... Evaluation FAQs Additional Evaluation Resources Health & Academics Anti-Bullying Policies and Enumeration: An Infobrief for Local Education ... Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six types of health-risk behaviors that contribute to the ...
Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steven A.; Williams, Barbara; Ross, James G.; Lowry, Richard; Kolbe, Lloyd
Examined national Youth Risk Behavior Survey data and state and local surveys of high school students to investigate behaviors contributing to unintentional injuries, violence, substance use, age at initiation of risk behaviors, substance abuse on school property, sexual behaviors contributing to pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases,…
Colorado Univ. Health Sciences Center, Denver.
In April 1991, the Youth Risk Behavior Survey was administered to a sample of 1,412 high school students in Colorado public schools to collect information about priority health-risk behaviors among adolescents. Questionnaires were received from 1,170 students, a response rate of 83%. Classes in Colorado's 280 public schools were also selected to…
Soule, Penelope P.; Sharp, Joyce
This report discusses results of the Nevada Department of Education's fourth statewide administration of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Students in grades 9, 10, 11, and 12 (N=2,702) from 75 public high schools participated in the study. Nevada high school students reported behaviors that equaled or exceeded goals established in the national…
Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steven A.; Ross, James G.; Gowda, Vani R.; Collins, Janet L.; Kolbe, Lloyd J.
The 1998 National Alternative High School Youth Risk Behavior Survey measured health risk behaviors at alternative high schools. Many alternative students engaged in behaviors that made them high-risk for serious problems (e.g., motor vehicle safety, violence, nutrition, sexuality, exercise, and substance abuse). Their prevalence of high risk…
Engstrom, Martha C.; Parrie, Chelsey; Miller, Russell; Li, Yuan
The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) was developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to measure the major health risk behaviors performed by youth. These health risk behaviors include: behaviors that contribute to intentional and unintentional injuries; the use of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs; sexual behaviors that contribute…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011
The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) monitors six priority health-risk behaviors that contribute markedly to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. These behaviors, often established during childhood and early adolescence, include: (1) Behaviors that contribute to…
Stevens, Patricia; Griffin, Juree
This article presents results from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Results, which may assist in developing appropriate intervention/prevention programs, indicate a critical age for involvement in risk behaviors, gradual increase in risk behaviors over time, and gender differences in risk behaviors. (BF)
Kaaya, S F; Leshabari, M T; Mbwambo, J K
Focusing on increased vulnerability to HIV infection, this article examines some of the contexts within which these risk-taking behaviors occur and illustrates that the risk of contracting the disease is just one of the many risks with which Tanzanian youths are confronted. The sexual and substance use behaviors, and the relationship between such behaviors and economic factors, are discussed. Where evidences exist, attempts are made to compare the prevalence of these behaviors among male and female youths, as well as urban and rural youths. The extent to which males and females engage in risk-taking behaviors is unknown; however, studies show that, depending on age and gender, between 17% and 61% of youths are sexually active. Rates in HIV transmission vary by gender and by whether the youths are rural or urban inhabitants. Factors like adverse socioeconomic conditions, unemployment, lack of parental guidance and supervision, and culture all influence sexual risk-taking behaviors among youths. Meanwhile, increasing use of drugs and alcohol among the young population has been closely linked to increased vulnerability to unprotected sexual intercourse. Again, survival needs play a major role in sustaining risk behaviors. The paper concludes by outlining policy implications of youth risk behaviors, taking into account a multisectoral approach in dealing with the problem.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011
The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) monitors priority health risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. The national YRBS is conducted every two years during the spring semester and provides data representative of 9th through 12th grade…
Schubot, David B.
The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is a questionnaire of 92 items assessing the 6 health-care behaviors resulting in the greatest amount of youth morbidity, mortality, and social problems: (1) intentional and unintentional injuries; (2) tobacco use; (3) alcohol and other drug use; (4) sexual activity resulting in HIV infection, other sexually…
Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2008
This paper presents the results of two coordinated surveys of Massachusetts adolescents, the 2007 Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey (ESE) and the Massachusetts Youth Health Survey (DPH). These two surveys were supported by funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and administered in a random selection of 124 public…
New Hampshire State Dept. of Education, Concord.
An 84-item multiple choice Youth Risk Behavior Survey was administered to 2,092 students in 62 public high schools in New Hampshire during the spring of 1995. The survey covered behaviors in six categories: (1) behaviors that result in unintentional or intentional injuries; (2) tobacco use; (3) alcohol and other drug use; (4) sexual behaviors that…
Schubot, David B.
The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) was administered in a stratified random sample to South Dakota public schools including Bureau of Indian Affairs schools; private schools were not included. The six priority health-risk behaviors assessed in the YRBS are: (1) intentional and unintentional injuries; (2) tobacco use; (3) alcohol and other drug…
South Dakota State Dept. of Human Services, Pierre.
The Youth Risk Behavior Survey was cooperatively developed by Centers for Disease Control and state and local departments of health to assess six health risk behaviors of adolescents that result in the greatest number of morbidity, mortality, and social problems. All public, private, and Bureau of Indian Affairs schools in South Dakota, containing…
Oman, Roy F.; McLeroy, Kenneth R.; Vesely, Sara; Aspy, Cheryl B.; Smith, David W.; Penn, David A.
Investigated relationships among youth risk behaviors and demographic factors. Data on risk behaviors (delinquency, truancy, weapon carrying, fighting, sexuality, substance use, demographics, and family structure) were compared within specific demographic factors and by age group for diverse inner-city adolescents. Survey and interview data…
Eaton, Danice K.; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steve; Ross, James; Hawkins, Joseph; Harris, William A.; Lowry, Richard; McManus, Tim; Chyen, David; Shanklin, Shari; Lim, Connie; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Wechsler, Howell
In the United States, 71% of all deaths among persons aged 10-24 years result from 4 causes: motor vehicle crashes, other unintentional injuries, homicide, and suicide. Results from the 2005 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) indicated that during the 30 days preceding the survey, many high school students engaged in behaviors that…
Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011
This report presents the 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey high school student frequency distributions for students with disabilities. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 1,672 high school students with disabilities in Montana during February of 2011. Frequency distributions may not total 1,672 due to nonresponse and…
Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011
This report presents the 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey high school student frequency distributions for nonpublic accredited schools. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 349 high school students in Nonpublic Region during February of 2011. Frequency distributions may not total 349 due to nonresponse and percents may…
Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011
This report presents the 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior alternative school student frequency distributions. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 274 alternative school students in Montana during February of 2011. Frequency distributions may not total 274 due to nonresponse and percents may not total 100 percent due to…
Fernan, Steven A.; And Others
How can state leaders mobilize to meet the health and safety needs of its school-age children? To understand more about children's health, the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction (DPI) has surveyed Wisconsin students. In 1993 the DPI and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) joined forces to conduct the Youth Risk Behavior Survey.…
Farhat, Tilda; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Simons-Morton, Bruce
Background The prevalence and severity of obesity have increased among children and adolescents. While the medical and psychosocial consequences of youth obesity have been well-documented, less information exists on the association of overweight/obesity with health risk behaviors, which are considered to be a primary threat to adolescent health. Objectives This study examined the association of overweight and obesity with health-risk behaviors among U.S. youth. Methods Self-reported height and weight, substance use, violence and bullying were assessed in a nationally representative sample of students aged 11 to 17 years (N=7825) who participated in the 2005/6 Health Behaviors in School-Aged Children survey. Data were analyzed in 2009. Results Significant gender and age differences in the relationship of overweight/obesity with risk behaviors were observed. Overweight and obesity were significantly associated with substance use among girls only: frequent smoking and drinking were associated with overweight and obesity among younger girls, whereas they were associated with obesity among older girls. Frequent smoking and cannabis use were associated with overweight among younger girls only. Relationships between violent behavior and overweight/obesity were mainly observed among boys: Younger obese boys were more likely to be victims of bullying, whereas older obese boys were more likely to carry weapons, compared to boys of normal weight. Conclusions Overweight and obese youth are at risk of developing health compromising behaviors which may compound medical and social problems associated with excess weight. PMID:20171527
Brener, Nancy D; Kann, Laura; Shanklin, Shari; Kinchen, Steve; Eaton, Danice K; Hawkins, Joseph; Flint, Katherine H
Priority health-risk behaviors (i.e., interrelated and preventable behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youths and adults) often are established during childhood and adolescence and extend into adulthood. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), established in 1991, monitors six categories of priority health-risk behaviors among youths and young adults: 1) behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence; 2) sexual behaviors that contribute to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, other sexually transmitted diseases, and unintended pregnancy; 3) tobacco use; 4) alcohol and other drug use; 5) unhealthy dietary behaviors; and 6) physical inactivity. In addition, YRBSS monitors the prevalence of obesity and asthma among this population. YRBSS data are obtained from multiple sources including a national school-based survey conducted by CDC as well as schoolbased state, territorial, tribal, and large urban school district surveys conducted by education and health agencies. These surveys have been conducted biennially since 1991 and include representative samples of students in grades 9-12. In 2004, a description of the YRBSS methodology was published (CDC. Methodology of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. MMWR 2004;53 [No RR-12]). Since 2004, improvements have been made to YRBSS, including increases in coverage and expanded technical assistance.This report describes these changes and updates earlier descriptions of the system, including questionnaire content; operational procedures; sampling, weighting, and response rates; data-collection protocols; data-processing procedures; reports and publications; and data quality. This report also includes results of methods studies that systematically examined how different survey procedures affect prevalence estimates. YRBSS continues to evolve to meet the needs of CDC and other data users through the ongoing revision of the questionnaire
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011
The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) monitors priority health risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. The national YRBS is conducted every two years during the spring semester and provides data representative of 9th through 12th grade…
Johnson, Joyce, Comp.
This paper provides the results of a 1993 survey of 2,684 New Hampshire high school students in regard to risk taking, personal violence, suicide, tobacco use, alcohol abuse, drug abuse, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) education, sexual activity, nutrition, and exercise. It found that in the preceding 30 days, 10.8 percent of students…
Huff, C. Ronald
A study was conducted to compare the criminal behavior of gang members and nongang at-risk youths in four urban and suburban communities, Denver (Colorado), Aurora (Colorado), Broward County (Florida), and Cleveland (Ohio). The first three communities were emergent, rather than chronic, gang environments, but in Cleveland, information on gangs…
Haque laz, Tabassum; Rahman, Mahbubur; Berenson, Abbey B.
The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) demonstrates that American youth engage in a wide variety of risky behaviors.1 The frequency and type of these behaviors often differ by a number of factors, such as socioeconomic status, race, and ethnicity. For example, results of the 2011 YRBSS revealed that white high school students were most likely to have texted or e-mailed while driving or been bullied on school property, while black high school students were most likely to have engaged in risky sexual behaviors, to have been physically inactive, and to be obese.1 Conversely, Hispanic high school students were most likely to have ridden with a driver who had been drinking alcohol; to have ever used cocaine, inhalants, or ecstasy; and to have failed to use protection to prevent pregnancy during last sexual intercourse.1 However, it is difficult to discern whether differences in risk-taking behaviors between and among ethnic groups can actually be attributed to differences in group norms, socioeconomic status, or cultural beliefs regarding acceptance or rejection of such behaviors,1 suggesting a need for more comprehensive regional investigations. PMID:24416689
Naar-King, Sylvie; Wright, Kathryn; Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Frey, Maureen; Templin, Thomas; Lam, Phebe; Murphy, Debra
This study piloted a brief individual motivational intervention targeting multiple health risk behaviors in HIV-positive youth aged 16-25. Interviews about sexual behavior and substance use and viral load testing were obtained from 51 HIV-positive youth at baseline and post intervention. Youth were randomized to receive a four-session motivational…
Mueller, Trisha; Gavin, Lorrie; Oman, Roy; Vesely, Sara; Aspy, Cheryl; Tolma, Eleni; Rodine, Sharon
Youth internal assets and external resources are protective factors that can help youth avoid potentially harmful behaviors. This study investigates how the relationship between youth assets or resources and two sexual risk behaviors (ever had sex and birth control use) varied by gender. Data were collected through in-home interviews from…
Idaho State Dept. of Health and Welfare, Boise. Div. of Consumer and Health Education.
Many of the health problems experienced by youth are caused by preventable behaviors, such as alcohol abuse and unprotected sexual intercourse. The increasing cost of health care demands that youth be taught to adopt and maintain healthy behaviors. School health programs are essential to attaining this goal. The results of the 1995 Idaho Youth…
Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Barrett, Kimberly; Ungaro, Rocio; Winters, Ken C.; Belenko, Steven; Karas, Lora M.; Gulledge, Laura; Wareham, Jennifer
Substance use and sexual risk behaviors are common among adolescents. Although attention has focused primarily on alcohol use, less is known about the relationship between marijuana use and sexual risk behavior among high-risk youth. Since truant youth often experience problems in school, troubled family situations, and other psychosocial problems, they represent an important group of high-risk youth to study. Previous research suggests that truant youth are at considerable risk of continuing their troubled behavior in school and entering the juvenile justice system. It is also likely that truant youth are involved in marijuana use and sexual risk behavior at a higher rate, than the general youth population. Involving them in effective intervention services could reduce these risk behaviors. The current study presents interim findings from a NIDA-funded experimental, brief intervention (BI) study involving truant youths and their parents/guardians. Longitudinal data were analyzed to study: (1) the relationships between the youths’ marijuana use and engaging in sexual risk behavior over time, and (2) the effects of a substance use BI on their marijuana use and sexual risk behavior. Analyses examined a growth model for parallel processes in marijuana use and sexual risk behavior, and an assessment of the effect of the intervention on linear and quadratic trends, and on subgroups of youth differing in their sexual risk behavior and marijuana use. Implications of the results for future research and service delivery are considered. PMID:25400493
Tyler, Kimberly A
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between homeless youths' HIV risk behaviors with strangers and risk and protective characteristics of their social networks. Data were from the Social Network and Homeless Youth Project. A total of 249 youth aged 14-21 years were interviewed over 15 months in three Midwestern cities in the United States using a systematic sampling strategy. Multivariate results revealed that homeless youth with a greater average number of network members who engaged in more drug risk behaviors and who pressured them into precarious behaviors at least once were more likely to have participated in a greater number of HIV risk behaviors with strangers compared to homeless youth without such network characteristics. Additionally, 19-21 year olds, gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered youth, and those who have run away from home more frequently, participated in more HIV risk behaviors with strangers than 14-18 year olds, heterosexual youth, and those who have run away less often. The final model explained 43 % of the variance in homeless youths' HIV risk behaviors with strangers. It is important to identify network characteristics that are harmful to homeless youth because continued exposure to such networks and participation in dangerous behaviors may result in detrimental outcomes, including contraction of sexually transmitted infections and potentially HIV.
Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Wareham, Jennifer; Winters, Ken C.; Ungaro, Rocío; Karas, Lora
Truant youths are likely to engage in a number of problem behaviors, including sexual risky behaviors. As part of a National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)-funded, prospective intervention project, a sample of truant youths' sexual risk behavior was tracked over five time points. Analyses of the data was informed by four objectives: (a) determine…
Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2005
The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System is an epidemiologic surveillance system that was established by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems that can occur during…
Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2012
The Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is administered by the Montana Office of Public Instruction every two years to students in grades 7 through 12. The purpose of the survey is to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems…
Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2013
The Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is administered by the Montana Office of Public Instruction every two years to students in grades 7 through 12. The purpose of the survey is to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems…
Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2012
The Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is administered by the Montana Office of Public Instruction every two years to students in grades 7 through 12. The purpose of the survey is to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems…
Shaughnessy, Lana; Branum, Cheryl; Everett-Jones, Sherry
In spring 2001, 5,654 American Indian high school students attending schools funded by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) completed the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. The survey examined youth behaviors in the areas of motor vehicle safety, weapons, violence, suicide, current and lifetime tobacco use, current and lifetime drug and alcohol use,…
Moyer, Matthew B.; Silvestre, Anthony J.; Lombardi, Emilia L.; Taylor, Christopher A.
Concerned about reports of a 15% decline in HIV testing among high-risk youth in an earlier study in Pittsburgh, this study was initiated to explore reasons why young people are not getting tested for HIV, while gathering data on their respective level of risk taking behaviors. A total of 580 surveys were collected from youth aged between 14 and…
Kindrick, Clint; Gathright, Molly; Cisler, Josh M; Messias, Erick
We used the 2011 Arkansas Youth Risk Behavior Survey to estimate the prevalence of risky sexual behavior and sexual assault and to measure its association with teen suicidality. In Arkansas, 50.3% of students reported ever having sexual intercourse, 26% onset at 14 or younger, 36 % having had more than one partner, and 10.2% having been physically forced to have sex. "Being forced to have sex" was a risk factor for depression and all components of the suicide continuum. Additionally, early onset of sexual activity and having more than one partner increased the risk for depression, suicidal ideation, plan, and attempt. Suicide is a grievous and preventable tragedy, sadly standing among the leading causes of death for teens.' In this series, we examine risk factors for suicidality among Arkansas high school students; in this installment, we examine sexual behavior. A previous study utilizing the Rhode Island Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) found an association between having forced sexual intercourse and suicide. Furthermore, an association between psychiatric disorders and risky sexual behaviors, including both early onset and number of partners was found in a birth cohort study revealed. We hypothesize that Arkansas' teens reporting risky sexual behavior and sexual assault are at higher risk of depression and suicidality as well.
Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Barrett, Kimberly; Ungaro, Rocio; Winters, Ken C.; Belenko, Steven; Karas, Lora M.; Gulledge, Laura; Wareham, Jennifer
Substance use and sexual risk behaviors are common among adolescents, but research has focused attention on alcohol use. Much less is known about the relationship of marijuana use and sexual risk behavior among high-risk, especially truant, youths. We report interim findings from a NIDA-funded experimental, brief intervention (BI) study involving…
Prado, Guillermo; Huang, Shi; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred; Bandiera, Frank; Schwartz, Seth J.; de la Vega, Pura; Brown, C. Hendricks; Pantin, Hilda
Ecodevelopmental theory is a theoretical framework used to explain the interplay among risk and protective processes associated with HIV risk behaviors among adolescents. Although ecodevelopmentally based interventions have been found to be efficacious in preventing HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic youth, this theory has not yet been directly…
Elkington, Katherine S; Bauermeister, José A; Robbins, Reuben N; Gromadzka, Olga; Abrams, Elaine J; Wiznia, Andrew; Bamji, Mahrukh; Mellins, Claude A
This study prospectively examines the effects of maternal and child HIV infection on youth penetrative and unprotected penetrative sex, as well as the role of internal contextual, external contextual, social and self-regulatory factors in influencing the sexual behaviors of HIV-infected (PHIV+), HIV-affected (uninfected with an HIV+ caregiver), and HIV unaffected (uninfected with an HIV- caregiver) youth over time. Data (N=420) were drawn from two longitudinal studies focused on the effects of pediatric or maternal HIV on youth (51% female; 39% PHIV+) and their caregivers (92% female; 46% HIV+). PHIV+ youth were significantly less likely to engage in penetrative sex than HIV- youth at follow-up, after adjusting for contextual, social, and self-regulatory factors. Other individual- and contextual-level factors such as youth alcohol and marijuana use, residing with a biological parent, caregiver employment, caregiver marijuana use, and youth self-concept were also associated with penetrative sex. Youth who used alcohol were significantly more likely to engage in unprotected penetrative sex. Data suggest that, despite contextual, social, and self-regulatory risk factors, PHIV+ youth are less likely to engage in sexual behavior compared to HIV- youth from similar environments. Further research is required to understand delays in sexual activity in PHIV+ youth and also to understand potential factors that promote resiliency, particularly as they age into older adolescence and young adulthood.
King, Dione Moultrie; Hatcher, Schnavia Smith; Blakey, Joan Marie; Mbizo, Justice
There are many health risk behaviors that may elevate the risk of adolescents engaging in teenage dating violence. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the health risk behaviors that are associated with a sample of female juvenile offenders to identify the extent to which those behaviors contribute to dating violence. The survey assessed respondents’ health risk behaviors prior to incarceration, their perceptions of quality of life, post-incarceration expectations, psychosocial factors and other social determinants. Results indicated youth exposure to dating violence, alcohol, drug and risky sexual behaviors in the year prior to incarceration. These findings demonstrate the need to address teen dating violence with at-risk adolescents in addition to risky behaviors. PMID:26408099
Reid, Joan A.; Sullivan, Christopher J.
Using latent class analysis (LCA), this study identified a dyadic taxonomy of delinquent youth categorized by varying types of maternal-youth reporting discrepancies (i.e., youth < maternal, youth > maternal) within a sample of 764 14-year-old high-risk youth. Four distinctive subgroups of youth were identified, two of which reported more…
Dembo, Richard; Wareham, Jennifer; Krupa, Julie; Winters, Ken C.
Little is known of sexual risk behaviors among truant youths across gender. This study utilized latent class analysis to examined heterogeneity of sexual risk behaviors across gender among a sample of 300 truant adolescents. Results revealed two latent subgroups within gender: low vs. high sexual risk behaviors. There were gender differences in baseline covariates of sexual risk behaviors, with male truants in higher risk group experiencing ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) problems, and female truants in higher risk group experienced marijuana use and depression symptoms. African-American race was a significant covariate for high sexual risk behaviors for both genders. Service and practice implications of sexual risk issues of truant youth are discussed. PMID:27066517
Elkington, Katherine; Teplin, Linda A.; Mericle, Amy A.; Welty, Leah J.; Romero, Erin G.; Abram, Karen M.
The effect of psychiatric disorders on human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection (HIV/STI) risk behaviors in juvenile justice youths is examined. Prevalence, persistence and prediction are addressed among four mutually exclusive diagnostic groups and results show a high prevalence rate of many HIV/STI sexual risk behaviors that…
Elkington, Katherine S.; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.
Psychological distress has been inconsistently associated with sexual risk behavior in youth, suggesting additional factors, such as substance use, may explain this relationship. The mediating or moderating role of substance use on the relationship between psychological distress and sexual risk behaviors was prospectively examined over the four…
Wagener, Judy; Nehls-Lowe, Barbara
This report contains data from the 1991 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, administered to 1,440 high school students throughout Wisconsin. Included are data on the prevalence of injuries; drug use; sexual behaviors; dietary behaviors; and physical activity. The results revealed that over 80% of students rarely or never wear bicycle helmets and 50%…
Cederbaum, Julie A.; Marcus, Steven C.; Hutchinson, M. Katherine
Research indicates that knowing someone with HIV/AIDS is associated with greater perceived risk of contracting HIV and changes in sexual risk behaviors. The current study with a sample of 1,172 examined whether knowing someone with HIV/AIDS influenced sexual risk communication and youth engagement in sexual intercourse using the Philadelphia…
Utah Univ., Salt Lake City. Health Behavior Lab.
This report presents results of the 1991 Wyoming Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) and the 1991 Wyoming School Health Education Survey (SHES). Thirty-five schools participated in the YRBS, with 3,513 students in grades 9-12; 92 public schools with students in grades 7-12 participated in the SHES. Statistical data from the YRBS are provided in the…
Aspy, Cheryl B.; Vesely, Sara K.; Oman, Roy F.; Tolma, Eleni; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna; Fluhr, Janene
Background: Two risk behaviors, alcohol consumption and early initiation of sexual intercourse (ISI), can have devastating consequences for youth. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of school connectedness and school-related behaviors (eg, academic performance, skipping school, getting into trouble at school) with these 2…
MMWR: Morbidity and Morality Weekly Report, 2000
In the United States, approximately three-fourths of all deaths among persons aged 10-24 years result from only four causes: motor-vehicle crashes, other unintentional injuries, homicide, and suicide. Results from this 1999 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey demonstrate that numerous high school students engage in behaviors that increase the…
Everett, Sherry; Sussman, Michele; Ranslow, Steve; Shaughnessy, Lana
This youth risk behavior survey was completed by 7,667 students at 127 Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) middle schools. The document is organized around the six categories of behavior that contribute substantially to the leading causes of death, illness, and social problems in the United States: unintentional and intentional injuries; tobacco use;…
Green, Tammy; Schumacher, Catherine; Middaugh, John; Asay, Elvin; Campbell, Terri; Shober, Beth
This report describes the methods and results of the 1999 Alaska Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) and the 1998 School Health Education Profile (SHEP). Each survey is intended to provide a better understanding of health and related programs within school settings. The YRBS asks students to report their behaviors in the six major areas of health…
Rojewski, Jay W.; And Others
Examination of the impact of gender and academic-risk behavior on the career maturity and competence of 110 rural youth revealed that females were more involved and independent in their career development and that high-risk students were less able to solve career-related problems. Addresses implications for rural career education and vocational…
Ratkajec, Gabrijela; Jedud, Ivana
Previous research and experience in Croatia show that interventions are not matched with the risk level and intervention needs of children with behavior disorders. As a result of that, the situation in Croatia requires actuarial approach to the risks and needs assessment of children and youth. The purpose of the current research is to put stronger…
Elkington, Katherine S; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A; Latack, Jessica A; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R; Wainberg, Milton L
The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths' experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted in-depth interviews with N=20 youth with mental illness (MI) (55% male, 16-24 years, 75% Latino) from 4 psychiatric outpatient clinics in New York City. We conducted a thematic analysis to investigate shared experiences of MI stigma and its impact on youth's sexual or romantic relationships and associated behaviors. Our analysis revealed four main themes: 1) societal perceptions of those with MI as partners (societal stigma); 2) individual experiences of stigma within relationships (individual level); 3) internalized stigma of self as a partner (social-psychological processes); and 4) managing a stigmatized identity, of which some of the behaviors directly placed them at increased risk for HIV. We found that just under half of the sample (n=9/20) endorsed all themes, including engaging in HIV/STI sexual risk behaviors as a method to manage a stigmatize identity, which suggests that MI stigma and sexual risk may be linked. We discuss differences by gender and diagnosis. Findings provide new information for providers and researchers to address on the role of stigma experiences in the romantic and sexual behavior of youth in psychiatric treatment. Implications for stigma and HIV/STI prevention interventions are discussed.
Jones, Vanya; Cheng, Tina L.
There is increasing evidence of the interconnection between educational and health outcomes. Unfortunately wide disparities exist by both socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity in educational and vocational success. This study sought to promote urban youths’ career readiness as a way to reduce involvement in risk behaviors. Two hundred primarily African-American youth (ages 14-21) were recruited from a pediatric primary care clinic. Youth randomized to the intervention received three motivational interviewing sessions focused around expectations and planning for the future. Baseline and 6-month follow-up assessments included measures of career readiness and risk behavior involvement (i.e., physical fighting, alcohol and marijuana use). At 6-months, youth randomized to the intervention condition showed increased confidence in their ability to perform the behaviors needed to reach their college/career goals. Additionally, youth randomized to the intervention arm showed decreased fighting behavior (adjusted rate ratio: .27) and marijuana use (adjusted rate ratio: .61). Assisting urban youth in thinking and planning about their future holds promise as a way to reduce their involvement in risk behaviors. This study also demonstrated that motivational interviewing may hold promise for promoting positive behaviors (i.e., career readiness). PMID:26122751
Anatale, Katharine; Kelly, Sarah
Adolescence is a tumultuous and challenging time period in life. Sexual risk behavior among adolescents is a widespread topic of interest in the current literature. Two common factors that influence increased sexual risk behavior are symptoms of depression and negative body image. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of body image and symptoms of depression upon sexual risk-taking in an adolescent female population. A secondary data analysis of the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) was used to explore girls' sexual activity, body image, and mental health. There were 7,708 high-school girls who participated in this study. Three questions were used to represent the constructs under investigation. There were significant correlations between sexual activity, body image, and symptoms of depression; only symptoms of depression were significant predictors of both sexual activity and condom usage. Body image was a predictor of sexual activity, but not condom use. Our findings support previous studies that suggested that people with depressive symptoms were more likely to engage in risky sexual behaviors. Our study also supports the idea that a negative body image decreases sexual activity; however, other researchers have reported that negative body image leads to an increase in sexual activity.
Reininger, Belinda M.; Perez, Adriana; Flores, Maria I. Aguirre; Chen, Zhongxue; Rahbar, Mohammad H.
This study examined the association of perceived social support and community empowerment among urban middle-school students living in Matamoros, Mexico and the risk behaviors of fighting, alcohol and tobacco use, and sexual activity. Middle school students (n = 1,181) from 32 public and private Mexican schools were surveyed. Weighted multiple…
Farrelly, Colleen; Cordova, David; Huang, Shi; Estrada, Yannine; Prado, Guillermo
The present study examined the relationship between Berry's acculturation typology and HIV risk behaviors and whether family functioning mediated any such effects. A total of 235 high risk Hispanic adolescents were categorized into one of Berry's four acculturation typologies through the use of cut-off scores on measures of Hispanicism and Americanism. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the effects of acculturation typology on HIV risk behaviors and the indirect effects of acculturation typology on HIV risk behaviors through family functioning. Acculturation typology was related to HIV risk behaviors. Family functioning partially mediated the effects of acculturation typology on the HIV risk behavior outcomes. These findings suggest that both Americanism and Hispanicism play an important role in the etiology of HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic youth and that both, along with family functioning, are important to consider when designing preventive interventions for this population.
Farrelly, Colleen; Cordova, David; Huang, Shi; Estrada, Yannine
The present study examined the relationship between Berry’s acculturation typology and HIV risk behaviors and whether family functioning mediated any such effects. A total of 235 high risk Hispanic adolescents were categorized into one of Berry’s four acculturation typologies through the use of cut-off scores on measures of Hispanicism and Americanism. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the effects of acculturation typology on HIV risk behaviors and the indirect effects of acculturation typology on HIV risk behaviors through family functioning. Acculturation typology was related to HIV risk behaviors. Family functioning partially mediated the effects of acculturation typology on the HIV risk behavior outcomes. These findings suggest that both Americanism and Hispanicism play an important role in the etiology of HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic youth and that both, along with family functioning, are important to consider when designing preventive interventions for this population. PMID:22532299
Kjellgren, Cecilia; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran; Långström, Niklas
Little is known about risk/protective factors for sexually coercive behavior in general population youth. We used a Swedish school-based population survey of sexual attitudes and experiences (response rate 77%) and investigated literature-based variables across sexually coercive (SEX), non-sexual conduct problem (CP), and normal control (NC) participants to identify general and specific risk/protective factors for sexual coercion. Among 1,933 male youth, 101 (5.2%) reported sexual coercion (ever talked or forced somebody into genital, oral, or anal sex) (SEX), 132 (6.8%) were classified as CP, and the remaining 1,700 (87.9%) as NC. Of 29 tested variables, 25 were more common in both SEX and CP compared to NC youth, including minority ethnicity, separated parents, vocational study program, risk-taking, aggressiveness, depressive symptoms, substance abuse, sexual victimization, extensive sexual experiences, and sexual preoccupation. When compared to CP youth only, SEX youth more often followed academic study programs, used less drugs and were less risk-taking. Further, SEX more frequently than CP youth reported gender stereotypic and pro-rape attitudes, sexual preoccupation, prostitution, and friends using violent porn. Finally, in a multivariate logistic regression, academic study program, pro-rape attitudes, sexual preoccupation, and less risk-taking independently remained more strongly associated with SEX compared to CP offending. In conclusion, several sociodemographic, family, and individual risk/protective factors were common to non-sexual and sexually coercive antisocial behavior in late adolescence. However, pro-rape cognitions, and sexual preoccupation, were sexuality-related, specific risk factors. The findings could inform preventive efforts and the assessment and treatment of sexually coercive male youth.
Balling, Allison; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Speicher, Nancy; McManus, Tim; Kann, Laura
To monitor priority health-risk behaviors among youth and young adults, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS). The YRBSS includes national, state, territory, and local school-based surveys of high school students in grades 9-12. In addition, some states, territories, and cities…
Lippe, Jaclynn; Brener, Nancy D.; McManus, Tim; Kann, Laura; Speicher, Nancy
To monitor priority health-risk behaviors among youth and young adults, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS). The YRBSS includes national, state, territorial, and local school-based surveys of high school students in grades 9-12. In addition, some states, territories,…
Bull, Sheana S; Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Davis, Jonathan M; Roppolo, Rebecca; Corsi, Karen
Youth marijuana use is a growing concern with increasingly permissive views towards marijuana use. Little is known about attitudes and beliefs toward marijuana use among youth in the context of legalization. This study describes youth attitudes and beliefs about health risks associated with marijuana use, social norms of peer use, conversations with parents about marijuana use, and knowledge of recreational marijuana laws, using a venue-day-time sampling approach with diverse Colorado youth (n = 241) post-legalization. We considered demographic (gender, racial/ethnic and geographic) differences in knowledge of laws and perceptions of risk using bivariate and multivariate analyses. While many youth are knowledgeable about retail marijuana laws in Colorado, males were 2.12 times more likely to be familiar with laws compared to females. While 40 % of the sample perceived a moderate to high risk from weekly marijuana consumption and 57 % from daily consumption, fewer males perceived these risks. Over ¾ of the sample indicate they discuss marijuana with parents, but many fewer indicate discussing consequences and health effects of use with parents. Results suggest opportunities for parents and clinicians to influence youth attitudes and behaviors towards marijuana use. It may be worthwhile to target educational campaigns to different demographic groups, and to offer training and capacity building for parents to discuss marijuana with their teenaged children.
Melnick, Merrill J.; Miller, Kathleen E.; Sabo, Donald F.; Farrell, Michael P.; Barnes, Grace M.
Data from the 1997 Youth Risk Behavior Survey was used to compare use of tobacco between athletes and nonathletes. Both female and male athletes were less likely to have smoked, which was truer for the more involved athletes. Both female and male athletes were more likely to have tried smokeless tobacco, with the effect greater for more involved…
Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011
This report presents the 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey high school student frequency distributions for American Indian students in urban schools. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 808 high school American Indian students in urban schools during February of 2011. Frequency distributions may not total 808 due to…
Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011
This report presents the 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey high school student frequency distributions for American Indian students on or near a reservation. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 720 high school American Indian students on or near a reservation in Montana during February of 2011. Frequency distributions…
Coleman, Casey; Wileyto, E. Paul; Lenhart, Clare M.; Patterson, Freda
Background: Chronic disease risk factors tend to cooccur. Purpose: This study examined the cooccurrence of 8 negative health behaviors in a representative sample of urban adolescents to inform educational interventions. Methods: The prevalence, cooccurrence, and clustering of suicide attempt, lifetime history of sexual activity, tobacco use, cell…
Everett, Bethany G.; Rosario, Margaret; Birkett, Michelle
Objectives. We used nuanced measures of sexual minority status to examine disparities in victimization and their variations by gender, age, and race/ethnicity. Methods. We conducted multivariate analyses of pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. Results. Although all sexual minorities reported more fighting, skipping school because they felt unsafe, and having property stolen or damaged at school than did heterosexuals, rates were highest among youths who identified as bisexual or who reported both male and female sexual partners. Gender differences among sexual minorities appeared to be concentrated among bisexuals and respondents who reported sexual partners of both genders. Sexual minority youths reported more fighting than heterosexual youths, especially at younger ages, and more nonphysical school victimization that persisted through adolescence. White and Hispanic sexual minority youths reported more indicators of victimization than did heterosexuals; we found few sexual minority differences among African American and Asian American youths. Conclusions. Victimization carries health consequences, and sexual minorities are at increased risk. Surveys should include measures that allow tracking of disparities in victimization by sexual minority status. PMID:24328633
Slesnick, Natasha; Kang, Min Ju
While many studies provide useful information on the risk behaviors in which homeless youth engage, few prior studies evaluate Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) risk related reduction strategies. In this study, homeless youth (n = 180) were recruited from a drop-in center and randomly assigned to one of two conditions, either an integrated individual cognitive-behavioral treatment and HIV prevention intervention that focused on skills building and education or to treatment as usual. All youth were assessed at entry into the program and at 3 and 6 month follow-up points. Findings showed an interaction between treatment condition, age and time. In the interaction, youth assigned to the integrated treatment reported greater condom usage than youth assigned to treatment as usual, with younger youth assigned to treatment as usual showing no change in condom use. The number of sexual partners reported by youth in both treatment conditions was also reduced over time. However, youth in both conditions continued to engage in other high-risk behaviors. The integrated treatment findings are promising and suggest that interventions which target both HIV risk behavior in addition to other life areas (substance use, mental health and housing) among homeless youth may be necessary in order to significantly impact high-risk behaviors among this unique group. PMID:17940861
Dembo, Richard; Pacheco, Kimberly; Schmeidler, James; Fisher, Lori; Cooper, Sheila
Reports the results of a study of substance use (measured by self-reports and hair test results) and delinquency among arrested youths entering a service intervention program. Results highlight important relationships between alcohol and other drug use and involvement in delinquency in the year prior to the interviews. (Author/RJM)
Carmona, Jasmin; Slesnick, Natasha; Guo, Xiamei; Letcher, Amber
Research efforts to reduce Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) risk behavior among street living youth have shown disappointing outcomes, with few studies reporting reduced risk behaviors. The current study tested the impact of an integrated HIV prevention intervention, and predictors of change, for youth (N=270) between the ages of 14 to 20 years receiving substance use treatment through a drop-in center. Condom use, HIV knowledge, number of sexual partners and behaviors associated with an overall HIV risk index were assessed at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months post-baseline. Findings suggest that HIV prevention integrated with substance use treatment is associated with increased condom use and reduced sex partners. However, the effects on condom use were short lived and dissipated by 12 months post-baseline. Higher treatment attendance and baseline substance use predicted increased condom use. Although no significant change was observed in the overall HIV risk index, increases in depressive symptoms were associated with increases in the index score, as well as more sexual partners. Future research should determine whether successful intervention requires reinforcement of risk reduction behaviors while youth remain homeless.
Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A.; Latack, Jessica A.; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.
The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths’ experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted in-depth interviews with N=20 youth with mental illness (MI) (55% male, 16-24 years, 75% Latino) from 4 psychiatric outpatient clinics in New York City. We conducted a thematic analysis to investigate shared experiences of MI stigma and its impact on youth’s sexual or romantic relationships and associated behaviors. Our analysis revealed four main themes: 1) societal perceptions of those with MI as partners (societal stigma); 2) individual experiences of stigma within relationships (individual level); 3) internalized stigma of self as a partner (social-psychological processes); and 4) managing a stigmatized identity, of which some of the behaviors directly placed them at increased risk for HIV. We found that just under half of the sample (n=9/20) endorsed all themes, including engaging in HIV/STI sexual risk behaviors as a method to manage a stigmatize identity, which suggests that MI stigma and sexual risk may be linked. We discuss differences by gender and diagnosis. Findings provide new information for providers and researchers to address on the role of stigma experiences in the romantic and sexual behavior of youth in psychiatric treatment. Implications for stigma and HIV/STI prevention interventions are discussed. PMID:25477706
Pachankis, John E.; Wolff, Joshua
Objectives. We examined whether the health risk behaviors of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths are determined in part by the religious composition of the communities in which they live. Methods. Data were collected from 31 852 high school students, including 1413 LGB students, who participated in the Oregon Healthy Teens survey in 2006 through 2008. Supportive religious climate was operationalized according to the proportion of individuals (of the total number of religious adherents) who adhere to a religion supporting homosexuality. Comprehensive data on religious climate were derived from 85 denominational groups in 34 Oregon counties. Results. Among LGB youths, living in a county with a religious climate that was supportive of homosexuality was associated with significantly fewer alcohol abuse symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.40, 0.85) and fewer sexual partners (OR = 0.77; 95% CI = 0.60, 0.99). The effect of religious climate on health behaviors was stronger among LGB than heterosexual youths. Results remained robust after adjustment for multiple confounding factors. Conclusions. The religious climate surrounding LGB youths may serve as a determinant of their health risk behaviors. PMID:22397347
Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Ungaro, Rocio; Barrett, Kimberly; Gulledge, Laura; Winters, Ken C.; Belenko, Steven; Karas, Lora M.; Wareham, Jennifer
Truant youths represent a challenging, yet very promising group of at-risk youth to study. In addition to problems in school, they frequently experience troubled family situations, emotional/ psychological problems, involvement in substance use, and delinquency. Given the problems often experienced by truant youth, it is likely they are engaging in alcohol use and sexual risk behavior at a higher rate, than the general youth population. Identification of these youths’ problems and early placement into effective intervention services would benefit them, their families, and society. The current study presents interim findings from an ongoing, NIDA-funded experimental, Brief Intervention (BI) study involving truant youths and their parent/guardians. Baseline, 3-month, 6-month, and 12-month follow up data were analyzed to determine whether alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors were longitudinally related, examine the effects of the intervention on longitudinal alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors, identify latent subgroups of youths in the data for alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors, and determine whether the intervention influenced these subgroups. Results indicated alcohol use and sexual risk were longitudinally related. Subgroups of youth were also identified based on alcohol use and sexual risk behavior levels and trends. Further, limited treatment effects were observed for alcohol use. Implications of the results for future research and service delivery are considered. PMID:25242878
Reed, Danielle; Reno, Jessica; Green, Dan
Research has consistently demonstrated a relationship between history of forced sex and poor behavioral health outcomes. The objectives of this study were to describe this relationship among high school students and to explore the impact of resiliency factors. Using data from the 2013 New Mexico Youth Risk and Resiliency Survey, we found that history of forced sex was associated with negative behavioral health outcomes for males and females, regardless of sexual orientation and disability status. Furthermore, the presence of a caring adult at home appeared to reduce the risk of substance abuse and suicidality among students with and without a history of forced sex.
Shaughnessy, Lana; Everett, Sherry; Ranslow, Steve
This report presents findings from a spring 1997 survey of all middle-school students (grades 6-8) enrolled in schools funded by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). The Centers for Disease Control Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) was completed by 6,990 students in 115 of the 122 BIA-funded middle schools; the overall response rate was 74 percent.…
Kindrick, Kristi; Castro, Juan; Messias, Erick
Bullying is a common exposure in high school and more recently cyberbullying has become prevalent among teens. We used the 2011 Arkansas Youth Risk Behavior Survey to estimate the prevalence of school bullying and cyberbullying and to measure its association with teen suicidality. In Arkansas, 11.6% of students reported only school bullying, 6.2% only cyberbullying, and 10.2% both forms of bullying. We determined "feeling unsafe at school" was a significant risk factor for depression and all suicide questions. We also found that being a victim of school bullying, cyberbullying, or both, increased the risk for depression, suicidal ideation, and plan.
Jalbrzikowski, Maria; Krasileva, Kate E.; Marvin, Sarah; Zinberg, Jamie; Andaya, Angielette; Bachman, Peter; Cannon, Tyrone D.; Bearden, Carrie E.
Youths at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis typically exhibit significant social dysfunction. However, the specific social behaviors associated with psychosis risk have not been well characterized. We administer the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), a measure of autistic traits that examines reciprocal social behavior, to the parents of 117 adolescents (61 CHR individuals, 20 age-matched adolescents with a psychotic disorder [AOP], and 36 healthy controls) participating in a longitudinal study of psychosis risk. AOP and CHR individuals have significantly elevated SRS scores relative to healthy controls, indicating more severe social deficits. Mean scores for AOP and CHR youths are typical of scores obtained in individuals with high functioning autism (Constantino & Gruber, 2005). SRS scores are significantly associated with concurrent real-world social functioning in both clinical groups. Finally, baseline SRS scores significantly predict social functioning at follow-up (an average of 7.2 months later) in CHR individuals, over and above baseline social functioning measures ( p < .009). These findings provide novel information regarding impairments in domains critical for adolescent social development, because CHR individuals and those with overt psychosis show marked deficits in reciprocal social behavior. Further, the SRS predicts subsequent real-world social functioning in CHR youth, suggesting that this measure may be useful for identifying targets of treatment in psychosocial interventions. PMID:24229557
Prado, Guillermo; Huang, Shi; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred; Bandiera, Frank; Schwartz, Seth J.; de la Vega, Pura; Brown, C. Hendricks; Pantin, Hilda
Ecodevelopmental theory is a theoretical framework used to explain the interplay among risk and protective processes associated with HIV risk behaviors among adolescents. Although ecodevelopmentally based interventions have been found to be efficacious in preventing HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic youth, this theory has not yet been directly empirically tested through a basic research study in this population. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to empirically evaluate an ecodevelopmentally based model using structural equation modeling, with substance use and early sex initiation as the two outcomes of the ecodevelopmental chain of relationships. The sample consisted of 586 Hispanic youth (M age = 13.6; SD = 0.75) and their primary caregivers living in Miami, Florida. Adolescent, parent, and teacher reports were used. The results provided strong support for the theoretical model. More specifically, the parent–adolescent acculturation gap is indirectly related both to early sex initiation and to adolescent substance use through family functioning, academic functioning, perceived peer sexual behavior, and perceived peer substance use. Additionally, parent’s U.S. orientation is associated with adolescent substance use and adolescent sex initiation through social support for parents, parental stressors, family functioning, academic functioning, and perceived peer sexual behavior and substance use. These findings suggest that HIV risk behaviors may best be understood as associated with multiple and interrelated ecological determinants. PMID:20130302
Albaugh, Matthew D.; Harder, Valerie S.; Althoff, Robert R.; Rettew, David C.; Ehli, Erik A.; Lengyel-Nelson, Timea; Davies, Gareth E.; Ayer, Lynsay; Sulman, Julie; Stanger, Catherine; Hudziak, James J.
Objective: To test the association between the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism and both aggressive behavior and attention problems in youth. We hypothesized that youth carrying a Met allele would have greater average aggressive behavior scores, and that youth exhibiting Val-homozygosity would have greater average…
Eaton, Danice K.; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steve; Ross, James; Hawkins, Joseph; Harris, William A.; Lowry, Richard; McManus, Tim; Chyen, David; Shanklin, Shari; Lim, Connie; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Wechsler, Howell
Problem: Priority health-risk behaviors, which contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults, often are established during childhood and adolescence, extend into adulthood, are interrelated, and are preventable. Reporting Period Covered: October 2004-January 2006. Description of the System: The Youth Risk…
Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Ungaro, Rocio; Barrett, Kimberly; Gulledge, Laura; Winters, Ken C.; Belenko, Steven; Karas, Lora M.; Wareham, Jennifer
Truant youths frequently experience family problems, emotional/psychological issues, substance misuse, and delinquency. They are likely engaging in alcohol use and sexual risk behavior at a higher rate than the general youth population. Early intervention services would benefit them, their families, and society. We present interim findings from an…
Aichele, Stephen R.; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique; James, Susan; Grimm, Kevin
The incidence of HIV infection in rural African youth remains high despite widespread knowledge of the disease within the region and increasing funds allocated to programs aimed at its prevention and treatment. This suggests that program efficacy requires a more nuanced understanding of the profiles of the most at-risk individuals. To evaluate the explanatory power of novel psychographic variables in relation to high-risk sexual behaviors, we conducted a survey to assess the effects of psychographic factors, both behavioral and attitudinal, controlling for standard predictors in 546 youth (12–26 years of age) across 8 villages in northern Tanzania. Indicators of high-risk sexual behavior included HIV testing, sexual history (i.e., virgin/non-virgin), age of first sexual activity, condom use, and number of lifetime sexual partners. Predictors in the statistical models included standard demographic variables, patterns of media consumption, HIV awareness, and six new psychographic features identified via factor analyses: personal vanity, family-building values, ambition for higher education, town recreation, perceived parental strictness, and spending preferences. In a series of hierarchical regression analyses, we find that models including psychographic factors contribute significant additional explanatory information when compared to models including only demographic and other conventional predictors. We propose that the psychographic approach used here, in so far as it identifies individual characteristics, aspirations, aspects of personal life style and spending preferences, can be used to target appropriate communities of youth within villages for leading and receiving outreach, and to build communities of like-minded youth who support new patterns of sexual behavior. PMID:24927421
Sexual Identity, Sex of Sexual Contacts, and Health-Risk Behaviors among Students in Grades 9-12--Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance, Selected Sites, United States, 2001-2009. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Early Release. Volume 60
Kann, Laura; O'Malley Olsen, Emily; McManus, Tim; Kinchen, Steve; Chyen, David; Harris, William A.; Wechsler, Howell
Problem: Sexual minority youths are youths who identify themselves as gay or lesbian, bisexual, or unsure of their sexual identity or youths who have only had sexual contact with persons of the same sex or with both sexes. Population-based data on the health-risk behaviors practiced by sexual minority youths are needed at the state and local…
Mellins, Claude A; Tassiopoulos, Katherine; Malee, Kathleen; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Patton, Doyle; Smith, Renee; Usitalo, Ann; Allison, Susannah M; Van Dyke, Russell; Seage, George R
In a sample of perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) and perinatally HIV-exposed, uninfected (PHEU) adolescents, we examined the co-occurrence of behavioral health risks including mental health problems, onset of sexual and drug use behaviors, and (in PHIV+ youth) nonadherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Participants, recruited from 2007 to 2010, included 349 youth, ages 10-16 years, enrolled in a cohort study examining the impact of HIV infection and ART. Measures of the above behavioral health risks were administered to participants and primary caregivers. Nearly half the participants met study criteria for at least one behavioral health risk, most frequently, mental health problems (28%), with the onset of sexual activity and substance use each reported by an average of 16%. Among the sexually active, 65% of PHIV+ and 50% of PHEU youth reported unprotected sex. For PHIV +youth, 34% reported recent ART nonadherence, of whom 45% had detectable HIV RNA levels. Between 16% (PHIV+) and 11% (PHEU) of youth reported at least two behavioral health risks. Older age, but not HIV status, was associated with having two or more behavioral health risks versus none. Among PHIV+ youth, living with a birth mother (versus other caregivers) and detectable viral load were associated with co-occurrence of behavioral health risks. In conclusion, this study suggests that for both PHIV+ and PHEU youth, there are multiple behavioral health risks, particularly mental health problems, which should be targeted by service systems that can integrate prevention and treatment efforts.
Black, Sandra R; Schmiege, Sarah; Bull, Sheana
Perception of peer behaviors is an important predictor of actual risk behaviors among youth. However, we lack understanding of peer influence through social media and of actual and perceived peer behavior concordance. The purpose of this research is to document the relationship between individual perception of and actual peer sexual risk behavior using online social networks. The data are a result of a secondary analysis of baseline self-reported and peer-reported sexual risk behavior from a cluster randomized trial including 1,029 persons from 162 virtual networks. Individuals (seeds) recruited up to three friends who then recruited additional friends, extending three waves from the seed. ANOVA models compared network means of actual participant behavior across categories of perceived behavior. Concordance varied between reported and perceived behavior, with higher concordance between perceived and reported condom use, multiple partners, concurrent partners, sexual pressure, and drug and alcohol use during sex. Individuals significantly over-reported risk and under-reported protective peer behaviors related to sex.
Igwe, S A
Improved family and community support would prevent many youth in Nigeria from risk behavior including drinking alcohol, smoking, and using illicit drugs. In Rivers State, 70% of secondary students have had at least 1 alcoholic drink. Further, in Bendel State, 13% of 15-19 year olds in the coastal region drink alcohol compared with 75% of those in the hinterland. Since alcohol affects good judgment skills, this behavior is especially risky during rituals and social activities and causes accidents. Youth who drink are likely to have unplanned and unprotected sexual intercourse. Drinking during pregnancy is associated with miscarriages, low birth weight, and birth defects. Despite the problems with youth and drinking, Nigeria does not have law restricting sales of alcohol to youth. In Nigeria smoking was once predominantly a male habit but is now increasing quickly among women. Most smokers 1st begin their habit when 18 years old. Even thought he Nigerian government has restricted smoking in public places, it has not yet been effective. Smoking has numerous negative effects such as lung cancer, other cancers, shorter life spans, low birth weight, prematurity, higher perinatal mortality, and more labor complications. Moreover the tobacco and alcohol companies advertise widely using ingenious and persuasive promotions. Youth are especially vulnerable to these slick promotions. Cannabis remains the most common illegal drug. Heroin use is growing among urban adolescents in Nigeria, however. Nigeria also serves as a transhipment point for drugs to the US as well as a consumption point. Drug use results in rising numbers of patients in mental hospitals and treatment centers. A particular concern of drug use is transmission of HIV and hepatitis B via needles. Smokers and alcohol drinkers are likely to also be drug users. Families, government, and community organizations need to collaborate to prevent these risk behaviors among youth.
Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Rice, Eric; Bender, Kimberly; Lengnick-Hall, Rebecca; Yoshioka-Maxwell, Amanda; Rhoades, Harmony
Preliminary studies with homeless youth have found surprisingly pervasive social media use and suggest that youth's online interactions may be associated with their HIV-related risk and protective behaviors. As homeless youth are transient and difficult to engage in place-based services, social media may represent a novel venue for intervention. A critical 1st step in intervention development is gaining greater understanding of how homeless youth use social media, especially as it relates to who they connect to and around what topics. Given the salience of social networking sites in the lives of these otherwise difficult-to-reach adolescents, and their potential to disseminate prevention interventions, this study assessed associations between online social networking technology use and HIV risk behaviors among homeless youth in Los Angeles, California. Homeless youth ages 13 through 24 (N = 1,046) were recruited through 3 drop-in centers and surveyed about their social media use and self-reported HIV-related risk behaviors. Results suggest that social media use is widely prevalent among this population, and the content of these online interactions is associated with whether youth engage in risk or protective behaviors. Implications for interventions and further research are discussed.
Foti, Kathryn; Balaji, Alexandra; Shanklin, Shari
Background: To monitor priority health risk behaviors and school health policies and practices, respectively, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) and the School Health Profiles (Profiles). CDC is often asked about the use and application of these survey data to improve…
Dariotis, Jacinda K; Johnson, Matthew W
Youth under 25 show substantial sexual and substance use risk behaviors. One factor associated with risk behaviors is delay discounting, the devaluation of delayed outcomes. This study determined if delay discounting for sexual outcomes is related to sexual risk and substance use among 18-24 year olds. Females (70) and males (56) completed the Sexual Discounting Task, which assessed their likelihood of having unprotected immediate sex versus waiting for sex with a condom, at various delays, with 4 hypothetical sexual partners selected from photographs: the person they most wanted to have sex with, least wanted to have sex with, judged most likely to have a sexually transmitted infection (STI), and judged least likely to have an STI. They also completed instruments assessing HIV knowledge, sexual behaviors, substance use, risk attitudes, inhibition, impulsivity, and sensation-seeking. Condom use likelihood generally decreased with increasing delay. Preference for immediate, unprotected sex was greater for partners whom participants most (vs. least) wanted to have sex with and judged least (vs. most) likely to have an STI. Preference for immediate, unprotected sex in the "most want to have sex with" and "least likely to have an STI" conditions was related to greater lifetime risky sexual partners, lifetime number of unique substances used, disregard of social approval/danger, disinhibition, and sensation/excitement-seeking. Males showed greater likelihood of unprotected sex than females when condom use was undelayed, but delay similarly affected condom use between sexes. Delay discounting should be considered in strategies to minimize youth risk behavior.
Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A.; Latack, Jessica A.; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.
The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths' experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted…
Eaton, Danice K.; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steve; Shanklin, Shari; Ross, James; Hawkins, Joseph; Harris, William A.; Lowry, Richard; McManus, Tim; Chyen, David; Lim, Connie; Brener, Nancy D.; Wechsler, Howell
Problem: Priority health-risk behaviors, which are behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults, often are established during childhood and adolescence, extend into adulthood, are interrelated, and are preventable. Reporting Period Covered: January-December 2007. Description of the System: The…
Eaton, Danice K.; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steve; Shanklin, Shari; Ross, James; Hawkins, Joseph; Harris, William A.; Lowry, Richard; McManus, Tim; Chyen, David; Lim, Connie; Whittle, Lisa; Brener, Nancy D.; Wechsler, Howell
Problem: Priority health-risk behaviors, which are behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults, often are established during childhood and adolescence, extend into adulthood, and are interrelated and preventable. Reporting Period Covered: September 2008-December 2009. Description of the…
Eaton, Danice K.; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steve; Shanklin, Shari; Flint, Katherine H.; Hawkins, Joseph; Harris, William A.; Lowry, Richard; McManus, Tim; Chyen, David; Whittle, Lisa; Lim, Connie; Wechsler, Howell
Problem: Priority health-risk behaviors, which are behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults, often are established during childhood and adolescence, extend into adulthood, and are interrelated and preventable. Reporting Period Covered: September 2010-December 2011. Description of the…
Johnson, Andrew O.; Mink, Michael D.; Harun, Nusrat; Moore, Charity G.; Martin, Amy B.; Bennett, Kevin J.
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare national estimates of drug use and exposure to violence between rural and urban teens. Methods: Twenty-eight dependent variables from the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey were used to compare violent activities, victimization, suicidal behavior, tobacco use, alcohol use, and illegal drug use…
Burrow, Anthony L.; Tubman, Jonathan G.; Gil, Andres G.
This descriptive study employed a within-groups analytic approach to examine patterns of sexual risk behavior and co-occurring general and race/ethnicity-specific risk and protective factors in a community sample of African-American youth (n = 436). Cluster analysis was used to classify young adults by levels of self-reported past year sexual risk…
Chandwani, Sulachni; Abramowitz, Susan; Koenig, Linda J.; Barnes, William; D'Angelo, Lawrence
Secondary prevention programs are needed to help HIV-positive youth reduce risk behavior and improve adherence to HIV medications. This article provides an overview of Adolescent Impact, a secondary HIV prevention intervention, including its description, delivery, and receptivity among the two unique groups of participants. Adolescent Impact, a…
Santelli, John S.; Edelstein, Zoe R.; Mathur, Sanyukta; Wei, Ying; Zhang, Wenfei; Orr, Mark G.; Higgins, Jenny A.; Nalugoda, Fred; Gray, Ron H.; Wawer, Maria J.; Serwadda, David M.
Background Prevalence of HIV infection is considerable among youth, although data on risk factors for new (incident) infections is limited. We examined incidence of HIV infection and risk and protective factors among youth in rural Uganda, including the role of gender and social transitions. Methods Participants were sexually experienced youth (15–24 years-old) enrolled in the Rakai Community Cohort Study,1999–2008 (n=6741). Poisson regression with robust standard errors was used to estimate incident rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of incident HIV infection. Results HIV incidence was greater among young women than young men (14.1 vs. 8.3 per 1000 person-years, respectively); this gender disparity was greater among teens (14.9 vs. 3.6). Beyond behavioral (multiple partners and concurrency) and biological factors (sexually transmitted infection (STI) symptoms), social transitions such as marriage and staying in school influenced HIV risk. In multivariate analyses among women, HIV incidence was associated with living in a trading village [adjusted IRR (aIRR) = 1.48; 95% CI: 1.04 to 2.11], being a student (aIRR = 0.22; 95% CI: 0.07 to 0.72), current marriage (aIRR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.37 to 0.81), former marriage (aIRR = 1.73; 95% CI: 1.01 to 2.96), having multiple partners, and sexually transmitted infection symptoms. Among men, new infections were associated with former marriage (aIRR = 5.57; 95% CI: 2.51 to 12.36), genital ulceration (aIRR = 3.56; 95% CI: 1.97 to 6.41), and alcohol use (aIRR = 2.08; 95% CI: 1.15 to 3.77). Conclusions During the third decade of the HIV epidemic in Uganda, HIV incidence remains considerable among youth, with young women particularly at risk. The risk for new infections was strongly shaped by social transitions such as leaving school, entrance into marriage, and marital dissolution; the impact of marriage was different for young men than women. PMID:23535293
Stanton, B F; Fitzgerald, A M; Li, X; Shipena, H; Ricardo, I B; Galbraith, J S; Terreri, N; Strijdom, J; Hangula-Ndlovu, V; Kahihuata, J
Considerable progress has been made in the United States and Europe regarding HIV risk prevention efforts targeting adolescents. However, in Africa less progress has been made to date. This article address three questions: Can risk assessment questionnaires developed in Western countries be modified so as to be appropriate for use in African countries? Are social cognitive models appropriate in African settings? Does covariation among risk behaviors occur among youth residing in African countries? The data was obtained from a cross-sectional survey conducted among 922 youth ages 12 to 18 years living in school-based hostels in Namibia. Data were collected using a theory-based risk assessment questionnaire. One third of the youth were sexually experienced, three quarters of whom had engaged in sexual intercourse in the previous 6 months. Over one third of these youth had had more that one sexual partner in the previous 6 months and over one half had not used a condom at last episode of intercourse. The psychometric properties of the questionnaire and the relationship between perceptions and behaviors provide evidence that theory-based questionnaires developed in Western countries can be modified for use in different cultural settings. The data also provide strong evidence of covariation between risk behaviors among Namibian youth.
Corliss, Heather L.; Everett, Bethany G.; Russell, Stephen T.; Buchting, Francisco O.; Birkett, Michelle A
Objectives. We examined the role of adolescent peer violence victimization (PVV) in sexual orientation disparities in cancer-related tobacco, alcohol, and sexual risk behaviors. Methods. We pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. We classified youths with any same-sex sexual attraction, partners, or identity as sexual minority and the remainder as heterosexual. We had 4 indicators of tobacco and alcohol use and 4 of sexual risk and 2 PVV factors: victimization at school and carrying weapons. We stratified associations by gender and race/ethnicity. Results. PVV was related to disparities in cancer-related risk behaviors of substance use and sexual risk, with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 1.6) to 11.3 (95% CI = 6.2, 20.8), and to being a sexual minority, with ORs of 1.4 (95% CI = 1.1, 1.9) to 5.6 (95% CI = 3.5, 8.9). PVV mediated sexual orientation disparities in substance use and sexual risk behaviors. Findings were pronounced for adolescent girls and Asian/Pacific Islanders. Conclusions. Interventions are needed to reduce PVV in schools as a way to reduce sexual orientation disparities in cancer risk across the life span. PMID:24825215
BROWNING, CHRISTOPHER R.; BURRINGTON, LORI A.; LEVENTHAL, TAMA; BROOKS-GUNN, JEANNE
We draw on collective efficacy theory to extend a contextual model of early adolescent sexual behavior. Specifically, we hypothesize that neighborhood structural disadvantage—as measured by levels of concentrated poverty, residential instability, and aspects of immigrant concentration—and diminished collective efficacy have consequences for the prevalence of early adolescent multiple sexual partnering. Findings from random effects multinomial logistic regression models of the number of sexual partners among a sample of youth, age 11 to 16, from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (N = 768) reveal evidence of neighborhood effects on adolescent higher-risk sexual activity. Collective efficacy is negatively associated with having two or more sexual partners versus one (but not zero versus one) sexual partner. The effect of collective efficacy is dependent upon age: The regulatory effect of collective efficacy increases for older adolescents. PMID:18771063
This study analyzed data on victimization by bullying and harassment on school property in a large, diverse, random sample of high school students in Arizona using data from the 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. No gender differences in frequency of victimization were detected, but differences by grade, Body Mass Index category, academic…
Grossman, Arnold H.; D'Augelli, Anthony R.
Sexual minority status is a key risk factor for suicide among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth; however, it has not been studied among transgender youth. Fifty-five transgender youth reported on their life-threatening behaviors. Nearly half of the sample reported having seriously thought about taking their lives and one quarter reported suicide…
This study aimed to develop effectiveness indicators for social marketing communication to reduce health-risk behaviors among Thai youth by using the Delphi technique. The Delphi technique is a research approach used to gain consensus through a series of two or more rounds of questionnaire surveys where information and results are fed back to panel members between each round and it has been extensively used to generate many indicators relevant to health behaviors. The Delphi technique was conducted in 3 rounds by consulting a panel of 15 experts in the field of social marketing communication for public health campaigns in Thailand. We found forty-nine effectiveness indicators in eight core components reached consensus. These components were: 1) attitude about health-risk behavior reduction, 2) subjective norms, 3) perceived behavioral control, 4) intention to reduce health-risk behaviors, 5) practices for reducing health-risk behaviors, 6) knowledge about the dangers and impact of health-risk behaviors, 7) campaign brand equity, and 8) communication networks. These effectiveness indicators could be applied by health promotion organizations for evaluating the effectiveness of social marketing communication to effectively reduce health-risk behaviors among youth.
Ha, Yeongmi; Choi, Eunsook; Seo, Yeongmi; Kim, Tae-gu
Background: This study identified relationships among subjective social status (SSS), weight perception, weight control behaviors, and weight status in Korean adolescents using nationally representative data collected from the 2009 Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey. Methods: Data from 67,185 students aged 12-18 years were analyzed.…
Rosenbaum, Janet E
Surveys are the primary information source about adolescents' health risk behaviors, but adolescents may not report their behaviors accurately. Survey data are used for formulating adolescent health policy, and inaccurate data can cause mistakes in policy creation and evaluation. The author used test-retest data from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (United States, 2000) to compare adolescents' responses to 72 questions about their risk behaviors at a 2-week interval. Each question was evaluated for prevalence change and 3 measures of unreliability: inconsistency (retraction and apparent initiation), agreement measured as tetrachoric correlation, and estimated error due to inconsistency assessed with a Bayesian method. Results showed that adolescents report their sex, drug, alcohol, and tobacco histories more consistently than other risk behaviors in a 2-week period, opposite their tendency over longer intervals. Compared with other Youth Risk Behavior Survey topics, most sex, drug, alcohol, and tobacco items had stable prevalence estimates, higher average agreement, and lower estimated measurement error. Adolescents reported their weight control behaviors more unreliably than other behaviors, particularly problematic because of the increased investment in adolescent obesity research and reliance on annual surveys for surveillance and policy evaluation. Most weight control items had unstable prevalence estimates, lower average agreement, and greater estimated measurement error than other topics.
Gray, Donald Z.; And Others
This report describes the results of the 1993 Utah Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) and summarizes results of the 1992 Utah School Health Education Survey. Many health problems experienced by youth are caused by a few preventable behaviors, such as alcohol abuse and unprotected sexual intercourse. Tobacco use, dietary patterns that cause disease,…
Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steve; Shanklin, Shari L.; Flint, Katherine H.; Hawkins, Joseph; Harris, William A.; Lowry, Richard; Olsen, Emily O'Malley; McManus, Tim; Chyen, David; Whittle, Lisa; Taylor, Eboni; Demissie, Zewditu; Brener, Nancy; Thornton, Jemekia; Moore, John; Zaza, Stephanie
Problem: Priority health-risk behaviors contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults. Population-based data on these behaviors at the national, state, and local levels can help monitor the effectiveness of public health interventions designed to protect and promote the health of youth nationwide. Reporting…
Dowdy, Erin; Furlong, Michael J.; Sharkey, Jill D.
This study examined the potential utility of adding items that assessed youths' emotional and behavioral disorders to a commonly used surveillance survey. The goal was to evaluate whether the added items could enhance understanding of youths' involvement in high-risk behaviors. A sample of 3,331 adolescents in Grades 8, 10, and 12 from four…
This report describes results from the 1997 Utah Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) and the 1996 Utah School Health Education Profile (SHEP). The YRBS surveyed 9th-12th graders in a random sample of schools about their behaviors that risk their health. Results indicated that students still engage in behaviors that put them at risk for injury or…
Sieving, Renee E; Bernat, Debra H; Resnick, Michael D; Oliphant, Jennifer; Pettingell, Sandra; Plowman, Shari; Skay, Carol
Multifaceted, sustained efforts are needed to reduce early pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases among high-risk adolescents. An important area for research is testing youth development interventions offered through clinic settings, where access to high-risk adolescents is plentiful and few efforts have rigorously evaluated a dual approach of building protective factors while addressing risk. This article presents findings from a pilot study of Prime Time, a clinic-based youth development intervention to reduce sexual risk behaviors among girls at risk for early pregnancy. Girls aged 13 to 17 years meeting specified risk criteria were assigned to Prime Time treatment groups. The Prime Time intervention included a combination of case management services and peer leadership groups. Participants completed self-report surveys at baseline, 12 and 18 months following enrollment. At 12 months, the intervention group reported significantly fewer sexual partners than the control group. At 18 months, the intervention group reported significantly more consistent condom use with trends toward more consistent hormonal and dual method use. Dose-response analyses suggested that relatively high levels of exposure to a youth development intervention were needed to change contraceptive use behaviors among adolescents at risk for early pregnancy. Given promising findings, further testing of the Prime Time intervention is warranted.
Bauermeister, José A; Elkington, Katherine S; Robbins, Reuben N; Kang, Ezer; Mellins, Claude A
Perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) youth are surviving into adolescence and young adulthood. Understanding the sexual development of PHIV+ youth is vital to providing them with developmentally appropriate HIV-prevention programs. Using pooled data (N = 417) from two longitudinal studies focused on HIV among youth (51% female; 39% HIV+) and their caregivers (92% female; 46% HIV+), the rate of sexual onset during adolescence across four youth-caregiver combinations was compared: PHIV+ youth with HIV+caregivers (12%), PHIV+ youth with HIV- caregivers (27%), HIV- youth with HIV+caregivers (34%), and HIV- youth with HIV- caregivers (27%). Youth with HIV- caregivers were more likely than other youth-caregiver groups to have had their sexual onset. Youth with HIV+ caregivers reported a slower rate of onset of penetrative sex across the adolescent years. Findings are discussed by highlighting the role that both youth and caregiver HIV status play in the onset of sexual behavior across adolescence.
Dembo, Richard; Sullivan, Christopher
We report the results of a parallel-process, latent growth model analysis examining the relationships between cocaine use and delinquent behavior among youths. The study examined a sample of 278 justice-involved juveniles completing at least one of three follow-up interviews as part of a National Institute on Drug Abuse-funded study. The results…
Camlin, Carol S.; Snow, Rachel C.
This study examines whether parental investment and membership in social clubs are associated with safer sexual behaviors among South African youth. Participants comprised 4,800 randomly selected adolescents age 14 to 22 living in the Cape Town area in 2002. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between measures of parental…
Steinberg, Leah; Aldea, Ivanjo; Messias, Erick
We assessed the association between asthma and suicidality in a nationally representative sample of US high school students. Data came from the 2007, 2009, and 2011 Youth Risk Behavioral Surveys. Weighted prevalence estimates and adjusted odds ratios were calculated. Subjects with asthma are more likely to report 2-week sadness (35.2%) compared to those without asthma (26.7%). Teens with asthma are also more likely to report suicide ideation (20.1% vs. 15%), planning (15.7% vs. 12.1%), attempt (10.1% vs. 6.9%), and treatment for attempt (3.5% vs. 2%). Although the unadjusted association between lifetime asthma and suicide attempts is statistically significant (crude odds ratio 1.5 (95% CI 1.3-1.8)), after controlling for confounders, that association is no longer statistically significant (AOR 1.2 (1-1.6)). Thus, this increase in suicidality seems to be due to the increased prevalence of sadness among teens with asthma. Similar patterns were seen in the 2007 and 2009 surveys.
Eaton, Danice K.; Brener, Nancy D.; Kann, Laura; Denniston, Maxine M.; McManus, Tim; Kyle, Tonja M.; Roberts, Alice M.; Flint, Katherine H.; Ross, James G.
The authors examined whether paper-and-pencil and Web surveys administered in the school setting yield equivalent risk behavior prevalence estimates. Data were from a methods study conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in spring 2008. Intact classes of 9th- or 10th-grade students were assigned randomly to complete a…
Springer, Andrew E; Selwyn, BJ; Kelder, Steven H
Background Adolescence is an important stage of life for establishing healthy behaviors, attitudes, and lifestyles that contribute to current and future health. Health risk behavior is one indicator of health of young people that may serve both as a measure of health over time as well as a target for health policies and programs. This study examined the prevalence and distribution of youth health risk behaviors from five risk behavior domains–aggression, victimization, depression and suicidal ideation, substance use, and sexual behaviors–among public secondary school students in central El Salvador. Methods We employed a multi-stage sampling design in which school districts, schools, and classrooms were randomly selected. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire based on the United States Center for Disease Control and Prevention's Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Sixteen schools and 982 students aged 12–20 years participated in the study. Results Health risk behaviors with highest prevalence rates included: engagement in physical fight (32.1%); threatened/injured with a weapon (19.9%); feelings of sadness/hopelessness (32.2%); current cigarette use (13.6%); and no condom use at last sexual intercourse (69.1%). Urban and male students reported statistically significant higher prevalence of most youth risk behaviors; female students reported statistically significant higher prevalence of feelings of sadness/hopelessness (35.6%), suicidal ideation (17.9%) and, among the sexually experienced, forced sexual intercourse (20.6%). Conclusion A high percentage of Salvadoran adolescents in this sample engaged in health risk behaviors, warranting enhanced adolescent health promotion strategies. Future health promotion efforts should target: the young age of sexual intercourse as well as low condom use among students, the higher prevalence of risk behaviors among urban students, and the important gender differences in risk behaviors, including the higher
National Center for Health Statistics (DHHS/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.
The 1992 National Health Interview Survey-Youth Risk Behavior Survey (NHIS-YRBS) studied 13,789 youth 12-21 years of age. This report presents the data according to sex, age, Hispanic origin, and race for youth of non-Hispanic origin. The 10 data tables cover: cigarette and other tobacco use, alcohol and other drug use, sexual experience, HIV/AIDS…
2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey High School Results and 2011 Comparative Report for: Grades 7-8; American Indian Students on or near a Reservation; American Indian Students in Urban Schools; Nonpublic Accredited Schools; Alternative Schools; Students with Disabilities
Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011
The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is an epidemiologic surveillance system that was established by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems that can occur during…
Turner, Alezandria K.; Latkin, Carl; Sonenstein, Freya; Tandon, S. Darius
Purpose To examine the association between symptoms of psychiatric disorder (i.e. depression, anxiety, and substance use) and sexual risk behavior in a sample of African-American adolescents and young adults in an employment training program. Methods Baseline data were used from a pilot study of an intervention to reduce depressive symptoms among youth disconnected from school and the workforce. Participants were recruited from two employment training programs in East and West Baltimore (N = 617; age 16–23 years). Data were collected through audio computer-assisted self interview (ACASI). Mental health indicators were measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale and Beck Anxiety Inventory. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the odds of sexual risk behavior for each mental health condition and combinations of conditions. Results Lack of condom use at last sex was significantly associated with elevated anxiety symptoms. Number of sexual partners was associated with elevated depression symptoms and substance use. Early sexual debut was associated with substance use in the past 30 days. Also, there were differences in the likelihood of engaging in sexual risk behavior comparing groups with different combinations of mental health problems to those with no symptoms of disorder or substance use. Conclusions The results demonstrate the need for HIV prevention programs that target out-of-school youth, as they are likely to engage in risky sexual behavior. Our findings highlight the need to develop behavioral interventions that address disorder symptoms, substance use, and risky sexual behavior among youth in employment training programs. PMID:21145182
Stickle, Timothy R; Kirkpatrick, Neil M; Brush, Lauren N
This study examined multiple risk factor models of links among callous-unemotional traits, aggression beliefs, social information processing, impulsivity, and aggressive behavior in a sample of 150 antisocial adolescents. Consistent with past research, results indicated that beliefs legitimizing aggression predicted social information processing biases and that social information processing biases mediated the effect of beliefs on aggressive behavior. Callous-unemotional traits accounted for unique variance in aggression above and beyond effects of more established risk factors of early onset of antisocial behavior, social information processing, and impulsivity. These findings add to recent research showing that callous-unemotional traits are a unique risk factor associated with aggression and criminal offending and suggest that targeting both affective and cognitive vulnerabilities may enhance clinical intervention with antisocial youth.
Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding antiretroviral management, reproductive health, sexually transmitted infections, and sexual risk behavior among perinatally HIV-infected youth in Thailand.
Lolekha, Rangsima; Boon-Yasidhi, Vitharon; Leowsrisook, Pimsiri; Naiwatanakul, Thananda; Durier, Yuitiang; Nuchanard, Wipada; Tarugsa, Jariya; Punpanich, Warunee; Pattanasin, Sarika; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya
More than 30% of perinatally HIV-infected children in Thailand are 12 years and older. As these youth become sexually active, there is a risk that they will transmit HIV to their partners. Data on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of HIV-infected youth in Thailand are limited. Therefore, we assessed the KAP of perinatally HIV-infected youth and youth reporting sexual risk behaviors receiving care at two tertiary care hospitals in Bangkok, Thailand and living in an orphanage in Lopburi, Thailand. From October 2010 to July 2011, 197 HIV-infected youth completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview to assess their KAP regarding antiretroviral (ARV) management, reproductive health, sexual risk behaviors, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). A majority of youth in this study correctly answered questions about HIV transmission and prevention and the importance of taking ARVs regularly. More than half of the youth in this study demonstrated a lack of family planning, reproductive health, and STI knowledge. Girls had more appropriate attitudes toward safe sex and risk behaviors than boys. Although only 5% of the youth reported that they had engaged in sexual intercourse, about a third reported sexual risk behaviors (e.g., having or kissing boy/girlfriend or consuming an alcoholic beverage). We found low condom use and other family planning practices, increasing the risk of HIV and/or STI transmission to sexual partners. Additional resources are needed to improve reproductive health knowledge and reduce risk behavior among HIV-infected youth in Thailand.
Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding antiretroviral management, reproductive health, sexually transmitted infections, and sexual risk behavior among perinatally HIV-infected youth in Thailand
Lolekha, Rangsima; Boon-Yasidhi, Vitharon; Leowsrisook, Pimsiri; Naiwatanakul, Thananda; Durier, Yuitiang; Nuchanard, Wipada; Tarugsa, Jariya; Punpanich, Warunee; Pattanasin, Sarika; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya
More than 30% of perinatally HIV-infected children in Thailand are 12 years and older. As these youth become sexually active, there is a risk that they will transmit HIV to their partners. Data on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of HIV-infected youth in Thailand are limited. Therefore, we assessed the KAP of perinatally HIV-infected youth and youth reporting sexual risk behaviors receiving care at two tertiary care hospitals in Bangkok, Thailand and living in an orphanage in Lopburi, Thailand. From October 2010 to July 2011, 197 HIV-infected youth completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview to assess their KAP regarding antiretroviral (ARV) management, reproductive health, sexual risk behaviors, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). A majority of youth in this study correctly answered questions about HIV transmission and prevention and the importance of taking ARVs regularly. More than half of the youth in this study demonstrated a lack of family planning, reproductive health, and STI knowledge. Girls had more appropriate attitudes toward safe sex and risk behaviors than boys. Although only 5% of the youth reported that they had engaged in sexual intercourse, about a third reported sexual risk behaviors (e.g., having or kissing boy/girlfriend or consuming an alcoholic beverage). We found low condom use and other family planning practices, increasing the risk of HIV and/or STI transmission to sexual partners. Additional resources are needed to improve reproductive health knowledge and reduce risk behavior among HIV-infected youth in Thailand. PMID:25506754
Selvi, B. Tamil; Thangarajathi, S.
All teenagers take risks as a normal part of growing up. Risk-taking is the tool an adolescent uses to define and develop his or her identity, and healthy risk-taking is a valuable experience. Healthy adolescent risk-taking behaviors which tend to have a positive impact on an adolescent's development can include participation in sports, the…
Logan-Greene, Patricia; Nurius, Paula S.; Herting, Jerald R.; Hooven, Carole L.; Walsh, Elaine; Thompson, Elaine Adams
This study extends prior examination of adolescent violence etiology, drawing on an ethnically diverse, community accessed, yet emotionally vulnerable sample (N = 849) of adolescents at-risk for school dropout. A balanced risk and protective factor framework captured theorized dimensions of strain, coping, and support resources. We tested the…
The 2013 North Carolina Youth Risk Behavior Survey (NCYRBS) was developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and adapted by the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction (NCDPI) to monitor health-risk behaviors and to measure progress toward achieving Healthy North Carolina 2020 objectives. The survey, administered in…
The 2013 North Carolina Youth Risk Behavior Survey (NCYRBS) was developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and adapted by the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction (NCDPI) to monitor the health-risk behaviors and to measure progress toward achieving Healthy North Carolina 2020 objectives. The survey, administered…
Ohio State Dept. of Health, Columbus.
This report summarizes the survey answers Ohio high school students (N=2,314) reported about alcohol, tobacco, and other health risk behaviors. The survey contains questions relating to: (1) behaviors that result in intentional and non-intentional injuries; (2) tobacco use; (3) alcohol and other drug use; (4) sexual behaviors that result in HIV…
Stieglitz, Kimberly A
Transgender youth face unique and complex issues as they confront cultural expectations of gender expression and how these fit with what is natural for them. Striving for balance, learning to cope, questioning, and eventually becoming comfortable with one's gender identity and sexual orientation are of paramount importance for healthy growth and development. Ineffective management of intense challenges over time without adequate social support places youth at risk for a number of unhealthy behaviors, including risk behaviors associated with acquiring HIV. This article explores early foundations of gender identity development, challenges in the development of transgender youth, and the limited data that exist on transgender youth and HIV risks. The concept of resilience is introduced as a counterbalancing area for assessment and intervention in practice and future research with transgender youth.
Roy, Elise; Robert, Marie; Vaillancourt, Eric; Boivin, Jean-François; Vandermeerschen, Jill; Martin, Isabelle
Evidence has linked residential instability and engagement in high-risk behaviors. This paper longitudinally examines the relationship between changes in residential stability and changes in HIV risk behaviors among Montréal street youth (SY). Between April 2006 and May 2007, 419 SY (18-25 years old) were recruited in a cohort study. SY (using Montréal street youth agencies services) were eligible if they had had at least one 24-hour episode of homelessness in the previous 30 days. Baseline and follow-up interviews, carried out every 3 months, included completion of a questionnaire (based on Life History Calendar Technique) assessing daily sleeping arrangements since the last interview, and monthly sexual and drug use behaviors. Using mixed-effects logistic regression method, we examined the association between various risk behaviors and residential stability, reached when a youth resided in any of the following settings for a whole month: own place; friends'/partner's/parent's place; any types of housing service (excluding emergency shelters). Analyses were carried out controlling for gender, age, education level, lifetime duration of homelessness, childhood sexual trauma, and lifetime mental health disorders. As of January 2009, 360 SY (79% boys) had completed at least one follow-up interview, representing 4,889 months of follow-up. Residential stability was significantly associated with the following: sex exchange (adjusted odd ratio [AOR], 0.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.14-0.37), drug injection (AOR, 0.55; CI, 0.33-0.76), daily alcohol consumption (AOR, 0.58; CI, 0.42-0.74), polydrug consumption (AOR, 0.61; CI, 0.50-0.73), polydrug consumption excluding marijuana (AOR, 0.55; CI, 0.45-0.65), and multiple sex partners (≥3 partners; AOR, 0.57; CI, 0.40-0.74). Our results suggest a reciprocal relationship between residential instability and HIV risk behaviors. This calls for more integrated services combining both individual and structural
Romero, Erin Gregory; Teplin, Linda A.; McClelland, Gary M.; Abram, Karen M.; Welty, Leah J.; Washburn, Jason J.
Objective . To examine the prevalence, development, and persistence of sex and drug behaviors that place delinquent youth at risk for human immunodeficiency virus and other sexually transmitted infections (HIV/STI). Methods At the baseline interview, HIV/STI drug and sex risk behaviors were assessed in a stratified random sample of 800 juvenile detainees, aged 10 to 18 years. Participants were re-interviewed approximately 3 years later (mean [SD] follow-up, 3.2 [0.3] years; median follow-up, 3.1 years). The final sample in these analyses (n = 724) includes 316 females and 408 males, 393 African Americans, 198 Hispanics, 131 non-Hispanic whites, and 2 participants who self-identified as “other.” Results Nearly three quarters of youth engaged in one or more unprotected sexual risk behaviors at follow-up. Over 60% had engaged in 10 or more risk behaviors at their baseline interview, and nearly two thirds of them persisted in 10 or more risk behaviors at follow-up. Among youth living in the community, many behaviors were more prevalent at follow-up than at baseline. Among incarcerated youth, the opposite pattern prevailed. Development and persistence of HIV/STI risk behaviors differed by gender, race/ethnicity, and age, even after adjusting for incarceration status. Compared with females, males had higher prevalence rates of many HIV/STI risk behaviors and were more likely to persist in some behaviors and develop new ones. Yet, injection risk behaviors were more prevalent among females than males and were also more likely to develop and persist. Compared with persons younger than 18, persons 18 and older had higher prevalence rates of many HIV/STI risk behaviors at follow-up. Overall, there were few racial and ethnic differences in patterns of HIV/STI risk behaviors; most involved the initiation and persistence of substance use among non-Hispanic whites and Hispanics. Conclusions Because detained youth have a median stay of only 2 weeks, HIV/STI risk behaviors in
Sterrett, Emma M.; Dymnicki, Allison B.; Henry, David; Byck, Gayle; Bolland, John; Mustanski, Brian
Purpose African American youth, particularly those from low-income backgrounds, evidence high rates of negative outcomes associated with three problem behaviors, conduct problems, risky sexual behavior, and substance use. This study used a contextually-tailored version of Problem Behavior Theory (PBT) to examine predictors of the simultaneous development of problem behaviors in this specific cultural group. Methods Socio-contextual and individual variables representing four PBT predictor categories, controls protection, support protection, models risk, and vulnerability risk, were examined as predictors of co-occurring problem behaviors among economically disadvantaged African American adolescents (n = 949). Specifically, the likelihood of following three classes of multiple problem behavior trajectories spanning ages 12 to 18, labeled the “early experimenters,” “increasing high risk-takers,” and “adolescent-limited” classes, as opposed to a “normative” class was examined. Results Among other findings, controls protection in the form of a more stringent household curfew at age 12 was related to a lower likelihood of being in the “early experimenters” and “increasing high risk-takers” classes. Conversely, vulnerability risk manifested as stronger attitudes of violence inevitability was associated with a higher likelihood of being in the “early experimenters” class. However, the PBT category of support protection was not associated with risk trajectory class. More distal neighborhood-level manifestations of PBT categories also did not predict co-occurring behavior problems. Conclusion Guided by an incorporation of contextually-salient processes into PBT, prevention programs aiming to decrease co-occurring problem behaviors among low-income African American adolescents would do well to target both proximal systems and psychological constructs related to perceived security throughout adolescence. PMID:24755141
Anderson, D Mark; Elsea, David
In this note, we use data from the national and state Youth Risk Behavior Surveys for the period 1999 through 2011 to estimate the relationship between the Meth Project, an anti-methamphetamine advertising campaign, and meth use among high school students. During this period, a total of eight states adopted anti-meth advertising campaigns. After accounting for pre-existing downward trends in meth use, we find little evidence that the campaign curbed meth use in the full sample. We do find, however, some evidence that the Meth Project may have decreased meth use among White high school students.
Goggin, K.; Metcalf, K.; Wise, D.; Kennedy, S.; Murray, T.; Burgess, D.; Reese-Smith, J.; Terhune, N.; Broadus, K.; Downes, A.; Buckendahl, H.
This study evaluates the first year of a novel HIV and substance use prevention program for inner city youth (Offering New Youth eXperiences--ONYX). Baseline and follow-up measures of knowledge, attitudes, and risk behaviors were administered seven months apart to 441 youth participating in the ONYX program. Youth (n=71) who provided data at both…
Chu, Hsin; Liao, Yuan-Mei; Chen, Chiung-Hua; Ou, Keng-Liang; Chang, Lu-I; Chou, Kuei-Ru
Background Global efforts in response to the increased prevalence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are mainly aimed at reducing high risk sexual behaviors among young people. However, knowledge regarding intentions of young people to engage in protective sexual behaviors is still lacking in many countries around the world, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa where prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus is the highest. The objective of this study was to test the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for predicting factors associated with protective sexual behaviors, including sexual abstinence and condom use, among in-school youths aged between 15 and 19 years in Swaziland. Methods This cross-sectional survey was conducted using a anonymous questionnaire. A two-stage stratified and cluster random sampling method was used. Approximately one hundred pupils from each of four schools agreed to participate in the study, providing a total sample size of 403 pupils of which 369 were ultimately included for data analysis. The response rate was 98%. Structural equation modeling was used to analyse hypothesized paths. Results The TPB model used in this study was effective in predicting protective sexual behavior among Swazi in-school youths, as shown by model fit indices. All hypothesized constructs significantly predicted intentions for abstinence and condom use, except perceived abstinence controls. Subjective norms were the strongest predictors of intention for premarital sexual abstinence; however, perceived controls for condom use were the strongest predictors of intention for condom use. Conclusions Our findings support application of the model in predicting determinants of condom use and abstinence intentions among Swazi in-school youths. PMID:23861756
Kim, Jihye; Kamphaus, Randy W.
The Behavioral and Emotional Screening System (BESS) Student Form is one of the behavioral and emotional risk screening tests that is in more widespread use in U.S. schools systems from preschool through high school. From 2007 to the present, the BESS Student Form has been used for screening in the Los Angeles United School District (LA), which…
Edwards, Jane U.; Magel, Rhonda
Background: The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) was used by a city school district (approximately 11,000 students) in the upper Midwest to monitor trends for nutrition and physical activity (PA) behaviors both within and between years and to compare with national 2003 data. Methods: Independent random samples were obtained in 1999 (387 middle…
Pearson, Carolyn M.; Riley, Elizabeth N.; Davis, Heather A.; Smith, Gregory T.
Background This paper provides an integrative review of existing risk factors and models for bulimia nervosa (BN) in young girls. We offer a new model for BN that describes two pathways of risk that may lead to the initial impulsive act of binge eating and purging in children and adolescents. Scope We conducted a selective literature review, focusing on existing and new risk processes for BN in this select population. Findings We identify two ways in which girls increase their risk to begin engaging in the impulsive behavior of binge eating and purging. The first is state based: the experience of negative mood, in girls attempting to restrain eating, leads to the depletion of self-control and thus increased risk for loss of control eating. The second is personality-based: elevations on the trait of negative urgency, or the tendency to act rashly when distressed, increase risk, particularly in conjunction with high-risk psychosocial learning. We then briefly discuss how these behaviors are reinforced, putting girls at further risk for developing BN. Conclusions We highlight several areas in which further inquiry is necessary, and we discuss the clinical implications of the new risk model we described. PMID:24673546
Palacio, Hannia; Mateus, Julio C
Introduction: HIV/AIDS is a global health priority. About 40% of new infections occur among heterosexual youth by means of sexual contact. In Cali, district 13, 15 and 20 account for 11.5% of the prevalent cases and 18.0% of incident cases. Objective: To establish differences in risk behaviors for HIV among young people 15-24 yrs of age from two areas of Cali, Colombia. Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional study among young people between 15 and 24 yrs of age in these districts. The selection was done with a two-stage probability sampling. We estimated the prevalence of sexual relationships without condom usage, sex with multiple partners, and sex under the effects of alcohol and through logistical regression we identified the related factors. Results: In district 13, 15 and 20, the prevalence of unprotected sexual relationships in the last 12 months and the prevalence of sex with two or more partners was 70%; and 38% of young people had sex under the effects of alcohol. In both areas, the intention was positively related to the risk behaviors. We found socio-demographic factors, intentions, and beliefs that increase the opportunity to display these behaviors. The effect of these factors differs by district. Conclusions: We observed a high prevalence of risk behaviors for HIV related to socio-demographic factors, intentions and beliefs that warrant interventions appropriate for local realities. PMID:24892451
Rice, Eric; Stein, Judith A.; Milburn, Norweeta
The impact of countervailing social network influences (i.e., pro-social, anti-social or HIV risk peers) on problem behaviors (i.e., HIV drug risk, HIV sex risk or anti-social behaviors) among 696 homeless youth was assessed using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that older youth were less likely to report having pro-social peers and…
Mustanski, Brian; Van Wagenen, Aimee; Birkett, Michelle; Eyster, Sandra; Corliss, Heather L
We studied sexual orientation disparities in health outcomes among US adolescents by pooling multiple Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) data sets from 2005 and 2007 for 14 jurisdictions. Here we describe the methodology for pooling and analyzing these data sets. Sexual orientation-related items assessed sexual orientation identity, gender of sexual contacts, sexual attractions, and harassment regarding sexual orientation. Wording of items varied across jurisdictions, so we created parallel variables and composite sexual minority variables. We used a variety of statistical approaches to address issues with the analysis of pooled data and to meet the aims of individual articles, which focused on a range of health outcomes and behaviors related to cancer, substance use, sexual health, mental health, violence, and injury.
Murphy, Debra A.; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Herbeck, Diane M.; Huang, David
This study utilized data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to investigate youth risk trajectories for HIV and factors associated with different trajectories. The sample (N = 8,208) was 49.2% female, with a mean age of 14.31 (SD = 1.48). A group-based trajectory model was applied, which identified four distinct trajectories for both…
Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Jaccard, James; Lushin, Viktor; Martinez, Roberto; Gonzalez, Bernardo; McCarthy, Katharine
Existing literature related to HIV in the Dominican Republic has tended to neglect the unique role of tourism areas as distinct ecologies facilitative of sexual risk behavior, particularly HIV vulnerability and transmission. Furthermore, limited attention has focused on Dominican adolescents living in close proximity to tourism areas who have become increasingly exposed to alcohol due to the expanding tourism industry in the Dominican Republic. While most previous analyses of the effects of alcohol on adolescent sexual risk behavior have focused on the transient effects of alcohol on judgment and decision making, the effects of chronic alcohol use on sexual behavior has been a neglected area of research. Our study explores the relationship between chronic alcohol use, the parent-adolescent relationship, affective factors such as self-esteem, and intentions to engage in sex. We examine the above factors within the context of tourism areas which represent a unique ecology of alcohol availability and consumption and HIV risk. We discuss implications for developing applied family-based programs to target Dominican adolescent alcohol use and sexual risk behavior in tourism areas of high alcohol exposure.
Tomaka, Joe; Salaiz, Rebekah A.; Morales-Monks, Stormy; Thompson, Sharon; McKinnon, Sarah; O'Rourke, Kathleen
The present study examined relationships between CAGE alcohol risk scores and predisposing factors for alcohol use, current alcohol use, and behavioral consequences in a large sample of secondary students. Students completed the CAGE, measures of demographics, potential predisposing factors, and consequences of alcohol use. More than 18% of…
Kamphaus, R. W.; DiStefano, Christine; Dowdy, Erin; Eklund, Katie; Dunn, Alnita Rettig
Universal screening has been routinely advised for determining the presence of problems for initiating problem-solving processes and models. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of two screener development methods on the validity of score inferences for two teacher screeners of child behavioral and emotional risk. The reliability and…
Wiener, R. Constance
Background Using smokeless tobacco and smoking are risk behaviors for oral cancer, soft tissue lesions, caries, periodontal disease and other oral conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine adolescent smokeless tobacco use and smoking. Methods The study was a cross-sectional analysis of participants with complete data on smoking, smokeless tobacco use, and other variables of interest in the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n=9655). Descriptive analysis and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed. Results The unadjusted odds ratio for smokeless tobacco use and smoking was 9.68 (95% CI: 7.72, 12.13, p<.0001); the adjusted odds ratio was 3.92 (95%CI: 2.89, 5.31, p<.0001). Adolescents using smokeless tobacco were more likely to be male, to smoke, and to have engaged in binge drinking. Conclusions Adolescents who are using smokeless tobacco are more likely to also be engaging in concomitant smoking and are participating in other risk-taking behaviors. Practice implications Dentists are involved in helping patients in tobacco cessation. The strong association of smoking with smokeless tobacco needs to be considered in designing cessation programs for adolescents. PMID:23904581
Cash, Scottye J.; Bridge, Jeffrey A.
Purpose of Review Suicide is the third leading cause of death among young people in the U.S. and represents a significant public health problem worldwide. This review focuses on recent developments in our understanding of the epidemiology and risk factors for adolescent suicide and suicidal behavior. Recent Findings The suicide rate among children and adolescents in the U.S. has increased dramatically in recent years and has been accompanied by substantial changes in the leading methods of youth suicide, especially among young girls. Much work is currently underway to elucidate the relationships between psychopathology, substance use, child abuse, bullying, internet use, and youth suicidal behavior. Recent evidence also suggests sex-specific and moderating roles of gender in influencing risk for suicide and suicidal behavior. Summary Empirical research into the causal mechanisms underlying youth suicide and suicidal behavior is needed to inform early identification and prevention efforts. PMID:19644372
Sterrett, Emma M.; Birkett, Michelle; Kuhns, Lisa; Mustanski, Brian
The presence of non-parental adults (NPAs), or adults outside of caregivers (e.g., extended family, natural mentors), in the lives of adolescents and emerging adults has received a rapidly expanding amount of empirical attention in the last decade. Sexual minority male youth (SMMY) face disproportionate risks of abuse and victimization in relationships with parents and peers. Yet, despite the fact that this group, therefore, may be both potentially vulnerable to negative interpersonal influences but also poised to benefit from additional relationships, NPA involvement in the lives of SMMY is currently not well understood in the extant literature. This study sought to examine and characterize the involvement of NPAs in the social and risk networks of SMMY (n = 175; 54% African American, 21% Hispanic/Latino, 14% Caucasian; ages 17–23). Most SMMY identified at least one NPA, such as friends and grandparents, in their networks. Three categories of relationships were identified, Strictly Social, which only involved social interactions; Complex, which were both social and involved substance use and/or sexual activity; and Risky, which purely consisted of substance use or sexual activity. Relationships were rated as emotionally “closer” among ethnic minority SMMY, although, racial/ethnic similarity between SMMY and NPAs was not associated with relationship closeness. In addition, relationships involving female and heterosexual NPAs were also rated as stronger. These findings suggest the potential usefulness of considering multiple types of relationships between SMMY and NPAs when designing intervention and prevention efforts. Moreover, African American and Latino SMMY, who represent the most vulnerable sub-groups of SMMY in terms of HIV-risk, may be particularly poised to benefit from positive NPA relationships. PMID:26074655
Craddock, Jaih B; Rice, Eric; Rhoades, Harmony; Winetrobe, Hailey
Black and Latino homeless youth are at high risk of HIV, and yet no HIV prevention interventions have been specifically designed for these groups. Given the success of parent-child intervention programs for housed Black and Latino youth, this study examined parental relationships that could be leveraged for future HIV prevention efforts targeting minority homeless youth, specifically the associations among presence of parents in social networks, parental influence, and parental support. A convenience sample of Black, Latino, and White homeless youth (N = 754) was recruited from three drop-in centers in Los Angeles. Participants completed a computerized, self-administered questionnaire and an interviewer-led personal social network interview. Multivariate logistic regression models assessed the association between parental relationships and sexual risk behaviors. Forty-five percent (n = 338) of youth identified a parent in their network. Having at least one parent in their network was significantly associated with decreased odds of using a condom for Black and White youth. Black youth were almost four times more likely to report being tested for HIV if they spoke to their parents about sex, whereas Latino youth were 91 % less likely to report being tested for HIV if they talked with their parents about sex. Black youth who identified a parent as a positive influence (i.e., promoting condom use or discouraging multiple partners) were almost four times more likely to have used a condom during their last sexual encounter. Parent-child HIV prevention interventions targeting homeless youth would benefit from culturally tailored adaptations.
Harold, Gordon T.; Leve, Leslie D.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Mahedy, Liam; Gaysina, Darya; Thapar, Anita; Collishaw, Stephan
Past research has identified parental depression and family-of-origin maltreatment as precursors to adolescent depression and antisocial behavior. Caregiving experiences have also been identified as a factor that may ameliorate or accentuate adolescent psychopathology trajectories. Using the unique attributes of two geographically diverse, yet complementary longitudinal research designs, the present study examined the role of maternal caregiver involvement as a factor that promotes resilience-based trajectories related to depressive symptom and antisocial behaviors among adolescent girls. The first sample comprises a group of US-based adolescent girls in foster care (n = 100; mean age = 11.50 years), all of whom have had a history of childhood maltreatment and removal from the home of their biological parent(s). The second sample comprises a group of UK-based adolescent girls at high familial risk for depression (n = 145; mean age = 11.70 years), with all girls having a biological mother who has experienced recurrent depression. Study analyses examined the role of maternal caregiving on girls’ trajectories of depression and antisocial behavior, while controlling for levels of co-occurring psychopathology at each time point across the study period. Results suggest increasing trajectories of depressive symptoms, controlling for antisocial behavior, for girls at familial risk for depression, but decreasing trajectories for girls in foster care. A similar pattern of results was noted for antisocial behavior trajectories, controlling for depressive symptoms. Maternal caregiver involvement was differentially related to intercept and slope parameters in both samples. Results are discussed with respect to the identification of family level promotive factors aimed at reducing negative developmental trajectories among high-risk youth. PMID:25422973
Corapci, Feyza; Smith, Julia; Lozoff, Betsy
This longitudinal study examined internalizing behavior problems (anxiety/depression) in early adolescence in relation to adversity in early childhood and child verbal competence. We hypothesized that verbal competence would act as a protective factor in the face of early adversity, that is, high verbal IQ would predict relatively lower internalizing problems in early adolescence primarily for those children who experienced the greatest adversity. The sample was based on 191 Costa Rican children and their mothers, who were recruited in infancy from an urban community and assessed again at 5 and 11-14 years. Families were generally lower-middle to working class. A total of 165 children (94 boys) participated in the early adolescent follow-up (mean age = 12.3 years). Internalizing problems were based on maternal report (Spanish Child Behavior Checklist). Our cumulative risk index (CRI)_of adversity in early childhood consisted of home environment quality (HOME score), socioeconomic status, maternal depressed mood (CESD), and maternal IQ. Controlling for the effects of age, gender, internalizing problems at 5 years, and verbal IQ at 5 years, there was a significant interaction between early adversity and verbal IQ at age 11-14 years in predicting internalizing problems in early adolescence. Youth with high verbal IQ had comparable levels of internalizing problems regardless of high or low adversity in early childhood. In contrast, youth with low verbal IQ received higher internalizing problem ratings if they experienced high adversity early in life. The results raise the possibility that interventions to improve verbal competence might help lower the risk of internalizing problems in the face of early adversity.
Utah Univ., Salt Lake City. Health Education Dept.
This report describes the results of two statewide surveys: (1) The 1991 Youth Risk Behavior Survey; and (2) The 1992 New Mexico School Health Education Survey. These findings are intended to be used by educators across New Mexico to help focus the development of effective school-based comprehensive health education programs. Childrens' health…
Utah Univ., Salt Lake City. Health Education Dept.
This report summarizes the major results of a youth risk behavior survey administered to 1,549 students (grades 9-12) in 14 New Mexico schools identified as predominantly "Native American." The purpose of this report is to stimulate useful discussions into ways to increase informed support for effective, school-based comprehensive health…
Messias, Erick; Castro, Juan; Saini, Anil; Usman, Manzoor; Peeples, Dale
We investigated the association between excessive video game/Internet use and teen suicidality. Data were obtained from the 2007 and 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), a high school-based, nationally representative survey (N = 14,041 and N = 16,410, respectively). Teens who reported 5 hours or more of video games/Internet daily use, in the…
Brody, Gene H.; Beach, Steven R. H.; Philibert, Robert A.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Murry, Velma McBride
A randomized prevention design was used to investigate a moderation effect in the association between a polymorphism in the "SCL6A4"("5HTT") gene at 5-HTTLPR and increases in youths' risk behavior initiation. Participation in the Strong African American Families (SAAF) program was hypothesized to attenuate the link between 5-HTTLPR status and risk…
Massachusetts Department of Education, 2007
Data collected by the Massachusetts Department of Education (Department) during the 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) suggest that, despite significant efforts to identify homeless students, many are going undetected by their schools. Since the reauthorization of the McKinney Vento Homeless Assistance Education Improvement Act under the No…
Mikow, Victoria A.
A survey of 2,439 high school students (the 1993 Youth Risk Behavior Survey) in North Carolina found that students present a mixed picture of healthy and risky physical, nutritional, and weight management practices. The survey examined perception of body weight; weight control by gender; method of weight control; consumption of fruit or fruit…
Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City.
This report describes the results of two statewide surveys conducted during Spring, 1991: the 1992 Utah Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) and the 1991 Utah School Health Education Survey (SHES). Sixty-three schools were randomly selected to participate in the state-level YRBS, and all 311 public and private schools with students in grades 7…
Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Meca, Alan; Unger, Jennifer B; Romero, Andrea; Szapocznik, José; Piña-Watson, Brandy; Cano, Miguel Ángel; Zamboanga, Byron L; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Soto, Daniel W; Villamar, Juan A; Lizzi, Karina M; Pattarroyo, Monica; Schwartz, Seth J
U.S. Latino parents can face cultural stressors in the form of acculturative stress, perceived discrimination, and a negative context of reception. It stands to reason that these cultural stressors may negatively impact Latino youth's emotional well-being and health risk behaviors by increasing parents' depressive symptoms and compromising the overall functioning of the family. To test this possibility, we analyzed data from a six-wave longitudinal study with 302 recently immigrated (<5 years in the United States) Latino parents (74% mothers, Mage = 41.09 years) and their adolescent children (47% female, Mage = 14.51 years). Results of a cross-lagged analysis indicated that parent cultural stress predicted greater parent depressive symptoms (and not vice versa). Both parent cultural stress and depressive symptoms, in turn, predicted lower parent-reported family functioning, which mediated the links from parent cultural stress and depressive symptoms to youth alcohol and cigarette use. Parent cultural stress also predicted lower youth-reported family functioning, which mediated the link from parent cultural stress to youth self-esteem. Finally, mediation analyses indicated that parent cultural stress predicted youth alcohol use by a way of parent depressive symptoms and parent-reported family functioning. Our findings point to parent depressive symptoms and family functioning as key mediators in the links from parent cultural stress to youth emotional well-being and health risk behaviors. We discuss implications for research and preventive interventions.
Dougherty, Donald M.; Lake, Sarah L.; Mathias, Charles W.; Ryan, Stacy R.; Bray, Bethany C.; Charles, Nora E.; Acheson, Ashley
Background Youths with family histories of alcohol and other drug use disorders (FH+) are at increased susceptibility for developing substance use disorders relative to those without such histories (FH−). This vulnerability may be related to impaired adolescent development of impulse control and elevated risk-taking. However, no previous studies have prospectively examined impulse control and risk-taking in FH+ youth across adolescence. Methods A total of 386 pre-adolescents (305 FH+, 81 FH−; ages 10–12) with no histories of regular alcohol or other drug use were compared on behavioral measures of impulsivity including delay discounting, response initiation (Immediate Memory Task), response inhibition impulsivity (GoStop Impulsivity Paradigm), and risk-taking (Balloon Analogue Risk Task-Youth). Youths completed these laboratory tasks every 6 months, allowing for examination of 10–15 year olds. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to characterize the development of impulse control and risk-taking as shown in performance of these tasks throughout adolescence. Results We found that: (1) FH+ youths had increased levels of delay discounting and response inhibition impulsivity at study entry; (2) regardless of FH status, all youths had relatively stable delay discounting across time, improvements in response inhibition and response initiation impulsivity, and increased risk-taking; and (3) although FH+ youths had increased response inhibition impulsivity at pre-adolescence, these differences were negligible by mid-adolescence. Conclusions Heightened delay discounting in FH+ pre-adolescents coupled with normal adolescent increases in risk-taking may contribute to their increased susceptibility towards problem substance use in adolescence. PMID:26173617
Harold, Gordon T; Leve, Leslie D; Kim, Hyoun K; Mahedy, Liam; Gaysina, Darya; Thapar, Anita; Collishaw, Stephan
Past research has identified maternal depression and family of origin maltreatment as precursors to adolescent depression and antisocial behavior. Caregiving experiences have been identified as a factor that may ameliorate or accentuate adolescent psychopathology trajectories. Using a multilevel approach that pools the unique attributes of two geographically diverse, yet complementary, longitudinal research designs, the present study examined the role of maternal caregiver involvement as a factor that promotes resilience-based trajectories related to depressive symptoms and antisocial behaviors among adolescent girls. The first sample comprises a group of US-based adolescent girls in foster care (n = 100; mean age = 11.50 years), each of whom had a history of childhood maltreatment and removal from their biological parent(s). The second sample comprises a group of UK-based adolescent girls at high familial risk for depression (n = 145; mean age = 11.70 years), with all girls having biological mothers who experienced recurrent depression. Analyses examined the role of maternal caregiving on girls' trajectories of depression and antisocial behavior, while controlling for levels of co-occurring psychopathology at each time point. Results suggest increasing levels of depressive symptoms for girls at familial risk for depression but decreasing levels of depression for girls in foster care. Foster girls' antisocial behavior also decreased over time. Maternal caregiver involvement was differentially related to intercept and slope parameters in both samples. Results are discussed with respect to the benefits of applying multilevel (multisample, multiple outcome) approaches to identifying family-level factors that can reduce negative developmental outcomes in high-risk youth.
McKenzie, Jeanie; Girin, Natalie; Roth, Adam; Vivili, Paula; Williams, Gail; Hoy, Damian
Abstract Introduction and Aims Alcohol use is a leading risk factor for disease and injury in Pacific Island countries and territories (PICT). This paper examines drinking patterns across 20 PICTs. Design and Methods We synthesised published data from the STEPwise approach to surveillance or similar surveys for adults 25–64 years, and from the Global School‐Based Student Health surveys and Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) for youth. We examined current and heavy drinking, and for adults also frequency of consumption. Using YRBSS, we studied trends in youth alcohol use in US‐affiliated PICTs between 2001 and 2013. Results Alcohol consumption in adults and youth varied considerably across PICTs. In eight PICT populations, over 60% of male adults were current drinkers. Male adults consumed alcohol more frequently and engaged in heavy drinking more than female adults. Similar gender differences occurred in current and heavy drinking among youth. Across 10 PICTs, current drinking prevalence in males 13–15 years ranged from 10% to over 40%. Declines in alcohol use among grade 9–12 students were observed in YRBSS, although the magnitude differed by island and sex. Discussion and Conclusions Alcohol consumption varies widely between PICTs. There are marked gender differences in use and abstention. There is scope in PICTs for implementation of best practice strategies to reduce alcohol‐related harm. These need to be gender responsive and cognisant of concerning patterns of youth drinking. Strengthening surveillance of alcohol use and its consequences is vital to inform and monitor the impact of national and regional policies. [Kessaram T, McKenzie J, Girin N, Roth A, Vivili P, Williams G, Hoy D. Alcohol use in the Pacific region: Results from the STEPwise approach to surveillance, Global School‐Based Student Health Survey and Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:412–423] PMID:26358376
French, Laurence Armand; Rodriguez, Richard F.
New Mexico ranks high in youth violence, substance abuse, poverty, teen pregnancies, and school dropout rates. In response, Western New Mexico University developed a special master's program in bilingual special education, attended primarily by minority-group school personnel, and implemented a program to address the cycle of poverty by training…
Taliaferro, Lindsay A.; Rienzo, Barbara A.; Donovan, Kristine A.
Background: How adolescents spend their out-of-school time represents one of the most important factors for predicting positive youth development. Sport participation relates to many beneficial outcomes. However, current economic conditions threaten high school sport programs around the United States. This investigation examined relationships by…
Meade, Christina S.; Weiss, Roger D.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Poole, Sabrina A.; Subramaniam, Geetha A.; Patkar, Ashwin A.; Connery, Hilary S.; Woody, George E.
Objective To assess baseline rates of and changes in HIV drug and sexual risk behavior as a function of gender and treatment in opioid-dependent youth. Methods 150 participants were randomly assigned to extended buprenorphine/naloxone therapy for 12 weeks (BUP) or detoxification for 2 weeks (DETOX); all received drug counseling for 12 weeks. HIV risk was assessed at baseline and 4-, 8-, and 12-week follow-ups. Behavioral change was examined using generalized estimating equations. Results Baseline rates of past-month HIV risk for females/males were 51%/45% for injection drug use (IDU) (ns), 77%/35% for injection risk (p<.001), 82%/74% for sexual activity (ns), 14%/24% for multiple partners (ns), and 68%/65% for unprotected intercourse (ns). IDU decreased over time (p<.001), with greater decreases in BUP versus DETOX (p<.001) and females versus males in BUP (p<.05). Injection risk did not change for persistent injectors. Sexual activity decreased in both genders and conditions (p<.01), but sexual risk did not. Conclusions Overall IDU and sexual activity decreased markedly, particularly in BUP patients and females, but injection and sexual risk behaviors persisted. While extended buprenorphine/naloxone therapy appears to have favorable effects on HIV risk behavior in opioid-dependent youth, risk reduction counseling may be necessary to extend its benefits. PMID:20393347
Groner, Mark R.; Solomon, Jean
Advancements in the delivery of community-based services and tight utilization management of high-cost treatment options result in youths with serious behavior problems receiving intervention in lower levels of care than was true ten or fifteen years ago. This shift in where services tend to be delivered necessitates enhancement of risk assessment…
Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--Selected Steps Communities, United States, 2007 and Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--Pacific Island United States Territories, 2007. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries. Volume 57, Number SS-12
Shaw, Frederic E., Ed.
The "Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report" ("MMWR") Series is prepared by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Data in the weekly "MMWR" are provisional, based on weekly reports to CDC by state health departments. This issue of "MMWR" contains the following studies: (1) Youth Risk Behavior…
Lejuez, C. W.; Aklin, Will; Daughters, Stacey; Zvolensky, Michael; Kahler, Christopher; Gwadz, Marya
This study examined the reliability and validity of the youth version of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART-Y) for assessing adolescent risk behaviors among a sample of 98 inner-city African American adolescents (M age = 14.8, SD = 1.5). In addition to a relation with sensation seeking, BART-Y responding evidenced a significant relation with a…
Stayton, Catherine; McVeigh, Katharine H.; Olson, E. Carolyn; Perkins, Krystal; Kerker, Bonnie D.
Objective: To compare health risks of 2 subgroups of weapon carriers: victimized and nonvictimized youth. Methods: 2003-2007 NYC Youth Risk Behavior Surveys were analyzed using bivariate analyses and multinomial logistic regression. Results: Among NYC teens, 7.5% reported weapon carrying without victimization; 6.9% reported it with victimization.…
Fan, Maoyong; Jin, Yanhong
The objective of this study was to examine the correlation between self-perception of being overweight and weight loss intentions, eating and exercise behaviors, as well as extreme weight-loss strategies for U.S. adolescents. This study uses 50,241 observations from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey (YRBSS) 2001–2009, which were nationally representative sample of 9th- through 12th-grade students in both public and private schools in the US. This study finds that, irrespective of the weight status base on self-reported weight and height, adolescents who perceive themselves as overweight have a stronger intention to lose weight, but do not develop better eating and exercise habits, compared with their counterparts of same gender and reported weight status. Normal-weight adolescents, if they perceive themselves as overweight, are more likely to engage in health-compromising weight-loss methods. This study shows that it is critical to transform weight-loss intentions into actual behaviors among overweight/obese adolescents and improve the efficacy of behavioral interventions against childhood obesity. It also highlights the need of establishing a correct perception of body weight among normal weight adolescents to curb extreme weight-loss methods. PMID:26593930
Messias, Erick; Kindrick, Kristi; Castro, Juan
While school bullying has been shown to be associated with depression and suicidality among teens, the relationship between these outcomes and cyberbullying has not been studied in nationally representative samples. Data came from the 2011 CDC Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), a nationally representative sample of high-school students (N=15,425). We calculated weighted estimates representative of all students in grades 9-12 attending school in the US. Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios. Overall, girls are more likely to be report being bullied (31.3% vs. 22.9%), in particularly to be cyberbullied (22.0% vs. 10.8%), while boys are only more likely to report exclusive school bullying (12.2% vs. 9.2%). Reports of 2-week sadness and all suicidality items were highest among teens reporting both forms of bullying, followed by those reporting cyberbullying only, followed by those reporting school bullying only. For example, among those reporting not being bullied 4.6% reported having made a suicide attempt, compared to 9.5% of those reporting school bullying only (adjusted odd ratio (AOR) 2.3, 95% C.I. 1.8- 2.9), 14.7% of those reporting cyberbullying only (AOR 3.5 (2.6-4.7)), and 21.1% of those reporting victimization of both types of bullying (AOR 5.6 (4.4-7)). Bullying victimization, in school, cyber, or both, is associated with higher risk of sadness and suicidality among teens. Interventions to prevent school bullying as well as cyberbullying are needed. When caring for teens reporting being bullied, either at school or in cyberbullying, it's important to screen for depression and suicidality. PMID:24768228
Messias, Erick; Kindrick, Kristi; Castro, Juan
While school bullying has been shown to be associated with depression and suicidality among teens, the relationship between these outcomes and cyberbullying has not been studied in nationally representative samples. Data came from the 2011 CDC Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), a nationally representative sample of high-school students (N=15,425). We calculated weighted estimates representative of all students in grades 9-12 attending school in the US. Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios. Overall, girls are more likely to be report being bullied (31.3% vs. 22.9%), in particularly to be cyberbullied (22.0% vs. 10.8%), while boys are only more likely to report exclusive school bullying (12.2% vs. 9.2%). Reports of 2-week sadness and all suicidality items were highest among teens reporting both forms of bullying, followed by those reporting cyberbullying only, followed by those reporting school bullying only. For example, among those reporting not being bullied 4.6% reported having made a suicide attempt, compared to 9.5% of those reporting school bullying only (adjusted odd ratio (AOR) 2.3, 95% C.I. 1.8-2.9), 14.7% of those reporting cyberbullying only (AOR 3.5 (2.6-4.7)), and 21.1% of those reporting victimization of both types of bullying (AOR 5.6 (4.4-7)). Bullying victimization, in school, cyber, or both, is associated with higher risk of sadness and suicidality among teens. Interventions to prevent school bullying as well as cyberbullying are needed. When caring for teens reporting being bullied, either at school or in cyberbullying, it's important to screen for depression and suicidality.
Vogel, Ineke; Brug, Johannes; Van Der Ploeg, Catharina P. B.; Raat, Hein
There is an increasing population at risk of hearing loss and tinnitus due to increasing high-volume music listening. To inform prevention strategies and interventions, this study aimed to identify important protection motivation theory-based constructs as well as the constructs "consideration of future consequences" and "habit…
Lormand, Donna K.; Markham, Christine M.; Peskin, Melissa F.; Byrd, Theresa L.; Addy, Robert C.; Baumler, Elizabeth; Tortolero, Susan R.
Background: Whereas dating violence among high school students has been linked with sexual risk-taking and substance use, this association has been understudied among early adolescents. We estimated the prevalence of physical and nonphysical dating violence in a sample of middle school students and examined associations between dating violence,…
Glenn, Catherine R.; Nock, Matthew K.
Suicidal behaviors increase dramatically during adolescence. In order to effectively intervene and ultimately prevent suicide in youth, the field needs to be able to identify and predict which adolescents are at greatest suicide risk. However, present knowledge of risk factors for suicide and techniques for identifying at-risk youth are insufficient. The purpose of the current manuscript is to highlight some of the key, yet unanswered, questions about the prediction of suicidal behavior in youth, and to suggest the types of research advances needed to move the field forward. PMID:23850053
Moon, Martha W.; Fornili, Katherine; O'Briant, Amanda L.
This article examines risk behavior among youth attending support groups for sexual minority youth in Richmond, Virginia, using a structured survey, with particular attention to partner selection and its relationship to risk. Within this generally high-risk group, youth reporting sex partners of both sexes had significantly higher risk profiles,…
This select bibliography lists books, articles, and reports, almost all of which were published since 1980, on at-risk youth. The following areas are included: (1) general; (2) dropouts; (3) drug and alcohol abusers; (4) youth offenders; (5) teen parents; (6) young children at risk; and (7) unemployed youth. For each item the following information…
This study explores the relationship between self-reported risk behaviors and personal resiliency in adolescents; specifically whether youth with higher personal resiliency report less frequent risk behaviors than those with lower personal resiliency. Self-reported risk behavior is surveyed by the "Adolescent Risk Behavior Inventory"…
Ramos, Dandara de Oliveira; Daly, Martin; Seidl-de-Moura, Maria Lucia; Nadanovsky, Paulo
This study integrates insights from evolutionary psychology and social epidemiology to present a novel approach to contextual effects on health-risk behaviors (unprotected sex, drunkenness episodes, drugs and tobacco experimentation) among adolescents. Using data from the 2012 Brazilian National Survey of Adolescent Health (PeNSE), we first analyzed the effects of self-reported violent victimization on health-risk behaviors of 47,371 adolescents aged 10-19 nested in the 26 Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District. We then explored whether the magnitude of these associations was correlated with cues of environmental harshness and unpredictability (youth external mortality and income inequality) and mating competition (sex ratio) from the city level. Results indicated that self-reported violent victimization is associated with an increased chance of engagement in health-risk behaviors in all Brazilian state capitals, for both males and females, but the magnitude of these associations varies in relation to broader environmental factors, such as the cities' age-specific mortality rates, and specifically for females, income inequality and sex ratio. In addition to introducing a novel theoretical and empirical approach to contextual effects on adolescent health-risk behaviors, our findings reinforce the need to consider synergies between people's life experiences and the conditions where they live, when studying health-risk behaviors in adolescence.
Abdulraheem, I. S.; Fawole, O. I.
The prevalence and correlates of HIV-related risk behaviors among adolescents and youths in Nigeria are poorly documented. This study aims at determining the prevalence and correlates of HIV-related risk behaviors among adolescents and youths in order to plan appropriate intervention measures. This is a descriptive cross-sectional survey using…
Quinn, Katherine; Ertl, Allison
This study explores the characteristics and risk behaviors of sexual minority high school students using the 2011 Wisconsin Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Among 3,043 students surveyed, 8% of students identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or unsure, and 7% reported having contact with same-sex partners. Findings indicate sexual minority students…
Oshri, Assaf; Tubman, Jonathan G; Jaccard, James
Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to classify 394 adolescents undergoing substance use treatment, based on past year psychiatric symptoms. Relations between profile membership and (a) self-reported childhood maltreatment experiences and (b) current sexual risk behavior were examined. LPA generated three psychiatric symptom profiles: Low-, High- Alcohol-, and High- Internalizing Symptoms profiles. Analyses identified significant associations between profile membership and childhood sexual abuse and emotional neglect ratings, as well as co-occurring sex with substance use and unprotected intercourse. Profiles with elevated psychiatric symptom scores (e.g., internalizing problems, alcohol abuse and dependence symptoms) and more severe maltreatment histories reported higher scores for behavioral risk factors for HIV/STI exposure. Heterogeneity in psychiatric symptom patterns among youth receiving substance use treatment services, and prior histories of childhood maltreatment, have significant implications for the design and delivery of HIV/STI prevention programs to this population.
Mellins, Claude A; Dolezal, Curtis; Brackis-Cott, Elizabeth; Nicholson, Ouzama; Warne, Patricia; Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F L
HIV-negative, inner-city adolescents with HIV-infected parents are considered to be at high risk for acquiring HIV themselves. Using a modified theory of health behavior, this study examined the effects of maternal HIV infection and psychosocial variables on the onset of sexual and drug risk behavior in 144 HIV-negative adolescents with and without HIV-positive mothers. Adolescents and their mothers were interviewed when the youths were 10-14 years old and again when they were 13-19 years old. By follow-up, 42% of youths reported the onset of vaginal sex (vs 5% at baseline). Marijuana and alcohol use increased from 6 and 38%, respectively, at baseline to 25 and 60% at follow-up. Among those reporting risk behaviors, 40--50% reported onset prior to 14 years. Youth and family psychosocial variables, but not maternal HIV status, were associated with risk behaviour outcomes.
Dukes, Richard L.; Stein, Judith A.
Tested control theory using protective effects of personal and social assets and risk effects of personal deficits on deviant behaviors of drug use, delinquency, truancy, and weapons possession. Analyzed data from students in grades 6-12 using structural equations modeling. Second order factors of assets and deficits explained deviant behavior.…
Hackerman, Ann E.
There has been a surge in the rates of adolescents who are becoming infected with HIV. This study of 214 at risk clients being treated on an inpatient psychiatric hospitalization basis examines why such clients continue to engage in high-risk behaviors. Results and suggestions for a psychoeducational curriculum for professionals are included.…
Purpose This study examined the association between early initiation of problem behaviors (alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and sexual intercourse) and suicidal behaviors (suicidal ideation and suicide attempts), and explored the effect of concurrent participation in these problem behaviors on suicidal behaviors among Korean adolescent males and females. Materials and Methods Data were obtained from the 2006 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationally representative sample of middle and high school students (32,417 males and 31,467 females) in grades seven through twelve. Bivariate and multivariate logistic analyses were conducted. Several important covariates, such as age, family living structure, household economic status, academic performance, current alcohol drinking, current cigarette smoking, current butane gas or glue sniffing, perceived body weight, unhealthy weight control behaviors, subjective sleep evaluation, and depressed mood were included in the analyses. Results Both male and female preteen initiators of each problem behavior were at greater risk for suicidal behaviors than non-initiators, even after controlling for covariates. More numerous concurrent problematic behaviors were correlated with greater likelihood of seriously considering or attempting suicide among both males and females. This pattern was more clearly observed in preteen than in teen initiators although the former and latter were engaged in the same frequency of problem behavior. Conclusion Early initiation of alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and sexual intercourse, particularly among preteens, represented an important predictor of later suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in both genders. Thus, early preventive intervention programs should be developed and may reduce the potential risks for subsequent suicidal behaviors. PMID:20046509
Background The relationship between urbanicity and adolescent health is a critical issue for which little empirical evidence has been reported. Although an association has been suggested, a dichotomous rural versus urban comparison may not succeed in identifying differences between adolescent contexts. This study aims to assess the influence of locality size on risk behaviors in a national sample of young Mexicans living in low-income households, while considering the moderating effect of socioeconomic status (SES). Methods This is a secondary analysis of three national surveys of low-income households in Mexico in different settings: rural, semi-urban and urban areas. We analyzed risk behaviors in 15-21-year-olds and their potential relation to urbanicity. The risk behaviors explored were: tobacco and alcohol consumption, sexual initiation and condom use. The adolescents' localities of residence were classified according to the number of inhabitants in each locality. We used a logistical model to identify an association between locality size and risk behaviors, including an interaction term with SES. Results The final sample included 17,974 adolescents from 704 localities in Mexico. Locality size was associated with tobacco and alcohol consumption, showing a similar effect throughout all SES levels: the larger the size of the locality, the lower the risk of consuming tobacco or alcohol compared with rural settings. The effect of locality size on sexual behavior was more complex. The odds of adolescent condom use were higher in larger localities only among adolescents in the lowest SES levels. We found no statically significant association between locality size and sexual initiation. Conclusions The results suggest that in this sample of adolescents from low-income areas in Mexico, risk behaviors are related to locality size (number of inhabitants). Furthermore, for condom use, this relation is moderated by SES. Such heterogeneity suggests the need for more
Quan, Minghui; Chen, Peijie; Zhuang, Jie; Wang, Chao
Purpose: Although walking has been demonstrated as one of the best forms for promoting physical activity (PA), little is known about Chinese city children and youth's walking behavior. The purpose of this study was therefore to assess ambulatory PA behavior of Chinese city children and youth. Method: The daily steps of 2,751 children and youth…
Maynard, Brandy R.; Polanin, Joshua R.; Vaughn, Michael G.; Sarteschi, Christine M.
The popularity, demand, and increased federal and private funding for after-school programs have resulted in a marked increase in after-school programs over the past two decades. After-school programs are used to prevent adverse outcomes, decrease risks, or improve functioning with at-risk youth in several areas, including academic achievement, crime and behavioral problems, socio-emotional functioning, and school engagement and attendance; however, the evidence of effects of after-school programs remains equivocal. This systematic review and meta-analysis, following Campbell Collaboration guidelines, examined the effects of after-school programs on externalizing behaviors and school attendance with at-risk students. A systematic search for published and unpublished literature resulted in the inclusion of 24 studies. A total of 64 effect sizes (16 for attendance outcomes; 49 for externalizing behavior outcomes) extracted from 31 reports were included in the meta-analysis using robust variance estimation to handle dependencies among effect sizes. Mean effects were small and non-significant for attendance and externalizing behaviors. A moderate to large amount of heterogeneity was present; however, no moderator variable tested explained the variance between studies. Significant methodological shortcomings were identified across the corpus of studies included in this review. Implications for practice, policy and research are discussed. PMID:25416228
Murray, Christopher; Zvoch, Keith
This investigation examines teacher-student relationships among African American youth from low-income backgrounds (N = 193). Students and their teachers completed measures of teacher-student relationship quality and measures pertaining to emotional, behavioral, and school-related adjustment. Results indicated that African American youth who fell…
Crepeau-Hobson, Franci; Leech, Nancy L.
This study examined the association between various types of peer-directed violence and suicidal thoughts and behaviors among adolescents. A nationally representative sample of 15,425 high school students completed the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. All types of peer victimization (bullying, physical violence, and dating violence) were found to…
Sinha, Jill W.; Cnaan, Ram A.; Gelles, Richard J.
Too few studies have assessed the relationship between youth risk behaviors and religiosity using measures which captured the varied extent to which youth are engaged in religion. This study applied three measures of religiosity and risk behaviors. In addition, this study ascertained information about youths' participation in religious activities…
Tubman, Jonathan G; Oshri, Assaf; Taylor, Heather L; Morris, Staci L
The purpose of the current study was to describe the use of a brief maltreatment assessment instrument to classify adolescents receiving alcohol or other drug (AOD) treatment services based on the extensiveness and severity of prior maltreatment. This goal is significant because maltreatment reduces the effectiveness of AOD treatment and is associated significantly with co-occurring patterns of psychiatric symptoms and sexual risk behaviors. Structured interviews were administered to 300 adolescent treatment clients (202 males, 98 females; M = 16.22 years; SD = 1.13 years) to assess childhood maltreatment experiences, past year psychiatric symptoms, and sexual risk behaviors during the past 180 days. Cluster analysis classified adolescents into unique groups via self-reported sexual abuse, physical punishment, and parental neglect/negative home environment. Significant between-cluster differences in psychiatric symptoms and sexual risk behaviors were documented using MANOVA and chi-square analyses. More severe maltreatment profiles were associated with higher scores for psychiatric symptoms and unprotected intercourse. Significant heterogeneity and distinct types within this treatment sample of adolescents supports the adaptation of selected prevention efforts to promote HIV/STI risk reduction.
Douyon, Richard; Marcelin, Louis Herns; Jean-Gilles, Michèle; Page, J. Bryan
SUMMARY In order to characterize undesirable behavior (drug use, fighting, criminal activity) among Haitian youth at risk and determine the relationship between traumatic experience and that kind of behavior, investigators recruited 291 Haitian youths via networks of informal social relations in two zones of Miami/Dade County strongly idenitified with Haitian ethnicity. Each recruit responded to an interview schedule eliciting sociodemographic information and self-reported activities, including involvement in youth-dominated groups. They also reported traumatic experience. Clinicians administered CAPS to a subset of those respondents who self-reported traumatic experience. Staff ethnographers selected respondents for in-depth interviews and family studies to provide contextual depth for findings of the interview schedule and the CAPS assessments. Although traumatic experience may still play a role in mental health outcomes among children, childhood victimization among Haitian children does not appear to be related to the drug use and undesirable behaviors associated with unsupervised youth, including formation of gangs. PMID:16275637
Brown, Larry K.; Houck, Christopher; Lescano, Celia; Donenberg, Geri; Tolou-Shams, Marina; Mello, Justin
The acquisition of affect regulation skills is often impaired or delayed in youth with mental health problems but the relationship between affect dysregulation and risk behaviors has not been well studied. Baseline data from adolescents (N =418; ages 13–19) recruited from therapeutic school settings examined the relationship between affect dysregulation, substance use, self-cutting, and sexual risk behavior. Analyses of covariance demonstrated that adolescents who did not use condoms at last sex, ever self-cut, attempted suicide, used alcohol and other drugs and reported less condom use self-efficacy when emotionally aroused were significantly more likely (p < .01) to report greater difficulty with affect regulation than peers who did not exhibit these behaviors. General patterns of difficulty with affect regulation may be linked to HIV risk behavior, including condom use at last sex. HIV prevention strategies for youth in mental health treatment should target affect regulation in relation to multiple risk behaviors. PMID:22669595
Mellins, Claude A.; Elkington, Katherine S.; Brackis-Cott, Elizabeth; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Dolezal, Curtis; McKay, Mary; Wiznia, Andrew; Bamji, Mahrukh; Abrams, Elaine J.
A study found that youth and caregiver mental health problem have greater impact than key environmental factors and family functioning on sex and drug use risk behaviors in perinatally human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected (PHIV+) and PHIV- youths. No differences in the rates of sexual risk behavior and substance use were observed between…
Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2008
"After School: Connecting Children at Risk With Responsible Adults to Help Reduce Youth Substance Abuse and Other Health-Compromising Behaviors (After School)" helped develop intermediary organizations in Boston, Chicago and the San Francisco Bay Area in order to create citywide systems of after-school programs. The…
Jaser, Sarah S.; Holl, Marita G.; Jefferson, Vanessa; Grey, Margaret
Background: Rates of overweight in youth have increased at an alarming rate, particularly in minority youth, and depressive symptoms may affect the ability of youth to engage in healthy lifestyle behaviors to manage weight and reduce their risk for health problems. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between depressive…
Bazargan, Mohsen; Stein, Judith A.; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Hindman, David W.
Background: Testing, refining, and tailoring theoretical approaches that are hypothesized to reduce sexual risk behaviors among adolescent subpopulations is an important task. Relatively little is known about the relationship between components of the information-motivation-behavior (IMB) model and sexual behaviors among underage minority youth.…
Gibson-Young, Linda; Martinasek, Mary P.; Clutter, Michiko; Forrest, Jamie
Background: Adolescents with asthma are at risk for psychological and behavioral problems. The aim of this study was to determine whether high school students with asthma are at increased risk for bullying in school and cyberspace, and to explore the role of depressive symptoms in moderating this association. Methods: A secondary data analysis was…
North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Accountability Services/Research.
The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) Middle School Questionnaire, produced by the National Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, was administered for the first time in North Carolina in 1995. The survey monitored high-priority health-risk behaviors, including: (1) weapons and violence; (2) suicide-related behaviors; (3) vehicle safety; (4)…
Davidson, Lucy, Ed.; Linnoila, Markku, Ed.
Commissioned papers by a work group on risk factors for youth suicide, which examined environmental, behavioral, socio-cultural, biological, and psychological factors associated with an increased likelihood of suicide among young people are presented in this document. The following papers are presented: (1) "Sociodemographic, Epidemiologic, and…
Nelson, Catherine; Greenfield, Robin G.; Hyte, Holly A.; Shaffer, Jason P.
Children and youth who are deafblind with multiple disabilities have several identified risk factors for experiencing toxic levels of stress, and such stress is known to impair physical, mental, and emotional health. This single-case multiple baseline study examined the frequency and duration of behaviors thought to indicate stress, the duration…
Lau, Anna S.; Jernewall, Nadine M.; Zane, Nolan; Myers, Hector F.
Medical record abstraction was conducted to identify correlates of suicidal behaviors in a sample of 285 Asian American youths. Acculturation interacted with risk factor of parent-child conflict to predict suicidality. Finding underscores the importance of culture as a context for determining the relevance of stressors for potentiating…
Choi, Sung Won; Park, Tae-jin; Kim, Jun-su; Byun, Sunghun; Lee, Young-seok; Kim, Jung-hoon
Background An increase in the obese adolescent population is being recognized as a serious medical and social problem. The present study aimed to examine the association between neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity in Korean adolescents based on total available resources and local social inequality models. Methods The present study used data from the 2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey in analyzing 72,438 Korean adolescents aged 12–18. The analysis investigated obesity odds ratio (OR) according to neighborhood SES adjusted for age and individual SES indices, which included family affluence scale (FAS), education level of parents, cohabitation with parents, and weekly allowance. Obesity OR was investigated according to neighborhood SES by FAS, and according to FAS by neighborhood SES. Results After adjusting for age and individual SES variables, there was no significant association between neighborhood SES and adolescent obesity for either boys or girls. However, girls in the high FAS group showed a pattern of lower neighborhood SES being associated with a significant increase in risk of obesity; in the high neighborhood SES group, boys showed a pattern of higher FAS being associated with a significant increase in risk of obesity, whereas girls show a pattern of decrease. Conclusion Although limited, the present study demonstrated that some girl groups exhibited a pattern of lower neighborhood SES being associated with an increase in risk of obesity, as well as a gender-based difference in risk of obesity by individual SES. Therefore, measures to prevent adolescent obesity should be established with consideration for differences in risk according to individual and neighborhood SES. PMID:26885325
Dickson, Laurie M.; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Gupta, Rina
Despite the growing popularity of the harm reduction approach in the field of adolescent alcohol and substance abuse, a harm reduction approach to prevention and treatment of youth problem gambling remains largely unexplored. This article poses the question of whether the harm reduction paradigm is a promising approach to the prevention of…
Drummond, Wilhelmina J.
Explores causes of the high teenage suicide rate in New Zealand by looking at environmental-social factors. Examines the problems these youth face, such as depression and alcohol use, and discusses their risk-taking behaviors. Findings are linked to current theory on adolescent suicide. Prevention, intervention, and treatment strategies are…
McCarter, Susan A.; Haber, Mason G.; Kazemi, Donna
Policy reform for at-risk youth is complicated by involvement of various service sectors. Issues related to coordinating systems of care in a dynamic policy environment are not new, but surprisingly little has been written to guide practitioners and policymakers in addressing them (Friedman in "Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders"…
Seil, Kacie S.; Desai, Mayur M.
Objectives. We examined associations between identifying as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) and lacking a connection with an adult at school on adolescent substance use and mental health outcomes including suicidality. Methods. We analyzed data from the 2009 New York City Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n = 8910). Outcomes of interest included alcohol use, marijuana use, illicit drug use, depressive symptomatology, suicide ideation, and suicide attempt. Results. The prevalence of each outcome was significantly higher among LGB adolescents than heterosexual adolescents and among those who lacked an adult connection at school than among those who did have such a connection. Even when LGB adolescents had an adult connection at school, their odds of most outcomes were significantly higher than for heterosexual adolescents. Those LGB adolescents who lacked a school adult connection had the poorest outcomes (about 45% reported suicide ideation; 31% suicide attempt). Conclusions. Adolescents who are LGB, particularly those who lack a connection with school adults, are at high risk for substance use and poorer mental health outcomes. Interventions should focus on boosting social support and improving outcomes for this vulnerable group. PMID:25121812
Rajan, Sonali; Namdar, Rachel; Ruggles, Kelly V.
Background: The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of aggressive and violent behaviors in the context of the school environment in a nationally representative sample of adolescent youth and to illustrate these patterns during 2001-2011. Methods: We analyzed data from 84,734 participants via the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance…
Trejos-Castillo, Elizabeth; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.
Though official data document that Hispanic youth are at a great risk for early sexual intercourse, STDs, and teen pregnancy, only few etiological studies have been conducted on Hispanic youth; almost no work has examined potential generational differences in these behaviors, and thus, these behaviors may have been mistakenly attributed to…
Sanchez, Yadira M.; Lambert, Sharon F.; Cooley-Strickland, Michele
African American youth residing in low income urban neighborhoods are at increased risk of experiencing negative life events in multiple domains, increasing their risk for internalizing and externalizing behaviors. However, little is known about youth's differential responses to life event stress, or protective processes and coping strategies for…
Mikow, Victoria A.
This survey examined the behaviors associated with the six leading causes of death or disability in one state's high school youth. Participants were 2,439 9th-12th grade students. Results identified alcohol as the drug most frequently used by high school students, with over half of students having used alcohol by their senior year and almost half…
Lustig, Deborah Freedman; Sung, Kenzo K
Although "association with delinquent peers" is commonly identified as "a risk factor for youth violence," this framework leads us to blame individuals and ignore the complex lives of youth who face state, symbolic, and interpersonal violence. This study is based on interviews with young adults about their adolescence in a low-income immigrant gateway neighborhood of Oakland, California. Most of the interviewees have peer networks that are racially/ethnically diverse and also include both delinquent and conforming peers. We show that having these "doubly diverse" friendship networks helps youth move through their neighborhood safely and feel anchored to their community even when they leave to attend college. Even successful youth in our study do not erect borders between themselves and "delinquent peers." It is easy to assign blame to youth for their friendships, their violent behavior, their lack of education, their unstable and low-paying jobs, but this calculus ignores both the structural factors that constrain youth choices and the benefits that seem to be linked to diverse friendships, even with delinquent peers. Growing up in a site of global capital accumulation and disinvestment in the era of neoliberalism, our interviewees challenge us to reframe risk.
Lustig, Deborah Freedman; Sung, Kenzo K.
Although “association with delinquent peers” is commonly identified as “a risk factor for youth violence,” this framework leads us to blame individuals and ignore the complex lives of youth who face state, symbolic, and interpersonal violence. This study is based on interviews with young adults about their adolescence in a low-income immigrant gateway neighborhood of Oakland, California. Most of the interviewees have peer networks that are racially/ethnically diverse and also include both delinquent and conforming peers. We show that having these “doubly diverse” friendship networks helps youth move through their neighborhood safely and feel anchored to their community even when they leave to attend college. Even successful youth in our study do not erect borders between themselves and “delinquent peers.” It is easy to assign blame to youth for their friendships, their violent behavior, their lack of education, their unstable and low-paying jobs, but this calculus ignores both the structural factors that constrain youth choices and the benefits that seem to be linked to diverse friendships, even with delinquent peers. Growing up in a site of global capital accumulation and disinvestment in the era of neoliberalism, our interviewees challenge us to reframe risk. PMID:24072949
Arthur, Michael W.; Briney, John S.; Hawkins, J. David; Abbott, Robert D.; Brooke-Weiss, Blair L.; Catalano, Richard F.
The Communities That Care Youth Survey measures risk and protective factors shown in prior studies to predict adolescent problem behaviors such as drug use, delinquency, and violence. This paper describes the development and validation of cut points for the risk and protective factor scales in the Communities That Care Youth Survey that…
Gould, Madelyn S.; Marrocco, Frank A.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Kleinman, Marjorie; Amakawa, Lia; Altschuler, Elizabeth
Objective: We sought to examine follow-up service use by students identified at risk for suicidal behavior in a school-based screening program and assess barriers to seeking services as perceived by youths and parents. Method: We conducted a longitudinal study of 317 at-risk youths identified by a school-based suicide screening in six high schools…
Meinke, Deanna K.; Murphy, William J.; Finan, Donald S.; Lankford, James E.; Flamme, Gregory A.; Stewart, Michael; Soendergaard, Jacob; Jerome, Trevor W.
Objective To characterize the impulse noise exposure and auditory risk for youth recreational firearm users engaged in outdoor target shooting events. The youth shooting positions are typically standing or sitting at a table, which places the firearm closer to the ground or reflective surface when compared to adult shooters. Design Acoustic characteristics were examined and the auditory risk estimates were evaluated using contemporary damage-risk criteria for unprotected adult listeners and the 120-dB peak limit suggested by the World Health Organization (1999) for children. Study sample Impulses were generated by 26 firearm/ammunition configurations representing rifles, shotguns, and pistols used by youth. Measurements were obtained relative to a youth shooter’s left ear. Results All firearms generated peak levels that exceeded the 120 dB peak limit suggested by the WHO for children. In general, shooting from the seated position over a tabletop increases the peak levels, LAeq8 and reduces the unprotected maximum permissible exposures (MPEs) for both rifles and pistols. Pistols pose the greatest auditory risk when fired over a tabletop. Conclusion Youth should utilize smaller caliber weapons, preferably from the standing position, and always wear hearing protection whenever engaging in shooting activities to reduce the risk for auditory damage. PMID:24564688
Lewis, Kendra M.; Schure, Marc B.; Bavarian, Niloofar; DuBois, David L.; Day, Joseph; Ji, Peter; Silverthorn, Naida; Acock, Alan; Vuchinich, Samuel; Flay, Brian R.
Background Youth problem behaviors remain a public health issue. Youth in low-income, urban areas are particularly at risk for engaging in aggressive, violent, and disruptive behaviors. Purpose To evaluate the effects of a school-based social–emotional learning and health promotion program on problem behaviors and related attitudes among low-income, urban youth. Design A matched-pair, cluster RCT. Setting/participants Participants were drawn from 14 Chicago Public Schools over a 6-year period of program delivery with outcomes assessed for a cohort of youth followed from Grades 3 to 8. Data were collected from Fall 2004 to Spring 2010, and analyzed in Spring 2012. Intervention The Positive Action program includes a scoped and sequenced K–12 classroom curriculum with six components: self-concept, social and emotional positive actions for managing oneself responsibly, and positive actions directed toward physical and mental health, honesty, getting along with others, and continually improving oneself. The program also includes teacher, counselor, family, and community training as well as activities directed toward schoolwide climate development. Main outcome measures Youth reported on their normative beliefs in support of aggression and on their bullying, disruptive and violent behaviors; parents rated youths’ bullying behaviors and conduct problems; schoolwide data on disciplinary referrals and suspensions were obtained from school records. Results Multilevel growth-curve modeling analyses conducted on completion of the trial indicated that Positive Action mitigated increases over time in (1) youth reports of normative beliefs supporting aggressive behaviors and of engaging in disruptive behavior and bullying (girls only); and (2) parent reports of youth bullying behaviors (boys only). At study end-point, students in Positive Action schools also reported a lower rate of violence-related behavior than students in control schools. Schoolwide findings indicated
Fisher, Colleen M.
Young sexual minority males are among those at highest risk for HIV infection, yet we know relatively little about the impact of sexual identity development on HIV risk. This study used cross-sectional data to investigate factors associated with HIV-related sexual risk among a sample of sexual minority males (n = 156), ages 14 to 21 years, using…
Jackson, Dylan B; Vaughn, Michael G; Salas-Wright, Christopher P
Research on the topic of bullying has revealed that a substantial number of youth are bullied each year. Even so, a complete understanding of the origins of bullying behaviors remains elusive. In the current study, we propose that poor nutrition may constitute an important modifiable risk factor for bullying behaviors during adolescence, and that behavioral sensitivity to nutrition may vary across deviant and non-deviant youth. We employ data from the US sample of youth (52% male) ages 10-17 from the 2009-2010 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study to examine our hypothesis (N = 8753). The results reveal that poor nutrition significantly increases the odds of persistent bullying among youth, and that this relationship is particularly pronounced for non-deviant youth. The findings suggest that efforts to improve the nutrition of non-deviant youth may have the added benefit of reducing their likelihood of engaging in persistent bullying behaviors.
Kwon, Harry T.; Wang, Min Qi; Valmidiano, Lillian L.
Asian Americans are one of the fastest growing minority groups in the United States. This study examined the association between several common youth risk behaviors, including cigarette use among Asian American adolescents, using data (N=408) from the 2001 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). The weighted univariate and multivariate logistic…
Raposa, Elizabeth B; Rhodes, Jean E; Herrera, Carla
Although mentoring is a widely used intervention strategy, effect sizes for at-risk youth remain modest. Research is therefore needed to maximize the impact of mentoring for at-risk youth who might struggle to benefit from mentoring relationships. This study tested the hypothesis that different types of youth risk would have a negative impact on mentoring relationship quality and duration and explored whether mentor characteristics exacerbated or mitigated these negative effects. Results showed that elevated environmental stress at a youth's home and/or school predicted shorter match duration, and elevated rates of youth behavioral problems, such as poor academic performance or misconduct, predicted greater youth dissatisfaction and less positive mentor perceptions of relationship quality. Mentors with greater self-efficacy and more previous involvement with youth in their communities were able to buffer the negative effects of environmental stress on match duration. Similarly, mentors' previous involvement with youth buffered the negative effects of youth behavioral problems on mentor perceptions of relationship quality. Findings have important implications for the matching of mentors and at-risk youth in a way that improves mentoring outcomes.
Child & Youth Services, 2007
In this chapter I describe the micro "risk society" of Limerick City and St. Augustine's Youth Encounter Project in terms of the social and cultural background of the interviewees, their perceived family and community identity, and their wider socialisation influences. The project is situated down one of the notorious Limerick lanes made…
Stoneman, Zolinda; Jinnah, Hamida Amirali; Rains, Glen C.
The study discussed in this article examined the extent to which fathers were aware of unsafe farm behaviors engaged in by their youth. Fathers and youth provided information about the youth's behaviors on the farm, particularly related to tractors/large equipment. Fathers indicated whether they were familiar with the North American Guidelines for…
Wyatt, Tammy Jordan; Peterson, Fred L.
Ongoing behavioral research has documented the growing prevalence of adolescent health risk behaviors, such as tobacco use, sexual activity, alcohol and other substance use, nutritional behavior, physical inactivity, and intentional injury. Newer youth risk behaviors, such as pathological gambling, are emerging as threats to public health. Risk,…
Zoffness, Rachel; Garland, Ann; Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Roesch, Scott
Youth with disruptive behavior problems (DBPs) represent the majority of youth served in usual care (UC) psychotherapy, and are at high risk for maladaptive outcomes. Little is known about UC psychotherapeutic strategies utilized with this population. Researchers and clinicians suggest that case management (CM) is a major activity occurring in…
Voisin, Dexter R.; Elsaesser, Caitlin M.
School engagement has a powerful influence on youth development. Youth who fail in school are at significant risk for a host of subsequent psychosocial outcomes, including substance use, risky sexual behaviors, gang involvement, and increased contact with juvenile justice authorities. Although school engagement is an important determinant of key…
Sawyer, Richard J.; Porter, J. Davidson; Lehman, Thomas C.; Anderson, Clinton; Anderson, Karen M.
A national-level needs assessment of high school psychologists, social workers, counselors, and nurses was conducted to identify training and educational resource material needs of these staff relevant to providing health and mental health services to gay, lesbian, bisexual, and questioning (GLBQ) youth. Systematic sampling procedures were…
Harden, K Paige; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Van Hulle, Carol; Turkheimer, Eric; Rodgers, Joseph L; Waldman, Irwin D; Lahey, Benjamin B
Theoretical models concerning how neighborhood contexts adversely influence juvenile antisocial behavior frequently focus on urban neighborhoods; however, previous studies comparing urban and rural areas on the prevalence of youth antisocial behavior have yielded mixed results. The current study uses longitudinal data on the offspring of a nationally representative sample of mothers (N = 4,886) in the US. There was no relation between density and mother-reported child conduct problems across ages 4-13 years, but youth living in areas of greater population density exhibited more youth self-reported delinquency across 10-17 years. Families often moved to counties with greater or lesser population density, but longitudinal analyses treating population density as a time-varying covariate did not support the hypothesis that living in densely populated counties influenced youth delinquency. Rather, the association between population density and delinquency appears to be due to unmeasured selection variables that differ between families who live in more or less densely populated counties.
Suicide is the leading cause of death among South Korean adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between suicidal thoughts (ST) and suicidal attempts (SA) with the level of physical activity (PA) among South Korean adolescents. Based on data from the eighth Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey, 74,186 South Korean adolescents were evaluated in terms of their relationship between meeting guidelines for vigorous PA (VPA), moderate PA (MPA), and low PA (LPA) and in respect of ST and SA status. The adjusted odds ratio in adolescents who thought about suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.02 in males, 1.21 in females with VPA, 1.10 in males, 1.18 in females with MPA, and 1.16 in males, 1.20 in females with LPA) compared to participants who did not think about suicide. In addition, the AOR in adolescents who attempted suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.16 in males, 1.36 in females with VPA, 1.13 in males, 1.15 in females with MPA, and 1.26 in males, 1.15 in females with LPA) compared to participants who did not attempt suicide. These results show that VPA, MPA, and LPA are positively associated with ST and SA prevention in South Korean adolescents. Therefore, to prevent suicide of South Korean adolescents, we support public health program including PA participation. Key Points South Korean male adolescents, compared to female adolescents, showed relatively high values for physical activity-related variables such as vigorous, moderate, and low PA. Regardless of gender, more physical activity participation is positively associated with prevention of suicidal thought and attempts of South Korean adolescents. To prevent suicide of South Korean adolescents, we support public health program including meeting guidelines for vigorous, moderate, and low physical activity. PMID:25435782
Yates, Gary L.; And Others
Examination of data from 1985 visits by 110 runaway and 655 non-runaway youth to an outpatient medical clinic reveals that runaway youth are at greater risk for a wide variety of medical problems and of health-compromising behaviors including suicide, depression, prostitution, and drug use. (Author/BJV)
Dembo, Richard; Wareham, Jennifer; Poythress, Norman; Meyers, Kathleen; Schmeidler, James
The authors report the results of latent class analyses and latent class transition analyses of antisocial behavior risk factors among 137 youths participating in a juvenile diversion program. The study examined the youths' latent classifications using baseline and 1-year follow-up measures of family, peer, education, and mental health risk…
Nurius, Paula S.; Russell, Patricia L.; Herting, Jerald R.; Hooven, Carole; Thompson, Elaine A.
This investigation integrated violence exposure with critical risk and protective factors linked to healthy adolescent adaptation and transition into early adulthood. A racially diverse sample of 848 adolescents identified as at-risk for school drop-out were assessed for no, single, or multiple forms of violence exposure. MANOVA tests revealed that youth with single form victimization fared more poorly than never-exposed youth, and that multiple-form victimization held the greatest jeopardy to development. Youth with multiple-form victimization reported significantly elevated risk factors (emotional distress, life stress, suicide risk, risky behaviors) and lower protective factors (social support, school engagement, family structure) than both single-form and never-exposed youth. Implications are discussed for preventive and early intervention programming and for examining the transition of at-risk youth into young adulthood. PMID:21494415
Freeburg, Beth Winfrey; Workman, Jane E.
The goal of this study was to identify the relationship of at-risk youth workplace appearance to other job performance criteria. Employers (n = 30; each employing from 1 to 17 youths) evaluated 178 at-risk high school youths who completed a paid summer employment experience. Appearance evaluations were significantly correlated with evaluations of…
White, Stuart F.; VanTieghem, Michelle; Brislin, Sarah J.; Sypher, Isaiah; Sinclair, Stephen; Pine, Daniel S.; Hwang, Soonjo; Blair, R. James R.
Objective Youth with Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD: Conduct Disorder/Oppositional Defiant Disorder) are at increased risk for maladaptive reactive aggression. Theory suggests this is due to increased sensitivity of basic threat circuitry implicated in retaliation (amygdala/periaqueductal gray) in youth with DBD and low levels of Callous-Unemotional Traits and dysfunctional regulatory activity within ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in youth with DBD irrespective of callous-unemotional traits. Methods Fifty-six youths participated (23 female) aged 10–18 (26 healthy and 30 with DBD [15 with high and 15 with low callous-unemotional traits]) who completed an Ultimatum Game during functional MRI. Results Youth with DBD and low callous-unemotional traits showed greater increases in activation of basic threat circuitry when punishing others relative to comparison groups and dysfunctional down regulation of vmPFC during retaliation. All youth with DBD showed reduced amygdala-vmPFC connectivity during high provocation relative to healthy youth. VmPFC responsiveness and vmPFC-amygdala connectivity were related to patients’ retaliatory propensity (behavioral responses during task) and parent reported reactive aggression. Conclusions These data suggest differences in the underlying neurobiology of maladaptive reactive aggression in youth with DBD and low relative to high levels of callous-unemotional traits. Youth with DBD and low callous-unemotional traits alone show significantly greater threat responses during retaliation relative to comparison individuals. Moreover, these data suggest that vmPFC-amygdala connectivity is critical for regulating retaliation/reactive aggression and when dysfunctional, contributes to reactive aggression, independent of level of callous-unemotional traits. PMID:26441155
Alleyne, Emma; Wood, Jane L
Research has noted the existence of a loose and dynamic gang structure. However, the psychological processes that underpin gang membership have only begun to be addressed. This study examined gang members, peripheral youth, and nongang youth across measures of criminal activity, the importance they attach to status, their levels of moral disengagement, their perceptions of out-group threat, and their attitudes toward authority. Of the 798 high school students who participated in this study, 59 were identified as gang members, 75 as peripheral youth, and 664 as nongang youth. Gang members and peripheral youth were more delinquent than nongang youth overall; however, gang members committed more minor offenses than nongang youth and peripheral youth committed more violent offenses than nongang youth. Gang members were more anti-authority than nongang youth, and both gang and peripheral youth valued social status more than nongang youth. Gang members were also more likely to blame their victims for their actions and use euphemisms to sanitize their behavior than nongang youth, whereas peripheral youth were more likely than nongang youth to displace responsibility onto their superiors. These findings are discussed as they highlight the importance of examining individual differences in the cognitive processes that relate to gang involvement.
Hulvershorn, Leslie A.; Hummer, Tom A.; Fukunaga, Rena; Leibenluft, Ellen; Finn, Peter; Cyders, Melissa A.; Anand, Amit; Overhage, Lauren; Dir, Allyson; Brown, Joshua
Risky decision-making, particularly in the context of reward-seeking behavior, is strongly associated with the presence of substance use disorders (SUDs). However, there has been little research on the neural substrates underlying reward-related decision-making in drug-naïve youth who are at elevated risk for SUDs. Participants comprised 23 high-risk (HR) youth with a well-established SUD risk phenotype and 27 low-risk healthy comparison (HC) youth, aged 10–14. Participants completed the balloon analog risk task (BART), a task designed to examine risky decision-making, during functional magnetic resonance imaging. The HR group had faster reaction times, but otherwise showed no behavioral differences from the HC group. HR youth experienced greater activation when processing outcome, as the chances of balloon explosion increased, relative to HC youth, in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). As explosion probability increased, group-by-condition interactions in the ventral striatum/anterior cingulate and the anterior insula showed increasing activation in HR youth, specifically on trials when explosions occurred. Thus, atypical activation increased with increasing risk of negative outcome (i.e., balloon explosion) in a cortico-striatal network in the HR group. These findings identify candidate neurobiological markers of addiction risk in youth at high familial and phenotypic risk for SUDs. PMID:26071624
Udell, Wadiya; Donenberg, Geri; Emerson, Erin
We investigated the relationship between parenting practices (i.e., parental monitoring, parent permissiveness, and parent-teen communication), and probation youth's HIV-related sexual risk behavior (i.e., ever having sex, condom use, alcohol and marijuana use before sex). Participants were 61 male and female juvenile offenders, ages 13-17, on probation and awaiting sentencing. Results indicated different relationships between parenting and HIV-related sexual risk behavior for probation boys and girls. Parental monitoring, parenting permissiveness, and parent-teen communication were collectively related to whether girls' ever had sex and with boys' use of alcohol and marijuana use before last sex. Findings underscore the important role of parenting on probation teens' HIV risk behaviors.
Collado, Anahi; Risco, Cristina M.; Banducci, Anne N.; Chen, Kevin W.; MacPherson, Laura; Lejuez, Carl W.
Research indicates that White adolescents tend to engage in greater levels of risk behavior relative to Black adolescents. To better understand these differences, the current study examined real-time changes in risk-taking propensity (RTP). The study utilized the Balloon Analogue Risk Task-Youth Version (BART-Y), a well-validated real-time,…
LaSala, Michael C
The family has long been considered a powerful influence on youth's high-risk behaviors. However, little is known about preventive family influences for gay and bisexual youth, a group at high risk for HIV infection. For this study, qualitative interviews from a sample of 38 gay and bisexual youth and their parents/guardians underwent a thematic analysis. Youth described parent-child closeness, parental warnings, and urgings to use condoms as influences. Youth denying family influence came from families in which parent-child relationships were disrupted or HIV-related discussion was lacking. Most families reported discomfort discussing HIV risk. These findings, along with a case example, suggest how family therapists can enhance parental influence by helping these families strengthen their relationships and discuss this important topic. Video Abstract.
Gudino, Omar G.; Nadeem, Erum; Kataoka, Sheryl H.; Lau, Anna S.
Urban Latino youth are exposed to high rates of violence, which increases risk for diverse forms of psychopathology. The current study aims to increase specificity in predicting responses by testing the hypothesis that youths' reinforcement sensitivity--behavioral inhibition (BIS) and behavioral approach (BAS)--is associated with specific clinical…
Ang, Rebecca P; Huan, Vivien S; Chan, Wei Teng; Cheong, Siew Ann; Leaw, Jia Ning
Given the robust positive association between gangs and crime, a better understanding of factors related to reported youth gang membership is critical and especially since youth in gangs are a universal concern. The present study investigated the role of delinquency, proactive aggression, psychopathy and behavioral school engagement in reported youth gang membership using a large sample of 1027 Singapore adolescents. Results from logistic regression showed that delinquency, proactive aggression, and behavioral school engagement were statistically significant risk factors for reported youth gang membership, and that psychopathy was not related to reported gang membership. Implications for prevention and intervention work with respect to youth gang membership were discussed. In particular, strengthening students' engagement with school and meaningful school-related activities and developing supportive teacher-student relationships are particularly important in working with young people with respect to prevention work. Additionally, the present study's theoretical and empirical contributions were also discussed.
Hawkins, Renee O; Axelrod, Michael I
Research has shown a positive correlation between time spent on homework and learning. However, students often engage in off-task behaviors to escape the demands of homework. Youth with emotional or behavioral disorders (EBD) are especially likely to engage in off-task behaviors. Effective interventions to increase on-task behavior during homework are needed to increase students' academic success. Functional behavioral assessment (FBA) procedures may be helpful for intervention planning; however, there has been limited research on use of FBA with youth with EBD experiencing poor academic performance or task completion problems. In the current study, FBA methods were used to identify the contingencies maintaining the off-task behavior of four youth with behavior problems. Effects of interventions based on functional hypotheses were compared to the effects of interventions not linked to such hypotheses. Discussion focuses on utility of FBA procedures for developing and implementing effective interventions for youth with EBD.
Doucette, Patricia A.
This qualitative research explored the question: Do preadolescent and adolescent youths with behavioral challenges benefit from a multimodal intervention of walking outdoors while engaging in counseling? The objective of the Walk and Talk intervention is to help the youth feel better, explore alternative behavioral choices, and learn new coping…
Omli, Jens; Wiese-Bjornstal, Diane M.
News reports (e.g., Abrams, 2008) and scholarly research (e.g., Wiersma & Fifer, 2005) have indicated increasing concern that parent-spectator behavior at youth sport events may be problematic. Multiple strategies have been used to influence spectator behavior in youth sport contexts (e.g., "Silent Sundays"). However, it is unlikely that…
Mendler, Allen N.
Many youth use substances and engage in other high-risk behaviors in an attempt to allay the emptiness accompanying broken belongings. Schools can play important roles in fostering connections and creating the natural high that comes from success. (Author)
This paper is concerned with exploring how in late modernity the "youth question" is being addressed by public policy and what impact this is having on understandings of childhood and youth. Historically the youth question has been shaped by adult anxieties over youth delinquency and their problems of social integration. In late modernity, this is…
Perrino, Tatiana; Pantin, Hilda; Huang, Shi; Brincks, Ahnalee; Brown, C Hendricks; Prado, Guillermo
Familias Unidas is an intervention that has been found to be efficacious in preventing and reducing substance use, sexual risk, and problem behaviors among Hispanic youth. While it does not specifically target youth internalizing symptoms, the intervention works to strengthen parenting and family factors associated with reduced risk of internalizing symptoms (i.e., depression, anxiety symptoms). This study examines the effects of Familias Unidas on internalizing symptoms among high-risk youth, as well as the role of family level factors in the intervention's effects. A total of 242 12-17-year-old Hispanic youth with a history of delinquency and their primary caregivers were recruited from the school and juvenile justice systems, and randomly assigned to the Familias Unidas intervention or community practice control. A linear latent growth model was used to examine intervention effects on the trajectory of adolescent internalizing symptoms from baseline to 6 and 12 months post-baseline. Results show that the Familias Unidas intervention was more efficacious than control in reducing youth internalizing symptoms. Baseline youth externalizing and internalizing symptoms did not moderate the intervention's effects on the trajectory of youth internalizing symptoms. While parent-adolescent communication did not significantly moderate the intervention's effects, changes in parent-adolescent communication mediated the intervention's effects on internalizing symptoms, showing stronger intervention effects for youth starting with poorer communication. Findings indicate that the Familias Unidas intervention can reduce internalizing symptoms among high-risk Hispanic youth, and that improving parent-youth communication, a protective family factor, may be one of the mechanisms by which the intervention influences youth internalizing symptoms.
Gittman, Elizabeth; Cassata, Marian
A 5-year federally funded substance abuse prevention program targeted 426 high risk middle-school youth from 4 school districts in Nassau County, New York. Combining a child-centered model with a systemic approach, the program's goal was to prevent or delay the onset of alcohol and other drug use. High-risk youth were identified by school…
Sinha, Jill W; Cnaan, Ram A; Gelles, Richard J
Too few studies have assessed the relationship between youth risk behaviors and religiosity using measures which captured the varied extent to which youth are engaged in religion. This study applied three measures of religiosity and risk behaviors. In addition, this study ascertained information about youths' participation in religious activities from a parent or caretaker. Based on a national random sample of 2004 teens (ages 11-18), this study indicates that youth perceive religion as important, are active in religious worship and activities, and further shows that perceived importance of religion as well as participation in religious activities are associated with decreased risk behaviors. Looking at ten risk behaviors, religiosity variables were consistently associated with reduced risk behaviors in the areas of: smoking, alcohol use, truancy, sexual activity, marijuana use, and depression. In the case of these six risk variables, religiosity variables were significantly associated with reduced risk behaviors when controlling for family background variables and self-esteem. The study highlights the importance of further understanding the relationship between religious variables, background variables, self-esteem, and youth risk behaviors.
Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W.; Gaume, Jacques; Ernst, Denise B.; Rivera, Liana; Houck, Jon M.
Brief addiction treatments, including motivational interviewing (MI), have shown promise with youth. One under-examined factor in this equation is the role of therapist behaviors. We therefore sought to assess whether and how therapist behaviors differ for Hispanic versus non-Hispanic youth and how that may be related to treatment outcome. With 80 substance-using adolescents (M age = 16 years; 65% male; 59% Hispanic; 41% non-Hispanic) we examined the relationship between youth ethnicity and therapist behaviors across two brief treatments (MI and Alcohol/Marijuana Education; AME). We then explored relationships to youth three-month treatment response across four target outcomes: binge drinking days, alcohol-related problems, marijuana use days, and marijuana-related problems. In this study, therapists showed significantly more MI skills within the MI condition and more didactic skills in the AME condition. With respect to youth ethnicity, across both conditions (MI and AME), therapists used less MI skills with Hispanic youth. Contrary to expectations, therapists’ use of MI skills was not connected to poorer outcomes for Hispanic youth across the board (e.g., for binge drinking days, marijuana use days, or marijuana-related problems). Rather, for Hispanic youth, therapists’ use of lower MI skills was only related to poorer treatment outcomes in the context of alcohol-related problems. The observed relationships highlight the importance of investigating salient treatment interactions between therapist factors and youth ethnicity to guide improvements in youth treatment response. PMID:25961144
Wagner, Jeffrey P.
Overall, pretest-posttest results for achievement, behavior, and engagement for at-risk boys not eligible (n = 13) and eligible (n = 9) for participation in the free or reduced price lunch program who completed a school-year long academic support study center program were not statistically different over time and end of school year for cumulative…
Green, Dan; Penaloza, Linda J.; Chrisp, Eric; Dillon, Mary; Cassell, Carol M.; Tsinajinnie, Eugene; Rinehart, Judith; Ortega, Willa
In the fall of 2005, the New Mexico Youth Risk and Resiliency Survey (NM YRRS) was conducted in New Mexico public high schools, with 5,679 students in grades nine through twelve participating from 20 public high schools in the state. The NM YRRS is a tool that can assist administrators and policy makers in identifying health risk behaviors among…
Capuzzi, David, Ed.; Gross, Douglas R., Ed.
This monograph outlines early prevention efforts that can decrease the development of destructive behaviors in at-risk youth. The text provides those who work with young people the information they need to identify individuals with the highest potential for "at-riskness." Such care givers also need to understand the causal factors for at-risk…
Silloway, Torey; Connors-Tadros, Lori; Dahlin, Melissa
Hawaii's largest populations of at-risk youth include those youth who have dropped out of school, are at-risk of not completing high school, and youth who have completed school but are still not prepared for the workforce. Depending on estimates used, between 20 and 25 percent of Hawaiian youth are at risk of dropping out school. For older youth,…
Smith, R E; Zane, N W; Smoll, F L; Coppel, D B
To define the characteristics and dimensional patterning of coaching behaviors, 15,449 behaviors of 31 youth basketball coaches were coded in terms of a 10-category system. Post-season attitude and self-esteem data were obtained from players on 23 teams and were related to the behavioral measures. Compared with rates of reinforcement, encouragement, and technical instruction, punitive responses occurred relatively infrequently. Factor analysis of the coaching behaviors indicated that supportive and punitive behavioral dimensions were orthogonal or statistically independent of one another rather than opposite ends of the same dimension. Punitive and instructional categories were part of the same behavior cluster. The relationship between coaching behaviors and the various player attitudes were highly specific in nature. Coaching behaviors accounted for about half of the variance in post-season attitudes toward the coach and the sport, but for significantly less variance in measures of team solidarity and self-esteem. Surprisingly, the rate of positive reinforcement was unrelated to any of the attitudinal measures. Punishment was negatively related to liking for the coach. In general, technical instruction categories were the strongest predictors of basketball player attitudes.
Lippold, Melissa A.; Greenberg, Mark T.; Feinberg, Mark E.
Most studies that explore parental knowledge of youths' activities utilize parents' and youths' reports separately. Using a sample of 938 rural early adolescents (53% female; 84% White), we explore congruence between mothers' and youths' perceptions of maternal knowledge and its association with youth problem behaviors (delinquency, substance use,…
Johnson, Bassin, and Shaw, Inc., Silver Spring, MD.
Professionals who work with runaway, throwaway, and homeless youth have long known that many of these young people leave home to escape abusive and/or destructive family situations. This update presents the findings of a national study on such children. Results of the study, "Youth with Runaway, Throwaway, and Homeless Experiences:…
Astroth, Kirk A.
Puts the label "at risk" in perspective as it relates to youth. Points out that today's adolescents have lower rates of suicide, unwed pregnancy, drug abuse, smoking, and drunk driving than young and middle-aged adults. Suggests that extension youth education moves toward a condition-focused, resiliency model that recognizes the vitality and…
Betancourt, Theresa S.; McBain, Ryan; Newnham, Elizabeth A.; Akinsulure-Smith, Adeyinka M.; Brennan, Robert T.; Weisz, John R.; Hansen, Nathan B.
Objective Youth in war-affected regions are at risk for poor psychological, social, and educational outcomes. Effective interventions are needed to improve mental health, social behavior, and school functioning. This randomized controlled trial tested the effectiveness of a 10-session cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)–based group mental health intervention for multisymptomatic war-affected youth (aged 15–24 years) in Sierra Leone. Method War-affected youth identified by elevated distress and impairment via community screening were randomized (stratified by sex and age) to the Youth Readiness Intervention (YRI) (n = 222) or to a control condition (n = 214). After treatment, youth were again randomized and offered an education subsidy immediately (n = 220) or waitlisted (n = 216). Emotion regulation, psychological distress, prosocial attitudes/behaviors, social support, functional impairment, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were assessed at pre- and postintervention and at 6-month follow-up. For youth in school, enrollment, attendance, and classroom performance were assessed after 8 months. Linear mixed-effects regressions evaluated outcomes. Results The YRI showed significant postintervention effects on emotion regulation, prosocial attitudes/behaviors, social support, and reduced functional impairment, and significant follow-up effects on school enrollment, school attendance, and classroom behavior. In contrast, education subsidy was associated with better attendance but had no effect on mental health or functioning, school retention, or classroom behavior. Interactions between education subsidy and YRI were not significant. Conclusion YRI produced acute improvements in mental health and functioning as well as longer-term effects on school engagement and behavior, suggesting potential to prepare war-affected youth for educational and other opportunities. Clinical trial registration information-Trial of the Youth Readiness Intervention (YRI
Sznitman, Sharon; DiClemente, Ralph; Salazar, Laura F.; Vanable, Peter A.; Carey, Michael P.; Hennessy, Michael; Brown, Larry K.; Valois, Robert F.; Stanton, Bonita F.; Fortune, Thierry; Juzang, Ivan
The evidence base and theoretical frameworks for mass media HIV-prevention campaigns in the United States are not well-developed. We describe an intervention approach using culturally sensitive mass media messages to enhance protective beliefs and behavior of African American adolescents at risk for HIV. This approach exploits the potential that mass media messages have, not only to reach a large segment of the adolescent population and thereby support normative change, but also to engage the most vulnerable segments of this audience to reduce HIV-associated risk behaviors. The results from an ongoing HIV-prevention trial implemented in 2 medium-sized cities in the United States illustrate the effectiveness of this intervention approach. PMID:19833995
Rhew, Isaac C.; Hawkins, J. David; Oesterle, Sabrina
This study compared levels of drug use and risk and protective factors among 18,767 adolescent youths from communities of less than 50,000 in population living either on farms, in the country but not on farms, or in towns. Current alcohol use, smokeless tobacco use, inhalant use, and other illicit drug use were more prevalent among high school-aged youths living on farms than among those living in towns. Prevalence of drug use did not significantly vary across youths living in different residential contexts among middle school youths. While risk and protective factors showed associations of similar magnitude with drug use across residential location, high school students living on farms were exposed to greater numbers of risk factors across multiple domains than were students living in towns. The findings suggest that outreach to farm-dwelling youths may be particularly important for interventions seeking to prevent adolescent drug use in rural settings. PMID:21414831
Rhew, Isaac C; David Hawkins, J; Oesterle, Sabrina
This study compared levels of drug use and risk and protective factors among 18,767 adolescent youths from communities of less than 50,000 in population living either on farms, in the country but not on farms, or in towns. Current alcohol use, smokeless tobacco use, inhalant use, and other illicit drug use were more prevalent among high school-aged youths living on farms than among those living in towns. Prevalence of drug use did not significantly vary across youths living in different residential contexts among middle school youths. While risk and protective factors showed associations of similar magnitude with drug use across residential location, high school students living on farms were exposed to greater numbers of risk factors across multiple domains than were students living in towns. The findings suggest that outreach to farm-dwelling youths may be particularly important for interventions seeking to prevent adolescent drug use in rural settings.
The market value for energy drinks is continually growing and the annual worldwide energy drink consumption is increasing. However, issues related to energy drink ingredients and the potential for adverse health consequences remain to be elucidated. This aim of the present paper is to review the current knowledge on putative adverse effects of energy drinks, especially in youths. There are many energy drink brands in the worldwide market, even if only few brands are available in France. Although the energy drink content varies, these beverages often contain taurine, caffeine, vitamins B and carbohydrates. These drinks vary widely in both caffeine content (80 to 141 mg per can) and caffeine concentration. Except caffeine, the effects of energy drink ingredients on physical and cognitive performances remain controversial. Researchers identified moderate positive effects of energy drinks on performances, whereas others found contrary results. The adverse effects of energy drink can be related to either the toxicity of ingredients or specific situations in which energy drinks are used such as ingestion in combination with alcohol. Although the issue of taurine-induced toxic encephalopathy has been addressed, it is likely that the risk of taurine toxicity after energy drink consumption remains low. However, whether the prolonged use of energy drinks providing more than 3g taurine daily remains to be examined in the future. The consumption of energy drinks may increase the risk for caffeine overdose and toxicity in children and teenagers. The practice of consuming great amounts of energy drink with alcohol is considered by many teenagers and students a primary locus to socialize and to meet people. This pattern of energy drink consumption explains the enhanced risk of both caffeine and alcohol toxicity in youths. Twenty five to 40% of young people report consumption of energy drink with alcohol while partying. Consumption of energy drinks with alcohol during heavy
Douds, Alexander F.; And Others
The use of contracts between parents and youths, specifying in detail the responsibilities and rewards for changes in behavior was shown effective in improving family relations and in reducing recidivism in juvenile offenders. (MS)
Capuzzi, Dave, Ed.; Gross, Douglas R., Ed.
This book of readings consists of 15 chapters grouped into 4 "Parts." The readings provide information and strategies for counselors, teachers, parents, administrators, social workers, and others who work with youth at risk. Sample programs that have been effective are described and data are provided on causal factors for youth problems.…
Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Lamis, Dorian A.; McCullars, Adrianne
Suicide is currently the third leading cause of death among youth; it has been named a public health concern. A number of programs have been developed to prevent suicide; many of these involve intervening with youth who are known to be at-risk because of their depression, expressed suicide ideation, or previous suicide attempts. This paper serves…
Taylor, Catherine A.; Boris, Neil W.; Heller, Sherryl Scott; Clum, Gretchen A.; Rice, Janet C.; Zeanah, Charles H.
This study examines type-specific and cumulative experiences of violence among a vulnerable population of youth. Sixty high-risk, shelter-dwelling, urban youth were interviewed regarding their history of childhood maltreatment, exposure to community violence (ECV), and experience with intimate partner violence (IPV). Results show a high prevalence…
Huszti, Heather C.; Wilson, Patrick A.; Kahana, Shoshana; Nichols, Sharon; Gonin, René; Xu, Jiahong; Kapogiannis, Bill G.
Despite the rising number of new HIV infections among youth, few tailored interventions for youth living with HIV (YLH) have been developed and rigorously tested. Developing tailored interventions necessitates identifying different profiles of YLH and understanding how risk and protective factors cluster together. Obtaining this critical information requires accessing a sufficiently large sample of YLH from diverse geographic settings such as those available through the Adolescent Trials Network for HIV Interventions (ATN). We recruited a cross-sectional sample of 1,712 YLH from ATN clinics; participants completed a survey on psychosocial and health factors. Using latent class analysis on nine composite variables representing risk factors, we identified five classes distinguished by substance use, sexual behavior, and pregnancy history and differing on health outcomes. Findings suggest a need for tailored interventions addressing multiple risky behaviors of HIV-infected youth and research to clarify how intervention effectiveness may differ by risk profile. PMID:25117556
Belmonte, K.; Latack, J. A.; Mellins, C. A.; Wasserman, G. A.; Donenberg, G. R.; Hirsch, J. S.
Using in-depth interviews with 20 probation youth (60% female; 35% white; 30% Hispanic; mean age 15years, range=13–17), their caregivers (100% female; mean age 44years, range=34–71) and 12 female probation officers (100% white; mean age 46years, range=34–57), we explored how family and probation systems exacerbate or mitigate sexual risk. We conducted thematic analyses of interviews, comparing narratives of families of sexually risky (n=9) versus non-sexually risky (n=11) youth. Family functioning differed by youth sexual risk behavior around quality of relationships, communication, and limit-setting and monitoring. The involvement of families of sexually risky youth in probation positively influenced family functioning. Data suggest these families are amenable to intervention and may benefit from family-based HIV/STI interventions delivered in tandem with probation. PMID:26539022
Smith, Robert C.; Ward, Phillip; Rodrigues-Neto, Manoel; Zhang, Peng
Coaching youth athletes has much in common with teaching physical education. Over the past three decades there has been substantive research in physical education settings that has given educators empirical support for effective teaching practices to improve the learner's performance. However, little research has taken place in youth sport…
Fischer, Sarah; Young-Hyman, Deborah
Objectives Provide an updated literature review on prevalence, measurement, and correlates of disordered eating in youth with Type 1 diabetes (T1D), present a novel theoretical risk model (i.e., The Modified Dual Pathway Model) for disordered eating in youth with T1D incorporating psychosocial and physiological risk factors, and discuss clinical implications. Methods Literature review of prevalence, correlates, risk factors, and outcomes of disordered eating behavior (DEB) in youth with T1D. Results Insulin treatment, subsequent weight gain, and disruptions to hunger and satiety regulation are hypothesized disease-related mechanisms through which the treatment of T1D may increase vulnerability to development of behavior characterized as DEB. The Modified Dual Pathway Model integrates these factors with a validated psychosocial risk (body dissatisfaction, depression, and abstinence violation) model for DEB in nondiabetic youth. Conclusions The Modified Dual Pathway model of DEB in youth with T1D is a comprehensive representation of both psychosocial and T1D-related risk factors with the potential to inform future interventions for this population. PMID:25502449
Bowman, Philip C.; Auerbach, Stephen M.
Compared results of a cognitive-behavioral program employing relaxation training, cognitive training in problem solving, self-statement modification, and behavior rehearsal techniques to results from a control group in a program modifying impulsive behavior in adolescent youthful offenders. The program successfully modified overt antisocial…
Omli, Jens; Wiese-Bjornstal, Diane M
News reports (e.g., Abrams, 2008) and scholarly research (e.g., Wiersma & Fife, 2005) have indicated increasing concern that parent-spectator behavior at youth sport events may be problematic. Multiple strategies have been used to influence spectator behavior in youth sport contexts (e.g., "Silent Sundays"). However it is unlikely that interventions aimed at changing parent-spectator behaviors have adequately considered young athletes' perspectives, because little is known about how children want parents to behave during youth sport events. Therefore, children (ages 7-14 years) were asked to describe how parents actually behaved at youth sport events and how they wanted parents to behave. Through grounded theory analysis (Charmaz, 2000), three parent "roles" emerged from the data-supportive parent, demanding coach, and crazed fan.
Gopalan, Geetha; Cavaleri, Mary A.; Bannon, William M.; McKay, Mary M.
This study examines whether risk factors associated with child externalizing behavior symptoms differ between two similar low-income, urban communities, using baseline parent data of 154 African American youth (ages 9-15) participating in the Collaborative HIV-Prevention and Adolescent Mental Health Project (CHAMP) family program. Separate…
Feiring, Candice; Simon, Valerie A.; Cleland, Charles M.; Barrett, Ellen P.
Although experiencing childhood sexual abuse (CSA) puts youth at risk for involvement in relationship violence, research is limited on the potential pathways from CSA to subsequent dating aggression. The current study examined prospective pathways from externalizing behavior problems and stigmatization (abuse-specific shame and self-blame…
This study compares problem behaviors across a range of adolescent Asian Pacific Islander (API) subgroups using the Add Health data, and controlling for parental education or immigrant status. The study finds that Filipino, "other" API, and multiethnic API American youth are at higher risk for poorer outcomes than Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese…
Martinez, Charles R.; Eddy, J. Mark
A randomized experimental test of the implementation feasibility and the efficacy of a culturally adapted Parent Management Training intervention was conducted with a sample of 73 Spanish-speaking Latino parents with middle-school-aged youth at risk for problem behaviors. Intervention feasibility was evaluated through weekly parent satisfaction…
Greggo, Jennifer; Jones, Sherry Everett; Kann, Laura
By better understanding differences in health-risk behaviors among youth in rural, suburban and urban communities, health educators and other public health practitioners can more appropriately focus prevention and health care programs. In this study, we examined data from the national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) to determine whether…
Juarez, P; Schlundt, D G; Goldzweig, I; Stinson, N
Teenage drivers, especially males, have higher rates of motor vehicle crashes and engage in riskier driving behavior than adults. Motor vehicle deaths disproportionately impact youth from poor and minority communities and in many communities there are higher rates of risky behaviors among minority youth. In this paper, the authors review the data on teens, risky driving behaviors, and morbidity and mortality. They identify areas in which known disparities exist, and examine strategies for changing teen driving behavior, identifying what has worked for improving the use of seat belts and for reducing other risky behaviors. A multifaceted, multilevel model based on ecological theory is proposed for understanding how teens make choices about driving behaviors, and to understand the array of factors that can influence these choices. The model is used to create recommendations for comprehensive intervention strategies that can be used in minority communities to reduce disparities in risk behaviors, injury, disability, and death. PMID:16788113
Iwasaki, Yoshitaka; Hopper, Tristan; Whelan, Patricia
This short communication provides our insights into how or in what ways educators can more effectively support aspiration of at-risk/high-risk youth toward meaningful education. These are informed by the key learnings from our ongoing youth engagement research. Those insights emphasize the importance of "meaningful engagement of youth"…
Herrera, Carla; DuBois, David L.; Grossman, Jean Baldwin
"The Role of Risk: Mentoring Experiences and Outcomes for Youth with Varying Risk Profiles" presents findings from the first large-scale study to examine how the levels and types of risk youth face may influence their relationships with program-assigned mentors and the benefits they derive from these relationships. The study looked…
Ramey, Heather L.; Busseri, Michael A.; Khanna, Nishad; Rose-Krasnor, Linda
Suicide is a leading cause of death among adolescents in many industrialized countries. We report evidence from a mediation model linking greater youth activity engagement, spanning behavioral and psychological components, with lower suicide risk through five hypothesized intrapersonal and interpersonal mediating factors. Self-report survey data…
Heck, Nicholas C.; Flentje, Annesa; Cochran, Bryan N.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth are at risk for engaging in negative health behaviors and for experiencing at-school victimization. Specific benefits of attending a high school with a gay-straight alliance (GSA), including lower levels of suicidality, have been published; however, it is unclear whether GSAs are related to…
Apache, R. R.
A behavioral assessment system for scoring the behaviors of parents and coaches at youth sports games is described within this paper. The Youth Sports Behavior Assessment System (YSBAS) contains nine behavioral categories describing behaviors commonly seen during youth sports. The developmental process of YSBAS and the observer-training program…
Koki, Stanley I.
The Hawaii Project on Children and Youth At-Risk represents a long-term effort to strengthen the individual school's capacity to meet the special needs of students at-risk. According to the project's definition, a student is at-risk if he/she has consistently failed to make satisfactory school progress, if that failure could be positively…
Smith, Christian; Faris, Robert
This study used data from the Monitoring the Future Survey of high school seniors to examine the impact of religion on U.S. adolescents' participation in constructive youth activities. Overall, religion positively related to participation in constructive activities. Students who participated in religious activities tended to be less likely to…
Osborne, K Juston; Bernard, Jessica A; Gupta, Tina; Dean, Derek J; Millman, Zachary; Vargas, Teresa; Ristanovic, Ivanka; Schiffman, Jason; Mittal, Vijay A
Beat gestures, rhythmic hand movements that co-occur with speech, appear to be uniquely associated with the cerebellum in healthy individuals. This behavior may also have relevance for psychosis-risk youth, a group characterized by cerebellar dysfunction. This study examined beat gesture frequency and postural sway (a sensitive index of cerebellar functioning) in youth at ultrahigh risk (UHR) for psychosis. Results indicated that decreased beat gesture frequency, but not self-regulatory movement, is associated with elevated postural sway, suggesting that beat gestures may be an important biomarker in this critical population.
Wilson, Dawn K; Sweeney, Allison M; Kitzman-Ulrich, Heather; Gause, Haylee; St George, Sara M
Nurturing environments within the context of families, schools, and communities all play an important role in enhancing youth's behavioral choices and health outcomes. The increasing prevalence rates of obesity among youth, especially among low income and ethnic minorities, highlight the need to develop effective and innovative intervention approaches that promote positive supportive environments across different contexts for at-risk youth. We propose that the integration of Social Cognitive Theory, Family Systems Theory, and Self-Determination Theory offers a useful framework for understanding how individual, family, and social-environmental-level factors contribute to the development of nurturing environments. In this paper, we summarize evidence-based randomized controlled trials that integrate positive parenting, motivational, and behavioral skills strategies in different contexts, including primary care, home, community, and school-based settings. Taken together, these studies suggest that youth and parents are most likely to benefit when youth receive individual-level behavioral skills, family-level support and communication, and autonomous motivational support from the broader social environment. Future investigators and healthcare providers should consider integrating these evidence-based approaches that support the effects of positive social climate-based interventions on promoting healthy eating, physical activity, and weight management in youth.
It is widely accepted that many social and health problems have underlying behavioral causes. Because these problems are rooted in human behavior, solutions to deal with them also lie in human behavior. This paper examines ways of integrating customer engagement in social programs to influence and initiate behavior change effectively with a special focus on youth. This work followed a theoretical deduction by use of a literature review. Social marketing places emphasis on behavior change, and one of the key challenges for social marketers is to ensure a perceived value for customers in taking up and maintaining positive behavior. If perceptions, beliefs, attitudes, and values influence behavior, then the central focus should be on the youth. Integrating youth is a prerequisite for effective social marketing programs and ultimately behavioral change. This approach will pave the way for effective brand positioning and brand loyalty in social marketing which has been lacking and requires more attention from researchers and policymakers. This paper outlines theoretical developments in social marketing that will increase the effectiveness of social marketing programs overall. Existing social marketing literature typically focuses on social marketing interventions and behavioral change. This paper uses customer engagement within a social marketing context so that social marketing programs are perceived as brands to which youth can relate. PMID:24600281
It is widely accepted that many social and health problems have underlying behavioral causes. Because these problems are rooted in human behavior, solutions to deal with them also lie in human behavior. This paper examines ways of integrating customer engagement in social programs to influence and initiate behavior change effectively with a special focus on youth. This work followed a theoretical deduction by use of a literature review. Social marketing places emphasis on behavior change, and one of the key challenges for social marketers is to ensure a perceived value for customers in taking up and maintaining positive behavior. If perceptions, beliefs, attitudes, and values influence behavior, then the central focus should be on the youth. Integrating youth is a prerequisite for effective social marketing programs and ultimately behavioral change. This approach will pave the way for effective brand positioning and brand loyalty in social marketing which has been lacking and requires more attention from researchers and policymakers. This paper outlines theoretical developments in social marketing that will increase the effectiveness of social marketing programs overall. Existing social marketing literature typically focuses on social marketing interventions and behavioral change. This paper uses customer engagement within a social marketing context so that social marketing programs are perceived as brands to which youth can relate.
Doljanac, R F; Zimmerman, M A
Adolescence is a period of sexual experimentation. We examined psychosocial predictors of high-risk sexual behavior and condom use. The sample included 824 ninth-graders, most of whom are African American. We conducted separate analyses for whites and African Americans. Predictors included alcohol and substance use, delinquency, prosocial behaviors, and family and peer influences. We found that problem behaviors predicted high-risk sexual behavior, but the effects were stronger for white youth. We also found that friends' behaviors were more predictive than family influences, except for family conflict. In general, the models explained more variance for white youths than for African-American youths. The results suggest that problem behavior theory and social interactions theory may be most relevant for white youth and that other models may be necessary to explain high-risk sexual behavior among African-American youths.
This study examined the associations of sexual risk behaviors, substance use, mental health, and trauma with varying levels of gang involvement in a sample of Los Angeles-based homeless youths. Data were collected from 505 homeless youths who self-reported various health information and whether they have ever identified as or been closely affiliated with a gang member. Multivariable logistic regression assessed associations of lifetime gang involvement with risk taking behaviors and negative health outcomes. Results revealed seventeen percent of youths have ever identified as a gang member and 46% as gang affiliated. Both gang members and affiliates were at greater risk of many negative behaviors than non-gang involved youths. Gang members and affiliates were more likely to report recent methamphetamine use, cocaine use, chronic marijuana use, having sex while intoxicated, and symptoms of depression, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. They were also more likely to have experienced childhood sexual abuse and witnessing family violence. Gang members were more likely to ever attempt suicide, experience recent partner violence, and report physical abuse during childhood. Results suggest that lifetime gang involvement is related to a trajectory of negative outcomes and amplified risk for youths experiencing homelessness. Additionally, being closely connected to a gang member appears to have just as much as an impact on risk as personally identifying as a gang member. Given the lack of knowledge regarding the intersection between youth homelessness and gang involvement, future research is needed to inform policies and programs that can address the specific needs of this population.
Arbeit, Miriam R; Johnson, Sara K; Champine, Robey B; Greenman, Kathleen N; Lerner, Jacqueline V; Lerner, Richard M
Previous analyses of data from the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development (PYD) have examined concurrent trajectories of positive development and risk/problem behaviors among adolescents, finding complex and not necessarily inverse relationships among them. In this article, we expand on prior research by employing a person-centered approach to modeling risk behaviors, assessing development from approximately 6th grade through 12th grade among 4,391 adolescents (59.9% female). Latent profiles involving the problematic behaviors of delinquency, depressive symptoms, substance use, sexual activity, disordered eating behaviors, and bullying were then assessed for concurrent relationships with the Five Cs of PYD: Competence, Confidence, Character, Caring, and Connection. We found six latent profiles, based primarily on mental health, aggression, and alcohol use, with significant differences in Confidence levels among many of the profiles, as well as some differences in the four other Cs. We discuss directions for future research and implications for application to youth policies and programs.
Morgan, Elizabeth M.
Very little is known about outcomes of sexual behavior for sexual minority youth. In this chapter, I review relevant literature and draw on findings from my own research to initiate an inquiry into this important topic. I begin with a brief overview of the range of sexual behaviors of sexual minority adolescents and young adults. Next, I describe…
Walters, Glenn D.; Ruscio, John
The purpose of this study was to determine whether qualitatively distinct trajectories of antisocial behavior could be identified in 1,708 children (843 boys, 865 girls) from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Data (NLSY-C). Repeated ratings were made on the Behavior Problems Index (BPI: Peterson and Zill "Journal of Marriage and…
US Department of Health and Human Services, 2005
Alcohol use by youths has been linked to delinquent behaviors, such as stealing, illicit drug use, and problems in school. Research also indicates that early drinkers are more likely than nondrinkers to engage in delinquent behaviors. The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) asks persons aged 12 or older to report their alcohol use in…
Kingston, Beverly E; Mihalic, Sharon F; Sigel, Eric J
The mental, emotional and behavioral health problems of high-risk youth and youth living in high-risk communities are not inevitable and can be prevented. A shift from the nation's focus on treating disease and illness after it occurs to a concentrated effort on preventing the root causes of these problems is needed. Prevention science suggests a comprehensive multitiered approach that provides evidence-based prevention supports for children and youth at each developmental stage and across multiple social contexts is likely to result in the greatest health impact and return on investment. However, actually implementing this approach at a neighborhood level has remained a challenge and an ongoing research gap especially in high-risk communities. This article describes a process and provides a case study example for implementing a comprehensive, multitiered approach in a high-risk community. This includes assessing and prioritizing the specific needs of individuals and communities; selecting evidence-based programs based upon assessed needs; and creating a continuum of programs to improve the health and well-being of youth across developmental age spans, social contexts, and levels of risk. Operational details and challenges for organizing and implementing this comprehensive approach are also described. We estimate that the collective impact of a multitiered evidence-based approach, implemented with fidelity, could conservatively result in a 30 to 40% reduction in problem behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record
Lebowitz, Eli R; Shic, Frederick; Campbell, Daniel; Basile, Krista; Silverman, Wendy K
Individuals who are high in anxiety sensitivity (AS) are motivated to avoid sensations of anxiety. Consequently, AS is hypothesized to contribute to overall avoidance of any feared stimuli. No studies have yet examined whether fear of a stimulus is a stronger predictor of behavioral avoidance in individuals who are high in AS compared to individuals who are low in AS. We examined whether AS moderates the association between fear of spiders and behavioral avoidance of spider stimuli in 50 clinically anxious youth. Fear of spiders significantly predicted avoidance of spider stimuli in youth high in AS but not in youth low in AS. These results provide support for the role of AS in avoidant behavior and help to explain the link between AS and the anxiety disorders. The results have implications for exposure-based anxiety treatments and highlight the importance of increasing anxious patients' ability to tolerate sensations of anxiety.
Ahern, Nancy R; Sauer, Penny; Thacker, Paige
Choking, cutting, and setting oneself on fire are just a few of the risky behaviors that the YouTube video sharing website has allowed youth around the world to view, emulate, and comment on. Some researchers contend that the viewing of videos may normalize these behaviors for youth. Disturbing current trends are explored to illustrate the darker side of YouTube. Psychiatric-mental health nurses (PMHNs) are in key positions to help parents and youth better understand the benefits and risks of social networking sites, including YouTube, and to encourage healthy and safe use of the Internet. Nursing implications are offered for PMHNs, educators, health care providers, and parents who have contact with this population.
Barker, Brittany; Alfred, Gerald Taiaiake; Fleming, Kim; Nguyen, Paul; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas; DeBeck, Kora
Objectives Past research has identified risk factors associated with incarceration among adult Aboriginal populations; however, less is known about incarceration among street-involved Aboriginal youth. Therefore, we undertook this study to longitudinally investigate recent reports of incarceration among a prospective cohort of street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada. Study Design Prospective cohort study. Methods Data were collected from a cohort of street-involved, drug-using youth from September 2005 to May 2013. Multivariate generalized estimating equation analyses were employed to examine the potential relationship between Aboriginal ancestry and recent incarceration. Results Among our sample of 1050 youth, 248 (24%) reported being of aboriginal ancestry, and 378 (36%) reported being incarcerated in the previous six months at some point during the study period. In multivariate analysis controlling for a range of potential confounders including drug use patterns and other risk factors, Aboriginal ancestry remained significantly associated with recent incarceration (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.44; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.12–1.86). Conclusions Even after adjusting for drug use patterns and other risk factors associated with incarceration, this study found that Aboriginal street-involved youth were still significantly more likely to be incarcerated than their non-Aboriginal peers. Given the established harms associated with incarceration these findings underscore the pressing need for systematic reform including culturally appropriate interventions to prevent Aboriginal youth from becoming involved with the criminal justice system. PMID:26390949
Springer, J. Fred; Sambrano, Soledad; Sale, Elizabeth; Kasim, Rafa; Hermann, Jack
This document summarizes findings from the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention's National Cross-Site Evaluation of High-Risk Youth Programs, which identified characteristics associated with strong substance abuse prevention outcomes in 48 prevention programs. Major findings include: as youth age, levels of risk and protection shift considerably,…
Pyle, Nicole; Flower, Andrea; Fall, Anna Mari; Williams, Jacob
This systematic review sought to understand the individual characteristics of incarcerated youth within the major risk factor domains identified by the U.S. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP). A comprehensive search of the literature from 1979 to 2013 identified 85 articles of individual-level risk characteristics that…
Al Ansari, Ahmed M.; Hamadeh, Randah R.; Matar, Ali M.; Marhoon, Huda; Buzaboon, Bana Y.; Raees, Ahmed G.
Study aimed to identify risk factors, such as family pathology and psychosocial stress, of overdose suicide attempts among Bahraini youth. Stresses from living in a non-intact family; interpersonal relationships mainly with the opposite sex; unemployment; and school performance emerged as main risk factors. Previously identified factors, such as…
Hazler, Richard J.; Denham, Sharon A.
Discusses social isolation as a major factor in determining how youth are increasingly put at risk for both immediate and lifelong difficulties and examines three at-risk situations that counselors face to better understand the origins and implications affecting assessment and interventions. Presents practical implications for how school and…
Halcon, Linda L.; Lifson, Alan R.
This study examined prevalence of sexual risks among homeless adolescents and described factors associated with those risks. Community-based outreach methods were used successfully to access this difficult-to-reach population. The sample included 203 homeless youth aged 15-22 recruited from community sites. Questionnaire items addressed…
Thing, James P.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Schwartz, Seth J.; Soto, Daniel W.; Unger, Jennifer B.
Context Cultural variables have been associated with sexual risk behaviors among Latino youth, but findings across studies are inconsistent. Methods We analyzed data from a longitudinal study of Latino youth in Southern California followed from 2005–2012 to test whether cultural variables measured in high school were associated with sexual risk behaviors in emerging adulthood, and whether gender moderated these associations. We conducted logistic and ordinal regression analyses. Participants were 995 Latino youth. Results The cultural value of respect for parents was negatively associated with an earlier age at sexual debut (odds ratio, 0.8) and not using a condom at most recent sexual intercourse (0.8). U.S. cultural practices (a measure of acculturation) was positively associated with being sexually active (1.2), having concurrent sexual partners (1.5), and among males only, with a higher number of sexual partners (1.3). Second- and third- generation immigrant youth had lower odds of not using a condom at most recent sexual intercourse when compared to first-generation youth (0.6 and 0.5, respectively). Among females, a stronger endorsement of Latino cultural practices was associated with lower odds of more sexual partners (0.8). By contrast, among males, a stronger endorsement of Latino cultural practices was associated with higher odds of more sexual partners (1.4). Conclusions The cultural measures associated with Latino youth’s sexual behaviors differed across outcomes and by gender. Understanding how culture is related to the sexual behaviors of Latino youth may help inform the development of culturally-sensitive sexual health interventions. PMID:24786352
Achievement, Engagement, and Behavior Outcomes of Youth at Risk Following a Pre-Eighth-Grade Summer Academic Enrichment Program and Participation in a School-Wide, School Year Long, Ownership, Mastery, and Grading Initiative
Alati, David K.
No significant differences in beginning eighth-grade pretest compared to ending eighth-grade posttest California Achievement Test Normal Curve Equivalent Scores were found for youth at risk who completed a pre-eighth-grade summer academic enrichment program where comparisons for reading vocabulary t(19) = 0.46, p = 0.33 (one-tailed), d = 0.107,…
Nugent, Nicole R.; Brown, Larry K.; Belzer, Marvin; Harper, Gary W.; Nachman, Sharon; Naar-King, Sylvie
Purpose To examine health risk behaviors in distressed youth living with HIV (YLH) with problem substance use. Methods Assessed distress, antiretroviral (ARV) adherence, and unprotected sex in a racially and geographically diverse sample of 122 YLH. Results A total of 87% of distressed YLH reported significantly more past-month ARV nonadherence (odds ratio [OR] = 7.15) and were more likely to have unprotected sex under the influence (OR = 5.14) than non-distressed youth. Conclusions Distressed YLH with problem substance youth may benefit from interventions to improve adherence and to decrease sexual risk, especially while under the influence of drugs. PMID:20133498
Zeng, Gerald; Chu, Chi Meng; Koh, Li Lian; Teoh, Jennifer
An increasing amount of research has been carried out to understand the characteristics of subgroups of adult sex offenders, but there is limited research into the risk factors and criminogenic needs of subgroups of youth who sexually offended. The current study investigated if there were differences in the risk and criminogenic needs of 167 Singaporean youth who sexually offended based on two typologies - youth who offended both sexually and nonsexually versus youth who offended only sexually, and youth who offended against child victims versus youth who offended against nonchild victims. Results show that youth who offended both sexually and nonsexually were found to have higher risk and criminogenic needs as compared to youth who only sexually offended. In addition, youth who offended against child victims were found to have higher numbers of previous sexual assaults as compared to youth who offended against nonchild victims. These differences have implications for the management and intervention of youth who sexually offended. PMID:24503949
Roper Starch Worldwide Inc.
The National Environmental Education and Training Foundation commissioned a survey on environmental attitudes and behaviors of disadvantaged youth in America to identify the critical gaps in environmental education so that resources can be targeted more effectively. Phase 1 consisted of qualitative research among disadvantaged students through…
Shaughnessy, Lana; Doshi, Sonal R.; Jones, Sherry Everett
Suicide represents the second-leading cause of death among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth aged 15-24 years. Data from the 2001 Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) Youth Risk Behavior Survey were used to examine the association between attempted suicide among high school students and unintentional injury and violence behaviors, sexual risk…
Kaljee, L. M.; Genberg, B. L.; Minh, T. T.; Tho, L. H.; Thoa, L. T. K.; Stanton, B.
Research suggests that youth are consuming more alcohol and at younger ages than in the past. Data also indicate that alcohol consumption is associated with participation in other risk behaviors including aggression and sexual behaviors. As part of a randomized control effectiveness trial for an HIV prevention program, 480 Vietnamese youth (15-20…
Wei, Chiaying; Cummings, Colleen M; Villabø, Marianne A; Kendall, Philip C
The present study examined the association between parental anxious self-talk, parenting behaviors, and youth anxious self-talk. Parents and youth ages 7 to 14 (M = 10.17; N = 208; 53% male) seeking treatment for anxiety were evaluated for anxiety symptoms, youth anxious self-talk, parental anxious self-talk, and youth-perceived parenting behavior. Youth and parental anxious self-talk were assessed by both child and parent self-reports; youth-perceived parenting behaviors were assessed by youth-reports. Parenting behaviors included separate ratings of paternal and maternal (a) acceptance, (b) psychological control, and (c) firm/behavioral control. Correlational analyses revealed that maternal anxious self-talk, but not paternal anxious self-talk, was significantly associated with youth's anxious self-talk. Maternal anxious self-talk had an inverse association with youth-perceived maternal acceptance, but was not associated with youth-perceived maternal psychological or behavioral control. Higher youth-perceived maternal acceptance was significantly associated with lower youth anxious self-talk. Youth-perceived maternal acceptance partially mediated the association between mother's anxious self-talk and youth's anxious self-talk. However, this mediation effect disappeared when taking into account youth depressive symptoms. Results are discussed in relation to clinical implications and future directions in research.
Smith, Michael D.; Seal, David Wyatt; Hartley, Shannon
An HIV knowledge survey and qualitative interview were administered to 20 case managers in community-based programs for troubled youth to assess HIV knowledge and their perception of client HIV risk behaviors. Participants had good HIV knowledge. Case managers perceived client youth to be at high risk for HIV infection due to unsafe sexual…
Bender, Kimberly A; DePrince, Anne; Begun, Stephanie; Hathaway, Jessica; Haffejee, Badiah; Schau, Nicholas
Homeless youth frequently experience victimization, and youth with histories of trauma often fail to detect danger risks, making them vulnerable to subsequent victimization. The current study describes a pilot test of a skills-based intervention designed to improve risk detection among homeless youth through focusing attention to internal, interpersonal, and environmental cues. Youth aged 18 to 21 years (N = 74) were recruited from a shelter and randomly assigned to receive usual case management services or usual services plus a 3-day manualized risk detection intervention. Pretest and posttest interviews assessed youths' risk detection abilities through vignettes describing risky situations and asking youth to identify risk cues present. Separate 2 (intervention vs. control) × 2 (pretest vs. posttest) mixed ANOVAs found significant interaction effects, as intervention youth significantly improved in overall risk detection compared with control youth. Post hoc subgroup analyses found the intervention had a greater effect for youth without previous experiences of indirect victimization than those with previous indirect victimization experiences.
Martino, Steven C.; Tucker, Joan S.; Ryan, Gery; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Golinelli, Daniela; Munjas, Brett
Travelers are a migratory subgroup of homeless youth who may be especially prone to engaging in risky behavior. This study compared the substance use and sexual behavior of young homeless travelers and non-travelers to evaluate the extent and possible sources of travelers' increased risk. Data came from face-to-face interviews with 419 homeless…
Sanderson, Jennifer M.; Desai, Mayur M.; White, Marney A.
Background: Overweight adolescents engage in risk behaviors at different rates than healthy-weight peers. Most extant research has focused on white or regional samples. Purpose: This article examined associations between weight and risk behaviors and determined whether associations differ by race/ethnicity. Methods: Youth Risk Behavior Survey data…
Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi; Stattin, Håkan; Özdemir, Metin
Teachers are thought to play an important role in fostering youth civic engagement; however, the current literature is limited with regard to providing concrete suggestions as to what teachers can do to promote youth civic engagement and why teachers have an impact on youth. To address these limitations, we simultaneously tested three alternative explanations to identify the critical way(s) in which perceived teachers' behaviors might contribute to youth civic engagement in school. We also investigated the underlying processes that may explain why youth's perceptions of teachers' behaviors matter, by focusing on the mediating roles of young people's feelings about politics and their political efficacy beliefs. The sample included 7th (n = 876, M age = 13.42, SD = .71; 51 % girls) and 10th grade students (n = 857, M age = 16.62, SD = .71; 51 % girls) residing in Sweden. Among the different aspects of perceived teacher behaviors, only an engaged and inspiring teaching style fostered youth's initiations of civic and political discussions in class over time among both early and late adolescents. Moreover, youth's feelings about politics significantly mediated the effect of perceived teachers' behaviors on youth civic engagement in class. Contrary to our expectation, youth's political efficacy did not act as a mediator. The present study sheds light on what teachers can do to promote youth civic and political engagement in a school setting.
Espelage, Dorothy L.; Green, Harold D., Jr.; Wasserman, Stanley
During adolescence, friendship affiliations and groups provide companionship and social and emotional support, and they afford opportunities for intimate self-disclosure and reflection. Friendships often promote positive psychosocial development, but some youth learn and adopt antisocial attitudes and deviant behaviors through their friendships.…
van Dorn, Richard A.; Williams, James Herbert
Investigates the extent to which attitudes, family, and environmental correlates are associated with the escalation from nonviolent to violent offending among incarcerated youths. Beliefs that power equates safety and a violent home environment were salient in understanding escalation in offending behavior, and prior criminal victimization was…
Wekerle, Chris; Skilling, Tracey; Adlaf, Edward; Paglia, Angela; Leung, Eman
This document contains presentation slides from a study on antisocial male youth. The study sought to identify an antisocial taxon, and to demonstrate that taxon membership would possess external validity and predict antisocial behavior correlates (low school achievement, poor family relations, and internalizing problems). The results revealed 9…
Applies logit models to study youth's dropout behavior and decisions whether to return to school. Most results from the logistic regression for dropping out are consistent with other findings; however, being black is less associated with dropping out. A dropout's Armed Forces Qualification Test score, age, and out-of-school duration are…
Ma, Julie; Han, Yoonsun; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge; Castillo, Marcela
Objectives: Corporal punishment is still widely practiced around the globe, despite the large body of child development research that substantiates its short- and long-term consequences. Within this context, this paper examined the relationship between parental use of corporal punishment and youth externalizing behavior with a Chilean sample to…
Dean, Latoya Lavan
Youth with emotional or behavioral disorders (EBD) have poorer outcomes compared to their peers with and without disabilities. As a result, the federal government has mandated transition services to improve supports and ultimately student outcomes. Using data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS-2), this secondary analysis…
Rhodes, Anne E; Boyle, Michael H; Bridge, Jeffrey A; Sinyor, Mark; Links, Paul S; Tonmyr, Lil; Skinner, Robin; Bethell, Jennifer M; Carlisle, Corine; Goodday, Sarah; Hottes, Travis Salway; Newton, Amanda; Bennett, Kathryn; Sundar, Purnima; Cheung, Amy H; Szatmari, Peter
Suicide is the second leading cause of death in youth globally; however, there is uncertainty about how best to intervene. Suicide rates are typically higher in males than females, while the converse is true for suicide attempts. We review this “gender paradox” in youth, and in particular, the age-dependency of these sex/gender differences and the developmental mechanisms that may explain them. Epidemiologic, genetic, neurodevelopmental and psychopathological research have identified suicidal behaviour risks arising from genetic vulnerabilities and sex/gender differences in early adverse environments, neurodevelopment, mental disorder and their complex interconnections. Further, evolving sex-/gender-defined social expectations and norms have been thought to influence suicide risk. In particular, how youth perceive and cope with threats and losses (including conforming to others’ or one’s own expectations of sex/gender identity) and adapt to pain (through substance use and help-seeking behaviours). Taken together, considering brain plasticity over the lifespan, these proposed antecedents to youth suicide highlight the importance of interventions that alter early environment(s) (e.g., childhood maltreatment) and/or one’s ability to adapt to them. Further, such interventions may have more enduring protective effects, for the individual and for future generations, if implemented in youth. PMID:25540727
Rhodes, Anne E; Boyle, Michael H; Bridge, Jeffrey A; Sinyor, Mark; Links, Paul S; Tonmyr, Lil; Skinner, Robin; Bethell, Jennifer M; Carlisle, Corine; Goodday, Sarah; Hottes, Travis Salway; Newton, Amanda; Bennett, Kathryn; Sundar, Purnima; Cheung, Amy H; Szatmari, Peter
Suicide is the second leading cause of death in youth globally; however, there is uncertainty about how best to intervene. Suicide rates are typically higher in males than females, while the converse is true for suicide attempts. We review this "gender paradox" in youth, and in particular, the age-dependency of these sex/gender differences and the developmental mechanisms that may explain them. Epidemiologic, genetic, neurodevelopmental and psychopathological research have identified suicidal behaviour risks arising from genetic vulnerabilities and sex/gender differences in early adverse environments, neurodevelopment, mental disorder and their complex interconnections. Further, evolving sex-/gender-defined social expectations and norms have been thought to influence suicide risk. In particular, how youth perceive and cope with threats and losses (including conforming to others' or one's own expectations of sex/gender identity) and adapt to pain (through substance use and help-seeking behaviours). Taken together, considering brain plasticity over the lifespan, these proposed antecedents to youth suicide highlight the importance of interventions that alter early environment(s) (e.g., childhood maltreatment) and/or one's ability to adapt to them. Further, such interventions may have more enduring protective effects, for the individual and for future generations, if implemented in youth.
Rafiroiu, Anca Codruta; Sargent, Roger G.; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Drane, Wanzer J.; Valois, Robert F.
Assessed the prevalence of dieting, investigating clusters of risk behaviors among adolescents. Data from the 1999 South Carolina Youth Risk Behavior Survey indicated that weight control behaviors related to several other important health behaviors. Differences existed between adolescents who used extreme weight loss measures and moderate dieters…
Latimer, William W.; Rojas, Vanessa Cecilia; Mancha, Brent Edward
Objectives The present study sought to: (a) categorize youths into groups based on their level of alcohol use and number of symptoms of alcohol abuse and dependence defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), and (b) examine whether these categories were associated with other problem behaviors in which youths engage (marijuana use, sexual intercourse, and having been arrested or having trouble with the law). Methods The study is based on a cross-sectional survey administered to 972 school-based youths from one middle school and one high school in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Youths were categorized based on their alcohol use and alcohol problems. These categories were then examined for associations with lifetime marijuana use, lifetime sexual intercourse, and having been arrested or having had trouble with the law in the past year. The original eight categories of alcohol use were collapsed into six categories based on the results. Results For virtually every group characterized by higher severity of alcohol use and alcohol problems, researchers found an increasing prevalence of marijuana use in their lifetimes, increasing odds of sexual intercourse in their lifetimes, and having had trouble with the law in the past year. Conclusions Knowing about variations in alcohol use and alcohol problems may be instrumental in measuring the degree to which youths may also be engaging in a range of other elevated risk behaviors and a progression to more serious forms of alcohol and drug use. PMID:18510792
Bender, Kimberly; Postlewait, Ariana W.; Thompson, Sanna J.; Springer, David W.
This study examines internalizing mental health symptoms (depression and posttraumatic stress disorder) as potential intervening factors in the relationship between maltreatment and delinquency using data from the National Survey for Child and Adolescent Well-Being (N = 1,179). Significant mediating effects indicated that youth at greater risk of…
Johnson, Karen E.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Bearinger, Linda H.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Sieving, Renee E.
Background: Evidence suggests that sports team participation differentially relates to health-risk behaviors. Few studies have explored relationships among high-risk youth. Purpose: To examine associations between weekly sports team participation and health-risk behaviors (substance use, sexual risk-taking, violence involvement) among alternative…
Trentacosta, Christopher J; Hyde, Luke W; Goodlett, Benjamin D; Shaw, Daniel S
The disruptive behavior disorders are among the most prevalent youth psychiatric disorders, and they predict numerous problematic outcomes in adulthood. This study examined multiple domains of risk during early childhood and early adolescence as longitudinal predictors of disruptive behavior disorder diagnoses among adolescent males. Early adolescent risks in the domains of sociodemographic factors, the caregiving context, and youth attributes were examined as mediators of associations between early childhood risks and disruptive behavior disorder diagnoses. Participants were 309 males from a longitudinal study of low-income mothers and their sons. Caregiving and youth risk during early adolescence each predicted the likelihood of receiving a disruptive behavior disorder diagnosis. Furthermore, sociodemographic and caregiving risk during early childhood were indirectly associated with disruptive behavior disorder diagnoses via their association with early adolescent risk. The findings suggest that preventive interventions targeting risk across domains may reduce the prevalence of disruptive behavior disorders.
Scarborough, Megan; Kulkarni, Shanti; Lewis, Carol M.; Palen, Lori-Ann; Wade, Emily; Pierce, Amy
This study highlights findings from focus groups on parent-child connectedness conducted with English- and Spanish-speaking parents of high-risk youth in the southern United States. The primary aim of the study was to extend research on parent-child connectedness, a broad protective factor for adolescent risk behavior. In addition to describing…
Peterson, Christina Hamme; Buser, Trevor J.; Westburg, Nancy G.
A study of protective factors against substance use and sexual risk taking was conducted among 610 high-poverty urban youth. Higher levels of family attachment, social support, involvement, and self-esteem were associated with lower levels of risk behaviors. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)
Bobo, Nichole; Schantz, Shirley; Kaufman, Francine R.; Kollipara, Sobha
Among children and youth who develop type 2 diabetes (T2DM) there are a number of genetic and environmental factors that lead to a combination of insulin resistance and relative-cell secretory failure of the pancreas. These factors include ethnicity (highest in American Indian youth), obesity, sedentary behavior, family history of T2DM, puberty,…
Harel-Fisch, Yossi; Abdeen, Ziad; Walsh, Sophie D; Radwan, Qasrowi; Fogel-Grinvald, Haya
Based conceptually on Problem Behavior Theory, Normalization Theory and theories of adolescent ethnic identity formation this study explores relationships between individual and cumulative multiple risk behaviors and suicidal ideation and behavior among mid-adolescents in three different populations in the Middle East. Data from the 2004 Health Behavior in School-Aged Children in the Middle-East (HBSC-ME) study included 8345 10th-grade pupils in three populations: Jewish Israelis (1770), Arab Israelis (2185), and Palestinians in Gaza and the West Bank (4390). We considered risk behaviors and factors including tobacco use, bullying, medically-attended injuries, excessive time with friends, parental disconnectedness, negative school experience, truancy and poor academic performance. Substantial population differences for suicidal tendency and risk behaviors were observed, with notably high levels of suicidal ideation and behavior among Arab-Israeli youth and higher levels of risk behaviors among the Jewish and Arab-Israeli youth. For all populations suicidal tendency was at least 4 times higher among adolescents reporting 4+ risk behaviors, suggesting that similar psychosocial determinants affect patterns of risk behaviors and suicidal tendency. Results highlight the importance of understanding cultural contexts of risk behaviors and suicidal ideation and behavior.
Deutsch, Stephanie A; Lynch, Amy; Zlotnik, Sarah; Matone, Meredith; Kreider, Amanda; Noonan, Kathleen
Youth in foster care represent a unique population with complex mental and behavioral health, social-emotional, and developmental needs. For this population with special healthcare needs, the risk for adverse long-term outcomes great if needs go unaddressed or inadequately addressed while in placement. Although outcomes are malleable and effective interventions exist, there are barriers to optimal healthcare delivery. The general pediatrician as advocate is paramount to improve long-term outcomes.
Like other states, Idaho faces increasing numbers of youth considered at risk for becoming a detriment to society. Some communities are looking to the arts as a way to help young people channel their energies positively. In 1993 and 1994, the Idaho Commission on the Arts wanted to test the idea that artists working with first-time juvenile…
In Australia, there is a growing expectation that sexuality education should reduce the risks associated with youth sex by providing young people with information on protecting their sexual health. However, this information may be insufficient to ensure that young people make choices that support their sexual safety and autonomy. This paper…
de Lone, Richard H.
Schools working in cooperation with business can reduce the number of youth at risk of long-term unemployment if teachers and school administrators are willing to learn from research developed outside the field of public education and if schools are substantially restructured to meet student needs. A review of the literature of labor economics and…
This thesis is an art-based research video demonstration of an alternate medium for art therapy. It postulates the value and validity of media arts as a therapeutic modality by way of adopting the major motion picture green screening technique for therapy with an at-risk youth population. Four male participants, raging from 16 to 19 years of age,…
Tidwell, Romeria; Garrett, Susan Corona
Reviews the definitions of the term "youth at risk" and their perspectives on predisposing conditions. Discusses implications for counseling. Asserts that the sound diagnosis and treatment of adolescents' problems involves careful identification of predisposing conditions and negative outcomes. Includes 16 citations. (Author/CRR)
Wishart, Diane; Taylor, Alison; Shultz, Lynette
This paper looks at policy discourse around "youth at risk" (YAR) by asking two questions: First, how have problems and solutions related to YAR been constructed by Governments? And second, how do particular technologies of Government (differentiation of schools, programmes, and course streams, and the funding and identification of…
Baldwin, Julie A; Brown, Betty G; Wayment, Heidi A; Nez, Ramona Antone; Brelsford, Kathleen M
The Sacred Mountain Youth Project was conducted to investigate risk and protective factors related to alcohol and drug use among American Indian youth. Findings indicated that stressful life events were positively associated with depressed mood, substance use, and risky behavior; cultural identity had no direct effects, but a secondary model showed that social support and protective family and peer influences were related to cultural identity. These findings suggest that the relationships between stressors and their negative sequelae are complex. Emphasis on protective processes that are culturally specific to American Indian youth may lead to effective alcohol and drug use prevention programs.
Wang, Bo; Deveaux, Lynette; Li, Xiaoming; Marshall, Sharon; Chen, Xinguang; Stanton, Bonita
Few studies have analyzed the development course beginning in pre-/early adolescence of overall engagement in health-risk behaviors and associated social risk factors that place individuals in different health-risk trajectories through mid-adolescence. The current longitudinal study identified 1276 adolescents in grade six and followed them for three years to investigate their developmental trajectories of risk behaviors and to examine the association of personal and social risk factors with each trajectory. Group-based trajectory modeling was applied to identify distinctive trajectory patterns of risk behaviors. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the effects of the personal and social risk factors on adolescents' trajectories. Three gender-specific behavioral trajectories were identified for males (55.3% low-risk, 37.6% moderate-risk, increasing, and 7.1% high-risk, increasing) and females (41.4% no-risk, 53.4% low-risk, increasing and 5.2% moderate to high-risk, increasing). Sensation-seeking, family, peer, and neighborhood factors at baseline predicted following the moderate-risk, increasing trajectory and the high-risk, increasing trajectory in males; these risk factors predicted following the moderate to high-risk, increasing trajectory in females. The presence of all three social risk factors (high-risk neighborhood, high-risk peers and low parental monitoring) had a dramatic impact on increased probability of being in a high-risk trajectory group. These findings highlight the developmental significance of early personal and social risk factors on subsequent risk behaviors in early to middle adolescence. Future adolescent health behavior promotion interventions might consider offering additional prevention resources to pre- and early adolescent youth who are exposed to multiple contextual risk factors (even in the absence of risk behaviors) or youth who are early-starters of delinquency and substance use behaviors
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011
The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) monitors priority health risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. The national YRBS is conducted every two years during the spring semester and provides data representative of 9th through 12th grade…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011
Anderson, John E.; Mueller, Trisha E.
Objectives: To determine the trends in sexual activity and unprotected sex among substance-using youth, we examined data from the 1991-2005 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys on drug and alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors. Method: We examined the association of alcohol and illicit drug use with recent sexual activity and unprotected sex. We assessed…
Naar-King, Sylvie; Ellis, Deborah; Kolmodin, Karen; Cunningham, Phillippe; Secord, Elizabeth
African-American adolescents have the highest rates of asthma morbidity and mortality, yet there are few successful behavioral interventions to improve illness management for this group. Mental health providers have an opportunity to expand their services and impact by targeting adolescents with poor asthma management. We describe the adaptation…
Villodas, Miguel T.; Litrownik, Alan J.; Roesch, Scott C.
Latent class analyses were used to identify subsets of 217 12-year-old youth with early maltreatment histories based on youth and caregiver reports of externalizing behavior problems. The identified classes were validated using symptom counts and diagnoses for disruptive behavior disorders collected from youth and caregiver reports 2 years later.…
Rutherford, Robert B., Jr., Ed.; And Others
The monograph on severe behavior disorders of children and youth presents 23 papers on juvenile delinquency, behavior disorders at the secondary level, and self control instruction. Some of the papers included are: "A Comparison of Varied Teacher-to-Child Ratio on the Adaptive and Attending Behaviors of Two Autistic Children" (M. Zener, et al.);…
Elias-Lambert, Nada; Black, Beverly M.; Chigbu, Kingsley U.
This exploratory study examined middle school students' (N = 380) help-seeking behaviors and other reactions to controlling behaviors in their dating relationships. Over three-fourths of the participants perpetrated and were victimized by controlling behaviors in their dating relationships. Youth used emotional/verbal and dominance/isolation forms…
Schussel, Lorne; Miller, Lisa
The healing process of the Best Self Visualization Method (BSM) is described within the framework of meditation, neuroscience, and psychodynamic theory. Cases are drawn from the treatment of high-risk youth, who have histories of poverty, survival of sexual and physical abuse, and/or current risk for perpetrating abuse. Clinical use of BSM is demonstrated in two case illustrations, one of group psychotherapy and another of individual therapy.
Murry, Velma McBride; Berkel, Cady; Chen, Yi-Fu; Brody, Gene H; Gibbons, Frederick X; Gerrard, Meg
AIDS is the leading killer of African Americans between the ages of 25 and 44, many of whom became infected when they were teenagers or young adults. The disparity in HIV infection rate among African Americans youth residing in rural Southern regions of the United States suggests that there is an urgent need to identify ways to promote early preventive intervention to reduce HIV-related risk behavior. The Strong African American Families (SAAF) program, a preventive intervention for rural African American parents and their 11-year-olds, was specially designed to deter early sexual onset and the initiation and escalation of alcohol and drug use among rural African American preadolescents. A clustered-randomized prevention trial was conducted, contrasting families who took part in SAAF with control families. The trial, which included 332 families, indicated that intervention-induced changes occurred in intervention-targeted parenting, which in turn facilitated changes in youths' internal protective processes and positive sexual norms. Long-term follow up assessments when youth were 17 years old revealed that intervention-induced changes in parenting practices mediated the effect of intervention-group influences on changes in the onset and escalation of risky sexual behaviors over 65 months through its positive influence on adolescents' self-pride and their sexual norms. The findings underscore the powerful effects of parenting practices among rural African American families that over time serve a protective role in reducing youth's risk behavior, including HIV vulnerable behaviors.
Huang, David Y. C.; Lanza, H. Isabella; Wright-Volel, Kynna; Anglin, M. Douglas
Using group-based trajectory modeling, this study examined 5156 adolescents from the child sample of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to identify developmental trajectories of obesity from ages 6-18 and evaluate associations of such trajectories with risk behaviors and psychosocial health in adolescence. Four distinctive obesity…
Wiesner, Margit; Arbona, Consuelo; Capaldi, Deborah M; Kim, Hyoun K; Kaplan, Charles D
Second-generation Latin-American adolescents tend to show higher levels of various health-risking behaviors and emotional problems than first-generation Latin-American adolescents. This cross-sectional study of 40 mother-adolescent dyads examined the association of mother-youth acculturation gaps to youth adjustment problems. Intergenerational acculturation gaps were assessed as a bidimensional self-report component and a novel observational measurement component. The Latin-American adolescents were predominantly second-generation of Mexican descent (M age = 13.42 years, SD = 0.55). Most of the mothers were born in Mexico (M age = 39.18 years, SD = 5.17). Data were collected from mothers, adolescents, and coders, using questionnaires, structured interviews, and videotaped mother-youth interaction tasks. Findings revealed generally weak support for the acculturation gap-distress hypothesis. In addition, stronger relative adherence to their heritage culture by the adolescents was significantly (p < .05, ES = 0.15) related to less engagement in early health-risking sexual behaviors, possibly reflecting selective acculturation processes. Mother-youth acculturation gaps in orientation to the heritage culture were the most salient dimension, changing the focus on the original formulation of the acculturation gap-distress hypothesis.
Rupnow, Allan; Stotlar, David
A study examined coaches' behavior and classified the types and rates of coaches' behavior by time of athletic season (early or late), win/loss record, and throughout the time frame within a single contest. Subjects included all the volunteer coaches in a 13 team, softball program for 10-12 year old girls. The season consisted of a double…
Dietrich, Janan; Bogart, Laura M.; Otwombe, Kennedy N.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Nkala, Busiswe; Gray, Glenda E.
We explored psychosocial correlates of sexual risk among heterosexual and sexual minority youths (SMYs) in Johannesburg, South Africa. Young people 16 to 18 years old (n = 822) were administered surveys assessing demographic characteristics, sexual behaviors, mental health, and parent–child communication. Adjusted multivariate regressions examining correlates of sexual risk revealed that SMYs had more sexual partners than heterosexual youths (B = 3.90; SE = 0.95; P < .001) and were more likely to engage in sex trading (OR = 3.11; CI = 1.12-8.62; P < .05). South African SMYs are at increased risk relative to their heterosexual peers. PMID:24832149
Dévieux, Jessy G; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Saint-Jean, Gilbert; Bryant, Vaughn E; Malow, Robert M
There is a dire need for interventions that will address the multiple factors--poverty, substance use, early sexual debut, and violence--that influence Haitian youth's engagement in risky behaviors. The deteriorating socioeconomic and political state of the country has had a deleterious effect on the sociocultural milieu and on the boundaries that have heretofore kept risky behaviors in check. Historically, the lakou system, a community-based approach that supports the family unit, has disintegrated, leading to the disruption of traditional parenting patterns. The unstable economic system has also led to the increasing use of children from poor families, who through the restavek system, are sent to work as servants in other households. The breakdown of traditional systems, coupled with the increasing economic and political instability, has had a significant effect on Haitian adolescents. Among boys, increased levels of substance use have been associated with multiple sex partnerships and very early sexual debut. Among girls, extremely high rates of sexual abuse and forced sex have led to relatively high levels of HIV. While the majority of them have been exposed to behavior change messages, behavior change itself has lagged because many adolescents do not accurately perceive their risk exposure. This review explores the risks of HIV transmission among Haitian youth, with a focus on vulnerability factors, including substance use, culture, and the socioeconomic context, and provides recommendations for intervention. An ecosystemic approach, designed specifically for Haitian youth and that takes environmental context and culture into account, is needed.
A large body of research shows that youth with disabilities, who comprise about 13% of the country's school-aged population, report comparable to higher incidence rates of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use than their peers. Furthermore, youth with disabilities who reported ATOD use or who engaged in binge drinking had significantly more negative educational outcomes and engaged in sexual activity at a younger age than nonusers. This study describes risk factors for substance use, personal characteristics, aspects of the attitudinal environment, and educational, employment, and social outcomes among youth across 6 categories of disability. Data came from the National Center for Education Statistics' National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988-2000 (NELS:88). The findings indicate that (a) youth with varying types of disabilities are relatively homogenous with respect to risk behaviors, personal characteristics, and outcomes; (b) youth with emotional, learning, or multiple disabilities may be at heightened risk for binge drinking and marijuana use; and (c) youth with emotional and multiple disabilities may be less likely to graduate from high school or its equivalent 8 years beyond the 12th grade. Based on these results and limitations of the NELS sampling strategy, appropriate interventions are discussed as well as the need for more definitive operational definitions for disabilities, specifically the biopsychosocial approach used by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health.
Pendragon, Diane K
This article summarizes data from a qualitative study investigating the ways in which female youth perceive and respond to challenges related to the interplay of late adolescence and a minority sexual orientation. Fifteen sexual minority females in late adolescence were interviewed individually and in focus groups. The interviews focused on participants' perceptions of challenges, the impact those stressors have in their lives, and methods they utilize to cope with them. The most common negative experiences reported were isolation, lack of acceptance, harassment, and violence. Sub-themes include: hearing negative messages about gender and sexual orientation, pressures to conform to a variety of cultural norms including gender norms, fears of future violence, and pressure to identify sexual orientation. Collectively, the participants described these negative consequences of experiences of heterosexism, sexism, and racism as their most difficult experiences. The most common responses to these stressors reported by participants were finding support in relationships, engaging in coping responses, pursuing education and activism, rebellion and resistance, and avoidance and deferment.
Weldy, David L
Ingesting alcohol and energy drinks together is associated with a decreased awareness of the physical and mental impairment caused by the alcohol without reducing the actual impairment. This is of particular concern for youth who have a baseline of less mature judgment. Adding energy drinks to alcohol tends to increase the rate of absorption through its carbonation and dilution of the alcohol, and keep a person awake longer allowing ingestion of a greater volume of alcohol. At low blood alcohol levels, caffeine appears to decrease some of the impairment from the alcohol, but at higher blood alcohol levels, caffeine does not appear to have a modifying effect on either the physical or mental impairment induced by the alcohol. Obtaining this combination is made easier and more affordable for under aged persons by manufacturers of premixed alcoholic energy drink combination beverages. Awareness by medical and educational personnel and parents of this activity and its potential for harm is unknown.
Cieslik, Mark, Ed.; Pollock, Gary, Ed.
Drawing on empirical research and theoretical writings, this book examines how concepts such as risk society and individualization may be used in the field of youth studies. It explores young peoples' identities, youth cultures, and a multiplicity of ways in which risk can be understood and influence youth policy agendas in the future. Chapter 1,…
Oppong Asante, Kwaku; Meyer-Weitz, Anna; Petersen, Inge
Background: Homeless youth, as a vulnerable population are susceptible to various mental and health risk behaviours. However, less is known of the mental health status of these homeless youth and its role in risky sexual behaviours; neither do we understand the reasons homeless youth give for their engagement in various health risk behaviour.…
Rea, Dan, Ed.; Warkentin, Robert, Ed.
This book contains papers from a conference on at-risk youth that focused on building strengths and empowering youth by giving them skills for school and life. Following an introduction titled "Motivational Strategies for Empowering Youth-At-Risk" by Dan Rea and Robert Warkentin, the papers are: (1) "The Role of Learning Environments: Social…
Smith, Cindy Ann; Newman-Thomas, Cathy; Stormont, Melissa
Youth mentoring, defined within this study, as the pairing of a youth at risk with a caring adult, is an intervention that is often used for youth at risk for academic and social failure. We sought to understand mentors' perspectives of the fundamental elements that foster positive mentor--mentee relationships that build resiliency and increase…
Touzard, Rachelle Silverstein
Family therapists and school counselors are increasingly called upon to provide services for youth in alternative education (Carver, Lewis, & Tice, 2010). Alternative education systems are programs for youth who have been defined as at risk. This study explored the at-risk discourse and asked the questions (a) how do youth and staff define the…
Fetro, Joyce V.; Wood, Ralph; Drolet, Judy C.
Assessed six categories of college students' health risk behaviors. Student survey data indicated that respondents were engaging in risk behaviors that could impact educational achievement and lead to serious consequences. Youth tended to enter college with established patterns of risk. Most regularly consumed large amounts of alcohol. Differences…
Youth Marijuana Use 1 Modifiable Risk Factors for Marijuana Use Among Adolescents in a Youth Development Program Jenny A. Crain, MS, MPH, CPH, Suzanne L...risk for lifetime marijuana use. Keywords: Marijuana use; Risk factors; Youth development programs; Adolescents Modifiable Risk Factors for...negative consequences. Previous research has shown that adolescents with a history of prior marijuana, tobacco, and/or alcohol use are at greater risk of
MacPherson, Laura; Reynolds, Elizabeth K; Daughters, Stacey B; Wang, Frances; Cassidy, Jude; Mayes, Linda C; Lejuez, C W
The goal of the current study was to examine the combined influence of positive reinforcement processes using a behavioral task measuring risk taking propensity (RTP) and negative reinforcement processes using a behavioral task measuring deficits in distress tolerance (DT) on a range of risk taking behaviors among early adolescents. Participants included a community sample of 230 early adolescents (aged 9-13) who completed two behavioral tasks assessing reinforcement processes as well as reported on past year risk behavior involvement as assessed by items from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System at a baseline and a 1-year follow-up assessment. Data indicated that at the Wave 2 assessment, RTP was positively related to number of risk-taking behaviors in the past year but only for those with low DT, with this finding persisting after controlling for the significant influence of male gender and higher sensation seeking. Results of the present study highlight the importance of considering both positive and negative reinforcement processes in combination when investigating vulnerability factors for early risk behavior engagement in youth.
Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Ungaro, Rocio; Karas, Lora; Gulledge, Laura; Greenbaum, Paul E.; Schmeidler, James; Winters, Ken C.; Belenko, Steven
Baseline data collected in two brief intervention projects (BI-Court and Truancy Project) were used to assess similarities and differences in subgroups of at-risk youth. Classifications of these subgroups were based on their psychosocial characteristics (e.g., substance use). Multi-group latent class analysis (LCA) identified two BI-Court subgroups of youth, and three Truant subgroups. These classes can be viewed as differing along two dimensions, substance use involvement and emotional/behavioral issues. Equality tests of means across the latent classes for BI-Court and Truancy Project youths found significant differences that were consistent with their problem group classification. These findings highlight the importance of quality assessments and allocating appropriate services based on problem profiles of at-risk youth. PMID:21966055
Bell, Carl C.; Bhana, Arvin; Petersen, Inge; McKay, Mary M.; Gibbons, Robert; Bannon, William; Amatya, Anup
Objectives To test the effectiveness of the CHAMP among black South Africans in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Methods A randomized control trial was conducted in KwaDedangendlale, South Africa, among youths (ages 9-13) and their families (245 intervention families rearing 281 children and 233 control families rearing 298 children). The CHAMPSA intervention targeted HIV risk behaviors by strengthening family relationship processes as well as targeting peer influences through enhancing social problem solving and peer negotiation skills for youths. Results Among caregivers in the control and experimental conditions, significant intervention group differences were revealed regarding HIV transmission knowledge, less stigma toward HIV-infected people, caregiver monitoring—family rules, caregiver communication comfort, caregiver communication frequency and social networks. Among youths, data revealed that control and experimental groups were significantly different for children in AIDS transmission knowledge and less stigma toward HIV-infected people. Conclusions CHAMPSA enhances a significant number individual, family and community protective factors that can help youths avoid risky behaviors leading to HIV-positive status. PMID:18717144
Mellins, Claude A.; Dolezal, Curtis; Brackis-Cott, Elizabeth; Nicholson, Ouzama; Warne, Patricia; Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F. L.
HIV-negative, inner-city adolescents with HIV-infected parents are considered to be at high risk for acquiring HIV themselves. Using a modified theory of health behavior, this study examined the effects of maternal HIV infection and psychosocial variables on the onset of sexual and drug risk behavior in 144 HIV-negative adolescents with and…
Feiring, Candice; Simon, Valerie A; Cleland, Charles M; Barrett, Ellen P
Although experiencing childhood sexual abuse (CSA) puts youth at risk for involvement in relationship violence, research is limited on the potential pathways from CSA to subsequent dating aggression. The current study examined prospective pathways from externalizing behavior problems and stigmatization (abuse-specific shame and self-blame attributions) to anger and dating aggression. One hundred sixty youth (73% female, 69% ethnic/racial minorities) with confirmed CSA histories were interviewed at the time of abuse discovery (T1, when they were 8-15 years of age), and again 1 and 6 years later (T2 and T3). Externalizing behavior and abuse-specific stigmatization were assessed at T1 and T2. Anger and dating aggression were assessed at T3. The structural equation model findings supported the proposed relations from stigmatization following the abuse to subsequent dating aggression through anger. Only externalizing behavior at T1 was related to later dating aggression, and externalizing was not related to subsequent anger. This longitudinal research suggests that clinical interventions for victims of CSA be sensitive to the different pathways by which youth come to experience destructive conflict behavior in their romantic relationships.
Cannon, Jennifer A. N.; Warren, Jared S.; Nelson, Philip L.; Burlingame, Gary M.
This study used longitudinal youth outcome data in routine mental health services to test a system for identifying cases at risk for treatment failure. Participants were 2,715 youth (M age = 14) served in outpatient managed care and community mental health settings. Change trajectories were developed using multilevel modeling of archival data.…
Sanders, Jackie; Munford, Robyn; Thimasarn-Anwar, Tewaporn; Liebenberg, Linda; Ungar, Michael
Services that utilise positive youth development practices (PYD) are thought to improve the quality of the service experience leading to better outcomes for at-risk youth. This article reports on a study of 605 adolescents (aged 12-17 years) who were concurrent clients of two or more service systems (child welfare, juvenile justice, additional education, mental health). It was hypothesised that services adopting PYD approaches would be related to increases in youth resilience and better wellbeing outcomes. It was also hypothesised that risks, resilience, service experiences and wellbeing outcomes would differ by age, gender and ethnicity. Youth completed a self-report questionnaire administered individually. Path analysis was used to determine the relationship between risk, service use, resilience and a wellbeing outcome measure. MANOVA was then used to determine patterns of risk, service use, resilience and wellbeing among participants based on their demographic characteristics. Services using PYD approaches were significantly related to higher levels of youth resilience. Similarly, increased resilience was related to increased indicators of wellbeing, suggesting the mediating role of resilience between risk factors and wellbeing outcomes. When professionals adopt PYD practices and work with the positive resources around youth (their own resilience processes) interventions can make a significant contribution to wellbeing outcomes for at-risk youth.
Yates, Tuppett M; Grey, Izabela K
This investigation employed latent profile analysis to identify distinct patterns of multiform competence among 164 emancipated foster youth (Mage = 19.67 years, SD = 1.12; 64% female). Fit indices and conceptual interpretation converged on a four-profile solution. A subset of emancipated youth evidenced a maladaptive profile (16.5%; n = 27), which was characterized by low educational competence, low occupational competence, low civic engagement, problematic interpersonal relationships, low self-esteem, and high depressive symptoms. However, the largest group of emancipated youth exhibited a resilient profile in which they were faring reasonably well in all domains despite marked adversity (47%; n = 77). Two additional groups evidenced discordant adjustment patterns wherein they exhibited high levels of psychological competence despite behavioral difficulties (i.e., internally resilient; 30%; n = 49) or significant emotional difficulties despite manifest competence (i.e., externally resilient; 6.5%; n = 11). The obtained profiles were validated against independent measures of behavioral and socioemotional adjustment. Exploratory analyses examined etiological differences across profiles with respect to child welfare variables, such as age at entry into care, placement disruption, reason for placement, and severity of child maltreatment. The findings highlight the need for multidimensional models of risk and resilience and illustrate the importance of heretofore underappreciated heterogeneity in the adaptive outcomes of emancipated foster youth.
Wilson, Helen W.; Donenberg, Geri
Background: The number of HIV infections among adolescents is increasing, and youth in psychiatric care are at particular risk because of their high rates of risky sexual behavior. Methods: As part of a larger longitudinal study examining AIDS-risk behavior among adolescents in psychiatric care, this pilot study investigated the relationship…
Malcolm, Shandey; Huang, Shi; Cordova, David; Freitas, Derek; Arzon, Margaret; Jimenez, Giselle Leon; Pantin, Hilda; Prado, Guillermo
Hispanic problem behavior youth are at an increased risk of engaging in HIV risk behaviors, including low condom use. However, relatively little research has examined factors that affect condom use in this population. Although research indicates that family processes, such as higher levels of family functioning and open parent-adolescent…
CORDOVA, DAVID; HUANG, SHI; LALLY, MEGHAN; ESTRADA, YANNINE; PRADO, GUILLERMO
In the family-based prevention science literature, family functioning, defined as positive parenting, parental involvement, family cohesion, family communication, parental monitoring of peers, and parent–adolescent communication, has been shown to ameliorate HIV risk behaviors in Hispanic youth. However, the majority of studies have relied solely on parent or adolescent reports and we know very little about parent–adolescent family functioning discrepancies. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine whether and to what extent parent–adolescent discrepancies in family functioning increased the risk of HIV risk behaviors, including substance use and sexual risk behaviors, and whether these associations vary as a function of acculturation and youth gender. A total of 746 Hispanic 8th grade youth and their primary caregivers were included in the study. Structural equation modeling findings indicate that parent–adolescent family functioning discrepancies are associated with an increased risk of Hispanic adolescent HIV risk behaviors, including lifetime and past 90-day alcohol and illicit drug use, and early sex initiation. In addition, study findings indicate that results vary by acculturation and youth gender. Findings are discussed in the context of existing family-based research and practice in preventing and reducing HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic youth and their families. PMID:24617745
Hansen, William B; Bishop, Dana C; Jackson-Newsom, Julia
Classroom behavior management interventions have been used successfully with drug prevention programs to prevent subsequent antisocial behavior and substance use among youth. This article presents results from implementation of the All Stars Challenge, a classroom-based behavior management component to a drug prevention program for fifth graders. Risk ratings for shyness and lack of awareness of social norms among high-risk students who received the All Stars Challenge were reduced compared with fifth graders who did not receive the intervention. In contrast, physical and social aggressivity among low-risk students who received the program increased when compared to similar control students.
Breen, Michael J., Ed.; Fiedler, Craig R., Ed.
The 15 chapters in this book address behavioral approaches to the assessment of youth with emotional and/or behavioral disorders. Chapters have the following titles and authors: (1) "Behavioral Assessment: An Overview" (Catherine Stanger); (2) "Legal and Ethical Issues in the Educational Assessment and Programming for Youth with…
McCart, Michael R.; Priester, Paul E.; Davies, W. Hobard; Azen, Razia
Extended the findings from previous meta-analytic work by comparing the effectiveness of behavioral parent-training (BPT) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for youth with antisocial behavior problems. Youth demographic variables were also examined as potential moderators of the effectiveness of these 2 types of interventions. Thirty BPT…
Gano-Overway, Lori A.; Newton, Maria; Magyar, T. Michelle; Fry, Mary D.; Kim, Mi-Sook; Guivernau, Marta R.
Understanding what factors influence positive youth development has been advocated by youth development researchers (P. L. Benson, 2006; J. S. Eccles & J. A. Gootman, 2002). Consequently, the purpose of this study was to examine whether perceptions of a caring youth sport context influenced prosocial and antisocial behavior through…
Walls, N. Eugene; Laser, Julie; Nickels, Sarah J.; Wisneski, Hope
Using secondary analyses of data from a sample of 265 sexual minority youths, the authors examined correlates of cutting behavior to determine whether patterns are similar to those found in studies of self-injury with community samples of predominately heterosexual youths. The sample consisted of youths who received services at an urban social…
Dubowitz, Howard; Villodas, Miguel T.; Litrownik, Alan J.; Pitts, Steven C.; Hussey, Jon M.; Thompson, Richard; Black, Maureen M.; Runyan, Desmond
Objective: This study aimed to empirically assess psychometric properties of a multi-dimensional youth self-report measure of neglectful behavior by parents. Method: Data were gathered from 593 12-year-old youth participating in the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) consortium; 272 also had data at age 14. Youth responded…
This issue of WIN (Welfare Information Network) Issue Notes focuses on the tendency of children from low-income families to drop out of high school, become teen parents, become involved in drug-related activities, and become involved in other activities that place them at high risk of long-term welfare dependency. Section 1 offers the background.…
Dembo, Richard; Belenko, Steven; Childs, Kristina; Greenbaum, Paul E.; Wareham, Jennifer
Data were collected on arrested youths processed at a centralized intake facility, including youths released back to the community and those placed in secure detention. This paper reports the results of a test of a structural model involving newly arrested male and female youths’ sexually transmitted diseases (STD) test results, urine analysis results for recent cocaine and marijuana use, and self-reported engaging in risky sexual behavior. The across gender, multiple group model involved: (1) a confirmatory factor analysis of these variables, reflecting a latent variable labeled Risk, (2) a regression of Risk on the youths’ age, and (3) an examination of the covariance between Risk and the youths’ race and seriousness of arrest charge. Results indicate the youths’ STD status, drug use, and reported risky sexual behavior are interrelated phenomena, similarly experienced across gender. Age was the only correlate of Risk status that demonstrated a significant gender group difference. The youths’ race and seriousness of arrest charges did not significantly affect Risk, regardless of gender. Research and policy implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:21221415
Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Stroud, Laura R.; Brush, Bridget; D'Angelo, Christina; Granger, Douglas A.
Although the role of immune marker secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) in stress-related health outcomes is gaining recognition, SIgA responsiveness to acute stress has rarely been assessed in adults, and not at all in children. This study was designed to clarify developmental origins of differential immune function-related health risks by investigating youth SIgA responses to psychosocial stressors, including both normative responses and variability related to behavioral problems. Children and adolescents from a larger study (n = 82) gave 6 saliva samples during a laboratory session in which they were exposed to a series of performance or interpersonal stressors. Samples were assayed for SIgA, as well as cortisol (representing hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity) and alpha-amylase (sAA; representing autonomic nervous system activity). Behavioral problems were assessed with parent-report measures of youth internalizing and externalizing. Youth SIgA trajectories followed a normative pattern of reactivity and recovery around the stressors; however, these responses were blunted in youth with higher externalizing scores. SIgA showed differential associations with cortisol and sAA, and with positive and negative affect; whereas overall levels of SIgA related to cortisol output and positive affect, changes in SIgA over time synchronized with changes in sAA and negative affect. In contrast to SIgA, neither cortisol nor sAA related significantly to behavioral problems. Implications for the role of SIgA during psychosocial stress in the development of immune function-related health risks are discussed. PMID:26036453
James, Sigrid; Freeman, Kim; Mayo, Danessa; Riggs, Matt; Morgan, Joshua P.; Schaepper, Mary Ann; Montgomery, Susanne B.
This paper presents the outcomes of a Dialectical Behavior Treatment (DBT) program, implemented in intensive outpatient care with two groups of adolescents (n=55 and n=45), ages 12–18, who engaged in deliberate self-harm (DSH) but had different insurance/funding sources and risk backgrounds. This pre-post study examined variability in clinical functioning and treatment utilization between the two groups and investigated moderating risk factors. Findings support DBT’s effectiveness in improving clinical functioning for youth with DSH regardless of insurance type. However, lower rates of treatment completion among youth without private insurance call for extra engagement efforts to retain high-risk youth in DBT. PMID:25199812
Whalen, Laura G.; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Kinchen, Steve; McManus, Tim; Shanklin, Shari L.; Kann, Laura
In the United States, nearly two-thirds of all deaths among young people 10-14 years of age result from only five causes: motor-vehicle crashes (22.1%), other unintentional injuries (16.7%), cancer (12.9%), suicide (6.8%), and homicide (4.7%). Leading causes of illness and death in all age groups in the United States are related to the following:…
Shanklin, Shari L.; Brener, Nancy; McManus, Tim; Kinchen, Steve; Kann, Laura
In the United States, nearly two-thirds of all deaths among young people aged 10-14 years result from only five causes: motor-vehicle crashes (23.4%), other unintentional injuries (15.7%), cancer (12.5%), suicide (7.2%), and homicide (5.2%). Across all age groups in the United States, the leading causes of illness and death are related to the…
Tucker, Carolyn M.; Rice, Kenneth G.; Desmond, Frederic F.; Hou, Wei; Kaye, Lillian B.; Smith, Tasia M.
Objective: To develop a youth form of the Motivators of and Barriers to Health-Smart Behaviors Inventory (MB-HSBI--Youth) for use in identifying self-reported motivators of and barriers to the following health-promoting behaviors (called "health-smart" behaviors): eating a healthy breakfast, eating healthy foods and snacks, drinking healthy…
McLeod, Bryce D; Southam-Gerow, Michael A; Kendall, Philip C
This study examined the score reliability and validity of observer- (Therapy Process Observational Coding System for Child Psychotherapy-Alliance scale [TPOCS-A]; Vanderbilt Therapeutic Alliance Scale Revised, Short Form [VTAS-R-SF]), therapist- (Therapeutic Alliance Scale for Children Therapist Version [TASC-T]), and youth-rated (Therapeutic Alliance Scale for Children Child Version [TASC-C]) alliance instruments. Youths (N = 50) aged 7-15 (Mage = 10.28 years, SD = 1.84; 88.0% Caucasian; 60.0% male) diagnosed with a principal anxiety disorder received manual-based cognitive-behavioral treatment. Four independent coders, 2 using the TPOCS-A and 2 using the VTAS-R-SF, rated 2 sessions per case from early (Session 3) and late (Sessions 12) treatment. Youth and therapists completed the TASC-C and TASC-T at the end Session 3 and 12. Internal consistency of the alliance instruments was α > .80 and interrater reliability of the observer-rated instruments was ICC(2,2) > .75. The TPOCS-A, VTAS-R-SF, and TASC-T scores showed evidence of convergent validity. Conversely, the TASC-C scores failed to converge with the other instruments in a sample of children (age <11), but did converge in a sample of adolescents (age ≥11). Findings supported the predictive validity of the TASC-T and TASC-C scores. However, whereas the direction of the alliance-outcome association for both observer-rated instruments was in the expected direction for children (negative), the correlations were in the opposite direction for adolescents (positive). Overall, findings support the score reliability of observer- and therapist-report alliance instruments, but questions are raised about the score validity for the observer- and youth-report alliance instruments. (PsycINFO Database Record
Markowitz, Jessica T.; Alleyn, Cielo A.; Phillips, Roxanne; Muir, Andrew; Young-Hyman, Deborah
Abstract Background There is risk for disordered eating behaviors in type 1 diabetes, especially related to insulin manipulation. Implementation of insulin pump therapy may encourage either normalization of eating behaviors or a greater focus on food intake due to renewed emphasis on carbohydrate counting. There is need for prospective studies to assess disordered eating behaviors upon implementation of pump therapy using diabetes-specific measurement tools. Subjects and Methods In a multicenter pilot study, 43 youth with type 1 diabetes, 10–17 years old, were assessed prior to pump initiation and after 1 and 6 months of pump therapy. Youth completed the Diabetes-specific Eating Problems Survey-Revised (DEPS-R), a validated measure of risk for both diabetes-specific and general disordered eating behaviors. Results Youth (45% female), 13.3 years old with diabetes for 2.1 years, had a mean hemoglobin A1c of 8.3±1.3% (68±14.5 mmol/mol) at baseline. DEPS-R scores decreased over time (P=0.01). Overall rate of high risk for eating disorders was low. Overweight/obese youth endorsed more disordered eating behaviors than normal-weight participants. DEPS-R scores were correlated with z-score for body mass index at all three time points and with hemoglobin A1c after 1 and 6 months. Hemoglobin A1c did not change significantly over the 6 months and was higher in overweight/obese compared with normal-weight participants. Conclusions Initiation of insulin pump therapy was associated with diminished endorsement of disordered eating behaviors in youth with type 1 diabetes. Longer follow-up studies are needed to assess the impact of insulin pump therapy on glycemic control, weight status, and disordered eating behaviors in this vulnerable population. PMID:23550556
Jain, Sonia; Cohen, Alison Klebanoff
Several studies across fields have documented the detrimental effects of exposure to violence and, separately, the power of developmental assets to promote positive youth development. However, few have examined the lives of youth exposed to violence who demonstrate resilience (that is, positive adjustment despite risk), and hardly any have examined how developmental assets may shape resilient trajectories into adulthood for youth exposed to violence. What are these resources and relationships that high-risk youth can leverage to tip the balance from vulnerability in favor of resilience? We used generalized estimating equations to examine multilevel longitudinal data from 1,114 youth of ages 11-16 from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods. Behavioral adaptation was a dynamic process that varied over time and by level of violence exposure. In the short term, being a victim was associated with increased aggression and delinquency. In the long term though, both victims and witnesses to violence had higher odds of behavioral adaptation. Baseline family support and family boundaries, friend support, neighborhood support, and collective efficacy had positive main effects for all youth. Additionally, having family support, positive peers, and meaningful opportunities for participation modified the effect of exposure to violence and increased odds of behavioral adaptation over time. Policies, systems, and programs across sectors should focus on building caring relationships/supports with family members and friends, positive peers, and meaningful opportunities especially for witnesses and victims of violence, to promote behavioral resilience and related outcomes into adulthood for high-risk youth.
Biddle, Virginia Sue; Sekula, L. Kathleen; Zoucha, Rick; Puskar, Kathryn R.
Introduction Nurse practitioners have the power to detect suicide risk and prevent suicide, a problem plaguing rural areas of the United States. Suicide risk assessment can be completed using the HEADSS (Home, Education, Activities, Drug use and abuse, Sexual behavior, and Suicidality and depression) interview instrument. The purpose of this study was to determine if HEADSS is appropriate for guiding suicide risk assessment of rural adolescents. Method High school students in Southwestern Pennsylvania completed qualitative questions from the Child Behavior Checklist and Coping Response Inventory as part of the Intervention to Promote Mental Health in Rural Youth. Qualitative content analysis was performed. Results Prominent themes identified by participants included academic performance, relationships, dislikes about school, friends, death, mental health, and the future. Several minor themes concerned safety. Most known risk factors for suicide were concerns of participants. Discussion The expansion of HEADSS to include death and safety should be considered. The modified version—HEADDSSS— can be used to guide suicide risk assessment of youth in rural Pennsylvania, ensuring both thoroughness of assessment and safety. PMID:20417887
Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi; Özdemir, Metin; Stattin, Håkan
Immigrant youth are at risk of experiencing harassment in school; however, we have only limited understanding of what makes youth harass their peers on ground of their ethnic origin. To address this major limitation, we examined (a) whether youth's negative attitudes toward immigrants impact their engagement in ethnic harassment over time and (b)…
Spiel, Craig Freeman; Mixon, Clifton S.; Holdaway, Alex S.; Evans, Steven W.; Harrison, Judith R.; Zoromski, Allison K.; Yost, Joanna Sadler
In this study, we intend to determine if reading tests aloud provides a differential boost to youth with elevated symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) relative to same-aged peers. Participants were 36 youth, 44% with or at risk for ADHD, who participated in a week long summer camp. Over the course of the week, youth attended…
Center for Population Options, Washington, DC.
This report evaluates the High Risk Youth Demonstration Project, which is predicated on the idea that youth-serving agencies (YSAs) can be key sources for adolescent AIDS education. When the Center for Population Options (CPO) conceptualized a strategy for bringing AIDS education to underserved youth, it was responding to the following three areas…
Wyatt, Laura C.; Ung, Tien; Park, Rebecca; Kwon, Simona C.; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau
Suicide has become an increasing public health challenge, with growing incidence among Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander (AA and NHPI) youth. Using an ecological framework, the purpose of this systematic review was to explicate risk and protective factors for depression or suicide among AA and NHPI youth from available peer reviewed research. The ecological framework provides a useful blueprint for translating social determinants of health to explain the experience of depression and suicidal behaviors among AA and NHPI youth. Sixty-six studies were extracted from PsychInfo, Ovid Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Web of Science. Policy and practice recommendations are offered in light of relevant themes that emerged. Further research and data disaggregation is needed to develop and strengthen population health strategies, interventions, and policies that address the underlying social conditions and cultural contexts of mental health disparities associated with depression and suicide among AA and NHPI youth. PMID:25981098
Raffaelli, Marcela; Koller, Silvia H; Cerqueira-Santos, Elder; De Morais, Normanda Araújo
Exposure to developmental risks in three domains (community, economic, and family), and relations between risks and psychosocial well-being, were examined among 918 impoverished Brazilian youth aged 14-19 (M = 15.8 years, 51.9% female) recruited in low-income neighborhoods in one city in Southern Brazil. High levels of developmental risks were reported, with levels and types of risks varying by gender, age, and (to a lesser extent) race. Associations between levels of risks in the various domains and indicators of psychological (e.g., self-esteem, negative emotionality) and behavioral (e.g., substance use) adjustment differed for male and female respondents. Findings build on prior research investigating the development of young people in conditions of pervasive urban poverty and reinforce the value of international research in this endeavor.
Benjamin, Courtney L.; Puleo, Connor M.; Settipani, Cara A.; Brodman, Douglas M.; Edmunds, Julie M.; Cummings, Colleen M.
Synopsis CBT represents a combination of behavioral and cognitive theories of human behavior and psychopathology, and a melding of emotional, familial, and peer influences. The numerous intervention strategies that comprise CBT reflect its complex and integrative nature and include such topics as extinction, habituation, modeling, cognitive restructuring, problem-solving, and the development of coping strategies, mastery, and a sense of self-control. CBT targets multiple areas of potential vulnerability (e.g., cognitive, behavioral, affective) with developmentally-guided strategies and traverses multiple intervention pathways. Although CBT is often considered the “first line treatment” for many psychological disorders in youth, additional work is necessary to address treatment non-responders and to facilitate the dissemination of efficacious CBT approaches. PMID:21440849
Fleary, Sasha A.
Background: Several studies have used latent class analyses to explore obesogenic behaviors and substance use in adolescents independently. We explored a variety of health risks jointly to identify distinct patterns of risk behaviors among adolescents. Methods: Latent class models were estimated using Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System…
Waltz, James A; Demro, Caroline; Schiffman, Jason; Thompson, Elizabeth; Kline, Emily; Reeves, Gloria; Xu, Ziye; Gold, James
Early identification efforts for psychosis have thus far yielded many more individuals "at risk" than actually develop psychotic illness. Here, we test whether measures of reinforcement learning (RL), known to be impaired in chronic schizophrenia, are related to the severity of clinical risk symptoms. Because of the reliance of RL on dopamine-rich frontostriatal systems and evidence of dopamine system dysfunction in the psychosis prodrome, RL measures are of specific interest in this clinical population. The current study examines relationships between psychosis risk symptoms and RL task performance in a sample of adolescents and young adults (n = 70) receiving mental health services. We observed significant correlations between multiple measures of RL performance and measures of both positive and negative symptoms. These results suggest that RL measures may provide a psychosis risk signal in treatment-seeking youth. Further research is necessary to understand the potential predictive role of RL measures for conversion to psychosis.
St. Lawrence, Janet S.; And Others
Randomly assigned 246 African American adolescents either to an educational program or to an 8-week intervention that combined education with behavior skills training. Results indicate that, compared with the education program, youth in behavioral skills training lowered their infection risk to a greater degree, maintained risk reduction changes…
Huang, David Y. C.; Lanza, H. Isabella; Murphy, Debra A.; Hser, Yih-Ing
This study used data from 5,382 adolescents from the 1997 United States (US) National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97) to investigate developmental pathways of alcohol use, marijuana use, sexual risk behaviors, and delinquency across ages 14 to 20; examine interrelationships among these risk behaviors across adolescence; and evaluate…
Silver, Ellen Johnson; Bauman, Laurie J.
We examined whether sexual attitudes of adolescents were related to their self-reported sexual risk behavior by analyzing survey data from 1,052 boys and girls aged 14 to 17 years from a low income, urban community. Sexual behavior norms that may increase sexually transmitted infection/HIV risks in youth were sanctioned more by males and by…
de Ravello, Lori; Everett Jones, Sherry; Tulloch, Scott; Taylor, Melanie; Doshi, Sonal
Background: We describe the prevalence of behaviors that put American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) high school students at risk for teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and the relationships among race/ethnicity and these behaviors. Methods: We analyzed merged 2007 and 2009 data from the national Youth Risk Behavior…
Prevention and Early Intervention for Young Children at Risk for Emotional or Behavioral Disorders. Fifth CCBD Mini-Library Series: Meeting the Diverse Needs of Children and Youth with E/BD--Evidence-Based Programs and Practices.
Conroy, Maureen A., Ed.
This document presents discussions of current research and activities by experts in early intervention and behavior disorders. It offers a range of evidence-based strategies, procedures, and models appropriate for prevention and early intervention programs with young children at risk for emotional and/or behavioral disorders. Following an…
Clatts, M C; Davis, W R
Rapid changes in the world market economy have served to destabilize many local institutions, widening the gap between the rich and the poor and undermining viability of key social and economic institutions such as family and household. Among those most deeply affected by this displacement are children and adolescents, many of whom are forced to leave family institutions before they have acquired the skills and maturity needed to become economically self-sufficient. Fending for themselves amid the vagaries of the underworld of virtually every major city in the world, these youths are at exceptional risk for a wide range of poor health outcomes and premature death. While perhaps a familiar sight in many non-Western countries, this phenomenon also has emerged in the industrialized world, a fact that accounts for the rise in exposure to violence and disease among street-involved youth and young adults in nations such as the United States. There are as yet few empirical data available about the nature of these youth populations or the constellation of behaviors that place them at increased risk for disease outcomes. In this report we construct a demographic and behavioral profile of the homeless youth population in New York City, particularly as behavioral patterns relate to risk associated with HIV infection.
Rutherford, Robert B. Jr., Ed.
The monograph includes 11 papers presented at a 1984 conference on severe behavior disorders of children and youth. Papers deal with research, practice, and teacher training issues. The following titles and authors are represented: "Person-Environment Fit: A Unifying Concept for Special Education" (F. Hewett); "The Learning-to-Fail Phenomenon as…
Eaton, Danice K.; Davis, Kristen S.; Barrios, Lisa; Brener, Nancy D.; Noonan, Rita K.
This study examined the association of victimization in a physically violent dating relationship with risk behaviors, age of risk behavior initiation, and co-occurrence of risk behaviors among students in grades 9 through 12 in the United States. Data were from the 2003 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). Nearly 9% of students reported…
Kemper, G L J; van der Sluis, A; Brink, M S; Visscher, C; Frencken, W G P; Elferink-Gemser, M T
The aim of the study was to investigate whether an increased risk of injury occurrence can be determined through frequent anthropometric measurements in elite-standard youth soccer players. Over the course of one season, we followed 101 male elite-standard youth soccer players between 11 and 19 years of age. Height and body mass were monitored at monthly measurement intervals and fat percentage was assessed every 3 months by use of the sum of skinfold method. Growth in height (cm), alternations in body mass index (kg/m(2)), fat percentage and fat-free mass index (kg/m(2)) were calculated. Injuries were recorded in accordance with the recommendations of the FIFA Consensus Model for Injury Registration. Odds ratio scores and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using binary logistic regression analyses. The following anthropometric injury risk factors were identified: ≥ 0.6 centimeter growth per month (p=0.03; OR=1.63; 95% CI: 1.06-2.52), ≥ 0.3 kg/m(2) increase of body mass index value per month (p=0.03; OR=1.61; 95% CI: 1.04-2.49) and low fat percentage; i. e., < 7% for players aged 11-16 and < 5% for players over 16 years (p=0.01; OR=1.81; 95% CI: 1.18-2.76). Individual monitoring of anthropometrics provides useful information to determine increased risk of injury occurrence in elite-standard youth soccer.
van der Horst, Klazine; Oenema, A.; Ferreira, I.; Wendel-Vos, W.; Giskes, K.; van Lenthe, F.; Brug, J.
There is increasing interest in the role the environment plays in shaping the dietary behavior of youth, particularly in the context of obesity prevention. An overview of environmental factors associated with obesity-related dietary behaviors among youth is needed to inform the development of interventions. A systematic review of observational…
Beets, Michael W.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Alderman, Brandon L.
Social support from parents serves as one of the primary influences of youth physical activity-related behaviors. A systematic review was conducted on the relationship of parental social support to the physical activity-related behaviors of youth. Four categories of social support were identified, falling under two distinct mechanisms--tangible…
den Dunnen, Wendy; St. Pierre, Jeff; Stewart, Shannon L.; Johnson, Andrew; Cook, Steven; Leschied, Alan W.
This study examined outcomes with 170 children and youth admitted to residential treatment with complex mental health problems. Overall, outcomes at 2 years post-treatment was predicted by children and youth's behavioral pretreatment status reflected in lower internalizing and externalizing behavior at admission. These findings recognize a cluster…
Cerin, Ester; Barnett, Anthony; Baranowski, Tom
Objective: To review and critique current experimentally-based evidence of theoretical mechanisms of dietary behavior change in youth and provide recommendations on ways to enhance theory evaluation. Methods: Interventions that examined mediators of dietary behavior change in youth (age 5-18 years) were identified via electronic database searches…
Goodwin, Renee D.; Mocarski, Michelle; Marusic, Andrej; Beautrais, Annette
The association between thoughts of self-harm and help-seeking among youth with symptoms of depression was examined. Data were drawn from the Health Behavior of School-aged Children Study ("n" = 15, 686), a nationally representative sample of youth in the United States. Analyses focused on comparing help-seeking behaviors among youth…
Kincaid, Carlye; Jones, Deborah J.; Cuellar, Jessica; Gonzalez, Michelle
A distinction between parental behavioral control and psychological control has been elucidated in the literature, yet far less is known about the role of psychological control in youth adjustment broadly or risky behavior in particular. We examined the interrelationship of maternal psychological control, youth psychosocial adjustment, and youth…
Wilson, Erin C; Garofalo, Robert; Harris, Robert D; Herrick, Amy; Martinez, Miguel; Martinez, Jaime; Belzer, Marvin
This study examined the HIV risk behaviors and life experiences of 151 transgender female youth, ages 15-24, in Los Angeles and Chicago. Descriptive analyses and logistic regression modeling were used to identify life factors associated with ever having engaged in sex work. Sixty-seven percent of participants had ever engaged in sex work and 19% self-reported being HIV positive. Many factors were significantly associated with sex work for this sample population. A final multivariate logistic regression model found that lower education status, homelessness, use of street drugs, and perceived social support remained significantly associated with sex work when controlling for other factors. Findings highlight the complex HIV risk environment and suggest a need for sex work initiation research for transgender female youth. HIV prevention efforts for this population need to include broad-based approaches that take into account individual, social, and community-level factors relevant to the lives of transgender female youth.
Law, Ben M. F.; Siu, Andrew M. H.; Shek, Daniel T. L.
Recognition for positive behavior is an appropriate response of the social environment to elicit desirable external behavior among the youth. Such positive responses, rendered from various social systems, include tangible and intangible reinforcements. The following theories are used to explain the importance of recognizing positive behavior: operational conditioning, observational learning, self-determination, and humanistic perspective. In the current work, culturally and socially desirable behaviors are discussed in detail with reference to Chinese adolescents. Positive behavior recognition is especially important to adolescent development because it promotes identity formation as well as cultivates moral reasoning and social perspective thinking from various social systems. The significance of recognizing positive behavior is illustrated through the support, tutorage, invitation, and subsidy provided by Hong Kong's social systems in recognition of adolescent volunteerism. The practical implications of positive behavior recognition on youth development programs are also discussed in this work. PMID:22666155
Kushman, James W.; And Others
This document consists of Part 4 of a book of readings on at-risk youth designed to provide information and strategies for counselors, teachers, parents, administrators, social workers, and others who work with youth at risk. Part 4 deals with the school dropout and school and community programs that have proven to be effective in working with…
Lee, A; Tsang, C K K
This cross-sectional study investigated the prevalence rates of different categories of youth risk behaviour by age, sex and parental education. The study population consisted of 26,111 Hong Kong students, aged 10-19 years, recruited from 48 primary (primary grades 4-6) and secondary schools (secondary grades 1-7). Less than one-third of subjects participated in vigorous exercise regularly, about one-third consumed an unhealthy diet frequently, 18% had tried smoking, and 14.5% had seriously considered attempting suicide. Although only 3.4% of students reported experience of sexual intercourse, less than half used a contraceptive device. Older students had higher prevalence rates of health-compromising behaviours than younger students. Female students were more likely to report suicide-related behaviour, attempting weight loss, and non-participation in vigorous physical activities. Students with parents of a lower educational background were more likely to report rarely or never wearing seat belts and bicycle helmets, suicide-related behaviour, smoking, sexual intercourse before 13 years of age, and attempting weight loss. The availability of data on youth health risk behaviours would enable health educators, public health practitioners and clinicians to plan appropriate screening and counselling for risk behaviours in early adolescents.
Galéra, Cédric; Messiah, Antoine; Melchior, Maria; Chastang, Jean-François; Encrenaz, Gaelle; Lagarde, Emmanuel; Michel, Gregory; Bouvard, Manuel-Pierre; Fombonne, Eric
Sexual health-risk behaviors in disruptive children are poorly understood. In a longitudinal population-based sample, event-time analyses showed that subjects with high levels of conduct disorder symptoms, particularly in combination with simultaneously high levels of hyperactivity-inattention symptoms, exhibited the highest risk for earlier sexual activity compared to controls, suggesting the need for prevention.
Ferguson, Christopher J
Several legal cases in the United States in which adolescents were charged with child pornography distribution after sharing nude photographs of themselves with romantic partners or others have highlighted the issue of sexting behaviors among youth. Although policy makers, mental health workers, educators and parents have all expressed concern regarding the potential harm of sexting behaviors, little to no research has examined this phenomenon empirically. The current study presents some preliminary data on the incidence of sexting behavior and associated high risk sexual behaviors in a sample of 207 predominantly Hispanic young women age 16-25. Approximately 20% of young women reported engaging in sexting behavior. Sexting behaviors were not associated with most other high-risk sexual behaviors, but were slightly more common in women who found sex to be highly pleasurable or who displayed histrionic personality traits.
Background Low levels of physical activity and increased participation in sedentary leisure-time activities are two important obesity-risk behaviors that impact the health of today’s youth. Friend’s health behaviors have been shown to influence individual health behaviors; however, current evidence on the specific role of friendship networks in relation to levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior is limited. The purpose of this review was to summarize evidence on friendship networks and both physical activity and sedentary behavior among children and adolescents. Method After a search of seven scientific databases and reference scans, a total of thirteen articles were eligible for inclusion. All assessed the association between friendship networks and physical activity, while three also assessed sedentary behavior. Results Overall, higher levels of physical activity among friends are associated with higher levels of physical activity of the individual. Longitudinal studies reveal that an individual’s level of physical activity changes to reflect his/her friends’ higher level of physical activity. Boys tend to be influenced by their friendship network to a greater extent than girls. There is mixed evidence surrounding a friend’s sedentary behavior and individual sedentary behavior. Conclusion Friends’ physical activity level appears to have a significant influence on individual’s physical activity level. Evidence surrounding sedentary behavior is limited and mixed. Results from this review could inform effective public health interventions that harness the influence of friends to increase physical activity levels among children and adolescents. PMID:24289113
Crosby Budinger, Meghan; Cwik, Mary F; Riddle, Mark A
Crisis hotlines have been central to suicide prevention efforts; however, utilization among youth remains low. A sample of at-risk youth was surveyed about their awareness, utilization, and attitudes toward local and national crisis hotlines. Youth reported low rates of awareness and utilization, yet expressed a strong interest in phone hotlines (41% vs. 59% for new media categories combined). Youth reported stigma, but that help-seeking could be positively influenced by peers and adults in their support system. Implications include making crisis services available across several mediums and the importance of engaging trusted others in youth suicide awareness campaigns and prevention efforts.
Haag, Thore-Björn; Mayer, H. Michael; Schneider, Alexandra S.; Rumpf, Michael C.; Handel, Martin; Schneider, Christian
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study is to identify several responsible parameters for back pain (BP) in youth soccer players to create a risk assessment tool for early prevention. An iPad-based survey was used to screen for parameters in a cross-sectional study. This questionnaire includes items regarding anthropometric data, training habits and sports injuries and was put into practice with 1110 athletes. Sex (odds ratio (OR): 1.84), age group (1.48) and playing surface (1.56) were significantly associated with BP. A history of injuries especially to the spine and hip/groin increased the likelihood for evolving recurrent BP (1.74/1.40). Overall 15 factors seem to influence the appearance of pain and were integrated into a feasible nomogram. The nomogram provides a practical tool to identify the risks of developing BP for youth soccer players. Although most factors we identified are non-modifiable, this method allows to rank the importance of factors and especially their prevention treatments for athletes. PMID:27537067
Parkinson, Carla M.; Hammond, David; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Borland, Ron; Omar, Maizurah; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Awang, Rahmat; Driezen, Pete; Thompson, Mary
Objective To characterize smoking beliefs among Thai and Malaysian youth and to examine associations with gender, antismoking media exposure, and smoking status. Methods Nationally representative samples of youth completed self-administered questionnaires. Results A substantial proportion of youth reported positive beliefs about smoking. Those reporting positive beliefs were more likely to be susceptible to smoking. Youth who noticed antismoking media were less likely to report positive beliefs about smoking. Conclusions As in Western countries, beliefs about smoking held by youth in Southeast Asia are associated with smoking status. Antismoking media may be an important means of targeting beliefs about smoking among youth. PMID:19182982
Taylor, Connie E.; Hutchinson, Nancy L.; Ingersoll, Marcea; Dalton, C. J.; Dods, Jennifer; Godden, Lorraine; Chin, Peter; de Lugt, Jennifer
The transition from school to the workplace has been identified as challenging for at-risk youth who have already disengaged from learning and feel disenfranchised in the context of school. Work-based education (WBE), including co-operative education, has been recognized in recent years as an effective strategy for enabling at-risk youth to…
Olsavsky, Aviva K.; Brotman, Melissa A.; Rutenberg, Julia G.; Muhrer, Eli J.; Deveney, Christen M.; Fromm, Stephen J.; Towbin, Kenneth; Pine, Daniel S.; Leibenluft, Ellen
Objective: Youth at familial risk for bipolar disorder (BD) show deficits in face emotion processing, but the neural correlates of these deficits have not been examined. This preliminary study tests the hypothesis that, relative to healthy comparison (HC) subjects, both BD subjects and youth at risk for BD (i.e., those with a first-degree BD…
Birmaher, Boris; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Williamson, Douglas E.; Brent, David A.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Axelson, David A.; Dorn, Lorah D.; Ryan, Neal D.
Objective: To compare the psychosocial functioning of children and adolescents at high risk of major depressive disorder with youths with acute major depressive disorder and healthy controls. Method: High-risk (n = 57), major depressive disorder (n = 71), and healthy control (n = 48) youths and their families were recruited from 1987 to 1996 and…
... Diet in Youth Might Raise Risk of Early Breast Cancer Study found an association, but didn't prove ... might also raise a younger woman's risk for breast cancer. "A diet high in sugar, refined carbohydrates, and ...
Berry, Judith L.
The purpose of this experimental study was to determine the behavioral effects of Yoshukai karate on four dependent variables: (1) student behavior as related to classroom discipline; (2) teacher attitudes toward at-risk students; (3) students' self-concepts; and (4) academic achievement as determined by scores on a standardized diagnostic test.…
Sangalang, Cindy C.; Tran, Alisia G. T. T; Ayers, Stephanie L.; Marsiglia, Flavio F.
Little is known about adolescent bullying behavior and its relationship to substance use in ethnic minority populations. In a sample of youth of Mexican heritage, the current study aimed to examine the prevalence of bullying behavior subtypes and its co-occurrence with recent alcohol, cigarette, and inhalant use. Data come from a school-based substance use prevention study in the Southwestern U.S. (n=809). We explored the prevalence of bullying behavior by status among youth classified as bullies, victims, bully-victims, and rarely-involved bully-victims in an urban context. We also investigated risk of past 30-day use of alcohol, cigarettes, and inhalants by bullying behavior status. Compared to non-involved youth, rarely-involved bully-victims were more likely to use alcohol, bullies were more likely to engage in alcohol and cigarette use, and bully-victims were more likely to use alcohol, cigarettes, and inhalants. In contrast, victims were not significantly at risk of substance use compared to non-involved youth. Chronic bullies and bully-victims are particularly at risk for substance use, with chronic bully-victims reflecting the greatest risk of using multiple substances. Prevention and early intervention programs aimed to reduce bullying can also work to decrease other risky behaviors, such as substance use, and should attend to the growing ethnic diversity among youth. PMID:28190910
Pearson, Sarah S.; Jurich, Sonia
Youth court, also called teen court, peer jury, or student court, is an alternative to the traditional juvenile justice system and school disciplinary proceedings that empower youth and communities to take an active role in addressing the early stages of youth delinquency. The program provides communities with an opportunity to ensure immediate…
Rishel, Carrie W.; Cottrell, Lesley; Kingery, Tricia
Adolescent risk behavior remains prevalent and contributes to numerous social problems and growing health care costs. Contrary to popular perception, adolescents in rural areas engage in risky behaviors at least as much as youth from urban or suburban settings. Little research, however, focuses on risk behavior prevention in the rural context.…
Huang, David Y C; Lanza, H Isabella; Murphy, Debra A; Hser, Yih-Ing
This study used data from 5,382 adolescents from the 1997 U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97) to investigate developmental pathways of alcohol use, marijuana use, sexual risk behaviors, and delinquency across ages 14 to 20, examine interrelationships among these risk behaviors across adolescence, and evaluate association between risk behavior trajectories and depressive symptoms in adolescence. Group-based dual trajectory modeling, examining trajectories of two outcomes over time, revealed strong interrelationships among developmental trajectories of the four risk behaviors, and indicated potential pathways to co-occurring risk behaviors. Adolescents with higher levels of alcohol use or marijuana use were more likely to engage in higher levels of early sexual risk-taking and delinquency. Moreover, adolescents involved in higher levels of delinquency were at higher risk for engaging in early sexual risk-taking. Also belonging to the highest risk trajectory of any of the four risk behaviors was positively associated with depressive symptoms in adolescence.
Jones, Sherry Everett; Pezzi, Clelia; Rodriguez-Lainz, Alfonso; Whittle, Lisa
One in five public school students is from an immigrant-headed household. We used Youth Risk Behavior Survey data from one state and four large urban school districts to examine whether length of time living in the US was associated with health risk behaviors. Logistic regression models, using weighted data, controlled for sex, race/ethnicity, and grade. Compared to US natives, not having always lived in the US was correlated with lower risk for some behaviors (e.g., current marijuana use and alcohol use) among high school students, but higher risk for other behaviors (e.g., attempted suicide, physical inactivity). Many findings were inconsistent across the study sites. Interventions that specifically target recently-arrived school-aged youth to prevent behaviors that put health and safety at risk, may result in the best outcomes for immigrant youth. Care should be taken to understand the specific health risks present in different immigrant communities.
Potrepka, Jessica; Copenhaver, Michael
Researchers examining injection drug users (IDUs) in drug treatment have been trying for decades to determine the optimal way to intervene to prevent the transmission and spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in this population. Although efficacious HIV risk reduction interventions are widely available, questions remain about what specific factors are most related to HIV risk behavior and defined as unprotected sexual activity and/or high risk drug use. This review involved an evaluation of the research literature in order to better understand the association between drug use and sexual behavior debut on HIV risk behavior. Findings suggest that drug use debut and sexual behavior debut may be related to subsequent HIV risk behavior. Evidence to date implies that intervening at an earlier age to assist youth to avoid or delay these high risk behaviors may be an additional means of reducing subsequent HIV risk. PMID:24381791
Baldwin, Patrick; Shrestha, Roman; Potrepka, Jessica; Copenhaver, Michael
Researchers examining injection drug users (IDUs) in drug treatment have been trying for decades to determine the optimal way to intervene to prevent the transmission and spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in this population. Although efficacious HIV risk reduction interventions are widely available, questions remain about what specific factors are most related to HIV risk behavior and defined as unprotected sexual activity and/or high risk drug use. This review involved an evaluation of the research literature in order to better understand the association between drug use and sexual behavior debut on HIV risk behavior. Findings suggest that drug use debut and sexual behavior debut may be related to subsequent HIV risk behavior. Evidence to date implies that intervening at an earlier age to assist youth to avoid or delay these high risk behaviors may be an additional means of reducing subsequent HIV risk.
Finigan-Carr, Nadine M; Cheng, Tina L; Gielen, Andrea; Haynie, Denise L; Simons-Morton, Bruce
Aggressive and weapons carrying behaviors are indicative of youth violence. The theory of planned behavior is used in the current analysis to improve our understanding of violence-related behaviors. We examine the influence of perceived behavioral control (self-control and decision making) as a part of the overall framework for understanding the risk and protective factors for aggressive behaviors and weapons carrying. As the baseline assessment of an intervention trial, survey data were collected on 452 sixth-grade students (50% girls; 96.6% African American; mean age 12.0 years) from urban middle schools. A total of 18.4% carried a weapon in the prior 12 months, with boys more likely to carry a weapon than girls (22.5% vs. 14.2%, p = .02). Of the youth, 78.4% reported aggressive behaviors with no significant differences found between girls (81.3%) and boys (75.5%). In logistic regression models, having peers who engage in problem behaviors was found to be a significant risk factor. Youth with peers who engaged in numerous problem behaviors were five times more likely to be aggressive than those who reported little or no peer problem behaviors. Teens who reported that their parents opposed aggression (odds ratio [OR] = 0.76; confidence interval [CI] = 0.66, 0.88) and who used self-control strategies (OR = 0.59; CI = 0.39, 0.87) were found to report less aggressive behaviors. For weapons carrying, being a girl (OR = 0.56; CI = 0.32, 0.97) and self-control (OR = 0.52; CI = 0.29, 0.92) were protective factors. This study demonstrated that the theory of planned behavior may provide a useful framework for the development of violence prevention programs. Practitioners should consider integrating strategies for developing healthy relationships and improving self-control.
DeLuca, Christopher; Godden, Lorraine; Hutchinson, Nancy L.; Versnel, Joan
Background: The current global cohort of youth has been called "a generation at-risk", marked by a dramatic rise in youth who are not in employment, education or training programmes. In 2010, youth were three times as likely as adults to be unemployed, with youth unemployment worsening in 2012 and 2013. Accordingly, there is an urgent…
Tadesse, Gojjam; Yakob, Bereket
Background Little is known about sexual risks and associated factors about female youths in semi-urban areas of Ethiopia. This study aimed to describe the nature and magnitude of risky sexual behaviors, and the socio-demographic and behavioral determinants among female youths in Tiss Abay, a semi-urban area on the outskirts of Bahir Dar City of the Amhara Region in northern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional census type study was conducted among female youths who were unmarried and aged 15–29 years in September 2011. Results 711 female youths participated in the study, with the mean age of initiation of sex of 78.6% being16.73±2.53 years. Only 52(9.3%) used condom during the first sex. Within the last 12 months, 509(71.6%) had sexual intercourse and 278(54.6%) had two or more sex partners, and 316(62.1%) did not use condom during their last sex. Sex under the influence of substances was reported by 350(68.8%), and a third of the recent sexes were against the will of participants. One or more risky sexual practices were reported by 503(70.3%) participants, including: multiple sexual partnerships, inconsistently using or not using condoms, sex under the influence of alcohol and/or sex immediately after watching pornography. Age group, current marital status, drinking homemade alcohol, chewing ‘khat’, watching pornography and using any form of stimulant substances were the predictors of risky sexual behavior. Watching pornography before sex and sex for transaction were the predicators of not using condom during most recent sex. Conclusions Risky sexual behaviors were very common among the female youths in Tiss Abay. Initiation of context-based interventions, such as raising awareness about the risks, safer sex practices, condom promotion and integration of gender issues in the programs are recommended. PMID:25738508
Walters, Glenn D; Ruscio, John
The purpose of this study was to determine whether qualitatively distinct trajectories of antisocial behavior could be identified in 1,708 children (843 boys, 865 girls) from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Data (NLSY-C). Repeated ratings were made on the Behavior Problems Index (BPI: Peterson and Zill Journal of Marriage and the Family, 48, 295-307, 1986) antisocial scale by the mothers of these children when the children were 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 years of age. Scores on three indicators constructed from the six BPI Antisocial items (callousness, aggression, noncompliance) were then analyzed longitudinally (by summing across the rating periods) and cross-sectionally (by testing each individual rating period) in the full sample as well as in subsamples of boys and girls. Results obtained with the mean above minus below a cut (MAMBAC), maximum covariance (MAXCOV), and latent mode factor analysis (L-Mode) taxometric procedures revealed consistent evidence of continuous latent structure despite the fact Growth Mixture Modeling (GMM) and Latent Class Growth Analysis (LCGA) identified between two and eight trajectories, depending on the stopping rule, in the three antisocial indicators. From these results, it is concluded that the structural model underlying these data is better represented as continuous rather than as categorical. The implications of these results for future research on developmental trajectories of antisocial behavior are discussed.
Costa, Natalie M; Weems, Carl F; Pina, Armando A
This study sought to examine the role of attachment beliefs and parenting behaviors on youth's anxious response to disaster by testing a theoretical model which posits youths' perceptions of attachment beliefs and parenting behaviors as moderators of the relation between pre and post disaster anxiety symptoms. Seventy-four youth (ages 6-17 years) and their parents exposed to Hurricane Katrina participated in pre and post disaster assessments. Results indicated that both youths' pre disaster perceived attachment beliefs (i.e., trust and communication) and perceptions of parenting behaviors (i.e., acceptance and firm control) moderated the relation between pre and post Katrina anxiety symptoms. Exploratory analyses demonstrated no age, gender, or ethnicity differences in post Katrina anxiety symptoms. Findings are discussed in terms of how parents may influence youths' pre and post disaster anxiety symptoms in the face of natural disasters and the implications for intervention.
Grant, Sharon H.; Van Acker, Richard
Review of the current knowledge concerning youth violence and gang behavior considers risk factors for violence and gang formation, functions served by violence and gang membership, and strategies that have been empirically validated to be either beneficial or ineffective. Following an introductory chapter, the first chapter looks at the nature of…
O’Brien, T. Caitlin; Mustanski, Brian S.; Skol, Andrew; Cook, Edwin H.; Wakschlag, Lauren S.
Externalizing behaviors (encompassing antisocial, impulsive, and substance use behaviors) are pervasive and impairing across a multitude of settings and developmental contexts. These behaviors, though often investigated separately, are highly comorbid. Prenatal tobacco exposure in interaction with various genetic influences has predicted later externalizing behavior, and recent evidence supports investigating sex differences in these patterns. In the current study, we extend this work by (a) examining two functional genetic markers in the dopamine system: the transporter gene (DAT1) and the dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4) in interaction with prenatal tobacco exposure to predict a latent composite of externalizing behavior and (b) testing whether these patterns differ by sex of youth in a community sample of adolescents (n=176). The relatively small sample is partially offset by high quality, multi-method prospective measurement. We assessed prenatal tobacco exposure using prospective repeated cotinine-corrected reports and externalizing behaviors were assessed utilizing multiple measures across three waves. The interaction between DAT1 (but not DRD4) and prenatal tobacco exposure was statistically significant in boys, and patterns appeared to differ by sex. Risk for externalizing behaviors for exposed boys increased linearly as a function of the 10r DAT1 allele. For exposed girls, there was a trend such that DAT1heterozygotes had a marginally higher risk than homozygotes. This pattern was not explained by passive gene-environment correlation. Elucidating sex-specific pathways through which early adverse exposures and genetic susceptibilities contribute to externalizing behavior can inform early targeted prevention efforts for those children at highest risk. PMID:24064458
De Sanctis, Virginia A; Newcorn, Jeffrey H; Halperin, Jeffrey M
Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at heightened risk of antisocial behavior during adolescence/early adulthood. Here, we characterize the antisocial outcomes of a sample of urban, lower-socioeconomic-status, ethnically diverse ADHD youth and investigate the impact of maltreatment history on criminal and substance use disorder (SUD) outcomes. Ninety-eight participants diagnosed with ADHD in childhood were re-assessed 10 years later and compared with controls. Regression analyses investigated the effect of maltreatment on antisocial outcomes among four groups based on ADHD and maltreatment status. ADHD subjects and controls did not differ in rates of arrest, conviction, incarceration, or recidivism. ADHD youth were younger at their first arrest with higher rates of SUDs when compared to controls. Controls and ADHD subjects with maltreatment had significantly higher rates of SUDs compared to the no-ADHD/no-maltreatment group. Only ADHD youth with maltreatment had significantly higher rates of arrest than the reference group. In contrast to prior studies, ADHD youth did not differ from controls on most measures of antisocial behavior. Maltreatment increased the rate of arrest only among ADHD youth, though increased the rate of SUD for ADHD youth and controls. This suggests that ADHD youth, in the absence of maltreatment, are at no greater risk of SUDs or arrest than controls without maltreatment.
Suveg, Cynthia; Sood, Erica; Comer, Jonathan S.; Kendall, Philip C.
This study examined emotion-related functioning following cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) with 37 youth with anxiety disorders (22 boys, 15 girls) ranging in age from 7 to 15 with a principal diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (n = 27), separation anxiety disorder (n = 12), and/or social phobia (n = 13). Treated youth exhibited a…
PELEGRINO, DONALD A.; AND OTHERS
THE IN-SERVICE TRAINING GUIDE FOR YOUTH SERVICES PERSONNEL WAS DESIGNED TO AID PERSONNEL IN THE PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF ANTI-SOCIAL YOUTH BEHAVIOR. THIS PRACTICAL GUIDE AND TRAINING MANUAL PRESENTS A COMPENDIUM OF IDEAS, SUGGESTIONS, AND TECHNIQUES. THE INTRODUCTION PRESENTS THE BACKGROUND AND PROCEDURES OF THE GUIDE'S PUBLICATION AND…
Chen, Kaili; Soon, Tan Chee
To describe the current status of special education and services for children and youths with emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD) in Singapore, the authors highlight the country's overall structure of special education and mental health, identification of and intervention with children and youths with E/BD, perspectives about E/BD, and…
Bradford, Kay; Vaughn, LaToya Burns; Barber, Brian K.
This study examined direct and indirect associations between overt and covert interparental conflict (IPC), parent-child conflict, and their links to youth problem behaviors. Data were collected from a sample of 641 school-age youth, ages 12 to 18 years, using a school-based survey. Analyses yielded direct positive linkages from overt IPC to…
Leon, Scott C.; Ragsdale, Brian; Miller, Steven A.; Spacarelli, Steven
Objective: The purpose of this longitudinal study was to examine the relationship between several proposed protective factors and trauma symptoms among highly vulnerable youth in the child welfare system. Methods: Participants were 142 youth identified with a sexual behavior problem and their caregivers. Two waves of data were collected for each…
Stiffman, Arlene Rubin; Alexander-Eitzman, Benjamin; Silmere, Hiie; Osborne, Victoria; Brown, Eddie
Objective: This article identifies behavioral trajectories of American Indian adolescents and examines their predictors. Method: A total of 401 urban and reservation American Indian adolescents were interviewed yearly from 2001 to 2004 (with 341 youths, or 85%, retained to 2004, and 385 completing at least two interviews). The Youth Self-Report…
Peter, Nancy E.
To explore parents' emotional investment in and behaviors in response to youth sports, the author conducted a mixed-methods investigation to answer four research questions: (1)How do parents feel about their children's participation in organized youth team sports? (2) Which situations trigger which feelings? (3) How do parents' feelings influence…
Beidas, Rinad S.; Mychailyszyn, Matthew P.; Podell, Jennifer L.; Kendall, Philip C.
We provide a detailed description of the clinical application of brief cognitive-behavioral therapy (BCBT) for anxious youth. A rationale for the development of BCBT is presented, followed by a description and discussion of the 8 sessions of the treatment. Mike, a 7-year-old youth with anxiety disorders, is used to illustrate the inner workings of…
Busseri, Michael A.; Willoughby, Teena; Chalmers, Heather; Bogaert, Anthony F.
On the basis of a large-scale survey of high-school youth, the authors compared adolescents reporting exclusively heterosexual, mostly heterosexual, bisexual, and predominately same-sex attraction based on high-risk involvement across a range of risk behaviors. Bisexual and same-sex attracted groups were characterized by heightened high-risk…
Burak, Lydia; Boone, Barbara
Background: Although breast cancer prevention should begin in youth, many young women are not aware of the modifiable lifestyle risk factors for the disease. Purpose: The purposes of this study were to examine the breast cancer-related knowledge, behaviors, and beliefs of young women; to determine whether knowledge about lifestyle risks was…
Melchert, Tim; Burnett, Kent F.
Examined high-risk sexual behavior in adolescents (N=212) involved in juvenile justice system. Found that youth were at high risk for unintended pregnancy, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome and other sexually transmitted disease. Compared to national norms, sample reported very early mean age at first intercourse and high rate of pregnancy. Most…
Sektnan, Michaella; McClelland, Megan M.; Acock, Alan; Morrison, Frederick J.
This study examined relations among early family risk, children's behavioral regulation at 54 months and kindergarten, and academic achievement in first grade using data on 1298 children from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Family risk was indexed by ethnic…
Kelly, Brian C
This paper describes current patterns of club drug use and local conceptions of risk among New York City area youth. The data is drawn from a NIDA-funded ethnographic study of club drug initiation among "Bridge and Tunnel" youth. The paper entails an examination of the harmony and discontinuity between folk models of risk within this population and professional models of risk. The author explores how club drug-using youth conceive of risks related to club drug use, specifically ecstasy, and how such conceptions compare and contrast with current professional models of risk. These conceptions of risk are crucial to understand, as they form an informal logic by which club drug practices are guided. Ultimately, the author examines how the relationship between folk models and professional models might inform health promotion efforts targeting youth.
Newton, Rae R.; Litrownik, Alan J.; Landsverk, John A.
The placement histories of 415 youth in foster care in San Diego, California, were analyzed together with behavior problems identified by the Child Behavior Check List. Results suggest that volatile placement histories contribute negatively to both internalizing and externalizing behavior of foster children. Initial externalizing behaviors were…
Latzman, Robert D.; Gratz, Kim L.; Young, John; Heiden, Laurie J.; Damon, John D.; Hight, Terry L.
Despite the clinical relevance of self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SITB) among youth, little is known about the subset of youth most at-risk for SITB. This study examined the moderating roles of gender, racial/ethnic background, and school-level (and their interactions) on rates of SITB within a large (N = 2638, 52.2% female),…
Ritterman Weintraub, Miranda Lucia; Fernald, Lia C.; Goodman, Elizabeth; Guendelman, Sylvia; Adler, Nancy E.
Highlights Different measures of social position capture unique dimensions of relative rank among youth. Youth-specific measures of social position may be important in identifying the most at-risk for obesity. Lower social status youth are more likely to be at-risk for obesity-related behaviors compared to those with a higher rank. This cross-sectional study examines multiple dimensions of social position in relation to obesity-related behaviors in an adolescent and young adult population. In addition to using conventional measures of social position, including parental education and household expenditures, we explore the usefulness of three youth-specific measures of social position – community and society subjective social status and school dropout status. Data are taken from a 2004 house-to-house survey of urban households within the bottom 20th percentile of income distribution within seven states in Mexico. A total of 5,321 Mexican adolescents, aged 12–22 years, provided information on obesity-related behaviors (e.g., diet, physical activity, sedentary behavior) and indicators of subjective and objective social position. A parent in each household provided information on socioeconomic status of the parent and household. Ordinal logistic regressions are used to estimate the associations of parental, household and adolescent indicators of social position and obesity-related risk behaviors. Those adolescents with the highest odds of adopting obesity risk behaviors were the ones who perceived themselves as lower in social status in reference to their peer community and those who had dropped out of school. We found no significant associations between parental education or household expenditures and obesity-related risk behaviors. Immediate social factors in adolescents’ lives may have a strong influence on their health-related behaviors. This study provides evidence for the usefulness of two particular measures, both of which are youth
Spano, Richard; Pridemore, William Alex; Bolland, John
Two waves of longitudinal data from 1,049 African American youth living in extreme poverty are used to examine the impact of exposure to violence (Time 1) and violent behavior (Time 1) on first time gun carrying (Time 2). Multivariate logistic regression results indicate that (a) violent behavior (Time 1) increased the likelihood of initiation of gun carrying (Time 2) by 76% after controlling for exposure to violence at Time 1, which is consistent with the stepping stone model of youth gun carrying, and (b) youth who were both exposed to violence at Time 1 and engaged in violent behavior at Time 1 were more than 2.5 times more likely to initiate gun carrying at Time 2 compared to youth who had neither of these characteristics, which supports the cumulative risk model of youth gun carrying. The authors discuss the implications of these findings in clarifying the role of violence in the community on youth gun carrying and the primary prevention of youth gun violence.
Gabrielli, Joy; Jackson, Yo; Brown, Shaquanna
Substance use (SU) in youth remains a significant public health concern and a risk factor for morbidity and mortality in adolescents. The present study offers examination of the association between severity and chronicity of maltreatment history and SU in youth in foster care. Two hundred and ten (48% female) foster youth with a mean age of 12.71 years (SD = 2.95 years) completed surveys using an audio-computer-assisted self-interview program. Results revealed 31% of participants reported past-year SU, and substance users had a mean CRAFFT score of 3.43 (SD = 1.90). Reported age of SU onset was 11.08 years (SD = 2.21 years). The SU measurement model demonstrated excellent fit in this sample. Accounting for both youth age and youth placement type, the structural model with maltreatment predicting SU severity demonstrated strong model fit with a significant path between maltreatment and SU. Youth in residential facilities and older youth had higher rates of use than those residing in traditional foster home environments and younger youth. Findings provide additional support for the link between maltreatment experiences and SU severity in foster youth and suggest the need for screening and intervention services appropriate for this high-risk population.
Wright, Darlene R.; Fitzpatrick, Kevin M.
Cross-sectional data were collected on substance use behaviors and potential correlates in 1,494 African American students enrolled in grades 5-12 in eight schools in a central Alabama school district. Using a risk and asset framework, self-reported recent alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use were analyzed by identifying and measuring levels of…
Glenn, Catherine R.; Franklin, Joseph C.; Nock, Matthew K.
Objective To review the current evidence base of psychosocial treatments for suicidal and nonsuicidal self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SITBs) in youth. Method We reviewed major scientific databases (HealthSTAR, MEDLine, PsycInfo, PubMed) for relevant studies published prior to June 2013. Results The search identified 29 studies examining interventions for suicidal or nonsuicidal SITBs in children or adolescents. No interventions currently meet the JCCAP standards for Level 1: well-established treatments. Six treatment categories were classified as Level 2: probably efficacious or Level 3: possibly efficacious for reducing SITBs in youth. These treatments came from a variety of theoretical orientations, including cognitive-behavioral, family, interpersonal, and psychodynamic theories. Common elements across efficacious treatments included family skills training (e.g., family communication and problem-solving), parent education and training (e.g., monitoring and contingency management), and individual skills training (e.g., emotion regulation and problem-solving). Conclusions Several treatments have shown potential promise for reducing SITBs in children and adolescents. However, the probably/possibly efficacious treatments identified each have evidence from only a single randomized controlled trial. Future research should focus on: replicating studies of promising treatments; identifying active treatment ingredients; examining mediators and moderators of treatment effects; and developing brief interventions for high-risk periods (e.g., following hospital discharge). PMID:25256034
Hadley, Wendy; Barker, David H.; Lescano, Celia M.; Stewart, Angela J.; Affleck, Katelyn; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph; Brown, Larry K.
Aims To assess the associations of sexual risk behavior with psychiatric impairment and individual, peer, and partner attitudes among adolescents receiving mental health treatment. Methods Adolescents (N=893, 56% female, 67% African American) completed assessments of psychiatric impairment, rejection sensitivity, peer norms, HIV knowledge, perceived vulnerability, self-efficacy and condom use intentions. Two structural equation models were used to test the study hypotheses; one for sexually active youth and one for non-active youth. Results For non-active youth, psychiatric impairment influenced self-efficacy and condom use intentions via peer norms, rejection sensitivity, and perceived vulnerability. Among the sexually active youth, sexual risk was related to impairment and previous condom use. Discussion These results suggest that individual, peer, and partner factors are related to impairment and to sexual risk attitudes, but depend on previous sexual experience. PMID:26023302
Hughes, Diane; Witherspoon, Dawn; Rivas-Drake, Deborah; West-Bey, Nia
The authors examined relationships between cultural socialization and preparation for bias and youth outcomes. Using data from 805 African American and White early adolescents attending school in an integrated middle-class suburban school district in the northeastern United States, the authors hypothesized that ethnic affirmation and self-esteem would mediate relations between ethnic-racial socialization and more distal academic and behavioral outcomes. Cultural socialization was positively associated with academic and behavioral outcomes, and these associations were partially mediated by ethnic affirmation and self-esteem. Preparation for bias was associated with more negative academic outcomes, and these relationships were fully mediated by ethnic affirmation and self-esteem. Relationships of preparation for bias to youth outcomes were generally stronger for White compared with African American youths. The risks and benefits of different socialization messages for youths in various ecological contexts are discussed.
Wallins, Amy; Toledo, Lauren; Murray, Ashley; Gaul, Zaneta; Sutton, Madeline Y.; Gillespie, Scott; Leong, Traci; Graves, Chanda; Chakraborty, Rana
Abstract Youth carry the highest incidence of HIV infection in the United States. Understanding adolescent and young adult (AYA) perspectives on HIV transmission risk is important for targeted HIV prevention. We conducted a mixed methods study with HIV-infected and uninfected youth, ages 18–24 years, from Atlanta, GA. We provided self-administered surveys to HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected AYAs to identify risk factors for HIV acquisition. By means of computer-assisted thematic analyses, we examined transcribed focus group responses on HIV education, contributors to HIV transmission, and pre-sex HIV status disclosure. The 68 participants had the following characteristics: mean age 21.5 years (standard deviation: 1.8 years), 85% male, 90% black, 68% HIV-infected. HIV risk behaviors included the perception of condomless sex (Likert scale mean: 8.0) and transactional sex (88% of participants); no differences were noted by HIV status. Qualitative analyses revealed two main themes: (1) HIV risk factors among AYAs, and (2) barriers to discussing HIV status before sex. Participants felt the use of social media, need for immediate gratification, and lack of concern about HIV disease were risk factors for AYAs. Discussing HIV status with sex partners was uncommon. Key reasons included: fear of rejection, lack of confidentiality, discussion was unnecessary in temporary relationships, and disclosure negatively affecting the mood. HIV prevention strategies for AYAs should include improving condom use frequency and HIV disclosure skills, responsible utilization of social media, and education addressing HIV prevention including the risks of transactional sex. PMID:26588663
Chen, Edith; Lee, William K.; Cavey, Lisa; Ho, Amanda
Little is understood about why some youth from low-socioeconomic-status (SES) environments exhibit good health despite adversity. This study tested whether role models and "shift-and-persist" approaches (reframing stressors more benignly while persisting with future optimism) protect low-SES youth from cardiovascular risk. A total of 163…
Tyler, Kimberly A.; Cauce, Ana Mari; Whitbeck, Les
Objective: To examine family risk factors associated with dissociative symptoms among homeless and runaway youth. Method: Three hundred and twenty-eight homeless and runaway youth were interviewed using a systematic sampling strategy in metropolitan Seattle. Homeless young people were interviewed on the streets and in shelters by outreach workers…
National Commission for Employment Policy (DOL), Washington, DC.
The five case studies in this volume concern at-risk youth. Disadvantaged youth programs in different states were studied by different authors: (1) Albuquerque, New Mexico (Richard Mendel); (2) Baltimore, Maryland (Edward C. Lorenz); (3) Hartford, Connecticut (Richard Funkhouser and Delsie Gandia-Fabian; (4) Oakland, California (David Snedeker);…
Defines "at-risk youth." Describes characteristics of resilient children and their families, friends and mentors, schools, and communities. Discusses camp program practices that have been shown to promote resiliency: focus on youth development, intentional processes that target the personal domain, organizational elements borrowed from…
Balkin, Richard S.; Cavazos, Javier, Jr.; Hernandez, Arthur E.; Garcia, Roberto; Dominguez, Denise L.; Valarezo, Alexandra
Factor analyses were conducted on scores from the Reynolds Adolescent Adjustment Screening Inventory (RAASI; Reynolds, 2001) representing at-risk Latino youth. The 4-factor model of the RAASI did not exhibit a good fit. However, evidence of generalizability for Latino youth was noted. (Contains 3 tables.)
Explanations for persistent youth unemployment (deficits in the unemployed, structural need for unemployment, location of decision-making power) lead to education of youth at risk as a solution, an old paradigm inadequate for the restructured labor market. New questions must be asked, such as separating income from waged labor and finding other…
Grossman, Arnold H; Park, Jung Yeon; Russell, Stephen T
The interpersonal psychological theory of suicide (IPTS) was used to examine suicidal thoughts and behaviors among 129 transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) youth. Youth were categorized according to their gender identities: female-to-male (FTM), male-to-female (MTF), female-to-different-gender (FTDG), and male-to-different gender (MTDG). Higher percentages of suicidal ideation were reported by FTDG and FTM youth; and higher percentages of suicide attempts by FTDG and MTDG youth. Perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness were significantly related to suicidal ideation and/or suicide attempts. Experiences of painful, provocative and harmful events and acquired capability significantly predicted suicide attempts. The findings support IPTS in explaining suicidal behaviors among TGNC youth. Implications for prevention and intervention efforts are discussed.
Hankin, Benjamin L.; Young, Jami F.; Abela, John R. Z.
OBJECTIVE: The goal was to assess the rate and behavioral methods of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in a community sample of youth and examine effects of age and sex. METHODS: Youth in the third, sixth, and ninth grades (ages 7–16) at schools in the community were invited to participate in a laboratory study. A total of 665 youth (of 1108 contacted; 60% participation rate) were interviewed about NSSI over their lifetime via the Self-Injurious Thoughts and Behaviors Interview. RESULTS: Overall, 53 (8.0%) of the 665 youth reported engaging in NSSI; 9.0% of girls and 6.7% of boys reported NSSI engagement; 7.6% of third-graders, 4.0% of sixth-graders, and 12.7% of ninth-graders reported NSSI engagement. There was a significant grade by gender interaction; girls in the ninth grade (19%) reported significantly greater rates of NSSI than ninth-grade boys (5%). Behavioral methods of NSSI differed by gender. Girls reported cutting and carving skin most often, whereas boys reported hitting themselves most often. Finally, 1.5% of youth met some criteria for the proposed fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) diagnosis of NSSI. CONCLUSIONS: Children and adolescents engage in NSSI. Ninth-grade girls seem most at risk, as they engage in NSSI at 3 times the rate of boys. Behavioral methods of NSSI also vary by grade and gender. As possible inclusion of an NSSI diagnosis in the fifth edition of the DSM-5 draws near, it is essential to better understand NSSI engagement across development and gender. PMID:22689875
Grey, Margaret; Berry, Diane; Davidson, Maryanne; Galasso, Pam; Gustafson, Elaine; Melkus, Gail
Type 2 diabetes is increasing among youth, with minority youth at highest risk. This preliminary study tested the feasibility of a school-based program to prevent type 2 diabetes in youth at risk. Forty-one participants (age 12.6 [+ or -] 1.1 years; 63% female, 51% African American, 44% Hispanic, and 5% Caucasian) were randomly assigned to one of…
Storch, Eric A.; Sulkowski, Michael L.; Nadeau, Josh; Lewin, Adam B.; Arnold, Elysse B.; Mutch, P. Jane; Jones, Anna M.; Murphy, Tanya K.
This study investigated the phenomenology and clinical correlates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in youth with ASD (N=102; range=7–16 years). The presence of suicidal thoughts and behavior was assessed through the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule-Child and Parent Versions. Children and parents completed measures of anxiety severity, functional impairment, and behavioral and emotional problems. Approximately 11% of youth displayed suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Children with autism were more likely to have suicidal thoughts and behaviors whereas children with Asperger’s disorder were less likely. Suicidal thoughts and behaviors were associated with the presence of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Overall, results suggest that suicidal thoughts and behaviors are common in youth with ASD, and may be related to depression and trauma. PMID:23446993
Deardorff, Julianna; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Flores, Elena; Ozer, Emily J.
CONTEXT Understanding Latino youths’ sexual values is key to informing HIV prevention efforts. Few studies have examined associations between culturally based sexual values and behaviors among Latinos. METHODS A sample of 839 sexually active Latinos aged 16–22 residing in San Francisco were interviewed in 2003–2006. Multiple regression and multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between sexual values and behaviors, while adjusting for language use (a proxy for acculturation) and other covariates. RESULTS The importance attached to female virginity was negatively associated with the number of sexual partners women had had in their lifetime (odds ratio, 0.8) and in the past year (0.9), and was positively associated with women’s nonuse of condoms, rather than consistent use, during the first month of their current relationships (1.8). For men, the importance of satisfying sexual needs increased with the numbers of lifetime and recent sexual partners (1.4 and 1.1, respectively), and with inconsistent condom use in the first month of their relationships (1.9). Comfort with sexual communication was positively associated with inconsistent use or nonuse of condoms in the last month of both men’s and women’s current relationships (2.0–2.2). For women, considering satisfaction of sexual needs important was associated with more sexual partners only among those who attached little value to female virginity. CONCLUSIONS It is important to integrate themes of virginity and sexual desire into intervention curricula so youth can better understand how these sexual norms influence their developing sexual identities and behaviors. PMID:20415881
Brody, Carinne; Tuot, Sovannary; Chhea, Chhorvann; Saphonn, Vonthanak; Yi, Siyan
In Cambodia, despite great achievements in reducing the prevalence of HIV in the general population, reducing new HIV infections among young at-risk women remains a challenge. This study was designed to examine the prevalence of risky behaviors of sexually active female youth in Cambodia and to explore risk factors associated with engagement in transactional sex. We surveyed sexually active female youth aged 10-24 enrolled at risk "hotspots" in eight provinces in Cambodia. We collected data on demographic factors, sexual behavior, and factors hypothesized to be associated with transactional sex. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify associations between demographic and sexual behavior and transactional sex. Of the 280 respondents, the mean age was 21.2, and 48.1% had been paid for sex in the past year. After adjustment, at-risk females who were never have been married (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 3.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.65-6.97), have completed less than 6 years of school (AOR 3.26, 95% CI = 1.60-6.66), have 1 or more parents who had died (AOR 4.34, 95% CI = 2.00-9.38), be a heavy alcohol drinker (AOR 3.58, 95% CI = 1.78-7.18), have used a condom with their boyfriend during last sexual encounter (AOR 3.50, 95% CI = 1.68-7.32), and have ever had an HIV test (AOR 3.51, 95% CI = 1.68-7.32) were more likely to engage in sex work. Our findings suggest that prevention strategies for female youth at risk of engagement in sex work should include upstream structural interventions that aim to encourage girls' education and empowerment. In addition, tailored sex education and behavior change messaging about the risks of heavy drinking, condom use with romantic partners, and the importance of frequent HIV testing for at-risk youth and sex workers should be designed and delivered to youth currently engaging in sex work.
Wright, Darlene R; Fitzpatrick, Kevin M
Cross-sectional data were collected on substance use behaviors and potential correlates in 1,494 African American students enrolled in grades 5-12 in eight schools in a central Alabama school district. Using a risk and asset framework, self-reported recent alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use were analyzed by identifying and measuring levels of influence, including individual, family, and school. For alcohol and marijuana use, recurrent risk factors were age, being hit by a parent, affiliation with gangs, and a tolerant attitude of peers toward drug use. For cigarette use, risk factors were peer-oriented: associations with gangs or cohorts holding lenient attitudes about substance use. For all substances, salient asset factors were academic achievement and parental monitoring. Findings suggest that efforts to reduce substance use behaviors should be directed at adolescents in terms of academic achievement and grade level as well as their social environments. For the latter, peer/family risks and family/school assets should be the foci for programs to minimize the short- and long-term consequences of these behaviors. Hence, the emphasis should be placed on modeling attitudes, preventing gang and family violence, encouraging parental supervision, and building positive teacher-student interactions.
Weitzman, E.; Chen, Y.; Subramanian, S
Study objective: To test whether college youth smoking risks are independently associated with community patterns of alcohol availability and control. Design: Hierarchical multilevel multivariable modelling of cross sectional survey data. Outcomes included self reported current (past 30 day) cigarette smoking and heavy episodic (binge) drinking. Setting: 120 nationally representative US colleges. Participants: 10 924 randomly selected students. Main results: Individual risks for smoking and binge drinking are independently associated with community patterns of alcohol availability, policy enforcement and control over and above individual perceptions about these factors, student and college characteristics, and school binge drinking rates. Youth exposed to high levels of alcohol availability are at higher risk of smoking (OR 3.61, 95% CI 1.75, 7.44) and binge drinking (OR 4.22, 95% CI 2.25, 7.93) than youth not so exposed; youth exposed to strongly enforced alcohol policy environments are at lower risk for smoking (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.16, 0.57) and binge drinking (OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.10, 0.31) than youth not so exposed; youth exposed to communities with strong parental controls are at lower risk for smoking (OR 0.05, 95% CI 0.01, 0.23) and binge drinking (OR 0.06, 95% CI 0.01, 0.21) than youth not so exposed. Individual risks related to environmental exposures differ for youth with varying perceptions about alcohol availability and policy control. Conclusions: Drinking environments in US college communities comprise strong independent risks for smoking. Smoking prevention models should be tested that include environmental drinking prevention strategies tailored to underlying perceptions and experiences of college youth. PMID:16286496
As mentoring is receiving increasing attention as a method to improve youth educational outcomes, it is important to continue to examine the effects of mentoring on these youth outcomes. This study uses secondary data from Waves I and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) and transcript data from the Adolescent…
Bauermeister, Jose A; Elkington, Katherine; Brackis-Cott, Elizabeth; Dolezal, Curtis; Mellins, Claude Ann
A large proportion of perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) children are becoming adolescents and exploring their sexuality. This study explored the prevalence of sexual behaviors (kissing, touching, engaging in oral sex, or having vaginal/anal intercourse) in a sample of predominantly ethnic minority youths (N = 339; 54.1% Black and 30.4% Latino; 51% female; ages 9-16) perinatally exposed to HIV (61% HIV+). Using logistic regression, we tested the association between sexual behavior and HIV status, demographic characteristics, and peer influences regarding sexual behavior. PHIV youth were less likely to be sexually active. Among sexually active youth, PHIV youth were more likely to engage in touching behavior than HIV-negative youth and were less likely to engage in penetrative sex. Youths reporting that a greater number of their peers believed that sexually active boys were "cool" or "popular" were more likely to report sexual behavior. The association between sexual behavior and peers believing sexually active girls were "cool" or "popular" varied by age, gender, and HIV status. Furthermore, friends' sexual activity was associated with sexual intercourse. Prevention programs should strengthen messages addressing peer norms regarding sexuality, as well as address specific issues related to adolescent HIV.
Brotman, Melissa A.; Rooney, Melissa H.; Skup, Martha; Pine, Daniel S.; Leibenluft, Ellen
Intrasubject variability in response time (ISV-RT) was higher in youths with bipolar disorder (BD) and those with first-degree relatives with BD compared to youths without BD. ISV-RT may be a risk marker for BD.
McGee, Zina T.
Reviews types of reported problems among African American youth exposed to violence and victimization. A substantial number of African American youth reported being exposed to direct victimization while in transit to and from school. Discusses the impact of violence on mental health status, in that subjects exposed to violence exhibited…
Schuyler, Ashley C.; Edelstein, Zoe R.; Mathur, Sanyukta; Sekasanvu, Joseph; Nalugoda, Fred; Gray, Ronald; Wawer, Maria J.; Serwadda, David M.; Santelli, John S.
Mobility, including migration and travel, influences risk of HIV. This study examined time trends and characteristics among mobile youth (15-24 years) in rural Uganda, and the relationship between mobility and risk factors for HIV. We used data from an annual household census and population-based cohort study in the Rakai district, Uganda. Data on in-migration and out-migration were collected among youth (15-24 years) from 43 communities from 1999-2011 (N=112,117 observations) and travel among youth residents from 2003-2008 (N=18,318 observations). Migration and travel were more common among young women than young men. One in five youth reported out-migration. Over time, out-migration increased among youth and in-migration remained largely stable. Primary reasons for migration included work, living with friends or family, and marriage. Recent travel within Uganda was common and increased slightly over time in teen women (15-19 years old), and young adult men and women (20-24 years old). Mobile youth were more likely to report HIV risk behaviours including: alcohol use, sexual experience, multiple partners, and inconsistent condom use. Our findings suggest that among rural Ugandan youth, mobility is increasingly common and associated with HIV risk factors. Knowledge of patterns and characteristics of a young, high-risk mobile population has important implications for HIV interventions. PMID:26313708
Schuyler, Ashley C; Edelstein, Zoe R; Mathur, Sanyukta; Sekasanvu, Joseph; Nalugoda, Fred; Gray, Ronald; Wawer, Maria J; Serwadda, David M; Santelli, John S
Mobility, including migration and travel, influences risk of HIV. This study examined time trends and characteristics among mobile youth (15-24 years) in rural Uganda, and the relationship between mobility and risk factors for HIV. We used data from an annual household census and population-based cohort study in the Rakai district, Uganda. Data on in-migration and out-migration were collected among youth (15-24 years) from 43 communities from 1999 to 2011 (N = 112,117 observations) and travel among youth residents from 2003 to 2008 (N = 18,318 observations). Migration and travel were more common among young women than young men. One in five youth reported out-migration. Over time, out-migration increased among youth and in-migration remained largely stable. Primary reasons for migration included work, living with friends or family, and marriage. Recent travel within Uganda was common and increased slightly over time in teen women (15-19 years old), and young adult men and women (20-24 years old). Mobile youth were more likely to report HIV-risk behaviours including: alcohol use, sexual experience, multiple partners, and inconsistent condom use. Our findings suggest that among rural Ugandan youth, mobility is increasingly common and associated with HIV-risk factors. Knowledge of patterns and characteristics of a young, high-risk mobile population has important implications for HIV interventions.