Science.gov

Sample records for youth gun violence

  1. Children, Youth, and Gun Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrman, Richard E., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This collection of articles summarizes knowledge and research about how gun violence affects children and youth and discusses which policies hold promise for reducing youth gun violence. The papers are: (1) "Statement of Purpose" (Richard E. Behrman); "Children, Youth, and Gun Violence: Analysis and Recommendations" (Kathleen Reich, Patti L.…

  2. Behavior-oriented approaches to reducing youth gun violence.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Marjorie S

    2002-01-01

    Advocacy groups on both sides of the guns issue frequently point to changing personal behavior--of both parents and children--as a key element in reducing gun violence among youth. Efforts to bring about these changes range from community-based campaigns, to laws and programs that encourage parents to store their guns safely, to educational initiatives that focus on keeping young children away from guns and encouraging youth to resolve disputes without violence. Unfortunately, these behavior-oriented programs have not shown great success in reducing youth gun violence. This article reviews the research surrounding behavioral approaches to gun violence prevention and highlights obstacles that hamper the effectiveness of these programs. Supportive communities can play a key role in protecting youth from violence in general, but the few community-based violence prevention programs that focus on youth have not been shown to decrease youth access to or use of guns. By and large, behavioral programs and legal interventions aimed at parents have not been proven to reduce youth gun violence. This may be due in part to parental misperceptions about children's risk of injury and ability to protect themselves. Children and youth are particularly difficult targets for behavioral change programs. Cognitive immaturity among younger children and perceptions of invulnerability among adolescents may be part of the reason. Most programs that seek to persuade youth to stay away from guns have not been proven effective. The author concludes that, although behavioral programs could be improved, overall they hold only limited promise for reducing youth gun violence. PMID:12194605

  3. Impacting the problem of inner-city youth violence: "Educating Kids About Gun Violence" program.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Thomas Z; Simons, Clark J; St John, Wendy; Waymire, Michelle; Stucky, Thomas D

    2011-04-01

    The Educating Kids Against Gun Violence (EKG) program was developed in response to high levels of gun violence in an urban inner-city county through a partnership between the county prosecutor's office, local law enforcement, and a Level 1 trauma center. This program incorporates short video clips and interactive presentations, which address legal and medical consequences of gun violence. The program was presented to youths varying in age and degree of prior contact with the criminal justice system. Pre and post surveys were used to evaluate the short-term impact of the EKG program on the legal and medical knowledge and attitudes of youth participants. There were 130 pre and post surveys that could be exactly matched. Sixty-three per cent of participants had been arrested and 35 per cent had been convicted of a crime. On the post survey, 79 per cent stated that "the program will help keep me out of trouble" and 69 per cent stated that "in the future because of this program I will be less likely to carry a gun". The EKG program seemed to have positive short-term impacts on youth knowledge of legal and medical consequences and attitudes regarding gun violence.

  4. Gun Possession among American Youth: A Discovery-Based Approach to Understand Gun Violence

    PubMed Central

    Ruggles, Kelly V.; Rajan, Sonali

    2014-01-01

    Objective To apply discovery-based computational methods to nationally representative data from the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions’ Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System to better understand and visualize the behavioral factors associated with gun possession among adolescent youth. Results Our study uncovered the multidimensional nature of gun possession across nearly five million unique data points over a ten year period (2001–2011). Specifically, we automated odds ratio calculations for 55 risk behaviors to assemble a comprehensive table of associations for every behavior combination. Downstream analyses included the hierarchical clustering of risk behaviors based on their association “fingerprint” to 1) visualize and assess which behaviors frequently co-occur and 2) evaluate which risk behaviors are consistently found to be associated with gun possession. From these analyses, we identified more than 40 behavioral factors, including heroin use, using snuff on school property, having been injured in a fight, and having been a victim of sexual violence, that have and continue to be strongly associated with gun possession. Additionally, we identified six behavioral clusters based on association similarities: 1) physical activity and nutrition; 2) disordered eating, suicide and sexual violence; 3) weapon carrying and physical safety; 4) alcohol, marijuana and cigarette use; 5) drug use on school property and 6) overall drug use. Conclusions Use of computational methodologies identified multiple risk behaviors, beyond more commonly discussed indicators of poor mental health, that are associated with gun possession among youth. Implications for prevention efforts and future interdisciplinary work applying computational methods to behavioral science data are described. PMID:25372864

  5. Gun violence among youth and the pediatrician's role in primary prevention.

    PubMed

    Webster, D W; Wilson, M E

    1994-10-01

    Adolescence is a developmental stage characterized by high rates of violent behavior. Increasingly, violent injury is involving preadolescent children. Evidence suggests that the availability of guns increases the lethality of violent acts. Because guns are ubiquitous in the United States and integral to the current epidemic of youth violence, pediatricians should participate in primary prevention of firearm injuries. Efforts should begin long before children reach adolescence. Pediatricians should: (1) Encourage parents to remove guns from the home, or at a minimum to keep guns unloaded and locked up; (2) Advise parents to limit viewing of gun violence in the media, and playing with toy guns and video games that involve shooting; (3) Be alert for early indicators of aggressive behavior; and (4) Become outspoken advocates for laws that restrict gun availability.

  6. Gun violence among youth and the pediatrician's role in primary prevention.

    PubMed

    Webster, D W; Wilson, M E

    1994-10-01

    Adolescence is a developmental stage characterized by high rates of violent behavior. Increasingly, violent injury is involving preadolescent children. Evidence suggests that the availability of guns increases the lethality of violent acts. Because guns are ubiquitous in the United States and integral to the current epidemic of youth violence, pediatricians should participate in primary prevention of firearm injuries. Efforts should begin long before children reach adolescence. Pediatricians should: (1) Encourage parents to remove guns from the home, or at a minimum to keep guns unloaded and locked up; (2) Advise parents to limit viewing of gun violence in the media, and playing with toy guns and video games that involve shooting; (3) Be alert for early indicators of aggressive behavior; and (4) Become outspoken advocates for laws that restrict gun availability. PMID:7936887

  7. Specifying the role of exposure to violence and violent behavior on initiation of gun carrying: a longitudinal test of three models of youth gun carrying.

    PubMed

    Spano, Richard; Pridemore, William Alex; Bolland, John

    2012-01-01

    Two waves of longitudinal data from 1,049 African American youth living in extreme poverty are used to examine the impact of exposure to violence (Time 1) and violent behavior (Time 1) on first time gun carrying (Time 2). Multivariate logistic regression results indicate that (a) violent behavior (Time 1) increased the likelihood of initiation of gun carrying (Time 2) by 76% after controlling for exposure to violence at Time 1, which is consistent with the stepping stone model of youth gun carrying, and (b) youth who were both exposed to violence at Time 1 and engaged in violent behavior at Time 1 were more than 2.5 times more likely to initiate gun carrying at Time 2 compared to youth who had neither of these characteristics, which supports the cumulative risk model of youth gun carrying. The authors discuss the implications of these findings in clarifying the role of violence in the community on youth gun carrying and the primary prevention of youth gun violence.

  8. Reducing Youth Gun Violence. Part One--An Overview [and] Part Two--Prevention and Intervention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEvoy, Alan, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This document contains two issues of a journal on reducing youth gun violence, reprinted from a report by the U.S. Department of Justice. The first issue, part one, provides an overview of programs and initiatives. The second issue, part two, describes prevention and intervention programs. To reduce violence and build healthy communities requires…

  9. Youth, guns, and violent crime.

    PubMed

    Blumstein, Alfred

    2002-01-01

    Young people are overrepresented as both victims and perpetrators of violence. Indeed, some commentators have suggested that recent cohorts of youth have been composed of "superpredators" who have little regard for human life. The evidence, however, suggests that other factors are responsible for recent increases in youth gun violence. This article analyzes the extent and causes of youth violence in the United States, paying particular attention to the late 1980s and early 1990s, when rates of homicide and robbery committed by youth rose to extremely high levels. Examination of trends for these crimes shows that: The increase in violence in the United States during the late 1980s and early 1990s was due primarily to an increase in violent acts committed by people under age 20. Similarly, dramatic declines in homicide and robbery in recent years are attributable primarily to a decline in youth violence. The increase in youth homicide was predominantly due to a significant increase in the use of handguns, which converted ordinary teenage fights and other violent encounters into homicides. Several other interrelated factors also fueled the rise in youth violence, including the rise of illegal drug markets, particularly for crack cocaine, the recruitment of youth into those markets, and an increase in gun carrying among young people. The author points out that youth violence diminished as the crack markets shrank, law enforcement increased efforts to control youth access to guns, youth gun carrying declined, and the robust economy provided legitimate jobs for young people.

  10. Guns, Gangs, and Gossip: An Analysis of Student Essays on Youth Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Marc A.; Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Wong, Naima; Tarver, Darian; Rabiah, Deana; White, Sharrice

    2004-01-01

    Youth violence is an important public health problem, but few researchers have studied violence from youth's perspectives. Middle school students' essays about the causes of youth violence were analyzed using qualitative and quantitative methods. The causes of violence identified by students were categorized into individual, peer, family, and…

  11. Specifying the Role of Exposure to Violence and Violent Behavior on Initiation of Gun Carrying: A Longitudinal Test of Three Models of Youth Gun Carrying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spano, Richard; Pridemore, William Alex; Bolland, John

    2012-01-01

    Two waves of longitudinal data from 1,049 African American youth living in extreme poverty are used to examine the impact of exposure to violence (Time 1) and violent behavior (Time 1) on first time gun carrying (Time 2). Multivariate logistic regression results indicate that (a) violent behavior (Time 1) increased the likelihood of initiation of…

  12. Guns and Violence. Current Controversies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Henny H., Ed.

    This book focuses on gun violence and gun control, presenting both sides of arguments about firearms ownership and gun control. Each of five chapters poses a question about gun control and provides answers for both sides of the question. The following essays are included: (1) "Gun Violence Is Becoming an Epidemic" (Bob Herbert); (2) "Gun Violence…

  13. Gun Violence and Children: Factors Related To Exposure and Trauma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slovak, Karen

    2002-01-01

    Study investigated relationship between access to firearms and parental monitoring on rural youths' exposure to gun violence, and examined the effect of gun violence exposure on mental health. Results indicated a substantial number were exposed to gun violence. Exposure was related to firearm access and parental monitoring. Implications for social…

  14. Reducing Youth Gun Violence: An Overview of Programs and Initiatives. Program Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

    This report discusses a wide array of violence prevention strategies used across the United States, ranging from school-based prevention to gun market interception. Relevant research, evaluation, and legislation are included to ground these programs and provide a context for their successful implementation. The first section of the report is an…

  15. Youth, Guns, and the Juvenile Justice System. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butts, Jeffrey; Coggeshall, Mark; Gouvis, Caterina; Mears, Daniel; Travis, Jeremy; Waul, Michelle; White, Ruth

    This report documents trends in youth gun violence and the response within the justice system, noting the growing variety of data resources available to investigate the effect of new gun laws on youth, communities, and public safety. The first section reviews recent trends, examining the major wave of gun violence in the United States during the…

  16. Youth Violence, Guns, and Illicit Drug Markets. National Institute of Justice Research Preview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumstein, Alfred

    The perception that violence is on the rise is supported by data showing a sharp increase in violent crime among juveniles since the mid-1980s. Although the overall national homicide rate has not increased, homicides by youth under the age of 24 have grown significantly in recent years. The rate of arrest of nonwhite juveniles for drug offenses…

  17. Youth Violence and Gangs. Hearing on the Status of the Juvenile Justice System in America, Focusing on Activities of Youth Gangs and Their Access to Guns, and How Programs Can Help Prevent the Violence Associated with Youth Gangs, before the Subcommittee on Juvenile Justice of the Committee on the Judiciary. United States Senate, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, (November 26, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

    The text of a Senate hearing on the status of youth gangs and their access to guns, and of violence prevention programs is provided in this document. Statements from Senators Herbert Kohl, Paul Simon, and Dennis DeConcini are presented. Testimony and prepared statements from these witnesses is included: (1) James Gabarino, president, Erikson…

  18. Understanding Youth Violence

    MedlinePlus

    ... protective factors. Step 3: Develop and test prevention strategies Using information gathered in research, CDC develops and evaluates strategies to prevent youth violence. Step 4: Ensure widespread ...

  19. Prevention of youth violence.

    PubMed

    Leaf, Philip J

    2005-01-01

    Youth violence is widely recognized as a major public health problem. Concern over the number of youth affected by violence in their homes, communities, and in schools has precipitated considerable discussion in the popular press and in professional journals. This article reviews recent activity to reduce youth violence with an emphasis on activity taking place in Maryland. The number of youth murdered or exposed to violence in Maryland remains too high. Although most of our youth are resilient, they are not unaffected by the violence that surrounds them. Exposure to violence places children at high risk for a variety of emotional and behavioral problems, such as poor academic performance, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, and inadequate socialization and development.

  20. Creating Safe and Healthy Futures: Michigan Youth Violence Prevention Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Reischl, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Youth are in the cross-fire of gun violence, and the highest rate in the nation is in Flint, Michigan. This article highlights six innovative strategies that prepare youth to solve problems at home and in their communities in peaceful ways. The Michigan Youth Violence Prevention Center (MI-YVPC) works with community groups to strengthen…

  1. Cure violence: a public health model to reduce gun violence.

    PubMed

    Butts, Jeffrey A; Roman, Caterina Gouvis; Bostwick, Lindsay; Porter, Jeremy R

    2015-03-18

    Scholars and practitioners alike in recent years have suggested that real and lasting progress in the fight against gun violence requires changing the social norms and attitudes that perpetuate violence and the use of guns. The Cure Violence model is a public health approach to gun violence reduction that seeks to change individual and community attitudes and norms about gun violence. It considers gun violence to be analogous to a communicable disease that passes from person to person when left untreated. Cure Violence operates independently of, while hopefully not undermining, law enforcement. In this article, we describe the theoretical basis for the program, review existing program evaluations, identify several challenges facing evaluators, and offer directions for future research. PMID:25581151

  2. Fighting Juvenile Gun Violence. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, David; Grant, Heath; Rowe, Wendy; Jacobs, Nancy

    This bulletin describes the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's efforts to fight juvenile gun violence. The Office awarded four community demonstration grants to implement "Partnerships To Reduce Juvenile Gun Violence." Partnership goals include increasing the effectiveness of existing strategies by enhancing and coordinating…

  3. Media violence, gun control, and public policy.

    PubMed

    Zuckerman, D M

    1996-07-01

    Public concern with the national level of violence is discussed, and the complexity of the issue delineated. Research findings in two key areas of the topic, media violence and availability of firearms, are examined, as is their applicability to public policy efforts and recommendations for the prevention of violence. An approach that combines efforts to counteract media violence with those aimed at effective gun control is outlined in terms of bringing about changes in attitudes toward violence and firearm possession. PMID:8827261

  4. Gun Violence, mental health, and Connecticut physicians.

    PubMed

    Dodds, Peter R; Anderson, Caitlyn O; Dodds, Jon H

    2014-01-01

    While there is a public perception that gun violence is associated with mental illness we present evidence that it is a complex public health problem which defies simple characterizations and solutions. Only a small percentage of individuals with mental illness are at risk for extreme violence and they account for only a small percentage of gun-related homicides. Individuals who are at risk for gun violence are difficult to identify and successfully treat. The incidence, and perhaps the demographics, of gun violence vary substantially from state to state. We make a case for Connecticut physicians to study gun violence at the state level. We recommend that Connecticut physicians promote and expand upon the American Academy of Pediatrics' recommendation for creating a "safe home environment. "We suggest that guns be secured in all homes in which there are children. In addition we suggest that guns be voluntarily removed from homes in which there are individuals with a history of violence, threats of violence, depression, drug and/or alcohol abuse, and individuals with major mental illnesses who are not cooperating with therapy. PMID:25745735

  5. Gun Violence, mental health, and Connecticut physicians.

    PubMed

    Dodds, Peter R; Anderson, Caitlyn O; Dodds, Jon H

    2014-01-01

    While there is a public perception that gun violence is associated with mental illness we present evidence that it is a complex public health problem which defies simple characterizations and solutions. Only a small percentage of individuals with mental illness are at risk for extreme violence and they account for only a small percentage of gun-related homicides. Individuals who are at risk for gun violence are difficult to identify and successfully treat. The incidence, and perhaps the demographics, of gun violence vary substantially from state to state. We make a case for Connecticut physicians to study gun violence at the state level. We recommend that Connecticut physicians promote and expand upon the American Academy of Pediatrics' recommendation for creating a "safe home environment. "We suggest that guns be secured in all homes in which there are children. In addition we suggest that guns be voluntarily removed from homes in which there are individuals with a history of violence, threats of violence, depression, drug and/or alcohol abuse, and individuals with major mental illnesses who are not cooperating with therapy.

  6. The Real Costs of Gun Violence

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Philip J.

    2001-03-14

    I will report some of the results in my new book, 'Gun Violence: The Real Costs' (Oxford University Press, 2000; with Jens Ludwig). The problem of gun violence is usually summarized by statistics on deaths and injuries. Those statistics tell only part of the story. All of us bear some of the burden of gun violence, at least in the form of higher taxes and waiting to go through the airport security checks. But that's just the beginning. The extraordinary reductions in lethal violence that occurred during the 1990s help account for rising property values and urban renewal; further reductions are possible and would do still more to enhance the average standard of living. This talk will explain why the economic perspective provides a fresh, useful point of view on violence, and will discuss the technique used to arrive at an estimate of the magnitude of the burden.

  7. Juvenile Justice & Youth Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, James C.

    Youth violence and the juvenile justice system in the United States are explored. Part 1 takes stock of the situation. The first chapter discusses the origins and evaluation of the juvenile justice system, and the second considers the contributions of the Federal Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act to the existing juvenile justice…

  8. Framing Youth Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, John; Dorfman, Lori

    Have quality newspapers incorporated what scholars have learned over the last quarter century about making news more useful as a resource for civic participation? A year-long analysis of reporting about youth violence in three California newspapers provides a schizophrenic conclusion: After the Columbine massacre, newspapers provided rich context,…

  9. Implementation and Evaluation of a Youth Violence Prevention Program for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regan, Mary Elana

    2009-01-01

    Youth violence in the city of Philadelphia, PA, has reached epidemic proportions. The majority of homicides related to gun violence is most prevalent among African American males aged 19 to 24 years. Therefore, it is essential to implement youth violence prevention programs to a target population several years younger than this age group to…

  10. Health and Gun Violence. Guns as a Public-Health Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duran, Victoria

    1994-01-01

    Violence in all settings has reached epidemic proportions. Most shootings are committed by friends or relatives following an argument or when playing with guns. The public needs education about nonviolent ways of coping with anger and about the high cost of gun violence. Suggestions for avoiding gun violence and the PTA position on firearms are…

  11. Youth Homicide and Guns. Firearm Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duker, Laurie, Ed.

    Young Americans are killed with guns at rates far higher than young people in other countries and than older Americans, with young, urban African-American males being most at risk. This fact sheet presents data on gun-related homicides among teenagers in the United States. The high rate of youth homicide in the United States is unique in the…

  12. Decreasing the supply of and demand for guns: Oakland's Youth Advocacy Project.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, Deane

    2014-02-01

    This paper is a case study of how Youth ALIVE!, a nonprofit public health organization, blended direct service and policy goals to reduce youth gun violence at a time when guns became the number one killer of children in California. Youth ALIVE! trained young people living in California communities with the highest rates of gun violence to become peer educators and leaders to reduce both the supply of, and demand for, guns. The youth presented health and criminal justice data in the context of their own experiences living in communities endangered by gun violence to help build public policy solutions, contributing to the subsequent drop in gun homicides. Youth ALIVE's vibrant grassroots model provides a real-life tableau of research and direct services working together to yield realistic policy solutions to a lethal public health problem. The youths' successes demonstrate how nonprofit direct service organizations are uniquely positioned to advocate for policy and regulatory changes that can be beneficial to both program participants and society. Direct service organizations' daily exposure to real-life client needs provides valuable insights for developing viable policies-plus highly motivated advocates. When backed by scientific findings on the causes of the problem, this synergy of youth participant engagement in civil society can promote good policy and build healthy communities.

  13. Gun shows and gun violence: fatally flawed study yields misleading results.

    PubMed

    Wintemute, Garen J; Hemenway, David; Webster, Daniel; Pierce, Glenn; Braga, Anthony A

    2010-10-01

    A widely publicized but unpublished study of the relationship between gun shows and gun violence is being cited in debates about the regulation of gun shows and gun commerce. We believe the study is fatally flawed. A working paper entitled "The Effect of Gun Shows on Gun-Related Deaths: Evidence from California and Texas" outlined this study, which found no association between gun shows and gun-related deaths. We believe the study reflects a limited understanding of gun shows and gun markets and is not statistically powered to detect even an implausibly large effect of gun shows on gun violence. In addition, the research contains serious ascertainment and classification errors, produces results that are sensitive to minor specification changes in key variables and in some cases have no face validity, and is contradicted by 1 of its own authors' prior research. The study should not be used as evidence in formulating gun policy.

  14. College Students Opinions on Gun Violence.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Rhonda K; LoCurto, Jamie; Brown, Kyrah; Stowell, David; Maryman, J'Vonnah; Dean, Amber; McNair, Thoi; Ojeda, Debbie; Siwierka, Julia

    2016-06-01

    Gun violence and control issues have become serious public health problems. This study gathered the opinions from 419 college students from a Midwestern University. Participants were asked about beliefs about purchasing assault weapons, beliefs about bringing handguns to college campuses and beliefs about contributing factors that lead to gun violence. Participants completed surveys online. The findings showed that overall 54 % of respondents believed that military assault weapons should be banned and 53 % agree that teachers should be allowed to carry a registered handgun on campus. There were statistically significant differences between males and females on these issues. For instance, females believed military assault weapons and high capacity magazines should be banned more than 1.9 times (p = .004) p < .05 compared to male students. On the other hand, female students were more likely to believe that school teachers should be allowed to carry registered handguns on school campuses more than 1.55 times (p = .046) p < .05 compared to their male student counterparts. There were no statistically significant differences between ethnic groups. The top four contributing factors that students believed led to gun violence were decline in parenting and family values (17 %), gang involvement (14 %), bullying (13.8 %) and guns being easy to obtain (13.8 %). Limitations and implications for policy work are discussed.

  15. College Students Opinions on Gun Violence.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Rhonda K; LoCurto, Jamie; Brown, Kyrah; Stowell, David; Maryman, J'Vonnah; Dean, Amber; McNair, Thoi; Ojeda, Debbie; Siwierka, Julia

    2016-06-01

    Gun violence and control issues have become serious public health problems. This study gathered the opinions from 419 college students from a Midwestern University. Participants were asked about beliefs about purchasing assault weapons, beliefs about bringing handguns to college campuses and beliefs about contributing factors that lead to gun violence. Participants completed surveys online. The findings showed that overall 54 % of respondents believed that military assault weapons should be banned and 53 % agree that teachers should be allowed to carry a registered handgun on campus. There were statistically significant differences between males and females on these issues. For instance, females believed military assault weapons and high capacity magazines should be banned more than 1.9 times (p = .004) p < .05 compared to male students. On the other hand, female students were more likely to believe that school teachers should be allowed to carry registered handguns on school campuses more than 1.55 times (p = .046) p < .05 compared to their male student counterparts. There were no statistically significant differences between ethnic groups. The top four contributing factors that students believed led to gun violence were decline in parenting and family values (17 %), gang involvement (14 %), bullying (13.8 %) and guns being easy to obtain (13.8 %). Limitations and implications for policy work are discussed. PMID:26516018

  16. Preventing Youth Violence: Opportunities for Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David-Ferdon, Corinne; Simon, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    All forms of violence, including youth violence, suicidal behavior, child maltreatment, sexual violence, intimate partner violence, and elder abuse, negatively affect the health and well-being of this country. Youth violence, in particular, is a significant public health problem. Many young people and communities view the grim facts about youth…

  17. FCCLA Program Tackles Youth Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Beth

    2006-01-01

    This article features "STOP (Students Taking on Prevention) the Violence," a peer-to-peer outreach initiative that empowers young people to recognize, report, and reduce the potential for youth violence. It is a national Family, Career and Community Leaders of America (FCCLA) program that provides young people with the attitudes, skills, and…

  18. Aggression and Violence in Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    William Gladden Foundation, York, PA.

    This booklet was written to provide an understanding of aggression and violence in youth. Its purpose is to help parents, professionals, and other concerned citizens prevent or reduce these potentially dangerous behaviors. The introduction notes that many experts agree that aggression and violence are on the rise in America. The first section of…

  19. Weapons and Minority Youth Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northrop, Daphne; Hamrick, Kim

    Weapons violence is a major public health problem that especially impacts minority youth. Interventions designed to reduce weapon use by youth are categorized as educational/behavioral change, legal, and technological/environmental. Few educational programs currently exist, but those that do largely concern firearm safety courses, public…

  20. Normative Considerations in the Aftermath of Gun Violence in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gereluk, Dianne T.; Donlevy, J. Kent; Thompson, Merlin B.

    2015-01-01

    Gun violence in American and Canadian schools is an ongoing tragedy that goes substantially beyond its roots in the interlocking emotional and behavioral issues of mental health and bullying. In light of the need for effective policy development, Dianne T. Gereluk, J. Kent Donlevy, and Merlin B. Thompson examine gun violence in schools from…

  1. Taking Aim at Gun Violence: Rebuilding Community Education & Employment Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Rhonda

    2013-01-01

    In January 2013, President Obama released a plan for protecting children and communities by reducing gun violence. This plan has generated serious debate from both sides of the issue. The ensuing conversations about how to solve the issue of gun violence have been volatile. The President's plan includes reforms to close loopholes on background…

  2. Psychosocial correlates of dating violence victimization among Latino youth.

    PubMed

    Howard, Donna E; Beck, Kenneth; Kerr, Melissa Hallmark; Shattuck, Teresa

    2005-01-01

    To examine the association between physical dating violence victimization and risk and protective factors, an anonymous, cross-sectional, self-reported survey was administered to Latino youth (n=446) residing in suburban Washington, DC. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed, and adjusted OR and 95% CI were examined. Approximately 9% of Latino adolescents reported physical dating violence victimization. Overall, youth who reported carrying a gun, involvement in physical fights and suicidal thoughts were at greater odds of reporting dating violence. Among females, fighting was the sole risk behavior associated with dating violence. Girls who reported a stronger sense of self were less likely to report dating violence. Among males, gun carrying, but not physical fighting, and having considered suicide were associated with dating violence. Spending time each week with a mentor was also positively associated with male dating violence victimization. Dating violence appeared to cluster with other risk behavior engagement. Important gender differences in associated risk and protective behaviors were identified and should be incorporated into primary and secondary prevention activities. PMID:16114594

  3. Violence exposure and teen dating violence among African American youth.

    PubMed

    Black, Beverly M; Chido, Lisa M; Preble, Kathleen M; Weisz, Arlene N; Yoon, Jina S; Delaney-Black, Virginia; Kernsmith, Poco; Lewandowski, Linda

    2015-07-01

    This study examines the relationships between exposure to violence in the community, school, and family with dating violence attitudes and behaviors among 175 urban African American youth. Age, gender, state support and experiences with neglect, school violence, and community violence were the most significant predictors of acceptance of dating violence. Experiences with community violence and age were important predictors of dating violence perpetration and victimization. Findings highlight the importance of planning prevention programs that address variables affecting attitudes and behaviors of high-risk youth who have already been exposed to multiple types of violence.

  4. Commentary: evidence to guide gun violence prevention in America.

    PubMed

    Webster, Daniel W

    2015-03-18

    Gun violence is a major threat to the public's health and safety in the United States. The articles in this volume's symposium on gun violence reveal the scope of the problem and new trends in mortality rates from gunfire. Leading scholars synthesize research evidence that demonstrates the ability of numerous policies and programs-each consistent with lessons learned from successful efforts to combat public health problems-to prevent gun violence. Each approach presents challenges to successful implementation. Future research should inform efforts to assess which approaches are most effective and how to implement evidence-based interventions most effectively. PMID:25581156

  5. Commentary: evidence to guide gun violence prevention in America.

    PubMed

    Webster, Daniel W

    2015-03-18

    Gun violence is a major threat to the public's health and safety in the United States. The articles in this volume's symposium on gun violence reveal the scope of the problem and new trends in mortality rates from gunfire. Leading scholars synthesize research evidence that demonstrates the ability of numerous policies and programs-each consistent with lessons learned from successful efforts to combat public health problems-to prevent gun violence. Each approach presents challenges to successful implementation. Future research should inform efforts to assess which approaches are most effective and how to implement evidence-based interventions most effectively.

  6. Saving Youth from Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hechinger, Fred M.

    1994-01-01

    Nearly one million adolescents between the ages of 12 and 19 are victims of violent crimes each year, and this has been true since at least 1985. Children are becoming involved in violence at ever younger ages, both as victims and as perpetrators. The threat of firearms is the greatest concern in adolescent violence, but no single factor can be…

  7. Preventing Youth Violence in a Multicultural Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerra, Nancy G., Ed.; Smith, Emilie Phillips, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    "Preventing Youth Violence in a Multicultural Society" highlights the importance of creating culturally compatible interventions to stop violence among the youngest members of diverse populations. Chapters explore how ethnicity and culture can increase or decrease risk for violence among youth depending on contextual factors such as a…

  8. Gun Violence, Mental Illness, And Laws That Prohibit Gun Possession: Evidence From Two Florida Counties.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Jeffrey W; Easter, Michele M; Robertson, Allison G; Swartz, Marvin S; Alanis-Hirsch, Kelly; Moseley, Daniel; Dion, Charles; Petrila, John

    2016-06-01

    Gun violence kills about ninety people every day in the United States, a toll measured in wasted and ruined lives and with an annual economic price tag exceeding $200 billion. Some policy makers suggest that reforming mental health care systems and improving point-of-purchase background checks to keep guns from mentally disturbed people will address the problem. Epidemiological research shows that serious mental illness contributes little to the risk of interpersonal violence but is a strong factor in suicide, which accounts for most firearm fatalities. Meanwhile, the effectiveness of gun restrictions focused on mental illness remains poorly understood. This article examines gun-related suicide and violent crime in people with serious mental illnesses, and whether legal restrictions on firearm sales to people with a history of mental health adjudication are effective in preventing gun violence. Among the study population in two large Florida counties, we found that 62 percent of violent gun crime arrests and 28 percent of gun suicides involved individuals not legally permitted to have a gun at the time. Suggested policy reforms include enacting risk-based gun removal laws and prohibiting guns from people involuntarily detained in short-term psychiatric hospitalizations.

  9. Gun Violence, Mental Illness, And Laws That Prohibit Gun Possession: Evidence From Two Florida Counties.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Jeffrey W; Easter, Michele M; Robertson, Allison G; Swartz, Marvin S; Alanis-Hirsch, Kelly; Moseley, Daniel; Dion, Charles; Petrila, John

    2016-06-01

    Gun violence kills about ninety people every day in the United States, a toll measured in wasted and ruined lives and with an annual economic price tag exceeding $200 billion. Some policy makers suggest that reforming mental health care systems and improving point-of-purchase background checks to keep guns from mentally disturbed people will address the problem. Epidemiological research shows that serious mental illness contributes little to the risk of interpersonal violence but is a strong factor in suicide, which accounts for most firearm fatalities. Meanwhile, the effectiveness of gun restrictions focused on mental illness remains poorly understood. This article examines gun-related suicide and violent crime in people with serious mental illnesses, and whether legal restrictions on firearm sales to people with a history of mental health adjudication are effective in preventing gun violence. Among the study population in two large Florida counties, we found that 62 percent of violent gun crime arrests and 28 percent of gun suicides involved individuals not legally permitted to have a gun at the time. Suggested policy reforms include enacting risk-based gun removal laws and prohibiting guns from people involuntarily detained in short-term psychiatric hospitalizations. PMID:27269024

  10. Electronic Aggression: New Technology and Youth Violence

    MedlinePlus

    ... Page Publications Additional CDC Resources Additional Federal Resources Technology and Youth Violence Young people are using media technology, including cell phones, personal data assistants, and the ...

  11. Adolescents' Views of Guns in a High-Violence Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Sally; Hausman, Alice

    2008-01-01

    Firearms account for the majority of deaths among young Black men in America. This article presents a qualitative investigation of youth temptations, emotional reactions, and subsequent behavior with respect to guns. Twenty-three youth enrolled in a community-based firearm reduction program have participated in interviews on retrospective…

  12. Rural Canadian Youth Exposed to Physical Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laye, Adele M.; Mykota, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to physical violence is an unfortunate reality for many Canadian youth as it is associated with numerous negative psychosocial effects. The study aims to assist in understanding resilience in rural Canadian youth exposed to physical violence. This is accomplished by identifying the importance of protective factors, as measured by the…

  13. 3 CFR - Engaging in Public Health Research on the Causes and Prevention of Gun Violence

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Prevention of Gun Violence Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of January 16, 2013 Engaging in Public Health Research on the Causes and Prevention of Gun Violence Memorandum for the Secretary of Health and Human Services In addition to being a law enforcement challenge, gun violence...

  14. Youth empowerment solutions for violence prevention.

    PubMed

    Reischl, Thomas M; Zimmerman, Marc A; Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Franzen, Susan P; Faulk, Monique; Eisman, Andria B; Roberts, Everett

    2011-12-01

    The limited success of youth violence prevention interventions suggests that effective prevention needs to address causes at multiple levels of analysis and empower youth in developing and implementing prevention programs. In this article, we review published studies of youth violence prevention efforts that engage youth in developing or implementing violence prevention activities. The reviewed studies suggest the promise of youth empowerment strategies and the need for systematic outcome studies of empowerment programs. After reviewing empowerment theory applied to youth violence prevention programs, we present a case study of the Youth Empowerment Solutions (YES) for Peaceful Communities program. YES engages middle-school youth in an after-school and summer program that includes a culturally tailored character development curriculum and empowers the youth to plan and implement community improvement projects with assistance from adult neighborhood advocates. The case study focuses on outcome evaluation results and presents evidence of the YES program effects on community-level outcomes (eg, property improvements, violent crime incidents) and on individual-level outcomes (eg, conflict avoidance, victimization). The literature review and the case study suggest the promise of engaging and empowering youth to plan and implement youth violence prevention programs.

  15. Youth violence: What we know and what we need to know.

    PubMed

    Bushman, Brad J; Newman, Katherine; Calvert, Sandra L; Downey, Geraldine; Dredze, Mark; Gottfredson, Michael; Jablonski, Nina G; Masten, Ann S; Morrill, Calvin; Neill, Daniel B; Romer, Daniel; Webster, Daniel W

    2016-01-01

    School shootings tear the fabric of society. In the wake of a school shooting, parents, pediatricians, policymakers, politicians, and the public search for "the" cause of the shooting. But there is no single cause. The causes of school shootings are extremely complex. After the Sandy Hook Elementary School rampage shooting in Newtown, Connecticut, we wrote a report for the National Science Foundation on what is known and not known about youth violence. This article summarizes and updates that report. After distinguishing violent behavior from aggressive behavior, we describe the prevalence of gun violence in the United States and age-related risks for violence. We delineate important differences between violence in the context of rare rampage school shootings, and much more common urban street violence. Acts of violence are influenced by multiple factors, often acting together. We summarize evidence on some major risk factors and protective factors for youth violence, highlighting individual and contextual factors, which often interact. We consider new quantitative "data mining" procedures that can be used to predict youth violence perpetrated by groups and individuals, recognizing critical issues of privacy and ethical concerns that arise in the prediction of violence. We also discuss implications of the current evidence for reducing youth violence, and we offer suggestions for future research. We conclude by arguing that the prevention of youth violence should be a national priority. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26766763

  16. Youth violence: What we know and what we need to know.

    PubMed

    Bushman, Brad J; Newman, Katherine; Calvert, Sandra L; Downey, Geraldine; Dredze, Mark; Gottfredson, Michael; Jablonski, Nina G; Masten, Ann S; Morrill, Calvin; Neill, Daniel B; Romer, Daniel; Webster, Daniel W

    2016-01-01

    School shootings tear the fabric of society. In the wake of a school shooting, parents, pediatricians, policymakers, politicians, and the public search for "the" cause of the shooting. But there is no single cause. The causes of school shootings are extremely complex. After the Sandy Hook Elementary School rampage shooting in Newtown, Connecticut, we wrote a report for the National Science Foundation on what is known and not known about youth violence. This article summarizes and updates that report. After distinguishing violent behavior from aggressive behavior, we describe the prevalence of gun violence in the United States and age-related risks for violence. We delineate important differences between violence in the context of rare rampage school shootings, and much more common urban street violence. Acts of violence are influenced by multiple factors, often acting together. We summarize evidence on some major risk factors and protective factors for youth violence, highlighting individual and contextual factors, which often interact. We consider new quantitative "data mining" procedures that can be used to predict youth violence perpetrated by groups and individuals, recognizing critical issues of privacy and ethical concerns that arise in the prediction of violence. We also discuss implications of the current evidence for reducing youth violence, and we offer suggestions for future research. We conclude by arguing that the prevention of youth violence should be a national priority. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. CDC grand rounds: preventing youth violence.

    PubMed

    David-Ferdon, Corinne; Simon, Thomas R; Spivak, Howard; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Savannah, Sheila B; Listenbee, Robert L; Iskander, John

    2015-02-27

    Youth violence occurs when persons aged 10-24 years, as victims, offenders, or witnesses, are involved in the intentional use of physical force or power to threaten or harm others. Youth violence typically involves young persons hurting other young persons and can take different forms. Examples include fights, bullying, threats with weapons, and gang-related violence. Different forms of youth violence can also vary in the harm that results and can include physical harm, such as injuries or death, as well as psychological harm. Youth violence is a significant public health problem with serious and lasting effects on the physical, mental, and social health of youth. In 2013, 4,481 youths aged 10-24 years (6.9 per 100,000) were homicide victims. Homicide is the third leading cause of death among persons aged 10-24 years (after unintentional injuries and suicide) and is responsible for more deaths in this age group than the next seven leading causes of death combined. Males and racial/ethnic minorities experience the greatest burden of youth violence. Rates of homicide deaths are approximately six times higher among males aged 10-24 years (11.7 per 100,000) than among females (2.0). Rates among non-Hispanic black youths (27.6 per 100,000) and Hispanic youths (6.3) are 13 and three times higher, respectively, than among non-Hispanic white youths (2.1). The number of young persons who are physically harmed by violence is more than 100 times higher than the number killed. In 2013, an estimated 547,260 youths aged 10-24 years (847 per 100,000) were treated in U.S. emergency departments for nonfatal physical assault-related injuries. PMID:25719677

  18. Promising Strategies To Reduce Gun Violence. OJJDP Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquent Prevention (Dept. of Justice), Washington, DC.

    In recent years, communities across the country have struggled to develop effective solutions to the problem of gun violence. Many have approached the United States Department of Justice for help in identifying solutions. This publication was developed in response to these requests. It is designed to provide state and local elected officials,…

  19. Growing up - or not - with Gun Violence.

    PubMed

    Schaechter, Judy; Alvarez, Patricia G

    2016-10-01

    Firearm injury is a leading cause of death and injury for children and adolescents, able to cause disability and interfere with normal development. Child developmental stages, variance of behavior, and mental health may all put children at risk for firearm injury or lead to increased morbidity after experiencing firearm violence. Family, community, and contextual factors can accentuate the risk of violence. Adults and social structures have the responsibility to protect children and adolescents from firearm violence. PMID:27565360

  20. Growing up - or not - with Gun Violence.

    PubMed

    Schaechter, Judy; Alvarez, Patricia G

    2016-10-01

    Firearm injury is a leading cause of death and injury for children and adolescents, able to cause disability and interfere with normal development. Child developmental stages, variance of behavior, and mental health may all put children at risk for firearm injury or lead to increased morbidity after experiencing firearm violence. Family, community, and contextual factors can accentuate the risk of violence. Adults and social structures have the responsibility to protect children and adolescents from firearm violence.

  1. Video games and youth violence: a prospective analysis in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Christopher J

    2011-04-01

    The potential influence of violent video games on youth violence remains an issue of concern for psychologists, policymakers and the general public. Although several prospective studies of video game violence effects have been conducted, none have employed well validated measures of youth violence, nor considered video game violence effects in context with other influences on youth violence such as family environment, peer delinquency, and depressive symptoms. The current study builds upon previous research in a sample of 302 (52.3% female) mostly Hispanic youth. Results indicated that current levels of depressive symptoms were a strong predictor of serious aggression and violence across most outcome measures. Depressive symptoms also interacted with antisocial traits so that antisocial individuals with depressive symptoms were most inclined toward youth violence. Neither video game violence exposure, nor television violence exposure, were prospective predictors of serious acts of youth aggression or violence. These results are put into the context of criminological data on serious acts of violence among youth.

  2. Implementation and evaluation of a youth violence prevention program for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Regan, Mary Elana

    2009-02-01

    Youth violence in the city of Philadelphia, PA, has reached epidemic proportions. The majority of homicides related to gun violence is most prevalent among African American males aged 19 to 24 years. Therefore, it is essential to implement youth violence prevention programs to a target population several years younger than this age group to decrease teen violence in the city. A violence prevention program for 9th and 10th graders was developed, implemented, and evaluated at a local urban charter school. Presentations were given on gun and gang violence, dating violence, and anger management/conflict resolution as well as role playing, group activities, and a field trip to a trauma program for youth at a local hospital. Posttest scores showed an increase in knowledge and skills in several areas, such as therapeutically resolving violent disputes and methods to prevent different types of dating violence. This program provides a blueprint for an adolescent violence prevention program that school nurses could adopt in their communities. PMID:19197015

  3. Youth Violence as Adaptation? Introduction to the Special Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swisher, Raymond R.; Latzman, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces the special issue of the journal on the topic of youth violence as adaptation to community violence. Contrary to the predominant perspective that youth violence is a sign of dysfunction or maladaptation, the articles collected here consider whether some youth violence may have positively adaptive consequences in the face of…

  4. Poverty and Youth Violence Exposure: Experiences in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Karen Townsend

    2006-01-01

    Violence exposure among rural youths is a significant public health problem, yet little research has been conducted on violence in this setting. This study explored rural youths' direct and indirect experience of violence in the neighborhood, school, and home. The author used hierarchical regression analyses to explore youth violence exposure,…

  5. Bring a gun to a gunfight: armed adversaries and violence across nations.

    PubMed

    Felson, Richard B; Berg, Mark T; Rogers, Meghan L

    2014-09-01

    We use homicide data and the International Crime Victimization Survey to examine the role of firearms in explaining cross-national variation in violence. We suggest that while gun violence begets gun violence, it inhibits the tendency to engage in violence without guns. We attribute the patterns to adversary effects-i.e., the tendency of offenders to take into account the threat posed by their adversaries. Multi-level analyses of victimization data support the hypothesis that living in countries with high rates of gun violence lowers an individual's risk of an unarmed assault and assaults with less lethal weapons. Analyses of aggregate data show that homicide rates and gun violence rates load on a separate underlying factor than other types of violence. The results suggest that a country's homicide rate reflects, to a large extent, the tendency of its offenders to use firearms.

  6. Acculturation and Dating Violence Victimization among Filipino and Samoan Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung-Do, Jane J.; Goebert, Deborah A.

    2009-01-01

    Dating violence victimization is an important public health issue. Recent studies on minority youths have found higher risks of dating violence victimization compared to White youths. This study examined the influence of acculturation components on youths' experiences of dating violence by utilizing data from a survey of 193 Samoan and Filipino…

  7. Video Games and Youth Violence: A Prospective Analysis in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    The potential influence of violent video games on youth violence remains an issue of concern for psychologists, policymakers and the general public. Although several prospective studies of video game violence effects have been conducted, none have employed well validated measures of youth violence, nor considered video game violence effects in…

  8. Understanding and Informing Policy Implementation: A Case Study of the Domestic Violence Provisions of the Maryland Gun Violence Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frattaroli, Shannon; Teret, Stephen P.

    2006-01-01

    The Maryland Gun Violence Act, enacted into law in 1996, explicitly authorized courts to order batterers to surrender their firearms through civil protective orders. It also vested law enforcement with the explicit authority to remove guns when responding to a domestic violence complaint. In order to assess how these laws were implemented, we…

  9. Community Violence Exposure and Positive Youth Development in Urban Youth

    PubMed Central

    Deatrick, Janet A.; Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Richmond, Therese S.

    2011-01-01

    Youth in urban environments are exposed to community violence, yet some do well and continue on a positive developmental trajectory. This study investigated the relationships between lifetime community violence exposure (including total, hearing about, witnessing, and victimization), family functioning, and positive youth development (PYD) among 110 urban youth ages 10–16 years (54% female) using a paper and pen self-report survey. This cross-sectional study was part of an interdisciplinary community-based participatory research effort in West/Southwest Philadelphia. Almost 97% of the sample reported some type of community violence exposure. Controlling for presence of mother in the home and presence of father in the home, separate linear regression models for PYD by each type of community violence exposure indicated that gender and family functioning were significantly associated with PYD. None of the types of community violence exposure were significant in the models. Significant interactions between gender and presence of mother in the home and gender and family functioning helped better explain these relationships for some of the types of community violence exposure. Presence of mother was associated with higher PYD for girls, but not for boys. Boys with poor family functioning had lower PYD than girls with poor family functioning. This study helps to better delineate relationships between CVE and PYD by adding new knowledge to the literature on the role of family functioning. Points of intervention should focus on families, with attention to parental figures in the home and overall family functioning. PMID:21461763

  10. Youth Suicide and Guns. Firearm Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duker, Laurie, Ed.

    Whether or not a suicide attempt results in death depends in large part on the method chosen. If a teenager attempts suicide with a gun, his or her death is nearly guaranteed. This brief fact sheet presents data on firearms and suicide, the third leading cause of death for adolescents and young adults in the United States. Any number of societal…

  11. The Influence of Media Violence on Youth.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Craig A; Berkowitz, Leonard; Donnerstein, Edward; Huesmann, L Rowell; Johnson, James D; Linz, Daniel; Malamuth, Neil M; Wartella, Ellen

    2003-12-01

    about social behavior, and by reducing individuals' normal negative emotional responses to violence (i.e., desensitization). Certain characteristics of viewers (e.g., identification with aggressive characters), social environments (e.g., parental influences), and media content (e.g., attractiveness of the perpetrator) can influence the degree to which media violence affects aggression, but there are some inconsistencies in research results. This research also suggests some avenues for preventive intervention (e.g., parental supervision, interpretation, and control of children's media use). However, extant research on moderators suggests that no one is wholly immune to the effects of media violence. Recent surveys reveal an extensive presence of violence in modern media. Furthermore, many children and youth spend an inordinate amount of time consuming violent media. Although it is clear that reducing exposure to media violence will reduce aggression and violence, it is less clear what sorts of interventions will produce a reduction in exposure. The sparse research literature suggests that counterattitudinal and parental-mediation interventions are likely to yield beneficial effects, but that media literacy interventions by themselves are unsuccessful. Though the scientific debate over whether media violence increases aggression and violence is essentially over, several critical tasks remain. Additional laboratory and field studies are needed for a better understanding of underlying psychological processes, which eventually should lead to more effective interventions. Large-scale longitudinal studies would help specify the magnitude of media-violence effects on the most severe types of violence. Meeting the larger societal challenge of providing children and youth with a much healthier media diet may prove to be more difficult and costly, especially if the scientific, news, public policy, and entertainment communities fail to educate the general public about the real

  12. The Influence of Media Violence on Youth.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Craig A; Berkowitz, Leonard; Donnerstein, Edward; Huesmann, L Rowell; Johnson, James D; Linz, Daniel; Malamuth, Neil M; Wartella, Ellen

    2003-12-01

    about social behavior, and by reducing individuals' normal negative emotional responses to violence (i.e., desensitization). Certain characteristics of viewers (e.g., identification with aggressive characters), social environments (e.g., parental influences), and media content (e.g., attractiveness of the perpetrator) can influence the degree to which media violence affects aggression, but there are some inconsistencies in research results. This research also suggests some avenues for preventive intervention (e.g., parental supervision, interpretation, and control of children's media use). However, extant research on moderators suggests that no one is wholly immune to the effects of media violence. Recent surveys reveal an extensive presence of violence in modern media. Furthermore, many children and youth spend an inordinate amount of time consuming violent media. Although it is clear that reducing exposure to media violence will reduce aggression and violence, it is less clear what sorts of interventions will produce a reduction in exposure. The sparse research literature suggests that counterattitudinal and parental-mediation interventions are likely to yield beneficial effects, but that media literacy interventions by themselves are unsuccessful. Though the scientific debate over whether media violence increases aggression and violence is essentially over, several critical tasks remain. Additional laboratory and field studies are needed for a better understanding of underlying psychological processes, which eventually should lead to more effective interventions. Large-scale longitudinal studies would help specify the magnitude of media-violence effects on the most severe types of violence. Meeting the larger societal challenge of providing children and youth with a much healthier media diet may prove to be more difficult and costly, especially if the scientific, news, public policy, and entertainment communities fail to educate the general public about the real

  13. 78 FR 4295 - Engaging in Public Health Research on the Causes and Prevention of Gun Violence

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... Federal Register. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, January 16, 2013 [FR Doc. 2013-01272... Prevention of Gun Violence Memorandum for the Secretary of Health and Human Services In addition to being a law enforcement challenge, gun violence is also a serious public health issue that affects...

  14. Fugitive Cultures: Race, Violence, and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giroux, Henry A.

    This book examines the racist and sexist assault on today's youth which is being played out in the realms of popular and children's culture. The book interrogates the aesthetic of violence in a number of public arenas--talk radio, Disney animation, and in such films as "Pulp Fiction,""Kids,""Slackers," and "Juice,"--and challenges cultural workers…

  15. Gun Violence Restraining Orders: Alternative or Adjunct to Mental Health-Based Restrictions on Firearms?

    PubMed

    Frattaroli, Shannon; McGinty, Emma E; Barnhorst, Amy; Greenberg, Sheldon

    2015-06-01

    The gun violence restraining order (GVRO) is a new tool for preventing gun violence. Unlike traditional approaches to prohibiting gun purchase and possession, which rely on a high threshold (adjudication by criminal justice or mental health systems) before intervening, the GVRO allows family members and intimate partners who observe a relative's dangerous behavior and believe it may be a precursor to violence to request a GVRO through the civil justice system. Once issued by the court, a GVRO authorizes law enforcement to remove any guns in the respondent's possession and prohibits the respondent from purchasing new guns. In September 2014, California's governor signed AB1014 into law, making California the first U.S. state to enact a GVRO law. This article describes the GVRO and the rationale behind the concept, considers case examples to assess the potential impact of the GVRO as a strategy for preventing gun violence, and reviews the content of the California law. PMID:25990840

  16. Gun Violence Restraining Orders: Alternative or Adjunct to Mental Health-Based Restrictions on Firearms?

    PubMed

    Frattaroli, Shannon; McGinty, Emma E; Barnhorst, Amy; Greenberg, Sheldon

    2015-06-01

    The gun violence restraining order (GVRO) is a new tool for preventing gun violence. Unlike traditional approaches to prohibiting gun purchase and possession, which rely on a high threshold (adjudication by criminal justice or mental health systems) before intervening, the GVRO allows family members and intimate partners who observe a relative's dangerous behavior and believe it may be a precursor to violence to request a GVRO through the civil justice system. Once issued by the court, a GVRO authorizes law enforcement to remove any guns in the respondent's possession and prohibits the respondent from purchasing new guns. In September 2014, California's governor signed AB1014 into law, making California the first U.S. state to enact a GVRO law. This article describes the GVRO and the rationale behind the concept, considers case examples to assess the potential impact of the GVRO as a strategy for preventing gun violence, and reviews the content of the California law.

  17. Collective violence: comparisons between youths and chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Wrangham, Richard W; Wilson, Michael L

    2004-12-01

    Patterns of collective violence found among humans include similarities to those seen among chimpanzees. These include participation predominantly by males, an intense personal and group concern with status, variable subgroup composition, defense of group integrity, inter-group fights that include surprise attacks, and a tendency to avoid mass confrontation. Compared to chimpanzee communities, youth gangs tend to be larger, composed of younger individuals, occupying smaller territories and having a more complex organization. Youth gangs also differ from chimpanzee communities as a result of numerous cultural and environmental influences including complex relations with non-gang society. These relations are governed in important ways by such factors as perceived economic and personal constraints, policing, family structure, and levels of poverty, crime, and racism. Nevertheless, the concepts that sociologists use to account for collective violence in youth gangs are somewhat similar to those applied by anthropologists and biologists to chimpanzees. Thus in both cases collective violence is considered to emerge partly because males are highly motivated to gain personal status, which they do by physical violence. In the case of youth gangs, the reasons for the prevalence of physical violence in status competition compared to non-gang society are clearly context-specific, both culturally and historically. By contrast, among chimpanzees the use of physical violence to settle status competition is universal (in the wild and captivity). The use of physical violence in individual status competition therefore has different sources in youth gangs and chimpanzees. Regardless of its origin, however, its combination with an intense concern for status can explain: (1) why individual males form alliances among each other; and hence (2) how such alliances generate social power, closed groups, and a capacity for defense of territory or pre-emptive attacks on rivals. This comparison

  18. Children and Guns. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. House of Representatives, One Hundred First Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

    Law enforcement officials, experts in public health, criminologists, educators, and youth offered testimony intended to help Congress understand the scope of the threat of guns and firearm violence to young people and the strains of the firearm problem on public and community services. A fact sheet points out that: (1) increasing numbers of youth…

  19. Cumulative Experiences of Violence among High-Risk Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Catherine A.; Boris, Neil W.; Heller, Sherryl Scott; Clum, Gretchen A.; Rice, Janet C.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines type-specific and cumulative experiences of violence among a vulnerable population of youth. Sixty high-risk, shelter-dwelling, urban youth were interviewed regarding their history of childhood maltreatment, exposure to community violence (ECV), and experience with intimate partner violence (IPV). Results show a high prevalence…

  20. 77 FR 2731 - Request for Information on Youth Violence

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Request for Information on Youth Violence... the public health problem of youth violence. DATES: Individuals and organizations interested in... violence is a significant public health problem with the potential for immediate and lifelong...

  1. Understanding and informing policy implementation: a case study of the domestic violence provisions of the Maryland Gun Violence Act.

    PubMed

    Frattaroli, Shannon; Teret, Stephen P

    2006-06-01

    The Maryland Gun Violence Act, enacted into law in 1996, explicitly authorized courts to order batterers to surrender their firearms through civil protective orders. It also vested law enforcement with the explicit authority to remove guns when responding to a domestic violence complaint. In order to assess how these laws were implemented, we designed a case study and collected data from in-depth, key informant interviews, court observations, and relevant documents. We present findings from this study and recommend how to increase the likelihood that policies designed to separate batterers and guns are implemented in a way that will result in greater protections for victims of domestic violence. PMID:16679500

  2. Neighborhood Factors and Dating Violence Among Youth

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Renee M.; Parker, Elizabeth M.; Rinehart, Jenny; Nail, Jennifer; Rothman, Emily F.

    2015-01-01

    Context The purpose of this review is to summarize the empirical research on neighborhood-level factors and dating violence among adolescents and emerging adults to guide future research and practice. Evidence acquisition In 2015, 20 articles were identified through a search of the literature using PubMed. Eligible articles included those that: (1) had been published in a peer-reviewed journal since 2005; (2) reported a measure of association between at least one neighborhood-level factor and dating violence; and (3) had a study population of youth aged <26 years. We abstracted information about the studies, including measurement of dating violence and neighborhood factors, and measures of effect. Evidence synthesis Results were summarized into three categories based on the aspect of neighborhood which was the focus of the work: demographic and structural characteristics (n=11), neighborhood disorder (n=12), and social disorganization (n=8). There was some evidence to suggest that neighborhood disadvantage is associated with dating violence, but very little evidence to suggest that residence characteristics (e.g., racial heterogeneity) are associated with dating violence. Results do suggest that perceived neighborhood disorder is associated with physical dating violence perpetration, but do not suggest that it is associated with physical dating violence victimization. Social control and community connectedness are both associated with dating violence, but findings on collective efficacy are mixed. Conclusions Existing research suggests that neighborhood factors may be associated with dating violence. However, there is a limited body of research on the neighborhood context of dating violence and more rigorous research is needed. PMID:26296444

  3. Violence & Youth: Psychology's Response. Volume I: Summary Report of the American Psychological Association Commission on Violence and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.

    This summary report by the American Psychological Association's Commission on Violence and Youth examines individual and societal factors that contribute to youth violence in the United States and offers intervention strategies to reduce such violence. It examines biological, family, school, emotional, cognitive, social, and cultural factors which…

  4. Interrupting violence: how the CeaseFire Program prevents imminent gun violence through conflict mediation.

    PubMed

    Whitehill, Jennifer M; Webster, Daniel W; Frattaroli, Shannon; Parker, Elizabeth M

    2014-02-01

    Cities are increasingly adopting CeaseFire, an evidence-based public health program that uses specialized outreach workers, called violence interrupters (VIs), to mediate potentially violent conflicts before they lead to a shooting. Prior research has linked conflict mediation with program-related reductions in homicides, but the specific conflict mediation practices used by effective programs to prevent imminent gun violence have not been identified. We conducted case studies of CeaseFire programs in two inner cities using qualitative data from focus groups with 24 VIs and interviews with eight program managers. Study sites were purposively sampled to represent programs with more than 1 year of implementation and evidence of program effectiveness. Staff with more than 6 months of job experience were recruited for participation. Successful mediation efforts were built on trust and respect between VIs and the community, especially high-risk individuals. In conflict mediation, immediate priorities included separating the potential shooter from the intended victim and from peers who may encourage violence, followed by persuading the parties to resolve the conflict peacefully. Tactics for brokering peace included arranging the return of stolen property and emphasizing negative consequences of violence such as jail, death, or increased police attention. Utilizing these approaches, VIs are capable of preventing gun violence and interrupting cycles of retaliation.

  5. Review of research on child maltreatment and violence in youth.

    PubMed

    Maas, Carl; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Sousa, Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    This review addresses research regarding associations between child maltreatment and youth violence perpetration. The authors explore current findings on the direct effects of child maltreatment on later youth violence and possible gender and ethnic differences. They examine differences in the prediction of adolescent violence as a function of duration and timing of maltreatment. Results provide compelling evidence linking child maltreatment and later youth violence, although some research is inconclusive once demographics and other competing predictors are considered. Overall, physical abuse is perhaps the most consistent predictor of youth violence, patterned by an increased risk for children exposed to severe, compounded maltreatment. However, findings indicate that lesser severe forms of abuse can increase the risk of later violence for some youth. Limitations of current research include relatively few prospective, studies on the abuse-violence link; a general lack of specificity in definitions of key variables; and inconsistency in data analysis methods.

  6. Video games and youth violence: a prospective analysis in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Christopher J

    2011-04-01

    The potential influence of violent video games on youth violence remains an issue of concern for psychologists, policymakers and the general public. Although several prospective studies of video game violence effects have been conducted, none have employed well validated measures of youth violence, nor considered video game violence effects in context with other influences on youth violence such as family environment, peer delinquency, and depressive symptoms. The current study builds upon previous research in a sample of 302 (52.3% female) mostly Hispanic youth. Results indicated that current levels of depressive symptoms were a strong predictor of serious aggression and violence across most outcome measures. Depressive symptoms also interacted with antisocial traits so that antisocial individuals with depressive symptoms were most inclined toward youth violence. Neither video game violence exposure, nor television violence exposure, were prospective predictors of serious acts of youth aggression or violence. These results are put into the context of criminological data on serious acts of violence among youth. PMID:21161351

  7. Youth Exposed to Violence: Stability, Co-occurrence, and Context

    PubMed Central

    Margolin, Gayla; Vickerman, Katrina A.; Ramos, Michelle C.; Serrano, Sarah Duman; Gordis, Elana B.; Iturralde, Esti; Oliver, Pamella H.; Spies, Lauren A.

    2009-01-01

    With considerable literature establishing how separate types of violence disrupt the lives of children, there is emerging interest in examining violence across multiple interpersonal domains. This paper examines four commonly occurring and frequently researched domains of violence exposure: marital physical aggression, mother-to-youth aggression, father-to-youth aggression, and community violence. A community-based sample of 103 parents and youth provided three waves of data at annual intervals beginning when the youth were aged 9–10. We explored stability of exposure, co-occurrence across different types of violence exposure, and associations with co-occurring risk factors. Approximately 30–45% of youth reported intermittent exposure over the 3 years. In addition to overlap among types of violence exposure within the family, we found overlap between parent-to-youth aggression and community violence, an association that was exacerbated in families where fathers reported high levels of global distress symptoms. Mother-to-youth, father-to-youth, and community violence related to youth behavior problems beyond the contextual risk factors of low income, stressful life events, and parents’ global distress symptoms. These results highlight the importance of examining violence longitudinally, across multiple types, and with attention to contextual factors. PMID:19238543

  8. Dating violence experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth.

    PubMed

    Dank, Meredith; Lachman, Pamela; Zweig, Janine M; Yahner, Jennifer

    2014-05-01

    Media attention and the literature on lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth overwhelmingly focus on violence involving hate crimes and bullying, while ignoring the fact that vulnerable youth also may be at increased risk of violence in their dating relationships. In this study, we examine physical, psychological, sexual, and cyber dating violence experiences among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth--as compared to those of heterosexual youth, and we explore variations in the likelihood of help-seeking behavior and the presence of particular risk factors among both types of dating violence victims. A total of 5,647 youth (51 % female, 74 % White) from 10 schools participated in a cross-sectional anonymous survey, of which 3,745 reported currently being in a dating relationship or having been in one during the prior year. Results indicated that lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth are at higher risk for all types of dating violence victimization (and nearly all types of dating violence perpetration), compared to heterosexual youth. Further, when looking at gender identity, transgender and female youth are at highest risk of most types of victimization, and are the most likely perpetrators of all forms of dating violence but sexual coercion, which begs further exploration. The findings support the development of dating violence prevention programs that specifically target the needs and vulnerabilities of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth, in addition to those of female and transgender youth.

  9. Dating violence experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth.

    PubMed

    Dank, Meredith; Lachman, Pamela; Zweig, Janine M; Yahner, Jennifer

    2014-05-01

    Media attention and the literature on lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth overwhelmingly focus on violence involving hate crimes and bullying, while ignoring the fact that vulnerable youth also may be at increased risk of violence in their dating relationships. In this study, we examine physical, psychological, sexual, and cyber dating violence experiences among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth--as compared to those of heterosexual youth, and we explore variations in the likelihood of help-seeking behavior and the presence of particular risk factors among both types of dating violence victims. A total of 5,647 youth (51 % female, 74 % White) from 10 schools participated in a cross-sectional anonymous survey, of which 3,745 reported currently being in a dating relationship or having been in one during the prior year. Results indicated that lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth are at higher risk for all types of dating violence victimization (and nearly all types of dating violence perpetration), compared to heterosexual youth. Further, when looking at gender identity, transgender and female youth are at highest risk of most types of victimization, and are the most likely perpetrators of all forms of dating violence but sexual coercion, which begs further exploration. The findings support the development of dating violence prevention programs that specifically target the needs and vulnerabilities of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth, in addition to those of female and transgender youth. PMID:23861097

  10. The health and human rights of survivors of gun violence: charting a research and policy agenda.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Cate

    2011-01-01

    The health and human rights implications of violently acquired impairments (VAI), specifically gun-related injuries and trauma resulting in disability, represent an overlooked public policy concern. For several decades, detailed attention has been committed to better understanding of the international arms trade and its consequences. A discursive shift in the last decade from "small arms control" as the core objective (a "hardware" focus on the weapons themselves) to "armed violence prevention" (a focus on impacts, wider drivers, and solutions) still requires a rigorous set of objectives that respond to the rights and needs of survivors of such violence. This article seeks to chart some of the challenges of responding to gun violence survivors and identify entry points for contributions from health, social science and human rights researchers and practitioners. Efforts to address armed violence typically pivot around two goals: reduction and prevention. But what of those already injured? This article argues that a third goal is overdue for attention: response to those injured, impaired, and disabled from gun violence. This would allow a clear pathway for progress (conceptual, political, policy, and practice) to be defined related to gun violence under the ambit of three overarching goals: reducing existing gun violence; responding to those already injured, traumatized, and impaired by such violence; and preventing future violence from occurring. PMID:22773032

  11. The health and human rights of survivors of gun violence: charting a research and policy agenda.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Cate

    2011-12-15

    The health and human rights implications of violently acquired impairments (VAI), specifically gun-related injuries and trauma resulting in disability, represent an overlooked public policy concern. For several decades, detailed attention has been committed to better understanding of the international arms trade and its consequences. A discursive shift in the last decade from "small arms control" as the core objective (a "hardware" focus on the weapons themselves) to "armed violence prevention" (a focus on impacts, wider drivers, and solutions) still requires a rigorous set of objectives that respond to the rights and needs of survivors of such violence. This article seeks to chart some of the challenges of responding to gun violence survivors and identify entry points for contributions from health, social science and human rights researchers and practitioners. Efforts to address armed violence typically pivot around two goals: reduction and prevention. But what of those already injured? This article argues that a third goal is overdue for attention: response to those injured, impaired, and disabled from gun violence. This would allow a clear pathway for progress (conceptual, political, policy, and practice) to be defined related to gun violence under the ambit of three overarching goals: reducing existing gun violence; responding to those already injured, traumatized, and impaired by such violence; and preventing future violence from occurring.

  12. What pediatricians can do to further youth violence prevention—a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Barkin, S.; Ryan, G.; Gelberg, L.

    1999-01-01

    Objective—Youth violence is a public health problem world wide. However, the United States has the worst rate of youth violence among industralized countries. This study was conducted to learn what pediatricians, community leaders, and parents think the doctor's role is in youth violence prevention during the well-child examination for children. Methods—Interviews were conducted with pediatricians, community leaders, and parents living or working in Los Angeles, California. Results—All three groups interviewed believed that the physician should incorporate violence prevention counseling as part of the well-child examination. The mechanism of action differed for the three groups. Almost half of pediatricians' statements focused on their role as prevention counselor, with respect to such issues as appropriate discipline and gun safety. One third of community leaders' statements, however, related to physician referral to existing community resources. More than half of parents' statements referred to the pediatrician as someone who can directly educate their child about making positive choices. Conclusions—Although pediatricians cannot solve the problem of youth violence alone, findings from this study suggest that they should address this issue with their patients and should work in tandem with existing community resources to further a solution to this growing epidemic. PMID:10323571

  13. Gun Violence: Making Connections with Suicide, Domestic Violence, and Substance Abuse. Join Together Action Kit, Spring 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    Frequently, firearm fatalities occur in the context of domestic violence, suicide, or acts committed under the influence of alcohol and/or other drugs. Because gun violence is related to these other social problems, it must be considered more than just a criminal justice issue. It is also a public health issue that should be addressed by domestic…

  14. Youth Violence in Central America: Discourses and Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peetz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The article analyzes the social construction of youth violence in Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and El Salvador on the one hand, and the related security policies of the three states, on the other. In each country, there is an idiosyncratic way of constructing youth violence and juvenile delinquency. Also, each country has its own manner of reaction to…

  15. The Youth Gangs, Drugs, and Violence Connection. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, James C.; Decker, Scott H.

    This bulletin addresses questions about the interrelatedness of youth gangs, drugs, and violent crime, discussing whether drug trafficking is a main cause of violence in youth gangs or only a correlate, and noting whether there are other important sources of gang violence. Section 1 presents a historical overview of gang drug use and trafficking,…

  16. Caught in the Crossfire: A Report on Gun Violence in Our Nation's Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center To Prevent Handgun Violence, Washington, DC.

    Based on news stories from U.S. newspapers, this report examines the prevalence of gun violence in American schools. During the past 4 years, beginning with September 1986, at least 71 people (65 students and 6 employees) have been killed with guns at school. Another 201 were severely wounded, and 242 individuals were held hostage at gunpoint.…

  17. Does the declining lethality of gunshot injuries mask a rising epidemic of gun violence in the United States?

    PubMed

    Jena, Anupam B; Sun, Eric C; Prasad, Vinay

    2014-07-01

    Recent mass shootings in the U.S. have reignited the important public health debate concerning measures to decrease the epidemic of gun violence. Editorialists and gun lobbyists have criticized the recent focus on gun violence, arguing that gun-related homicide rates have been stable in the last decade. While true, data from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention also demonstrate that although gun-related homicide rates were stable between 2002 and 2011, rates of violent gunshot injuries increased. These seemingly paradoxical trends may reflect the declining lethality of gunshot injuries brought about by surgical advances in the care of the patient with penetrating trauma. Focusing on gun-related homicide rates as a summary statistic of gun violence, rather than total violent gunshot injuries, can therefore misrepresent the rising epidemic of gun violence in the U.S.

  18. Crime, Violence, and Youth: The Challenge of Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Wayne S.

    1979-01-01

    Argues that, in order to combat violence and crime by youth, children must be taught to separate reality from the world of television and other media. Parents must be educated to become their own television censorship board. Violence in media leads to violence in reality. (Author/BEF)

  19. Violent Youths' Responses to High Levels of Exposure to Community Violence: What Violent Events Reveal about Youth Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Deanna L.; Carr, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    Recent work on the relationship between adolescent violence and its outcomes has posited that aggression by adolescents who are exposed to violence can be viewed as an adaptive strategy that seeks to order dangerous and unpredictable environments. Using reports from 416 active violent youth, we analyze lifetime exposure to community violence and…

  20. Accountability Issues in School Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Bataineh, Adel T.

    This paper examines various reasons that would account for school violence and considers ways educators can help eliminate violence from schools. The negative impact of violence in the media and easy access to guns are mentioned as probable causes of violence in youth. Students who do not feel part of the school community often resort to violence…

  1. Youth and violence on local television news in California.

    PubMed Central

    Dorfman, L; Woodruff, K; Chavez, V; Wallack, L

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study explores how local television news structures the public and policy debate on youth violence. METHODS: A content analysis was performed on 214 hours of local television news from California. Each of the 1791 stories concerning youth, violence, or both was coded and analyzed for whether it included a public health perspective. RESULTS: There were five key findings. First, violence dominated local television news coverage. Second, the specifics of particular crimes dominated coverage of violence. Third, over half of the stories on youth involved violence, while more than two thirds of the violence stories concerned youth. Fourth, episodic coverage of violence was more than five times more frequent than thematic coverage, which included links to broader social factors. Finally, only one story had an explicit public health frame. CONCLUSIONS: Local television news provides extremely limited coverage of contributing etiological factors in stories on violence. If our nation's most popular source of news continues to report on violence primarily through crime stories isolated from their social context, the chance for widespread support for public health solutions to violence will be diminished. PMID:9279266

  2. Youth Experiences of Family Violence and Teen Dating Violence Perpetration: Cognitive and Emotional Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jouriles, Ernest N.; McDonald, Renee; Mueller, Victoria; Grych, John H.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a conceptual model of cognitive and emotional processes proposed to mediate the relation between youth exposure to family violence and teen dating violence perpetration. Explicit beliefs about violence, internal knowledge structures, and executive functioning are hypothesized as cognitive mediators, and their potential…

  3. Exposure to gun violence and asthma among children in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Ramratnam, Sima K.; Han, Yueh-Ying; Rosas-Salazar, Christian; Forno, Erick; Brehm, John M.; Rosser, Franziska; Marsland, Anna L.; Colón-Semidey, Angel; Alvarez, María; Miller, Gregory E.; Acosta-Pérez, Edna; Canino, Glorisa; Celedón, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Although community violence may influence asthma morbidity by increasing stress, no study has assessed exposure to gun violence and childhood asthma. We examined whether exposure to gun violence is associated with asthma in children, particularly in those reporting fear of leaving their home. Methods Case-control study of 466 children aged 9 to 14 years with (n=234) and without (n=232) asthma in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Lifetime exposure to gun violence was defined as hearing a gunshot more than once. We also assessed whether the child was afraid to leave his/her home because of violence. Asthma was defined as physician-diagnosed asthma and wheeze in the prior year. We used logistic regression for the statistical analysis. All multivariate models were adjusted for age, gender, household income, parental asthma, environmental tobacco smoke, prematurity and residential distance from a major road. Results Cases were more likely to have heard a gunshot more than once than control subjects (n=156 or 67.2% vs. n=122 or 52.1%, P <0.01). In a multivariate analysis, hearing a gunshot more than once was associated with asthma (odds ratio [OR]=1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.1 to 1.7, P=0.01). Compared with children who had heard a gunshot not more than once and were not afraid to leave their home because of violence, those who had heard a gunshot more than once and were afraid to leave their home due to violence had 3.2 times greater odds of asthma (95% CI for OR=2.2 to 4.4, P <0.01). Conclusions Exposure to gun violence is associated with asthma in Puerto Rican children, particularly in those afraid to leave their home. Stress from such violence may contribute to the high burden of asthma in Puerto Ricans. PMID:26052035

  4. The Gun Violence Prevention Act of 1994: Public Health and Child Safety. Hearing on S. 1882, A Bill To Amend Title 18, United States Code, To Promote the Safe Use of Guns and To Reduce Gun Violence before the Subcommittee on the Constitution of the Committee on the Judiciary. United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, Second Session (March 23, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U. S., Washington, DC. Senate Subcommittee on the Constitution.

    The first of several hearings on the Gun Violence Prevention Act of 1994 introduced and discussed the Act as comprehensive legislation to address gun violence through six discrete initiatives: (1) handgun licensing; (2) prohibition of firearms possession by persons convicted of violent misdemeanors; (3) regulation of gun dealers; (4) limitation of…

  5. Emotionally Numb: Desensitization to Community Violence Exposure among Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Traci M.; Ceballo, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    Community violence exposure (CVE) is associated with numerous psychosocial outcomes among youth. Although linear, cumulative effects models have typically been used to describe these relations, emerging evidence suggests the presence of curvilinear associations that may represent a pattern of emotional desensitization among youth exposed to…

  6. Youth Violence Prevention and Safety: Opportunities for Health Care Providers.

    PubMed

    Duke, Naomi Nichele; Borowsky, Iris Wagman

    2015-10-01

    Violence involvement remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality for youth and young adults in the United States. The impact of adverse childhood experiences on violence involvement can be translated to the cellular level, including alterations in brain structure and function responsible for stress reactivity and coping. This knowledge is counterbalanced by a growing understanding of what works in the realm of youth violence prevention. Incorporating a resilience framework, with its focus on building developmental assets and resources at individual, family, and community levels, offers a renewed approach to fostering healthy behaviors and coping strategies.

  7. Media Violence and Children's Emotions: Beyond the "Smoking Gun."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantor, Joanne

    This paper focuses on the reasons why media violence research is often misunderstood. First, it explains the methodological limitations of studying media violence and argues that these limitations are similar to those accepted in medical research. Second, it explores the role of emotional response that media violence can produce and possible…

  8. Substance use and Violence among Youth: A Daily Calendar Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Stoddard, Sarah A.; Epstein-Ngo, Quyen M.; Walton, Maureen; Zimmerman, Marc; Chermack, Stephen; Blow, Frederic C; Booth, Brenda M; Cunningham, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Background While researchers have identified factors that contribute to youth violence, less is known about the details of violent incidents. In addition, substance use has been linked to youth violence; however, little is known about actual substance use on days in which violence occurs. Objective This study examined reasons for peer violence and the association between substance use and violence using daily calendar-based analyses among at-risk urban youth. Methods Data were collected from Emergency Department (ED) patients (ages 14–24; n=599; 59% male, 65% African American) who screened positive for substance use in the past 6 months. Daily data regarding past 30-day substance use and violence and reasons for violent incidents were obtained via semi-structured interviews. Multi-level multinomial regression models were conducted to test the associations between substance use and peer violence incidents (i.e., none, moderate and severe). Results Conflict over ‘personal belongings’ was a common reason for violence among males; ‘jealousy’/’rumors’ were common reasons among females. Moderate victimization was more likely to be reported on days in which participants reported alcohol and cocaine use. Severe victimization was more likely to be reported on days in which participants reported alcohol use. Moderate or severe aggression was more likely to be reported on days in which participants reported alcohol and non-medical sedative use. Conclusions Results suggest that youth violence prevention that addresses differential reasons for violence among males and females as well as substance use would be beneficial. PMID:25493643

  9. School Counselors' and Principals' Perceptions of Violence: Guns, Gangs and Drugs in Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Rosemary; VanZommeren, Wayne; Young, Clark; Holtman, Paula

    2001-01-01

    Research investigating perceptions of guns, gangs, drugs, and violence in rural schools surveyed 266 principals and counselors in rural elementary, middle, and high schools in northern Missouri. Smaller schools and elementary schools had fewer problems than larger and middle/high schools. Community collaboration is essential to solving…

  10. Before Jonesboro and Littleton, Upper Perkiomen Middle School Dealt with Gun Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matz, Celine Marie

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the implementation of a safe school initiative at an East Greenville, Pennsylvania middle school, following gun violence at the school in 1993. Considers the role of teachers, students, parents, and community in the initiative, changes to curriculum and student activities, special safety measures, and alternative programs for conflict…

  11. Social Stress, Legitimate Violence, and Gun Availability: Links to Weapon-Specific Homicides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linsky, Arnold S.; And Others

    In comparative studies of homicide, many theories compete. This study examined two established theories, stress theory and culture of violence theory, in terms of their ability to explain state-to-state differences in the rate of highly specific types of homicides. The separate and joint effects on homicide committed by handguns, shoulder guns,…

  12. Finding Common Ground in the Study of Child Maltreatment, Youth Violence, and Adult Domestic Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daro, Deborah; Edleson, Jeffrey L.; Pinderhughes, Howard

    2004-01-01

    For several decades, we have witnessed a surge in public policies aimed at ending child maltreatment, youth violence, and adult domestic violence. Commensurate with this increased interest has been a growing body of research on each issues etiology, affected population, and the public policy and prevention impacts. Even a cursory review of the…

  13. Mental illness and reduction of gun violence and suicide: bringing epidemiologic research to policy

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Jeffrey W.; McGinty, E. Elizabeth; Fazel, Seena; Mays, Vickie M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This article describes epidemiologic evidence concerning risk of gun violence and suicide linked to psychiatric disorders, in contrast to media-fueled public perceptions of the dangerousness of mentally ill individuals, and evaluates effectiveness of policies and laws designed to prevent firearms injury and mortality associated with serious mental illnesses and substance use disorders. Methods Research concerning public attitudes toward persons with mental illness is reviewed and juxtaposed with evidence from benchmark epidemiologic and clinical studies of violence and mental illness and of the accuracy of psychiatrists' risk assessments. Selected policies and laws designed to reduce gun violence in relation to mental illness are critically evaluated; evidence-based policy recommendations are presented. Results Media accounts of mass shootings by disturbed individuals galvanize public attention and reinforce popular belief that mental illness often results in violence. Epidemiologic studies show that the large majority of people with serious mental illnesses are never violent. However, mental illness is strongly associated with increased risk of suicide, which accounts for over half of US firearms–related fatalities. Conclusions Policymaking at the interface of gun violence prevention and mental illness should be based on epidemiologic data concerning risk to improve the effectiveness, feasibility, and fairness of policy initiatives. PMID:24861430

  14. Protect Children Instead of Guns, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC.

    Beginning with statistics pertaining to children and gun violence in a single year in the United States, this report details trends in child and youth gun deaths. Tables present information on the following: (1) number of firearms deaths by manner and by race from 1979 to 2000; (2) number of firearms deaths by manner for each state and nationwide,…

  15. Big Guns, Thwarted Dreams: School Violence and the English Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuman, R. Baird

    1995-01-01

    Argues that English teachers are in an admirable position to move troubled, violent students in directions that will prove productive for them. States what the real situation is in regards to violence in schools today. Looks at root causes for violence. Considers what secondary schools can do in cooperation with teachers. Outlines teaching…

  16. Organizational empowerment in community mobilization to address youth violence.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Derek M; Allen, Julie Ober; Zimmerman, Marc A; Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Reischl, Thomas M; Cohen, Sarah E; Campbell, Katie A

    2008-03-01

    Community mobilization efforts to address youth violence are often disconnected, uncoordinated, and lacking adequate resources. An organizational empowerment theory for community partnerships provides a useful framework for organizing and evaluating a coalition's community mobilization efforts and benefits for individual organizations, partnerships, and communities. Based on a qualitative analysis of steering committee interviews and other primary data, the results of a case study suggest that the intraorganizational infrastructure; interorganizational membership practices and networking; and extraorganizational research, training, and organizing activities facilitate the community mobilization efforts of the Youth Violence Prevention Center in Flint, Michigan. The organizational empowerment framework, and its focus on organizational structures and processes, illustrates the importance of recognizing and incorporating the organizational systems and structures that provide the foundation on which a community mobilization effort may build. This framework also highlights how organizational structures and processes are central components of multilevel strategies for organizing and mobilizing community efforts to address youth violence.

  17. Navigating between cultures: the role of culture in youth violence.

    PubMed

    Soriano, Fernando I; Rivera, Lourdes M; Williams, Kara J; Daley, Sandra P; Reznik, Vivian M

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review three cultural concepts (acculturation, ethnic identity, bicultural self-efficacy) and their relationship to the known risk and protective factors associated with youth violence. We conducted a review of the relevant literature that addresses these three cultural concepts and the relationship among culture, violent behavior, and associated cognition. The available literature suggests that ethnic identity and bicultural self-efficacy can be best thought of as protective factors, whereas acculturation can be a potential risk factor for youth violence. We examine the connection between these cultural concepts and the risk and protective factors described in the 2001 Surgeon General's Report on Youth Violence, and present a summary table with cultural risk and protective factors for violence prevention. These concepts can assist physicians in identifying risk and protective factors for youth violence when working with multicultural adolescents and their families. Physicians are more effective at providing appropriate referrals if they are aware that navigating among different cultures influences adolescent behavior.

  18. News media framing of serious mental illness and gun violence in the United States, 1997-2012.

    PubMed

    McGinty, Emma E; Webster, Daniel W; Jarlenski, Marian; Barry, Colleen L

    2014-03-01

    Recent mass shootings by persons seemingly afflicted with serious mental illness (SMI) have received extensive news media coverage and prompted national dialogue about the causes of, and policy responses to, mass shootings. News media framing of SMI as a cause of gun violence may influence public attitudes about persons with SMI and support for gun violence prevention proposals. We analyzed the content of a 25% random sample of news stories on SMI and gun violence published in 14 national and regional news sources from 1997 to 2012. Across the study period, most news coverage occurred in the wake of mass shootings, and "dangerous people" with SMI were more likely than "dangerous weapons" to be mentioned as a cause of gun violence. PMID:24432874

  19. News Media Framing of Serious Mental Illness and Gun Violence in the United States, 1997-2012

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Daniel W.; Jarlenski, Marian; Barry, Colleen L.

    2014-01-01

    Recent mass shootings by persons seemingly afflicted with serious mental illness (SMI) have received extensive news media coverage and prompted national dialogue about the causes of, and policy responses to, mass shootings. News media framing of SMI as a cause of gun violence may influence public attitudes about persons with SMI and support for gun violence prevention proposals. We analyzed the content of a 25% random sample of news stories on SMI and gun violence published in 14 national and regional news sources from 1997 to 2012. Across the study period, most news coverage occurred in the wake of mass shootings, and “dangerous people” with SMI were more likely than “dangerous weapons” to be mentioned as a cause of gun violence. PMID:24432874

  20. News media framing of serious mental illness and gun violence in the United States, 1997-2012.

    PubMed

    McGinty, Emma E; Webster, Daniel W; Jarlenski, Marian; Barry, Colleen L

    2014-03-01

    Recent mass shootings by persons seemingly afflicted with serious mental illness (SMI) have received extensive news media coverage and prompted national dialogue about the causes of, and policy responses to, mass shootings. News media framing of SMI as a cause of gun violence may influence public attitudes about persons with SMI and support for gun violence prevention proposals. We analyzed the content of a 25% random sample of news stories on SMI and gun violence published in 14 national and regional news sources from 1997 to 2012. Across the study period, most news coverage occurred in the wake of mass shootings, and "dangerous people" with SMI were more likely than "dangerous weapons" to be mentioned as a cause of gun violence.

  1. Youth violence prevention comes of age: research, training and future directions.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kara; Rivera, Lourdes; Neighbours, Robert; Reznik, Vivian

    2007-01-01

    Youth violence is recognized as a major public health problem in the United States and the world. Over the past ten years, progress has been made in documenting the factors that contribute to violent behavior. Emerging research is deepening our understanding of the individual and societal influences that contribute to and protect against youth violence. However, much work still remains to be done in this field, both in examining potential causes and in designing effective intervention strategies. This chapter highlights specific dimensions of youth violence prevention selected by the authors because these dimensions are the focus of public attention, are emerging as critical issues in the study of youth violence, or have a unique place in the current political and social context. We focus on the developmental pathways to violence, factors that mediate and moderate youth violence, the role of culture and media in youth violence, school-based violence such as school shootings and bullying, and the training of health care professionals.

  2. LX-04 VIOLENCE MEASUREMENTS- STEVEN TESTS IMPACTED BY PROJECTILES SHOT FROM A HOWITZER GUN

    SciTech Connect

    Chidester, S K; Vandersall, K S; Switzer, L L; Tarver, C M

    2005-07-18

    Characterization of the reaction violence of LX-04 explosive (85% HMX and 15% Viton A by weight) was obtained from Steven Impact Tests performed above the reaction initiation threshold. A 155 mm Howitzer propellant driven gas gun was used to accelerate the Steven Test projectiles in the range of approximately 170-300 m/s to react (ignite) the LX-04 explosive. Blast overpressure gauges, acoustic microphones, and high-speed photography characterized the level of high explosive reaction violence. A detonation in this velocity range was not observed and when comparing these results (and the Susan test results) with that of other HMX based explosives, LX-04 has a more gradual reaction violence slope as the impact velocity increases. The high binder content (15%) of the LX-04 explosive is believed to be the key factor to the lower level of violence.

  3. Drugs, Guns, and Disadvantaged Youths: Co-Occurring Behavior and the Code of the Street

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Andrea N.; Lo, Celia C.

    2012-01-01

    Guided by Anderson's theory of the code of the street, this study explored social mechanisms linking individual-level disadvantage factors with the adoption of beliefs grounded in the code of the street and with drug trafficking and gun carrying--the co-occurring behavior shaping violence among young men in urban areas. Secondary data were…

  4. Adolescents' Exposure to Community Violence: Are Neighborhood Youth Organizations Protective?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Margo; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN), we identified a significant inverse association between the variety of youth organizations available at the neighborhood level and adolescents' exposure to community violence. We examined two non-competing explanations for this finding. First, at the individual…

  5. Alternatives to Violence: Empowering Youth To Develop Healthy Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, David A.; And Others

    Practical ways are presented to promote healthy and nonviolent relationships for youth, guided by the belief that prevention is cheaper and more effective than deterrence or punishment. Equality and balance are the basis of prevention efforts. It must be acknowledged that violence is ingrained in cultural expressions of power and inequality, and…

  6. Psychosocial Correlates of Dating Violence Victimization among Latino Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Donna E.; Beck, Kenneth; Kerr, Melissa Hallmark; Shattuck, Teresa

    2005-01-01

    To examine the association between physical dating violence victimization and risk and protective factors, an anonymous, cross-sectional, self-reported survey was administered to Latino youth (n = 446) residing in suburban Washington, DC. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed, and adjusted OR and 95% CI were examined.…

  7. National Evaluation of the Youth Firearms Violence Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunworth, Terence

    Between 1985 and 1994 the rate of violent criminal acts committed by juveniles rose sharply. Juvenile homicides committed with a handgun more than doubled. This bulletin discusses the national evaluation of the Youth Firearms Violence Initiative (YFVI), a program initiated by the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS) to fund…

  8. Core Competencies and the Prevention of Youth Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Terri N.; Farrell, Albert D.; Bettencourt, Amie F.; Helms, Sarah W.

    2008-01-01

    We discuss how the five core competencies for healthy adjustment in adolescence (a positive sense of self, self-control, decision-making skills, a moral system of belief, and prosocial connectedness) are represented in theories of aggression and youth violence. We then discuss research supporting the relation between these core competencies and…

  9. Gun Violence and the Meaning of American Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnick, Bryan R.; Kim, Sang Hyun; Robinson, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, targeted school shootings have become a distinct genre of violence. In this essay, Bryan Warnick, Sang Hyun Kim, and Shannon Robinson examine the social meanings that exist in American society that might contribute to this phenomenon, focusing on the question: "Why are schools conceptualized as appropriate places to…

  10. Risk Versus Direct Protective Factors and Youth Violence

    PubMed Central

    Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Lee, Jungeun; Hawkins, J. David

    2012-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have examined predictors of youth violence associated with the individual child, the family, school, and the surrounding neighborhood or community. However, few studies have examined predictors using a systematic approach to differentiate and compare risk and direct protective factors. Purpose This study examines risk and protective factors associated with youth violence in an ongoing longitudinal panel study of 808 students from 18 Seattle public elementary schools followed since 1985 when they were in fifth grade. Predictors span the individual, family, school, peer, and neighborhood domains. Methods Data were collected annually, beginning in 1985, to age 16 years, and then again at age 18 years. This paper provides findings of analyses in which continuous predictor variables, measured at ages 10–12 years, were trichotomized to reflect a risk end of the variable, a direct protective end, and a middle category of scores. Youth violence was measured at ages 13–14 years and 15–18 years. Results Bivariate analyses of risk and direct protective factors identified the following predictors of violence at ages 13–14 years and 15–18 years. Risk for violence was increased by earlier antisocial behavior (e.g., prior violence, truancy, nonviolent delinquency), attention problems, family conflict, low school commitment, and living in a neighborhood where young people were in trouble. Direct protective factors at ages 10–12 years include a low level of attention problems, low risk-taking, refusal skills, school attachment, and low access and exposure to marijuana at ages 10–12 years. Multivariate regressions showed neighborhood risk factors to be among the most salient and consistent predictors of violence after accounting for all other variables in the tested models. Conclusions Relatively few direct protective factors were identified in these statistical tests, suggesting the need for further review and possible refinement of the

  11. Dissolving Borders: Reframing Risk, Delinquent Peers, and Youth Violence

    PubMed Central

    Lustig, Deborah Freedman; Sung, Kenzo K.

    2013-01-01

    Although “association with delinquent peers” is commonly identified as “a risk factor for youth violence,” this framework leads us to blame individuals and ignore the complex lives of youth who face state, symbolic, and interpersonal violence. This study is based on interviews with young adults about their adolescence in a low-income immigrant gateway neighborhood of Oakland, California. Most of the interviewees have peer networks that are racially/ethnically diverse and also include both delinquent and conforming peers. We show that having these “doubly diverse” friendship networks helps youth move through their neighborhood safely and feel anchored to their community even when they leave to attend college. Even successful youth in our study do not erect borders between themselves and “delinquent peers.” It is easy to assign blame to youth for their friendships, their violent behavior, their lack of education, their unstable and low-paying jobs, but this calculus ignores both the structural factors that constrain youth choices and the benefits that seem to be linked to diverse friendships, even with delinquent peers. Growing up in a site of global capital accumulation and disinvestment in the era of neoliberalism, our interviewees challenge us to reframe risk. PMID:24072949

  12. Youth Violence: Facts at a Glance

    MedlinePlus

    ... being threatened or injured with a weapon on school property one or more times in the 12 months preceding the survey. 2 Nonfatal Injuries Due to Violence • In 2011, 707,212 young people ages 10 ...

  13. Youth and Adult Perspectives on Violence Prevention Strategies: A Community-Based Participatory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodington, James; Mollen, Cynthia; Woodlock, Joseph; Hausman, Alice; Richmond, Therese S.; Fein, Joel A.

    2012-01-01

    This project explores the beliefs and perspectives of urban adults and youth regarding community violence prevention strategies and identifies points of overlap and differences of opinion that can contribute to the development of successful youth violence prevention programs. We coded transcript data from adults and 10-16-year-old youth from the…

  14. Beyond the Academic Journal: Unfreezing Misconceptions About Mental Illness and Gun Violence Through Knowledge Translation to Decision-Makers.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, Joshua; Grilley, Anna; Kennedy, Orla

    2015-06-01

    In a policy arena characterized by polarized debate, such as the consideration of legal interventions to prevent gun violence, research evidence is an important tool to inform decision-making processes. However, unless the evidence is communicated to stakeholders who can influence policy decisions, the research will often remain an academic exercise with little practical impact. The Educational Fund to Stop Violence's process of "unfreezing" individual perceptions and conventional interpretations of the relationship between mental illness and gun violence, forming a consensus, and translating this knowledge to stakeholders through state discussion forums is one way to inform policy change. The recent passage of gun violence prevention legislation in California provides an example of successfully closing the knowledge translation gap between research and decision-making processes.

  15. Beyond the Academic Journal: Unfreezing Misconceptions About Mental Illness and Gun Violence Through Knowledge Translation to Decision-Makers.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, Joshua; Grilley, Anna; Kennedy, Orla

    2015-06-01

    In a policy arena characterized by polarized debate, such as the consideration of legal interventions to prevent gun violence, research evidence is an important tool to inform decision-making processes. However, unless the evidence is communicated to stakeholders who can influence policy decisions, the research will often remain an academic exercise with little practical impact. The Educational Fund to Stop Violence's process of "unfreezing" individual perceptions and conventional interpretations of the relationship between mental illness and gun violence, forming a consensus, and translating this knowledge to stakeholders through state discussion forums is one way to inform policy change. The recent passage of gun violence prevention legislation in California provides an example of successfully closing the knowledge translation gap between research and decision-making processes. PMID:25827824

  16. Gun violence and media effects: challenges for science and public policy.

    PubMed

    Elson, Malte; Ferguson, Christopher J

    2013-11-01

    In response to the Sandy Hook shooting in December 2012, the White House published an action plan to reduce gun violence that, among other things, calls for research into the relationship with violence in digital games or other media images. We acknowledge the administration's efforts to reduce violent crime in society and their obligation to dedicate resources to matters of public interest, such as media effects. However, research projects launched in the midst of a moral panic bear the risk of introducing bias and distracting from more important issues. Ideological rigidity has repeatedly shaped past research on media violence. Current initiatives could be an opportunity to restore credibility to the field and to engage in a responsible dialogue on media effects. In order to inform public policy, we need to close gaps, both in empirical research and the academic debate, while being alert for potential political and social influences. PMID:24187065

  17. Gun violence and media effects: challenges for science and public policy.

    PubMed

    Elson, Malte; Ferguson, Christopher J

    2013-11-01

    In response to the Sandy Hook shooting in December 2012, the White House published an action plan to reduce gun violence that, among other things, calls for research into the relationship with violence in digital games or other media images. We acknowledge the administration's efforts to reduce violent crime in society and their obligation to dedicate resources to matters of public interest, such as media effects. However, research projects launched in the midst of a moral panic bear the risk of introducing bias and distracting from more important issues. Ideological rigidity has repeatedly shaped past research on media violence. Current initiatives could be an opportunity to restore credibility to the field and to engage in a responsible dialogue on media effects. In order to inform public policy, we need to close gaps, both in empirical research and the academic debate, while being alert for potential political and social influences.

  18. Community Engagement in Youth Violence Prevention: Crafting Methods to Context.

    PubMed

    Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Bacallao, Martica; Brown, Shelli; Bower, Meredith; Zimmerman, Marc

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the Youth Violence Prevention Centers (YVPC) Program at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is to reduce youth violence in defined high-risk communities through the implementation and evaluation of comprehensive, evidence based prevention strategies. Within this common framework, each YVPC varies in its structure and methods, however all engage communities in multiple ways. We explore aspects of community engagement employed by three centers that operate in very different contexts: a rural county in North Carolina; a suburban area of Denver, Colorado; and an urban setting in Flint, Michigan. While previous research has addressed theories supporting community involvement in youth violence prevention, there has been less attention to the implementation challenges of achieving and sustaining participation. In three case examples, we describe the foci and methods for community engagement in diverse YVPC sites and detail the barriers and facilitating factors that have influenced implementation. Just as intervention programs may need to be adapted in order to meet the needs of specific populations, methods of community engagement must be tailored to the context in which they occur. We discuss case examples of community engagement in areas with varying geographies, histories, and racial and ethnic compositions. Each setting presents distinct challenges and opportunities for conducting collaborative violence prevention initiatives and for adapting engagement methods to diverse communities. Although approaches may vary depending upon local contexts, there are certain principles that appear to be common across cultures and geography: trust, transparency, communication, commitment. We also discuss the importance of flexibility in community engagement efforts.

  19. DISASTER AND YOUTH VIOLENCE: THE EXPERIENCE OF SCHOOL ATTENDING YOUTH IN NEW ORLEANS

    PubMed Central

    Madkour, Aubrey S.; Johnson, Carolyn C.; Clum, Gretchen A.; Brown, Lisanne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Although disaster exposure is linked with increased child aggression, population-level trends are unknown. Pre- to post-Katrina changes in violence-related behaviors among New Orleans high school youth (ages 12-18) were assessed. Methods Data from the 2003 (pre-Katrina), 2005 (pre-Katrina) and 2007 (post-Katrina) New Orleans Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n=5,267) were utilized. Crude comparisons across years of population characteristics and violence behavior prevalence were made with chi-square analyses. Changes in violence-related behaviors over time were assessed with logistic regression models including indicators for survey years and controls for compositional changes. Results Age, gender and race/ethnicity of school-attending youth were stable across years. In models controlling for demographics, most behaviors were stable over time. Some changes were observed for all groups: dating violence and forced sex increased prior to the storm; weapon carrying and missing school due to feeling unsafe decreased after the storm. Among African American adolescents only, being threatened at school increased before Katrina. Conclusions Results do not support significant population-level increases in violent behavior among New Orleans school-attending youths post-Katrina. Factors that buffered New Orleans students from post-Katrina violence increases, such as population composition changes or increased supportive services, may explain these findings. PMID:21783056

  20. Engaging health professionals in advocacy against gun violence.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Andrew D

    2008-01-01

    Health professionals have long been involved with advocacy around the social determinants of health, including protesting against war and mitigating the production, trade and use of specific weapon systems. Small arms and light weapons are a key area on which to focus, as they are responsible for the majority of injuries and deaths in war and their availability is related to increased levels of crime and suicide. Challenges for health professionals hoping to engage in such advocacy include a lack of adequate data, the need to confront political questions and the gun-lobby, and difficulty in measuring the effectiveness of campaigns. This article discusses some examples of successful advocacy and suggests future directions for health professionals in this area.

  1. Youth and Violence. Medicine, Nursing, and Public Health: Connecting the Dots To Prevent Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal of Health Education, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Proposes solutions to youth violence which encompass action across seven priorities. Within each priority, strategic recommendations and action steps for change are included. Priorities include: support the development of healthy families; promote healthy communities; increase access to health and mental health care services; reduce access to and…

  2. Violence Prevention and Students with Disabilities: Perspectives from the Field of Youth Violence Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman-Smith, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Much of the work in youth violence prevention has been based in a public health model and guided by a developmental-ecological perspective on risk and prevention (Bronfenbrenner, 1979, 1988). A central tenet of developmental-ecological theory is that individual development is influenced by the ongoing qualities of the social settings in which the…

  3. Neighborhood-level factors and youth violence: giving voice to the perceptions of prominent neighborhood individuals.

    PubMed

    Yonas, Michael A; O'Campo, Patricia; Burke, Jessica G; Gielen, Andrea C

    2007-08-01

    Youth violence is a significant public health problem. Although the relationship between neighborhood-level factors and urban youth violence is recognized, the specific mechanisms of this relationship are often unclear. Prominent neighborhood individuals were identified within four select low-income urban neighborhoods in Baltimore City. In-depth interviews were conducted to explore these individuals' perceptions of the relationship between social and structural neighborhood-level factors and urban youth violence. Employment opportunities, local businesses, trash management, vacant housing, and street lighting were perceived as important neighborhood factors influencing young people's experiences. The relationship between these neighborhood characteristics and the local illicit drug market and youth violence is highlighted. Results provide an enhanced understanding of the importance of using a participatory-based research approach and the mechanisms of the relationship between neighborhood-level factors and youth violence. Both are critical components in designing and implementing multilevel youth violence prevention efforts.

  4. Violence exposure and cortisol responses in urban youth.

    PubMed

    Kliewer, Wendy

    2006-01-01

    I examined the physiological costs associated with exposure to violence in 101 African American youth (55% male; M age = 11.14 years) living in high-violence areas of a midsized southern city in the United States. Salivary cortisol was measured before and after a laboratory task (viewing and discussing a video depicting community violence) and on waking 1 morning in the week following the laboratory assessment. Overall, cortisol levels were low. Analyses controlling for age, gender, negative affect, and major life events revealed that peer victimization was associated with lower basal cortisol values obtained from home assessments. Witnessed violence predicted a cortisol awakening response (CAR) but only in girls; girls with a typical CAR had lower levels of witnessing violence than girls with an atypical pattern. Witnessed violence also was associated with lower baseline cortisol levels measured in the laboratory and with increases in cortisol from baseline to posttask for boys but not girls. Peer victimization was associated with increases in cortisol from pretask to posttask for both genders. I discuss implications for research and prevention. PMID:16712428

  5. Weapon-Carrying and Youth Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; Hammermeister, Jon

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the prevalence of weapon-carrying among adolescents, focusing on the reasons why they carry weapons, ways that firearms are obtained, firearms and violence, and the controlling of weapons in schools. Details weapon-security measures and argues for cooperative action among schools, communities, and government. (RJM)

  6. J.U.M.P.: Join Us Make Peace. 16 Power Plays for Preventing Youth Violence. California Attorney General's Youth Council on Violence Prevention 1998 Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento. Crime Prevention Center.

    In an attempt to create more youth and adult partnerships to prevent violence throughout California, the California Attorney General's Office, the California Youth Authority, and the California Department of Health Services joined together on this community action research project. The members of the Attorney General's Youth Council on Violence…

  7. The Social Networks of Homeless Youth Experiencing Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Petering, Robin; Rice, Eric; Rhoades, Harmony; Winetrobe, Hailey

    2015-01-01

    While there is a growing body of research on intimate partner violence (IPV) experienced by the housed youth population, a limited amount is known about IPV experienced by homeless youth. To our knowledge, no previous studies have examined how homeless youths’ experience of IPV is related to their social network, even though the social networks of homeless youth have been shown to be significant indicators of health and mental health. The purpose of this study is to understand the relationship between IPV, gender, and social networks among a sample of 386 homeless youth in Los Angeles, California. Results revealed that one fifth of the sample experienced IPV in the past year. Stratified regression models revealed that IPV was not significantly related to any measure of male social networks; however, females who experienced IPV had more male friends (β = 2.03, SE = 0.89, p < .05) than females who did not experience IPV. Female homeless youth who witnessed family violence during childhood had more male friends (β = 2.75, SE = 1.08, p < .05), but those who experienced sexual abuse during childhood had fewer male friends (β = −2.04, SE = 0.93, p < .05). Although there was no significant difference in the rate of IPV victimization across genders, the context of this abuse appears to be drastically different. The results suggest that females with more male friendships are at greater risk for exposure to IPV. To date, there are few effective youth-targeted IPV prevention programs and none have been shown to be effective with homeless youth. These results provide insight into future program development. PMID:24421071

  8. Event-Level Analysis of Antecedents for Youth Violence: Comparison of Dating Violence with Non-Dating Violence

    PubMed Central

    Epstein-Ngo, Quyen M.; Walton, Maureen A.; Chermack, Stephen T.; Blow, Frederic C.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Dating violence (DV) has emerged as a major concern among youth with links to substance use, injuries, and death. The Emergency Department (ED) provides an opportunity for violence screening and prevention interventions. Additional data are needed regarding antecedents of DV versus non-dating violence (NDV; e.g., acquaintance, stranger) to develop ED-based violence interventions for youth. Methods Participants were 575 patients screening positive for past 6-month drug use in an urban ED who completed timeline follow-back aggression modules at Baseline, 6-, and 12-months, indicating event-specific antecedents of violence. Multi-level logistic regressions using event-level data, nested by individual and time (i.e. Baseline, 6- and 12-month assessment intervals) to examine antecedents of DV vs. NDV. Post-hoc analyses examined substance use × reasons and gender interactions. Results Prescription sedative/opioid misuse was more likely to be reported prior to DV whereas alcohol only, and co-ingested alcohol and marijuana only, were more likely to be reported prior to NDV. Reasons for DV included: “personal belongings, “angry/bad mood,” “jealousy,” “drunk/high on drugs” and “arguing about sex”. Reasons for NDV included: “rumors,” “retaliation,” “personal space” and “aid (someone) due to physical attack”. Substance use before/during conflicts and reasons for conflicts were both uniquely associated with DV versus NDV. Two gender interactions were found. Conclusions ED based interventions for urban youth need to be tailored by gender, substance use (alcohol, cocaine, sedatives), reasons for violence, and type of violence (DV vs. NDV). PMID:24182751

  9. Violence, television and the health of American youth.

    PubMed

    Somers, A R

    1976-04-01

    In 1973, 18,032 young Americans, 15 to 24 years of age, died in motor-vehicle accidents, 5182 were murdered, and 4098 committed suicide. The death rate, for this age group, was 19 per cent higher in 1973-74 than it had been in 1960-61, owing entirely to deaths by violence. The largest rise in deaths from homicide during the past two decades was at the ages of one to four. For a considerable proportion of American children and youth, the "culture of violence" is now both a major health threat and a way of life. One contributing factor is television's massive daily diet of symbolic crime and violence in "entertainment" programs. After numerous studies of televsion influence on real-life violence, including two major government commissions, the industry is experimenting with a 7 to 9 p.m. "Family Hour" (6 to 8 p.m. Central Time) from which violence, along with sex, has been largely banished. Three industry unions claim censorship and are suing. The medical profession is urged to concern itself with this serious and complex health hazard.

  10. Community Engagement in Youth Violence Prevention: Crafting Methods to Context.

    PubMed

    Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Bacallao, Martica; Brown, Shelli; Bower, Meredith; Zimmerman, Marc

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the Youth Violence Prevention Centers (YVPC) Program at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is to reduce youth violence in defined high-risk communities through the implementation and evaluation of comprehensive, evidence based prevention strategies. Within this common framework, each YVPC varies in its structure and methods, however all engage communities in multiple ways. We explore aspects of community engagement employed by three centers that operate in very different contexts: a rural county in North Carolina; a suburban area of Denver, Colorado; and an urban setting in Flint, Michigan. While previous research has addressed theories supporting community involvement in youth violence prevention, there has been less attention to the implementation challenges of achieving and sustaining participation. In three case examples, we describe the foci and methods for community engagement in diverse YVPC sites and detail the barriers and facilitating factors that have influenced implementation. Just as intervention programs may need to be adapted in order to meet the needs of specific populations, methods of community engagement must be tailored to the context in which they occur. We discuss case examples of community engagement in areas with varying geographies, histories, and racial and ethnic compositions. Each setting presents distinct challenges and opportunities for conducting collaborative violence prevention initiatives and for adapting engagement methods to diverse communities. Although approaches may vary depending upon local contexts, there are certain principles that appear to be common across cultures and geography: trust, transparency, communication, commitment. We also discuss the importance of flexibility in community engagement efforts. PMID:26965101

  11. Neighborhood Effects on Crime and Youth Violence: The Role of Business Improvement Districts in Los Angeles. Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, John; Bluthenthal, Ricky N.; Golinelli, Daniela; Kofner, Aaron; Stokes, Robert J.; Sehgal, Amber; Fain, Terry; Beletsky, Leo

    2009-01-01

    Despite declines in youth violence nationally in the past decade, incidence of youth violence and victimization--from assaults to homicide--continue to be pressing concerns in public safety and public health. Youth violence is also a particular concern for low-income, minority communities, where poverty, family instability, and unemployment…

  12. Neighborhood-Level Factors and Youth Violence: Giving Voice to the Perceptions of Prominent Neighborhood Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonas, Michael A.; O'Campo, Patricia; Burke, Jessica G.; Gielen, Andrea C.

    2007-01-01

    Youth violence is a significant public health problem. Although the relationship between neighborhood-level factors and urban youth violence is recognized, the specific mechanisms of this relationship are often unclear. Prominent neighborhood individuals were identified within four select low-income urban neighborhoods in Baltimore City. In-depth…

  13. Cultural Context of School Communities in Rural Hawaii to Inform Youth Violence Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Affonso, Dyanne D.; Mayberry, Linda; Shibuya, June Y.; Archambeau, Olga G.; Correa, Mary; Deliramich, Aimee N.; Frueh, B. Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Background: Escalation of youth violence within a large geographic school-complex area in southeastern rural Hawaii became a major problem in 2006. How cultural forces impact the problem was an impetus to examine youth violence from perspectives of adults and children in rural communities. Gathering these data was an essential first step toward…

  14. "If They Could Make Us Disappear, They Would!" Youth and Violence in Cite Soleil, Haiti

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willman, Alys; Marcelin, Louis Herns

    2010-01-01

    This study explores community-level risk and protective factors for youth violence in Cite Soleil, Port-au-Prince's most violent slum. The youth of Cite Soleil have often been mobilized to violence by powerful actors as tools for achieving political or financial gain. Drawing on a formal survey (N=1,575) and ethnographic data collected between…

  15. Relative Impact of Violence Exposure and Immigrant Stressors on Latino Youth Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudino, Omar G.; Nadeem, Erum; Kataoka, Sheryl H.; Lau, Anna S.

    2011-01-01

    Latino youth in a low-income urban community are at high risk of exposure to violence. Given an accumulation of factors before, during, and after migration, immigrant youth might be at increased risk of exposure to violence and other relevant stressors (e.g., acculturation stress, language proficiency, acculturation/enculturation, and parental…

  16. Preventing Youth Violence. A Summary of Program Evaluations. Urban Health Initiative Monograph Series, Monograph 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellermann, Arthur L.; Fuqua-Whitley, Dawna S.; Rivara, Frederick P.

    This summary explaining the results of evaluations of programs to prevent youth violence is an attempt to fill the gap in information about what works and what does not. An effort is made to place the problem of youth violence in perspective, using information largely taken from Bureau of Justice statistics. The existing programs are divided into…

  17. Relative Impact of Violence Exposure and Immigrant Stressors on Latino Youth Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Gudiño, Omar G.; Nadeem, Erum; Kataoka, Sheryl H.; Lau, Anna S.

    2013-01-01

    Latino youth in a low-income urban community are at high risk of exposure to violence. Given an accumulation of factors before, during, and following migration, immigrant youth may be at increased risk of exposure to violence and other relevant stressors (e.g., acculturation stress, language proficiency, acculturation/enculturation, and parental separations). Utilizing a short-term longitudinal design, we assessed exposure to violence and immigrant stressors and examined their relative impact on psychopathology in a sample of 164 Latino youth. Immigrant youth reported greater exposure to immigrant stressors relative to native-born peers, but few differences in rates of exposure to violence emerged. When considered alongside relevant immigration stressors, exposure to violence emerged as the strongest predictor of youth psychopathology. Results suggest that some types of stressors have more consistently deleterious effects on mental health and understanding resilient outcomes may entail considering the meaning attributed to stressors and the resources available to cope with stressors. PMID:24465062

  18. Parent-youth discordance about youth-witnessed violence: Associations with trauma symptoms and service use in an at-risk sample

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Terri; Thompson, Richard; Kotch, Jonathan B.; Proctor, Laura J.; Litrownik, Alan J.; English, Diana J.; Runyan, Desmond K.; Wiley, Tisha R.; Dubowitz, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Objective Studies have consistently demonstrated a lack of agreement between youth and parent reports regarding youth-witnessed violence. However, little is known about whether disagreement is associated with poorer outcomes and less utilization of mental health services. The purpose of the current study was to examine disagreement among youth and parents about youth witnessed violence, and determine whether concordance predicted trauma symptoms and recognition of need and receipt of counseling services. Methods Concordance about youth-witnessed violence was examined in 766 dyads from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN). Youth participants self-reported trauma symptoms, caregivers indicated youth need for and receipt of services. Both youth and parents provided information about youth-witnessed violence exposure in the last year. Results Results showed youth and caregivers differed significantly about youth-witnessed violence. Specifically, 42% of youth reported youth-witnessed violence, compared to only 15% of parents. For those parents who reported youth-witnessed violence, only 29% reported an identified need for services and only 17% reported the youth had received any mental health services. Concordance between parent-youth dyads was associated with greater identified need for services but was not associated with the use of counseling services or trauma symptoms. Conclusions Youth who reported witnessing violence reported more frequent trauma symptoms regardless of concordance. Parents from dyads in which both informants reported youth-witnessed violence were more likely to endorse need for, but not receipt of counseling services. Given this association between youth-witnessed violence and mental health problems, more work is needed to identify barriers to concordance as well as service utilization. PMID:23153569

  19. Promising Strategies: Results of the Fourth National Survey on Community Efforts To Reduce Substance Abuse and Gun Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Steven Rathgeb; Dretler, Astrid K.; Rosenbloom, David L.; Paine, Kay H.; Levinson, Suzette; Hingson, Ralph; Bell, Nicole

    More than 4,000 people responded to a survey about community efforts to reduce substance abuse and gun violence. Six major findings were identified from the responses of 1,608 people who identified themselves as leaders of community efforts in these areas. Community leaders want significant changes in long-standing public policies and a change in…

  20. Youth violence prevention comes of age: research, training and future directions.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kara; Rivera, Lourdes; Neighbours, Robert; Reznik, Vivian

    2007-01-01

    Youth violence is recognized as a major public health problem in the United States and the world. Over the past ten years, progress has been made in documenting the factors that contribute to violent behavior. Emerging research is deepening our understanding of the individual and societal influences that contribute to and protect against youth violence. However, much work still remains to be done in this field, both in examining potential causes and in designing effective intervention strategies. This chapter highlights specific dimensions of youth violence prevention selected by the authors because these dimensions are the focus of public attention, are emerging as critical issues in the study of youth violence, or have a unique place in the current political and social context. We focus on the developmental pathways to violence, factors that mediate and moderate youth violence, the role of culture and media in youth violence, school-based violence such as school shootings and bullying, and the training of health care professionals. PMID:17367286

  1. INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE RISK AMONG VICTIMS OF YOUTH VIOLENCE: ARE EARLY UNIONS BAD, BENEFICIAL, OR BENIGN?*

    PubMed Central

    Kuhl, Danielle C.; Warner, David F.; Warner, Tara D.

    2015-01-01

    Youth violent victimization (YVV) is a risk factor for precocious exits from adolescence via early coresidential union formation. It remains unclear, however, whether these early unions 1) are associated with intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization, 2) interrupt victim continuity or victim–offender overlap through protective and prosocial bonds, or 3) are inconsequential. By using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (N = 11,928; 18–34 years of age), we examine competing hypotheses for the effect of early union timing among victims of youth violence (n = 2,479)—differentiating across victimization only, perpetration only, and mutually combative relationships and considering variation by gender. The results from multinomial logistic regression models indicate that YVV increases the risk of IPV victimization in first unions, regardless of union timing; the null effect of timing indicates that delaying union formation would not reduce youth victims’ increased risk of continued victimization. Gender-stratified analyses reveal that earlier unions can protect women against IPV perpetration, but this is partly the result of an increased risk of IPV victimization. The findings suggest that YVV has significant transformative consequences, leading to subsequent victimization by coresidential partners, and this association might be exacerbated among female victims who form early unions. We conclude by discussing directions for future research. PMID:26412867

  2. "There's so much at stake": sexual minority youth discuss dating violence.

    PubMed

    Gillum, Tameka L; DiFulvio, Gloria

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore perceptions of dating violence among a sample of sexual minority youth. Focus groups were conducted as part of a larger study that surveyed 109 sexual minority youth between the ages of 18 and 24 years. Participants identified four main themes contributing to dating violence among same-sex couples: homophobia (societal and internalized); negotiating socially prescribed gender roles; assumed female connection; and other relationship issues. Such information is essential for determining the need for and content of dating violence services, including education, safety planning, and referrals for mental and physical health services for sexual minority youth.

  3. Interpersonal Violence and its Association with US Migration Desires and Plans among Youths in Guanajuato, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Steven; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Kulis, Stephen S.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined interpersonal physical and sexual violence and its association with desires and plans to migrate to the USA among 500 alternative high school students, aged 14–17 years, from Guanajuato, Mexico. Two thirds of the youths had ever experienced interpersonal violence, the most common form being physical fights. More youths, and more boys relative to girls, reported wanting to migrate than planning to migrate. Although those who had experienced interpersonal violence were not more likely to want to migrate to the USA, their odds of planning to migrate were 44% greater. Gender did not moderate the effect of interpersonal violence. PMID:24611031

  4. Should We Have Faith in the Churches? Ten-Point Coalition's Effect on Boston's Youth Violence. JCPR Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berrien, Jenny; Winship, Christopher

    This paper describes the role of religious institutions in reducing youth violence in the inner city. The paper focuses on the Ten-Point Coalition, a group of ministers in Boston who have contributed in specific ways to reducing youth violence in that city. It analyzes the effectiveness of the police in reducing violence, pointing to the…

  5. Moving toward comprehensiveness and sustainability in a social ecological approach to youth violence prevention: lessons from the Asian/Pacific islander youth violence prevention center.

    PubMed

    Umemoto, Karen; Baker, Charlene K; Helm, Susana; Miao, Tai-An; Goebert, Deborah A; Hishinuma, Earl S

    2009-12-01

    Youth violence is a serious public health problem affecting communities across the United States. The use of a social ecological approach has helped reduce its prevalence. However, those who have put the approach into practice often face challenges to effective implementation. Addressing social ecology in all its complexity presents one obstacle; the ability of private non-profit and public agencies to sustain such comprehensive efforts presents another. Here, we provide an example of our efforts to prevent youth violence. We worked with the Asian/Pacific Islander Youth Violence Prevention Center (APIYVPC) and two communities on O'ahu. We provide a case example from the Asian/Pacific Islander Youth Violence Prevention Center (APIYVPC) of our work, in collaboration with two communities on O;ahu, to develop and implement a youth violence prevention initiative that is becoming both comprehensive and sustainable. We illustrate the incremental nature of what it means to be comprehensive and we underscore the importance of reaching sustainability as the project unfolds.

  6. Moving toward comprehensiveness and sustainability in a social ecological approach to youth violence prevention: lessons from the Asian/Pacific islander youth violence prevention center.

    PubMed

    Umemoto, Karen; Baker, Charlene K; Helm, Susana; Miao, Tai-An; Goebert, Deborah A; Hishinuma, Earl S

    2009-12-01

    Youth violence is a serious public health problem affecting communities across the United States. The use of a social ecological approach has helped reduce its prevalence. However, those who have put the approach into practice often face challenges to effective implementation. Addressing social ecology in all its complexity presents one obstacle; the ability of private non-profit and public agencies to sustain such comprehensive efforts presents another. Here, we provide an example of our efforts to prevent youth violence. We worked with the Asian/Pacific Islander Youth Violence Prevention Center (APIYVPC) and two communities on O'ahu. We provide a case example from the Asian/Pacific Islander Youth Violence Prevention Center (APIYVPC) of our work, in collaboration with two communities on O;ahu, to develop and implement a youth violence prevention initiative that is becoming both comprehensive and sustainable. We illustrate the incremental nature of what it means to be comprehensive and we underscore the importance of reaching sustainability as the project unfolds. PMID:19911267

  7. African American and Latino Youth and Post-Traumatic Stress Syndrome: Effects on School Violence and Interventions for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zyromski, Brett

    2007-01-01

    Post-Traumatic Stress Syndrome (PTSD) is found more frequently in inner-city African American and Latino youth than in European American youth. Previous research on PTSD and its relationship with inner-city violence, minority youth, school violence and institutionalized oppression is examined. School counselor's roles and possible interventions…

  8. Prevalence and risk factors for self-reported violence of Osaka and Seattle male youths.

    PubMed

    Bui, Laura; Farrington, David P; Ueda, Mitsuaki; Hill, Karl G

    2014-12-01

    Traditionally, Japan has been regarded as a country with low crime. Comparative research has given insights into the extent of similarities and differences in crime between America and Japan. The importance of these studies is the examination of whether Western-established criminological knowledge is applicable to non-Western societies like Japan. Unfortunately, comparative self-report studies involving Japan and investigating youth offending are scarce. The current study investigates risk factors and self-reports of violence from Osaka and Seattle male youths. The findings reveal that Japanese male youths self-report a higher prevalence of violence than Seattle male youths. Risk factors for violence, issues of comparability, and prevalence versus strength of relationships of risk factors are examined. It is concluded that the higher prevalence of violence in Osaka is primarily a function of the higher prevalence of troubled peers and risk taking. The findings call for replication of this type of comparative research.

  9. A systematic review of the effects of poverty deconcentration and urban upgrading on youth violence.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Tali; Inglis, Gabrielle; Wiysonge, Charles; Matzopoulos, Richard

    2014-03-01

    Neighbourhood risk factors have been shown to be associated with youth violence and predictors of youth violence. This systematic review examined the existing evidence for youth violence interventions involving the deconcentration of poverty and urban upgrading. Search strategies combined related terms for youth, violence and a broad combination of terms for the intervention from a range of academic databases and websites. Abstracts were screened by two authors and appraised using a quantitative study assessment tool. Nine studies were included. No strong evidence was available to support diversification as an intervention, some evidence was identified in support of a variety of urban upgrading interventions, while the strongest study designs and demonstrated positive effects were shown for resettlement interventions. The small number of studies meeting the inclusion criteria was ascribed to the methodological complexity of inferring a causal association with 'upstream' interventions. No studies from low and middle income countries satisfied the inclusion criteria.

  10. Considering a decision-making approach to youth violence prevention programs.

    PubMed

    Haynie, D L; Alexander, C; Walters, S R

    1997-05-01

    The unfortunate exception to a general downturn in violent crime involves an upsurge in violence among youth. Violence often results when minor confrontations escalate. As school violence increasingly has become widespread, schools have become the location of many violence prevention efforts, few of which have been evaluated adequately. This paper focuses on enhancing decision-making skills as one approach to increase adolescents' ability to manage interpersonal violence. Adolescents can be considered fairly skilled decision-makers and their unique perspective must be considered in development of effective intervention programs. Data from a pilot study were examined for insights about adolescents' ability to make decisions in situations of interpersonal conflict. PMID:9210100

  11. The nature of violence: a multilevel analysis of gun use and victim injury in violent interpersonal encounters.

    PubMed

    Burgason, Kyle A; Thomas, Shaun A; Berthelot, Emily R

    2014-02-01

    A large number of studies have examined predictors of crime quantities yet considerably less attention has been directed toward exploring patterns in the nature or quality of violence within and across communities. The current study adds to the literature on qualitative variations in violence by assessing the incident and contextual-level predictors of offender gun use and physical injuries sustained by victims of robbery and aggravated assault. Specifically, we examine incident-level data from the National Incident Based Reporting System in conjunction with contextual-level data on the cities in which the incidents occurred. We use hierarchical linear and nonlinear modeling techniques to explore variations in predictors of offender gun use and extent of victim injury. Supporting cultural effects explicated by Anderson, results reveal certain individual-level predictors are conditioned by community characteristics.

  12. Building relationships and resilience in the prevention of youth violence.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, R M; Hopson, T; Haskins, M; Powell, K E

    1996-01-01

    Self Enhancement, Inc., is a grassroots, community-service organization working in the most disadvantaged high-risk community in Portland, Oregon. Its violence-prevention program targets middle-school and high-school students by providing classroom and community activities to these young people. These activities are designed to enhance protective factors and build resilience in youths to enable them to attain healthy and productive lives and to resist the threats of gangs, violence, and drugs. RMC Research Corporation works in partnership with Self Enhancement, Inc., to conduct research and evaluation on the effectiveness of its programs. The Self Enhancement, Inc., program works primarily at the individual student and interpersonal relationship levels. Resilience Theory and its culturally specific Relationship Model drive the formulation of specific strategies and activities. Program staff mentor each student through his or her preadolescent and adolescent years, promoting positive, prosocial norms and expectations for behavior through their peer group activities. The Self Enhancement, Inc., program consists of three major components: classroom, exposure, and proactive education. Classroom education focuses on anger management, conflict resolution, and problem solving. Exposure education consists of quarterly field trips to agencies and organizations in the Portland area that deal with the causes and consequences of violence in the community. Proactive education includes newsletters, student-run assemblies and conferences, and radio/ television public service announcements that communicate antiviolence messages. The evaluation plan is a longitudinal matched comparison group designed to assess the outcomes of the violence-prevention program. Key outcomes are protective factors, health-risk behaviors, and academic measures. Standardized assessment instruments (the Individual Protective Factors Index and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey) were administered to all

  13. Internalized racism's association with African American male youth's propensity for violence.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Wesley W

    2011-01-01

    Youth violence in African American communities is still considered to be at epidemic proportions. The traditional risk factors for youth violence (i.e. delinquent friends, poverty, drug use, carrying a weapon etc.) do not account for the disproportionate overrepresentation of African American males. This study sought to better understand the propensity for violence among African American males ages 14-19 years (N=224) from four different programmatic sites: a Philadelphia high school, an African-centered charter high school, a youth detention facility, and a program that serves youth who are on probation or parole. The findings indicate that internalized racism enhances the variance explained above the variables typically explored in the delinquency and criminology literature. If further research can replicate these findings, this has implications for the content and direction of prevention approaches with African American male youth.

  14. Cumulative effects of exposure to violence on posttraumatic stress in Palestinian and Israeli youth.

    PubMed

    Dubow, Eric F; Boxer, Paul; Huesmann, L Rowell; Landau, Simha; Dvir, Shira; Shikaki, Khalil; Ginges, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    We examine cumulative and prospective effects of exposure to conflict and violence across four contexts (ethnic-political, community, family, school) on posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms in Palestinian and Israeli youth. Interviews were conducted with 600 Palestinian and 901 Israeli (Jewish and Arab) children (ages 8, 11, and 14) and their parents once a year for 3 consecutive years. Palestinian children, males, and older youth were generally at greatest risk for exposure to conflict/violence across contexts. Regression analysis found unique effects of exposure to ethnic-political (Palestinian sample), school (Palestinian and Israeli Jewish samples), and family conflict/violence (Israeli Arab sample) during the first 2 years on PTS symptoms in Year 3, controlling for prior PTS symptoms. Cumulative exposure to violence in more contexts during the first 2 years predicted higher subsequent PTS symptoms than did exposure to violence in fewer contexts, and this was true regardless of the youth's level of prior PTS symptoms. These results highlight the risk that ongoing exposure to violence across multiple contexts in the social ecology poses for the mental health of children in contexts of ethnic-political violence. Researchers and mental health professionals working with war-exposed youth in a given cultural context must assess both war- and non-war-related stressors affecting youth. Based on this assessment, interventions may not be limited to individual-based, war-trauma-focused approaches but also may include school-based, community-based, and family-level interventions. PMID:22540411

  15. Aggression and Violence and the Achievement Gap among Urban Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basch, Charles E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To outline the prevalence and disparities of aggression and violence among school-aged urban minority youth, causal pathways through which aggression and violence adversely affects academic achievement, and proven or promising approaches for schools to address these problems. Methods: Literature review. Results: Recent national data…

  16. Recurrent Issues in Efforts to Prevent Homicidal Youth Violence in Schools: Expert Opinions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dill, Karen E.; Redding, Richard E.; Smith, Peter K.; Surette, Ray; Cornell, Dewey G.

    2011-01-01

    Developmental research on social influences on adolescents can guide practices aimed to prevent homicidal youth violence. School shootings have repeatedly raised questions about the contributory role of bullying and entertainment violence, how news media publicity might produce copycat crimes, and whether stiffer criminal sanctions might have a…

  17. Youth Aggression and Violence: Risk, Resilience, and Prevention. ERIC Digest #E602.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christle, Christine A.; Jolivette, Kristine; Nelson, C. Michael

    This brief paper summarizes the current literature concerning youth aggression and violence especially risk, resilience, and prevention. It summarizes risk factors for aggression and violence including child characteristics (e.g., hyperactivity, risk-taking, emotional disturbance), home conditions (e.g., harsh and ineffective parental discipline,…

  18. Framing Public Policy and Prevention of Chronic Violence in American Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2008-01-01

    Metaphors can both inspire and mislead the public. Current metaphors for youth violence are inconsistent with scientific evidence about how chronic violence develops and evoke inaccurate or harmful reactions. Popular, problematic metaphors include "superpredator", "quarantining the contagious", "corrective surgery", "man as computer", "vaccine",…

  19. Youth Perspectives on the Intersections of Violence, Gender, and Hip-Hop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Diana; Weinstein, Hannah; Munoz-Laboy, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Youth's perceptions of violence within their social environments can provide relevant insights into the gender-based interpersonal violence epidemic in inner-city communities. To explore this issue, we examined two sets of narratives with young men and women, aged 15 to 21, involved in hip-hop culture in New York City. In the analysis, we reveal…

  20. The Predictive Validity of the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth in Secondary Educational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGowan, Mark R.; Horn, Robert A.; Mellott, Ramona N.

    2011-01-01

    Current developments in violence risk assessment warrant consideration for use within educational settings. Using a structured professional judgment (SPJ) model, the present study investigated the predictive validity of the Structured Assessment of Violence in Youth (SAVRY) within educational settings. The predictive accuracy of the SAVRY scales…

  1. Fostering Resilience among Urban Youth Exposed to Violence: A Promising Area for Interdisciplinary Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Sonia; Cohen, Alison K.

    2013-01-01

    Most studies to date have examined negative effects of exposure to community violence, in line with the deficit-based perspective. However, given that most youth exposed to community violence demonstrate positive adaptation or resilience over time, we suggest a shift in perspective, practices, and policies across systems toward identifying and…

  2. Violence Exposure and Psychopathology in Urban Youth: The Mediating Role of Posttraumatic Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruchkin, Vladislav; Henrich, Christopher C.; Jones, Stephanie M.; Vermeiren, Robert; Schwab-Stone, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying the development of violence exposure sequelae is essential to providing effective treatments for traumatized youth. This longitudinal study examined the mediating role of posttraumatic stress in the relationship between violence exposure and psychopathology, and compared the mediated models by gender. Urban…

  3. Responding to Asian Pacific Islander Youth Violence: Lessons Learned from a Community Mobilization Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Mary H.

    2005-01-01

    Youth violence in Asian Pacific Islander (API) communities is growing at an alarming rate as a result of many factors, such as immigration history, intergenerational conflicts, mental health and substance abuse problems, and socioeconomic context. Unfortunately, the issues of API youth are often ignored due to their small population and a general…

  4. Reducing Youth Violence and Delinquency in Pennsylvania: PCCDs Research-Based Programs Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilenski, Sarah Meyer; Bumbarger, Brian K.; Kyler, Sandee; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2007-01-01

    Youth violence and delinquency are problems that continue to challenge many communities across the U.S. For over a decade, Pennsylvania has been a national leader in confronting youth problem behaviors in a progressive and proactive fashion, investing heavily in supporting local community prevention coalitions and the use of proven-effective…

  5. Reducing Youth Violence and Delinquency in Pennsylvania: PCCD's Research-Based Programs Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilenski, Sarah Meyer; Bumbarger, Brian K.; Kyler, Sandee; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2007-01-01

    Youth violence and delinquency are problems that continue to challenge many communities across the U.S. For over a decade, Pennsylvania has been a national leader in confronting youth problem behaviors in a progressive and proactive fashion, investing heavily in supporting local community prevention coalitions and the use of proven-effective…

  6. Contrasting Portraits of War: Youths' Varied Experiences with Political Violence in Bosnia and Palestine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Brian K.

    2008-01-01

    This article illustrates some of the complexity of youths' experience with political violence as a means of cautioning researchers, applied professionals and policy makers against overly-simplistic conclusions and interventions when attempting to understand and serve the large populations of the world's youth who endure conflict. A variety of…

  7. An Ecological Approach to Understanding Youth Violence: The Mediating Role of Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Sung Seek; Patton, Joy; Rao, Uma

    2010-01-01

    The authors tested an ecological model that posits mediating variables (substance use and mental health) in the association between ecological factors (family closeness, school closeness, and peer closeness) and youth violence in a sample of 4,783 adolescents. Model including substance use present significantly less total effect between ecological factors and youth violence than do models without substance use. Additional probing of significant mediation effect using the Sobel test was performed and suggested that substance use did function as a mediator in the hypothesized path. Considerations of adolescent violence should recognize the possible role of ecological factors and how their influence may vary by substance use. PMID:21423847

  8. Youth Conferences, Forums and Workshops to Prevent Violence and Promote Peaceful Relations. Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Office of Criminal Justice, Columbus. Ohio Violence Prevention Center.

    Violent crimes, especially those committed with guns, have been increasing at an alarming rate among children and teenagers. This manual is intended to help teach young people in Ohio how to prevent violence and to assist individuals, groups, and organizations in planning and implementing antiviolence conferences, forums, or workshops for children…

  9. A prosocial media strategy: "youth against violence: choose to de-fuse".

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, J D

    1996-07-01

    The role of television in encouraging youth violence, and its potential as a prosocial teaching tool are examined. A media strategy developed by New York City in collaboration with inner-city youth exposed to violence, which focused on positive peer pressure for choosing nonviolent solutions to conflict is then delineated, along with the community and media coverage that followed. The effectiveness of the televised public service announcements appeared to be associated with the use of emotionally charged, real-life situations, speech, and body language by characters culturally appropriate to the target audience of at-risk youth. PMID:8827259

  10. Does Parenting Shield Youth from Exposure to Violence during Adolescence? A 5-Year Longitudinal Test in a High-Poverty Sample of Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spano, Richard; Rivera, Craig; Bolland, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Five waves of longitudinal data collected from 349 African American youth living in extreme poverty were used to determine if parental monitoring shielded youth from exposure to violence during adolescence. Semiparametric group-based modeling was used to identify trajectories of parental monitoring and exposure to violence from T1 to T5. Results…

  11. Arab youth involvement in delinquency and political violence and parental control: The mediating role of religiosity.

    PubMed

    Khoury-Kassabri, Mona; Khoury, Nabieh; Ali, Rabab

    2015-11-01

    This study examines the involvement of Arab youth at risk from East Jerusalem in delinquent behaviors, such as crimes against a person, public disorder offenses, and political violence. The contribution of religiosity and parental control factors in explaining these different types of youth involvement in illegal behaviors is assessed. A total of 161 young males, aged 15-21, participated in the study. We found that the greater the parental control and the more religious the adolescent, the less likely they are to engage in delinquent behaviors and political violence. The relationship between parental control and youth involvement in delinquency and political violence was mediated by youth level of religiosity, after controlling for age and family socioeconomic status. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26594924

  12. Arab youth involvement in delinquency and political violence and parental control: The mediating role of religiosity.

    PubMed

    Khoury-Kassabri, Mona; Khoury, Nabieh; Ali, Rabab

    2015-11-01

    This study examines the involvement of Arab youth at risk from East Jerusalem in delinquent behaviors, such as crimes against a person, public disorder offenses, and political violence. The contribution of religiosity and parental control factors in explaining these different types of youth involvement in illegal behaviors is assessed. A total of 161 young males, aged 15-21, participated in the study. We found that the greater the parental control and the more religious the adolescent, the less likely they are to engage in delinquent behaviors and political violence. The relationship between parental control and youth involvement in delinquency and political violence was mediated by youth level of religiosity, after controlling for age and family socioeconomic status. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. Serious Violence Victimization and Perpetration among Youth Living in the Slums of Kampala, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Swahn, Monica H; Gressard, Lindsay; Palmier, Jane B; Kasirye, Rogers; Lynch, Catherine; Yao, Huang

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Violence among youth is a major public health issue globally. Despite these concerns, youth violence surveillance and prevention research are either scarce or non-existent, particularly in developing regions, such as sub-Saharan Africa. The purpose of this study is to quantitatively determine the prevalence of violence involving weapons in a convenience sample of service-seeking youth in Kampala. Moreover, the study will seek to determine the overlap between violence victimization and perpetration among these youth and the potentially shared risk factors for these experiences. Methods We conducted this study of youth in May and June of 2011 to quantify and describe high-risk behaviors and exposures in a convenience sample (N=457) of urban youth, 14–24 years of age, living on the streets or in the slums and who were participating in a Uganda Youth Development Link drop-in center for disadvantaged street youth. We computed bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to determine associations between psychosocial factors and violence victimization and perpetration. Results The overall prevalence of reporting violence victimization involving a weapon was 36%, and violence perpetration with a weapon was 19%. In terms of the overlap between victimization and perpetration, 16.6% of youth (11.6% of boys and 24.1% of girls) reported both. In multivariate analyses, parental neglect due to alcohol use (Adj.OR=2.28;95%CI: 1.12—4.62) and sadness (Adj.OR=4.36 ;95%CI: 1.81—10.53) were the statistically significant correlates of victimization only. Reporting hunger (Adj.OR=2.87 ;95%CI:1.30—6.33), any drunkenness (Adj.OR=2.35 ;95%CI:1.12—4.92) and any drug use (Adj.OR=3.02 ;95%CI:1.16—7.82) were significantly associated with both perpetration and victimization. Conclusion The findings underscore the differential experiences associated with victimization and perpetration of violence involving weapons among these vulnerable youth. In particular

  14. The perpetration of intimate partner violence among LGBTQ college youth: the role of minority stress.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Katie M; Sylaska, Kateryna M

    2013-11-01

    Preliminary research suggests that partner violence is a problem among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and questioning (LGBTQ) college youth. However, there is no study to date with college youth on the factors associated with perpetration of same-sex partner violence, which is needed to inform prevention efforts specific to this population. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to assess how facets of minority stress (i.e., sexual-orientation-related victimization, sexual minority stigma, internalized homonegativity, sexual identity concealment) relate to physical, sexual, and psychological partner violence perpetration among LGBTQ college youth (N = 391; 49% identified as men; 72% Caucasian; M age: 20.77 years). At the bivariate level, physical perpetration was related to identity concealment and internalized homonegativity; sexual perpetration was related to internalized homonegativity; and psychological perpetration was related to sexual-orientation-related victimization. However, at the multivariate level (after controlling for concurrent victimization), psychological perpetration was unrelated to minority stress variables, whereas physical and sexual perpetration were both related to internalized homonegativity; physical perpetration was also related to identity concealment. These results underscore the utility of understanding partner violence among LGBTQ youth through a minority stress framework. Moreover, the current study highlights the need for a better understanding of factors that mediate and moderate the relationship between minority stress and partner violence perpetration among LGBTQ youth in order to inform prevention and intervention efforts.

  15. Preventing Violence Among High-Risk Youth and Communities with Economic, Policy, and Structural Strategies.

    PubMed

    Massetti, Greta M; David-Ferdon, Corinne

    2016-02-12

    Youth violence is preventable, and the reduction of health disparities is possible with evidence-based approaches. Achieving community-wide reductions in youth violence and health disparities has been limited in part because of the lack of prevention strategies to address community risk factors. CDC-supported research has resulted in three promising community-level approaches: Business Improvement Districts (BIDs) in Los Angeles, California; alcohol policy to reduce youth access in Richmond, Virginia; and the Safe Streets program in Baltimore, Maryland. Evaluation findings indicated that BIDs in Los Angeles were associated with a 12% reduction in robberies (one type of violent crime) and an 8% reduction in violent crime overall. In Richmond's alcohol policy program, investigators found that the monthly average of ambulance pickups for violent injuries among youth aged 15-24 years had a significantly greater decrease in the intervention (19.6 to 0 per 1,000) than comparison communities (7.4 to 3.3 per 1,000). Investigators of Safe Streets found that some intervention communities experienced reductions in homicide and/or nonfatal shootings, but results were not consistent across communities. Communitywide rates of violence can be changed in communities with disproportionately high rates of youth violence associated with entrenched health disparities and socioeconomic disadvantage. Community-level strategies are a critical part of comprehensive approaches necessary to achieve broad reductions in violence and health disparities.

  16. Disentangling the Effects of Violent Victimization, Violent Behavior, and Gun Carrying for Minority Inner-City Youth Living in Extreme Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spano, Richard; Bolland, John

    2013-01-01

    Two waves of longitudinal data were used to examine the sequencing between violent victimization, violent behavior, and gun carrying in a high-poverty sample of African American youth. Multivariate logistic regression results indicated that violent victimization T1 and violent behavior T1 increased the likelihood of initiation of gun carrying T2…

  17. Connections between online harassment and offline violence among youth in Central Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ojanen, Timo Tapani; Boonmongkon, Pimpawun; Samakkeekarom, Ronnapoom; Samoh, Nattharat; Cholratana, Mudjalin; Guadamuz, Thomas Ebanan

    2015-06-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that face-to-face (offline) youth violence and online harassment are closely interlinked, but evidence from Asian countries remains limited. This study was conducted to quantitatively assess the associations between offline violence and online harassment among youth in Central Thailand. Students and out-of-school youth (n=1,234, age: 15-24 years) residing, studying, and/or working in a district in Central Thailand were surveyed. Participants were asked about their involvement in online harassment and in verbal, physical, sexual, and domestic types of offline violence, as perpetrators, victims, and witnesses within a 1-year period. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess independent associations between different kinds of involvement in offline violence and online harassment. Perpetration and victimization within the past year were both reported by roughly half of the youth both online and offline. Over three quarters had witnessed violence or harassment. Perpetrating online harassment was independently associated with being a victim online (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=10.1; 95% CI [7.5, 13.6]), and perpetrating offline violence was independently associated with being a victim offline (AOR=11.1; 95% CI [8.1, 15.0]). Perpetrating online harassment was independently associated with perpetrating offline violence (AOR=2.7; 95% CI [1.9, 3.8]), and being a victim online was likewise independently associated with being a victim offline (AOR=2.6; 95% CI [1.9, 3.6]). Online harassment and offline violence are interlinked among Thai youth, as in other countries studied so far. Interventions to reduce either might best address both together.

  18. Connections Between Online Harassment and Offline Violence among Youth in Central Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Ojanen, Timo Tapani; Boonmongkon, Pimpawun; Samakkeekarom, Ronnapoom; Samoh, Nattharat; Cholratana, Mudjalin

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that face-to-face (offline) youth violence and online harassment are closely interlinked, but evidence from Asian countries remains limited. This study was conducted to quantitatively assess the associations between offline violence and online harassment among youth in Central Thailand. Students and out-of-school youth (n = 1,234, age: 15-24 years) residing, studying, and/or working in a district in Central Thailand were surveyed. Participants were asked about their involvement in online harassment and in verbal, physical, sexual, and domestic types of offline violence, as perpetrators, victims, and witnesses within a 1-year period. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess independent associations between different kinds of involvement in offline violence and online harassment. Perpetration and victimization within the past year were both reported by roughly half of the youth both online and offline. Over three quarters had witnessed violence or harassment. Perpetrating online harassment was independently associated with being a victim online (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 10.1; 95% CI [7.5, 13.6]), and perpetrating offline violence was independently associated with being a victim offline (AOR = 11.1; 95% CI [8.1, 15.0]). Perpetrating online harassment was independently associated with perpetrating offline violence (AOR = 2.7; 95% CI [1.9, 3.8]), and being a victim online was likewise independently associated with being a victim offline (AOR = 2.6; 95% CI [1.9, 3.6]). Online harassment and offline violence are interlinked among Thai youth, as in other countries studied so far. Interventions to reduce either might best address both together. PMID:25913812

  19. Exposure to political conflict and violence and posttraumatic stress in Middle East youth: protective factors.

    PubMed

    Dubow, Eric F; Huesmann, L Rowell; Boxer, Paul; Landau, Simha; Dvir, Shira; Shikaki, Khalil; Ginges, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    We examine the role of family- and individual-level protective factors in the relation between exposure to ethnic-political conflict and violence and posttraumatic stress among Israeli and Palestinian youth. Specifically, we examine whether parental mental health (lack of depression), positive parenting, children's self-esteem, and academic achievement moderate the relation between exposure to ethnic-political conflict/violence and subsequent posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. We collected three waves of data from 901 Israeli and 600 Palestinian youths (three age cohorts: 8, 11, and 14 years old; approximately half of each gender) and their parents at 1-year intervals. Greater cumulative exposure to ethnic-political conflict/violence across the first 2 waves of the study predicted higher subsequent PTS symptoms even when we controlled for the child's initial level of PTS symptoms. This relation was significantly moderated by a youth's self-esteem and by the positive parenting received by the youth. In particular, the longitudinal relation between exposure to violence and subsequent PTS symptoms was significant for low self-esteem youth and for youth receiving little positive parenting but was non-significant for children with high levels of these protective resources. Our findings show that youth most vulnerable to PTS symptoms as a result of exposure to ethnic-political violence are those with lower levels of self-esteem and who experience low levels of positive parenting. Interventions for war-exposed youth should test whether boosting self-esteem and positive parenting might reduce subsequent levels of PTS symptoms.

  20. Exposure to political conflict and violence and posttraumatic stress in Middle East youth: protective factors.

    PubMed

    Dubow, Eric F; Huesmann, L Rowell; Boxer, Paul; Landau, Simha; Dvir, Shira; Shikaki, Khalil; Ginges, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    We examine the role of family- and individual-level protective factors in the relation between exposure to ethnic-political conflict and violence and posttraumatic stress among Israeli and Palestinian youth. Specifically, we examine whether parental mental health (lack of depression), positive parenting, children's self-esteem, and academic achievement moderate the relation between exposure to ethnic-political conflict/violence and subsequent posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. We collected three waves of data from 901 Israeli and 600 Palestinian youths (three age cohorts: 8, 11, and 14 years old; approximately half of each gender) and their parents at 1-year intervals. Greater cumulative exposure to ethnic-political conflict/violence across the first 2 waves of the study predicted higher subsequent PTS symptoms even when we controlled for the child's initial level of PTS symptoms. This relation was significantly moderated by a youth's self-esteem and by the positive parenting received by the youth. In particular, the longitudinal relation between exposure to violence and subsequent PTS symptoms was significant for low self-esteem youth and for youth receiving little positive parenting but was non-significant for children with high levels of these protective resources. Our findings show that youth most vulnerable to PTS symptoms as a result of exposure to ethnic-political violence are those with lower levels of self-esteem and who experience low levels of positive parenting. Interventions for war-exposed youth should test whether boosting self-esteem and positive parenting might reduce subsequent levels of PTS symptoms. PMID:22594697

  1. Enabling Prosecutors To Address Drug, Gang, and Youth Violence. Juvenile Accountability Incentive Block Grants (JAIBG) Program Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gramckow, Heike P.; Tompkins, Elena

    This bulletin offers data on recent trends in juvenile violence, juvenile drug offenses, and gang-related juvenile offending, and describes prosecutorial responses to such offenses. Examples of promising prosecutor-led programs combating the illicit use of guns, violence, drugs, and gangs are also provided. These examples provide a range of ideas…

  2. Youth Exposed to Violence: Stability, Co-Occurrence, and Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolin, Gayla; Vickerman, Katrina A.; Ramos, Michelle C.; Serrano, Sarah Duman; Gordis, Elana B.; Iturralde, Esti; Oliver, Pamella H.; Spies, Lauren A.

    2009-01-01

    With considerable literature establishing how separate types of violence disrupt the lives of children, there is emerging interest in examining violence across multiple interpersonal domains. This article examines four commonly occurring and frequently researched domains of violence exposure: marital physical aggression, mother-to-youth…

  3. Does parenting shield youth from exposure to violence during adolescence? A 5-year longitudinal test in a high-poverty sample of minority youth.

    PubMed

    Spano, Richard; Rivera, Craig; Bolland, John M

    2011-03-01

    Five waves of longitudinal data collected from 349 African American youth living in extreme poverty were used to determine if parental monitoring shielded youth from exposure to violence during adolescence. Semiparametric group- based modeling was used to identify trajectories of parental monitoring and exposure to violence from T1 to T5. Results from these analyses revealed (a) about 52% of youth had a trajectory of hypervigilant parental monitoring and (b) two out of the five distinct trajectories of exposure to violence were low and/or declining over the 5-year time period. Multivariate findings indicated that (a) youth with a trajectory of hypervigilant parenting were 109% more likely to have middle-declining exposure to violence, but hypervigilant parenting was unrelated to stable and low exposure to violence T1 to T5. The theoretical and policy implications of these findings as well as areas for future research are also discussed.

  4. Firearm Violence Among High-Risk Emergency Department Youth After an Assault Injury

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Maureen A.; Roehler, Douglas R.; Goldstick, Jason; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Blow, Frederic C.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The risk for firearm violence among high-risk youth after treatment for an assault is unknown. METHODS: In this 2-year prospective cohort study, data were analyzed from a consecutive sample of 14- to 24-year-olds with drug use in the past 6 months seeking assault-injury care (AIG) at an urban level 1 emergency department (ED) compared with a proportionally sampled comparison group (CG) of drug-using nonassaulted youth. Validated measures were administered at baseline and follow-up (6, 12, 18, 24 months). RESULTS: A total of 349 AIG and 250 CG youth were followed for 24 months. During the follow-up period, 59% of the AIG reported firearm violence, a 40% higher risk than was observed among the CG (59.0% vs. 42.5%; relative risk [RR] = 1.39). Among those reporting firearm violence, 31.7% reported aggression, and 96.4% reported victimization, including 19 firearm injuries requiring medical care and 2 homicides. The majority with firearm violence (63.5%) reported at least 1 event within the first 6 months. Poisson regression identified baseline predictors of firearm violence, including male gender (RR = 1.51), African American race (RR = 1.26), assault-injury (RR = 1.35), firearm possession (RR = 1.23), attitudes favoring retaliation (RR = 1.03), posttraumatic stress disorder (RR = 1.39), and a drug use disorder (RR = 1.22). CONCLUSIONS: High-risk youth presenting to urban EDs for assault have elevated rates of subsequent firearm violence. Interventions at an index visit addressing substance use, mental health needs, retaliatory attitudes, and firearm possession may help decrease firearm violence among urban youth. PMID:25847808

  5. The Changing Nature of Youth Violence. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Youth Violence of the Committee on the Judiciary. United States Senate, One Hundred Fourth Congress, Second Session on Examining the Current State of Youth Violence, Focusing on Its Changing Nature and Juvenile Intervention Programs Designed To Prevent Increased Violence (February 28, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

    This hearing examined the current state of youth violence, focusing on its changing nature and juvenile intervention programs designed to prevent increased violence. Opening statements by Senators Fred Thompson, Herbert Kohl, and Joseph R. Biden addressed the seriousness of the problem. Two panels contributed prepared statements. The first panel…

  6. The Link between Poverty, the Proliferation of Violence and the Development of Traumatic Stress among Urban Youth in the United States to School Violence: A Trauma Informed, Social Justice Approach to School Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawles, Portia D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents two premises regarding school violence in urban America. First, that traumatic stress among urban youth in the United States is a key factor in the development and exacerbation of school violence in urban areas. Secondly, an efficacious approach to the resolution of school violence cannot be achieved without addressing this…

  7. Preventing recurring injuries from violence: the risk of assault among Cleveland youth after hospitalization.

    PubMed Central

    Litacker, D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Although interpersonal violence has increased among urban youth, its epidemiology remains unclear. To prevent such violence, identifying the susceptible population is important. METHODS: Medical records for 998 patients aged 5 to 25 years at an urban hospital were reviewed to compare data for patients admitted for assault-related injuries, those admitted for unintentional injuries, and those for problems other than injuries. RESULTS: Those initially admitted for treatment of assault were found to be at greater risk of subsequent treatment for assault than those admitted for noninjuries. CONCLUSIONS: Admission for injuries caused by violence may increase risk for future assaults; hospitalization may offer an opportunity to interrupt these patterns. PMID:8916535

  8. Communities are not all created equal: Strategies to prevent violence affecting youth in the United States.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Larry; Davis, Rachel; Realini, Anna

    2016-09-01

    We describe violence in the United States (US) and solutions the Urban Networks to Increase Thriving Youth (UNITY) Initiative has developed, led by Prevention Institute, a US non-governmental organization (NGO) and authors of this article, with initial funding from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Safety distribution across populations is unequal, while public health research has identified aspects of community environments that affect the likelihood of violence, or risk and resilience factors. An overwhelming number of risk factors have accumulated in some US communities, disproportionately impacting young people of color. US policies, systems, and institutions powerfully shape how and where these factors manifest. Violence is preventable, not inevitable. We argue that comprehensive strategies for improving community environments can reduce violence and promote health equity. We present lessons, tools, and frameworks that UNITY cities use to adapt for international application, including multi-sector collaboration, strategies for influencing policy and legislation, and strengthening local violence prevention efforts. PMID:27638244

  9. Relationships Between Caregiver Violence Exposure, Caregiver Depression, and Youth Behavioral Health Among Homeless Families

    PubMed Central

    McGuire-Schwartz, Mandy; Small, Latoya A.; Parker, Gary; Kim, Patricia; McKay, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness affects a large and increasing number of families in the United States, and exposure to violence and other potentially traumatic events is common among homeless families. It is important to understand more about this population and, more specifically, about the relationship between youth mental health and caregiver mental health and trauma exposure among homeless families, in order to better serve the needs of this vulnerable population. The objective of this study is to explore the relationships between caregiver exposure to violence, caregiver depression, and youth depression and behavioral problems among homeless families. Preliminary findings indicate that among this sample of homeless families, caregiver violence exposure has statistically significant relationships with both youth behavioral problems and youth depression symptoms, as mediated by caregiver depression. These findings indicate that youth behavioral health is associated with caregiver mental health, which, in turn, is associated with caregiver trauma exposure. This highlights the importance of taking into account adult mental health while treating youth externalizing and internalizing behaviors and ensuring that caregivers, too, have access to adequate treatment and supports. Furthermore, this treatment should be trauma informed, given the link between trauma and mental health. PMID:26420978

  10. Testing pathways linking exposure to community violence and sexual behaviors among African American youth.

    PubMed

    Voisin, Dexter R; Hotton, Anna L; Neilands, Torsten B

    2014-09-01

    Exposure to community violence and HIV sexual risks are two major public health concerns among youth. This study tests various pathways linking exposure to community violence and sexual behaviors among African American adolescents. Using a sample of 563 (61% females) African American youth attending high school we examined whether problematic psychological symptoms, low school engagement, and/or negative perceptions of peer norms about safer sex functioned as pathways linking exposure to community violence and sexual behaviors. Major findings indicated that, for boys, the relationship between exposure to community violence and sexual début and sexual risk behaviors were linked by aggression. In addition, the relationship between exposure to community violence and sexual risk behaviors were linked by negative perceptions of peer attitudes about safer sex. For girls, the relationship between exposure to community violence and sexual début was linked by aggression and negative perceptions of peer attitudes about safer sex. These findings provide support for pathways linking exposure to community violence to sexual behaviors.

  11. Frenzied attacks. A micro-sociological analysis of the emotional dynamics of extreme youth violence.

    PubMed

    Weenink, Don

    2014-09-01

    Inspired by phenomenological and interactionist studies of youth violence, this article offers an empirical evaluation of Collins's micro-sociological theory of violence. The main question is whether situations of extreme violence have distinct situational dynamics. Based on analyses of 159 interactions taken from judicial case files, situations of extreme youth violence, here called frenzied attacks, were identified on the basis of the state of encapsulation of the attackers (absorbed in the violence, their sole focus is the destruction of the victim) and the disproportionateness of the violence (the attackers continue to hurt the victims even though they do not pose a threat or a challenge to them). Qualitative and statistical analyses revealed that this emotional state results from a social figuration in which the emotional balance shifts toward complete dominance of the attackers. Thus, the occurrence of frenzied attacks is associated with the moment victims hit the ground, paralyse and start to apologize, with the numerical dominance of the attackers' supportive group and with feelings of group membership, in the form of solidarity excitement and family ties in the attackers' group. Alcohol intoxication is of influence as well, but contrary to the expectation, this effect was independent from solidarity excitement. The article concludes that Collins's theory on the emotional dynamics of violence adds a new dimension to the phenomenological and interactionist traditions of research.

  12. Experiencing Violence and Enacting Resilience: The Case Story of a Transgender Youth.

    PubMed

    DiFulvio, Gloria T

    2015-11-01

    Research about victimization among sexual minority youth has focused on documenting the prevalence and consequences of such experiences. Lacking in the literature is an in-depth exploration of the social context of both risk and resilience in the face of violence. This is especially true for transgender youth who are largely absent from the dominant discourse. This case story provides an example of how one transgender youth interpreted and adaptively responded to the discrimination and prejudice she encountered. Katie's story illustrates the process of resilience. Despite the adversity she has faced, she shares stories of pride and strength in a culture that considers her as "other."

  13. Cumulative Effects of Exposure to Violence on Posttraumatic Stress in Palestinian and Israeli Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubow, Eric F.; Boxer, Paul; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Landau, Simha; Dvir, Shira; Shikaki, Khalil; Ginges, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    We examine cumulative and prospective effects of exposure to conflict and violence across four contexts (ethnic-political, community, family, school) on posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms in Palestinian and Israeli youth. Interviews were conducted with 600 Palestinian and 901 Israeli (Jewish and Arab) children (ages 8, 11, and 14) and their…

  14. The SAFER Latinos Project: Addressing a Community Ecology Underlying Latino Youth Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edberg, Mark; Cleary, Sean D.; Collins, Elizabeth; Klevens, Joanne; Leiva, Rodrigo; Bazurto, Martha; Rivera, Ivonne; del Cid, Alex Taylor; Montero, Luisa; Calderon, Melba

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the intervention model, early implementation experience, and challenges for the "Seguridad, Apoyo, Familia, Educacion, y Recursos" (SAFER) Latinos project. The SAFER Latinos project is an attempt to build the evidence for a multilevel participatory youth violence prevention model tailored to the specific circumstances of…

  15. Reaching through the Cracks. A Guide to Implementing the Youth Violence Reduction Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jucovy, Linda; McClanahan, Wendy S.

    2008-01-01

    In 1999, the Youth Violence Reduction Partnership (YVRP) was launched by a group of key stakeholders in Philadelphia--including the district attorney's office, adult and juvenile parole, other city agencies and community organizations. Its goal is to steer young people, ages 14 to 24 and at greatest risk of killing or being killed, away from…

  16. From Illinois' Front Line against Crime: A School and Youth Violence Prevention Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    Noting that one of the most powerful weapons to prevent crime are programs such as quality educational child care, after-school and summer programs, and child abuse prevention, this brief presents the school and youth violence prevention plan of an organization of Illinois law enforcement officers, state's attorneys, crime survivors, and leaders…

  17. Counter-transference and counter-experience in the treatment of violence prone youth.

    PubMed

    King, C H

    1976-01-01

    The constant confrontation inherent in therapeutic intervention with violence prone children, some of whome have committed homicide, is explored. Problems unique to work with these youths are discussed in terms of counter-transference issues for clinicians and counter-experience of teachers and child care workers. Suggestions for training and supervision are offered.

  18. A Challenging Job: Physical and Sexual Violence towards Group Workers in Youth Residential Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alink, Lenneke R. A.; Euser, Saskia; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Residential or group care social workers appear to be at increased risk for experiencing physical violence at work. However, little is known about "sexual harassment" in addition to physical victimization of social workers in "youth" residential or group care. Objective We investigated the prevalence of physical and…

  19. Community Violence, School-Related Protective Factors, and Psychosocial Outcomes in Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, Kristy A.; Warren, Jared S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of two putative school-based protective factors--student identification with school and perceived teacher support--to psychosocial outcomes in a sample of urban youth exposed to community violence. Participants were 175 high school students ages 14-19 in grades 9-12 from a large urban school district. Results…

  20. A Review of Family-Based Programs to Prevent Youth Violence among Latinos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leidy, Melinda S.; Guerra, Nancy G.; Toro, Rosa I.

    2010-01-01

    At present, there is limited evidence supporting the effectiveness of family-based intervention programs to prevent violence or related behavior problems with Latino youth and families. Although progress has been made, a number of important issues remain. In this article, the authors review several of the more prominent interventions for Latino…

  1. Resilience Moderates the Relationship between Exposure to Violence and Posttraumatic Reexperiencing in Mi'kmaq Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahradnik, Marc; Stewart, Sherry H.; O'Connor, Roisin M.; Stevens, Doreen; Ungar, Michael; Wekerle, Christine

    2010-01-01

    This study is part of a school-based collaborative research project with a Nova Scotian Mi'kmaq community that hopes to shed light on the relationship between exposure to violence and mental health in First Nations youth. This particular study sought to examine how the multifaceted construct of resilience might act as a protective factor,…

  2. Exposure to Violence and Aggression: Protective Roles of Social Support among Urban African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benhorin, Shira; McMahon, Susan D.

    2008-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the impact of social support on the relation between exposure to violence and aggressive behavior, as reported by self, peers, and teachers. The main-effects and stress-buffering models of social support were tested for parents, teachers, classmates, and close friends among 127 urban, African American youth. The…

  3. Exposure to Community Violence among Arab Youth in Israel: Rates and Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M.; Leshem, Becky; Guterman, Neil

    2011-01-01

    The research explored the rates and characteristics of exposure to community violence (CV) and its relevance to several sociodemographic factors among a sample of 833 Arab youth aged 14-18 years residing in diverse residential areas in Israel. Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire. The frequency of exposure to CV during the past 12…

  4. Exposure to Political Conflict and Violence and Posttraumatic Stress in Middle East Youth: Protective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubow, Eric F.; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Boxer, Paul; Landau, Simha; Dvir, Shira; Shikaki, Khalil; Ginges, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    We examine the role of family- and individual-level protective factors in the relation between exposure to ethnic-political conflict and violence and posttraumatic stress among Israeli and Palestinian youth. Specifically, we examine whether parental mental health (lack of depression), positive parenting, children's self-esteem, and academic…

  5. Relationships between Caregiver Violence Exposure, Caregiver Depression, and Youth Behavioral Health among Homeless Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire-Schwartz, Mandy; Small, Latoya A.; Parker, Gary; Kim, Patricia; McKay, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness affects a large and increasing number of families in the United States, and exposure to violence and other potentially traumatic events is common among homeless families. It is important to understand more about this population and, more specifically, about the relationship between youth mental health and caregiver mental health and…

  6. The Rise and Fall of American Youth Violence: 1980 to 2000. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butts, Jeffrey; Travis, Jeremy

    This report examines trends in violent crime from 1980-2000, analyzing what portion of the recent crime drop can be attributed to juveniles (under age 18 years) and young adults (ages 18-24 years). Data come from the Uniform Crime Reporting Program of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Results indicate that the decline in youth violence, as…

  7. Violent Youth Culture in Northern Ireland: Young Men, Violence, and the Challenges of Peacebuilding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harland, Ken

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses violent male youth culture in Northern Ireland within the context of a society emerging from a prolonged period of political violence toward peacebuilding. Specifically, the article focuses on the findings from a qualitative study carried out by the Centre for Young Men's Studies with 130 marginalized young men aged 13 to 16…

  8. Violence in street culture: cross-cultural comparison of youth groups and criminal gangs.

    PubMed

    Zdun, Steffen

    2008-01-01

    Violence is a widespread phenomenon in juvenile street culture. But the questions of whether this relationship is a deterministic one, and if not, which are the contributing factors, are largely unanswered. This article focuses on the role of public space, starting with a comparison of the meaning of deviant behavior and crime in street culture in Brazil, Russia, and Germany. Focusing on street culture norms and their relevance for youth groups in everyday life, the author shows that there are worldwide similarities, and these are most likely to be seen in disadvantaged neighborhoods. The article deals not only with the question of how people act in conflicts but also focuses on a social order in which the reputation of men is based mainly on questions of masculinity, honor, and power expressed through aggressive behavior. The results are based on more than one hundred semistructured qualitative interviews with street culture youth, prison inmates, adult family members, social workers, police, and researchers that were conducted in recent years in the three countries.The study also describes a typology of conflict behavior among male street culture youth that helps in understanding why even juveniles who were socialized in the milieu of the street culture can reject violence and do not have to turn to violence in all conflicts. The article examines the similarities in the reasons for violence and fear of violence, as well as the differences in frequency and intensity between violent countries (such as Brazil and the Russian Federation) and less violent countries (for example, Germany).

  9. Violence on the Russian & American Media Screen and Youth Audience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    The comparison of the Russian and American experience regarding media violence, standards for rating Russian media programs, and a course of study on media violence for students will have a significant impact upon Russian society, will raise Russian societal and governmental attention to the infringement of the Rights of the Child on the Russian…

  10. Profiles of Community Violence Exposure Among African American Youth: An Examination of Desensitization to Violence Using Latent Class Analysis.

    PubMed

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K; Dickson, Daniel; Pierre, Cynthia

    2016-07-01

    The current study employed latent class analysis (LCA) to identify distinct profiles of community violence exposure and their associations to desensitization outcomes in 241 African American early adolescents (M age = 12.86, SD = 1.28) in the sixth through eighth grade from under-resourced urban communities. Participants self-reported on their exposure to community violence, as well as on depressive and anxiety symptoms. The LCA revealed three distinct classes: a class exposed to low levels of violence (low exposure class), a class exposed to moderately high levels of victimization (victimization class), and a class exposed to high levels of all types of violence (high exposure class). Consistent with predictions, the high exposure class showed the lowest levels of depressive symptoms, suggesting a desensitization outcome. Gender and age were also examined in relation to the classes, and age was significantly associated with an increased risk of being a member of the high exposure class relative to the low exposure class. Using person-based analyses to examine desensitization outcomes provides useful information for prevention and intervention efforts, as it helps to identify a specific subgroup of youth that may be more likely to show desensitization outcomes in the context of community violence.

  11. Depressive symptoms, social support, and violence exposure among urban youth: A longitudinal study of resilience.

    PubMed

    Eisman, Andria B; Stoddard, Sarah A; Heinze, Justin; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2015-09-01

    Depression is a serious mental health concern among adolescents. Violence exposure is a potent risk factor for depression. Social support may help reduce depression risk, even when adolescents are exposed to violence. Using a compensatory model of resilience, we investigate the influence of violence exposure and social support on depression over time in a sample of urban youth during the high school years (N = 824, 52% female, mean age Year 1 = 14.9). We used growth curve modeling to examine depressive symptoms across adolescence and its association with violence exposure and social support, accounting for important sociodemographic characteristics (sex, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity). Depressive symptoms on average increase from Year 1 to 2 of high school and then are stable or decline from Years 2 to 4. Violence observation and conflict in the family were each associated with increased depressive symptoms during the high school years. Mother support was associated with decreased depressive symptoms over time. Our results support a compensatory model of resilience. Promoting positive parent-child communication among urban youth living in disadvantaged contexts may help reduce the probability that exposure to violence will result in depressive symptoms. PMID:26147772

  12. The SAFER Latinos project: Addressing a community ecology underlying Latino youth violence.

    PubMed

    Edberg, Mark; Cleary, Sean D; Collins, Elizabeth; Klevens, Joanne; Leiva, Rodrigo; Bazurto, Martha; Rivera, Ivonne; del Cid, Alex Taylor; Montero, Luisa; Calderon, Melba

    2010-08-01

    This paper describes the intervention model, early implementation experience, and challenges for the Seguridad, Apoyo, Familia, Educacion, y Recursos (SAFER) Latinos project. The SAFER Latinos project is an attempt to build the evidence for a multilevel participatory youth violence prevention model tailored to the specific circumstances of Central American immigrants. Specific circumstances targeted in this intervention are decreased family cohesion as a result of sequential immigration (i.e., parents arriving first and bringing their children years later or youth arriving without parents); multiple school barriers; community disorganization and low community efficacy; limited access to services; and a social context (including gang presence) that is linked to youth norms supporting violence. In its implementation, the initial intervention model was adapted to address barriers and challenges. These are described, along with lessons learned and the ongoing evaluation.

  13. Practicas optimas para la prevencion de la violencia juvenil: Libro de referencia para la accion comunitaria (Best Practices of Youth Violence Prevention: A Sourcebook for Community Action).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Timothy N., Comp.; Craft, Carole A., Comp.; Dahlberg, Linda L., Comp.; Lynch, Barbara S., Comp.; Baer, Katie, Comp.

    The Spanish-language version of this best practices sourcebook builds on a 1993 publication, "The Prevention of Youth Violence: A Framework for Community Action." It offers insight into tested strategies to prevent violence by children and adolescents. It was developed with input from people working to prevent youth violence and people whose…

  14. Parent-Youth Discordance about Youth-Witnessed Violence: Associations with Trauma Symptoms and Service Use in an At-Risk Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Terri; Thompson, Richard; Kotch, Jonathan B.; Proctor, Laura J.; Litrownik, Alan J.; English, Diana J.; Runyan, Desmond K.; Wiley, Tisha R. A.; Dubowitz, Howard

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Studies have consistently demonstrated a lack of agreement between youth and parent reports regarding youth-witnessed violence. However, little is known about whether disagreement is associated with poorer outcomes and less utilization of mental health services. The purpose of the current study was to examine disagreement among youth…

  15. Reinforcement Sensitivity and Risk for Psychopathology Following Exposure to Violence: A Vulnerability-Specificity Model in Latino Youth

    PubMed Central

    Gudiño, Omar G.; Nadeem, Erum; Kataoka, Sheryl H.; Lau, Anna S.

    2013-01-01

    Urban Latino youth are exposed to high rates of violence, which increases risk for diverse forms of psychopathology. To current study aims to increase specificity in predicting responses by testing the hypothesis that youths’ reinforcement sensitivity–behavioral inhibition (BIS) and behavioral approach (BAS)–is associated with specific clinical outcomes and increases risk for the development of such problems following exposure to violence. Utilizing a short-term longitudinal design, Latino youth (N=168) provided reports of BIS/BAS and emotional/behavioral problems at Time 1, exposure to violence between Time 1 and Time 2, and clinical symptoms at Time 2. Results suggested that reinforcement sensitivity moderated the relation between violence exposure and psychopathology, such that increasing levels of BIS were associated with elevated risk for internalizing and posttraumatic stress symptoms following exposure to violence whereas BAS increased risk for externalizing problems. The importance of building on existing knowledge to understand minority youth psychopathology is discussed. PMID:22080366

  16. Perceptions of gender-based violence among South African youth: implications for health promotion interventions

    PubMed Central

    Mosavel, M.; Ahmed, R.; Simon, C.

    2012-01-01

    Gender-based violence is a widespread problem in South Africa. Past structural inequities have created a climate conducive to violence against women. As an initial step toward developing a health promotion program, we conducted exploratory formative research to examine the barriers that affect the health and well-being of youth. Fourteen focus groups (nine with girls and five with boys) were conducted with 112 adolescents in a racially mixed community on the outskirts of Cape Town, South Africa. We utilized grounded theory and thematic analysis to examine the data. The impact of poverty, ubiquitous gendered violence, transactional sex and unsafe recreational spaces emerged as the major themes. The experiences of youth were consumed by issues of safety rather than the pursuit of other developmentally appropriate markers. Our findings suggest that health promotion programs should create safe spaces for youth and opportunities to critically question the assumptions and manifestations of a patriarchal society. Furthermore, the findings indicate that there is a strong need for multi-sectorial interventions directed at many levels to prevent gender-based violence. PMID:21733916

  17. Aggression and Violence among Iranian Adolescents and Youth: A 10-year Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Saeid; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Kelishadi, Roya; Heidari, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although the overwhelming majority of Iranian adolescents are well-adjusted, a substantial group exhibits high levels of maladjustment and deficient functioning. Escalation of criminal violence among the youth population has become a major public policy issue and a serious public health problem. In reviewing a 10-year literature, this article aimed to describe and propose primary assumptions regarding the correlates of aggressive and violent behaviors in Iranian adolescents and youth. Methods: Bibliographic databases such as PubMed and Google Scholar along with Iranian databases including PubMed, IranMedex, Magiran, Irandoc, Psychoinfo, and Emrofor Scientific Information Database, and Magiran constituted the databases which we searched for the relevant literature. Overall 98 articles met the inclusion criteria, allowing us to initiate the discussion. Results: Reportedly, prevalence of violence and aggression among the Iranian adolescents and youth ranged from 30% to 65.5% while males being 2½ times more affected than females. The role of gender, family environment, family size, socioeconomic status, and victimization in perpetuating the circumstances was apparent. Conclusions: Relatively high prevalence of violence and aggression among Iranian youth and adolescents is a warning sign and a great challenge to the social system. Reviewed studies suffer from certain methodological and conceptual limitations. Undertaking community-based studies to estimate the actual extent of the problem is warranted. PMID:26157572

  18. Fighting Violence without Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowicki, Mark A.; Martin, William C.

    Violence is becoming the number one problem in United States schools. Approximately 20 percent of high school students regularly carry guns and other weapons. Several nonviolent measures are appropriate to reduce violence in schools; but only the implementation of multiple ideas and measures, not "quick fix" solutions, will curb violence. Peer…

  19. Social Connections, Trajectories of Hopelessness, and Serious Violence in Impoverished Urban Youth

    PubMed Central

    Stoddard, Sarah A.; Henly, Susan J.; Sieving, Renee E.; Bolland, John

    2011-01-01

    Youth living in impoverished urban neighborhoods are at risk for becoming hopeless about their future and engaging in violent behaviors. The current study seeks to examine the longitudinal relationship between social connections, hopelessness trajectories, and subsequent violent behavior across adolescence. Our sample included 723 (49% female) African American youth living in impoverished urban neighborhoods who participated in the Mobile Youth Survey from 1998 through 2006. Using general growth mixture modeling, we found two hopelessness trajectory classes for both boys and girls during middle adolescence: a consistently low hopelessness class and an increasingly hopeless class with quadratic change. In all classes, youth who reported stronger early adolescent connections to their mothers were less hopeless at age 13. The probability of later adolescent violence with a weapon was higher for boys and was associated with the increasingly hopeless class for both boys and girls. Implications for new avenues of research and design of hope-based prevention interventions will be discussed. PMID:20690037

  20. The supply and demand for guns to juveniles: Oakland's gun tracing project.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, Deane; Dodge, Andrea Craig; Journel, Coraline S; Zahnd, Elaine

    2005-12-01

    In response to Oakland, California's high level of gun violence affecting young people, the East Oakland Partnership to Reduce Juvenile Gun Violence, a citywide collaboration, was formed in 1997. In 1999, the Partnership established the Oakland Gun Tracing Project to develop evidence-based policy recommendations aimed at reducing the supply of and demand for gun acquisition among urban youth. The advocacy project involved gathering, analyzing, and using police record and gun sale/registration data to inform policy and practice. Such data were collected for all gun crimes committed in Oakland, California between 1998 and 1999 in which a juvenile was either the suspect or the victim. The 213 cases involved 263 juveniles of which 170 were suspects/perpetrators and 93 were victims. Suspects as well as victims were predominantly male and African American. The 213 cases involved 132 recovered guns. Only 55% of the cases were traced to a federally licensed dealer. Three-quarters of the guns were purchased near Oakland, California. Successful traces, defined as the ability to identify federally licensed dealers and initial purchasers, were completed on only 52 of the 132 guns, demonstrating systemic tracing difficulties. Data gathered for the project was used to advocate for numerous policy changes. Recommended policy strategies include initiating a comprehensive gun tracing program so police can track all secondary sales, new laws requiring federal handgun registration which would track ownership changes, required reporting of stolen firearms, and providing effective intervention services to all juveniles the first time they enter the criminal justice system. PMID:16269532

  1. History of Violence as a Predictor of HIV Risk among Multi-Ethnic, Urban Youth in the Southwest.

    PubMed

    Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Nieri, Tanya; Valdez, Elizabeth; Gurrola, Maria; Marrs, Catherine

    2009-04-01

    This community-based exploratory study examined the effects of a history of violence, ethnic identification, and acculturation status on HIV risk among a majority Latino sample of youth living in a large metropolitan area of the Southwest in the United States. The participants reported high rates of violence and attitudes that put them at risk for HIV/AIDS infection. They participated in 1 of 2 prevention interventions offered by a local non-governmental organization. The first intervention was tailored for adjudicated youth (N=49) who were either institutionalized or were returning to the community after involvement with the criminal justice system. The second intervention targeted youth (N=32) who were homeless/runaway and/or self-identified as gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgender (GLBT). T-tests and linear regression were used to determine the differences between youth reporting a history of violence by type of perpetrator, its relationship with HIV risk, and the role of ethnic identification and acculturation status as potential protective factors. Violence by a family member was the most common type of violence reported, with a history of violence positively related to HIV risk. Ethnic identification and linguistic acculturation had a protective effect against HIV risk among the homeless and GLBT youth but not among the adjudicated youth.

  2. History of Violence as a Predictor of HIV Risk among Multi-Ethnic, Urban Youth in the Southwest.

    PubMed

    Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Nieri, Tanya; Valdez, Elizabeth; Gurrola, Maria; Marrs, Catherine

    2009-04-01

    This community-based exploratory study examined the effects of a history of violence, ethnic identification, and acculturation status on HIV risk among a majority Latino sample of youth living in a large metropolitan area of the Southwest in the United States. The participants reported high rates of violence and attitudes that put them at risk for HIV/AIDS infection. They participated in 1 of 2 prevention interventions offered by a local non-governmental organization. The first intervention was tailored for adjudicated youth (N=49) who were either institutionalized or were returning to the community after involvement with the criminal justice system. The second intervention targeted youth (N=32) who were homeless/runaway and/or self-identified as gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgender (GLBT). T-tests and linear regression were used to determine the differences between youth reporting a history of violence by type of perpetrator, its relationship with HIV risk, and the role of ethnic identification and acculturation status as potential protective factors. Violence by a family member was the most common type of violence reported, with a history of violence positively related to HIV risk. Ethnic identification and linguistic acculturation had a protective effect against HIV risk among the homeless and GLBT youth but not among the adjudicated youth. PMID:20016770

  3. The Overlap of Witnessing Partner Violence with Child Maltreatment and Other Victimizations in a Nationally Representative Survey of Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamby, Sherry; Finkelhor, David; Turner, Heather; Ormrod, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the co-occurrence of witnessing partner violence with child maltreatment and other forms of victimization. Method: Data are from the National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence (NatSCEV), a nationally representative telephone survey of the victimization experiences of 4,549 youth aged 0-17. Results: Witnessing partner…

  4. Solving Youth Violence: Partnerships That Work: National Conference Proceedings (Washington, D.C., August 15-17, 1994). Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Law and Justice, Inc., Alexandria, VA.

    Over a period of several months, seven Federal agencies met to study and discuss the national problem of violence, especially youth violence, and to determine how best to assist states and communities in dealing with this volatile subject. One result of these discussions was a national conference to focus attention on the many programs being tried…

  5. "This Was My Hell": The Violence Experienced by Gender Non-Conforming Youth in US High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyss, Shannon E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the experiences of harassment and violence endured by seven gender non-conforming youth in US high schools. Based on a larger research project, it opens an inquiry into the school-based lives of gender-variant teens, a group heretofore ignored by most academics and educators. Breaking violence down into two main types (physical…

  6. Methods for Linking Community Views to Measureable Outcomes in a Youth Violence Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Catherine C.; Richmond, Therese S.; Guerra, Terry; Thomas, Nicole A.; Walker, Alia; Branas, Charles C.; TenHave, Thomas R.; Vaughn, Nicole A.; Leff, Stephen S.; Hausman, Alice J.

    2013-01-01

    Background All parties in community–academic partnerships have a vested interest prevention program success. Markers of success that reflect community’s experiences of programmatic prevention success are not always measurable, but critically speak to community-defined needs. Objective The purpose of this manuscript was to (1) describe our systematic process for linking locally relevant community views (community-defined indicators) to measurable outcomes in the context of a youth violence prevention program and (2) discuss lessons learned, next steps, and recommendations for others trying to replicate a similar process. Methods A research team composed of both academic and community researchers conducted a systematic process of matching community-defined indicators of youth violence prevention programmatic success to standardized youth survey items being administered in the course of a program evaluation. The research team of three community partners and Five academic partners considered 43 community-defined indicators and 208 items from the youth surveys being utilized within the context of a community-based aggression prevention program. At the end of the matching process, 92 youth survey items were identified and agreed upon as potential matches to 11 of the community-defined indicators. Conclusions We applied rigorous action steps to match community-defined indicators to survey data collected in the youth violence prevention intervention. We learned important lessons that inform recommendations for others interested in such endeavors. The process used to derive and assess community-defined indicators of success emphasized the principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR) and use of existing and available data to reduce participant burden. PMID:23221296

  7. Coping with stress, coping with violence: Links to mental health outcomes among at-risk youth

    PubMed Central

    Boxer, Paul; Sloan-Power, Elizabeth; Schappell, Ignacio Mercado and Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Coping reactions to stressful events are important links between difficult experiences and the emergence of psychopathology. In this study we compared youths' negative coping with stress in general to their negative coping with violence in particular, and utilized a person-centered analytic approach to examine how patterns of coping relate to various mental health outcomes. We utilized survey interview measures to collect data from a sample of 131 youth (ages 11–14, 100% ethnic minority) residing in an economically distressed metropolitan area of the northeast. We observed significant relations between youths' tendencies to cope with stress and violence via externalized-internalized strategies (e.g., yelling to let off steam, crying) and their mental health symptoms. However, we generally did not observe relations between engagement in distancing coping strategies (e.g., making believe nothing happened) and any problematic outcomes. Negative coping does not appear be a monolithic construct uniformly associated with negative outcomes for youth. Distancing coping might represent an especially useful short-term coping response for youth living in socioeconomically distressed conditions from the standpoint of inhibiting symptom development. PMID:23002323

  8. Coping with stress, coping with violence: Links to mental health outcomes among at-risk youth.

    PubMed

    Boxer, Paul; Sloan-Power, Elizabeth; Schappell, Ignacio Mercado And Ashley

    2012-09-01

    Coping reactions to stressful events are important links between difficult experiences and the emergence of psychopathology. In this study we compared youths' negative coping with stress in general to their negative coping with violence in particular, and utilized a person-centered analytic approach to examine how patterns of coping relate to various mental health outcomes. We utilized survey interview measures to collect data from a sample of 131 youth (ages 11-14, 100% ethnic minority) residing in an economically distressed metropolitan area of the northeast. We observed significant relations between youths' tendencies to cope with stress and violence via externalized-internalized strategies (e.g., yelling to let off steam, crying) and their mental health symptoms. However, we generally did not observe relations between engagement in distancing coping strategies (e.g., making believe nothing happened) and any problematic outcomes. Negative coping does not appear be a monolithic construct uniformly associated with negative outcomes for youth. Distancing coping might represent an especially useful short-term coping response for youth living in socioeconomically distressed conditions from the standpoint of inhibiting symptom development. PMID:23002323

  9. Getting Teachers in on the Act: Evaluation of a Theater- and Classroom-Based Youth Violence Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucker, Marla; Spinazzola, Joseph; Pollack, Amie Alley; Pepe, Lauren; Barry, Stephanie; Zhang, Lynda; van der Kolk, Bessel

    2010-01-01

    This study replicated and extended our previous evaluation of Urban Improv (UI), a theater-based youth violence prevention (YVP) program developed for urban youth. It assessed the replicability of positive program impacts when implemented by nonprogram originators, as well as the utility of a comprehensive version of the UI program that included a…

  10. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Youth Talk about Experiencing and Coping with School Violence: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Arnold H.; Haney, Adam P.; Edwards, Perry; Alessi, Edward J.; Ardon, Maya; Howell, Tamika Jarrett

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study used five focus groups of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth attending public high schools to examine their experiences with school violence. Core themes focused on lack of community and empowerment leading to youth being without a sense of human agency in school. Negative attention themes were indicative…

  11. Building a Future without Gender Violence: Rural Teachers and Youth in Rural Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa, Leading Community Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Lange, Naydene; Mitchell, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    This article advances the idea that rural youth and teachers are the key in leading community dialogue towards addressing gender-based violence (GBV) in their community through their film making. The youth voices on the realities of GBV in their school and community, in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, captured through the process of…

  12. Reinforcement Sensitivity and Risk for Psychopathology Following Exposure to Violence: A Vulnerability-Specificity Model in Latino Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudino, Omar G.; Nadeem, Erum; Kataoka, Sheryl H.; Lau, Anna S.

    2012-01-01

    Urban Latino youth are exposed to high rates of violence, which increases risk for diverse forms of psychopathology. The current study aims to increase specificity in predicting responses by testing the hypothesis that youths' reinforcement sensitivity--behavioral inhibition (BIS) and behavioral approach (BAS)--is associated with specific clinical…

  13. Invest in Kids--Californians Support New Approach To Prevent Youth Violence. Living Well, Spending for Health. Policy Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Center for Health Improvement, Sacramento.

    This "Policy Note" highlights new information about youth crime and prevention that suggest that California has a unique opportunity over the next several years to invest in new preventive approaches for reducing youth violence. Several surveys by the California Center for Health Improvement (CCHI) have documented that Californians share a vision…

  14. Mobilizing communities for implementing evidence-based youth violence prevention programming: a commentary.

    PubMed

    Fixsen, Dean L; Blase, Karen A; Van Dyke, Melissa K

    2011-09-01

    Evidence-based programs have struggled for acceptance in human service settings. Information gleaned from these experiences indicates that implementation is the missing link in the science to service chain. The science and practice of implementation is progressing and can inform approaches to full and effective uses of youth violence prevention programs nationally. Implementation Teams that know (a) innovations, (b) implementation best practices, and (c) improvement cycles are essential to mobilizing support for successful uses of evidence-based programs on a socially significant scale. The next wave of development in implementation science and practice is underway: establishing infrastructures for implementation to make implementation expertise available to communities nationally. Good science, implemented well in practice, can benefit all human services, including youth violence prevention.

  15. Recurrent issues in efforts to prevent homicidal youth violence in schools: expert opinions.

    PubMed

    Dill, Karen E; Redding, Richard E; Smith, Peter K; Surette, Ray; Cornell, Dewey G

    2011-01-01

    Developmental research on social influences on adolescents can guide practices aimed to prevent homicidal youth violence. School shootings have repeatedly raised questions about the contributory role of bullying and entertainment violence, how news media publicity might produce copycat crimes, and whether stiffer criminal sanctions might have a deterrent effect. This article presents the thoughts and recommendations of a group of experts on these topics summarizing the current knowledge base. In brief, bullying reduction programs may be a useful early prevention effort. Television and video games with violent themes can encourage aggressive behavior, but these media can be used to teach more prosocial behavior as well. The potential copycat effects of highly publicized crimes might be diminished with more restrained reporting, although more research is needed. Finally, there is substantial evidence that increased criminal sanctions for youthful offenders have not had a deterrent effect.

  16. Cognitive-cultural model of identity and violence prevention for African American youth.

    PubMed

    Whaley, Arthur L

    2003-05-01

    The author introduces a cognitive-cultural model of identity development to explain the elevated risk for violence among African American youth. The model is an extension of previous conceptual frameworks that address the dynamic interplay among cognition, culture, and self-systems. Specifically, the self is conceptualized as a cognitive structure known as schemata that contain individual and cultural elements corresponding to those aspects of identity. The model has three major components: the individual self, the cultural self, and social roles. The cognitive-cultural model posits that maladaptative behaviors such as violence are a consequence of underdevelopment or imbalance in some aspect of the self or the adoption of social roles that undermine integration of the individual self-schemata and cultural self-schemata. The implications of this cognitive-cultural model for prevention efforts, particularly Afrocentric socialization interventions targeting African American youth, are discussed.

  17. Recurrent issues in efforts to prevent homicidal youth violence in schools: expert opinions.

    PubMed

    Dill, Karen E; Redding, Richard E; Smith, Peter K; Surette, Ray; Cornell, Dewey G

    2011-01-01

    Developmental research on social influences on adolescents can guide practices aimed to prevent homicidal youth violence. School shootings have repeatedly raised questions about the contributory role of bullying and entertainment violence, how news media publicity might produce copycat crimes, and whether stiffer criminal sanctions might have a deterrent effect. This article presents the thoughts and recommendations of a group of experts on these topics summarizing the current knowledge base. In brief, bullying reduction programs may be a useful early prevention effort. Television and video games with violent themes can encourage aggressive behavior, but these media can be used to teach more prosocial behavior as well. The potential copycat effects of highly publicized crimes might be diminished with more restrained reporting, although more research is needed. Finally, there is substantial evidence that increased criminal sanctions for youthful offenders have not had a deterrent effect. PMID:21491577

  18. Framing Public Policy and Prevention of Chronic Violence in American Youths

    PubMed Central

    Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    Metaphors can both inspire and mislead the public. Current metaphors for youth violence are inconsistent with scientific evidence about how chronic violence develops and evoke inaccurate or harmful reactions. Popular, problematic metaphors include superpredator, quarantining the contagious, corrective surgery, man as computer, vaccine, and chronic disease. Four new metaphors that more accurately reflect the science of child development are proposed to shape the field. Preventive dentistry offers a lifelong system of universal, selected, and indicated intervention policies. Cardiovascular disease offers concepts of distal risk factors, proximal processes, equifinality and multifinality, and long-term prevention. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's public health model focuses on injury and the victim to elicit popular support. Public education for illiteracy offers concepts of long-term universal education coupled with specialized help for high-risk youths and goes beyond metaphor to represent a truly applicable framework. Research is proposed to test the scientific merit for and public receptivity to these metaphors. PMID:18855489

  19. Prediction of Violence Perpetration Among High-Risk Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Steve; Skara, Silvana; Weiner, Michelle D.; Dent, Clyde W.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To prospectively examine demographic background, personality, perceived environment, and behavior as violence perpetration predictors in emerging adulthood among high-risk adolescents using problem-behavior theory as a conceptual perspective. Methods: Self-report questionnaires were administered 5 years apart to 676 participants.…

  20. Animal Abuse and Youth Violence. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascione, Frank R.

    The forms of abuse that animals are subjected to are similar to the forms of abuse children experience, such as physical abuse, serious neglect, and psychological abuse. This document describes psychiatric, psychological, and criminal research linking animal abuse to violence perpetrated by juveniles and adults. Particular attention is given to…

  1. The Developmental Ecology of Urban Males' Youth Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolan, Patrick H.; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Henry, David B.

    2003-01-01

    Tested a developmental-ecological model of violence using longitudinal data from poor, urban African American and Latino adolescent boys and caregivers. Found that community structural characteristics significantly predicted neighborhood social processes. Parenting practices partially mediated relationship between neighborhood social processes and…

  2. Youth Exposed to Violence: The Role of Protective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Kimberly A. S.; Budge, Stephanie L.; McKay, Kevin M.

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of 174 inner-city urban high school students, this study examined the degree to which family and peer support would moderate the negative impact of exposure to violence on academic performance, symptoms of distress, and persistence intentions. Over 94% of the students reported having been exposed to at least one form of community…

  3. Preventing Youth Violence and Aggression and Promoting Safety in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulhern, Sean; And Others

    Increased violence in schools, represented by possession of weapons, sexual or racial harassment, bullying, verbal intimidation, gang or cult activity, arson, or corporal punishment of students, for example, is a growing concern among students, educators, and communities. Since educators alone cannot ensure safety in schools, collaboration among…

  4. The role of the pediatrician in youth violence prevention.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soon Ki; Kim, Nam Su

    2013-01-01

    School bullying has become a major social problem in Korea after the emergence of media reports on children who committed suicide after being victimized by bullies. In this article, we review the characteristics of bullying, and investigate the role of the pediatrician in the prevention of and intervention against bullying and school violence. Bullying can take on many forms such as physical threat, verbal humiliation, malicious rumors, and social ostracism. The prevalence of bullying in various countries is approximately 10% to 20%. In Korea, the prevalence of school violence is similar but seems to be more intense because of the highly competitive environment. From our review of literature, we found that children who were bullied had a significantly higher risk of developing psychosomatic and psychosocial problems such as headache, abdominal pain, anxiety, and depression than those who were not bullied. Hence, it is important for health practitioners to detect these signs in a child who was bullied by questioning and examining the child, and to determine whether bullying plays a contributing role when a child exhibits such signs. Pediatricians can play an important role in the prevention of or intervention against school violence along with school authorities, parents, and community leaders. Moreover, guidelines to prevent school violence, such as the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, KiVa of the Finish Ministry of Education, and Connected Kids: Safe, Strong, Secure of the American Academy Pediatrics, should be implemented. PMID:23390438

  5. The role of the pediatrician in youth violence prevention

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nam Su

    2013-01-01

    School bullying has become a major social problem in Korea after the emergence of media reports on children who committed suicide after being victimized by bullies. In this article, we review the characteristics of bullying, and investigate the role of the pediatrician in the prevention of and intervention against bullying and school violence. Bullying can take on many forms such as physical threat, verbal humiliation, malicious rumors, and social ostracism. The prevalence of bullying in various countries is approximately 10% to 20%. In Korea, the prevalence of school violence is similar but seems to be more intense because of the highly competitive environment. From our review of literature, we found that children who were bullied had a significantly higher risk of developing psychosomatic and psychosocial problems such as headache, abdominal pain, anxiety, and depression than those who were not bullied. Hence, it is important for health practitioners to detect these signs in a child who was bullied by questioning and examining the child, and to determine whether bullying plays a contributing role when a child exhibits such signs. Pediatricians can play an important role in the prevention of or intervention against school violence along with school authorities, parents, and community leaders. Moreover, guidelines to prevent school violence, such as the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, KiVa of the Finish Ministry of Education, and Connected Kids: Safe, Strong, Secure of the American Academy Pediatrics, should be implemented. PMID:23390438

  6. Interpersonal youth violence perpetration and victimization in a diverse Asian American and Pacific Islander adolescent sample.

    PubMed

    Hishinuma, Earl S; Chang, Janice Y; Goebert, Deborah A; Helm, Susana; Else, Iwalani R N; Sugimoto-Matsuda, Jeanelle J

    2015-01-01

    This study was the first to examine ethnic, sex, and ethnicity-by-sex differences for under-researched, Asian American and Pacific Islander, adolescent groups on youth violence outcomes other than cyberbullying. This effort included the less researched, emotional violence, and included socioeconomic status (SES) measures as covariates. The sample size from 2 high schools in spring 2007 was 881, using an epidemiologic survey design. The pattern of results was higher rates of violence victimization for ethnic groups, with lower representation in the 2 schools' population, and ethnic groups that more recently moved or immigrated to Hawai'i. For emotional victimization, girls of European American and "other", ethnicities self-reported higher rates than boys. Several implications (e.g., need for ethnically and gender-based approaches) and further research (e.g., ethnocultural identity) are discussed.

  7. Prevalence of dating violence among sexual minority youth: variation across gender, sexual minority identity and gender of sexual partners.

    PubMed

    Martin-Storey, Alexa

    2015-01-01

    Dating violence during adolescence negatively influences concurrent psychosocial functioning, and has been linked with an increased likelihood of later intimate partner violence. Identifying who is most vulnerable for this negative outcome can inform the development of intervention practices addressing this problem. The two goals of this study were to assess variations in the prevalence of dating violence across different measures of sexual minority status (e.g., sexual minority identity or same-sex sexual behavior), and to assess whether this association was mediated by bullying, the number of sexual partners, binge drinking or aggressive behaviors. These goals were assessed by employing the Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey (N = 12,984), a regionally representative sample of youth ages 14-18. In this sample, a total of 540 girls and 323 boys reported a non-heterosexual identity, and 429 girls and 230 boys reported having had one or more same-sex sexual partners. The results generally supported a higher prevalence of dating violence among sexual minority youth. This vulnerability varied considerably across gender, sexual minority identity and the gender of sexual partners, but generally persisted when accounting for the mediating variables. The findings support investigating dating violence as a mechanism in the disparities between sexual minority and heterosexual youth, and the importance of addressing sexual minority youth specifically in interventions targeting dating violence.

  8. Changes in Attitudes toward Guns and Shootings following Implementation of the Baltimore Safe Streets Intervention.

    PubMed

    Milam, Adam J; Buggs, Shani A; Furr-Holden, C Debra M; Leaf, Philip J; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Webster, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    Among youth 15 to 24 years of age, homicide and nonfatal shootings are the leading causes of mortality and morbidity. Urban youth's attitudes and perceptions about the use of gun violence to resolve conflict present a major barrier to efforts to reduce gun homicides and nonfatal shootings. The current investigation extends the existing literature on attitudes toward guns and shootings among high-risk youth ages 18 to 24 by measuring perceived norms and viewpoints regarding gun violence in two analogous Baltimore City neighborhoods pre-implementation and 1-year post-implementation of the Safe Streets intervention (adapted from the CeaseFire/Cure Violence intervention). The Safe Streets intervention is designed for communities with high rates of gun violence and utilizes outreach workers to identify and build trusting relationships with youth ages 15 to 24 who are at greatest risk of being involved in gun violence. The outreach workers also position themselves in the community so that they can rapidly intervene in disputes that have the potential to lead to gun violence. Chi-squared tests and exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) were used to examine changes in attitudes toward gun violence 1 year after the implementation of the Safe Streets intervention. There was a statistically significantly improvement in 43 % of the attitudes assessed in the intervention community post-intervention compared to 13 % of the attitudes in the control community. There was a statistically significant improvement in the violent attitudes toward personal conflict resolution scale after implementation of the intervention in both the intervention (b = -0.522, p < 0.001) and control community (b = -0.204, p < 0.032). Exposure to the intervention (e.g., seeing stop shooting signs in your neighborhood) was also associated with the nonviolent attitudes toward conflict scale. Overall, the study found greater improvement in attitudes toward violence in the

  9. Mother abuse: a matter of youth justice, child welfare or domestic violence?

    PubMed

    Hunter, Caroline; Nixon, Judy; Parr, Sadie

    2010-01-01

    International evidence suggests that in advanced welfare states the abuse of parents, most particularly mothers, by their (most frequently male) adolescent children is increasingly prevalent. In the United Kingdom, however, child-to-mother abuse remains one of the most under-acknowledged and under-researched forms of family violence. Although it is an issue shrouded in silence, stigma, and shame, the authors' work in the youth justice sphere, focusing on interventions to deal with anti-social behaviour, suggests that adolescent violence toward mothers is a topical and prevalent issue. We identify different ways of conceptualizing it in the policy realms of youth justice, child welfare, and domestic violence. The behaviour of both child/young person and mother is constructed in ways which inform the assignment of blame and responsibility. The paper highlights the silence that surrounds the issue in both the policy and wider academic spheres, hiding the failure of service providers to respond to this very destructive form of intimate interpersonal violence.

  10. Epidemiology of mixed martial arts and youth violence in an ethnically diverse sample.

    PubMed

    Hishinuma, Earl S; Umemoto, Karen N; Nguyen, Toan Gia; Chang, Janice Y; Bautista, Randy Paul M

    2012-01-01

    Mixed martial arts' (MMAs) growing international popularity has rekindled the discussion on the advantages (e.g., exercise) and disadvantages (e.g., possible injury) of contact sports. This study was the first of its kind to examine the psychosocial aspects of MMA and youth violence using an epidemiologic approach with an Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) adolescent sample (N = 881). The results were consistent with the increased popularity of MMA with 52% (adolescent males = 73%, adolescent females = 39%) enjoying watching MMA and 24% (adolescent males = 39%, adolescent females = 13%) practicing professional fight moves with friends. Although statistically significant ethnic differences were found for the two MMA items on a bivariate level, these findings were not statistically significant when considering other variables in the model. The bivariate results revealed a cluster of risk-protective factors. Regarding the multiple regression findings, although enjoying watching MMA remained associated with positive attitudes toward violence and practicing fight moves remained associated with negative out-group orientation, the MMA items were not associated with unique variances of youth violence perpetration and victimization. Implications included the need for further research that includes other diverse samples, more comprehensive and objective MMA and violence measures, and observational and intervention longitudinal studies. PMID:22455184

  11. Epidemiology of mixed martial arts and youth violence in an ethnically diverse sample.

    PubMed

    Hishinuma, Earl S; Umemoto, Karen N; Nguyen, Toan Gia; Chang, Janice Y; Bautista, Randy Paul M

    2012-01-01

    Mixed martial arts' (MMAs) growing international popularity has rekindled the discussion on the advantages (e.g., exercise) and disadvantages (e.g., possible injury) of contact sports. This study was the first of its kind to examine the psychosocial aspects of MMA and youth violence using an epidemiologic approach with an Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) adolescent sample (N = 881). The results were consistent with the increased popularity of MMA with 52% (adolescent males = 73%, adolescent females = 39%) enjoying watching MMA and 24% (adolescent males = 39%, adolescent females = 13%) practicing professional fight moves with friends. Although statistically significant ethnic differences were found for the two MMA items on a bivariate level, these findings were not statistically significant when considering other variables in the model. The bivariate results revealed a cluster of risk-protective factors. Regarding the multiple regression findings, although enjoying watching MMA remained associated with positive attitudes toward violence and practicing fight moves remained associated with negative out-group orientation, the MMA items were not associated with unique variances of youth violence perpetration and victimization. Implications included the need for further research that includes other diverse samples, more comprehensive and objective MMA and violence measures, and observational and intervention longitudinal studies.

  12. Adolescent Violence: The Protective Effects of Youth Assets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspy, Cheryl B.; Oman, Roy F.; Vesely, Sara K.; McLeroy, Kenneth; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna

    2004-01-01

    The authors explored adolescent physical fighting and weapon carrying, using in-home interviews with 1,098 middle-high school students and their parents. Logistic regression analyses examined the relationship between youth assets and the risk behaviors while controlling for demographic information. Both demographic factors and assets were…

  13. Children, adolescents, and war: the systematic engagement of youth in collective violence.

    PubMed

    Warf, Curren; Eisenstein, Evelyn; Stahl, Christiane

    2009-12-01

    Increasingly health personnel are called on to address the needs of adolescents affected by armed conflict. Adolescents suffer as combatants, direct and indirect casualties, as dependents of combatants, and as citizens of countries whose resources are destroyed and/or consumed by war and other forms of organized violence. Survivors of war, ex-child soldiers, refugees, and others are found today in cities on all continents. This paper will review the epidemiology of armed conflict, especially with respect to children and youth, examine the etiology of youth involvement in armed conflict including social risk factors and developmental vulnerabilities, and review the peace-building efforts of the United Nations, communities, and youth themselves. Finally we will briefly review the efforts of those committed to the well-being of adolescents in the areas of advocacy and treatment.

  14. Race, youth violence, and the changing jurisprudence of waiver.

    PubMed

    Feld, B C

    2001-01-01

    This article analyzes the legal history and jurisprudential theory of legislative offense-exclusion and prosecutorial waiver laws over the past quarter-century. Initially concerns about racial discrimination and civil rights motivated the Supreme Court in Kent v. United States to require due process in judicial waiver hearings. Offense-exclusion and "direct file" laws evolved and expanded in direct reaction to Kent as lawmakers sought simple and expedient alternatives to judicial waiver hearings. The "just deserts" sentencing movement of the 1970s, which advocated determinate and presumptive offense-based sentences, provided a conceptual alternative to judicial discretion and a jurisprudential rationale for offense exclusion laws. Research on delinquent and criminal careers in the 1970s, which initially promised empirically grounded selective incapacitation sentencing strategies, provided another conceptual foundation for offense-based waiver laws that focused on youths' prior records. Finally, offense exclusion provided a politically attractive strategy for "get tough" public officials who proposed to "crack down" on "baby boom" increases in youth crime. The jurisprudential shift in sentencing emphases from considerations of the offender to characteristics of the offense relocated waiver and sentencing discretion from judges to prosecutors. By the early 1990s, as a result of political "crack-downs" on youth crime, the scope of excluded offense legislation increased substantially, became overly inclusive and excessively rigid, and exhibited many of the negative features associated with mandatory sentencing laws.

  15. Media Violence Research and Youth Violence Data: Why Do They Conflict?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Cheryl K.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Contrary to media headlines and public perceptions, there is little evidence of a substantial link between exposure to violent interactive games and serious real-life violence or crime. Conclusion: Further research is needed on whether violent games may affect less dramatic but real concerns such as bullying, fighting, or attitudes and…

  16. Youth Violence Prevention. Hearing before the Committee on Governmental Affairs. United States Senate, One Hundred Second Congress, Second Session (March 31, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs.

    This document presents witness testimonies and prepared statements from the Senate hearing on youth violence, strategies for its prevention, and the appropriate role of the federal government. The hearing stresses the need for a comprehensive, multidisciplinary approach for youth violence prevention strategies and more coordination by the federal…

  17. Where the guns come from: the gun industry and gun commerce.

    PubMed

    Wintemute, Garen J

    2002-01-01

    Under federal law, it is illegal for youth under age 18 to purchase rifles or shotguns, and for those under age 21 to purchase handguns. However, fatality and injury statistics clearly show that guns are finding their way into young people's hands. Many of these youth obtain guns through illegal gun markets. This article focuses on how guns in the United States are manufactured, marketed, and sold. The article shows how the legal and illegal gun markets are intimately connected and make guns easily accessible to youth. Although the domestic gun manufacturing industry is relatively small and has experienced declining sales in recent years, it has significant political clout and a large market for its products, and has engaged in aggressive marketing to youth. Lax oversight of licensed firearms dealers, combined with little or no regulation of private sales between gun owners, mean that guns can quickly moved from the legal gun market into the illegal market, where they can be acquired by young people. Certain guns, especially inexpensive, poorly made small handguns, are particularly attractive to criminals and youth. The author observes that several policy innovations--including increased regulation of licensed firearms dealers, intensified screening of prospective buyers, regulation of private sales, gun licensing and registration, and bans on some types of weapons--hold promise for decreasing the flow of guns into the hands of youth.

  18. African Indigenous Proverbs and the Question of Youth Violence: Making the Case for the Use of the Teachings of Igbo of Nigeria and Kiembu of Kenya Proverbs for Youth Character and Moral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dei, George Sefa

    2013-01-01

    The historic and contemporary global concern over youth violence and indiscipline/subordination in schools has educators, school administrators and policy makers working hard to ensure that schools are welcoming and safe spaces for learners. Social harmony can only be achieved by understanding and addressing the causes of youth violence and…

  19. Educational Performance and Attitudes toward School as Risk-Protective Factors for Violence: A Study of the Asian/Pacific Islander Youth Violence Prevention Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wegner, Eldon L.; Garcia-Santiago, Orlando; Nishimura, Stephanie T.; Hishinuma, Earl S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether school experiences, school performance, and other risk-protective factors were related to violence among Hawaiian, Filipino, and Samoan youths residing in Hawai'i. This study analyzed survey data (N = 325) collected in three high schools having concentrations of Filipino, Hawaiian, and Samoan…

  20. Mobilizing communities to implement evidence-based practices in youth violence prevention: the state of the art.

    PubMed

    Backer, Thomas E; Guerra, Nancy G

    2011-09-01

    Community mobilization can increase the effective implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs) in youth violence prevention. These strategies bring together people and organizations in a community to try to solve or reduce a problem. They help communities address the challenges of identifying EBPs, disseminating them to local decision-makers, and then implementing and sustaining them if they are successful. Science-based systems for implementing EBPs such as PROSPER and Communities That Care can help to integrate this complex work in communities. Further insight about implementing EBPs in youth violence prevention is being developed through the CDC-funded Academic Centers for Excellence in Youth Violence Prevention. Community mobilization approaches for seven of these programs are discussed, highlighting successful approaches and challenges encountered.

  1. Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe Forum, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Highlighting the issue of violence, this Forum issue contains 12 essays. Titles and authors are: "Passivity in the Face of Violence" (Henri Laborit); "Democratisation without Violence?" (Friedrich Hacker); "Ritualised Violence in Sport" (Christian Bromberger); "Violence in Prisons" (Luige Daga); "Racial Aggression" (Geoffrey Bindman); "Violence in…

  2. The Challenges of Gangs and Youth Violence in the Schools. Fourth CCBD Mini-Library Series: Addressing the Diverse Needs of Children and Youth with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders--Programs That Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Sharon H.; Van Acker, Richard

    Review of the current knowledge concerning youth violence and gang behavior considers risk factors for violence and gang formation, functions served by violence and gang membership, and strategies that have been empirically validated to be either beneficial or ineffective. Following an introductory chapter, the first chapter looks at the nature of…

  3. Exposure to Political Conflict and Violence and Post-Traumatic Stress in Middle East Youth: Protective Factors

    PubMed Central

    Dubow, Eric F.; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Boxer, Paul; Landau, Simha; Dvir, Shira; Shikaki, Khalil; Ginges, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Objective We examine the role of family- and individual-level protective factors in the relation between exposure to ethnic-political conflict and violence and post-traumatic stress among Israeli and Palestinian youth. Specifically, we examine whether parental mental health (lack of depression), positive parenting, children’s self-esteem, and academic achievement, moderate the relation between exposure to ethnic-political conflict/violence and subsequent post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. Method We collected three waves of data from 901 Israeli and 600 Palestinian youths (three age cohorts: 8, 11, and 14 years old; approximately half of each gender) and their parents at 1-year intervals. Results Greater cumulative exposure to ethnic-political conflict/violence across the first two waves of the study predicted higher subsequent PTS symptoms even when we controlled for the child’s initial level of PTS symptoms. This relation was significantly moderated by a youth’s self-esteem and by the positive parenting received by the youth. In particular, the longitudinal relation between exposure to violence and subsequent PTS symptoms was significant for low self-esteem youth and for youth receiving little positive parenting but was non-significant for children with high levels of these protective resources. Conclusions Our findings show that youth most vulnerable to PTS symptoms as a result of exposure to ethnic-political violence are those with lower levels of self-esteem and who experience low levels of positive parenting. Interventions for war-exposed youth should test whether boosting self-esteem and positive parenting might reduce subsequent levels of PTS symptoms. PMID:22594697

  4. Youth and Violence: The Current Crisis. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

    This document presents the text of a Congressional hearing, chaired by Representative George Miller, on the epidemic of gang warfare and violence among youth. Testimony is presented from these witnesses: (1) James Brown, juvenile court probation officer, Multnomah County Juvenile Justice Department, Portland, Oregon; (2) John A. Calhoun, executive…

  5. Youth in contexts of political violence: A developmental approach to the study of youth identity and emotional security in their communities

    PubMed Central

    Merrilees, Christine E.; Taylor, Laura K.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cummings, E. Mark

    2015-01-01

    Going beyond the association between youth exposure to political violence and psychopathology, the current paper examines within-person change in youth strength of identity with their ethno-political group and youth reports of the insecurity in their communities. Conceptually related but growing out of different paradigms, both group identity and emotional insecurity have been examined as key variables impacting youth responses to threats from other group members. The goal of the current study is to review previous studies examining these two key variables and to contribute new analyses, modeling within-person change in both variables and examining co-variation in their growth The current paper uses data from 823 Belfast adolescents over 4 years. The results suggest youth are changing linearly over age in both constructs and that there are ethno-political group differences in how youth are changing. The results also indicate that change in insecurity is related to strength of identity at age 18, and strength of identity and emotional insecurity are related at age 18. Implications and directions for future work in the area of youth and political violence are discussed. PMID:26633936

  6. Sexual Violence toward Children and Youth in War-Torn Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Malemo Kalisya, Luc; Lussy Justin, Paluku; Kimona, Christophe; Nyavandu, Kavira; Mukekulu Eugenie, Kamabu; Jonathan, Kasereka Muhindo Lusi; Claude, Kasereka Masumbuko; Hawkes, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background The epidemic of gender-based violence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has garnered popular media attention, but is incompletely described in the medical literature to date. In particular, the relative importance of militarized compared to civilian rape and the impact on vulnerable populations merits further study. We describe a retrospective case series of sexual abuse among children and youth in eastern DRC. Methods Medical records of patients treated for sexual assault at HEAL Africa Hospital, Goma, DRC between 2006 and 2008 were reviewed. Information extracted from the chart record was summarized using descriptive statistics, with comparative statistics to examine differences between pediatric (≤18 yrs) and adult patients. Findings 440 pediatric and 54 adult sexual abuse cases were identified. Children and youth were more often assaulted by someone known to the family (74% vs 30%, OR 6.7 [95%CI 3.6–12], p<0.001), and less frequently by military personnel (13% vs 48%, OR 0.14 [95%CI 0.075–0.26], p<0.001). Delayed presentation for medical care (>72 hours after the assault) was more common in pediatric patients (53% vs 33%, OR 2.2 [95%CI 1.2–4.0], p = 0.007). Physical signs of sexual abuse, including lesions of the posterior fourchette, hymeneal tears, and anal lesions, were more commonly observed in children and youth (84% vs 69%, OR 2.3 [95%CI 1.3–4.4], p = 0.006). Nine (2.9%) pediatrics patients were HIV-positive at presentation, compared to 5.3% of adults (p = 0.34). Interpretation World media attention has focused on violent rape as a weapon of war in the DRC. Our data highlight some neglected but important and distinct aspects of the ongoing epidemic of sexual violence: sexual abuse of children and youth. PMID:21267467

  7. Parental responses to youths' reports of teen dating violence: Recommendations from parents and youth.

    PubMed

    Black, Beverly; Preble, Kathleen

    2016-08-01

    Parental responses to teen dating violence (TDV) can influence children's behaviors. This qualitative study presents findings from focus groups analyzing parental responses to TDV. Thirty-one parents and 55 teens, recruited from local family service agencies located in southwestern part of the country, participated in separate focus groups that presented dating violence scenarios. Focus group results indicated that parents and teens both urge communication that included parents asking questions, educating the teen, sharing their personal experiences, and giving teens advice. Parental and teens' comments also focused on the importance of protecting teens, providing support for teens, refraining from overreacting and offering counseling services. Parents, more than teens, stressed the importance of educating teens; teens, more than parents, stressed the importance of parents supporting and providing comfort to teens while refraining from overreacting and yelling. Implications for programming with parents and future research are included.

  8. Prevalence and gender patterns of mental health problems in German youth with experience of violence: the KiGGS study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Research examining mental health in violence-affected youth in representative samples is rare. Using data from the nationally representative German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) this study reports on gender-specific prevalence rates and associations of a broad range of internalizing and externalizing mental health problems: emotional problems, conduct problems, ADHD, disordered eating, somatic pain and substance use in youth variously affected by violence. While internalizing is generally more common in girls and externalizing in boys, observations of prior non-normative studies suggest reverse associations once an individual is affected by violence. The occurrence of such “gender cross-over effects” is therefore examined in a representative sample. Methods The sample consisted of 6,813 adolescents aged 11 to 17 from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS): Applying multivariate logistic regression analyses, associations between each type of violence history and mental health indicator were determined for perpetrators, victims, and perpetrating victims of youth violence. Moderating effects of gender were examined by using product term interaction. Results Victim status was associated primarily with internalizing problems, while perpetrators were more prone to externalizing problems. Perpetrating victims stood out with respect to the number and strength of risk associations with all investigated mental health indicators. However, the risk profiles of all violence-affected youth included both internalizing and externalizing mental health problems. Gender cross-over effects were found for girls and boys: despite lower overall prevalence, girls affected by violence were at far higher risk for conduct problems and illicit drug use; by contrast, somatic pain, although generally lower in males, was positively associated with perpetrator status and perpetrating

  9. Successful public policy change in California: firearms and youth resources.

    PubMed

    Wallack, Lawrence; Winett, Liana; Lee, Amy

    2005-07-01

    The California Wellness Foundation's Violence Prevention Initiative (VPI) was a 70 million dollars, 10-year effort to reduce violence among California youth. The Policy and Public Education Program of the initiative advanced two broad policy goals: (1) limiting the availability of handguns to youth, (2) increasing the state's investment in youth resources. Roughly 110 communities passed more than 300 ordinances to limit gun availability or promote gun safety. In addition, California legislators passed 24 statewide gun laws. Funding for youth programs increased to more that 368 million dollars in 2002-03, from about 100 million dollars in 1996-97. Using a framework adapted from the social movements and political communications literature the importance of four key elements was apparent in the VPI: articulating clear policy goals, strategic issue framing, capitalizing on political opportunity, and effectively mobilizing resources. The impact of new gun policies, increased funding for youth programs, and a diverse network of policy professionals and issue advocates interested in social change to decrease violence remain to be fully understood. PMID:16022213

  10. "You Can Try, But You Won't Stop It. It'll Always Be There": Youth Perspectives on Violence and Prevention in Schools.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Vanita

    2016-02-01

    The role of schools in preventing violence among teenagers has been highlighted, as has the development of youth-led prevention initiatives. This article explores how young people's views on violence influence their perceptions of its preventability, drawing on focus group discussions with 14- to 16-year-olds from six schools across the north of England. Young people view violence as a highly individualized phenomenon, and gender norms play an important role in shaping young people's perceptions of the preventability of violence. The findings presented here suggest that school-based violence prevention must fundamentally address gender norms and expectations to challenge young people's acceptance and tolerance of violence.

  11. Violence and Drug Use in Rural Teens: National Prevalence Estimates from the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Andrew O.; Mink, Michael D.; Harun, Nusrat; Moore, Charity G.; Martin, Amy B.; Bennett, Kevin J.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare national estimates of drug use and exposure to violence between rural and urban teens. Methods: Twenty-eight dependent variables from the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey were used to compare violent activities, victimization, suicidal behavior, tobacco use, alcohol use, and illegal drug use…

  12. Keeping Colorado's Kids Safe. Special Report from the Summit on School Safety and the Prevention of Youth Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Bill; Salazar, Ken

    This report offers highlights of a special summit in Colorado during which policymakers and citizens discussed the many causes and possible solutions to youth violence. It opens with the statement that solutions start with family, community, faith, and a culture that reinforces the lessons of right and wrong. It advocates connecting every child…

  13. Assessing the Impact of Violence and War on Youth in Low-and Middle-Income Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Suzan; Shaheen, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Background: Research is needed to understand the effects of violence and armed conflict in low-and middle-income countries, though there are logistical and ethical concerns that should be taken prior to study design. Objective: This paper provides commentary on some of the challenges inherent in conducting research with youth affected by war in…

  14. Association between Early Marriage and Intimate Partner Violence in India: A Focus on Youth from Bihar and Rajasthan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speizer, Ilene S.; Pearson, Erin

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and early marriage is explored using the 2005-2006 India National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3). The NFHS-3 collected data from a representative sample of women and men in India with a large enough sample size to have a representative sample at the state level. The focus is on youth from…

  15. Impact of a Universal School-Based Violence Prevention Program on Violent Delinquency: Distinctive Benefits for Youth with Maltreatment Histories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crooks, Claire V.; Scott, Katreena; Ellis, Wendy; Wolfe, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Child maltreatment constitutes a strong risk factor for violent delinquency in adolescence, with cumulative experiences of maltreatment creating increasingly greater risk. Our previous work demonstrated that a universal school-based violence prevention program could provide a protective impact for youth at risk for violent delinquency…

  16. Gender Patterns in the Contribution of Different Types of Violence to Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms among South African Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminer, Debra; Hardy, Anneli; Heath, Katherine; Mosdell, Jill; Bawa, Umesh

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Identifying the comparative contributions of different forms of violence exposure to trauma sequelae can help to prioritize interventions for polyvictimized youth living in contexts of limited mental health resources. This study aimed to establish gender patterns in the independent and comparative contributions of five types of violence…

  17. "I live by shooting hill"-a qualitative exploration of conflict and violence among urban youth in New Haven, Connecticut.

    PubMed

    Shuval, Kerem; Massey, Zohar; Caughy, Margaret O; Cavanaugh, Brenda; Pillsbury, Charles A; Groce, Nora

    2012-02-01

    To elucidate urban youths' perceptions of conflict and violence we conducted a qualitative study among minority urban youths in New Haven, Connecticut. We utilized the ecological framework to explore the multilevel nature of the findings, and triangulated results with a parallel quantitative study. We found risk factors for violence at multiple levels including lack of interpersonal anger management skills (individual level); parents not physically present in the household (relationship level); residence in crime and gang-ridden neighborhoods (community level); and socioeconomic inequalities between neighborhoods, as reflected by participants' perception of the inadequacy of neighborhood resources to provide safety (societal level). Neighborhood resources were perceived as sparse, and police were not regarded as a protective factor (sometimes rather as racially discriminatory). Participants' statements pertaining to feelings of isolation, racism, and violence without strong parental, neighborhood, and school support may impede prosocial attitudes and behaviors throughout adolescence and young adulthood.

  18. Education policy implications from the Expert Panel on Electronic Media and Youth Violence.

    PubMed

    Worthen, Maria R

    2007-12-01

    The research from the Expert Panel on Electronic Media and Youth Violence makes a compelling case for why educators and education policymakers should care about the effects of media on youth behavior, and the growing phenomenon of Internet bullying and harassment. The ability of the U.S. education system to respond is limited not only by competing instructional priorities but also by the governance structure of the education system itself. The federal role is limited to a proportionally small amount of funding for states and schools, to raising public awareness, and to providing research and data. States can set priorities, make requirements, and direct funding. Districts and schools ultimately have the most control over prevention program selection and setting social and behavioral norms. Key implications of the panel's research for educators and education policymakers include: Internet bullying is correlated with school behavior problems; Internet bullying behavior may peak in middle school; Internet bullying shares common predictors with verbal and, to some extent, physical bullying; Media literacy programs may mitigate the negative effects of electronic media on youth. Specific recommendations based on these conclusions are discussed, and research priorities for the prevention and education fields are identified. PMID:18047948

  19. Upset among youth in response to questions about exposure to violence, sexual assault and family maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Finkelhor, David; Vanderminden, Jennifer; Turner, Heather; Hamby, Sherry; Shattuck, Anne

    2014-02-01

    To assess whether youth are upset by being asked questions about sensitive kinds of abuse, victimization, family maltreatment, and sexual victimization in the course of standard epidemiological surveys. A national sample of youth aged 10-17 were interviewed on the telephone by experienced interviewers as part of the National Survey of Children Exposed to Violence. At the end they were asked whether answering questions had upset them. Of the youth interviewed, 4.5% reported being at all upset and 0.8% reported being pretty or a lot upset. However, only a minority of those upset, .3% of the total sample, said they would not participate again had they known about the content. But even in this group, the regret about participation was mostly due to the length of the survey, not the types of questions being asked. Thus, asking about exposure to abuse and sensitive kinds of victimization in standard interview surveys is associated with low levels of respondent upset due to the nature of the questions. PMID:24004683

  20. Youth Violence: Developing Local and State Solutions. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Youth Violence of the Committee on the Judiciary. United States Senate, One Hundred Fourth Congress, Second Session on Focusing on Youth Violence and Developing Local and State Solutions (Memphis and Nashville, TN, February 15 and 16, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

    This hearing focused on youth violence and the importance of developing local and state solutions. Senator Fred Thompson made an introductory statement. This was followed by four panels on each of 2 days of testimony. Day one's first panel included involved students and business people from Memphis, TN. The second panel included two Tennessee…

  1. Health risk behaviors and dating violence victimization: An examination of associated risk behaviors among detained female youth

    PubMed Central

    King, Dione Moultrie; Hatcher, Schnavia Smith; Blakey, Joan Marie; Mbizo, Justice

    2016-01-01

    There are many health risk behaviors that may elevate the risk of adolescents engaging in teenage dating violence. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the health risk behaviors that are associated with a sample of female juvenile offenders to identify the extent to which those behaviors contribute to dating violence. The survey assessed respondents’ health risk behaviors prior to incarceration, their perceptions of quality of life, post-incarceration expectations, psychosocial factors and other social determinants. Results indicated youth exposure to dating violence, alcohol, drug and risky sexual behaviors in the year prior to incarceration. These findings demonstrate the need to address teen dating violence with at-risk adolescents in addition to risky behaviors. PMID:26408099

  2. Health-Risk Behaviors and Dating Violence Victimization: An Examination of the Associated Risk Behaviors Among Detained Female Youth.

    PubMed

    King, Dione Moultrie; Hatcher, Schnavia Smith; Blakey, Joan Marie; Mbizo, Justice

    2015-01-01

    There are many health-risk behaviors that may elevate the risk of adolescents engaging in teenage dating violence. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the health-risk behaviors that are associated with a sample of female juvenile offenders to identify the extent to which those behaviors contribute to dating violence. The survey assessed respondents' health-risk behaviors prior to incarceration, their perceptions of quality of life, post-incarceration expectations, psychosocial factors, and other social determinants. Results indicated youth exposure to dating violence, alcohol, drug, and risky sexual behaviors in the year prior to incarceration. These findings demonstrate the need to address teen dating violence with at-risk adolescents in addition to risky behaviors. PMID:26408099

  3. A qualitative evaluation of the 2005-2011 National Academic Centers of Excellence in Youth Violence Prevention Program.

    PubMed

    Holland, Kristin M; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M; Dela Cruz, Jason; Massetti, Greta M; Mahendra, Reshma

    2015-12-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Division of Violence Prevention (DVP) funded eight National Academic Centers of Excellence (ACEs) in Youth Violence Prevention from 2005 to 2010 and two Urban Partnership Academic Centers of Excellence (UPACEs) in Youth Violence Prevention from 2006 to 2011. The ACEs and UPACEs constitute DVP's 2005-2011 ACE Program. ACE Program goals include partnering with communities to promote youth violence (YV) prevention and fostering connections between research and community practice. This article describes a qualitative evaluation of the 2005-2011 ACE Program using an innovative approach for collecting and analyzing data from multiple large research centers via a web-based Information System (ACE-IS). The ACE-IS was established as an efficient mechanism to collect and document ACE research and programmatic activities. Performance indicators for the ACE Program were established in an ACE Program logic model. Data on performance indicators were collected through the ACE-IS biannually. Data assessed Centers' ability to develop, implement, and evaluate YV prevention activities. Performance indicator data demonstrate substantial progress on Centers' research in YV risk and protective factors, community partnerships, and other accomplishments. Findings provide important lessons learned, illustrate progress made by the Centers, and point to new directions for YV prevention research and programmatic efforts. PMID:26319174

  4. A qualitative evaluation of the 2005-2011 National Academic Centers of Excellence in Youth Violence Prevention Program.

    PubMed

    Holland, Kristin M; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M; Dela Cruz, Jason; Massetti, Greta M; Mahendra, Reshma

    2015-12-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Division of Violence Prevention (DVP) funded eight National Academic Centers of Excellence (ACEs) in Youth Violence Prevention from 2005 to 2010 and two Urban Partnership Academic Centers of Excellence (UPACEs) in Youth Violence Prevention from 2006 to 2011. The ACEs and UPACEs constitute DVP's 2005-2011 ACE Program. ACE Program goals include partnering with communities to promote youth violence (YV) prevention and fostering connections between research and community practice. This article describes a qualitative evaluation of the 2005-2011 ACE Program using an innovative approach for collecting and analyzing data from multiple large research centers via a web-based Information System (ACE-IS). The ACE-IS was established as an efficient mechanism to collect and document ACE research and programmatic activities. Performance indicators for the ACE Program were established in an ACE Program logic model. Data on performance indicators were collected through the ACE-IS biannually. Data assessed Centers' ability to develop, implement, and evaluate YV prevention activities. Performance indicator data demonstrate substantial progress on Centers' research in YV risk and protective factors, community partnerships, and other accomplishments. Findings provide important lessons learned, illustrate progress made by the Centers, and point to new directions for YV prevention research and programmatic efforts.

  5. Teen Violence

    MedlinePlus

    ... an offender, or a witness to the violence. Violent acts can include Bullying Fighting, including punching, kicking, ... of weapons such as guns or knives Some violent acts can cause more emotional harm than physical ...

  6. Modifiable determinants of youth violence in Australia and the United States: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Hemphill, Sheryl A; Smith, Rachel; Toumbourou, John W; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Catalano, Richard F; McMorris, Barbara J; Romaniuk, Helena

    2009-12-01

    Youth violence is a global problem. The major research into youth violence has been conducted in the United States (U.S.) and there has been little research to investigate whether the prevalence or predictors are similar in comparable Western countries like Australia. In the current paper, analyses are conducted using two waves of data collected as part of a cross-national longitudinal study of adolescent development in approximately 4000 students aged 12 to 16 years in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, U.S.. Students completed a self-report survey of problem behaviours including violent behaviour, as well as risk and protective factors across five domains (individual, family, peer, school, community).Compared to Washington State, rates of attacking or beating another over the past 12-months were lower in Victoria for females in the first survey and higher for Victorian males in the follow-up survey. Preliminary analyses did not show state-specific predictors of violent behaviour. Therefore, the final multivariate model included the combined Washington State and Victorian samples. In the multivariate model, protective factors were being female and student emotion control. Risk factors were prior violent behaviour, family conflict, association with violent peers, community disorganisation, community norms favourable to drug use, school suspensions, and arrests. A major implication of these findings is that the range of factors that influence violent behaviour in North America may also apply in Australia. Hence, the application of U.S. early intervention and prevention programs may be warranted, with some tailoring to the Australian context. PMID:20204170

  7. Religiosity profiles of American youth in relation to substance use, violence, and delinquency.

    PubMed

    Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Vaughn, Michael G; Hodge, David R; Perron, Brian E

    2012-12-01

    Relatively little is known in terms of the relationship between religiosity profiles and adolescents' involvement in substance use, violence, and delinquency. Using a diverse sample of 17,705 (49 % female) adolescents from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, latent profile analysis and multinomial regression are employed to examine the relationships between latent religiosity classes and substance use, violence, and delinquency. Results revealed a five class solution. Classes were identified as religiously disengaged (10.76 %), religiously infrequent (23.59 %), privately religious (6.55 %), religious regulars (40.85 %), and religiously devoted (18.25 %). Membership in the religiously devoted class was associated with the decreased likelihood of participation in a variety of substance use behaviors as well as decreases in the likelihood of fighting and theft. To a lesser extent, membership in the religious regulars class was also associated with the decreased likelihood of substance use and fighting. However, membership in the religiously infrequent and privately religious classes was only associated with the decreased likelihood of marijuana use. Findings suggest that private religiosity alone does not serve to buffer youth effectively against involvement in problem behavior, but rather that it is the combination of intrinsic and extrinsic adolescent religiosity factors that is associated with participation in fewer problem behaviors.

  8. Strengthening healthy resistance and courage in children: a gender-based strategy for preventing youth violence.

    PubMed

    Gilligan, Carol

    2004-12-01

    Beginning with the distinction between core consciousness or a core sense of self and a self that is wedded to a story about itself, this paper suggests that we have collectively been wedded to a false story about ourselves, a story that the core self resists. The gender disparity with respect to times in development when children's resilience is at heightened risk highlights the costs of an initiation that occurs for boys in early childhood and for girls at adolescence. Because of this difference in the timing, girls can become informants about a process of psychic splitting and dissociation that impedes the relational capacities of children and opens the way to violence. The articulateness of girls' resistance to losses that are psychologically and socially consequential illuminates a resistance in boys that may otherwise be overlooked. Evidence drawn from studies of girls' development leads to the suggestion that by joining a healthy resistance in children, we can act to prevent youth violence. The paper ends with a case study of a suicidal adolescent girl to illustrate how a relational framework shifts the interpretation of violent behavior and informs a strategy of response.

  9. Effectiveness of school-based violence prevention for children and youth: a research report.

    PubMed

    Santos, Robert G; Chartier, Mariette J; Whalen, Jeanne C; Chateau, Dan; Boyd, Leanne

    2011-01-01

    Aggression, bullying and violence in children and youth are prevalent in Canada (18%) and internationally. The authors evaluated the effectiveness of Roots of Empathy (ROE), a school-based mental health promotion and violence prevention program for children that has been widely implemented but rarely evaluated. Eight school divisions were randomly assigned to either a treatment group that received ROE in 2002-2003 (445 students) or a wait-list control group (315 students). These were compared on three child mental health outcomes (physical aggression, indirect aggression and pro-social behaviour), rated by teachers and students (self-rated). The three wait-list school divisions received ROE in 2003-2004 (new cohort of 265 students) and were compared with the control group from 2002-2003 on the three outcomes, for replication purposes. For both comparisons, the authors report multi-level modelling analyses regarding (1) immediate effects after ROE completion at the end of the school year (pretest to post-test) and (2) long-term ROE effects up to three years after post-test. ROE had replicated, beneficial effects on all teacher-rated outcomes, which were generally maintained or further improved across follow-up. However, ROE had almost no statistically significant or replicated effects on student-rated outcomes. This is the first evaluation to suggest that ROE appears effective when implemented on a large scale under real-world delivery conditions. PMID:24956430

  10. Technology-Delivered Dating Aggression: Risk and Promotive Factors and Patterns of Associations Across Violence Types Among High-Risk Youth

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Jessica S.; Walton, Maureen A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Chermack, Stephen T.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Increasingly, technology (text, e-mail, and social media) is being used in dating relationships to stalk, control, threaten, and harass dating partners. This study examines risk and promotive factors associated with technology-delivered dating aggression (TDA) and relations between types of violence (physical dating/nondating, community violence, and TDA). Participants (14–20 years old) self-administered a computerized survey as part of a larger study at an urban emergency department. The study includes 210 youth who reported having a dating partner in the past 2 months. About 48.1% of participants reported TDA in the past 2 months. Mindfulness was negatively associated with TDA. Youth reporting TDA were more likely to report physical dating violence and community violence exposure. TDA is not an isolated occurrence and is positively associated with in-person violence among adolescents. Associations between TDA, risk and promotive factors, and other forms of violence can help identify avenues for targeting interventions.

  11. Group Violence and Migration Experience among Latin American Youths in Justice Enforcement Centers (Madrid, Spain).

    PubMed

    Martínez García, José Manuel; Martín López, María Jesús

    2015-10-30

    Group violence among Latin American immigrant youth has led to ongoing debates in political, legal, and media circles, yet none of those many perspectives has arrived at a solid, empirically supported definition for the phenomenon. This study aims to explore the relationship between the immigrant experience and violent group behavior in youths from Latin America serving prison sentences in Justice Enforcement Centers in the Community of Madrid. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 19 juveniles, and content analysis was applied to the resulting transcripts, employing Grounded Theory to create an axial codification of intra- and inter-categorical contents, and Delphi panels for quality control. The research team delved into 62 topics, addressing participants' perceptions of the immigrant experience and its effects on five socialization settings (neighborhood, school, family, peer group, and significant other), and each one's relationship to violent behavior. The results led us to believe the young people's immigration experiences had been systematically examined. Their personal and social development was influenced by negative socioeconomic conditions, ineffective parental supervision, maladjustment and conflict at school, and experiences of marginalization and xenophobia. All those conditions favored affiliation with violent groups that provided them instrumental (economic and material), expressive, or affective support.

  12. Group Violence and Migration Experience among Latin American Youths in Justice Enforcement Centers (Madrid, Spain).

    PubMed

    Martínez García, José Manuel; Martín López, María Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Group violence among Latin American immigrant youth has led to ongoing debates in political, legal, and media circles, yet none of those many perspectives has arrived at a solid, empirically supported definition for the phenomenon. This study aims to explore the relationship between the immigrant experience and violent group behavior in youths from Latin America serving prison sentences in Justice Enforcement Centers in the Community of Madrid. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 19 juveniles, and content analysis was applied to the resulting transcripts, employing Grounded Theory to create an axial codification of intra- and inter-categorical contents, and Delphi panels for quality control. The research team delved into 62 topics, addressing participants' perceptions of the immigrant experience and its effects on five socialization settings (neighborhood, school, family, peer group, and significant other), and each one's relationship to violent behavior. The results led us to believe the young people's immigration experiences had been systematically examined. Their personal and social development was influenced by negative socioeconomic conditions, ineffective parental supervision, maladjustment and conflict at school, and experiences of marginalization and xenophobia. All those conditions favored affiliation with violent groups that provided them instrumental (economic and material), expressive, or affective support. PMID:26514376

  13. The impact of neighborhood disorganization on neighborhood exposure to violence, trauma symptoms, and social relationships among at-risk youth.

    PubMed

    Butcher, Fredrick; Galanek, Joseph D; Kretschmar, Jeff M; Flannery, Daniel J

    2015-12-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that exposure to violence (ETV) is a serious concern across the north-south socioeconomic divide. While studies have found that social support is a protective factor for youth exposed to violence and trauma, little is known about the impact of trauma symptoms on forming and maintaining social relationships which are key to accessing a vital social resource that fosters resilience in youth experiencing trauma symptomatology. Building on previous models that examine the impact of neighborhoods on exposure to violence and trauma, the current study examines the impact of neighborhood disorganization on ETV among youth and ETV's effects on trauma symptoms and social relationships. Data were collected on 2242 juvenile justice-involved youth with behavioral health issues in 11 urban and rural counties in the Midwestern United States. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), our data demonstrated that living in highly disorganized neighborhoods was associated with higher levels of ETV and that ETV was positively associated with trauma symptoms. Mediational analysis showed that trauma symptoms strongly mediated the effect of ETV on social relationships. Freely estimating structural paths by gender revealed that hypothesized associations between these variables were stronger for females than males. Findings here highlight the need to provide trauma-informed care to help youth to build and maintain social relationships. Identification and treatment of trauma symptoms that is culturally informed is a critical first step in ensuring that identified protective factors in local contexts, such as social relations and social support, have opportunities to minimize the impact of ETV among youth across northern and southern nations. PMID:26477854

  14. The impact of neighborhood disorganization on neighborhood exposure to violence, trauma symptoms, and social relationships among at-risk youth.

    PubMed

    Butcher, Fredrick; Galanek, Joseph D; Kretschmar, Jeff M; Flannery, Daniel J

    2015-12-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that exposure to violence (ETV) is a serious concern across the north-south socioeconomic divide. While studies have found that social support is a protective factor for youth exposed to violence and trauma, little is known about the impact of trauma symptoms on forming and maintaining social relationships which are key to accessing a vital social resource that fosters resilience in youth experiencing trauma symptomatology. Building on previous models that examine the impact of neighborhoods on exposure to violence and trauma, the current study examines the impact of neighborhood disorganization on ETV among youth and ETV's effects on trauma symptoms and social relationships. Data were collected on 2242 juvenile justice-involved youth with behavioral health issues in 11 urban and rural counties in the Midwestern United States. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), our data demonstrated that living in highly disorganized neighborhoods was associated with higher levels of ETV and that ETV was positively associated with trauma symptoms. Mediational analysis showed that trauma symptoms strongly mediated the effect of ETV on social relationships. Freely estimating structural paths by gender revealed that hypothesized associations between these variables were stronger for females than males. Findings here highlight the need to provide trauma-informed care to help youth to build and maintain social relationships. Identification and treatment of trauma symptoms that is culturally informed is a critical first step in ensuring that identified protective factors in local contexts, such as social relations and social support, have opportunities to minimize the impact of ETV among youth across northern and southern nations.

  15. Correlates of gun-carrying among adolescents in south Louisiana.

    PubMed

    McNabb, S J; Farley, T A; Powell, K E; Rolka, H R; Horan, J M

    1996-01-01

    In the majority of episodes of fatal interpersonal violence, the weapon used is a firearm. Amid frequent reports of youths carrying weapons, including firearms, we conducted a case-control study to identify risk factors for being charged with gun-carrying and gun-carrying, per se, among adolescents in Jefferson Parish, Louisiana. Cases were defined as incidents of gun-carrying among adolescents < 19 years of age, legally charged in the Jefferson Parish, Louisiana, juvenile court from January 1, 1992, through April 15, 1993. For each case, we randomly drew three age-, gender-, and school-matched control subjects from the enrollment rosters of the Jefferson Parish public schools and administered a questionnaire. The data set comprised 38 case subjects and 103 matched control subjects. Thirty (29%) control subjects reported gun-carrying. Both case subjects and gun-carrying control subjects reported self-defense (40%) as the main reason for gun-carrying. Most case subjects (25 [66%]) were African Americans, but only 8 (27%) gun-carrying and 27 (37%) non-gun-carrying control subjects were African Americans. Case subjects were significantly more likely than gun-carrying control subjects to report being African American (odds ratio [OR] = 5.3, 95% confidence intervals [CI] = 1.6, 17.5). In crude analyses, case subjects were more likely than non-gun-carrying control subjects to report adult-male unemployment among households with adult men, to foresee a likelihood to be shot in school, to have seen a shooting, to use marijuana, to watch television > 6 hours per day, and to be African American. After the effect estimates were adjusted in conditional logistic regression modeling, case subjects were more likely than non-gun-carrying control subjects to report adult-male unemployment among households with adult men, using marijuana, and watching television > 6 hours per day (OR = 8.6, 95% CI = 1.2, 61,2; OR = 11.7, 95% CI = 2, 70.2; and OR = 6.5, 95% CI = 0.8, 51

  16. Preventing Gun Violence Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Israel, Steve [D-NY-3

    2016-09-15

    09/27/2016 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. Preventing Gun Violence Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Israel, Steve [D-NY-3

    2014-04-04

    04/16/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. Estimating the Effects of September 11th and Other Forms of Violence on the Mental Health and Social Development of New York City's Youth: A Matter of Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aber, J. Lawrence; Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Ware, Angelica; Kotler, Jennifer A.

    2004-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines the effects of exposure to the terrorist attack of September 11th as well as exposure to other forms of community violence on change in the mental health and social attitudes of youths in New York City. Three quarters of the youths reported some form of direct exposure to the events of September 11th, and 80%…

  19. The Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth as a Predictor of Recidivism in a United Kingdom Ccohort of Adolescent Offenders with Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, Mairead C.; Rennie, Charlotte E.

    2008-01-01

    This prospective study examined the predictive validity of the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY) and the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV) in 99 male adolescents who were assessed in custody and followed up 12 months post release. Outcome data on recidivism were based on official Home Office records. The base…

  20. Youth Empowerment Solutions for Peaceful Communities: combining theory and practice in a community-level violence prevention curriculum.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Marc A; Stewart, Sarah E; Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Franzen, Susan; Reischl, Thomas M

    2011-05-01

    This article describes the development and evaluation of an after-school curriculum designed to prepare adolescents to prevent violence through community change. This curriculum, part of the Youth Empowerment Solutions for Peaceful Communities (YES) program, is guided by empowerment and ecological theories within a positive youth development context. YES is designed to enhance the capacity of adolescents and adults to work together to plan and implement community change projects. The youth curriculum is organized around six themed units: (a) Youth as Leaders, (b) Learning about Our Community, (c) Improving Our Community, (d) Building Intergenerational Partnerships, (e) Planning for Change, and (f) Action and Reflection. The curriculum was developed through an iterative process. Initially, program staff members documented their activities with youth. These outlines were formalized as curriculum sessions. Each session was reviewed by the program and research staff and revised based on underlying theory and practical application. The curriculum process evaluation includes staff and youth feedback. This theoretically based, field-tested curriculum is designed to be easily adapted and implemented in a diverse range of communities.

  1. Preventing Youth Violence in Urban Schools: An Essay Collection. Urban Diversity Series No. 107.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Wendy, Ed.

    The three essays of this collection explore the prevention of violence in urban schools. The first, "Preventing Violence in Schools," by Mary Hatwood Futrell and Lee Etta Powell, focuses on how to prevent violence in schools and offers recommendations on what schools and communities can do. The factors contributing to school violence are numerous,…

  2. Gun Concerns Personal for Duncan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2013-01-01

    As U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan works with other Obama administration officials on policy responses to the shootings at a Connecticut elementary school, he brings a personal and professional history that has acquainted him with the impact of gun violence. As schools chief in Chicago from 2001 to 2008, he was affected by the gun deaths…

  3. The rates and characteristics of the exposure of Palestinian youth to community violence.

    PubMed

    Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M; Leshem, Becky; Guterman, Neil B

    2013-07-01

    The article presents the results of a study that explored the rates and characteristics of exposure to community violence (CV) and its relevance to several sociodemographic factors among a sample of 1,930 Palestinian youth (1,018 girls and 912 boys), aged 12 to 19 years residing in diverse residential areas in the West Bank and East Jerusalem. Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire. The frequency of boys' exposure to CV during the previous 12 months was significantly higher than among girls. The frequency of witnessing CV during that period was higher than the frequency of personally experiencing CV, and exposure to mild CV incidents during that period was higher than the frequency of exposure to severe CV incidents during the same period, with no significant relationship to sociodemographic factors. Participants reported higher rates of witnessing most CV incidents outside of the neighborhood. Nonetheless, they reported higher rates of experiencing most incidents of CV inside the participants' neighborhood. The implications of the results for theory development and future research are discussed.

  4. Lethal firearm-related violence against Canadian women: did tightening gun laws have an impact on women's health and safety?

    PubMed

    McPhedran, Samara; Mauser, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Domestic violence remains a significant public health issue around the world, and policy makers continually strive to implement effective legislative frameworks to reduce lethal violence against women. This article examines whether the 1995 Firearms Act (Bill C-68) had a significant impact on female firearm homicide victimization rates in Canada. Time series of gender-disaggregated data from 1974 to 2009 were examined. Two different analytic approaches were used: the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) modelling and the Zivot-Andrews (ZA) structural breakpoint tests. There was little evidence to suggest that increased firearms legislation in Canada had a significant impact on preexisting trends in lethal firearm violence against women. These results do not support the view that increasing firearms legislation is associated with a reduced incidence of firearm-related female domestic homicide victimization. PMID:24364129

  5. Lethal firearm-related violence against Canadian women: did tightening gun laws have an impact on women's health and safety?

    PubMed

    McPhedran, Samara; Mauser, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Domestic violence remains a significant public health issue around the world, and policy makers continually strive to implement effective legislative frameworks to reduce lethal violence against women. This article examines whether the 1995 Firearms Act (Bill C-68) had a significant impact on female firearm homicide victimization rates in Canada. Time series of gender-disaggregated data from 1974 to 2009 were examined. Two different analytic approaches were used: the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) modelling and the Zivot-Andrews (ZA) structural breakpoint tests. There was little evidence to suggest that increased firearms legislation in Canada had a significant impact on preexisting trends in lethal firearm violence against women. These results do not support the view that increasing firearms legislation is associated with a reduced incidence of firearm-related female domestic homicide victimization.

  6. Pathways from childhood maltreatment to emerging adulthood: investigating trauma-mediated substance use and dating violence outcomes among child protective services-involved youth.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, Breanne; Goldstein, Abby L; Wekerle, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal survey data were used to examine the relationship between two types of childhood maltreatment, abuse/neglect and exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV), and two outcomes, substance use and dating violence, within the past year. Participants were youth (N = 158, aged 16-19 at Time 3) involved with child protective services (CPS). A parallel multiple mediator model was used to test the hypothesis that trauma symptoms would mediate the relationship between both types of maltreatment and dating violence, marijuana, and alcohol use outcomes. Although both types of maltreatment were not directly associated with dating violence and substance use outcomes, the indirect effects of anxiety, anger, and dissociation on the relationship between maltreatment and substance use/dating violence were significant. Direct effects of both types of maltreatment on past year use of dating violence + alcohol use and dating violence + marijuana use were not significant, but results demonstrated a significant indirect effect for anger on the relationship between exposure to IPV and past year dating violence + marijuana use. No other indirect effects were significant. Findings highlight the negative effects of exposure to IPV and have implications for the development of prevention programming for youth transitioning out of CPS.

  7. Gun control saves lives.

    PubMed

    Matzopoulos, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Reducing firearm mortality by means of stricter gun control is one of the most important short- to medium-term measures to address the burden of violence in South Africa, while longer-term interventions and policy measures take effect. PMID:27245735

  8. Dating Violence among Urban, Minority, Middle School Youth and Associated Sexual Risk Behaviors and Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lormand, Donna K.; Markham, Christine M.; Peskin, Melissa F.; Byrd, Theresa L.; Addy, Robert C.; Baumler, Elizabeth; Tortolero, Susan R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Whereas dating violence among high school students has been linked with sexual risk-taking and substance use, this association has been understudied among early adolescents. We estimated the prevalence of physical and nonphysical dating violence in a sample of middle school students and examined associations between dating violence,…

  9. What Works in Youth Violence Prevention: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Abigail A.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Given the high rates at which adolescents engage in violence, the strong link between adolescent and adult violence, and the financial and social costs of violence, the prevention of violent behavior is a national priority. Methods: The authors conducted a comprehensive review of evaluations utilizing quasi-experimental or experimental…

  10. Dealing with Youth Violence. What Schools and Communities Need To Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duhon-Sells, Rose, Ed.

    This publication addresses many of the complexities of violence, and provides information to prepare educators and parents to combat violence in schools and communities. The chapters are: (1) "How Educators, Students, Parents, and Law Enforcement Officials See School Violence" (Rose M. Duhon-Sells and Halloway C. Sells); (2) "Addressing School…

  11. Depressive Symptoms, Social Support, and Violence Exposure among Urban Youth: A Longitudinal Study of Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisman, Andria B.; Stoddard, Sarah A.; Heinze, Justin; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    Depression is a serious mental health concern among adolescents. Violence exposure is a potent risk factor for depression. Social support may help reduce depression risk, even when adolescents are exposed to violence. Using a compensatory model of resilience, we investigate the influence of violence exposure and social support on depression over…

  12. Resilience in young people living with violence and self-harm: evidence from a Norwegian national youth survey.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lihong; Mossige, Svein

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to explore the relationship between resilience and the psychological problems of young people who reported being victims of violence and who engaged in self-harm. We used data from a national survey conducted in 2007 asking young people in Norway (N=6,034; ages 18-19 years) about their experiences with violence during their childhood and during the past 12 months, and also about their mental health and experiences of self-harm. Our analyses revealed that resilience, as measured by the Resilience Scale for Adolescents, correlates significantly and negatively with psychological problems among all young people, and that this correlation is substantially stronger for those youths who reported violent experiences and those who engaged in self-harm.

  13. Gun Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mechling, Jay

    2008-01-01

    Biology and the particular gun culture of the United States come together to explain the persistent and powerful attraction of American boys to both real guns and toy guns. The 1990s saw adults begin to conflate "the gun problem" with "the boy problem," sparking attempts (largely failed) to banish toy guns from homes and…

  14. Separating Batterers and Guns: A Review and Analysis of Gun Removal Laws in 50 States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frattaroli, Shannon; Vernick, Jon S.

    2006-01-01

    Firearms play an important role in lethal domestic violence incidents. The authors review state laws regarding two policies to separate batterers from firearms: laws authorizing police to remove firearms when responding to a domestic violence complaint ("police gun removal laws") and laws authorizing courts to order guns removed from batterers…

  15. Coping resources and extra-curricular activity as explanatory factors of exposure to violence: comparing Jewish and Arab youth in Israel.

    PubMed

    Braun-Lewensohn, Orna; Alziadana, Sliman; Eisha, Hagit

    2015-06-01

    Violent behavior is a well-known social phenomenon among youth around the world including Israel. Adolescence is a crucial developmental period in which youth experience various developmental tasks while being exposed to many risks. Previous studies have shown that community involvement could be an asset for reduced violence among youth. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the level of participation in extra-curricular activities as well as individual and community coherence and exposure to or victimization by violence among Jewish and Arab youth living in southern Israel. The links between these variable were explored as well. Six-hundred-and-twenty-two adolescents (265-Jews; 357-Arabs) completed self-reported questionnaires which investigated demographics, sense of coherence, sense of community coherence, participation in extra-curricular activities, and exposure to violence. Results show that Jewish adolescents report a significantly stronger sense of coherence and sense of community coherence, they participate more in extra-curricular activities and they are more exposed to and victimized by violence. Moreover, while sense of coherence is reported to be an asset in both groups, participating in extra-curricular activities is an asset only for the Arab youth. Results will be discussed with regard to the salutogenic theoretical foundation as well as the different cultural backgrounds of the groups.

  16. A public health approach to address the mental health burden of youth in situations of political violence and humanitarian emergencies.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Joop T V M; Berckmoes, Lidewyde H; Kohrt, Brandon A; Song, Suzan J; Tol, Wietse A; Reis, Ria

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes how socio-ecological theory and a syndemic health systems and public health approach may help address the plight of youth in situations of political violence and humanitarian emergencies. We describe the treatment gap caused by discrepancies in epidemiological prevalence rates, individual and family needs, and available human and material resources. We propose four strategies to develop a participatory public health approach for these youth, based on principles of equity, feasibility, and a balance between prevention and treatment. The first strategy uses ecological and transgenerational resilience as a theoretical framework to facilitate a systems approach to the plight of youth and families. This theoretical base helps to engage health care professionals in a multisectoral analysis and a collaborative public health strategy. The second strategy is to translate pre-program assessment into mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) priorities. Defining priorities helps to develop programs and policies that align with preventive and curative interventions in multiple tiers of the public health system. The third is a realistic budgetary framework as a condition for the development of sustainable institutional capacity including a monitoring system. The fourth strategy is to direct research to address the knowledge gap about effective practices for youth mental health in humanitarian settings. PMID:26021862

  17. A public health approach to address the mental health burden of youth in situations of political violence and humanitarian emergencies.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Joop T V M; Berckmoes, Lidewyde H; Kohrt, Brandon A; Song, Suzan J; Tol, Wietse A; Reis, Ria

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes how socio-ecological theory and a syndemic health systems and public health approach may help address the plight of youth in situations of political violence and humanitarian emergencies. We describe the treatment gap caused by discrepancies in epidemiological prevalence rates, individual and family needs, and available human and material resources. We propose four strategies to develop a participatory public health approach for these youth, based on principles of equity, feasibility, and a balance between prevention and treatment. The first strategy uses ecological and transgenerational resilience as a theoretical framework to facilitate a systems approach to the plight of youth and families. This theoretical base helps to engage health care professionals in a multisectoral analysis and a collaborative public health strategy. The second strategy is to translate pre-program assessment into mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) priorities. Defining priorities helps to develop programs and policies that align with preventive and curative interventions in multiple tiers of the public health system. The third is a realistic budgetary framework as a condition for the development of sustainable institutional capacity including a monitoring system. The fourth strategy is to direct research to address the knowledge gap about effective practices for youth mental health in humanitarian settings.

  18. Gun carrying by high school students in Boston, MA: does overestimation of peer gun carrying matter?

    PubMed

    Hemenway, David; Vriniotis, Mary; Johnson, Renee M; Miller, Matthew; Azrael, Deborah

    2011-10-01

    This paper investigates: (1) whether high school students overestimate gun carrying by their peers, and (2) whether those students who overestimate peer gun carrying are more likely to carry firearms. Data come from a randomly sampled survey conducted in 2008 of over 1,700 high school students in Boston, MA. Over 5% of students reported carrying a gun, 9% of boys and 2% of girls. Students substantially overestimated the percentage of their peers who carried guns; the likelihood that a respondent carried a gun was strongly associated with their perception of the level of peer gun carrying. Most respondents believed it was easier for other youth to obtain guns than it was for them. Social marketing campaigns designed to lower young people's perceptions about the prevalence of peer gun carrying may be a promising strategy for reducing actual gun carrying among youth.

  19. Firearms, youth homicide, and public health.

    PubMed

    Levine, Robert S; Goldzweig, Irwin; Kilbourne, Barbara; Juarez, Paul

    2012-02-01

    Homicide is seven times as common among U.S. non-Hispanic Black as among non-Hispanic White youth ages 15 to 24 years. In 83% of these youth homicides, the murder weapon is a firearm. Yet, for more than a decade, the national public health position on youth violence has been largely silent about the role of firearms, and tools used by public health professionals to reduce harm from other potential hazards have been unusable where guns are concerned. This deprives already underserved populations from the full benefits public health agencies might be able to deliver. In part, political prohibitions against research about direct measures of firearm control and the absence of valid public health surveillance are responsible. More refined epidemiologic theories as well as traditional public health methods are needed if the U.S. aims to reduce disparate Black-White youth homicide rates.

  20. Removing guns from batterers: findings from a pilot survey of domestic violence restraining order recipients in California.

    PubMed

    Vittes, Katherine A; Webster, Daniel W; Frattaroli, Shannon; Claire, Barbara E; Wintemute, Garen J

    2013-05-01

    Persons under certain domestic violence restraining orders in California are required to surrender any firearms in their possession within 24 hours of service. The California Department of Justice funded a pilot program in which Sheriff's Offices in two counties developed a system for better enforcing the firearm surrender requirement. As part of a larger process evaluation, 17 restraining order recipients were interviewed about their experiences with and feelings about the removal of firearms from their abusers. Most women surveyed wanted firearms removed and felt safer as a result of their removal. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  1. Gene by Social-Environment Interaction for Youth Delinquency and Violence: Thirty-Nine Aggression-related Genes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hexuan; Li, Yi; Guo, Guang

    2014-01-01

    Complex human traits are likely to be affected by many environmental and genetic factors, and the interactions among them. However, previous gene-environment interaction (G×E) studies have typically focused on one or only a few genetic variants at a time. To provide a broader view of G×E, this study examines the relationship between 403 genetic variants from 39 genes and youth delinquency and violence. We find evidence that low social control is associated with greater genetic risk for delinquency and violence and high/moderate social control with smaller genetic risk for delinquency and violence. Our findings are consistent with prior G×E studies based on a small number of genetic variants, and, more importantly, we show that these findings still hold when a large number of genetic variants are considered simultaneously. A key implication of these findings is that the expression of multiple genes related to delinquency depends on the social environment: gene expression is likely to be amplified in low-social-control environments but, tends to be suppressed in high/moderate-social-control environments. This study not only deepens our understanding of how the social environment shapes individual behavior, but also provides important conceptual and methodological insights for future G×E research on complex human traits. PMID:25755300

  2. Classifying At-Risk High School Youth: The Influence of Exposure to Community Violence and Protective Factors on Academic and Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solberg, V. Scott H.; Carlstom, Aaron H.; Howard, Kimberly A. S.; Jones, Janice E.

    2007-01-01

    Using cluster analysis, 789 predominately Latino and African American high school youth were classified into varying academic at-risk profiles using self-reported levels of academic confidence, motivation to attend school, perceived family support, connections with teachers and peers, and exposure to violence. Six clusters emerged, 5 of which were…

  3. Psychological Problems, Protective Factors and Health-Related Quality of Life in Youth Affected by Violence: The Burden of the Multiply Victimised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlack, Robert; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Petermann, Franz

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates self-rated mental health in terms of psychological problems, protective factors and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a nationally representative sample of adolescents (n = 6813) aged 11-17 involved in violence with varying frequency. Using MANCOVA and ANCOVA, youth with single and multiple histories of violent…

  4. A Guide to Community Programs To Prevent Youth Violence. For Parents/about Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Wendy

    Although learning the value of being nonviolent at home is very important, school and community programs are also valuable, because participants can work together to prevent violence in their neighborhoods and can help each other avoid violence. Education programs can include conflict resolution and mediation training as school courses. Crime…

  5. Risk Factors for Severe Inter-Sibling Violence: A Preliminary Study of a Youth Forensic Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Roxanne; Cooke, David J.

    2008-01-01

    The perpetration of severe inter-sibling violence (SISV) remains a largely unexplored area of family violence. This article describes an investigation of risk factors for intentional SISV perpetration. A sample of 111 young people under the care of the Scottish criminal justice or welfare systems was studied. A SISV perpetration interview schedule…

  6. Refining the Measurement of Exposure to Violence (ETV) in Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Robert T.; Molnar, Beth E.; Earls, Felton

    2007-01-01

    Correlational analysis, classical test theory, confirmatory factor analysis, and multilevel Rasch modeling were used to refine a measure of adolescents' exposure to violence (ETV). Interpersonal violence could be distinguished from other potentially traumatic events; it was also possible to distinguish three routes of exposure (victimization,…

  7. The association between youth violence exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in a sample of fifth-graders.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Terri; Schwebel, David C; Elliott, Marc N; Visser, Susanna N; Toomey, Sara L; McLaughlin, Katie A; Cuccaro, Paula; Tortolero Emery, Susan; Banspach, Stephen W; Schuster, Mark A

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the association between violence exposures (no exposure, witness or victim only, and both witness and victim) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, as well as the potential moderating role of gender. Data from 4,745 5th graders and their primary caregivers were drawn from the Healthy Passages study of adolescent health. Parent respondents completed the DISC Predictive Scales for ADHD, and youth provided information about exposure to violence. Results indicated that youth who reported both witnessing and victimization had more parent-reported ADHD symptoms and were more likely to meet predictive criteria for ADHD. Among those with both exposures, girls exhibited a steeper increase in ADHD symptoms and higher probability of meeting predictive criteria than did boys. Findings indicate that being both victim-of and witness-to violence is significantly associated with ADHD symptoms particularly among girls.

  8. The Association Between Youth Violence Exposure and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms in a Sample of Fifth-Graders

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Terri; Elliott, Marc N.; Toomey, Sara L.; Cuccaro, Paula; Emery, Susan Tortolero; Schwebel, David C.; Visser, Susanna N.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Banspach, Stephen W.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the association between violence exposures (no exposure, witness or victim only, and both witness and victim) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, as well as the potential moderating role of gender. Data from 4,745 5th graders and their primary caregivers were drawn from the Healthy Passages study of adolescent health. Parent respondents completed the DISC Predictive Scales for ADHD, and youth provided information about exposure to violence. Results indicated that youth who reported both witnessing and victimization had more parent-reported ADHD symptoms and were more likely to meet predictive criteria for ADHD. Among those with both exposures, girls exhibited a steeper increase in ADHD symptoms and higher probability of meeting predictive criteria than did boys. Findings indicate that being both victim-of and witness-to violence is significantly associated with ADHD symptoms particularly among girls. PMID:26460708

  9. Technology-Delivered Dating Aggression: Risk and Promotive Factors and Patterns of Associations Across Violence Types Among High-Risk Youth

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Jessica S.; Walton, Maureen A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Chermack, Stephen T.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Increasingly, technology (text, e-mail, and social media) is being used in dating relationships to stalk, control, threaten, and harass dating partners. This study examines risk and promotive factors associated with technology-delivered dating aggression (TDA) and relations between types of violence (physical dating/nondating, community violence, and TDA). Participants (14–20 years old) self-administered a computerized survey as part of a larger study at an urban emergency department. The study includes 210 youth who reported having a dating partner in the past 2 months. About 48.1% of participants reported TDA in the past 2 months. Mindfulness was negatively associated with TDA. Youth reporting TDA were more likely to report physical dating violence and community violence exposure. TDA is not an isolated occurrence and is positively associated with in-person violence among adolescents. Associations between TDA, risk and promotive factors, and other forms of violence can help identify avenues for targeting interventions. PMID:27626036

  10. Are movies with tobacco, alcohol, drugs, sex, and violence rated for youth?: A comparison of rating systems in Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, James F.; Sargent, James D.; Vargas, Rosa; Braun, Sandra; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh; Sevigny, Eric L.; Billings, Deborah L.; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Navarro, Ashley; Hardin, James

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to determine between-country differences and changes over time in the portrayal of youth risk behaviors in films rated for youth in Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and the United States. Methods Content and ratings were analyzed for 362 films that were popular across all four countries from 2002–2009. Country-specific ratings were classified as either youth or adult, and Generalized Estimating Equations were used to determine between-country differences in the presence of tobacco, alcohol, drugs, sexual content, and violence in youth-rated films. Within-country differences in this content over time were also assessed, comparing films released from 2002–2005 with those released from 2006–2009. Results In the US, films rated for youth were less likely to contain all five risk behaviors than in youth-rated films in Argentina, Brazil, and, when the “15 and older” rating was considered a youth rating, in Mexico. All three Latin American countries “downrated” films that received an adult rating in the US. Nevertheless, tobacco and drug use in youth-rated films declined over time in all countries, whereas moderate to extreme alcohol use and violence involving children or youth increased in all countries. Conclusions Tobacco and drug use have declined in popular US films, but these behaviors are still prevalent in films rated for youth across the Americas. The apparent success of advocacy efforts to reduce tobacco and other drugs in films suggests that similar efforts be directed to reduce alcohol portrayals. PMID:24316001

  11. Youth Violence and Illicit Drug Use. The NSDUH Report. Issue 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) asks youths aged 12 to 17 to report on their involvement in violent behaviors during the 12 months before the survey. This report presents the estimated number and percentage of youths aged 12 to 17 who engaged in violent behavior in the past year. It further compares rates of violent behavior for…

  12. Family and Youth Services Bureau

    MedlinePlus

    ... every day to put an end to youth homelessness , adolescent pregnancy and domestic violence . National Domestic Violence ... from the 100-Day Challenge to End Youth Homelessness September 28, 2016 More News > Quick Fact said ...

  13. Association between early marriage and intimate partner violence in India: a focus on youth from Bihar and Rajasthan.

    PubMed

    Speizer, Ilene S; Pearson, Erin

    2011-07-01

    The relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and early marriage is explored using the 2005-2006 India National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3). The NFHS-3 collected data from a representative sample of women and men in India with a large enough sample size to have a representative sample at the state level. The focus is on youth from Bihar and Rajasthan, two states with high IPV and early marriage. Multivariate logistic regression analyses demonstrate that women aged 20 to 24 who married before age eighteen, the legal age at marriage in India, are more likely to have ever experienced IPV in their lifetime and recently experienced IPV (in the last 12 months) than their counterparts who married later. The results were significant in Rajasthan but not in Bihar. To reduce IPV, targeted efforts must be made to decrease the proportion of India's girls who are married under the legal age of marriage.

  14. Association between Early Marriage and Intimate Partner Violence in India: A Focus on Youth from Bihar and Rajasthan

    PubMed Central

    Speizer, Ilene S.; Pearson, Erin

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and early marriage is explored using the 2005-2006 India National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3). The NFHS-3 collected data from a representative sample of women and men in India with a large enough sample size to have a representative sample at the state level. The focus is on youth from Bihar and Rajasthan, two states with high IPV and early marriage. Multivariate logistic regression analyses demonstrate that women ages 20-24 who married before age eighteen, the legal age at marriage in India, are more likely to have ever experienced IPV in their lifetime and recently experienced IPV (in the last 12 months) than their counterparts who married later. The results were significant in Rajasthan but not in Bihar. To reduce IPV, targeted efforts must be made to decrease the proportion of India’s girls who are married under the legal age of marriage. PMID:20587462

  15. Youth, violence and non-injection drug use: Nexus of vulnerabilities among lesbian and bisexual sex workers

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Tara; Kerr, Thomas; Duff, Putu; Feng, Cindy; Shannon, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Despite increasing evidence of enhanced HIV risk among sexual minority populations, and sex workers in particular, there remains a paucity of epidemiological data on the risk environments of sex workers who identify as lesbian or bisexual. Therefore, this short report describes a study that examined the individual, interpersonal and structural associations with lesbian or bisexual identity among sex workers in Vancouver, Canada. Analysis drew on data from an open prospective cohort of street and hidden off-street sex workers in Vancouver. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression were used to examine the independent relationships between individual-, interpersonal, work environment- and structural-factors and lesbian or bisexual identity. Of the 510 individuals in our sample, 95 [18.6%] identified as lesbian or bisexual. In multivariable analysis, reporting non-injection drug use in the last 6 months (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]= 2.89; 95% confidence intervals [CI]= 1.42, 5.75), youth ≤ 24 years of age (AOR= 2.43; 95% CI = 1.24, 4.73) and experiencing client-perpetrated verbal, physical and/or sexual violence in the last 6 months (AOR= 1.85; 95% CI= 1.15, 2.98) remained independently associated with lesbian/bisexual identity, after adjusting for potential confounders. The findings demonstrate an urgent need for evidence-based social and structural HIV prevention interventions. In particular, policies and programs tailored to lesbian and bisexual youth and women working in sex work, including those that prevent violence and address issues of non-injection stimulant use are required. PMID:24382155

  16. Separating batterers and guns: a review and analysis of gun removal laws in 50 States.

    PubMed

    Frattaroli, Shannon; Vernick, Jon S

    2006-06-01

    Firearms play an important role in lethal domestic violence incidents. The authors review state laws regarding two policies to separate batterers from firearms: laws authorizing police to remove firearms when responding to a domestic violence complaint ("police gun removal laws") and laws authorizing courts to order guns removed from batterers through a protective order ("court-ordered removal laws"). As of April 2004, 18 states had police gun removal laws; 16 states had court-ordered removal laws. The authors examine relevant characteristics of the laws and recommend that these laws be mandatory, apply to all guns and ammunition possessed by an abuser, and include clear procedures to enhance implementation. PMID:16679498

  17. Interpreting the empirical evidence on illegal gun market dynamics.

    PubMed

    Braga, Anthony A; Wintemute, Garen J; Pierce, Glenn L; Cook, Philip J; Ridgeway, Greg

    2012-10-01

    Thousands of Americans are killed by gunfire each year, and hundreds of thousands more are injured or threatened with guns in robberies and assaults. The burden of gun violence in urban areas is particularly high. Critics suggest that the results of firearm trace data and gun trafficking investigation studies cannot be used to understand the illegal supply of guns to criminals and, therefore, that regulatory and enforcement efforts designed to disrupt illegal firearms markets are futile in addressing criminal access to firearms. In this paper, we present new data to address three key arguments used by skeptics to undermine research on illegal gun market dynamics. We find that criminals rely upon a diverse set of illegal diversion pathways to acquire guns, gun traffickers usually divert small numbers of guns, newer guns are diverted through close-to-retail diversions from legal firearms commerce, and that a diverse set of gun trafficking indicators are needed to identify and shut down gun trafficking pathways.

  18. Preventing gun injuries in children.

    PubMed

    Crossen, Eric J; Lewis, Brenna; Hoffman, Benjamin D

    2015-02-01

    Firearms are involved in the injury and death of a large number of children each year from both intentional and unintentional causes. Gun ownership in homes with children is common, and pediatricians should incorporate evidence-based means to discuss firearms and protect children from gun-related injuries and violence. Safe storage of guns, including unloaded guns locked and stored separately from ammunition, can decrease risks to children, and effective tools are available that pediatricians can use in clinical settings to help decrease children's access to firearms. Furthermore, several community-based interventions led by pediatricians have effectively reduced firearm-related injury risks to children. Educational programs that focus on children's behavior around guns have not proven effective.

  19. Exposure to community violence and daily feeling states among urban African American youth.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Catherine K; Goldner, Jonathon; Richards, Maryse H

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the relationships between exposure to community violence and daily feeling states among 175 6th- through 8th-grade African American students. The relationships were tested both cross-sectionally and longitudinally over the 3-year span. Four daily feeling state subscales: contented, hostile, anxious, and dysphoric were developed from a factor analysis of the 30 Experience Sampling Method (ESM) feeling states. Cross-sectionally, regression analyses indicated that exposure to violence individually predicted most feeling states and more variability in most feeling states in 7th and 8th grades. When feeling states were entered into regressions together, fewer predicted violence exposure. Longitudinally, regression analyses revealed that more variability in dysphoric feelings in 6th grade predicted exposure to violence in 7th grade, while 6th-grade hostile and anxious feelings predicted 8th-grade exposure change. Longitudinal analyses did not indicate that exposure to community violence predicted later daily feeling states. Preventive and intervention implications are addressed.

  20. Anger Mediates the Relation between Violence Exposure and Violence Perpetration in Incarcerated Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimonis, Eva R.; Ray, James V.; Branch, Jessica R.; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Youth who are exposed to violence are more likely to perpetrate violence. Incarcerated youth are a special population that is at a significantly greater risk for violent offending because of their relatively greater rates of violence exposure. Two important outcomes of violence exposure that may help explain its link with violence perpetration are…

  1. Investigating the Role of Gender and Delinquency in Exposure to Violence Among Puerto Rican Youth

    PubMed Central

    Reingle, Jennifer M.; Jennings, Wesley G.; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Piquero, Alex R.; Canino, Glorisa

    2013-01-01

    Using a longitudinal sample of Puerto Rican adolescents living in the Bronx, New York, this study examines the predictors of exposure to violence within gender. Results from a series of negative binomial regressions suggested (a) sensation seeking, peer delinquency, coercive discipline, and initial delinquency increased the likelihood of exposure to violence for both males and females at multiple time points and (b) initial delinquency was the only consistent predictor of exposure to violence at all time points. Regarding the role of gender, the results indicated that some risk factors were similar across genders (e.g., sensation seeking, coercive discipline, peer delinquency, and delinquent behavior), whereas other risk factors differed across gender (e.g., age and welfare among males and school environment for females). Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:23914125

  2. Gun Safety

    MedlinePlus

    Many U.S. households have guns, but they can cause harm if not handled properly. Here are some things you can do to keep yourself and ... safe: Teach children that they shouldn't touch guns and that if they see a gun, to ...

  3. Constructing Meaning about Violence, School, and Community: Participatory Action Research with Urban Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Alice

    2000-01-01

    This action research project investigated young urban adolescents' perceptions of violence in their school and community. The project involved gathering information about the community; engaging adolescents in creative, interactive activities; collaborating to develop a community photography project to help adolescents represent their perceptions…

  4. Attitudes toward Dating Violence among Jewish and Arab Youth in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherer, Moshe

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to assess the attitudes toward dating violence among Jewish and Arab male and female adolescents in Israel. The random sample consisted of 1,357 participants from among 9th to 12th grade pupils enrolled in eight Arab and eight Jewish junior and senior high schools. The study assessed attitudes toward…

  5. A Delphi Approach to Reach Consensus on Primary Care Guidelines regarding Youth Violence Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Vos, Edward; Spivak, Howard; Hatmaker-Flanigan, Elizabeth; Sege, Robert D.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Anticipatory guidance is a cornerstone of modern pediatric practice. In recognition of its importance for child well being, injury prevention counseling is a standard element of that guidance. Over the last 20 years, there has been growing recognition that intentional injury or violence is one of the leading causes of morbidity and…

  6. Sexual Violence and Youth in South Africa: The Need for Community-Based Prevention Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Inge; Bhana, Arvin; McKay, Mary

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: South Africa is reported to have one of the highest rates of sexual violence in the world, with adolescent girls between the ages of 12-17 being particularly at risk. Given that adolescence is considered a critical developmental period for establishing normative sexual behavior, this study explored multiple levels of risk influences…

  7. Educating Youth for a World beyond Violence: A Pedagogy for Peace. Education, Politics and Public Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, H. Svi

    2010-01-01

    In a time of unprecedented social and economic crisis, this book represents a challenge to the orthodoxy that shapes the vision of educational purpose. It argues that now, more than ever, there is a moral imperative for educators to assume responsibility for helping to bring about a culture of peace and non-violence in both the nation and…

  8. Living Peace: An Exploration of Experiential Peace Education, Conflict Resolution and Violence Prevention Programs for Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hettler, Shannon; Johnston, Linda M.

    2009-01-01

    The authors review the types of experiential peace education programs available to teens in the US and provide a classification guide for educators, parents, other concerned adults and teens who may be interested in developing conflict, peace and/or violence prevention knowledge, skills and attitudes. The authors identify experiential programs in…

  9. Violence in Street Culture: Cross-Cultural Comparison of Youth Groups and Criminal Gangs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zdun, Steffen

    2008-01-01

    Violence is a widespread phenomenon in juvenile street culture. But the questions of whether this relationship is a deterministic one, and if not, which are the contributing factors, are largely unanswered. This article focuses on the role of public space, starting with a comparison of the meaning of deviant behavior and crime in street culture in…

  10. Pacific Youth and Shifting Thresholds: Understanding Teen Dating Violence in Hawai'i

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Charlene K.; Helm, Susana

    2010-01-01

    The high prevalence of teen dating violence (TDV) nationally suggests that it is a public health problem in need of intervention. However, there is limited information about what constitutes TDV in the eyes of teens. Equally limited is an understanding of these parameters among diverse cultures. To fill these gaps, the current study conducted…

  11. Risks for Religiously Infused Violence in Muslim Youth and Successful Antidotes through Correct Islamic Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harun, Sahmuddeen Saleh

    2014-01-01

    This project aims to change corrupt mindsets in my community. Working on this project has enhanced my ability to lead my community by example, to employ a pragmatic approach, to demonstrate my teaching skills, and to assert my commitment to pedagogy. This project introduces correct Islamic teachings that can deal with religiously infused violence.…

  12. Preventing Interpersonal Violence among Youth: An Introduction to School, Community, and Mass Media Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, William

    The United States is a violent nation. This report reviews current school, community, and mass media strategies; describes promising programs now in operation; and offers recommendations for how police and other criminal justice professionals can get involved. By introducing the basic concepts and strategies of violence prevention, the report…

  13. Impact of School Violence on Youth Alcohol Abuse: Differences Based on Gender and Grade Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidourek, Rebecca A.; King, Keith A.; Merianos, Ashley L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of school violence on recent alcohol use and episodic heavy drinking among seventh- through 12th-grade students. A total of 54,631 students completed a survey assessing substance use and other risky behaviors. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the research questions. Results…

  14. Role Model Behavior and Youth Violence: A Study of Positive and Negative Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurd, Noelle M.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Reischl, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated how role models' behavior may positively or negatively influence African American early adolescents' attitudes toward violence and violent behavior. Participants in this study included 331 African American seventh and eighth graders from low-income neighborhoods in an urban, Midwestern city. The study used a model developed…

  15. Middle School Youth: Satisfaction with and Responses to a Dating Violence and Sexual Assault Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias-Lambert, Nada; Black, Beverly; Sharma, Yasoda

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how group composition influences students' level of satisfaction with a dating violence and sexual assault prevention program. A 10- to 12-session program was presented to 396 urban African American middle school students in mixed- and same-gender groups. Both males and females were significantly more satisfied with the…

  16. Religiosity Profiles of American Youth in Relation to Substance Use, Violence, and Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; Vaughn, Michael G.; Hodge, David R.; Perron, Brian E.

    2012-01-01

    Relatively little is known in terms of the relationship between religiosity profiles and adolescents' involvement in substance use, violence, and delinquency. Using a diverse sample of 17,705 (49 % female) adolescents from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, latent profile analysis and multinomial regression are employed to examine…

  17. Youth Violence and the Language Arts: A Topic for the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey-Webb, Allen

    1995-01-01

    Suggests that by reading relevant literature, examining films, essays, and music lyrics, and listening closely to students themselves, both teachers and students can come to better understand violence. Reviews specific works of literature and subject areas covered in a lower-level college literature course and a high school English class. Includes…

  18. Gender Differences in the Longitudinal Impact of Exposure to Violence on Mental Health in Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zona, Kate; Milan, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    There is evidence of gender differences in psychopathology during adolescence, but little research has investigated gender differences in trauma-related symptoms. Exposure to violence is a commonly experienced potentially traumatic event among urban adolescents, and the few studies examining gender differences in its mental health impact have…

  19. Punishing Youth and Saturated Violence in the Era of Casino Capitalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giroux, Henry

    2013-01-01

    This essay powerfully describes the rise of a neoliberal or "casino capitalism" as a punishing state that has been largely ignored by the mainstream media but is actively resisted by young people around the world. I highlight the pervasive use of violence and the celebration of war-like values that are no longer restricted to a…

  20. Examining the influence of family environments on youth violence: a comparison of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, non-Latino Black, and non-Latino White adolescents.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Martínez, Lorena M; Padilla, Mark B; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Schulz, Amy Jo

    2011-08-01

    Existing research rarely considers important ethnic subgroup variations in violent behaviors among Latino youth. Thus, their risk for severe violent behaviors is not well understood in light of the immense ethnic and generational diversity of the Latino population in the United States. Grounded in social control theory and cultural analyses of familism, we examine differences in the risk for severe youth violence, as well its associations with family cohesion, parental engagement, adolescent autonomy, household composition, and immigrant generation among Mexican (n = 1,594), Puerto Rican (n = 586), Cuban (n = 488), and non-Latino Black (n = 4,053), and White (n = 9,921) adolescents with data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Results indicate a gradient of risk; White youth had the lowest risk for severe violence and Puerto Rican youth had the highest risk compared to all other racial/ethnic subgroups. Within-group analysis indicates that family factors are not universally protective or risk-inducing. While family cohesion decreased the risk of severe violence among all groups, parental engagement was associated with increased risk among Blacks and Whites, and adolescent autonomy was associated with increased risk among Puerto Ricans and Cubans. In addition, Cuban and White adolescents who lived in single parent households or who did not live with their parents, had higher risk for severe violent behaviors than their counterparts who lived in two parent households. Among Latinos, the association of immigrant generation was in opposite directions among Mexicans and Cubans. We conclude that family and immigration factors differentially influence risk for violence among Latino subgroups and highlight the significance of examining subgroup differences and developing intervention strategies that are tailored to the needs of each ethnic subgroup.

  1. An ecological developmental community initiative to reduce youth violence: safe schools/healthy students.

    PubMed

    Telleen, Sharon; Kim, Young O; Pesce, Rosario

    2009-01-01

    A social ecological framework integrated the six elements of the U.S. Department of Education Safe Schools/Healthy Students Initiative in High School District 201, Cook County, Illinois. Program components were organized across ecological levels (community-wide strategies, school-wide strategies, classrooms, and targeted individual students) along the developmental continuum from preschool to Grade 12. The goal of the community initiative was to promote positive youth development and social and emotional learning in all youth settings in the community, including the schools. There were demonstrated program effects for each of the components of the Initiative. The coalition and the program's activities have been sustained and have brought new interagency collaboration to more effectively serve Latino immigrant youth and their families. PMID:19830627

  2. Capital Punishment, Gun Ownership, and Homicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleck, Gary

    1979-01-01

    Examines two controversial questions related to the problem of interpersonal violence in America: (1) Does use of the death penalty exert any measurable influence on the rate of homicide in the United States? (2) What relationship, if any, exists between the level of gun ownership and the level of homicide violence? (Author)

  3. Social identity and youth aggressive and delinquent behaviors in a context of political violence

    PubMed Central

    Merrilees, Christine E.; Cairns, Ed; Taylor, Laura K.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cummings, E. Mark

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to examine the moderating role of in-group social identity on relations between youth exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior in the community and aggressive behaviors. Participants included 770 mother-child dyads living in interfaced neighborhoods of Belfast. Youth answered questions about aggressive and delinquent behaviors as well as the extent to which they targeted their behaviors toward members of the other group. Structural equation modeling results show that youth exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior is linked with increases in both general and sectarian aggression and delinquency over one year. Reflecting the positive and negative effects of social identity, in-group social identity moderated this link, strengthening the relationship between exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior in the community and aggression and delinquency towards the out-group. However, social identity weakened the effect for exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior in the community on general aggressive behaviors. Gender differences also emerged; the relation between exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior and sectarian aggression was stronger for boys. The results have implications for understanding the complex role of social identity in inter-group relations for youth in post-accord societies. PMID:24187409

  4. Social Connections, Trajectories of Hopelessness, and Serious Violence in Impoverished Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddard, Sarah A.; Henly, Susan J.; Sieving, Renee E.; Bolland, John

    2011-01-01

    Youth living in impoverished urban neighborhoods are at risk for becoming hopeless about their future and engaging in violent behaviors. The current study seeks to examine the longitudinal relationship between social connections, hopelessness trajectories, and subsequent violent behavior across adolescence. Our sample included 723 (49% female)…

  5. The relationship between self-harm and teen dating violence among youth in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Baker, Charlene K; Helm, Susana; Bifulco, Kristina; Chung-Do, Jane

    2015-05-01

    The connection between teen dating violence (TDV) and self-harm is important to consider because of the serious consequences for teens who engage in these behaviors. Self-harm includes nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide behaviors such as suicide attempts or deaths. Although prior research shows that these two public health problems are related, the context in which they occur is missing, including what leads teens to engage in self-harm and the timing of self-harming behaviors within the relationship. To fill this gap, we conducted focus groups with 39 high-school-aged teens, all of whom had experienced prior relationship violence. Teens described incidents in which they and their partners engaged in NSSI and suicide attempts. Incidents often were associated with extreme alcohol and drug use and occurred during the break-up stage of the relationship. Prevention and intervention programs are needed that consider the intersections of TDV, substance use, and self-harm.

  6. Violence in America's Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    William Gladden Foundation, York, PA.

    This booklet is concerned with the issue of school violence. The introductory section provides examples of violence in schools and notes that the Centers for Disease Control state that 1 student in 5 takes a weapon to school and 1 in 20 carries a gun. It is further noted that urban schools in the major metropolitan areas have the greatest risk of…

  7. Various Viewpoints on Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemm, Bonita; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents four articles addressing various aspects of violence in the context of children's everyday life: video game violence, gun play, violent children's television programming, and war play. Proposes possible developmentally appropriate solutions. Urges teachers, parents, and the community in general to actively work to provide a safer, saner…

  8. Violence and youth in a territory of the Metropolitan Area of Brasília, Brazil: a socio-spatial approach.

    PubMed

    Moura, Leides Barroso Azevedo; Oliveira, Cesar de; Vasconcelos, Ana Maria Nogales

    2015-11-01

    Young people are impacted by the relations established in the context of multidimensional violence distributed in private and public spaces of urban areas. This article presents stories of violence suffered and committed by young individuals who live in Itapoã, part of the Metropolitan Area of Brasilia. This is a transversal and descriptive study, using a quantitative approach and a convenience sample of 190 young men and women aged 15 to 24 years. Forty-four questions previously validated were used as the data collection instrument. As for the experiences of violence, 51% reported having experienced some sort throughout life, and 24% in the last 12 months. Young people who have experienced some episode of violence throughout life also declared that the area or neighborhood where they live does not promote urban well-being for its residents (p <0.023); they expressed feelings compatible with depression (p = 001); and self-reported their health condition as bad (p = 000). The experiences of violence and youth vulnerabilities processes were discussed in the context of social injustice and limitations of human capabilities. PMID:26602717

  9. The Anatomy of School Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canady, Linda

    To stop violence, school professionals should apply both reactive and proactive methods. Schools that focus on the psychological and sociological causes of youth violence have greater chances of success. This document presents the different aspects of school violence in order to bring about a better understanding of the violence and in turn…

  10. Preventing School Violence: What Schools Can Do. Hot Topics Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosworth, Kris, Ed.

    This collection of papers provide a range of data on dealing with violence in the schools and communities, focusing on risk factors and correlates of youth violence, how violence affects young people, and how schools can help students avoid violence. The papers include: "Youth Violence in the United States: Major Trends, Risk Factors, and…

  11. Efficacy of a randomized trial of a community and school-based anti-violence media intervention among small-town middle school youth.

    PubMed

    Swaim, Randall C; Kelly, Kathleen

    2008-09-01

    In a community randomized controlled trial, intervention middle school students from small towns were exposed to a community and school-based anti-violence intervention ("Resolve It, Solve It"). The primary intervention was a media campaign in which local high school students served as models in print, radio, and television PSAs and spearheaded local school and community activities. The media campaign was supported with school and community events that reinforced campaign messages. Tests of recognition and recall indicated widespread exposure to the media intervention. Multiple group latent growth models indicated that relative to control students, intervention students reported significant differences in rates of growth for intent for violence, physical assault against people, verbal victimization, and perceived safety at school. No differences were found for verbal assault, physical assault against objects, physical victimization, or self-efficacy for avoiding violence. When examined by sex, it was determined that results for physical assault against people were obtained only among female students, and changes in verbal victimization and perceived school safety were observed only among male students. These results suggest that a media and reinforcing community intervention led by older peers can alter rates of growth for some measures of violence and associated factors among small-town youth. Further research is indicated to determine how different campaign messages influence students by sex. PMID:18607726

  12. A Review of Teen Dating Violence Prevention Research: What About Hispanic Youth?

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Krithika; Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M; Mitchell, Emma M

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a critical review of the literature on evidence-based teen dating violence (TDV) prevention programs with a particular focus on highlighting gaps in the literature with regard to prevention efforts targeting Hispanic teens. The target populations, characteristics, designs, and results of TDV prevention studies reported in the scientific literature for the last 20 years were reviewed and analyzed according to cultural and contextual factors associated with TDV among Hispanic teens. To date, three studies have focused on a predominantly Hispanic population with only one study looking at the long-term effects of a TDV intervention. There is a growing need to develop and evaluate immediate and long-term effects of TDV prevention programs that address ethnic pride, acculturation and acculturative stress, familism, and gender norms within the context of Hispanic communities (e.g., machismo and marianismo). The authors discuss the implications for research, prevention practice, and policy regarding TDV prevention for Hispanic teens.

  13. A Review of Teen Dating Violence Prevention Research: What About Hispanic Youth?

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Krithika; Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M; Mitchell, Emma M

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a critical review of the literature on evidence-based teen dating violence (TDV) prevention programs with a particular focus on highlighting gaps in the literature with regard to prevention efforts targeting Hispanic teens. The target populations, characteristics, designs, and results of TDV prevention studies reported in the scientific literature for the last 20 years were reviewed and analyzed according to cultural and contextual factors associated with TDV among Hispanic teens. To date, three studies have focused on a predominantly Hispanic population with only one study looking at the long-term effects of a TDV intervention. There is a growing need to develop and evaluate immediate and long-term effects of TDV prevention programs that address ethnic pride, acculturation and acculturative stress, familism, and gender norms within the context of Hispanic communities (e.g., machismo and marianismo). The authors discuss the implications for research, prevention practice, and policy regarding TDV prevention for Hispanic teens. PMID:25062778

  14. Gun Control, Gun Ownership, and Suicide Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David

    1988-01-01

    Explored relationship between the extent of gun ownership and the strictness of gun control laws to suicide and homicide rates in the nine major geographic regions of the United States. Found gun ownership, rather than the strictness of gun control laws, was the strongest correlate of the rates of suicide and homicide by guns. (Author)

  15. Guns, Mental Illness, and the Law: Introduction to This Issue.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Jeffrey W; Felthous, Alan R

    2015-06-01

    Firearm violence is a top-tier public health problem in the U.S., killing 33,563 and injuring an additional 81,396 people in 2012 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC, ). Given constitutional protection and the cultural entrenchment of private gun ownership in the U.S., it is likely that guns will remain widely accessible--and largely unrestricted--for the foreseeable future. Therefore, most policies and laws intended to reduce firearm violence focus selectively on preventing "dangerous people" from having access to guns. That is a formidable challenge. How do we think productively about guns and mental illness in this context, and about the role of law in lessening the toll of gun violence? PMID:25874748

  16. Guns, Mental Illness, and the Law: Introduction to This Issue.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Jeffrey W; Felthous, Alan R

    2015-06-01

    Firearm violence is a top-tier public health problem in the U.S., killing 33,563 and injuring an additional 81,396 people in 2012 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC, ). Given constitutional protection and the cultural entrenchment of private gun ownership in the U.S., it is likely that guns will remain widely accessible--and largely unrestricted--for the foreseeable future. Therefore, most policies and laws intended to reduce firearm violence focus selectively on preventing "dangerous people" from having access to guns. That is a formidable challenge. How do we think productively about guns and mental illness in this context, and about the role of law in lessening the toll of gun violence?

  17. Mentally Ill Still Gain Illegal Possession of Guns, Study Shows

    MedlinePlus

    ... risk, added Swanson, a professor with Duke University School of Medicine's department of psychiatry and behavioral sciences. Mental illness causes only a small fraction of gun violence in the United States, around 3 to 5 ...

  18. The effects of dating violence, substance use and risky sexual behavior among a diverse sample of Illinois youth.

    PubMed

    Alleyne, Binta; Coleman-Cowger, Victoria H; Crown, Laurel; Gibbons, Maya A; Vines, Linda Nicole

    2011-02-01

    This study examines the relationship between dating violence, forced sexual intercourse (FSI), and four measures of sexual risk taking (i.e., age at first sex, number of recent (within the last three months) sex partners, alcohol/drug use at last sex, and condom use at last sex) among a sample of 1124 ethnically diverse sexually active adolescents in Illinois. Given conflicting reports regarding the role of gender in dating violence, and the dearth of research examining the role of gender in relations between dating violence, sexual violence, and sexual risk taking, we also examine whether gender moderates the relation between these constructs. The findings indicate significant relationships among dating violence and FSI and age at first sex, number of sexual partners, and condom use across various ethnic groups. Findings also show that when controlling for gender, dating violence and FSI are related to number of sexual partners and age at first intercourse regardless of ethnic group identification.

  19. Fear of the Loss of Honor: Implications of Honor-Based Violence for the Development of Youth and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedem, Mina; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Background: Violence committed against young women, and in some cases young men, who are considered to have violated honor-based norms are reported in several countries, making honor-based violence (HBV) a global concern. This article is an overview of research in this area and summarizes key findings from a Swedish program of research dedicated…

  20. Individual-Level Risk Factors for Gun Victimization in a Sample of Probationers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, William; Chermak, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Interventions aimed at preventing the important problem of gun injuries could be improved with an understanding of whether there are unique factors that place individuals at an increased risk of gun victimization. Much remains to be known about the victims of gun violence. The purpose of this article is to assess whether there are individual-level…

  1. Spectrometer gun

    DOEpatents

    Waechter, D.A.; Wolf, M.A.; Umbarger, C.J.

    1981-11-03

    A hand-holdable, battery-operated, microprocessor-based spectrometer gun is described that includes a low-power matrix display and sufficient memory to permit both real-time observation and extended analysis of detected radiation pulses. Universality of the incorporated signal processing circuitry permits operation with various detectors having differing pulse detection and sensitivity parameters.

  2. Spectrometer gun

    DOEpatents

    Waechter, David A.; Wolf, Michael A.; Umbarger, C. John

    1985-01-01

    A hand-holdable, battery-operated, microprocessor-based spectrometer gun includes a low-power matrix display and sufficient memory to permit both real-time observation and extended analysis of detected radiation pulses. Universality of the incorporated signal processing circuitry permits operation with various detectors having differing pulse detection and sensitivity parameters.

  3. Building Community Capacity for Violence Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabol, William J.; Coulton, Claudia J.; Korbin, Jill E.

    2004-01-01

    The capacity of communities to prevent violence is examined from three perspectives: youth violence, child maltreatment, and intimate partner violence. The analysis suggests that community social control and collective efficacy are significant protective factors for all three types of violence, but these need to be further distinguished for their…

  4. At-School Victimization and Violence Exposure Assessed in a National Household Survey of Children and Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelhor, David; Vanderminden, Jennifer; Turner, Heather; Shattuck, Anne; Hamby, Sherry

    2016-01-01

    This national household telephone survey of youth and parents assessed exposure to a broad range of at-school victimizations among a representative sample of 3,391 children and youth ages 5 to 17. Nearly half the sample (48%) had been exposed to at least one form of victimization at school during the past year (in 2011), most of which was…

  5. Water gun vs air gun: A comparison

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, D.R.; Detrick, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    The water gun is a relatively new marine seismic sound source that produces an acoustic signal by an implosive rather than explosive mechanism. A comparison of the source characteristics of two different-sized water guns with those of conventional air guns shows the the water gun signature is cleaner and much shorter than that of a comparable-sized air gun: about 60-100 milliseconds (ms) for an 80-in3. (1.31-liter (I)) water gun compared with several hundred ms for an 80-in3. (1.31-1) air gun. The source spectra of water guns are richer in high frequencies (>200 Hz) than are those of air guns, but they also have less energy than those of air guns at low frequencies. A comparison between water gun and air gun reflection profiles in both shallow (Long Island Sound)-and deep (western Bermuda Rise)-water settings suggests that the water gun offers a good compromise between very high resolution, limited penetration systems (e.g. 3.5-kHz profilers and sparkers) and the large volume air guns and tuned air gun arrays generally used where significant penetration is required. ?? 1984 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

  6. How culture impacts the dissemination and implementation of innovation: a case study of the Families and Schools Together program (FAST) for preventing violence with immigrant Latino youth.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Nancy G; Knox, Lyndee

    2008-06-01

    We consider how culture impacts the translation of research into practice, focusing on the culture of the client and the culture of the agency implementing selected programs. We build on lessons learned from a pilot study of an evidence-based family-school partnership, Families and Schools Together (FAST), to prevent youth violence with low-income, immigrant Latino families in Southern California. We examine the impact of cultural characteristics on the translation of this innovation into practice at the community level, relying on an interactive systems framework developed recently by Wandersman and colleagues (2008, American Journal of Community Psychology, 41(3-4), in press) discussed in this issue. As we point out, the culture of the client and the culture of the agency can facilitate or impede connections within and across these interactive systems.

  7. Victimization and Youth Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegfried, Christine

    2007-01-01

    There is a significant connection between violent victimization and juvenile offending. This article explores this connection then provides judges, teachers, counselors, juvenile justice personnel, and others strategies for helping victimized adolescents heal and steering them away from lives of repeated victimization and offending.

  8. Violence as a Public Health Issue for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elders, Joycelyn

    1994-01-01

    Examines the growing problem of violence in American society, focusing on the public health consequences and medical costs of firearm violence and violence against children and youths. It discusses the Clinton administration's violence prevention efforts and implications of violence for health and child care professionals. (MDM)

  9. Mediation by Peer Violence Victimization of Sexual Orientation Disparities in Cancer-Related Tobacco, Alcohol, and Sexual Risk Behaviors: Pooled Youth Risk Behavior Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Corliss, Heather L.; Everett, Bethany G.; Russell, Stephen T.; Buchting, Francisco O.; Birkett, Michelle A

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the role of adolescent peer violence victimization (PVV) in sexual orientation disparities in cancer-related tobacco, alcohol, and sexual risk behaviors. Methods. We pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. We classified youths with any same-sex sexual attraction, partners, or identity as sexual minority and the remainder as heterosexual. We had 4 indicators of tobacco and alcohol use and 4 of sexual risk and 2 PVV factors: victimization at school and carrying weapons. We stratified associations by gender and race/ethnicity. Results. PVV was related to disparities in cancer-related risk behaviors of substance use and sexual risk, with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 1.6) to 11.3 (95% CI = 6.2, 20.8), and to being a sexual minority, with ORs of 1.4 (95% CI = 1.1, 1.9) to 5.6 (95% CI = 3.5, 8.9). PVV mediated sexual orientation disparities in substance use and sexual risk behaviors. Findings were pronounced for adolescent girls and Asian/Pacific Islanders. Conclusions. Interventions are needed to reduce PVV in schools as a way to reduce sexual orientation disparities in cancer risk across the life span. PMID:24825215

  10. Violence as Understandable, Deserved or Unacceptable? Listening for Gender in Teenagers' Talk about Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundaram, Vanita

    2013-01-01

    Youth violence is a topic of increasing global concern. Research has primarily focused on young people's responses to existing definitions of violence in seeking to understand how best to develop violence prevention. Little work has explored how young people themselves define violence and the factors which influence their acceptance, and use,…

  11. Protect Children Instead of Guns, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC.

    Noting that firearms outnumber children by a margin of almost three to one in the United States, this report advocates gun safety policies to protect children. The report provides information on trends in youth firearm deaths and finds the statistics alarming, despite recent decline. The first of three tables in the report delineates 1979-1999…

  12. The Integration of Genetic Propensities into Social-Control Models of Delinquency and Violence among Male Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Guang; Roettger, Michael E.; Cai, Tianji

    2008-01-01

    This study, drawing on approximately 1,100 males from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, demonstrates the importance of genetics, and genetic-environmental interactions, for understanding adolescent delinquency and violence. Our analyses show that three genetic polymorphisms--specifically, the 30-bp promoter-region variable…

  13. The Effects of Dating Violence, Substance Use and Risky Sexual Behavior among a Diverse Sample of Illinois Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alleyne, Binta; Coleman-Cowger, Victoria H.; Crown, Laurel; Gibbons, Maya A.; Vines, Linda N.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between dating violence, forced sexual intercourse (FSI), and four measures of sexual risk taking (i.e., age at first sex, number of recent (within the last three months) sex partners, alcohol/drug use at last sex, and condom use at last sex) among a sample of 1124 ethnically diverse sexually active adolescents…

  14. Violence Exposure and Drug Use in Central American Youth: Family Cohesion and Parental Monitoring as Protective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kliewer, Wendy; Murrelle, Lenn; Prom, Elizabeth; Ramirez, Melva; Obando, Patricia; Sandi, Luis; Karenkeris, Maria del Carmen

    2006-01-01

    Associations between witnessing serious violence and drug use, and the protective influences of family cohesion and parental monitoring, were investigated among 9,840 adolescents (50.5% female, M age=15.29 years, SD=1.76) living in Panama and Costa Rica. After accounting for demographics and parental and sibling substance use, witnessing serious…

  15. Encyclopedia of Gun Control and Gun Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utter, Glenn H.

    This reference volume provides information on gun control and gun rights, including resources on the debate surrounding the Second Amendment and individuals and organizations focused on gun issues, along with statutes, court cases, events, and publications surrounding this current topic. Highlighted are the important organizations and their…

  16. Gun ownership and social gun culture.

    PubMed

    Kalesan, Bindu; Villarreal, Marcos D; Keyes, Katherine M; Galea, Sandro

    2016-06-01

    We assessed gun ownership rates in 2013 across the USA and the association between exposure to a social gun culture and gun ownership. We used data from a nationally representative sample of 4000 US adults, from 50 states and District of Columbia, aged >18 years to assess gun ownership and social gun culture performed in October 2013. State-level firearm policy information was obtained from the Brady Law Center and Injury Prevention and Control Center. One-third of Americans reported owning a gun, ranging from 5.2% in Delaware to 61.7% in Alaska. Gun ownership was 2.25-times greater among those reporting social gun culture (PR=2.25, 95% CI 2.02 to 2.52) than those who did not. In conclusion, we found strong association between social gun culture and gun ownership. Gun cultures may need to be considered for public health strategies that aim to change gun ownership in the USA.

  17. ION GUN

    DOEpatents

    Dandl, R.A.

    1961-10-24

    An ion gun is described for the production of an electrically neutral ionized plasma. The ion gun comprises an anode and a cathode mounted in concentric relationship with a narrow annulus between. The facing surfaces of the rear portions of the anode and cathode are recessed to form an annular manifold. Positioned within this manifold is an annular intermediate electrode aligned with the an nulus between the anode and cathode. Gas is fed to the manifold and an arc discharge is established between the anode and cathode. The gas is then withdrawn from the manifold through the annulus between the anode and cathode by a pressure differential. The gas is then ionized by the arc discharge across the annulus. The ionized gas is withdrawn from the annulus by the combined effects of the pressure differential and a collimating magnetic field. In a 3000 gauss magnetic field, an arc voltage of 1800 volts, and an arc current of 0.2 amp, a plasma of about 3 x 10/sup 11/ particles/cc is obtained. (AEC)

  18. ELECTRON GUN

    DOEpatents

    Christofilos, N.C.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1960-04-01

    A pulsed electron gun capable of delivering pulses at voltages of the order of 1 mv and currents of the order of 100 amperes is described. The principal novelty resides in a transformer construction which is disposed in the same vacuum housing as the electron source and accelerating electrode structure of the gun to supply the accelerating potential thereto. The transformer is provided by a plurality of magnetic cores disposed in circumferentially spaced relation and having a plurality of primary windings each inductively coupled to a different one of the cores, and a helical secondary winding which is disposed coaxially of the cores and passes therethrough in circumferential succession. Additional novelty resides in the disposition of the electron source cathode filament input leads interiorly of the transformer secondary winding which is hollow, as well as in the employment of a half-wave filament supply which is synchronously operated with the transformer supply such that the transformer is pulsed during the zero current portions of the half-wave cycle.

  19. The Gun Dispute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitzer, Robert J.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the debate over gun ownership and gun control in the United States, focusing on the historic place of guns in U.S. society. The current national mood is more receptive than ever to restricting and regulating adolescent access to guns in light of recent school shootings. (SLD)

  20. Gun Sales. Firearm Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duker, Laurie, Ed.

    Minimal federal regulations on firearm sales have facilitated the proliferation of guns, gun owners, and gun dealers in the United States. This fact sheet offers data on the growing number of firearm dealers, the relative ease of obtaining and keeping a license to sell guns from the Federal Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, the lack of…

  1. Do guns provide safety? At what cost?

    PubMed

    Narang, Puneet; Paladugu, Anubha; Manda, Sainath Reddy; Smock, William; Gosnay, Cynthia; Lippmann, Steven

    2010-02-01

    Many people feel that having a gun provides greater safety for them and their family. Actually, having a firearm in the home escalates the risk for death or injury, while using it to shoot someone who endangers the household is much less common. The resultant injuries, deaths, emotional turmoil, and/or disabilities lead to greater utilization of health care and legal/police services. Payment for these expenses is provided by higher insurance premiums and tax rates. This financial aspect has become a part of our country's current political concern over firearm ownership rights, gun violence or regulation, health care costs, the economy, and taxes. PMID:20065902

  2. The Contribution of Childhood Emotional Abuse to Teen Dating Violence among Child Protective Services-Involved Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wekerle, Christine; Leung, Eman; Wall, Anne-Marie; MacMillan, Harriet; Boyle, Michael; Trocme, Nico; Waechter, Randall

    2009-01-01

    Objective: For child protective services (CPS) youth who may have experienced more than one form of maltreatment, the unique contribution of emotional abuse may be over-looked when other forms are more salient and more clearly outside of accepted social norms for parenting. This study considers the unique predictive value of childhood emotional…

  3. Prevention of youth injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Laraque, D.; Barlow, B.; Durkin, M.

    1999-01-01

    There are four categories of causes responsible for the majority of injuries in youth 10-19 years of age: 1) motor vehicle traffic; 2) violence (intra-familial, extra-familial, self, pregnancy-related); 3) recreational; and 4) occupational. This article presents data from the National Center for Health Statistics mortality data and the National Pediatric Trauma Registry morbidity data. Nationwide, the pediatric injury death rate is highest among adolescents 15-19 years of age. Motor vehicle-related deaths account for 41% and firearm-related deaths account for 36% of injury deaths in this age group. For youths aged 10-14 years, motor vehicle-related deaths account for 38% and; firearm-related deaths account for 26% of injury deaths. For both age groups, occupant motor vehicle-related deaths account for the majority of deaths and underscore the need for seat belt use. Using theoretical principles based on the Haddon matrix and a knowledge of adolescent development, proposed interventions to decrease injuries and deaths related to motor vehicles and firearms include graduated licensing, occupant restraint, speed limits, conflict resolution, and gun control. Occupational injuries, particularly injury associated with agricultural production, account for an estimated 100,000 injuries per year. Preventive strategies include OSHA regulations imposing standards for protective devices and further study for guidelines for adolescent work in agriculture. Injuries related to recreation include drowning and sports injuries. Preventive strategies may include proper supervision and risk reduction with respect to use of alcohol/drugs. The data presented support the use of primary prevention to achieve the most effective, safe community interventions targeting adolescents. PMID:10599188

  4. Sources of guns to dangerous people: what we learn by asking them.

    PubMed

    Cook, Philip J; Parker, Susan T; Pollack, Harold A

    2015-10-01

    Gun violence exacts a lethal toll on public health. This paper focuses on reducing access to firearms by dangerous offenders, contributing original empirical data on the gun transactions that arm offenders in Chicago. Conducted in the fall of 2013, analysis of an open-ended survey of 99 inmates of Cook County Jail focuses on a subset of violence-prone individuals with the goal of improving law enforcement actions. Among our principal findings: *Our respondents (adult offenders living in Chicago or nearby) obtain most of their guns from their social network of personal connections. Rarely is the proximate source either direct purchase from a gun store, or theft. *Only about 60% of guns in the possession of respondents were obtained by purchase or trade. Other common arrangements include sharing guns and holding guns for others. *About one in seven respondents report selling guns, but in only a few cases as a regular source of income. *Gangs continue to play some role in Chicago in organizing gun buys and in distributing guns to members as needed. *The Chicago Police Department has a considerable effect on the workings of the underground gun market through deterrence. Transactions with strangers and less-trusted associates are limited by concerns over arrest risk (if the buyer should happen to be an undercover officer or a snitch), and about being caught with a "dirty" gun (one that has been fired in a crime).

  5. Sources of guns to dangerous people: what we learn by asking them.

    PubMed

    Cook, Philip J; Parker, Susan T; Pollack, Harold A

    2015-10-01

    Gun violence exacts a lethal toll on public health. This paper focuses on reducing access to firearms by dangerous offenders, contributing original empirical data on the gun transactions that arm offenders in Chicago. Conducted in the fall of 2013, analysis of an open-ended survey of 99 inmates of Cook County Jail focuses on a subset of violence-prone individuals with the goal of improving law enforcement actions. Among our principal findings: *Our respondents (adult offenders living in Chicago or nearby) obtain most of their guns from their social network of personal connections. Rarely is the proximate source either direct purchase from a gun store, or theft. *Only about 60% of guns in the possession of respondents were obtained by purchase or trade. Other common arrangements include sharing guns and holding guns for others. *About one in seven respondents report selling guns, but in only a few cases as a regular source of income. *Gangs continue to play some role in Chicago in organizing gun buys and in distributing guns to members as needed. *The Chicago Police Department has a considerable effect on the workings of the underground gun market through deterrence. Transactions with strangers and less-trusted associates are limited by concerns over arrest risk (if the buyer should happen to be an undercover officer or a snitch), and about being caught with a "dirty" gun (one that has been fired in a crime). PMID:25937592

  6. Violence and the Schools. A Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Phillip, Ed.

    Statistics paint a startling and frightening picture of school violence in America. Understanding the real problem is essential to focus national attention and to bring about awareness that energy must be committed to preventing violence. The 27 items in this collection are organized into 4 comprehensive sections. Section 1, "Attention: Guns,…

  7. Discrepancies between Community Violence Exposure and Perceived Neighborhood Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cammack, Nicole L.; Lambert, Sharon F.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2011-01-01

    Community violence exposure (CVE) has been identified as a significant public health concern given its association with numerous mental health problems. Perceptions of neighborhood violence (PNV) also may adversely affect youth adjustment. In recognition that PNV may differ from individuals own experience of CVE, the current study utilized latent…

  8. Expect respect support groups: preliminary evaluation of a dating violence prevention program for at-risk youth.

    PubMed

    Ball, Barbara; Tharp, Andra Teten; Noonan, Rita K; Valle, Linda Anne; Hamburger, Merle E; Rosenbluth, Barri

    2012-07-01

    Expect Respect support groups, a selective prevention strategy, are designed to prevent and reduce dating violence among at-risk middle and high school students. This preliminary, uncontrolled evaluation examined changes in healthy relationship skills and emotionally and physically abusive behaviors in participants' peer and dating relationships. Self-reports (N = 144) showed significant increases in healthy relationship skills from baseline to program completion, whereas levels of victimization and perpetration remained unchanged. A subgroup of students who reported baseline levels of victimization and perpetration with means at least one standard deviation above the group mean reported significantly less victimization and perpetration at program completion. PMID:22872708

  9. Individual-level risk factors for gun victimization in a sample of probationers.

    PubMed

    Wells, William; Chermak, Steven

    2011-07-01

    Interventions aimed at preventing the important problem of gun injuries could be improved with an understanding of whether there are unique factors that place individuals at an increased risk of gun victimization. Much remains to be known about the victims of gun violence. The purpose of this article is to assess whether there are individual-level variables uniquely related to the likelihood of experiencing a gun victimization in a sample of probationers, individuals already at a heightened risk for criminal victimization. Self-report data were collected from 235 felony probationers about, for instance, gun and nongun victimization, gang involvement, and drug sales. Results show different variables are related to nongun victimization and gun victimization. In the current sample, involvement in gun crimes are linked to an increased risk of gun victimization. Violent offending and residential stability are associated with an increased chance of crime victimization.

  10. Violence Prevention: A Group Discussion Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, John; And Others

    As a society, the United States is becoming increasingly concerned with the far-reaching consequences of childhood aggression and youth violence. This book offers a way in which educators can talk to K-12 students about violence. The step-by-step approach enables students to talk about experiences with anger, violence, threats, loss of control,…

  11. Identifying gender specific risk/need areas for male and female juvenile offenders: Factor analyses with the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY).

    PubMed

    Hilterman, Ed L B; Bongers, Ilja; Nicholls, Tonia L; van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2016-02-01

    By constructing risk assessment tools in which the individual items are organized in the same way for male and female juvenile offenders it is assumed that these items and subscales have similar relevance across males and females. The identification of criminogenic needs that vary in relevance for 1 of the genders, could contribute to more meaningful risk assessments, especially for female juvenile offenders. In this study, exploratory factor analyses (EFA) on a construction sample of male (n = 3,130) and female (n = 466) juvenile offenders were used to aggregate the 30 items of the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY) into empirically based risk/need factors and explore differences between genders. The factor models were cross-validated through confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) on a validation sample of male (n = 2,076) and female (n = 357) juvenile offenders. In both the construction sample and the validation sample, 5 factors were identified: (a) Antisocial behavior; (b) Family functioning; (c) Personality traits; (d) Social support; and (e) Treatability. The male and female models were significantly different and the internal consistency of the factors was good, both in the construction sample and the validation sample. Clustering risk/need items for male and female juvenile offenders into meaningful factors may guide clinicians in the identification of gender-specific treatment interventions.

  12. Identifying gender specific risk/need areas for male and female juvenile offenders: Factor analyses with the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY).

    PubMed

    Hilterman, Ed L B; Bongers, Ilja; Nicholls, Tonia L; van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2016-02-01

    By constructing risk assessment tools in which the individual items are organized in the same way for male and female juvenile offenders it is assumed that these items and subscales have similar relevance across males and females. The identification of criminogenic needs that vary in relevance for 1 of the genders, could contribute to more meaningful risk assessments, especially for female juvenile offenders. In this study, exploratory factor analyses (EFA) on a construction sample of male (n = 3,130) and female (n = 466) juvenile offenders were used to aggregate the 30 items of the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY) into empirically based risk/need factors and explore differences between genders. The factor models were cross-validated through confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) on a validation sample of male (n = 2,076) and female (n = 357) juvenile offenders. In both the construction sample and the validation sample, 5 factors were identified: (a) Antisocial behavior; (b) Family functioning; (c) Personality traits; (d) Social support; and (e) Treatability. The male and female models were significantly different and the internal consistency of the factors was good, both in the construction sample and the validation sample. Clustering risk/need items for male and female juvenile offenders into meaningful factors may guide clinicians in the identification of gender-specific treatment interventions. PMID:26390056

  13. Violence in Adolescent Dating Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jouriles, Ernest N.; Platt, Cora; McDonald, Renee

    2009-01-01

    Beginning with a definition of dating and dating violence among adolescents, this article explores the factors which impact such violence. It concludes with a review of two school-based prevention/intervention programs (Safe Dates and The Youth Relationships Project). (Contains 1 table.)

  14. Proven Pathways to Violence Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, John

    2006-01-01

    Drawing on forty years of distinguished service in delinquency prevention, John Calhoun, founder of the National Crime Prevention Council, lays out the essential ingredients for preventing violence. These include strategies for connecting with alienated youth, building community norms of caring, reducing access of weapons of violence, and claiming…

  15. Gender-based violence and sexual and reproductive health among low-income youth in three Brazilian cities.

    PubMed

    Chacham, Alessandra Sampaio; Simão, Andrea Branco; Caetano, André Junqueira

    2016-05-01

    In this article, we investigate how gender-based violence (GBV) affects the sexual and reproductive health of impoverished adolescents and young adults. We analyse data from a 2011 survey of 450 young women and 300 young men aged 15-29, living in poor neighbourhoods of three middle-sized cities in Minas Gerais, Brazil. In this survey we used a closed-ended questionnaire to collect data from 150 women and 100 men in each city. Our main goal was to explore the relationship between GBV and young women's autonomy in relation to their sexuality, using indicators appropriate to Brazil. Our results showed a decreased prevalence of condom use at first intercourse and an increased prevalence of teenage pregnancies among young women who were in a relationship with a controlling and violent partner. Lower condom use was observed mostly among young men who acknowledged being violent and controlling towards a partner and they also were more likely to have made a partner pregnant as teenagers themselves. We conclude that some variables utilized here as indicators of control and violence from a partner and of young women's autonomy can help us to understand how GBV inside relationships affects the reproductive and sexual health of young men and women, and how empowering them can reduce their susceptibility to unwanted pregnancies and HIV and other STI infections. PMID:27578347

  16. Gender-based violence and sexual and reproductive health among low-income youth in three Brazilian cities.

    PubMed

    Chacham, Alessandra Sampaio; Simão, Andrea Branco; Caetano, André Junqueira

    2016-05-01

    In this article, we investigate how gender-based violence (GBV) affects the sexual and reproductive health of impoverished adolescents and young adults. We analyse data from a 2011 survey of 450 young women and 300 young men aged 15-29, living in poor neighbourhoods of three middle-sized cities in Minas Gerais, Brazil. In this survey we used a closed-ended questionnaire to collect data from 150 women and 100 men in each city. Our main goal was to explore the relationship between GBV and young women's autonomy in relation to their sexuality, using indicators appropriate to Brazil. Our results showed a decreased prevalence of condom use at first intercourse and an increased prevalence of teenage pregnancies among young women who were in a relationship with a controlling and violent partner. Lower condom use was observed mostly among young men who acknowledged being violent and controlling towards a partner and they also were more likely to have made a partner pregnant as teenagers themselves. We conclude that some variables utilized here as indicators of control and violence from a partner and of young women's autonomy can help us to understand how GBV inside relationships affects the reproductive and sexual health of young men and women, and how empowering them can reduce their susceptibility to unwanted pregnancies and HIV and other STI infections.

  17. Dating Violence among High School Students in Southeastern North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim-Godwin, Yeoun Soo; Clements, Carrie; McCuiston, Ashley M.; Fox, Jane A.

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents are a high-risk group for dating violence. Using the Youth Risk Behavior Survey data, this study examined the associations among dating violence (including physical dating violence [PDV] and sexual dating violence [SDV]) and selected health risk behaviors among 375 and 372 high school students, in 2005 and 2007, respectively, in…

  18. Adolescent Pornography Use and Dating Violence among a Sample of Primarily Black and Hispanic, Urban-Residing, Underage Youth

    PubMed Central

    Rothman, Emily F.; Adhia, Avanti

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was designed to characterize the pornography viewing preferences of a sample of U.S.-based, urban-residing, economically disadvantaged, primarily Black and Hispanic youth (n = 72), and to assess whether pornography use was associated with experiences of adolescent dating abuse (ADA) victimization. The sample was recruited from a large, urban, safety net hospital, and participants were 53% female, 59% Black, 19% Hispanic, 14% Other race, 6% White, and 1% Native American. All were 16–17 years old. More than half (51%) had been asked to watch pornography together by a dating or sexual partner, and 44% had been asked to do something sexual that a partner saw in pornography. Adolescent dating abuse (ADA) victimization was associated with more frequent pornography use, viewing pornography in the company of others, being asked to perform a sexual act that a partner first saw in pornography, and watching pornography during or after marijuana use. Approximately 50% of ADA victims and 32% of non-victims reported that they had been asked to do a sexual act that their partner saw in pornography (p = 0.15), and 58% did not feel happy to have been asked. Results suggest that weekly pornography use among underage, urban-residing youth may be common, and may be associated with ADA victimization. PMID:26703744

  19. Adolescent Pornography Use and Dating Violence among a Sample of Primarily Black and Hispanic, Urban-Residing, Underage Youth.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Emily F; Adhia, Avanti

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was designed to characterize the pornography viewing preferences of a sample of U.S.-based, urban-residing, economically disadvantaged, primarily Black and Hispanic youth (n = 72), and to assess whether pornography use was associated with experiences of adolescent dating abuse (ADA) victimization. The sample was recruited from a large, urban, safety net hospital, and participants were 53% female, 59% Black, 19% Hispanic, 14% Other race, 6% White, and 1% Native American. All were 16-17 years old. More than half (51%) had been asked to watch pornography together by a dating or sexual partner, and 44% had been asked to do something sexual that a partner saw in pornography. Adolescent dating abuse (ADA) victimization was associated with more frequent pornography use, viewing pornography in the company of others, being asked to perform a sexual act that a partner first saw in pornography, and watching pornography during or after marijuana use. Approximately 50% of ADA victims and 32% of non-victims reported that they had been asked to do a sexual act that their partner saw in pornography (p = 0.15), and 58% did not feel happy to have been asked. Results suggest that weekly pornography use among underage, urban-residing youth may be common, and may be associated with ADA victimization. PMID:26703744

  20. Adolescent Pornography Use and Dating Violence among a Sample of Primarily Black and Hispanic, Urban-Residing, Underage Youth.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Emily F; Adhia, Avanti

    2015-12-23

    This cross-sectional study was designed to characterize the pornography viewing preferences of a sample of U.S.-based, urban-residing, economically disadvantaged, primarily Black and Hispanic youth (n = 72), and to assess whether pornography use was associated with experiences of adolescent dating abuse (ADA) victimization. The sample was recruited from a large, urban, safety net hospital, and participants were 53% female, 59% Black, 19% Hispanic, 14% Other race, 6% White, and 1% Native American. All were 16-17 years old. More than half (51%) had been asked to watch pornography together by a dating or sexual partner, and 44% had been asked to do something sexual that a partner saw in pornography. Adolescent dating abuse (ADA) victimization was associated with more frequent pornography use, viewing pornography in the company of others, being asked to perform a sexual act that a partner first saw in pornography, and watching pornography during or after marijuana use. Approximately 50% of ADA victims and 32% of non-victims reported that they had been asked to do a sexual act that their partner saw in pornography (p = 0.15), and 58% did not feel happy to have been asked. Results suggest that weekly pornography use among underage, urban-residing youth may be common, and may be associated with ADA victimization.

  1. Gun Safety (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... guns are featured in many television shows, video games, computer games, and movies, it's important to know that real ... only happen on TV, in movies, or video games. A real gun is never a toy, and ...

  2. Youth's Strategies for Staying Safe and Coping with the Stress of Living in Violent Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teitelman, Anne; McDonald, Catherine C.; Wiebe, Douglas J.; Thomas, Nicole; Guerra, Terry; Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Richmond, Therese S.

    2010-01-01

    Youth living in urban environments of pervasive violence are exposed to a variety of violence-related stressors. This qualitative descriptive study sought to ascertain how community-dwelling youth perceived exposure to violence and how these youth identified and used available resources. The intent of this community-based participatory research…

  3. Patterns of Violent Behavior and Victimization among African American Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Zina T.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews types of reported problems among African American youth exposed to violence and victimization. A substantial number of African American youth reported being exposed to direct victimization while in transit to and from school. Discusses the impact of violence on mental health status, in that subjects exposed to violence exhibited…

  4. The world report on violence and health.

    PubMed

    Krug, Etienne G; Mercy, James A; Dahlberg, Linda L; Zwi, Anthony B

    2002-10-01

    In 1996, the World Health Assembly declared violence a major public health issue. To follow up on this resolution, on Oct 3 this year, WHO released the first World Report on Violence and Health. The report analyses different types of violence including child abuse and neglect, youth violence, intimate partner violence, sexual violence, elder abuse, self-directed violence, and collective violence. For all these types of violence, the report explores the magnitude of the health and social effects, the risk and protective factors, and the types of prevention efforts that have been initiated. The launch of the report will be followed by a 1-year Global Campaign on Violence Prevention, focusing on implementation of the recommendations. This article summarises some of the main points of the world report.

  5. [World report on violence and health].

    PubMed

    Krug, Etienne G; Mercy, James A; Dahlberg, Linda L; Zwi, Anthony B

    2002-12-01

    In 1996, the World Health Assembly declared violence a major public health issue. To follow up on this resolution, on October 3 this year, WHO released the first World Report on Violence and Health. The report analyses different types of violence including child abuse and neglect, youth violence, intimate partner violence, sexual violence, elder abuse, self-directed violence, and collective violence. For all these types of violence, the report explores the magnitude of the health and social effects, the risk and protective factors, and the types of prevention efforts that have been initiated. The launch of the report will be followed by a 1-year Global Campaign on Violence Prevention, focusing on implementation of the recommendations. This article summarises some of the main points of the world report.

  6. Illinois Youth Summit, 2001. Resource Guide for Students and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constitutional Rights Foundation, Chicago, IL.

    Now in its seventh year, the Illinois Youth Summit focuses on issues of violence affecting youth. On December 5, 2000, representatives from 21 high school classrooms across Illinois met to determine youth safety issues of greatest relevance to students across the state. These students identified three sources of violence to address at the 2001…

  7. Rail gun program

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, C.M.; Peterson, D.R.

    1980-12-01

    Rail guns are devices that drive projectiles by electromagnetic forces. Ultimate projectile speeds therefore are not limited by hydrodynamic velocities, as is the case with conventional guns. The two-phase rail gun program is described. In both phases, explosively driven flux compression generators (FCGs) are used to supply power to the guns. In the Los Alamos phase, part of the gun itself is explosively compressed and thus serves as a second-stage FCG. Factors affecting gun performance and projectile acceleration and integrity are discussed. The first experiment in the joint phase of the programs is described. Here, a 12.7-mm lexan cube was accelerated to speed about 3 km/s in a 0.9-m-long gun by currents reaching nearly 600 kA over a time of several hundred microseconds. Although the projectile was stressed to several times its static yield strength during acceleration, it was recovered intact.

  8. Aggressive Behavior among Rural Minority Youth: Concerns for Schools and the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Laurence Armand

    Two cases of youth violence in southwestern New Mexico, one involving an Anglo youth and one a Mexican American youth, highlight the diversity of the area and the biased treatment of Mexican American youth. New Mexico demographics suggest a link between diversity and high rates of crime and violence. National reports clearly report the extent of…

  9. "Fist, Stick, Knife, Gun": Getting Real in Upward Bound.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pace, Barbara G.; Adkins, Theresa A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how a teacher found literature for Upward Bound students. Presents Geoffrey Canada's "Fist, Stick, Knife, Gun: A Personal History of Violence in America" as a nonfiction work to provide clarity and connections that might not have been available in a fictional work, yet it had elements of literary fiction that made the text engaging. (SG)

  10. Survey of SRF guns

    SciTech Connect

    Belomestnykh, S.

    2011-07-25

    Developing Superconducting RF (SRF) electron guns is an active field with several laboratories working on different gun designs. While the first guns were based on elliptic cavity geometries, Quarter Wave Resonator (QWR) option is gaining popularity. QWRs are especially well suited for producing beams with high charge per bunch. In this talk we will describe recent progress in developing both types of SRF guns. SRF guns made excellent progress in the last two years. Several guns generated beams and one, at HZDR, injected beam into an accelerator. By accomplishing this, HZDR/ELBE gun demonstrated feasibility of the SRF gun concept with a normal-conducting Cs{sub 2}Te cathode. The cathode demonstrated very good performance with the lifetime of {approx}1 year. However, for high average current/high bunch charge operation CsK{sub 2}Sb is preferred as it needs green lasers, unlike UV laser for the Cs{sub 2}Te, which makes it easier to build laser/optics systems. Other high QE photocathodes are being developed for SRF guns, most notably diamond-amplified photocathode. Several QWR guns are under development with one producing beam already. They are very promising for high bunch charge operation. The field is very active and we should expect more good results soon.

  11. Violent behavior among urban youth attending alternative schools.

    PubMed

    Escobar-Chaves, S Liliana; Tortolero, Susan R; Markham, Christine; Kelder, Steve H; Kapadia, Asha

    2002-11-01

    This study described violent behavior and aggression among youth attending alternative schools, and examined sociodemographic factors associated with such violence. The study involved 494 students attending 10 alternative schools in Houston, Texas. Data were collected between November 2000 and February 2001 by audio-enabled laptop computers equipped with headphones. Students self-reported an average of 11.8 aggressive acts during the week prior to the survey. Students reported a 30-day weapon carrying prevalence of 22.7%; 30-day gun carrying prevalence of 11.1%; 30-day knife or club prevalence of 17.2%; 12-month fighting prevalence of 50.6%; and 12-month prevalence of injuries due to fighting of 6.5%. Association between demographic variables, self-reported aggressive behavior, and other forms of aggression was examined using multivariate logistic regression. Students were divided into four mutually exclusive violence-related categories: no fighting and no weapon (referent), fighting only, carrying weapon only, fighting and weapon carrying. Student aggression was significantly associated with fighting and weapon carrying, with incremental increases at each level (OR 1.1 per unit of increase, 95% CI 1.1-1.2) and in presence of the covariates. Among Houston's alternative school students, the prevalence of violent behavior (weapon carrying, gun carrying, knife or club carrying, fighting, and treatment by a doctor or nurse for injuries) is higher compared to regular high school students. Aggression related strongly to weapon carrying and fighting in the sample. Data indicate alternative school youth urgently need prevention and treatment programs to help them live in safer environments. PMID:12557630

  12. Focused deterrence and the prevention of violent gun injuries: practice, theoretical principles, and scientific evidence.

    PubMed

    Braga, Anthony A; Weisburd, David L

    2015-03-18

    Focused deterrence strategies are a relatively new addition to a growing portfolio of evidence-based violent gun injury prevention practices available to policy makers and practitioners. These strategies seek to change offender behavior by understanding the underlying violence-producing dynamics and conditions that sustain recurring violent gun injury problems and by implementing a blended strategy of law enforcement, community mobilization, and social service actions. Consistent with documented public health practice, the focused deterrence approach identifies underlying risk factors and causes of recurring violent gun injury problems, develops tailored responses to these underlying conditions, and measures the impact of implemented interventions. This article reviews the practice, theoretical principles, and evaluation evidence on focused deterrence strategies. Although more rigorous randomized studies are needed, the available empirical evidence suggests that these strategies generate noteworthy gun violence reduction impacts and should be part of a broader portfolio of violence prevention strategies available to policy makers and practitioners.

  13. Women and Guns. Firearm Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duker, Laurie, Ed.

    Many gun manufacturers market guns to women claiming a gun can provide protection. Statistics provided in this fact sheet indicate gun ownership may provide a false sense of security that can be fatal, since the greatest threat to a woman comes from the people and guns within her own home. Contrary to "typical" scenarios created by advertisers,…

  14. Mainstreaming domestic and gender-based violence into sociology and the criminology of violence

    PubMed Central

    Walby, Sylvia; Towers, Jude; Francis, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Sociological and criminological views of domestic and gender-based violence generally either dismiss it as not worthy of consideration, or focus on specific groups of offenders and victims (male youth gangs, partner violence victims). In this paper, we take a holistic approach to violence, extending the definition from that commonly in use to encompass domestic violence and sexual violence. We operationalize that definition by using data from the latest sweep of the Crime Survey for England and Wales. By so doing, we identify that violence is currently under-measured and ubiquitous; that it is gendered, and that other forms of violence (family violence, acquaintance violence against women) are equally of concern. We argue that violence studies are an important form of activity for sociologists. PMID:25641992

  15. Interior of southeast gun chamber (labeled "Gun Turret No. Two), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of southeast gun chamber (labeled "Gun Turret No. Two), showing gun mounting pad, wall rings, small niche, and opening to outside - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Battery Adair, Princeton Place, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  16. Carbon Nanotube Electron Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Cattien V. (Inventor); Ribaya, Bryan P. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An electron gun, an electron source for an electron gun, an extractor for an electron gun, and a respective method for producing the electron gun, the electron source and the extractor are disclosed. Embodiments provide an electron source utilizing a carbon nanotube (CNT) bonded to a substrate for increased stability, reliability, and durability. An extractor with an aperture in a conductive material is used to extract electrons from the electron source, where the aperture may substantially align with the CNT of the electron source when the extractor and electron source are mated to form the electron gun. The electron source and extractor may have alignment features for aligning the electron source and the extractor, thereby bringing the aperture and CNT into substantial alignment when assembled. The alignment features may provide and maintain this alignment during operation to improve the field emission characteristics and overall system stability of the electron gun.

  17. Carbon nanotube electron gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Cattien V. (Inventor); Ribaya, Bryan P. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An electron gun, an electron source for an electron gun, an extractor for an electron gun, and a respective method for producing the electron gun, the electron source and the extractor are disclosed. Embodiments provide an electron source utilizing a carbon nanotube (CNT) bonded to a substrate for increased stability, reliability, and durability. An extractor with an aperture in a conductive material is used to extract electrons from the electron source, where the aperture may substantially align with the CNT of the electron source when the extractor and electron source are mated to form the electron gun. The electron source and extractor may have alignment features for aligning the electron source and the extractor, thereby bringing the aperture and CNT into substantial alignment when assembled. The alignment features may provide and maintain this alignment during operation to improve the field emission characteristics and overall system stability of the electron gun.

  18. Hartford's gun buy-back program: are we on target?

    PubMed

    Marinelli, Laura W; Thaker, Shefali; Borrup, Kevin; Shapiro, David S; Bentley, George C; Saleheen, Hassan; Lapidus, Garry; Campbell, Brendan T

    2013-09-01

    Gunbuy-backprograms have been proposed as away to remove unwanted firearms from circulation, but remain controversial because their ability to prevent firearm injuries remains unproven. The purpose of this study is to describe the demographics of individuals participating in Connecticut's gun buy-backprogram in the context of annual gun sales and the epidemiology of firearm violence in the state. Over four years the buy-back program collected 464 firearms, including 232 handguns. In contrast, 91,602 firearms were sold in Connecticut during 2009 alone. The incidence of gun-related deaths was unchanged in the two years following the inception of the buy-back program. Suicide was associated with older age (mean = 51 +/- 18years) and Caucasian race (n = 539, 90%). Homicide was associated with younger age (mean = 30 +/- 12 years) and minority race (n = 425, 81%). A gun buy-back program alone is not likely to produce a measurable decrease in firearm injuries and deaths.

  19. Is Youth Violence Just Another Fact of Life? Some Kids Resilient; Some Kids at Risk. Clarifying the Debate: Psychology Exmaines the Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.

    Psychological research has demonstrated that violence is learned, and it has identified some factors that put children at risk of perpetrating or being victimized by violence. Because aggression is often learned at an early age, prevention programs that start early in childhood and continue throughout adolescence have the best chance for success.…

  20. Attitudes toward Violence Scale: Psychometric Properties with a High School Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, M. Meghan; Canivez, Gary L.

    2012-01-01

    Youth violence represents a serious problem affecting individuals, communities, and the larger society. Greater efforts aimed at the eradication of youth violence are necessary, and work in this field could be enhanced by psychometrically strong measures. The present study examined the factor structure of the Attitudes Toward Violence Scale (ATV)…

  1. Gun Safety (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... ON THIS TOPIC How TV Affects Your Child School Violence and the News How to Talk to Your ... What Should I Do? Should You Worry About School Violence? Contact Us Print Resources Send to a friend ...

  2. Stressful life events, culture, and violence.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Hieu M; Le, Thao N

    2007-04-01

    This study explored the contributions of stressful life events and their interactions with social support and cultural factors in predicting serious violence among American adolescent immigrants of Chinese and Southeast Asian origins. Youth differed in their exposure to stressors and how they responded to them. Cambodian and Laotian youth reported the highest levels of stressors, except for emotional abuse. Only physical abuse was an independent predictor of serious violence for all groups, except Chinese. Perceived social support buffered the effects of some stressors, whereas increased levels of acculturation, intergenerational/intercultural conflict, and individualism placed youth at increased risk for serious violence. The results suggest that the moderating effects of culture and social support need to be considered when examining the association between life stressors and serious violence for Chinese and Southeast Asian youth.

  3. Adolescent stalking and risk of violence.

    PubMed

    Smith-Darden, Joanne P; Reidy, Dennis E; Kernsmith, Poco D

    2016-10-01

    Stalking perpetration and the associated risk for violence among adolescents has generally been neglected. In the present study, 1236 youth completed surveys assessing empirically established stalking indicators, threats and aggression toward stalking victims, dating violence, and violent delinquency. Latent Profile Analysis identified 3 latent classes of boys: non-perpetrators (NP), hyper-intimate pursuit (HIP), and comprehensive stalking perpetrators (CSP) and, and 2 classes for girls: NP and HIP. Boys in the CSP class were the most violent youth on nearly all indices with boys in the HIP class demonstrating an intermediate level of violence compared to NP boys. Girls in the HIP class were more violent than NP girls on all indices. These findings suggest stalking in adolescence merits attention by violence prevention experts. In particular, juvenile stalking may signify youth at risk for multiple forms of violence perpetrated against multiple types of victims, not just the object of their infatuation.

  4. Adolescent stalking and risk of violence.

    PubMed

    Smith-Darden, Joanne P; Reidy, Dennis E; Kernsmith, Poco D

    2016-10-01

    Stalking perpetration and the associated risk for violence among adolescents has generally been neglected. In the present study, 1236 youth completed surveys assessing empirically established stalking indicators, threats and aggression toward stalking victims, dating violence, and violent delinquency. Latent Profile Analysis identified 3 latent classes of boys: non-perpetrators (NP), hyper-intimate pursuit (HIP), and comprehensive stalking perpetrators (CSP) and, and 2 classes for girls: NP and HIP. Boys in the CSP class were the most violent youth on nearly all indices with boys in the HIP class demonstrating an intermediate level of violence compared to NP boys. Girls in the HIP class were more violent than NP girls on all indices. These findings suggest stalking in adolescence merits attention by violence prevention experts. In particular, juvenile stalking may signify youth at risk for multiple forms of violence perpetrated against multiple types of victims, not just the object of their infatuation. PMID:27641644

  5. ''Smart Gun'' Technology Update

    SciTech Connect

    WIRSBINSKI, JOHN W.

    2001-11-01

    This report is an update to previous ''smart gun'' work and the corresponding report that were completed in 1996. It incorporates some new terminology and expanded definitions. This effort is the product of an open source look at what has happened to the ''smart gun'' technology landscape since the 1996 report was published.

  6. Remotely controlled spray gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, William C. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A remotely controlled spray gun is described in which a nozzle and orifice plate are held in precise axial alignment by an alignment member, which in turn is held in alignment with the general outlet of the spray gun by insert. By this arrangement, the precise repeatability of spray patterns is insured.

  7. Adolescent interpersonal violence: implications for health care professionals.

    PubMed

    Duke, Naomi Nichele; Borowsky, Iris Wagman

    2014-09-01

    Violence involvement is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among adolescents. This review provides a summary of the burden of adolescent violence and violence-related behavior, risk, and protective factors for violence outcomes. The importance of screening for violence involvement in the primary care setting and examples of online resources to support providers in advocating, assessing, and intervening on behalf of youth are also reviewed. The article draws attention to bullying and dating/relationship violence, not as new forms of violence-related behavior, but as behaviors with health outcomes that have recently received increased attention.

  8. Adolescent interpersonal violence: implications for health care professionals.

    PubMed

    Duke, Naomi Nichele; Borowsky, Iris Wagman

    2014-09-01

    Violence involvement is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among adolescents. This review provides a summary of the burden of adolescent violence and violence-related behavior, risk, and protective factors for violence outcomes. The importance of screening for violence involvement in the primary care setting and examples of online resources to support providers in advocating, assessing, and intervening on behalf of youth are also reviewed. The article draws attention to bullying and dating/relationship violence, not as new forms of violence-related behavior, but as behaviors with health outcomes that have recently received increased attention. PMID:25124212

  9. Addressing Teen Dating Violence within a Rural Community: A Participatory Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Teen Dating Violence (TDV) has become a pervasive problem for youth in the United States, with 10% to 25% of high school students engaging in physical and sexual dating violence, and with even a greater percentage of youth experiencing some form of psychological maltreatment (Kervin & Obinna, 2010, "Youth action strategies in the primary…

  10. Curriculum as Conversation: Vulnerability, Violence, and Pedagogy in Prison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Aislinn

    2015-01-01

    It is difficult to respond creatively to humiliation, affliction, degradation, or shame, just as it is difficult to respond creatively to the experience of undergoing or inflicting violence. In this article Aislinn O'Donnell argues that if we are to think about how to address gun violence--including mass shootings- in schools, then we need to talk…

  11. 78 FR 27240 - Announcing the Award of a New Single-Source Award to the National Council on Family Violence in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... Award to the National Council on Family Violence in Austin, TX AGENCY: Family and Youth Services Bureau... Council on Family Violence to support the National Domestic Violence Hotline (Hotline). SUMMARY: The... Youth Services Bureau (FYSB), Division of Family Violence and Prevention Services (DFVPS) announces...

  12. Monstrous Acts: Problematizing Violence in Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzak, Judith; Noll, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    Despite a growing body of work that draws attention to the presence of violence in the mass media and its effects on youth, little critical attention has been paid to the role of violence in young adult literature. The authors believe that by bringing violence to the foreground in the study of texts, they can enrich and deepen what these stories…

  13. No Safe Place: KIDS COUNT Report on Children and Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Melissa; And Others

    Recognizing increasing concerns about rising youth-related crime in Missouri, this Kids Count report on children and violence examines the impact of community and family violence on young perpetrators and victims, and explores characteristics of successful programs to prevent or reduce family and community violence in Missouri. Data suggest that…

  14. The Impact of Community Violence on School-Based Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velsor-Friedrich, Barbara; Richards, Maryse; Militello, Lisa K.; Dean, Kyle C.; Scott, Darrick; Gross, Israel M.; Romeo, Edna

    2015-01-01

    Research conducted on youth exposure to violence has generally focused on documenting the prevalence of community violence and its emotional and behavioral implications. However, there is a dearth of information related to the impact of violence on the implementation and evaluation of community and school-based programs. This commentary examines…

  15. 75 FR 42126 - Office on Violence Against Women

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... on Violence Against Women Agency Information Collection Activities: New Collection ACTION: 30-Day... to Advocate for and Respond to Youth Program. The Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against...- XXXX. U.S. Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women. ] (4) Affected public who will...

  16. Right-Wing Extremist Violence among Adolescents in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitzer, Peter; Heitmeyer, Wilhelm

    2008-01-01

    What are the preconditions for right-wing extremist violence among German youths? For several years, the rate of this violence has been increasing in Germany, and the same can be observed for right-wing extremist orientations characterized by the coming together of ideologies of unequal worth and the acceptance of violence as a mode of action. And…

  17. Domestic Violence

    MedlinePlus

    Domestic violence is a type of abuse. It usually involves a spouse or partner, but it can also be ... child, elderly relative, or other family member. Domestic violence may include Physical violence that can lead to ...

  18. Domestic violence

    MedlinePlus

    Intimate partner violence; Spousal abuse; Elder abuse; Child abuse; Sexual abuse - domestic violence ... Domestic violence can include any of these behaviors: Physical abuse, including hitting, kicking, biting, slapping, choking, or attacking with ...

  19. An Overview: Children and Violence. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Action Alliance for Virginia's Children and Youth, Richmond.

    This Kids Count report of the Action Alliance for Virginia's Children and Youth reviews the role of schools, bullying, media, family violence, gangs, and substance use in the violence experienced by children and young people in Virginia and the United States. The report finds that increasing numbers of young people experience violent images and…

  20. Seeking Solutions to Violence on Children's Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Committee on Children's Television, San Francisco, CA.

    This document contains the transcripts from a workshop to investigate strategies to use in dealing with violence on children's television. The papers given by outside experts include: (1) "Effect of Television Violence on Children and Youth" by Michael Rothenberg, (2) "Implications of the Psychological Effects of Television Programming on Black…

  1. School Violence: Preventative, Restorative, and Educative Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickmore, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    Recently in many Canadian schools, escalated violence presents an evident threat. Rates of severe youth violence are considerably lower than sensational media coverage would have people believe, but at the same time, many young people, as well as adults, do not feel safe, respected, or constructively engaged as they should be. While schools cannot…

  2. The Effect of Attachment on Adolescent Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franke, Todd M.

    2003-01-01

    Violence among American youth is a significant societal problem. The past decade witnessed juvenile arrests for violence, weapons, drugs, and curfew violations peak in the mid 90's. Analogous to the arrest trends for older juveniles, the arrest rate for young offenders rose 63% from 1987 until 1994 when it declined slightly. Since that time,…

  3. Violence Goes to School. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Jack

    1998-01-01

    Increased juvenile violence in schools has led to suggested solutions that are politically expedient but fail to address what makes violence so appealing. Instead of school uniforms, conflict resolution programs, or media rating systems, a grass roots approach of alternative programs, parental involvement, and youth support systems could repair…

  4. Violence on Campuses. Hearing. Senate Task Force on School Violence, California Legislature (Los Angeles, California, April 30, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Legislature, Sacramento. Senate.

    This report consists of a California State Senate Task Force on School Violence hearing on violence on school campuses. Opening statements were given by State Senator Teresa Hughes. Three mothers of slain youth, Mildred Hillard, Missy Zeitsoff, and Margaret Ensley, testified on violence on and off campus. Alexis Cushon and Carlos Galvan of the…

  5. Behavior Problems Among Adolescents Exposed to Family and Community Violence in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Julie; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Research that simultaneously examines the relationship of multiple types of family and community violence with youth outcomes is limited in the previous research literature, particularly in Latin America. This study examined the relationship of youth exposure to family and community violence—parental use of corporal punishment, violence in the community, intimate partner physical aggression—with eight subscales of the Youth Self Report among a Chilean sample of 593 youth-mother pairs. Results from multilevel models indicated a positive association between youth exposure to violence in the family and community, and a wide range of behavior problem outcomes, in particular, aggression. With growing evidence concerning the detrimental effect of violence on youth’s well-being, these findings highlight the need for a more comprehensive understanding of the various kinds of violence youth are exposed to within the family and community and the concomitant need to reduce multiple forms of violence.

  6. Multiculturalism as a Policy for Disarming Gang Violence in Communities at Large and in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Christine; Jenkins, Morris

    Those who try to deal with violence in U.S. communities and schools have tended to concentrate on suppression of violence, rather than real prevention, particularly as violence is associated with youth gangs. This discussion focuses on multiculturalism as a policy for reducing gang violence, rather than strategies that have been used to deal with…

  7. Violence and Sexual Minority Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lock, James

    2002-01-01

    Homosexual, bisexual, and transgendered students; effeminate heterosexual males; and masculine heterosexual females are among the most marginalized and harassed in high school. Many develop negative self-concepts, which increases their risk for self-harm and suicide. The origin of this problem is social homophobia, which fuels aggression against…

  8. High Velocity Gas Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A video tape related to orbital debris research is presented. The video tape covers the process of loading a High Velocity Gas Gun and firing it into a mounted metal plate. The process is then repeated in slow motion.

  9. RF Gun Optimization Study

    SciTech Connect

    A. S. Hofler; P. Evtushenko; M. Krasilnikov

    2007-08-01

    Injector gun design is an iterative process where the designer optimizes a few nonlinearly interdependent beam parameters to achieve the required beam quality for a particle accelerator. Few tools exist to automate the optimization process and thoroughly explore the parameter space. The challenging beam requirements of new accelerator applications such as light sources and electron cooling devices drive the development of RF and SRF photo injectors. RF and SRF gun design is further complicated because the bunches are space charge dominated and require additional emittance compensation. A genetic algorithm has been successfully used to optimize DC photo injector designs for Cornell* and Jefferson Lab**, and we propose studying how the genetic algorithm techniques can be applied to the design of RF and SRF gun injectors. In this paper, we report on the initial phase of the study where we model and optimize gun designs that have been benchmarked with beam measurements and simulation.

  10. Deadly Lessons: Understanding Lethal School Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Mark H., Ed.; Petrie, Carol V., Ed.; Braga, Anthony A., Ed.; McLaughlin, Brenda L., Ed.

    This collection of papers is the outcome of the National Academies' effort to glean information from six different case studies of student-perpetrated school shootings. Part 1, "Case Studies of Lethal School Violence," includes: "The Copycat Factor: Mental Illness, Guns, and the Shooting Incident at Heritage High School, Rockdale County, Georgia"…

  11. Youth and the City Streets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husby, Lynn; Brendtro, Larry

    1992-01-01

    This "Voices of Pioneers" section of the journal highlights the work of Jane Addams, who founded the settlement house movement in America with the establishment of Hull House in Chicago in 1899. Presents excerpts from Addams' book "The Spirit of Youth and the City Streets (1909)" to illustrate her views on guns, stealing, rebellion, and drugs. (NB)

  12. Domestic Violence

    MedlinePlus

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ083 WOMEN’S HEALTH Domestic Violence • What is domestic violence? • What are the types of abuse? • How can ... available to help abused women? What is domestic violence? Domestic violence is a pattern of threatening or ...

  13. School Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkle, William G., Ed.; Henry, Stuart, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This volume presents papers from a 1998 conference on school violence in Valparaiso, Indiana. The papers include: "What is School Violence? An Integrated Definition" (Stuart Henry); "Violence in Schools: Rage against a Broken World" (J. Scott Staples); "Listening to What the Streets Say: Vengeance as Ideology?" (Ralph Cintron); "School Violence:…

  14. Using research evidence to reframe the policy debate around mental illness and guns: process and recommendations.

    PubMed

    McGinty, Emma E; Frattaroli, Shannon; Appelbaum, Paul S; Bonnie, Richard J; Grilley, Anna; Horwitz, Joshua; Swanson, Jeffrey W; Webster, Daniel W

    2014-11-01

    Recent mass shootings have prompted a national dialogue around mental illness and gun policy. To advance an evidence-informed policy agenda on this controversial issue, we formed a consortium of national gun violence prevention and mental health experts. The consortium agreed on a guiding principle for future policy recommendations: restricting firearm access on the basis of certain dangerous behaviors is supported by the evidence; restricting access on the basis of mental illness diagnoses is not. We describe the group's process and recommendations.

  15. Stopping Violence Before It Starts: Identifying Early Predictors of Adolescent Violence. Research Highlights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellickson, Phyllis L.; McGuigan, Kimberly A.

    2005-01-01

    The nation's youth are increasingly affected by violence, both as its perpetrators and as its victims. Many violence prevention programs aim to reverse this trend, but few have been rigorously evaluated, and even fewer have been shown to work. To devise better programs, researchers need more information. To that end, RAND researchers identified…

  16. Electromagnetic configurations of rail guns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fat'yanov, O. V.; Ostashev, V. E.; Lopyrev, A. N.; Ul'Yanov, A. V.

    1993-06-01

    Some problems associated with the electromagnetic acceleration of macrobodies in a rail gun are examined. An approach to the design of rail gun configurations is proposed, and some basic rail gun schemes are synthesized. The alternative rail gun schemes are compared in terms of electrode potential and stability of the electrode gap with respect to parasitic current shunting. The effect of the ohmic resistance of the electrodes and of the additional magnetization field on the spatial structure of the discharge in the rail gun channel is discussed. A classification of rail gun modifications is presented.

  17. Early Intervention To Prevent Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumsden, Linda

    2000-01-01

    This publication summarizes five works exploring the key role schools can play in dealing with emotionally disturbed students, in part because teachers are more reliable sources of information about troubled youths. The importance of interpersonal cognitive problem-solving (ICPS) skills is analyzed in "Preventing Violence the Problem Solving Way"…

  18. The challenge of gun control for mental health advocates.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Anand

    2013-09-01

    Mass shootings, such as the 2012 Newtown massacre, have repeatedly led to political discourse about limiting access to guns for individuals with serious mental illness. Although the political climate after such tragic events poses a considerable challenge to mental health advocates who wish to minimize unsympathetic portrayals of those with mental illness, such media attention may be a rare opportunity to focus attention on risks of victimization of those with serious mental illness and barriers to obtaining psychiatric care. Current federal gun control laws may discourage individuals from seeking psychiatric treatment and describe individuals with mental illness using anachronistic, imprecise, and gratuitously stigmatizing language. This article lays out potential talking points that may be useful after future gun violence.

  19. The challenge of gun control for mental health advocates.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Anand

    2013-09-01

    Mass shootings, such as the 2012 Newtown massacre, have repeatedly led to political discourse about limiting access to guns for individuals with serious mental illness. Although the political climate after such tragic events poses a considerable challenge to mental health advocates who wish to minimize unsympathetic portrayals of those with mental illness, such media attention may be a rare opportunity to focus attention on risks of victimization of those with serious mental illness and barriers to obtaining psychiatric care. Current federal gun control laws may discourage individuals from seeking psychiatric treatment and describe individuals with mental illness using anachronistic, imprecise, and gratuitously stigmatizing language. This article lays out potential talking points that may be useful after future gun violence. PMID:24042247

  20. Peer Victimization and Suicidal Behaviors among High School Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crepeau-Hobson, Franci; Leech, Nancy L.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between various types of peer-directed violence and suicidal thoughts and behaviors among adolescents. A nationally representative sample of 15,425 high school students completed the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. All types of peer victimization (bullying, physical violence, and dating violence) were found to…