case management process would involve queries regarding victimization. Through in-depth qualitative interviews with 42 victimized homeless women in Chicago and Detroit, we sought to discover the extent to which such queries were pursued by staff at their current shelter. What we found is that women are seldom asked to provide a complete history that includes experiences of violent victimization and its effects. From these results, we make several recommendations aimed at improving homeless victims' access to services.

  2. Psychosocial Predictors of Rule Following in Hostels for Women Experiencing Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Katherine; Wood, Maria

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the psychosocial factors impacting upon the rule-following behaviour of residents of a hostel providing crisis accommodation to women who are homeless. After their arrival, residents of a women's hostel (N=83) completed questionnaires assessing the theory of planned behaviour constructs of attitude, subjective norm, perceived…

  3. Bidirectional Partner Violence among Homeless Young Adults: Risk Factors and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Melander, Lisa A.; Noel, HarmoniJoie

    2009-01-01

    One of the most prevalent forms of violence in contemporary society is the victimization of intimate partners. Although it has been established that homeless young people experience high levels of victimization on the street, little is known about partner violence (PV) experiences among this group, especially bidirectional violence. As such, the…

  4. On the Road: Examining Self-Representation and Discourses of Homelessness in Young Adult Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Theresa; Marshall, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors analyze representations of social issues within contemporary memoirs written for and marketed to a young adult audience and multimodal zines produced by homeless youth. To read across these distinctly different texts (mass marketed and do-it-yourself cultural productions) and genres (memoir and zines), the authors…

  5. Discrepancies in Reporting of Physical and Sexual Abuse among Homeless Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Melander, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated risk factors for discrepant reporting of physical and sexual abuse among 172 homeless young adults. Discrepant reporting includes situations in which a respondent denies experiencing abuse in general but reports being a victim of specific forms of maltreatment. The results revealed that discrepant reporting rates tended to…

  6. Poor parenting and antisocial behavior among homeless young adults: links to dating violence perpetration and victimization.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Kimberly A; Melander, Lisa A

    2012-05-01

    Though research has examined risk factors associated with street victimization among homeless young people, little is known about dating violence experiences among this group. Given homeless youths' elevated rates of child maltreatment, it is likely that they are at high risk for dating violence. As such, the current study examined the association between child maltreatment and parental warmth with dating violence perpetration and victimization through substance use and delinquency among a sample of 172 homeless males and females. Results from path analysis revealed that physical abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect were all significant correlates of both substance use and delinquency, whereas lack of parental warmth was only associated with substance use. Neglect and substance use had direct effects on dating violence and substance use and was found to mediate the relationship between physical abuse and dating violence. Finally, females, older youth, and non-Whites had significantly higher levels of dating violence compared with their counterparts. PMID:22080581

  7. Breast Cancer in Young Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Campaign Initiatives Participation in Cancer Moonshot Stay Informed Breast Cancer in Young Women Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Syndicate this page Marleah's family history of breast cancer was her motivation for pursuing a career where ...

  8. Time Seizures and the Self: Institutional Temporalities and Self Preservation among Homeless Women

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Amy

    2014-01-01

    This article documents temporalities of homelessness as experienced by many homeless people today, those living in the midst of an urban “services ghetto”—where social service organizations abound, but such organizations fail to coordinate the provision or timing of services, producing an incoherent multiplicity of offerings and schedules. I analyzed distinct but related temporal modes by which institutional timetables controlled homeless women’s existence, what I call empty time and overscheduled time. The paradoxes of institutionalized waiting and strict yet inconsistent timetables exacted profound material and psychological tolls. For homeless women in Chicago, many of whom experienced symptoms of severe mental illness, simply securing their daily needs was such a time-consuming endeavor that they had to focus on short-term self-preservation rather than seeking stable employment or housing. Using anthropological theories of self and subjectivity, I argue that what was at stake for many women was more than the exhaustion of shelter life—negotiating institutional timetables also threatened their sense of dignity and humanity. Through the everyday patterning of women’s time, nonprofit agencies whose stated aim was to eliminate homelessness paradoxically frustrated women’s efforts to escape life on the streets. I conclude the analysis with policy suggestions to address these problems. PMID:25287573

  9. A biobehavioral framework for examining altered sleep-wake patterns in homeless women.

    PubMed

    Davis, J E; Shuler, P A

    2000-03-01

    The interactions among psychosocial and environmental stressors and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-ovarian-immune axes may provide a framework for examining altered sleep-wake patterns in women. Based on this biobehavioral framework, homeless women represent a subgroup of the female population who have many lifestyle factors that might make them vulnerable to sleep disturbances. This article presents a study designed to investigate the self-reported sleep patterns and lifestyle factors associated with the sleep of 50 homeless women, 18-44 years of age, residing in the downtown area of Los Angeles. Results indicated that almost half of the women slept six or less hours a day and had a day/night sleep pattern. A majority of the women reported restless sleep. Drinking beer, using cocaine, anxiety, depression, loneliness, and concerns about safety and money were factors significantly related to altered sleep patterns. PMID:10839059

  10. Young Women, Sports, and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Sandra L.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines young women's access to two traditionally male domains, sport and science, from two perspectives. The structural approach suggests that sport and science are stratified by gender and have historically been chilly climates for women. The Critical approach argues that structure and agency are important in understanding sources…

  11. Cervical Cancer Screening Among Homeless Women of New York City Shelters.

    PubMed

    Asgary, Ramin; Alcabes, Analena; Feldman, Rebecca; Garland, Victoria; Naderi, Ramesh; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Sckell, Blanca

    2016-06-01

    Introduction Homeless persons have minimal opportunities to complete recommended cancer screening. The rates and predictors of cervical cancer screening are understudied among homeless women in the US. Methods We enrolled 297 homeless women 21-65 years old residing in 6 major New York City shelters from 2012 to 2014. We used a validated national survey to determine the proportion and predictors of cervical cancer screening using cytology (Pap test). Results Mean age was 44.72 (±11.96) years. Majority was Black, heterosexual, single, with high school or lower education; 50.9 % were smokers and 41.7 % were homeless more than a year. Despite a 76.5 % proportion of self-reported Pap test within the past 3 years, 65 % of women assumed their Pap test results were normal or did not get proper follow up after abnormal results. Forty-five-point-nine percent of women did not know about frequency of Pap test or causes of cervical cancer. Lower proportion of up-to-date Pap test was associated with lack of knowledge of recommended Pap test frequency (p < 0.01) and relationship between HPV and an abnormal Pap test (p < 0.01). Conclusions Self-reported Pap testing in homeless women was similar to a national sample. However, the majority of women surveyed were not aware of their results, received limited if any follow up and had significant education gaps about cervical cancer screening. We recommend improved counseling and patient education, patient navigators to close screening loops, and consideration of alternative test-and-treat modalities to improve effective screening. PMID:26649876

  12. Homeless African American Women's Interpretations of Child Abuse as an Antecedent of Chemical Dependence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trull, Loree A.; Carroll, Jane J.

    1999-01-01

    Examined how homeless African American women who have been professionally assessed and who self-report to be dependent on alcohol and other drugs make sense of their becoming chemically dependent. Found that interviewees perceived childhood physical, sexual, and psychological abuse and neglect to be among the antecedents to their chemical…

  13. Sexual Abuse as a Precursor to Prostitution and Victimization among Adolescent and Adult Homeless Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Ronald L.; Whitbeck, Les B.

    1991-01-01

    Studied 40 adolescent runaways and 95 homeless women to examine impact of early sexual abuse on prostitution and victimization. Findings suggest that early sexual abuse increases probability of involvement in prostitution irrespective of influence of running away, substance abuse, and other deviant acts; only indirectly affects chances of…

  14. A Randomized Control Trial of a Chronic Care Intervention for Homeless Women with Alcohol Use Problems

    PubMed Central

    Upshur, Carole; Weinreb, Linda; Bharel, Monica; Reed, George; Frisard, Christine

    2014-01-01

    A clinician-randomized trial was conducted using the chronic care model for disease management for alcohol use problems among n=82 women served in a health care for the homeless clinic. Women with problem alcohol use received either usual care or an intervention consisting of a Primary Care Provider (PCP) brief intervention, referral to addiction services, and on-going support from a Care Manager (CM) for 6 months. Both groups significantly reduced their alcohol consumption, with a small effect size favoring intervention at 3 months, but there were no significant differences between groups in reductions in drinking or in housing stability, or mental or physical health. However, intervention women had significantly more frequent participation in substance use treatment services. Baseline differences and small sample size limit generalizability, although substantial reductions in drinking for both groups suggest screening and PCP brief treatment are promising interventions for homeless women with alcohol use problems. PMID:25488504

  15. Defining the Meaning of Spirituality Through a Qualitative Case Study of Sheltered Homeless Women.

    PubMed

    Hurlbut, Jené; Ditmyer, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    The primary purpose of this case study was to assess the meaning of spirituality in a convenience sample of women located in an urban city in the southwest United States. The secondary purpose was to describe their lived experiences associated with spirituality. From these interviews five themes emerged: Belief in God or a Higher Power, Distinction Between Religion and Spirituality, Belief That There Is a Plan for Their Lives, Spirituality Providing Guidance for What Is Right/Wrong, and Belief That Their Lives Will Improve. These findings support the perceived fundamental importance of spirituality in the lives of homeless women. Nurses and other clinicians can use this information to develop interventions to help support women using spirituality practices and to help improve the outlook of homelessness for these women. PMID:26902440

  16. RN-to-MSN students' attitudes toward women experiencing homelessness: A focus group study.

    PubMed

    Chung-Park, Min; Hatton, Diane; Robinson, Linda; Kleffel, Dorothy

    2006-08-01

    When health professionals, including RNs, have negative attitudes toward women experiencing homelessness, they create barriers to services. It is incumbent on nursing faculty to develop curricula that address homelessness and associated stereotypes, as well as to prepare students to provide safe and appropriate care to the homeless population. The aim of this qualitative study was to examine the attitudes of RN-to-MSN students toward mothers living with their children in a transitional shelter. A convenience sample of 10 students enrolled in a community health nursing course at a university in southern California participated in the study. Two focus groups were conducted: one before and one after a 15-week clinical experience. Data analysis revealed that during the clinical experience, students discovered that they, or perhaps an individual like them, could become homeless. Their attitudes and views changed to include a bigger picture of homelessness, described by public health nursing researchers as "moving upstream." This article suggests strategies for integrating clinical experiences with socioeconomically vulnerable individuals into undergraduate nursing curricula.

  17. [Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among homeless adolescents].

    PubMed

    Aichhorn, Wolfgang; Santeler, Stefan; Stelzig-Schöler, Renate; Kemmler, Georg; Steinmayr-Gensluckner, Maria; Hinterhuber, Hartmann

    2008-01-01

    Various studies show a high prevalence of mental disorders among homeless people. So far most of these studies deal solely with single men, mainly affected by homelessness. Few data exist for women, children, adolescents and whole families that are more and more affected by poverty and homelessness. This study, conducted in Innsbruck/Austria, determined the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among homeless adolescents. The adolescents were recruited in a counselling centre and homeless shelter specifically founded for homeless youth. Mental disorders were diagnosed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SKID-I). 40 adolescents and young adults ranging from 14-23 years (mean 17.9 years) were included in the study. The results show that 58% of the homeless adolescents were exposed to continuous violence in their families and that violence was a major reason for them to leave home. The overall prevalence of diagnosed psychiatric disorders was 80% in the whole sample; the leading disorder was substance abuse/dependence (65%), followed by mood disorders (42.5%), anxiety disorders (17.5%) and eating disorders (17.5%). 57.5% of the adolescents had a history of self-harm and 25% reported at least one suicide attempt. Duration of homelessness had the greatest influence on the prevalence of mental disorders. Longer duration of homelessness was associated with a higher risk of psychiatric disorder or self-harm. These results demonstrate the urgent need for early psychosocial and psychiatric help for homeless adolescents. PMID:18826872

  18. I WAS HERE: young mothers who have experienced homelessness use Photovoice and participatory qualitative analysis to demonstrate strengths and assets.

    PubMed

    Fortin, Rebecca; Jackson, Suzanne F; Maher, Jessica; Moravac, Catherine

    2015-03-01

    Inspired by Photovoice, a participatory research methodology, I WAS HERE was a photoblogging workshop in Toronto, Canada, for young mothers who, when they joined, were either homeless or had past experience of homelessness. A participatory qualitative analysis process was developed to support workshop participants in collectively conducting qualitative analysis on a selection of their photoblogs exploring how they view their lives. Five mothers engaged in the participatory qualitative analysis process to categorize their photoblogs into themes. Participants selected over 70 of their personal photoblogs, discussed the meaning of their photoblogs, and categorized them into qualitative themes. One of the mothers continued work on the research by contributing to the write-up of the themes for publication. Participants, through the reflective dialogue, developed nine themes from the photoblogs that describe how they experience motherhood. The resulting nine themes were as follows: 'Family', 'Reality Check', 'Sacrifice for Positive Change', 'Support', 'Guidance', 'Growth and Transition', 'Proud of Becoming/Being a Mother', 'Passing on/Teaching Values' and 'Cherished Moments/Reward for Being a Mother'. These themes illustrate the satisfaction that comes from motherhood, strengths and goals for the future, and the desire for support and guidance. The themes developed from this participatory analysis illustrate that young mothers have a positive view of themselves and their ability to be mothers. This constructive view of young mothers provides an alternative to the negative stereotypes commonly attributed to them. This paper also discusses the strengths and challenges of using a participatory analysis approach. As a research methodology, incorporating procedures for participatory qualitative analysis into the Photovoice process provides an effective mechanism to meaningfully engage participants in qualitative analysis. From a health promotion perspective, using the

  19. Examining women's agency in managing intimate partner violence and the related risk of homelessness: The role of harm minimisation.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Silke

    2016-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has a detrimental impact on women and children's emotional, physical and social well-being and has been identified as one of the most common contributors to women's experiences of housing instabilities and homelessness. Women affected by IPV often experience a great level of uncertainty around housing solutions when trying to leave an abusive partner. This study explores women's responses to IPV and the related risk of homelessness through women's narratives (n = 22) in Queensland, Australia. Of particular interest are women's decisions and actions to minimise the impact of IPV as well as homelessness on their and their children's safety and well-being. Findings reveal that women's agency in relation to harm minimisation can take various forms, including the decision to stay with, leave or return to an abusive partner. The data offer insights into women's strategic attempts to manage IPV and the related risk of homeless while trying to minimise the harm associated with one and the other. Implications for understanding women's agency in managing IPV and the related risk of homelessness and providing adequate support mechanisms to improve women and children's social, emotional and physical well-being are discussed.

  20. Homelessness and Drug Abuse among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men in New York City: A Preliminary Epidemiological Trajectory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clatts, Michael C.; Goldsamt, Lloyd; Yi, Huso; Gwadz, Marya Viorst

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to profile the role of homelessness in drug and sexual risk in a population of young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Data are from a cross-sectional survey collected between 2000 and 2001 in New York City (N=569). With the goal of examining the import of homelessness in increased risk for the onset of drug and…

  1. Risk factors for stimulant use among homeless and unstably housed adult women

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Elise D.; Shumway, Martha; Knight, Kelly R.; Guzman, David; Cohen, Jennifer; Weiser, Sheri D.

    2015-01-01

    Background One of the most common causes of death among homeless and unstably housed women is acute intoxication where cocaine is present. While correlates of stimulant use have been determined in prior research, few studies have assessed risk factors of use specifically in this high-risk population. Methods We sampled biological women with a history of housing instability from community-based venues to participate in a cohort study. Baseline and 6-month follow-up data were used to determine the relative risk of stimulant use (crack cocaine, powder cocaine or methamphetamine) among individuals who did not use at baseline. Results Among 260 study participants, the median age was 47 years, 70% were women of color; 47% reported having unmet subsistence needs and 53% reported abstinence from stimulants at baseline. In analyses adjusting for baseline sociodemographics and drug treatment, the risk of using stimulants within 6 months was significantly higher among women who reported recent sexual violence (Adjusted Relative Risk [ARR] = 4.31; 95% CI:1.97–9.45), sleeping in a shelter or public place (ARR = 2.75; 95% CI:1.15–6.57), and using unprescribed opioid analgesics (ARR = 2.54; 95% CI:1.01–6.38). Conclusion We found that almost half of homeless and unstably housed women used stimulants at baseline and 14% of those who did not use began within 6 months. Addressing homelessness and sexual violence is critical to reduce stimulant use among impoverished women. PMID:26070454

  2. Young Women and Politics: An Oxymoron?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Jacqueline Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Building upon the literature that examines young people and politics, this article examines the extent to which young women are interested in politics. The hypothesis is that young women might not necessarily be interested in mainstream party politics but that, when questioned, they are actually interested in political issues. This ties in with…

  3. The effect of victimization, mental health, and protective factors on crime and illicit drug use among homeless young adults.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Kimberly A; Kort-Butler, Lisa A; Swendener, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    Although research has found high rates of child maltreatment, widespread victimization, and other negative outcomes among homeless youth and young adults, resiliency among this population has largely been understudied. Specifically, a gap remains in terms of how protective factors such as self-efficacy, low deviant beliefs, and religiosity operate among homeless youth and young adults. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between various forms of victimization, mental health, and protective factors with property and violent crime and illicit drug use among homeless young adults. Results from regression analyses indicate that running away from home more frequently, experiencing more physical victimization on the street, higher levels of self-efficacy, and more deviant beliefs were associated with greater property crime. Significant correlates of violent crime included being male, running away from home more frequently, greater sexual and physical victimization on the street, higher levels of self-efficacy, and more deviant beliefs. Finally, being male, running away more frequently from home, greater child physical abuse and partner victimization, and more deviant beliefs were all associated with greater illicit drug use. Self-efficacy was positively related to both property and violent crime, suggesting that it may not operate for homeless young adults in the same manner as it does for normative populations.

  4. Living on the streets in Canada: a feminist narrative study of girls and young women.

    PubMed

    Reid, Shyanne; Berman, Helene; Forchuk, Cheryl

    2005-01-01

    Homelessness affects thousands of girls and young women in Canada. Terms that are commonly used to describe the homeless include lazy, mentally ill, middle aged, and male. The reality is that homelessness is not limited to a particular age, gender, or ethnocultural group, or to individuals of any single intellectual ranking. As a result of the prevailing stereotypes, little research has been conducted on homelessness among adolescent females, making it difficult to capture an accurate and comprehensive picture of the full scope of the problem. The purposes of this feminist narrative study were to (1) explore the intersections between homelessness and health among adolescent girls, with particular attention to the influence of contextual factors such as violence, gender, and poverty; and (2) to examine how these young women access health care, barriers they encounter, and factors that contribute to their health promotion. The sample consisted of ten females, ages 16-21, who were interviewed either individually or in small groups. Consistent with feminist research approaches, the interviews were conducted in an interactive manner in order to encourage critical reflection and dialogue. Data analysis consisted of a thematic analysis of the participants' experiences. Findings revealed that most girls had fled from difficult, and at times dangerous, situations at home to lives on the street that brought a new set of challenges, including a multitude of health problems and exposure to violence, chronic poverty, and discrimination. Many barriers to effective health care were described. In this article, the findings of the research will be presented and implications for health and social service providers will be addressed, including recommendations for programming and policy.

  5. Young women most vulnerable to HIV infection.

    PubMed

    1993-12-01

    It is estimated that 70% of the 3000 women who are infected with HIV each day are 15-24 years old. This pattern of increased prevalence among young women has been noted since a 1986 report that AIDS cases in Zaire were equally divided among men and women, but that the women were an average of 10 years younger than the men, and cases in women peaked at age 20-29. Despite this information, the HIV research and program agenda has failed to address the gender issues that place young women at risk of infection. Societies that do not provide young women with information about reproductive anatomy and sex or with reproductive health services, that allow men to have multiple sex partners, and that condone condom use only for illicit intercourse, leave young girls and women at risk of forced and unprotected sexual intercourse. Studies have also shown that early marriage practices also increase the risk of women becoming infected (usually by their older and more "experienced" husbands). In some parts of Africa, older men seek out virgins in the belief that having sex with a virgin will cure them of sexually transmitted diseases. Poverty also drives women to barter sex for money or goods. In addition to these social and behavioral risk factors, young women appear to have a greater physiological susceptibility to infection than more mature women. Possible factors for this increased risk include the facts that, in younger women, the lining of the vagina is thinner, vaginal mucus may be less profuse, ovulation (which seems to have a protective effect against infection) is infrequent, and a transition zone of cells ringing the cervical opening is more exposed. Thus, biologic, social, and behavioral factors increase the vulnerability of young women. To protect young women, societies will have to change cultural and sexual norms, values, and practices.

  6. Embodied Subjectivities: Nine Young Women Talking Dance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Flynn, Gabrielle; Pryor, Zoe; Gray, Tonia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine nine Australian young women's embodied experiences of dance. The young women were all amateur dancers involved in weekly jazz, tap, and ballet dance classes at the same dance studio. In this paper, embodiment is defined as multidimensional (Burkitt 1999). The authors explore the ways the corporeal and…

  7. The Impact of Homelessness and Incarceration on Women's Health.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Rabia A; Angel, Cybele; Martell, Rebecca; Pyne, Diane; Keenan, Louanne

    2016-01-01

    Female inmates have multiple challenges during incarceration and as they transition into the community including: barriers to accessing health care within correctional facilities, poor transitional preparation preceding release, and inadequate continuity of health care after release. This qualitative study explored the health-seeking experiences and the health and housing needs of female inmates. Four focus groups were conducted in a remand facility in Canada. Women described poor health at entry to the correctional system and viewed incarceration as a means to access health care services. Transition back into the community represented a crossroad that was dependent on the stability of housing status. These findings support gender-sensitive health and housing programs to reduce addictions, recidivism, and poor health among this vulnerable population.

  8. The Impact of Homelessness and Incarceration on Women's Health.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Rabia A; Angel, Cybele; Martell, Rebecca; Pyne, Diane; Keenan, Louanne

    2016-01-01

    Female inmates have multiple challenges during incarceration and as they transition into the community including: barriers to accessing health care within correctional facilities, poor transitional preparation preceding release, and inadequate continuity of health care after release. This qualitative study explored the health-seeking experiences and the health and housing needs of female inmates. Four focus groups were conducted in a remand facility in Canada. Women described poor health at entry to the correctional system and viewed incarceration as a means to access health care services. Transition back into the community represented a crossroad that was dependent on the stability of housing status. These findings support gender-sensitive health and housing programs to reduce addictions, recidivism, and poor health among this vulnerable population. PMID:26672120

  9. Correlates of Hospital Use in Homeless and Unstably Housed Women: The Role of Physical Health and Pain

    PubMed Central

    Doran, Kelly M.; Shumway, Martha; Hoff, Rani A.; Blackstock, Oni J.; Dilworth, Samantha E.; Riley, Elise D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine correlates of emergency department (ED) use and hospitalizations in a community-based cohort of homeless and unstably housed women, with a focus on the role of physical health and pain. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of baseline survey results from a study of homeless and unstably housed women in San Francisco. Primary outcomes were any self-reported ED visit and inpatient hospitalization over the prior 6 months. Primary independent variables of interest were self-reported physical health status, as measured by the Short Form-12 (SF-12), and bodily pain. Other potential covariates were organized using the Gelberg-Andersen Behavioral Model for Vulnerable Populations. Standard bivariate and multivariable logistic regression techniques were used. Results Three hundred homeless and unstably housed women were included in the study, of whom 37.7% reported having an ED visit and 23.0% reported being hospitalized in the prior 6 months. Mean SF-12 physical health scores indicated poorer than average health compared to the U.S. norm. Most women (79.3%) reported at least some limitation in their daily activities due to pain. In adjusted analyses, moderate and high levels of bodily pain were significantly correlated with ED visits (OR=2.92 and OR=2.57) and hospitalizations (OR=6.13 and OR=2.49). As SF-12 physical health scores decreased, indicating worse health, the odds of ED use increased. Predisposing, enabling and additional need factors did not mediate these associations. Conclusions Physical health and bodily pain are important correlates of ED visits and hospitalizations in homeless and unstably housed women. Interventions to reduce ED use among women who are homeless should address the high levels of pain in this population. PMID:25213745

  10. Homelessness among a cohort of women in street-based sex work: the need for safer environment interventions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Drawing on data from a community-based prospective cohort study in Vancouver, Canada, we examined the prevalence and individual, interpersonal and work environment correlates of homelessness among 252 women in street-based sex work. Methods Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression using generalized estimating equations (GEE) was used to examine the individual, interpersonal and work environment factors that were associated with homelessness among street-based sex workers. Results Among 252 women, 43.3% reported homelessness over an 18-month follow-up period. In the multivariable GEE logistic regression analysis, younger age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.93; 95%confidence interval [95%CI] 0.93-0.98), sexual violence by non-commercial partners (aOR = 2.14; 95%CI 1.06-4.34), servicing a higher number of clients (10+ per week vs < 10) (aOR = 1.68; 95%CI 1.05-2.69), intensive, daily crack use (aOR = 1.65; 95%CI 1.11-2.45), and servicing clients in public spaces (aOR = 1.52; CI 1.00-2.31) were independently associated with sleeping on the street. Conclusions These findings indicate a critical need for safer environment interventions that mitigate the social and physical risks faced by homeless FSWs and increase access to safe, secure housing for women. PMID:21838894

  11. Measuring the preferences of homeless women for cervical cancer screening interventions: development of a best-worst scaling survey

    PubMed Central

    Wittenberg, Eve; Bharel, Monica; Saada, Adrianna; Santiago, Emely; Bridges, John F. P.; Weinreb, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Objective Despite multiple risk factors, women experiencing homelessness are screened for cervical cancer at a lower rate than women in the general US population. We report on the design of a stated preference study to assess homeless women's preferences for cervical cancer screening interventions, to inform efforts to overcome this disparity. Methods We conducted focus groups with homeless women (n=8) on cervical cancer screening decisions, and analyzed data using thematic analysis. We applied inclusion criteria to select factors for a stated preference survey: importance to women, relevance to providers, feasibility, and consistency with clinical experience. We conducted pre-tests (n=35) to assess survey procedures (functionality, recruitment, administration) and content (understanding, comprehension, wording/language, length). Results We chose best-worst scaling (BWS, also known as object scaling) to identify decision-relevant screening intervention factors. We chose an experimental design with 11 “objects” (i.e., factors relevant to women's screening decision) presented in 11 subsets of 5 objects each. Of 25 objects initially identified, we selected 11 for the BWS instrument: provider-related factors: attitude, familiarity, and gender; setting-related: acceptance and cost; procedure-related: explanation during visit and timing/convenience of visit; personal fears/barriers: concerns about hygiene, addiction, and delivery/fear of results; and a general factor of feeling overwhelmed. Conclusions Good practices for the development of stated preference surveys include considered assessment of the experimental design used and the preference factors included, and pretesting of presentation format. We demonstrate the development of a best-worst scaling study of homeless women's cervical cancer screening intervention preferences. Subsequent research will identify screening priorities to inform intervention design. PMID:25586646

  12. The Age of Confusion. Why So Many Teens Are Getting Pregnant, Turning to Welfare and Ending up Homeless.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homes for the Homeless, Inc., New York, NY.

    This report documents a history of unintended pregnancy, premature motherhood, and failure to plan for the future. Research indicates that most homeless young women are aware of birth control, but few of those who became pregnant were able to translate this knowledge into practice. The failure of homeless mothers to engage in family planning is…

  13. HPV Vaccine Information for Young Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... STD on Facebook Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) HPV Vaccine Information For Young Women Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Three vaccines are available to prevent the human papillomavirus (HPV) ...

  14. Predictors of Change in Self-Reported Social Networks among Homeless Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falci, Christina D.; Whitbeck, Les B.; Hoyt, Dan R.; Rose, Trina

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates changes in social network size and composition of 351 homeless adolescents over 3 years. Findings show that network size decreases over time. Homeless youth with a conduct disorder begin street life with small networks that remain small over time. Caregiver abuse is associated with smaller emotional networks due to fewer…

  15. Young Women Online: Collaboratively Constructing Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paechter, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I examine how young women construct their identities with others in online communities. I argue that the proliferation of social networking and its popularity among young people means that performed identities are increasingly collaboratively constructed, with the individual having less control over their public image than was…

  16. Using Social Justice Group Work with Young Mothers Who Experience Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coker, Angela D.; Meyer, Dixie; Smith, Rachelle; Price, Amber

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates (e.g., Bassuk et al., 1997) that women and children make up a large percentage of the total number of individuals living without permanent shelter. This article represents a reflective analysis of our work as group facilitators who conducted a series of personal growth groups for young mothers living in a residential facility…

  17. Experiences of being homeless or at risk of being homeless among Canadian youths.

    PubMed

    Miller, Pamela; Donahue, Peter; Este, Dave; Hofer, Marvin

    2004-01-01

    A qualitative study was undertaken with four groups--immigrants, youths, Aboriginal people, and landlords--in order to explore, compare, and contrast diversity issues among the homeless population and those at risk of homelessness in a larger Canadian city (Calgary, Alberta) with a smaller city (Lethbridge, Alberta), to better understand their and to needs make recommendations for improvement in service delivery and policy formation. This paper focuses on the findings from our sample of youths who shared information on a range of factors that contributed to their being homeless or at risk of being homeless. The youths in this study also shared their positive as well as negative experiences with educators, peers, family members, and social service providers. Canada's homeless include growing numbers of young people, families, women, and members of various ethnic communities, including Aboriginal people and immigrants. Today it is no longer possible to articulate a single silhouette of the homeless, but rather a diversity of profiles is needed. It was in the light of this reality that a study, "Diversity Among the Homeless and Those At Risk," was carried out. It was undertaken with four groups--immigrants, youths, Aboriginal people, and landlords. PMID:15727411

  18. Correlates of hepatitis B virus and HIV knowledge among gay and bisexual homeless young adults in Hollywood.

    PubMed

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Salem, Benissa; Reback, Cathy J; Shoptaw, Steven; Branson, Catherine M; Idemundia, Faith E; Kennedy, Barbara; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Marfisee, Mary; Liu, Yihang

    2013-01-01

    Homeless gay and bisexual (G/B) young men have multiple risk factors that increase their risk of contracting hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This study used baseline information from structured instruments to assess correlates of knowledge to HIV and HBV infection from 267 young (18-39 year old) G/B active methamphetamine, cocaine, and crack-using homeless men enrolled in a longitudinal trial. The study is designed to reduce drug use and improve knowledge of hepatitis and HIV/AIDS in a community center in Hollywood, California. Regression modeling revealed that previous hepatitis education delivered to G/B men was associated with higher levels of HIV/AIDS and hepatitis knowledge. Moreover, higher HIV/AIDS knowledge was associated with combining sex and drinking alcohol. Associations with hepatitis B knowledge was found among G/B men who were engaging in sex while under the influence of marijuana, who were receiving support from non-drug users, and who had been homeless in the last 4 months. Although being informed about HIV/AIDS and hepatitis did not preclude risky sexual and drug use behavior, knowledge about the dangers of concurrent sex with substance use is important. As higher levels of knowledge of hepatitis was associated with more moderate drug use, early access to testing and teaching harm reduction strategies remain critical to reduce exposure and infection of HBV and HIV in this population. PMID:22879650

  19. Mantram Repetition Program Decreases Insomnia Among Homeless Women: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Barger, Mary K; Weinrich, Sally; Bormann, Jill E; Bouvier, Monique; Hardin, Sally Brosz

    2015-06-01

    The current pre-/posttest pilot study recruited homeless women from "safe" car parks and transitional housing to evaluate the use of mantram in regard to insomnia. At baseline, study participants completed measures of cognitive function, depression, and the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI). In 40 minutes, women were taught three skills of the Mantram Repetition Program (MRP) in the natural environment: (a) silently repeating a mantram several times, several times per day; (b) repeating the mantram slowly every night before sleep; and (c) focusing full attention on the mantram during repetitions. One week later, participants completed a second ISI. Of the 29 women recruited, 83% completed 1-week follow up. After 1 week, 88% were using their mantram daily and one half were using it prior to sleep. Insomnia severity significantly decreased (p = 0.03), with a mean difference of 2.36 (SD = 4.75). The practice of MRP, an intervention that is portable and easy to teach, shows significant promise in decreasing insomnia in this unique population.

  20. Coping in young women: theoretical retroduction.

    PubMed

    Gramling, L F; Lambert, V A; Pursley-Crotteau, S

    1998-11-01

    Although there is increasing interest in women's health, there remains little empirical evidence concerning concepts related to health and women's life trajectory. Our purpose in conducting this research was to examine women's developmental stressors and coping during young adulthood. Lazarus and Folkman's coping model provided sensitizing concepts for data generation in a retroductive research methodology. The sample included 26 women of diverse perspectives who participated in interviews and groups. Philosophical concerns of subjectivity, context and gender sensitivity were actualized in iterative stages of data collection, analysis and comparison to extant theory. Rapidly expanding multiple roles were identified as developmental stressors for young women. Decontextualized coping strategies are arranged on a behavioural continuum: avoidance, distraction, and confrontation. Contextualized descriptions of coping are presented in two representative accounts: Lauren and Mary Ellen. A philosophical stance, assumed at about the age of 30, provides a lens for assessing developmental stressors that influence the appraisal process. Rich descriptions of young women's coping and developmental influences move beyond abstract theory to a contextual understanding of young women's experiences.

  1. On the conduct of homelessness research: lessons from a qualitative study of women diagnosed with chronic mental illness.

    PubMed

    Taylor, C

    1993-01-01

    This article presents a summary of the author's study of the lived experiences of homeless women diagnosed with chronic mental illness. Strategies found to be effective in the conduct of the study are highlighted. Issues and problems related to population access, sampling, data generation, and difficult situations in the field are discussed with proposed solutions. The resolution of nurse helper/nurse researcher role conflicts is addressed. PMID:8244692

  2. Recent Violence in a Community-Based Sample of Homeless and Unstably Housed Women With High Levels of Psychiatric Comorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jennifer; Knight, Kelly R.; Decker, Alyson; Marson, Kara; Shumway, Martha

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We determined associations between co-occurring psychiatric conditions and violence against homeless and unstably housed women. Methods. Between 2008 and 2010, we interviewed homeless and unstably housed women recruited from community venues about violence, socioeconomic factors, and psychiatric conditions. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine independent correlates of violence. Results. Among 291 women, 97% screened positive for 1 or more psychiatric conditions. Types of violence perpetrated by primary partners and persons who were not primary partners (non–primary partners) included emotional violence (24% vs 50%; P < .01), physical violence (11% vs 19%; P < .01), and sexual violence (7% vs 22%; P < .01). The odds of primary partner and non–primary partner violence increased with each additional psychiatric diagnosis and decreasing levels of social isolation. Conclusions. All types of violence were more commonly perpetrated by non–primary partners, suggesting that an exclusive focus on domestic violence screening in health care or social service settings will miss most of the violence in this population. Contrary to some previous studies, the odds of violence decreased as social isolation increased, suggesting that social isolation may be protective in homeless and unstably housed communities with high levels of comorbidity and limited options. PMID:25033127

  3. Predictors of Genital Pain in Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Melissa A.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of genital pain in healthy young adult women, limited research has addressed genital pain during intercourse using contemporary models of multidimensional sexual function. The objectives of this study were threefold: (1) to identify differences in sexual functioning in women who experience genital pain compared to pain free women; (2) to identify predictors of sexual functioning in women with and without genital pain; and (3) to identify predictors of sexual satisfaction in women with and without genital pain. Sexually active female undergraduates (n = 651) were administered the Female Sexual Function Index and the Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory. We evaluated the sexual factors that impact the sexual function of women with any pain (including high and low pain groups) versus women with no history of pain. Women with genital pain reported greater rates of sexual dysfunction as compared to pain-free women; however, sexual functioning in the high versus low pain groups was distinguished primarily by vaginal lubrication. Women in the high pain group showed negative correlations between domains of sexual satisfaction and genital pain frequency and intensity that were not found in the low pain group. For pain-free women, intercourse played a strong role in sexual satisfaction, whereas non-intercourse sexual behavior was central to sexual satisfaction in women who reported pain. The evaluation of levels of genital pain may provide insight into the mechanisms underlying the impairment of sexual function, sexual behavior, and sexual satisfaction. PMID:17674182

  4. The Faces of Homelessness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hope, Marjorie; Young, James

    Homelessness affects a wide cross-section of society. Causes of homelessness, attempted remedies, and potential solutions for the future are presented. Descriptions of the experiences of men, women, and children who have fallen through the "safety net" of social services are included from cities throughout the country. Support is given for the…

  5. Antibodies for HIV Prevention in young women

    PubMed Central

    Abdool Karim, Salim S.; Karim, Quarraisha Abdool; Baxter, Cheryl

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Young women in sub-Saharan Africa bear a disproportionate HIV burden. They urgently require new HIV prevention approaches that women can use. This review provides an overview of the use of antiretrovirals for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), highlighting some of the challenges with this technology and explores the potential role of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for HIV prevention in women. Recent findings Recent findings on the initial steps in viral entry and establishment of a productive local infectious nidus in the vaginal epithelium has provided important clues for HIV prevention in the female genital tract. Topical and oral formulations of antiretroviral drugs have been shown to prevent HIV infection in women with varying levels of success, depending principally on adherence. Further, a number of new broad and potent mAbs have been isolated over the last 5 years. Non-human primate studies demonstrate that broadly neutralizing HIV mAbs can protect rhesus macaques from SHIV infection. These findings have created newfound enthusiasm for passive immunization as a potential prevention strategy for women. Summary If potent broadly neutralising mAbs are effective in preventing HIV infection in women, it could fill an important gap in HIV prevention technologies for young women, especially in Africa. PMID:25700207

  6. Providing Career Guidance for Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colby, Pamela G.

    This module is directed at personnel working or planning to work in the areas of guidance, counseling, placement and follow-through in junior and senior high school settings, grades 7-12. The module topic is career guidance for young women of junior and senior high school age, aand the focus will be on providing nonbiased career guidance which…

  7. Women's Responses to Young Infants' Cries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Gwen E.; Harris, Karen L.

    1990-01-01

    Assessed 40 women's responses to young infants' cries. Mothers and nonmothers were similar in basic features of caregiving behaviors. Although the sound of infant cries may inform caregivers about distress level, caregiving behaviors appear to be determined by additional factors. (RH)

  8. Parental Involvement and Young Women's Contraceptive Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisco, Michelle L.

    2005-01-01

    Young adult women in the United States tend to delay family formation, pursue higher education and professional jobs, and become sexually active before marriage. Using effective contraception is the best way to ensure that nonmarital parenthood does not disrupt educational and career plans. Because parental involvement in education shapes…

  9. Six Exceptional Young Women--At Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Jean Sunde

    1998-01-01

    Describes the hardships of six, highly intelligent young women, at risk during adolescence, at different stages in their lives. All six managed to perform at an adequate academic level throughout their difficulties allowing their problems to go unnoticed. Suggests that support groups would help these types of students. (MKA)

  10. Thermal maps of young women and men

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudecka, Monika; Lubkowska, Anna

    2015-03-01

    The objective was to use thermal imaging (ThermaCAM SC500) as an effective tool in establishing a thermal map of young participants, with a high diagnostic value for medicine, physiotherapy and sport. A further aim was to establish temperature distributions and ranges on the body surface of the young women and men as standard temperatures for the examined age group, taking into account BMI, body surface area and selected parameters of body fat distribution. The participants included young, healthy and physically active women (n = 100) and men (n = 100). In the women and men, the highest Tmean temperatures were found on the trunk. The warmest were the chest and upper back, then the lower back and abdomen. The lowest Tmean were found in the distal parts of the body, especially on the lower limbs. The results showed that only in the area of the chest was Tmean significantly higher in women than in men. In the areas of the hands (front and back) Tmean were similar for women and men. In the other analyzed body surface areas, Tmean were significantly lower in women. Research showed significant differences in body surface temperature between the women and men. Among the analyzed characteristics, Tmean in the chest, upper back, abdomen, lower back (both in women and men) were mainly correlated with BMI and PBF; the correlations were negative. Difficulties in interpreting changes in temperature in selected body areas in people with various conditions can be associated with the lack of studies on large and representative populations of healthy individuals with normal weight/height parameters. Therefore, it seems that this presented research is a significant practical and cognitive contribution to knowledge on thermoregulation, and may therefore be used as a reference for other studies using thermal imaging in the evaluation of changes in body surface temperatures.

  11. Correlates of self-reported incarceration among homeless gay and bisexual stimulant-using young adults.

    PubMed

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Reback, Cathy J; Salem, Benissa E; Zhang, Sheldon; Shoptaw, Steven; Branson, Catherine M; Leake, Barbara

    2015-06-01

    Gay and bisexual (G/B) homeless adults face multiple challenges in life which may place them at high risk for incarceration. Yet, little is known about this understudied population in terms of risk for incarceration. Baseline data collected from a longitudinal study between October 2009 and March 2012 in Hollywood, California, explored correlates of self-reported incarceration among G/B homeless stimulant-using adults (N = 353). Findings revealed older age, less education, having children, as well as a history of injection drug use and being born in the United States were positively associated with incarceration. Moreover, having poor social support and having received hepatitis information were also correlated with a history of incarceration. Our findings help us gain a greater awareness of homeless G/B adults who may be at greater risk for incarceration, which may be used by health care providers to design targeted interventions for this underserved population. PMID:24733231

  12. Young Women and the Co-Construction of Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNae, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Young women's leadership is an area frequently overlooked in educational leadership development. This paper aims to bring young women's voices into educational leadership conversations and illustrate an alternative approach to young women's leadership development. Design/methodology/approach: This qualitative action research study was…

  13. Executive Function Skills and School Success in Young Children Experiencing Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masten, Ann S.; Herbers, Janette E.; Desjardins, Christopher David; Cutuli, J. J.; McCormick, Christopher M.; Sapienza, Julianna K.; Long, Jeffrey D.; Zelazo, Philip David

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the role of executive function (EF) skills as a predictor of kindergarten or first-grade adjustment in 138 children living in shelters for homeless families. During the summer, children completed a battery of six EF tasks and three IQ measures. Teachers later rated children's school adjustment in five domains of achievement…

  14. Child Abuse, Street Victimization, and Substance Use among Homeless Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Melander, Lisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Although previous research documents high rates of child abuse, street victimization, and substance use among homeless youth, few studies have investigated these three constructs simultaneously, and thus little is known about how various forms of victimization are uniquely associated with substance use among this population. The purpose of this…

  15. Foster Care Placement, Poor Parenting, and Negative Outcomes among Homeless Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Melander, Lisa A.

    2010-01-01

    Although homeless youth with and without foster care histories both face adverse life circumstances, little is known about how these two groups compare in terms of their early histories and whether they face similar outcomes. As such, we compared those with and without a history of foster care placement to determine if the associations between a…

  16. Race, homelessness, and other environmental factors associated with the food-purchasing behavior of low-income women.

    PubMed

    Dammann, Kristen Wiig; Smith, Chery

    2010-09-01

    Observance of the hunger-obesity paradox in urban Minnesota has ignited interest in the quality of low-income households' food purchases. This cross-sectional study investigated low-income, urban Minnesotan women's past-month food purchases and their associations with race, homelessness, and aspects of the food system, including food shelf (ie, food pantry) and food store usage, factors believed to influence food choice and grocery shopping behavior. The survey included demographics, the US Department of Agriculture's 18-item Household Food Security Survey Module, and grocery shopping questions related to food purchases and food stores visited in the past month. Participants were a convenience sample of 448 low-income, urban Minnesotan women, and data were collected from February through May 2008. The sample was 44% African American, 35% American Indian, 10% white, and 11% other/mixed race; 37% were homeless. Rates of "less healthy" food group purchases were higher compared to "healthy" food group purchases. Significant racial differences were found with respect to purchasing healthy protein food groups (P<0.05 to P<0.01) but not fruits, vegetables, or whole grains. Homelessness reduced the odds of purchasing most food groups, regardless of nutrient density (P<0.05 to P<0.001). Food shelf and food store usage mainly increased the odds of purchasing "less healthy" food groups (P<0.05 to P<0.01). These findings may help registered dietitians strategize with low-income, urban women how to make best use of food resources within their local food system. PMID:20800128

  17. Race, homelessness, and other environmental factors associated with the food-purchasing behavior of low-income women.

    PubMed

    Dammann, Kristen Wiig; Smith, Chery

    2010-09-01

    Observance of the hunger-obesity paradox in urban Minnesota has ignited interest in the quality of low-income households' food purchases. This cross-sectional study investigated low-income, urban Minnesotan women's past-month food purchases and their associations with race, homelessness, and aspects of the food system, including food shelf (ie, food pantry) and food store usage, factors believed to influence food choice and grocery shopping behavior. The survey included demographics, the US Department of Agriculture's 18-item Household Food Security Survey Module, and grocery shopping questions related to food purchases and food stores visited in the past month. Participants were a convenience sample of 448 low-income, urban Minnesotan women, and data were collected from February through May 2008. The sample was 44% African American, 35% American Indian, 10% white, and 11% other/mixed race; 37% were homeless. Rates of "less healthy" food group purchases were higher compared to "healthy" food group purchases. Significant racial differences were found with respect to purchasing healthy protein food groups (P<0.05 to P<0.01) but not fruits, vegetables, or whole grains. Homelessness reduced the odds of purchasing most food groups, regardless of nutrient density (P<0.05 to P<0.001). Food shelf and food store usage mainly increased the odds of purchasing "less healthy" food groups (P<0.05 to P<0.01). These findings may help registered dietitians strategize with low-income, urban women how to make best use of food resources within their local food system.

  18. Are the mentally ill homeless a distinct homeless subgroup?

    PubMed

    North, C S; Smith, E M; Pollio, D E; Spitznagel, E L

    1996-09-01

    The question has been raised whether it is useful or meaningful to dichotomize the homeless population by mental illness - i.e., to consider the mentally ill homeless as distinct from other homeless people. The current article presents evidence from a single data set to address this question empirically. Data from a randomly sampled population of 900 homeless men and women systemically interviewed using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule were examined to determine associations of mental illness with the problems of homelessness, controlling for the presence of substance abuse in the analyses. Although a few clinically meaningful associations with mental illness were found that might suggest directions for appropriate interventions, mental illness did not differentiate individuals in many important demographic and biographic respects. Individual diagnoses did not perform much better in differentiating the homeless by mental illness. Schizophrenia and bipolar mania showed a few significant associations not identified by the "major mental illness" construct. Major depression, constituting the majority of nonsubstance Axis I disorder in the homeless, provided no association beyond that obtained with the "major mental illness" category. The data provide little support for conceptualizing homeless subgroups or homelessness in general on the basis of mental illness alone. To do so also risks neglecting the emotional distress of the majority without major mental illness and the other problems that homeless persons share regardless of psychiatric illness. While serious mental illness is overrepresented among the homeless, it represents just one of many important vulnerability factors for homelessness. Substance abuse is far more prevalent than other Axis I disorders. Media images equating homelessness with major mental illness unnecessarily stigmatize homeless people and encourage oversimplified and narrowly conceived psychiatric interventions. While continuing attention is

  19. Are the mentally ill homeless a distinct homeless subgroup?

    PubMed

    North, C S; Smith, E M; Pollio, D E; Spitznagel, E L

    1996-09-01

    The question has been raised whether it is useful or meaningful to dichotomize the homeless population by mental illness - i.e., to consider the mentally ill homeless as distinct from other homeless people. The current article presents evidence from a single data set to address this question empirically. Data from a randomly sampled population of 900 homeless men and women systemically interviewed using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule were examined to determine associations of mental illness with the problems of homelessness, controlling for the presence of substance abuse in the analyses. Although a few clinically meaningful associations with mental illness were found that might suggest directions for appropriate interventions, mental illness did not differentiate individuals in many important demographic and biographic respects. Individual diagnoses did not perform much better in differentiating the homeless by mental illness. Schizophrenia and bipolar mania showed a few significant associations not identified by the "major mental illness" construct. Major depression, constituting the majority of nonsubstance Axis I disorder in the homeless, provided no association beyond that obtained with the "major mental illness" category. The data provide little support for conceptualizing homeless subgroups or homelessness in general on the basis of mental illness alone. To do so also risks neglecting the emotional distress of the majority without major mental illness and the other problems that homeless persons share regardless of psychiatric illness. While serious mental illness is overrepresented among the homeless, it represents just one of many important vulnerability factors for homelessness. Substance abuse is far more prevalent than other Axis I disorders. Media images equating homelessness with major mental illness unnecessarily stigmatize homeless people and encourage oversimplified and narrowly conceived psychiatric interventions. While continuing attention is

  20. The reproductive experience of women living in hotels for the homeless in New York City.

    PubMed

    Chavkin, W; Kristal, A; Seabron, C; Guigli, P E

    1987-01-01

    Incidence of low birth weight, infant mortality and attendance at prenatal care were estimated for 401 residents of welfare hotels in New York City and compared to data from housing project residents and the city-wide population. Hotel residents and the pertinent data were ascertained from children's birth certificates dating from January 1982 to June 1984. In 1984 there were 2889 families (3498 adults and 6789 children) housed in 48 privately managed hotels and 7 shelters in the city, set up as emergency housing for the homeless. Most of these families were single women; over 50% were under 25. The racial and ethnic composition of hotel residents was similar to that of housing project tenants. The hotel residents have high birth rates: from 7/month in 1982 to 23/month in 1984. They receive significantly less prenatal care than project or city dwellers; more than half have 0-3 visits. The hotel residents had 2.5 times the likelihood of getting no prenatal care than project tenants, and 4.12 times the likelihood than the citywide population. Mean birth weight for hotel infants was 2979 g; for project infants 3128 g; for city infants 3253 g. Both welfare groups were significantly lower than citywide average birth weights. The infant mortality was 24.9 per 1000 for the hotel group, 16.6 for the project group, and 12.0 for the city population. The stress and inconvenience of living far from social service offices, clinics, schools and shops was considered the likely cause of poor attendance at prenatal care. It was recommended that the city provide on-site health education and care, social and nutrition services in the hotels, and refrigerators for mothers with newborn children.

  1. Sensual sexuality education with young parenting women.

    PubMed

    Gubrium, Aline C; Shafer, Miriam B

    2014-08-01

    Comprehensive sexuality education curricula that incorporate sex positive and integrated approaches go beyond a presentation of facts and strategies for prevention to emphasize the promotion of sexual subjectivity and wellbeing. A pilot sensual sexuality education program was planned, implemented and informally evaluated with young parenting women at an alternative General Educational Development test preparation center. The program prioritized a sex positive framework, including topics such as pleasure, desire and sexual entitlement, and invited participants to explore sexuality through a multisensory orientation. Participants took part in small group discussions and activities that engaged their senses through arts-based methods. Grounded in holism, program topics were integrated with a focus on participants' everyday experiences. The pilot curriculum serves as a promising program for re-positioning young parenting women as sexual subjects, which is key to the promotion of health and wellbeing.

  2. There Is No Strength in Emotions: The Role of Street Enculturation in Influencing How Victimized Homeless Women Speak About Violence.

    PubMed

    Huey, Laura

    2016-06-01

    This article is based on analysis of 76 in-depth qualitative interviews conducted with homeless women in Los Angeles. What is revealed are three patterns of street enculturation-"low-," "medium-," and "high street"- which are linked to attitudes women professed to hold about violence. In essence, the degree to which a woman had adopted a "street orientation" is seen to influence how she spoke of violence during earlier portions of the interview. However, several "medium-street" and "high-street" women subsequently acknowledged (directly or indirectly) that they were "fronting" for the interviewer to preserve a tough façade. When they opened up about their real feelings, the extent to which they had internalized the trauma of violence was revealed. Implications of these findings are explored.

  3. The effectiveness of critical time intervention for abused women and homeless people leaving Dutch shelters: study protocol of two randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background One of the main priorities of Dutch organisations providing shelter services is to develop evidence-based interventions in the care for abused women and homeless people. To date, most of these organisations have not used specific intervention models and the interventions which have been implemented rarely have an empirical and theoretical foundation. The present studies aim to examine the effectiveness of critical time intervention (CTI) for abused women and homeless people. Methods In two multi-centre randomised controlled trials we investigate whether CTI, a time-limited (nine month) outreach intervention, is more effective than care-as-usual for abused women and homeless people making the transition from shelter facilities to supported or independent housing. Participants were recruited in 19 women’s shelter facilities and 22 homeless shelter facilities across The Netherlands and randomly allocated to the intervention group (CTI) or the control group (care-as-usual). They were interviewed four times in nine months: once before leaving the shelter, and then at three, six and nine months after leaving the shelter. Quality of life (primary outcome for abused women) and recurrent loss of housing (primary outcome for homeless people) as well as secondary outcomes (e.g. care needs, self-esteem, loneliness, social support, substance use, psychological distress and service use) were assessed during the interviews. In addition, the model integrity of CTI was investigated during the data collection period. Discussion Based on international research CTI is expected to be an appropriate intervention for clients making the transition from institutional to community living. If CTI proves to be effective for abused women and homeless people, shelter services could include this case management model in their professional standards and improve the (quality of) services for clients. Trial registration NTR3463 and NTR3425 PMID:25927562

  4. The Everyday Violence of Hepatitis C Among Young Women Who Inject Drugs in San Francisco

    PubMed Central

    Bourgois, Philippe; Prince, Bridget; Moss, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    A theoretical understanding of the gendered contours of structural, everyday and symbolic violence suggests that young addicted women are particularly vulnerable to the infectious diseases caused by injection drug use—especially hepatitis C. Participant-observation fieldwork among heroin and speed addicts in San Francisco’s Haight Ashbury neighborhood reveals that extreme levels of violence against women are normalized in the common sense of street-youth drug culture. Physical, sexual and emotional violence, as well as the pragmatics of income generation, including drug and resource sharing in the moral economy of street addicts, oblige most young homeless women to enter into relationships with older men. These relationships are usually abusive and economically parasitical to the women. Sexual objectification and a patriarchal romantic discourse of love and moral worth leads to the misrecognition of gender power inequities by both the men and women who are embroiled in them, as well as by many of the public services and research projects designed to help or control substance abusers. Despite deep epistemological, theoretical and logistical gulfs between quantitative and qualitative methods, applied public health research and the interventions they inform can benefit from the insights provided by a theoretical and cross-methodological focus on how social power contexts shape the spread of infectious disease and promote disproportional levels of social suffering in vulnerable populations. PMID:16685288

  5. Young Women's Experiences of Resisting Invitations to Use Illicit Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehn, Corinne V.; O'Neill, Linda K.

    2011-01-01

    Ten young women were interviewed regarding their experiences of resisting invitations to use illicit drugs. Hermeneutic phenomenology was used to gather and analyze information. One key theme was the motivations that inspired women to refuse drug offers. Young women resisted drug invitations because of their desires to be authentic, protect their…

  6. Romantic Relationships and Body Satisfaction among Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markey, Charlotte N.; Markey, Patrick M.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study we examined associations between young women's romantic relationships and their body image. Ninety-five heterosexual couples (women's mean age=22.46 and men's mean age=24.38) participated in this study. We examined young women's satisfaction with their own bodies, their "perceptions" of their significant others' satisfaction…

  7. People Experiencing Chronic Homelessness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ending Family Homelessness Ending Youth Homelessness Setting a Path to End All Homelessness Solutions Solutions Housing Housing ... Ending Family Homelessness Ending Youth Homelessness Setting a Path to End All Homelessness Solutions Solutions Housing Housing ...

  8. Young women describe the ideal physician.

    PubMed

    Clowers, Marsha

    2002-01-01

    For some, the search for the ideal care provider can be elusive. This study explored female adolescents' accounts of the ideal health care provider. One hundred fifty-seven female high school students responded to the following question: "Can you describe what the ideal doctor would be like?" Content analysis of their descriptive narratives yielded 272 references to communication competence versus 30 references to medical competence (10 references were unrelated to either communication or medical competence). Based on their responses, it is clear that while young women appreciate the importance of medical skill, it is the communicatively competent care provider that they most seek.

  9. When, where, why and with whom homeless women engage in risky sexual behaviors: A framework for understanding complex and varied decision-making processes

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Gery W.; Stern, Stefanie A.; Hilton, Lara; Tucker, Joan S.; Kennedy, David P.; Golinelli, Daniela; Wenzel, Suzanne L.

    2010-01-01

    Impoverished women worldwide are at high risk for contracting HIV/AIDS. This study explores how homeless women make risky sex decisions and the role that alcohol and drugs play in this process. We analyze 56 in-depth qualitative descriptions of recent sexual episodes among 28 women living in shelters in Los Angeles, California, USA. The sample (age 18–63) was 46% African American, 21% Hispanic/Latina, and 21% white. Findings suggest that: (1) homeless women engage in multiple types of relationships and sexual behaviors; (2) emotion and attachment play critical roles in women’s risky sex choices; and (3) the role of alcohol and drugs on such choices varies across relationship commitment. Understanding the complexity of sexual decision-making among this population has implications for developing successful risk reduction interventions. PMID:20485467

  10. Wildfires: Information for Pregnant Women and Parents of Young Infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Wildfires: Information for Pregnant Women and Parents of Young Infants Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir If ... often. If you are a parent with a young infant who has been evacuated from your home, ...

  11. Homelessness and Its Effects on Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart-Shegos, Ellen

    Homelessness influences every facet of children's lives, inhibiting their physical, emotional, cognitive, social, and behavioral development. Homeless women face such obstacles to healthy pregnancies as chemical abuse, chronic health problems, and lack of prenatal care. Homeless infants are more likely to have low birth weights and are at greater…

  12. Pushed Out: America's Homeless. Thanksgiving 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coalition for the Homeless, Washington, DC.

    By winter 1987, up to three million men, women, and children will be homeless; the number of homeless persons will continue to increase at a rate of 25 percent. This report surveys the changes in the homeless population in the following 23 cities over the past year: Albuquerque (New Mexico), Atlanta (Georgia), Boston (Massachusetts), Chicago…

  13. A TYPOLOGY OF DRUG-RELATED OFFENDING AMONG YOUNG HOMELESS INJECTION DRUG USERS

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Bill; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Jackson Bloom, Jennifer; Hathaz, Dodi S.

    2011-01-01

    Research indicates a link between drug use and offending, particularly amongst high-risk individuals, such as homeless youth. The extent to which such youth interpret their offending as being related to their drug use, though, is understudied. This manuscript investigates the interpretations of drug-related offenses offered by 151 primarily white, male, homeless IDUs aged 16–29 years. Youth were asked specific questions about their drug-related offenses during in-depth interviews as part of a larger study investigating health risks surrounding drug injection between 2004 and 2006. The first section of the manuscript outlines offenses youth revealed committing either in pursuit of or after using a variety of substances. The second part of the manuscript examines the overall context (motivation, environment), and provides a seven-tiered typology of drug-related offending based on youth's interpretations, linking certain drugs to specific offenses within particular contexts. From here, some theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:21423855

  14. Understanding Consistent Condom Use Among Homeless Men Who Have Sex with Women and Engage in Multiple Sexual Partnerships: A Path Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsun-Ta; Wenzel, Suzanne; Rice, Eric; Gilreath, Tamika D; Kurzban, Seth; Unger, Jennifer

    2015-09-01

    Consistent condom use is the main strategy aimed at preventing individuals from acquiring HIV through sexual intercourse. The mechanism of consistent condom use among a high-risk homeless subpopulation-homeless men who have sex with women and also engage in multiple sexual partnerships-remains unclear. This study identified 182 homeless men who engaged in multiple sexual partnerships from a representative sample of homeless men, who self-identified as heterosexual, using meal line services in Downtown Los Angeles' Skid Row area. Information such as participants' condom use psychosocial correlates, sexual risk behaviors, and social network characteristics were collected. Results suggested that condom efficacy is a potential intervening mechanism through which condom attitudes (β = -0.199; p = 0.005) and depression (β = -0.156; p = 0.029) are associated with an individual's consistent condom use. Having more network members with whom participants talked about HIV prevention (β = 0.051; p = 0.006) was also found to be associated with an individual's consistent condom use. HIV prevention programs should focus on increasing their condom efficacy to help reduce HIV risks among this vulnerable homeless subpopulation. PMID:25845531

  15. Youth Homelessness and Individualised Subjectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrugia, David

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to understandings of youth homelessness and subjectivity by analysing identity construction in terms of young people's negotiation of the structural and institutional environment of youth homelessness. I suggest that while existing literature on this topic concentrates mainly on micro-social encounters, the…

  16. Investigation of a secondary syringe exchange program for homeless young adult injection drug users in San Francisco, California, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Sears, C; Guydish, J R; Weltzien, E K; Lum, P J

    2001-06-01

    This study investigated an HIV prevention program for homeless young adult injection drug users (IDUs) that combined a secondary syringe exchange program (SEP) with community-level activities. Homeless young IDUs were recruited from street-based settings in San Francisco, and a structured questionnaire was administered. The secondary SEP operated in a circumscribed geographic area, and for analytic purposes respondents were assigned to the intervention site group if they primarily spent time in this area (n = 67), or the comparison site group if they primarily spent time elsewhere (n = 55). Almost all (96%) intervention site youth had used the secondary SEP in the past 30 days and were significantly more likely to regularly use SEP. In bivariate analysis, comparison site IDUs were more likely to share syringes, reuse syringes, share the cotton used to filter drugs, and use condoms with casual sex partners only inconsistently. In multivariate analysis, comparison site remained positively associated with sharing syringes (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.748; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.406-9.988), reusing syringes (AOR, 2.769; 95% CI,1.120-6.847), and inconsistent condom use with casual sex partners (AOR, 4.825; 95% CI, 1.392- 16.721). This suggests that the intervention was effective in delivering SEP services to homeless young adult IDUs, and that IDUs who frequented the intervention site had a lower HIV risk than comparison group IDUs.

  17. School Exclusion and Educational Inclusion of Pregnant Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudoe, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the school exclusion and subsequent educational inclusion of pregnant young women participating in a course of antenatal and key skills education at an alternative educational setting. It examines the young women's transitions from "failure" in school to "success" in motherhood and re-engagement with…

  18. Correlates of Lifetime Physical Activity in Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Lorraine Silver

    2003-01-01

    This study retrospectively examined physical activity patterns across three specific age periods (childhood, teenage, and young adulthood) in a cross sectional sample of young Caucasian undergraduate women (N = 44). All women (mean age = 22.27 plus or minus 3.14 years) completed questionnaire packets assessing transtheoretical model of behavior…

  19. Young Women's Responses to Smoking and Breast Cancer Risk Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottorff, Joan L.; McKeown, Stephanie Barclay; Carey, Joanne; Haines, Rebecca; Okoli, Chizimuzo; Johnson, Kenneth C.; Easley, Julie; Ferrence, Roberta; Baillie, Lynne; Ptolemy, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Current evidence confirms that young women who smoke or who have regular long-term exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) have an increased risk of developing premenopausal breast cancer. The aim of this research was to examine the responses of young women to health information about the links between active smoking and SHS exposure and breast cancer…

  20. Narrating Neighborhood: Denying Young Women's Public Voices about Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertram, Corrine C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a youth-centered activist project with a group of young women in Brooklyn, NY, and the controversy surrounding it. In 1999 the young women created a neighborhood mural with anti-violence themes. Within 6 months of the mural's dedication, the mural was whitewashed by the corporate owner of the mural wall. Using content and…

  1. Ann Eliza Young: A Nineteenth Century Champion of Women's Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Jack B.

    Concentrating on the efforts of such nineteenth century women's rights advocates as Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, communication researchers have largely overlooked the contributions made to the cause by Ann Eliza Young. The nineteenth wife of Mormon leader Brigham Young, Ann Eliza Young left her husband and took to the speaker's…

  2. Experiences Associated with Intervening with Homeless, Substance-Abusing Mothers: The Importance of Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesnick, Natasha; Glassman, Michael; Katafiasz, Heather; Collins, Jennifer C.

    2012-01-01

    This article documents the experiences of providing housing and supportive services, or ecologically based treatment, to shelter-recruited, substance-abusing homeless women with young children in their care. Among clients, observed experiences related to housing, substance abuse, and health and mental health care are discussed. Among therapists,…

  3. Childhood risk factors for homelessness among homeless adults.

    PubMed Central

    Koegel, P; Melamid, E; Burnam, m A

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This effort used data from the Course of Homelessness study and comparative secondary data on the general population to identify negative childhood and family background experiences that may increase risk for adult homelessness. METHODS. Frequencies of negative childhood experiences were examined among a probability sample of 1563 homeless adults. Differences in risk for such experiences were calculated by sex, age cohort, and racial/ethnicity status. Where possible, rates of negative childhood experiences among the homeless were compared with the general population. RESULTS. Substantial numbers of this sample experienced multiple problems as children across several domains: poverty, residential instability, and family problems. Women and Whites disproportionately reported experiences suggestive of personal or family problems; non-Whites disproportionately reported experiences suggestive of personal or family problems; non-Whites disproportionately reported experiences suggestive of poverty. Homeless adults were at increased risk of childhood out-of-home placement, tenure in public housing, and homelessness, but not at greater risk for physical abuse. Women appeared to be at greater risk for sexual abuse. CONCLUSIONS. The problems that homeless individuals experience as adults have very clear analogs in their childhoods. Vulnerability to homelessness stems from factors unevenly distributed across age, sex, and race/ethnicity groups. PMID:7503338

  4. Pathways to Homelessness among Older Homeless Adults: Results from the HOPE HOME Study

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Rebecca T.; Goodman, Leah; Guzman, David; Tieu, Lina; Ponath, Claudia; Kushel, Margot B.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about pathways to homelessness among older adults. We identified life course experiences associated with earlier versus later onset of homelessness in older homeless adults and examined current health and functional status by age at first homelessness. We interviewed 350 homeless adults, aged 50 and older, recruited via population-based sampling. Participants reported age at first episode of adult homelessness and their life experiences during 3 time periods: childhood (<18 years), young adulthood (ages 18–25), and middle adulthood (ages 26–49). We used a structured modeling approach to identify experiences associated with first adult homelessness before age 50 versus at age 50 or older. Participants reported current health and functional status, including recent mental health and substance use problems. Older homeless adults who first became homeless before 50 had more adverse life experiences (i.e., mental health and substance use problems, imprisonment) and lower attainment of adult milestones (i.e., marriage, full-time employment) compared to individuals with later onset. After multivariable adjustment, adverse experiences were independently associated with experiencing a first episode of homelessness before age 50. Individuals who first became homeless before age 50 had higher prevalence of recent mental health and substance use problems and more difficulty performing instrumental activities of daily living. Life course experiences and current vulnerabilities of older homeless adults with first homelessness before age 50 differed from those with later onset of homelessness. Prevention and service interventions should be adapted to meet different needs. PMID:27163478

  5. Pathways to Homelessness among Older Homeless Adults: Results from the HOPE HOME Study.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rebecca T; Goodman, Leah; Guzman, David; Tieu, Lina; Ponath, Claudia; Kushel, Margot B

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about pathways to homelessness among older adults. We identified life course experiences associated with earlier versus later onset of homelessness in older homeless adults and examined current health and functional status by age at first homelessness. We interviewed 350 homeless adults, aged 50 and older, recruited via population-based sampling. Participants reported age at first episode of adult homelessness and their life experiences during 3 time periods: childhood (<18 years), young adulthood (ages 18-25), and middle adulthood (ages 26-49). We used a structured modeling approach to identify experiences associated with first adult homelessness before age 50 versus at age 50 or older. Participants reported current health and functional status, including recent mental health and substance use problems. Older homeless adults who first became homeless before 50 had more adverse life experiences (i.e., mental health and substance use problems, imprisonment) and lower attainment of adult milestones (i.e., marriage, full-time employment) compared to individuals with later onset. After multivariable adjustment, adverse experiences were independently associated with experiencing a first episode of homelessness before age 50. Individuals who first became homeless before age 50 had higher prevalence of recent mental health and substance use problems and more difficulty performing instrumental activities of daily living. Life course experiences and current vulnerabilities of older homeless adults with first homelessness before age 50 differed from those with later onset of homelessness. Prevention and service interventions should be adapted to meet different needs. PMID:27163478

  6. Geometric morphometric footprint analysis of young women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most published attempts to quantify footprint shape are based on a small number of measurements. We applied geometric morphometric methods to study shape variation of the complete footprint outline in a sample of 83 adult women. Methods The outline of the footprint, including the toes, was represented by a comprehensive set of 85 landmarks and semilandmarks. Shape coordinates were computed by Generalized Procrustes Analysis. Results The first four principal components represented the major axes of variation in foot morphology: low-arched versus high-arched feet, long and narrow versus short and wide feet, the relative length of the hallux, and the relative length of the forefoot. These shape features varied across the measured individuals without any distinct clusters or discrete types of footprint shape. A high body mass index (BMI) was associated with wide and flat feet, and a high frequency of wearing high-heeled shoes was associated with a larger forefoot area of the footprint and a relatively long hallux. Larger feet had an increased length-to-width ratio of the footprint, a lower-arched foot, and longer toes relative to the remaining foot. Footprint shape differed on average between left and right feet, and the variability of footprint asymmetry increased with BMI. Conclusions Foot shape is affected by lifestyle factors even in a sample of young women (median age 23 years). Geometric morphometrics proved to be a powerful tool for the detailed analysis of footprint shape that is applicable in various scientific disciplines, including forensics, orthopedics, and footwear design. PMID:23886074

  7. Increasing Access to Higher Education for Unaccompanied Youth: Information for Colleges and Universities. Best Practices in Homeless Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Each year, more than a million young people in the United States experience homelessness; some of these young people, known as unaccompanied homeless youth, will face the challenges of homelessness while living on their own without the support of a caring adult. Unaccompanied homeless youth face the same struggles as other young people: trying to…

  8. "It's Good to Have Wheels!" Perceptions of Cycling among Homeless Young People in Sydney, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Belinda; Rissel, Chris; Yamazaki, Rowena; Franke, Elise; Amanatidis, Sue; Ravulo, Jioji; Bindon, Jenni; Torvaldsen, Siranda

    2012-01-01

    Participation in sporting or recreational programs can be unattainable for many disadvantaged young people. Encouraging regular cycling is an important public health strategy to increase participation in physical activity and expand personal transport options for marginalised youth. Perceptions and attitudes toward cycling were explored in eight…

  9. Treatment helps young women preserve fertility during breast cancer chemo

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers have found that young women with breast cancer were able to better preserve their fertility during cancer treatments by using hormone-blocking drug injections that put them into temporary menopause. The results announced today at the annual me

  10. Marriage and Suicide among Chinese Rural Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jie

    2010-01-01

    Suicides by young females in rural China contribute substantially to the high rate of suicide and the total number of suicides in China. Given the traditional familial structure that remains largely intact in rural China, this research focuses on whether being married is a risk or protective factor for suicide by young women. I examined 168 rural…

  11. Women in Technology Project Opportunity. End-of-Year Report, 1994-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Benedetto, Victoria; Ortiz, Rachel

    Project Opportunity of the Women in Technology (WIT) program at Texas' El Paso Community College is designed to provide a bridge curriculum for women who choose to enter nontraditional vocational fields that furnishes marketable skills to low-income individuals, single parents, displaced homemakers, young pregnant women, and near-homeless women.…

  12. Leaving violent relationships and avoiding homelessness - providing a choice for women and their children.

    PubMed

    Breckenridge, Jan; Mulroney, Jane

    2007-01-01

    The report Staying Home/Leaving Violence describes a research study that explores how women, leaving a relationship where they experience domestic violence, can remain safely in their own homes with their children, with the violent offender being removed. In this qualitative study, 29 women were interviewed about their experiences of leaving a violent relationship. Of these 29 women, nine remained in their own home. This article describes the factors that enabled these nine women to remain in their homes and comments on the policy and practice implications for health workers.

  13. Finding Our Stride: Young Women Professors of Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewcomb, Whitney Sherman; Beaty, Danna M.; Sanzo, Karen; Peters-Hawkins, April

    2013-01-01

    This work is grounded in the literature on women in the academy and offers glimpses into four young women professors' experiences in the field of educational leadership. We utilized reflective practice and interpersonal communication to create a dialogue centered on three qualitative research questions that allows a window into our lives. We…

  14. Young Asian Women Experiences of the Summer Activities Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Laura

    2002-01-01

    Interviews and observations focused on experiences of 15 young Asian women at a 5-day summer adventure program in southern England. Participants seemed bored with presentations about future career options, activities lost their challenge through repetition, and debriefing was weak. However, the women connected with the transferable skills of trust…

  15. Caffeine Use and Young Adult Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vener, Arthur M.; Krupka, Lawrence R.

    1982-01-01

    Surveyed college women and men and found that caffeine was consumed by a large proportion of the respondents. Women consumed a larger amount of caffeine and used more substances containing this drug. An increase in caffeine usage with increased psychic stress was observed for women only. (Author)

  16. Young women's responses to smoking and breast cancer risk information.

    PubMed

    Bottorff, Joan L; McKeown, Stephanie Barclay; Carey, Joanne; Haines, Rebecca; Okoli, Chizimuzo; Johnson, Kenneth C; Easley, Julie; Ferrence, Roberta; Baillie, Lynne; Ptolemy, Erin

    2010-08-01

    Current evidence confirms that young women who smoke or who have regular long-term exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) have an increased risk of developing premenopausal breast cancer. The aim of this research was to examine the responses of young women to health information about the links between active smoking and SHS exposure and breast cancer and obtain their advice about messaging approaches. Data were collected in focus groups with 46 women, divided in three age cohorts: 15-17, 18-19 and 20-24 and organized according to smoking status (smoking, non-smoking and mixed smoking status groups). The discussion questions were preceded by information about passive and active smoking and its associated breast cancer risk. The study findings show young women's interest in this risk factor for breast cancer. Three themes were drawn from the analysis: making sense of the information on smoking and breast cancer, personal susceptibility and tobacco exposure and suggestions for increasing awareness about tobacco exposure and breast cancer. There was general consensus on framing public awareness messages about this risk factor on 'protecting others' from breast cancer to catch smokers' attention, providing young women with the facts and personal stories of breast cancer to help establish a personal connection with this information and overcome desensitization related to tobacco messages, and targeting all smokers who may place young women at risk. Cautions were also raised about the potential for stigmatization. Implications for raising awareness about this modifiable risk factor for breast cancer are discussed.

  17. Young women's responses to smoking and breast cancer risk information.

    PubMed

    Bottorff, Joan L; McKeown, Stephanie Barclay; Carey, Joanne; Haines, Rebecca; Okoli, Chizimuzo; Johnson, Kenneth C; Easley, Julie; Ferrence, Roberta; Baillie, Lynne; Ptolemy, Erin

    2010-08-01

    Current evidence confirms that young women who smoke or who have regular long-term exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) have an increased risk of developing premenopausal breast cancer. The aim of this research was to examine the responses of young women to health information about the links between active smoking and SHS exposure and breast cancer and obtain their advice about messaging approaches. Data were collected in focus groups with 46 women, divided in three age cohorts: 15-17, 18-19 and 20-24 and organized according to smoking status (smoking, non-smoking and mixed smoking status groups). The discussion questions were preceded by information about passive and active smoking and its associated breast cancer risk. The study findings show young women's interest in this risk factor for breast cancer. Three themes were drawn from the analysis: making sense of the information on smoking and breast cancer, personal susceptibility and tobacco exposure and suggestions for increasing awareness about tobacco exposure and breast cancer. There was general consensus on framing public awareness messages about this risk factor on 'protecting others' from breast cancer to catch smokers' attention, providing young women with the facts and personal stories of breast cancer to help establish a personal connection with this information and overcome desensitization related to tobacco messages, and targeting all smokers who may place young women at risk. Cautions were also raised about the potential for stigmatization. Implications for raising awareness about this modifiable risk factor for breast cancer are discussed. PMID:20080807

  18. Management of breast cancer in very young women.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Shoshana M; Partridge, Ann H

    2015-11-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women age 40 and younger in developed countries, and although generally improving, survival rates for young women with breast cancer remain lower than for older women. Young women are more likely to develop more aggressive subtypes of breast cancer (more triple negative and more Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 [HER2]-positive disease) and present with more advanced stage disease. Previous research has demonstrated that young age is an independent risk factor for disease recurrence and death, although recent data suggest this may not be the case in certain tumor molecular subtypes. Recent preliminary evidence suggests potential unique biologic features of breast cancer that occurs in young women although this has yet to have been translated into treatment differences. There are clearly host differences that affect the management of breast cancer for young patients including generally being premenopausal at diagnosis, and fertility, genetics, and social/emotional issues in particular should be considered early in the course of their care. Despite an increased risk of local recurrence, young age alone is not a contraindication to breast conserving therapy given the equivalent survival seen in this population with either mastectomy or breast conservation. However, many young women in recent years are choosing bilateral mastectomy, even without a known hereditary predisposition to the disease. For those who need chemotherapy, multi-agent chemotherapy and biologic therapy targeting the tumor similar to the treatment in older women is the standard approach. Select young women will do well with hormone therapy only. Recent data from the TEXT and SOFT trials evaluating the optimal endocrine therapy for the first 5 years, and the ATTom and ATLAS trials demonstrating benefit from extended duration of tamoxifen (10 vs. 5 years), have further defined options for adjuvant endocrine therapy for young women

  19. Violent Victimization, Mental Health, and Service Utilization Outcomes in a Cohort of Homeless and Unstably Housed Women Living With or at Risk of Becoming Infected With HIV.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Alexander C; Weiser, Sheri D; Dilworth, Samantha E; Shumway, Martha; Riley, Elise D

    2015-05-15

    Most studies about the association between exposure to violence and higher psychological vulnerability have been cross-sectional in nature. Using longitudinal data from the Shelter, Health, and Drug Outcomes Among Women Study on 300 homeless or unstably housed women infected with or at risk of becoming infected with human immunodeficiency virus who were living in San Francisco, California, in 2008-2012, we examined the relationship between recent violent victimization and mental health status, mental health-related emergency department visits, and psychiatric hospitalization. We used generalized estimating equations to account for potentially confounding time-invariant and time-varying variables, including comorbid psychiatric conditions and lifetime history of child abuse. A total of 207 (69%) women experienced childhood abuse. The median number of psychiatric diagnoses per woman at baseline was 8 (interquartile range, 5-11). Recent exposure to violence was associated with lower mental health status (b = -1.85, 95% confidence interval: -3.02, -0.68) and higher risks of mental health-related emergency department visits (adjusted risk ratio = 2.96, 95% confidence interval: 1.51, 5.78) and psychiatric hospitalizations (adjusted risk ratio = 2.32, 95% confidence interval: 1.10, 4.91). We did not find strong evidence of a reciprocal relationship. Among homeless or unstably housed women with severe preexisting comorbid psychiatric conditions, recent violence has adverse mental health consequences. Reducing ongoing violence may improve mental health in this population. PMID:25834138

  20. Violent Victimization, Mental Health, and Service Utilization Outcomes in a Cohort of Homeless and Unstably Housed Women Living With or at Risk of Becoming Infected With HIV

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Alexander C.; Weiser, Sheri D.; Dilworth, Samantha E.; Shumway, Martha; Riley, Elise D.

    2015-01-01

    Most studies about the association between exposure to violence and higher psychological vulnerability have been cross-sectional in nature. Using longitudinal data from the Shelter, Health, and Drug Outcomes Among Women Study on 300 homeless or unstably housed women infected with or at risk of becoming infected with human immunodeficiency virus who were living in San Francisco, California, in 2008–2012, we examined the relationship between recent violent victimization and mental health status, mental health–related emergency department visits, and psychiatric hospitalization. We used generalized estimating equations to account for potentially confounding time-invariant and time-varying variables, including comorbid psychiatric conditions and lifetime history of child abuse. A total of 207 (69%) women experienced childhood abuse. The median number of psychiatric diagnoses per woman at baseline was 8 (interquartile range, 5–11). Recent exposure to violence was associated with lower mental health status (b = −1.85, 95% confidence interval: −3.02, −0.68) and higher risks of mental health–related emergency department visits (adjusted risk ratio = 2.96, 95% confidence interval: 1.51, 5.78) and psychiatric hospitalizations (adjusted risk ratio = 2.32, 95% confidence interval: 1.10, 4.91). We did not find strong evidence of a reciprocal relationship. Among homeless or unstably housed women with severe preexisting comorbid psychiatric conditions, recent violence has adverse mental health consequences. Reducing ongoing violence may improve mental health in this population. PMID:25834138

  1. The Unique and Combined Effects of Homelessness and School Mobility on the Educational Outcomes of Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fantuzzo, John W.; LeBoeuf, Whitney A.; Chen, Chin-Chih; Rouse, Heather L.; Culhane, Dennis P.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the unique and combined associations of homelessness and school mobility with educational well-being indicators, as well as the mediating effect of absenteeism, for an entire cohort of third-grade students in Philadelphia. Using integrated archival administrative data from the public school district and the municipal Office of…

  2. Impact of Poverty, Homelessness, and Drugs on Hispanic Women at Risk for HIV Infection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Vasquez, Rose

    1989-01-01

    The overwhelming focus of the lives of 43 poor, at-risk Hispanic women was coping with threats to their role as providers for their children. Threats included poverty, potential loss of health, drug addiction, lack of social support, low self-esteem, helplessness, and loss of control. Contains 27 references. (SV)

  3. Learning from Families Experiencing Homelessness--How School Leaders Can Make a Difference through Transformative Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warke, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    Homelessness is a growing phenomenon, especially among women and children (Hulchanski, 2009). This study was conducted because of the increase in families experiencing homelessness registering in my school. In none of the current studies about homelessness have the researchers spoken to the families and children experiencing homelessness. This…

  4. Sexual Debut of Young Black Women Who Have Sex with Women: Implications for STI/HIV Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timm, Tina M.; Reed, Sarah J.; Miller, Robin Lin; Valenti, Maria T.

    2013-01-01

    Young Black women continue to be at high risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). However, little is known about the risks specifically to young Black women who primarily have sex with women (YWSW). As part of a larger sexual health project, in-depth qualitative interviews were completed with 14 Black women ages 16-24, who…

  5. Psychosocial Correlates of Sunburn among Young Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, Carolyn J.; Darlow,  Susan; Cohen-Filipic,  Jessye; Kloss,  Jacqueline D.; Munshi,  Teja; Perlis,  Clifford S.

    2012-01-01

    Skin cancer is an increasingly common disease, particularly among young adult women. Sunburn early in life is a risk factor for skin cancer. Few studies have reported on psychosocial correlates of sunburn. The current study consisted of an online survey of undergraduate women from a university in the northeastern part of the USA. A logistic regression demonstrated that young women who reported a history of four or more sunburns were significantly more likely to report fair skin, higher perceived susceptibility to skin cancer, greater perceived benefits of tanning (e.g., appearance enhancement), lower perceived control over skin protection, and more frequent sunscreen use. Sunbathing was not associated with a greater number of sunburns. These results suggest that young women who sunburn more often possess other skin cancer risk factors, are aware of their susceptibility to skin cancer, and try to use sunscreen, but feel limited control over their skin protection behavior and are not less likely to sunbathe than others. Therefore, interventions are needed to assist high risk young women in asserting more control over their sun protection behavior and perhaps improve the effectiveness of the sunscreen or other skin protection methods they do employ. PMID:22829801

  6. Psychosocial correlates of sunburn among young adult women.

    PubMed

    Heckman, Carolyn J; Darlow, Susan; Cohen-Filipic, Jessye; Kloss, Jacqueline D; Manne, Sharon L; Munshi, Teja; Perlis, Clifford S

    2012-06-01

    Skin cancer is an increasingly common disease, particularly among young adult women. Sunburn early in life is a risk factor for skin cancer. Few studies have reported on psychosocial correlates of sunburn. The current study consisted of an online survey of undergraduate women from a university in the northeastern part of the USA. A logistic regression demonstrated that young women who reported a history of four or more sunburns were significantly more likely to report fair skin, higher perceived susceptibility to skin cancer, greater perceived benefits of tanning (e.g., appearance enhancement), lower perceived control over skin protection, and more frequent sunscreen use. Sunbathing was not associated with a greater number of sunburns. These results suggest that young women who sunburn more often possess other skin cancer risk factors, are aware of their susceptibility to skin cancer, and try to use sunscreen, but feel limited control over their skin protection behavior and are not less likely to sunbathe than others. Therefore, interventions are needed to assist high risk young women in asserting more control over their sun protection behavior and perhaps improve the effectiveness of the sunscreen or other skin protection methods they do employ.

  7. Sexual Safety and Sexual Security among Young Black Women Who Have Sex with Women and Men

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Kamila Anise; Fannin, Ehriel F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine sexuality narratives of Black women who have sex with women and men and explore factors that influence their sexual safety and sexual security. Design Secondary qualitative content analysis. Setting We recruited young self-identified Black women from beauty salons and community-based organizations. Participants Our sample included a subset of five sexually active, Black women age 19 to 25 who reported engaging in sexual relationships with women and men. Participants were selected from a larger parent study that included sexuality narratives from 25 women. Methods We analyzed interview transcripts in which participants described sexual relationships. We used constant comparative techniques and conventional content analysis methodology. Results We uncovered three themes illustrating influences on sexual safety and sexual security: institutional expectations, emotional connectedness, and sexual behaviors. Conclusions From this analysis, we derive valuable insights into decision-making processes within sexual relationships from the perspectives of young Black women who have sex with women and men. Clinicians and investigators can use these findings to inform programs designed to improve the sexual health of this often invisible group of women. Nurses are uniquely positioned to support young women as they navigate societal institutions and emotional experiences that inform future sexual decisions and behaviors. PMID:24942676

  8. Sensual Sexuality Education with Young Parenting Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gubrium, Aline C.; Shafer, Miriam B.

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive sexuality education curricula that incorporate sex positive and integrated approaches go beyond a presentation of facts and strategies for prevention to emphasize the promotion of sexual subjectivity and wellbeing. A pilot sensual sexuality education program was planned, implemented and informally evaluated with young parenting women…

  9. Antiabortion positions and young women's life plans in contemporary Ireland.

    PubMed

    Oaks, Laury

    2003-05-01

    At a critical time when Ireland's abortion ban faces legal challenges and the number of women obtaining abortions abroad each year continues to climb, some antiabortion advocates have turned their attention toward the social factors that influence women's abortion decision-making. Through an analysis of articles carried in the Irish mainstream and Catholic presses, this article examines how antiabortion advocates since the late 1990s have promoted an "antiabortion, pro-motherhood" message in response to trends that they identify as indicating that Irish reproduction has "gone awry". Antiabortion activists have focused in particular on the life plans of young, middle-class, career-oriented women, many of whom have benefited from increased employment opportunities within Ireland. These women are more likely than young women in past generations to postpone childbearing or opt for abortion in the face of an unwanted pregnancy, and thus, symbolize for antiabortion advocates the devaluation of a "traditional" Irish culture centered on the privileging of motherhood and married family life. This article examines antiabortion ideologies deployed around motherhood, work, and childcare, and argues that antiabortion advocates' "pro-motherhood" campaign fails to adequately respond to the changing realities of young, middle-class Irish women's life opportunities and expectations. PMID:12650733

  10. Characteristics of Mothers Caring for Children During Episodes of Homelessness.

    PubMed

    Welch-Lazoritz, Melissa L; Whitbeck, Les B; Armenta, Brian E

    2015-11-01

    This study provides a description of the physical, psychological, and substance use problems of adult homeless women who are and are not caring for children. We also examined differences in the characteristics of these two groups of women. Interviews were conducted with 148 homeless women from three mid-sized U.S. cities, 24.3 % of whom were caring for at least one child. Our results showed that women caring for children were more likely to be sheltered and have health insurance. Homeless women caring for children and solitary homeless women were generally similar in terms of substance abuse problems. However, rates of Borderline Personality Disorder were higher among women caring for children than among solitary homeless women. Our results are somewhat consistent with previous research, with the exception of substance abuse problems and mental health problems, which were shown to be equally problematic for all women, regardless of current caregiving status.

  11. Characteristics of Mothers Caring for Children During Episodes of Homelessness

    PubMed Central

    Whitbeck, Les B.; Armenta, Brian E.

    2016-01-01

    This study provides a description of the physical, psychological, and substance use problems of adult homeless women who are and are not caring for children. We also examined differences in the characteristics of these two groups of women. Interviews were conducted with 148 homeless women from three mid-sized U.S. cities, 24.3 % of whom were caring for at least one child. Our results showed that women caring for children were more likely to be sheltered and have health insurance. Homeless women caring for children and solitary homeless women were generally similar in terms of substance abuse problems. However, rates of Borderline Personality Disorder were higher among women caring for children than among solitary homeless women. Our results are somewhat consistent with previous research, with the exception of substance abuse problems and mental health problems, which were shown to be equally problematic for all women, regardless of current caregiving status. PMID:25536936

  12. Young women's responses to smoking and breast cancer risk information

    PubMed Central

    Bottorff, Joan L.; McKeown, Stephanie Barclay; Carey, Joanne; Haines, Rebecca; Okoli, Chizimuzo; Johnson, Kenneth C.; Easley, Julie; Ferrence, Roberta; Baillie, Lynne; Ptolemy, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Current evidence confirms that young women who smoke or who have regular long-term exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) have an increased risk of developing premenopausal breast cancer. The aim of this research was to examine the responses of young women to health information about the links between active smoking and SHS exposure and breast cancer and obtain their advice about messaging approaches. Data were collected in focus groups with 46 women, divided in three age cohorts: 15–17, 18–19 and 20–24 and organized according to smoking status (smoking, non-smoking and mixed smoking status groups). The discussion questions were preceded by information about passive and active smoking and its associated breast cancer risk. The study findings show young women's interest in this risk factor for breast cancer. Three themes were drawn from the analysis: making sense of the information on smoking and breast cancer, personal susceptibility and tobacco exposure and suggestions for increasing awareness about tobacco exposure and breast cancer. There was general consensus on framing public awareness messages about this risk factor on ‘protecting others’ from breast cancer to catch smokers’ attention, providing young women with the facts and personal stories of breast cancer to help establish a personal connection with this information and overcome desensitization related to tobacco messages, and targeting all smokers who may place young women at risk. Cautions were also raised about the potential for stigmatization. Implications for raising awareness about this modifiable risk factor for breast cancer are discussed. PMID:20080807

  13. Civic Engagement among Young Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcelo, Karlo Barrios; Lopez, Mark Hugo; Kirby, Emily Hoban

    2007-01-01

    Political scientists and sociologists have long established significant differences in civic engagement between women and men. Utilizing data from the 2006 Civic and Political Health of the Nation Survey, and several other sources, new information is provided on the civic engagement of youth, confidence in government, and following public affairs…

  14. Precursors of Young Women's Family Formation Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Paul R.; Landale, Nancy S.; Havasevich-Brooks, Tara C.; Booth, Alan; Eggebeen, David J.; Schoen, Robert; McHale, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    We used latent class analysis to create family formation pathways for women between the ages of 18 and 23. Input variables included cohabitation, marriage, parenthood, full-time employment, and attending school. Data (n = 2,290) came from Waves I and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The analysis revealed…

  15. Women's Status and Violence against Young Married Women in Rural Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies conducted around the world consistently show the existence of violence against women. Despite the increasing number of studies being conducted on violence against young married women elsewhere, this subject has received little attention from researchers and policy makers in Nepal. This paper assesses the prevalence of violence among young married women in rural Nepal. Specifically, it examines [factors related to] women's status in order to better understand the risk of violence. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2009 among 1,296 young married women aged 15-24 years in four major ethnic groups. Bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used to examine the association between selected risk factors and violence. Results More than half the women (51.9%) reported having experienced some form of violence in their lifetime. One-fourth (25.3%) reported physical violence and nearly half (46.2%) reported sexual violence. Likewise, one-third (35.8%) of women reported experiencing some form of violence in the past 12 months. No or little inter-spousal communication and low autonomy of women significantly increases the odds of experiencing violence among married women. Conclusions The violence against women is quite common among young married women in rural Nepal. Although the Domestic Violence and Punishment Act 2066 has been enacted, equal attention needs to be given to increasing women's autonomy and activities that encourage inter-spousal communication. Furthermore, more research is required in Nepal that examines dynamics of violence perpetrated by husbands. PMID:21612603

  16. Health-Seeking Challenges Among Homeless Youth

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Angela L.; Nyamathi, Adeline; Greengold, Barbara; Slagle, Alexandra; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Getzoff, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Background Approximately 1.5 to 2 million homeless young persons live on the streets in the United States. With the current economic situation, research is needed on quality of services geared toward homeless young adults. Objectives The objective of this study was to explore homeless young adults' perspectives on barriers and facilitators of health-care-seeking behavior and their perspectives on improving existing programs for homeless persons. Methods This article is a descriptive qualitative study using focus groups, with a purposeful sample of 24 homeless drug-using young adults. Results Identified themes were failing access to care based on perceived structural barriers (limited clinic sites, limited hours of operation, priority health conditions, and long wait times) and social barriers (perception of discrimination by uncaring professionals, law enforcement, and society in general). Discussion Results provide insight into programmatic and agency resources that facilitate health-seeking behaviors among homeless young adults and include implications for more research with providers of homeless health and social services. PMID:20404776

  17. Borderline Personality Disorder and Axis I Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders among Women Experiencing Homelessness in Three U.S. Cities

    PubMed Central

    Armenta, Brian E.; Welch-Lazoritz, Melissa L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In this study we report prevalence rates of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and Axis I psychiatric and substance use disorders among randomly selected women who were experiencing episodes of homelessness in three U.S. cities. Methods The sample consists of 156 women, 79 from Omaha, NE, 39 from Pittsburgh, PA, and 38 from Portland, OR. It included 140 women from shelters and 16 women from meal locations. Latent class analysis was used to evaluate BPD symptoms. Results A large majority of the women (84.6%) met criteria for at least one lifetime psychiatric disorder, about three-fourths (73.1%) met criteria for a psychiatric disorder in the past year, and 39.7% met past-month criteria for a psychiatric disorder. Approximately three-fourths of the sample (73.7%) met lifetime criteria for at least two disorders, about half (53.9%) met criteria for at least three lifetime disorders, and approximately one-third (39.1%) met criteria for four or more disorders. Latent class analyses indicated that 16.7% of the women could be categorized as low self-harm BPD and 19.9% high self-harm BPD. Conclusions In shelters and in treatment settings, these women will present with complex histories of multiple serious psychiatric disorders. They are highly likely to manifest symptoms of BPD, posttraumatic stress disorder, and substance abuse disorders in addition to other psychiatric symptoms which will add to clinical complications. PMID:25708192

  18. Peer education reaches young women factory workers in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Cash, K

    1993-12-01

    In Thailand, the International Center for Research on Women conducted a study comparing the effect of various HIV/AIDS prevention activities on never-married women 14-24 years old who migrated to Chiang Mai to work in the export garment industry. These young women are very vulnerable to HIV/AIDS because they are freed from traditional norms and exposed to urban peer pressure. However, focus groups revealed that the women did not consider themselves at risk and feared negative reactions if they tried to discuss condoms with their boyfriends (who would equate knowledge with prior sexual experience). Among the interventions were a comic book which couched condom negotiation information in humorous terms and a romantic novel about a factory worker diagnosed with HIV. For 3 months trained peer leaders and health promoters led weekly educational sessions that included role-play. All participants were given a certificate noting that they had completed an AIDS education course. This certificate enabled the young women to broach the subject of AIDS with their boyfriends, their families, and their friends. The project improved their communication skills, their self-confidence, and their perceptions of risk. The most significant improvements were found among the women enrolled in the groups facilitated by peer leaders. Even though the peer leaders were not as knowledgeable as the health promoters, the peer leaders were more sensitive to the needs of the women and more capable of leading group discussions and participatory learning activities.

  19. Physical Activity Patterns of Young Women Post-College Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soliah, LuAnn; Walter, Janelle; Antosh, Deeanna

    2008-01-01

    Americans need more physical activity in their daily routines. There are numerous physical as well as psychological benefits that can be credited to regular physical activity. The purpose of this research was to examine the physical activity patterns of young women, post-college graduation. The average woman in this study exercised 22 minutes per…

  20. Becoming Accomplished: Concerted Cultivation among Privately Educated Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Claire; Aggleton, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper takes as its starting point the concept of concerted cultivation as coined by Annette Lareau. It examines whether a focus on concerted cultivation adequately captures the various practices observed in young women's experiences of being privately educated in four schools in one area of England. We suggest that a variety of practices of…

  1. General Prospectus of Agricultural Education for Young Men and Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Dublin (Ireland).

    Designed to acquaint young men and women with the agricultural education programs currently available in Ireland's institutions of vocational and higher education, this prospectus describes the educational requirements, facilities, and programs under the auspices of Ireland's Department of Agriculture and Fisheries. Specifically, this document…

  2. Dieting Behaviors of Young Women Post-College Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soliah, LuAnn; Walter, Janelle; Antosh, Deeanna

    2007-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health epidemic in the United States. During the past decade, obesity has increased across all education levels, including college graduates. The purpose of this research was to study the health decisions that young women, post-college graduation make regarding their food intake. The subjects in this study completed a…

  3. "Singing into Language": Sudanese Australian Young Women Create Public Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Anne

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the ethnocinematic research project "Cross-Marked: Sudanese Australian Young Women Talk Education", and its relationship to the evolving notion of public pedagogies. The project explores the potential of alternative pedagogies, which include popular culture, especially audiovisual forms, to engage teachers and learners with…

  4. Early School Leavers: Young Women and Girls at Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyn, Johanna; Holden, Elizabeth

    The experiences of young women in Victoria, Australia, who left school before completing their secondary education were examined to identify the issues facing female early school leavers and the policy implications of those issues. The study was based primarily on data from the Youth Research Centre's Disaffiliated Early School Leavers study, a…

  5. Spirituality and Young Women in Transition: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Kimberly A.; Cummings, Anne L.

    2009-01-01

    This study contributes to the growing body of knowledge about spirituality and life transitions. Through qualitative investigation, 9 young women in professional education programs described their definition of spirituality, their spiritual activities, and how they used their spirituality to cope with life transitions as they prepared to enter the…

  6. Exploring Young Adult Sexual Minority Women's Perspectives on LGBTQ Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youatt, Emily J.; Johns, Michelle M.; Pingel, Emily S.; Soler, Jorge H.; Bauermeister, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Smoking rates are higher among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals than among heterosexuals. These disparities are exacerbated during the transition from youth to young adulthood. The current study uses in-depth qualitative interviews to understand perceptions of LGBTQ smoking among LBQ-identified women (N = 30, ages…

  7. Orthostatic intolerance: a disorder of young women

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, Y. S.; Daamen, N.; Jacob, G.; Jordan, J.; Shannon, J. R.; Biaggioni, I.; Robertson, D.

    2000-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance (OI) is a cause of significant disability in otherwise healthy women seen by gynecologists. Orthostatic tachycardia is often the most obvious hemodynamic abnormality found in OI patients, but symptoms may include dizziness, visual changes, discomfort in the head or neck, poor concentration, fatigue, palpitations, tremulousness, anxiety, and, in some cases, fainting (syncope). It is the most common disorder of blood pressure regulation after essential hypertension, and patients with OI are traditionally women of childbearing age. Estimates suggest that at least 500,000 Americans suffer from some form of OI, and such patients comprise the largest group referred to centers specialized in autonomic disorders. This article reviews recent advances made in the understanding of this condition, potential pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to orthostatic intolerance, and therapeutic alternatives currently available for the management of these patients.

  8. JCL roundtable: Managing lipid disorders in young women.

    PubMed

    Brown, William Virgil; Morris, Pamela B; Wild, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    The roundtable discussion in this issue will focus on the problems faced by young women with lipid disorders. This is often the source of confusion for the patient and physician because the myth continues that young women do not have complications of atherosclerosis as a result of elevated blood cholesterol. The essential role of women in bearing children during the early years of adulthood also produces difficult decisions because the mother and fetus are usually experiencing similar exposure to therapeutic regimens. We are joined in this discussion by Drs. Pamela Morris of the Medical University of South Carolina and Robert Wild of the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center. Dr Morris is an Internist, and Dr Wild is an Obstetrician and Gynecologist. Both are board certified in clinical lipidology and are actively publishing in this field. We have recorded this roundtable discussion during the National Lipid Association Scientific Sessions held in New Orleans during May 2016. PMID:27678421

  9. Changing Times, Future Bodies? The Significance of Health in Young Women's Imagined Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Emma; Evans, John

    2013-01-01

    A growing number of authors recognise the increasing expectations placed on young women as the vanguard of economic, social and cultural change. This paper explores how these imaginings have come to bear upon young women's bodies, as part of a special issue on pedagogical responses to the changing position of girls and young women. In examining…

  10. The Bubble of Privilege. Young, Privately Educated Women Talk about Social Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Claire; Aggleton, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Conceptualizations of the self in relation to others are examined among a group of young women attending a fee-paying school in England. As part of a larger study exploring intimacy and agency among young women from relatively privileged class backgrounds, 54 young women participated in focus group discussions and interviews. Findings reveal that…

  11. Nutrition and health services needs among the homeless.

    PubMed Central

    Wiecha, J L; Dwyer, J T; Dunn-Strohecker, M

    1991-01-01

    This review discusses nutrition and related health problems among homeless Americans, summarizes recent information, and identifies needs for services and future research. The nature of homelessness today provides a context for the discussion. Many homeless persons eat fewer meals per day, lack food more often, and are more likely to have inadequate diets and poorer nutritional status than housed U.S. populations. Yet many homeless people eligible for food stamps do not receive them. While public and private agencies provide nutritious food and meals for homeless persons, availability of the services to homeless persons is limited. Many homeless people lack appropriate health care, and certain nutrition-related health problems are prevalent among them. Compared with housed populations, alcoholism, anemia, and growth problems are more common among homeless persons, and pregnancy rates are higher. The risks vary among homeless persons for malnutrition, nutrition-related health problems, drug and alcohol abuse, and mental illness. For example, among homeless persons, fewer heads of families than single adults are substance abusers, and mental illness varies in prevalence among single men, single women, and parents in homeless families. Homeless persons need improved access to food, nutrition, and health services. More nutrition education needs to be available to them and to service providers. Use of representative samples and validation of self-reported nutrition and health data will help future investigators to clarify the relationships between the characteristics of the homeless and their nutritional status. PMID:1908587

  12. Victimization of the elderly homeless.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Tracy; Wright, James D

    2005-01-01

    Using data from the National Survey of Homeless Assistance Providers and Clients (NSHAPC), this article examines the applicability of Felson's Routine Activities Theory to a national probability sample of older homeless individuals. Results indicate that the relative protection that women often have from most crimes is not transferred to the older homeless woman who is more likely than her male counterparts to be the victim of sexual assault but equally as likely to be the victim of theft and physical assault. Likewise, the protection often noted afforded by age against victimization is also not seen among the homeless. The research demonstrates that being male and having mental and physical health problems as well as substance abuse problems increases the likelihood of victimizations among the homeless population, in general When predictors of victimization were considered for the 50 and older sample, these predictors remained the same except that the gender remained significant only for sexual assault. These findings are consistent with and supportive of utilizing Felson's Routine Activities Theory to understand and explain victimization among the older homeless population. PMID:16447853

  13. Precursors of Young Women's Family Formation Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Amato, Paul R.; Landale, Nancy S.; Havasevich, Tara C.; Booth, Alan; Eggebeen, David J.; Schoen, Robert; McHale, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    We used latent class analysis to create family formation pathways for women between the ages of 18 and 23. Input variables included cohabitation, marriage, parenthood, full-time employment, and attending school. Data (n = 2,290) came from Waves I and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The analysis revealed seven latent pathways: college-no family formation (29%), high school-no family formation (19%), cohabitation without children (15%), married mothers (14%), single mothers (10%), cohabiting mothers (8%), and inactive (6%). Three sets of variables distinguished between the groups: personal and social resources in adolescence, family socioeconomic resources and adolescent academic achievement, and conservative values and behavior in adolescence. PMID:22719134

  14. Visual detection of body weight change in young women.

    PubMed

    Alley, T R

    1991-12-01

    To assess whether small changes in body weight can be visually detected, college students (58 women and 42 men) were asked to select the less heavy person shown in two photographs for each of 33 young women. All of these women had been photographed twice in a standardized pose and attire, separated by an 8-wk. interval during which most of them lost weight. These pairs were presented in varying orders to control for the order and side of presentation. One photograph was reliably selected as the lighter person for 64% of the pairs, but the picture selected was in fact lighter only 57% of the time. The accuracy of selecting the lighter photograph was not correlated with the percent weight change for the person shown in the pairs of photographs. The results suggest that small changes in women's weight may not have a significant perceptual effect, particularly for male perceivers.

  15. Young women selling sex online - narratives on regulating feelings.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Linda S; Svedin, Carl Göran; Hydén, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    The current study concerns young women's life stories of their experiences selling sex online before the age of 18. The aim was to gain an understanding of young women's perceptions of the reasons they started, continued, and stopped selling sex. The study included interviews with 15 young women between the ages of 15 and 25 (M=18.9). Thematic analysis was used to identify similarities and differences in the narratives. Three themes and eight sub-themes were identified in relation to different stages in their lives in the sex trade. The themes were organized into three parts, each with its own storyline: "Entering - adverse life experiences"; traumatic events: feeling different and being excluded. "Immersion - using the body as a tool for regulating feelings"; being seen: being touched: being in control: affect regulation and self-harming. "Exiting - change or die"; living close to death: the process of quitting. The informants all had stable social lives in the sense that they had roofs over their heads, food to eat, and no substance-abuse issues. None had a third party who arranged the sexual contacts and none were currently trafficked. They described how their experiences of traumatic events and of feeling different and excluded had led them into the sex trade. Selling sex functioned as a way to be seen, to handle traumatic events, and to regulate feelings. Professionals working with young people who sell sex online need to understand the complex web of mixed feelings and emotional needs that can play a role in selling sex. Young people selling sex might need guidance in relationship building as well as help processing traumatic experiences and ending self-harming behavior. Further studies are needed on the functions of online sex selling and on the exit process for young people, in order to prevent entrance and facilitate exiting.

  16. Young women selling sex online - narratives on regulating feelings.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Linda S; Svedin, Carl Göran; Hydén, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    The current study concerns young women's life stories of their experiences selling sex online before the age of 18. The aim was to gain an understanding of young women's perceptions of the reasons they started, continued, and stopped selling sex. The study included interviews with 15 young women between the ages of 15 and 25 (M=18.9). Thematic analysis was used to identify similarities and differences in the narratives. Three themes and eight sub-themes were identified in relation to different stages in their lives in the sex trade. The themes were organized into three parts, each with its own storyline: "Entering - adverse life experiences"; traumatic events: feeling different and being excluded. "Immersion - using the body as a tool for regulating feelings"; being seen: being touched: being in control: affect regulation and self-harming. "Exiting - change or die"; living close to death: the process of quitting. The informants all had stable social lives in the sense that they had roofs over their heads, food to eat, and no substance-abuse issues. None had a third party who arranged the sexual contacts and none were currently trafficked. They described how their experiences of traumatic events and of feeling different and excluded had led them into the sex trade. Selling sex functioned as a way to be seen, to handle traumatic events, and to regulate feelings. Professionals working with young people who sell sex online need to understand the complex web of mixed feelings and emotional needs that can play a role in selling sex. Young people selling sex might need guidance in relationship building as well as help processing traumatic experiences and ending self-harming behavior. Further studies are needed on the functions of online sex selling and on the exit process for young people, in order to prevent entrance and facilitate exiting. PMID:25733944

  17. Stroke in young women: An interpretative phenomenological analysis.

    PubMed

    Leahy, Dorothy M; Desmond, Deirdre; Coughlan, Tara; O'Neill, Des; Collins, D Rónán

    2016-05-01

    Stroke among adults of working age is increasing. We aimed to explore the experience of stroke among young women in Ireland. In total, 12 women (aged between 18 and 50 years) participated in semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Four super-ordinate themes were identified: stroke as an illness of later life ('obviously it's for older people'), post-stroke selves, a desire for peer support and the impact of stroke on relationships. Findings indicate the importance of addressing the specific needs of younger stroke patients from admission to recovery through provision of inclusive all-age acute stroke services with tailored rehabilitation.

  18. [New strategies for fertility preservation in young women with cancer].

    PubMed

    Moffat, Rebecca; De Geyter, Christian; von Wolff, Michael

    2009-12-01

    Especially young women with cancer face rising survival rates due to remarkable progress in oncologic therapies. Preserving fertility is a major concern for both patients and their next of kin. Well established reproductive technologies such as cryopreservation of fertilized oocytes after in vitro fertilization already make fertility preservation possible for some patients. This review is dedicated to the emerging techniques that are becoming widely accepted for fertility preservation in young women and girls with cancer, such as auto transplantation of ovarian tissue cryopreservation and in vitro maturation (IVM) of either oocytes or follicles. First results are encouraging. But some challenges still have to be tackled in order for these novel technologies to be routinely employed with the aim of successful fertility preservation.

  19. Hyperandrogenemia, psychological distress, and food cravings in young women.

    PubMed

    Lim, Siew S; Norman, Robert J; Clifton, Peter M; Noakes, Manny

    2009-09-01

    Reproductive disorders and psychological distress are common co-morbidities of obesity in young women. Psychological and reproductive disturbances may also be associated with increased food cravings but the relationships between these factors have not been explored. This study aimed to explore the pattern of food cravings and to determine the relationship between psychological distress, reproductive health and food cravings in overweight and obese young women using baseline data in a weight loss trial. A total of 198 young women were included in this analysis (BMI 33.3+/-0.3 kg/m(2), age 28+/-0.3 years). The most frequently craved food item was chocolate (3.9+/-0.08 i.e., sometimes-often). The most frequently craved food categories were fast foods (2.6+/-0.07) and sweets (2.5+/-0.05). Psychological distress was significantly correlated with food cravings (R(2)=0.18, P<0.05). High fat (r=0.2), sweets (r=0.17) and overall cravings (r=0.20) were significantly correlated with energy intake (P<0.05). Psychological distress did not correlate with energy intake (P>0.05). Participants with menstrual disturbances had greater fast food cravings independent of age, BMI and PCOS status (P<0.05). Participants with hyperandrogenemia had greater high fat food cravings independent of age, BMI and PCOS status (P<0.01). Energy intake did not differ with menstrual disturbances or hyperandrogenemia (P>0.05). These results suggest that psychological distress, hyperandrogenemia and menstrual disturbances are associated with greater food cravings. Further investigations are required to elucidate the relationship between hyperandrogenemia and food cravings in young women.

  20. Adverse Trends in Ischemic Heart Disease Mortality among Young New Yorkers, Particularly Young Black Women

    PubMed Central

    Smilowitz, Nathaniel R.; Maduro, Gil A.; Lobach, Iryna V.; Chen, Yu; Reynolds, Harmony R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality has been on the decline in the United States for decades. However, declines in IHD mortality have been slower in certain groups, including young women and black individuals. Hypothesis Trends in IHD vary by age, sex, and race in New York City (NYC). Young female minorities are a vulnerable group that may warrant renewed efforts to reduce IHD. Methods IHD mortality trends were assessed in NYC 1980–2008. NYC Vital Statistics data were obtained for analysis. Age-specific IHD mortality rates and confidence bounds were estimated. Trends in IHD mortality were compared by age and race/ethnicity using linear regression of log-transformed mortality rates. Rates and trends in IHD mortality rates were compared between subgroups defined by age, sex and race/ethnicity. Results The decline in IHD mortality rates slowed in 1999 among individuals aged 35–54 years but not ≥55. IHD mortality rates were higher among young men than women age 35–54, but annual declines in IHD mortality were slower for women. Black women age 35–54 had higher IHD mortality rates and slower declines in IHD mortality than women of other race/ethnicity groups. IHD mortality trends were similar in black and white men age 35–54. Conclusions The decline in IHD mortality rates has slowed in recent years among younger, but not older, individuals in NYC. There was an association between sex and race/ethnicity on IHD mortality rates and trends. Young black women may benefit from targeted medical and public health interventions to reduce IHD mortality. PMID:26882207

  1. Why Some Women Look Young for Their Age

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, David A.; Rexbye, Helle; Griffiths, Christopher E. M.; Murray, Peter G.; Fereday, Amelia; Catt, Sharon D.; Tomlin, Cyrena C.; Strongitharm, Barbara H.; Perrett, Dave I.; Catt, Michael; Mayes, Andrew E.; Messenger, Andrew G.; Green, Martin R.; van der Ouderaa, Frans; Vaupel, James W.; Christensen, Kaare

    2009-01-01

    The desire of many to look young for their age has led to the establishment of a large cosmetics industry. However, the features of appearance that primarily determine how old women look for their age and whether genetic or environmental factors predominately influence such features are largely unknown. We studied the facial appearance of 102 pairs of female Danish twins aged 59 to 81 as well as 162 British females aged 45 to 75. Skin wrinkling, hair graying and lip height were significantly and independently associated with how old the women looked for their age. The appearance of facial sun-damage was also found to be significantly correlated to how old women look for their age and was primarily due to its commonality with the appearance of skin wrinkles. There was also considerable variation in the perceived age data that was unaccounted for. Composite facial images created from women who looked young or old for their age indicated that the structure of subcutaneous tissue was partly responsible. Heritability analyses of the appearance features revealed that perceived age, pigmented age spots, skin wrinkles and the appearance of sun-damage were influenced more or less equally by genetic and environmental factors. Hair graying, recession of hair from the forehead and lip height were influenced mainly by genetic factors whereas environmental factors influenced hair thinning. These findings indicate that women who look young for their age have large lips, avoid sun-exposure and possess genetic factors that protect against the development of gray hair and skin wrinkles. The findings also demonstrate that perceived age is a better biomarker of skin, hair and facial aging than chronological age. PMID:19956599

  2. Women Too in Science and Technology in Africa: A Resource Book for Counselling Girls and Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Jan; Apea, Emmanuel

    This resource book profiles over 40 African female scientists and technologists. The women are presented as role models for young women to help challenge the gender biases that prevent girls and women from entering scientific fields. The profiles of the women employed in scientific and technological fields include photographs and excerpts from…

  3. Maintaining Fertility in Young Women with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hulvat, Melissa C.; Jeruss, Jacqueline S.

    2010-01-01

    Opinion statement Breast cancer effects nearly 200,000 American women each year, with 9% of these women still in their childbearing years. For this subset of future survivors, the issue of fertility may be a significant quality-of-life concern. Both the causes and treatments for infertility in young breast cancer patients must be thoroughly understood by the multidisciplinary team caring for these women in order for the caregivers to be effective advocates for their patients. Radiation, cytotoxic chemotherapy, and hormonal therapy all effect ovarian function to greater or lesser degrees, with the incidence of permanent post-treatment amenorrhea following systemic treatment for breast cancer in women age 50 or younger estimated as between 33% and 76%. The science of fertility preservation continues to experience significant advances in terms of the success of oocyte, embryo, and ovarian tissue preservation, and it is crucial that physicians and patients are aware of the available fertility preservation options. The optimal time to address the possibility of treatment-related infertility and strategies to combat this with younger patients is prior to treatment, rather than after cancer therapy has begun, and a full knowledge of the available technologies is a prerequisite for an informed discussion. Causes of ovarian suppression and options for treatment, including consideration of preimplantation genetic diagnosis and alternative parenting approaches are also discussed to assist the clinician caring for young patients with cancer. PMID:20238254

  4. Young women's perspectives on cervical cancer prevention in Appalachian Kentucky.

    PubMed

    Head, Katharine J; Cohen, Elisia L

    2012-04-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coupled with routine Papanicolaou (Pap) tests can prevent pervasive HPV infections causing cervical cancer. However, both HPV vaccination rates and Pap testing rates in Appalachian Kentucky are lower among all age groups than the rest of the United States. We recruited 19 young women residing in Appalachian Kentucky from university-based and rural clinical settings for group and individual interviews. After considering an integrated behavioral framework, we illustrate these women's perspectives by detailing five themes, including (a) experiential beliefs pose barriers to performing behaviors, (b) three vaccine doses complicate vaccination intention, (c) women have misunderstandings about HPV and the HPV vaccination function, (d) normative influences cue action (and inaction), and (e) specific environmental and contextual barriers exist to performing cervical cancer prevention behaviors in Appalachian Kentucky. These findings related to cervical cancer prevention in Appalachian Kentucky have implications for health-message design and clinical practice.

  5. Nutritional characteristics, eating pathology, and hormonal status in young women.

    PubMed

    Rock, C L; Gorenflo, D W; Drewnowski, A; Demitrack, M A

    1996-10-01

    Ovulatory dysfunction is common in patients with eating disorders. However, many women engage in pathologic dieting behaviors without meeting the current diagnostic criteria for anorexia or bulimia nervosa. Clinical eating disorders are only the most extreme form of pathologic eating attitudes and behaviors that are present in many young women. Specific food choices and nutrient intakes may be associated with altered gonadal hormone status of these dieters. This cross-sectional study was conducted to describe the nutritional characteristics of college-aged women defined by their eating attitudes and behaviors with a previously described questionnaire. We evaluated dietary intake, body composition, and selected biochemical indicators in 76 undergraduate women. Serum concentrations of estradiol, progesterone, lipids, and carotenoids were measured on days 6, 21, and 28 of one menstrual cycle. Dietary assessment was based on food records at two 3-d intervals during the cycle. Ovulatory status was definitively determined on the basis of biochemical data for 46 of the women. Increased degree of pathologic dieting was associated with a significantly lower intake of dietary fat (P < 0.02), despite similar mean body mass index and body composition across the eating pathology groups. Serum concentration of alpha-carotene was significantly greater (P < 0.005) in association with a greater degree of eating pathology. With ovulation as a between-group factor, serum lutein concentration and dietary intake of energy and fat differed significantly between groups (P < 0.003). Nutritional characteristics associated with pathologic dieting behavior may also be associated with menstrual irregularities in young women.

  6. Substance use as a mediator of the relationship between life stress and sexual risk among young transgender women.

    PubMed

    Hotton, Anna L; Garofalo, Robert; Kuhns, Lisa M; Johnson, Amy K

    2013-02-01

    This study examined whether life stress was associated with elevated sexual risk among young transgender women and whether this relationship was mediated by alcohol and substance use. The analysis was based on data collected from 116 transgender women aged 16 to 25 as part of a baseline assessment for an HIV prevention intervention. The median age was 20; the majority identified as African American (48%) or Hispanic (32%). Controlling for age, high life stress was associated with an increased odds of sexual risk (OR = 2.39; 95% CI 1.12-5.12). This association was attenuated when substance and alcohol use were added to the model (OR = 1.82; 0.80-4.13). A formal test of the mediation hypothesis indicated a statistically significant indirect effect (β = 0.08; 95% CI 0.02-0.20). Interventions aimed at reducing sexual risk behavior should address problems with substance use as well as more distal factors that impact risk, such homelessness, joblessness, and lack of access to medical care.

  7. Substance use as a mediator of the relationship between life stress and sexual risk among young transgender women.

    PubMed

    Hotton, Anna L; Garofalo, Robert; Kuhns, Lisa M; Johnson, Amy K

    2013-02-01

    This study examined whether life stress was associated with elevated sexual risk among young transgender women and whether this relationship was mediated by alcohol and substance use. The analysis was based on data collected from 116 transgender women aged 16 to 25 as part of a baseline assessment for an HIV prevention intervention. The median age was 20; the majority identified as African American (48%) or Hispanic (32%). Controlling for age, high life stress was associated with an increased odds of sexual risk (OR = 2.39; 95% CI 1.12-5.12). This association was attenuated when substance and alcohol use were added to the model (OR = 1.82; 0.80-4.13). A formal test of the mediation hypothesis indicated a statistically significant indirect effect (β = 0.08; 95% CI 0.02-0.20). Interventions aimed at reducing sexual risk behavior should address problems with substance use as well as more distal factors that impact risk, such homelessness, joblessness, and lack of access to medical care. PMID:23387952

  8. Complicating the "Public": Enabling Young Women's Participation in Public Engagement Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levac, Leah R. E.

    2013-01-01

    Despite growing attention to both public engagement in policy development, and youth civic engagement, the engagement of young women and young mothers receives little attention. This article proposes guidelines for engaging with young women in provincial public policy development via their participation in public engagement initiatives. Developed…

  9. Young Women in a Male Periphery: Experiences from the Scandinavian North.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlstrom, Margareta

    1996-01-01

    Suggests that young women migrate from rural to urban areas in northern Scandinavia because the rural "periphery" is dominated by male economic and leisure activities. A study in northern Norway indicates that more young women than young men valued higher education and highly qualified careers, both of which were more attainable in urban than in…

  10. The Formative Years: Pathways to Substance Abuse among Girls and Young Women Ages 8-22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    This report presents a comprehensive analysis of the reasons why girls and young women smoke, drink and use drugs, and what increases or lowers their risk of substance abuse. It demonstrates that certain key risk factors for substance abuse are unique to girls and young women and pose a greater threat to them than to boys and young men. This…

  11. Young Women's Positive and Negative Perceptions of Self in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAlister, Siobhan; Neill, Gail

    2007-01-01

    This paper represents analysis of one aspect of a larger research project examining the everyday lives and experiences of young women in Northern Ireland. As an introductory exercise within focus groups, 48 young women considered and discussed the good and not so good things about being a young woman in Northern Ireland. Through these accounts…

  12. 76 FR 9577 - Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women: Notice of Charter Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young.... 92-463) of October 6, 1972, that the Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women, National... Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and...

  13. Young women's experiences of intrusive behavior in 12 countries.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Lorraine; Scott, Adrian J; Roberts, Karl

    2016-01-01

    The present study provides international comparisons of young women's (N = 1,734) self-reported experiences of intrusive activities enacted by men. Undergraduate psychology students from 12 countries (Armenia, Australia, England, Egypt, Finland, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Portugal, Scotland, and Trinidad) indicated which of 47 intrusive activities they had personally experienced. Intrusive behavior was not uncommon overall, although large differences were apparent between countries when women's personal experiences of specific intrusive activities were compared. Correlations were carried out between self-reported intrusive experiences, the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM), and Hofstede's dimensions of national cultures. The primary associations were between women's experiences of intrusive behavior and the level of power they are afforded within the 12 countries. Women from countries with higher GEM scores reported experiencing more intrusive activities relating to courtship and requests for sex, while the experiences of women from countries with lower GEM scores related more to monitoring and ownership. Intrusive activities, many of them constituent of harassment and stalking, would appear to be widespread and universal, and their incidence and particular form reflect national level gender inequalities. PMID:26299620

  14. Mating strategies of young women: role of physical attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Singh, Devendra

    2004-02-01

    The female physical attractiveness stereotype has been reported to contain both desirable (sociable, poised, interesting) and undesirable (snobbish, likely to request divorce and have extra-marital affairs) personal qualities. To investigate whether such an attractiveness stereotype is cross-cultural, I asked men and women from Azore Island, Guinea-Bissau, Indonesia, and the U.S. to judge the attractiveness of female figures differing in body weight and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and to rank these figures according to perceived personal attributes. There was a strong cross-cultural consensus for attractiveness; figures with low WHR were judged to be more attractive than figures with high WHR within each weight category. Participants also judged attractive figures as less faithful than less-attractive figures. To explore the basis of a possible 'darker side ' of the attractiveness stereotype, behavior tactics of young U.S. women were examined. Compared to women with high WHRs, low-WHR women reported engaging in more flirting to make dates jealous, suggesting some truth to the attractiveness stereotype. Taken together, these findings suggest that female attractiveness influences the type of mating strategies employed by women.

  15. Contraceptive strategies for young women in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Ruusuvaara, L; Johansson, E D

    1999-12-01

    Safe, effective and affordable contraceptives have been available for a few decades, yet, in many countries, the struggle for reproductive rights continues. Children, still, are forced to give birth to children in many nations. In most industrialized countries, where contraceptive counselling and abortions have been options, fertility rates have reached all time lows. Effective contraception improves health and well-being as well and may be used for conditions other than birth control. Young girls often initially take oral contraceptives primarily to reduce menstrual pain and blood loss; they also welcome a contraceptive that eliminates menstrual bleeding. Women using oral contraceptives and Norplant experience about 50% reduction in menstrual blood; 90% reduction in blood loss is achieved with the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (Mirena). Teenagers and their parents are often misinformed about the side-effects of oral contraceptives and birth control in general, which may adversely affect compliance. Adequate, user-friendly and supportive information about contraception is necessary to ensure proper use of the pill and other birth control methods. In addition, emergency contraceptives should be easily accessible. The mortality and morbidity of young women would be dramatically reduced by the global use of medical abortion as well. Only a combined effort by policy makers, educators, parents and health-care providers can enhance the reproductive (and future!) health of both young females and males.

  16. Shifting Motivations: Young Women's Reflections on Physical Activity over Time and across Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dougherty, Maureen; Kurzer, Mindy S.; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

    2010-01-01

    This research analyzes motivations expressed by young, healthy, sedentary women before and after an exercise intervention. Young women (aged 18-30, n = 39) participated in focus groups or interviews during a 4-month exercise intervention. Afterward, 22 of these women and 20 controls completed physical activity diaries for 6 months and were…

  17. Desire as Interruption: Young Women and Sexuality Education in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, Erin

    2005-01-01

    Danger and pleasure are terms commonly employed to describe women's sexual experiences, including those of young women. This paper explores how young women's sexual danger and pleasure are represented and characterized in official discourses, specifically those of school-based sexuality education. Drawing on Michelle Fine's four major discourses…

  18. Homelessness in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumohl, Jim, Ed.

    This book about homelessness in the United States offers 16 chapters in three parts. Part 1, "History Definitions, and Causes," includes: (1) "Redefining the Cursed Word: A Historical Interpretation of American Homelessness" (Kim Hopper and Jim Baumohl); (2) "Homelessness: Definitions and Counts" (Martha R. Burt); (3) "The Causes of Homelessness"…

  19. Homelessness in Public Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Yi Ling

    2009-01-01

    This paper takes a theoretical and practical approach in defining the "problem" of homelessness in libraries. The author examines three fundamental problems on homelessness. The three fundamental questions are: (a) Who are the homeless? (b) Why are they homeless? (c) What are their information needs in libraries? These questions are important in…

  20. [Determinants for diagnosis of young women with and without chilliness].

    PubMed

    Yamada, Noriko; Bekku, Naoko; Yoshimura, Hiroyuki

    2007-11-01

    Chilliness in women is a symptom of menopause, but there is increasing evidence that young women also suffer from chilliness, which can lead to mental problems such as insomnia and mood disorders. We elucidated methodological issues related to recognizing young women suffering from chilliness. Ninety-seven female university students were divided into two groups by their self-awareness of chilliness. Using a new questionnaire, we evaluated the severity of their physical, mental and chilliness-related complaints. We also measured several physical parameters (BMI, body fat ratio, basal metabolism, blood pressure). The peripheral circulation dynamics were measured using a laser tissue blood flowmeter, while recovery of the skin surface temperature after mild cold-water immersion was determined using thermography. There were significant differences in the severity of the chilliness-related complaints, peripheral circulation dynamics, skin surface temperature, and the rate of skin surface temperature recovery between the control and chilliness groups. Using these items, discriminant analysis using the Mahalanobis generalized distance revealed that the discrimination hit ratio was approximately 84.5%, while the misclassification ratio was approximately 16.3%. We suggest that both the rate of skin surface temperature recovery after mild cold stress and the severity of chilliness-related complaints are essential items for discriminating between participants with and without chilliness.

  1. Young women selling sex online – narratives on regulating feelings

    PubMed Central

    Jonsson, Linda S; Svedin, Carl Göran; Hydén, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    The current study concerns young women’s life stories of their experiences selling sex online before the age of 18. The aim was to gain an understanding of young women’s perceptions of the reasons they started, continued, and stopped selling sex. The study included interviews with 15 young women between the ages of 15 and 25 (M=18.9). Thematic analysis was used to identify similarities and differences in the narratives. Three themes and eight sub-themes were identified in relation to different stages in their lives in the sex trade. The themes were organized into three parts, each with its own storyline: “Entering – adverse life experiences”; traumatic events: feeling different and being excluded. “Immersion – using the body as a tool for regulating feelings”; being seen: being touched: being in control: affect regulation and self-harming. “Exiting – change or die”; living close to death: the process of quitting. The informants all had stable social lives in the sense that they had roofs over their heads, food to eat, and no substance-abuse issues. None had a third party who arranged the sexual contacts and none were currently trafficked. They described how their experiences of traumatic events and of feeling different and excluded had led them into the sex trade. Selling sex functioned as a way to be seen, to handle traumatic events, and to regulate feelings. Professionals working with young people who sell sex online need to understand the complex web of mixed feelings and emotional needs that can play a role in selling sex. Young people selling sex might need guidance in relationship building as well as help processing traumatic experiences and ending self-harming behavior. Further studies are needed on the functions of online sex selling and on the exit process for young people, in order to prevent entrance and facilitate exiting. PMID:25733944

  2. Breast cancer in young women: special considerations in multidisciplinary care

    PubMed Central

    Reyna, Chantal; Lee, Marie Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in females, and 5%–7% of breast cancer cases occur in women under 40 years of age. Breast cancer in the young has gained increased attention with an attempt to improve diagnosis and prognosis. Young patients tend to have different epidemiology, presenting with later stages and more aggressive phenotypes. Diagnostic imaging is also more difficult in this age group. Multidisciplinary care generally encompasses surgeons, medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, radiologists, and social workers. Other special considerations include reconstruction options, fertility, genetics, and psychosocial issues. These concerns enlarge the already diverse multidisciplinary team to incorporate new expertise, such as reproductive specialists and genetic counselors. This review encompasses an overview of the current multimodal treatment regimens and the unique challenges in treating this special population. Integration of diagnosis, treatment, and quality of life issues should be addressed and understood by each member in the interdisciplinary team in order to optimize outcomes. PMID:25300196

  3. Modifiable determinants of bone status in young women.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, T; Beck, T J; Lin, H-M; Tulchinsky, M; Eggli, D F; Oreskovic, T L; Cavanagh, P R; Seeman, E

    2002-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the contributions of exercise, fitness, body composition, and calcium intake during adolescence to peak bone mineral density and bone structural measurements in young women. University Hospital and 75 healthy, white females in the longitudinal Penn State Young Women's Health Study were included. Body composition, total body, and hip bone mineral density (BMD) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), exercise scores by sports-exercise questionnaire during ages 12-18 years, and estimated aerobic capacity by bike ergometry. Section modulus values (a measurement of bending strength) cross-sectional area (CSA), subperiosteal width, and cortical thickness were calculated from DXA scan data for the femoral neck and femoral shaft. Calcium intakes were calculated from 39 days of prospective food records collected at 13 timepoints between ages 12 and 20 years; supplemental calcium intakes were included. Section moduli at the femoral neck and shaft were correlated significantly with lean body mass, sports-exercise scores (R(2) = 0.07-0.19, p < 0.05), and aerobic capacity (R(2) = 0.06-0.57, p < 0.05). Sports-exercise scores correlated with BMD at the femoral neck and shaft. Average total daily calcium intake at age 12-20 years ranged from 486 to 1958 mg/day and was not significantly associated with total or regional peak BMD or bone structure measures at 20 years of age. It was shown that achievable levels of exercise and fitness have a favorable effect on BMD and section modulus of the femoral neck and femoral shaft in young adult women, whereas daily calcium intake of >500 mg in female adolescents appears to have little, if any effect.

  4. Cost-effectiveness of Chlamydia Vaccination Programs for Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Chesson, Harrell W.; Gift, Thomas L.; Brunham, Robert C.; Bolan, Gail

    2015-01-01

    We explored potential cost-effectiveness of a chlamydia vaccine for young women in the United States by using a compartmental heterosexual transmission model. We tracked health outcomes (acute infections and sequelae measured in quality-adjusted life-years [QALYs]) and determined incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) over a 50-year analytic horizon. We assessed vaccination of 14-year-old girls and catch-up vaccination for 15–24-year-old women in the context of an existing chlamydia screening program and assumed 2 prevaccination prevalences of 3.2% by main analysis and 3.7% by additional analysis. Estimated ICERs of vaccinating 14-year-old girls were $35,300/QALY by main analysis and $16,200/QALY by additional analysis compared with only screening. Catch-up vaccination for 15–24-year-old women resulted in estimated ICERs of $53,200/QALY by main analysis and $26,300/QALY by additional analysis. The ICER was most sensitive to prevaccination prevalence for women, followed by cost of vaccination, duration of vaccine-conferred immunity, and vaccine efficacy. Our results suggest that a successful chlamydia vaccine could be cost-effective. PMID:25989525

  5. Discrimination and Exiting Homelessness among Homeless Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Milburn, Norweeta G.; Ayala, George; Rice, Eric; Batterham, Philip; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines how newly homeless adolescents’ discrimination experiences were associated with exiting homelessness after six months. A sample of 262 homeless adolescents, aged 12 to 20 years, were recruited and followed longitudinally (six-month retention rate = 88%). Discrimination was related to being gay, lesbian, or bisexual (LGB). Discrimination from family was related to exiting homelessness. Other than those who were LGB, adolescents who reported discrimination from their families were more likely to exit homelessness than adolescents who did not report such discrimination. Suggestions for future research include focusing on the experiences of LGB homeless adolescents, the role of families in the lives of homeless adolescents, and other aspects of discrimination, including salience, frequency, intensity, and duration. PMID:17087527

  6. Young Women's Conference in STEM: Our starting point for getting women into STEM fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Deedee; Zwicker, Andrew; Greco, Shannon; Dominguez, Arturo

    2015-11-01

    The number of women in STEM careers is staggeringly low; just one in seven engineers are female and only 27% of all computer science jobs are held by women. A recent US Dept. of Commerce report found that between 2000-2011 women experienced no employment growth in STEM jobs. According to the AIP, the percentage of women in physics overall is 26% and women make up less than 7% of the fusion energy workforce. To address this problem we have, since 2001, run a conference to introduce young women to the wide range of careers in STEM fields in a way that is not part of their typical education. By introducing students in a meaningful way to successful women in STEM, from graduate students to senior researchers, the intent of the conference is to foster interest, develop mentoring relationships, and to provide role models that will have a positive influence on future educational and career choices. Data from surveys indicate that this is indeed the impact. For example, 86% of 2015 attendees indicated they are more likely to major in a scientific field after attending the conference then they were before. We are now in the process of expanding and improving the conference in order to reach more students and increase the overall impact.

  7. Sexual Health Knowledge and Needs: Young Muslim Women in Melbourne, Australia.

    PubMed

    Meldrum, Rebecca M; Liamputtong, Pranee; Wollersheim, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the sexual health knowledge and needs among young Muslim women living in Melbourne, Australia. Eleven young Muslim women were individually interviewed about issues relating to sexual health knowledge and needs, access to sexual health services, and their experiences of balancing their lives in relation to sexual health. Findings revealed a marked influence of religion and culture on sexual health of young Muslim women. They often faced challenges balancing Muslim culture, Australian culture, and Islamic religion. Our findings have implications for health services in a multicultural society. They could be used to promote culturally sensitive sexual health services for young Muslim women in Australia and elsewhere.

  8. Sexual Health Knowledge and Needs: Young Muslim Women in Melbourne, Australia.

    PubMed

    Meldrum, Rebecca M; Liamputtong, Pranee; Wollersheim, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the sexual health knowledge and needs among young Muslim women living in Melbourne, Australia. Eleven young Muslim women were individually interviewed about issues relating to sexual health knowledge and needs, access to sexual health services, and their experiences of balancing their lives in relation to sexual health. Findings revealed a marked influence of religion and culture on sexual health of young Muslim women. They often faced challenges balancing Muslim culture, Australian culture, and Islamic religion. Our findings have implications for health services in a multicultural society. They could be used to promote culturally sensitive sexual health services for young Muslim women in Australia and elsewhere. PMID:26536914

  9. Using Evidence-Based Programs to Support Children and Families Experiencing Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siebel, Nancy L.; Bassuk, Ellen; Medeiros, Debra

    2012-01-01

    This article was originally published (November 2011) as a brief created on behalf of the Strengthening At Risk and Homeless Young Mothers and Children Coordinating Center, which is a partnership of The National Center on Family Homelessness, National Alliance to End Family Homelessness, and ZERO TO THREE. The article offers a definition of…

  10. Unbearable weight: young adult women's experiences of being overweight.

    PubMed

    Yu-Jen, Chang; Yiing-Mei, Liou; Shuh-Jen, Sheu; Mei-Yen, Chen

    2004-06-01

    Being overweight is a hazard to health. Overweight people have a very negative image due to the marketing strategies for weight reduction and beauty products. Young women establishing self-image, seeking affirmation of social peers, and looking for potential mates are usually concerned about their weight and figure. To investigate the experience of young women who think they are overweight, how they come to think in this way, and the impact of this thinking, this qualitative pilot study conducted semi-structured interviews with five participants. On the basis of the qualitative method, data was subjected to constant comparison and content analysis. The phenomenon can thus be described in three major categories: (1) Social labeling of the overweight - a slim image is overwhelmingly preferred; (2) Pursuing attractiveness or health - a self-struggling process; (3) Weight reduction and self control - an endless struggle. The result of the study suggests there is a need for a competitive image to counter current obsessions with painfully slender figures in society. To protect the public's mental and physical health, nurses should play an active role in weight education based on a deeper and more dynamic understanding of being overweight. PMID:15208779

  11. Smoking among young urban Malaysian women and its risk factors.

    PubMed

    Manaf, Rosliza A; Shamsuddin, Khadijah

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to measure the prevalence of cigarette smoking and to determine the individual, family, and environmental factors associated with smoking among young urban women. A cross-sectional study through self-administered questionnaire was conducted on female students enrolled in private higher learning institutions in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor, Malaysia, between July and October 2005. Analysis on 408 respondents showed that current smoker prevalence rate was 18.6%. Adjusted analyses showed significant association between smoking and individual factors, which are the importance of slim image, average monthly allowance, and car ownership. For family factors, analyses showed significant association between smoking and parental marital status and smoking status of male siblings. Strong associations were seen between female smoking and environmental factors, such as having more smoker friends, having smokers as best friends, keeping cigarette-brand items, being offered free cigarette, and perceiving female smoking as normal. The identified risk factors could be used to develop more effective prevention programs to overcome smoking among young urban women. PMID:19124314

  12. Keloids and Ultrasound Detected Fibroids in Young African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Harmon, Quaker E.; Laughlin, Shannon K.; Baird, Donna D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Keloids and fibroids share a number of biologic and demographic similarities however there are no published reports of the association between them. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between self-reported keloids and ultrasound detected fibroids in a population of young African American women. Study Design The Study of Environment, Life-style & Fibroids (SELF), is a volunteer cohort of over 1600 African American women aged 23-34 years recruited in Detroit, Michigan. Enrollment occurred between December 2010 and December 2012. Data are available for the first 1196 participants. Participants self-reported a history of raised (hypertrophic) scars or scars extending beyond the limits of the original injury (keloid) and had an enrollment pelvic ultrasound examination to detect prevalent fibroids. Log linear regression was used to model the association between abnormal scars and prevalent fibroids controlling for possible covariates. Among women with fibroids, associations between particular fibroid characteristics (tumor location, size or number) and scarring were assessed using chi-square and Mann Whitney U-tests. Results Both abnormal scarring (keloids, 9.0%; hypertrophic scars, 28.3%) and fibroids (23.3%) were common in this cohort. There was no indication [adjusted Risk Ratio (95% Confidence Interval): 0.7 (0.5-1.1)] of an association between self-reported keloids and prevalent fibroids. Nor was there any association with hypertrophic scars. Specific characteristics of the prevalent fibroids were not associated with abnormal scarring. Conclusion Despite similarly dysregulated extracellular matrices in keloids and fibroids, these conditions did not tend to co-occur in this young African American population. PMID:24386410

  13. Circadian rhythm of breath hydrogen in young women.

    PubMed

    Kagaya, M; Iwata, M; Toda, Y; Nakae, Y; Kondo, T

    1998-08-01

    Breath hydrogen levels, which reflect colonic fermentation of undigested starches, are usually low in the fasted state. Fasting levels of breath hydrogen are important for estimation of oro-cecal transit time and diagnosis of lactase deficiency. In young women, however, fasting levels of breath hydrogen are high. To clarify the reason for this, we studied the circadian pattern of breath hydrogen and the effect of alpha-D-galactosidase on fasting breath hydrogen in one study, and the effect of sleep deprivation on fasting breath hydrogen in another study, in 13 women students aged 21-23 years. In the first study, two breath samples were collected, one in the evening and the other the next morning. On another occasion, alpha-D-galactosidase was given before dinner and breath samples were collected the next morning. In the second study, the circadian rhythm of breath hydrogen was assessed for 3 days and the subjects were deprived of sleep on the second night. Breath samples were collected every 30 min, except during the second night when samples were collected at 1-h intervals. Fasting breath hydrogen was 24 +/- 3.9 ppm (mean +/- SE), which did not differ from the value for the previous night. Alpha-D-galactosidase significantly decreased fasting breath hydrogen levels, to 17 +/- 2.4 ppm (P < 0.05). There was a clear circadian pattern of breath hydrogen, high in the morning and decreasing to the nadir by 16:00. After dinner, the level increased again and stayed high during the night. Sleep deprivation did not affect fasting levels of breath hydrogen. High fasting breath hydrogen levels in young women followed a circadian pattern and this may have been due, in part, to an high intake of dietary fiber on the previous day. PMID:9719227

  14. Digital Mammography in Young Women: Is a Single View Sufficient?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Single view mammography may be a less time consuming, more comfortable and radiation reduced alternative for young women, but there are no studies examining this approach after the implementation of digital mammography into clinical practice. Materials and Methods Retrospective analysis of all mammographies performed in women younger than 40 years during a 24 month period. The sample consisted of 109 women with 212 examined breasts. All patients initially received standard two- view mammography. In the study setting the MLO- views were read by a single viewer and compared to a composite reference standard. Results In this sample 7 malignant findings were present and the review of the MLO-view detected 6 of them (85%). In patients with dense breasts 4 out of 5 malignant findings were found on the single-view (sensitivity 80%) and all 2 malignant findings were detected in patients with low breast density (sensitivity 100%). There were 7 false positive findings (3.3%). i.e. in total 8 out of 212 examined breasts were therefore misinterpreted (3.8%). Conclusion Single view digital mammography detects the vast majority of malignant findings, especially in low density breast tissue and the rate of false-positive findings is within acceptable limits. Therefore this approach may be used in different scenarios (for example in increasing patient throughput, in resource poor settings, reducing radiation burden in the young or in combination with ultrasound to use the strengths of both methods). More research on this topic is needed to establish its potential role in breast imaging. PMID:27134963

  15. Dating Violence among High-Risk Young Women: A Systematic Review Using Quantitative and Qualitative Methods

    PubMed Central

    Joly, Lauren E.; Connolly, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Our systematic review identified 21 quantitative articles and eight qualitative articles addressing dating violence among high risk young women. The groups of high-risk young women in this review include street-involved, justice-involved, pregnant or parenting, involved with Child Protective Services, and youth diagnosed with a mental health issue. Our meta-analysis of the quantitative articles indicated that 34% (CI = 0.24–0.45) of high-risk young women report that they have been victims of physical dating violence and 45% (CI = 0.31–0.61) of these young women report perpetrating physical dating violence. Significant moderator variables included questionnaire and timeframe. Meta-synthesis of the qualitative studies revealed that high-risk young women report perpetrating dating violence to gain power and respect, whereas women report becoming victims of dating violence due to increased vulnerability. PMID:26840336

  16. Effects of yoga practice on muscular endurance in young women.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Juliana Costa; Bezerra, Lídia Mara Aguiar

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the effects of a systematized yoga practice on muscular endurance in young women. Twenty six women (24 ± 3.5 years old) participated in six weeks of yoga classes, and twenty one women (25 ± 5.1 years old) participated as the control group. The yoga intervention was composed of eighteen sessions, three times per week, at 1 h per session. The muscular endurance of upper limbs (push-up) and abdominal (sit-up) was assessed through the protocol suggested by Gettman (1989) [1] and Golding, Myers and Sinning (1989) [2] to the maximum repetitions performed in 1 min. To verify the significant differences intra groups and between groups a SPANOVA was performed, and the level of significance was p ≤ 0.05. The findings suggest that yoga provides improvement in upper limb and in abdominal muscular endurance. PMID:26850809

  17. Predicting Overt and Covert Antisocial Behaviors: Parents, Peers, and Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tompsett, Carolyn J.; Toro, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Parental deviance, parental monitoring, and deviant peers were examined as predictors of overt and covert antisocial behaviors. Homeless (N=231) and housed (N=143) adolescents were assessed in adolescence and again in early adulthood. Homelessness predicted both types of antisocial behaviors, and effects persisted in young adulthood. Parental…

  18. Care of the homeless: an overview.

    PubMed

    Maness, David L; Khan, Muneeza

    2014-04-15

    Homelessness affects men, women, and children of all races and ethnicities. On any given night, more than 610,000 persons in the United States are homeless; a little more than one-third of these are families. Homeless persons are more likely to become ill, have greater hospitalization rates, and are more likely to die at a younger age than the general population. The average life span for a homeless person is between 42 and 52 years. Homeless children are much sicker and have more academic and behavioral problems. Insufficient personal income and the lack of affordable housing are the major reasons for homelessness. Complex, advanced medical problems and psychiatric illnesses, exacerbated by drug and alcohol abuse, in combination with the economic and social issues (such as the lack of housing and proper transportation) make this subset of the population a unique challenge for the health care system, local communities, and the government. An integrated, multidisciplinary health care team with an outreach focus, along with involvement of local and state agencies, seems best suited to address the components needed to ensure quality of care, to help make these patients self-sufficient, and to help them succeed. Family physicians are well suited to manage the needs of the homeless patient, provide continuity of care, and lead these multidisciplinary teams. PMID:24784122

  19. Young African women must have empowering and receptive social environments for HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Conn, Cath

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a study which explored the lives of young Ugandan women through their voices, and related the findings to HIV prevention paradigms. The research was conducted in the context of the continuing vulnerability of young Ugandan women to HIV; reflected in disproportionately high prevalence compared to young men. The participants of the study were 15 young women aged 15-19 years, from Busoga Region in Eastern Uganda. Given the focus on young women's voices within norms of gender inequality, a narrative methodology was used as a safe space for participants to speak about their lives, expanding on research experiences with young people. The methods used included drawing; written stories and drama; aspirational writing and diary keeping. Forty-eight narratives, in image and word form, represented everyday experiences in young women's lives, as well as difficult experiences of inequality and resistance. Young women portrayed considerable social barriers to empowerment, and a challenging environment of poverty and educational limitations. Young women's representations were analysed using a gender empowerment and positive sexuality framework. The resulting analysis was then critically applied to HIV prevention paradigms. Evidence from the study showed that prevailing HIV prevention paradigms reinforce the difficulties faced by young women in their sexual lives. This research adds to calls for alternative and wider approaches to HIV prevention, underpinned by gender empowerment. Alternative approaches need to build young African women's voices in the spaces of homes, schools and communities. It is vital, however, that such efforts are embedded in more radical change leading to social environments receptive to the needs of young women.

  20. Activation of Antioxidant Defenses in Whole Saliva by Psychosocial Stress Is More Manifested in Young Women than in Young Men

    PubMed Central

    Tsuber, Viktoriia; Kadamov, Yunus; Tarasenko, Lydia

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial stress has been long known to have deleterious effects on health. Nevertheless, an exposure to moderate stressors enhances resilience and promotes health benefits. Male and female organisms differ in many aspects of health and disease. The aim of this study was to investigate antioxidant activity and oxidative damage in saliva in a psychosocial stress paradigm in men and women. Here, we show that an acute stressor of moderate strength augments antioxidant activity and decreases oxidative damage in whole saliva of young people. An examination stress caused a significant increase of catalase activity, accompanied by a decrease of levels of oxidized proteins. Levels of thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances did not increase at stress, indicating that lipid peroxidation was not activated. The stress-induced alterations were more manifested in young women compared to young men. Thus, antioxidant protective mechanisms are more activated by a moderate stressor in young women than in young men. PMID:25525800

  1. Success in Science among Young African American Women: The Role of Minority Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Sandra L.

    2007-01-01

    A conceptual framework that integrates critical gender theory and a multicultural approach is used to examine young African American women's experiences in high school science. Research reveals considerable success for these young women. The multicultural approach suggests that the unique history and culture of African American families may play a…

  2. Empowered Positions? Listening to Sexually Experienced Young Women Talking about Sex, Disappointments, and Compromise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieg, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to discuss how sex and relationship education (SRE) could benefit from considering current levels of young women's empowerment in (hetero)sexual relationships and challenge popular notions of twenty-first century young women "having it all" and occupying powerful relational and sexual positions.…

  3. Exemplary Counseling Strategies for Developmental Transitions of Young Women with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Susan D. M.; English, William; Schwallie-Giddis, Pat; Jones, Lisa M.

    2007-01-01

    This article is intended to provide rehabilitation, career, and mental health counselors with an understanding of how attentional impairments are manifested in young women and how professional counselors may help them most effectively. Treatment guidelines and recommendations are presented for working with these young women through the…

  4. Relationship between Self-Actualisation and Employment for At-Risk Young Unemployed Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huss, Ephrat; Magos, Michal

    2014-01-01

    This study used drawing and semi-structured interviews to access the visions of self-actualisation of a group of at-risk young women in an employment support group in Israel. The findings point to the synergetic relationship between the self-defined goals of the young women such as inner peace, self-regulation, assertiveness, good relationships…

  5. Uptake of Free HPV Vaccination among Young Women: A Comparison of Rural versus Urban Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Richard A.; Casey, Baretta R.; Vanderpool, Robin; Collins, Tom; Moore, Gregory R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To contrast rates of initial HPV vaccine uptake, offered at no cost, between a rural clinic, a rural community college, and an urban college clinic and to identify rural versus urban differences in uptake of free booster doses. Methods: Young rural women attending rural clinics (n = 246), young women attending a rural community college (n…

  6. Gender, Family Negotiations and Academic Success of Young Moroccan Women in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarrés, Marta Bertran; Ponferrada-Arteaga, Maribel; Rovira, Jordi Pàmies

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the lives of pioneering young women from Morocco, the first to enjoy educational and social success in Catalonia, by analyzing the family negotiations entered into during this process. The study is based on the life stories of these young Moroccan women and on ideas that emerge from discussion groups involving the women…

  7. Kujichagalia! Self-Determination in Young African American Women with Disabilities during the Transition Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, La Tonya L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role that self-determination played in the transition process for young African American women with disabilities who exited high school with a special diploma and participated in a local transition program. Factors under study included the young women's autonomy, self-regulation, psychological…

  8. 76 FR 47590 - Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young..., development, implementation and evaluation of evidence-based activities designed to prevent breast cancer... breast cancer in young women including appropriate venues to educate women at increased risk...

  9. Combination HIV prevention options for young women in Africa.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Cheryl; Abdool Karim, Salim

    2016-07-01

    Although the number of new HIV infections has declined by over 30% in the past decade, the number of people who acquire HIV each year remains unacceptably high. In 2014 the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) estimated that there were about 2 million new HIV infections. The virus continues to spread, particularly in key populations, such as men who have sex with men (MSM), transgender individuals, sex workers and people who inject drugs. In Africa, young women have the highest HIV incidence rates. Scaling up known efficacious HIV prevention strategies for these groups at high risk is therefore a high priority. HIV prevention has generally been targeted at HIV-negative individuals or in some instances, entire communities. Prevention efforts are, however, shifting from a narrow focus on HIV-uninfected persons to a continuum of prevention that includes both HIV-negative and HIV-positive individuals. Given that a single HIV prevention intervention is unlikely to be able to alter the epidemic trajectory as HIV epidemics in communities are complex and comprise a mosaic of different risk factors and different routes of transmission, there is need to provide combination prevention. Hence, a mix of behavioural, biomedical and structural HIV prevention options is likely to be needed to alter the course of the HIV epidemic. The combination of HIV prevention interventions needed will vary depending on cultural context, the population targeted and the stage of the epidemic. This paper reviews the available HIV prevention strategies for young women and discusses new HIV prevention approaches in development. PMID:27399041

  10. Life Shocks and Homelessness

    PubMed Central

    Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    We exploited an exogenous health shock—namely, the birth of a child with a severe health condition—to investigate the effect of a life shock on homelessness in large cities in the United States as well as the interactive effects of the shock with housing market characteristics. We considered a traditional measure of homelessness, two measures of housing instability thought to be precursors to homelessness, and a combined measure that approximates the broadened conceptualization of homelessness under the 2009 Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing Act (2010). We found that the shock substantially increases the likelihood of family homelessness, particularly in cities with high housing costs. The findings are consistent with the economic theory of homelessness, which posits that homelessness results from a conjunction of adverse circumstances in which housing markets and individual characteristics collide. PMID:23868747

  11. Parenting while Being Homeless

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swick, Kevin J.; Williams, Reginald; Fields, Evelyn

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the dynamics of parenting while being in a homeless context. The mosaic of stressors involved in this homeless parenting process are explicated and discussed. In addition, resources and strategies that may support parenting are presented and discussed.

  12. Careers in Drug and Alcohol Research: AN Innovative Program for Young Appalachian Women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noland, Melody Powers; Leukefeld, Carl; Reid, Caroline

    Supported by a grant from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, the University of Kentucky's Center on Drug and Alcohol Research developed the Young Women in Science Program to encourage young women from Appalachia to pursue scientific careers гп drug and alcohol research. This 3-year program, which involved 26 young women entering the ninth grade in 13 counties in southeastern Kentucky, included a summer residential program, community educational sessions, and matching students with mentors. When participants' scores prior to and after the 3-week residential program were compared, it was found that participants increased their science knowledge and improved their scores on confidence in science. Other significant changes occurred as well. These preliminary data indicated that some positive changes resulted from the program, even though contact time with the young women has been modest to date. The program shows considerable promise for providing the encouragement and skills needed for these young women to pursue careers in drug and alcohol research.

  13. Being targeted: Young women's experience of being identified for a teenage pregnancy prevention programme.

    PubMed

    Sorhaindo, Annik; Bonell, Chris; Fletcher, Adam; Jessiman, Patricia; Keogh, Peter; Mitchell, Kirstin

    2016-06-01

    Research on the unintended consequences of targeting 'high-risk' young people for health interventions is limited. Using qualitative data from an evaluation of the Teens & Toddlers Pregnancy Prevention programme, we explored how young women experienced being identified as at risk for teenage pregnancy to understand the processes via which unintended consequences may occur. Schools' lack of transparency regarding the targeting strategy and criteria led to feelings of confusion and mistrust among some young women. Black and minority ethnic young women perceived that the assessment of their risk was based on stereotyping. Others felt their outgoing character was misinterpreted as signifying risk. To manage these imposed labels, stigma and reputational risks, young women responded to being targeted by adopting strategies, such as distancing, silence and refusal. To limit harmful consequences, programmes could involve prospective participants in determining their need for intervention or introduce programmes for young people at all levels of risk. PMID:27088658

  14. Attitudes of young men and women to breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Connolly, C; Kelleher, C C; Becker, G; Friel, S; Gabhainn, S N

    1998-01-01

    The attitudes of young men and women to breastfeeding were examined including perceived incentives and barriers to the practice in cross sectional survey and focus group discussion. The study involoved 177 (100%) fifth and final year students of both sexes and a subsample of 48 students in 6 focus groups in three post primary schools in an Irish midland town. Overall 28% reported that they themselves were breastfed. The most frequent sources of information were the media rather than home or school. A majority of girls (86%) and boys (77%) agreed that breastfeeding was the best method of feeding, but less intended the practice for their children (54%), girls being significantly less likely than boys. There were no patterns in relation to social class and lifestyle. Reasons for breastfeeding in the focus groups included its naturalness, facility of feeding and adequate nourishment. Reasons against related to embarrassment in public, but mainly related to perceived problems with the practicalities of feeding. Health promotion strategies need to reach young people before they initiate pregnancies. Skills based health education courses would be helpful and girls should be aware of the positive attitudes of boys generally.

  15. Autobiographical memory functions in young Japanese men and women.

    PubMed

    Maki, Yoichi; Kawasaki, Yayoi; Demiray, Burcu; Janssen, Steve M J

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined whether the three major functions of autobiographical memory observed in Western societies (i.e., directing-behaviour, social-bonding and self-continuity) also exist in an East Asian society. Two self-report measures were used to assess the autobiographical memory functions of Japanese men and women. Japanese young adults (N = 451, ages 17-28 years) first completed the original Thinking About Life Experiences (TALE) Questionnaire. They subsequently received three TALE items that represented memory functions and attempted to recall a specific instance of memory recall for each item. Confirmatory factor analyses on the TALE showed that the three functions were replicated in the current sample. However, Japanese participants reported lower levels of all three functions than American participants in a previous study. We also explored whether there was an effect of gender in this Japanese sample. Women reported higher levels of the self-continuity and social-bonding functions than men. Finally, participants recalled more specific instances of memory recall for the TALE items that had received higher ratings on the TALE, suggesting that the findings on the first measure were supported by the second measure. Results are discussed in relation to the functional approach to autobiographical memory in a cross-cultural context.

  16. Young western women's experiences of menarche and menstruation.

    PubMed

    Beausang, C C; Razor, A G

    2000-09-01

    A qualitative approach was used to examine young women's experiences of menarche and menstruation that were included in personal stories of growing up sexually. The personal experiences were examined by cross-case analysis to learn more about the narrators' attitudes toward menarche and their menstrual-related education. This was a secondary analysis using data collected for a study of common themes in the stories gathered in a 1998 study by Beausang. The data came from 332 stories written by students taking a sexuality course in a Midwestern community college. Of 227 stories written by women, 85 stories included menstrual experiences. Eleven narrators described menarche as a positive experience. In 10 of these stories, the mother was the primary teacher. The two most frequently identified sources of information by narrators were mothers and schoolteachers, with most narrators having a primarily negative view of their menstrual education regardless of the source. Problems with menstrual-related education were described as perceptions of unwillingness by teachers to discuss menstruation, time limits for education, unclear instruction leading to misconceptions, and the presence of peers in group learning situations that lead to embarrassment.

  17. Feeding the homeless.

    PubMed

    Hales, A; Magnus, M H

    1991-12-01

    Nurses have a unique role in addressing homelessness, an issue of vital national concern. The management and organizational expertise of nurses can be key elements to coordinating community resources to assist the homeless. The authors describe the design and implementation of a community meal program for the homeless.

  18. Educating Homeless Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berliner, BethAnn

    2002-01-01

    Over the past decade, the number of homeless children in America has more than doubled. Educators, however, are still legally obligated to enroll and support them, because of the passage of the "No Child Left Behind" Act of 2001, which reauthorized the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act. Although schools cannot solve homelessness, they can…

  19. Teaching Our Homeless Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheldon, George H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the major concerns associated with the instructional process of our homeless children. The reader is provided with a brief overview of the prevalence of this population. According to the National Center on Family Homelessness the number of school children who are homeless is growing rapidly with 1.4 to 1.5 million…

  20. Feeding the homeless.

    PubMed

    Hales, A; Magnus, M H

    1991-12-01

    Nurses have a unique role in addressing homelessness, an issue of vital national concern. The management and organizational expertise of nurses can be key elements to coordinating community resources to assist the homeless. The authors describe the design and implementation of a community meal program for the homeless. PMID:1744733

  1. Bone density and young athletic women. An update.

    PubMed

    Nichols, David L; Sanborn, Charlotte F; Essery, Eve V

    2007-01-01

    High-school girls and collegiate women have tremendous opportunities to participate in athletic teams. Young girls are also playing in club and select teams at an early age and often, year-round. There are many benefits for participating in sport and physical activity on both the physical and mental health of girls and women. Decreased risk for heart disease and diabetes mellitus, along with improved self-esteem and body-image, were among the first reported benefits of regular physical activity. In addition, sport participation and physical activity is also associated with bone health. Athletes have a greater bone mineral density compared with non-active and physically active females. The increase in bone mass should reduce the risk of fragility fractures in later life. There appears to be a window of opportunity during the development of peak bone mass in which the bone is especially responsive to weight-bearing physical activity. Impact loading sports such as gymnastics, rugby or volleyball tend to produce a better overall osteogenic response than sports without impact loading such as cycling, rowing and swimming. Relatively little is known about the impact of retiring from athletics on bone density. It appears that former athletes continue to have a higher bone density than non-athletes; however, the rate of bone loss appears to be similar in the femoral neck. The positive impact of sports participation on bone mass can be tempered by nutritional and hormonal status. It is not known whether female athletes need additional calcium compared with the general female population. Due to the increased energy expenditure of exercise and/or the pressure to obtain an optimal training bodyweight, some female athletes may develop low energy availability or an eating disorder and subsequently amenorrhoea and a loss of bone mineral density. The three inter-related clinical disorders are referred to as the 'female athlete triad'. This article presents a review of the

  2. Bone density and young athletic women. An update.

    PubMed

    Nichols, David L; Sanborn, Charlotte F; Essery, Eve V

    2007-01-01

    High-school girls and collegiate women have tremendous opportunities to participate in athletic teams. Young girls are also playing in club and select teams at an early age and often, year-round. There are many benefits for participating in sport and physical activity on both the physical and mental health of girls and women. Decreased risk for heart disease and diabetes mellitus, along with improved self-esteem and body-image, were among the first reported benefits of regular physical activity. In addition, sport participation and physical activity is also associated with bone health. Athletes have a greater bone mineral density compared with non-active and physically active females. The increase in bone mass should reduce the risk of fragility fractures in later life. There appears to be a window of opportunity during the development of peak bone mass in which the bone is especially responsive to weight-bearing physical activity. Impact loading sports such as gymnastics, rugby or volleyball tend to produce a better overall osteogenic response than sports without impact loading such as cycling, rowing and swimming. Relatively little is known about the impact of retiring from athletics on bone density. It appears that former athletes continue to have a higher bone density than non-athletes; however, the rate of bone loss appears to be similar in the femoral neck. The positive impact of sports participation on bone mass can be tempered by nutritional and hormonal status. It is not known whether female athletes need additional calcium compared with the general female population. Due to the increased energy expenditure of exercise and/or the pressure to obtain an optimal training bodyweight, some female athletes may develop low energy availability or an eating disorder and subsequently amenorrhoea and a loss of bone mineral density. The three inter-related clinical disorders are referred to as the 'female athlete triad'. This article presents a review of the

  3. Why so few young women in mathematics, science, and technology classes?

    SciTech Connect

    Wieda, K.J.

    1995-06-01

    Many factors influence the success of women in scientific and technical careers. Women represent over 50% of the U.S. population, yet less than 16% of women are employed in scientific and technical careers. Research over the last decade makes it clear that disparities exist in the participation, achievement, and attitudes of young men and young women in science classes. Young women are as interested in science experiences as young men up until age nine. After that age, the number of young women interested in science, mathematics, and technology classes drops. Not enrolling in science and mathematics classes in high school limits career options for young women, and their chance to succeed in a scientific or technical field becomes remote. Why is this happening? What can we, as educators, scientists, and parents do to address this problem? The literature identifies three principal factors that relate to the lack of female involvement in science classes: culture, attitude, and education. This paper reviews these factors and provides examples of programs that Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and others have developed to increase the number of young women entering college ready and wanting to pursue a career in a scientific or technical field.

  4. Motivations for Sex among Low-Income African American Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deardorff, Julianna; Suleiman, Ahna Ballonoff; Dal Santo, Teresa S.; Flythe, Michelle; Gurdin, J. Barry; Eyre, Stephen L.

    2013-01-01

    African American young women exhibit higher risk for sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS, compared with European American women, and this is particularly true for African American women living in low-income contexts. We used rigorous qualitative methods, that is, domain analysis, including free listing ("n" = 20),…

  5. Work Expectations, Human Capital Accumulation, and the Wages of Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandell, Steven H.; Shapiro, David

    Based on the National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Women aged fourteen to twenty-four in 1968, a study was made to determine the impact that women's ex ante labor market expectations have on their salary and development and to examine the effect of women's postschool training and maturation (human capital accumulation) on wages. Six findings…

  6. Syndemic Theory and HIV-Related Risk Among Young Transgender Women: The Role of Multiple, Co-Occurring Health Problems and Social Marginalization

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Julia; Kuhns, Lisa M.; Johnson, Amy K.; Belzer, Marvin; Wilson, Erin C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed whether multiple psychosocial factors are additive in their relationship to sexual risk behavior and self-reported HIV status (i.e., can be characterized as a syndemic) among young transgender women and the relationship of indicators of social marginalization to psychosocial factors. Methods. Participants (n = 151) were aged 15 to 24 years and lived in Chicago or Los Angeles. We collected data on psychosocial factors (low self-esteem, polysubstance use, victimization related to transgender identity, and intimate partner violence) and social marginalization indicators (history of commercial sex work, homelessness, and incarceration) through an interviewer-administered survey. Results. Syndemic factors were positively and additively related to sexual risk behavior and self-reported HIV infection. In addition, our syndemic index was significantly related to 2 indicators of social marginalization: a history of sex work and previous incarceration. Conclusions. These findings provide evidence for a syndemic of co-occurring psychosocial and health problems in young transgender women, taking place in a context of social marginalization. PMID:22873480

  7. Trajectories of Mental Health over 16 Years amongst Young Adult Women: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Libby; Ware, Robert S.; Lee, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This article used data from 5,171 young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study, to identify longitudinal trajectory patterns of mental health across 6 surveys over 16 years of early adulthood, from age 18-23 to age 34-39. In addition, we identified both…

  8. What HIV-Positive Young Women Want from Behavioral Interventions: A Qualitative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Brothers, Jennifer; Lemos, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Young women living with HIV in the United States face many social and psychological challenges, including involvement in health care and secondary prevention efforts. The factors that put these young women at risk for HIV acquisition initially, such as poverty, gender roles, cultural norms, and limited perceived control over sexual relationships, continue to place them at risk for both adverse mental and physical health outcomes that impact their daily lives and secondary prevention efforts. This study utilized focus groups with young HIV-positive women in order to better understand their perceived problems and pressures and to inform a developmentally appropriate secondary prevention intervention for young HIV-positive women that could be implemented in clinical care settings. Focus groups with young HIV-positive women were convened in three U.S. cities: Baltimore, Chicago, and Tampa. A total of 17 young, HIV-positive women, age range 17–24 (mean age=21), participated in the focus groups. This article describes the psychological and social challenges these young women face as well as their suggestions regarding secondary HIV prevention intervention components. PMID:22675725

  9. The New Homelessness Revisited.

    PubMed

    Lee, Barrett A; Tyler, Kimberly A; Wright, James D

    2010-08-01

    The 'new homelessness' has drawn sustained attention from scholars over the past three decades. Definitional inconsistencies and data limitations rendered early work during this period largely speculative in nature. Thanks to conceptual, theoretical, and methodological progress, however, the research literature now provides a fuller understanding of homelessness. Contributions by sociologists and other social scientists since the mid-1990s differentiate among types of homelessness, provide credible demographic estimates, and show how being homeless affects a person's life chances and coping strategies. Agreement also exists about the main macro- and micro-level causes of homelessness. Active lines of inquiry examine public, media, and governmental responses to the problem as well as homeless people's efforts to mobilize on their own behalf. Despite the obstacles faced when studying a stigmatized population marked by high turnover and weak anchors to place, recent investigations have significantly influenced homelessness policy. A greater emphasis on prevention should further strengthen the research-policy nexus. PMID:24910495

  10. A qualitative exploration of young women's attitudes towards the thin ideal.

    PubMed

    Ahern, Amy L; Bennett, Kate M; Kelly, Michelle; Hetherington, Marion M

    2011-01-01

    The thin ideal has been identified as playing a central role in female body dissatisfaction. However, research into idealization of thinness in young women tends to focus on quantitative measures that can mask the complexity of attitudes and experiences. This article describes a series of focus groups with 41 females aged 16-26 and explores the multifaceted relationship young women have with the thin ideal. Thematic qualitative analysis revealed differences between individuals in the construct of the thin ideal and explored the conflict and ambivalence experienced by young women who are confronted by these ideals on a daily basis.

  11. Pregnancy and contraception in young women with congenital heart disease: General considerations

    PubMed Central

    Wald, Rachel M; Sermer, Mathew; Colman, Jack M

    2011-01-01

    Young women with heart disease are increasingly being seen in obstetrical referral centres owing, in large part, to the dramatic improvements in survival of young adults with congenital heart disease in recent years. Although pregnancies in most women with heart disease result in favourable outcomes, there are important exceptions that must be recognized. These exceptions pose significant mortality risk to the mother and/or the fetus. The present article outlines cardiovascular adaptations to pregnancy, general outcomes and management considerations for practitioners caring for pregnant young women with congenital heart disease. A lesion-specific review is published in a complementary article. PMID:22468131

  12. 'My sexual self, I stifled it': sexual subjectivities among young Portuguese women.

    PubMed

    Costa, Cecía; Nogueira, Conceição; López, Félix

    2009-05-01

    Recent research has examined young women's sexual subjectivities and desires, yet has neglected the ways women in their twenties account for their sexual selves. The present study focuses on the discourses and discursive constructions available for young Portuguese women when talking about their sexual subjectivity. Data were collected through six focus group discussions with young Portuguese women. The goal was to analyse discursive constructions and their potential implications for sexual empowerment and resistance. In the course of the work, it was possible to identify several different discursive devices, the most pervasive of which were Pandora's Box, Protocol and Process. Each of these constructions tended to be negative or contain negative judgements about women's sexuality. Even in contexts where a positive discourse on women's sexual desires emerged, significant constraints were encountered in achieving of a fulfilling and positive sexual experience.

  13. Who's There to Help? Assessment of Social Supports Received by Homeless and Unaccompanied Youth in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brase, Monica Kay

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine how urban, young adults assessed received social supports (Vaux, 1988) during homelessness in high school. According to the National Alliance to End Homelessness (2007), approximately 1 to 1.5 million youth under the age of 18 in America experience at least one incident of homelessness each…

  14. Comparative study of the intestinal absorption of three salts of calcium in young and elderly women.

    PubMed

    Praet, J P; Peretz, A; Mets, T; Rozenberg, S

    1998-04-01

    A daily ingestion of 1000 to 1500 mg elemental calcium associated with vitamin D supplement is presently considered to be the adequate and least expensive therapy for senile osteoporosis. There exists only scarce data about calcium absorption with available calcium salts in elderly patients. We have compared the digestive absorption of calcium (Ca) citrate in soluble and solid form and calcium gluconolactate-carbonate in 15 young and 20 elderly, healthy women using the oral calcium loading test. The subjects were divided into two groups. In the first group, the absorption of solid Ca citrate (1000 mg Ca element) was compared to the absorption of Ca gluconolactate-carbonate (1000 mg Ca element) both in young (n = 7) and elderly women (n = 10). In the second group, the absorption of soluble Ca citrate (1000 mg Ca element) was compared to the absorption of Ca gluconolactate-carbonate (1000 mg Ca element) in young (n = 8) and elderly (n = 10) women. In the preload phase, basal calciuria was increased in elderly women (p < 0.01) although basal calcemia was similar in young and elderly women. After oral administration of the calcium salts, an increase in plasma Ca was observed in both groups which was greater for soluble Ca citrate and Ca gluconolactate than for solid Ca citrate. In young women, the increase in plasma calcium was significantly higher with soluble Ca citrate compared to Ca gluconolactate (p < 0.05). In elderly women, the postload calciuria was significantly higher for soluble Ca citrate (p < 0.05) and Ca gluconolactate (p < 0.05) compared to solid Ca citrate. A similar pattern was observed in young women, although it was not significant. In conclusion, an oral load of 1000 mg soluble Ca citrate and Ca gluconolactate-carbonate induces significant biochemical changes suggesting a better digestive absorption compared to Ca citrate in solid form, both in young and elderly women. We did not observe different response, between young and old patients. PMID

  15. Sexual Behaviour of Men and Women within Age-Disparate Partnerships in South Africa: Implications for Young Women's HIV Risk

    PubMed Central

    Maughan-Brown, Brendan; Evans, Meredith; George, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    Background Age-disparate partnerships are hypothesized to increase HIV-risk for young women. However, the evidence base remains mixed. Most studies have focused only on unprotected sex among women in the partnership. Consequently, little is known about other risky behaviours, such as transactional sex, alcohol use, and concurrency, as well as the behaviours of the men who partner with young women. We therefore examined differences in various sexual behaviours of both young women and their male partners by partnership age difference. Methods We used nationally representative data from South Africa (2012) on partnerships reported by 16–24 year old black African women (n = 818) and by black African men in partnerships with 16–24 year old women (n = 985). We compared sexual behaviours in age-disparate partnerships and age-similar partnerships, using multiple logistic regression to control for potential confounders and to assess rural/urban differences. Results Young women in age-disparate partnerships were more likely to report unprotected sex than young women in similar-aged partnerships (aOR:1.51; p = 0.014; 95%CI:1.09–2.11). Men in partnerships with young women were more likely to report unprotected sex (aOR:1.92; p<0.01; 95%CI:1.31–2.81), transactional sex (aOR:2.73; p<0.01; 95%CI:1.64–4.56), drinking alcohol before sex (aOR:1.60; p = 0.062; 95%CI:0.98–2.61), and concurrency (aOR:1.39; p = 0.097; 95%CI:0.94–2.07) when their partners were five or more years younger. The association between age-disparate partnerships and transactional sex (aOR:4.14; p<0.01; 95%CI: 2.03–8.46) and alcohol use (aOR:2.24; p<0.013; 95%CI:1.20–4.19) was only found in urban areas. Conclusions Results provide evidence that young women’s age-disparate partnerships involve greater sexual risk, particularly through the risky behaviours of their male partners, with the risk amplified for young women in urban areas. PMID:27526116

  16. Children and Young People at Risk of Social Exclusion: Links between Homelessness, Child Protection and Juvenile Justice. Data Linkage Series. Number 13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aalders, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Current research demonstrates relationships between child abuse and neglect, homelessness and criminal activity. This report presents key findings from analysis of a data set linking three community-sector data collections: Supported Accommodation Assistance Program (SAAP), juvenile justice supervision, and child protection notifications and…

  17. New Treatment Option for Young Women with Hormone-Sensitive Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... treatment option for young women with hormone-sensitive breast cancer Posted: June 1, 2014 Contact: NCI Press Office 301-496-6641 A drug used for treating breast cancer, known as exemestane, is more effective than a ...

  18. Young women's experiences with complementary therapies during cancer described through illness blogs.

    PubMed

    Keim-Malpass, Jessica; Albrecht, Tara A; Steeves, Richard H; Danhauer, Suzanne C

    2013-11-01

    Many young women with cancer have a high symptom burden and negative psychosocial consequences as a result of their disease. To offset some of these experiences, a growing number of young women with cancer are writing about their experience with complementary therapies through online illness blogs. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine descriptions of complementary therapy use among young women (diagnosed between 20 and 39 years of age) who maintained an online cancer blog. Women's narratives describe several themes of the experience of using complementary therapies including awakening, new identities (that incorporate loss), the good stuff, and release. Online illness blogs allow researchers to understand the complete experience of the patient through personal accounts and substantially contributes to the body of knowledge surrounding cancer in young adulthood and complementary therapy use.

  19. 'I am a mother': young women's negotiation of femininity and risk in the transition to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Graham, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    In studies of sexual risk behaviour among youth, the role of dominant conceptions of masculinity and femininity has received increasing attention. However, where research has sought to explore femininity, it has predominantly focused on adolescent girls. This paper departs from previous research by offering insights into how young women negotiate their femininity as they transition from adolescence to adulthood and encounter changing social contexts. Drawing on data from ethnographic enquiry, it argues that as young women transition out of school and into emerging adulthood, their options for negotiating different types of femininity become constrained, with consequences for engagement in sexual risk behaviours. This may to some extent explain why in some South African contexts older young women are more vulnerable to HIV infection than adolescent girls. The paper offer insights into future prospects for youth development programming seeking to reduce young women's vulnerability to risk.

  20. Menstruation, menstrual protection and menstrual cycle problems. The knowledge, attitudes and practices of young Australian women.

    PubMed

    Abraham, S; Fraser, I; Gebski, V; Knight, C; Llewellyn-Jones, D; Mira, M; McNeil, D

    1985-02-18

    The results of a survey of 1377 young Australian women aged 14 to 19 years, conducted to determine their attitudes, state of knowledge and practices with regard to menstruation, are presented. The young women, as a group, lacked sufficient information about menstruation, about the time of ovulation, about menstrual discharge, and about the use of tampons. A high proportion (80%) considered menstruation to be inconvenient or embarrassing. Certain measures aimed at remedial action are suggested.

  1. The Risk Environment of Heroin Use Initiation: Young Women, Intimate Partners, and "Drug Relationships".

    PubMed

    Mayock, Paula; Cronly, Jennifer; Clatts, Michael C

    2015-05-01

    This paper examines young women's initiation to heroin use in the context of an intimate relationship based on data from a small-scale ethno-epidemiology of heroin use in Ireland, 2007-2009. The epidemiological sample included 120 young people, and life history interviews were conducted with a sub-sample of 40 youth aged 16-25 years. A detailed analysis of the "risk environment" of young women's heroin initiation highlights a complex interplay between women's agency and intimate partner influence. It is argued that dichotomous representations of women as victims or emancipated consumers do not adequately capture the complexity of women's initiation journeys. The study's limitations are noted and implications for drug use prevention and harm reduction strategies are discussed.

  2. The New Homelessness Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Barrett A.; Tyler, Kimberly A.; Wright, James D.

    2014-01-01

    The ‘new homelessness’ has drawn sustained attention from scholars over the past three decades. Definitional inconsistencies and data limitations rendered early work during this period largely speculative in nature. Thanks to conceptual, theoretical, and methodological progress, however, the research literature now provides a fuller understanding of homelessness. Contributions by sociologists and other social scientists since the mid-1990s differentiate among types of homelessness, provide credible demographic estimates, and show how being homeless affects a person's life chances and coping strategies. Agreement also exists about the main macro- and micro-level causes of homelessness. Active lines of inquiry examine public, media, and governmental responses to the problem as well as homeless people's efforts to mobilize on their own behalf. Despite the obstacles faced when studying a stigmatized population marked by high turnover and weak anchors to place, recent investigations have significantly influenced homelessness policy. A greater emphasis on prevention should further strengthen the research-policy nexus. PMID:24910495

  3. Diffusion of the culture of contraception: program effects on young women in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Mita, R; Simmons, R

    1995-01-01

    This article describes a process of diffusion of family planning information, ideas, and technology among an unanticipated audience of young, unmarried women in rural Bangladesh. The data are derived from a focus-group study conducted in 1987-88 in the Maternal Child Health and Family Planning Project in Matlab, Bangladesh. A discussion with a staff member revealed her vivid memory of the arrival of the community-based family planning worker in her village 10 years earlier, before she was married. Based on this research lead, four focus-group sessions were held with newly married young women, and a set of questions about young women were incorporated into the sessions with other community women. The discussions showed that many young, unmarried women learn about family planning from an early age from the community-based family planning worker, from female relatives, peers, and the media. The findings of this exploratory study suggest that greater attention be paid to the contraceptive needs of young women and that continued research be conducted with this population of women. PMID:7785063

  4. Examining the Personal Nature of the K-14 Engineering Pipeline for Young Women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurski, Jennifer Sue

    This mixed-methods study examined young women's perceptions of their K-14 STEM pipeline experiences and their resulting choice to enter and persist in an engineering major. Despite the increase of women in the STEM workforce, women remain underrepresented among engineering majors (Beasley & Fischer, 2012; Heilbronner, 2012; Neihart & Teo, 2013). Few studies exist that utilize a retrospective approach to understand how the culmination of young women's K-14 experiences have influenced their formation of individually held perceptions that lead to engineering persistence. It is this study's aim to utilize a mixed-methods approach to answer the following research question: How do young women's perceptions of their K-14 STEM experiences influence their decision to enroll and persist in an engineering major? These perceptions are explored through an ethnographic approach focusing on young women enrolled in engineering programs during their junior and senior years of study at a small private liberal arts university with eight engineering majors. The mixed-methods approach follows a sequential design method (Creswell, 2013) and utilizes questions in a quantitative Likert-type survey from the Academic Pathways for People Learning Engineering (APPLES) survey (Eris, Chachra, Chen, Sheppard, & Ludlow, 2010) and the Motivated Strategy Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) (Pintrich, Smith, Garcia, & McKeachie, 1991). The quantitative study results will lead to the development of open-ended, structured questions for conducting a qualitative focus group. Anonymity of all participants is maintained. Keywords: STEM, young women, perceptions, pipeline, intervention, underrepresentation, engineering, persistence, retrospective, self-efficacy.

  5. Diffusion of the culture of contraception: program effects on young women in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Mita, R; Simmons, R

    1995-01-01

    This article describes a process of diffusion of family planning information, ideas, and technology among an unanticipated audience of young, unmarried women in rural Bangladesh. The data are derived from a focus-group study conducted in 1987-88 in the Maternal Child Health and Family Planning Project in Matlab, Bangladesh. A discussion with a staff member revealed her vivid memory of the arrival of the community-based family planning worker in her village 10 years earlier, before she was married. Based on this research lead, four focus-group sessions were held with newly married young women, and a set of questions about young women were incorporated into the sessions with other community women. The discussions showed that many young, unmarried women learn about family planning from an early age from the community-based family planning worker, from female relatives, peers, and the media. The findings of this exploratory study suggest that greater attention be paid to the contraceptive needs of young women and that continued research be conducted with this population of women.

  6. Losing Self to the Future? Young Women's Strategic Responses to Adulthood Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Jackie; Munford, Robyn

    2008-01-01

    The multiple and conflicting identity pressures that young women in western society face have been remarked upon in the literature. Adolescence is a time when identity development activity intensifies, and this process can present young people with challenges. In this paper a social constructionist and interpretive frame is applied to such…

  7. The Future of Young Women's Economic Role in a Globalized Economy: New Opportunities, Persisting Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchmann, Marlis; Malti, Tina

    2012-01-01

    Young women in advanced industrial countries have been outperforming young men in educational attainment at the same time that their labor market outcomes are still lagging. Sex segregation in education and the labor market is identified as an important source of this imbalance. In this article, the authors advance some thoughts about this…

  8. Life Transitions and Mental Health in a National Cohort of Young Australian Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Christiana; Gramotnev, Helen

    2007-01-01

    Young adulthood, a time of major life transitions and risk of poor mental health, may affect emotional well-being throughout adult life. This article uses longitudinal survey data to examine young Australian women's transitions across 4 domains: residential independence, relationships, work and study, and motherhood. Changes over 3 years in…

  9. "I Was the Special Ed. Girl": Urban Working-Class Young Women of Colour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferri, Beth A.; Connor, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent criticism of the over-representation of minority students in special education do not adequately account for gender, despite the fact that urban special education classrooms in the USA are largely populated by young men of colour. In fact, we know very little about how being female shapes the experiences and understandings of young women of…

  10. 78 FR 75923 - Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young... activities designed to prevent breast cancer (particularly among those at heightened risk) and promote the... the current and emerging topics related to breast cancer in young women. These may include...

  11. 77 FR 16232 - Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young... evaluation of evidence-based activities designed to prevent breast cancer (particularly among those at... as breast health, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of breast cancer in young women; and...

  12. 76 FR 787 - Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young... prevent breast cancer (particularly among those at heightened risk) and promote the early detection and... recommendations and the public health aspects of breast cancer in young women including biology,...

  13. Homelessness Assistance and Resources

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Program Affordable Housing Community Development Consolidated Planning Economic Development Environmental Review Financial Management Homelessness Assistance Rural Systems News News Feed Email Updates Training & Events All ...

  14. Breast Cancer in Young Women: Research Priorities. A Report of the Young Survival Coalition Research Think Tank Meeting.

    PubMed

    Korde, Larissa A; Partridge, Ann H; Esser, Michelle; Lewis, Stacy; Simha, Joy; Johnson, Rebecca H

    2015-03-01

    Breast cancer in young women is a significant issue-7% of all female breast cancer is diagnosed in women under 40 years of age. Young women with breast cancer (YWBC) face significant and unique challenges, including a higher likelihood of biologically aggressive disease and metastatic disease at diagnosis, leading to poorer prognosis, more aggressive treatment and long-term treatment-related toxicities, and unique psychosocial concerns. This article summarizes the Young Survival Coalition (YSC) Research Think Tank Meeting, held in Arlington, Virginia, in February 2013, and presents the process that led to YSC's priorities for YWBC research. The meeting's participants focused on six broad categories of investigation in which additional advancements in research on YWBC are crucial: risk factors; treatment; fertility; pregnancy-associated breast cancer; quality of life and survivorship; and metastasis. Several key themes emerged from this meeting. Researchers and advocates felt that a large-scale data registry focused on YWBC is necessary to collect quality information to guide future research for YWBC. This database should include clinical data, genomic profiling of primary tumor and metastatic sites, and an increased focus on fertility and pregnancy following breast cancer treatment. The participants also felt that more must be done to elucidate how and why YWBC develop more aggressive tumors, and to what degree treatment should be modified for young women. The discussions summarized here led to the formulation of YSC's Research Agenda, published in May 2014.

  15. Breast Cancer in Young Women: Research Priorities. A Report of the Young Survival Coalition Research Think Tank Meeting.

    PubMed

    Korde, Larissa A; Partridge, Ann H; Esser, Michelle; Lewis, Stacy; Simha, Joy; Johnson, Rebecca H

    2015-03-01

    Breast cancer in young women is a significant issue-7% of all female breast cancer is diagnosed in women under 40 years of age. Young women with breast cancer (YWBC) face significant and unique challenges, including a higher likelihood of biologically aggressive disease and metastatic disease at diagnosis, leading to poorer prognosis, more aggressive treatment and long-term treatment-related toxicities, and unique psychosocial concerns. This article summarizes the Young Survival Coalition (YSC) Research Think Tank Meeting, held in Arlington, Virginia, in February 2013, and presents the process that led to YSC's priorities for YWBC research. The meeting's participants focused on six broad categories of investigation in which additional advancements in research on YWBC are crucial: risk factors; treatment; fertility; pregnancy-associated breast cancer; quality of life and survivorship; and metastasis. Several key themes emerged from this meeting. Researchers and advocates felt that a large-scale data registry focused on YWBC is necessary to collect quality information to guide future research for YWBC. This database should include clinical data, genomic profiling of primary tumor and metastatic sites, and an increased focus on fertility and pregnancy following breast cancer treatment. The participants also felt that more must be done to elucidate how and why YWBC develop more aggressive tumors, and to what degree treatment should be modified for young women. The discussions summarized here led to the formulation of YSC's Research Agenda, published in May 2014. PMID:26812429

  16. Orientation and Familiarization to 1RM Strength Testing in Old and Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.; Giamis, E. L.

    2001-01-01

    Compared the number of testing sessions required to achieve consistent 1 repetition maximum (1RM) strength measurements in untrained old and young women. Participants were repeatedly strength-tested for bilateral concentric knee extension 1RM strength. Older women required significantly more testing sessions to achieve the same absolute…

  17. Branching out and Coming Back Together: Exploring the Undergraduate Experiences of Young Black Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Educational Review, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In January of 2010, "Harvard Educational Review" editor Chantal Francois sat down at a Manhattan diner with three young black women, two of whom were her former students at a New York City high school. Chantal invited the women to come together and share their experiences as freshmen at predominantly white institutions along the East Coast. While…

  18. Young Women of Achievement: A Resource for Girls in Science, Math, and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karnes, Frances A.; Stephens, Kristen R.

    This book is intended to be a resource guide for girls and young women considering careers in science, math, and technology. An introductory chapter considers the status of girls and women in these fields, the importance of role models, and suggestions for using the book. Part 1 introduces readers to the various career opportunities available in…

  19. Correlates of Obesity in Young Black and White Women: The CARDIA Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Gregory L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Contrasts body size and potential correlates of obesity in 1,481 African-American and 1,307 white 18- through 30-year-old women in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study (CARDIA). The increased prevalence of obesity in African-American women could not be explained by racial differences in age or education. (SLD)

  20. It's My Life! Career Paths for Young Women in Transition. Coordinator's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florio, Carol; And Others

    This document is the coordinator's handbook for a four-day workshop for young women in transition from high school to two-year colleges. The program covers career information, self-awareness and skills assessment (with special regard for mathematics), the many roles of women, and decision making and planning. It includes large- and small-group…

  1. Life-Course Pathways and the Psychosocial Adjustment of Young Adult Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Paul R.; Kane, Jennifer B.

    2011-01-01

    We examined 7 life-course pathways from adolescence through the early adult years and their links with general health and psychosocial adjustment among 2,290 women from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Young women who followed a pathway involving college attendance to full-time employment with no family-formation transitions…

  2. Sex-Role Attitude Change of Young Women: Influential Factors from a Panel Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tallichet, Suzanne E.; Willits, Fern K.

    A panel of 294 non-metropolitan Pennsylvania women was studied first in 1970 when they were high school sophomores and again in 1981 to assess the relationship between traditional and nontraditional role behaviors and changes in sex-role attitudes. As adolescents in 1970, the women were either extremely liberal or traditional. As young adults in…

  3. Young Women in Initial Training in the New Information and Communication Technology Occupations in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietzen, Agnes

    2002-01-01

    Surveys of 758 German information-communications technology (ICT) companies and 1,100 trainees reveal that young women are moving away from ICT occupations and obtain fewer apprenticeships; only 50% who had ICT training found related jobs. Contributors to ICT gender segregation include women's motivation and orientation, organizational and…

  4. Child-Free and Unmarried: Changes in the Life Planning of Young East German Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Marina A.

    2004-01-01

    Using evidence from demographic and survey data, this research examines how one decade of post-socialism has changed the life planning of young East German women. Aggregate data reflect marriage and fertility postponement and increased nonmarital birth rates and cohabitation. The analysis shows East German women's stubbornness (Dolling, 2003) in…

  5. Evaluation of Three Osteoporosis Prevention Programs for Young Women: Application of the Health Belief Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lein, Donald H.; Turner, Lori; Wilroy, Jereme

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of theory-based osteoporosis prevention programs on calcium and vitamin D intakes and osteoporosis health beliefs in young women. Methods: Women (N = 152) aged 19 to 25 years were randomly assigned to one of 3 groups: a brochure group (n = 51), a computer-tailored program group…

  6. Nontraditional, Nongender Stereotyped Experiences: Do They Make a Difference for Young Women?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Beth H.

    What impact did a nontraditional work experience have on subsequent life decisions in older women's lives, and what can be learned from these experiences that could have an impact on the educational and career decisions of girls and young women? This paper presents data from a collaborative research project with a group of eight older adult women…

  7. Difference in Bone Mineral Density between Young versus Midlife Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Sonya; Anderson, Pamela S.; Benton, Melissa J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Older age is a risk factor for low bone mineral density (BMD). Older women have been found to have lower BMD than younger women. Recent trends for decreased calcium consumption and physical activity may place younger women at greater risk than previously anticipated. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of age…

  8. Longitudinal Predictors of Homelessness: Findings from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-97

    PubMed Central

    Sznajder-Murray, Brittany; Jang, Joy Bohyun; Slesnick, Natasha; Snyder, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    Homeless youth represent a vulnerable and understudied population. Little research has prospectively identified factors that may place youth at risk for experiencing homelessness. The current study utilizes data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-97 (NLSY-97) to examine predictors of experiencing homelessness as a young adult (before age 25). The NLSY-97 includes a nationally representative sample of 8,984 youth. Data were first collected from these youth when they were between the ages of 12 to 18 years. The current study examined whether individual and family risk factors reported during adolescence predict homelessness by the age of 25. The findings showed that multiple runaway episodes, non-traditional family structure, lower educational attainment, and parental work limitations due to health increased the risk of homelessness. A permissive parenting style and being Hispanic protected against homelessness. This study offers unique insight into risk and protective factors for youth homelessness, and has important clinical implications. PMID:27774034

  9. Transactional sex among young women in rural South Africa: prevalence, mediators and association with HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Ranganathan, Meghna; Heise, Lori; Pettifor, Audrey; Silverwood, Richard J; Selin, Amanda; MacPhail, Catherine; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Kahn, Kathleen; Gómez-Olivé, F Xavier; Hughes, James P; Piwowar-Manning, Estelle; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Watts, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Young adolescent women in sub-Saharan Africa are three to four times more likely to be HIV-positive than boys or men. One of the relationship dynamics that is likely to be associated with young women's increased vulnerability to HIV is transactional sex. There are a range of HIV-related risk behaviours that may drive this vulnerability. However, to date, limited epidemiological data exist on the role of transactional sex in increasing HIV acquisition, especially among young women in sub-Saharan Africa. Our paper presents data on the prevalence of self-reported engagement in transactional sex and explores whether transactional sex is associated with increased risk of HIV infection among a cohort of young, rural, sexually active South African women. We also explore whether this relationship is mediated through certain HIV-related risk behaviours. Methods We analyzed baseline data from a phase III trial of conditional cash transfers for HIV prevention of 693 sexually active, school-going young women aged 13–20 years in rural South Africa. We examined the association between young women's engagement in transactional sex and HIV infection. Transactional sex is defined as a non-commercial, non-marital sexual relationship whereby sex is exchanged for money and/or gifts. We explored whether this relationship is mediated by certain HIV-related risk behaviours. We used logistic and multinomial regression and report unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios with 95% CI. Results Overall, 14% (n=97) of sexually active young women reported engaging in transactional sex. Engagement in transactional sex was associated with an increased risk of being HIV-positive (aOR: 2.5, CI: 95% 1.19–5.25, p=0.01). The effect size of this association remained nearly unchanged when adjusted for certain other dimensions of HIV risk that might help explain the underlying pathways for this relationship. Conclusions This study provides quantitative support demonstrating that transactional

  10. Young women's narratives of same-sex sexual desire in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Logan, Corinne; Buchanan, Marla

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate young women's retrospective narratives of their experiences of same-sex sexual desire in adolescence. Seven women aged 19-25 were interviewed. An across-narrative analysis was conducted, producing five major themes. It is anticipated that this research will help to redress the missing discourse of desire in social constructions of younger women's sexuality and contribute to the development of knowledge and research related to queer female adolescent sexuality and sexual health.

  11. Young women's education and behavioural risk trajectories: clarifying their association with unintended-pregnancy resolution.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Scott, Jessica; Cooney, Teresa M

    2014-06-01

    In the USA, most pregnancies occurring to teenage women are unplanned, making both the decisions regarding their resolution and the consequences of those decisions important topics of inquiry. Substantial debate surrounds the potential consequences for young women of either carrying an unintended pregnancy to term or voluntarily terminating it. The present study utilises data from The US National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health prospectively to examine the predictors of pregnancy resolution decisions in terms of young women's educational goals and their engagement in risk behaviours. Additionally, the long-term consequences of these decisions for education and risk-taking behaviours are identified. Results indicate that young women with strong educational goals have a greater likelihood of terminating an unintended pregnancy than those with low aspirations, and that pregnancy termination predicts higher educational attainment compared to motherhood. Risk behaviours did not predict pregnancy-resolution decisions, but young women who became mothers reported lower rates of subsequent substance use and fewer sexual partners post-pregnancy than those who terminated the pregnancy or who had never been pregnant. Motherhood appears to be a catalyst for lifestyle change among young women, limiting substance use and sexual partnering, in contrast to abortion, which appears to allow adolescents to continue risk-taking trajectories.

  12. Effect of submaximal repetitive exercise on knee coactivation in young and middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Hodder, Joanne N; Plashkes, Tova E; Franklin, Regan A; Hickey, Heather K; Maly, Monica R

    2014-04-01

    Coactivation of the knee extensors and flexors increases knee joint contact forces, which may lead to degradation of the articular surfaces. This study investigated the effect of neuromuscular fatigue induced by submaximal, repetitive, dynamic contractions on coactivation of knee musculature in young and middle-aged women. Data from 10 young women (24.6±1.8 years) and 8 middle-aged women (55.4±4.2 years) were analyzed. Measures included peak knee extension and flexion torques and the average amplitude of surface electromyography of rectus femoris and biceps femoris. Coactivation ratios were calculated from these activations. To induce fatigue, participants completed up to ten sets of 50 concentric knee extension and flexion contractions at 60°/s. A two-factor analysis of variance was used to determine the effect of age and fatigue. The young group showed higher peak torque compared with the middle-aged group (P<.001). During flexion, biceps femoris activity increased after fatigue when both groups were considered together (P=.018). During extension, biceps femoris activity was higher in the middle-aged than young group (P=.043). Middle-aged women exhibited a trend for greater coactivation during knee extension compared with young women (P=.066). This coactivation likely contributed to extension torque decrements in middle-aged women.

  13. Physical Health of Young, Australian Women: A Comparison of Two National Cohorts Surveyed 17 Years Apart

    PubMed Central

    Rowlands, Ingrid J; Dobson, Annette J; Mishra, Gita D

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Very little is known about the extent of physical health issues among young women in early adulthood and whether this is changing over time. Methods We used data from two national samples of young women aged 18–23 years, surveyed 17 years apart, who participated in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health. We used multinomial logistic regression to compare the women’s physical health (i.e., self-rated health, common symptoms and conditions) and identify whether sociodemographic factors, health behaviours and stress explained any physical health differences between the samples. Results Women aged 18–23 years in 2013 (N = 17,069) were more likely to report poor self-rated health and physical symptoms (particularly urogenital and bowel symptoms) than women aged 18–23 years in 1996 (N = 14,247). Stress accounted for a large proportion of the physical health differences between the cohorts, particularly for allergies, headaches, self-rated health, severe tiredness, skin problems, severe period pain and hypertension. Conclusions Women’s health appears to be changing, with young women born in more recent decades reporting greater physical symptom levels. Changing socio-cultural and economic conditions may place pressure on young adults, negatively affecting their health and wellbeing. Assessing the extent to which social structures and health care policies are offering adequate support to young women may offer avenues for promoting positive health and wellbeing. PMID:26528902

  14. Gender and cultural patterns of suicidal behavior: young Hindustani immigrant women in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van Bergen, Diana D; Smit, Johannes H; Kerkhof, Ad J F M; Saharso, Sawitri

    2006-01-01

    Patterns of suicidal behavior vary among cultures and along gender. Young Hindustani immigrant women attempt suicide four times more often than young Dutch women. This article explores multi-disciplinary explanations for suicidal behavior in this group. The interconnection of Durkheimian concepts of social integration and regulation with ecological insights into family relations and psychological and psychiatric theories on individual distress are relevant. It is suggested that young Hindustani women who display suicidal behavior possess certain personality and cognitive constellations that are interlocked with specific parenting styles in stressful family environments. These families are embedded in a context of moral transformations resulting from migration to a Western culture and may be facing difficulties accompanying the transitional processes encountered in the West, particularly those regarding gender roles. Durkheimian fatalistic and anomic suicides elucidate this. The Hindustani women who appear most at risk are those facing contradictory norms and overregulation, which prevent them from developing autonomy.

  15. Determinants of risk of invasive cervical cancer in young women.

    PubMed Central

    Parazzini, F.; Chatenoud, L.; La Vecchia, C.; Negri, E.; Franceschi, S.; Bolis, G.

    1998-01-01

    We analysed determinants of risk of cervical cancer in women aged less than 45 years using data from a case-control study conducted in Italy. Cases were 261 women aged < 45 years with histologically confirmed invasive cervical cancer. Controls were 257 women aged < 45 years, with acute, non-neoplastic conditions, judged to be unrelated to any of the known or suspected risk factors for cervical cancer. In comparison with women reporting one or no sexual partner, the multivariate odds ratio (OR) of cervical cancer was 2.4 (95% confidence interval, CI, 1.3-4.6), for women reporting two or more sexual partners, and, in comparison with women reporting their first intercourse at 17 years of age or before, the multivariate OR was 0.5 (95% CI 0.3-0.9) in women aged > or =23 years at first intercourse. The risk of cervical cancer was higher in parous women and increased with number of births (OR = 8.1 for three or more births). Among parous women the risk tended to increase with later age at last birth; in comparison with parous women reporting their last birth before age 25, the OR was 1.9 in those reporting their last birth at > or =35 years. No clear association emerged between oral contraceptive use, smoking, education, social class and risk of cervical cancer. PMID:9514067

  16. Real-world outcomes in young women with breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Villarreal-Garza, Cynthia; Bargallo-Rocha, Juan Enrique; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Lasa-Gonsebatt, Federico; Arce-Salinas, Claudia; Lara-Medina, Fernando; Reynoso-Noverón, Nancy; Matus-Santos, Juan; Cabrera, Paula; Alvarado-Miranda, Alberto; Mohar, Alejandro

    2016-06-01

    Breast cancer in young women has been shown to have an aggressive behavior and worse prognosis. Studies evaluating young women enrolled in clinical trials of neoadjuvant chemotherapy have shown that age is a determinant factor in the achievement of a pathological complete response (pCR). In this study, we sought to analyze the outcomes of young patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy at a single institution. 1639 patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy were included. 316 patients ≤40 years were compared with 1323 patients aged >40 years regarding the achievement of a pCR (defined as no invasive residual tumor in the breast or lymph nodes). Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival were compared between groups according to pCR status and subtype, defined by hormone receptor (HR) and HER2 status. Young women were more likely to have a pCR than their older counterparts (37.4 vs. 26.3 %, P < 0.001). This difference was significant both for HR+/HER2- and triple-negative (TN) tumors. Young age and achieving less than pCR were associated with a greater chance of recurrence for the entire population. Age was not an independent factor for recurrence in TN and HER2+ disease. However, being younger than 40 increased recurrence risk in HR+/HER2- tumors. The achievement of a pCR was not associated with improved DFS in young women with HR+/HER2- tumors. Although young women have a high rate of pCR, they also have a worse prognosis. In a real-world clinical setting, the achievement of a pCR was an independently significant protective factor for recurrence across all subtypes and ages, except for HR+, HER2- disease in young women. PMID:27189008

  17. Real-world outcomes in young women with breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Villarreal-Garza, Cynthia; Bargallo-Rocha, Juan Enrique; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Lasa-Gonsebatt, Federico; Arce-Salinas, Claudia; Lara-Medina, Fernando; Reynoso-Noverón, Nancy; Matus-Santos, Juan; Cabrera, Paula; Alvarado-Miranda, Alberto; Mohar, Alejandro

    2016-06-01

    Breast cancer in young women has been shown to have an aggressive behavior and worse prognosis. Studies evaluating young women enrolled in clinical trials of neoadjuvant chemotherapy have shown that age is a determinant factor in the achievement of a pathological complete response (pCR). In this study, we sought to analyze the outcomes of young patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy at a single institution. 1639 patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy were included. 316 patients ≤40 years were compared with 1323 patients aged >40 years regarding the achievement of a pCR (defined as no invasive residual tumor in the breast or lymph nodes). Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival were compared between groups according to pCR status and subtype, defined by hormone receptor (HR) and HER2 status. Young women were more likely to have a pCR than their older counterparts (37.4 vs. 26.3 %, P < 0.001). This difference was significant both for HR+/HER2- and triple-negative (TN) tumors. Young age and achieving less than pCR were associated with a greater chance of recurrence for the entire population. Age was not an independent factor for recurrence in TN and HER2+ disease. However, being younger than 40 increased recurrence risk in HR+/HER2- tumors. The achievement of a pCR was not associated with improved DFS in young women with HR+/HER2- tumors. Although young women have a high rate of pCR, they also have a worse prognosis. In a real-world clinical setting, the achievement of a pCR was an independently significant protective factor for recurrence across all subtypes and ages, except for HR+, HER2- disease in young women.

  18. Homelessness: A General Information Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homelessness Exchange, Washington, DC.

    This packet contains documents that provide general information about homelessness and the need for both Federal and local action to help the homeless people in America. Sections 1 and 2 contain the following articles released by the Homelessness Information Exchange: (1) "The Problem of Homelessness Nationwide"; and "Alternative Family Housing…

  19. Homelessness: Recommendations for State Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland Governor's Advisory Board on the Shelter, Nutrition, and Service Programs for Homeless Persons, Annapolis.

    This report identifies the following objectives in the State of Maryland's efforts to prevent and substantially reduce homelessness: (1) expand resources for the prevention of homelessness, and investigate possible changes in policies contributing to homelessness; (2) establish a strong emergency response to homelessness throughout the State; (3)…

  20. The Rights of Homeless Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Penny

    This booklet presents information concerning homelessness and the education of homeless children nationwide and in Illinois. Estimates of the number of homeless children vary widely. Reasons for homeless children's failure to attend school include school residency requirements, delays in transfer of documents, and lack of transportation. The…

  1. Risk Factors for Long-Term Homelessness: Findings From a Longitudinal Study of First-Time Homeless Single Adults

    PubMed Central

    Caton, Carol L. M.; Dominguez, Boanerges; Schanzer, Bella; Hasin, Deborah S.; Shrout, Patrick E.; Felix, Alan; McQuistion, Hunter; Opler, Lewis A.; Hsu, Eustace

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. We examined risk factors for long-term homelessness among newly homeless men and women who were admitted to New York City shelters in 2001 and 2002. Methods. Interviews were conducted with 377 study participants upon entry into the shelter and at 6-month intervals for 18 months. Standardized assessments of psychiatric diagnosis, symptoms, and coping skills; social and family history; and service use were analyzed. Kaplan—Meier survival analysis and Cox regression were used to examine the association between baseline assessments and duration of homelessness. Results. Eighty-one percent of participants returned to community housing during the follow-up period; the median duration of homelessness was 190 days. Kaplan—Meier survival analysis showed that a shorter duration of homelessness was associated with younger age, current or recent employment, earned income, good coping skills, adequate family support, absence of a substance abuse treatment history, and absence of an arrest history. Cox regression showed that older age group P<.05) and arrest history (P<.01) were the strongest predictors of a longer duration of homelessness. Conclusions. Identification of risk factors for long-term homelessness can guide efforts to reduce lengths of stay in homeless shelters and to develop new preventive interventions. PMID:16131638

  2. Black-White Differences in Attitudes Related to Pregnancy among Young Women1

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Jennifer S.; Yarger, Jennifer Eckerman; Gatny, Heather H.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we use newly available data from the Relationship Dynamics and Social Life (RDSL) study to compare a wide range of attitudes related to pregnancy for 961 Black and white young women. We also investigate the extent to which race differences are mediated by, or net of, family background, childhood socioeconomic status, adolescent experiences related to pregnancy, and current socioeconomic status. Black women are less positive, in general, than white women, toward young non-marital sex, contraception, and childbearing, and have less desire for sex in the upcoming year. This is largely because Black women are more religious than white women, and in part because they are more socioeconomically disadvantaged in young adulthood. However, in spite of these less positive attitudes, Black women are more likely to expect sex without contraception in the next year, and to expect more positive consequences if they were to become pregnant, relative to white women. This is largely because, relative to white women, Black women have higher rates of sex without contraception in adolescence, and in part because they are more likely to have grown up with a single parent. It is unclear whether attitudes toward contraception and pregnancy preceded or are a consequence of adolescent sex without contraception. Some race differences remain unexplained – net of all potential mediators in our models, Black women have less desire for sex in the upcoming year, but are less willing to refuse to have sex with a partner if they think it would make him angry, and expect more positive personal consequences of a pregnancy, relative to white women. In spite of these differences, Black women's desires to achieve and to prevent pregnancy are very similar to white women's desires. PMID:25962867

  3. Risk Factors for Pregnancy and Childbearing in Single Young Women: Evidence from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller-Lewis, Lauren R.; Wade, Tracey D.; Lee, Christina

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated psychosocial predictors of early pregnancy and childbearing in single young women, consistent with the Eriksonian developmental perspective. Two mail-out surveys assessing reproductive behaviour and sociodemographic, education/competence, psychosocial well-being, and aspiration factors were completed 4 years apart by 2635…

  4. Still Far From Equal: Young Women in Literature for Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knodel, Bea

    Many of the most popular books comprising the young adult literature boom--the romances--continue to fail female readers in three ways. First, some of the most frequently recommended books for young adults portray worlds that are almost exclusively masculine. Second, even the books that appear to deal fairly equally with male and female characters…

  5. Intellectual Disability and Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercier, C.; Picard, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The association between poverty and intellectual disability (ID) has been well documented. However, little is known about persons with ID who face circumstances of extreme poverty, such as homelessness. This paper describes the situation of persons with ID who were or are homeless in Montreal and are currently receiving services from a…

  6. Residential patterns in older homeless adults: Results of a cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christopher Thomas; Guzman, David; Ponath, Claudia; Tieu, Lina; Riley, Elise; Kushel, Margot

    2016-03-01

    Adults aged 50 and older make up half of individuals experiencing homelessness and have high rates of morbidity and mortality. They may have different life trajectories and reside in different environments than do younger homeless adults. Although the environmental risks associated with homelessness are substantial, the environments in which older homeless individuals live have not been well characterized. We classified living environments and identified associated factors in a sample of older homeless adults. From July 2013 to June 2014, we recruited a community-based sample of 350 homeless men and women aged fifty and older in Oakland, California. We administered structured interviews including assessments of health, history of homelessness, social support, and life course. Participants used a recall procedure to describe where they stayed in the prior six months. We performed cluster analysis to classify residential venues and used multinomial logistic regression to identify individual factors prior to the onset of homelessness as well as the duration of unstable housing associated with living in them. We generated four residential groups describing those who were unsheltered (n = 162), cohabited unstably with friends and family (n = 57), resided in multiple institutional settings (shelters, jails, transitional housing) (n = 88), or lived primarily in rental housing (recently homeless) (n = 43). Compared to those who were unsheltered, having social support when last stably housed was significantly associated with cohabiting and institution use. Cohabiters and renters were significantly more likely to be women and have experienced a shorter duration of homelessness. Cohabiters were significantly more likely than unsheltered participants to have experienced abuse prior to losing stable housing. Pre-homeless social support appears to protect against street homelessness while low levels of social support may increase the risk for becoming homeless immediately after

  7. Homelessness and Hunger*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Barrett A; Greif, Meredith J

    2014-01-01

    We employ data from the National Survey of Homeless Assistance Providers and Clients to examine the character and correlates of hunger among homeless people. Our analysis, couched in an adaptation framework, finds more support for the differentiation hypothesis than for the leveling hypothesis: Complex patterns of food insecurity exist at the individual level, and they vary with the resources available (e.g., higher monthly income, regular shelter use) and obstacles faced (e.g., alcohol, drug, and physical and mental health problems). The chronically homeless, who suffer from multiple deficits, appear particularly food-insecure, a finding that favors the desperation hypothesis over its street-wisdom alternative. We conclude that hunger is not uniformly experienced by members of the homeless population. Rather, some individuals are better situated than others to cope with the stressful nature of homelessness when addressing their sustenance needs. PMID:18418982

  8. The Role of Institutional Placement, Family Conflict, and Homosexuality in Homelessness Pathways Among Latino LGBT Youth in New York City.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, H Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Despite the overrepresentation of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) youth among the homeless, the processes leading to their homelessness are understudied. This ethnographic study sought to elucidate the role of sexual orientation in the pathway to housing instability among young gay men. Fieldwork included 18 months of participant observations in public spaces and at a homeless LGBT youth organization in New York City, as well as formal semistructured interviews with 14 Latino young men and five staff. Three distinct pathways emerged. Some youth became homeless after placement in state systems of care disrupted their social support systems, while others became homeless after extreme family conflict over sexual orientation. Nonetheless, most youths became homeless as a result of long-term processes of family disintegration in which normative adolescent development and disclosure of homosexuality exacerbated preexisting conflict. These findings suggest the need to examine the accumulation of risks before disclosure exacerbates family conflict and increases their risk of homelessness.

  9. The Role of Institutional Placement, Family Conflict, and Homosexuality in Homelessness Pathways Among Latino LGBT Youth in New York City.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, H Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Despite the overrepresentation of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) youth among the homeless, the processes leading to their homelessness are understudied. This ethnographic study sought to elucidate the role of sexual orientation in the pathway to housing instability among young gay men. Fieldwork included 18 months of participant observations in public spaces and at a homeless LGBT youth organization in New York City, as well as formal semistructured interviews with 14 Latino young men and five staff. Three distinct pathways emerged. Some youth became homeless after placement in state systems of care disrupted their social support systems, while others became homeless after extreme family conflict over sexual orientation. Nonetheless, most youths became homeless as a result of long-term processes of family disintegration in which normative adolescent development and disclosure of homosexuality exacerbated preexisting conflict. These findings suggest the need to examine the accumulation of risks before disclosure exacerbates family conflict and increases their risk of homelessness. PMID:26503713

  10. Sexual Objectification and Substance Abuse in Young Adult Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Erika R.; Szymanski, Dawn M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectification Theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997) provides an important perspective for understanding the experiences of women living in a culture that sexualizes and objectifies the female body. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between interpersonal sexual objectification experiences and women's substance abuse in a…

  11. Obesity, school obesity prevalence, and adolescent childbearing among U.S. young women.

    PubMed

    Kane, Jennifer B; Frisco, Michelle L

    2013-07-01

    In the United States, adolescent obesity reduces young women's odds of forming romantic and sexual partnerships but increases the likelihood of risky sexual behavior when partnerships occur. This led us to conduct a study examining the relationship between adolescent obesity and adolescent childbearing. Our study has two aims. We draw from prior research to develop and test competing hypotheses about the association between adolescent obesity and young women's risk of an adolescent birth. Drawing from risk regulation theory, we also examine whether the association between obesity and young women's risk of an adolescent birth may vary across high schools with different proportions of obese adolescents. Multilevel logistic regression models are used to analyze data from 4242 female students in 102 U.S. high schools who participated in Wave I (1994-1995) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Results are the first to show that obesity reduces female adolescents' odds of childbearing, but that this association is not uniform across schools with different proportions of obese students. As the obesity prevalence in a school increases, so do obese young women's odds of childbearing. We conclude that understanding whether and how obesity is associated with young women's odds of having an adolescent birth requires attention to the weight context of high schools.

  12. Implementation of Evidence-Based HIV Interventions for Young Adult African American Women in Church Settings

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the barriers and facilitators to using African American churches as sites for implementation of evidence-based HIV interventions among young African American women. Design Mixed methods cross-sectional design. Setting African American churches in Philadelphia, PA. Participants 142 African American pastors, church leaders, and young adult women ages 18 to 25. Methods Mixed methods convergent parallel design. Results The majority of young adult women reported engaging in high-risk HIV-related behaviors. Although church leaders reported willingness to implement HIV risk-reduction interventions, they were unsure of how to initiate this process. Key facilitators to the implementation of evidence-based interventions included the perception of the leadership and church members that HIV interventions were needed and that the church was a promising venue for them. A primary barrier to implementation in this setting is the perception that discussions of sexuality should be private. Conclusion Implementation of evidence-based HIV interventions for young adult African American women in church settings is feasible and needed. Building a level of comfort in discussing matters of sexuality and adapting existing evidence-based interventions to meet the needs of young women in church settings is a viable approach for successful implementation. PMID:25139612

  13. Mediterranean dietary pattern and mortality among young women: a cohort study in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Sandin, Sven; Lagiou, Areti; Mucci, Lorelei; Wolk, Alicja; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Adami, Hans-Olov

    2006-08-01

    Studies of diet and health focus increasingly on dietary patterns. Although the traditional Mediterranean diet is perceived as being healthy, there is little information on its possible benefit to young people. We studied whether closer adherence to the traditional Mediterranean dietary pattern was associated with overall and cancer mortality in a cohort of 42,237 young women, aged 30-49 years at enrollment, who were recruited in 1991-2 from the general population in the Uppsala Health Care Region, Sweden, and followed up, almost completely, for about 12 years. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed by a 10-point score incorporating the characteristics of this diet. Among women less than 40 years old at enrollment--whose causes of death are mainly cancer with probable genetic influences, injuries or suicide--there was no association of the Mediterranean diet score with total or cancer mortality. Among women 40-49 years old at enrollment, a 2-point increase in the score was associated with considerable reductions in overall mortality (13%; 95% CI 1%, 23%; P approximately 0.05) and cancer mortality (16%; 95% CI -1%, 29%; P approximately 0.06). Few cardiovascular deaths occurred in this cohort of young women. The findings of the present study in a northern European population of young women indicate that closer adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern reduces mortality even among young persons.

  14. Urinary Tract Infection In Young Healthy Women Following Heterosexual Anal Intercourse: Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Lema, Valentino M

    2015-06-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections in outpatient clinical settings globally. Young healthy women are at highest risk of community-acquired UTI. While uncomplicated UTI is not life-threatening, it is associated with high morbidity and treatment costs. The pathogenesis of urinary tract infection in young healthy women is complex. It is influenced by a number of host biological and behavioural factors and virulence of the uropathogen. The infecting uropathogens in community-acquired UTI originate from the fecal flora, E. coli being the most predominant, accounting for 80-90% of these UTIs. Vaginal colonization with uropathogens, a pre-requisite for bladder infection may be facilitated by sexual intercourse, which has been shown to be a strong risk factor and predictor of UTI. While majority of studies have explored the association between heterosexual vaginal intercourse and UTI in healthy young women, the possible association with heterosexual receptive anal intercourse has not received adequate attention despite evidence of high prevalence globally. This paper presents two young healthy married women who had severe UTI following heterosexual anal intercourse and discusses possible association thereof. Understanding the risk factors for UTI and identification of possible predisposing conditions in a particular individual are important in guiding therapeutic approaches and preventive strategies. Cognisant of reportedly high prevalence of various sexual practices including receptive heterosexual anal intercourse and their impact on individuals' health, details on sexual history should always be enquired into in young women presenting with genito-urinary complaints. PMID:26506666

  15. [Two out of three young women use the pill].

    PubMed

    De Graaf, A

    1994-01-01

    Data from the 1993 Netherlands Fertility and Family Survey are analyzed. Results show that "three out of every four women aged 18-42 years use some method of birth control. Some 10% is pregnant or wants to become pregnant, 5% is infecund and 10% does not use a method for other reasons. Compared with the previous surveys, held in 1982 and 1988, more women use the pill, whereas the popularity of the IUD has decreased.... Among women in their thirties sterilization has decreased, but that is related to the fact that women nowadays have their children at a later age....Furthermore it can be concluded that of the women who have no male partner, 50% used some reliable method of birth control (pill, IUD or condom)." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  16. Intersection of suicidality and substance abuse among young Asian-American women: implications for developing interventions in young adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Chang, Stephanie Tzu-Han; Tong, Hui Qi; Meneses, Michelle Ann; Yuzbasioglu, Rojda Filiz; Hien, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the current literature uncovering specific factors associated with self-harm and suicidality among young Asian American women, as well as to present the Fractured Identity Model as a framework for understanding these factors. This paper offers concrete suggestions for the development of culturally competent interventions to target suicidality, substance abuse, and mental illness among young Asian American women. Design/methodology/approach Empirical studies and theory-based papers featured in peer-reviewed journals between 1990 and 2014 were identified through scholarly databases, such as PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, JSTOR, and Google Scholar. Findings We identified several factors associated with suicidality among young Asian American women: (1) family dynamics, or having lived in a household where parents practice “disempowering parenting styles,” (2) substance use/abuse, and (3) untreated mental illness(es), which are exacerbated by the stigma and shame attached to seeking out mental health services. The Fractured Identity Model by Hahm et al. (2014) is presented as a possible pathway from disempowering parenting to suicidal and self-harm behaviors among this population, with substance abuse playing a significant mediating role. Research limitations/implications – Our review focused on Asian American women, substance use among Asian Americans, and mental health among Asian Americans. Literature that focused on Asians living in Asia or elsewhere outside of the USA was excluded from this review; the review was limited to research conducted in the USA and written in the English language. Practical implications The complex interplay among Asian American culture, family dynamics, gender roles/expectations, and mental health justifies the development of a suicide and substance abuse intervention that is tailored to the culture- and gender-specific needs of Asian Pacific Islander young women. It is

  17. Temporal changes in anthropometric measurements of idealized females and young women in general.

    PubMed

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Murray, Jessica; Schlussel, Yvette R

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the temporal anthropometric changes in idealized female body images in the media (i.e., Playboy magazine Playmates of the Year, Miss America Pageant winners, and fashion models) and young women in general across eight decades. Overall, all anthropometric measures differed significantly over time. BMI for all women in the idealized groups tended to decline significantly over time, while the BMI for YoungWomen increased significantly. Models tended to have the smallest bust and hips, Playmates the largest bust, and young women in general the largest waist and hips. The general trend for all groups was to move from a less curvaceous body shape in the early part of the twentieth century to a more curvaceous shape at mid-century and returning to a less curvaceous shape at the end of the century. Idealized women have a body size unlike that of Young Women and the chasm between the media- defined ideal and reality is continuing to diverge. PMID:16219585

  18. [Determinants of chilliness among young women and their application to psychopharmacological trials].

    PubMed

    Yamada, Noriko; Yoshimura, Hiroyuki

    2009-11-01

    Chilliness is a common complaint among menopausal women. Increasing evidence indicates that young women also suffer from chilliness, resulting in decreased learning, motivation, and concentration. Neither diagnostic criteria nor drug therapies exist for chilliness, and thus, young women suffer from insomnia, fatigue, and mood disturbance. Because chilliness is correlated with hormonal changes observed during premenstrual, postpartum, and menopausal periods, reproductive hormones are likely involved. Recently, we elucidated methodological issues related to identifying young women with chilliness. We used a new questionnaire to determine complaint severity with regard to chills and assessed physical parameters (BMI, body fat ratio, basal metabolism, blood pressure), peripheral circulation, and recovery of skin surface temperature after mild cold-water finger immersion. Using a discriminant analysis (hit ratio, 84.5%), we demonstrated that four parameters (blood flow, difference between underarm and surface temperature, recovery rate after mild cold exposure, and score for chilliness-related complaints) were important determinants of chilliness. Among traditional candidate substances for alleviating chilliness, Piper longum and royal jelly showed significant effects. Additionally, we investigated seasonal change in the experience of chilliness and found that young women suffer from chilliness during the summer. These findings have important implications for understanding chilliness in women. PMID:20030189

  19. The Community College and the Homeless: A Model for the Nation. Job Training for the Homeless Demonstration Program Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moehrlin, Cynthia D.

    Established in 1981, the Alternatives Program at Elgin Community College (ECC) has provided services for displaced homemakers, single parents, welfare recipients, and homeless women, laying the groundwork for the 1988 formation of the Fox Valley Consortium for Job Training and Placement of the Homeless. Using federal funding, the Consortium offers…

  20. United States Interagency Council on Homelessness

    MedlinePlus

    ... for USICH Agency Reports Contact Us Ending Family Homelessness Leveraging Mainstream Resources Families experiencing homelessness need a ... to open map → United States Interagency Council ON HOMELESSNESS The U.S. Interagency Council on Homelessness leads the ...

  1. Experiences of African American Young Women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolo, Yovonda Ingram

    African American women are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields throughout the United States. As the need for STEM professionals in the United States increases, it is important to ensure that African American women are among those professionals making valuable contributions to society. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the experiences of African American young women in relation to STEM education. The research question for this study examined how experiences with STEM in K-10 education influenced African American young women's academic choices in their final years in high school. The theory of multicontextuality was used to provide the conceptual framework. The primary data source was interviews. The sample was composed of 11 African American young women in their junior or senior year in high school. Data were analyzed through the process of open coding, categorizing, and identifying emerging themes. Ten themes emerged from the answers to research questions. The themes were (a) high teacher expectations, (b) participation in extra-curricular activities, (c) engagement in group-work, (d) learning from lectures, (e) strong parental involvement, (f) helping others, (g) self-efficacy, (h) gender empowerment, (i) race empowerment, and (j) strategic recruitment practices. This study may lead to positive social change by adding to the understanding of the experiences of African American young women in STEM. By doing so, these findings might motivate other African American young women to pursue advanced STEM classes. These findings may also provide guidance to parents and educators to help increase the number of African American women in STEM.

  2. Romance and sex: pre-marital partnership formation among young women and men, Pune district, India.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Mallika; Garda, Laila; Kanade, Savita; Jejeebhoy, Shireen; Ganatra, Bela

    2006-11-01

    Using qualitative and survey data in a rural and an urban slum setting in Pune district, India, this paper describes patterns of pre-marital romantic partnerships among young people aged 15-24, in spite of norms that discourage opposite-sex interaction before marriage. 25-40% of young men and 14-17% of young women reported opposite-sex friends. Most young people devised strategies to interact with others, largely from the same neighbourhood. There were wide gender differences with regard to making or receiving romantic proposals, having a romantic partner and experiencing hand-holding, kissing and sexual relations. For those who engaged in sexual relations, the time from the onset of the partnership to having sexual relations was short. Sex most often took place without protection or communication, and for a disturbing minority of young women only after persuasion or without consent. Among those who were unmarried, a large percentage had expected to marry their romantic partner, but for a third of young women and half of young men the relationship had been discontinued. Partnership formation often leads to physical intimacy, but intimacy should be wanted, informed and safe. Findings call for programmes that inform youth in non-threatening, non-judgmental and confidential ways, respect their sexual rights and equip them to make safe choices and negotiate wanted outcomes.

  3. Influence of a support group for young women with disabilities on sense of belonging.

    PubMed

    Mejias, Norma J; Gill, Carol J; Shpigelman, Carmit-Noa

    2014-04-01

    Women and girls with disabilities face obstacles to community participation and social acceptance. Consequently, as adolescent women with disabilities mature into adulthood, they may have difficulty feeling that they belong both in the general community and in the community of all women. The positive impact of peer support groups for young women with disabilities on their sense of belonging has been underinvestigated. We conducted in-depth, semistructured interviews with 9 members of a well-established empowerment support group for young women with disabilities to explore how the group might foster a sense of belonging to the general community as well as a sense of shared womanhood. Results revealed that self-confidence and disability pride stemming from participation in the group were essential in helping the women counteract exclusionary messages from the outside world. The group provided an opportunity to develop a positive disability identity and to gain new information regarding the ability and right to identify as women. Reciprocal bonds with other group members helped cultivate feelings of belonging. In turn, the women communicated their empowered identities and the disability rights information they learned in the group to their friends, family, and community members. The group offered the women various platforms to assert their right to belong and, therefore, to participate in the world as women and as independent members of their broader communities. These results show how peer support groups for young women with disabilities can positively influence their sense of belonging both within the group and in the world outside the group.

  4. Constructions and experiences of sexual health among young, heterosexual, unmarried Muslim women immigrants in Australia.

    PubMed

    Wray, Anneke; Ussher, Jane M; Perz, Janette

    2014-01-01

    Minority ethnic immigrant women are frequently vulnerable to poor sexual health outcomes, due to poor use of sexual health services, lack of knowledge and social stigma associated with the discussion of sexuality. This paper explores the sexual health accounts provided by a group of young, unmarried heterosexual Muslim women immigrants residing and studying in Sydney, an under-researched group in the Australian context. Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted, focusing on sex before marriage, spouse selection and contraceptive use. Feminist discourse analysis identified 'purity versus corruption' as the primary construction of women's sexuality, where women positioned their sexual behaviour as that of purity and uninvolvement or corruption through unwedded participation. The subthemes 'maintaining ignorance and naivety', 'remaining virginal', 'sex segregation' and 'the fallen woman' capture women's personal sexuality-related experiences and values within the context of their religious and cultural communities. Additional research with this community is needed to examine the effects of negative social constructions of sex on young sexually active Muslim women, as well as further research on young women's sexual health within immigrant communities.

  5. "Mean mugging": an exploration of young Aboriginal women's experiences of bullying in team sports.

    PubMed

    Kentel, Jennifer L; McHugh, Tara-Leigh F

    2015-08-01

    Bullying among youth is rampant and research suggests that young Aboriginal women may be particularly susceptible to bullying. Sport participation has been identified as a possible mechanism to prevent bullying behaviors, yet few researchers have explored bullying within the context of sport. The purpose of this qualitative description study was to explore young Aboriginal women's experiences of bullying in team sports. Eight young Aboriginal women participated in one-on-one semistructured interviews and follow-up phone interviews. Data were analyzed using a content analysis, and findings were represented by five themes: (1) mean mugging, (2) sport specific, (3) happens all the time, (4) team bonding to address bullying, and (5) prevention through active coaches. The detailed descriptions shared by participants provide insight into a broad range of bullying experiences and serve as a foundation for addressing the bullying that occurs in sport.

  6. Recruitment and retention of young women into nutrition research studies: practical considerations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Successful recruitment and retention of participants into research studies is critical for optimising internal and external validity. Research into diet and lifestyle of young women is important due to the physiological transitions experienced at this life stage. This paper aims to evaluate data related to recruitment and retention across three research studies with young women, and present practical advice related to recruiting and retaining young women in order to optimise study quality within nutrition research. Methods Recruitment and retention strategies used in three nutrition studies that targeted young women (18 to 35 years) were critiqued. A randomised controlled trial (RCT), a crossover validation study and a cross-sectional survey were conducted at the University of Newcastle, Australia between 2010 and 2013Successful recruitment was defined as maximum recruitment relative to time. Retention was assessed as maximum participants remaining enrolled at study completion. Results Recruitment approaches included notice boards, web and social network sites (Facebook and Twitter), with social media most successful in recruitment. The online survey had the highest recruitment in the shortest time-frame (751 participants in one month). Email, phone and text message were used in study one (RCT) and study two (crossover validation) and assisted in low attrition rates, with 93% and 75.7% completing the RCT and crossover validation study respectively. Of those who did not complete the RCT, reported reasons were: being too busy; and having an unrelated illness. Conclusion Recruiting young women into nutrition research is challenging. Use of social media enhances recruitment, while Email, phone and text message contact improves retention within interventions. Further research comparing strategies to optimise recruitment and retention in young women, including flexible testing times, reminders and incentives is warranted. PMID:24433229

  7. Recognizing the Needs of the Homeless.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    France, Joseph B.

    This paper summarizes reports and research on the homeless in the United States, presents findings of a survey of Red Cross chapters on services to the homeless, and describes programs for the homeless of selected Red Cross chapters. Section 1 discusses definitions of homelessness and methodologies used to count homeless people. The homeless are…

  8. Diet quality, measured by fruit and vegetable intake, predicts weight change in young women.

    PubMed

    Aljadani, Haya M; Patterson, Amanda; Sibbritt, David; Hutchesson, Melinda J; Jensen, Megan E; Collins, Clare E

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between diet quality and weight gain in young women. Young women (n = 4,287, with 1,356 women identified as plausible subsample aged 27.6 ± 1.5 years at baseline) sampled from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health study completed food frequency questionnaires in 2003, which were used to evaluate diet quality using three indices: Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS), Australian Diet Quality Index (Aus-DQI), and Fruit and Vegetable Index (FAVI). Weight was self-reported in 2003 and 2009. Multivariate linear regression was used to examine the association between tertiles of each diet quality index and weight change from 2003 to 2009. The ARFS and FAVI were significant predictors of 6-year weight change in this group of young women, while Aus-DQI did not predict weight change (P > 0.05). In the fully adjusted model, those who were in the top tertile of the ARFS significantly gained lower weight gain compared with the lower tertile for the plausible TEI sub-sample (β = -1.6 kg (95% CI: -2.67 to -0.56), P = 0.003). In the fully adjustment model, young women were classified in the highest FAVI tertile and gained significantly less weight than those in the lowest tertile for the plausible TEI (β = -1.6 kg (95% CI: -2.4 to -0.3) P = 0.01). In conclusion, overall diet quality measured by the ARFS and the frequency and variety of fruit and vegetable consumption may predict long-term weight gain in young women. Therefore, health promotion programs encouraging frequent consumption of a wide variety of fruits and vegetables are warranted.

  9. Diet Quality, Measured by Fruit and Vegetable Intake, Predicts Weight Change in Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Aljadani, Haya M.; Patterson, Amanda; Sibbritt, David; Hutchesson, Melinda J.; Jensen, Megan E.; Collins, Clare E.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between diet quality and weight gain in young women. Young women (n = 4,287, with 1,356 women identified as plausible subsample aged 27.6 ± 1.5 years at baseline) sampled from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health study completed food frequency questionnaires in 2003, which were used to evaluate diet quality using three indices: Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS), Australian Diet Quality Index (Aus-DQI), and Fruit and Vegetable Index (FAVI). Weight was self-reported in 2003 and 2009. Multivariate linear regression was used to examine the association between tertiles of each diet quality index and weight change from 2003 to 2009. The ARFS and FAVI were significant predictors of 6-year weight change in this group of young women, while Aus-DQI did not predict weight change (P > 0.05). In the fully adjusted model, those who were in the top tertile of the ARFS significantly gained lower weight gain compared with the lower tertile for the plausible TEI sub-sample (β = −1.6 kg (95% CI: −2.67 to −0.56), P = 0.003). In the fully adjustment model, young women were classified in the highest FAVI tertile and gained significantly less weight than those in the lowest tertile for the plausible TEI (β = −1.6 kg (95% CI: −2.4 to −0.3) P = 0.01). In conclusion, overall diet quality measured by the ARFS and the frequency and variety of fruit and vegetable consumption may predict long-term weight gain in young women. Therefore, health promotion programs encouraging frequent consumption of a wide variety of fruits and vegetables are warranted. PMID:24062946

  10. Transgressive women don't deserve protection: young men's narratives of sexual violence against women in rural Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Kelly-Hanku, A; Aeno, H; Wilson, L; Eves, R; Mek, A; Nake Trumb, R; Whittaker, M; Fitzgerald, L; Kaldor, J M; Vallely, A

    2016-11-01

    Sexual violence against women and girls is commonplace in Papua New Guinea (PNG). While the experiences of women are rightly given central place in institutional responses to sexual violence, the men who perpetrate violence are often overlooked, an oversight that undermines the effectiveness of prevention efforts. This paper draws on interviews conducted with young men as part of a qualitative longitudinal study of masculinity and male sexuality in a rural highland area of PNG. It explores one aspect of male sexuality: men's narratives of sexual violence. Most striking from the data is that the collective enactment of sexual violence against women and girls is reported as an everyday and accepted practice amongst young men. However, not all women and girls were described as equally at risk, with those who transgress gender roles and roles inscribed and reinforced by patriarchal structures, at greater risk. To address this situation, efforts to reduce sexual violence against women and girls require an increased focus on male-centred intervention to critically engage with the forms of patriarchal authority that give license to sexual violence. Understanding the perceptions and experiences of men as perpetrators of sexual violence is a critical first step in the process of changing normative perceptions of gender, a task crucial to reducing sexual violence in countries such as PNG.

  11. Breast carcinomas occurring in young women (< 35 years) are different.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, R. A.; Lees, E.; Webb, M. B.; Dearing, S. J.

    1996-01-01

    One hundred and sixty-three breast carcinomas occurring in women aged between 26 and 44 years were examined for pathological features, oestrogen and progesterone receptor status, proliferation as determined by Ki-67 labelling and the presence of c-erbB-2 and p53 protein, and were compared with a control group of carcinomas from women in the 50-67 years age group. Carcinomas occurring in women aged under 35 years had a significantly high incidence of being poorly differentiated and of having high proliferation rates. This group also had a significantly high incidence of p53 protein staining. Carcinomas in the under 30 years age group had a lower incidence of oestrogen and progesterone receptor positivity. No differences were found in c-erbB-2-positive staining between the groups. Infiltrating lobular carcinomas were only identified in women aged 40 years and over. There was a higher incidence of a family history in the 35-44 years age group (18%) than in the under 35 years age group (11%). Breast carcinomas occurring in women aged under 35 years are more aggressive. An important finding is the high incidence of p53 positivity, which may indicate genetic instability. Images Figure 1 PMID:8956795

  12. Evaluation of lifestyle of underweight, normal weight and overweight young women.

    PubMed

    Wronka, Iwona; Suliga, Edyta; Pawliñska-Chmara, Romana

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare eating and lifestyle habits between underweight, normal weight and overweight young women. Data obtained from a survey of 1129 students of the three higher education institutions in Kielce, Kraków and Opole (Southern Poland) were analysed. BMI was used to define underweight, overweight and obesity. Eating and lifestyle habits were assessed based on the information received from surveyed students. The study group consisted of women of childbearing-age and a special attention was paid to analyse habits correlated with the risk factor for pregnant women (low consumption of dairy products, meat, fish, fruits and vegetables, cigarette smoking, alcohol and caffeine intake). In the studied group, the prevalence of underweight was higher than the prevalence of overweight and obesity (11.1% vs. 7.0%). There were no significant differences in nutritional habits between the three weight groups. The responding students, regardless their weight status, presented numerous unhealthy eating habits. Underweight students more frequently took multivitamin supplements, less frequently followed an alternative diet, smoked cigarettes or drank larger amounts of coffee than normal weight and overweight women. Underweight and normal weight women more frequently participated in sports activities than overweight and obese women. However, 39.2 percent of the surveyed women declared that they seldom or never perform any sport activities. The results show that majority of young women present numerous unhealthy behaviours. Unhealthy habits occur with the same frequency among underweight students as among normal weight students or overweight ones.

  13. Obstacles in Advancement of Young Female Geoscientists: Research Results from the Earth Science Women's Network (ESWN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogan, M.; Laursen, S. L.

    2011-12-01

    While the number of women receiving advanced degrees in the geosciences has been rising, the faces of scientific leaders in academia remain dominantly male. Women are currently underrepresented in tenure-track positions in Earth science departments at research universities. Additionally, women are less likely to have more senior positions within their academic institutions. ESWN is a peer-mentoring network of early career women in the Earth sciences. We conducted a survey of ESWN members as part of an evaluation-with-research study that aims to determine the career needs of young female geoscientists. We also conducted a survey of the co-ed Earth Science Jobs list also run by ESWN and used its male and female members as comparison samples. The survey data provide insight into critical career junctures for women in geosciences and identify salient issues that institutions will need to address to successfully recruit, retain and promote women scientists. Prior research has shown that women are subjected to unintended and unrecognized biases that can have an ultimate impact on their productivity, advancement, and success. Our data corroborate these findings: women consistently rated the professional atmosphere in their departments and their interactions with colleagues less favorably than men. Moreover, women indicated lower rates of collaboration with colleagues in their unit compared to their male peers. Possibly due to this discrepancy in collaboration, women also reported lower research productivity than men in our study. Attaining work/life balance is a particular concern to early-career scientists, especially since tenure clock and the biological clock can coincide and reduce the opportunity for women to achieve tenure and have children. Family issues may impact the success of women in academic careers, such as travel to meetings and field work. Our research shows that women's partners more often worked in STEM fields, potentially complicating women's careers by

  14. Supporting Homeless Youth during the Transition to Adulthood: Housing-Based Independent Living Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworsky, Amy

    2010-01-01

    While many young people depend on parental financial and emotional support well past the age of 18, those who are homeless must make the transition to adulthood without that support. This article discusses the needs of homeless youth as they transition to adulthood. It then describes three housing-based independent living programs designed to…

  15. A Home Away: Meeting the Needs of Infants, Toddlers, and Families Experiencing Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parlakian, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Families are one of the fastest-growing groups affected by homelessness in the U.S. Very young children are profoundly affected by the loss of a consistent living situation, most especially in the first 3 years when routine and familiarity confer a sense of safety and security. The stress of homelessness--and the multiple traumas that frequently…

  16. Paving the Road to Higher Ed for Students Hit by Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opper, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    With higher education offering a potential avenue out of a bleak alternative, School on Wheels of Massachusetts (SOWMA) has devoted countless hours to increasing the educational opportunities for young people impacted by homelessness. SOWMA first meets a student when he or she is experiencing homelessness. Once part of the SOWMA family, the…

  17. Pathways In and Out of Substance Use among Homeless-Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Johnson, Katherine A.

    2006-01-01

    Although high rates of alcohol and drug use have been found among homeless young people, less is known about who is responsible for their initiation, the reasons for their continued use, and why some individuals eventually transition out of using whereas others do not. Based on qualitative interviews with 40 homeless individuals 19 to 21 years of…

  18. An Inside Look at Homeless Youths’ Social Networks: Perceptions of Substance Use Norms1

    PubMed Central

    Melander, Lisa A.; Tyler, Kimberly A.; Schmitz, Rachel M.

    2016-01-01

    Substance use among homeless young people is a pervasive problem, and there have been many efforts to understand more about the dynamics of this health compromising behavior. The current study examined perceived substance use norms within homeless youths’ social networks utilizing in-depth interviews. The sample included 19 homeless individuals aged 16 to 21. Four elements of substance use within networks emerged: substance use choices, drug use safety issues, encouragement and/or discouragement, and appropriate situations in which substance use is condoned. These findings provide unique insight into the norms associated with drug and alcohol use within homeless youths’ social networks. PMID:26989340

  19. For Homeless Veterans

    MedlinePlus

    ... families find and sustain permanent housing. How It Works Through public housing authorities, HUD provides rental assistance ... might remain homeless without this assistance. How It Works Through referrals and direct outreach, nonprofit agencies and ...

  20. Cervical Cancer Screening Among Young Adult Women in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Roland, Katherine B.; Benard, Vicki B.; Soman, Ashwini; Breen, Nancy; Kepka, Deanna; Saraiya, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer screening guidelines have evolved significantly in the last decade for young adult women, with current recommendations promoting later initiation and longer intervals. Methods Using self-reported cross-sectional National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) 2000–2010 data, trends in Papanicolaou (Pap) testing among women ages 18–29 years were examined. NHIS 2010 data were used to investigate age at first Pap test (N =2,198), time since most recent Pap test (n =1,622), and predictors of Pap testing within the last 12 months (n = 1,622). Results The percentage of 18-year-olds who reported ever having a Pap test significantly decreased from 49.9% in 2000 to 37.9% in 2010. Mean age at first Pap test in 2010 was significantly younger for non-Hispanic black women (16.9 years), women < high school education (16.9 years), women who received the HPV vaccine (17.1 years), and women who have ever given birth (17.3 years). The majority reported their last Pap test within the previous 12 months (73.1%). Usual source of healthcare (OR, 2.31) and current birth control use (OR, 1.64) significantly increased chances of having a Pap test within the previous 12 months. Conclusions From 2000 to 2010, there was a gradual decline in Pap test initiation among 18-year-olds; however, in 2010, many women reported ≤12 months since last screening. Evidence-based guidelines should be promoted, as screening young adult women for cervical cancer more frequently than recommended can cause considerable harms. Impact A baseline of cervical cancer screening among young adult women in the United States to assess adherence to evidence-based screening guidelines. PMID:23355601

  1. Biopedagogies and Indigenous Knowledge: Examining Sport for Development and Peace for Urban Indigenous Young Women in Canada and Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayhurst, Lyndsay M. C.; Giles, Audrey R.; Wright, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses transnational postcolonial feminist participatory action research (TPFPAR) to examine two sport for development and peace (SDP) initiatives that focus on Indigenous young women residing in urban areas, one in Vancouver, Canada, and one in Perth, Australia. We examine how SDP programs that target urban Indigenous young women and…

  2. Attitudes Towards the Vaginal Ring and Transdermal Patch Among Adolescents and Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Raine, Tina R.; Epstein, Laura B.; Harper, Cynthia C.; Brown, Beth A.; Boyer, Cherrie B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The vaginal ring and the transdermal patch offer important contraceptive options for women at high risk of unintended pregnancy. Little is known about what adolescents and young women think about these methods and why use of the ring has been relatively low compared to the patch. We sought to examine young women’s attitudes and perceptions about the ring and the patch to better understand the relationship between perceptions of these methods and decisions to use them. Methods Sixteen focus groups of young women aged 15–26 years (n=113) from family planning clinics in the San Francisco Bay Area were convened. Data from the focus groups were analyzed using standard content analysis. Results While young women expressed apprehension and doubt about both methods, for the most part women expressed more positive attitudes about the patch. Two related themes for the ring and the patch were identified: “lack of trust in effectiveness,” and “method use concerns. Two themes unique to the ring: “concerns regarding vaginal insertion” and “sexual partner perceptions” and three themes unique to the patch: “ease of remembering”, “visibility issues”, and “perceived health risk” were identified. Conclusions Increased provider education about apprehensions related to the ring and the patch may lead to increased use of the ring and counter recent declines in use of the patch. It would be unfortunate if these safe and effective options for young women are underutilized because negative attitudes and perceptions about these methods act as barriers to adoption. PMID:19699422

  3. Coming unmoored: Disproportionate increases in obesity prevalence among young, disadvantaged White women

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Whitney R.; Kershaw, Kiarri N.; Mezuk, Briana; Rafferty, Jane; Lee, Hedwig; Johnson/Lawrence, Vicki; Seamans, Marissa J.; Jackson, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Since the 1980s, older low-educated White women experienced an unprecedented decrease in life expectancy. We investigated whether a similar phenomenon was evident among younger women for obesity. Design and Methods Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we estimated age-adjusted changes in prevalence of overall and abdominal obesity (BMI≥30 kg/m2, waist circumference>88 cm) between 1988-1994 and 2003-2010 among non-Hispanic White women aged 25-44 years, stratified by educational attainment (women's changes in obesity prevalence to changes among similarly educated Black women. Results Relative increases in overall obesity were disproportionately larger for low- educated (women: 12.3 (95% CI: 3.1, 21.5) percentage points (ppts). For overall and abdominal obesity, general trends indicated dissimilar racial differences by educational attainment. For instance, overall obesity increased more in Blacks than Whites among college-educated (9.9 ppts) but not low- educated (−2.5 ppts) women. Conclusions Contemporary young, low-educated White women showed indications of disproportionate worsening of overall obesity prevalence compared to more educated White and similarly educated Black women. Low education levels are more powerful indicators of obesity risk among contemporary White women than 30 years ago. PMID:25294582

  4. Correlates of obesity in young black and white women: the CARDIA Study.

    PubMed Central

    Burke, G L; Savage, P J; Manolio, T A; Sprafka, J M; Wagenknecht, L E; Sidney, S; Perkins, L L; Liu, K; Jacobs, D R

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Although differences in obesity between Blacks and Whites are well documented in adult women, less information is available on potential correlates of these differences, especially in young adults. METHODS. The association between behavioral and demographic factors and body size was assessed in 2801 Black and White women aged 18 to 30 years. RESULTS. Black women had significantly higher age-adjusted mean body mass index and subscapular skinfold thickness than did White women. Obesity had different associations with age and education across racial groups. A positive relationship between age and obesity was seen in Black women but not in White women, whereas a negative association between education and body size was noted only in White women. Potential contributing factors to the increased prevalence of obesity in Black women include a more sedentary lifestyle, higher energy intake, earlier menarche, and earlier age at first childbirth. CONCLUSIONS. The difference in obesity across race could not be explained completely by these factors, since within virtually all strata, Black women had higher body mass indexes. Further investigation is needed to develop interventional strategies to prevent or reduce excess levels of obesity in Black women. PMID:1456336

  5. Arterial oxygen desaturation response to repeated bouts of sprint exercise in healthy young women.

    PubMed

    Kuniyoshi, Shimpei; Endoh, Yumiko; Kobayashi, Minoru; Endoh, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    The decline in arterial oxygen saturation of hemoglobin during exercise has been termed exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia (EIAH). We examined whether repeated bouts of sprint exercise (SprE) would induce EIAH in healthy young men and women. Ten men and 11 women (20.4 +/- 0.3 year) performed an anaerobic power test (three bouts of 10 s cycling with 120 s intervals) using a cycle ergometer. Arterial oxygen saturation of hemoglobin measured by pulse oximeter (SpO(2)), heart rate (HR), rate perceived exertion (RPE), and the blood lactate concentration ([La](b)) were assessed at rest, during, and 5 min after repeated bouts of SprE. Women exhibited a lower maximal anaerobic power (MAnP) compared to men (498 +/- 23 vs. 759 +/- 22 watts, respectively, p < 0.01). HR, RPE, and [La](b) in women were comparable with those in men throughout the test. However, the only significant decline in SpO(2) after a single bout of SprE (95.5 +/- 0.7%) from the resting value (97.9 +/- 0.2%) was observed in women, and further declines occurred following heavier SprE (< 95%). In 8 of 11 women, mild to moderate EIAH developed, whereas only 2 men showed mild EIAH. Thus, these findings suggest that repeated bouts of SprE might induce mild EIAH in young women but not men.

  6. "Two's up and Poncing Fags": Young Women's Smoking Practices, Reciprocity and Friendship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Fin

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade much has been written by journalists, policy makers, and academics, about young women's leisure time pursuits. A great deal of this interest has focused around a concern that teenage girls in the UK are taking up smoking in larger numbers than their male peers. This paper draws on findings from my small-scale doctoral research…

  7. Nutritional Intervention in Young Women with Eating Disorders: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAleavey, Kristen

    2010-01-01

    Eating disorders in young women are often associated with a number of comorbid conditions, including mood disorders and cognitive problems. Although group therapy is often used as part of overall treatment for eating disorders in many types of settings, specific nutritional interventions used in such settings have rarely been evaluated. In this…

  8. Differences among Senior and Young, Men and Women in Attitudes and Cognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Rawley

    This study examined the cognitive skills and attitudes toward self and others in samples of independent seniors and young men and women. Three proceedings were used to address questions of age or gender differences. Study 1 (N=95) compared the scores of older adults (approximate age range, 64-95 years) on the Silver Drawing Test of Cognition and…

  9. "Working Harder to Be the Same": Everyday Racism among Young Men and Women in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallgren, Camilla

    2005-01-01

    Despite Sweden's international reputation for human rights and democratic values, racism within Swedish schools is a relatively new issue, emerging only with the increased ethnic diversity of Swedish schools in recent years. This paper is thus one of the first Swedish interview studies on the perceptions of young men and women in Sweden from both…

  10. Phases of Career Development: Case Studies of Young Women with Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, Lauren E.; Benz, Michael R.

    2002-01-01

    Case studies of six young women with learning disabilities revealed three career development phases: unsettled, exploratory, and focused. Phases varied along two dimensions stability of employment and clarity of career goals. Key elements influencing career development included motivation and determination, family support, career exploration…

  11. Field method to measure changes in percent body fat of young women: The TIGER Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Body mass index (BMI), waist (W) and hip (H) circumference (C) are commonly used to assess changes in body composition for field research. We developed a model to estimate changes in dual energy X-ray absorption (DXA) percent fat (% fat) from these variables with a diverse sample of young women fro...

  12. Non-Traditional School-to-Work Opportunities for Young Women. Resource Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National School-to-Work Opportunities Office, Washington, DC.

    This bulletin presents an overview of strategies that practitioners identify as methods of increasing young women's access to and success in school-to-work programs in nontraditional occupations. These strategies are discussed: outreach to female students; career information and advising; training for teachers and counselors; math and science…

  13. "Planned" Teenage Pregnancy: Perspectives of Young Women from Disadvantaged Backgrounds in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Lester; Cater, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    The reduction of teenage pregnancy has attracted much interest in research, practice and social policy. Little is known about teenagers who report their pregnancies as "planned." Forty-one in-depth interviews were undertaken, in six different parts of England, among young women who reported their pregnancy as "planned". The mean age at conception…

  14. Post-Primary Education and Capabilities: Insights from Young Women in Rural Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Shelley K.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents findings from the third stage of a longitudinal, qualitative study involving nine female participants from a class cohort in a secondary school in rural Uganda. Since 2004-05, this study has tracked the progress of these young women's lives, and the present aspect of the study explores the ways in which they have found that…

  15. Contextual Influences on Gendered Racial Identity Development of African American Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Anita Jones; Hoxha, Denada; Hacker, Jason Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the contextual factors and socialization experiences most salient to the identity development of African American girls. Seventeen African American young women participated in dyadic focus groups. Themes that emerged included exposure to stereotypes, negative classroom environments, and parental and peer…

  16. Keep Calm and Contracept! Addressing Young Women's Pleasure in Sexual Health and Contraception Consultations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanbury, Ali; Eastham, Rachael

    2016-01-01

    Clinical sexual health consultations with young women often focus on avoiding "risks;" namely pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection transmission. They also typically fail to explore how contraception use can impact on the capacity to enjoy sexual relationships. In contrast, this paper argues that sexual pleasure should be a…

  17. Social Exchange and Sexual Behavior in Young Women's Premarital Relationships in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luke, Nancy; Goldberg, Rachel E.; Mberu, Blessing U.; Zulu, Eliya M.

    2011-01-01

    Transactional sex, or the exchange of money and gifts for sexual activities within nonmarital relationships, has been widely considered a contributing factor to the disproportionate prevalence of HIV/AIDS among young women in sub-Saharan Africa. This study applied social exchange theory to premarital relationships in order to investigate the…

  18. "Too Pretty to Do Math!" Young Women in Movement and Pedagogical Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    The article points out some pedagogical challenges in supporting girls and young women in their emancipatory movements today. It spotlights a specific section in gender pedagogy by focusing on the aim of self-determination (rather than achievement) in the field of social-pedagogy and it refers to the concept of "girls work" in Germany. A critical…

  19. Material Realities in the Basic Writing Classroom: Intersections of Discovery for Young Women Reading "Persepolis 2"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Susan Naomi

    2008-01-01

    This essay focuses on how young women students in a first-year, first-quarter basic reading and writing course wrote about their connections to the process of identity development as portrayed in the graphic novel "Persepolis 2: The Story of a Return" by Marjane Satrapi. While the circumstances of becoming a student in a required…

  20. Metabolic and Cardiovascular Response to Shallow Water Exercise in Young and Older Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Jennifer A.; D'Acquisto, Leo J.; D'Acquisto, Debra M.; Cline, Michael G.

    2003-01-01

    Compared the metabolic and cardiovascular responses of young and older women while performing shallow water exercise (SWE). Overall, SWE elicited metabolic and cardiovascular responses that met American College of Sports Medicine's guidelines for establishing health benefits. Older females self-selected a greater relative exercise intensity during…

  1. Are Interpersonal Violence Rates Higher Among Young Women in College Compared With Those Never Attending College?

    PubMed

    Coker, Ann L; Follingstad, Diane R; Bush, Heather M; Fisher, Bonnie S

    2016-05-01

    Estimates of sexual violence and partner violence rates among young women are generated primarily from college samples. Few studies have data to compare rates among similar-aged women attending college with those who never attended college. This study aims to estimate rates of partner violence by type (sexual, physical, and psychological) and severity (mild, moderate, severe), sexual harassment, and knowing or suspecting that someone put a drug in a drink (drugged drink) among a national sample of 959 young women aged 18 to 24 in an intimate relationship in the past 12 months who were either currently in college (college;n= 272) or never attended college (non-college;n= 687). After adjusting for demographic differences between these two groups, no significant differences were found in rates of sexual partner violence (28.4% non-college, 23.5% college), physical partner violence (27.9% non-college, 26.3% college), psychological partner violence (Mscore: 6.10 non-college, 5.59 college), sexual harassment (15.5% non-college, 14.1% college), or drugged drink (8.5% non-college, 7.8% college). Finding high rates of interpersonal violence among young women who are and are not currently attending college indicates the need to target all young adults with violence prevention interventions in educational, workplace, and other community-based settings.

  2. Evaluation of the facial dimensions of young adult women with a preferred facial appearance

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sae Yong; Bayome, Mohamed; Park, Jae Hyun; Kang, Ju Hee; Kim, Kang Hyuk; Moon, Hong-Beom

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the facial dimensions of young adult women with a preferred facial appearance and compare the results with those from the general population. Methods Twenty-five linear, nine angular, and three area measurements were made and four ratios were calculated using a sample of standardized frontal and lateral photographs of 46 young adult women with a preferred facial appearance (Miss Korea group) and 44 young adult women from the general population (control group). Differences between the two groups were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). Results Compared with the control group, the Miss Korea group exhibited a significantly greater facial height, total facial height (TFH; trichion-menton), facial width (tragus right-tragus left), facial depth (tragus-true vertical line), and trichion-nasion/TFH ratio and smaller subnasale-menton/TFH and facial width/TFH ratios. Furthermore, the control group had smaller intercanthal and interpupillary widths. Conclusions The Miss Korea group exhibited longer, wider, and deeper faces compared with those from the general population. Furthermore, the Miss Korea group had larger eyes, longer but less protruded noses, longer and more retruded lower lips and chins, larger lip vermilion areas, and smaller labiomental angles. These results suggest that the latest trends in facial esthetics should be considered during diagnosis and treatment planning for young women with dentofacial abnormalities. PMID:26445720

  3. Cultural Orientation as a Protective Factor against Tobacco and Marijuana Smoking for African American Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasim, Aashir; Corona, Rosalie; Belgrave, Faye; Utsey, Shawn O.; Fallah, Niloofar

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined cultural orientation as a protective factor against tobacco and marijuana smoking for African American young women (ages 18 to 25). African American college students (N = 145) from a predominantly White university were administered subscales from the African American Acculturation Scale-Revised (AAAS-R); the shortened…

  4. Understanding Young Women's Sexual Relationship Experiences: The Nature and Role of Vulnerability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Claire

    2006-01-01

    This paper seeks to operationalise the concept of social "vulnerability" and explore its usefulness as a framework for understanding sexual relationships. Data from 30 vulnerable and less vulnerable young women in one UK city were collected through in-depth interviews and focus groups. An analysis of differences and similarities in participants'…

  5. Ideas for Action: Helping Girls and Young Women in Your Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Barbara K.

    This idea book is a resource to help individuals focus their good will and energy on helping girls and young women in their communities. After a brief introduction to each of seven advocacy strategies, ideas for action are listed under each. The first advocacy strategy focuses on organizing your community for action. Ideas for action include…

  6. "Making a Way": Young Women Using Literacy and Language to Resist the Politics of Silencing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wissman, Kelly K.

    2007-01-01

    Urban public schools are often contexts in which students are beset with silencing, surveillance, and low expectations. These conditions present distinct and critical challenges to young women. This article explores the language and literacy practices that emerged in an in-school elective writing and photography course designed with and for young…

  7. Appearance Concerns and Smoking in Young Men and Women: Going beyond Weight Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grogan, Sarah; Hartley, Louise; Conner, Mark; Fry, Gary; Gough, Brendan

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to investigate the link between appearance concerns and smoking in young men and women. Methods: A total of 244, 17-34-year-olds completed the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire Appearance Sub-Scales (MBSRQ-AS). Findings: Smokers scored significantly lower than non-smokers on appearance evaluation and…

  8. Social Acceptability of Menstrual-Care Training Methods for Young Women with Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epps, Susan; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The acceptability of two different training methods (simulation training using a doll and simulation training on self) for teaching menstrual hygiene skills to young women with developmental disabilities was evaluated in two experiments. Results suggested that opinions about treatment acceptability should be obtained from both professional and…

  9. Relationships and Betrayal among Young Women: Theoretical Perspectives on Adolescent Dating Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Candace W.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie; Rankin, Sally H.; Rehm, Roberta S.; Humphreys, Janice C.

    2010-01-01

    AIMS Adolescent dating abuse is not specifically described by any current nursing theory, and this paper presents discussion of some existing theories that could inform a nursing theory of adolescent dating abuse. To account for the effects of gender, this discussion is limited to young women. BACKGROUND Adolescent dating abuse is an important and understudied international issue for nursing. Theoretical frameworks can support development of nursing scholarship for such issues. No single theory yet exists within nursing to explain the experiences and health ramifications of dating abuse among young women. DATA SOURCES A summary table of theories is provided. Literature was gathered via database search and bibliographic snowballing from reference lists of relevant articles. Included literature dates from 1982 through 2010. DISCUSSION Theories of relationship formation and function are discussed, including attachment, investment, feminist and gender role conflict theories. Betrayal trauma theory is considered as a mechanism of injury following an abusive dating experience. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING Gender, relationship, and adolescence combine in a complex developmental moment for young women. To improve nursing care for those at risk for or in the throes of abusive relationships, it is critical to develop specific nursing approaches to understanding these relationships. CONCLUSION Existing theories related to relationship and traumatic experiences can be combined in the development of a nursing theory of adolescent dating abuse among young women. PMID:21261691

  10. Evaluation of a Computer-Tailored Osteoporosis Prevention Intervention in Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lein, Donald H., Jr.; Clark, Diane; Turner, Lori W.; Kohler, Connie L.; Snyder, Scott; Morgan, Sarah L.; Schoenberger, Yu-Mei M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a theory-based computer-tailored osteoporosis prevention program on calcium and vitamin D intake and osteoporosis health beliefs in young women. Additionally, this study tested whether adding bone density testing to the intervention improved the outcomes. Methods: One hundred…

  11. What Makes Young Women More Resilient? Leadership, Work, Independence and Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toohey, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to discover what variables from the home and the high school may be related to a student having a high resilience score. The participants for the current research were all young women who attended the same all-girls, Catholic high school in the Midwest and were alumnae of the school. Resilience is defined as the…

  12. A Qualitative Exploration of Autonomy and Engagement for Young Women of Color in Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Lisa Hale; Sellars-Mulhern, Precious; Jones, Cynthia; Trinidad, America; Pierre-Louis, Joanne; Okomba, Adhiambo

    2014-01-01

    Given the nationwide concern about college persistence and graduation rates, this article reviews pertinent literature related to autonomous learning as well as social and academic engagement. It also presents findings of a qualitative study of young community college women of color, an understudied population. The article, part of a larger…

  13. Teaching Cooking Skills to Young Women with Mild Intellectual Disability: The Effectiveness of Internet Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alqahtani, Hanadi Hussein; Schoenfeld, Naomi A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using streaming video websites to improve, maintain, and generalize the cooking (meal-making) skills of four young women (18-22 years old) diagnosed with intellectual disabilities. A pre-experimental design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of a web-based multimedia…

  14. Gifted and Talented Young Women: Antecedents and Correlates of Life Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollinger, Constance L.; Fleming, Elyse S.

    1988-01-01

    The study examined the antecedents and correlates of general life satisfaction as reported by 108 gifted and talented young women. Results of the six-year longitudinal analyses supported the predicted centrality of instrumental self perception to social self esteem, occupational confidence, and general life satisfaction. (Author/DB)

  15. Physical Activity Levels among Adolescent and Young Adult Women and Men with and without Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundahl, Lina; Zetterberg, Marie; Wester, Anita; Rehn, Börje; Blomqvist, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Background: As physical activity can prevent overweight and promote general health, the aim was to investigate the amount of physical activity among adolescent and young adult women and men with intellectual disability (ID), compared to age-matched control groups without intellectual disability. A further aim was to examine whether physical…

  16. Home Journeys: Im/mobilities in Young Refugee and Asylum-Seeking Women's Negotiations of Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirriyeh, Ala

    2010-01-01

    Research with refugees and asylum seekers tends to be divided into research with adults or research with children under the age of 18. This is despite relational approaches to studying age that contest such dichotomous and fixed understandings of "life-stages". This article seeks to provide an insight into the experiences of young women who in…

  17. 77 FR 22788 - Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW); Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW); Correction Correction: This notice was published in the Federal Register on March...

  18. Racial/ethnic differences in identity and mental health outcomes among young sexual minority women

    PubMed Central

    Balsam, Kimberly F.; Molina, Yamile; Blayney, Jessica A.; Dillworth, Tiara; Zimmerman, Lindsey; Kaysen, Debra

    2015-01-01

    Previous research suggests that sexual minorities are at greater risk for trauma exposure, mental health problems, and substance use. To date, few studies have examined racial/ethnic differences among sexual minorities in relation to health-related behaviors and outcomes. Furthermore, studies of racial/ethnic differences among young adult sexual minority women (SMW) are virtually non-existent. The current study adds to the previous literature by exploring differences in trauma exposure, sexual identity, mental health, and substance use in a non-probability national sample of young adult SMW. A total of 967 self-identified lesbian and bisexual women were recruited via the internet using social networking sites to participate in a larger longitudinal study on young women’s health behaviors. The present study included 730 (76%) White, 108 (10%) African American, 91 (9%) Latina, and 38 (4%) Asian women ages 18 to 25. Results revealed differences in socioeconomic variables, degree of outness to family, childhood sexual assault, and forcible rape, but not overall lifetime trauma exposure. Among mental health and health-related behavior variables, few differences between groups emerged. Our findings indicate that both researchers and clinicians should turn their attention to processes of resilience among young SMW, particularly young SMW of color. PMID:25642782

  19. Exploring the experiences of violence among individuals who are homeless using a consumer-led approach.

    PubMed

    Meinbresse, Molly; Brinkley-Rubinstein, Lauren; Grassette, Amy; Benson, Joseph; Hamilton, Reginald; Malott, Marianne; Jenkins, Darlene

    2014-01-01

    Homelessness increases vulnerability to violence victimization; however, the precise factors associated with victimization and injury are not clearly understood. Thus, this study explores the prevalence of and characteristics associated with violence victimization among homeless individuals by surveying approximately 500 individuals experiencing homelessness in 5 cities across the United States. Our findings reveal that nearly one-half of our sample reported experiencing violence and that prolonged duration of homelessness (greater than 2 years) and being older increased the risk of experiencing a violent attack. In addition, increased length of homelessness and female gender predicted experiencing rape. Women were also significantly more likely to know one's perpetrator and experience continued suffering after a violent attack. We conclude that certain subpopulations within the homeless population are at an increased risk for victimization and, subsequently, require added protective services; implications for health care and policy recommendations are also discussed.

  20. Trichomonas vaginalis infection among young pregnant women in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Angelica E; Pinto, Valdir M; Gaydos, Charlotte A

    2014-01-01

    Our goal was to determine the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis and its associated risk factors in parturient women aged 15-24 years attending Brazilian public maternity units. Participants answered a demographic, behavioral, and clinical data questionnaire. A sample of urine was screened for T. vaginalis. A total 299 women participated in this study. The prevalence rate of T. vaginalis was 7.7% (95% CI: 4.7-10.7%). The factors associated with T. vaginalis were use of illicit drugs [OR=4.70 (95% CI: 1.63-13.56, p=0.004)] and not attending antenatal care [OR=5.15 (95% CI: 1.15-23.25, p=0.032)]. These data demonstrate that it is important to discuss how to include routine screening for T. vaginalis during antenatal care in Brazil.

  1. National Coalition for Homeless Veterans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Donate 1 2 3 4 NCHV will end homelessness among veterans by shaping public policy, promoting collaboration, ... providers. CFC #50917 You have helped reduce veteran homelessness by 70% since 2005. SITE SEARCH Search HEADLINES ...

  2. National Center on Family Homelessness

    MedlinePlus

    ... You are here Home National Center on Family Homelessness Center A staggering 2.5 million children are ... raise awareness of the current state of child homelessness in the United States, documents the number of ...

  3. Carotenoids and menstrual cycle phase in young women.

    PubMed

    Rock, C L; Demitrack, M A; Rosenwald, E N; Brown, M B

    1995-01-01

    An association between serum carotenoid concentrations and risk for certain cancers has been observed in epidemiological studies. Determinants of serum carotenoid concentrations are known to include dietary intake, plasma lipid concentrations, and body mass. Menstrual cycle phase, which has not been adequately addressed in previous studies, has been suggested to be a possible additional factor to consider in the interpretation of these values in women. We evaluated hormonal status, serum carotenoids, cholesterol, and triglycerides in 48 healthy women at early follicular, mid-luteal, and late luteal phases of one menstrual cycle. Eating patterns were assessed with diet records at two 3-day intervals during the cycle. Analysis was focused on the 30 subjects who were determined to have ovulated during the menstrual cycle under observation. Serum cholesterol was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in the late luteal phase of an ovulatory cycle. Lutein concentration was increased in the early follicular phase (P < 0.05) and alpha-carotene was increased in the mid-luteal phase (P < 0.05) only if uncorrected for total cholesterol. Other carotenoids did not vary across the menstrual cycle, whether corrected or uncorrected for total cholesterol concentration. In normal healthy ovulating women, serum carotenoids do not appear to vary with menstrual cycle phase when corrected for serum cholesterol concentrations.

  4. Rethinking HIV prevention to prepare for oral PrEP implementation for young African women

    PubMed Central

    Celum, Connie L; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; McConnell, Margaret; van Rooyen, Heidi; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Kurth, Ann; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Desmond, Chris; Morton, Jennifer; Baeten, Jared M

    2015-01-01

    Introduction HIV incidence remains high among young women in sub-Saharan Africa in spite of scale-up of HIV testing, behavioural interventions, antiretroviral treatment and medical male circumcision. There is a critical need to critique past approaches and learn about the most effective implementation of evidence-based HIV prevention strategies, particularly emerging interventions such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Discussion Women in sub-Saharan Africa are at increased risk of HIV during adolescence and into their 20s, in part due to contextual factors including gender norms and relationship dynamics, and limited access to reproductive and sexual health services. We reviewed behavioural, behavioural economic and biomedical approaches to HIV prevention for young African women, with a particular focus on the barriers, opportunities and implications for implementing PrEP in this group. Behavioural interventions have had limited impact in part due to not effectively addressing the context, broader sexual norms and expectations, and structural factors that increase risk and vulnerability. Of biomedical HIV prevention strategies that have been tested, daily oral PrEP has the greatest evidence for protection, although adherence was low in two placebo-controlled trials in young African women. Given high efficacy and effectiveness in other populations, demonstration projects of open-label PrEP in young African women are needed to determine the most effective delivery models and whether women at substantial risk are motivated and able to use oral PrEP with sufficient adherence to achieve HIV prevention benefits. Conclusions Social marketing, adherence support and behavioural economic interventions should be evaluated as part of PrEP demonstration projects among young African women in terms of their effectiveness in increasing demand and optimizing uptake and effective use of PrEP. Lessons learned through evaluations of implementation strategies for delivering oral Pr

  5. Sexting behaviors among young Hispanic women: incidence and association with other high-risk sexual behaviors.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Christopher J

    2011-09-01

    Several legal cases in the United States in which adolescents were charged with child pornography distribution after sharing nude photographs of themselves with romantic partners or others have highlighted the issue of sexting behaviors among youth. Although policy makers, mental health workers, educators and parents have all expressed concern regarding the potential harm of sexting behaviors, little to no research has examined this phenomenon empirically. The current study presents some preliminary data on the incidence of sexting behavior and associated high risk sexual behaviors in a sample of 207 predominantly Hispanic young women age 16-25. Approximately 20% of young women reported engaging in sexting behavior. Sexting behaviors were not associated with most other high-risk sexual behaviors, but were slightly more common in women who found sex to be highly pleasurable or who displayed histrionic personality traits.

  6. Evaluating the impact of pharmacist health education on the perceptions of the pharmacist’s role among women living in a homeless shelter

    PubMed Central

    Tsu, Laura; Buckley, Kelsey; Nguyen, Sarah; Kohn, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the impact of pharmacist-provided educational seminars on the participant’s perception of the pharmacist’s role in providing women’s health education. Secondary objectives include the participant’s level of perceived benefit from the information provided during each presentation, as well as determining characteristics of participants who are interested in attending seminars. Methods: This is a prospective study conducted within a homeless women’s shelter in Phoenix, Arizona. Pharmacists and pharmacy students provided 10 monthly educational seminars on topics related to women’s health. Participants completed a pre- and post-seminar survey regarding their perceptions of the presentations and pharmacists. Results: Fifty-six participants attended at least one of 10 seminars from January to November 2014. The average age was 46 years old, taking approximately 3 medications, and 66% completed a high school degree or lower. Prior to the presentations, 30% of participants agreed or strongly agreed that they would seek advice from a pharmacist on the topic presented, which increased significantly to 82% of participants after the presentation (p<0.001). Similarly, 55% of participants rated themselves as agreeing or strongly agreeing with being knowledgeable on the topic presented prior to the presentation, and this increased significantly to 77% after the presentation (p=0.001). After attending the educational session, 70% of participants agreed or strongly agreed that they would make changes to their health, and that they would attend an additional session. The participants noted their increased learning about the topic, the clarity of visual aids and presentation, and knowledge of the presenters as the best parts of the presentation. Conclusion: Pharmacist’s participation in providing educational seminars in the homeless women’s population increases the participant’s knowledge and perception of the pharmacist’s role within the

  7. Homelessness: From the Clients' Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertzberg, Edwina L.

    Although homelessness is not a new phenomenon, the number of homeless people today has fostered mobilization on their behalf by public and private sectors. Principal factors accepted as contributing to homelessness are inadequate low-cost housing, unemployment, chemical dependency, family violence, and inadequate community services for the…

  8. Sexually transmitted infections and use of sexual health services among young Australian women: women's health Australia study.

    PubMed

    Schofield, M J; Minichiello, V; Mishra, G D; Plummer, D; Savage, J

    2000-05-01

    Our objective was to examine associations between self-reported sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and sociodemographic, lifestyle, health status, health service use and quality of life factors among young Australian women; and their use of family planning and sexual health clinics and associations with health, demographic and psychosocial factors. The study sample comprised 14,762 women aged 18-23 years who participated in the mailed baseline survey for the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, conducted in 1996. The main outcome measures are self report of ever being diagnosed by a doctor with an STI, including chlamydia, genital herpes, genital warts or other STIs, and use of family planning and sexual health clinics. The self-reported incidence of STI was 1.7% for chlamydia, 1.1% genital herpes, 3.1% genital warts, and 2.1% other STIs. There was a large number of demographic, health behaviour, psychosocial and health service use factors significantly and independently associated with reports of having had each STI. Factors independently associated with use of family planning clinic included unemployment, current smoking, having had a Pap smear less than 2 years ago, not having ancillary health insurance, having consulted a hospital doctor and having higher stress and life events score. Factors independently associated with use of a sexual health clinic included younger age, lower occupation status, being a current or ex-smoker, being a binge drinker, having had a Pap smear, having consulted a hospital doctor, having poorer mental health and having higher life events score. This study reports interesting correlates of having an STI among young Australian women aged 18-23. The longitudinal nature of this study provides the opportunity to explore the long-term health and gynaecological outcomes of having STIs during young adulthood. PMID:10824940

  9. Social Support and Survival in Young Women with Breast Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Ann F.; Stewart, Susan L.; Wild, Robert C.; Bloom, Joan R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose While previous evidence has shown increased likelihood for survival in cancer patients who have social support, little is known about changes in social support during illness and their impact on survival. This study examines the relationship between social support and survival among women diagnosed with breast carcinoma, specifically assessing the effect of network size and changes in social contact post-diagnosis. Methods A population-based sample of 584 women was followed for up to 12.5 years (median follow-up =10.3 years). The mean age at diagnosis was 44 years, 81% were married, and 29% were racial/ethnic minorities. Cox regression analysis was used to estimate survival as a function of social support (changes in social contact and the size of social support), disease severity, treatment, health status, and socio-demographic factors. Results Fifty-four-percent of the women had local and 44% had regional stage disease. About 53% underwent mastectomy, 68% received chemotherapy, and 55% had radiation. Regression results showed that disease stage, estrogen receptor status, and mastectomy were associated with greater risk of dying. Although network size was not related to survival, increased contact with friends/family post-diagnosis was associated with lower risk of death, with a hazard ratio of 0.31 (95% CI, 0.17-0.57). Conclusion Findings from this study have identified an important aspect of a woman’s social network that impacts survival. An increase in the amount of social contact, representing greater social support, may increase the likelihood of the women’s survival by enhancing their coping skills, providing emotional support, and expanding opportunities for information-sharing. PMID:20967848

  10. Pheromonal influences on sociosexual behavior in young women.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Norma L; Pitino, Lisa

    2002-03-01

    A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of a synthesized putative female pheromone was conducted with regularly menstruating, university women (N=36, mean age=27.8). The pheromone formula was derived from earlier work investigating the underarm secretions of fertile, sexually active, heterosexual women. A vial of either synthesized pheromone or placebo was selected blindly and added to a subject's perfume. Subjects recorded seven sociosexual behaviors and reported them weekly across three menstrual cycles. Beginning with Day 8 of each cycle, the first cycle contained a 2-week baseline period followed by an experimental period of as many as 3 weeks each from the next two cycles for a maximum of 6 weeks. The 19 pheromone and 17 placebo subjects did not differ significantly in age, weight, body mass index, dating status or ethnicity nor in reported accuracy, back-filling data, perception of a positive effect or perfume use. Placebo subjects were significantly taller than pheromone subjects. Except for male approaches, subjects did not differ significantly at baseline in average weekly sociosexual behaviors. A significantly greater proportion of pheromone users compared with placebo users increased over baseline in frequency of sexual intercourse, sleeping next to a partner, formal dates and petting/affection/kissing but not in frequency of male approaches, informal dates or masturbation. Three or more sociosexual behaviors increased over baseline for 74% of pheromone users compared with 23% of placebo users. We conclude that this synthesized pheromone formula acted as a sex attractant pheromone and increased the sexual attractiveness of women to men.

  11. Young single women using abortion in Hanoi, Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Belanger, D; Khuat Thu Hong

    1998-06-01

    This study describes the population characteristics among a hospital-based sample of single women who experienced an abortion in Hanoi, Viet Nam. Data were obtained from topical and in-depth interviews with women in two Hanoi hospitals, a district health center, and a private clinic in Hadong, a Hanoi suburb. The total sample consisted of 279 single women. 75% were residents of Hanoi. In-migrants had lived in Hanoi for an average of 4 years. Over 80% lived with their parents or relatives, of whom 60% lived in privately-owned housing. Nearly 20% lived alone. Nearly 40% had a college education; almost 50% had completed secondary school. The average monthly income was 358,000 dong. Over 95% had a boyfriend at the time of the survey. 33% had engaged in their first sexual intercourse within the prior year. The average duration between first sex and abortion was about 15 months. Among those with the first boyfriend, the interval was shorter (7 months). About 45% waited 6 months before having their first sexual intercourse; 38% waited 1 year. Among first abortion users, under 20% had ever used a contraceptive method. The few that had used contraception used it ineffectively. Almost 50% had never talked about sexuality with anyone. Over 93% believed that the pregnancy could have been avoided. Most desired high-quality printed information and a youth-specific health center. Qualitative findings revealed misconceptions about contraception. Following abortion, most did not want another unwanted pregnancy. The implications for policies and programs are identified.

  12. Young Women's Knowledge and Beliefs about Osteoporosis: Results from a Cross-Sectional Survey of College Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasper, Mark J.; Garber, Michele; Walsdorf, Kristie

    2007-01-01

    Background: About 40% of White American women over age 50 experience osteoporosis-related fracture of the hip, spine, or wrist during their lives. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the level of osteoporosis knowledge and beliefs among young women. Methods: University women (n=302) completed a self-administered osteoporosis risk…

  13. Avoiding Unwanted Pregnancy-The Role of Communication, Information and Knowledge in the Use of Contraception among Young Norwegian Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundby, Johanne; Svanemyr, Joar; Maehre, Tale

    1999-01-01

    Study identified early entry points to sexuality, contraception, abortion, and post-abortion counseling. Young women (N=102) seeking an abortion or contraceptives were interviewed. Results showed there are different levels of consistency in contraceptive use among women, and that even women with few partners and fairly good contraceptive…

  14. Motivations for sex among low-income African American young women.

    PubMed

    Deardorff, Julianna; Suleiman, Ahna Ballonoff; Dal Santo, Teresa S; Flythe, Michelle; Gurdin, J Barry; Eyre, Stephen L

    2013-12-01

    African American young women exhibit higher risk for sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS, compared with European American women, and this is particularly true for African American women living in low-income contexts. We used rigorous qualitative methods, that is, domain analysis, including free listing (n = 20), similarity assessment (n = 25), and focus groups (four groups), to elicit self-described motivations for sex among low-income African American young women (19-22 years). Analyses revealed six clusters: Love/Feelings, For Fun, Curiosity, Pressured, For Money, and For Material Things. Focus groups explored how African American women interpreted the clusters in light of condom use expectations. Participants expressed the importance of using condoms in risky situations, yet endorsed condom use during casual sexual encounters less than half the time. This study highlights the need for more effective intervention strategies to increase condom use expectations among low-income African American women, particularly in casual relationships where perceived risk is already high. PMID:23372029

  15. Physical attractiveness, attitudes toward career, and mate preferences among young Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Teng, Fei; Chan, Darius K-S; Zhang, Denghao

    2014-01-01

    We examined young Chinese women's mate preferences as a function of their self-perceived attractiveness and career attitudes. A total of 264 young Chinese women rated their own attractiveness, reported their attitudes toward career, and rated the importance of 20 mate characteristics. The characteristics encompassed four facets that individuals typically consider when seeking a long-term mate: good-genes indicators, good investment ability indicators, good parenting indicators, and good partner indicators. We found that both self-perceived attractiveness and attitudes toward career were positively associated with the importance attached to several of the characteristics. Moreover, women who had high career focus but low self-perceived attractiveness attached more value to intelligence, ambition, and industriousness than women who had low career focus but high self-perceived attractiveness; women with low career focus but high self-perceived attractiveness attached more value to physical attractiveness in a mate than women with high career focus but low self-perceived attractiveness. We discussed the limitations of our research and directions for future research. PMID:24525338

  16. Young, southern women's perceptions of STEM careers: Examining science, technology, engineering & mathematics as a gendered construct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinton, Jessica Elizabeth

    Career interests develop over a lifetime and tend to solidify during late adolescence and early adulthood (Lent, Brown, and Hackett, 2002). The primary purpose of the present qualitative study, which is framed in Feminist Standpoint Theory (Haraway, 1988; Harding, 2007; Naples, 2007; Richardson, 2007), is to understand how eighth-grade, young women in a suburban, public, southern, middle school the South Carolina County School District (CCSD) (pseudonym) perceive their accessibility to Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) courses and careers. The secondary purpose is to understand these young women's "perceptions and unconscious beliefs about gender in science and mathematics" and how their "perceptions and unconscious beliefs about gender" in the STEM fields may impact the careers that these young women may choose in the future (American Association of University Women, 2010, 9). Within the present study, the perceptions of young women who identified as "Interested in Science," "Somewhat Interested in Science" and "Uninterested in Science" were identified. STEM courses and careers are a major emphasis in education today. Increasing the numbers of Americans who pursue STEM careers is a government priority, as these careers will strengthen the economy (AAUW 2010). The present study reveals how young women who are highly motivated, talented students perceive STEM courses and careers and how they are influenced by their experiences, gendered messages, and knowledge of STEM careers. To analyze the data, four of Saldana's (2010) dramaturgical codes were utilized including: 1. OBJectives, or motives; 2. CONflicts the participants faced; 3. TACtics to dealing with obstacles; and 4. ATTitudes toward the setting, others, and the conflict. The InVivo Codes allowed the participants stories to emerge through the set of dramaturgical codes that allowed for viewing the girls' experience sin different ways that added depth to their stories. The young women in

  17. "Red tips for hot lips": advertising cigarettes for young women in Britain, 1920-70.

    PubMed

    Tinkler, P

    2001-01-01

    The girl or woman smoker is a twentieth-century phenomenon. In 1900, smoking was invariably associated with sexually deviant womanhood. Today, smoking is firmly, if contentiously, established as a feminine practice in British society. This article examines one aspect of the twentieth-century feminisation of smoking in Britain, namely, the ways in which smoking practices have been presented as appropriate for young women in the period 1920-70. Advertisements featured in magazines for young women aged 15-29 years have been chosen as a particularly apt medium through which to explore some of the ways in which cigarettes and smoking practices have been delineated and infused with meaning. These advertisements constituted a discourse for the circulation of messages about the relationship of women to cigarettes. Findings reveal a number of shifts in cigarette advertisements featured in Women's magazines from 1920 to 1970. Firstly, during the 1930s and early 1940s, advertisements were, in contrast to later counterparts, preoccupied with establishing smoking as a feminine practice. Key to processes by which smoking was feminised were various mechanisms whereby the cigarette was depicted as part of the presentation of a heterosexual identity and where smoking practices were embedded in heterosexual relations and rituals. Secondly, there was a discernible shift in the way women were addressed by advertisements, from potential women smokers in the 1930s to more general consumers in the 1960s. Thirdly and relatedly, the significance attached to women smoking changed between 1920 and 1970. In the 1930s, smoking was utilised to signify that women were "modern"; in the period 1960-70, smoking served to indicate that women were recognised, and accorded status, as consumers.

  18. Immunohistochemical prognostic index for breast cancer in young women

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, I; Algorta, J; Díaz de Otazu, R; Pelayo, A; Fariña, J

    2003-01-01

    Aims: Women under 35 years of age comprise a small proportion of patients with breast cancer, but determining their prognosis can be difficult. This prospective, multivariate study looked at several factors with the aim of obtaining a useful index to evaluate the prognosis of these women. Methods: In total, 108 patients below 35 years of age affected by invasive ductal carcinoma without distant metastasis were studied. The mean duration of the follow up period was six years. Histopathological (tumour size, histological grade, and lymph node stage) and immunohistochemical (c-erbB-2, p53, oestrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor) factors were measured in all patients, and the Nottingham prognostic index (NPI) was then calculated. An immunohistochemical prognostic index (IHPI) was created using the arithmetic sum of the four individual immunohistochemical factors. Results: In univariate assessment of survival, all the studied factors yielded a significant association with either overall survival or disease free survival, except for c-erbB-2 and p53 with disease free survival. In univariate calculation of risk, all the factors gave significant results; however, in multivariate analysis only tumour size, histological grade, and progesterone receptor were significant. Both NPI and IHPI correlated significantly with prognosis. In multivariate regression analysis, IHPI correlated with tumour size and there was a significant interaction between both variables. Conclusion: IHPI is very useful in determining the prognosis of tumours ⩽ 2 cm and of moderate use for tumours > 2, although it has no use in tumours > 5 cm. PMID:14645694

  19. Psychiatric Diagnoses and Comorbidities in a Diverse, Multicity Cohort of Young Transgender Women

    PubMed Central

    Reisner, Sari L.; Biello, Katie B.; White Hughto, Jaclyn M.; Kuhns, Lisa; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Garofalo, Robert; Mimiaga, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Transgender youth, including adolescent and young adult transgender women assigned a male sex at birth who identify as girls, women, transgender women, transfemale, male-to-female, or another diverse transfeminine gender identity, represent a vulnerable population at risk for negative mental health and substance use outcomes. Diagnostic clinical interviews to assess prevalence of mental health, substance dependence, and comorbid psychiatric disorders in young transgender women remain scarce. OBJECTIVE To report the prevalence of mental health, substance dependence, and comorbid psychiatric disorders assessed via clinical diagnostic interview in a high-risk community-recruited sample of young transgender women. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Observational study reporting baseline finding from a diverse sample of 298 sexually active, young transgender women aged 16 through 29 years (mean age, 23.4 years; 49.0%black, 12.4%Latina, 25.5%white, and 13.1%other minority race/ethnicity) and enrolled in Project LifeSkills, an ongoing randomized controlled HIV prevention intervention efficacy trial in Chicago and Boston, between 2012 and 2015. EXPOSURE Transfeminine gender identity. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Age- and site-adjusted prevalence and comorbidities of mental health and substance dependence disorders assessed via the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, including 1 or more diagnoses, 2 or more comorbid diagnoses, major depressive episode (current and lifetime), past 30-day suicidal risk (no/low risk vs moderate/high risk), past 6-month generalized anxiety disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder, and past 12-month alcohol dependence and nonalcohol psychoactive substance use dependence. RESULTS Of the 298 transgender women, 41.5%of participants had 1 or more mental health or substance dependence diagnoses; 1 in 5 (20.1%) had 2 or more comorbid psychiatric diagnoses. Prevalence of specific disorders was as follows: lifetime and current major

  20. Transactional sex amongst young people in rural northern Tanzania: an ethnography of young women's motivations and negotiation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Material exchange for sex (transactional sex) may be important to sexual relationships and health in certain cultures, yet the motivations for transactional sex, its scale and consequences are still little understood. The aim of this paper is to examine young women's motivations to exchange sex for gifts or money, the way in which they negotiate transactional sex throughout their relationships, and the implications of these negotiations for the HIV epidemic. Method An ethnographic research design was used, with information collected primarily using participant observation and in-depth interviews in a rural community in North Western Tanzania. The qualitative approach was complemented by an innovative assisted self-completion questionnaire. Findings Transactional sex underlay most non-marital relationships and was not, per se, perceived as immoral. However, women's motivations varied, for instance: escaping intense poverty, seeking beauty products or accumulating business capital. There was also strong pressure from peers to engage in transactional sex, in particular to consume like others and avoid ridicule for inadequate remuneration. Macro-level factors shaping transactional sex (e.g. economic, kinship and normative factors) overwhelmingly benefited men, but at a micro-level there were different dimensions of power, stemming from individual attributes and immediate circumstances, some of which benefited women. Young women actively used their sexuality as an economic resource, often entering into relationships primarily for economic gain. Conclusion Transactional sex is likely to increase the risk of HIV by providing a dynamic for partner change, making more affluent, higher risk men more desirable, and creating further barriers to condom use. Behavioural interventions should directly address how embedded transactional sex is in sexual culture. PMID:20429913

  1. Doctor Knows Best? Tubal Ligation in Young, Childless Women.

    PubMed

    Goldrath, Kathryn; Smith, Lauren B

    2016-09-01

    When a gynecologist asks a twenty-one-year-old patient about her use of contraception, he is surprised that she would like to have a tubal ligation. The patient says that she would "never want to bring a child into this screwed up world." She has discussed tubal ligation with her boyfriend of one year, and he has told her that he accepts her decision. She asks her doctor if she can schedule the procedure as soon as possible. Her gynecologist mentions that he is concerned that she is very young and may eventually change her mind about having children. She insists that she has thought about it carefully and is certain that she wants the procedure. Her doctor feels very uncomfortable about this request. He consults the hospital ethics committee. Should he do as the patient asks or suggest that she wait at least six months and reconsider? PMID:27649822

  2. Interactions between risky decisions, impulsiveness and smoking in young tattooed women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background According to previous studies, one of the common problems of everyday life of persons with tattoos is risky behavior. However, direct examination of the decision making process, as well as factors which determine women’s risk-taking decisions to get tattoos, have not been conducted. This study investigates whether risk taking decision-making is associated with the self-assessment impulsiveness in tattooed women. Methods Young women (aged 18–35 years) with (N = 60) and without (N = 60) tattoos, performed the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), as a measure of decision-making processes, as well as completing the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11). Results Tattooed women showed significantly higher scores in the BIS-11 and preference for disadvantageous decks on the IGT compared to non-tattooed women. There was no significant correlation between risky decision-making in the IGT and BIS-11 impulsivity measures. A significantly higher rate of smoking was observed in the tattooed women. However, the analysis did not reveal a group effect after adjustment for smoking in the IGT and the BIS-11 measures. Conclusions The present study was specifically designed to resolve questions regarding associations between impulsiveness and risky decision-making in tattooed women. It shows that in tattooed women, risky decisions are not a direct result of their self-reported impulsiveness. Smoking does not explain the psychometric differences between tattooed women and controls. PMID:24180254

  3. Occurrence of Vitamin 25(OH)D3 Insufficiency in Young Women with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rogal, Karolina; Mankowska, Aneta

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency is prevalent and may be associated with higher risk for metabolic syndrome. Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 is known to perturb cellular function in many tissues, including the endocrine pancreas, which are involved in the pathogenesis of obesity and type 2 diabetes. This study examined the vitamin 25(OH)D3 concentration and its relationship with the metabolic syndrome among 52 young women aged 20-40 yrs with overweight and obese. As defined by revised International Diabetes Federation (IDF 2005) criteria, 27 of the 52 women had the metabolic syndrome (52%). Women with MS had significantly lower mean concentration of vitamin 25(OH)D3. Vitamin D insufficiency was more prevalent in women with MS, compared with those who did not fulfill the criteria for this syndrome (63% vs 37%, respectively) as well as among women with metabolic syndrome mild deficiency occurred much more frequently than in without MS (58% vs 26%, respectively). When serum concentrations of 25(OH)D3 were categorized in tertiles, there was a decreasing prevalence of MS in women with increasing concentrations of 25(OH)D3. The study findings suggest that insufficiency of vitamin 25(OH)D3 is more common in women with excessive body weight and metabolic syndrome than in women with excessive body weight without metabolic syndrome.

  4. Life history of female preferences for male faces: a comparison of pubescent girls, nonpregnant and pregnant young women, and middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Kościński, Krzysztof

    2011-12-01

    Although scientific interest in facial attractiveness has developed substantially in recent years, few studies have contributed to our understanding of the ontogeny of facial preferences. In this study, attractiveness of 30 male faces was evaluated by four female groups: girls at puberty, nonpregnant and pregnant young women, and middle-aged women. The main findings are as follows: (1) Preference for sexy-looking faces was strongest in young, nonpregnant women. (2) Biologically more mature girls displayed more adultlike preferences. (3) The intragroup consistency for postmenopausal women was relatively low. (4) In terms of the preference pattern, pregnant women were more similar to perimenopausal women than they were to their nonpregnant peers. (5) Preference for youthful appearance decreased with the age of the women. I argue that the life history of female preferences for male faces is, to a large extent, hormone-driven and underpinned by a set of evolutionary adaptations. PMID:22388946

  5. Acute coronary syndromes in young women - the scale of the problem and the associated risks.

    PubMed

    Bęćkowski, Maciej

    2015-06-01

    Diseases of the cardiovascular system mainly affect elderly patients, but they are increasingly often encountered in young individuals. It is estimated that 1 in 20 patients with ischemic heart disease is under the age of 45 years. Only 20% of them are women. According to the PL-ACS register, cases of acute coronary syndromes in young women represent 0.6% of all acute coronary syndrome cases. The most common etiology is atherosclerosis (80%). Other causes include dissections and spasms of the coronary arteries as well as clotting disorders. Smoking tobacco is the most important risk factor, followed by hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes. The long-term prognosis is usually favorable, but it deteriorates significantly in the event of complications. The literature on this subject is not extensive. Most data come from non-randomized studies of young patients conducted regardless of sex. The purpose of this paper is to present the problem posed by acute coronary syndromes in young women. PMID:26336495

  6. Acute coronary syndromes in young women – the scale of the problem and the associated risks

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Diseases of the cardiovascular system mainly affect elderly patients, but they are increasingly often encountered in young individuals. It is estimated that 1 in 20 patients with ischemic heart disease is under the age of 45 years. Only 20% of them are women. According to the PL-ACS register, cases of acute coronary syndromes in young women represent 0.6% of all acute coronary syndrome cases. The most common etiology is atherosclerosis (80%). Other causes include dissections and spasms of the coronary arteries as well as clotting disorders. Smoking tobacco is the most important risk factor, followed by hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes. The long-term prognosis is usually favorable, but it deteriorates significantly in the event of complications. The literature on this subject is not extensive. Most data come from non-randomized studies of young patients conducted regardless of sex. The purpose of this paper is to present the problem posed by acute coronary syndromes in young women. PMID:26336495

  7. Sustained High HIV Incidence in Young Women in Southern Africa: Social, Behavioral and Structural Factors and Emerging Intervention Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Abigail; Colvin, Christopher J.; Kuo, Caroline; Swartz, Alison; Lurie, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Young women in southern Africa experience some of the highest incidence rates of HIV infection in the world. Across southern Africa, HIV prevalence among women increases rapidly between the teenage years and young adulthood. Adult HIV prevalence is 16.8 percent in South Africa, 23 percent in Botswana, 23 percent in Lesotho and 26.5 percent in Swaziland. Existing research has illuminated some of the key social, behavioral and structural factors associated with young women's disproportionate HIV risk, including gendered social norms that advantage male power in sexual relationships, and age disparities in relationships between younger women and older male partners. Important structural factors include the region's history of labor migration and legacy of family disruption, and entrenched social and economic inequalities. New interventions are emerging to address these high levels of HIV risk in the key population of young women, including structural interventions, biomedical prevention such as PrEP, and combined HIV prevention approaches. PMID:25855338

  8. Sustained High HIV Incidence in Young Women in Southern Africa: Social, Behavioral, and Structural Factors and Emerging Intervention Approaches.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Abigail; Colvin, Christopher J; Kuo, Caroline; Swartz, Alison; Lurie, Mark

    2015-06-01

    Young women in southern Africa experience some of the highest incidence rates of HIV infection in the world. Across southern Africa, HIV prevalence among women increases rapidly between the teenage years and young adulthood. Adult HIV prevalence is 16.8 % in South Africa, 23 % in Botswana, 23 % in Lesotho, and 26.5 % in Swaziland. Existing research has illuminated some of the key social, behavioral, and structural factors associated with young women's disproportionate HIV risk, including gendered social norms that advantage male power in sexual relationships and age disparities in relationships between younger women and older male partners. Important structural factors include the region's history of labor migration and legacy of family disruption, and entrenched social and economic inequalities. New interventions are emerging to address these high levels of HIV risk in the key population of young women, including structural interventions, biomedical prevention such as PrEP, and combined HIV prevention approaches.

  9. Acculturation and metabolic syndrome risk factors in young Mexican and Mexican-American women.

    PubMed

    Vella, Chantal A; Ontiveros, Diana; Zubia, Raul Y; Bader, Julia O

    2011-02-01

    Little is known about effects of acculturation on disease risk in young Mexican and Mexican-American women living in a border community. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between acculturation and features of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Mexican and Mexican-American women (n = 60) living in the largest US-Mexico border community. Acculturation was measured by the short acculturation scale for Hispanics and birthplace. Body composition was measured by Bod Pod and daily physical activity was measured by questionnaire and accelerometer. Increased acculturation was related to individual features of MetS and increased risk of MetS. These relationships were mediated by fat mass rather than inactivity. Fat mass mediates the relationships between acculturation and individual features of MetS in young Mexican and Mexican-American women. These findings suggest that fat mass, rather than inactivity, is an important contributor to disease risk in young Mexican and Mexican-American women living in a large US/Mexico border community.

  10. The prevalence and determinants of sexual violence against young married women by husbands in rural Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sexual violence within marriage is a public health and human rights issue; yet it remains a much neglected research area, especially in Nepal. This paper represents one of the first attempts to quantify the extent of sexual violence and its determinants among young married women in Nepal. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1,296 married women aged 15–24 years in four major ethnic groups in rural Nepal. The survey data were used to estimate the prevalence and identify determinants of sexual violence. The relative importance of different correlates of sexual violence in the past 12 months at the individual, household and community levels were examined by using a multi-level multivariate statistical approach. Results Of the young women surveyed 46% had experienced sexual violence at some point and 31% had experienced sexual violence in the past 12 months. Women’s autonomy was found to be particularly protective against sexual violence both at the individual and community level. Women’s educational level was not found to be protective, while the educational level of the husband was found to be highly protective. Conclusions The high prevalence of sexual violence against young women by husbands found in this study is a matter for serious concern and underscores the need for a comprehensive response by policymakers. PMID:22695085

  11. Young Women with Breast Cancer: A Focus Group Study of Unmet Needs

    PubMed Central

    Greaney, Mary L.; Sprunck-Harrild, Kim; Meyer, Meghan E.; Emmons, Karen M.; Partridge, Ann H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Young women with breast cancer suffer distress both at the time of diagnosis and afterwards. This study aimed to elucidate which issues are most disturbing to this population and which might be amenable to intervention. Methods: English-speaking women treated or involved in research at the Dana–Farber Cancer Institute for stage I–III breast cancer while aged 18–42 years were invited to participate in one of four focus groups. A trained moderator led each 90-minute audio-recorded group using a semi-structured interview guide. All transcripts were coded using thematic content analysis with NVivo software. Results: Thirty-six women participated. Three major themes emerged from the analyses of these focus groups' data: (1) participants felt different from older breast cancer patients with regard to relationships, fertility, menopausal symptoms, treatment side effects, and work/finances; (2) participants faced unique challenges transitioning into the survivorship phase of care; and (3) participants desired assistance, including connections with other young patients, help navigating the healthcare system, educational materials, and lists of appropriate counselors. Conclusion: Young women with breast cancer have unmet needs for psychosocial support, education, and symptom management, and can identify potential support that may help meet these needs. PMID:24380034

  12. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Alcohol Dependence in Young Women*

    PubMed Central

    Sartor, Carolyn E.; Mccutcheon, Vivia V.; Pommer, Nicole E.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Duncan, Alexis E.; Waldron, Mary; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the current study is to characterize the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol dependence (AD) in women, distinguishing PTSD-specific influences on AD from the contribution of co-occurring psychiatric conditions and from the influences of trauma more generally. Method: Trauma histories and DSM-IV lifetime diagnoses, including PTSD and AD, were obtained via telephone interview from 3,768 female twins. Based on PTSD status and trauma history, participants were categorized as no trauma (43.7%), trauma without PTSD (52.6%), or trauma with PTSD (3.7%). Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were conducted using trauma/PTSD status to predict AD, first adjusting only for ethnicity and parental problem drinking, then including conduct disorder, major depressive disorder, regular smoking, and cannabis abuse. Results: Before accounting for psychiatric covariates, elevated rates of AD were evident in both trauma-exposed groups, but those with PTSD were at significantly greater risk for AD than those without PTSD. This distinction was no longer statistically significant when psychiatric covariates were included in the model, but both trauma-exposed groups continued to show elevated odds of developing AD compared with the no trauma group. Conclusions: The elevated rates of AD in women who have experienced trauma are not accounted for in full by psychiatric conditions that commonly co-occur with AD and trauma exposure. The greater likelihood of developing AD in the subset of trauma-exposed individuals who develop PTSD may reflect higher levels of distress and/ or higher rates of psychopathology associated with traumas that lead to PTSD rather than PTSD-specific influences. PMID:20946737

  13. Effect of zinc supplementation on mood states in young women: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sawada, T; Yokoi, K

    2010-03-01

    The relation of zinc (Zn) nutriture to brain development and function has been elucidated. The purpose of this study is to examine whether Zn supplementation improves mood states in young women. The study used a double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled procedure. The major outcomes were psychological measures, somatic symptoms and serum Zn. Thirty women were placed randomly and in equal numbers into two groups, and they ingested one capsule containing multivitamins (MVs) or MV and 7 mg Zn daily for 10 weeks. Women who took MV and Zn showed a significant reduction in anger-hostility score (P=0.009) and depression-dejection score (P=0.011) in the Profile of Moods State (POMS) and a significant increase in serum Zn concentration (P=0.008), whereas women who took only MV did not. Our results suggest that Zn supplementation may be effective in reducing anger and depression.

  14. Breast Cancer in Young Women in Latin America: An Unmet, Growing Burden

    PubMed Central

    Aguila, Christian; Magallanes-Hoyos, Maria C.; Mohar, Alejandro; Bargalló, Enrique; Meneses, Abelardo; Cazap, Eduardo; Gomez, Henry; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Chávarri-Guerra, Yanin; Murillo, Raúl; Barrios, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Background. Breast cancer (BC) is the leading cause of malignancy-related deaths among women aged ≤45 years. There are unexplored and uncertain issues for BC in this particular group in Latin America. The aim of this study is to evaluate BC incidence and mortality among young women and related clinicopathological and survivorship aspects in this region. Materials and Methods. Data were obtained from Globocan 2008 and the International Agency for Research on Cancer's Cancer Incidence in Five Continents series plus databases. We requested collaboration from the 12 different national cancer institutes in Latin America through SLACOM, the Latin American and Caribbean Society of Medical Oncology, and conducted a systematic literature review to obtain local data regarding the prevalence of BC among young women and their characteristics, outcomes, and survivorship-related issues. Results. BC incidence and mortality proportions for Latin American women aged <44 years were higher when compared with those of developed countries (20% vs. 12% and 14% vs. 7%, respectively). We found only a few Latin American series addressing this topic, and prevalence varied between 8% and 14%. Stage II and III disease, high histological grade, and triple-negative and HER2 BC were features frequently observed among young Latin American BC patients. Conclusion. The rising incidence and mortality of BC in young Latin American women is a call to action in the region. It is necessary to monitor the epidemiological and clinical data through reliable cancer registries and to consider the implementation of protocols for education of patients and health professionals. This unmet, growing burden must be considered as a top priority of the national programs in the fight against BC, and models of specialized units should be implemented for this particular group of patients to provide better care for this emergent challenge. PMID:24277771

  15. Very young adolescent women in Georgia: has abortion or contraception lowered their fertility?

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, J D

    1977-01-01

    Despite a state law enacted in 1972 which allowed minors to obtain contraceptive services without parental consent, births to very young women in Georgia (age 14 and less) have risen in recent years. Beginning in 1974, however, this trend has reversed. Increased access to induced abortion following the 1973 U.S. Supreme Court decision appears to have been responsible for the decline. Supporting this assertion are: 1) the temporal relationship between increased access to abortion and the decline in births, 2) the geographic evidence that the decline in births occurred first in Atlanta where abortion utilization is the highest and then followed in areas with somewhat more limited utilization, and 3) a similar observation that the decline occurred earlier and more markedly among young white teenagers whose abortion utilization is higher. Although abortion appears to have had the most visible impact on births, most people would probably agree that efforts toward providing contraception to these young women remain worth the challenge. The ratio of young teenegers accepting contraceptives to young teenegers getting pregnant is suggested as a useful intermediator of the success of family planning programs. PMID:879388

  16. 'She met her (boy)friend online': Negotiating gender identity and sexuality among young Thai women in online space.

    PubMed

    Boonmongkon, Pimpawun; Ojanen, Timo T; Samakkeekarom, Ronnapoom; Samoh, Nattharat; Iamsilpa, Rachawadee; Topananan, Soifa; Cholratana, Mudjalin; Guadamuz, Thomas E

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the experiences of women 15-24 years old living in one suburban district in Bangkok. Its objectives are to analyse processes of building and negotiating social identity and femininity in online spaces by young women; the ways in which young women express their sexuality using online technologies; connections between the 'online' and 'offline' worlds in terms of emotions as well as social and sexual networks; and traditional values regarding female sexuality reproduced through online media and how young women negotiate and resist these. Content and narrative analyses were conducted using qualitative data from 9 focus-group discussions and 14 narrative interviews. Findings indicated that the online media serve as tools that help young women develop and express their gender identities. Mobile phones and the Internet facilitate communication in order to express love, responsibility, intimacy and sexual desires. Discourse on women's chastity, which puts pressure on women to maintain their virginity, still influences online and mobile contents, messages and images among young women. However, women also exerted agency in negotiating and expressing their sexuality, both online and offline.

  17. 'She met her (boy)friend online': Negotiating gender identity and sexuality among young Thai women in online space.

    PubMed

    Boonmongkon, Pimpawun; Ojanen, Timo T; Samakkeekarom, Ronnapoom; Samoh, Nattharat; Iamsilpa, Rachawadee; Topananan, Soifa; Cholratana, Mudjalin; Guadamuz, Thomas E

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the experiences of women 15-24 years old living in one suburban district in Bangkok. Its objectives are to analyse processes of building and negotiating social identity and femininity in online spaces by young women; the ways in which young women express their sexuality using online technologies; connections between the 'online' and 'offline' worlds in terms of emotions as well as social and sexual networks; and traditional values regarding female sexuality reproduced through online media and how young women negotiate and resist these. Content and narrative analyses were conducted using qualitative data from 9 focus-group discussions and 14 narrative interviews. Findings indicated that the online media serve as tools that help young women develop and express their gender identities. Mobile phones and the Internet facilitate communication in order to express love, responsibility, intimacy and sexual desires. Discourse on women's chastity, which puts pressure on women to maintain their virginity, still influences online and mobile contents, messages and images among young women. However, women also exerted agency in negotiating and expressing their sexuality, both online and offline. PMID:23885969

  18. Prevalence and Correlates of Indoor Tanning in Nonsalon Locations Among a National Sample of Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Hillhouse, Joel; Stapleton, Jerod L.; Florence, L. Carter; Pagoto, Sherry

    2016-01-01

    Indoor tanning is a public health threat,1 and the Surgeon General has called for its reduction in adolescents and young adults.2 Research on indoor tanning has not distinguished between tanning-only salons vs other businesses and private residences that provide tanning (ie, nonsalon tanning). For example, gyms often offer free tanning, which may lead to riskier tanning habits.3 Better understanding of nonsalon tanning could have policy, prevention, and clinical implications. Our study addresses this literature gap by examining the prevalence and correlates of nonsalon tanning in a nationally representative sample of young women, who have the highest rates of indoor tanning use. PMID:26108092

  19. Oral perception of bolus in healthy young women.

    PubMed

    Miyaoka, Satomi; Ashida, Ichiro; Miyaoka, Yozo

    2008-06-01

    This study was designed to characterize oral perception of both weight and volume of boluses. A total of 80 healthy young female subjects was recruited and divided into bolus weight (n = 40) and bolus volume (n = 40) conditions. Tap water (25 degrees C) was the experimental material, and seven reference stimulus amounts ranging from 10 to 40 (grams and mL) were prepared. The reference stimuli, including a modulus of 20 (grams and mL), were delivered to the subjects in randomized order. The estimated magnitudes (psi) conformed to both the Fechner's and Stevens' psychophysical laws by the following equations: (1) psi(W) = 314.3 log (S+1) - 300.2 where S is stimulus intensity or weight, and psi(V) = 249.7 log (S+1) - 222.3 (volume) on logarithmic (log)-linear scales, and (2) psi(W) = 1.908 S1.297 and psi(V) = 4.097 S1.032 on log-log scales, respectively. The results indicate that oral perception of bolus weight and bolus volume conforms to the representative psychophysical laws.

  20. Lipoprotein Particles in Adolescents and Young Women With PCOS Provide Insights Into Their Cardiovascular Risk

    PubMed Central

    Lodish, M.; Shamburek, R.; Keil, M.; Wesley, R.; Walter, M.; Sampson, M.; Bernstein, S.; Khurana, D.; Lyssikatos, C.; Ten, S.; Dobs, A.; Remaley, A. T.; Stratakis, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Adult women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) have an increased risk for cardiovascular disease, but the evidence for this is controversial in adolescents and young women with PCOS. Measurement of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle number, measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a novel technology to assess cardiovascular risk. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate lipoprotein particle number and size in young women with PCOS and its relationship with insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism. Design: This was a cross-sectional case control study. Setting: The study was conducted at a clinical research center. Participants: Women with PCOS (n = 35) and normal controls (n = 20) participated in the study. Interventions: Blood samples and anthropometric measures were obtained. Main Outcome Measures: LDL particle size and number were measured using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. A secondary outcome was to investigate the correlation of LDL particle number with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, waist to hip ratio, hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance, and adiponectin. Results: Women with PCOS had higher LDL particle number when compared with healthy controls (935 ± 412 vs 735 ± 264, P = .032); LDL particle number correlated strongly with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (r = 0.37, P = .006) and waist-to-hip (r = 0.57, P = .0003). The higher LDL particle number was driven mainly due to differences in the small LDL particle number (sLDLp), with PCOS patients having more sLDLp (348 ± 305 vs 178 ± 195, P = .015). The sLDLp correlated with the Matsuda index (r = −0.51, P = .0001), homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance (r = 0.41, P = .002), and adiponectin (r = −0.46, P = .0004) but not with T. Conclusion: Adolescent and young women with PCOS have an atherogenic lipoprotein profile suggestive of increased cardiovascular risk that appears to be driven by the degree of visceral adiposity

  1. Relationships Between Weight, Physical Activity, and Back Pain in Young Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Sharmayne R.E.; Hussain, Sultana Monira; Brown, Wendy J.; Heritier, Stephane; Billah, Baki; Wang, Yuanyuan; Teede, Helena; Urquhart, Donna M.; Cicuttini, Flavia M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Back pain causes enormous financial and disability burden worldwide, which could potentially be reduced by understanding its determinants to develop effective prevention strategies. Our aim was to identify whether modifiable risk factors, weight and physical activity, are predictive of back pain in young adult women. Women born between 1973 and 1978 were randomly selected from the national health insurance scheme database to participate in The Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health. Self-reported data on back pain in the last 12 months, weight, height, age, education status, physical activity, and depression were collected in 2000, 2003, 2006, 2009, and 2012. In 2000, 9688 women completed the questionnaire and 83% completed follow-up 12 years later. At baseline, median age was 24.6 years and 41% had self-reported back pain. For every 5 kg higher weight at baseline, there was a 5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 4%–6%) increased risk of back pain over the next 12 years. Higher weight at each survey also predicted back pain risk 3 years later (P < 0.001). The effects of weight on back pain were most significant in those with BMI ≥25 kg/m2 and were observed at all levels of physical activity. Inadequate physical activity and depression were independent predictors of back pain over the following 12 years (both P < 0.001), after adjusting for age, weight, height, and education status. Back pain is common in community-based young adult women. Higher weight, inadequate levels of physical activity, and depression were all independent predictors of back pain over the following decade. Furthermore, the adverse effects of weight on back pain were not mitigated by physical activity. Our findings highlight the role of both higher weight and physical inactivity in back pain among young women and suggest potential opportunities for future prevention. PMID:27175634

  2. Relationships Between Weight, Physical Activity, and Back Pain in Young Adult Women.

    PubMed

    Brady, Sharmayne R E; Hussain, Sultana Monira; Brown, Wendy J; Heritier, Stephane; Billah, Baki; Wang, Yuanyuan; Teede, Helena; Urquhart, Donna M; Cicuttini, Flavia M

    2016-05-01

    Back pain causes enormous financial and disability burden worldwide, which could potentially be reduced by understanding its determinants to develop effective prevention strategies. Our aim was to identify whether modifiable risk factors, weight and physical activity, are predictive of back pain in young adult women.Women born between 1973 and 1978 were randomly selected from the national health insurance scheme database to participate in The Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health. Self-reported data on back pain in the last 12 months, weight, height, age, education status, physical activity, and depression were collected in 2000, 2003, 2006, 2009, and 2012. In 2000, 9688 women completed the questionnaire and 83% completed follow-up 12 years later.At baseline, median age was 24.6 years and 41% had self-reported back pain. For every 5 kg higher weight at baseline, there was a 5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 4%-6%) increased risk of back pain over the next 12 years. Higher weight at each survey also predicted back pain risk 3 years later (P < 0.001). The effects of weight on back pain were most significant in those with BMI ≥25 kg/m and were observed at all levels of physical activity. Inadequate physical activity and depression were independent predictors of back pain over the following 12 years (both P < 0.001), after adjusting for age, weight, height, and education status.Back pain is common in community-based young adult women. Higher weight, inadequate levels of physical activity, and depression were all independent predictors of back pain over the following decade. Furthermore, the adverse effects of weight on back pain were not mitigated by physical activity. Our findings highlight the role of both higher weight and physical inactivity in back pain among young women and suggest potential opportunities for future prevention. PMID:27175634

  3. Phenotypic characteristics associated with insulin resistance in metabolically obese but normal-weight young women.

    PubMed

    Dvorak, R V; DeNino, W F; Ades, P A; Poehlman, E T

    1999-11-01

    Metabolically obese, normal-weight (MONW) individuals are a hypothesized subgroup of the general population. These normal-weight individuals potentially display a cluster of obesity-related features, although this has not been systematically tested in young women. We hypothesized that MONW young women would display higher levels of total and visceral fat and lower levels of physical activity than normal women. In a cohort of 71 healthy nonobese women (21-35 years old), we identified MONW women based on cut points for insulin sensitivity (normal = glucose disposal >8 mg x min(-1) x kg(-1) of fat-free mass [FFM], n = 58; impaired = glucose disposal <8 ml x min(-1) x kg(-1) of FFM, n = 13). Thereafter, we measured body composition (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry) and body fat distribution (computed tomography), cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max on a treadmill), physical activity energy expenditure (doubly labeled water and indirect calorimetry), glucose tolerance (oral glucose tolerance test), serum lipid profile, and dietary intake. We found a higher body fat percentage (32 +/- 6 vs. 27 +/- 6%, P = 0.01) and higher subcutaneous (213 +/- 61 vs. 160 +/- 78 cm2, P = 0.03) and visceral (44 +/- 16 vs. 35 +/- 14 cm2, P < 0.05) abdominal adiposity in the MONW group versus the normal group. The MONW group showed a lower physical activity energy expenditure (2.66 +/- 0.92 vs. 4.39 +/- 1.50 MJ/day, P = 0.01), but no difference in cardiorespiratory fitness was noted between groups. In conclusion, despite a normal body weight, a subset of young, apparently healthy women displayed a cluster of risky phenotypic characteristics that, if left untreated, may eventually predispose them to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  4. Walking a tightrope: the many faces of violence in the lives of racialized immigrant girls and young women.

    PubMed

    Jiwani, Yasmin

    2005-07-01

    This article explores a hidden yet pervasive form of violence that marks the lives of young women from racialized immigrant communities in western Canada. It argues for an intersectional analysis that takes into consideration their heightened vulnerability to systemic and institutional forms of violence. Situated at the intersections of race, class, gender, and age, these young women walk a tightrope between the violence of racism they experience from the host and/or dominant society and the pressures to conform imposed from within their communities. Challenging previous culturalist explanations, the article suggests that racism constitutes a significant form of structural violence experienced by these young women.

  5. Sexual function and depressive symptoms in young women with elevated macroprolactin content: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Drosdzol-Cop, Agnieszka; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Violetta; Okopien, Bogusław

    2016-07-01

    Elevated prolactin levels seem to be associated with impaired sexuality. The clinical significance of macroprolactinemia, associated with the predominance of high molecular mass circulating forms of prolactin, is still poorly understood. This study was aimed at investigating sexual function in young women with macroprolactinemia. The study enrolled 14 young women with macroprolactinemia, 14 with increased monomeric prolactin levels, as well as 14 age- and weight-matched healthy women. All patients completed a questionnaire evaluating female sexual function (Female Sexual Function Index-FSFI), as well as a questionnaire assessing the presence and severity of depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory Second Edition-BDI-II). Apart from total prolactin levels and macroprolactin content, circulating levels of thyrotropin, total testosterone, and 17-β estradiol were also measured. Patients with elevated monomeric prolactin levels had a lower total FSFI score, as well as lower scores for all domains: sexual desire, sexual arousal, lubrication, orgasm, sexual satisfaction, and dyspareunia. These scores correlated with total and monomeric prolactin levels. In turn, women with macroprolactinemia were characterized by a lower score for sexual desire, and only this score correlated with total prolactin levels and macroprolactin content. The total score in the BDI-II questionnaire was higher in patients with hyper- and macroprolactinemia than in the control subjects. Contrary to multidimensional impairment of sexual function in women with elevated monomeric prolactin, macroprolactinemia only seems to disturb sexual desire. PMID:26902871

  6. Energy expenditure and everyday eating behavior in healthy young women.

    PubMed

    Tuschl, R J; Platte, P; Laessle, R G; Stichler, W; Pirke, K M

    1990-07-01

    The doubly labeled water method was used to measure average daily total energy expenditure (EE) in 23 healthy normal-weight women classified as restrained or unrestrained eaters. Although the relative weight of restrained eaters was found to be higher (BMI 21.1 +/- 1.3 vs 20.0 +/- 1.3 kg/m2, p less than 0.03), the self-reported energy consumption of the restrained eaters, when adjusted for body composition and height, totaled approximately 410 kcal/d less energy than that of the unrestrained group (p less than 0.002). Correspondingly, the adjusted EE was found to be lower by 620 kcal/d in restrained eaters (p less than 0.005). In both groups metabolic indices of starvation (beta-hydroxybutyric acid and triiodothyronine) were in the normal range. Neither these nor weight changed from the beginning to the end of the 14-d observation period. Thus, the lower EE of the restrained group reflects diminished caloric requirements and is not an adaptive response to a temporary decrease in food intake.

  7. As time goes by we improve a little more: relationship expectations of young women in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Belknap, Ruth Ann

    2010-10-01

    In this qualitative narrative study I explore expectations regarding male-female relationships and perceptions about intimate partner violence (IPV) with young urban women in the state of Veracruz, Mexico. Carol Gilligan's work informed the analysis of the narratives. Themes identified follow: violence at home, resistance, and relational autonomy. The collective story these women tell is that they are familiar with violence in the home, they resist violence and gender inequality, they seek equality in intimate partner relationships, and they plan for futures where the centrality of family is valued in combination with a strong commitment to their own autonomy.

  8. Theory development from studies with young women with breast cancer who are BRCA mutation negative.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Rebekah; Kopin, Samantha

    2013-01-01

    Researchers and practitioners can use inductively derived theory to direct their research and practice. This article describes the ongoing development of a theory that can assist in explaining experiences of young women with breast cancer who have genetic testing for the BRCA mutation. Seventeen BRCA-negative women with breast cancer from a larger grounded theory study were interviewed. While receiving a negative BRCA mutation test result subsequent to a breast cancer diagnosis was described as a relief, the information was also confusing. The author's published Theory of Genetic Vulnerability is expanded to incorporate the outcomes of this analysis.

  9. Homelessness during pregnancy: a unique, time-dependent risk factor of birth outcomes.

    PubMed

    Cutts, Diana B; Coleman, Sharon; Black, Maureen M; Chilton, Mariana M; Cook, John T; de Cuba, Stephanie Ettinger; Heeren, Timothy C; Meyers, Alan; Sandel, Megan; Casey, Patrick H; Frank, Deborah A

    2015-06-01

    Evaluate homelessness during pregnancy as a unique, time-dependent risk factor for adverse birth outcomes. 9,995 mothers of children <48 months old surveyed at emergency departments and primary care clinics in five US cities. Mothers were classified as either homeless during pregnancy with the index child, homeless only after the index child's birth, or consistently housed. Outcomes included birth weight as a continuous variable, as well as categorical outcomes of low birth weight (LBW; <2,500 g) and preterm delivery (<37 weeks). Multiple logistic regression and adjusted linear regression analyses were performed, comparing prenatal and postnatal homelessness with the referent group of consistently housed mothers, controlling for maternal demographic characteristics, smoking, and child age at interview. Prenatal homelessness was associated with higher adjusted odds of LBW (AOR 1.43, 95 % CI 1.14, 1.80, p < 0.01) and preterm delivery (AOR 1.24, 95 % CI 0.98, 1.56, p = 0.08), and a 53 g lower adjusted mean birth weight (p = 0.08). Postnatal homelessness was not associated with these outcomes. Prenatal homelessness is an independent risk factor for LBW, rather than merely a marker of adverse maternal and social characteristics associated with homelessness. Targeted interventions to provide housing and health care to homeless women during pregnancy may result in improved birth outcomes.

  10. Mild dehydration affects mood in healthy young women.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Lawrence E; Ganio, Matthew S; Casa, Douglas J; Lee, Elaine C; McDermott, Brendon P; Klau, Jennifer F; Jimenez, Liliana; Le Bellego, Laurent; Chevillotte, Emmanuel; Lieberman, Harris R

    2012-02-01

    Limited information is available regarding the effects of mild dehydration on cognitive function. Therefore, mild dehydration was produced by intermittent moderate exercise without hyperthermia and its effects on cognitive function of women were investigated. Twenty-five females (age 23.0 ± 0.6 y) participated in three 8-h, placebo-controlled experiments involving a different hydration state each day: exercise-induced dehydration with no diuretic (DN), exercise-induced dehydration plus diuretic (DD; furosemide, 40 mg), and euhydration (EU). Cognitive performance, mood, and symptoms of dehydration were assessed during each experiment, 3 times at rest and during each of 3 exercise sessions. The DN and DD trials in which a volunteer attained a ≥1% level of dehydration were pooled and compared to that volunteer's equivalent EU trials. Mean dehydration achieved during these DN and DD trials was -1.36 ± 0.16% of body mass. Significant adverse effects of dehydration were present at rest and during exercise for vigor-activity, fatigue-inertia, and total mood disturbance scores of the Profile of Mood States and for task difficulty, concentration, and headache as assessed by questionnaire. Most aspects of cognitive performance were not affected by dehydration. Serum osmolality, a marker of hydration, was greater in the mean of the dehydrated trials in which a ≥1% level of dehydration was achieved (P = 0.006) compared to EU. In conclusion, degraded mood, increased perception of task difficulty, lower concentration, and headache symptoms resulted from 1.36% dehydration in females. Increased emphasis on optimal hydration is warranted, especially during and after moderate exercise.

  11. Keep them in school: the importance of education as a protective factor against HIV infection among young South African women

    PubMed Central

    Pettifor, Audrey E; Levandowski, Brooke A; MacPhail, Catherine; Padian, Nancy S; Cohen, Myron S; Rees, Helen V

    2008-01-01

    Objective To identify risk factors for HIV infection among young women aged 15–24 years reporting one lifetime partner in South Africa. Design In 2003, we conducted a nationally representative household survey of sexual behaviour and HIV testing among 11 904 young people aged 15–24 years in South Africa. This analysis focuses on the subset of sexually experienced young women with only one reported lifetime sex partner (n = 1708). Methods Using the proximate determinants framework and the published literature we identified factors associated with HIV in young women. The associations between these factors and HIV infection were explored in multivariable logistic regression models. Results Of the young women, 15% reporting one lifetime partner were HIV positive. In multivariable analyses, young women who had not completed high school were more likely to be infected with HIV compared with those that had completed high school (AOR 3.75; 95% CI 1.34–10.46). Conclusions Young South African women in this population were at high risk of HIV infection despite reporting only having one lifetime partner. Few individual level factors were associated with HIV infection, emphasizing the importance of developing HIV prevention interventions that address structural and partner level risk factors. PMID:18614609

  12. Knowledge, Practices, and Restrictions Related to Menstruation among Young Women from Low Socioeconomic Community in Mumbai, India

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Harshad; Aronsson, Annette; Bansode, Seema; Stalsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Dalvie, Suchitra; Faxelid, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    The main objective was to assess knowledge, practices, and restrictions faced by young women regarding their menstrual hygiene. The views of adult women having young daughters were also included and both views were compared. In addition, the factors influencing the menstrual hygiene practices were also studied. The study was carried out during 2008 in Mumbai, India. The mixed methods approach was followed for the data collection. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to collect the data. For quantitative survey, totally 192 respondents (96 adult and 96 younger women) were selected. While young women were asked about questions related to their menstruation, adult women were asked questions to find out how much they know about menstrual history of their daughters. The qualitative data helped to supplement the findings from the quantitative survey and to study the factors affecting menstrual practices in young women. The mean age at menarche reported was 13.4 years and 30–40% of young girls did not receive any information about menstruation before menarche. It is thus seen that very few young girls between the age group 15 and 24 years did receive any information before the onset of menstruation. Among those who received some information, it was not adequate enough. The source of information was also not authentic. Both young and adult women agreed on this. Due to the inadequate knowledge, there were certain unhygienic practices followed by the young girls resulting in poor menstrual hygiene. It also leads to many unnecessary restrictions on young girls and they faced many health problems and complaints, which were either ignored or managed inappropriately. The role of health sector was almost negligible from giving information to the management of health problems of these young girls. This paper reemphasizes the important, urgent, and neglected need of providing correct knowledge to the community including adolescent girls. PMID:25072044

  13. Encephalopathy, deafness and blindness in young women: a distinct retinocochleocerebral arteriolopathy?

    PubMed Central

    Bogousslavsky, J; Gaio, J M; Caplan, L R; Regli, F; Hommel, M; Hedges, T R; Ferrazzini, M; Pollak, P

    1989-01-01

    Three young women (aged 18 years, 19 years and 19 years) who developed progressive neuropsychic and neurologic disturbances with hearing loss and multifocal retinal artery branch occlusions are reported. This retinocochleocerebral syndrome has been reported previously only in 12 young North American women. Its pathogenesis is unknown, but an atypical viral infection of the vessel walls has been suggested. Abnormalities of T lymphocytes subsets in blood in one of the patients suggested an immunological dysfunction, but all other tests, including immunological reactions on brain and skin biopsies, were negative or non-specific. Steroids and immunosuppressive agents have been advocated on an empirical basis, but the second patient showed a substantial recovery without any therapy and the third gradually deteriorated despite azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, prednisone and plasma exchanges. This retinocochleocerebral syndrome probably corresponds to an arteriolopathy of unknown nature. Images PMID:2709035

  14. Ethnic differences in the effects of spiritual well-being on long-term psychological and behavioral outcomes within a sample of homeless women.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Amber N; Jimenez, Sherlyn; Lin, Hsiu-Ju; Frisman, Linda K

    2008-10-01

    The present study examines ethnicity as a moderator variable between spiritual well-being (SWB) and psychological and behavioral outcomes. Participants included in this analysis were 88 African American (46.6%) and 101 non-African American (total N = 189) homeless mothers. Through structured interviews conducted at 3-month intervals over a period of 15 months, data were collected on spiritual well-being, mental health, trauma symptoms, substance use, parenting, and child behavior. Hierarchical linear model and general estimating equation results indicated that ethnicity moderates the relationship between SWB and anxiety, trauma symptoms, child behavior, and parenting outcomes. On average, African Americans reported significantly higher SWB than non-African Americans, indicating the relative importance of spirituality in their lives. These findings support previous research indicating a difference in the role that SWB plays in the lives of African Americans compared to non-African Americans.

  15. Positive and Negative Aspects of Relationship Quality and Unprotected Sex among Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Sonya S.; Gruber, Sandra K.; Wolfson, Julian A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine both positive and negative aspects of relationship quality in relation to condom use. Sexually active young women aged 14-18 years (n = 111; 34% non-white) were recruited from community clinics and schools in the Midwest USA and provided data via an online survey. The number of unprotected sex acts in the past…

  16. Sympathetic reactivity in young women with a family history of hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Greaney, Jody L.; Matthews, Evan L.

    2015-01-01

    Young adults with a family history of hypertension (+FH) have increased risk of developing hypertension. Furthermore, the blood pressure (BP) response to sympathoexcitatory stimuli in young adults can predict the future development of hypertension. Therefore, we hypothesized young women with a +FH would have exaggerated cardiovascular and sympathetic reactivity compared with young women without a family history of hypertension (−FH). Beat-by-beat mean arterial pressure (MAP) and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) were measured in 14 women +FH (22 ± 1 yr, 21 ± 1 kg/m2, MAP 80 ± 2 mmHg) and 15 women −FH (22 ± 1 yr, 22 ± 1 kg/m2, MAP 78 ± 2 mmHg) during acute sympathoexcitatory maneuvers: cold pressor test, 2 min of isometric handgrip (HG) exercise at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction, and 3 min of postexercise ischemia (PEI; isolated activation of the skeletal muscle metaboreflex). During cold pressor test, the increase in BP was greater in women +FH (ΔMAP: +FH 16 ± 2 vs. −FH 11 ± 1 mmHg, P < 0.05), which was accompanied by an exaggerated increase in MSNA (ΔMSNA: +FH 17 ± 2 vs. −FH 8 ± 2 burst/min, P < 0.05). The increase in BP was greater in +FH during the last minute of HG (ΔMAP: +FH 23 ± 3 vs. −FH 12 ± 1 mmHg, P < 0.05) and during PEI (ΔMAP: +FH 17 ± 3 vs. −FH 9 ± 2 mmHg, P < 0.05). Similarly, the increase in MSNA was greater in +FH during both HG (ΔMSNA: +FH 12 ± 2 vs. −FH 6 ± 2 burst/min, P < 0.05) and PEI (ΔMSNA: +FH 16 ± 2 vs. −FH 4 ± 2 burst/min, P < 0.05). These data demonstrate that +FH women have greater BP and sympathetic reactivity compared with −FH women. PMID:25681430

  17. Sympathetic reactivity in young women with a family history of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Greaney, Jody L; Matthews, Evan L; Wenner, Megan M

    2015-04-15

    Young adults with a family history of hypertension (+FH) have increased risk of developing hypertension. Furthermore, the blood pressure (BP) response to sympathoexcitatory stimuli in young adults can predict the future development of hypertension. Therefore, we hypothesized young women with a +FH would have exaggerated cardiovascular and sympathetic reactivity compared with young women without a family history of hypertension (-FH). Beat-by-beat mean arterial pressure (MAP) and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) were measured in 14 women +FH (22 ± 1 yr, 21 ± 1 kg/m(2), MAP 80 ± 2 mmHg) and 15 women -FH (22 ± 1 yr, 22 ± 1 kg/m(2), MAP 78 ± 2 mmHg) during acute sympathoexcitatory maneuvers: cold pressor test, 2 min of isometric handgrip (HG) exercise at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction, and 3 min of postexercise ischemia (PEI; isolated activation of the skeletal muscle metaboreflex). During cold pressor test, the increase in BP was greater in women +FH (ΔMAP: +FH 16 ± 2 vs. -FH 11 ± 1 mmHg, P < 0.05), which was accompanied by an exaggerated increase in MSNA (ΔMSNA: +FH 17 ± 2 vs. -FH 8 ± 2 burst/min, P < 0.05). The increase in BP was greater in +FH during the last minute of HG (ΔMAP: +FH 23 ± 3 vs. -FH 12 ± 1 mmHg, P < 0.05) and during PEI (ΔMAP: +FH 17 ± 3 vs. -FH 9 ± 2 mmHg, P < 0.05). Similarly, the increase in MSNA was greater in +FH during both HG (ΔMSNA: +FH 12 ± 2 vs. -FH 6 ± 2 burst/min, P < 0.05) and PEI (ΔMSNA: +FH 16 ± 2 vs. -FH 4 ± 2 burst/min, P < 0.05). These data demonstrate that +FH women have greater BP and sympathetic reactivity compared with -FH women. PMID:25681430

  18. Understanding Motivations for Abstinence among Adolescent Young Women: Insights into Effective Sexual Risk Reduction Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Long-Middleton, Ellen R.; Burke, Pamela J.; Lawrence, Cheryl A. Cahill; Blanchard, Lauren B.; Amudala, Naomi H.; Rankin, Sally H.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections pose a significant threat to the health and wellbeing of adolescent young women. Abstinence when practiced provides the most effective means in preventing these problems, yet the perspective of abstinent young women is not well understood. The purpose of the investigation was to characterize female adolescents’ motivations for abstinence. Method As part of a larger, cross-sectional quantitative study investigating predictors of HIV risk reduction behaviors, qualitative responses from study participants who never had intercourse were analyzed in a consensus-based process using content analysis and frequency counts. An urban primary care site in a tertiary care center served as the setting, with adolescent young women ages 15–19 years included in the sample. Results Five broad topic categories emerged from the data that characterized motivations for abstinence in this sample: 1) Personal Readiness, 2) Fear, 3) Beliefs and Values, 4) Partner Worthiness and 5) Lack of Opportunity. Discussion A better understanding of the motivations for abstinence may serve to guide the development of interventions to delay intercourse. PMID:22525893

  19. Influence of moderately intense strength training on flexibility in sedentary young women.

    PubMed

    Santos, Elisa; Rhea, Matthew R; Simão, Roberto; Dias, Ingrid; de Salles, Belmiro Freitas; Novaes, Jefferson; Leite, Thalita; Blair, Jeff C; Bunker, Derek J

    2010-11-01

    The present study is the first to examine whether moderately intense resistance training improves flexibility in an exclusively young, sedentary women population. Twenty-four, young, sedentary women were divided into 3 groups as follows: agonist/antagonist (AA) training group, alternated strength training (AST) group, or a control group (CG). Training occurred every other day for 8 weeks for a total of 24 sessions. Training groups performed 3 sets of 10 to 12 repetitions per set except for abdominal training where 3 sets of 15 to 20 reps were performed. Strength (1 repetition maximum bench press) and flexibility were assessed before and after the training period. Flexibility was assessed on 6 articular movements: shoulder flexion and extension, horizontal shoulder adduction and abduction, and trunk flexion and extension. Both groups increased strength and flexibility significantly from baseline and significantly when compared with the CG (p ≤ 0.05). The AST group increased strength and flexibility significantly more than the AA group (p ≤ 0.05) in all but one measurement. This study shows that resistance training can improve flexibility in young sedentary women in 8 weeks.

  20. Proud2Bme: Exploratory research on care and control in young women's online eating disorder narratives.

    PubMed

    Hipple Walters, Bethany; Adams, Samantha; Broer, Tineke; Bal, Roland

    2016-05-01

    Illness narratives have been studied to understand the patient's point of view. These narratives are becoming more prolific, accessible, and specialized, thanks to the improved Internet access and the growth of health-specific online communities. This article analyses illness narratives posted on a Dutch eating disorder website hosted by a treatment centre. Specifically, we look at 'care of the self' and 'control'. The young women wrote about controlling situations with disordered eating as a self-care tool, about being controlled by the disorder and about regaining control over the disorder. The website, with the opportunity for constant, unseen supervision, coercion through comments, and steering through edits and comments, revealed various modalities of control. While issues of control and eating disorders have been explored by others, little work has been done on how the control experienced by the young women (coercion on the individual, the body as the object of control, and the modality of pressure and supervision) interact, how control is presented in stories for a recovery-focused, monitored website, and how the website directs the content. As recovery-focused, therapist-led website is likely to continue growing, understanding how and why young women talk about care and control in the context of such websites is an important topic.

  1. Homeless, Street-Involved Emerging Adults: Attitudes toward Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sanna J.; Barczyk, Amanda N.; Gomez, Rebecca; Dreyer, Lauren; Popham, Amelia

    2010-01-01

    Research has indicated that a high proportion of homeless emerging adults use substances. This article aims to understand the attitudes of these young adults concerning their substance use and its effect on their lives. A mixed methods study using semistructured interviews and self-report instruments was conducted with 87 emerging adults who…

  2. Helping Unaccompanied Homeless Youth Access College Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Unaccompanied homeless youth are young people who lack safe, stable housing and who are not in the care of a parent or guardian. They may have run away from home or been forced to leave by their parents. Unaccompanied youth live in a variety of temporary situations, including shelters, the homes of friends or relatives, cars, campgrounds, public…

  3. Immigration and Schools: Supporting Success for Undocumented Unaccompanied Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Attending school and securing lawful status in the United States are two keys to safety and security for undocumented unaccompanied homeless youth. This brief is designed to provide young people, immigration attorneys and advocates, McKinney-Vento liaisons and educators with basic information to help them access these keys. After describing some…

  4. "Not a good look": Impossible Dilemmas for Young Women Negotiating the Culture of Intoxication in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Lin; Griffin, Christine; Shankar, Avi

    2015-05-01

    This paper investigates young women's alcohol consumption in the United Kingdom within a widespread culture of intoxication in relation to recent debates about postfeminism and contemporary femininity. Young women are faced with an "impossible dilemma," arising from the contradiction between a hedonistic discourse of alcohol consumption and postfeminist discourse around attaining and maintaining the "right" form of hypersexual heterosexual femininity. Drawing on a recent interview study with 24 young white working-class and middle-class women in the South-West of England, we explore how young women inhabit the dilemmas of contemporary femininity in youth drinking cultures, striving to achieve the "right" form of hypersexual femininity and an "optimum" level of drunkenness.

  5. Recent trends in the timing of first sex and marriage among young women in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Lindstrom, David

    2015-01-01

    Context Ethiopia has been characterized by high population growth. Recent social and economic developments have the potential to alter reproductive patterns in the country. Some of these developments include sustained economic growth, urbanization, rapid growth in school enrollments, expansion of primary health care, and a rise in contraceptive access and use. In other national contexts, these developments have been associated with a gradual decoupling of the transition into sexual activity and marriage among young women. We investigate recent trends in the transition into first sex and marriage among three cohorts of Ethiopian women. Methods Using data from the 2000, 2005, and 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) we estimate survival curves and discrete-time hazards models to examine recent trends in age at first sex and first marriage among women ages 20–29. Results Across the three survey years the median age at first sex has remained relatively stable at 17 years, although the median age at marriage has increased from 17 to 18 years between the 2005 and 2011 surveys. Net of the effects of education and place of residence, there is evidence of a slight trend away from premarital first sex to sexual initiation in the context of marriage. However, among the most educated women and women living in urban areas (who are a small minority of women), there is a much greater tendency to initiate sexual activity outside of marriage compared to women with little schooling and women living in rural areas, and once they have begun sexual activity they tend to wait longer before they get married. We also find evidence in the most recent survey that women who have first sexual intercourse before marriage are delaying marriage more than was the case among earlier cohorts. PMID:27011431

  6. [Hyperandrogenism as a risk factor of coronary artery disease in young women].

    PubMed

    Sablik, Zbigniew; Samborska-Sablik, Anna; Bolińska-Sołtysiak, Halina; Goch, Jan Henryk; Kula, Krzysztof

    2006-02-01

    The aim of the study was an attempt to assess the relative roles of common risk factors of coronary artery disease (CAD) and sex hormones in the pathogenesis of CAD in young menstruating women. 38 women in the age of 35-47 years with past myocardial infarction and angiographically proven critical changes in coronary arteries, with one-vessel disease in 22 women (58%) or multi-vessel disease in 16 (42%) were examined. A referee group consisted of 15 healthy women in the age of 35-45 years. In all women multiple risk factors were searched, including value of body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio (WHR). In 4-7 day of sexual cycle at 8.00 a.m. blood from cubital vein was taken to measure concentrations of biochemical parameters and hormones: estradiol, testosterone (T), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, folliclestimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, thyreotropin, progesterone, cortisol and sex-hormone binding globulin. In women with CAD, comparing to healthy ones, a higher frequency of arterial hypertension (55% vs 7%), cigarete smoking (95% vs. 46%), hirsutism (84% vs. 30%) and dyslipidaemia was found. Concentration of T was significantly higher in women with CAD than in healthy women (3.5 +/- 1.5 nmol/l--vs. 2.4 +/- 1.0, p < 0.014). In regression analysis was revealed that in multiple parameters a cluster of 2 parameters, dyslipidaemia and hirsutism, was of the best goodness of fit with occurence of CAD. Significant relation with CAD was proven for visceral obesity, eleveted concentration of T and cigarette smoking, either. Conclusions. Apart from common known risk factors as visceral obesity, dyslipidaemia and cigarette smoking it is hiperandrogenism that may participate in pathogenesis of CAD in women in the reproductive age. PMID:17274467

  7. Pleasure Reading: Associations between Young Women's Sexual Attitudes and Their Reading of Contemporary Women's Magazines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Janna L.; Ward, L. Monique

    2004-01-01

    Associations between magazine use and sexual attitudes were explored among 205 female college students. Measures assessed reading levels of adult-focused (e.g., Cosmopolitan) and teen-focused (e.g., Seventeen) contemporary women's magazines, reading motivations, sexual attitudes, and femininity ideologies. Frequent reading of adult-focused…

  8. Jobs, Welfare and Homelessness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einbinder, Susan; And Others

    This report provides objective information about the relationship of poverty, welfare, and homelessness to California's regional economy and about the design of programs that help people in poverty build working lives. California does not have enough jobs for its workforce, and welfare caseloads are consequently determined by the economy. The…

  9. Readings in Homelessness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matuszowicz, Peter F.

    Researchers have documented links between a number of behavioral issues and homelessness, including the following: limited/no social networks; social isolation; proneness of victimization; history of emotional, physical, sexual, and substance abuse; lack of education; and anxiety resulting from inadequate physical space. The possible benefits of…

  10. Impact of acute sleep restriction on cortisol and leptin levels in young women.

    PubMed

    Omisade, Antonina; Buxton, Orfeu M; Rusak, Benjamin

    2010-04-19

    Sleep restriction alters hormone patterns and appetite in men, but less is known about effects on women. We assessed effects of overnight sleep restriction on cortisol and leptin levels and on appetite in young women. Participants' baseline sleep duration and eating habits were monitored for a week before the study. Salivary cortisol and leptin were sampled from fifteen healthy women (aged 18-25) during two consecutive days: first after a 10h overnight sleep opportunity (Baseline day) and then after a night including only 3h sleep (Post sleep-restriction day). Participants also completed appetite questionnaires on both days. Sleep restriction significantly reduced morning cortisol levels (p=0.02), elevated morning leptin levels (p=0.04), elevated afternoon/evening cortisol area under the curve values (p=0.008), and slowed the decline in cortisol concentration during the day (p=0.04). Hunger and craving scores did not differ significantly between days. A single night of restricted sleep affected cortisol rhythms and morning leptin levels in young women.

  11. Recruiting online: lessons from a longitudinal survey of contraception and pregnancy intentions of young Australian women.

    PubMed

    Harris, Melissa L; Loxton, Deborah; Wigginton, Britta; Lucke, Jayne C

    2015-05-15

    Recruitment of young people for epidemiologic research remains challenging, with marked decreases in the effectiveness of face-to-face, mail, and telephone recruitment methods. We report on the implementation and feasibility of an innovative and flexible approach used to recruit participants for a longitudinal cohort study about contraceptive use and pregnancy (the Contraceptive Use, Pregnancy Intention, and Decisions (CUPID) Study). Australian women aged 18-23 years were recruited using a range of online, networking, and offline methods, including social media (primarily Facebook (Facebook Inc., Menlo Park, California; http://www.facebook.com)), face-to-face events, distribution of promotional material, and media releases. Over the course of the 1-year recruitment period (beginning in September 2012), a total of 3,795 eligible women were recruited to complete the online survey, at a cost of approximately A$11 per participant. This sample was found to be broadly representative of the Australian population of women aged 18-23 years in terms of demographic characteristics, with the exception of an overrepresentation of tertiary-educated women (88.7% compared with 72.6%). This study demonstrated that although current recruitment strategies are required to be innovative and flexible in order to engage young people in epidemiologic research, representative samples can be achieved online at reasonable cost.

  12. Attitudes toward consequences of pregnancy in young women attending a family planning clinic.

    PubMed

    Paikoff, R L

    1990-10-01

    This study examines the relationship between young women's knowledge and attitude concerning pregnancy and their sexual behavior. The study involved 78 young women (14-20 years of age) who had attended a midwestern family planning clinic. Primarily from a larger socioeconomic status, 70% of the participants said that they had never been pregnant. Adapting the testing methods of previous investigations, the study presented the participants with various exams intended to measure the following: 1) knowledge concerning "how babies are made"; 2) knowledge regarding intercourse and pregnancy; 3) anticipation of future consequences of adolescent childbirth; 4) anticipation of immediate consequences or fears of adolescent pregnancy. The study also examined the participants' contraceptive behavior and pregnancy history. The findings indicate that knowledge concerning understanding "how babies are made" does not influence sexual behavior, with no significant difference found between contraceptive users and non-contraceptive users. Also, the participants generally had accurate knowledge concerning intercourse and pregnancy. But the study did reveal significant differences in the evaluation of the consequences of pregnancy and childbirth. Those women who had previously been pregnant -- including those who had terminated their pregnancies -- showed a less negative attitude towards the consequences of pregnancy and childbirth than those who had never been pregnant. Furthermore, as the age of the women increased, the attitude became more positive. However, the study found that the attitude towards the consequences of pregnancy and childbirth had no impact on contraceptive behavior. PMID:12283995

  13. Recruiting online: lessons from a longitudinal survey of contraception and pregnancy intentions of young Australian women.

    PubMed

    Harris, Melissa L; Loxton, Deborah; Wigginton, Britta; Lucke, Jayne C

    2015-05-15

    Recruitment of young people for epidemiologic research remains challenging, with marked decreases in the effectiveness of face-to-face, mail, and telephone recruitment methods. We report on the implementation and feasibility of an innovative and flexible approach used to recruit participants for a longitudinal cohort study about contraceptive use and pregnancy (the Contraceptive Use, Pregnancy Intention, and Decisions (CUPID) Study). Australian women aged 18-23 years were recruited using a range of online, networking, and offline methods, including social media (primarily Facebook (Facebook Inc., Menlo Park, California; http://www.facebook.com)), face-to-face events, distribution of promotional material, and media releases. Over the course of the 1-year recruitment period (beginning in September 2012), a total of 3,795 eligible women were recruited to complete the online survey, at a cost of approximately A$11 per participant. This sample was found to be broadly representative of the Australian population of women aged 18-23 years in terms of demographic characteristics, with the exception of an overrepresentation of tertiary-educated women (88.7% compared with 72.6%). This study demonstrated that although current recruitment strategies are required to be innovative and flexible in order to engage young people in epidemiologic research, representative samples can be achieved online at reasonable cost. PMID:25883155

  14. Fertility Preservation: A Key Survivorship Issue for Young Women with Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Angarita, Ana Milena; Johnson, Cynae A.; Fader, Amanda Nickles; Christianson, Mindy S.

    2016-01-01

    Fertility preservation in the young cancer survivor is recognized as a key survivorship issue by the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the American Society of Reproductive Medicine. Thus, health-care providers should inform women about the effects of cancer therapy on fertility and should discuss the different fertility preservation options available. It is also recommended to refer women expeditiously to a fertility specialist in order to improve counseling. Women’s age, diagnosis, presence of male partner, time available, and preferences regarding use of donor sperm influence the selection of the appropriate fertility preservation option. Embryo and oocyte cryopreservation are the standard techniques used while ovarian tissue cryopreservation is new, yet promising. Despite the importance of fertility preservation for cancer survivors’ quality of life, there are still communication and financial barriers faced by women who wish to pursue fertility preservation. PMID:27200291

  15. Individual and Situational Factors Related to Young Women's Likelihood of Confronting Sexism in Their Everyday Lives.

    PubMed

    Ayres, Melanie M; Friedman, Carly K; Leaper, Campbell

    2009-10-01

    Factors related to young women's reported likelihood of confronting sexism were investigated. Participants were 338 U.S. female undergraduates (M = 19 years) attending a California university. They were asked to complete questionnaire measures and to write a personal narrative about an experience with sexism. Approximately half (46%) the women reported confronting the perpetrator. Individual factors (prior experience with sexism, feminist identification, collective action) and situational factors (familiarity and status of perpetrator, type of sexism) were tested as predictors in a logistic regression. Women were less likely to report confronting sexism if (1) they did not identify as feminists, (2) the perpetrator was unfamiliar or high-status/familiar (vs. familiar/equal-status), or (3) the type of sexism involved unwanted sexual attention (vs. sexist comments).

  16. Female sexual dysfunction in young adult women - Impact of age and lifestyle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoian, Dana; PAter, Liana; Pater, Flavius; Craciunescu, Mihaela

    2014-12-01

    Female sexual function is a difficult entity to be assessed. Subjective factors and interview biases can change the perception of it. Using validated questionnaires can improve the scientific approach to this matter. There is a huge difference of severity and incidence among young, apparent healthy women, which are in a harmonious relationship. We evaluated 320 healthy women, with stable sexual active relationship, with no know depressive disease, endocrinological and metabolic pathology, no premature menopause, no malignancy. We compose a mathematic model to study the impact of age, and body weight on the sexual function, with FSFI total score as surrogate marker. We observed that even in healthy women, increase in age and/or weight/body mass significantly impair general sexual function.

  17. Slipping on ice and snow--elderly women and young men are typical victims.

    PubMed

    Björnstig, U; Björnstig, J; Dahlgren, A

    1997-03-01

    Slipping on ice or snow during winter caused 3.5 injuries per 1000 inhabitants per year in the Umeå health district; the injury rate was highest among the elderly. Most injured were elderly women, but also many young men in the age group 20-29 years were injured. Half of all injuries were fractures; for women 50 years and over two-thirds were fractures, mostly of an upper extremity. The 'cost' of medical care of these slipping injuries was almost the same as the 'cost' of all traffic injuries in the area during the same time. Injury reducing measures, such as more effective snow clearing, sand and salt spreading in strategic areas, better slip preventive aids on shoes, and 'padding' of older women, would reduce the injuries and their consequences.

  18. Demand for contraception to delay first pregnancy among young married women in India.

    PubMed

    Jejeebhoy, Shireen J; Santhya, K G; Zavier, A J Francis

    2014-06-01

    In India, evidence is sparse regarding the demand for contraception to delay first pregnancy among married young people. Using data drawn from a study conducted in six Indian states among 9,572 women aged 15-24 who were married for five or fewer years, we explore the scope of this demand, the extent to which it has been satisfied, and, using logistic regression analyses, the factors correlated with contraceptive use to delay first pregnancy among those reporting demand. Findings confirm considerable demand for contraception to postpone first pregnancy (51 percent). Of those with demand, only 10 percent had practiced contraception. Contraception was more likely to have been practiced by educated women, those aware of family planning methods before they were married, those exposed to quality sexuality education, and those who participated in marriage-related decision making. Women who reported feeling pressure to prove their fertility were less likely to have practiced contraception. PMID:24931075

  19. Individual and Situational Factors Related to Young Women's Likelihood of Confronting Sexism in Their Everyday Lives.

    PubMed

    Ayres, Melanie M; Friedman, Carly K; Leaper, Campbell

    2009-10-01

    Factors related to young women's reported likelihood of confronting sexism were investigated. Participants were 338 U.S. female undergraduates (M = 19 years) attending a California university. They were asked to complete questionnaire measures and to write a personal narrative about an experience with sexism. Approximately half (46%) the women reported confronting the perpetrator. Individual factors (prior experience with sexism, feminist identification, collective action) and situational factors (familiarity and status of perpetrator, type of sexism) were tested as predictors in a logistic regression. Women were less likely to report confronting sexism if (1) they did not identify as feminists, (2) the perpetrator was unfamiliar or high-status/familiar (vs. familiar/equal-status), or (3) the type of sexism involved unwanted sexual attention (vs. sexist comments). PMID:19784381

  20. Stress, health complaints and self-confidence: a comparison between young adult women in Sweden and USA.

    PubMed

    Hildingh, Cathrine; Luepker, Russell V; Baigi, Amir; Lidell, Evy

    2006-06-01

    Transition to adulthood is a period in life when women encounter conflicts, ambiguities and rapidly expanding roles that may be stressful and difficult to manage. The aim of this study was to compare stress in daily life, health complaints and self-confidence in 26-year old women in two different cultures. A health survey study was performed among Swedish women (n = 386) and American women (n = 201) living in urban areas at the West coast of Sweden and in Minnesota. Both Swedish and American women reported stress in their everyday life, with higher figures for the Americans. Overall health was rated lower by the Swedish women and they reported more health complaints such as headache, general tiredness, irritability, depression and sleeping disorders. There was a difference between groups in self-confidence with higher figures for excellent self-confidence among American women. However, low self-confidence was reported by more American than Swedish women. A good work situation predicted self-confidence in Swedish women and financial confidence in American women. Physical fitness was associated with self-confidence in both groups. Young women in both cultures experienced high level of stress but health related complaints were more common among Swedish women. High stress and health complaints must be taken seriously and interventions to support young women in the midst of transition to adulthood should contain stress reduction as well as empowerment performed in a more effective way than today in different health care settings and at place of work. PMID:16756526

  1. Young women's accounts of factors influencing their use and non-use of emergency contraception: in-depth interview study

    PubMed Central

    Free, Caroline; Lee, Raymond M; Ogden, Jane

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To explore young women's accounts of their use and non-use of emergency contraception. Design Qualitative study using in-depth interviews. Participants 30 women aged 16-25; participants from socially deprived inner city areas were specifically included. Setting Community, service, and educational settings in England. Results Young women's accounts of their non-use of emergency contraception principally concerned evaluations of the risk conferred by different contraceptive behaviours, their evaluations of themselves in needing emergency contraception, and personal difficulties in asking for emergency contraception. Conclusions The attitudes and concerns of young women, especially those from disadvantaged backgrounds, may make them less able or willing than others to take advantage of recent increases in access to emergency contraception. Interventions that aim to increase the use of emergency contraception need to address the factors that influence young women's non-use of emergency contraception. What is already known on this topicLimited knowledge of, or poor access to, emergency contraception, and concerns about side effects and moral issues may reduce the use of emergency contraception in women at riskYoung people can be embarrassed about using contraception servicesInterventions to increase knowledge of and access to emergency contraception have had limited success among teenagersWhat this study addsPerceptions of low vulnerability to pregnancy, negative self evaluations about the need for such contraception, and concerns about what others think deter young women from using emergency contraceptionThese women find it difficult to ask for emergency contraceptionThe attitudes and concerns of young women, especially those from deprived inner city areas, may render them least willing and able to obtain emergency contraception PMID:12480855

  2. Increased Substance Use and Risky Sexual Behavior among Migratory Homeless Youth: Exploring the Role of Social Network Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martino, Steven C.; Tucker, Joan S.; Ryan, Gery; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Golinelli, Daniela; Munjas, Brett

    2011-01-01

    Travelers are a migratory subgroup of homeless youth who may be especially prone to engaging in risky behavior. This study compared the substance use and sexual behavior of young homeless travelers and non-travelers to evaluate the extent and possible sources of travelers' increased risk. Data came from face-to-face interviews with 419 homeless…

  3. Estrangement Factors Associated with Addiction to Alcohol and Drugs among Homeless Youth in Three U. S. Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sanna; Jun, Jina; Bender, Kimberly; Ferguson, Kristin M.; Pollio, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Substance use is highly prevalent among homeless, street-involved young people. Societal estrangement is often associated with substance use, particularly among this population. The current study sought to identify four domains of social estrangement (disaffiliation, human capital, identification with homeless culture, and psychological…

  4. Overweight and obesity in young adult women: A matter of health or appearance? The Tromsø study: Fit futures.

    PubMed

    Sand, Anne-Sofie; Emaus, Nina; Lian, Olaug

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing number of overweight and obese people, there is a growing public health concern and focus on body size and lifestyle issues, especially in the media. Young adult women comprise a vulnerable group regarding issues of weight balance and appearance. The aim of the study was to examine the experiences of young women on how this focus influences their attitudes concerning weight changes, appearance, and health. We conducted 12 interviews with young women from two different weight groups about the attention on overweight issues. The results from the in-depth interviews were scrutinized through content analyses. The main findings indicate that young women experience a considerable focus on overweight issues with a trend towards appearance rather than health. Overweight and obesity are sensitive topics, and participants expressed strong views on the cultural definitions of normal body size and appearance. The squeeze between cultural norms and young women's perceptions of their own body and health was described as a possible negative factor influencing well-being as well as motivation for lifestyle changes. A more relaxed focus on overweight issues and especially on appearance is necessary when addressing weight-balance issues and lifestyle changes in young adult women. PMID:26400463

  5. Overweight and obesity in young adult women: A matter of health or appearance? The Tromsø study: Fit futures

    PubMed Central

    Sand, Anne-Sofie; Emaus, Nina; Lian, Olaug

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing number of overweight and obese people, there is a growing public health concern and focus on body size and lifestyle issues, especially in the media. Young adult women comprise a vulnerable group regarding issues of weight balance and appearance. The aim of the study was to examine the experiences of young women on how this focus influences their attitudes concerning weight changes, appearance, and health. We conducted 12 interviews with young women from two different weight groups about the attention on overweight issues. The results from the in-depth interviews were scrutinized through content analyses. The main findings indicate that young women experience a considerable focus on overweight issues with a trend towards appearance rather than health. Overweight and obesity are sensitive topics, and participants expressed strong views on the cultural definitions of normal body size and appearance. The squeeze between cultural norms and young women's perceptions of their own body and health was described as a possible negative factor influencing well-being as well as motivation for lifestyle changes. A more relaxed focus on overweight issues and especially on appearance is necessary when addressing weight-balance issues and lifestyle changes in young adult women. PMID:26400463

  6. Hmong Food Helps Us Remember Who We Are: Perspectives of Food Culture and Health among Hmong Women with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vue, Wa; Wolff, Cindy; Goto, Keiko

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine perspectives on food habits, acculturation, and health among Hmong women with young children in northern California. Methods: Qualitative interviews were conducted with 15 Hmong mothers with young children in a low-income community of northern California. The interviews were transcribed and coded based on the principles of…

  7. 77 FR 41188 - Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young... Temeika L. Fairley, Ph.D., Designated Federal Officer, Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women... Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463) of October 6, 1972, that the Advisory Committee on...

  8. Does knowledge influence pap test screening among young African-American women?

    PubMed

    Bynum, Shalanda A; Guillaume, Daphnee A; Brandt, Heather M; Fletcher, Faith E

    2014-09-01

    Pap test screening among African-American women has substantially increased. However, African-American women continue to bear the burden of cervical cancer as compared to White women. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of Pap test knowledge on cervical screening history among young African-American women. Between January and April 2009, 320 women from historically black colleges and universities located in the southeastern United States who met study inclusion criteria completed an anonymous self-report questionnaire to assess their awareness, knowledge, and behaviors related to human papillomavirus and cervical cancer prevention and control. Seventy-six percent of women reported ever having a Pap test, 54 % reported having a Pap test less than 1 year ago, and 25 % reported ever having an abnormal Pap test result. The overall mean score on the six-point Pap test knowledge scale was 4.46 ± 1.02. Women who reported having an abnormal Pap test (4.96 ± 0.82) had significantly higher Pap test knowledge compared to those never having an abnormal result (4.49 ± 1.04), p < 0.01. No other differences were found. Efforts to improve Pap test knowledge among all women, including those with no prior abnormal Pap test history, are critical to cervical cancer prevention and control over the life course. Such efforts should include creating information that is relevant to the population and enables informed decision making about cervical health.

  9. β-Adrenergic-mediated vasodilation in young men and women: cyclooxygenase restrains nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Limberg, Jacqueline K; Johansson, Rebecca E; Peltonen, Garrett L; Harrell, John W; Kellawan, J Mikhail; Eldridge, Marlowe W; Sebranek, Joshua J; Schrage, William G

    2016-03-15

    We tested the hypothesis that women exhibit greater vasodilator responses to β-adrenoceptor stimulation compared with men. We further hypothesized women exhibit a greater contribution of nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase to β-adrenergic-mediated vasodilation compared with men. Forearm blood flow (Doppler ultrasound) was measured in young men (n = 29, 26 ± 1 yr) and women (n = 33, 25 ± 1 yr) during intra-arterial infusion of isoproterenol (β-adrenergic agonist). In subset of subjects, isoproterenol responses were examined before and after local inhibition of nitric oxide synthase [N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA); 6 male/10 female] and/or cyclooxygenase (ketorolac; 5 male/5 female). Vascular conductance (blood flow ÷ mean arterial pressure) was calculated to assess vasodilation. Vascular conductance increased with isoproterenol infusion (P < 0.01), and this effect was not different between men and women (P = 0.41). l-NMMA infusion had no effect on isoproterenol-mediated dilation in men (P > 0.99) or women (P = 0.21). In contrast, ketorolac infusion markedly increased isoproterenol-mediated responses in both men (P < 0.01) and women (P = 0.04) and this rise was lost with subsequent l-NMMA infusion (men, P < 0.01; women, P < 0.05). β-Adrenergic vasodilation is not different between men and women and sex differences in the independent contribution of nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase to β-mediated vasodilation are not present. However, these data are the first to demonstrate β-adrenoceptor activation of cyclooxygenase suppresses nitric oxide synthase signaling in human forearm microcirculation and may have important implications for neurovascular control in both health and disease. PMID:26747505

  10. Examining the determinants of sexual violence among young, married women in Southern India.

    PubMed

    Chibber, Karuna S; Krupp, Karl; Padian, Nancy; Madhivanan, Purnima

    2012-08-01

    The prevalence of sexual violence is increasingly being studied in India. Yet the determinants of sexual violence, irrespective of physical violence, remain largely unexplored. Here the authors identify the determinants of sexual violence, and additionally, explore how the presence of physical violence modifies these determinants. A cross-sectional analysis is conducted using baseline data from a longitudinal study involving young married women attending reproductive health clinics in Southern India. A multivariable logistic regression analysis is conducted to first identify determinants of sexual violence and then repeated after stratifying elements based on presence or absence of physical violence identified from participants' reports. 36% and 50% of the participants report experiencing sexual and physical violence, respectively. After adjusting for other covariates, women's partners' characteristics are found most significantly associated with their odds of experiencing sexual violence. These characteristics include husbands' primary education, employment as drivers, alcohol consumption, and having multiple sex partners. Women's contribution to household income also increases their odds of experiencing sexual violence by almost twofold; however, if they are solely responsible for "all" household income, the relationship is found to be protective. Physical violence modifies the determinants of sexual violence, and among women not experiencing physical violence, husbands' primary education and employment as drivers increase women's odds of experiencing sexual violence nearly threefold, and women who contribute "all" the household income (n = 62) do not experience sexual violence. These relationships are not significant among women experiencing physical violence. Study findings improve the understanding of the determinants of sexual violence. Future research is needed to examine the risk factors for different types of GBV independently and to tease apart the

  11. The Neighborhood Context of Homelessness

    PubMed Central

    Pollio, David E.; North, Carol S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined and compared the changing neighborhood characteristics of a group of homeless adults over time. Methods. We collected the addresses of previous housing and sleep locations from a longitudinal study of 400 homeless adults in the St. Louis, Missouri, region and compared census measures of housing and economic opportunities at different points along individual pathways from housing to homelessness and at 1- and 2-year follow-up interviews. Results. Sleep locations of homeless adults were much more concentrated in the urban core at baseline than were their previous housed and follow-up locations. These core areas had higher poverty, unemployment, and rent-to-income ratios and lower median incomes. Conclusions. The spatial concentration of homeless adults in areas with fewer opportunities and more economic and housing distress may present additional barriers to regaining stable housing and employment. A big-picture spatial and time-course viewpoint is critical for both policymakers and future homelessness researchers. PMID:23409889

  12. The Views of Young Women on HPV Vaccine Communication in Four European Countries.

    PubMed

    Petrova, Dafina; Brunton, Carol Gray; Jaeger, Moritz; Lenneis, Anita; Munoz, Rocio; Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Todorova, Irina

    2015-01-01

    The Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) and can cause cervical cancer. Two vaccines are available to protect against the most common strands of the virus. Vaccination programs differ across Europe but most neglect young adults, who are the group with the highest risk of contracting STIs. Our aim was to explore the views of young women from four European countries—Scotland, Spain, Serbia, and Bulgaria - about the HPV vaccine communication strategy. These countries are characterized by different cervical cancer prevalence and vaccine implementation policies. We conducted focus group discussions with young women (aged 18-26) with various vaccination histories in a purposive sample. We subjected the data to thematic analysis with the purpose of identifying themes related to communication about the HPV vaccine. We recorded the information sources mentioned by participants. Participants discussed numerous sources of vaccine-related information. They approached information critically rather than naively and questioned the sources' trustworthiness and motives. Participants desired transparent information about the risks of the virus and the risks and benefits of the vaccine. These risks and benefits were individualized in view of personal and external factors. Particular aspects of the vaccine and the way information was communicated resulted in feelings of uncertainty. There were notable cross-cultural differences in experiences with HPV vaccine communication. Our results suggest that transparent risk communication about the HPV vaccine is valued by young women. In addition, both individual and culturally-dependent factors influenced experiences with, and preference for information. PMID:26149158

  13. Evidence of Syndemics and Sexuality-Related Discrimination Among Young Sexual-Minority Women

    PubMed Central

    Kinsky, Suzanne M.; Herrick, Amy L.; Stall, Ron D.; Bauermeister, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Syndemics, or the co-occurrence and interaction of health problems, have been examined extensively among young men who have sex with men, but their existence remain unexamined, to our knowledge, among sexual-minority (i.e., lesbian, gay, and bisexual) women. Thus, we investigated if syndemics were present among young sexual-minority women, and if sexual-orientation discrimination was an independent variable of syndemic production. Methods: A total of 467 sexual-minority women between the ages of 18 and 24 completed a cross-sectional online survey regarding their substance use, mental health, sexual behaviors, height, weight, and experiences of discrimination. We used structural equation modeling to investigate the presence of syndemics and their relationship to sexual-orientation discrimination. Results: Heavy episodic drinking, marijuana use, ecstasy use, hallucinogen use, depressive symptoms, multiple sexual partners, and history of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) comprised syndemics in this population (chi-square=24.989, P=.201; comparative fit index [CFI]=0.946; root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA]=0.023). Sexual-orientation discrimination is significantly and positively associated with the latent syndemic variable (unstandardized coefficient=0.095, P<.05), and this model fit the data well (chi-square=33.558, P=.059; CFI=0.914; RMSEA=0.029). The reverse causal model showed syndemics is not an independent variable of sexual-orientation discrimination (unstandardized coefficient=0.602, P>.05). Conclusions: Syndemics appear to be present and associated with sexual-orientation discrimination among young sexual-minority women. Interventions aimed at reducing discrimination or increasing healthy coping may help reduce substance use, depressive symptoms, and sexual risk behaviors in this population. PMID:26788674

  14. The Work-to-College Transition: Postsecondary Expectations and Enrolment for Young Men and Women in the US Labour Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Ryan S.; Bills, David B.; Devlin, Maura E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates early employment influences on postsecondary expectations and enrolment for working men and women who have recently completed high school in the United States. We find that young workers still have very high expectations for postsecondary education, but that women are more likely to enrol. However, this difference is…

  15. Young Women's Leadership Alliance: Youth-Adult Partnerships in an All-Female After-School Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denner, Jill; Meyer, Beth; Bean, Steve

    2005-01-01

    This article describes program strategies and adult practices that can build youth-adult partnerships. In particular, it focuses on strategies to empower girls in all-female after-school programs. The Young Women's Leadership Alliance has involved 164 girl leaders and five adult women leaders over three years. To build the partnerships, adults…

  16. The Relationship of Childhood Sexual Abuse to the Marital Attitudes and Readiness for Marriage of Single Young Adult Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Jeffry H.; LaMont, Craig

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of childhood sexual abuse to marital attitudes and perceived readiness for marriage in single young adult women. A total of 622 women from three universities in the United States completed questionnaires on sexual abuse, attitudes and feelings about marriage, and readiness for marriage. After controlling…

  17. Caring capacity in the management of the nutrition crisis in infants, young children and women in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Igbedioh, S O

    1996-01-01

    Nigeria's nutrition crisis has been shown to have a considerable negative impact on infants, young children and women. Available evidence suggests that 'caring capacity' when properly planned and targeted at the most-at-risk can help. Strategies that can achieve this care are increasing women's income and control over income, increasing investment in women's education and improving access to credit facilities. Others are the aggressive promotion of gender-biased labour saving technology, increasing women's access to basic health and family planning services and implementing reforms in land ownership while instituting social security for women.

  18. Why Don't They Want a Male-Dominated Job? An Investigation of Young Women Who Changed Their Occupational Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frome, Pamela M.; Alfeld, Corinne J.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.; Barber, Bonnie L.

    2006-01-01

    We examined 2 hypotheses regarding why some young women do not maintain their espoused occupational aspirations in male-dominated fields from late adolescence through young adulthood. The first hypothesis concerns attitudes towards math and science; the second concerns the desire for job flexibility. The sample of young women (N=104) was taken…

  19. Multiple abortions and sexually transmitted infections among young migrant women working in entertainment venues in China

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yanyan; Zhang, Hongbo; Wang, Yongyang; Tao, Haidong; Xu, Song; Xia, Junrui; Huang, Wen; He, Huan; Zaller, Nickolas; Operario, Don

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a survey of 358 young migrant women working in entertainment venues in China to explore the prevalence of and factors associated with two indicators of sexual and reproductive health: (i) multiple abortions and (ii) the dual risk of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and abortion history. One quarter (25.4%) of the women in this sample had multiple abortions during their lifetime and, of those with any abortion history, 18.3% had had an abortion outside of a regulated health clinic. One-third (33.0%) of the sample had had a STI during the past year, and approximately one-fourth (23.7%) of those women did not receive STI treatment in a public hospital. Approximately one-fourth (23.5%) of the sample reported both a history of abortion and an STI during the past year. Women with a history of multiple abortions had significantly lower income levels, were more likely to have sex with clients and with husbands, and tended more to use alcohol before sex. Women who experienced both abortion and STI risks were more likely to report having had unprotected sex, genitourinary tract infections symptoms, anxiety, illicit drug use, and suicidal ideation. Enhanced efforts are needed to improve reproductive and sexual health for female migrants in urban China, particularly those working in entertainment venues. PMID:25902189

  20. Reframing motherhood through the culture-centered approach: articulations of agency among young Nepalese women.

    PubMed

    Basnyat, Iccha; Dutta, Mohan Joyti

    2012-01-01

    Based upon the culture-centered approach that foregrounds the relevance of interrogating the taken-for-granted assumptions that circulate in the dominant models of health communication on family planning, this article argues that traditional approaches to reproductive health campaigns are concerned with safe motherhood (e.g., fertility, birth spacing, hospital delivery) rather than with the processes through which women construct, negotiate, and maintain meanings of motherhood and health within their cultural contexts. In doing so, this traditional framework leaves out the broader sociocultural, political, and economic contexts of social structures that constrain and enable the possibilities for health in the realm of motherhood. The culture-centered approach notes the erasure of these voices of women from dominant epistemic structures, and seeks to interrupt knowledge production by co-constructing meanings of reproductive health through dialogues with women at the margins. Therefore, in-depth interviews were conducted to centralize experiences of the cultural participants, allowing alternative health meanings to emerge within their local contexts. In particular, highlighting narratives of young Nepalese women living under poverty, we are able to understand how women actively (re)construct meanings of motherhood within their localized cultural spaces.