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Sample records for z-beamlet laser zbl

  1. Recent laser upgrades at Sandia’s Z-backlighter facility in order to accommodate new requirements for magnetized liner inertial fusion on the Z-machine

    DOE PAGES

    Schwarz, Jens; Rambo, Patrick; Armstrong, Darrell; ...

    2016-10-21

    The Z-backlighter laser facility primarily consists of two high energy, high-power laser systems. Z-Beamlet laser (ZBL) (Rambo et al., Appl. Opt. 44, 2421 (2005)) is a multi-kJ-class, nanosecond laser operating at 1054 nm which is frequency doubled to 527 nm in order to provide x-ray backlighting of high energy density events on the Z-machine. Z-Petawatt (ZPW) (Schwarz et al., J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 112, 032020 (2008)) is a petawatt-class system operating at 1054 nm delivering up to 500 J in 500 fs for backlighting and various short-pulse laser experiments (see also Figure 10 for a facility overview). With the developmentmore » of the magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) concept on the Z-machine, the primary backlighting missions of ZBL and ZPW have been adjusted accordingly. As a result, we have focused our recent efforts on increasing the output energy of ZBL from 2 to 4 kJ at 527 nm by modifying the fiber front end to now include extra bandwidth (for stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression). The MagLIF concept requires a well-defined/behaved beam for interaction with the pressurized fuel. Hence we have made great efforts to implement an adaptive optics system on ZBL and have explored the use of phase plates. We are also exploring concepts to use ZPW as a backlighter for ZBL driven MagLIF experiments. Alternatively, ZPW could be used as an additional fusion fuel pre-heater or as a temporally flexible high energy pre-pulse. All of these concepts require the ability to operate the ZPW in a nanosecond long-pulse mode, in which the beam can co-propagate with ZBL. Finally, some of the proposed modifications are complete and most of them are well on their way.« less

  2. Recent laser upgrades at Sandia’s Z-backlighter facility in order to accommodate new requirements for magnetized liner inertial fusion on the Z-machine

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, Jens; Rambo, Patrick; Armstrong, Darrell

    The Z-backlighter laser facility primarily consists of two high energy, high-power laser systems. Z-Beamlet laser (ZBL) (Rambo et al., Appl. Opt. 44, 2421 (2005)) is a multi-kJ-class, nanosecond laser operating at 1054 nm which is frequency doubled to 527 nm in order to provide x-ray backlighting of high energy density events on the Z-machine. Z-Petawatt (ZPW) (Schwarz et al., J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 112, 032020 (2008)) is a petawatt-class system operating at 1054 nm delivering up to 500 J in 500 fs for backlighting and various short-pulse laser experiments (see also Figure 10 for a facility overview). With the developmentmore » of the magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) concept on the Z-machine, the primary backlighting missions of ZBL and ZPW have been adjusted accordingly. As a result, we have focused our recent efforts on increasing the output energy of ZBL from 2 to 4 kJ at 527 nm by modifying the fiber front end to now include extra bandwidth (for stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression). The MagLIF concept requires a well-defined/behaved beam for interaction with the pressurized fuel. Hence we have made great efforts to implement an adaptive optics system on ZBL and have explored the use of phase plates. We are also exploring concepts to use ZPW as a backlighter for ZBL driven MagLIF experiments. Alternatively, ZPW could be used as an additional fusion fuel pre-heater or as a temporally flexible high energy pre-pulse. All of these concepts require the ability to operate the ZPW in a nanosecond long-pulse mode, in which the beam can co-propagate with ZBL. Finally, some of the proposed modifications are complete and most of them are well on their way.« less

  3. Evolution of Gas Cell Targets for Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion Experiments at the Sandia National Laboratories PECOS Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Paguio, R. R.; Smith, G. E.; Taylor, J. L.

    Z-Beamlet (ZBL) experiments conducted at the PECOS test facility at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) investigated the nonlinear processes in laser plasma interaction (or laserplasma instabilities LPI) that complicate the deposition of laser energy by enhanced absorption, backscatter, filamentation and beam-spray that can occur in large-scale laser-heated gas cell targets. These targets and experiments were designed to provide better insight into the physics of the laser preheat stage of the Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) scheme being tested on the SNL Z-machine. The experiments aim to understand the tradeoffs between laser spot size, laser pulse shape, laser entrance hole (LEH) windowmore » thickness, and fuel density for laser preheat. Gas cell target design evolution and fabrication adaptations to accommodate the evolving experiment and scientific requirements are also described in this paper.« less

  4. Evolution of Gas Cell Targets for Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion Experiments at the Sandia National Laboratories PECOS Test Facility

    DOE PAGES

    Paguio, R. R.; Smith, G. E.; Taylor, J. L.; ...

    2017-12-04

    Z-Beamlet (ZBL) experiments conducted at the PECOS test facility at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) investigated the nonlinear processes in laser plasma interaction (or laserplasma instabilities LPI) that complicate the deposition of laser energy by enhanced absorption, backscatter, filamentation and beam-spray that can occur in large-scale laser-heated gas cell targets. These targets and experiments were designed to provide better insight into the physics of the laser preheat stage of the Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) scheme being tested on the SNL Z-machine. The experiments aim to understand the tradeoffs between laser spot size, laser pulse shape, laser entrance hole (LEH) windowmore » thickness, and fuel density for laser preheat. Gas cell target design evolution and fabrication adaptations to accommodate the evolving experiment and scientific requirements are also described in this paper.« less

  5. Pulsed-power-driven cylindrical liner implosions of laser preheated fuel magnetized with an axial field

    SciTech Connect

    Slutz, S. A.; Herrmann, M. C.; Vesey, R. A.

    2010-05-15

    The radial convergence required to reach fusion conditions is considerably higher for cylindrical than for spherical implosions since the volume is proportional to r{sup 2} versus r{sup 3}, respectively. Fuel magnetization and preheat significantly lowers the required radial convergence enabling cylindrical implosions to become an attractive path toward generating fusion conditions. Numerical simulations are presented indicating that significant fusion yields may be obtained by pulsed-power-driven implosions of cylindrical metal liners onto magnetized (>10 T) and preheated (100-500 eV) deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel. Yields exceeding 100 kJ could be possible on Z at 25 MA, while yields exceeding 50 MJ could bemore » possible with a more advanced pulsed power machine delivering 60 MA. These implosions occur on a much shorter time scale than previously proposed implosions, about 100 ns as compared to about 10 mus for magnetic target fusion (MTF) [I. R. Lindemuth and R. C. Kirkpatrick, Nucl. Fusion 23, 263 (1983)]. Consequently the optimal initial fuel density (1-5 mg/cc) is considerably higher than for MTF (approx1 mug/cc). Thus the final fuel density is high enough to axially trap most of the alpha-particles for cylinders of approximately 1 cm in length with a purely axial magnetic field, i.e., no closed field configuration is required for ignition. According to the simulations, an initial axial magnetic field is partially frozen into the highly conducting preheated fuel and is compressed to more than 100 MG. This final field is strong enough to inhibit both electron thermal conduction and the escape of alpha-particles in the radial direction. Analytical and numerical calculations indicate that the DT can be heated to 200-500 eV with 5-10 kJ of green laser light, which could be provided by the Z-Beamlet laser. The magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instability poses the greatest threat to this approach to fusion. Two-dimensional Lasnex simulations indicate that the liner

  6. Lasers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schewe, Phillip F.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the nature of laser light. Topics include: (1) production and characteristics of laser light; (2) nine types of lasers; (3) five laser techniques including holography; (4) laser spectroscopy; and (5) laser fusion and other applications. (SK)

  7. Lasers.

    PubMed

    Passeron, T

    2012-12-01

    Lasers are a very effective approach for treating many hyperpigmented lesions. They are the gold standard treatment for actinic lentigos and dermal hypermelanocytosis, such as Ota nevus. Becker nevus, hyperpigmented mosaicisms, and lentigines can also be successfully treated with lasers, but they could be less effective and relapses can be observed. However, lasers cannot be proposed for all types of hyperpigmentation. Thus, freckles and café-au-lait macules should not be treated as the relapses are nearly constant. Due to its complex pathophysiology, melasma has a special place in hyperpigmented dermatoses. Q-switched lasers (using standard parameters or low fluency) should not be used because of consistent relapses and the high risk of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Paradoxically, targeting the vascular component of the melasma lesion with lasers could have a beneficial effect. However, these results have yet to be confirmed. In all cases, a precise diagnosis of the type of hyperpigmentation is mandatory before any laser treatment, and the limits and the potential side effects of the treatment must be clearly explained to patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. [Lasers].

    PubMed

    Passeron, T

    2012-11-01

    Lasers are a very effective approach for treating many hyperpigmented lesions. They are the gold standard treatment for actinic lentigos and dermal hypermelanocytosis, such as Ota nevus. Becker nevus, hyperpigmented mosaicisms, and lentigines can also be successfully treated with lasers, but they could be less effective and relapses can be observed. However, lasers cannot be proposed for all types of hyperpigmentation. Thus, freckles and café-au-lait macules should not be treated as the relapses are nearly constant. Due to its complex pathophysiology, melasma has a special place in hyperpigmented dermatoses. Q-switched lasers (using standard parameters or low fluency) should not be used because of consistent relapses and the high risk of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Paradoxically, targeting the vascular component of the melasma lesion with lasers could have a beneficial effect. However, these results have yet to be confirmed. In all cases, a precise diagnosis of the type of hyperpigmentation is mandatory before any laser treatment, and the limits and the potential side effects of the treatment must be clearly explained to patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. 2-20 ns interframe time 2-frame 6.151 keV x-ray imaging on the recently upgraded Z Accelerator: A progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, G. R.; Smith, I. C.; Shores, J. E.; Sinars, D. B.; Robertson, G.; Atherton, B. W.; Jones, M. C.; Porter, J. L.

    2008-10-01

    When used for the production of an x-ray imaging backlighter source on Sandia National Laboratories' recently upgraded 26MA Z Accelerator, the terawatt-class, multikilojoule, 526.57nm Z-Beamlet laser (ZBL) [P. K. Rambo et al., Appl. Opt. 44, 2421 (2005)], in conjunction with the 6.151keV (1s2-1s2p triplet line of He-like Mn) curved-crystal imager [D. B. Sinars et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3672 (2004); G. R. Bennett et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 10E322 (2006)], is capable of providing a high quality x radiograph per Z shot for inertial confinement fusion (ICF), complex hydrodynamics, and other high-energy-density physics experiments. For example, this diagnostic has recently afforded microgram-scale mass perturbation measurements on an imploding ignition-scale 1mg ICF capsule [G. R. Bennett et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 205003 (2007)], where the perturbation was initiated by a surrogate deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel fill tube. Using an angle-time multiplexing technique, ZBL now has the capability to provide two spatially and temporally separated foci in the Z chamber, allowing "two-frame" imaging to be performed, with an interframe time range of 2-20ns. This multiplexing technique allows the full area of the four-pass amplifiers to be used for the two pulses, rather than split the amplifiers effectively into two rectangular sections, with one leg delayed with respect to the other, which would otherwise double the power imposed onto the various optics thereby halving the damage threshold, for the same irradiance on target. The 6.151keV two frame technique has recently been used to image imploding wire arrays, using a 7.3ns interframe time. The diagnostic will soon be converted to operate with p-rather than s-polarized laser light for enhanced laser absorption in the Mn foil, plus other changes (e.g., operation at the possibly brighter 6.181keV Mn 1s2-1s2p singlet line), to increase x-ray yields. Also, a highly sensitive inline multiframe ultrafast (1ns gate time

  10. A 7.2 keV spherical crystal backlighter system for Sandia's Z Pulsed Power Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schollmeier, M.; Knapp, P. F.; Ampleford, D. J.; Loisel, G. P.; Robertson, G.; Shores, J. E.; Smith, I. C.; Speas, C. S.; Porter, J. L.; McBride, R. D.

    2016-10-01

    Many experiments on Sandia's Z facility, a 30 MA, 100 ns rise-time, pulsed-power driver, use a monochromatic Quartz crystal imaging backlighter system at 1.865 keV (Si Heα) or 6.151 keV (Mn Heα) x-ray energy to radiograph an imploding liner (cylindrical tube) or wire array. The x-ray source is generated by the Z-Beamlet Laser (ZBL), which provides up to 4.5 kJ at 527 nm during a 6 ns window. Radiographs of an imploding thick-walled Beryllium liner at a convergence ratio of about 20 [CR =Rin . (0) /Rin . (t) ] were too opaque to identify the inner surface of the liner with high confidence, demonstrating the need for a higher-energy x-ray backlighter between 6 and 10 keV. We present the design, test and first application of a Ge (335) spherical crystal x-ray backlighter system using the 7.242 keV Co Heα resonance line. The system operates at an almost identical Bragg angle as the existing 1.865 and 6.151 keV backlighters, enhancing our capabilities such as two-color, two-frame radiography, without changing detector shielding hardware. SAND No: SAND2016-6724 A. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corp., a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corp., for the U.S. DoE NNSA under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  11. Lasers '81

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, C.B.

    1982-01-01

    Progress in lasers is discussed. The subjects addressed include: excimer lasers, surface spectroscopy, modern laser spectroscopy, free electron lasers, cavities and propagation, lasers in medicine, X-ray and gamma ray lasers, laser spectroscopy of small molecules and clusters, optical bistability, excitons, nonlinear optics in the X-ray and gamma ray regions, collective atomic phenomena, tunable IR lasers, far IR/submillimeter lasers, and laser-assisted collisions. Also treated are: special applications, multiphoton processes in atoms and small molecules, nuclear pumped lasers, material processing and applications, polarization, high energy lasers, laser chemistry, IR molecular lasers, laser applications of collision and dissociation phenomena, solid state laser materials,more » phase conjugation, advances in laser technology for fusion, metal vapor lasers, picosecond phenomena, laser ranging and geodesy, and laser photochemistry of complex molecules.« less

  12. Laser Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauger, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Describes lasers and indicates that learning about laser technology and creating laser technology activities are among the teacher enhancement processes needed to strengthen technology education. (JOW)

  13. Laser principles.

    PubMed

    Bogdan Allemann, Inja; Kaufman, Joely

    2011-01-01

    Since the construction of the first laser in the 1960s, the role that lasers play in various medical specialities, including dermatology, has steadily increased. However, within the last 2 decades, the technological advances and the use of lasers in the field of dermatology have virtually exploded. Many treatments have only become possible with the use of lasers. Especially in aesthetic medicine, lasers are an essential tool in the treatment armamentarium. Due to better research and understanding of the physics of light and skin, there is now a wide and increasing array of different lasers and devices to choose from. The proper laser selection for each indication and treatment requires a profound understanding of laser physics and the basic laser principles. Understanding these principles will allow the laser operator to obtain better results and help avoid complications. This chapter will give an in-depth overview of the physical principles relevant in cutaneous laser surgery. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Laser ignition

    DOEpatents

    Early, James W.; Lester, Charles S.

    2002-01-01

    In the apparatus of the invention, a first excitation laser or other excitation light source is used in tandem with an ignitor laser to provide a compact, durable, engine deployable fuel ignition laser system. The beam from the excitation light source is split with a portion of it going to the ignitor laser and a second portion of it being recombined with the first portion after a delay before injection into the ignitor laser. Reliable fuel ignition is provided over a wide range of fuel conditions by using a single remote excitation light source for one or more small lasers located proximate to one or more fuel combustion zones.

  15. Gas Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, S. K.

    The field of gas lasers, started with the invention of He-Ne laser in 1961, has witnessed tremendous growth in terms of technology development, research into gaseous gain medium, resonator physics and application in widely diverse arenas. This was possible due to high versatility of gas lasers in terms of operating wavelengths, power, beam quality and mode of operation. In recent years, there is a definite trend to replace the gas lasers, wherever possible, by more efficient and compact solid-state lasers. However, for many industrial, medical and military applications, the gas lasers still rule the roost due to their high-power capabilities with good beam quality at specific wavelengths. This chapter presents a short review covering the operating principle, important technical details and application potential of all the important gas lasers such as He-Ne, CO2, argon ion, copper vapour, excimer and chemical lasers. These neutral atoms, ions and molecule gas lasers are discussed as per applicable electrical, chemical and optical excitation schemes. The optically pumped gas lasers, recently experiencing resurgence, are discussed in the context of far infrared THz molecular lasers, diode-pumped alkali lasers and optically pumped gas-filled hollow-core fibre lasers.

  16. Laser microphone

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    2000-11-14

    A microphone for detecting sound pressure waves includes a laser resonator having a laser gain material aligned coaxially between a pair of first and second mirrors for producing a laser beam. A reference cell is disposed between the laser material and one of the mirrors for transmitting a reference portion of the laser beam between the mirrors. A sensing cell is disposed between the laser material and one of the mirrors, and is laterally displaced from the reference cell for transmitting a signal portion of the laser beam, with the sensing cell being open for receiving the sound waves. A photodetector is disposed in optical communication with the first mirror for receiving the laser beam, and produces an acoustic signal therefrom for the sound waves.

  17. Laser ignition

    DOEpatents

    Early, James W.; Lester, Charles S.

    2004-01-13

    Sequenced pulses of light from an excitation laser with at least two resonator cavities with separate output couplers are directed through a light modulator and a first polarzing analyzer. A portion of the light not rejected by the first polarizing analyzer is transported through a first optical fiber into a first ignitor laser rod in an ignitor laser. Another portion of the light is rejected by the first polarizing analyzer and directed through a halfwave plate into a second polarization analyzer. A first portion of the output of the second polarization analyzer passes through the second polarization analyzer to a second, oscillator, laser rod in the ignitor laser. A second portion of the output of the second polarization analyzer is redirected by the second polarization analyzer to a second optical fiber which delays the beam before the beam is combined with output of the first ignitor laser rod. Output of the second laser rod in the ignitor laser is directed into the first ignitor laser rod which was energized by light passing through the first polarizing analyzer. Combined output of the first ignitor laser rod and output of the second optical fiber is focused into a combustible fuel where the first short duration, high peak power pulse from the ignitor laser ignites the fuel and the second long duration, low peak power pulse directly from the excitation laser sustains the combustion.

  18. Microchip Lasers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-31

    microchip laser : (top) schematic and (bottom) photograph of working device mounted on 12.7-mm- dia. post. switch 17 (355-nm UV ), 1.5 µJ of fourth......USA E-mail: zayhowski@ll.mit.edu Abstract Microchip lasers are a rich family of solid-state lasers defined by their small size, robust integration

  19. CW laser pumped emerald laser

    SciTech Connect

    Shand, M.L.; Lai, S.T.

    1984-02-01

    A CW laser-pumped emerald laser is reported. A 34 percent output power slope efficiency is observed with longitudinal pumping by a krypton laser in a nearly concentric cavity. The laser has been tuned from 728.8 to 809.0 nm. Losses in emerald are larger than those of alexandrite determined in a similar cavity. The present data also indicate that the excited state absorption minimum is shifted from that of alexandrite. 13 references.

  20. Laser device

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Jill R [Idaho Falls, ID; Tremblay, Paul L [Idaho Falls, ID

    2007-07-10

    A laser device includes a target position, an optical component separated a distance J from the target position, and a laser energy source separated a distance H from the optical component, distance H being greater than distance J. A laser source manipulation mechanism exhibits a mechanical resolution of positioning the laser source. The mechanical resolution is less than a spatial resolution of laser energy at the target position as directed through the optical component. A vertical and a lateral index that intersect at an origin can be defined for the optical component. The manipulation mechanism can auto align laser aim through the origin during laser source motion. The laser source manipulation mechanism can include a mechanical index. The mechanical index can include a pivot point for laser source lateral motion and a reference point for laser source vertical motion. The target position can be located within an adverse environment including at least one of a high magnetic field, a vacuum system, a high pressure system, and a hazardous zone. The laser source and an electro-mechanical part of the manipulation mechanism can be located outside the adverse environment. The manipulation mechanism can include a Peaucellier linkage.

  1. Laser device

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Jill R.; Tremblay, Paul L.

    2004-11-23

    A laser device includes a target position, an optical component separated a distance J from the target position, and a laser energy source separated a distance H from the optical component, distance H being greater than distance J. A laser source manipulation mechanism exhibits a mechanical resolution of positioning the laser source. The mechanical resolution is less than a spatial resolution of laser energy at the target position as directed through the optical component. A vertical and a lateral index that intersect at an origin can be defined for the optical component. The manipulation mechanism can auto align laser aim through the origin during laser source motion. The laser source manipulation mechanism can include a mechanical index. The mechanical index can include a pivot point for laser source lateral motion and a reference point for laser source vertical motion. The target position can be located within an adverse environment including at least one of a high magnetic field, a vacuum system, a high pressure system, and a hazardous zone. The laser source and an electro-mechanical part of the manipulation mechanism can be located outside the adverse environment. The manipulation mechanism can include a Peaucellier linkage.

  2. Laser ignition

    DOEpatents

    Early, James W.; Lester, Charles S.

    2003-01-01

    In the apparatus of the invention, a first excitation laser or other excitation light source is used in tandem with an ignitor laser to provide a compact, durable, engine deployable fuel ignition laser system. Reliable fuel ignition is provided over a wide range of fuel conditions by using a single remote excitation light source for one or more small lasers located proximate to one or more fuel combustion zones. In a third embodiment, alternating short and long pulses of light from the excitation light source are directed into the ignitor laser. Each of the embodiments of the invention can be multiplexed so as to provide laser light energy sequentially to more than one ignitor laser.

  3. Laser photocoagulation - eye

    MedlinePlus

    Laser coagulation; Laser eye surgery; Photocoagulation; Laser photocoagulation - diabetic eye disease; Laser photocoagulation - diabetic retinopathy; Focal photocoagulation; Scatter (or pan retinal) photocoagulation; Proliferative ...

  4. Astrophysical blast wave data

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Nathan; Geissel, Matthias; Lewis, Sean M

    2015-03-01

    The data described in this document consist of image files of shadowgraphs of astrophysically relevant laser driven blast waves. Supporting files include Mathematica notebooks containing design calculations, tabulated experimental data and notes, and relevant publications from the open research literature. The data was obtained on the Z-Beamlet laser from July to September 2014. Selected images and calculations will be published as part of a PhD dissertation and in associated publications in the open research literature, with Sandia credited as appropriate. The authors are not aware of any restrictions that could affect the release of the data.

  5. Laser ignition

    DOEpatents

    Early, James W.; Lester, Charles S.

    2002-01-01

    In the apparatus of the invention, a first excitation laser or other excitation light source is used in tandem with an ignitor laser to provide a compact, durable, engine deployable fuel ignition laser system. Reliable fuel ignition is provided over a wide range of fuel conditions by using a single remote excitation light source for one or more small lasers located proximate to one or more fuel combustion zones. In the embodiment of the invention claimed herein, the beam from the excitation light source is split with a portion of it going to the ignitor laser and a second portion of it being combined with either the first portion after a delay before injection into the ignitor laser.

  6. Laser pyrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, Alexander

    1988-01-01

    A method of determining the emissivity of a hot target from a laser-based reflectance measurement which is conducted simultaneously with a measurement of the target radiance is described. Once the correct radiance and emissivity are determined, one calculates the true target temperature from these parameters via the Planck equations. The design and performance of a laser pyrometer is described. The accuracy of laser pyrometry and the effect of ambient radiance are addressed.

  7. Laser apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Owen; Stogran, Edmund M.

    1980-01-01

    Laser apparatus is described wherein an active laser element, such as the disc of a face-pumped laser, is mounted in a housing such that the weight of the element is supported by glass spheres which fill a chamber defined in the housing between the walls of the housing and the edges of the laser element. The uniform support provided by the spheres enable the chamber and the pump side of the laser element to be sealed without affecting the alignment or other optical properties of the laser element. Cooling fluid may be circulated through the sealed region by way of the interstices between the spheres. The spheres, and if desired also the cooling fluid may contain material which absorbs radiation at the wavelength of parasitic emissions from the laser element. These parasitic emissions enter the spheres through the interface along the edge surface of the laser element and it is desirable that the index of refraction of the spheres and cooling fluid be near the index of refraction of the laser element. Thus support, cooling, and parasitic suppression functions are all accomplished through the use of the arrangement.

  8. Laser Journal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-12-01

    The major results of an experimental study of a slab Nd:YAG laser are reported in the article; the laser was successfully developed by the authors. The major findings include the following: (1) a method for cooling the blended flowing air and water, as well the related experimental parameters; (2) by using a crossed lens cavity, the authors further improved the anomalous capability within the compensation cavity of the slab laser, as well as higher insensitivity of the system to maladjustment; and (3) a processing technique and major points of slab YAG laser medium.

  9. Laser ignition

    DOEpatents

    Early, James W.; Lester, Charles S.

    2002-01-01

    In the apparatus of the invention, a first excitation laser or other excitation light source capable of producing alternating beams of light having different wavelengths is used in tandem with one or more ignitor lasers to provide a compact, durable, engine deployable fuel ignition laser system. Reliable fuel ignition is provided over a wide range of fuel conditions by using the single remote excitation light source for pumping one or more small lasers located proximate to one or more fuel combustion zones with alternating wavelengths of light.

  10. Heterodyne laser spectroscopy system

    DOEpatents

    Wyeth, Richard W.; Paisner, Jeffrey A.; Story, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    A heterodyne laser spectroscopy system utilizes laser heterodyne techniques for purposes of laser isotope separation spectroscopy, vapor diagnostics, processing of precise laser frequency offsets from a reference frequency and the like, and provides spectral analysis of a laser beam.

  11. Heterodyne laser spectroscopy system

    DOEpatents

    Wyeth, Richard W.; Paisner, Jeffrey A.; Story, Thomas

    1990-01-01

    A heterodyne laser spectroscopy system utilizes laser heterodyne techniques for purposes of laser isotope separation spectroscopy, vapor diagnostics, processing of precise laser frequency offsets from a reference frequency, and provides spectral analysis of a laser beam.

  12. Lasers in Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Treatment On This Page What is laser light? What is laser therapy, and how is it ... future hold for laser therapy? What is laser light? The term “ laser ” stands for light amplification by ...

  13. Laser therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Remove tumors Lasers are also often used during skin surgery . ... 4. James WD, Berger TG, Elston DM. Cutaneous laser surgery. In: James WD, Berger TG, Elston DM, eds. Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology. 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016: ...

  14. Laser Crystal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Lightning Optical Corporation, under an SBIR (Small Business Innovative Research) agreement with Langley Research Center, manufactures oxide and fluoride laser gain crystals, as well as various nonlinear materials. The ultimate result of this research program is the commercial availability in the marketplace of a reliable source of high-quality, damage resistant laser material, primarily for diode-pumping applications.

  15. Laser device

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Jill R.; Tremblay, Paul L.

    2008-08-19

    A laser device includes a virtual source configured to aim laser energy that originates from a true source. The virtual source has a vertical rotational axis during vertical motion of the virtual source and the vertical axis passes through an exit point from which the laser energy emanates independent of virtual source position. The emanating laser energy is collinear with an orientation line. The laser device includes a virtual source manipulation mechanism that positions the virtual source. The manipulation mechanism has a center of lateral pivot approximately coincident with a lateral index and a center of vertical pivot approximately coincident with a vertical index. The vertical index and lateral index intersect at an index origin. The virtual source and manipulation mechanism auto align the orientation line through the index origin during virtual source motion.

  16. High throughput laser processing

    SciTech Connect

    Harley, Gabriel; Pass, Thomas; Cousins, Peter John

    A solar cell is formed using a solar cell ablation system. The ablation system includes a single laser source and several laser scanners. The laser scanners include a master laser scanner, with the rest of the laser scanners being slaved to the master laser scanner. A laser beam from the laser source is split into several laser beams, with the laser beams being scanned onto corresponding wafers using the laser scanners in accordance with one or more patterns. The laser beams may be scanned on the wafers using the same or different power levels of the laser source.

  17. Laser goniometer

    DOEpatents

    Fairer, George M.; Boernge, James M.; Harris, David W.; Campbell, DeWayne A.; Tuttle, Gene E.; McKeown, Mark H.; Beason, Steven C.

    1993-01-01

    The laser goniometer is an apparatus which permits an operator to sight along a geologic feature and orient a collimated lamer beam to match the attitude of the feature directly. The horizontal orientation (strike) and the angle from horizontal (dip), are detected by rotary incremental encoders attached to the laser goniometer which provide a digital readout of the azimuth and tilt of the collimated laser beam. A microprocessor then translates the square wave signal encoder outputs into an ASCII signal for use by data recording equipment.

  18. Explosive laser

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, C.P.; Jensen, R.J.; Davis, W.C.; Sullivan, J.A.

    1975-09-01

    This patent relates to a laser system wherein reaction products from the detonation of a condensed explosive expand to form a gaseous medium with low translational temperature but high vibration population. Thermal pumping of the upper laser level and de-excitation of the lower laser level occur during the expansion, resulting in a population inversion. The expansion may be free or through a nozzle as in a gas-dynamic configuration. In one preferred embodiment, the explosive is such that its reaction products are CO$sub 2$ and other species that are beneficial or at least benign to CO$sub 2$ lasing. (auth)

  19. Fiber Optic Laser Accelerometer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-06

    embodiment of a fiber laser accelerometer 10. The fiber laser accelerometer 10 includes a fiber laser 12. Fiber laser 12 can be either a Fabry - Perot type...cavity fiber laser or a distributed feedback fiber laser. In a 4 Attorney Docket No. 97966 Fabry - Perot type fiber laser, the laser cavity is a length...type of signal. A receiver 26 receives the phase shifted signal. Receiver 26 is capable of demodulating and detecting the signal from the fiber laser by

  20. Shooting Lasers

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-02

    This picture shows a lab demonstration of the measurement chamber inside the Tunable Laser Spectrometer, an instrument that is part of the Sample Analysis at Mars investigation on NASA Curiosity rover.

  1. Laser endoscopy.

    PubMed

    McElvein, R B

    1981-11-01

    A carbon dioxide laser operating in the invisible infrared range (10.6 mu) generates a beam of energy that is almost completely absorbed by biological tissue with release of intense heat and rapid destruction. A laser attached to a rigid bronchoscope has been used in 18 patients ranging in age from 21 to 62 years to treat a variety of causes of airway obstruction. These include tracheal stenosis and granulation tissue (6 patients), adenoma (1), web (2), and carcinoma (9). The results were good in 15 and poor in 3 patients. However, all patients had an improved airway after laser treatment with the best results occurring in patients with benign, inflammatory disease. The advantages of the laser are a lack of bleeding, minimal edema after treatment, and minimal scar formation. The disadvantages are the expense of the machine, and the need for general anesthesia and direct visualization of the lesion.

  2. Laser Dentistry

    MedlinePlus

    ... geta poker friv Home InfoBites Find an AGD Dentist Your Family's Oral Health About the AGD Dental ... of using dental lasers? There are several advantages. Dentists may not need to use a drill or ...

  3. Laser bronchoscopy.

    PubMed

    Duhamel, D R; Harrell, J H

    2001-11-01

    Because the lung cancer epidemic shows no signs of abating, little doubt exists that the need for interventional bronchoscopists will persist for many years to come. The Nd:YAG laser and the rigid bronchoscope remain crucial weapons in the fight against lung cancer. With more than 4000 published interventions pertaining to it, this combination is ideal for treating central airways obstruction. The safety and efficacy of laser bronchoscopy has been well established, and the reported incidence of complications is impressively low. If complications were to arise, a skilled bronchoscopist can manage them easily by using the beneficial attributes of the rigid bronchoscope. Many complications can be avoided by implementing the established safety procedures and techniques. A solid understanding of laser physics and tissue interactions is a necessity to anyone performing laser surgery. The team approach, relying on communication among the bronchoscopist, anesthesiologist, laser technician, and nurses, leads to a safer and more successful procedure. It is important to remember, however, that this is typically a palliative procedure, and therefore the focus should be on alleviating symptoms and improving quality of life. Unfortunately, because not every patient is a candidate for laser bronchoscopy, there are specific characteristics of endobronchial lesions that make them more or less amenable to resection. Each year a promising new technology is being developed, such as argon plasma coagulation, cryotherapy, and endobronchial electrosurgery. Although it is unclear what role these technologies will have, prospective controlled studies must be done to help clarify this question. The future may lay in combining these various technologies along with Nd:YAG laser bronchoscopy to maximize the therapeutic, palliative, and possibly even curative effect. As the experience of the medical community with Nd:YAG laser bronchoscopy continues to grow and as more health-care professionals

  4. Laser Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Amoco Laser Company, a subsidiary of Amoco Corporation, has developed microlasers for the commercial market based on a JPL concept for optical communications over interplanetary distances. Lasers emit narrow, intense beams of light or other radiation. The beams transmit communication signals, drill, cut or melt materials or remove diseased body tissue. The microlasers cover a broad portion of the spectrum, and performance is improved significantly. Current applications include medical instrumentation, color separation equipment, telecommunications, etc.

  5. Laser Accelerator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    hollow metal sphere. Voltages of over 10 MV can be reached if used with an insulating gas. Corona discharge limits all electrostatic accelerators to...laser field. Lasers can have strong electric fields with frequencies high enough to avoid corona formation and break- down. The key is to couple the...leading to a spark discharge in the accelerator and thus a breakdown of the electrostatic field [6], [7]. Figure 1.1: Cockroft-Walton cascade generator

  6. Laser Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, New York is a broad-based firm which produces photographic apparatus and supplies, fibers, chemicals and vitamin concentrates. Much of the company's research and development effort is devoted to photographic science and imaging technology, including laser technology. Eastman Kodak is using a COSMIC computer program called LACOMA in the analysis of laser optical systems and camera design studies. The company reports that use of the program has provided development time savings and reduced computer service fees.

  7. Laser Angioplasty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The principal method of dealing with coronary artery blockage is bypass surgery. A non-surgical alternative available to some patients is balloon angioplasty. For several years, medical researchers have been exploring another alternative that would help a wider circle of patients than the balloon treatment and entail less risk than bypass surgery. A research group is on the verge of an exciting development: laser angioplasty with a 'cool' type of laser, called an excimer laser, that does not damage blood vessel walls and offers non-surgical cleansing of clogged arteries with extraordinary precision. The system is the Dymer 200+ Excimer Laser Angioplasty System, developed by Advanced Intraventional Systems. Used in human clinical tests since 1987, the system is the first fully integrated 'cool' laser capable of generating the requisite laser energy and delivering the energy to target arteries. Thirteen research hospitals in the U.S. have purchased Dymer 200+ systems and used them in clinical trials in 121 peripheral and 555 coronary artery cases. The success rate in opening blocked coronary arteries is 85 percent, with fewer complications than in balloon angioplasty. Food and Drug Administration approval for the system is hoped for in the latter part of 1990. * Advanced Intraventional Systems became Spectranetics in 1994 and discontinued the product.

  8. Laser optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Weijian; Adair Gerke, Stephen; Wei Ng, Kar; Rao, Yi; Chase, Christopher; Chang-Hasnain, Connie J.

    2015-09-01

    Cavity optomechanics explores the interaction between optical field and mechanical motion. So far, this interaction has relied on the detuning between a passive optical resonator and an external pump laser. Here, we report a new scheme with mutual coupling between a mechanical oscillator supporting the mirror of a laser and the optical field generated by the laser itself. The optically active cavity greatly enhances the light-matter energy transfer. In this work, we use an electrically-pumped vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with an ultra-light-weight (130 pg) high-contrast-grating (HCG) mirror, whose reflectivity spectrum is designed to facilitate strong optomechanical coupling, to demonstrate optomechanically-induced regenerative oscillation of the laser optomechanical cavity. We observe >550 nm self-oscillation amplitude of the micromechanical oscillator, two to three orders of magnitude larger than typical, and correspondingly a 23 nm laser wavelength sweep. In addition to its immediate applications as a high-speed wavelength-swept source, this scheme also offers a new approach for integrated on-chip sensors.

  9. Laser beam monitoring system

    DOEpatents

    Weil, Bradley S.; Wetherington, Jr., Grady R.

    1985-01-01

    Laser beam monitoring systems include laser-transparent plates set at an angle to the laser beam passing therethrough and light sensor for detecting light reflected from an object on which the laser beam impinges.

  10. Laser beam monitoring system

    DOEpatents

    Weil, B.S.; Wetherington, G.R. Jr.

    Laser beam monitoring systems include laser-transparent plates set at an angle to the laser beam passing therethrough and light sensor for detecting light reflected from an object on which the laser beam impinges.

  11. Laser acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajima, T.; Nakajima, K.; Mourou, G.

    2017-02-01

    The fundamental idea of Laser Wakefield Acceleration (LWFA) is reviewed. An ultrafast intense laser pulse drives coherent wakefield with a relativistic amplitude robustly supported by the plasma. While the large amplitude of wakefields involves collective resonant oscillations of the eigenmode of the entire plasma electrons, the wake phase velocity ˜ c and ultrafastness of the laser pulse introduce the wake stability and rigidity. A large number of worldwide experiments show a rapid progress of this concept realization toward both the high-energy accelerator prospect and broad applications. The strong interest in this has been spurring and stimulating novel laser technologies, including the Chirped Pulse Amplification, the Thin Film Compression, the Coherent Amplification Network, and the Relativistic Mirror Compression. These in turn have created a conglomerate of novel science and technology with LWFA to form a new genre of high field science with many parameters of merit in this field increasing exponentially lately. This science has triggered a number of worldwide research centers and initiatives. Associated physics of ion acceleration, X-ray generation, and astrophysical processes of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays are reviewed. Applications such as X-ray free electron laser, cancer therapy, and radioisotope production etc. are considered. A new avenue of LWFA using nanomaterials is also emerging.

  12. Co Laser.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-01

    Experimental and Pre- 9 dieted Temporal Behavior of the Laser Output Pulse for a 20% CO and 80% N2 Mixture 3 Comparison of the Normalized Experimental...and Pre- 10 dieted Temporal Behavior of the Laser Output Pulse for a 20% CO and 80% A~ Mixture 4 Predictions of the Temporal Variation of Small...Z o < z CD o o ÜJ 10 -7 .1 D4862 II i i r~rT"T pco (Torr) ♦ 700 O 350 A 200 O 100 + i & i J I \\ I I I 1.0 AVERAUü

  13. Laser Resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, L. L. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An optical resonator cavity configuration has a unitary mirror with oppositely directed convex and concave reflective surfaces disposed into one fold and concertedly reversing both ends of a beam propagating from a laser rod disposed between two total internal reflection prisms. The optical components are rigidly positioned with perpendicularly crossed virtual rooflines by a compact optical bed. The rooflines of the internal reflection prisms, are arranged perpendicularly to the axis of the laser beam and to the optical axes of the optical resonator components.

  14. Laser barometer

    DOEpatents

    Abercrombie, Kevin R.; Shiels, David; Rash, Tim

    2001-02-06

    A pressure measuring instrument that utilizes the change of the refractive index of a gas as a function of pressure and the coherent nature of a laser light to determine the barometric pressure within an environment. As the gas pressure in a closed environment varies, the index of refraction of the gas changes. The amount of change is a function of the gas pressure. By illuminating the gas with a laser light source, causing the wavelength of the light to change, pressure can be quantified by measuring the shift in fringes (alternating light and dark bands produced when coherent light is mixed) in an interferometer.

  15. Excimer lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, A. J.; Hess, L. D.; Stephens, R. R.

    1976-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental investigation into the possibility of achieving CW discharge pumped excimer laser oscillation is reported. Detailed theoretical modeling of capillary discharge pumping of the XeF and KXe and K2 excimer systems was carried out which predicted the required discharge parameters for reaching laser threshold on these systems. Capillary discharge pumping of the XeF excimer system was investigated experimentally. The experiments revealed a lower excimer level population density than predicted theoretically by about an order of magnitude. The experiments also revealed a fluorine consumption problem in the discharge in agreement with theory.

  16. Excimer lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, A. J.; Hess, L. D.; Stephens, R. R.; Pepper, D. M.

    1977-01-01

    The results of a two-year investigation into the possibility of developing continuous wave excimer lasers are reported. The program included the evaluation and selection of candidate molecular systems and discharge pumping techniques. The K Ar/K2 excimer dimer molecules and the xenon fluoride excimer molecule were selected for study; each used a transverse and capillary discharges pumping technique. Experimental and theoretical studies of each of the two discharge techniques applied to each of the two molecular systems are reported. Discharge stability and fluorine consumption were found to be the principle impediments to extending the XeF excimer laser into the continuous wave regime. Potassium vapor handling problems were the principal difficulty in achieving laser action on the K Ar/K2 system. Of the four molecular systems and pumping techniques explored, the capillary discharge pumped K Ar/K2 system appears to be the most likely candidate for demonstrating continuous wave excimer laser action primarily because of its predicted lower pumping threshold and a demonstrated discharge stability advantage.

  17. Laser Balancing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Mechanical Technology, Incorporated developed a fully automatic laser machining process that allows more precise balancing removes metal faster, eliminates excess metal removal and other operator induced inaccuracies, and provides significant reduction in balancing time. Manufacturing costs are reduced as a result.

  18. Laser Technology in Aerodynamic Measurements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    holography; Laser beam probing for aerodynamic flow field analysis; The laser in high speed photography; Laser metrology; Application of duel scatter laser doppler velocimeters for wind tunnel measurements.

  19. Heterodyne laser diagnostic system

    DOEpatents

    Globig, Michael A.; Johnson, Michael A.; Wyeth, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    The heterodyne laser diagnostic system includes, in one embodiment, an average power pulsed laser optical spectrum analyzer for determining the average power of the pulsed laser. In another embodiment, the system includes a pulsed laser instantaneous optical frequency measurement for determining the instantaneous optical frequency of the pulsed laser.

  20. Laser interaction with tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Berns, M.W.

    These proceedings collect papers on laser biomedicine. Topics include: light distributions on tissue; chemical byproducts of laser/tissue interactions; laser applications in ophthalmology; phododynamic therapy; diode pumped solid state lasers at two and three micrometers; and applications of excimer lasers to peripheral nerve repair.

  1. Making a Laser Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Harry

    2004-01-01

    This article describes how to construct a laser level. This laser level can be made using a typical 4' (or shorter) bubble level and a small laser point. The laser unit is detachable, so the bubble level can also be used in the conventional way. However, the laser level works better than a simple bubble level. Making this inexpensive device is an…

  2. Infrared Lasers in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Phillip

    1982-01-01

    Selected infrared laser chemistry topics are discussed including carbon dioxide lasers, infrared quanta and molecules, laser-induced chemistry, structural isomerization (laser purification, sensitized reactions, and dielectric breakdown), and fundamental principles of laser isotope separation, focusing on uranium isotope separation. (JN)

  3. Project LASER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA formally launched Project LASER (Learning About Science, Engineering and Research) in March 1990, a program designed to help teachers improve science and mathematics education and to provide 'hands on' experiences. It featured the first LASER Mobile Teacher Resource Center (MTRC), is designed to reach educators all over the nation. NASA hopes to operate several MTRCs with funds provided by private industry. The mobile unit is a 22-ton tractor-trailer stocked with NASA educational publications and outfitted with six work stations. Each work station, which can accommodate two teachers at a time, has a computer providing access to NASA Spacelink. Each also has video recorders and photocopy/photographic equipment for the teacher's use. MTRC is only one of the five major elements within LASER. The others are: a Space Technology Course, to promote integration of space science studies with traditional courses; the Volunteer Databank, in which NASA employees are encouraged to volunteer as tutors, instructors, etc; Mobile Discovery Laboratories that will carry simple laboratory equipment and computers to provide hands-on activities for students and demonstrations of classroom activities for teachers; and the Public Library Science Program which will present library based science and math programs.

  4. Laser therapy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A laser is used for many medical purposes. Because the laser beam is so small and precise, it enables ... without injuring surrounding tissue. Some uses of the laser are retinal surgery, excision of lesions, and cauterization ...

  5. Lasers in Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, P. D.

    1989-01-01

    Described are the characteristics of the laser and its effects on the body. Discussed are examples of laser treatments, including angioplasty, ophthalmology, and dermatology. A discussion of lasers of clinical interest and their applications is presented. (YP)

  6. Laser-Driven Fusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, A. F.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the present status and future prospects of laser-driven fusion. Current research (which is classified under three main headings: laser-matter interaction processes, compression, and laser development) is also presented. (HM)

  7. New laser protective eyewear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLear, Mark

    1996-04-01

    Laser technology has significantly impacted our everyday life. Lasers are now used to correct your vision, clear your arteries, and are used in the manufacturing of such diverse products as automobiles, cigarettes, and computers. Lasers are no longer a research tool looking for an application. They are now an integral part of manufacturing. In the case of Class IV lasers, this explosion in laser applications has exposed thousands of individuals to potential safety hazards including eye damage. Specific protective eyewear designed to attenuate the energy of the laser beam below the maximum permissible exposure is required for Class 3B and Class IV lasers according to laser safety standards.

  8. [Laser physics].

    PubMed

    Banús Gassol, J M

    2008-11-01

    The commission of this article plunged me into doubt. First I should confess that I don't find excuse to escape this part if somebody wants to minimally deepen in the knowledge of the biological effects of this energy source. Secondly, when we talk about results, we use terms made and defined by Physics. Often we have polemics about results, and what really happens is that we don't reach agreements because we refer to different terms to explain the same observation; in conclusion we cannot understand each other because we do not know the adequate terms; for example, hypoxemia as oxygen deficit, which is true in an anemic patient as well as in a low oxygen saturation rate. In consequence, a good review of these concepts seems necessary to me. The third reason is the confusion that exists in our environment, I think sometimes of interest, about properties and effects of different types of laser. Only a minimal knowledge of physics will help us to state the scientific basis for understanding. The problems, nevertheless, accumulate due to the fact that the universe to which this article is directed is formed by urologists. What Physics education should we suppose they have? Superficial? Medium? Is it a collective with a uniform knowledge, being it whatever it is? The implication is clear. The article depth will depend on the answers to these questions. Nevertheless, the aim of the authors is to give a base enough to know what the laser is and how it acts. For that, the answer I gave to my questions is that the reader should understand the article and have enough base for, at least, reading critically the articles about laser published in urological journals.

  9. High efficiency laser-pumped emerald lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, S.T.

    1987-09-25

    Highly efficient laser operation has been achieved in emerald. In a quasi-cw laser-pumped emerald laser, 64% output slope efficiency has been measured at 768 nm, corresponding to a laser quantum yield of 76%. An output power of 1.6 W was reached at 3.6 W of pump power at 647.1 nm from a krypton laser, and was pump power limited. The emerald laser has a tuning range of 720 to 842 nm. The round trip loss excluding the excited state absorption (ESA) is 0.4%/cm. These results indicate the high laser efficiency and the high optical quality of the emerald attainable inmore » the present laser.« less

  10. Femtosecond laser in laser in situ keratomileusis

    PubMed Central

    Salomão, Marcella Q.; Wilson, Steven E.

    2014-01-01

    Flap creation is a critical step in laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). Efforts to improve the safety and predictability of the lamellar incision have fostered the development of femtosecond lasers. Several advantages of the femtosecond laser over mechanical microkeratomes have been reported in LASIK surgery. In this article, we review common considerations in management and complications of this step in femtosecond laser–LASIK and concentrate primarily on the IntraLase laser because most published studies relate to this instrument. PMID:20494777

  11. Laser Propulsion - Quo Vadis

    SciTech Connect

    Bohn, Willy L.

    First, an introductory overview of the different types of laser propulsion techniques will be given and illustrated by some historical examples. Second, laser devices available for basic experiments will be reviewed ranging from low power lasers sources to inertial confinement laser facilities. Subsequently, a status of work will show the impasse in which the laser propulsion community is currently engaged. Revisiting the basic relations leads to new avenues in ablative and direct laser propulsion for ground based and space based applications. Hereby, special attention will be devoted to the impact of emerging ultra-short pulse lasers on the coupling coefficient andmore » specific impulse. In particular, laser sources and laser propulsion techniques will be tested in microgravity environment. A novel approach to debris removal will be discussed with respect to the Satellite Laser Ranging (SRL) facilities. Finally, some non technical issues will be raised aimed at the future prospects of laser propulsion in the international community.« less

  12. The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System Laser Transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Afzal, R. S.; Dallas, J. L.; Yu, A. W.; Mamakos, W. A.; Lukemire, A.; Schroeder, B.; Malak, A.

    2000-01-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS), scheduled to launch in 2001, is a laser altimeter and lidar for tile Earth Observing System's (EOS) ICESat mission. The laser transmitter requirements, design and qualification test results for this space- based remote sensing instrument are presented.

  13. Studies on lasers and laser devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, S. E.; Siegman, A. E.; Young, J. F.

    1983-01-01

    The goal of this grant was to study lasers, laser devices, and uses of lasers for investigating physical phenomena are studied. The active projects included the development of a tunable, narrowband XUV light source and its application to the spectroscopy of core excited atomic states, and the development of a technique for picosecond time resolution spectroscopy of fast photophysical processes.

  14. Short wavelength laser

    DOEpatents

    Hagelstein, P.L.

    1984-06-25

    A short wavelength laser is provided that is driven by conventional-laser pulses. A multiplicity of panels, mounted on substrates, are supported in two separated and alternately staggered facing and parallel arrays disposed along an approximately linear path. When the panels are illuminated by the conventional-laser pulses, single pass EUV or soft x-ray laser pulses are produced.

  15. Narrow gap laser welding

    DOEpatents

    Milewski, John O.; Sklar, Edward

    1998-01-01

    A laser welding process including: (a) using optical ray tracing to make a model of a laser beam and the geometry of a joint to be welded; (b) adjusting variables in the model to choose variables for use in making a laser weld; and (c) laser welding the joint to be welded using the chosen variables.

  16. Narrow gap laser welding

    DOEpatents

    Milewski, J.O.; Sklar, E.

    1998-06-02

    A laser welding process including: (a) using optical ray tracing to make a model of a laser beam and the geometry of a joint to be welded; (b) adjusting variables in the model to choose variables for use in making a laser weld; and (c) laser welding the joint to be welded using the chosen variables. 34 figs.

  17. Reverse laser drilling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anthony, Thomas R. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    This invention provides a method for laser drilling small diameter, closely-spaced, and accurately located holes in a body of material which is transparent or substantially transparent to the laser radiation employed whereby the holes are drilled through the thickness of the body from the surface opposite to that on which the laser beam impinges to the surface of laser beam impingement.

  18. Longitudinal discharge laser baffles

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Bruce E.; Ault, Earl R.

    1994-01-01

    The IR baffles placed between the window and the electrode of a longitudinal discharge laser improve laser performance by intercepting off-axis IR radiation from the laser and in doing so reduce window heating and subsequent optical distortion of the laser beam.

  19. Laser Wire Stripper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    NASA-developed space shuttle technology is used in a laser wire stripper designed by Raytheon Company. Laser beams cut through insulation on a wire without damaging conductive metal, because laser radiation that melts plastic insulation is reflected by the metal. The laser process is fast, clean, precise and repeatable. It eliminates quality control problems and the expense of rejected wiring.

  20. Laser application in neurosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Belykh, Evgenii; Yagmurlu, Kaan; Martirosyan, Nikolay L.; Lei, Ting; Izadyyazdanabadi, Mohammadhassan; Malik, Kashif M.; Byvaltsev, Vadim A.; Nakaji, Peter; Preul, Mark C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Technological innovations based on light amplification created by stimulated emission of radiation (LASER) have been used extensively in the field of neurosurgery. Methods: We reviewed the medical literature to identify current laser-based technological applications for surgical, diagnostic, and therapeutic uses in neurosurgery. Results: Surgical applications of laser technology reported in the literature include percutaneous laser ablation of brain tissue, the use of surgical lasers in open and endoscopic cranial surgeries, laser-assisted microanastomosis, and photodynamic therapy for brain tumors. Laser systems are also used for intervertebral disk degeneration treatment, therapeutic applications of laser energy for transcranial laser therapy and nerve regeneration, and novel diagnostic laser-based technologies (e.g., laser scanning endomicroscopy and Raman spectroscopy) that are used for interrogation of pathological tissue. Conclusion: Despite controversy over the use of lasers for treatment, the surgical application of lasers for minimally invasive procedures shows promising results and merits further investigation. Laser-based microscopy imaging devices have been developed and miniaturized to be used intraoperatively for rapid pathological diagnosis. The multitude of ways that lasers are used in neurosurgery and in related neuroclinical situations is a testament to the technological advancements and practicality of laser science. PMID:29204309

  1. New laser materials for laser diode pumping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenssen, H. P.

    1990-01-01

    The potential advantages of laser diode pumped solid state lasers are many with high overall efficiency being the most important. In order to realize these advantages, the solid state laser material needs to be optimized for diode laser pumping and for the particular application. In the case of the Nd laser, materials with a longer upper level radiative lifetime are desirable. This is because the laser diode is fundamentally a cw source, and to obtain high energy storage, a long integration time is necessary. Fluoride crystals are investigated as host materials for the Nd laser and also for IR laser transitions in other rare earths, such as the 2 micron Ho laser and the 3 micron Er laser. The approach is to investigate both known crystals, such as BaY2F8, as well as new crystals such as NaYF8. Emphasis is on the growth and spectroscopy of BaY2F8. These two efforts are parallel efforts. The growth effort is aimed at establishing conditions for obtaining large, high quality boules for laser samples. This requires numerous experimental growth runs; however, from these runs, samples suitable for spectroscopy become available.

  2. Laser extensometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocker, P. J.; Marcus, H. L. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A drift compensated and intensity averaged extensometer for measuring the diameter or other properties of a substantially cylindrical sample based upon the shadow of the sample is described. A beam of laser light is shaped to provide a beam with a uniform intensity along an axis normal to the sample. After passing the sample, the portion of the beam not striking said sample is divided by a beam splitter into a reference signal and a measurement signal. Both of these beams are then chopped by a light chopper to fall upon two photodiode detectors. The resulting ac currents are rectified and then divided into one another, with the final output being proportional to the size of the sample shadow.

  3. Surgical lasers in dermatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymanczyk, Jacek; Nowakowski, Wlodzimierz; Golebiowska, Aleksandra; Michalska, I.; Mindak, Marek K.

    1997-10-01

    Almost every laser for medical applications was first tried in dermatology. The efficiency of YAG, CO2, and Argon lasers on this area and their potential advantages over conventional methods were mostly evaluated by cosmetic effect of laser therapy. The indications for different laser treatment in such dermatological cases as: angiomas, telangiectasias, pigmented lesions, nevus flammeus congenitus, deep cavernous angiomas, skin neoplasms and condylomata acuminata are discussed in this paper and the results of the laser therapy are also presented.

  4. Safety with surgical lasers.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, A L

    1984-01-01

    As the sales of surgical lasers continue to grow, the problem of laser safety in hospitals becomes increasingly more urgent. This article considers both the principles and the practice of laser safety, and indicates how safety codes should be organized within a hospital. Eye safety is of paramount importance, and the effects of different wavelengths of laser radiation on the eye are described, both for intrabeam and extended-source exposure. An account is given of the concept of Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE) and how it depends upon wavelength and exposure duration. The standard laser classification is developed in relation to MPE. The use of laser protective eyewear is discussed for the surgeon, other theatre staff and the patient. Finally, the role of the Laser Protection Supervisor and of the Laser Protection Adviser are explained in the context of establishing a local laser safety code.

  5. Nanocrystal waveguide (NOW) laser

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, John T.; Simpson, Marcus L.; Withrow, Stephen P.; White, Clark W.; Jaiswal, Supriya L.

    2005-02-08

    A solid state laser includes an optical waveguide and a laser cavity including at least one subwavelength mirror disposed in or on the optical waveguide. A plurality of photoluminescent nanocrystals are disposed in the laser cavity. The reflective subwavelength mirror can be a pair of subwavelength resonant gratings (SWG), a pair of photonic crystal structures (PC), or a distributed feedback structure. In the case of a pair of mirrors, a PC which is substantially transmissive at an operating wavelength of the laser can be disposed in the laser cavity between the subwavelength mirrors to improve the mode structure, coherence and overall efficiency of the laser. A method for forming a solid state laser includes the steps of providing an optical waveguide, creating a laser cavity in the optical waveguide by disposing at least one subwavelength mirror on or in the waveguide, and positioning a plurality of photoluminescent nanocrystals in the laser cavity.

  6. Ceramic Laser Materials

    PubMed Central

    Sanghera, Jasbinder; Kim, Woohong; Villalobos, Guillermo; Shaw, Brandon; Baker, Colin; Frantz, Jesse; Sadowski, Bryan; Aggarwal, Ishwar

    2012-01-01

    Ceramic laser materials have come a long way since the first demonstration of lasing in 1964. Improvements in powder synthesis and ceramic sintering as well as novel ideas have led to notable achievements. These include the first Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) ceramic laser in 1995, breaking the 1 KW mark in 2002 and then the remarkable demonstration of more than 100 KW output power from a YAG ceramic laser system in 2009. Additional developments have included highly doped microchip lasers, ultrashort pulse lasers, novel materials such as sesquioxides, fluoride ceramic lasers, selenide ceramic lasers in the 2 to 3 μm region, composite ceramic lasers for better thermal management, and single crystal lasers derived from polycrystalline ceramics. This paper highlights some of these notable achievements. PMID:28817044

  7. Infrared laser system

    DOEpatents

    Cantrell, Cyrus D.; Carbone, Robert J.; Cooper, Ralph S.

    1977-01-01

    An infrared laser system and method for isotope separation may comprise a molecular gas laser oscillator to produce a laser beam at a first wavelength, Raman spin flip means for shifting the laser to a second wavelength, a molecular gas laser amplifier to amplify said second wavelength laser beam to high power, and optical means for directing the second wavelength, high power laser beam against a desired isotope for selective excitation thereof in a mixture with other isotopes. The optical means may include a medium which shifts the second wavelength high power laser beam to a third wavelength, high power laser beam at a wavelength coincidental with a corresponding vibrational state of said isotope and which is different from vibrational states of other isotopes in the gas mixture.

  8. Infrared laser system

    DOEpatents

    Cantrell, Cyrus D.; Carbone, Robert J.; Cooper, Ralph

    1982-01-01

    An infrared laser system and method for isotope separation may comprise a molecular gas laser oscillator to produce a laser beam at a first wavelength, Raman spin flip means for shifting the laser to a second wavelength, a molecular gas laser amplifier to amplify said second wavelength laser beam to high power, and optical means for directing the second wavelength, high power laser beam against a desired isotope for selective excitation thereof in a mixture with other isotopes. The optical means may include a medium which shifts the second wavelength high power laser beam to a third wavelength, high power laser beam at a wavelength coincidental with a corresponding vibrational state of said isotope and which is different from vibrational states of other isotopes in the gas mixture.

  9. Laser Surveying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    NASA technology has produced a laser-aided system for surveying land boundaries in difficult terrain. It does the job more accurately than conventional methods, takes only one-third the time normally required, and is considerably less expensive. In surveying to mark property boundaries, the objective is to establish an accurate heading between two "corner" points. This is conventionally accomplished by erecting a "range pole" at one point and sighting it from the other point through an instrument called a theodolite. But how do you take a heading between two points which are not visible to each other, for instance, when tall trees, hills or other obstacles obstruct the line of sight? That was the problem confronting the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Forest Service. The Forest Service manages 187 million acres of land in 44 states and Puerto Rico. Unfortunately, National Forest System lands are not contiguous but intermingled in complex patterns with privately-owned land. In recent years much of the private land has been undergoing development for purposes ranging from timber harvesting to vacation resorts. There is a need for precise boundary definition so that both private owners and the Forest Service can manage their properties with confidence that they are not trespassing on the other's land.

  10. Lasers in periodontics.

    PubMed

    Elavarasu, Sugumari; Naveen, Devisree; Thangavelu, Arthiie

    2012-08-01

    Laser is one of the most captivating technologies in dental practice since Theodore Maiman in 1960 invented the ruby laser. Lasers in dentistry have revolutionized several areas of treatment in the last three and a half decades of the 20(th) century. Introduced as an alternative to mechanical cutting device, laser has now become an instrument of choice in many dental applications. Evidence suggests its use in initial periodontal therapy, surgery, and more recently, its utility in salvaging implant opens up a wide range of applications. More research with better designs are a necessity before lasers can become a part of dental armamentarium. This paper gives an insight to laser in periodontics.

  11. Laser Wakefield Acceleration Experiments Using HERCULES Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuoka, T.; McGuffey, C.; Dollar, F.

    2009-07-25

    Laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) in a supersonic gas-jet using a self-guided laser pulse was studied by changing laser power and plasma electron density. The recently upgraded HERCULES laser facility equipped with wavefront correction enables a peak intensity of 6.1x10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2} at laser power of 80 TW to be delivered to the gas-jet using F/10 focusing optics. We found that electron beam charge was increased significantly with an increase of laser power from 30 TW to 80 TW and showed density threshold behavior at a fixed laser power. We also studied the influence of laser focusing conditions by changingmore » the f-number of the optics to F/15 and found an increase in density threshold for electron production compared to the F/10 configuration. The analysis of different phenomena such as betatron motion of electrons, side scattering of the laser pulse for different focusing conditions, the influence of plasma density down ramp on LWFA are shown.« less

  12. Laser hazards bibliography, 12 edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sliney, David H.; Galoff, Penelope K.; Robinson, Anita; Rush, Jody

    1986-10-01

    The Laser Hazards Bibliography consists of 2,979 references in the open literature broken into subject categories which relate to general biological effects, the eye, the skin, laser safety, laser propagation in the atmosphere, and laser measurements.

  13. Laser hazards bibliography, January 1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sliney, David H.; Robinson, Anita; Sparks, Shawn

    1991-01-01

    The Laser Hazards Bibliography consists of 3414 references in the open literature broken into subject categories which relate to general biological effects, the eye, the skin, laser safety, laser propagation in the atmosphere, and laser measurements.

  14. Laser amplifier and method

    DOEpatents

    Backus, S.; Kapteyn, H.C.; Murnane, M.M.

    1997-07-01

    Laser amplifiers and methods for amplifying a laser beam are disclosed. A representative embodiment of the amplifier comprises first and second curved mirrors, a gain medium, a third mirror, and a mask. The gain medium is situated between the first and second curved mirrors at the focal point of each curved mirror. The first curved mirror directs and focuses a laser beam to pass through the gain medium to the second curved mirror which reflects and recollimates the laser beam. The gain medium amplifies and shapes the laser beam as the laser beam passes therethrough. The third mirror reflects the laser beam, reflected from the second curved mirror, so that the laser beam bypasses the gain medium and return to the first curved mirror, thereby completing a cycle of a ring traversed by the laser beam. The mask defines at least one beam-clipping aperture through which the laser beam passes during a cycle. The gain medium is pumped, preferably using a suitable pumping laser. The laser amplifier can be used to increase the energy of continuous-wave or, especially, pulsed laser beams including pulses of femtosecond duration and relatively high pulse rate. 7 figs.

  15. Laser amplifier and method

    DOEpatents

    Backus, Sterling; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Murnane, Margaret M.

    1997-01-01

    Laser amplifiers and methods for amplifying a laser beam are disclosed. A representative embodiment of the amplifier comprises first and second curved mirrors, a gain medium, a third mirror, and a mask. The gain medium is situated between the first and second curved mirrors at the focal point of each curved mirror. The first curved mirror directs and focuses a laser beam to pass through the gain medium to the second curved mirror which reflects and recollimates the laser beam. The gain medium amplifies and shapes the laser beam as the laser beam passes therethough. The third mirror reflects the laser beam, reflected from the second curved mirror, so that the laser beam bypasses the gain medium and return to the first curved mirror, thereby completing a cycle of a ring traversed by the laser beam. The mask defines at least one beam-clipping aperture through which the laser beam passes during a cycle. The gain medium is pumped, preferably using a suitable pumping laser. The laser amplifier can be used to increase the energy of continuous-wave or, especially, pulsed laser beams including pulses of femtosecond duration and relatively high pulse rate.

  16. Phased laser array for generating a powerful laser beam

    DOEpatents

    Holzrichter, John F.; Ruggiero, Anthony J.

    2004-02-17

    A first injection laser signal and a first part of a reference laser beam are injected into a first laser element. At least one additional injection laser signal and at least one additional part of a reference laser beam are injected into at least one additional laser element. The first part of a reference laser beam and the at least one additional part of a reference laser beam are amplified and phase conjugated producing a first amplified output laser beam emanating from the first laser element and an additional amplified output laser beam emanating from the at least one additional laser element. The first amplified output laser beam and the additional amplified output laser beam are combined into a powerful laser beam.

  17. Laser device and method

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, J. D.

    1985-06-25

    A simplified, relatively inexpensive laser device, wherein the laser elements are fixed in a body exoskeleton of electrical insulating material having a low coefficient of thermal expansion. The preferred embodiment includes a shotgun type laser filter having parallel bores which receive the laser flashlamp and laser rod in fixed relation in a body chamber. The reflector surrounds the laser filter and retains the filter within the body chamber. In the preferred method of this invention, several controlled lasing pulses are generated with each illumination pulse of the flashlamp, substantially increasing the efficiency of the laser device. The number of pulsesmore » is generally controlled by increasing the voltage to the flashlamp. The rapid multiple lasing pulses generate an elongated plasma in a fluid medium, such as the vitreous fluid body of an eye which makes the laser device extemely efficient for treating glaucoma and other medical treatments.« less

  18. Laser particle sorter

    DOEpatents

    Martin, John C.; Buican, Tudor N.

    1989-01-01

    Method and apparatus for sorting particles, such as biological particles. A first laser defines an optical path having an intensity gradient which is effective to propel the particles along the path but which is sufficiently weak that the particles are not trapped in an axial direction. A probe laser beam interrogates the particles to identify predetermined phenotypical characteristics of the particles. A second laser beam intersects the driving first laser beam, wherein the second laser beam is activated by an output signal indicative of a predetermined characteristic. The second laser beam is switchable between a first intensity and a second intensity, where the first intensity is effective to displace selected particles from the driving laser beam and the second intensity is effective to propel selected particles along the deflection laser beam. The selected particles may then be propelled by the deflection beam to a location effective for further analysis.

  19. LASIK - Laser Eye Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... thin flap in the cornea using either a blade or a laser. The surgeon folds back the ... an automated microsurgical device, either a laser or blade. This corneal flap is lifted and folded back. ...

  20. Laser particle sorter

    DOEpatents

    Martin, J.C.; Buican, T.N.

    1987-11-30

    Method and apparatus are provided for sorting particles, such as biological particles. A first laser is used to define an optical path having an intensity gradient which is effective to propel the particles along the path but which is sufficiently weak that the particles are not trapped in an axial direction. A probe laser beam is provided for interrogating the particles to identify predetermined phenotypical characteristics of the particles. A second laser beam is provided to intersect the driving first laser beam, wherein the second laser beam is activated by an output signal indicative of a predetermined characteristic. The second laser beam is switchable between a first intensity and a second intensity, where the first intensity is effective to displace selected particles from the driving laser beam and the second intensity is effective to propel selected particles along the deflection laser beam. The selected particles may then be propelled by the deflection beam to a location effective for further analysis. 2 figs.

  1. Slender tip laser scalpel

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    2004-01-06

    A laser scalpel includes a ribbon optical waveguide extending therethrough and terminating at a slender optical cutting tip. A laser beam is emitted along the height of the cutting tip for cutting tissue therealong.

  2. Direct nuclear pumped laser

    DOEpatents

    Miley, George H.; Wells, William E.; DeYoung, Russell J.

    1978-01-01

    There is provided a direct nuclear pumped gas laser in which the lasing mechanism is collisional radiated recombination of ions. The gas laser active medium is a mixture of the gases, with one example being neon and nitrogen.

  3. Modern retinal laser therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kozak, Igor; Luttrull, Jeffrey K.

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal lasers are a standard source of light to produce retinal tissue photocoagulation to treat retinovascular disease. The Diabetic Retinopathy Study and the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study were large randomized clinical trials that have shown beneficial effect of retinal laser photocoagulation in diabetic retinopathy and have dictated the standard of care for decades. However, current treatment protocols undergo modifications. Types of lasers used in treatment of retinal diseases include argon, diode, dye and multicolor lasers, micropulse lasers and lasers for photodynamic therapy. Delivery systems include contact lens slit-lamp laser delivery, indirect ophthalmocope based laser photocoagulation and camera based navigated retinal photocoagulation with retinal eye-tracking. Selective targeted photocoagulation could be a future alternative to panretinal photocoagulation. PMID:25892934

  4. Laser surgery - skin

    MedlinePlus

    Surgery using a laser ... used is directly related to the type of surgery being performed and the color of the tissue ... Laser surgery can be used to: Close small blood vessels to reduce blood loss Remove warts , moles , sunspots, and ...

  5. Laser Doppler Velocimetry Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, R. B.

    1979-01-01

    The potential of laser Doppler velocimetry as a technique for use in mapping flows in the several fluid systems under development for doing research on low-gravity processes, is investigated. Laser Doppler velocimetry techniques, equipment, and applications are summarized.

  6. Pulsed Submillimeter Laser Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-05-15

    number of interrelated subsystems required for a heterodyning FIR radar were investigated. The work focused on optically pumped FIR lasers which... laser pressure. Figure 9 illustrates the effect on optical shape of raising laser pressure. It can be seen that considerable pulse shortening occurs as...range in which single transverse mode operation of a TE CO2 laser has been achieved. For the purposes of this program the optical cavity was

  7. Laser Generated Magnetic Fields

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-06-01

    30, II dttlormnt from Rmpori) IS. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 19. KEY WORDS (Continue on tororoo aldo II nocoommry and Idontlty by block nuaibar) Crater...dependence of laser generated magnetic fields Laser crater cross-sections X-ray detection from laser plasma 20. ABSTRACT (Contlmio on tovormo aid* II...nacaaaary and Idontlty ay block mmtbor) A sequence of laser pulses focussed onto the same spot on a target produces evaporation of target material and the

  8. Tunable semiconductor lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taghavi-Larigani, Shervin (Inventor); Vanzyl, Jakob J. (Inventor); Yariv, Amnon (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Tunable semiconductor lasers are disclosed requiring minimized coupling regions. Multiple laser embodiments employ ring resonators or ring resonator pairs using only a single coupling region with the gain medium are detailed. Tuning can be performed by changing the phase of the coupling coefficient between the gain medium and a ring resonator of the laser. Another embodiment provides a tunable laser including two Mach-Zehnder interferometers in series and a reflector coupled to a gain medium.

  9. CO2 laser modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Barry

    1992-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: (1) CO2 laser kinetics modeling; (2) gas lifetimes in pulsed CO2 lasers; (3) frequency chirp and laser pulse spectral analysis; (4) LAWS A' Design Study; and (5) discharge circuit components for LAWS. The appendices include LAWS Memos, computer modeling of pulsed CO2 lasers for lidar applications, discharge circuit considerations for pulsed CO2 lidars, and presentation made at the Code RC Review.

  10. Laser cutting system

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, Thomas J

    A workpiece cutting apparatus includes a laser source, a first suction system, and a first finger configured to guide a workpiece as it moves past the laser source. The first finger includes a first end provided adjacent a point where a laser from the laser source cuts the workpiece, and the first end of the first finger includes an aperture in fluid communication with the first suction system.

  11. High Power Laser Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brusl, Helmut

    1986-10-01

    The Austrian legislation about laser safety is discussed. Appropriate control measures for laser use and alternate means of enclosure and baffling are presented. Present laser safety standards are explained briefly. Eye protective techniques and eyewear are considered for a variety of sources. The optical properties of enclosure materials are also discussed.

  12. Introducing the Yellow Laser

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, James

    2018-01-01

    The author has acquired a yellow laser with the specific wavelength of 589 nm. Because this is the first time such a laser has been discussed in this journal, I feel it is appropriate to provide a discussion of its function and capabilities. Normal laser safety should be employed, such as not pointing it into eyes or at people, and using eye…

  13. Laser power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, Edmund J.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of previous studies related to laser power transmission is presented. Particular attention is given to the use of solar pumped lasers for space power applications. Three general laser mechanisms are addressed: photodissociation lasing driven by sunlight, photoexcitation lasing driven directly by sunlight, and photoexcitation lasing driven by thermal radiation.

  14. Lasers for nonlinear microscopy.

    PubMed

    Wise, Frank

    2013-03-01

    Various versions of nonlinear microscopy are revolutionizing the life sciences, almost all of which are made possible because of the development of ultrafast lasers. In this article, the main properties and technical features of short-pulse lasers used in nonlinear microscopy are summarized. Recent research results on fiber lasers that will impact future instruments are also discussed.

  15. Laser bottom hole assembly

    DOEpatents

    Underwood, Lance D; Norton, Ryan J; McKay, Ryan P; Mesnard, David R; Fraze, Jason D; Zediker, Mark S; Faircloth, Brian O

    2014-01-14

    There is provided for laser bottom hole assembly for providing a high power laser beam having greater than 5 kW of power for a laser mechanical drilling process to advance a borehole. This assembly utilizes a reverse Moineau motor type power section and provides a self-regulating system that addresses fluid flows relating to motive force, cooling and removal of cuttings.

  16. Lasers in ophthalmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardin, Christian Y.; Tornow, Ralf P.; Kruse, Friedrich E.

    Lasers are widely used in Ophthalmology. The unique transparent tissues of the eye's cornea, lens and vitreous body make lasers an ideal medium for diagnosis and therapy. They are incorporated in well established commercially available ophthalmic instruments but they also play an important role in new developments and research work. This paper gives a short overview on selected laser applications in our department.

  17. Laser Detection of Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, C. K. N.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the use of laser spectroscopy in determining the presence of specific gaseous constituents. Three of currently used modes for laser detection of pollution are reviewed; (1) long-path measurements; (2) laser raman (differential absorption) measurements; and (3) optoacoustic detection. (HM)

  18. Solar pumped laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. H.; Hohl, F.; Weaver, W. R. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A solar pumped laser is described in which the lasant is a gas that will photodissociate and lase when subjected to sunrays. Sunrays are collected and directed onto the gas lasant to cause it to lase. Applications to laser propulsion and laser power transmission are discussed.

  19. Laser material processing system

    DOEpatents

    Dantus, Marcos

    2015-04-28

    A laser material processing system and method are provided. A further aspect of the present invention employs a laser for micromachining. In another aspect of the present invention, the system uses a hollow waveguide. In another aspect of the present invention, a laser beam pulse is given broad bandwidth for workpiece modification.

  20. Excimer Lasers In Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tittel, Frank K.; Saidi, Iyad S.; Pettit, George H.; Wisoff, P. J.; Sauerbrey, Roland A.

    1989-06-01

    Excimer lasers emit light energy, short optical pulses at ultraviolet wavelengths, that results in a unique laser tissue interaction. This has led to an increasing number of studies into medical applications of these lasers in fields such as ophthalmology, urology, cardiology and neurology.

  1. Laser materials processing facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggerty, J. S.

    1982-01-01

    The laser materials processing facility and its capabilities are described. A CO2 laser with continuous wave, repetitive pulse, and shaped power-time cycles is employed. The laser heated crystal growth station was used to produce metal and metal oxide single crystals and for cutting and shaping experiments using Si3N4 to displace diamond shaping processes.

  2. LaserFest Celebration

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Alan Chodos; Elizabeth A. Rogan

    LaserFest was the yearlong celebration, during 2010, of the 50th anniversary of the demonstration of the first working laser. The goals of LaserFest were: to highlight the impact of the laser in its manifold commercial, industrial and medical applications, and as a tool for ongoing scientific research; to use the laser as one example that illustrates, more generally, the route from scientific innovation to technological application; to use the laser as a vehicle for outreach, to stimulate interest among students and the public in aspects of physical science; to recognize and honor the pioneers who developed the laser and itsmore » many applications; to increase awareness among policymakers of the importance of R&D funding as evidenced by such technology as lasers. One way in which LaserFest sought to meet its goals was to encourage relevant activities at a local level all across the country -- and also abroad -- that would be identified with the larger purposes of the celebration and would carry the LaserFest name. Organizers were encouraged to record and advertise these events through a continually updated web-based calendar. Four projects were explicitly detailed in the proposals: 1) LaserFest on the Road; 2) Videos; 3) Educational material; and 4) Laser Days.« less

  3. ALMDS laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushina, Mark E.; Heberle, Geoff; Hope, Michael; Hall, David; Bethel, Michael; Calmes, Lonnie K.

    2003-06-01

    The ALMDS (Airborne Laser Mine Detection System) has been developed utilizing a solid-state laser operating at 532nm for naval mine detection. The laser system is integrated into a pod that mounts externally on a helicopter. This laser, along with other receiver systems, enables detailed underwater bathymetry. CEO designs and manufactures the laser portion of this system. Arete Associates integrates the laser system into the complete LIDAR package that utilizes sophisticated streak tube detection technology. Northrop Grumman is responsible for final pod integration. The laser sub-system is comprised of two separate parts: the LTU (Laser Transmitter Unit) and the LEU (Laser Electronics Unit). The LTU and LEU are undergoing MIL-STD-810 testing for vibration, shock, temperature storage and operation extremes, as well as MIL-STD-704E electrical power testing and MIL-STD-461E EMI testing. The Nd:YAG MOPA laser operates at 350 Hz pulse repetition frequency at 45 Watts average 532nm power and is controlled at the system level from within the helicopter. Power monitor circuits allow real time laser health monitoring, which enables input parameter adjustments for consistent laser behavior.

  4. Laser Fundamentals and Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Pelt, W. F.; And Others

    As a result of work performed at the Southwestern Radiological Health Laboratory with respect to lasers, this manual was prepared in response to the increasing use of lasers in high schools and colleges. It is directed primarily toward the high school instructor who may use the text for a short course in laser fundamentals. The definition of the…

  5. Polarization feedback laser stabilization

    DOEpatents

    Esherick, Peter; Owyoung, Adelbert

    1988-01-01

    A system for locking two Nd:YAG laser oscillators includes an optical path for feeding the output of one laser into the other with different polarizations. Elliptical polarization is incorporated into the optical path so that the change in polarization that occurs when the frequencies coincide may be detected to provide a feedback signal to control one laser relative to the other.

  6. Compact Hybrid Laser Rod and Laser System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierrottet, Diego F. (Inventor); Busch, George E. (Inventor); Amzajerdian, Farzin (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A hybrid fiber rod includes a fiber core and inner and outer cladding layers. The core is doped with an active element. The inner cladding layer surrounds the core, and has a refractive index substantially equal to that of the core. The outer cladding layer surrounds the inner cladding layer, and has a refractive index less than that of the core and inner cladding layer. The core length is about 30 to 2000 times the core diameter. A hybrid fiber rod laser system includes an oscillator laser, modulating device, the rod, and pump laser diode(s) energizing the rod from opposite ends. The rod acts as a waveguide for pump radiation but allows for free-space propagation of laser radiation. The rod may be used in a laser resonator. The core length is less than about twice the Rayleigh range. Degradation from single-mode to multi-mode beam propagation is thus avoided.

  7. Laser use and safety.

    PubMed

    1992-09-01

    This Guidance Article is an update of an article published in a special issue of Health Devices entitled "Lasers in Medicine--An Introduction" (13[8], June 1984). Although surgical lasers have a good overall safety record, they do expose patients, physicians, and other clinical staff to serious risks. Laser hazards can cause injury, disability, or even death: hospital staff have been burned by misdirected laser beams, technicians and maintenance personnel have received eye injuries while working on lasers and have been exposed to hazardous chemicals while changing laser dyes, and patients have died from injuries resulting from fires ignited by laser energy. Laser accidents most commonly result from misdirection of the laser beam. Direct or reflected radiation can burn skin, hair, or, more seriously, the cornea or retina, causing permanent damage. Misdirected laser energy can also cause ignition of surgical drapes, tracheal tubes, or the patient's hair. Also, a frequent by-product of laser-tissue interactions is laser plume, or smoke. Its acrid smell and particulate matter irritate the eyes, nose, and lungs and cause nausea; it is also a suspected vector for transmitting infectious materials, such as the human papilloma virus (HPV) associated with condyloma (a wartlike lesion) and cervical cancer. The risks are not limited to patients and those directly involved in using and maintaining lasers. Many laser procedures are performed in areas outside the controlled environment of the surgical suite; patients in a waiting area or even passersby could conceivably walk into an accessible laser treatment room, such as a doctor's office, and inadvertently be exposed to a direct or reflected beam.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. X-ray laser

    DOEpatents

    Nilsen, Joseph

    1991-01-01

    An X-ray laser (10) that lases between the K edges of carbon and oxygen, i.e. between 44 and 23 Angstroms, is provided. The laser comprises a silicon (12) and dysprosium (14) foil combination (16) that is driven by two beams (18, 20) of intense line focused (22, 24) optical laser radiation. Ground state nickel-like dysprosium ions (34) are resonantly photo-pumped to their upper X-ray laser state by line emission from hydrogen-like silicon ions (32). The novel X-ray laser should prove especially useful for the microscopy of biological specimens.

  9. Laser assisted deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, S.

    1983-01-01

    Applications of laser-based processing techniques to solar cell metallization are discussed. Laser-assisted thermal or photolytic maskless deposition from organometallic vapors or solutions may provide a viable alternative to photovoltaic metallization systems currently in use. High power, defocused excimer lasers may be used in conjunction with masks as an alternative to direct laser writing to provide higher throughput. Repeated pulsing with excimer lasers may eliminate the need for secondary plating techniques for metal film buildup. A comparison between the thermal and photochemical deposition processes is made.

  10. Lasers and wound healing.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, A J

    1993-10-01

    The advances in laser surgery over the past decade have been remarkable and have significantly altered the management of a host of dermatologic disorders. This article focuses on the CO2 laser as a cutting and vaporization tool and reviews the features that distinguish CO2 laser-induced wounds from those created by a scalpel. Tissue welding, wound management after skin treatment with the visible light lasers based on the principle of selective photothermolysis, as well as the controversial field of low-energy laser therapy (biostimulation) are also addressed.

  11. Laser Diode Ignition (LDI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kass, William J.; Andrews, Larry A.; Boney, Craig M.; Chow, Weng W.; Clements, James W.; Merson, John A.; Salas, F. Jim; Williams, Randy J.; Hinkle, Lane R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews the status of the Laser Diode Ignition (LDI) program at Sandia National Labs. One watt laser diodes have been characterized for use with a single explosive actuator. Extensive measurements of the effect of electrostatic discharge (ESD) pulses on the laser diode optical output have been made. Characterization of optical fiber and connectors over temperature has been done. Multiple laser diodes have been packaged to ignite multiple explosive devices and an eight element laser diode array has been recently tested by igniting eight explosive devices at predetermined 100 ms intervals.

  12. Lasers in otorhinolaryngology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pais Clemente, Manuel P.

    1992-03-01

    Lasers are now commonly accepted and widely used surgical instruments in otorhinolaryngology. There have been a great number of technological advances with lasers that have contributed to the expansion of this new surgical modality with an increased number of medical applications. Surgical strategies have also changed and are more favorable toward conservative surgery in which less tissues is removed than with more radical resections. This combination of improving technology and medical attitudes has changed the field of otorhinolaryngology, and resulted in an expanding use of laser surgery. Since 1973 we have been using the carbon dioxide laser in the treatment of diseases of the upper aero digestive systems, learning this new surgical technique from the pioneer work of Strong, Jako, and Vaughan. It is our conviction that a laser surgeon must have a thorough knowledge of laser biophysics, instrumentation, safety protocols, and surgical indications, and have the technical skills to perform laser surgery. Laser technology continues to improve at an increased speed, and it is imperative to update knowledge of current and potential applications of lasers in our specialty. It is the purpose of this article to present our clinical experience of 18 years with the use of lasers in surgery of ORL, emphasizing the carbon dioxide laser.

  13. [Navigated retinal laser therapy].

    PubMed

    Kernt, M; Ulbig, M; Kampik, A; Neubauer, A S

    2013-08-01

    Navigated laser therapy introduces for the first time computerized assistance systems for retinal laser therapy. The Navilas system offers high precision and safety and provides additional benefits regarding standardization of planning, execution, documentation and quality assurance. The current focus of clinical application for navigated laser therapy besides laser treatment after retinal vein occlusion and panretinal laser photocoagulation in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) is diabetic macular edema. Recent data indicate that combined initial anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) and navigated macular laser therapy allows achievement and maintenance of treatment success with a minimum number of interventions. Despite very promising results the current assessment of navigated laser therapy is still limited by the evidence available worldwide.

  14. ORION laser target diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Bentley, C D; Edwards, R D; Andrew, J E; James, S F; Gardner, M D; Comley, A J; Vaughan, K; Horsfield, C J; Rubery, M S; Rothman, S D; Daykin, S; Masoero, S J; Palmer, J B; Meadowcroft, A L; Williams, B M; Gumbrell, E T; Fyrth, J D; Brown, C R D; Hill, M P; Oades, K; Wright, M J; Hood, B A; Kemshall, P

    2012-10-01

    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

  15. Laser Applications in Orthodontics

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Somayeh; Torkan, Sepideh

    2013-01-01

    A laser is a collimated single wavelength of light which delivers a concentrated source of energy. Soon after different types of lasers were invented, investigators began to examine the effects of different wavelengths of laser energy on oral tissues, routine dental procedures and experimental applications. Orthodontists, along with other specialist in different fields of dentistry, can now benefit from several different advantages that lasers provide during the treatment process, from the beginning of the treatment, when separators are placed, to the time of resin residues removal from the tooth surface at the end of orthodontic treatment. This article outlines some of the most common usages of laser beam in orthodontics and also provides a comparison between laser and other conventional method that were the standard of care prior to the advent of laser in this field. PMID:25606324

  16. Laser safety in dentistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wigdor, Harvey A.

    1997-05-01

    One of the major causes of anxiety in the dental clinic is the dental handpiece. Because dentists wish to provide a method which can replace the drill there has often been a premature use of the laser in dentistry. Various lasers have been introduced into the clinic before research has shown the laser used is of clinical benefit. Any new treatment method must not compromise the health of the patient being treated. Thus a method of evaluating the clinical abilities of dentists and their understanding the limitations of the laser used must be developed. Dentist must be trained in the basic interaction of the laser on oral tissues. The training has to concentrate on the variation of the laser wavelength absorption in the different tissues of the oral cavity. Because of the differences in the optical properties of these tissues great care must be exercised by practitioners using lasers on patients.

  17. [Progress in laser neurosurgery].

    PubMed

    Majchrzak, H; Kopera, M; Idzik, M

    1991-01-01

    Nd:YAG lasers with different wavelengths are used in neurosurgery. Their great advantage is the ability of coagulation of blood vessels and delivery through flexible fiber optics . Nd:YAG laser with wavelength 1.318 microns is used, besides, to connect blood vessels and nerves. CO2 laser is the best cutting tool but requires, for delivery rigid cable. Both types of lasers cause shrinkage and vaporisation of the tumors what facilitates its removing without greater traumatisation of surrounding tissues. The introduction of sapphire contact tips to Nd:YAG and argon lasers enables application of small laser powers and diminish the area of damage in surrounding structures. Contact laser is used for destroying of tumours, coagulation of blood vessels, restoration of patency of the main arteries, interstitial denaturation of gliomas and denaturation of the nucleus pulposus in lumbar vertebral column.

  18. Adiabatic Soliton Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednyakova, Anastasia; Turitsyn, Sergei K.

    2015-03-01

    The key to generating stable optical pulses is mastery of nonlinear light dynamics in laser resonators. Modern techniques to control the buildup of laser pulses are based on nonlinear science and include classical solitons, dissipative solitons, parabolic pulses (similaritons) and various modifications and blending of these methods. Fiber lasers offer remarkable opportunities to apply one-dimensional nonlinear science models for the design and optimization of very practical laser systems. Here, we propose a new concept of a laser based on the adiabatic amplification of a soliton pulse in the cavity—the adiabatic soliton laser. The adiabatic change of the soliton parameters during evolution in the resonator relaxes the restriction on the pulse energy inherent in traditional soliton lasers. Theoretical analysis is confirmed by extensive numerical modeling.

  19. Lasers in orthodontics

    PubMed Central

    Nalcaci, Ruhi; Cokakoglu, Serpil

    2013-01-01

    Many types of dental lasers are currently available that can be efficiently used for soft and hard tissue applications in the field of orthodontics. For achieving the desired effects in the target tissue, knowledge of laser characteristics such as power, wavelength and timing, is necessary. Laser therapy is advantageous because it often avoids bleeding, can be pain free, is non-invasive and is relatively quick. The high cost is its primary disadvantage. It is very important to take the necessary precautions to prevent possible tissue damage when using laser dental systems. Here, we reviewed the main types and characteristics of laser systems used in dental practice and discuss the applications of lasers in orthodontics, harmful effects and laser system safety. PMID:24966719

  20. Space qualified laser sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heine, Frank; Schwander, Thomas; Lange, Robert; Smutny, Berry

    2006-04-01

    Tesat-Spacecom has developed a series of fiber coupled single frequency lasers for space applications ranging from onboard metrology for space borne FTIR spectrometers to step tunable seed lasers for LIDAR applications. The cw-seed laser developed for the ESA AEOLUS Mission shows a 3* 10 -11 Allen variance from 1 sec time intervals up to 1000 sec. Q-switched lasers with stable beam pointing under space environments are another field of development. One important aspect of a space borne laser system is a reliable fiber coupled laser diode pump source around 808nm. A dedicated development concerning chip design and packaging yielded in a 5*10 6h MTTF (mean time to failure) for the broad area emitters. Qualification and performance test results for the different laser assemblies will be presented and their application in the different space programs.

  1. Laser surgery: using the carbon dioxide laser.

    PubMed Central

    Wright, V. C.

    1982-01-01

    In 1917 Einstein theorized tha through an atomic process a unique kind of electromagnetic radiation could be produced by stimulated emission. When such radiation is in the optical or infrared spectrum it is termed laser (light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) light. A laser, a high-intensity light source, emits a nearly parallel electromagnetic beam of energy at a given wavelength that can be captured by a lens and concentrated in the focal spot. The wavelength determines how the laser will be used. The carbon dioxide laser is now successfully employed for some surgical procedures in gynecology, otorhinolaryngology, neurosurgery, and plastic and general surgery. The CO2 laser beam is directed through the viewing system of an operating microscope or through a hand-held laser component. Its basic action in tissue is thermal vaporization; it causes minimal damage to adjacent tissues. Surgeons require special training in the basic methods and techniques of laser surgery, as well as in the safety standards that must be observed. Images FIG. 5 PMID:7074503

  2. Lasers in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaelis, M. M.; Forbes, A.; Bingham, R.; Kellett, B. J.; Mathye, A.

    2008-05-01

    A variety of laser applications in space, past, present, future and far future are reviewed together with the contributions of some of the scientists and engineers involved, especially those that happen to have South African connections. Historically, two of the earliest laser applications in space, were atmospheric LIDAR and lunar ranging. These applications involved atmospheric physicists, several astronauts and many of the staff recruited into the Soviet and North American lunar exploration programmes. There is a strong interest in South Africa in both LIDAR and lunar ranging. Shortly after the birth of the laser (and even just prior) theoretical work on photonic propulsion and space propulsion by laser ablation was initiated by Georgii Marx, Arthur Kantrowitz and Eugen Saenger. Present or near future experimental programs are developing in the following fields: laser ablation propulsion, possibly coupled with rail gun or gas gun propulsion; interplanetary laser transmission; laser altimetry; gravity wave detection by space based Michelson interferometry; the de-orbiting of space debris by high power lasers; atom laser interferometry in space. Far future applications of laser-photonic space-propulsion were also pioneered by Carl Sagan and Robert Forward. They envisaged means of putting Saenger's ideas into practice. Forward also invented a laser based method for manufacturing solid antimatter or SANTIM, well before the ongoing experiments at CERN with anti-hydrogen production and laser-trapping. SANTIM would be an ideal propellant for interstellar missions if it could be manufactured in sufficient quantities. It would be equally useful as a power source for the transmission of information over light year distances. We briefly mention military lasers. Last but not least, we address naturally occurring lasers in space and pose the question: "did the Big Bang lase?"

  3. Investigation of Laser Parameters in Silicon Pulsed Laser Conduction Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shayganmanesh, Mahdi; Khoshnoud, Afsaneh

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, laser welding of silicon in conduction mode is investigated numerically. In this study, the effects of laser beam characteristics on the welding have been studied. In order to model the welding process, heat conduction equation is solved numerically and laser beam energy is considered as a boundary condition. Time depended heat conduction equation is used in our calculations to model pulsed laser welding. Thermo-physical and optical properties of the material are considered to be temperature dependent in our calculations. Effects of spatial and temporal laser beam parameters such as laser beam spot size, laser beam quality, laser beam polarization, laser incident angle, laser pulse energy, laser pulse width, pulse repetition frequency and welding speed on the welding characteristics are assessed. The results show that how the temperature dependent thermo-physical and optical parameters of the material are important in laser welding modeling. Also the results show how the parameters of the laser beam influence the welding characteristics.

  4. Laser system using ultra-short laser pulses

    DOEpatents

    Dantus, Marcos [Okemos, MI; Lozovoy, Vadim V [Okemos, MI; Comstock, Matthew [Milford, MI

    2009-10-27

    A laser system using ultrashort laser pulses is provided. In another aspect of the present invention, the system includes a laser, pulse shaper and detection device. A further aspect of the present invention employs a femtosecond laser and binary pulse shaping (BPS). Still another aspect of the present invention uses a laser beam pulse, a pulse shaper and a SHG crystal.

  5. Frequency comb swept lasers.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tsung-Han; Zhou, Chao; Adler, Desmond C; Fujimoto, James G

    2009-11-09

    We demonstrate a frequency comb (FC) swept laser and a frequency comb Fourier domain mode locked (FC-FDML) laser for applications in optical coherence tomography (OCT). The fiber-based FC swept lasers operate at a sweep rate of 1kHz and 120kHz, respectively over a 135nm tuning range centered at 1310nm with average output powers of 50mW. A 25GHz free spectral range frequency comb filter in the swept lasers causes the lasers to generate a series of well defined frequency steps. The narrow bandwidth (0.015nm) of the frequency comb filter enables a approximately -1.2dB sensitivity roll off over approximately 3mm range, compared to conventional swept source and FDML lasers which have -10dB and -5dB roll offs, respectively. Measurements at very long ranges are possible with minimal sensitivity loss, however reflections from outside the principal measurement range of 0-3mm appear aliased back into the principal range. In addition, the frequency comb output from the lasers are equally spaced in frequency (linear in k-space). The filtered laser output can be used to self-clock the OCT interference signal sampling, enabling direct fast Fourier transformation of the fringe signals, without the need for fringe recalibration procedures. The design and operation principles of FC swept lasers are discussed and designs for short cavity lasers for OCT and interferometric measurement applications are proposed.

  6. Frequency comb swept lasers

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Tsung-Han; Zhou, Chao; Adler, Desmond C.; Fujimoto, James G.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate a frequency comb (FC) swept laser and a frequency comb Fourier domain mode locked (FC-FDML) laser for applications in optical coherence tomography (OCT). The fiber-based FC swept lasers operate at a sweep rate of 1kHz and 120kHz, respectively over a 135nm tuning range centered at 1310nm with average output powers of 50mW. A 25GHz free spectral range frequency comb filter in the swept lasers causes the lasers to generate a series of well defined frequency steps. The narrow bandwidth (0.015nm) of the frequency comb filter enables a ~−1.2dB sensitivity roll off over ~3mm range, compared to conventional swept source and FDML lasers which have −10dB and −5dB roll offs, respectively. Measurements at very long ranges are possible with minimal sensitivity loss, however reflections from outside the principal measurement range of 0–3mm appear aliased back into the principal range. In addition, the frequency comb output from the lasers are equally spaced in frequency (linear in k-space). The filtered laser output can be used to self-clock the OCT interference signal sampling, enabling direct fast Fourier transformation of the fringe signals, without the need for fringe recalibration procedures. The design and operation principles of FC swept lasers are discussed and designs for short cavity lasers for OCT and interferometric measurement applications are proposed. PMID:19997365

  7. Photobiomodulation in laser surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Timon Cheng-Yi; Rong, Dong-Liang; Huang, Jin; Deng, Xiao-Yuan; Liu, Song-Hao

    2006-01-01

    Laser surgery provides good exposure with clear operating fields and satisfactory preliminary functional results. In contrast to conventional excision, it was found that matrix metalloproteinases and the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases -1 mRNA expression is higher, myofibroblasts appeared and disappeared slower in laser excision wounds. It has been suggested that the better anatomical and functional results achieved following laser cordectomy may be explained by the fact that such procedures result in better, more rapid healing processes to recover vocal cord for early glottic tumors and better. In this paper, the role of photobiomodulation in laser surgery will be discussed by the cultured monolayer normal human skin fibroblast model of the photobiomodulation of marginal irradiation of high intensity laser beam, the photobiomodulation related to the irradiated tissue, the biological information model of photobiomodulation and the animal models of laser surgery. Although high intensity laser beam is so intense that it destroys the irradiated cells or tissue, its marginal irradiation intensity is so low that there is photobiomodulation on non-damage cells to modulate the regeneration of partly damaged tissue so that the surgery of laser of different parameters results in different post-surgical recovery. It was concluded that photobiomodulation might play an important role in the long-term effects of laser surgery, which might be used to design laser surgery.

  8. Laser treatment in gynecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Riese, Cornelia

    2004-07-01

    This presentation is designed as a brief overview of laser use in gynecology, for non-medical researchers involved in development of new laser techniques. The literature of the past decade is reviewed. Differences in penetration, absorption, and suitable delivery media for the beams dictate clinical application. The use of CO2 laser in the treatment of uterine cervical intraepithelial lesions is well established and indications as well as techniques have not changed over 30 years. The Cochrane Systematic Review from 2000 suggests no obviously superior technique. CO2 laser ablation of the vagina is also established as a safe treatment modality for VAIN. CO2 laser permits treatment of lesions with excellent cosmetic and functional results. The treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding by destruction of the endometrial lining using various techniques has been the subject of a 2002 Cochran Database Review. Among the compared treatment modalities are newer and modified laser techniques. Conclusion by reviewers is that outcomes and complication profiles of newer techniques compare favorably with the gold standard of endometrial resection. The ELITT diode laser system is one of the new successful additions. CO2 laser is also the dominant laser type used with laparoscopy for ablation of endometriotic implants. Myoma coagulation or myolysis with Nd:Yag laser through the laparoscope or hysteroscope is a conservative treatment option. Even MRI guided percutaneous approaches have been described. No long-term data are available.

  9. Excimer laser calibration system.

    PubMed

    Gottsch, J D; Rencs, E V; Cambier, J L; Hall, D; Azar, D T; Stark, W J

    1996-01-01

    Excimer laser photoablation for refractive and therapeutic keratectomies has been demonstrated to be feasible and practicable. However, corneal laser ablations are not without problems, including the delivery and maintenance of a homogeneous beam. We have developed an excimer laser calibration system capable of characterizing a laser ablation profile. Beam homogeneity is determined by the analysis of a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)-based thin-film using video capture and image processing. The ablation profile is presented as a color-coded map. Interpolation of excimer calibration system analysis provides a three-dimensional representation of elevation profiles that correlates with two-dimensional scanning profilometry. Excimer calibration analysis was performed before treating a monkey undergoing phototherapeutic keratectomy and two human subjects undergoing myopic spherocylindrical photorefractive keratectomy. Excimer calibration analysis was performed before and after laser refurbishing. Laser ablation profiles in PMMA are resolved by the excimer calibration system to .006 microns/pulse. Correlations with ablative patterns in a monkey cornea were demonstrated with preoperative and postoperative keratometry using corneal topography, and two human subjects using video-keratography. Excimer calibration analysis predicted a central-steep-island ablative pattern with the VISX Twenty/Twenty laser, which was confirmed by corneal topography immediately postoperatively and at 1 week after reepithelialization in the monkey. Predicted central steep islands in the two human subjects were confirmed by video-keratography at 1 week and at 1 month. Subsequent technical refurbishing of the laser resulted in a beam with an overall increased ablation rate measured as microns/pulse with a donut ablation profile. A patient treated after repair of the laser electrodes demonstrated no central island. This excimer laser calibration system can precisely detect laser-beam ablation

  10. Lasers in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Qian; Juzeniene, Asta; Chen, Jiyao; Svaasand, Lars O.; Warloe, Trond; Giercksky, Karl-Erik; Moan, Johan

    2008-05-01

    It is hard to imagine that a narrow, one-way, coherent, moving, amplified beam of light fired by excited atoms is powerful enough to slice through steel. In 1917, Albert Einstein speculated that under certain conditions atoms could absorb light and be stimulated to shed their borrowed energy. Charles Townes coined the term laser (light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) in 1951. Theodore Maiman investigated the glare of a flash lamp in a rod of synthetic ruby, creating the first human-made laser in 1960. The laser involves exciting atoms and passing them through a medium such as crystal, gas or liquid. As the cascade of photon energy sweeps through the medium, bouncing off mirrors, it is reflected back and forth, and gains energy to produce a high wattage beam of light. Although lasers are today used by a large variety of professions, one of the most meaningful applications of laser technology has been through its use in medicine. Being faster and less invasive with a high precision, lasers have penetrated into most medical disciplines during the last half century including dermatology, ophthalmology, dentistry, otolaryngology, gastroenterology, urology, gynaecology, cardiology, neurosurgery and orthopaedics. In many ways the laser has revolutionized the diagnosis and treatment of a disease. As a surgical tool the laser is capable of three basic functions. When focused on a point it can cauterize deeply as it cuts, reducing the surgical trauma caused by a knife. It can vaporize the surface of a tissue. Or, through optical fibres, it can permit a doctor to see inside the body. Lasers have also become an indispensable tool in biological applications from high-resolution microscopy to subcellular nanosurgery. Indeed, medical lasers are a prime example of how the movement of an idea can truly change the medical world. This review will survey various applications of lasers in medicine including four major categories: types of lasers, laser

  11. Pattern Laser Annealing by a Pulsed Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komiya, Yoshio; Hoh, Koichiro; Murakami, Koichi; Takahashi, Tetsuo; Tarui, Yasuo

    1981-10-01

    Preliminary experiments with contact-type pattern laser annealing were made for local polycrystallization of a-Si, local evaporation of a-Si and local formation of Ni-Si alloy. These experiments showed that the mask patterns can be replicated as annealed regions with a resolution of a few microns on substrates. To overcome shortcomings due to the contact type pattern annealing, a projection type reduction pattern laser annealing system is proposed for resistless low temperature pattern forming processes.

  12. Information computer program for laser therapy and laser puncture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badovets, Nadegda N.; Medvedev, Andrei V.

    1995-03-01

    An informative computer program containing laser therapy and puncture methods has been developed. It was used successfully in connection with the compact Russian medical laser apparatus HELIOS-O1M in laser treatment and the education process.

  13. Photonic crystal microchip laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gailevicius, D.; Koliadenko, V.; Purlys, V.; Peckus, M.; Taranenko, V.; Staliunas, K.

    2017-02-01

    The microchip lasers, being sources of coherent light, suffer from one serious drawback: low spatial quality of the beam, strongly reducing the brightness of emitted radiation. Attempts to improve the beam quality, such as pump-beam guiding, external feedback, either strongly reduce the emission power, or drastically increase the size and complexity of the lasers. Here we propose that specially designed photonic crystal in the cavity of a microchip laser, can significantly improve the beam quality. We experimentally show that a microchip laser, due to spatial filtering functionality of intracavity photonic crystal, improves the beam quality factor M2 reducing it by factor of 2, and thus increase the brightness of radiation by a factor of 4. This comprises a new kind of laser, the "photonic crystal microchip laser", a very compact and efficient light source emitting high spatial high brightness radiation.

  14. Photonic Crystal Microchip Laser.

    PubMed

    Gailevicius, Darius; Koliadenko, Volodymyr; Purlys, Vytautas; Peckus, Martynas; Taranenko, Victor; Staliunas, Kestutis

    2016-09-29

    The microchip lasers, being very compact and efficient sources of coherent light, suffer from one serious drawback: low spatial quality of the beam strongly reducing the brightness of emitted radiation. Attempts to improve the beam quality, such as pump-beam guiding, external feedback, either strongly reduce the emission power, or drastically increase the size and complexity of the lasers. Here it is proposed that specially designed photonic crystal in the cavity of a microchip laser, can significantly improve the beam quality. Experiments show that a microchip laser, due to spatial filtering functionality of intracavity photonic crystal, improves the beam quality factor M 2 reducing it by a factor of 2, and increase the brightness of radiation by a factor of 3. This comprises a new kind of laser, the "photonic crystal microchip laser", a very compact and efficient light source emitting high spatial quality high brightness radiation.

  15. Nanofabrication with Pulsed Lasers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    An overview of pulsed laser-assisted methods for nanofabrication, which are currently developed in our Institute (LP3), is presented. The methods compass a variety of possibilities for material nanostructuring offered by laser–matter interactions and imply either the nanostructuring of the laser-illuminated surface itself, as in cases of direct laser ablation or laser plasma-assisted treatment of semiconductors to form light-absorbing and light-emitting nano-architectures, as well as periodic nanoarrays, or laser-assisted production of nanoclusters and their controlled growth in gaseous or liquid medium to form nanostructured films or colloidal nanoparticles. Nanomaterials synthesized by laser-assisted methods have a variety of unique properties, not reproducible by any other route, and are of importance for photovoltaics, optoelectronics, biological sensing, imaging and therapeutics. PMID:20672069

  16. Micro-laser

    DOEpatents

    Hutchinson, Donald P.; Richards, Roger K.

    2003-07-22

    A micro-laser is disclosed which includes a waveguide, a first and a second subwavelength resonant grating in the waveguide, and at least one photonic band gap resonant structure (PBG) in the waveguide and at least one amplifying medium in the waveguide. PBG features are positioned between the first and second subwavelength resonant gratings and allow introduction of amplifying mediums into the highly resonant guided micro-laser microcavity. The micro-laser may be positioned on a die of a bulk substrate material with one or more electronic and optical devices and may be communicably connected to the same. A method for fabricating a micro-laser is disclosed. A method for tuning the micro-laser is also disclosed. The micro-laser may be used as an optical regenerator, or a light source for data transfer or for optical computing.

  17. Synthetic laser medium

    DOEpatents

    Stokowski, S.E.

    1987-10-20

    A laser medium is particularly useful in high average power solid state lasers. The laser medium includes a chromium dopant and preferably neodymium ions as codopant, and is primarily a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet, or an analog thereof. Divalent cations inhibit spiral morphology as large boules from which the laser medium is derived are grown, and a source of ions convertible between a trivalent state and a tetravalent state at a low ionization energy are in the laser medium to reduce an absorption coefficient at about one micron wavelength otherwise caused by the divalent cations. These divalent cations and convertible ions are dispersed in the laser medium. Preferred convertible ions are provided from titanium or cerium sources.

  18. Synthetic laser medium

    DOEpatents

    Stokowski, Stanley E.

    1989-01-01

    A laser medium is particularly useful in high average power solid state lasers. The laser medium includes a chormium dopant and preferably neodymium ions as codopant, and is primarily a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet, or an analog thereof. Divalent cations inhibit spiral morphology as large boules from which the laser medium is derived are grown, and a source of ions convertible between a trivalent state and a tetravalent state at a low ionization energy are in the laser medium to reduce an absorption coefficient at about one micron wavelength otherwise caused by the divalent cations. These divalent cations and convertible ions are dispersed in the laser medium. Preferred convertible ions are provided from titanium or cerium sources.

  19. Laser rocket system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. S.; Forsyth, J. B.; Skratt, J. P.

    1979-01-01

    The laser rocket systems investigated in this study were for orbital transportation using space-based, ground-based and airborne laser transmitters. The propulsion unit of these systems utilizes a continuous wave (CW) laser beam focused into a thrust chamber which initiates a plasma in the hydrogen propellant, thus heating the propellant and providing thrust through a suitably designed nozzle and expansion skirt. The specific impulse is limited only by the ability to adequately cool the thruster and the amount of laser energy entering the engine. The results of the study showed that, with advanced technology, laser rocket systems with either a space- or ground-based laser transmitter could reduce the national budget allocated to space transportation by 10 to 345 billion dollars over a 10-year life cycle when compared to advanced chemical propulsion systems (LO2-LH2) of equal capability. The variation in savings depends upon the projected mission model.

  20. Pulsed excimer laser processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, D.

    1985-01-01

    The status of pulsed excimer laser processing of PV cells is presented. The cost effective feasibility of fabricating high efficiency solar cells on Czochralski wafers using a pulsed excimer laser for junction formation, surface passivation, and front metallization. Laser annealing results were promising with the best AR coated cell having an efficiency of 16.1%. Better results would be expected with larger laser spot size because there was some degradation in open circuit voltage caused by laser spot overlap and edge effects. Surface heating and photolytic decomposition by the laser was used to deposit tungsten from the reaction of tungsten hexafluoride and hydrogen. The line widths were 5 to 10 mils, and the depositions passed the tape adhesion test. Thinner lines are practical using an optimized optical system.

  1. Lasers in periodontics

    PubMed Central

    Elavarasu, Sugumari; Naveen, Devisree; Thangavelu, Arthiie

    2012-01-01

    Laser is one of the most captivating technologies in dental practice since Theodore Maiman in 1960 invented the ruby laser. Lasers in dentistry have revolutionized several areas of treatment in the last three and a half decades of the 20th century. Introduced as an alternative to mechanical cutting device, laser has now become an instrument of choice in many dental applications. Evidence suggests its use in initial periodontal therapy, surgery, and more recently, its utility in salvaging implant opens up a wide range of applications. More research with better designs are a necessity before lasers can become a part of dental armamentarium. This paper gives an insight to laser in periodontics. PMID:23066266

  2. Laser cutting plastic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vancleave, R. A.

    1980-08-01

    A 1000 watt CO2 laser was demonstrated as a reliable production machine tool for cutting of plastics, high strength reinforced composites, and other nonmetals. More than 40 different plastics were laser cut, and the results are tabulated. Applications for laser cutting described include fiberglass reinforced laminates, Kevlar/epoxy composites, fiberglass reinforced phenolics, nylon/epoxy laminates, ceramics, and disposal tooling made from acrylic.

  3. The Laser Accessory Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Ashvin

    1988-09-01

    Wandering through the exhibit hall yesterday, I noticed that if you look at the laser companies and if you look at the accessory companies, there are pretty much the same number of accessory booths as well as the laser companies. There was one difference. Laser company booths are all sexy looking, very flashy, big booths. Whereas if you look at the accessories booths, they were small, not so prominent.

  4. Precision laser aiming system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, Brandon R [Albuquerque, NM; Todd, Steven N [Rio Rancho, NM

    2009-04-28

    A precision laser aiming system comprises a disrupter tool, a reflector, and a laser fixture. The disrupter tool, the reflector and the laser fixture are configurable for iterative alignment and aiming toward an explosive device threat. The invention enables a disrupter to be quickly and accurately set up, aligned, and aimed in order to render safe or to disrupt a target from a standoff position.

  5. Fiber Laser Arrays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-03

    AFRL-DE-PS- AFRL-DE-PS- TR-2006-1059 TR-2006-1059 FIBER LASER ARRAYS Thomas B. Simpson L-3 Communications-Jaycor 3394...LEANNE J HENRY, Lt Col, USAF L. BRUCE SIMPSON, SES Chief, High Power Solid State Laser Branch Director, Directed Energy Directorate...SUBTITLE Fiber Laser Arrays 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62605F 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 4866 5e. TASK NUMBER LR 6. AUTHOR(S) Thomas B. Simpson

  6. Dosimetry of laser emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillov, A. I.; Morskov, V. F.; Ustinov, N. D.

    The basic criteria for dosimetric standards on photon, microwave, and ultraviolet emissions are reviewed. Attention is given to the biophysical effects of laser radiation, approaches to the evaluation of optical radiation hazard, and the effect of laser beams on the human eye. The fundamentals of the optical design of dosimeters are discussed, and an eye model is developed for a laser radiation meter. The discussion also covers the design of the electronic circuit of dosimeters and an evaluation of measurement errors.

  7. Ultraviolet Polariton Laser

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-17

    Ultraviolet Polariton Laser Significant progress was achieved in the epitaxy of deep UV AlN/ AlGaN Bragg mirrors and microcavity structures paving...the way to the successful fabrication of vertical cavity emitting laser structures and polariton lasers. For the first time DBRs providing sufficient...high reflectivity for polariton emission were demonstrated. Thanks to a developed strain balanced Al0.85Ga0.15N template, the critical thickness

  8. Slow Light Semiconductor Laser

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-02

    semi- conductor lasers, demonstrated here with a spectral linewidth of 18 kHz. Our approach circumvents historical limitations of laser design and it...Oxford 380). To turn the passive resonator into a high-Q hybrid laser, we smooth the waveguide sidewalls to improve Qsc by growing 15 nm of dry thermal ...oxide (oxidation times calculated using the Massoud model). We strip the oxide with HF (Transene Buffer HF- Improved), and regrow 20 nm of dry oxide

  9. Polarization feedback laser stabilization

    DOEpatents

    Esherick, P.; Owyoung, A.

    1987-09-28

    A system for locking two Nd:YAG laser oscillators includes an optical path for feeding the output of one laser into the other with different polarizations. Elliptical polarization is incorporated into the optical path so that the change in polarization that occurs when the frequencies coincide may be detected to provide a feedback signal to control one laser relative to the other. 4 figs.

  10. X-ray lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elton, Raymond C.

    Theoretical and practical aspects of X-ray lasers are discussed in an introduction emphasizing recent advances. Chapters are devoted to the unique optical properties of the X-ray spectral region, the principles of short-wavelength lasers, pumping by exciting plasma ions, pumping by electron capture into excited ionic states, pumping by ionization of atoms and ions, and alternative approaches. The potential scientific, technical, biological, and medical applications of X-ray lasers are briefly characterized.

  11. Fusion reactor pumped laser

    DOEpatents

    Jassby, Daniel L.

    1988-01-01

    A nuclear pumped laser capable of producing long pulses of very high power laser radiation is provided. A toroidal fusion reactor provides energetic neutrons which are slowed down by a moderator. The moderated neutrons are converted to energetic particles capable of pumping a lasing medium. The lasing medium is housed in an annular cell surrounding the reactor. The cell includes an annular reflecting mirror at the bottom and an annular output window at the top. A neutron reflector is disposed around the cell to reflect escaping neutrons back into the cell. The laser radiation from the annular window is focused onto a beam compactor which generates a single coherent output laser beam.

  12. Laser safety management.

    PubMed

    Champion, J

    2000-08-01

    LASER is an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. Since the first working laser was demonstrated in 1960 the laser has evolved from being viewed as a weapon, courtesy of the film industry, to its current position as a commonplace medical device within the healthcare industry. As perioperative staff we have become very familiar with the therapeutic use of this device. It is my experience however that, just occasionally, we are guilty of the old adage 'familiarity breeds contempt'. We must remember that the very same features which make lasers so useful in healthcare may also represent major health hazards to patients, staff and others.

  13. Lasers for Frontier Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldacchini, Giuseppe

    The first laser has been invented in 1960 by using the red light from a ruby crystal, and since then the laser field exploded almost exponentially, and thousands of different materials, in the state of solids, liquids, vapors, gases, plasmas, and elementary particles have lased up to now from less than I Å to more than 1 mm. Many of them have been used with outstanding results both in basic science, and in industrial and commercial applications, by changing for ever the same lifestyle of humankind. As far as spectroscopy is concerned, the laser light has started an unprecedented revolution because of its unique properties as monochromaticity, coherence, power, brightness and short-pulse regime, unrivaled by any other natural and artificial light source. Spectroscopy applications increased qualitatively and quantitatively with the laser sources themselves, and they are still proceeding in parallel with the moving of the laser field towards new territories. Apart the opening up of new regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, like the terahertz gap, and the outstanding increase of the output power which is giving rise to completely new spectroscopic effects, the improvement of laser sources and auxiliary equipment is producing a growth of traditional laser spectroscopy with superior resolution and sensitivity. Moreover, spectroscopic techniques and laser light contributed to the development of new chemical and physical processes which have been used to fabricate photonic materials with new spectroscopic properties enriching the laser field itself, in a virtuous cycle spectroscopy→aser→material and back to spectroscopy with no end in sight.

  14. Laser aircraft. [using kerosene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hertzberg, A.; Sun, K.; Jones, W. S.

    1979-01-01

    The concept of a laser-powered aircraft is discussed. Laser flight would be completely compatible with existing airports and air-traffic control, with the airplane using kerosene only power, up to a cruising altitude of 9 km where the laser satellite would lock on and beam laser energy to it. Two major components make up the laser turbofan, a heat exchanger for converting laser radiation into thermal energy, and conventional turbomachinery. The laser power satellite would put out 42 Mw using a solar-powered thermal engine to generate electrical power for the closed-cycle supersonic electric discharge CO laser, whose radiators, heat exchangers, supersonic diffuser, and ducting will amount to 85% of the total subsystem mass. Relay satellites will be used to intercept the beam from the laser satellite, correct outgoing beam aberrations, and direct the beam to the next target. A 300-airplane fleet with transcontinental range is projected to save enough kerosene to equal the energy content of the entire system, including power and relay satellites, in one year.

  15. Laser eye injuries.

    PubMed

    Barkana, Y; Belkin, M

    2000-01-01

    Laser instruments are used in many spheres of human activity, including medicine, industry, laboratory research, entertainment, and, notably, the military. This widespread use of lasers has resulted in many accidental injuries. Injuries are almost always retinal, because of the concentration of visible and near-infrared radiation on the retina. The retina is therefore the body tissue most vulnerable to laser radiation. The nature and severity of this type of retinal injury is determined by multiple laser-related and eye-related factors, the most important being the duration and amount of energy delivered and the retinal location of the lesion. The clinical course of significant retinal laser injuries is characterized by sudden loss of vision, often followed by marked improvement over a few weeks, and occasionally severe late complications. Medical and surgical treatment is limited. Laser devices hazardous to the human eye are currently in widespread use by armed forces. Furthermore, lasers may be employed specifically for visual incapacitation on future battlefields. Adherence to safety practices effectively prevents accidental laser-induced ocular injuries. However, there is no practical way to prevent injuries that are maliciously inflicted, as expected from laser weapons.

  16. Degenerate band edge laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veysi, Mehdi; Othman, Mohamed A. K.; Figotin, Alexander; Capolino, Filippo

    2018-05-01

    We propose a class of lasers based on a fourth-order exceptional point of degeneracy (EPD) referred to as the degenerate band edge (DBE). EPDs have been found in parity-time-symmetric photonic structures that require loss and/or gain; here we show that the DBE is a different kind of EPD since it occurs in periodic structures that are lossless and gainless. Because of this property, a small level of gain is sufficient to induce single-frequency lasing based on a synchronous operation of four degenerate Floquet-Bloch eigenwaves. This lasing scheme constitutes a light-matter interaction mechanism that leads also to a unique scaling law of the laser threshold with the inverse of the fifth power of the laser-cavity length. The DBE laser has the lowest lasing threshold in comparison to a regular band edge laser and to a conventional laser in cavities with the same loaded quality (Q ) factor and length. In particular, even without mirror reflectors the DBE laser exhibits a lasing threshold which is an order of magnitude lower than that of a uniform cavity laser of the same length and with very high mirror reflectivity. Importantly, this novel DBE lasing regime enforces mode selectivity and coherent single-frequency operation even for pumping rates well beyond the lasing threshold, in contrast to the multifrequency nature of conventional uniform cavity lasers.

  17. Stripping by laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malavallon, Olivier

    1995-04-01

    Laser beam stripping can be achieved using several active materials: YAG, CO2 Tea, or Excimer. The YAG laser appears to be the most efficient laser assessed in this report. However, the results obtained for productivity, quality, and type of stripping were very poor. Also, for stripping and on account of its specifications, the laser beam can only be used in an automated manner. In spite of these results, it seems that certain companies in Europe have recently developed technical solutions allowing better results to be obtained.

  18. Wurtzite Spin-Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Gaofeng; Faria Junior, Paulo E.; Sipahi, Guilherme M.; Zutic, Igor

    Lasers in which spin-polarized carriers are injected provide paths to different practical room temperature spintronic devices, not limited to magnetoresistive effects. While theoretical studies of such spin-lasers have focused on zinc-blende semiconductors as their active regions, the first electrically injected carriers at room temperature were recently demonstrated in GaN-based wurtzite semiconductors, recognized also for the key role as highly-efficient light emitting diodes. By focusing on a wurtzite quantum well-based spin-laser, we use accurate electronic structure calculations to develop a microscopic description for its lasing properties. We discuss important differences between wurtzite and zinc-blende spin-lasers.

  19. Laser welding in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaukler, W. F.; Workman, G. L.

    1991-01-01

    Autogenous welds in 304 stainless steel were performed by Nd-YAG laser heating in a simulated space environment. Simulation consists of welding on the NASA KC-135 aircraft to produce the microgravity and by containing the specimen in a vacuum chamber. Experimental results show that the microgravity welds are stronger, harder in the fusion zone, have deeper penetration and have a rougher surface rippling of the weld pool than one-g welds. To perform laser welding in space, a solar-pumped laser concept that significantly increases the laser conversion efficiency and makes welding viable despite the limited power availability of spacecraft is proposed.

  20. Laser spot dynamics.

    PubMed

    Postan, A

    1987-03-01

    The dynamics of a pulsed laser spot covering an optical aperture of a receiver is analyzed. This analysis includes the influence of diffraction, jitter, atmospheric absorption and scattering, and atmospheric turbulence. A simple expression for the probability of response of the receiver illuminated by the laser spot is derived. It is found that this probability would not always increase as the laser beam divergence decreases. Moreover, this probability has an optimum (maximum) with respect to the laser beam divergence or rather with respect to the diameter of the transmitting optics.

  1. Random fiber laser.

    PubMed

    de Matos, Christiano J S; de S Menezes, Leonardo; Brito-Silva, Antônio M; Martinez Gámez, M A; Gomes, Anderson S L; de Araújo, Cid B

    2007-10-12

    We investigate the effects of two-dimensional confinement on the lasing properties of a classical random laser system operating in the incoherent feedback (diffusive) regime. A suspension of 250 nm rutile (TiO2) particles in a rhodamine 6G solution was inserted into the hollow core of a photonic crystal fiber generating the first random fiber laser and a novel quasi-one-dimensional random laser geometry. A comparison with similar systems in bulk format shows that the random fiber laser presents an efficiency that is at least 2 orders of magnitude higher.

  2. Trends in laser micromachining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaebler, Frank; van Nunen, Joris; Held, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    Laser Micromachining is well established in industry. Depending on the application lasers with pulse length from μseconds to femtoseconds and wavelengths from 1064nm and its harmonics up to 5μm or 10.6μm are used. Ultrafast laser machining using pulses with pico or femtosecond duration pulses is gaining traction, as it offers very precise processing of materials with low thermal impact. Large-scale industrial ultrafast laser applications show that the market can be divided into various sub segments. One set of applications demand low power around 10W, compact footprint and are extremely sensitive to the laser price whilst still demanding 10ps or shorter laser pulses. A second set of applications are very power hungry and only become economically feasible for large scale deployments at power levels in the 100+W class. There is also a growing demand for applications requiring fs-laser pulses. In our presentation we would like to describe these sub segments by using selected applications from the automotive and electronics industry e.g. drilling of gas/diesel injection nozzles, dicing of LED substrates. We close the presentation with an outlook to micromachining applications e.g. glass cutting and foil processing with unique new CO lasers emitting 5μm laser wavelength.

  3. Contact laser microsurgery.

    PubMed

    Jallo, George I; Kothbauer, Karl F; Epstein, Fred J

    2002-07-01

    Lasers are commonly understood as instruments that produce a freestanding light beam that can cut or vaporize tissue. In contrast, a contact laser is an instrument where the laser beam resides entirely within a coated sapphire crystal probe tip. The authors describe the use of the contact laser for a variety of intraspinal procedures. The probe is mounted on a curved handpiece and can be used in the same way as any microsurgical instrument. The laser energy is delivered only at the probe tip and only on contact of the tip with tissue. Different probe sizes and shapes allow for sharp cutting or tissue vaporization with minimal tissue penetration. We have used this laser in 95 operations for dysraphic conditions, and intradural (both intra- and extramedullary) spinal tumors. It was easy to use for the microsurgically trained neurosurgeon. It is safer than a freestanding, noncontact, laser beam. To lyse scar tissue, evaporate lipomatous tissue, perform a precise myelotomy, and dissect, cut and debulk firm and fibrous intradural spinal lesions this instrument is superior to microscissors, suction, or the ultrasonic aspirator. The contact laser is a useful microsurgical instrument for use in neurosurgery. It combines the advantages of lasers with those of microinstruments and avoids most shortcomings of both.

  4. Shuttle Laser Altimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bufton, Jack L.; Harding, David J.; Garvin, James B.

    1999-01-01

    The Shuttle Laser Altimeter (SLA) is a Hitchhiker experiment that has flown twice; first on STS-72 in January 1996 and then on STS-85 in August 1997. Both missions produced successful laser altimetry and surface lidar data products from approximately 80 hours per mission of SLA data operations. A total of four Shuttle missions are planned for the SLA series. This paper documents SLA mission results and explains SLA pathfinder accomplishments at the mid-point in this series of Hitchhiker missions. The overall objective of the SLA mission series is the transition of the Goddard Space Flight Center airborne laser altimeter and lidar technology to low Earth orbit as a pathfinder for NASA operational space-based laser remote sensing devices. Future laser altimeter sensors will utilize systems and approaches being tested with SLA, including the Multi-Beam Laser Altimeter (MBLA) and the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). MBLA is the land and vegetation laser sensor for the NASA Earth System Sciences Pathfinder Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) Mission, and GLAS is the Earth Observing System facility instrument on the Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat). The Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter, now well into a multi-year mapping mission at the red planet, is also directly benefiting from SLA data analysis methods, just as SLA benefited from MOLA spare parts and instrument technology experience [5] during SLA construction in the early 1990s.

  5. Laser Program annual report 1987

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neal, E.M.; Murphy, P.W.; Canada, J.A.

    1989-07-01

    This report discusses the following topics: target design and experiments; target materials development; laboratory x-ray lasers; laser science and technology; high-average-power solid state lasers; and ICF applications studies.

  6. Laser processing with specially designed laser beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asratyan, A. A.; Bulychev, N. A.; Feofanov, I. N.; Kazaryan, M. A.; Krasovskii, V. I.; Lyabin, N. A.; Pogosyan, L. A.; Sachkov, V. I.; Zakharyan, R. A.

    2016-04-01

    The possibility of using laser systems to form beams with special spatial configurations has been studied. The laser systems applied had a self-conjugate cavity based on the elements of copper vapor lasers (LT-5Cu, LT-10Cu, LT-30Cu) with an average power of 5, 10, or 30 W. The active elements were pumped by current pulses of duration 80-100 ns. The duration of laser generation pulses was up to 25 ns. The generator unit included an unstable cavity, where one reflector was a special mirror with a reflecting coating. Various original optical schemes used were capable of exploring spatial configurations and energy characteristics of output laser beams in their interaction with micro- and nanoparticles fabricated from various materials. In these experiments, the beam dimensions of the obtained zones varied from 0.3 to 5 µm, which is comparable with the minimum permissible dimensions determined by the optical elements applied. This method is useful in transforming a large amount of information at the laser pulse repetition rate of 10-30 kHz. It was possible to realize the high-precision micromachining and microfabrication of microscale details by direct writing, cutting and drilling (with the cutting width and through-hole diameters ranging from 3 to 100 µm) and produce microscale, deep, intricate and narrow grooves on substrate surfaces of metals and nonmetal materials. This system is used for producing high-quality microscale details without moving the object under treatment. It can also be used for microcutting and microdrilling in a variety of metals such as molybdenum, copper and stainless steel, with a thickness of up to 300 µm, and in nonmetals such as silicon, sapphire and diamond with a thickness ranging from 10 µm to 1 mm with different thermal parameters and specially designed laser beam.

  7. Laser peening with fiber optic delivery

    DOEpatents

    Friedman, Herbert W.; Ault, Earl R.; Scheibner, Karl F.

    2004-11-16

    A system for processing a workpiece using a laser. The laser produces at least one laser pulse. A laser processing unit is used to process the workpiece using the at least one laser pulse. A fiber optic cable is used for transmitting the at least one laser pulse from the laser to the laser processing unit.

  8. Dynamics of Superradiant Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, James

    2014-05-01

    A superradiant laser has been shown to operate with less than one photon on average inside of the optical cavity. In this regime, almost all of the phase information of the laser is stored in the atoms rather than the cavity field. As a result, the laser's phase is highly insensitive to both technical and fundamental thermal cavity mirror vibrations. This vibration noise presently limits the coherence of the best lasers as well as the precision of the optical lattice clocks that these lasers interrogate. We have explored the physics of superradiant lasers utilizing Raman transitions between hyperfine states in rubidium to mimic narrow optical transitions. In this talk, we will discuss the amplitude stability of our superradiant Raman laser, and the dynamics of phase synchronization in our system. We will also consider the prospects for future superradiant lasers that would lase on the same highly-forbidden transitions used in optical lattice clocks. We acknowledge support from DARPA QUASAR, ARO, NIST, and the NSF PFC.

  9. Laser beam generating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Bruce E.; Duncan, David B.

    1993-01-01

    Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect).

  10. Laser beam generating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Bruce E.; Duncan, David B.

    1994-01-01

    Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect).

  11. Distributed ultrafast fibre laser

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xueming; Cui, Yudong; Han, Dongdong; Yao, Xiankun; Sun, Zhipei

    2015-01-01

    A traditional ultrafast fibre laser has a constant cavity length that is independent of the pulse wavelength. The investigation of distributed ultrafast (DUF) lasers is conceptually and technically challenging and of great interest because the laser cavity length and fundamental cavity frequency are changeable based on the wavelength. Here, we propose and demonstrate a DUF fibre laser based on a linearly chirped fibre Bragg grating, where the total cavity length is linearly changeable as a function of the pulse wavelength. The spectral sidebands in DUF lasers are enhanced greatly, including the continuous-wave (CW) and pulse components. We observe that all sidebands of the pulse experience the same round-trip time although they have different round-trip distances and refractive indices. The pulse-shaping of the DUF laser is dominated by the dissipative processes in addition to the phase modulations, which makes our ultrafast laser simple and stable. This laser provides a simple, stable, low-cost, ultrafast-pulsed source with controllable and changeable cavity frequency. PMID:25765454

  12. Free-Electron Lasers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brau, Charles A.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the use of free-electron lasers as a source of coherent radiation over a broad range of wavelengths from the far-infrared to the far-ultraviolet regions of the spectrum. Discusses some applications of these lasers, including medicine and strategic defense. (TW)

  13. Lasers for Training Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, C. A.

    A breadboard model of a laser display system is described in detail and its operating procedure is outlined. The system consists of: a Model 52 argon krypton ion laser and power supply; an optical breadboard comprising a pocket cell light modulator, a galvonmeter beam deflector for vertical scanning, a unique multiple reflection beam steerer for…

  14. Athermal laser design.

    PubMed

    Bovington, Jock; Srinivasan, Sudharsanan; Bowers, John E

    2014-08-11

    This paper discusses circuit based and waveguide based athermalization schemes and provides some design examples of athermalized lasers utilizing fully integrated athermal components as an alternative to power hungry thermo-electric controllers (TECs), off-chip wavelength lockers or monitors with lookup tables for tunable lasers. This class of solutions is important for uncooled transmitters on silicon.

  15. Laser energy conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalufka, N. W.

    1989-01-01

    The conversion of laser energy to other, more useful, forms is an important element of any space power transmission system employing lasers. In general the user, at the receiving sight, will require the energy in a form other than laser radiation. In particular, conversion to rocket power and electricity are considered to be two major areas where one must consider various conversion techniques. Three systems (photovoltaic cells, MHD generators, and gas turbines) have been identified as the laser-to-electricity conversion systems that appear to meet most of the criteria for a space-based system. The laser thruster also shows considerable promise as a space propulsion system. At this time one cannot predict which of the three laser-to-electric converters will be best suited to particular mission needs. All three systems have some particular advantages, as well as disadvantages. It would be prudent to continue research on all three systems, as well as the laser rocket thruster. Research on novel energy conversion systems, such as the optical rectenna and the reverse free-electron laser, should continue due to their potential for high payoff.

  16. Laser Scanning In Inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Patricia; Baker, Lionel R.

    1989-03-01

    This paper is a review of the applications of laser scanning in inspection. The reasons for the choice of a laser in flying spot scanning and the optical properties of a laser beam which are of value in a scanning instrument will be given. The many methods of scanning laser beams in both one and two dimensions will be described. The use of one dimensional laser scanners for automatic surface inspection for transmitting and reflective products will be covered in detail, with particular emphasis on light collection techniques. On-line inspection applications which will be mentioned include: photographic film web, metal strip products, paper web, glass sheet, car body paint surfaces and internal cylinder bores. Two dimensional laser scanning is employed in applications where increased resolution, increased depth of focus, and better contrast are required compared with conventional vidicon TV or solid state array cameras. Such examples as special microscope laser scanning systems and a TV compatible system for use in restricted areas of a nuclear reactor will be described. The technical and economic benefits and limitations of laser scanning video systems will be compared with conventional TV and CCD array devices.

  17. Laser beam generating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Warner, B.E.; Duncan, D.B.

    1994-02-15

    Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus is described. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect). 7 figures.

  18. Learning about Lasers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Larry

    2011-01-01

    The word laser is an acronym. It stands for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. Lasers, invented in 1958, are used to cut and fuse materials, accurately survey long distances, communicate across fiber-optic phone lines, produce 3D pictures, make special effects, help navigation, and read bar codes for cash registers. A laser…

  19. Optofluidic chlorophyll lasers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Qiushu; Fan, Xudong

    2016-06-21

    Chlorophylls are essential for photosynthesis and also one of the most abundant pigments on earth. Using an optofluidic ring resonator of extremely high Q-factors (>10(7)), we investigated the unique characteristics and underlying mechanism of chlorophyll lasers. Chlorophyll lasers with dual lasing bands at 680 nm and 730 nm were observed for the first time in isolated chlorophyll a (Chla). Particularly, a laser at the 730 nm band was realized in 0.1 mM Chla with a lasing threshold of only 8 μJ mm(-2). Additionally, we observed lasing competition between the two lasing bands. The presence of laser emission at the 680 nm band can lead to quenching or significant reduction of laser emission at the 730 nm band, effectively increasing the lasing threshold for the 730 nm band. Further concentration-dependent studies, along with theoretical analysis, elucidated the mechanism that determines when and why the laser emission band appears at one of the two bands, or concomitantly at both bands. Finally, Chla was exploited as the donor in fluorescence resonance energy transfer to extend the laser emission to the near infrared regime with an unprecedented wavelength shift as large as 380 nm. Our work will open a door to the development of novel biocompatible and biodegradable chlorophyll-based lasers for various applications such as miniaturized tunable coherent light sources and in vitro/in vivo biosensing. It will also provide important insight into the chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthesis processes inside plants.

  20. Lasers in automobile production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzi, P.

    There is a trend in mechanical equipment to replace complicated mechanical components with electronics, especially microprocessors, laser technology represents an important new tool. The effects of laser technology can be seen in production systems concerned with cutting, welding, heat treatment, and the alloying of mechanical components. Applications in the automobile industry today are not very widespread and are concerned essentially with welding and cutting.

  1. Laser biostimulation in pediatrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utz, Irina A.; Lagutina, L. E.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    1995-01-01

    In the present paper the method and apparatus for percutaneous laser irradiation of blood (PLIB) in vessels (veins) are described. Results of clinical investigations of biostimulating effects under PLIB by red laser light (633 nm) in Cubiti and Saphena Magna veins are presented.

  2. Liquid heat capacity lasers

    DOEpatents

    Comaskey, Brian J [Walnut Creek, CA; Scheibner, Karl F [Tracy, CA; Ault, Earl R [Livermore, CA

    2007-05-01

    The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

  3. Solid state laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rines, Glen A. (Inventor); Moulton, Peter F. (Inventor); Harrison, James (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A wavelength-tunable, injection-seeded, dispersion-compensated, dispersively-pumped solid state laser includes a lasing medium; a highly reflective mirror; an output coupler; at least one isosceles Brewster prism oriented to the minimum deviation angle between the medium and the mirror for directing light of different wavelengths along different paths; means for varying the angle of the highly reflective mirror relative to the light from at least one Brewster angle for selecting a predetermined laser operating wavelength; a dispersion compensation apparatus associated with the lasing medium; a laser injection seeding port disposed between the dispersion compensation apparatus and one of the mirror and coupler and including a reflective surface at an acute non-Brewster angle to the laser beam for introducing a seed input; a dispersion compensation apparatus associated with the laser medium including opposite chirality optical elements; the lasing medium including a pump surface disposed at an acute angle to the laser beam to define a discrete path for the pumping laser beam separate from the pumped laser beam.

  4. Cutaneous applications of lasers.

    PubMed

    Ries, W R; Speyer, M T

    1996-12-01

    The cutaneous application of lasers today includes more selective and less damaging devices. Carbon dioxide, neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet, potassium titanyl phosphate, argon, and yellow lasers are most prevalent in treating cutaneous lesions. Specific techniques in skin resurfacing, keloid excision, rhinophyma, actinic cheilitis ablation, and excision of superficial cutaneous tumors are discussed. Proper management of cutaneous vascular lesions is also presented.

  5. Laser beam generating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Warner, B.E.; Duncan, D.B.

    1993-12-28

    Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect). 11 figures.

  6. Explosively pumped laser light

    DOEpatents

    Piltch, Martin S.; Michelotti, Roy A.

    1991-01-01

    A single shot laser pumped by detonation of an explosive in a shell casing. The shock wave from detonation of the explosive causes a rare gas to luminesce. The high intensity light from the gas enters a lasing medium, which thereafter outputs a pulse of laser light to disable optical sensors and personnel.

  7. Coaxial short pulsed laser

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, M.A.; Davies, T.J.

    1975-08-01

    This invention relates to a laser system of rugged design suitable for use in a field environment. The laser itself is of coaxial design with a solid potting material filling the space between components. A reservoir is employed to provide a gas lasing medium between an electrode pair, each of which is connected to one of the coaxial conductors. (auth)

  8. Photonic Crystal Microchip Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gailevicius, Darius; Koliadenko, Volodymyr; Purlys, Vytautas; Peckus, Martynas; Taranenko, Victor; Staliunas, Kestutis

    2016-09-01

    The microchip lasers, being very compact and efficient sources of coherent light, suffer from one serious drawback: low spatial quality of the beam strongly reducing the brightness of emitted radiation. Attempts to improve the beam quality, such as pump-beam guiding, external feedback, either strongly reduce the emission power, or drastically increase the size and complexity of the lasers. Here it is proposed that specially designed photonic crystal in the cavity of a microchip laser, can significantly improve the beam quality. Experiments show that a microchip laser, due to spatial filtering functionality of intracavity photonic crystal, improves the beam quality factor M2 reducing it by a factor of 2, and increase the brightness of radiation by a factor of 3. This comprises a new kind of laser, the “photonic crystal microchip laser”, a very compact and efficient light source emitting high spatial quality high brightness radiation.

  9. Photonic Crystal Microchip Laser

    PubMed Central

    Gailevicius, Darius; Koliadenko, Volodymyr; Purlys, Vytautas; Peckus, Martynas; Taranenko, Victor; Staliunas, Kestutis

    2016-01-01

    The microchip lasers, being very compact and efficient sources of coherent light, suffer from one serious drawback: low spatial quality of the beam strongly reducing the brightness of emitted radiation. Attempts to improve the beam quality, such as pump-beam guiding, external feedback, either strongly reduce the emission power, or drastically increase the size and complexity of the lasers. Here it is proposed that specially designed photonic crystal in the cavity of a microchip laser, can significantly improve the beam quality. Experiments show that a microchip laser, due to spatial filtering functionality of intracavity photonic crystal, improves the beam quality factor M2 reducing it by a factor of 2, and increase the brightness of radiation by a factor of 3. This comprises a new kind of laser, the “photonic crystal microchip laser”, a very compact and efficient light source emitting high spatial quality high brightness radiation. PMID:27683066

  10. Solid State Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Titan-CW Ti:sapphire (titanium-doped sapphire) tunable laser is an innovation in solid-state laser technology jointly developed by the Research and Solid State Laser Divisions of Schwartz Electro-optics, Inc. (SEO). SEO is producing the laser for the commercial market, an outgrowth of a program sponsored by Langley Research Center to develop Ti:sapphire technology for space use. SEO's Titan-CW series of Ti:sapphire tunable lasers have applicability in analytical equipment designed for qualitative analysis of carbohydrates and proteins, structural analysis of water, starch/sugar analyses, and measurements of salt in meat. Further applications are expected in semiconductor manufacture, in medicine for diagnosis and therapy, and in biochemistry.

  11. Laser-heated thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemp, N. H.; Krech, R. H.

    1980-01-01

    The development of computer codes for the thrust chamber of a rocket of which the propellant gas is heated by a CW laser beam was investigated. The following results are presented: (1) simplified models of laser heated thrusters for approximate parametric studies and performance mapping; (3) computer programs for thrust chamber design; and (3) shock tube experiment to measure absorption coefficients. Two thrust chamber design programs are outlined: (1) for seeded hydrogen, with both low temperature and high temperature seeds, which absorbs the laser radiation continuously, starting at the inlet gas temperature; and (2) for hydrogen seeded with cesium, in which a laser supported combustion wave stands near the gas inlet, and heats the gas up to a temperature at which the gas can absorb the laser energy.

  12. Catalac free electron laser

    DOEpatents

    Brau, Charles A.; Swenson, Donald A.; Boyd, Jr., Thomas J.

    1982-01-01

    A catalac free electron laser using a rf linac (catalac) which acts as a catalyst to accelerate an electron beam in an initial pass through the catalac and decelerate the electron beam during a second pass through the catalac. During the second pass through the catalac, energy is extracted from the electron beam and transformed to energy of the accelerating fields of the catalac to increase efficiency of the device. Various embodiments disclose the use of post linacs to add electron beam energy extracted by the wiggler and the use of supplementary catalacs to extract energy at various energy peaks produced by the free electron laser wiggler to further enhance efficiency of the catalac free electron laser. The catalac free electron laser can be used in conjunction with a simple resonator, a ring resonator or as an amplifier in conjunction with a master oscillator laser.

  13. Catalac free electron laser

    DOEpatents

    Brau, C.A.; Swenson, D.A.; Boyd, T.J. Jr.

    1979-12-12

    A catalac free electron laser using a rf linac (catalac) which acts as a catalyst to accelerate an electron beam in an initial pass through the catalac and decelerate the electron beam during a second pass through the catalac is described. During the second pass through the catalac, energy is extracted from the electron beam and transformed to energy of the accelerating fields of the catalac to increase efficiency of the device. Various embodiments disclose the use of post linacs to add electron beam energy extracted by the wiggler and the use of supplementary catalacs to extract energy at various energy peaks produced by the free electron laser wiggler to further enhance efficiency of the catalac free electron laser. The catalac free electron laser can be used in conjunction with a simple resonator, a ring resonator, or as an amplifier in conjunction with a master oscillator laser.

  14. Electromagnetic Waves and Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Wayne D.

    2017-11-01

    This book reviews basic electromagnetic (EM) wave theory and applies it specifically to lasers to give the reader not only tangible examples of how the theory is manifested in real life, but also practical knowledge about lasers, and their operation and usage. The latter can be useful for those involved with using lasers. As a short treatise on this subject matter, this book is not intended to delve deeply into the details of EM waves nor lasers. A bibliography is provided for those who wish to explore in more depth the topics covered in this book. Rather, the aim of this book is to offer a quick overview, which will allow the reader to gain a competent general understanding of EM waves and lasers.

  15. Auricular Acupuncture with Laser

    PubMed Central

    Bahr, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Auricular acupuncture is a method which has been successfully used in various fields of medicine especially in the treatment of pain relief. The introduction of lasers especially low-level lasers into medicine brought besides the already existing stimulation with needles and electricity an additional technique to auricular acupuncture. This literature research looks at the historical background, the development and the anatomical and neurological aspects of auricular acupuncture in general and auricular laser acupuncture in detail. Preliminary scientific findings on auricular acupuncture with laser have been described in detail and discussed critically in this review article. The results of the studies have shown evidence of the effect of auricular laser acupuncture. However, a comparison of these studies was impossible due to their different study designs. The most important technical as well as study parameters were described in detail in order to give more sufficient evidence and to improve the quality of future studies. PMID:23935695

  16. Super-Compact Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Microcosm, Inc. produced the portable Farfield-2 laser for field applications that require high power pulsed illumination. The compact design was conceived through research at Goddard Space Flight Center on laser instruments for space missions to carry out geoscience studies of Earth. An exclusive license to the key NASA patent for the compact laser design was assigned to Microcosm. The FarField-2 is ideal for field applications, has low power consumption, does not need water cooling or gas supplies, and produces nearly ideal beam quality. The properties of the laser also make it effective over long distances, which is one reason why NASA developed the technology for laser altimeters that can be toted aboard spacecraft. Applications for the FarField-2 include medicine, biology, and materials science and processing, as well as diamond marking, semiconductor line-cutting, chromosome surgery, and fluorescence microscopy.

  17. NASA Space Laser Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krainak, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Over the next two decades, the number of space based laser missions for mapping, spectroscopy, remote sensing and other scientific investigations will increase several fold. The demand for high wall-plug efficiency, low noise, narrow linewidth laser systems to meet different systems requirements that can reliably operate over the life of a mission will be high. The general trends will be for spatial quality very close to the diffraction limit, improved spectral performance, increased wall-plug efficiency and multi-beam processing. Improved spectral performance will include narrower spectral width (very near the transform limit), increased wavelength stability and or tuning (depending on application) and lasers reaching a wider range of wavelengths stretching into the mid-infrared and the near ultraviolet. We are actively developing high efficiency laser transmitter and high-sensitivity laser receiver systems that are suitable for spaceborne applications.

  18. Laser controlled flame stabilization

    DOEpatents

    Early, James W.; Thomas, Matthew E.

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus is provided for initiating and stabilizing fuel combustion in applications such as gas turbine electrical power generating engines and jet turbine engines where it is desired to burn lean fuel/air mixtures which produce lower amounts of NO.sub.x. A laser induced spark is propagated at a distance from the fuel nozzle with the laser ignitor being remotely located from the high temperature environment of the combustion chamber. A laser initiating spark generated by focusing high peak power laser light to a sufficiently tight laser spot within the fuel to cause the ionization of air and fuel into a plasma is unobtrusive to the flow dynamics of the combustion chamber of a fuel injector, thereby facilitating whatever advantage can be taken of flow dynamics in the design of the fuel injector.

  19. Introducing the yellow laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lincoln, James

    2018-02-01

    The author has acquired a yellow laser with the specific wavelength of 589 nm. Because this is the first time such a laser has been discussed in this journal, I feel it is appropriate to provide a discussion of its function and capabilities. Normal laser safety should be employed, such as not pointing it into eyes or at people, and using eye protection for the young and inexperienced. It is important to note that 589 nm is the same wavelength as the Sodium-D line (doublet). This allows for the laser to serve as a replacement for sodium lamps, and, considering its rather high price, this added value should be balanced against its cost. What follows is a list of activities that showcase the yellow laser's unique promise as an engaging piece of technology that can be used in the teaching of physics.

  20. Free electron laser designs for laser amplification

    DOEpatents

    Prosnitz, Donald; Szoke, Abraham

    1985-01-01

    Method for laser beam amplification by means of free electron laser techniques. With wiggler magnetic field strength B.sub.w and wavelength .lambda..sub.w =2.pi./k.sub.w regarded as variable parameters, the method(s) impose conditions such as substantial constancy of B.sub.w /k.sub.w or k.sub.w or B.sub.w and k.sub.w (alternating), coupled with a choice of either constant resonant phase angle or programmed phase space "bucket" area.

  1. Lasers in Materials Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukreja, L. M.; Paul, C. P.; Kumar, Atul; Kaul, R.; Ganesh, P.; Rao, B. T.

    Laser is undoubtedly one of the most important inventions of the twentieth century. Today, it is widely deployed for a cornucopia of applications including materials processing. Different lasers such as CO2, Nd:YAG, excimer, copper vapor, diode, fiber lasers, etc., are being used extensively for various materials processing applications like cutting, welding, brazing, surface treatment, peening, and rapid manufacturing by adopting conventional and unconventional routes with unprecedented precision. In view of its potential for providing solution to the emerging problems of the industrial materials processing and manufacturing technologies, a comprehensive program on laser materials processing and allied technologies was initiated at our laboratory. A novel feature-based design and additive manufacturing technologies facilitated the laser rapid manufacturing of complex engineering components with superior performance. This technology is being extended for the fabrication of anatomically shaped prosthetics with internal heterogeneous architectures. Laser peening of spring steels brought significant improvement in its fatigue life. Laser surface treatments resulted in enhanced intergranular corrosion resistance of AISI 316(N) and 304 stainless steel. Parametric dependence of laser welding of dissimilar materials, AISI 316M stainless steel with alloy D9, was established for avoiding cracks under optimum processing conditions. In the domain of laser cutting and piercing, the development of a power ramped pulsed mode with high pulse repetition frequency and low duty cycle scheme could produce highly circular, narrow holes with minimum spattered pierced holes. A review of these experimental and some theoretical studies is presented and discussed in this chapter. These studies have provided deeper insight of fascinating laser-based materials processing application for industrial manufacturing technologies.

  2. The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) Laser Transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Afzal, Robert S.; Yu, Anthony W.; Dallas, Joseph L.; Melak, Anthony; Lukemir, Alan; Ramos-Izqueirdo, L.; Mamakos, William

    2007-01-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS), launched in January 2003, is a laser altimeter and lidar for the Earth Observing System's (EOS) ICESat mission. GLAS accommodates three, sequentially operated, diode-pumped, solid-state, Nd:YAG laser transmitters. The laser transmitter requirements, design and qualification test results for this space-based remote sensing instrument is summarized and presented

  3. Consistency analysis on laser signal in laser guided weapon simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Ruiguang; Zhang, Wenpan; Guo, Hao; Gan, Lin

    2015-10-01

    The hardware-in-the-loop simulation is widely used in laser semi-active guidance weapon experiments, the authenticity of the laser guidance signal is the key problem of reliability. In order to evaluate the consistency of the laser guidance signal, this paper analyzes the angle of sight, laser energy density, laser spot size, atmospheric back scattering, sun radiation and SNR by comparing the different working state between actual condition and hardware-in-the-loop simulation. Based on measured data, mathematical simulation and optical simulation result, laser guidance signal effects on laser seeker are determined. By using Monte Carlo method, the laser guided weapon trajectory and impact point distribution are obtained, the influence of the systematic error are analyzed. In conclusion it is pointed out that the difference between simulation system and actual system has little influence in normal guidance, has great effect on laser jamming. The research is helpful to design and evaluation of laser guided weapon simulation.

  4. Task five report: Laser communications for data acquisition networks. [characteristics of lasers and laser systems for optical communication applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Laser communication technology and laser communication performance are reviewed. The subjects discussed are: (1) characteristics of laser communication systems, (2) laser technology problems, (3) means of overcoming laser technology problems, and (4) potential schedule for including laser communications into data acquisition networks. Various types of laser communication systems are described and their capabilities are defined.

  5. Direct Laser Acceleration in Laser Wakefield Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, J. L.; Froula, D. H.; Marsh, K. A.; Joshi, C.; Lemos, N.

    2017-10-01

    The direct laser acceleration (DLA) of electrons in a laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) has been investigated. We show that when there is a significant overlap between the drive laser and the trapped electrons in a LWFA cavity, the accelerating electrons can gain energy from the DLA mechanism in addition to LWFA. The properties of the electron beams produced in a LWFA, where the electrons are injected by ionization injection, have been investigated using particle-in-cell (PIC) code simulations. Particle tracking was used to demonstrate the presence of DLA in LWFA. Further PIC simulations comparing LWFA with and without DLA show that the presence of DLA can lead to electron beams that have maximum energies that exceed the estimates given by the theory for the ideal blowout regime. The magnitude of the contribution of DLA to the energy gained by the electron was found to be on the order of the LWFA contribution. The presence of DLA in a LWFA can also lead to enhanced betatron oscillation amplitudes and increased divergence in the direction of the laser polarization. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  6. Frequency stabilization of diode-laser-pumped solid state lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, Robert L.

    1988-01-01

    The goal of the NASA Sunlite program is to fly two diode-laser-pumped solid-state lasers on the space shuttle and while doing so to perform a measurement of their frequency stability and temporal coherence. These measurements will be made by combining the outputs of the two lasers on an optical radiation detector and spectrally analyzing the beat note. Diode-laser-pumped solid-state lasers have several characteristics that will make them useful in space borne experiments. First, this laser has high electrical efficiency. Second, it is of a technology that enables scaling to higher powers in the future. Third, the laser can be made extremely reliable, which is crucial for many space based applications. Fourth, they are frequency and amplitude stable and have high temporal coherence. Diode-laser-pumped solid-state lasers are inherently efficient. Recent results have shown 59 percent slope efficiency for a diode-laser-pumped solid-state laser. As for reliability, the laser proposed should be capable of continuous operation. This is possible because the diode lasers can be remote from the solid state gain medium by coupling through optical fibers. Diode lasers are constructed with optical detectors for monitoring their output power built into their mounting case. A computer can actively monitor the output of each diode laser. If it sees any variation in the output power that might indicate a problem, the computer can turn off that diode laser and turn on a backup diode laser. As for stability requirements, it is now generally believed that any laser can be stabilized if the laser has a frequency actuator capable of tuning the laser frequency as far as it is likely to drift in a measurement time.

  7. Ultra-fast laser system

    DOEpatents

    Dantus, Marcos; Lozovoy, Vadim V

    2014-01-21

    A laser system is provided which selectively excites Raman active vibrations in molecules. In another aspect of the present invention, the system includes a laser, pulse shaper and detection device. A further aspect of the present invention employs a femtosecond laser and binary pulse shaping (BPS). Still another aspect of the present invention uses a laser beam pulse, a pulse shaper and remote sensing.

  8. Resource Letter L-1: Lasers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shea, Donald C.; Peckham, Donald C.

    1981-01-01

    Following a brief introduction, an annotated listing of literature and teaching aids on lasers is presented. Categories include: Background Materials; Historical References; General References and Textbooks; Specialized References; Reviews; Articles; Films; Laser Courses; Equipment, Demonstrations, and Experiments; Laser Safety; and Lasers and…

  9. History of lasers.

    PubMed

    Gross, Andreas J; Herrmann, Thomas R W

    2007-06-01

    The developments of laser technology from the cradle of modern physics in 1900 by Planck to its latest medical boundaries is an exciting example of how basic physics finds its way into clinical practice. This article merits the protagonists and their contribution to the steps in this development. The competition between the different research groups finally led to the award of the Nobel Prize to Townes, Basov and Prokhorov in 1964 for the scientific basis on quantum electronics, which led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the laser-maser principle. Forty-three years after Einstein's first theories Maiman introduced the first ruby laser for commercial use. This marked the key step for the laser application and pioneered fruitful cooperations between basic and clinical science. The pioneers of lasers in clinical urology were Parsons in 1966 with studies in canine bladders and Mulvany 1968 with experiments in calculi fragmentation. The central technological component for the triumphal procession of lasers in urology is the endoscope. Therefore lasers are currently widely used, being the tool of choice in some areas, such as endoscopical lithotriptic stone treatment or endoluminal organ-preserving tumor ablation. Furthermore they show promising treatment alternatives for the treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia.

  10. Laser Propulsion Standardization Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Scharring, Stefan; Eckel, Hans-Albert; Roeser, Hans-Peter

    It is a relevant issue in the research on laser propulsion that experimental results are treated seriously and that meaningful scientific comparison is possible between groups using different equipment and measurement techniques. However, critical aspects of experimental measurements are sparsely addressed in the literature. In addition, few studies so far have the benefit of independent confirmation by other laser propulsion groups. In this paper, we recommend several approaches towards standardization of published laser propulsion experiments. Such standards are particularly important for the measurement of laser ablation pulse energy, laser spot area, imparted impulse or thrust, and mass removal during ablation.more » Related examples are presented from experiences of an actual scientific cooperation between NU and DLR. On the basis of a given standardization, researchers may better understand and contribute their findings more clearly in the future, and compare those findings confidently with those already published in the laser propulsion literature. Relevant ISO standards are analyzed, and revised formats are recommended for application to laser propulsion studies.« less

  11. Excimer laser decontamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sentis, Marc L.; Delaporte, Philippe C.; Marine, Wladimir; Uteza, Olivier P.

    2000-04-01

    The application of excimer laser ablation process to the decontamination of radioactive surfaces is discussed. This technology is very attractive because it allows to efficiently remove the contaminated particles without secondary waste production. To demonstrate the capability of such technology to efficiently decontaminate large area, we studied and developed a prototype which include a XeCl laser, an optical fiber delivery system and an ablated particles collection cell. The main physical processes taking place during UV laser ablation will be explained. The influence of laser wavelength, pulse duration and absorption coefficient of material will be discussed. Special studies have been performed to understand the processes which limit the transmission of high average power excimer laser through optical fiber, and to determine the laser conditions to optimize the value of this transmission. An in-situ spectroscopic analysis of laser ablation plasma allows the real time control of the decontamination. The results obtained for painting or metallic oxides removal from stainless steel surfaces will be presented.

  12. Unidirectional photonic wire laser

    SciTech Connect

    Khalatpour, Ali; Reno, John L.; Kherani, Nazir P.

    Photonic wire lasers are a new genre of lasers that have a transverse dimension much smaller than the wavelength. Unidirectional emission is highly desirable as most of the laser power will be in the desired direction. Owing to their small lateral dimension relative to the wavelength, however, the mode mostly propagates outside the solid core. Consequently, conventional approaches to attach a highly reflective element to the rear facet, whether a thin film or a distributed Bragg reflector, are not applicable. In this paper, we propose a simple and effective technique to achieve unidirectionality. Terahertz quantum-cascade lasers with distributed feedback (DFB)more » were chosen as the platform of the photonic wire lasers. Unidirectionality is achieved with a power ratio of the forward/backward of about eight, and the power of the forward-emitting laser is increased by a factor of 1.8 compared with a reference bidirectional DFB laser. Finally and furthermore, we achieved a wall plug power efficiency of ~1%.« less

  13. Unidirectional photonic wire laser

    DOE PAGES

    Khalatpour, Ali; Reno, John L.; Kherani, Nazir P.; ...

    2017-08-07

    Photonic wire lasers are a new genre of lasers that have a transverse dimension much smaller than the wavelength. Unidirectional emission is highly desirable as most of the laser power will be in the desired direction. Owing to their small lateral dimension relative to the wavelength, however, the mode mostly propagates outside the solid core. Consequently, conventional approaches to attach a highly reflective element to the rear facet, whether a thin film or a distributed Bragg reflector, are not applicable. In this paper, we propose a simple and effective technique to achieve unidirectionality. Terahertz quantum-cascade lasers with distributed feedback (DFB)more » were chosen as the platform of the photonic wire lasers. Unidirectionality is achieved with a power ratio of the forward/backward of about eight, and the power of the forward-emitting laser is increased by a factor of 1.8 compared with a reference bidirectional DFB laser. Finally and furthermore, we achieved a wall plug power efficiency of ~1%.« less

  14. Fractional laser skin resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Alexiades-Armenakas, Macrene R; Dover, Jeffrey S; Arndt, Kenneth A

    2012-11-01

    Laser skin resurfacing (LSR) has evolved over the past 2 decades from traditional ablative to fractional nonablative and fractional ablative resurfacing. Traditional ablative LSR was highly effective in reducing rhytides, photoaging, and acne scarring but was associated with significant side effects and complications. In contrast, nonablative LSR was very safe but failed to deliver consistent clinical improvement. Fractional LSR has achieved the middle ground; it combined the efficacy of traditional LSR with the safety of nonablative modalities. The first fractional laser was a nonablative erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser that produced microscopic columns of thermal injury in the epidermis and upper dermis. Heralding an entirely new concept of laser energy delivery, it delivered the laser beam in microarrays. It resulted in microscopic columns of treated tissue and intervening areas of untreated skin, which yielded rapid reepithelialization. Fractional delivery was quickly applied to ablative wavelengths such as carbon dioxide, Er:YAG, and yttrium scandium gallium garnet (2,790 nm), providing more significant clinical outcomes. Adjustable laser parameters, including power, pitch, dwell time, and spot density, allowed for precise determination of percent surface area, affected penetration depth, and clinical recovery time and efficacy. Fractional LSR has been a significant advance to the laser field, striking the balance between safety and efficacy.

  15. Lasers in digestive endoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunetaud, Jean Marc; Maunoury, Vincent; Cochelard, Dominique

    1997-01-01

    Lasers were introduced in digestive endoscopy to stop active gastroduodenal hemorrhages. Their use spread progressively to the treatment of chronic hemorrhages from vascular malformations and sessile tumors. Laser face competition from other endoscopic techniques such as electrocoagulation, injection techniques, dilation, stents, and brachytherapy. Many series have reported the efficacy of lasers in digestive endoscopy used for their thermal or photochemical effects. However, they were gradually abandoned for the treatment of hemorrhages because of competition from nonlaser techniques. Lasers are still used for ablation of sessile tumors, but their true impact is difficult to evaluate. Modern methods of technology assessment did not allow gastroenterologists to clearly define the place of lasers among surgery, radio-chemotherapy, and other endoscopic techniques, and data on the daily use of lasers are not available. Therefore, the conclusion can only be subjective. The best current application of thermal lasers appears to be in the treatment of rectosigmoid villous adenomas in elderly patients. Small superficial rectal cancers may also become a good subject due to the impact of endoscopic ultrasonography. Early lesions with multifocal or diffuse disease such as early esophageal cancers could be the most promising subject of application for photodynamic therapy in the future.

  16. Laser applications in surgery

    PubMed Central

    Azadgoli, Beina

    2016-01-01

    In modern medicine, lasers are increasingly utilized for treatment of a variety of pathologies as interest in less invasive treatment modalities intensifies. The physics behind lasers allows the same basic principles to be applied to a multitude of tissue types using slight modifications of the system. Multiple laser systems have been studied within each field of medicine. The term “laser” was combined with “surgery,” “ablation,” “lithotripsy,” “cancer treatment,” “tumor ablation,” “dermatology,” “skin rejuvenation,” “lipolysis,” “cardiology,” “atrial fibrillation (AF),” and “epilepsy” during separate searches in the PubMed database. Original articles that studied the application of laser energy for these conditions were reviewed and included. A review of laser therapy is presented. Laser energy can be safely and effectively used for lithotripsy, for the treatment of various types of cancer, for a multitude of cosmetic and reconstructive procedures, and for the ablation of abnormal conductive pathways. For each of these conditions, management with lasers is comparable to, and potentially superior to, management with more traditional methods. PMID:28090508

  17. Design of integrated laser initiator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Chunqiang; He, Aifeng; Jing, Bo; Ma, Yue

    2018-03-01

    This paper analyzes the design principle of integrated laser detonator, introduces the design method of integrated laser Detonators. Based on the integrated laser detonator, structure, laser energy -exchange device, circuit design and the energetic material properties and the charge parameters, developed a high level of integration Antistatic ability Small size of the integrated laser prototype Detonator. The laser detonator prototype antistatic ability of 25 kV. The research of this paper can solve the key design of laser detonator miniaturization and integration of weapons and equipment, satisfy the electromagnetic safety and micro weapons development of explosive demand.

  18. Color speckle in laser displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, Kazuo

    2015-07-01

    At the beginning of this century, lighting technology has been shifted from discharge lamps, fluorescent lamps and electric bulbs to solid-state lighting. Current solid-state lighting is based on the light emitting diodes (LED) technology, but the laser lighting technology is developing rapidly, such as, laser cinema projectors, laser TVs, laser head-up displays, laser head mounted displays, and laser headlamps for motor vehicles. One of the main issues of laser displays is the reduction of speckle noise1). For the monochromatic laser light, speckle is random interference pattern on the image plane (retina for human observer). For laser displays, RGB (red-green-blue) lasers form speckle patterns independently, which results in random distribution of chromaticity, called color speckle2).

  19. Fiber optic laser rod

    DOEpatents

    Erickson, G.F.

    1988-04-13

    A laser rod is formed from a plurality of optical fibers, each forming an individual laser. Synchronization of the individual fiber lasers is obtained by evanescent wave coupling between adjacent optical fiber cores. The fiber cores are dye-doped and spaced at a distance appropriate for evanescent wave coupling at the wavelength of the selected dye. An interstitial material having an index of refraction lower than that of the fiber core provides the optical isolation for effective lasing action while maintaining the cores at the appropriate coupling distance. 2 figs.

  20. Simulations of laser undulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milton, S. V.; Biedron, S. B.; Einstein, J. E.

    2016-09-01

    We perform a series of single-pass, one-D free-electron laser simulations based on an electron beam from a standard linear accelerator coupled with a so-called laser undulator, a specialized device that is more compact than a standard undulator based on magnetic materials. The longitudinal field profiles of such lasers undulators are intriguing as one must and can tailor the profile for the needs of creating the virtual undulator. We present and discuss several results of recent simulations and our future steps.

  1. Optimising Laser Tattoo Removal

    PubMed Central

    Sardana, Kabir; Ranjan, Rashmi; Ghunawat, Sneha

    2015-01-01

    Lasers are the standard modality for tattoo removal. Though there are various factors that determine the results, we have divided them into three logical headings, laser dependant factors such as type of laser and beam modifications, tattoo dependent factors like size and depth, colour of pigment and lastly host dependent factors, which includes primarily the presence of a robust immune response. Modifications in the existing techniques may help in better clinical outcome with minimal risk of complications. This article provides an insight into some of these techniques along with a detailed account of the factors involved in tattoo removal. PMID:25949018

  2. Laser two focus techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schodl, R.

    The development of the laser two focus velocimetry are reviewed. The fundamentals of this nonintrusive fluid flow velocity measurement technique are described. Emphasis is placed upon the advances of this technique. Results of measurements in a very small flow channel and in a small turbocharger compressor rotor are presented. The influence of beam diameter - beam separation ratio on the measuring accuracy and on the measuring time is treated. A multicolor two dimensional system with selectable beam separation is presented. The laser Doppler and the laser two focus techniques are compared.

  3. Submarine laser communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConathy, D. R.

    The Department of the Navy and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) are sponsoring a joint study to investigate the use of blue-green laser technology to comunicate with submarines at operating depths. Two approaches are under investigation - one in which the laser itself is space-based, and the other in which the laser is ground-based with its beam redirected to the earth's surface by an orbiting mirror. This paper discusses these two approaches, and presents a brief history of activities which led to the current studies.

  4. Laser initiation of explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manpreet; Sethi, V. S.

    2002-09-01

    Through laser initiation of explosives offers many advantages like controlled threshold energy over wide range, replacement of complicated safety arming mechanisms to simple and better system, immunity to RF/EMI environment etc, but there is greater difficulty to build detonator for all purpose applications and regular field trials. The challenges are to understand the interaction of laser radiation or its induced plasma with explosives, launching and transmission of high power laser beam, coupling and focussing to desired target area. This paper looks into the details of those facts.

  5. Diatomic gasdynamic lasers.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenzie, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Predictions from a numerical model of the vibrational relaxation of anharmonic diatomic oscillators in supersonic expansions are used to show the extent to which the small anharmonicity of gases like CO can cause significant overpopulations of upper vibrational states. When mixtures of CO and N2 are considered, radiative gain on many of the vibration-rotation transitions of CO is predicted. Experiments are described that qualitatively verify the predictions by demonstrating laser oscillation in CO-N2 expansions. The resulting CO-N2 gasdynamic laser displays performance characteristics that equal or exceed those of similar CO2 lasers.

  6. Diatomic gasdynamic lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenzie, R. L.

    1971-01-01

    Predictions from a numerical model of the vibrational relaxation of anharmonic diatomic oscillators in supersonic expansions are used to show the extent to which the small anharmonicity of gases like CO can cause significant overpopulations of upper vibrational states. When mixtures of CO and N2 are considered, radiative gain on many of the vibration-rotation transitions of CO is predicted. Experiments are described that qualitatively verify the predictions by demonstrating laser oscillation in CO-N2 expansions. The resulting CO-N2 gasdynamic laser displays performance characteristics that equal or exceed those of similar CO2 lasers.

  7. Eyesafe laser cloud mapper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodall, Milton A., II; Minch, J. R.; Nunez, J.; Keeter, Howard S.; Johnson, Anthony M.

    1990-07-01

    The performance of eyesafe erbium:glass lasers operating at a wavelength of 1. 54 urn has been tested under various natural and manmade obscurants. To obtain the maximum amount of information two distinct system configurations were employed. The first a laser cloud mapper was designed to provide a direct depth profile of smoke density and reflectivity as well as target position. The second configuration was a production military laser rangefinder. It is representative of systems currently incorporated in tactical armored vehicles and was used to provide a direct indication of target range. 1.

  8. Laser Plasma Heating.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The heating of a plasma by a laser is studied, assuming the classical inverse bremsstrahlung mechanism for transfer of energy from laser photons to electron thermal energy. Emphasis is given to CO2 laser heating of the dense plasma focus (DPF) device. Particular attention is paid to the contribution of impurities to the radiation output of the DPF. A steady-state CORONA model is discussed and used to generate a computer program, CORONA, which calculates species densities as a function of electron temperature. (Author)

  9. Laser applications in neurosurgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerullo, Leonard J.

    1985-09-01

    The "false start" of the laser in neurosurgery should not be misconstrued as a denial of the inherent advantages of precision and gentleness in dealing with neural tissue. Rather, early investigators were frustrated by unrealistic expectations, cumbersome equipment, and a general ignorance of microtechnique. By the early 70s, microneurosurgery was well established, surgical laser equipment for free hand and microlinked application had been developed, and a more realistic view of the limitations of the laser had been established. Consequently, the late 70s really heralded the renaissance of the laser in neurosurgery. Since then, there has been an overwhelming acceptance of the tool in a variety of clinical situations, broadly categorized in five groups. 1)|Perhaps the most generally accepted area is in the removal of extra-axial tumors of the brain and spinal cord. These tumors, benign by histology but treacherous by location, do not present until a significant amount of neurological compensation has already occurred. The application of additional trauma to the neural tissue, whether by further tumor growth or surgical manipulation, frequently results in irreversible damage. Here, the ability of the laser to vaporize tissue, in a fairly hemostatic fashion, without mechanical or thermal damage to sensitive surrounding tissues, is essential. 2)|The ability to incise delicate neural tissue with minimal spread of thermal destruction to adjacent functioning tissue makes the laser the ideal instrument when tumors deep under the surface are encountered in the brain or spinal cord. Thus, the second group of applications is in the transgression of normal neural structures to arrive at deeper pathological tissue. 3)|The third area of benefit for the laser in neurosurgery has been in the performance of neuroablative procedures, calling for deliberate destruction of functioning neural tissue in a controlled fashion. Again, the precision and shape confinement of the destructive

  10. Bibliography of Soviet Laser Developments, Number 44 November - December 1979.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-13

    Laser Materials, Ultrashort Pulse Generation, X-ray Lasers , Gamma Lasers , Laser Theory, Laser Biological Effects, Laser Communications, Laser Beam... lasers ; components; nonlinear optics; spectroscopy of laser materials; ultrashort pulse generation; theoretical aspects of advanced lasers ; and...and V.P. Feshchenko (51). Stimulated Raman scattering in absorbing media during pumping by ultrashort laser

  11. Bibliography of Soviet Laser Developments, No. 18, October - December 1974

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-04-25

    IIV Lasers, Laser Theory , Laser Biological Effects, Laser Communications, Laser Computer Technology, Holography, Laser Chemical Effects...spectros.copy of laser materials; ultrashort pulse generation; crystal growing; theoretical aspects of advanced lasers; and general laser theory Laser...Semiconductor: Mixed Junction 5 6. Semiconductor: Heterojunction ^ 7. Semiconductor: Theory 8. Nd:Glass B. Liquid Lasers 1

  12. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-31

    mass spectrometry and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, Spe T Trejos, A Flores and JR. Almirall, Micro-spectrochemical analysis of document paper...and gel inks by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, Spectrochimica Acta Part B...abstracts): 1. *Schenk, E.R. “Elemental analysis of unprocessed cotton by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and laser

  13. Solar Pumped, Alkali Vapor Laser.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-04

    convert the solar radiation to electricity or longer wavelength blackbody radiation which is then used to power the laser. A directly pumped solar laser...wavelength blackbody radiation which is then used to power the laser. A directly pumped solar laser would utilize a portion of the solar spectrum to directly...sodium dimer (near the upper laser state) and a second body. *, I will review the method we used for measuring these rates and present preliminary

  14. Laser-heated thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemp, N. H.; Lewis, P. F.

    1980-01-01

    The development of a computer program for the design of the thrust chamber for a CW laser heated thruster was examined. Hydrodgen was employed as the propellant gas and high temperature absorber. The laser absorption coefficient of the mixture/laser radiation combination is given in temperature and species densities. Radiative and absorptive properties are given to determine radiation from such gas mixtures. A computer code for calculating the axisymmetric channel flow of a gas mixture in chemical equilibrium, and laser energy absorption and convective and radiative heating is described. It is concluded that: (1) small amounts of cesium seed substantially increase the absorption coefficient of hydrogen; (2) cesium is a strong radiator and contributes greatly to radiation of cesium seeded hydrogen; (3) water vapor is a poor absorber; and (4) for 5.3mcm radiation, both H2O/CO and NO/CO seeded hydrogen mixtures are good absorbers.

  15. Fusion reactor pumped laser

    DOEpatents

    Jassby, D.L.

    1987-09-04

    A nuclear pumped laser capable of producing long pulses of very high power laser radiation is provided. A toroidal fusion reactor provides energetic neutrons which are slowed down by a moderator. The moderated neutrons are converted to energetic particles capable of pumping a lasing medium. The lasing medium is housed in an annular cell surrounding the reactor. The cell includes an annular reflecting mirror at the bottom and an annular output window at the top. A neutron reflector is disposed around the cell to reflect escaping neutrons back into the cell. The laser radiation from the annular window is focused onto a beam compactor which generates a single coherent output laser beam. 10 figs.

  16. Blinding laser weapons.

    PubMed

    Peters, A

    1996-01-01

    At its October 1995 Review Conference, the Convention on Conventional Weapons added a protocol banning the use and transfer of blinding laser weapons. The background to, and significance and limitations of this ban are discussed.

  17. Contaminant Monitor Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Under a Small Business Innovation Research contract from Langley Research Center, OPOTEK, Inc. developed a laser transmitter for remote sensing of water vapor in the upper atmosphere. As a leader in developing and using Differential Absorption Lidar, a remote sensing technique to monitor ozone and water vapor in the atmosphere, NASA was interested in upgrading the capabilities of its airborn laser systems. The laser transmitter developed for NASA was used for measuring water vapor in the infrared region. By broadening this concept to other wavelengths, OPOTEK believes a range of industrial applications can be met. In addition, the tunable laser system can be used by the Drug Enforcement Administration to discern the by-products from illegal drug manufacturing. A host of other government, university, and industrial laboratory uses for the technology are also being examined as follow-up by the company.

  18. Laser cutting nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Ramos, Terry J.

    1984-01-01

    A laser cutting nozzle for use with a laser cutting apparatus directing a focused beam to a spot on a work piece. The nozzle has a cylindrical body with a conical tip which together have a conically shaped hollow interior with the apex at a small aperture through the tip. The conical hollow interior is shaped to match the profile of the laser beam, at full beamwidth, which passes through the nozzle to the work piece. A plurality of gas inlet holes extend through the body to the hollow interior and are oriented to produce a swirling flow of gas coaxially through the nozzle and out the aperture, aligned with the laser beam, to the work piece. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

  19. Remembering the laser diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-12-01

    Fifty years ago, researchers at a handful of laboratories around the world were reporting lasing from the first semiconductor lasers. Our IT infrastructure today relies on their diligence and success.

  20. DIFFRACTION SYNCHRONIZATION OF LASERS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    semiconductor lasers while suppressing parasitic generation in the plane of the mirror. The diffraction coupling coefficient of open resonators is calculated, and the stability conditions of the synchronized system is determined.

  1. Making Laser Beams Visible.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knotts, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Describes an inexpensive fog machine that is useful for photography and laser demonstrations. The apparatus uses liquid nitrogen to chill steam to make a fine mist safe for precision optics. The device can be made for around $50. (MVL)

  2. Laser therapy for periodontitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efanov, O. I.

    2001-04-01

    An investigation was made of applying pulsed (lambda) equals 0.89 micrometers laser radiation in the treatment for early diagnosed periodontitis. The investigation was made on 65 patients (47 patients constituted the experimental group and 18 patients constituted a control group) affected by periodontitis. Clinical and functional tests revealed that laser therapy produced a string effect on the course of the illness. It reduced bleeding, inflammation, and pruritus. However, it did not produce an affect on electroexcitation. Biomicroscopic examinations and periodontium rheography revealed that the gingival blood flow became normal after the course of laser therapy. The capillary permeability and venous congestion decreased, which was confirmed by the increased time of vacuum tests, raised gingival temperature, reduced tissue clearance, and increased oxygen tension. Apart from that, laser therapy subsided fibrinolysis, proteolytic tissue activity, and decreased the exudative inflammation of periodontium.

  3. Erbium lasers in dentistry.

    PubMed

    van As, Glenn

    2004-10-01

    Erbium hard tissue lasers have the capability to prepare enamel, dentin, caries, cementum, and bone in addition to cutting soft tissue. The ability of hard tissue lasers to reduce or eliminate vibrations, the audible whine of drills, microfractures, and some of the discomfort that many patients fear and commonly associate with high-speed handpieces is impressive. In addition, these lasers can be used with a reduced amount of local anesthetic for many procedures. Today, these instruments have evolved from their initial use for all classes of cavity preparations to their ability for removing soft tissue, their usefulness in the disinfection of bacteria within endodontic canals, and most recently, as an alternative to the high speed handpiece for the removal of bone in oral and maxillofacial surgery. In addition, recent research has centered on the value of the erbium family of laser wavelengths in periodontics, including the removal of calculus.

  4. 3D Laser System

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-09-16

    NASA Glenn's Icing Research Tunnel 3D Laser System used for digitizing ice shapes created in the wind tunnel. The ice shapes are later utilized for characterization, analysis, and software development.

  5. Laser cutting nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Ramos, T.J.

    1982-09-30

    A laser cutting nozzle for use with a laser cutting apparatus directing a focused beam to a spot on a work piece. The nozzle has a cylindrical body with a conical tip which together have a conically shaped hollow interior with the apex at a small aperture through the tip. The conical hollow interior is shaped to match the profile of the laser beam, at full beamwidth, which passes through the nozzle to the work piece. A plurality of gas inlet holes extend through the body to the hollow interior and are oriented to produce a swirling flow of gas coaxially through the nozzle and out the aperture, aligned with the laser beam, to the work piece.

  6. A silicon Brillouin laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otterstrom, Nils T.; Behunin, Ryan O.; Kittlaus, Eric A.; Wang, Zheng; Rakich, Peter T.

    2018-06-01

    Brillouin laser oscillators offer powerful and flexible dynamics as the basis for mode-locked lasers, microwave oscillators, and optical gyroscopes in a variety of optical systems. However, Brillouin interactions are markedly weak in conventional silicon photonic waveguides, stifling progress toward silicon-based Brillouin lasers. The recent advent of hybrid photonic-phononic waveguides has revealed Brillouin interactions to be one of the strongest and most tailorable nonlinearities in silicon. In this study, we have harnessed these engineered nonlinearities to demonstrate Brillouin lasing in silicon. Moreover, we show that this silicon-based Brillouin laser enters a regime of dynamics in which optical self-oscillation produces phonon linewidth narrowing. Our results provide a platform to develop a range of applications for monolithic integration within silicon photonic circuits.

  7. Lasers in dental implantology.

    PubMed

    Martin, Emile

    2004-10-01

    The parallels in the expansion of implant dentistry and laser dentistry in clinical practice are apparent. As advocates for laser dentistry continue to seek new ways to use the technology and as more practitioners become involved in implant dentistry, it is logical to see the concurrent use of both technologies in clinical practice. This article provides data that clearly support the value of dental lasers in the practice of implant dentistry. The challenge for the practitioner is the same as for any other area of dentistry: knowing when, where, and what armamentarium to use in any given situation. Not all dental laser wavelengths are necessarily useful in every dental implant situation. After clinicians know the characteristics of the wavelengths available to them, the application of the technology to the specific situation certainly is warranted.

  8. X-Ray Lasers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapline, George; Wood, Lowell

    1975-01-01

    Outlines the prospects of generating coherent x rays using high-power lasers and indentifies problem areas in their development. Indicates possible applications for coherent x rays in the fields of chemistry, biology, and crystallography. (GS)

  9. Petawatt laser absorption bounded

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Matthew C.; Wilks, Scott C.; Tabak, Max; Libby, Stephen B.; Baring, Matthew G.

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of petawatt (1015 W) lasers with solid matter forms the basis for advanced scientific applications such as table-top particle accelerators, ultrafast imaging systems and laser fusion. Key metrics for these applications relate to absorption, yet conditions in this regime are so nonlinear that it is often impossible to know the fraction of absorbed light f, and even the range of f is unknown. Here using a relativistic Rankine-Hugoniot-like analysis, we show for the first time that f exhibits a theoretical maximum and minimum. These bounds constrain nonlinear absorption mechanisms across the petawatt regime, forbidding high absorption values at low laser power and low absorption values at high laser power. For applications needing to circumvent the absorption bounds, these results will accelerate a shift from solid targets, towards structured and multilayer targets, and lead the development of new materials. PMID:24938656

  10. Laser safety eyewear.

    PubMed

    1993-04-01

    In spite of repeated warnings about laser safety practices, as well as the availability of laser safety eyewear (LSE), eye injuries continue to occur during use of surgical lasers, as discussed in the Clinical Perspective, "Laser Energy and Its Dangers to Eyes," preceding this Evaluation. We evaluated 48 models of LSE, including goggles, spectacles, and wraps, from 11 manufacturers. The evaluated models are designed with absorptive lenses that provide protection from CO2 (carbon dioxide), Nd:YAG (neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet), and 532 (frequency-doubled Nd:YAG) surgical laser wavelengths; several models provide multiwavelength protection. (Refer to ECRI's Product Comparison System report on LSE for specifications of other models.) Although most of the evaluated models can adequately protect users from laser energy--provided that the eyewear is used--many models of LSE, especially goggles, are designed with little regard for the needs of actual use (e.g., adequate labeling, no alteration of color perception, sufficient field of vision [FOV], comfort). Because these factors can discourage people from using LSE, we encourage manufacturers to develop new and improved models that will be worn. We based our ratings primarily on the laser protection provided by the optical density (OD) of the lenses; we acknowledge the contribution of Montana Laser Optics Inc., of Bozeman, Montana, in performing our OD testing. We also considered actual-use factors, such as those mentioned above, to be significant. Among the models rated Acceptable is one whose labeled OD is lower than the level we determined to be adequate for use during most laser surgery; however, this model offers protection under specific conditions of use (e.g., for use by spectators some distance from the surgical site, for use during endoscopic procedures) that should be determined by the laser safety officer (LSO). LSE that would put the wearer at risk are rated Unacceptable (e.g., some models are not

  11. Outlook for metal lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, G. R.

    1976-01-01

    Lasers utilizing atomic metallic vapors are considered with emphasis on a double discharge technique and multiply pulsed experiments. Data are presented on the effect of time delay after the first electrical discharge and the effect of lasant temperature along with results of absorption measurements utilizing a 13 mm diameter laser tube. Data obtained from multiply pulsed experiments for discharge diameters varying from 1 to 4 cm indicate that the efficiency increases with the pulsing rate.

  12. Transmyocardial laser revascularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aretz, H. Thomas

    1996-09-01

    Transmyocardial laser revascularization (TMR) for the treatment of medically unresponsive angina pectoris has been shown to be clinically effective. The mechanism of its action, however, is not quite understood. Over the last five years my collaborators and I have conducted a variety of in vivo and in vitro studies using different animal models, lasers and experimental protocols. The results seem to indicate that the mechanism of action of TMR is related to neovascularization rather than chronically patent channels, as originally proposed.

  13. Focusing elliptical laser beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchant, A. B.

    1984-03-01

    The spot formed by focusing an elliptical laser beam through an ordinary objective lens can be optimized by properly filling the objective lens. Criteria are given for maximizing the central irradiance and the line-spread function. An optimized spot is much less elliptical than the incident laser beam. For beam ellipticities as high as 2:1, this spatial filtering reduces the central irradiance by less than 14 percent.

  14. Laser Processed Heat Exchangers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Scott

    2017-01-01

    The Laser Processed Heat Exchanger project will investigate the use of laser processed surfaces to reduce mass and volume in liquid/liquid heat exchangers as well as the replacement of the harmful and problematic coatings of the Condensing Heat Exchangers (CHX). For this project, two scale unit test articles will be designed, manufactured, and tested. These two units are a high efficiency liquid/liquid HX and a high reliability CHX.

  15. Solar Pumped Laser

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-09-01

    1 dB into 50 ohm load, output VSWR less than 1.5. Phase variation relative to the optical pulse train less than +A.5 Rod Temperature...design of the PSQM laser. All phases of design, mechanical, electronic and optical , borrowed heavily from the EFM lamp pumped laser...opnical power input change for the germanium device is twice that for the silicon device, its random phase noise for a typical in- put of 1 mW optical

  16. Laser Journal (Selected Articles),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-10

    temperature CO2 branch selection laser with a lifetime already exceeding 6500 hours which may be even longer. HIGH POWER LONG LIFE HeCd LASER Qu Shipu...method of plating single crystal gold film in a vacuum with the foreign material extension method. First mica is used as the substrate. Then a special...Hospital) Chen Zhasping Zhou Yiping et al (Eye, Ear, Nose, Throat Hospital, Examination Department, Shanghai Medical School Number 1.) Qu Zhipu et al

  17. Laser paint stripping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, J. D.; Niedzielski, J. Peter

    1991-06-01

    A study to assess the utility of high powered CO2 pulsed laser depainting methods was conducted on aluminum and graphite epoxy composites. The various tests were designed to detect potential forms of damage or loss of properties of various aircraft structural materials during removal of paint with pulsed laser energy. Tests for changes in physical properties, paint adhesion and corrosion protection of repainted materials showed no detectable adverse changes in any of the samples studied.

  18. Cylindrical laser resonator

    DOEpatents

    Casperson, Lee W.

    1976-02-24

    The properties of an improved class of lasers is presented. In one configuration of these lasers the radiation propagates radially within the amplifying medium, resulting in high fields and symmetric illumination at the resonator axis. Thus there is a strong focusing of energy at the axis of the resonator. In a second configuration the radiation propagates back and forth in a tubular region of space.

  19. Insulator for laser housing

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, D.B.

    1992-12-29

    The present invention provides a heat-resistant electrical insulator adapted for joining laser housing portions, which insulator comprises: an annulus; a channel in the annulus traversing the circumference and length of the housing; at least two ports, each communicating with the channel and an outer surface of the housing; and an attachment for securely attaching each end of the annulus to a laser housing member. 3 figs.

  20. Laser Atmospheric Absorption Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-05-01

    A. Modification of Commercial C09 Laser 50 B. CW HF/DF Laser System * 53 C. Microcomputer Data Link 55 D . Fourier Transform...improved accuracy are used [5]. c. The absorption coefficient is listed for each absorbing species separately which some codes require. d . A super...series of water vapor absorption measurements was planned. The results of the first four lines studied are presented here in Figures 33a- d . Figure

  1. Laser angle sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pond, C. R.; Texeira, P. D.

    1985-01-01

    A laser angle measurement system was designed and fabricated for NASA Langley Research Center. The instrument is a fringe counting interferometer that monitors the pitch attitude of a model in a wind tunnel. A laser source and detector are mounted above the model. Interference fringes are generated by a small passive element on the model. The fringe count is accumulated and displayed by a processor in the wind tunnel control room. This report includes optical and electrical schematics, system maintenance and operation procedures.

  2. Insulator for laser housing

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, David B.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention provides a heat-resistant electrical insulator adapted for joining laser housing portions, which insulator comprises: an annulus; a channel in the annulus traversing the circumference and length of the housing; at least two ports, each communicating with the channel and an outer surface of the housing; and an attachment for securely attaching each end of the annulus to a laser housing member.

  3. Fiber distributed feedback laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elachi, C.; Evans, G. A.; Yeh, C. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Utilizing round optical fibers as communication channels in optical communication networks presents the problem of obtaining a high efficiency coupling between the optical fiber and the laser. A laser is made an integral part of the optical fiber channel by either diffusing active material into the optical fiber or surrounding the optical fiber with the active material. Oscillation within the active medium to produce lasing action is established by grating the optical fiber so that distributed feedback occurs.

  4. A tunable emerald laser

    SciTech Connect

    Shand, M.L.; Walling, J.C.

    1982-11-01

    Emerald is a new broadly wavelength-tunable vibronic laser material with stimulated emission in the red to infrared due to /sup 4/T/sub 2/..-->../sup 4/A transitions of Cr/sup 3 +/. Emerald has gain from 12 050 cm/sup -1/ to 14 000 cm/sup -1/ with high gain from about 12 300 cm/sup -1/ to 13 700 cm/sup -1/. An emerald laser oscillator has been achieved, but has high losses.

  5. X-Ray Laser

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-31

    Reflection in Relativistic Electron Beam Channel Radiation Systems, IEEE Trans. on Plasma Science 16(5), 548 (1988). 3. M. Strauss, P. Amendt, N...Reduced Radiation Losses in a Channeled-Beam X-Ray Laser by Bragg Reflection Coupling, Phys. Rev. A 39(11), 5791 (1989). 6. M. Strauss and N. Rostoker... Radiation Guiding in Channeling Beam X-Ray Laser by Bragg Reflection Coupling, Phys. Rev. A 40(12), 7097 (1989). 91-00870111 llllltl

  6. Pulsed gas laser

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Louis W.; Fitzsimmons, William A.

    1978-01-01

    A pulsed gas laser is constituted by Blumlein circuits wherein space metal plates function both as capacitors and transmission lines coupling high frequency oscillations to a gas filled laser tube. The tube itself is formed by spaced metal side walls which function as connections to the electrodes to provide for a high frequency, high voltage discharge in the tube to cause the gas to lase. Also shown is a spark gap switch having structural features permitting a long life.

  7. Variable laser attenuator

    DOEpatents

    Foltyn, S.R.

    1987-05-29

    The disclosure relates to low loss, high power variable attenuators comprising one or more transmissive and/or reflective multilayer dielectric filters. The attenuator is particularly suitable to use with unpolarized lasers such as excimer lasers. Beam attenuation is a function of beam polarization and the angle of incidence between the beam and the filter and is controlled by adjusting the angle of incidence the beam makes to the filter or filters. Filters are selected in accordance with beam wavelength. 9 figs.

  8. Variable laser attenuator

    DOEpatents

    Foltyn, Stephen R.

    1988-01-01

    The disclosure relates to low loss, high power variable attenuators comprng one or more transmissive and/or reflective multilayer dielectric filters. The attenuator is particularly suitable to use with unpolarized lasers such as excimer lasers. Beam attenuation is a function of beam polarization and the angle of incidence between the beam and the filter and is controlled by adjusting the angle of incidence the beam makes to the filter or filters. Filters are selected in accordance with beam wavelength.

  9. Laser range profile of cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wenzhen; Gong, Yanjun; Wang, Mingjun; Gong, Lei

    2016-10-01

    technology. Laser one-dimensional range profile can reflect the characteristics of the target shape and surface material. These techniques were motivated by applications of laser radar to target discrimination in ballistic missile defense. The radar equation of pulse laser about cone is given in this paper. This paper demonstrates the analytical model of laser one-dimensional range profile of cone based on the radar equation of the pulse laser. Simulations results of laser one-dimensional range profiles of some cones are given. Laser one-dimensional range profiles of cone, whose surface material with diffuse lambertian reflectance, is given in this paper. Laser one-dimensional range profiles of cone, whose surface mater with diffuse materials whose retroreflectance can be modeled closely with an exponential term that decays with increasing incidence angles, is given in this paper. Laser one-dimensional range profiles of different pulse width of cone is given in this paper. The influences of surface material, pulse width, attitude on the one-dimensional range are analyzed. The laser two-dimensional range profile is two-dimensional scattering imaging of pulse laser of target. The two-dimensional range profile of roughness target can provide range resolved information. An analytical model of two-dimensional laser range profile of cone is proposed. The simulations of two-dimensional laser range profiles of some cones are given. Laser two-dimensional range profiles of cone, whose surface mater with diffuse lambertian reflectance, is given in this paper. Laser two-dimensional range profiles of cone, whose surface mater with diffuse materials whose retroreflectance can be modeled closely with an exponential term that decays with increasing incidence angles, is given in this paper. The influence of pulse width, surface material on laser two-dimensional range profile is analyzed. Laser one-dimensional range profile and laser two-dimensional range profile are called as laser

  10. Wurtzite spin lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria Junior, Paulo E.; Xu, Gaofeng; Chen, Yang-Fang; Sipahi, Guilherme M.; Žutić, Igor

    2017-03-01

    Semiconductor lasers are strongly altered by adding spin-polarized carriers. Such spin lasers could overcome many limitations of their conventional (spin-unpolarized) counterparts. While the vast majority of experiments in spin lasers employed zinc-blende semiconductors, the room-temperature electrical manipulation was first demonstrated in wurtzite GaN-based lasers. However, the underlying theoretical description of wurtzite spin lasers is still missing. To address this situation, focusing on (In,Ga)N-based wurtzite quantum wells, we develop a theoretical framework in which the calculated microscopic spin-dependent gain is combined with a simple rate equation model. A small spin-orbit coupling in these wurtzites supports simultaneous spin polarizations of electrons and holes, providing unexplored opportunities to control spin lasers. For example, the gain asymmetry, as one of the key figures of merit related to spin amplification, can change the sign by simply increasing the carrier density. The lasing threshold reduction has a nonmonotonic dependence on electron-spin polarization, even for a nonvanishing hole spin polarization.

  11. Laser radiation bracket debonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dostálová, Tat'jana; Jelínková, Helena; Šulc, Jan; Koranda, Petr; Nemec, Michal; Racek, Jaroslav; Miyagi, Mitsunobu

    2008-02-01

    Ceramic brackets are an aesthetic substitute for conventional stainless steel brackets in orthodontic patients. However, ceramic brackets are more brittle and have higher bond strengths, which can lead to bracket breakage and enamel damage during classical type of debonding. This study examined the possibility of laser radiation ceramic brackets removing as well as the possible damage of a surface structure of hard dental tissue after this procedure. Two types of lasers were used for the experiments - a laser diode LIMO HLU20F400 generating a wavelength of 808 nm with the maximum output power 20W at the end of the fiber (core diameter 400 μm, numerical aperture 0.22). As a second source, a diode-pumped Tm:YAP laser system generating a wavelength of 1.9 μm, with up to 3.8 W maximum output power was chosen. For the investigation, extracted incisors with ceramic brackets were used. In both cases, laser radiation was applied for 0.5 minute at a maximum power of 1 W. Temperature changes of the irradiated tissue was registered by camera Electrophysics PV320. After the interaction experiment, the photo-documentation was prepared by the stereomicroscope Nikon SMZ 2T, Japan. The surface tissue analysis was processed in "low vacuum" (30 Pa) regime without desiccation. This technique was used to record back-scattered electron images. Selecting the appropriate laser, resin, and bracket combination can minimize risks of enamel degradation and make debonding more safe.

  12. Laser Refractive Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wynne, James

    Refractive surgery has its roots in corneal transplant surgery, first performed in 1905, where the damaged or diseased cornea of a living individual is replaced by donated corneal tissue taken from a recently deceased individual. Since the cornea has no blood supply, there is no danger of organ rejection. Recognizing the exceptional healing power of corneal tissue, ophthalmologists began to explore methods of reshaping the cornea to improve the visual acuity of patients suffering from myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism. In 1964, a procedure known as keratomileusis was introduced. In 1974, radial keratotomy (RK) was introduced. In 1981, excimer laser surgery was discovered by the speaker and his IBM Research colleagues. In 1983, the excimer laser was used to create clean, precise incisions in the cornea of enucleated calf eyes, derived from slaughter, launching the era of laser refractive surgery, with more precise and safer techniques to correct myopia, hyperopia, and stigmatism. This talk will describe the widely practiced surgical procedures known as photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK), which have improved the visual acuity of more than 35 million people. Most patients undergoing PRK or LASIK end up with uncorrected vision better than 20/20. In 2007, development commenced on a new procedure known as small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE), employing a femtosecond laser and no excimer laser. SMILE is promoted as minimally invasive and combining the advantages of PRK and LASIK. However, long term stability of visual acuity following SMILE surgery is yet to be determined.

  13. Lasers '92; Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers and Applications, 15th, Houston, TX, Dec. 7-10, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Charles P. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Papers from the conference are presented, and the topics covered include the following: x-ray lasers, excimer lasers, chemical lasers, high power lasers, blue-green lasers, dye lasers, solid state lasers, semiconductor lasers, gas and discharge lasers, carbon dioxide lasers, ultrafast phenomena, nonlinear optics, quantum optics, dynamic gratings and wave mixing, laser radar, lasers in medicine, optical filters and laser communication, optical techniques and instruments, laser material interaction, and industrial and manufacturing applications.

  14. Operation of Ho:YAG ultrafast laser inscribed waveguide lasers.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, Sean; Thorburn, Fiona; Lancaster, Adam; Stites, Ronald; Cook, Gary; Kar, Ajoy

    2017-04-20

    We report fabrication and operation of multi-watt level waveguide lasers utilizing holmium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Ho:YAG). The waveguides were fabricated using ultrafast laser inscription, which relies on a chirped pulse ytterbium fiber laser to create depressed cladding structures inside the material. A variety of waveguides were created inside the Ho:YAG samples. We demonstrate output powers of ∼2  W from both a single-mode 50 μm waveguide laser and a multimode 80 μm waveguide laser. In addition, laser action from a co-doped Yb:Ho:YAG sample under in-band pumping conditions was demonstrated.

  15. Laser Diode Pumped Solid State Lasers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    Report N66001-83-C-0071, 17 April 1986, prepared for NOSC. 4.6 W.T. Welford, R. Winston , "The Option of Nonimaging Concentrators ," Academic Press, 1978...by non-imac optics such as reflective or refractive flux concentrators . Simple considerations regarding the optimum pumping configuration, high marks...reduced if the arrays can stand-off from the Nd:YAG laser. As mentioned before, compound parabolic concentrators or refractive optics cat employed to

  16. Laser Transmitter Aims At Laser Beacon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, Hamid; Lesh, James R.

    1993-01-01

    Transmitter part of developmental optical communication system. Compact, lightweight, partially-self-aiming laser transmitter built to verify some capabilities of developmental free-space optical communication system. Design capable of providing 0.5 Mbps data return over range equal to Moon-Earth distance. Breadboard of transmitting terminal constructed and tested in laboratory. Prototype transmitter includes receiving circuitry that keeps it aimed at beacon, once brought into initial alignment within about 1.7 degrees of line of sight to beacon.

  17. Ultracompact Pseudowedge Plasmonic Lasers and Laser Arrays.

    PubMed

    Chou, Yu-Hsun; Hong, Kuo-Bin; Chang, Chun-Tse; Chang, Tsu-Chi; Huang, Zhen-Ting; Cheng, Pi-Ju; Yang, Jhen-Hong; Lin, Meng-Hsien; Lin, Tzy-Rong; Chen, Kuo-Ping; Gwo, Shangjr; Lu, Tien-Chang

    2018-02-14

    Concentrating light at the deep subwavelength scale by utilizing plasmonic effects has been reported in various optoelectronic devices with intriguing phenomena and functionality. Plasmonic waveguides with a planar structure exhibit a two-dimensional degree of freedom for the surface plasmon; the degree of freedom can be further reduced by utilizing metallic nanostructures or nanoparticles for surface plasmon resonance. Reduction leads to different lightwave confinement capabilities, which can be utilized to construct plasmonic nanolaser cavities. However, most theoretical and experimental research efforts have focused on planar surface plasmon polariton (SPP) nanolasers. In this study, we combined nanometallic structures intersecting with ZnO nanowires and realized the first laser emission based on pseudowedge SPP waveguides. Relative to current plasmonic nanolasers, the pseudowedge plasmonic lasers reported in our study exhibit extremely small mode volumes, high group indices, high spontaneous emission factors, and high Purell factors beneficial for the strong interaction between light and matter. Furthermore, we demonstrated that compact plasmonic laser arrays can be constructed, which could benefit integrated plasmonic circuits.

  18. Lasers in endodontics: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frentzen, Matthias; Braun, Andreas; Koort, Hans J.

    2002-06-01

    The interest in endodontic use of dental laser systems is increasing. Developing laser technology and a better understanding of laser effects widened the spectrum of possible endodontic indications. Various laser systems including excimer-, argon+-, diode-, Nd:YAG-, Er:YAG- and CO2-lasers are used in pulp diagnosis, treatment of hypersensitivity, pulp capping, sterilization of root canals, root canal shaping and obturation or apicoectomy. With the development of new delivery systems - thin and flexible fibers - for many different wavelengths laser applications in endodontics may increase. Since laser devices are still relatively costly, access to them is limited. Most of the clinical applications are laser assisted procedures such as the removing of pulp remnants and debris or disinfection of infected root canals. The essential question is whether a laser can provide improved treatment over conventional care. To perform laser therapy in endodontics today different laser types with adopted wavelengths and pulse widths are needed, each specific to a particular application. Looking into the future we will need endodontic laser equipment providing optimal laser parameters for different treatment modalities. Nevertheless, the quantity of research reports from the last decade promises a genuine future for lasers in endodontics.

  19. Application of CO laser for laser balloon angioplasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Akira; Sakurada, Masami; Mizuno, Kyoichi; Kurita, Akira; Nakamura, Haruo; Suda, Akira; Arai, Tsunenori; Kikuchi, Makoto

    1990-07-01

    CO laser may be efficient for thermal fusion of intima of arterial wall without adventitial tissue damage because of high tissue absorption. To investigate the efficacy of CO laser as a laser bam for laser balloon angioplasty (LBA). CO laser was irradiated to aortic tissue through 3Oim polyethylene membrane and tissue temperature was measured by a thermistor. At 2Owatt/cm2 200joules/cm2 continuous laser exposure (CE), tissue temperature was above 100°C within a depth of 1mm and rapidly decreased to 60 °C or below between 2 and 3mm in depth. Moreover, adventitial temperature could be decreased by changing duty ratio (exposure duration/interval) of intermittent laser exposure (IE) despite of the same laser energy. Light microscopy showed high degree of medial coagulation necrosis in CE, however thermal coagulation was observed only at the surface of intima of aortic tissue in IE at duty ratio 1 / 2. These findings suggested CO laser could coagulate intimal layer with less deep thermal damage compared to Nd- YAG laser and that IE was better for superficial welding than CE at the same energy. We concluded that CO laser might be more efficient as a laser beam for LBA than Nd-YAG laser.

  20. Femtosecond Fiber Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, Katherine J.

    This thesis focuses on research I have done on ytterbium-doped femtosecond fiber lasers. These lasers operate in the near infrared region, lasing at 1030 nm. This wavelength is particularly important in biomedical applications, which includes but is not limited to confocal microscopy and ablation for surgical incisions. Furthermore, fiber lasers are advantageous compared to solid state lasers in terms of their cost, form factor, and ease of use. Solid state lasers still dominate the market due to their comparatively high energy pulses. High energy pulse generation in fiber lasers is hindered by either optical wave breaking or by multipulsing. One of the main challenges for fiber lasers is to overcome these limitations to achieve high energy pulses. The motivation for the work done in this thesis is increasing the output pulse peak power and energy. The main idea of the work is that decreasing the nonlinearity that acts on the pulse inside the cavity will prevent optical wave breaking, and thus will generate higher energy pulses. By increasing the output energy, ytterbium-doped femtosecond fiber lasers can be competitive with solid state lasers which are used commonly in research. Although fiber lasers tend to lack the wavelength tuning ability of solid state lasers, many biomedical applications take advantage of the 1030 microm central wavelength of ytterbium-doped fiber lasers, so the major limiting factor of fiber lasers in this field is simply the output power. By increasing the output energy without resorting to external amplification, the cavity is optimized and cost can remain low and economical. During verification of the main idea, the cavity was examined for possible back-reflections and for components with narrow spectral bandwidths which may have contributed to the presence of multipulsing. Distinct cases of multipulsing, bound pulse and harmonic mode-locking, were observed and recorded as they may be of more interest in the future. The third

  1. Blue-green upconversion laser

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, Dinh C.; Faulkner, George E.

    1990-01-01

    A blue-green laser (450-550 nm) uses a host crystal doped with Tm.sup.3+. The Tm.sup.+ is excited through upconversion by a red pumping laser and an IR pumping laser to a state which transitions to a relatively lower energy level through emissions in the blue-green band, e.g., 450.20 nm at 75 K. The exciting laser may be tunable dye lasers or may be solid-state semiconductor laser, e.g., GaAlAs and InGaAlP.

  2. Laser fusion pulse shape controller

    DOEpatents

    Siebert, Larry D.

    1977-01-01

    An apparatus for controlling the pulse shape, i.e., the pulse duration and intensity pattern, of a pulsed laser system, and which is particularly well adapted for controlling the pellet ignition pulse in a laser-driven fusion reaction system. The apparatus comprises a laser generator for providing an optical control pulse of the shape desired, a pulsed laser triggered by the control pulse, and a plurality of optical Kerr-effect gates serially disposed at the output of the pulsed laser and selectively triggered by the control pulse to pass only a portion of the pulsed laser output generally corresponding in shape to the control pulse.

  3. Blue-green upconversion laser

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, D.C.; Faulkner, G.E.

    1990-08-14

    A blue-green laser (450--550 nm) uses a host crystal doped with Tm[sup 3+]. The Tm[sup 3+] is excited through upconversion by a red pumping laser and an IR pumping laser to a state which transitions to a relatively lower energy level through emissions in the blue-green band, e.g., 450.20 nm at 75 K. The exciting laser may be tunable dye lasers or may be solid-state semiconductor laser, e.g., GaAlAs and InGaAlP. 3 figs.

  4. Injection-controlled laser resonator

    DOEpatents

    Chang, J.J.

    1995-07-18

    A new injection-controlled laser resonator incorporates self-filtering and self-imaging characteristics with an efficient injection scheme. A low-divergence laser signal is injected into the resonator, which enables the injection signal to be converted to the desired resonator modes before the main laser pulse starts. This injection technique and resonator design enable the laser cavity to improve the quality of the injection signal through self-filtering before the main laser pulse starts. The self-imaging property of the present resonator reduces the cavity induced diffraction effects and, in turn, improves the laser beam quality. 5 figs.

  5. Injection-controlled laser resonator

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Jim J.

    1995-07-18

    A new injection-controlled laser resonator incorporates self-filtering and self-imaging characteristics with an efficient injection scheme. A low-divergence laser signal is injected into the resonator, which enables the injection signal to be converted to the desired resonator modes before the main laser pulse starts. This injection technique and resonator design enable the laser cavity to improve the quality of the injection signal through self-filtering before the main laser pulse starts. The self-imaging property of the present resonator reduces the cavity induced diffraction effects and, in turn, improves the laser beam quality.

  6. Surgical Lasers In Gynecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schellhas, Helmut F.; Barnes, Alfonso E.

    1982-12-01

    Multipurpose surgical CO2 lasers marketed in the USA have been developed to be applicable to a variety of surgical procedures in many surgical fields. They are all suited for endoscopic surgical procedures and can be fitted to all standard surgical microscopes. They all can adjust the focal length of the laser beam to the different standard focal lengths of the surgical microscope which for instance in laryngoscopy is 400 mm and in colposcopy 300 mm. One laser instrument can even change the spot size in a given focal distance which is very advantageous for some microsurgical procedures (Merrimack Laboratories 820). All multipurpose surgical CO2 laser systems provide a multi-articulated surgical arm for free-hand surgery. The surgical arms are cumbersome to use but they are adapted to the surgeons needs with ingenuity. The practicality of the multi-articulated surgical arms depends mostly on the distance of the handpiece from the surgical console which now is also overbridged by the laser tube in most surgical laser system. The spot size of the beam is variable in most handpieces by interchangeable lenses which modify the focal distance of the beam and the power density. Another common feature in all systems is a coaxial He-Ne pilot light which provides a red spot which unfortunately becomes invisible in a bleeding surgical field. Most surgical laser systems have a spacial mode of TEM 00 which is essential for incisional surgery. The continuous mode of beam delivery is used for incisional surgery and also for most endoscopic procedures.

  7. Theoretical studies of solar-pumped lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harries, W. L.

    1983-01-01

    Possible types of lasers were surveyed for solar power conversion. The types considered were (1) liquid dye lasers, (2) vapor dye lasers, and (3) nondissociative molecular lasers. These are discussed.

  8. Spectral and Radiometric Calibration Using Tunable Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCorkel, Joel (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A tunable laser system includes a tunable laser, an adjustable laser cavity for producing one or more modes of laser light emitted from the tunable laser, a first optical parametric oscillator positioned in a light path of the adjustable laser cavity, and a controller operable to simultaneously control parameters of at least the tunable laser, the first optical parametric oscillator, and the adjustable laser cavity to produce a range of wavelengths emitted from the tunable laser system. A method of operating a tunable laser system includes using a controller to simultaneously control parameters of a tunable laser, an adjustable laser cavity for producing one or more modes of laser light emitted from the tunable laser, and a first optical parametric oscillator positioned in a light path of the adjustable laser cavity, to produce a range of wavelengths emitted from the tunable laser system.

  9. [The use of lasers in dermatology].

    PubMed

    Lecocq, C; Pirard, D; del Marmol, V; Berlingin, E

    2013-01-01

    Albert Einstein is undoubtedly the father of lasers. But it is not until 1964 that the first dermatological lasers were introduced. The Nd-YAG laser, the CO2 laser were developed by Kumar Patel. In a 40 year period lasers not only were diversified but have also become safer and miniaturized. This article hopes to strengthen general practionners' and specialist's knowledge of the different categories of available lasers. The most frequently used ones are ablative lasers (CO2-Erbium), vascular lasers (Nd-YAG, KTP, pulsed dye laser) and the pigment lasers (Q-Switched Nd-YAG, Alexandrite). A description of these lasers and their indications in dermatology will be discussed.

  10. Bibliography of Soviet Laser Developments, September-October 1987

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-01

    Lasers , Gas Lasers , Chemical Lasers , Laser Components Nonlinear Optics, Spectroscopy of Laser Materials, Ultrashort Pulse Generation, Laser ...optics; spectroscopy of laser materials; ultrashort pulse generation; crystal growing; theoretical aspects of advanced lasers ; and general laser theory...focusing ....................... 26 6. Acoustic Interaction ................ 26 G. Spectroscopy of Laser Materials ......... 28 H.

  11. Multi-beam laser altimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bufton, Jack L.; Harding, David J.; Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis

    1993-01-01

    Laser altimetry provides a high-resolution, high-accuracy method for measurement of the elevation and horizontal variability of Earth-surface topography. The basis of the measurement is the timing of the round-trip propagation of short-duration pulses of laser radiation between a spacecraft and the Earth's surface. Vertical resolution of the altimetry measurement is determined primarily by laser pulsewidth, surface-induced spreading in time of the reflected pulse, and the timing precision of the altimeter electronics. With conventional gain-switched pulses from solid-state lasers and sub-nsec resolution electronics, sub-meter vertical range resolution is possible from orbital attitudes of several hundred kilometers. Horizontal resolution is a function of laser beam footprint size at the surface and the spacing between successive laser pulses. Laser divergence angle and altimeter platform height above the surface determine the laser footprint size at the surface, while laser pulse repetition-rate, laser transmitter beam configuration, and altimeter platform velocity determine the space between successive laser pulses. Multiple laser transitters in a singlaltimeter instrument provide across-track and along-track coverage that can be used to construct a range image of the Earth's surface. Other aspects of the multi-beam laser altimeter are discussed.

  12. Ocular injuries from laser accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sliney, David H.

    1996-04-01

    Ocular injuries resulting from exposure to laser beams are relatively uncommon since there is normally a low probability of a relatively small-diameter laser beam entering the pupil of an eye. This has been the accident experience to date with lasers used in the research laboratory and in industry. A review of the accident data suggests that at least one type of laser is responsible for the majority of accidental injuries that result in a visual loss in the exposed eye. This is the q-switched neodymium:YAG laser. Although a continuous-wave laser causes a thermal coagulation of tissue, a q-switched laser having a pulse of only nanoseconds duration disrupts tissue. A visible or near-infrared laser can be focused on the retina, resulting in a vitreous hemorrhage. Examples of laser ocular injuries will be presented. Despite macular injuries and an initially serious visual loss, the vision of many patients recovers surprisingly well. Others may have severe vision loss. Corneal injuries resulting from exposure to reflected laser energy in the far-infrared account for surprisingly few reported laser accidents. The explanation for this accident statistic is not really clear. However, with the increasing use of lasers operating at many new wavelengths in the ultraviolet, visible and infrared, the ophthalmologist may see more accidental injuries from lasers.

  13. Industrial laser marketplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belforte, David A.

    1990-05-01

    Introduction: Gary Forrest As with medical, we have a specific individual, Dave Belforte, who, in addition to writing for Laser Focus, publishes with Laser Focus the Industrial Laser Review. Again, this is an area that has some really unique aspects to it which is why we have a specialist at the magazine who tracks this as well as having his own business interests. I just have one quick example. One of the things that I've noticed and I've put this in your handout is it's always interesting to me to see why how the lasers actually impact on finished goods that people buy. So I just clipped out one recent article that mentions some of the different areas when lasers are used in automotive production. There's an ad for the Infinity car of course they've had a strange ad program anyway, but the latest version is "Look at the paint." It's a super high gloss paint. I know in Japan, what I would call laser priming, the use of laser in surface preparation of the metal to obtain a super high gloss is something that's become popular. Now I don't know whether the Infinity is using that or not but it's another example as Moe Levitt indicated earlier lasers have moved into the industrial segment maybe not in the volume that people would like but in a quality sense that is definitely starting to have an impact on the people who are buying those finished products. So I'll give you Dave for the details. David Belforte: The answer is yes, the Infinity has a body which has been processed in what is called laser texturizing process. In Japan, it's known as a mirror finish, and it's not actually applied to the steel of the car. It's a texturizing process on the rolls that reduce the steel down to body thickness. They emboss on that steel a regular pattern which tends to trap radiated light and reflect it back to your eye in a much more intense pattern to give you what appears to be brighter paint. But that was not developed in Japan. It was developed in Belgium actually.

  14. Laser And Nonlinear Optical Materials For Laser Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Norman P.

    2005-01-01

    NASA remote sensing missions involving laser systems and their economic impact are outlined. Potential remote sensing missions include: green house gasses, tropospheric winds, ozone, water vapor, and ice cap thickness. Systems to perform these measurements use lanthanide series lasers and nonlinear devices including second harmonic generators and parametric oscillators. Demands these missions place on the laser and nonlinear optical materials are discussed from a materials point of view. Methods of designing new laser and nonlinear optical materials to meet these demands are presented.

  15. Laser plasma interaction at an early stage of laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Y. F.; Hong, M. H.; Low, T. S.

    1999-03-01

    Laser scattering and its interaction with plasma during KrF excimer laser ablation of silicon are investigated by ultrafast phototube detection. There are two peaks in an optical signal with the first peak attributed to laser scattering and the second one to plasma generation. For laser fluence above 5.8 J/cm2, the second peak rises earlier to overlap with the first one. The optical signal is fitted by a pulse distribution for the scattered laser light and a drifted Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution with a center-of-mass velocity for the plasma. Peak amplitude and its arrival time, full width at half maximum (FWHM), starting time, and termination time of the profiles are studied for different laser fluences and detection angles. Laser pulse is scattered from both the substrate and the plasma with the latter part as a dominant factor during the laser ablation. Peak amplitude of the scattered laser signal increases but its FWHM decreases with the laser fluence. Angular distribution of the peak amplitude can be fitted with cosn θ(n=4) while the detection angle has no obvious influence on the FWHM. In addition, FWHM and peak amplitude of plasma signal increase with the laser fluence. However, starting time and peak arrival time of plasma signal reduce with the laser fluence. The time interval between plasma starting and scattered laser pulse termination is proposed as a quantitative parameter to characterize laser plasma interaction. Threshold fluence for the interaction is estimated to be 3.5 J/cm2. For laser fluence above 12.6 J/cm2, the plasma and scattered laser pulse distributions tend to saturate.

  16. Qualification of Laser Diode Arrays for Mercury Laser Altimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephen, Mark; Vasilyev, Aleksey; Schafer, John; Allan, Graham R.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's requirements for high reliability, high performance satellite laser instruments have driven the investigation of many critical components; specifically, 808 nm laser diode array (LDA) pump devices. Performance of Quasi-CW, High-power, laser diode arrays under extended use is presented. We report the optical power over several hundred million pulse operation and the effect of power cycling and temperature cycling of the laser diode arrays. Data on the initial characterization of the devices is also presented.

  17. Heterogeneous catalysis with lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, T. F.

    1986-06-01

    Theoretical techniques have been developed to describe a variety of laser-induced molecular rate processes occurring at solid surfaces which are involved in heterogeneous catalysis. Such processes include adsorption, migration, chemical reactions and desorption. The role of surface phonons in laser-selective processes and laser heating has been analyzed. The importance of electronic degrees of freedom has been considered for semiconductor and metal substrates, with special emphasis on the laser excitation of surface states. Surface-modified photochemistry has also been investigated, where the effect of a metal surface on the resonance fluorescence spectrum of a laser-driven atom/molecule has been assessed by means of surface-dressed optical Bloch equations. It is seen that the spectrum can be significantly different from the gas-phase case. Two related gas-surface collision processes have also been studied. First, the feasibility of the formation of the electron-hole pairs in a semiconductor by vibrationally excited molecules has been explored. Second, charge transfer in ion-surface collisions has been examined for both one-electron and two-electron transfer processes. Work has been initiated on microstructures and rough structures, including clusters and surface gratings.

  18. Semiconductor cylinder fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandupatla, Abhinay; Flattery, James; Kornreich, Philipp

    2015-12-01

    We fabricated a fiber laser that uses a thin semiconductor layer surrounding the glass core as the gain medium. This is a completely new type of laser. The In2Te3 semiconductor layer is about 15-nm thick. The fiber laser has a core diameter of 14.2 μm, an outside diameter of 126 μm, and it is 25-mm long. The laser mirrors consist of a thick vacuum-deposited aluminum layer at one end and a thin semitransparent aluminum layer deposited at the other end of the fiber. The laser is pumped from the side with either light from a halogen tungsten incandescent lamp or a blue light emitting diode flash light. Both the In2Te3 gain medium and the aluminum mirrors have a wide bandwidth. Therefore, the output spectrum consists of a pedestal from a wavelength of about 454 to 623 nm with several peaks. There is a main peak at 545 nm. The main peak has an amplitude of 16.5 dB above the noise level of -73 dB.

  19. Modelling ultrafast laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rethfeld, Baerbel; Ivanov, Dmitriy S.; E Garcia, Martin; Anisimov, Sergei I.

    2017-05-01

    This review is devoted to the study of ultrafast laser ablation of solids and liquids. The ablation of condensed matter under exposure to subpicosecond laser pulses has a number of peculiar properties which distinguish this process from ablation induced by nanosecond and longer laser pulses. The process of ultrafast ablation includes light absorption by electrons in the skin layer, energy transfer from the skin layer to target interior by nonlinear electronic heat conduction, relaxation of the electron and ion temperatures, ultrafast melting, hydrodynamic expansion of heated matter accompanied by the formation of metastable states and subsequent formation of breaks in condensed matter. In case of ultrashort laser excitation, these processes are temporally separated and can thus be studied separately. As for energy absorption, we consider peculiarities of the case of metal irradiation in contrast to dielectrics and semiconductors. We discuss the energy dissipation processes of electronic thermal wave and lattice heating. Different types of phase transitions after ultrashort laser pulse irradiation as melting, vaporization or transitions to warm dense matter are discussed. Also nonthermal phase transitions, directly caused by the electronic excitation before considerable lattice heating, are considered. The final material removal occurs from the physical point of view as expansion of heated matter; here we discuss approaches of hydrodynamics, as well as molecular dynamic simulations directly following the atomic movements. Hybrid approaches tracing the dynamics of excited electrons, energy dissipation and structural dynamics in a combined simulation are reviewed as well.

  20. Noninvasive laser vasectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cilip, Christopher Michael

    Development of a noninvasive vasectomy technique may eliminate male fear of complications (incision, bleeding, infection, and scrotal pain) and result in a more popular procedure. These studies build off previous studies that report the ability to thermally target tissue substructures with near infrared laser radiation while maintaining a healthy superficial layer of tissue through active surface cooling. Initial studies showed the ability to increase the working depth compared to that of common dermatological procedures and the translation into an ex vivo canine model targeting the vas deferens in a noninvasive laser vasectomy. Laser and cooling parameter optimization was required to determine the best possible wavelength for a safe transition to an in vivo canine model. Optical clearing agents were investigated as a mechanism to decrease tissue scattering during in vivo procedures to increase optical penetration depth and reduce the overall power required. Optical and thermal computer models were developed to determine the efficacy for a successful transition into a human model. Common clinical imaging modalities (ultrasound, high frequency ultrasound, and optical coherence tomography) were tested as possible candidates for real-time imaging feedback to determine surgical success. Finally, a noninvasive laser vasectomy prototype clamp incorporating laser, cooling, and control in a single package was designed and tested in vivo. Occlusion of the canine vas deferens able to withstand physiological burst pressures measured postoperative was shown during acute and chronic studies. This procedure is ready for azoospermia and recanalization studies in a clinical setting.

  1. Industrial lasers in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karube, Norio

    1991-03-01

    I am to report on some aspects of industrial lasers in Japan. Mostly centering on the market. In Japan, the history of laser developnent is rather profound. And long. Ever since the first invention of the laser in this country in 1960. This is partly because of the fact that in Japan the spectroscopic studies of the ruby was very popular in the late 1950's. Ever since niost of the work has been done in the research laboratories of the industry, not in the universities or not in the governmental laboratories. And since that time our first activity was mainly centering on the basic research, but after that time we have the evolution of the technology. One of the features in Japan is that the activity of developement and research of laser technology from the very basic phase up to the present commercialization has been done by the same group of people, including ine. We had a national project which ended about six years ago which was sponsored by MITI. MITI is Ministry of International Trade and Industry in Japan. And because of this national project, the effect of this project had a very enlightening effect in Japan. And after that our Japanese laser market became very flourishing.

  2. Insulative laser shell coupler

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Phillip A.; Anderson, Andrew T.; Alger, Terry W.

    1994-01-01

    A segmented coaxial laser shell assembly having at least two water jacket sections, two pairs of interconnection half rings, a dialectric break ring, and a pair of threaded ring sections. Each water jacket section with an inner tubular section that defines an inner laser cavity with water paths adjacent to at least a portion of the exterior of the inner tubular section, and mating faces at the end of the water jacket section through which the inner laser cavity opens and which defines at least one water port therethrough in communication with the water jackets. The water paths also define in their external surface a circumferential notch set back from and in close proximity to the mating face. The dielectric break ring has selected thickness and is placed between, and in coaxial alignment with, the mating faces of two of the adjacent water jacket sections. The break ring also defines an inner laser cavity of the same size and shape as the inner laser cavity of the water jacket sections and at least one water passage through the break ring to communicate with at least one water port through the mating faces of the water jacket sections.

  3. Insulative laser shell coupler

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, P.A.; Anderson, A.T.; Alger, T.W.

    1994-09-20

    A segmented coaxial laser shell assembly having at least two water jacket sections, two pairs of interconnection half rings, a dielectric break ring, and a pair of threaded ring sections is disclosed. Each water jacket section with an inner tubular section that defines an inner laser cavity with water paths adjacent to at least a portion of the exterior of the inner tubular section, and mating faces at the end of the water jacket section through which the inner laser cavity opens and which defines at least one water port therethrough in communication with the water jackets. The water paths also define in their external surface a circumferential notch set back from and in close proximity to the mating face. The dielectric break ring has selected thickness and is placed between, and in coaxial alignment with, the mating faces of two of the adjacent water jacket sections. The break ring also defines an inner laser cavity of the same size and shape as the inner laser cavity of the water jacket sections and at least one water passage through the break ring to communicate with at least one water port through the mating faces of the water jacket sections. 4 figs.

  4. Photonic Molecule Lasers Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Denis; Dumont, Joey; Déziel, Jean-Luc; Dubé, Louis J.

    2014-05-01

    Photonic molecules (PMs) formed by coupling two or more optical resonators are ideal candidates for the fabrication of integrated microlasers, photonic molecule lasers. Whereas most calculations on PM lasers have been based on cold-cavity (passive) modes, i.e. quasi-bound states, a recently formulated steady-state ab initio laser theory (SALT) offers the possibility to take into account the spectral properties of the underlying gain transition, its position and linewidth, as well as incorporating an arbitrary pump profile. We will combine two theoretical approaches to characterize the lasing properties of PM lasers: for two-dimensional systems, the generalized Lorenz-Mie theory will obtain the resonant modes of the coupled molecules in an active medium described by SALT. Not only is then the theoretical description more complete, the use of an active medium provides additional parameters to control, engineer and harness the lasing properties of PM lasers for ultra-low threshold and directional single-mode emission. We will extend our recent study and present new results for a number of promising geometries. The authors acknowledge financial support from NSERC (Canada) and the CERC in Photonic Innovations of Y. Messaddeq.

  5. Applications of the laser

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, L.

    For those not familiar with lasers, a review of lasers and some remarks on the fascinating new developments in such systems that do affect applications now and in the future are presented. Wave guides to transmit lasers to make them more flexible, the important aspects of measurements, chemistry, bits of botany, and holography are given. The vast expanse of communications, especially through the development of the new and important hybrid discipline of electrooptics is reviewed. The military and law and order programs show their applications; all initiate the study of actual applications. Then follow metalworking, construction, pollution, and a numbermore » of miscellaneous techniques. A critical review of safety programs so necessary for the proper development of laser technology is presented. Then follows the story of the applications in biology, medicine, dentistry, photography, art, and music. Many of the applications cross to other fields. To stimulate the youth to be interested in science, there are brief remarks about the social conscience in laser and, finally, the dreams of the future.« less

  6. Selective Emitter Pumped Rare Earth Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L. (Inventor); Patton, Martin O. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A selective emitter pumped rare earth laser provides an additional type of laser for use in many laser applications. Rare earth doped lasers exist which are pumped with flashtubes or laser diodes. The invention uses a rare earth emitter to transform thermal energy input to a spectral band matching the absorption band of a rare earth in the laser in order to produce lasing.

  7. Coupled optical resonance laser locking.

    PubMed

    Burd, S C; du Toit, P J W; Uys, H

    2014-10-20

    We have demonstrated simultaneous laser frequency stabilization of a UV and IR laser, to coupled transitions of ions in the same spectroscopic sample, by detecting only the absorption of the UV laser. Separate signals for locking the different lasers are obtained by modulating each laser at a different frequency and using lock-in detection of a single photodiode signal. Experimentally, we simultaneously lock a 369 nm and a 935 nm laser to the (2)S(1/2) → (2)(P(1/2) and (2)D(3/2) → (3)D([3/2]1/2) transitions, respectively, of Yb(+) ions generated in a hollow cathode discharge lamp. Stabilized lasers at these frequencies are required for cooling and trapping Yb(+) ions, used in quantum information and in high precision metrology experiments. This technique should be readily applicable to other ion and neutral atom systems requiring multiple stabilized lasers.

  8. Antenna coupled photonic wire lasers

    DOE PAGES

    Kao, Tsung-Kao; Cai, Xiaowei; Lee, Alan W. M.; ...

    2015-06-22

    Slope efficiency (SE) is an important performance metric for lasers. In conventional semiconductor lasers, SE can be optimized by careful designs of the facet (or the modulation for DFB lasers) dimension and surface. However, photonic wire lasers intrinsically suffer low SE due to their deep sub-wavelength emitting facets. Inspired by microwave engineering techniques, we show a novel method to extract power from wire lasers using monolithically integrated antennas. These integrated antennas significantly increase the effective radiation area, and consequently enhance the power extraction efficiency. When applied to wire lasers at THz frequency, we achieved the highest single-side slope efficiency (~450more » mW/A) in pulsed mode for DFB lasers at 4 THz and a ~4x increase in output power at 3 THz compared with a similar structure without antennas. This work demonstrates the versatility of incorporating microwave engineering techniques into laser designs, enabling significant performance enhancements.« less

  9. Urologic laser types and instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Natalin, Ricardo A; Phillips, Courtney K; Clayman, Ralph V; Landman, Jaime

    2008-11-01

    Though the primary role of lasers in urology has always been in the treatment of urolithiasis, there are several other indications for their use. There are many different types of lasers currently available, each with unique properties conducive to treating certain disorders. As such, it is critical that today's urologist understands each laser's characteristics in order to optimize patient selection and treatment. The lasers which are primarily used in urologic applications include the carbon dioxide (CO2) laser; the Neodymium:Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet (Nd:YAG); the Potassium Titanyl Phosphate (KTP) laser and the Holmium:YAG (Ho:YAG) laser. This review focuses on the unique characteristics of each of these lasers as well as the instrumentation needed utilize and deploy these tools in the urinary tract.

  10. Laser beam alignment system

    DOEpatents

    Kasner, William H.; Racki, Daniel J.; Swenson, Clark E.

    1984-01-01

    A plurality of pivotal reflectors direct a high-power laser beam onto a workpiece, and a rotatable reflector is movable to a position wherein it intercepts the beam and deflects a major portion thereof away from its normal path, the remainder of the beam passing to the pivotal reflectors through an aperture in the rotating reflector. A plurality of targets are movable to positions intercepting the path of light traveling to the pivotal reflectors, and a preliminary adjustment of the latter is made by use of a low-power laser beam reflected from the rotating reflector, after which the same targets are used to make a final adjustment of the pivotal reflectors with the portion of the high-power laser beam passed through the rotating reflector.

  11. Laser isotope separation

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, C.P.; Reed, J.J.; Cotter, T.P.; Boyer, K.; Greiner, N.R.

    1975-11-26

    A process and apparatus for separating isotopes by selective excitation of isotopic species of a volatile compound by tuned laser light is described. A highly cooled gas of the volatile compound is produced in which the isotopic shift is sharpened and defined. Before substantial condensation occurs, the cooled gas is irradiated with laser light precisely tuned to a desired wavelength to selectively excite a particular isotopic species in the cooled gas. The laser light may impart sufficient energy to the excited species to cause it to undergo photolysis, photochemical reaction or even to photoionize. Alternatively, a two-photon irradiation may be applied to the cooled gas to induce photolysis, photochemical reaction or photoionization. The process is particularly applicable to the separation of isotopes of uranium.

  12. Laser isotope separation

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, C. Paul; Jensen, Reed J.; Cotter, Theodore P.; Boyer, Keith; Greiner, Norman R.

    1988-01-01

    A process and apparatus for separating isotopes by selective excitation of isotopic species of a volatile compound by tuned laser light. A highly cooled gas of the volatile compound is produced in which the isotopic shift is sharpened and defined. Before substantial condensation occurs, the cooled gas is irradiated with laser light precisely tuned to a desired wavelength to selectively excite a particular isotopic species in the cooled gas. The laser light may impart sufficient energy to the excited species to cause it to undergo photolysis, photochemical reaction or even to photoionize. Alternatively, a two-photon irradiation may be applied to the cooled gas to induce photolysis, photochemical reaction or photoionization. The process is particularly applicable to the separation of isotopes of uranium.

  13. Laser cooling at resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yudkin, Yaakov; Khaykovich, Lev

    2018-05-01

    We show experimentally that three-dimensional laser cooling of lithium atoms on the D2 line is possible when the laser light is tuned exactly to resonance with the dominant atomic transition. Qualitatively, it can be understood by applying simple Doppler cooling arguments to the specific hyperfine structure of the excited state of lithium atoms, which is both dense and inverted. However, to build a quantitative theory, we must resolve to a full model which takes into account both the entire atomic structure of all 24 Zeeman sublevels and the laser light polarization. Moreover, by means of Monte Carlo simulations, we show that coherent processes play an important role in showing consistency between the theory and the experimental results.

  14. Laser pulse detector

    DOEpatents

    Mashburn, D.N.; Akerman, M.A.

    1979-08-13

    A laser pulse detector is provided which is small and inexpensive and has the capability of detecting laser light of any wavelength with fast response (less than 5 nanoseconds rise time). The laser beam is focused onto the receiving end of a graphite rod coaxially mounted within a close-fitting conductive, open-end cylindrical housing so that ablation and electric field breakdown of the resulting plasma occurs due to a bias potential applied between the graphite rod and housing. The pulse produced by the breakdown is transmitted through a matched impedance coaxial cable to a recording device. The cable is connected with its central lead to the graphite rod and its outer conductor to the housing.

  15. Laser pulse detector

    DOEpatents

    Mashburn, Douglas N.; Akerman, M. Alfred

    1981-01-01

    A laser pulse detector is provided which is small and inexpensive and has the capability of detecting laser light of any wavelength with fast response (less than 5 nanoseconds rise time). The laser beam is focused onto the receiving end of a graphite rod coaxially mounted within a close-fitting conductive, open-end cylindrical housing so that ablation and electric field breakdown of the resulting plasma occurs due to a bias potential applied between the graphite rod and housing. The pulse produced by the breakdown is transmitted through a matched impedance coaxial cable to a recording device. The cable is connected with its central lead to the graphite rod and its outer conductor to the housing.

  16. Interstitial laser prostatectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Douglas E.; Cromeens, Douglas M.; Price, Roger E.

    1994-05-01

    Interstitial laser coagulation of the canine prostate using the Sharplan interstitial thermal therapy fiber (Model 25432) was performed in 9 adult dogs and the subsequent gross and histopathologic changes occurring in the prostate were studied at intervals ranging from 1 hour to 5 weeks. A large well-demarcated area of acute coagulative necrosis developed around each fiber tract which in turn was surrounded by a prominent narrow zone of marked tissue disruption and an outer zone of hemorrhage. Liquefaction developed within the coagulative areas within 24 hours and by 4 days, each prostatic lobe contained an irregular cavity which became lined by normal-appearing transitional epithelium and that by 5 weeks, communicated with the prostatic urethra. These changes, similar to those reported following transurethral visual laser ablation of the prostate, suggest that interstitial laser thermal therapy may provide an alternative means for treating selected patients suffering from prostatic enlargement.

  17. Discrete bisoliton fiber laser

    PubMed Central

    Liu, X. M.; Han, X. X.; Yao, X. K.

    2016-01-01

    Dissipative solitons, which result from the intricate balance between dispersion and nonlinearity as well as gain and loss, are of the fundamental scientific interest and numerous important applications. Here, we report a fiber laser that generates bisoliton – two consecutive dissipative solitons that preserve a fixed separation between them. Deviations from this separation result in its restoration. It is also found that these bisolitons have multiple discrete equilibrium distances with the quantized separations, as is confirmed by the theoretical analysis and the experimental observations. The main feature of our laser is the anomalous dispersion that is increased by an order of magnitude in comparison to previous studies. Then the spectral filtering effect plays a significant role in pulse-shaping. The proposed laser has the potential applications in optical communications and high-resolution optics for coding and transmission of information in higher-level modulation formats. PMID:27767075

  18. LASERS IN MEDICINE: Laser diagnostics of biofractals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushenko, A. G.

    1999-12-01

    An optical approach to the problem of modelling and diagnostics of the structures of biofractal formations was considered in relation to human bone tissue. A model was proposed for the optical properties of this tissue, including three levels of fractal organisation: microcrystalline, macrocrystalline, and architectural. The studies were based on laser coherent polarimetry ensuring the retrieval of the fullest information about the optical and polarisation properties of bone tissue. A method was developed for contactless noninvasive diagnostics of the orientational and mineralogical structure of bone tissue considered as a biofractal.

  19. Robotic Laser Coating Removal System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-01

    9 3.2 SELECTION OF TEST PLATFORM/FACILITY .................................. 9 3.3 TEST PLATFORM/FACILITY HISTORY...lasers are 4 efficient in converting electrical energy to coherent radiation and, thus, have widespread industrial use. In order to select an...completion of this evaluation a 6 kW CO2 laser from Rofin-Sinar was selected for use in the RLCRS. This laser provided the highest quality laser

  20. Tunable graded rod laser assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    AuYeung, John C. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A tunable laser assembly including a pair of radially graded indexed optical segments aligned to focus the laser to form an external resonant cavity with an optical axis, the respective optical segments are retativity moveable along the optical axis and provide a variable et aion gap sufficient to permit variable tuning of the laser wavelength without altering the effective length of the resonant cavity. The gap also include a saturable absorbing material providing a passive mode-locking of the laser.

  1. Integrated Broadband Quantum Cascade Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansour, Kamjou (Inventor); Soibel, Alexander (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A broadband, integrated quantum cascade laser is disclosed, comprising ridge waveguide quantum cascade lasers formed by applying standard semiconductor process techniques to a monolithic structure of alternating layers of claddings and active region layers. The resulting ridge waveguide quantum cascade lasers may be individually controlled by independent voltage potentials, resulting in control of the overall spectrum of the integrated quantum cascade laser source. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  2. Parameters in fractional laser assisted delivery of topical anesthetics: Role of laser type and laser settings.

    PubMed

    Meesters, Arne A; Nieboer, Marilin J; Kezic, Sanja; de Rie, Menno A; Wolkerstorfer, Albert

    2018-05-07

    Efficacy of topical anesthetics can be enhanced by pretreatment of the skin with ablative fractional lasers. However, little is known about the role of parameters such as laser modality and laser density settings in this technique. Aims of this study were to compare the efficacy of pretreatment with two different ablative fractional laser modalities, a CO 2 laser and an Er:YAG laser, and to assess the role of laser density in ablative fractional laser assisted topical anesthesia. In each of 15 healthy subjects, four 10 × 10 mm test regions on the back were randomized to pretreatment (70-75 μm ablation depth) with CO 2 laser at 5% density, CO 2 laser at 15% density, Er:YAG laser at 5% density or Er:YAG laser at 15% density. Articaine hydrochloride 40 mg/ml + epinephrine 10 μg/ml solution was applied under occlusion to all four test regions. After 15 minutes, a pass with the CO 2 laser (1,500 μm ablation depth) was administered as pain stimulus to each test region. A reference pain stimulus was given on unanesthetized skin. The main outcome parameter, pain, was scored on a 0-10 visual analogue scale (VAS) after each pain stimulus. Median VAS scores were 1.50 [CO 2 5%], 0.50 [CO 2 15%], 1.50 [Er:YAG 5%], 0.43 [Er:YAG 15%], and 4.50 [unanesthetized reference]. VAS scores for all pretreated test regions were significantly lower compared to the untreated reference region (P < 0.01). We found no significant difference in VAS scores between the CO 2 and the Er:YAG laser pretreated regions. However, VAS scores were significantly lower at 15% density compared to 5% density for both for the CO 2 laser (P < 0.05) and the Er:YAG laser (P < 0.01). Pretreatment with the CO 2 laser was considered slightly more painful than pretreatment with Er:YAG laser by the subjects. Fractional laser assisted topical anesthesia is effective even with very low energy settings and an occlusion time of only 15 minutes. Both the CO 2 laser and the Er:YAG laser can

  3. Laser vaccine adjuvants

    PubMed Central

    Kashiwagi, Satoshi; Brauns, Timothy; Gelfand, Jeffrey; Poznansky, Mark C

    2014-01-01

    Immunologic adjuvants are essential for current vaccines to maximize their efficacy. Unfortunately, few have been found to be sufficiently effective and safe for regulatory authorities to permit their use in vaccines for humans and none have been approved for use with intradermal vaccines. The development of new adjuvants with the potential to be both efficacious and safe constitutes a significant need in modern vaccine practice. The use of non-damaging laser light represents a markedly different approach to enhancing immune responses to a vaccine antigen, particularly with intradermal vaccination. This approach, which was initially explored in Russia and further developed in the US, appears to significantly improve responses to both prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines administered to the laser-exposed tissue, particularly the skin. Although different types of lasers have been used for this purpose and the precise molecular mechanism(s) of action remain unknown, several approaches appear to modulate dendritic cell trafficking and/or activation at the irradiation site via the release of specific signaling molecules from epithelial cells. The most recent study, performed by the authors of this review, utilized a continuous wave near-infrared laser that may open the path for the development of a safe, effective, low-cost, simple-to-use laser vaccine adjuvant that could be used in lieu of conventional adjuvants, particularly with intradermal vaccines. In this review, we summarize the initial Russian studies that have given rise to this approach and comment upon recent advances in the use of non-tissue damaging lasers as novel physical adjuvants for vaccines. PMID:25424797

  4. Lasers in clinical ophthalmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Paulo A.

    1992-03-01

    The clinical application of lasers in ophthalmology is schematized, showing for each anatomic eye structure, pathologies that may be treated through this procedure. In the cornea, the unusual laser practice for suture removals and the promising possibility of the excimer laser in refractive surgery are discussed. In the iris, the camerular angle, and the ciliary body, the laser application is essentially used to treat the glaucoma and other situations that are not so frequent. The capsulotomy with YAG LASER is used in the treatment of structures related with crystalline and, at least, the treatment of the retina and choroid pathology is expanded. A. A. explained the primordial interest and important of laser in the diabetic retinopathy treatment and some results in patients with more than 5 years of evolution are: 55 of the patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (RDP) treated for more than 5 years noticed their vision improved or stabilized; 5 years after treating patients with PDR, 49.3 had their vision stabilized or even improved, provided the diabetics had declared itself more than 20 years ago, versus 61.7 provided the diabetics had declared itself less than 20 years before; finally, 53.8 of the patients under 40-years-old when the diabetics was diagnosed, had their vision improved or at least stabilized 5 years after the beginning of the treatment. On the other side, when patients were over 40 years old when the diabetics was diagnosed percentage increased to 55.9. This study was established in the follow-up of 149 cases over 10 years.

  5. Laser amplifier chain

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, R.P.

    1992-10-20

    A laser amplifier chain has a plurality of laser amplifiers arranged in a chain to sequentially amplify a low-power signal beam to produce a significantly higher-power output beam. Overall efficiency of such a chain is improved if high-gain, low efficiency amplifiers are placed on the upstream side of the chain where only a very small fraction of the total pumped power is received by the chain and low-gain, high-efficiency amplifiers are placed on the downstream side where a majority of pumping energy is received by the chain. 6 figs.

  6. Laser amplifier chain

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    A laser amplifier chain has a plurality of laser amplifiers arranged in a chain to sequentially amplify a low-power signal beam to produce a significantly higher-power output beam. Overall efficiency of such a chain is improved if high-gain, low efficiency amplifiers are placed on the upstream side of the chain where only a very small fraction of the total pumped power is received by the chain and low-gain, high-efficiency amplifiers are placed on the downstream side where a majority of pumping energy is received by the chain.

  7. Dark soliton fiber lasers.

    PubMed

    Tang, Dingyuan; Guo, Jun; Song, Yufeng; Zhang, Han; Zhao, Luming; Shen, Deyuan

    2014-08-11

    Dark soliton formation and soliton dynamics in all-normal dispersion cavity fiber ring lasers without an anti-saturable absorber in cavity is studied both theoretically and numerically. It is shown that under suitable conditions the dark solitons formed could be described by the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The dark soliton formation in an all-normal-dispersion cavity erbium-doped fiber ring laser without an anti-saturable absorber in cavity is first experimentally demonstrated. Individual dark solitons are experimentally identified. Excellent agreement between theory and experiment is observed.

  8. Lasers in oral implantology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnabat-Domingeuz, Josep

    2016-03-01

    Nowadays the use of implants as a increasing therapy in dentistry and it has become a usual treatment in dental offices. More and more dentists have dental implants included in treatment plans for patients with missing teeth. Therefore is necessary that all dentists know all the possibilities of these treatments. Together with the emergence of dental implants, it is also beginning to see an increase in the onset of lasers in dentistry. These two new techniques in dentistry can be supplemented because as we will see the use of lasers in different cases can improve implant treatment.

  9. Laser Looking at Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    TerraPoint (TM) LLC is a company that combines the technologies developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC) with the concept of topographic real estate imaging. TerraPoint provides its customers with digital, topographical data generated by laser technology rather than commonly used microwave (radar) and photographic technologies. This product's technology merges Goddard's and HARC's laser ranging, global positioning systems, and mapping software into a miniaturized package that can be mounted in a light aircraft.

  10. High Power Dye Lasers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-09-30

    sphere is greatly reduced when compared to the axial flow dye cell. This is because the focusing optics can only direct light from a limited angle into...Distribution in Flashlamp . . . „ [ [ TTIH Flashlamp Cooling and Thermal Limits [ [ [ ii~ik Optical Characteristics ’,,: •*••••••••••• il-ib...Tracing Program e Dye Pumping System Laser Tests ! 1 i * * TTT’I Laser Output Fall Off !!!.’!!!" ’ TTT’H Single Shot Optical Distortion TTT’I

  11. Rare earth gas laser

    DOEpatents

    Krupke, W.F.

    1975-10-31

    A high energy gas laser with light output in the infrared or visible region of the spectrum is described. Laser action is obtained by generating vapors of rare earth halides, particularly neodymium iodide or, to a lesser extent, neodymium bromide, and disposing the rare earth vapor medium in a resonant cavity at elevated temperatures; e.g., approximately 1200/sup 0/ to 1400/sup 0/K. A particularly preferred gaseous medium is one involving a complex of aluminum chloride and neodymium chloride, which exhibits tremendously enhanced vapor pressure compared to the rare earth halides per se, and provides comparable increases in stored energy densities.

  12. Laser pulse stacking method

    DOEpatents

    Moses, Edward I.

    1992-01-01

    A laser pulse stacking method is disclosed. A problem with the prior art has been the generation of a series of laser beam pulses where the outer and inner regions of the beams are generated so as to form radially non-synchronous pulses. Such pulses thus have a non-uniform cross-sectional area with respect to the outer and inner edges of the pulses. The present invention provides a solution by combining the temporally non-uniform pulses in a stacking effect to thus provide a more uniform temporal synchronism over the beam diameter.

  13. Laser pulse stacking method

    DOEpatents

    Moses, E.I.

    1992-12-01

    A laser pulse stacking method is disclosed. A problem with the prior art has been the generation of a series of laser beam pulses where the outer and inner regions of the beams are generated so as to form radially non-synchronous pulses. Such pulses thus have a non-uniform cross-sectional area with respect to the outer and inner edges of the pulses. The present invention provides a solution by combining the temporally non-uniform pulses in a stacking effect to thus provide a more uniform temporal synchronism over the beam diameter. 2 figs.

  14. Laser paint removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallets, T.

    1983-12-01

    The Laser Paint Stripper program is a three phase effort which includes: feasibility demonstration; prototype optimization; and implementation at our Air Logistic Centers (depots) by FY88. Major technical areas that make up the automated system include: (1) laser device with power and uptime to handle the number and size of aircraft (F-16 vs C-5A); (2) the beam transport and manipulation system; (3) controls for beam/aircraft safety, alignment, and surface condition sensors; (4) integration software; and (5) cleanup of residue products.

  15. Research on Molecular Lasers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-11-01

    double resonance experiments to study vibration to rotation energy transfer; chemical laser initiation and pumping by electrical discharges in...8217) + HF(v=0,J2’). (7) Ihe experiment consists of the use of one HF laser to pump the IIFfv^jp molecules in less than 500 nanoseconds and the...each stage of diöüUaUcm, Ihc mid- dle 90’c of the .-.ample was rolained." The distilled sam- ple was condensed and pumped on at TV K in r

  16. Vacuum ultraviolet laser

    DOEpatents

    Berkowitz, Joseph; Ruscic, Branko M.; Greene, John P.

    1986-01-01

    Transitions from the 2p.sup.4 (.sup.1 S.sub.0)3s .sup.2 S.sub.1/2 state of atomic fluorine to all allowed lower states produces laser emission at six new wavelengths: 680.7 .ANG., 682.6 .ANG., 3592.7 .ANG., 3574.1 .ANG., 6089.2 .ANG., and 6046.8 .ANG.. Coherent radiation at these new wavelengths can be generated in an atomic fluorine laser operated as an amplifier or as an oscillator.

  17. Laser Evaporation Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    characterized to understand the ef- dependent refractive-index, ambient sensitivity due to fects of the laser evaporation conditions on the struc- adsorption of...or Ar-coated ZnSe crystalline structure in thin films Pulsed laser-assisted dep- osition is one such emerging technique which has a unique...needed to pre% ent satura- plates of ZnSe. NaCI. GaAs. and Ge. which when used in tion of the detector arraN. ,arious combinations proided incremental

  18. Power Play, Laser Style

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Under a NASA SBIR (Small Business Innovation Research) SDL, Inc., has developed the TC40 Single-Frequency Continuously Tunable 500 mw Laser Diode System. This is the first commercially available single frequency diode laser system that offers the broad tunability and the high powers needed for atomic cooling and trapping as well as a variety of atomic spectroscopy techniques. By greatly decreasing both the equipment and the costs of entry, the TC40 enables researchers to pursue some of the most interesting areas of physical chemistry, biochemistry, and atomic physics.

  19. Laser correcting mirror

    DOEpatents

    Sawicki, Richard H.

    1994-01-01

    An improved laser correction mirror (10) for correcting aberrations in a laser beam wavefront having a rectangular mirror body (12) with a plurality of legs (14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 26, 28) arranged into opposing pairs (34, 36, 38, 40) along the long sides (30, 32) of the mirror body (12). Vector force pairs (49, 50, 52, 54) are applied by adjustment mechanisms (42, 44, 46, 48) between members of the opposing pairs (34, 36, 38, 40) for bending a reflective surface 13 of the mirror body 12 into a shape defining a function which can be used to correct for comatic aberrations.

  20. Laser angle measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pond, C. R.; Texeira, P. D.; Wilbert, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    The design and fabrication of a laser angle measurement system is described. The instrument is a fringe counting interferometer that monitors the pitch attitude of a model in a wind tunnel. A laser source and detector are mounted above the mode. Interference fringes are generated by a small passive element on the model. The fringe count is accumulated and displayed by a processor in the wind tunnel control room. Optical and electrical schematics, system maintenance and operation procedures are included, and the results of a demonstration test are given.

  1. Laser Soap Fountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, Tyler; Pegram, Matthew; Jenkins, Zachary; Hester, Brooke C.; Burris, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed an eye-catching demonstration that showcases a variety of physics topics from total internal reflection to electrostatics to non-Newtonian fluid dynamics, including the Kaye effect. The essential components of the demonstration include a vertical stream of liquid soap in which a laser pointer is internally reflected, and which subsequently hits an inclined plane. As the liquid soap, a non-Newtonian fluid, begins to accumulate into a pile, its shear properties change and the incoming fluid rebounds from the pile, forming striking parabolic arcs. We present here a readily reproducible and inexpensive version of a laser soap fountain.

  2. Excimer laser system Profile-500

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atejev, V. V.; Bukreyev, V. S.; Vartapetov, Serge K.; Semenov, A. D.; Sugrobov, V. A.; Turin, V. S.; Fedorov, Sergei N.

    1999-07-01

    The description of ophthalmological excimer laser system 'PROFILE-500' for photorefractive and physiotherapeutic keratectomy is presented. Excimer Laser Systems 'PROFILE- 500' are optical system that use ArF excimer lasers to perform photorefractive keratectomy or LASIK; surgical procedures used to correct myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism.

  3. Reduced Power Laser Designation Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-10

    buffering of the input stage; comparing the noise performance of the candidate amplifier designs; selection of the two-transistor bootstrap design as the...circuit of choice; and comparing the performance of this circuit against that of a basic transconductance amplifier . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Laser...Guided Weapons; Laser designation; laser rangefinders; infrared photodiodes; transconductance amplifiers . 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: a. REPORT U

  4. Coherent Laser Radar System Theory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-05

    This program is aimed at developing a system theory for the emerging technology of multifunction coherent CO2 laser radars. It builds upon previous...work funded by U.S. Army Research Office contract DAAG29-80-K-0022. Keywords include: Laser radar theory, Radar system theory , and Laser speckle.

  5. Single element laser beam shaper

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Shukui [Yorktown, VA; Shinn, Michelle D [Newport News, VA

    2005-09-13

    A single lens laser beam shaper for converting laser beams from any spatial profile to a flat-top or uniform spatial profile. The laser beam shaper includes a lens having two aspheric surfaces. The beam shaper significantly simplifies the overall structure in comparison with conventional 2-element systems and therefore provides great ease in alignment and reduction of cost.

  6. Laser Microsurgery in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Fang-Yen, Christopher; Gabel, Christopher V.; Samuel, Aravinthan D. T.; Bargmann, Cornelia I.; Avery, Leon

    2013-01-01

    Laser killing of cell nuclei has long been a powerful means of examining the roles of individual cells in C. elegans. Advances in genetics, laser technology, and imaging have further expanded the capabilities and usefulness of laser surgery. Here, we review the implementation and application of currently used methods for target edoptical disruption in C. elegans. PMID:22226524

  7. Direct solar-pumped lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. H.; Shiu, Y. J.; Weaver, W. R.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of direct solar pumping of an iodine photodissociation laser at lambda = 1.315 microns was investigated. Threshold inversion density and effect of elevated temperature (up to 670 K) on the laser output were measured. These results and the concentration of solar radiation required for the solar pumped iodine laser are discussed.

  8. Picosecond laser filamentation in air

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-02

    experimentsmake use of theComet laser systemwhich is a part of the Jupiter Laser Facility at the Lawrence LivermoreNational Laboratory inCalifornia, USA [24...bottompanels, respectively. 8 New J. Phys. 18 (2016) 093005 A Schmitt-Sody et al FA9550-12-1-0482 and number FA9550-16-1-0013. The use of the Jupiter Laser

  9. Laser propulsion for orbit transfer - Laser technology issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, J. C.; Frisbee, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    Using reasonable near-term mission traffic models (1991-2000 being the assumed operational time of the system) and the most current unclassified laser and laser thruster information available, it was found that space-based laser propulsion orbit transfer vehicles (OTVs) can outperform the aerobraked chemical OTV over a 10-year life-cycle. The conservative traffic models used resulted in an optimum laser power of about 1 MW per laser. This is significantly lower than the power levels considered in other studies. Trip time was taken into account only to the extent that the system was sized to accomplish the mission schedule.

  10. Transurethral vaporesection of prostate: diode laser or thulium laser?

    PubMed

    Tan, Xinji; Zhang, Xiaobo; Li, Dongjie; Chen, Xiong; Dai, Yuanqing; Gu, Jie; Chen, Mingquan; Hu, Sheng; Bai, Yao; Ning, Yu

    2018-05-01

    This study compared the safety and effectiveness of the diode laser and thulium laser during prostate transurethral vaporesection for treating benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). We retrospectively analyzed 205 patients with BPH who underwent a diode laser or thulium laser technique for prostate transurethral vaporesection from June 2016 to June 2017 and who were followed up for 3 months. Baseline characteristics of the patients, perioperative data, postoperative outcomes, and complications were compared. We also assessed the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), quality of life (QoL), maximum flow rate (Q max ), average flow rate (AFR), and postvoid residual volume (PVR) at 1 and 3 months postoperatively to evaluate the functional improvement of each group. There were no significant differences between the diode laser and thulium laser groups related to age, prostate volume, operative time, postoperative hospital stays, hospitalization costs, or perioperative data. The catheterization time was 3.5 ± 0.8 days for the diode laser group and 4.7 ± 1.8 days for the thulium laser group (p < 0.05). Each group had dramatic improvements in IPSS, QoL, Q max , AFR, and PVR compared with the preoperative values (p < 0.05), although there were no significant differences between the two groups. Use of both diode laser and thulium laser contributes to safe, effective transurethral vaporesection in patients with symptomatic BPH. Diode laser, however, is better than thulium laser for prostate transurethral vaporesection because of its shorter catheterization time. The choice of surgical approach is more important than the choice of laser types during clinical decision making for transurethral laser prostatectomy.

  11. Laser technologies in ophthalmic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atezhev, V. V.; Barchunov, B. V.; Vartapetov, S. K.; Zav'yalov, A. S.; Lapshin, K. E.; Movshev, V. G.; Shcherbakov, I. A.

    2016-08-01

    Excimer and femtosecond lasers are widely used in ophthalmology to correct refraction. Laser systems for vision correction are based on versatile technical solutions and include multiple hard- and software components. Laser characteristics, properties of laser beam delivery system, algorithms for cornea treatment, and methods of pre-surgical diagnostics determine the surgical outcome. Here we describe the scientific and technological basis for laser systems for refractive surgery developed at the Physics Instrumentation Center (PIC) at the Prokhorov General Physics Institute (GPI), Russian Academy of Sciences.

  12. Gasdynamic lasers and photon machines.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, W. H.; Hertzberg, A.

    1973-01-01

    The basic operational highlights of CO2-N2 gasdynamic lasers (GDL's) are described. Features common to powerful gas lasers are indicated. A simplified model of the vibrational kinetics of the system is presented, and the importance of rapid expansion nozzles is shown from analytic solutions of the equations. A high-power pulsed GDL is described, along with estimations of power extraction. A closed-cycle laser is suggested, leading to a description of a photon generator/engine. Thermodynamic analysis of the closed-cycle laser illustrates in principle the possibility of direct conversion of laser energy to work.

  13. Hybrid Dispersion Laser Scanner

    PubMed Central

    Goda, K.; Mahjoubfar, A.; Wang, C.; Fard, A.; Adam, J.; Gossett, D. R.; Ayazi, A.; Sollier, E.; Malik, O.; Chen, E.; Liu, Y.; Brown, R.; Sarkhosh, N.; Di Carlo, D.; Jalali, B.

    2012-01-01

    Laser scanning technology is one of the most integral parts of today's scientific research, manufacturing, defense, and biomedicine. In many applications, high-speed scanning capability is essential for scanning a large area in a short time and multi-dimensional sensing of moving objects and dynamical processes with fine temporal resolution. Unfortunately, conventional laser scanners are often too slow, resulting in limited precision and utility. Here we present a new type of laser scanner that offers ∼1,000 times higher scan rates than conventional state-of-the-art scanners. This method employs spatial dispersion of temporally stretched broadband optical pulses onto the target, enabling inertia-free laser scans at unprecedented scan rates of nearly 100 MHz at 800 nm. To show our scanner's broad utility, we use it to demonstrate unique and previously difficult-to-achieve capabilities in imaging, surface vibrometry, and flow cytometry at a record 2D raster scan rate of more than 100 kHz with 27,000 resolvable points. PMID:22685627

  14. Nuclear pumped laser II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deyoung, R. J.; Lee, J. H.; Pinkston, W. T.

    1977-01-01

    The first direct nuclear pumped laser using the He-2-(n,p) H-3 reaction is reported. Lasing took place on the 1.79 microns Ar I transition in a mixture of He-3-Ar at approximately 600 Torr total pressure. It was found that the electrically pulsed afterglow He-Ar laser had the same concentration profile as the nuclear pumped laser. As a result, nuclear lasing was also achieved in He-3-Xe (2.027 micron) and He-3-Kr (2.52 micron). Scaling of laser output with both thermal flux and total pressure as well as minority concentration has been completed. A peak output (He-3-Ar) of 3.7 watts has been achieved at a total pressure of 4 atm. Direct nuclear pumping of He-3-Ne has also been achieved. Nuclear pumping of a He-3-NF3 mixture was attempted, lasing in FI at approximately 7000 A, without success, although the potential lasing transitions appeared in spontaneous emission. Both NF3 and 238UF6 appear to quench spontaneous emission when they constitute more than 1% of the gas mixture.

  15. Laser beam control device

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, H.L.

    1976-01-06

    The shutter and beam expander for diverting the output of a high power laser into an absorption body comprises a onepiece metallic structure having a convex spherically shaped portion adapted to be moved into the beam path for simultaneously reflecting and expanding the beam into energy absorption material.

  16. Ring laser scatterometer

    DOEpatents

    Ackermann, Mark; Diels, Jean-Claude

    2005-06-28

    A scatterometer utilizes the dead zone resulting from lockup caused by scatter from a sample located in the optical path of a ring laser at a location where counter-rotating pulses cross. The frequency of one pulse relative to the other is varied across the lockup dead zone.

  17. Oxazine laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R.; Field, George F.

    1992-01-01

    New oxazine compounds useful as dye laser media in solution, are superiior to prior art materials. The oxazine dyes useful when pumped by the 578.2 nm copper line to operate in the 700-800 nm range are described by formula I ##STR1##

  18. Theory of Talbot lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillet de Chatellus, H.; Lacot, E.; Glastre, W.; Jacquin, O.; Hugon, O.

    2013-09-01

    We provide a theoretical study of frequency-shifted feedback (FSF) lasers, i.e., lasers with an internal frequency shifter, seeded with a monochromatic wave. The resulting spectrum consists in a set of equidistant modes, labeled by n, whose phases vary quadratically with n. We prove the emergence of a temporal fractional Talbot effect, leading to generation of Fourier-transform-limited pulses at a repetition rate tunable by the parameters of the FSF cavity (cavity length and frequency shift per round trip), and limited by the spectral bandwidth of the laser. We characterize in detail the output field of this so-called “Talbot laser” and emphasize its specific intensity fluctuations. We evidence connections with some aspects of number theory by the appearance of Gauss sums and theta series in the expression of the laser field. Our predictions are in full agreement with the experimental results published in Guillet de Chatellus [Opt. ExpressOPEXFF1094-408710.1364/OE.21.015065 21, 15065 (2013)]. Practical applications and limitations are discussed.

  19. Laser Welding in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Kaukler, William F.

    1989-01-01

    Solidification type welding process experiments in conditions of microgravity were performed. The role of convection in such phenomena was examined and convective effects in the small volumes obtained in the laser weld zone were observed. Heat transfer within the weld was affected by acceleration level as indicated by the resulting microstructure changes in low gravity. All experiments were performed such that both high and low gravity welds occurred along the same weld beam, allowing the effects of gravity alone to be examined. Results indicate that laser welding in a space environment is feasible and can be safely performed IVA or EVA. Development of the hardware to perform the experiment in a Hitchhiker-g platform is recomended as the next step. This experiment provides NASA with a capable technology for welding needs in space. The resources required to perform this experiment aboard a Shuttle Hitchhiker-pallet are assessed. Over the four year period 1991 to 1994, it is recommended that the task will require 13.6 manyears and $914,900. In addition to demonstrating the technology and ferreting out the problems encountered, it is suggested that NASA will also have a useful laser materials processing facility for working with both the scientific and the engineering aspects of materials processing in space. Several concepts are also included for long-term optimization of available solar power through solar pumping solid state lasers directly for welding power.

  20. Laser sensor system documentation.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-03-01

    Phase 1 of TxDOT Project 0-6873, True Road Surface Deflection Measuring Device, developed a : laser sensor system based on several sensors mounted on a rigid beam. : This sensor system remains with CTR currently, as the project is moving into Phase 2...

  1. [Laser-assisted blepharoplasty].

    PubMed

    Thiesmann, R

    2018-04-01

    Blepharoplasty is one of the most frequently performed plastic cosmetic interventions. For this purpose the CO 2 laser is an instrument that can be used as a laser scalpel to cut as well as in its ablative function to remove skin irregularities, such as scars and tumors and also to treat changes of the skin due to aging. Fractionated laser irradiation reduces the duration of skin redness and the postoperative rehabilitation time after a resurfacing. The advantages of the CO 2 laser are a gentle intraoperative preparation and less postoperative swelling due to an additional cauterization of blood vessels. Disadvantages are an increased occurrence of wound dehiscence and the high cost of instrumentation. Before performing a blepharoplasty an exact analysis of changes of the eyelid and also the wishes of the patients are necessary to establish the most suitable surgical procedure and the correct dosage. In addition to skin and fat resection, depending on the original situation it is possible to tighten slack skin with a resurfacing, to shift the fat compartments, to change the position of the eyebrows, to correct a ptosis and also to modulate the tension of the lid. The frequency of complications can be reduced by good planning of the surgical intervention. In the case of occurrence of complications, suitable treatment strategies should be available.

  2. Ultrafast Laser Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-05

    2 Prism Dye Amplifiers .................................................................................. 2 Axicon...carried out under this project. PRISM DYE AMPLIFIERS A first effort was devoted to setting up an amplifier system for the output of a short pulse dye laser...For amplification up to pulse energies of approximately 500 p.J/pulse we chose three stages of prism amplifier cells, with diameters of 1 m, 3 mm

  3. Development of ultraviolet lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walters, G. K.

    1974-01-01

    The pulsed electron accelerator selected for use in the development of ultraviolet laser capability suitable for use in photoexcitation and photoionization studies of the upper atmosphere is reported. Performance figures, installation specifications, and total cost of the equipment are briefly shown, and plans for further studies are outlined.

  4. Lasers in Ophthalmology

    PubMed Central

    Rock, William

    1986-01-01

    Lasers provide a convenient source of focused light energy that can be delivered to a target and, specifically, can do one of two things in the eye. Lasers can create a thermal lesion, that is, a burn, in the same way that light from the sun that is focused with a magnifying glass will burn paper. This thermal lesion can create a scar or hole in the target tissue. In photocoagulation techniques depend on the thermal effect, i.e., the absorption characteristics of the tissues to be coagulated indicate the wavelength to be chosen. The three important ocular light absorbers are melanin, hemoglobin and xanthophyll. For anterior segment work, melanin in the iris and trabecular meshwork is the most important absorber and hemoglobin in blood is the second most important. In retinal work, hemoglobin and xanthophyll absorption are the most important absorbers. The second type of laser effect is achieved with very short duration, high-powered lasers such as the Q-switched neodymium YAG. Non-thermal effects cause disruption of any target tissue either transparent or opaque. PMID:21267103

  5. Apodizer aperture for lasers

    DOEpatents

    Jorna, Siebe; Siebert, Larry D.; Brueckner, Keith A.

    1976-11-09

    An aperture attenuator for use with high power lasers which includes glass windows shaped and assembled to form an annulus chamber which is filled with a dye solution. The annulus chamber is shaped such that the section in alignment with the axis of the incident beam follows a curve which is represented by the equation y = (r - r.sub.o).sup.n.

  6. Line Tunable Ultraviolet Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Brian M.; Barnes, Norman P.

    2004-01-01

    An ultraviolet laser is demonstrated using a dual wavelength Nd:YAG oscillator, sum frequency and second harmonic process. Synchronous pulses at 1.052 and 1.319 micrometers are amplified, mixed and subsequently doubled, producing pulses at 0.293 micrometers.

  7. Laser Lightcraft Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yen-Sen; Liu, Jiwen; Wei, Hong

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to establish the technical ground for modeling the physics of laser powered pulse detonation phenomenon. The principle of the laser power propulsion is that when high-powered laser is focused at a small area near the surface of a thruster, the intense energy causes the electrical breakdown of the working fluid (e.g. air) and forming high speed plasma (known as the inverse Bremsstrahlung, IB, effect). The intense heat and high pressure created in the plasma consequently causes the surrounding to heat up and expand until the thrust producing shock waves are formed. This complex process of gas ionization, increase in radiation absorption and the forming of plasma and shock waves will be investigated in the development of the present numerical model. In the first phase of this study, laser light focusing, radiation absorption and shock wave propagation over the entire pulsed cycle are modeled. The model geometry and test conditions of known benchmark experiments such as those in Myrabo's experiment will be employed in the numerical model validation simulations. The calculated performance data will be compared to the test data.

  8. Laser Soap Fountain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Tyler; Pegram, Matthew; Jenkins, Zachary; Hester, Brooke C.; Burris, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed an eye-catching demonstration that showcases a variety of physics topics from total internal reflection to electrostatics to non-Newtonian fluid dynamics, including the Kaye effect. The essential components of the demonstration include a vertical stream of liquid soap in which a laser pointer is internally reflected, and which…

  9. Laser machining wood composites

    Treesearch

    Vladimir Barnekov; Henry A. Huber; Charles W. McMillin

    1989-01-01

    This practical, nonstatistical experiment using commercial equipment demonstrated that nominal 3/4-inch compositep anelsf or furniture consisting of a particleboard core,h igh density melamine crossbands, and walnut veneer face plies can be cut with a carbon dioxide/airjet-assisted laser to produce surfaces with minimal nonparallelism and char compared to previous...

  10. Optical and infrared lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Javan, A.

    1978-01-01

    Quantum mechanical predictions for the gain of an optically pumped CW FIR laser are presented for cases in which one or both of the pump and FIR transitions are pressure or Doppler broadened. The results are compared to those based on the rate equation model. Some of the quantum mechanical predictions are verified in CH3OH.

  11. Miniature Laser Tracker

    DOEpatents

    Vann, Charles S.

    2003-09-09

    This small, inexpensive, non-contact laser sensor can detect the location of a retroreflective target in a relatively large volume and up to six degrees of position. The tracker's laser beam is formed into a plane of light which is swept across the space of interest. When the beam illuminates the retroreflector, some of the light returns to the tracker. The intensity, angle, and time of the return beam is measured to calculate the three dimensional location of the target. With three retroreflectors on the target, the locations of three points on the target are measured, enabling the calculation of all six degrees of target position. Until now, devices for three-dimensional tracking of objects in a large volume have been heavy, large, and very expensive. Because of the simplicity and unique characteristics of this tracker, it is capable of three-dimensional tracking of one to several objects in a large volume, yet it is compact, light-weight, and relatively inexpensive. Alternatively, a tracker produces a diverging laser beam which is directed towards a fixed position, and senses when a retroreflective target enters the fixed field of view. An optically bar coded target can be read by the tracker to provide information about the target. The target can be formed of a ball lens with a bar code on one end. As the target moves through the field, the ball lens causes the laser beam to scan across the bar code.

  12. Laser therapy of muscle injuries.

    PubMed

    Dawood, Munqith S; Al-Salihi, Anam Rasheed; Qasim, Amenah Wala'a

    2013-05-01

    Low-level lasers are used in general therapy and healing process due to their good photo-bio-stimulation effects. In this paper, the effects of diode laser and Nd:YAG laser on the healing process of practically managed skeletal muscle trauma has been successfully studied. Standard impact trauma was induced by using a specially designed mechanical device. The impacted muscle was left for 3 days for complete development of blunt trauma. After that it was irradiated by five laser sessions for 5 days. Two types of lasers were used; 785-nm diode laser and 1.064-nm Nd:YAG laser, both in continuous and pulsed modes. A special electronic circuit was designed and implemented to modulate the diode laser for this purpose. Tissue samples of crushed skeletal muscle have been dissected from the injured irradiated muscle then bio-chemically analyzed for the regeneration of contractile and collagenous proteins using Lowry assay for protein determination and Reddy and Enwemeka assay for hydroxyproline determination. The results showed that both lasers stimulate the regeneration capability of traumatized skeletal muscle. The diode laser in CW and pulsed modes showed better results than the Nd:YAG in accelerating the preservation of the normal tissue content of collagenous and contractile proteins beside controlling the regeneration of non-functional fibrous tissue. This study proved that the healing achieved by the laser treatment was faster than the control group by 15-20 days.

  13. Teradiode's high brightness semiconductor lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Robin K.; Chann, Bien; Burgess, James; Lochman, Bryan; Zhou, Wang; Cruz, Mike; Cook, Rob; Dugmore, Dan; Shattuck, Jeff; Tayebati, Parviz

    2016-03-01

    TeraDiode is manufacturing multi-kW-class ultra-high brightness fiber-coupled direct diode lasers for industrial applications. A fiber-coupled direct diode laser with a power level of 4,680 W from a 100 μm core diameter, <0.08 numerical aperture (NA) output fiber at a single center wavelength was demonstrated. Our TeraBlade industrial platform achieves world-record brightness levels for direct diode lasers. The fiber-coupled output corresponds to a Beam Parameter Product (BPP) of 3.5 mm-mrad and is the lowest BPP multi-kW-class direct diode laser yet reported. This laser is suitable for industrial materials processing applications, including sheet metal cutting and welding. This 4-kW fiber-coupled direct diode laser has comparable brightness to that of industrial fiber lasers and CO2 lasers, and is over 10x brighter than state-of-the-art direct diode lasers. We have also demonstrated novel high peak power lasers and high brightness Mid-Infrared Lasers.

  14. Shaping propagation invariant laser beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soskind, Michael; Soskind, Rose; Soskind, Yakov

    2015-11-01

    Propagation-invariant structured laser beams possess several unique properties and play an important role in various photonics applications. The majority of propagation invariant beams are produced in the form of laser modes emanating from stable laser cavities. Therefore, their spatial structure is limited by the intracavity mode formation. We show that several types of anamorphic optical systems (AOSs) can be effectively employed to shape laser beams into a variety of propagation invariant structured fields with different shapes and phase distributions. We present a propagation matrix approach for designing AOSs and defining mode-matching conditions required for preserving propagation invariance of the output shaped fields. The propagation matrix approach was selected, as it provides a more straightforward approach in designing AOSs for shaping propagation-invariant laser beams than the alternative technique based on the Gouy phase evolution, especially in the case of multielement AOSs. Several practical configurations of optical systems that are suitable for shaping input laser beams into a diverse variety of structured propagation invariant laser beams are also presented. The laser beam shaping approach was applied by modeling propagation characteristics of several input laser beam types, including Hermite-Gaussian, Laguerre-Gaussian, and Ince-Gaussian structured field distributions. The influence of the Ince-Gaussian beam semifocal separation parameter and the azimuthal orientation between the input laser beams and the AOSs onto the resulting shape of the propagation invariant laser beams is presented as well.

  15. Endoscopic laser-urethroplasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Peter

    2006-02-01

    The objective was to prove the advantage of endoscopic laser-urethroplasty over internal urethrotomy in acquired urethral strictures. Patients and Method: From January, 1996 to June, 2005, 35 patients with a mean age of 66 years were submitted to endoscopic laser-urethroplasty for strictures of either the bulbar (30) or membranous (5) urethra. The operations were carried out under general anesthesia. First of all, the strictures were incised at the 4, 8 and 12 o'clock position by means of a Sachse-urethrotom. Then the scar flap between the 4 and 8 o'clock position was vaporized using a Nd:YAG laser, wavelength 1060 nm and a 600 pm bare fiber, the latter always being in contact with the tissue. The laser worked at 40W power in continuous mode. The total energy averaged 2574 J. An indwelling catheter was kept in place overnight and the patients were discharged the following day. Urinalysis, uroflowmetry and clinical examination were performed at two months after surgery and from then on every six months. Results: No serious complications were encountered. Considering a mean follow-up of 18 months, the average peak flow improved from 7.3 ml/s preoperatively to 18.7 mVs postoperatively. The treatment faded in 5 patients ( 14.3% ) who finally underwent open urethroplasty. Conclusions: Endoscopic laser-urethroplasty yields better short-term results than internal visual urethrotomy. Long-term follow-up has yet to confirm its superiority in the treatment of acquired urethral strictures.

  16. OCDR guided laser ablation device

    DOEpatents

    Dasilva, Luiz B.; Colston, Jr., Bill W.; James, Dale L.

    2002-01-01

    A guided laser ablation device. The device includes a mulitmode laser ablation fiber that is surrounded by one or more single mode optical fibers that are used to image in the vicinity of the laser ablation area to prevent tissue damage. The laser ablation device is combined with an optical coherence domain reflectometry (OCDR) unit and with a control unit which initializes the OCDR unit and a high power laser of the ablation device. Data from the OCDR unit is analyzed by the control unit and used to control the high power laser. The OCDR images up to about 3 mm ahead of the ablation surface to enable a user to see sensitive tissue such as a nerve or artery before damaging it by the laser.

  17. Laser applications in ophthalmology: overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soederberg, Per G.

    1992-03-01

    In 1961, one year after its invention, the laser was used for experimental photocoagulation in animals. In 1963 it was tried for treatment of human eyes. Due to the fact that the optical media in the eye are transmissible to light, the laser offers the unique possibility of measuring and manipulating within a very strict localization without opening the eye. The properties of laser light are increasingly exploited for diagnostics in ophthalmic disease. The introduction of the laser as a tool in ophthalmology has revolutionized ophthalmic treatment. Unfortunately, it has been pointed out in international peace meetings that the biological effect evoked by lasers can also be used for intentional destruction of the vision of enemy soldiers. To prevent such an abuse of lasers against eyes, a strong formal international anti-laser weapon movement has been initiated.

  18. Subwavelength micropillar array terahertz lasers.

    PubMed

    Krall, Michael; Brandstetter, Martin; Deutsch, Christoph; Detz, Hermann; Andrews, Aaron Maxwell; Schrenk, Werner; Strasser, Gottfried; Unterrainer, Karl

    2014-01-13

    We report on micropillar-based terahertz lasers with active pillars that are much smaller than the emission wavelength. These micropillar array lasers correspond to scaled-down band-edge photonic crystal lasers forming an active photonic metamaterial. In contrast to photonic crystal lasers which use significantly larger pillar structures, lasing emission is not observed close to high-symmetry points in the photonic band diagram, but in the effective medium regime. We measure stimulated emission at 4 THz for micropillar array lasers with pillar diameters of 5 µm. Our results not only demonstrate the integration of active subwavelength optics in a terahertz laser, but are also an important step towards the realization of nanowire-based terahertz lasers.

  19. Low quantum defect laser performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, Steven R.

    2017-01-01

    Low quantum defect lasers are possible using near-resonant optical pumping. This paper examines the laser material performance as the quantum defect of the laser is reduced. A steady-state model is developed, which incorporates the relevant physical processes in these materials and predicts extraction efficiency and waste heat generation. As the laser quantum defect is reduced below a few percent, the impact of fluorescence cooling must be included in the analysis. The special case of a net zero quantum defect laser is examined in detail. This condition, referred to as the radiation balance laser (RBL), is shown to provide two orders of magnitude lower heat generation at the cost of roughly 10% loss in extraction efficiency. Numerical examples are presented with the host materials Yb:YAG and Yb:Silica. The general conditions, which yield optimal laser efficiency, are derived and explored.

  20. Histologic effects of resurfacing lasers.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Joshua R; Greene, Ryan M; Green, Jeremy B

    2014-02-01

    By utilizing resurfacing lasers, physicians can significantly improve the appearance of sun-damaged skin, scars, and more. The carbon dioxide and erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet lasers were the first ablative resurfacing lasers to offer impressive results although these earlier treatments were associated with significant downtime. Later, nonablative resurfacing lasers such as the neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser proved effective, after a series of treatments with less downtime, but with more modest results. The theory of fractional photothermolysis has revolutionized resurfacing laser technology by increasing the safety profile of the devices while delivering clinical efficacy. A review of the histologic and molecular consequences of the resurfacing laser-tissue interaction allows for a better understanding of the devices and their clinical effects. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  1. Laser engineering of microbial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusupov, V. I.; Gorlenko, M. V.; Cheptsov, V. S.; Minaev, N. V.; Churbanova, E. S.; Zhigarkov, V. S.; Chutko, E. A.; Evlashin, S. A.; Chichkov, B. N.; Bagratashvili, V. N.

    2018-06-01

    A technology of laser engineering of microbial systems (LEMS) based on the method of laser-induced transfer of heterogeneous mixtures containing microorganisms (laser bioprinting) is described. This technology involves laser printing of soil microparticles by focusing near-infrared laser pulses on a specially prepared gel/soil mixture spread onto a gold-coated glass plate. The optimal range of laser energies from the point of view of the formation of stable jets and droplets with minimal negative impact on living systems of giant accelerations, laser pulse irradiation, and Au nanoparticles was found. Microsamples of soil were printed on glucose-peptone-yeast agar plates to estimate the LEMS process influence on structural and morphological microbial diversity. The obtained results were compared with traditionally treated soil samples. It was shown that LEMS technology allows significantly increasing the biodiversity of printed organisms and is effective for isolating rare or unculturable microorganisms.

  2. 2 micron femtosecond fiber laser

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Jian; Wan, Peng; Yang, Lihmei

    2014-07-29

    Methods and systems for generating femtosecond fiber laser pulses are disclose, including generating a signal laser pulse from a seed laser oscillator; using a first amplifier stage comprising an input and an output, wherein the signal laser pulse is coupled into the input of the first stage amplifier and the output of the first amplifier stage emits an amplified and stretched signal laser pulse; using an amplifier chain comprising an input and an output, wherein the amplified and stretched signal laser pulse from the output of the first amplifier stage is coupled into the input of the amplifier chain and the output of the amplifier chain emits a further amplified, stretched signal laser pulse. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  3. Bibliography of Soviet Laser Developments, Number 85, September - October 1986.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    Ultrashort Pulse Generation, Laser Crystal Growing, Free Electron Lasers , Laser Theory, Laser Biological Effects, Laser Communications, Laser ...liquid, gas, and chemical lasers ; components; nonlinear optics; spectroscopy of laser materials; ultrashort pulse generation; crystal growing; theoretical...30 5. Self-focusing 30 6. Acoustic Interaction ................ 30 G. Spectroscopy of Laser Materials ......... 33 H. Ultrashort

  4. Laser modulator for LISA pathfinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voland, C.; Lund, G.; Coppoolse, W.; Crosby, P.; Stadler, M.; Kudielka, K.; Özkan, C.

    2017-11-01

    LISA Pathfinder is an ESA experiment to demonstrate the key technologies needed for the LISA mission to detect gravitational waves in space. The LISA Pathfinder spacecraft represents one arm of the LISA interferometer, containing an optical metrology system and two proof masses as inertial references for the drag-free control system. The LISA Pathfinder payload consists of two drag-free floating test masses located in the inertial sensors with their control electronics and an optical metrology subsystem. The optical metrology subsystem monitors the movement of both test masses relative to each other and to the spacecraft with very high sensitivity and resolution. This is achieved with a heterodyne Mach- Zehnder interferometer. This interferometer requires as input two coherent laser beams with a heterodyne frequency difference of a few kHz. To generate the two laser beams with a heterodyne frequency difference a Nd:YAG laser is used together with the Laser Modulator. The Nd:YAG laser generates a single coherent laser signal at a wavelength of 1064nm which is fibre coupled to the Laser Modulator. The Laser Modulator then generates the two optical beams with the required heterodyne frequency offset. In addition, the Laser Modulator is required to perform laser amplitude stabilization and optical path difference control for the two optical signals. The Laser Modulator consists of an optical unit - the LMU - and RF synthesiser, power amplification and control electronics. These electronics are all housed in the Laser Modulator Electronics (LME). The LMU has four primary functions: • Splitting of the input laser beam into two paths for later superposition in the interferometer. • Applying different frequency shifts to each of the beams. • Providing amplitude modulation control to each of the beams. • Providing active control of the optical path length difference between the two optical paths. The present paper describes the design and performance of the LMU

  5. Prototype laser-diode-pumped solid state laser transmitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kane, Thomas J.; Cheng, Emily A. P.; Wallace, Richard W.

    1989-01-01

    Monolithic, diode-pumped Nd:YAG ring lasers can provide diffraction-limited, single-frequency, narrow-linewidth, tunable output which is adequate for use as a local oscillator in a coherent communication system. A laser was built which had a linewidth of about 2 kHz, a power of 5 milliwatts, and which was tunable over a range of 30 MHz in a few microseconds. This laser was phase-locked to a second, similar laser. This demonstrates that the powerful technique of heterodyne detection is possible with a diode-pumped laser used as the local oscillator. Laser diode pumping of monolithic Nd:YAG rings can lead to output powers of hundreds of milliwatts from a single laser. A laser was built with a single-mode output of 310 mW. Several lasers can be chained together to sum their power, while maintaining diffraction-limited, single frequency operation. This technique was demonstrated with two lasers, with a total output of 340 mW, and is expected to be practical for up to about ten lasers. Thus with lasers of 310 mW, output of up to 3 W is possible. The chaining technique, if properly engineered, results in redundancy. The technique of resonant external modulation and doubling is designed to efficiently convert the continuous wave, infrared output of our lasers into low duty-cycle pulsed green output. This technique was verified through both computer modeling and experimentation. Further work would be necessary to develop a deliverable system using this technique.

  6. Laser Stimulated Thermoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abtahi, Abdollah

    Techniques for localized heating of semi-infinite single-layer and two-layer structures are investigated theoretically and experimentally, motivated by applications in thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry of ionizing radiation. The heat-conduction equations are solved by the Green's function technique to obtain the transient temperature distribution caused by exposure to laser beams of Gaussian and uniform circular intensity profiles. It is shown that the spatio-temporal temperature response is readily monitored by the TL response that results when layer configuration contains a thermoluminescent phosphor. The experiments for the verification of the developed theory are performed with two specially constructed TL detection systems, one featuring a laser beam of Gaussian profile and the other a uniform circular laser beam. Measurements of the thermoluminescent emission from a number of different TL systems are performed and compared with computed responses on the basis of simple electron kinetics. We experiment exclusively with the commercial TL phosphor LiF:Mg,Ti(TLD-100, Harshaw), the most widely used material in thermoluminescence dosimetry. We study in detail localized Gaussian beam heating of it in the form of 0.9 mm thick slabs, self-supporting firms of fine-grain powder in a polyimide (Kapton) matrix, and on substrates of LiF single crystals or borosilicate glass. Thermoluminescent layers on glass substrates have been heated with Gaussian and uniform circular intensity profiles in two different modes: the laser beam impinges onto (a) the phosphor layer, and (b) the glass substrate. It is demonstrated that the optical and thermal behavior of the dosimeters can be determined by these methods and that, furthermore, the thermoluminescence response of a given configuration can be simulated as a function of a number of experimental parameters such as laser power, beam size, substrate and TL-layer thicknesses, and configuration of the dosimeters. In addition, we have

  7. Pulsed-laser capabilities at the Laser-Hardened Materials Evaluation Laboratory (LHMEL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royse, Robert W.; Seibert, Daniel B., II; Lander, Michael L.; Eric, John J.

    2000-08-01

    Pulsed laser capabilities at the Laser Hardened Material Evaluation Laboratory are described relevant to optical coupling, impulse generation and laser propulsion. Capabilities of the Nd:Glass laser are presented as well as supporting test systems.

  8. Laser spectroscopy on organic molecules.

    PubMed

    Imasaka, T

    1996-06-01

    Various laser spectrometric methods have been developed until now. Especially, laser fluorometry is most sensitive and is frequently combined with a separation technique such as capillary electrophoresis. For non-fluorescent compounds, photothermal spectrometry may be used instead. A diode laser is potentially useful for practical trace analysis, because of its low cost and long-term trouble-free operation. On the other hand, monochromaticity of the laser is essential in high-resolution spectrometry, e.g. in low temperature spectrometry providing a very sharp spectral feature. Closely-related compounds such as isomers can easily be differentiated, and information for assignment is obtained from the spectrum. Multiphoton ionization mass spectrometry is useful for soft ionization, providing additional information concerned with molecular weight and chemical structure. A short laser pulse with a sufficient energy is suitable for rapid heating of the solid surface. A matrix-assisted laser desorption/ion-ization technique is recently employed for introduction of a large biological molecule into a vacuum for mass analysis. In the future, laser spectrometry will be developed by a combination with state-of-the-art laser technology. In the 21st century, new laser spectrometry will be developed, which may be based on revolutionary ideas or unexpected discoveries. Such studies will open new frontiers in analytical laser spectroscopy.

  9. Laser pointers and aviation safety.

    PubMed

    Nakagawara, V B; Montgomery, R W

    2000-10-01

    Laser pointers have been used by teachers and lecturers for years to highlight key areas on charts and screens during visual presentations. When used in a responsible manner, laser pointers are not considered to be hazardous. However, as the availability of such devices has increased, so have reports of their misuse. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a warning in December 1997 on the possibility of eye injury to children from handheld laser pointers. In October 1998, the American Academy of Ophthalmology upgraded an earlier caution to a warning, stating that laser pointers can be hazardous and should be kept away from children, after two reports of eye injuries involving young girls (age 11 and 13 yr). Of particular concern was the promotion of laser products as children's toys, such as those that can project cartoon figures and line drawings. Additionally, there have been reports involving the misuse of laser pointers (e.g., arrests made after police interpreted the red beam to be a laser-sighted weapon, spectators aiming laser lights at athletes during sporting events, cars illuminated on highways, and numerous incidents involving the illumination of aircraft). This technical note discusses physiological effects of exposure from a laser pointer, the regulation and classification of commercial laser products, and how the misuse of these pointers is a possible threat to aviation safety.

  10. Chaotic He-Ne laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuusela, Tom A.

    2017-09-01

    A He-Ne laser is an example of a class A laser, which can be described by a single nonlinear differential equation of the complex electric field. This laser system has only one degree of freedom and is thus inherently stable. A He-Ne laser can be driven to the chaotic condition when a large fraction of the output beam is injected back to the laser. In practice, this can be done simply by adding an external mirror. In this situation, the laser system has infinite degrees of freedom and therefore it can have a chaotic attractor. We show the fundamental laser equations and perform elementary stability analysis. In experiments, the laser intensity variations are measured by a simple photodiode circuit. The laser output intensity time series is studied using nonlinear analysis tools which can be found freely on the internet. The results show that the laser system with feedback has an attractor of a reasonably high dimension and that the maximal Lyapunov exponent is positive, which is clear evidence of chaotic behaviour. The experimental setup and analysis steps are so simple that the studies can even be implemented in the undergraduate physics laboratory.

  11. Laser frequency modulator for modulating a laser cavity

    DOEpatents

    Erbert, Gaylen V.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention relates to a laser frequency modulator for modulating a laser cavity. It is known in the prior art to utilize a PZT (piezoelectric transducer) element in combination with a mirror to change the cavity length of a laser cavity (which changes the laser frequency). Using a PZT element to drive the mirror directly is adequate at frequencies below 10 kHz. However, in high frequency applications (100 kHz and higher) PZT elements alone do not provide a sufficient change in the cavity length. The present invention utilizes an ultrasonic concentrator with a PZT element and mirror to provide modulation of the laser cavity. With an ultrasonic concentrator, the mirror element at the end of a laser cavity can move at larger amplitudes and higher frequencies.

  12. Laser beam temporal and spatial tailoring for laser shock processing

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, Lloyd; Dane, C. Brent

    2001-01-01

    Techniques are provided for formatting laser pulse spatial shape and for effectively and efficiently delivering the laser energy to a work surface in the laser shock process. An appropriately formatted pulse helps to eliminate breakdown and generate uniform shocks. The invention uses a high power laser technology capable of meeting the laser requirements for a high throughput process, that is, a laser which can treat many square centimeters of surface area per second. The shock process has a broad range of applications, especially in the aerospace industry, where treating parts to reduce or eliminate corrosion failure is very important. The invention may be used for treating metal components to improve strength and corrosion resistance. The invention has a broad range of applications for parts that are currently shot peened and/or require peening by means other than shot peening. Major applications for the invention are in the automotive and aerospace industries for components such as turbine blades, compressor components, gears, etc.

  13. The reverse laser drilling of transparent materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anthony, T. R.; Lindner, P. A.

    1980-01-01

    Within a limited range of incident laser-beam intensities, laser drilling of a sapphire wafer initiates on the surface of the wafer where the laser beam exits and proceeds upstream in the laser beam to the surface where the laser beam enters the wafer. This reverse laser drilling is the result of the constructive interference between the laser beam and its reflected component on the exit face of the wafer. Constructive interference occurs only at the exit face of the sapphire wafer because the internally reflected laser beam suffers no phase change there. A model describing reverse laser drilling predicts the ranges of incident laser-beam intensity where no drilling, reverse laser drilling, and forward laser drilling can be expected in various materials. The application of reverse laser drilling in fabricating feed-through conductors in silicon-on-sapphire wafers for a massively parallel processer is described.

  14. Transversely bounded DFB lasers. [bounded distributed-feedback lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elachi, C.; Evans, G.; Yeh, C.

    1975-01-01

    Bounded distributed-feedback (DFB) lasers are studied in detail. Threshold gain and field distribution for a number of configurations are derived and analyzed. More specifically, the thin-film guide, fiber, diffusion guide, and hollow channel with inhomogeneous-cladding DFB lasers are considered. Optimum points exist and must be used in DFB laser design. Different-modes feedback and the effects of the transverse boundaries are included. A number of applications are also discussed.

  15. CO2 Laser Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonsson, Samuel

    1989-03-01

    It gives me a great deal of pleasure to introduce our final speaker of this morning's session for two reasons: First of all, his company has been very much in the news not only in our own community but in the pages of Wall Street Journal and in the world economic press. And, secondly, we would like to welcome him to our shores. He is a temporary resident of the United States, for a few months, forsaking his home in Germany to come here and help with the start up of a new company which we believe, probably, ranks #1 as the world supplier of CO2 lasers now, through the combination of former Spectra Physics Industrial Laser Division and Rofin-Sinar GMBH. Samuel Simonsson is the Chairman of the Board of Rofin-Sinar, Inc., here in the U.S. and managing director of Rofin-Sinar GMBH. It is a pleasure to welcome him.

  16. Laser color recording unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, E.

    1984-05-01

    A color recording unit was designed for output and control of digitized picture data within computer controlled reproduction and picture processing systems. In order to get a color proof picture of high quality similar to a color print, together with reduced time and material consumption, a photographic color film material was exposed pixelwise by modulated laser beams of three wavelengths for red, green and blue light. Components of different manufacturers for lasers, acousto-optic modulators and polygon mirrors were tested, also different recording methods as (continuous tone mode or screened mode and with a drum or flatbed recording principle). Besides the application for the graphic arts - the proof recorder CPR 403 with continuous tone color recording with a drum scanner - such a color hardcopy peripheral unit with large picture formats and high resolution can be used in medicine, communication, and satellite picture processing.

  17. Laser pulse sampler

    DOEpatents

    Vann, C.

    1998-03-24

    The Laser Pulse Sampler (LPS) measures temporal pulse shape without the problems of a streak camera. Unlike the streak camera, the laser pulse directly illuminates a camera in the LPS, i.e., no additional equipment or energy conversions are required. The LPS has several advantages over streak cameras. The dynamic range of the LPS is limited only by the range of its camera, which for a cooled camera can be as high as 16 bits, i.e., 65,536. The LPS costs less because there are fewer components, and those components can be mass produced. The LPS is easier to calibrate and maintain because there is only one energy conversion, i.e., photons to electrons, in the camera. 5 figs.

  18. Laser multiplexing system

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Steve A.; English, Jr., Ronald Edward; White, Ronald K.

    2001-01-01

    A plurality of copper lasers, as radiant power sources, emits a beam of power carrying radiation. A plurality of fiber injection assemblies receives power from the plurality of copper lasers and injects such power into a plurality of fibers for individually transmitting the received power to a plurality of power-receiving devices. The power-transmitting fibers of the system are so arranged that power is delivered therethrough to each of the power-receiving devices such that, even if a few of the radiant power sources and/or fibers fail, the power supply to any of the power receiving devices will not completely drop to zero but will drop by the same proportionate amount.

  19. Laser beam guard clamps

    DOEpatents

    Dickson, Richard K.

    2010-09-07

    A quick insert and release laser beam guard panel clamping apparatus having a base plate mountable on an optical table, a first jaw affixed to the base plate, and a spring-loaded second jaw slidably carried by the base plate to exert a clamping force. The first and second jaws each having a face acutely angled relative to the other face to form a V-shaped, open channel mouth, which enables wedge-action jaw separation by and subsequent clamping of a laser beam guard panel inserted through the open channel mouth. Preferably, the clamping apparatus also includes a support structure having an open slot aperture which is positioned over and parallel with the open channel mouth.

  20. Azaquinolone dye lasers

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R.; Atkins, Ronald L.; Henry, Ronald A.; Fletcher, Aaron N.

    1978-01-01

    A dye laser comprising a laser dye solution of a compound having the general structure: ##STR1## wherein at least one of the 5, 6 and 8 ring positions is occupied by a nitrogen atom in lieu of the corresponding CR group and X is OH, alkoxy, or amino including amino substituted by at least one of the following: alkyl, aryl, acyl, aracyl, a group which taken together with the nitrogen atom of the amino group forms a heterocyclic ring, or part of one or two 5 or 6 membered aliphatic heterocyclic rings attached to ring A at positions 6 or 8 or both depending on where the N in ring A is located. R.sub.1, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, R.sub.6 and R.sub.8 are hydrogen or other groups as defined below. The compounds lase in the blue to near ultraviolet region.

  1. Azacoumarin dye lasers

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R.; Atkins, Ronald L.; Henry, Ronald A.; Fletcher, Aaron N.

    1978-01-01

    A dye laser comprising a laser dye solution of a compound having the general structure: ##STR1## wherein at least one of the 5, 6 and 8 ring positions is occupied by a nitrogen atom in lieu of the corresponding CR group and X is OH, alkoxy, or amino including amino substituted by at least one of the following: alkyl, aryl, acyl, aracyl, a group which taken together with the nitrogen atom of the amino group forms a heterocyclic ring, or part of one or two 5 or 6 membered aliphatic heterocyclic rings attached to ring A at positions 6 or 8 or both depending on where the N in ring A is located. R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, R.sub.6 and R.sub.8 are hydrogen or other groups as defined below. The compounds lase in the blue-green to near ultraviolet region.

  2. An Organic Vortex Laser.

    PubMed

    Stellinga, Daan; Pietrzyk, Monika E; Glackin, James M E; Wang, Yue; Bansal, Ashu K; Turnbull, Graham A; Dholakia, Kishan; Samuel, Ifor D W; Krauss, Thomas F

    2018-03-27

    Optical vortex beams are at the heart of a number of novel research directions, both as carriers of information and for the investigation of optical activity and chiral molecules. Optical vortex beams are beams of light with a helical wavefront and associated orbital angular momentum. They are typically generated using bulk optics methods or by a passive element such as a forked grating or a metasurface to imprint the required phase distribution onto an incident beam. Since many applications benefit from further miniaturization, a more integrated yet scalable method is highly desirable. Here, we demonstrate the generation of an azimuthally polarized vortex beam directly by an organic semiconductor laser that meets these requirements. The organic vortex laser uses a spiral grating as a feedback element that gives control over phase, handedness, and degree of helicity of the emitted beam. We demonstrate vortex beams up to an azimuthal index l = 3 that can be readily multiplexed into an array configuration.

  3. Laser Resurfacing Pearls

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Sonia; Alam, Murad

    2012-01-01

    Ablative skin resurfacing using the carbon dioxide laser was long considered the gold standard for treatment of photoaging, acne scars, and rhytids. However, conventional full-face carbon dioxide resurfacing is associated with significant risk of side effects and a prolonged postoperative recovery period. Fractional resurfacing has recently revolutionized laser surgery by offering close to comparable results with minimal side effects and a more rapid recovery. Although fractional devices have grown in popularity, and have essentially replaced traditional resurfacing, fractional resurfacing can still be a challenging modality to control precisely due to hardware variations across comparable devices, the range of settings that can be used, and patient-specific considerations. Certain precautions and rules of thumb can reduce the risk associated with fractional resurfacing, and increase the likelihood of a good outcome. PMID:23904821

  4. Laser resurfacing pearls.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sonia; Alam, Murad

    2012-08-01

    Ablative skin resurfacing using the carbon dioxide laser was long considered the gold standard for treatment of photoaging, acne scars, and rhytids. However, conventional full-face carbon dioxide resurfacing is associated with significant risk of side effects and a prolonged postoperative recovery period. Fractional resurfacing has recently revolutionized laser surgery by offering close to comparable results with minimal side effects and a more rapid recovery. Although fractional devices have grown in popularity, and have essentially replaced traditional resurfacing, fractional resurfacing can still be a challenging modality to control precisely due to hardware variations across comparable devices, the range of settings that can be used, and patient-specific considerations. Certain precautions and rules of thumb can reduce the risk associated with fractional resurfacing, and increase the likelihood of a good outcome.

  5. Fusion pumped laser

    DOEpatents

    Pappas, D.S.

    1987-07-31

    The apparatus of this invention may comprise a system for generating laser radiation from a high-energy neutron source. The neutron source is a tokamak fusion reactor generating a long pulse of high-energy neutrons and having a temperature and magnetic field effective to generate a neutron flux of at least 10/sup 15/ neutrons/cm/sup 2//center dot/s. Conversion means are provided adjacent the fusion reactor at a location operable for converting the high-energy neutrons to an energy source with an intensity and energy effective to excite a preselected lasing medium. A lasing medium is spaced about and responsive to the energy source to generate a population inversion effective to support laser oscillations for generating output radiation. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Fusion pumped laser

    DOEpatents

    Pappas, Daniel S.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus is provided for generating energy in the form of laser radiation. A tokamak fusion reactor is provided for generating a long, or continuous, pulse of high-energy neutrons. The tokamak design provides a temperature and a magnetic field which is effective to generate a neutron flux of at least 10.sup.15 neutrons/cm.sup.2.s. A conversion medium receives neutrons from the tokamak and converts the high-energy neutrons to an energy source with an intensity and an energy effective to excite a preselected lasing medium. The energy source typically comprises fission fragments, alpha particles, and radiation from a fission event. A lasing medium is provided which is responsive to the energy source to generate a population inversion which is effective to support laser oscillations for generating output radiation.

  7. Laser Geodynamics Satellite (LAGEOS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-05-04

    This 1975 NASA video highlights the development of LAser GEOdynamics Satellite (LAGEOS I) developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. LAGEOS I is a passive satellite constructed from brass and aluminum and contains 426 individual precision reflectors made from fused silica glass. The mirrored surface of the satellite was designed to reflect laser beams from ground stations for accurate ranging measurements. LAGEOS I was launched on May 4, 1976 from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. The two-foot diameter, 900-pound satellite orbited the Earth from pole to pole, measuring the movements of the Earth's surface relative to earthquakes, continental drift, and other geophysical phenomena. Scientists at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama came up with the idea for the satellite and built it at the Marshall Center.

  8. Discrete wavelength-locked external cavity laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilgrim, Jeffrey S. (Inventor); Silver, Joel A. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An external cavity laser (and method of generating laser light) comprising: a laser light source; means for collimating light output by the laser light source; a diffraction grating receiving collimated light; a cavity feedback mirror reflecting light received from the diffraction grating back to the diffraction grating; and means for reliably tuning the external cavity laser to discrete wavelengths.

  9. 21 CFR 1040.10 - Laser products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... laser(s). (13) Demonstration laser product means any laser product manufactured, designed, intended, or..., designed, intended, or promoted for such purposes, even though they may be used for those purposes or are... laser product which is a medical device as defined in 21 U.S.C. 321(h) and is manufactured, designed...

  10. 21 CFR 1040.10 - Laser products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... laser(s). (13) Demonstration laser product means any laser product manufactured, designed, intended, or..., designed, intended, or promoted for such purposes, even though they may be used for those purposes or are... laser product which is a medical device as defined in 21 U.S.C. 321(h) and is manufactured, designed...

  11. 21 CFR 1040.10 - Laser products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... laser(s). (13) Demonstration laser product means any laser product manufactured, designed, intended, or..., designed, intended, or promoted for such purposes, even though they may be used for those purposes or are... laser product which is a medical device as defined in 21 U.S.C. 321(h) and is manufactured, designed...

  12. Electric motor for laser-mechanical drilling

    DOEpatents

    Grubb, Daryl L.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2015-07-07

    A high power laser drilling system utilizing an electric motor laser bottom hole assembly. A high power laser beam travels within the electric motor for advancing a borehole. High power laser drilling system includes a down hole electrical motor having a hollow rotor for conveying a high power laser beam through the electrical motor.

  13. Astronomical masers and lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townes, C. H.

    1997-12-01

    A brief account is given of the discovery of the astronomical maser and laser effects in OH radicals and in molecules of water (H2O), carbon monoxide and dioxide (CO and CO2), ammonia (NH3), methyl alcohol (CH3OH), formaldehyde (CH2O), and silicon oxide (SiO). A detailed table is given of all the currently known molecular stimulated-emission lines.

  14. Applications of Gunn lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balkan, N.; Chung, S. H.

    2008-04-01

    The principle of the operation of a Gunn laser is based on the band to band recombination of impact ionized non-equilibrium electron-hole pairs in propagating high field space-charge domains in a Gunn diode, which is biased above the negative differential resistance threshold and placed in a Fabry-Perot or a vertical micro cavity (VCSEL). In conventional VCSEL structures, unless specific measures such as the addition of oxide apertures and use of small windows are employed, the lack of uniformity in the density of current injected into the active region can reduce the efficiency and delay the lasing threshold. In a vertical-cavity structured Gunn device, however, the current is uniformly injected into the active region independently of the distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) layers. Therefore, lasing occurs from the entire surface of the device. The light emission from Gunn domains is an electric field induced effect. Therefore, the operation of Gunn-VCSEL or F-P laser is independent of the polarity of the applied voltage. Red-NIR VCSELs emitting in the range of 630-850 nm are also possible when Ga 1-xAl xAs (x < 0.45) is used the active layer, making them candidates for light sources in plastic optical fibre (POF) based short-distance data communications. Furthermore the device may find applications as an optical clock and cross link between microwave and NIR communications. The operation of a both Gunn-Fabry-Perot laser and Gunn-VCSEL has been demonstrated by us recently. In the current work we present the potential results of experimental and theoretical studies concerning the applications together with the gain and emission characteristics of Gunn-Lasers.

  15. Laser Paint Stripping

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    of this laser system to remove paint from metals, including aluminum, and from carbon fiber reinforced composites cleanly and without damage to the...The tests perpendicular to fiber direction in the unidirectional composite were selected as most sensitive indicators of damage. Flexural tests on the... Composite Flexural Strength Tests 10 2.2.11 Composite Compressive Strength Tests 11 2.2.12 Turbine Blade Cleaning 11 2.2.13 Residual Carbon 11 2.2.14

  16. Trident Laser Facility

    Science.gov Websites

    -trillion watt Trident Laser enters from the bottom to interact with a one-micrometer thick foil target in tens of millions of volts. In this time-integrated image, one sees many colorful plasmas that result from the bottom to interact with a one-micrometer thick foil target in the center of the photo. In this

  17. Laser Assisted Microsurgical Anastomosis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-22

    motion exercises of the patient post surgery and for the development of appropriate regimes for nursing and general rehabilitation of the patient...8217AD-Ai4S 48? LASER ASSISTED MICROSUROICAL ANASTOMOSIS(U) MIAMI UNIV i/i FL DEPT OF ORTHOPAEDICS AND REHABILITATION N E BURKHALTER 22 SEP 83 NBBI4-i-K...William E. Burkhalter, M.D. NOO014-81-K-0446 Professor of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation 0. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM

  18. Metal atom oxidation laser

    DOEpatents

    Jensen, R.J.; Rice, W.W.; Beattie, W.H.

    1975-10-28

    A chemical laser which operates by formation of metal or carbon atoms and reaction of such atoms with a gaseous oxidizer in an optical resonant cavity is described. The lasing species are diatomic or polyatomic in nature and are readily produced by exchange or other abstraction reactions between the metal or carbon atoms and the oxidizer. The lasing molecules may be metal or carbon monohalides or monoxides.

  19. Metal atom oxidation laser

    DOEpatents

    Jensen, R.J.; Rice, W.W.; Beattie, W.H.

    1975-10-28

    A chemical laser which operates by formation of metal or carbon atoms and reaction of such atoms with a gaseous oxidizer in an optical resonant cavity is described. The lasing species are diatomic or polyatomic in nature and are readily produced by exchange or other abstraction reactions between the metal or carbon atoms and the oxidizer. The lasing molecules may be metal or carbon monohalides or monoxides. (auth)

  20. Free Space Laser Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesh, James

    2000-01-01

    This presentation concerns the use of Laser communication for deep space applications. The presentation reviews the problems with electromagnetic beams and then the advantages and disadvantages of the use of optical communication. The presentation then reviews some of the spacecraft technology with pictures of some of the devices. The ground reception systems and the simplified link calculation are also reviewed. Recent and planned demonstration projects are also reviewed.

  1. Microdentistry with Lasers

    PubMed Central

    Prathima, G S; Bhadrashetty, Dinesh; Babu, S B Umesh; Disha, P

    2015-01-01

    Treating infants and young children is a rewarding experience, especially when we guide parents and children down the path of prevention and interception of oral disease. The pediatric dentist has to be updated about the new technologies to treating patients along with basic principles. This article gives a brief discussion on the types, applications, advantages, and limitations of the use of lasers in pediatric dentistry. PMID:26435633

  2. Laser beam methane detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkley, E. D., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Instrument uses infrared absorption to determine methane concentration in liquid natural gas vapor. Two sensors measure intensity of 3.39 mm laser beam after it passes through gas; absorption is proportional to concentration of methane. Instrument is used in modeling spread of LNG clouds and as leak detector on LNG carriers and installations. Unit includes wheels for mobility and is both vertically and horizontally operable.

  3. Laser Doppler Experiments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-19

    Spacer material: Zerodur , ULE or equivalent 3. Mirrors to be optically contacted to spacer 4. Mirror surfaces: matched to better than Vd120, after...the mechanical, optical and electronic design of the apparatus to date. The Contraves mount was fitted with new coude mirrors for the YAG laser; the...accuracy  MHz. The choice of mirror reflectances for the interferometer plates and the tolerance to be placed on the field of view have been

  4. High precision laser sclerostomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Góra, W. S.; Urich, A.; McIntosh, L.; Carter, R. M.; Wilson, C. G.; Dhillon, B.; Hand, D. P.; Shephard, J. D.

    2015-03-01

    Ultrafast lasers offer a possibility of removing soft ophthalmic tissue without introducing collateral damage at the ablation site or in the surrounding tissue. The potential for using ultrashort pico- and femtosecond pulse lasers for modification of ophthalmic tissue has been reported elsewhere and has resulted in the introduction of new, minimally invasive procedures into clinical practice. Our research aims to define the most efficient parameters to allow for the modification of scleral tissue without introducing collateral damage. Our experiments were carried out on hydrated porcine sclera in vitro. Porcine sclera, which has similar collagen organization, histology and water content (~70%) to human tissue was used. Supporting this work we present a 2D finite element blow-off model which employs a one-step heating process. It is assumed that the incident laser radiation that is not reflected is absorbed in the tissue according to the Beer-Lambert law and transformed into heat energy. The experimental setup uses an industrial picosecond laser (TRUMPF TruMicro 5x50) with 5.9 ps pulses at 1030 nm, with pulse energies up to 125 μJ and a focused spot diameter of 35 μm. Use of a beam steering scan head allows flexibility in designing complicated scanning patterns. In this study we have demonstrated that picosecond pulses are capable of removing scleral tissue without introducing any major thermal damage which offers a possible route for minimally invasive sclerostomy. In assessing this we have tested several different scanning patterns including single line ablation, square and circular cavity removal.

  5. Laser stepedotomy for otosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Perkins, R C

    1980-02-01

    The argon laser microscope recently developed by the author is used to vaporize the stapes tendon, the posterior crus and a rosette of holes in the stapes footplate in the surgical treatment of otosclerosis. An autogenous vein--stainless steel piston assembly is used to reconstruct the stapes portion of the ossicular chain. The surgical technique and results in a preliminary series of 11 patients are reported. Rationale and advantages over conventional stapedectomy are discussed.

  6. Laser Light Fiber Communication,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-14

    001 068 C)LASER FIGT3IBER OMNICATION BICICJ-,HuanN/CAnIOu Country off origin: China Translated by: :F3 -8D01SCITRAN A~s---qnrt / Requester: FTD/TQTA...TXS ’ -’- Approved ffor public release; distribution DTIC T:’’w fBy _ Conty f riin. Codes Trans ated by: CITRA Accssio THIS TRANSLATION IS A REI

  7. Laser Safety: A Laser Alignment Practical Training Course

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, Michael; Edstrom, Steve; /SLAC

    2011-01-26

    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has developed a Laser Alignment Practical Training Course as one of its core laser safety classes. The course is taught to small groups of up to three students and takes 1-3 hours to complete. This practical course is not a substitute for site-specific On-the-Job Training; it does, however, provide a good introduction in core laser safety practices that can be broadly applied. Alignment and diagnostic tasks are performed with low power lasers. Students learn safe alignment and diagnostic techniques and how to avoid common mistakes that might lead to an accident. The class is taught bymore » laser supervisors, enabling them to assess the skill level of new laser personnel and determine the subsequent level of supervision needed. The course has six alignment tasks. For each task, discussion points are given for the instructor to review with the students. The optics setup includes different wavelength lasers, a beam expander, mirrors, irises, a periscope, a beam-splitting polarizer and a diffraction grating. Diagnostic tools include viewing cards, an IR viewer and a ccd camera. Laser eyewear is available to block some laser wavelengths in the setup.« less

  8. Safe laser application requires more than laser safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frevel, A.; Steffensen, B.; Vassie, L.

    1995-02-01

    An overview is presented concerning aspects of laser safety in European industrial laser use. Surveys indicate that there is a large variation in the safety strategies amongst industrial laser users. Some key problem areas are highlighted. Emission of hazardous substances is a major problem for users of laser material processing systems where the majority of the particulate is of a sub-micrometre size, presenting a respiratory hazard. Studies show that in many cases emissions are not frequently monitored in factories and uncertainty exists over the hazards. Operators of laser machines do not receive adequate job training or safety training. The problem is compounded by a plethora of regulations and standards which are difficult to interpret and implement, and inspectors who are not conversant with the technology or the issues. A case is demonstrated for a more integrated approach to laser safety, taking into account the development of laser applications, organizational and personnel development, in addition to environmental and occupational health and safety aspects. It is necessary to achieve a harmonization between these elements in any organization involved in laser technology. This might be achieved through establishing technology transfer centres in laser technology.

  9. Laser fusion neutron source employing compression with short pulse lasers

    DOEpatents

    Sefcik, Joseph A; Wilks, Scott C

    2013-11-05

    A method and system for achieving fusion is provided. The method includes providing laser source that generates a laser beam and a target that includes a capsule embedded in the target and filled with DT gas. The laser beam is directed at the target. The laser beam helps create an electron beam within the target. The electron beam heats the capsule, the DT gas, and the area surrounding the capsule. At a certain point equilibrium is reached. At the equilibrium point, the capsule implodes and generates enough pressure on the DT gas to ignite the DT gas and fuse the DT gas nuclei.

  10. Ultrafast pulsed laser utilizing broad bandwidth laser glass

    DOEpatents

    Payne, S.A.; Hayden, J.S.

    1997-09-02

    An ultrafast laser uses a Nd-doped phosphate laser glass characterized by a particularly broad emission bandwidth to generate the shortest possible output pulses. The laser glass is composed primarily of P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and MgO, and possesses physical and thermal properties that are compatible with standard melting and manufacturing methods. The broad bandwidth laser glass can be used in modelocked oscillators as well as in amplifier modules. 7 figs.

  11. Ultrafast pulsed laser utilizing broad bandwidth laser glass

    DOEpatents

    Payne, Stephen A.; Hayden, Joseph S.

    1997-01-01

    An ultrafast laser uses a Nd-doped phosphate laser glass characterized by a particularly broad emission bandwidth to generate the shortest possible output pulses. The laser glass is composed primarily of P.sub.2 O.sub.5, Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 and MgO, and possesses physical and thermal properties that are compatible with standard melting and manufacturing methods. The broad bandwidth laser glass can be used in modelocked oscillators as well as in amplifier modules.

  12. Fiber Based Seed Laser for CO 2 Ultrafast Laser Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yuchuan

    A compact and effective 10-micron femtosecond laser with pulse duration <500fs and repetition rate of >100Hz or smaller is desirable by DOE for seeding CO 2 ultrafast laser systems to improve the stability, reliability and efficiency in generating 10-micron laser from GW up to 100TW peak power, which is irreplaceable in driving an accelerator for particle beam generation due to the efficiency proportional to the square of the laser wavelength. Agiltron proposes a fiber based ultrafast 10-micron seed laser that can provide the required specifications and high performance. Its success will directly benefit DOE’s compact proton and ion sources. Themore » innovative technology can be used for ultrafast laser generation over the whole mid-IR range, and speed up the development of mid-IR laser applications. Agiltron, Inc. has successfully completed all tasks and demonstrated the feasibility of a fiber based 10-micron ultrafast laser in Phase I of the Program. We built a mode-locked fiber laser that generated < 400fs ultrafast laser pulses and successfully controlled the repetition rate to be the required 100Hz. Using this mode-locked laser, we demonstrated the feasibility of parametric femtosecond laser generation based on frequency down conversion. The experimental results agree with our simulation results. The investigation results of Phase I will be used to optimize the design of the laser system and build a fully functional prototype for delivery to the DOE in the Phase II program. The prototype development in Phase II program will be in the collaboration with Professor Chandrashekhar Joshi, the leader of UCLA Laser-Plasma group. Prof. Joshi discovered a new mechanism for generation of monoenergetic proton/ion beams: Shock Wave Acceleration in a near critical density plasma and demonstrated that high-energy proton beams using CO 2 laser driven collisionless shocks in a gas jet plasma, which opened an opportunity to develop a rather compact high-repetition rate

  13. Laser Metrology In Biomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pryputniewicz, Ryszard J.

    1983-12-01

    Modern treatment of sceletal disharmonies and malocclusions utilizes application of external forces. In order to effectively use these therapeutic forces, knowledge of three-dimensional displacements of bones with correlation to biological changes is required. In the past, this problem has been studied in a number of ways using, for example, strain gauges, brittle coatings, photoelasticity, as well as clinical observations and mathematical modeling. Becouse of their inherent limitations, these techniques did not always provide all the information necessary for development of meaningful relationships between the applied force system and the resulting biological remodeling. However, recent advances in the field of la-ser metrology allowed to overcome some of the dificulties found in the earlier methods and permitted development of new techniques for non-invasive measurements of bone motions in three-dimensional space. These laser techniques are particularly useful in biomechanics because they provide for rapid and accurate determination of displacements over the entire surface of the investigate object. In this paper, application of laser techniques for quantitative in-vivo and in-vitro measurements in biomechanics will be discussed and illustrated with representative examples.

  14. Laser Digital Cinema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Eric B.; Flint, Graham W.; Bergstedt, Robert; Solone, Paul J.; Lee, Dicky; Moulton, Peter F.

    2001-03-01

    Electronic cinema projectors are being developed that use a digital micromirror device (DMDTM) to produce the image. Photera Technologies has developed a new architecture that produces truly digital imagery using discrete pulse trains of red, green, and blue light in combination with a DMDTM where in the number of pulses that are delivered to the screen during a given frame can be defined in a purely digital fashion. To achieve this, a pulsed RGB laser technology pioneered by Q-Peak is combined with a novel projection architecture that we refer to as Laser Digital CameraTM. This architecture provides imagery wherein, during the time interval of each frame, individual pixels on the screen receive between zero and 255 discrete pulses of each color; a circumstance which yields 24-bit color. Greater color depth, or increased frame rate is achievable by increasing the pulse rate of the laser. Additionally, in the context of multi-screen theaters, a similar architecture permits our synchronously pulsed RGB source to simultaneously power three screens in a color sequential manner; thereby providing an efficient use of photons, together with the simplifications which derive from using a single DMDTM chip in each projector.

  15. Tuned alexandrite laser for dentistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulc, Jan; Jelinkova, Helena; Dostalova, Tatjana; Miyagi, Mitsunobu

    1999-12-01

    A tunable solid state laser system has been developed emitting visible light in the region from 710 to 775 nm, which can be used for medical applications. The laser head of this system is composed of alexandrite crystal rod, two dielectric mirrors, and a tuning element. The maximum reached output energy in the free running multimode regime was 400 mJ with the pulse duration of 70 micrometers . The output laser radiation was guided via a multimode quartz fiber or via a special fluorocarbon polymer-coated silver hollow glass waveguide. At first, this radiation with laser fluency of 2.5 J/cm2 was used for the ablation of dental calculus. Next, the laser radiation propagation in the root canal and its effect on bacteria was proved. The dissipated energy measurement was made inside and outside the tooth. Hence, the alexandrite laser could be useful for medical applications in dentistry.

  16. Mode Hopping in Semiconductor Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heumier, Timothy Alan

    Semiconductor lasers have found widespread use in fiberoptic communications, merchandising (bar-code scanners), entertainment (videodisc and compact disc players), and in scientific inquiry (spectroscopy, laser cooling). Some uses require a minimum degree of stability of wavelength which is not met by these lasers: Under some conditions, semiconductor lasers can discontinuously switch wavelengths in a back-and-forth manner. This is called mode hopping. We show that mode hopping is directly correlated to noise in the total intensity, and that this noise is easily detected by a photodiode. We also show that there are combinations of laser case temperature and injection current which lead to mode hopping. Conversely, there are other combinations for which the laser is stable. These results are shown to have implications for controlling mode hopping.

  17. The waveguide laser - A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degnan, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    The present article reviews the fundamental physical principles essential to an understanding of waveguide gas and liquid lasers, and the current technological state of these devices. At the present time, waveguide laser transitions span the visible through submillimeter regions of the wavelength spectrum. The introduction discusses the many applications of waveguide lasers and the wide variety of laser configurations that are possible. Section 1 summarizes the properties of modes in hollow dielectric waveguides of circular, rectangular, and planar cross section. Section 2 considers various approaches to optical feedback including internal and external mirror Fabry-Perot type resonators, hollow waveguide distributed feedback structures, and ring-resonant configurations. Section 3 discusses those aspects of molecular kinetic and laser theory pertinent to the design and optimization of waveguide gas lasers.

  18. SLAC All Access: Laser Labs

    SciTech Connect

    Minitti, Mike; Woods, Mike

    2013-03-01

    From supermarket checkouts to video game consoles, lasers are ubiquitous in our lives. Here at SLAC, high-power lasers are critical to the cutting-edge research conducted at the laboratory. But, despite what you might imagine, SLAC's research lasers bear little resemblance to the blasters and phasers of science fiction. In this edition of All Access we put on our safety goggles for a peek at what goes on inside some of SLAC's many laser labs. LCLS staff scientist Mike Minitti and SLAC laser safety officer Mike Woods detail how these lasers are used to study the behavior of subatomic particles, broadenmore » our understanding of cosmic rays and even unlock the mysteries of photosynthesis.« less

  19. SLAC All Access: Laser Labs

    ScienceCinema

    Minitti, Mike; Woods, Mike

    2018-05-23

    From supermarket checkouts to video game consoles, lasers are ubiquitous in our lives. Here at SLAC, high-power lasers are critical to the cutting-edge research conducted at the laboratory. But, despite what you might imagine, SLAC's research lasers bear little resemblance to the blasters and phasers of science fiction. In this edition of All Access we put on our safety goggles for a peek at what goes on inside some of SLAC's many laser labs. LCLS staff scientist Mike Minitti and SLAC laser safety officer Mike Woods detail how these lasers are used to study the behavior of subatomic particles, broaden our understanding of cosmic rays and even unlock the mysteries of photosynthesis.

  20. Spatiotemporal control of laser intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froula, Dustin H.; Turnbull, David; Davies, Andrew S.; Kessler, Terrance J.; Haberberger, Dan; Palastro, John P.; Bahk, Seung-Whan; Begishev, Ildar A.; Boni, Robert; Bucht, Sara; Katz, Joseph; Shaw, Jessica L.

    2018-05-01

    The controlled coupling of a laser to plasma has the potential to address grand scientific challenges1-6, but many applications have limited flexibility and poor control over the laser focal volume. Here, we present an advanced focusing scheme called a `flying focus', where a chromatic focusing system combined with chirped laser pulses enables a small-diameter laser focus to propagate nearly 100 times its Rayleigh length. Furthermore, the speed at which the focus moves (and hence the peak intensity) is decoupled from the group velocity of the laser. It can co- or counter-propagate along the laser axis at any velocity. Experiments validating the concept measured subluminal (-0.09c) to superluminal (39c) focal-spot velocities, generating a nearly constant peak intensity over 4.5 mm. Among possible applications, the flying focus could be applied to a photon accelerator7 to mitigate dephasing, facilitating the production of tunable XUV sources.

  1. Laser optogalvanic spectroscopy of molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, C. R.; Rettner, C. T.

    1983-01-01

    In laser optogalvanic (LOG) spectroscopy, a tunable laser is used to probe the spectral characteristics of atomic or molecular species within an electrical discharge in a low pressure gas. Optogalvanic signals arise when the impedance of the discharge changes in response to the absorption of laser radiation. The technique may, therefore, be referred to as impedance spectroscopy. This change in impedance may be monitored as a change in the voltage across the discharge tube. LOG spectra are recorded by scanning the wavelength of a chopped CW dye laser while monitoring the discharge voltage with a lock-in amplifier. LOG signals are obtained if the laser wavelength matches a transition in a species present in the discharge (or flame), and if the absorption of energy in the laser beam alters the impedance of the discharge. Infrared LOG spectroscopy of molecules has been demonstrated and may prove to be the most productive application in the field of optogalvanic techniques.

  2. Precision Atomic Beam Laser Spectroscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-02-20

    optical efficiency with a new coupled- cavity scheme. We have locked a MISER Nd:YAG laser to a finesse 50,000 cavity with a...sensitivity of optical heterodyne detection is preserved with ZERO sensitivity to small laser / cavity frequency noises. The new method is called Noise-Immune...1996), P. Dube, L.- S. Ma, J. Ye, and J.L.Hall. 9 . "Free-induction decay in molecular iodine measured with an extended - cavity diode laser ,"

  3. Laser velocimeter (autocovariance) buffer interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clemmons, J. I., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A laser velocimeter (autocovariance) buffer interface (LVABI) was developed to serve as the interface between three laser velocimeter high speed burst counters and a minicomputer. A functional description is presented of the instrument and its unique features which allow the studies of flow velocity vector analysis, turbulence power spectra, and conditional sampling of other phenomena. Typical applications of the laser velocimeter using the LVABI are presented to illustrate its various capabilities.

  4. Robotic Laser Coating Removal System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    Materiel Command IRR Internal Rate of Return JTP Joint Test Protocol JTR Joint Test Report LARPS Large Area Robotic Paint Stripping LASER Light...use of laser paint stripping systems is applicable to depainting activities on large off-aircraft components and weapons systems for the Air Force...The use of laser paint stripping systems is applicable to depainting activities on large off-aircraft components and weapons systems for the Air

  5. History of Laser Weapon Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    designed to damage, disable, or destroy targets with little or no collateral damage. Airborne Laser (ABL) (CO2) Chemical Oxygen The ABL C-130H aircraft ...mirrors. Weapons systems based on lasers and “ray guns,” long a staple of science fiction, have captured the imagination of people everywhere. But...waves (millimeters to centimeters), with wavelengths 10,000 times longer than lasers. Diffraction of any electromagnetic radia- tion beam is based

  6. Hybrid fiber-rod laser

    DOEpatents

    Beach, Raymond J.; Dawson, Jay W.; Messerly, Michael J.; Barty, Christopher P. J.

    2012-12-18

    Single, or near single transverse mode waveguide definition is produced using a single homogeneous medium to transport both the pump excitation light and generated laser light. By properly configuring the pump deposition and resulting thermal power generation in the waveguide device, a thermal focusing power is established that supports perturbation-stable guided wave propagation of an appropriately configured single or near single transverse mode laser beam and/or laser pulse.

  7. Direct nuclear-powered lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalufka, N. W.

    1983-01-01

    The development of direct nuclear pumped lasers is reviewed. Theoretical and experimental investigations of various methods of converting the energy of nuclear fission fragments to laser power are summarized. The development of direct nuclear pumped lasers was achieved. The basic processes involved in the production of a plasma by nuclear radiation were studied. Significant progress was accomplished in this area and a large amount of basic data on plasma formation and atomic and molecular processes leading to population inversions is available.

  8. Laser-Gyro Materials Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    mean-square (rms) have been measured on fused quartz and Zerodur surfaces polished by manufacturers of ring- laser gyros. The measurements were made...Sizes and Percent Crystallinity of Laser Gyro Materials. Crystallite Crystallinity, Material size, :-100 A ±10 vol% Zerodur 800 79 Quartz 500 53...Based on t data presented in this rel ort, Cervit, Zerodur , and RLA 559,122 from Corning Glass Works have acceptable material properties for laser

  9. Lasers in private dermatologic practice.

    PubMed

    Eastern, J S

    1986-04-01

    The author has collected and evaluated data from 464 cutaneous laser procedures performed on 315 patients over two and one-half years. All procedures were performed under local anesthesia in a private dermatology office. The quality of results obtained, the advantages and disadvantages of laser treatment for the treatment of cutaneous problems, comparison with more conventional therapies, and the future of the laser in dermatologic private practice are discussed.

  10. Interband Cascade Laser Photon Noise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    bias , electrons that are injected into the InAs QW, undergo radiative or non-radiative interband transitions into the GaInSb QW, tunnel into the...to the QC laser photon noise is dominant and increases with bias current (18, 19). This is in contrast to interband diode lasers, where spontaneous...adjacent GaSb QW, and then enter the next injection region by interband tunneling . The laser structures were grown by molecular-beam- epitaxy and processed

  11. Interband Cascade Laser Photon Noise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    undergo radiative or nonradiative interband transitions into the GaInSb QW, tunnel into the adjacent GaSb QW and then enter the next injection region by... interband tunneling . The laser structures were grown by molecular-beam-epitaxy and processed into mesa-stripe lasers with a mesa width of 15 1... INTERBAND CASCADE LASER PHOTON NOISE Patrick A. Folkes Army Research Laboratory Adelphi, MD 20783-1197 ABSTRACT We report

  12. Lens Coupled Quantum Cascade Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Alan Wei Min (Inventor); Hu, Qing (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Terahertz quantum cascade (QC) devices are disclosed that can operate, e.g., in a range of about 1 THz to about 10 THz. In some embodiments, QC lasers are disclosed in which an optical element (e.g., a lens) is coupled to an output facet of the laser's active region to enhance coupling of the lasing radiation from the active region to an external environment. In other embodiments, terahertz amplifier and tunable terahertz QC lasers are disclosed.

  13. Laser methods of caries prophylaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunin, Anatoly A.; Dergunova, Elvira I.; Kazmina, Svetlana G.

    1996-01-01

    Low intensive laser irradiation is widely used for the treatment of many stomatological diseases. The caries static activity of HNL light and infrared lasers, its influence on the activation of microcirculation of the pulp enzyme system and on the increase of enamel permeability became clear. These data allow us to suppose that the low intensive laser irradiation may potent the activity of the initial caries by the increase of teeth stability to the factors provoking the caries.

  14. Laser Space Propulsion Overview (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    meet with currently fielded thruster technology. However, a laser-ablation propulsion engine using a set of diode-pumped glass fiber amplifiers with a...with Cm = 56µN/W and ηAB = 100%. These two units will be combined in a single device using low-mass diode-pumped glass fiber laser amplifiers to...advantage of extremely lightweight diode-pumped glass fiber lasers onboard the spacecraft to provide thrust with variable Isp and unmatched thrust

  15. Compound curvature laser window development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhoff, Vincent G.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has developed and implemented a unique process for forming flawless compound curvature laser windows. These windows represent a major part of specialized, nonintrusive laser data acquisition systems used in a variety of compressor and turbine research test facilities. This report summarizes the main aspects of compound curvature laser window development. It is an overview of the methodology and the peculiarities associated with the formulation of these windows. Included in this discussion is new information regarding procedures for compound curvature laser window development.

  16. Small lasers in flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Telford, William G

    2004-01-01

    Laser technology has made tremendous advances in recent years, particularly in the area of diode and diode-pumped solid state sources. Flow cytometry has been a direct beneficiary of these advances, as these small, low-maintenance, inexpensive lasers with reasonable power outputs are integrated into flow cytometers. In this chapter we review the contribution and potential of solid-state lasers to flow cytometry, and show several examples of these novel sources integrated into production flow cytometers. Technical details and critical parameters for successful application of these lasers for biomedical analysis are reviewed.

  17. Military laser weapons: current controversies.

    PubMed

    Seet, B; Wong, T Y

    2001-09-01

    Military laser weapons systems are becoming indispensable in most modern armies. These lasers have undergone many stages of development, and have outpaced research on eye protection measures, which continue to have inherent limitations. Eye injuries caused by military lasers are increasingly reported, leading to speculation that these would become an important cause of blinding in modern conflicts. As part of the effort to ban inhumane weapons, international laws have been passed to restrict the proliferation of such blinding weapons. However, there are controversies concerning the interpretation, implementation and effectiveness of these laws. The ophthalmic community can play a greater role in highlighting ocular morbidity from military lasers, and in preventing their further proliferation.

  18. Lasers for bio-optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sona, Alberto

    1992-03-01

    Lasers are being increasingly used in bioptics and in life sciences in general, especially for medical applications for therapy and diagnostics. Lasers are also broadly used in environment sciences to monitor atmospheric parameters and concentrations of molecular species of natural origin or coming from human activities such as the various kind of pollutants. The peculiar features of lasers exploited in these areas are mainly the capability of developing an action or performing a measurement without physical contact with the target and, if required, from a remote position with the assistance of suitable beam delivery systems such as telescopes, microscopes, or optical fibers. These features are directly related to the space and time coherence of the laser light and to the energy storage capability of the laser material which allow an extremely effective concentration of the beam energy in space, direction frequency, or time. A short description of the principle of operation and relevant properties of lasers are given and the most significant properties of the laser emission are briefly reviewed. Lasers for medical applications (mainly for therapy) will be mentioned, pointing out the specific property exploited for the various applications. Finally, examples of laser applications to the environmental sciences will be reported. A summary of the properties exploited in the various bio-optical applications is shown.

  19. Application of lasers in endodontics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertl, Thomas P.; Benthin, Hartmut; Majaron, Boris; Mueller, Gerhard J.

    1997-12-01

    Root canal treatment is still a problem in dentistry. Very often the conventional treatment fails and several treatment sessions are necessary to save the tooth from root resection or extraction. Application of lasers may help in this situation. Bacteria reduction has been demonstrated both in vitro and clinically and is either based on laser induced thermal effects or by using an ultraviolet light source. Root canal cleansing is possible by Er:YAG/YSGG-Lasers, using the hydrodynamic motion of a fluid filled in the canals. However root canal shaping using lasers is still a problem. Via falsas and fiber breakage are points of research.

  20. Magnetic compression laser driving circuit

    DOEpatents

    Ball, D.G.; Birx, D.; Cook, E.G.

    1993-01-05

    A magnetic compression laser driving circuit is disclosed. The magnetic compression laser driving circuit compresses voltage pulses in the range of 1.5 microseconds at 20 kilovolts of amplitude to pulses in the range of 40 nanoseconds and 60 kilovolts of amplitude. The magnetic compression laser driving circuit includes a multi-stage magnetic switch where the last stage includes a switch having at least two turns which has larger saturated inductance with less core material so that the efficiency of the circuit and hence the laser is increased.

  1. Laser Safety Manual for DREO

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-01

    milieu de travail securitaire dans les laboratoires de recherche utilisant de la radiation laser. L ’"American National Standard for the Safe Use of...d6fense nationale de poursuites l ~gales. i~i. I I EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Laser beams are currently used for some R&D activities at DREO. As laser radiation...par un appared as described in CFAO 66-4. must be strictly observed, laser peut provoquer des br-tilures de la reline et de la peau . Les mesures de

  2. High repetition rate Petawatt lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roso, Luis

    2018-01-01

    Petawatt lasers are now available in a number of facilities around the world and are becoming a very useful tool in physics and engineering. Some of such lasers are able -or will be able soon- to fire at high repetition rates (one shot per second or more). Experiments at such repetition rates have certain peculiarities that are to be briefly exposed here, based on the author's experience with the Salamanca VEGA-3 laser. VEGA-3 is a 30 fs PW laser, firing one shot per second.

  3. Laser marking as environment technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobotova, Lydia; Badida, Miroslav

    2017-11-01

    The contribution deals with the laser marking as one of the progressive and environment friendly technologies with utilisation in many branches of industry. Engraving and other types of laser marking of different types of materials are very actual technologies these days. Laser marking decreases the waste creation in comparison with the other classical marking technologies, which use paintings or created chips. In this experimental investigation the laser marking surface texturing of material AL99,7 according to STN 42 4003:1993-08 (STN EN 573) has been conducted. The laser marking machine TruMark 6020 and software TruTops Mark were used. Laser surface texturing after laser marking has been realised under different combinations of process parameters: pulse frequency, pulse energy and laser beam scanning speed. The morphological characterization of engraving or annealing surfaces has been performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique. The evaluation of roughness of engraved surfaces has been realized according to STN EN ISO 4287 by using Surftest SJ 301. The aim of the contribution was to show how different laser parameters affect the surface texture and colour change of metallic materials while creating minimal waste.

  4. The holmium laser in urology.

    PubMed

    Wollin, T A; Denstedt, J D

    1998-02-01

    To review the physics related to the holmium laser, its laser-tissue interactions, and its application to the treatment of urological diseases. The holmium: YAG laser is a solid-state, pulsed laser that emits light at 2100 nm. It combines the qualities of the carbon dioxide and neodymium:YAG lasers providing both tissue cutting and coagulation in a single device. Since the holmium wavelength can be transmitted down optical fibers, it is especially suited for endoscopic surgery. The authors provide a review of the literature as it relates to the holmium laser and its application to urology. The holmium wavelength is strongly absorbed by water. Tissue ablation occurs superficially, providing for precise incision with a thermal injury zone ranging from 0.5 to 1.0 mm. This level of coagulation is sufficient for adequate hemostasis. The most common urologic applications of the holmium laser that have been reported include incision of urethral and ureteral strictures; ablation of superficial transitional cell carcinoma; bladder neck incision and prostate resection; and lithotripsy of urinary calculi. The holmium: YAG laser is a multi-purpose, multi-specialty surgical laser. It has been shown to be safe and effective for multiple soft tissue applications and stone fragmentation. Its utilization in urology is anticipated to increase with time as a result of these features.

  5. Laser system using regenerative amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Emmett, J.L.

    1980-03-04

    High energy laser system is disclosed using a regenerative amplifier, which relaxes all constraints on laser components other than the intrinsic damage level of matter, so as to enable use of available laser system components. This can be accomplished by use of segmented components, spatial filters, at least one amplifier using solid state or gaseous media, and separated reflector members providing a long round trip time through the regenerative cavity, thereby allowing slower switching and adequate time to clear the spatial filters, etc. The laser system simplifies component requirements and reduces component cost while providing high energy output. 10 figs.

  6. Laser system using regenerative amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Emmett, John L. [Pleasanton, CA

    1980-03-04

    High energy laser system using a regenerative amplifier, which relaxes all constraints on laser components other than the intrinsic damage level of matter, so as to enable use of available laser system components. This can be accomplished by use of segmented components, spatial filters, at least one amplifier using solid state or gaseous media, and separated reflector members providing a long round trip time through the regenerative cavity, thereby allowing slower switching and adequate time to clear the spatial filters, etc. The laser system simplifies component requirements and reduces component cost while providing high energy output.

  7. Magnetic compression laser driving circuit

    DOEpatents

    Ball, Don G.; Birx, Dan; Cook, Edward G.

    1993-01-01

    A magnetic compression laser driving circuit is disclosed. The magnetic compression laser driving circuit compresses voltage pulses in the range of 1.5 microseconds at 20 Kilovolts of amplitude to pulses in the range of 40 nanoseconds and 60 Kilovolts of amplitude. The magnetic compression laser driving circuit includes a multi-stage magnetic switch where the last stage includes a switch having at least two turns which has larger saturated inductance with less core material so that the efficiency of the circuit and hence the laser is increased.

  8. Laser safety considerations for a mobile laser program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flor, Mary

    1997-05-01

    An increased demand for advanced laser technology, especially in the area of cutaneous and cosmetic procedures has prompted physicians to use mobile laser services. Utilization of a mobile laser service allows physicians to provide the latest treatments for their patients while minimizing overhead costs. The high capital expense of laser systems is often beyond the financial means of individual clinicians, group practices, free-standing clinics and smaller community hospitals. Historically rapid technology turnover with laser technology places additional risk which is unacceptable to many institutions. In addition, health care reform is mandating consolidation of equipment within health care groups to keep costs at a minimum. In 1994, Abbott Northwestern Hospital organized an in-house mobile laser technology service which employs a group of experienced laser specialists to deliver and support laser treatments for hospital outreach and other regional physicians and health care facilities. Many of the hospital's internal safety standards and policies are applicable to the mobile environment. A significant challenge is client compliance because of the delicate balance of managing risk while avoiding being viewed as a regulator. The clinics and hospitals are assessed prior to service to assure minimum laser safety standards for both the patient and the staff. A major component in assessing new sites is to inform them of applicable regulatory standards and their obligations to assure optimum laser safety. In service training is provided and hospital and procedures are freely shared to assist the client in establishing a safe laser environment. Physician and nursing preceptor programs are also made available.

  9. Lasers: A Valuable Tool for Chemists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findsen, E. W.; Ondrias, M. R.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the properties of laser light, reviews types of lasers, presents operating principles, and considers mechanical aspects of laser light production. Applications reviewed include spectroscopy, photochemical reaction initiation, and investigation of biological processes involving porphyrins. (JM)

  10. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation process

    DOEpatents

    Wyeth, R.W.; Paisner, J.A.; Story, T.

    1990-08-21

    A laser spectroscopy system is utilized in an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. The system determines spectral components of an atomic vapor utilizing a laser heterodyne technique. 23 figs.

  11. High Energy 2-micron Laser Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Jirong; Trieu, Bo C.; Petros, Mulugeta; Bai, Yingxin; Petzar, Paul J.; Koch, Grady J.; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation shows the development of 2-micron solid state lasers. The topics covered include: 1) Overview 2-micron solid state lasers; 2) Modeling and population inversion measurement; 3) Side pump oscillator; and 4) One Joule 2-m Laser.

  12. Laser beam alignment apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Gruhn, C.R.; Hammond, R.B.

    The disclosure related to an apparatus and method for laser beam alignment. Thermoelectric properties of a disc in a laser beam path are used to provide an indication of beam alignment and/or automatic laser alignment.

  13. Single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    A single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator is disclosed. The dye laser oscillator provides for improved power efficiency by reducing the physical dimensions of the overall laser cavity, which improves frequency selection capability.

  14. Single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, R.P.

    1992-11-24

    A single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator is disclosed. The dye laser oscillator provides for improved power efficiency by reducing the physical dimensions of the overall laser cavity, which improves frequency selection capability. 6 figs.

  15. Laser beam alignment apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Gruhn, Charles R.; Hammond, Robert B.

    1981-01-01

    The disclosure relates to an apparatus and method for laser beam alignment. Thermoelectric properties of a disc in a laser beam path are used to provide an indication of beam alignment and/or automatic laser alignment.

  16. Lasers | RadTown USA | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2018-05-01

    Laser light is an intense, focused beam of visible light radiation. Lasers are used in many workplaces, including construction, surveying and medicine. High-powered laser light can cause severe skin burns and permanent eye damage.

  17. Status of 2 micron laser technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storm, Mark

    1991-01-01

    The status of 2 micron lasers for windshear detection is described in viewgraph form Theoretical atmospheric and instrument system studies have demonstrated that the 2.1 micron Ho:YAG lasers can effectively measure wind speeds in both wet and dry conditions with accuracies of 1 m/sec. Two micron laser technology looks very promising in the near future, but several technical questions remain. The Ho:YAG laser would be small, compact, and efficient, requiring little or no maintenance. Since the Ho:YAG laser is laser diode pumped and has no moving part, the lifetime of this laser would be directly related to the diode laser lifetimes which can perform in excess of 10,000 hours. Efficiencies of 3 to 12 percent are expected, but laser demonstrations confirming the ability to Q-switch this laser are required. Coherent laser operation has been demonstrated for both the CW and Q-switched lasers.

  18. Copper vapor laser modular packaging assembly

    DOEpatents

    Alger, Terry W.; Ault, Earl R.; Moses, Edward I.

    1992-01-01

    A modularized packaging arrangement for one or more copper vapor lasers and associated equipment is disclosed herein. This arrangement includes a single housing which contains the laser or lasers and all their associated equipment except power, water and neon, and means for bringing power, water, and neon which are necessary to the operation of the lasers into the container for use by the laser or lasers and their associated equipment.

  19. Copper vapor laser modular packaging assembly

    DOEpatents

    Alger, T.W.; Ault, E.R.; Moses, E.I.

    1992-12-01

    A modularized packaging arrangement for one or more copper vapor lasers and associated equipment is disclosed herein. This arrangement includes a single housing which contains the laser or lasers and all their associated equipment except power, water and neon, and means for bringing power, water, and neon which are necessary to the operation of the lasers into the container for use by the laser or lasers and their associated equipment. 2 figs.

  20. Second NASA Conference on Laser Energy Conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billman, K. W. (Editor)

    1976-01-01

    The possible transmission of high power laser beams over long distances and their conversion to thrust, electricity, or other useful forms of energy is considered. Specific topics discussed include: laser induced chemistry; developments in photovoltaics, including modification of the Schottky barrier devices and generation of high voltage emf'sby laser radiation of piezoelectric ceramics; the thermo electronic laser energy converter and the laser plasmadynamics converters; harmonic conversion of infrared laser radiation in molecular gases; and photon engines.