Science.gov

Sample records for z-contrast stem imaging

  1. Atomic scale structure and chemistry of interfaces by Z-contrast imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy in the stem

    SciT

    McGibbon, M.M.; Browning, N.D.; Chisholm, M.F.

    The macroscopic properties of many materials are controlled by the structure and chemistry at grain boundaries. A basic understanding of the structure-property relationship requires a technique which probes both composition and chemical bonding on an atomic scale. High-resolution Z-contrast imaging in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) forms an incoherent image in which changes in atomic structure and composition across an interface can be interpreted directly without the need for preconceived atomic structure models. Since the Z-contrast image is formed by electrons scattered through high angles, parallel detection electron energy loss spectroscopy (PEELS) can be used simultaneously to provide complementarymore » chemical information on an atomic scale. The fine structure in the PEEL spectra can be used to investigate the local electronic structure and the nature of the bonding across the interface. In this paper we use the complimentary techniques of high resolution Z-contrast imaging and PEELS to investigate the atomic structure and chemistry of a 25{degree} symmetric tilt boundary in a bicrystal of the electroceramic SrTiO{sub 3}.« less

  2. Atomic scale structure and chemistry of interfaces by Z-contrast imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy in the STEM

    SciT

    McGibbon, M.M.; Browning, N.D.; Chisholm, M.F.

    The macroscopic properties of many materials are controlled by the structure and chemistry at the grain boundaries. A basic understanding of the structure-property relationship requires a technique which probes both composition and chemical bonding on an atomic scale. The high-resolution Z-contrast imaging technique in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) forms an incoherent image in which changes in atomic structure and composition can be interpreted intuitively. This direct image allows the electron probe to be positioned over individual atomic columns for parallel detection electron energy loss spectroscopy (PEELS) at a spatial resolution approaching 0.22nm. The bonding information which can bemore » obtained from the fine structure within the PEELS edges can then be used in conjunction with the Z-contrast images to determine the structure at the grain boundary. In this paper we present 3 examples of correlations between the structural, chemical and electronic properties at materials interfaces in metal-semiconductor systems, superconducting and ferroelectric materials.« less

  3. Strategy for reliable strain measurement in InAs/GaAs materials from high-resolution Z-contrast STEM images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vatanparast, Maryam; Vullum, Per Erik; Nord, Magnus; Zuo, Jian-Min; Reenaas, Turid W.; Holmestad, Randi

    2017-09-01

    Geometric phase analysis (GPA), a fast and simple Fourier space method for strain analysis, can give useful information on accumulated strain and defect propagation in multiple layers of semiconductors, including quantum dot materials. In this work, GPA has been applied to high resolution Z-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) images. Strain maps determined from different g vectors of these images are compared to each other, in order to analyze and assess the GPA technique in terms of accuracy. The SmartAlign tool has been used to improve the STEM image quality getting more reliable results. Strain maps from template matching as a real space approach are compared with strain maps from GPA, and it is discussed that a real space analysis is a better approach than GPA for aberration corrected STEM images.

  4. Atomic resolution Z-contrast imaging and energy loss spectroscopy of carbon nanotubes and bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupini, A. R.; Chisholm, M. F.; Puretzky, A. A.; Eres, G.; Melechko, A. V.; Schaaff, G.; Lowndes, D. H.; Geohegan, D. B.; Schittenhelm, H.; Pennycook, S. J.; Wang, Y.; Smalley, R. E.

    2002-03-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes and bundles were studied by a combination of techniques, including conventional imaging and diffraction, atomic resolution Z-contrast imaging in an aberration corrected STEM and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). EELS is ideally suited for the analysis of carbon based structures because of the ability to distinguish between the different forms, specifically nanotubes, graphite, amorphous carbon and diamond. Numerous attempts were made to synthesize crystals of single walled carbon nanotubes, using both solution and vapor deposition of precursor structures directly onto TEM grids for in-situ annealing. The range of structures produced will be discussed.

  5. Application of two-dimensional crystallography and image processing to atomic resolution Z-contrast images.

    PubMed

    Morgan, David G; Ramasse, Quentin M; Browning, Nigel D

    2009-06-01

    Zone axis images recorded using high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM or Z-contrast imaging) reveal the atomic structure with a resolution that is defined by the probe size of the microscope. In most cases, the full images contain many sub-images of the crystal unit cell and/or interface structure. Thanks to the repetitive nature of these images, it is possible to apply standard image processing techniques that have been developed for the electron crystallography of biological macromolecules and have been used widely in other fields of electron microscopy for both organic and inorganic materials. These methods can be used to enhance the signal-to-noise present in the original images, to remove distortions in the images that arise from either the instrumentation or the specimen itself and to quantify properties of the material in ways that are difficult without such data processing. In this paper, we describe briefly the theory behind these image processing techniques and demonstrate them for aberration-corrected, high-resolution HAADF-STEM images of Si(46) clathrates developed for hydrogen storage.

  6. Atomic resolution ADF-STEM imaging of organic molecular crystal of halogenated copper phthalocyanine.

    PubMed

    Haruta, Mitsutaka; Yoshida, Kaname; Kurata, Hiroki; Isoda, Seiji

    2008-05-01

    Annular dark-field (ADF) scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) measurements are demonstrated for the first time to be applicable for acquiring Z-contrast images of organic molecules at atomic resolution. High-angle ADF imaging by STEM is a new technique that provides incoherent high-resolution Z-contrast images for organic molecules. In the present study, low-angle ADF-STEM is successfully employed to image the molecular crystal structure of hexadecachloro-Cu-phthalocyanine (Cl16-CuPc), an organic molecule. The structures of CuPc derivatives (polyhalogenated CuPc with Br and Cl) are determined quantitatively using the same technique to determine the occupancy of halogens at each chemical site. By comparing the image contrasts of atomic columns, the occupancy of Br is found to be ca. 56% at the inner position, slightly higher than that for random substitution and in good agreement with previous TEM results.

  7. Implementing an Accurate and Rapid Sparse Sampling Approach for Low-Dose Atomic Resolution STEM Imaging

    DOE PAGES

    Kovarik, Libor; Stevens, Andrew J.; Liyu, Andrey V.; ...

    2016-10-17

    Aberration correction for scanning transmission electron microscopes (STEM) has dramatically increased spatial image resolution for beam-stable materials, but it is the sample stability rather than the microscope that often limits the practical resolution of STEM images. To extract physical information from images of beam sensitive materials it is becoming clear that there is a critical dose/dose-rate below which the images can be interpreted as representative of the pristine material, while above it the observation is dominated by beam effects. Here we describe an experimental approach for sparse sampling in the STEM and in-painting image reconstruction in order to reduce themore » electron dose/dose-rate to the sample during imaging. By characterizing the induction limited rise-time and hysteresis in scan coils, we show that sparse line-hopping approach to scan randomization can be implemented that optimizes both the speed of the scan and the amount of the sample that needs to be illuminated by the beam. The dose and acquisition time for the sparse sampling is shown to be effectively decreased by factor of 5x relative to conventional acquisition, permitting imaging of beam sensitive materials to be obtained without changing the microscope operating parameters. The use of sparse line-hopping scan to acquire STEM images is demonstrated with atomic resolution aberration corrected Z-contrast images of CaCO3, a material that is traditionally difficult to image by TEM/STEM because of dose issues.« less

  8. Implementing an Accurate and Rapid Sparse Sampling Approach for Low-Dose Atomic Resolution STEM Imaging

    SciT

    Kovarik, Libor; Stevens, Andrew J.; Liyu, Andrey V.

    Aberration correction for scanning transmission electron microscopes (STEM) has dramatically increased spatial image resolution for beam-stable materials, but it is the sample stability rather than the microscope that often limits the practical resolution of STEM images. To extract physical information from images of beam sensitive materials it is becoming clear that there is a critical dose/dose-rate below which the images can be interpreted as representative of the pristine material, while above it the observation is dominated by beam effects. Here we describe an experimental approach for sparse sampling in the STEM and in-painting image reconstruction in order to reduce themore » electron dose/dose-rate to the sample during imaging. By characterizing the induction limited rise-time and hysteresis in scan coils, we show that sparse line-hopping approach to scan randomization can be implemented that optimizes both the speed of the scan and the amount of the sample that needs to be illuminated by the beam. The dose and acquisition time for the sparse sampling is shown to be effectively decreased by factor of 5x relative to conventional acquisition, permitting imaging of beam sensitive materials to be obtained without changing the microscope operating parameters. As a result, the use of sparse line-hopping scan to acquire STEM images is demonstrated with atomic resolution aberration corrected Z-contrast images of CaCO 3, a material that is traditionally difficult to image by TEM/STEM because of dose issues.« less

  9. Imaging Stem Cells Implanted in Infarcted Myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Rong; Acton, Paul D.; Ferrari, Victor A.

    2008-01-01

    Stem cell–based cellular cardiomyoplasty represents a promising therapy for myocardial infarction. Noninvasive imaging techniques would allow the evaluation of survival, migration, and differentiation status of implanted stem cells in the same subject over time. This review describes methods for cell visualization using several corresponding noninvasive imaging modalities, including magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, and bioluminescent imaging. Reporter-based cell visualization is compared with direct cell labeling for short- and long-term cell tracking. PMID:17112999

  10. STEM CELL IMAGING: FROM BENCH TO BEDSIDE

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Patricia K.; Riegler, Johannes; Wu, Joseph C.

    2014-01-01

    Although cellular therapies hold great promise for the treatment of human disease, results from several initial clinical trials have not shown a level of efficacy required for their use as a first line therapy. Here we discuss how in vivo molecular imaging has helped identify barriers to clinical translation and potential strategies that may contribute to successful transplantation and improved outcomes, with a focus on cardiovascular and neurological diseases. We conclude with a perspective on the future role of molecular imaging in defining safety and efficacy for stem cell clinical implementation. PMID:24702995

  11. Monitoring stem cells in phase contrast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, K. P.; Dempsey, K. P.; Collins, D. J.; Richardson, J. B.

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the mechanisms behind the proliferation of Mesenchymal Stem cells (MSCs) can offer a greater insight into the behaviour of these cells throughout their life cycles. Traditional methods of determining the rate of MSC differentiation rely on population based studies over an extended time period. However, such methods can be inadequate as they are unable to track cells as they interact; for example, in autologous cell therapies for osteoarthritis, the development of biological assays that could predict in vivo functional activity and biological action are particularly challenging. Here further research is required to determine non-histochemical biomarkers which provide correlations between cell survival and predictive functional outcome. This paper proposes using a (previously developed) advanced texture-based analysis algorithm to facilitate in vitro cells tracking using time-lapsed microscopy. The technique was adopted to monitor stem cells in the context of unlabelled, phase contrast imaging, with the goal of examining the cell to cell interactions in both monoculture and co-culture systems. The results obtained are analysed using established exploratory procedures developed for time series data and compared with the typical fluorescent-based approach of cell labelling. A review of the progress and the lessons learned are also presented.

  12. Adolescent Girls' STEM Identity Formation and Media Images of STEM Professionals: Considering the Influence of Contextual Cues.

    PubMed

    Steinke, Jocelyn

    2017-01-01

    Popular media have played a crucial role in the construction, representation, reproduction, and transmission of stereotypes of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) professionals, yet little is known about how these stereotypes influence STEM identity formation. Media images of STEM professionals may be important sources of information about STEM and may be particularly salient and relevant for girls during adolescence as they actively consider future personal and professional identities. This article describes gender-stereotyped media images of STEM professionals and examines theories to identify variables that explain the potential influence of these images on STEM identity formation. Understanding these variables is important for expanding current conceptual frameworks of science/STEM identity to better determine how and when cues in the broader sociocultural context may affect adolescent girls' STEM identity. This article emphasizes the importance of focusing on STEM identity relevant variables and STEM identity status to explain individual differences in STEM identity formation.

  13. Adolescent Girls’ STEM Identity Formation and Media Images of STEM Professionals: Considering the Influence of Contextual Cues

    PubMed Central

    Steinke, Jocelyn

    2017-01-01

    Popular media have played a crucial role in the construction, representation, reproduction, and transmission of stereotypes of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) professionals, yet little is known about how these stereotypes influence STEM identity formation. Media images of STEM professionals may be important sources of information about STEM and may be particularly salient and relevant for girls during adolescence as they actively consider future personal and professional identities. This article describes gender-stereotyped media images of STEM professionals and examines theories to identify variables that explain the potential influence of these images on STEM identity formation. Understanding these variables is important for expanding current conceptual frameworks of science/STEM identity to better determine how and when cues in the broader sociocultural context may affect adolescent girls’ STEM identity. This article emphasizes the importance of focusing on STEM identity relevant variables and STEM identity status to explain individual differences in STEM identity formation. PMID:28603505

  14. Stem Cells as a Tool for Breast Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Padín-Iruegas, Maria Elena; López López, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Stem cells are a scientific field of interest due to their therapeutic potential. There are different groups, depending on the differentiation state. We can find lonely stem cells, but generally they distribute in niches. Stem cells don't survive forever. They are affected for senescence. Cancer stem cells are best defined functionally, as a subpopulation of tumor cells that can enrich for tumorigenic property and can regenerate heterogeneity of the original tumor. Circulating tumor cells are cells that have detached from a primary tumor and circulate in the bloodstream. They may constitute seeds for subsequent growth of additional tumors (metastasis) in different tissues. Advances in molecular imaging have allowed a deeper understanding of the in vivo behavior of stem cells and have proven to be indispensable in preclinical and clinical studies. One of the first imaging modalities for monitoring pluripotent stem cells in vivo, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers high spatial and temporal resolution to obtain detailed morphological and functional information. Advantages of radioscintigraphic techniques include their picomolar sensitivity, good tissue penetration, and translation to clinical applications. Radionuclide imaging is the sole direct labeling technique used thus far in human studies, involving both autologous bone marrow derived and peripheral stem cells. PMID:22848220

  15. Placental fetal stem segmentation in a sequence of histology images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athavale, Prashant; Vese, Luminita A.

    2012-02-01

    Recent research in perinatal pathology argues that analyzing properties of the placenta may reveal important information on how certain diseases progress. One important property is the structure of the placental fetal stems. Analysis of the fetal stems in a placenta could be useful in the study and diagnosis of some diseases like autism. To study the fetal stem structure effectively, we need to automatically and accurately track fetal stems through a sequence of digitized hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained histology slides. There are many problems in successfully achieving this goal. A few of the problems are: large size of images, misalignment of the consecutive H&E slides, unpredictable inaccuracies of manual tracing, very complicated texture patterns of various tissue types without clear characteristics, just to name a few. In this paper we propose a novel algorithm to achieve automatic tracing of the fetal stem in a sequence of H&E images, based on an inaccurate manual segmentation of a fetal stem in one of the images. This algorithm combines global affine registration, local non-affine registration and a novel 'dynamic' version of the active contours model without edges. We first use global affine image registration of all the images based on displacement, scaling and rotation. This gives us approximate location of the corresponding fetal stem in the image that needs to be traced. We then use the affine registration algorithm "locally" near this location. At this point, we use a fast non-affine registration based on L2-similarity measure and diffusion regularization to get a better location of the fetal stem. Finally, we have to take into account inaccuracies in the initial tracing. This is achieved through a novel dynamic version of the active contours model without edges where the coefficients of the fitting terms are computed iteratively to ensure that we obtain a unique stem in the segmentation. The segmentation thus obtained can then be used as an

  16. Tumor-stem cells interactions by fluorescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meleshina, Aleksandra V.; Cherkasova, Elena I.; Sergeeva, Ekaterina; Turchin, Ilya V.; Kiseleva, Ekaterina V.; Dashinimaev, Erdem B.; Shirmanova, Marina V.; Zagaynova, Elena V.

    2013-02-01

    Recently, great deal of interest is investigation the function of the stem cells (SC) in tumors. In this study, we studied «recipient-tumor- fluorescent stem cells » system using the methods of in vivo imaging and laser scanning microscopy (LSM). We used adipose-derived adult stem (ADAS) cells of human lentiviral transfected with the gene of fluorescent protein Turbo FP635. ADAS cells were administrated into nude mice with transplanted tumor HeLa Kyoto (human cervical carcinoma) at different stages of tumor growth (0-8 days) intravenously or into tumor. In vivo imaging was performed on the experimental setup for epi - luminescence bioimaging (IAP RAS, Nizhny Novgorod). The results of the imaging showed localization of fluorophore tagged stem cells in the spleen on day 5-9 after injection. The sensitivity of the technique may be improved by spectral separation autofluorescence and fluorescence of stem cells. We compared the results of in vivo imaging and confocal laser scanning microscopy (LSM 510 META, Carl Zeiss, Germany). Internal organs of the animals and tumor tissue were investigated. It was shown that with i.v. injection of ADAS, bright fluorescent structures with spectral characteristics corresponding to TurboFP635 protein are locally accumulated in the marrow, lungs and tumors of animals. These findings indicate that ADAS cells integrate in the animal body with transplanted tumor and can be identified by fluorescence bioimaging techniques in vivo and ex vivo.

  17. Image Guidance in Stem Cell Therapeutics: Unfolding the Blindfold.

    PubMed

    Bukhari, Amirali B; Dutta, Shruti; De, Abhijit

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell therapeutics is the future of regenerative medicine in the modern world. Many studies have been instigated with the hope of translating the outcome for the treatment of several disease conditions ranging from heart and neuronal disease to malignancies as grave as cancers. Stem cell therapeutics undoubtedly holds great promise on the front of regenerative medicine, however, the correct distribution and homing of these stem cells to the host site remained blinded until the recent advances in the discipline of molecular imaging. Herein, we discuss the various imaging guidance applied for determination of the proper delivery of various types of stem cell used as therapeutics for various maladies. Additionally, we scrutinize the use of several indirect labeling mechanisms for efficient tagging of the reporter entity for image guidance. Further, the promise of improving patient healthcare has led to the initiation of several clinical trials worldwide. However, in number of the cases, the benefits arrive with a price heavy enough to pose a serious health risk, one such being formation of teratomas. Thus numerous challenges and methodological obstacles must be overcome before their eloquent clinical impact can be realized. Therefore, we also discuss several clinical trials that have taken into consideration the various imaging guided protocols to monitor correct delivery and understand the distribution of therapeutic stem cells in real time.

  18. Stem cell therapy: a primer for interventionalists and imagers.

    PubMed

    Nikolic, Boris; Faintuch, Salomao; Goldberg, S Nahum; Kuo, Michael D; Cardella, John F

    2009-08-01

    In recent years, research advancement in stem cell therapy has been rapid. Accordingly, general clinical, scientific, and public attention to the application of stem cell therapy has been substantial. Promises are great, most notably with regard to the application of stem cell therapy for diseases that are currently difficult to treat or incurable such as Parkinson disease or diabetes mellitus. It is in the best interest of patient care for diagnostic and interventional radiologists to be actively involved in the development of these therapies, both at the bench and at the bedside in clinical studies. Specifically, the diagnostic radiologist can become an expert in imaging, tracking, and monitoring of stem cells and in the assessment of engraftment efficiency, whereas the interventionalist is a natural expert in targeted stem cell delivery by means of different routes (percutaneous, selective intravenous, or intraarterial). In addition, there is a potential role for the interventionalist to create engraftment territory and increase engraftment bed fertility with controlled intentional tissue destruction (eg, by means of thermal ablation) that might precede stem cell administration.

  19. Imaging: Guiding the Clinical Translation of Cardiac Stem Cell Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Patricia K.; Lan, Feng; Wang, Yongming; Wu, Joseph C.

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells have been touted as the holy grail of medical therapy with promises to regenerate cardiac tissue, but it appears the jury is still out on this novel therapy. Using advanced imaging technology, scientists have discovered that these cells do not survive nor engraft long-term. In addition, only marginal benefit has been observed in large animal studies and human trials. However, all is not lost. Further application of advanced imaging technology will help scientists unravel the mysteries of stem cell therapy and address the clinical hurdles facing its routine implementation. In this review, we will discuss how advanced imaging technology will help investigators better define the optimal delivery method, improve survival and engraftment, and evaluate efficacy and safety. Insights gained from this review may direct the development of future preclinical investigations and clinical trials. PMID:21960727

  20. In vivo stem cell tracking with imageable nanoparticles that bind bioorthogonal chemical receptors on the stem cell surface.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangmin; Yoon, Hwa In; Na, Jin Hee; Jeon, Sangmin; Lim, Seungho; Koo, Heebeom; Han, Sang-Soo; Kang, Sun-Woong; Park, Soon-Jung; Moon, Sung-Hwan; Park, Jae Hyung; Cho, Yong Woo; Kim, Byung-Soo; Kim, Sang Kyoon; Lee, Taekwan; Kim, Dongkyu; Lee, Seulki; Pomper, Martin G; Kwon, Ick Chan; Kim, Kwangmeyung

    2017-09-01

    It is urgently necessary to develop reliable non-invasive stem cell imaging technology for tracking the in vivo fate of transplanted stem cells in living subjects. Herein, we developed a simple and well controlled stem cell imaging method through a combination of metabolic glycoengineering and bioorthogonal copper-free click chemistry. Firstly, the exogenous chemical receptors containing azide (-N 3 ) groups were generated on the surfaces of stem cells through metabolic glycoengineering using metabolic precursor, tetra-acetylated N-azidoacetyl-d-mannosamine(Ac 4 ManNAz). Next, bicyclo[6.1.0]nonyne-modified glycol chitosan nanoparticles (BCN-CNPs) were prepared as imageable nanoparticles to deliver different imaging agents. Cy5.5, iron oxide nanoparticles and gold nanoparticles were conjugated or encapsulated to BCN-CNPs for optical, MR and CT imaging, respectively. These imageable nanoparticles bound chemical receptors on the Ac 4 ManNAz-treated stem cell surface specifically via bioorthogonal copper-free click chemistry. Then they were rapidly taken up by the cell membrane turn-over mechanism resulting in higher endocytic capacity compared non-specific uptake of nanoparticles. During in vivo animal test, BCN-CNP-Cy5.5-labeled stem cells could be continuously tracked by non-invasive optical imaging over 15 days. Furthermore, BCN-CNP-IRON- and BCN-CNP-GOLD-labeled stem cells could be efficiently visualized using in vivo MR and CT imaging demonstrating utility of our stem cell labeling method using chemical receptors. These results conclude that our method based on metabolic glycoengineering and bioorthogonal copper-free click chemistry can stably label stem cells with diverse imageable nanoparticles representing great potential as new stem cell imaging technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Differential use of temporal cues to the /s/-/z/ contrast by native and non-native speakers of English.

    PubMed

    Flege, J E; Hillenbrand, J

    1986-02-01

    This study examined the effect of linguistic experience on perception of the English /s/-/z/ contrast in word-final position. The durations of the periodic ("vowel") and aperiodic ("fricative") portions of stimuli, ranging from peas to peace, were varied in a 5 X 5 factorial design. Forced-choice identification judgments were elicited from two groups of native speakers of American English differing in dialect, and from two groups each of native speakers of French, Swedish, and Finnish differing in English-language experience. The results suggested that the non-native subjects used cues established for the perception of phonetic contrasts in their native language to identify fricatives as /s/ or /z/. Lengthening vowel duration increased /z/ judgments in all eight subject groups, although the effect was smaller for native speakers of French than for native speakers of the other languages. Shortening fricative duration, on the other hand, significantly decreased /z/ judgments only by the English and French subjects. It did not influence voicing judgments by the Swedish and Finnish subjects, even those who had lived for a year or more in an English-speaking environment. These findings raise the question of whether adults who learn a foreign language can acquire the ability to integrate multiple acoustic cues to a phonetic contrast which does not exist in their native language.

  2. MALDI-MS Imaging of Urushiols in Poison Ivy Stem.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Mina; Sturtevant, Drew; Winston, Jordan; Collakova, Eva; Jelesko, John G; Chapman, Kent D

    2017-04-29

    Urushiols are the allergenic components of Toxicodendron radicans (poison ivy) as well as other Toxicodendron species. They are alk-(en)-yl catechol derivatives with a 15- or 17-carbon side chain having different degrees of unsaturation. Although several methods have been developed for analysis of urushiols in plant tissues, the in situ localization of the different urushiol congeners has not been reported. Here, we report on the first analysis of urushiols in poison ivy stems by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI). Our results show that the urushiol congeners with 15-carbon side chains are mainly localized to the resin ducts, while those with 17-carbon side chains are widely distributed in cortex and vascular tissues. The presence of these urushiols in stem extracts of poison ivy seedlings was confirmed by GC-MS. These novel findings provide new insights into the spatial tissue distribution of urushiols that might be biosynthetically or functionally relevant.

  3. Adult stem cell lineage tracing and deep tissue imaging

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Juergen; Andersson-Rolf, Amanda; Koo, Bon-Kyoung

    2015-01-01

    Lineage tracing is a widely used method for understanding cellular dynamics in multicellular organisms during processes such as development, adult tissue maintenance, injury repair and tumorigenesis. Advances in tracing or tracking methods, from light microscopy-based live cell tracking to fluorescent label-tracing with two-photon microscopy, together with emerging tissue clearing strategies and intravital imaging approaches have enabled scientists to decipher adult stem and progenitor cell properties in various tissues and in a wide variety of biological processes. Although technical advances have enabled time-controlled genetic labeling and simultaneous live imaging, a number of obstacles still need to be overcome. In this review, we aim to provide an in-depth description of the traditional use of lineage tracing as well as current strategies and upcoming new methods of labeling and imaging. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(12): 655-667] PMID:26634741

  4. Dorsal brain stem syndrome: MR imaging location of brain stem tegmental lesions in neonates with oral motor dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Quattrocchi, C C; Longo, D; Delfino, L N; Cilio, M R; Piersigilli, F; Capua, M D; Seganti, G; Danhaive, O; Fariello, G

    2010-09-01

    The anatomic extent of brain stem damage may provide information about clinical outcome and prognosis in children with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and oral motor dysfunction. The aim of this study was to retrospectively characterize the location and extent of brain stem lesions in children with oral motor dysfunction. From January 2005 to August 2009, 43 infants hospitalized at our institution were included in the study because of a history of hypoxic-ischemic events. Of this group, 14 patients showed oral motor dysfunction and brain stem tegmental lesions detected at MR imaging. MR imaging showed hypoxic-ischemic lesions in supra- and infratentorial areas. Six of 14 patients revealed only infratentorial lesions. Focal symmetric lesions of the tegmental brain stem were always present. The lesions appeared hyperintense on T2-weighted images and hypointense on IR images. We found a strong association (P < .0001) between oral motor dysfunction and infratentorial lesions on MR imaging. Oral motor dysfunction was associated with brain stem tegmental lesions in posthypoxic-ischemic infants. The MR imaging examination should be directed to the brain stem, especially when a condition of prolonged gavage feeding is necessary in infants.

  5. Multiphoton autofluorescence lifetime imaging of induced pluripotent stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchugonova, Aisada

    2017-06-01

    The multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging tomograph MPTflex with its flexible 360-deg scan head, articulated arm, and tunable femtosecond laser source was employed to study induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS) cultures. Autofluorescence (AF) lifetime imaging was performed with 250-ps temporal resolution and submicron spatial resolution using time-correlated single-photon counting. The two-photon excited AF was based on the metabolic coenzymes NAD(P)H and flavin adenine dinucleotide/flavoproteins. iPS cells generated from mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and cocultured with growth-arrested MEFs as feeder cells have been studied. Significant differences on AF lifetime signatures were identified between iPS and feeder cells as well as between their differentiating counterparts.

  6. Invincible, but not invisible: imaging approaches toward in vivo detection of cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Hart, Lori S; El-Deiry, Wafik S

    2008-06-10

    With evidence emerging in support of a cancer stem-cell model of carcinogenesis, it is of paramount importance to identify and image these elusive cells in their natural environment. The cancer stem-cell hypothesis has the potential to explain unresolved questions of tumorigenesis, tumor heterogeneity, chemotherapeutic and radiation resistance, and even the metastatic phenotype. Intravital imaging of cancer stem cells could be of great value for determining prognosis, as well as monitoring therapeutic efficacy and influencing therapeutic protocols. Cancer stem cells represent a rare population of cells, as low as 0.1% of cells within a human tumor, and the phenotype of isolated cancer stem cells is easily altered when placed under in vitro conditions. This represents a challenge in studying cancer stem cells without manipulation or extraction from their natural environment. Advanced imaging techniques allow for the in vivo observation of physiological events at cellular resolution. Cancer stem-cell studies must take advantage of such technology to promote a better understanding of the cancer stem-cell model in relation to tumor growth and metastasis, as well as to potentially improve on the principles by which cancers are treated. This review examines the opportunities for in vivo imaging of putative cancer stem cells with regard to currently accepted cancer stem-cell characteristics and advanced imaging technologies.

  7. SU-E-I-39: Molecular Image Guided Cancer Stem Cells Therapy

    SciT

    Abdollahi, H

    Purpose: Cancer stem cells resistance to radiation is a problematic issue that has caused a big fail in cancer treatment. Methods: As a primary work, molecular imaging can indicate the main mechanisms of radiation resistance of cancer stem cells. By developing and commissioning new probes and nanomolecules and biomarkers, radiation scientist will able to identify the essential pathways of radiation resistance of cancer stem cells. As the second solution, molecular imaging is a best way to find biological target volume and delineate cancer stem cell tissues. In the other hand, by molecular imaging techniques one can image the treatment responsemore » in tumor and also in normal tissue. In this issue, the response of cancer stem cells to radiation during therapy course can be imaged, also the main mechanisms of radiation resistance and finding the best radiation modifiers (sensitizers) can be achieved by molecular imaging modalities. In adaptive radiotherapy the molecular imaging plays a vital role to have higher tumor control probability by delivering high radiation doses to cancer stem cells in any time of treatment. The outcome of a feasible treatment is dependent to high cancer stem cells response to radiation and removing all of which, so a good imaging modality can show this issue and preventing of tumor recurrence and metastasis. Results: Our results are dependent to use of molecular imaging as a new modality in the clinic. We propose molecular imaging as a new radiobiological technique to solve radiation therapy problems due to cancer stem cells. Conclusion: Molecular imaging guided cancer stem cell diagnosis and therapy is a new approach in the field of cancer treatment. This new radiobiological imaging technique should be developed in all clinics as a feasible tool that is more biological than physical imaging.« less

  8. Acquisition of STEM Images by Adaptive Compressive Sensing

    SciT

    Xie, Weiyi; Feng, Qianli; Srinivasan, Ramprakash

    Compressive Sensing (CS) allows a signal to be sparsely measured first and accurately recovered later in software [1]. In scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), it is possible to compress an image spatially by reducing the number of measured pixels, which decreases electron dose and increases sensing speed [2,3,4]. The two requirements for CS to work are: (1) sparsity of basis coefficients and (2) incoherence of the sensing system and the representation system. However, when pixels are missing from the image, it is difficult to have an incoherent sensing matrix. Nevertheless, dictionary learning techniques such as Beta-Process Factor Analysis (BPFA) [5]more » are able to simultaneously discover a basis and the sparse coefficients in the case of missing pixels. On top of CS, we would like to apply active learning [6,7] to further reduce the proportion of pixels being measured, while maintaining image reconstruction quality. Suppose we initially sample 10% of random pixels. We wish to select the next 1% of pixels that are most useful in recovering the image. Now, we have 11% of pixels, and we want to decide the next 1% of “most informative” pixels. Active learning methods are online and sequential in nature. Our goal is to adaptively discover the best sensing mask during acquisition using feedback about the structures in the image. In the end, we hope to recover a high quality reconstruction with a dose reduction relative to the non-adaptive (random) sensing scheme. In doing this, we try three metrics applied to the partial reconstructions for selecting the new set of pixels: (1) variance, (2) Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence using a Radial Basis Function (RBF) kernel, and (3) entropy. Figs. 1 and 2 display the comparison of Peak Signal-to-Noise (PSNR) using these three different active learning methods at different percentages of sampled pixels. At 20% level, all the three active learning methods underperform the original CS without active learning

  9. Live Imaging of Adult Neural Stem Cells in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Felipe; Costa, Marcos R.

    2016-01-01

    The generation of cells of the neural lineage within the brain is not restricted to early development. New neurons, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes are produced in the adult brain throughout the entire murine life. However, despite the extensive research performed in the field of adult neurogenesis during the past years, fundamental questions regarding the cell biology of adult neural stem cells (aNSCs) remain to be uncovered. For instance, it is crucial to elucidate whether a single aNSC is capable of differentiating into all three different macroglial cell types in vivo or these distinct progenies constitute entirely separate lineages. Similarly, the cell cycle length, the time and mode of division (symmetric vs. asymmetric) that these cells undergo within their lineage progression are interesting questions under current investigation. In this sense, live imaging constitutes a valuable ally in the search of reliable answers to the previous questions. In spite of the current limitations of technology new approaches are being developed and outstanding amount of knowledge is being piled up providing interesting insights in the behavior of aNSCs. Here, we will review the state of the art of live imaging as well as the alternative models that currently offer new answers to critical questions. PMID:27013941

  10. In Vivo Imaging and Monitoring of Transplanted Stem Cells: Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Porcel, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Regenerative medicine using stem cells has appeared as a potential therapeutic alternative for coronary artery disease, and stem cell clinical studies are currently on their way. However, initial results of these studies have provided mixed information, in part because of the inability to correlate organ functional information with the presence/absence of transplanted stem cells. Recent advances in molecular biology and imaging have allowed the successful noninvasive monitoring of transplanted stem cells in the living subject. In this article, different imaging strategies (direct labeling, indirect labeling with reporter genes) to study the viability and biology of stem cells are discussed. In addition, the limitations of each approach and imaging modality (eg, single photon emission computed tomography, positron emission tomography, and MRI) and their requirements for clinical use are addressed. Use of these strategies will be critical as the different regenerative therapies are being tested for clinical use. PMID:20425184

  11. Live imaging of the Drosophila spermatogonial stem cell niche reveals novel mechanisms regulating germline stem cell output

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, X. Rebecca; Matunis, Erika

    2011-01-01

    Adult stem cells modulate their output by varying between symmetric and asymmetric divisions, but have rarely been observed in living intact tissues. Germline stem cells (GSCs) in the Drosophila testis are anchored to somatic hub cells and were thought to exclusively undergo oriented asymmetric divisions, producing one stem cell that remains hub-anchored and one daughter cell displaced out of the stem cell-maintaining micro-environment (niche). We developed extended live imaging of the Drosophila testis niche, allowing us to track individual germline cells. Surprisingly, new wild-type GSCs are generated in the niche during steady-state tissue maintenance by a previously undetected event we term `symmetric renewal', where interconnected GSC-daughter cell pairs swivel such that both cells contact the hub. We also captured GSCs undergoing direct differentiation by detaching from the hub. Following starvation-induced GSC loss, GSC numbers are restored by symmetric renewals. Furthermore, upon more severe (genetically induced) GSC loss, both symmetric renewal and de-differentiation (where interconnected spermatogonia fragment into pairs while moving towards then establishing contact with the hub) occur simultaneously to replenish the GSC pool. Thus, stereotypically oriented stem cell divisions are not always correlated with an asymmetric outcome in cell fate, and changes in stem cell output are governed by altered signals in response to tissue requirements. PMID:21752931

  12. STEM Images Revealing STEM Conceptions of Pre-Service Chemistry and Mathematics Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akaygun, Sevil; Aslan-Tutak, Fatma

    2016-01-01

    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education has been an integral part of many countries' educational policies. In last decade, various practices have been implemented to make STEM areas valuable for 21st century generation. These actions require reconsideration of both pre- and in-service teacher education because those who…

  13. STEM Tomography Imaging of Hypertrophied Golgi Stacks in Mucilage-Secreting Cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Byung-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Because of the weak penetrating power of electrons, the signal-to-noise ratio of a transmission electron micrograph (TEM) worsens as section thickness increases. This problem is alleviated by the use of the scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Tomography analyses using STEM of thick sections from yeast and mammalian cells are of higher quality than are bright-field (BF) images. In this study, we compared regular BF tomograms and STEM tomograms from 500-nm thick sections from hypertrophied Golgi stacks of alfalfa root cap cells. Due to their thickness and intense heavy metal staining, BF tomograms of the thick sections suffer from poor contrast and high noise levels. We were able to mitigate these drawbacks by using STEM tomography. When we performed STEM tomography of densely stained chloroplasts of Arabidopsis cotyledon, we observed similar improvements relative to BF tomograms. A longer time is required to collect a STEM tilt series than similar BF TEM images, and dynamic autofocusing required for STEM imaging often fails at high tilt angles. Despite these limitations, STEM tomography is a powerful method for analyzing structures of large or dense organelles of plant cells.

  14. A history of scanning electron microscopy developments: towards "wet-STEM" imaging.

    PubMed

    Bogner, A; Jouneau, P-H; Thollet, G; Basset, D; Gauthier, C

    2007-01-01

    A recently developed imaging mode called "wet-STEM" and new developments in environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) allows the observation of nano-objects suspended in a liquid phase, with a few manometers resolution and a good signal to noise ratio. The idea behind this technique is simply to perform STEM-in-SEM, that is SEM in transmission mode, in an environmental SEM. The purpose of the present contribution is to highlight the main advances that contributed to development of the wet-STEM technique. Although simple in principle, the wet-STEM imaging mode would have been limited before high brightness electron sources became available, and needed some progresses and improvements in ESEM. This new technique extends the scope of SEM as a high-resolution microscope, relatively cheap and widely available imaging tool, for a wider variety of samples.

  15. Labeling and Imaging Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Quantum Dots

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells with the potential to differentiate into bone, cartilage, adipose and muscle cells. Adult derived MSCs are being actively investigated because of their potential to be utilized for therapeutic cell-based transplantation. Methods...

  16. Electron ptychographic phase imaging of light elements in crystalline materials using Wigner distribution deconvolution

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Hao; MacLaren, Ian; Jones, Lewys; ...

    2017-04-01

    Recent development in fast pixelated detector technology has allowed a two dimensional diffraction pattern to be recorded at every probe position of a two dimensional raster scan in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM), forming an information-rich four dimensional (4D) dataset. Electron ptychography has been shown to enable efficient coherent phase imaging of weakly scattering objects from a 4D dataset recorded using a focused electron probe, which is optimised for simultaneous incoherent Z-contrast imaging and spectroscopy in STEM. Thus coherent phase contrast and incoherent Z-contrast imaging modes can be efficiently combined to provide a good sensitivity of both light andmore » heavy elements at atomic resolution. Here, we explore the application of electron ptychography for atomic resolution imaging of strongly scattering crystalline specimens, and present experiments on imaging crystalline specimens including samples containing defects, under dynamical channelling conditions using an aberration corrected microscope. A ptychographic reconstruction method called Wigner distribution deconvolution (WDD) was implemented. Our experimental results and simulation results suggest that ptychography provides a readily interpretable phase image and great sensitivity for imaging light elements at atomic resolution in relatively thin crystalline materials.« less

  17. Imaging the distribution of individual platinum-based anticancer drug molecules attached to single-wall carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Bhirde, Ashwin A; Sousa, Alioscka A; Patel, Vyomesh; Azari, Afrouz A; Gutkind, J Silvio; Leapman, Richard D; Rusling, James F

    2009-01-01

    Aims To image the distribution of drug molecules attached to single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). Materials & methods Herein we report the use of scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) for atomic scale visualization and quantitation of single platinum-based drug molecules attached to SWNTs designed for targeted drug delivery. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy were used for characterization of the SWNT drug conjugates. Results Z-contrast STEM imaging enabled visualization of the first-line anticancer drug cisplatin on the nanotubes at single molecule level. The identity and presence of cisplatin on the nanotubes was confirmed using energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. STEM tomography was also used to provide additional insights concerning the nanotube conjugates. Finally, our observations provide a rationale for exploring the use of SWNT bioconjugates to selectively target and kill squamous cancer cells. Conclusion Z-contrast STEM imaging provides a means for direct visualization of heavy metal containing molecules (i.e., cisplatin) attached to surfaces of carbon SWNTs along with distribution and quantitation. PMID:19839812

  18. In vivo imaging: shining a light on stem cells in the living animal.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phong Dang; Currie, Peter David

    2018-03-28

    Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that play crucial roles during development, growth and regeneration. Traditionally, these cells have been primarily characterised by histology, cell sorting, cell culture and ex vivo methods. However, as stem cells interact in a complex environment within specific tissue niches, there has been increasing interest in examining their in vivo behaviours, particularly in response to injury. Advances in imaging technologies and genetic tools have converged to enable unprecedented access to the endogenous stem cell niche. In this Spotlight article, we highlight how in vivo imaging can probe a range of biological processes that relate to stem cell activity, behaviour and control. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Development of tyrosinase-based reporter genes for preclinical photoacoustic imaging of mesenchymal stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Märk, Julia; Ruschke, Karen; Dortay, Hakan; Schreiber, Isabelle; Sass, Andrea; Qazi, Taimoor; Pumberger, Matthias; Laufer, Jan

    2014-03-01

    The capability to image stem cells in vivo in small animal models over extended periods of time is important to furthering our understanding of the processes involved in tissue regeneration. Photoacoustic imaging is suited to this application as it can provide high resolution (tens of microns) absorption-based images of superficial tissues (cm depths). However, stem cells are rare, highly migratory, and can divide into more specialised cells. Genetic labelling strategies are therefore advantageous for their visualisation. In this study, methods for the transfection and viral transduction of mesenchymal stem cells with reporter genes for the co-expression of tyrosinase and a fluorescent protein (mCherry). Initial photoacoustic imaging experiments of tyrosinase expressing cells in small animal models of tissue regeneration were also conducted. Lentiviral transduction methods were shown to result in stable expression of tyrosinase and mCherry in mesenchymal stem cells. The results suggest that photoacoustic imaging using reporter genes is suitable for the study of stem cell driven tissue regeneration in small animals.

  20. Molecular imaging in stem cell-based therapies of cardiac diseases.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Hacker, Marcus

    2017-10-01

    In the past 15years, despite that regenerative medicine has shown great potential for cardiovascular diseases, the outcome and safety of stem cell transplantation has shown controversial results in the published literature. Medical imaging might be useful for monitoring and quantifying transplanted cells within the heart and to serially characterize the effects of stem cell therapy of the myocardium. From the multiple available noninvasive imaging techniques, magnetic resonance imaging and nuclear imaging by positron (PET) or single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT) are the most used clinical approaches to follow the fate of transplanted stem cells in vivo. In this article, we provide a review on the role of different noninvasive imaging modalities and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. We focus on the different in-vivo labeling and reporter gene imaging strategies for stem cell tracking as well as the concept and reliability to use imaging parameters as noninvasive surrogate endpoints for the evaluation of the post-therapeutic outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Imaging transplanted stem cells in real time using an MRI dual-contrast method

    PubMed Central

    Ngen, Ethel J.; Wang, Lee; Kato, Yoshinori; Krishnamachary, Balaji; Zhu, Wenlian; Gandhi, Nishant; Smith, Barbara; Armour, Michael; Wong, John; Gabrielson, Kathleen; Artemov, Dmitri

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell therapies are currently being investigated for the repair of brain injuries. Although exogenous stem cell labelling with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) prior to transplantation provides a means to noninvasively monitor stem cell transplantation by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), monitoring cell death is still a challenge. Here, we investigate the feasibility of using an MRI dual-contrast technique to detect cell delivery, cell migration and cell death after stem cell transplantation. Human mesenchymal stem cells were dual labelled with SPIONs and gadolinium-based chelates (GdDTPA). The viability, proliferation rate, and differentiation potential of the labelled cells were then evaluated. The feasibility of this MRI technique to distinguish between live and dead cells was next evaluated using MRI phantoms, and in vivo using both immune-competent and immune-deficient mice, following the induction of brain injury in the mice. All results were validated with bioluminescence imaging. In live cells, a negative (T2/T2*) MRI contrast predominates, and is used to track cell delivery and cell migration. Upon cell death, a diffused positive (T1) MRI contrast is generated in the vicinity of the dead cells, and serves as an imaging marker for cell death. Ultimately, this technique could be used to manage stem cell therapies. PMID:26330231

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging of the kinked fetal brain stem: a sign of severe dysgenesis.

    PubMed

    Stroustrup Smith, Annemarie; Levine, Deborah; Barnes, Patrick D; Robertson, Richard L

    2005-12-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows visualization of the fetal brain stem in a manner not previously possible. A "kinked" brain stem is a sign of severe neurodysgenesis. The purpose of this series was to describe cases of a kinked brain stem detected on prenatal MRI and to discuss the possible genetic and syndromic etiologies. Seven cases of a kinked brain stem on fetal MRI (gestational age range, 18-34 weeks) were reviewed and correlated with other clinical, genetic, imaging, and autopsy findings. In all cases, there was associated cerebellar hypogenesis. Additional findings were ventriculomegaly (4 cases), cerebral hypogenesis (3 cases), microcephaly (4 cases), schizencephaly (1 case), cephalocele (1 case), hypogenesis of the corpus callosum (1 case), and hydrocephalus (1 case). In 2 cases, prenatal sonography misidentified the kinked brain stem as the cerebellum. A kinked brain stem is an indicator of severe neurodysgenesis arising early in gestation. Magnetic resonance imaging provides the necessary resolution to detect this sign and delineate any associated anomalies in utero to assist with further genetic evaluation, management, and counseling.

  3. Imaging transplanted stem cells in real time using an MRI dual-contrast method.

    PubMed

    Ngen, Ethel J; Wang, Lee; Kato, Yoshinori; Krishnamachary, Balaji; Zhu, Wenlian; Gandhi, Nishant; Smith, Barbara; Armour, Michael; Wong, John; Gabrielson, Kathleen; Artemov, Dmitri

    2015-09-02

    Stem cell therapies are currently being investigated for the repair of brain injuries. Although exogenous stem cell labelling with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) prior to transplantation provides a means to noninvasively monitor stem cell transplantation by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), monitoring cell death is still a challenge. Here, we investigate the feasibility of using an MRI dual-contrast technique to detect cell delivery, cell migration and cell death after stem cell transplantation. Human mesenchymal stem cells were dual labelled with SPIONs and gadolinium-based chelates (GdDTPA). The viability, proliferation rate, and differentiation potential of the labelled cells were then evaluated. The feasibility of this MRI technique to distinguish between live and dead cells was next evaluated using MRI phantoms, and in vivo using both immune-competent and immune-deficient mice, following the induction of brain injury in the mice. All results were validated with bioluminescence imaging. In live cells, a negative (T2/T2*) MRI contrast predominates, and is used to track cell delivery and cell migration. Upon cell death, a diffused positive (T1) MRI contrast is generated in the vicinity of the dead cells, and serves as an imaging marker for cell death. Ultimately, this technique could be used to manage stem cell therapies.

  4. Estimation of the brain stem volume by stereological method on magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Erbagci, Hulya; Keser, Munevver; Kervancioglu, Selim; Kizilkan, Nese

    2012-11-01

    Neuron loss that occurs in some neurodegenerative diseases can lead to volume alterations by causing atrophy in the brain stem. The aim of this study was to determine the brain stem volume and the volume ratio of the brain stem to total brain volume related to gender and age using new Stereo Investigator system in normal subjects. For this purpose, MR images of 72 individuals who have no pathologic condition were evaluated. The total brain volumes of female and male were calculated as 966.81 ± 77.44 and 1,074.06 ± 111.75 cm3, respectively. Brain stem volumes of female and male were determined as 18.99 ± 2.36 and 22.05 ± 4.01 cm3, respectively. The ratios of brain stem volume to total brain volume were 1.96 ± 0.17 in female and 2.05 ± 0.29 in male. The total brain and brain stem volumes were observed smaller in female and it is statistically significant. Among the individuals whose ages are between 20 and 40, total brain and brain stem volume measurements with aging were not statistically significant. As a result, we believe that the measurement of brain stem volume with an objective and efficient calculation method will contribute to the early diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases, as well as to determine the rate of disease progression, and the outcomes of treatment.

  5. Parsing Stem Cell Lineage Development Using High Content Image Analysis of Epigenetic Spatial Markers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joseph J; Moghe, Prabhas V

    2018-06-14

    This unit describes a protocol for acquiring and analyzing high-content super-resolution images of human stem cell nuclei for the characterization and classification of the cell differentiation paths based on distinct patterns of epigenetic mark organization. Here, we describe the cell culture, immunocytochemical labeling, super-resolution imaging parameters, and MATLAB-based quantitative image analysis approaches for monitoring human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) as the cells differentiate towards various lineages. Although this protocol uses specific cell types as examples, this approach could be easily extended to a variety of cell types and nuclear epigenetic and mechanosensitive biomarkers that are relevant to specific cell developmental scenarios. © 2018 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  6. Murine aggregation chimeras and wholemount imaging in airway stem cell biology.

    PubMed

    Rosewell, Ian R; Giangreco, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Local tissue stem cells are known to exist in mammalian lungs but their role in epithelial maintenance remains unclear. We therefore developed murine aggregation chimera and wholemount imaging techniques to assess the contribution of these cells to lung homeostasis and repair. In this chapter we provide further details regarding the generation of murine aggregation chimera mice and their subsequent use in wholemount lung imaging. We also describe methods related to the interpretation of this data that allows for quantitative assessment of airway stem cell activation versus quiescence. Using these techniques, it is possible to compare the growth and differentiation capacity of various lung epithelial cells in normal, repairing, and diseased states.

  7. Image registration of low signal-to-noise cryo-STEM data.

    PubMed

    Savitzky, Benjamin H; El Baggari, Ismail; Clement, Colin B; Waite, Emily; Goodge, Berit H; Baek, David J; Sheckelton, John P; Pasco, Christopher; Nair, Hari; Schreiber, Nathaniel J; Hoffman, Jason; Admasu, Alemayehu S; Kim, Jaewook; Cheong, Sang-Wook; Bhattacharya, Anand; Schlom, Darrell G; McQueen, Tyrel M; Hovden, Robert; Kourkoutis, Lena F

    2018-08-01

    Combining multiple fast image acquisitions to mitigate scan noise and drift artifacts has proven essential for picometer precision, quantitative analysis of atomic resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) data. For very low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) image stacks - frequently required for undistorted imaging at liquid nitrogen temperatures - image registration is particularly delicate, and standard approaches may either fail, or produce subtly specious reconstructed lattice images. We present an approach which effectively registers and averages image stacks which are challenging due to their low-SNR and propensity for unit cell misalignments. Registering all possible image pairs in a multi-image stack leads to significant information surplus. In combination with a simple physical picture of stage drift, this enables identification of incorrect image registrations, and determination of the optimal image shifts from the complete set of relative shifts. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach on experimental, cryogenic STEM datasets, highlighting subtle artifacts endemic to low-SNR lattice images and how they can be avoided. High-SNR average images with information transfer out to 0.72 Å are achieved at 300 kV and with the sample cooled to near liquid nitrogen temperature. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Bioinspired Nanocomplex for Spatiotemporal Imaging of Sequential mRNA Expression in Differentiating Neural Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Messenger RNA plays a pivotal role in regulating cellular activities. The expression dynamics of specific mRNA contains substantial information on the intracellular milieu. Unlike the imaging of stationary mRNAs, real-time intracellular imaging of the dynamics of mRNA expression is of great value for investigating mRNA biology and exploring specific cellular cascades. In addition to advanced imaging methods, timely extracellular stimulation is another key factor in regulating the mRNA expression repertoire. The integration of effective stimulation and imaging into a single robust system would significantly improve stimulation efficiency and imaging accuracy, producing fewer unwanted artifacts. In this study, we developed a multifunctional nanocomplex to enable self-activating and spatiotemporal imaging of the dynamics of mRNA sequential expression during the neural stem cell differentiation process. This nanocomplex showed improved enzymatic stability, fast recognition kinetics, and high specificity. With a mechanism regulated by endogenous cell machinery, this nanocomplex realized the successive stimulating motif release and the dynamic imaging of chronological mRNA expression during neural stem cell differentiation without the use of transgenetic manipulation. The dynamic imaging montage of mRNA expression ultimately facilitated genetic heterogeneity analysis. In vivo lateral ventricle injection of this nanocomplex enabled endogenous neural stem cell activation and labeling at their specific differentiation stages. This nanocomplex is highly amenable as an alternative tool to explore the dynamics of intricate mRNA activities in various physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:25494492

  9. Bioinspired nanocomplex for spatiotemporal imaging of sequential mRNA expression in differentiating neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Ruili; Wang, Zhongliang; Wang, He-Fang; Wang, Yu; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Fu; Li, Weitao; Niu, Gang; Kiesewetter, Dale O; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2014-12-23

    Messenger RNA plays a pivotal role in regulating cellular activities. The expression dynamics of specific mRNA contains substantial information on the intracellular milieu. Unlike the imaging of stationary mRNAs, real-time intracellular imaging of the dynamics of mRNA expression is of great value for investigating mRNA biology and exploring specific cellular cascades. In addition to advanced imaging methods, timely extracellular stimulation is another key factor in regulating the mRNA expression repertoire. The integration of effective stimulation and imaging into a single robust system would significantly improve stimulation efficiency and imaging accuracy, producing fewer unwanted artifacts. In this study, we developed a multifunctional nanocomplex to enable self-activating and spatiotemporal imaging of the dynamics of mRNA sequential expression during the neural stem cell differentiation process. This nanocomplex showed improved enzymatic stability, fast recognition kinetics, and high specificity. With a mechanism regulated by endogenous cell machinery, this nanocomplex realized the successive stimulating motif release and the dynamic imaging of chronological mRNA expression during neural stem cell differentiation without the use of transgenetic manipulation. The dynamic imaging montage of mRNA expression ultimately facilitated genetic heterogeneity analysis. In vivo lateral ventricle injection of this nanocomplex enabled endogenous neural stem cell activation and labeling at their specific differentiation stages. This nanocomplex is highly amenable as an alternative tool to explore the dynamics of intricate mRNA activities in various physiological and pathological conditions.

  10. High-performance imaging of stem cells using single-photon emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagenaar, Douglas J.; Moats, Rex A.; Hartsough, Neal E.; Meier, Dirk; Hugg, James W.; Yang, Tang; Gazit, Dan; Pelled, Gadi; Patt, Bradley E.

    2011-10-01

    Radiolabeled cells have been imaged for decades in the field of autoradiography. Recent advances in detector and microelectronics technologies have enabled the new field of "digital autoradiography" which remains limited to ex vivo specimens of thin tissue slices. The 3D field-of-view (FOV) of single cell imaging can be extended to millimeters if the low energy (10-30 keV) photon emissions of radionuclides are used for single-photon nuclear imaging. This new microscope uses a coded aperture foil made of highly attenuating elements such as gold or platinum to form the image as a kind of "lens". The detectors used for single-photon emission microscopy are typically silicon detectors with a pixel pitch less than 60 μm. The goal of this work is to image radiolabeled mesenchymal stem cells in vivo in an animal model of tendon repair processes. Single-photon nuclear imaging is an attractive modality for translational medicine since the labeled cells can be imaged simultaneously with the reparative processes by using the dual-isotope imaging technique. The details our microscope's two-layer gold aperture and the operation of the energy-dispersive, pixellated silicon detector are presented along with the first demonstration of energy discrimination with a 57Co source. Cell labeling techniques have been augmented by genetic engineering with the sodium-iodide symporter, a type of reporter gene imaging method that enables in vivo uptake of free 99mTc or an iodine isotope at a time point days or weeks after the insertion of the genetically modified stem cells into the animal model. This microscopy work in animal research may expand to the imaging of reporter-enabled stem cells simultaneously with the expected biological repair process in human clinical trials of stem cell therapies.

  11. On the Progress of Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) Imaging in a Scanning Electron Microscope.

    PubMed

    Sun, Cheng; Müller, Erich; Meffert, Matthias; Gerthsen, Dagmar

    2018-04-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with low-energy electrons has been recognized as an important addition to the family of electron microscopies as it may avoid knock-on damage and increase the contrast of weakly scattering objects. Scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) are well suited for low-energy electron microscopy with maximum electron energies of 30 keV, but they are mainly used for topography imaging of bulk samples. Implementation of a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) detector and a charge-coupled-device camera for the acquisition of on-axis transmission electron diffraction (TED) patterns, in combination with recent resolution improvements, make SEMs highly interesting for structure analysis of some electron-transparent specimens which are traditionally investigated by TEM. A new aspect is correlative SEM, STEM, and TED imaging from the same specimen region in a SEM which leads to a wealth of information. Simultaneous image acquisition gives information on surface topography, inner structure including crystal defects and qualitative material contrast. Lattice-fringe resolution is obtained in bright-field STEM imaging. The benefits of correlative SEM/STEM/TED imaging in a SEM are exemplified by structure analyses from representative sample classes such as nanoparticulates and bulk materials.

  12. Application of Hyperspectral Imaging to Detect Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on Oilseed Rape Stems

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Wenwen; Zhang, Chu; Huang, Weihao

    2018-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging covering the spectral range of 384–1034 nm combined with chemometric methods was used to detect Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (SS) on oilseed rape stems by two sample sets (60 healthy and 60 infected stems for each set). Second derivative spectra and PCA loadings were used to select the optimal wavelengths. Discriminant models were built and compared to detect SS on oilseed rape stems, including partial least squares-discriminant analysis, radial basis function neural network, support vector machine and extreme learning machine. The discriminant models using full spectra and optimal wavelengths showed good performance with classification accuracies of over 80% for the calibration and prediction set. Comparing all developed models, the optimal classification accuracies of the calibration and prediction set were over 90%. The similarity of selected optimal wavelengths also indicated the feasibility of using hyperspectral imaging to detect SS on oilseed rape stems. The results indicated that hyperspectral imaging could be used as a fast, non-destructive and reliable technique to detect plant diseases on stems. PMID:29300315

  13. Fluorescence lifetime imaging of induced pluripotent stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchugonova, Aisada; Batista, Ana; König, Karsten

    2014-02-01

    The multiphoton FLIM tomograph MPTflex with its flexible scan head, articulated arm, and the tunable femtosecond laser source was employed to study cell monolayers and 3D cell clusters. FLIM was performed with 250 ps temporal resolution and submicron special resolution using time-correlated single photon counting. The autofluorescence based on NAD(P)H and flavins/flavoproteins has been measured in mouse embryonic fibroblasts, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) originated from mouse embryonic fibroblasts and non-proliferative mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

  14. Visualization and correction of automated segmentation, tracking and lineaging from 5-D stem cell image sequences.

    PubMed

    Wait, Eric; Winter, Mark; Bjornsson, Chris; Kokovay, Erzsebet; Wang, Yue; Goderie, Susan; Temple, Sally; Cohen, Andrew R

    2014-10-03

    Neural stem cells are motile and proliferative cells that undergo mitosis, dividing to produce daughter cells and ultimately generating differentiated neurons and glia. Understanding the mechanisms controlling neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation will play a key role in the emerging fields of regenerative medicine and cancer therapeutics. Stem cell studies in vitro from 2-D image data are well established. Visualizing and analyzing large three dimensional images of intact tissue is a challenging task. It becomes more difficult as the dimensionality of the image data increases to include time and additional fluorescence channels. There is a pressing need for 5-D image analysis and visualization tools to study cellular dynamics in the intact niche and to quantify the role that environmental factors play in determining cell fate. We present an application that integrates visualization and quantitative analysis of 5-D (x,y,z,t,channel) and large montage confocal fluorescence microscopy images. The image sequences show stem cells together with blood vessels, enabling quantification of the dynamic behaviors of stem cells in relation to their vascular niche, with applications in developmental and cancer biology. Our application automatically segments, tracks, and lineages the image sequence data and then allows the user to view and edit the results of automated algorithms in a stereoscopic 3-D window while simultaneously viewing the stem cell lineage tree in a 2-D window. Using the GPU to store and render the image sequence data enables a hybrid computational approach. An inference-based approach utilizing user-provided edits to automatically correct related mistakes executes interactively on the system CPU while the GPU handles 3-D visualization tasks. By exploiting commodity computer gaming hardware, we have developed an application that can be run in the laboratory to facilitate rapid iteration through biological experiments. We combine unsupervised image

  15. STEM?!?!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Jen

    2012-01-01

    The author's son has been an engineer since birth. He never asked "why" as a toddler, it was always "how's it work?" So that he wanted a STEM-based home education was no big surprise. In this article, the author considers what kind of curricula would work best for her complex kid.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of water ascent in embolized xylem vessels of grapevine stem segments

    Mingtao Wang; Melvin T. Tyree; Roderick E. Wasylishen

    2013-01-01

    Temporal and spatial information about water refilling of embolized xylem vessels and the rate of water ascent in these vessels is critical for understanding embolism repair in intact living vascular plants. High-resolution 1H magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) experiments have been performed on embolized grapevine stem segments while they were...

  17. Formulating an image matching strategy for terrestrial stem data collection using a multisensor video system

    Neil A. Clark

    2001-01-01

    A multisensor video system has been developed incorporating a CCD video camera, a 3-axis magnetometer, and a laser-rangefinding device, for the purpose of measuring individual tree stems. While preliminary results show promise, some changes are needed to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the system. Image matching is needed to improve the accuracy of length...

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Iron Oxide-Labeled Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Cardiac Progenitors.

    PubMed

    Skelton, Rhys J P; Khoja, Suhail; Almeida, Shone; Rapacchi, Stanislas; Han, Fei; Engel, James; Zhao, Peng; Hu, Peng; Stanley, Edouard G; Elefanty, Andrew G; Kwon, Murray; Elliott, David A; Ardehali, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Given the limited regenerative capacity of the heart, cellular therapy with stem cell-derived cardiac cells could be a potential treatment for patients with heart disease. However, reliable imaging techniques to longitudinally assess engraftment of the transplanted cells are scant. To address this issue, we used ferumoxytol as a labeling agent of human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiac progenitor cells (hESC-CPCs) to facilitate tracking by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a large animal model. Differentiating hESCs were exposed to ferumoxytol at different time points and varying concentrations. We determined that treatment with ferumoxytol at 300 μg/ml on day 0 of cardiac differentiation offered adequate cell viability and signal intensity for MRI detection without compromising further differentiation into definitive cardiac lineages. Labeled hESC-CPCs were transplanted by open surgical methods into the left ventricular free wall of uninjured pig hearts and imaged both ex vivo and in vivo. Comprehensive T2*-weighted images were obtained immediately after transplantation and 40 days later before termination. The localization and dispersion of labeled cells could be effectively imaged and tracked at days 0 and 40 by MRI. Thus, under the described conditions, ferumoxytol can be used as a long-term, differentiation-neutral cell-labeling agent to track transplanted hESC-CPCs in vivo using MRI. The development of a safe and reproducible in vivo imaging technique to track the fate of transplanted human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiac progenitor cells (hESC-CPCs) is a necessary step to clinical translation. An iron oxide nanoparticle (ferumoxytol)-based approach was used for cell labeling and subsequent in vivo magnetic resonance imaging monitoring of hESC-CPCs transplanted into uninjured pig hearts. The present results demonstrate the use of ferumoxytol labeling and imaging techniques in tracking the location and dispersion of cell grafts, highlighting its

  19. Ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging to monitor ocular stem cell delivery and tissue regeneration (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubelick, Kelsey; Snider, Eric; Yoon, Heechul; Ethier, C. Ross; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.

    2017-03-01

    Glaucoma is associated with dysfunction of the trabecular meshwork (TM), a fluid drainage tissue in the anterior eye. A promising treatment involves delivery of stem cells to the TM to restore tissue function. Currently histology is the gold standard for tracking stem cell delivery and differentiation. To expedite clinical translation, non-invasive longitudinal monitoring in vivo is desired. Our current research explores a technique combining ultrasound (US) and photoacoustic (PA) imaging to track mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) after intraocular injection. Adipose-derived MSCs were incubated with gold nanospheres to label cells (AuNS-MSCs) for PA imaging. Successful labeling was first verified with in vitro phantom studies. Next, MSC delivery was imaged ex vivo in porcine eyes, while intraocular pressure was hydrostatically clamped to maintain a physiological flow rate through the TM. US/PA imaging was performed before, during, and after AuNS-MSC delivery. Additionally, spectroscopic PA imaging was implemented to isolate PA signals from AuNS-MSCs. In vitro cell imaging showed AuNS-MSCs produce strong PA signals, suggesting that MSCs can be tracked using PA imaging. While the cornea, sclera, iris, and TM region can be visualized with US imaging, pigmented tissues also produce PA signals. Both modalities provide valuable anatomical landmarks for MSC localization. During delivery, PA imaging can visualize AuNS-MSC motion and location, creating a unique opportunity to guide ocular cell delivery. Lastly, distinct spectral signatures of AuNS-MSCs allow unmixing, with potential for quantitative PA imaging. In conclusion, results show proof-of-concept for monitoring MSC ocular delivery, raising opportunities for in vivo image-guided cell delivery.

  20. Images of cloning and stem cell research in editorial cartoons in the United States.

    PubMed

    Giarelli, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    Through semiotic analysis of manifest and latent meanings in editorial cartoons, the author uncovers how cloning and stem cell research are represented in a popular mass medium. She identified 86 editorial cartoons published in the United States between 2001 and 2004 that referred to cloning and 20 that referred to stem cell research. Cartoonists portrayed people individually 224 times and 4 times in groups of more than 10. Men were portrayed in 64% of cartoons. Stem cell research was depicted as having a potential positive value, and cloning was depicted negatively. Some major messages are that cloning will lead to the mass production of evil, cloning creates monsters, and politics will influence who or what will be cloned. Analyzing popular images can allow access to public understanding about genetic technology and evaluation of public beliefs, preconceptions, and expectations as the public is educated on the use and value of services.

  1. SPECT Imaging for in vivo tracking of NIS containing stem cells

    SciT

    Lee, Zhenghong

    2013-04-02

    The proposed study contains two groups of imaging experiments: 1) human mesenchymal stem cells supporting in vivo survival of unrelated donor hematopoietic stem cells; 2) gene transduction and selection of mutant MGMT genes on human hematopoietic stem cells conferring resistance to BC+BCNU. There is increasing evidence that adult human tissues harbor stem and progenitor cells that can be used for therapeutic purposes. We had focused on the Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) found in human bone marrow and investigated these cells in the context of autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation to a) facilitate rapid hematopoietic engraftment in cancer patientsmore » receiving high dose chemotherapy and b) to modulate the graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). We have demonstrated that culture-expanded autologous and allogeneic MSCs can be safely infused into humans and the preliminary results showed that MSCs facilitate hematopoietic engraftment and reduce GVHD. On the other hand, studies of gene transfer with drug resistant selection suggest major perturbations to the process of hematopoietic reconstitution and the confounding issue of organ toxicity and recovery that takes place in the host. We have found that limiting numbers of hematopoietic stem cells transduced with MGMT repopulate the bone marrow of primary and secondary recipient mice. We are also particularly interested in the dynamics of engraftment and selection in regions of bones, liver, spleen and lung, where we have previously seen marked evidence of engraftment. All the measurements have required animal sacrifice and single point determinations of engraftment in individual and cohorts of mice. Heretofore it has not been possible to study the dynamics of engraftment and enrichment. In the upcoming application, we propose to develop an imaging method to track intravenously infused stem cells in vivo at preset time points to understand their homing and proliferation. Specifically, we propose

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Ferumoxytol-Labeled Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells in the Mouse Brain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Na Kyung; Kim, Hyeong Seop; Yoo, Dongkyeom; Hwang, Jung Won; Choi, Soo Jin; Oh, Wonil; Chang, Jong Wook; Na, Duk L

    2017-02-01

    The success of stem cell therapy is highly dependent on accurate delivery of stem cells to the target site of interest. Possible ways to track the distribution of MSCs in vivo include the use of reporter genes or nanoparticles. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved ferumoxytol (Feraheme® [USA], Rienso® [UK]) as a treatment for iron deficiency anemia. Ferumoxytol is an ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (USPIO) that has recently been used to track the fate of transplanted cells using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The major objectives of this study were to demonstrate the feasibility of labeling hUCB-MSCs with ferumoxytol and to observe, through MRI, the engraftment of ferumoxytol-labeled human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) delivered via stereotactic injection into the hippocampi of a transgenic mouse model of familial Alzheimer's disease (5XFAD). Ferumoxytol had no toxic effects on the viability or stemness of hUCB-MSCs when assessed in vitro. Through MRI, hypointense signals were discernible at the site where ferumoxytol-labeled human MSCs were injected. Iron-positive areas were also observed in the engrafted hippocampi. The results from this study support the use of nanoparticle labeling to monitor transplanted MSCs in real time as a follow-up for AD stem cell therapy in the clinical field.

  3. The Protein Corona around Nanoparticles Facilitates Stem Cell Labeling for Clinical MR Imaging.

    PubMed

    Nejadnik, Hossein; Taghavi-Garmestani, Seyed-Meghdad; Madsen, Steven J; Li, Kai; Zanganeh, Saeid; Yang, Phillip; Mahmoudi, Morteza; Daldrup-Link, Heike E

    2018-03-01

    Purpose To evaluate if the formation of a protein corona around ferumoxytol nanoparticles can facilitate stem cell labeling for in vivo tracking with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Materials and Methods Ferumoxytol was incubated in media containing human serum (group 1), fetal bovine serum (group 2), StemPro medium (group 3), protamine (group 4), and protamine plus heparin (group 5). Formation of a protein corona was characterized by means of dynamic light scattering, ζ potential, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Iron uptake was evaluated with 3,3'-diaminobenzidine-Prussian blue staining, lysosomal staining, and inductively coupled plasma spectrometry. To evaluate the effect of a protein corona on stem cell labeling, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were labeled with the above formulations, implanted into pig knee specimens, and investigated with T2-weighted fast spin-echo and multiecho spin-echo sequences on a 3.0-T MR imaging unit. Data in different groups were compared by using a Kruskal-Wallis test. Results Compared with bare nanoparticles, all experimental groups showed significantly increased negative ζ values (from -37 to less than -10; P = .008). Nanoparticles in groups 1-3 showed an increased size because of the formation of a protein corona. hMSCs labeled with group 1-5 media showed significantly shortened T2 relaxation times compared with unlabeled control cells (P = .0012). hMSCs labeled with group 3 and 5 media had the highest iron uptake after cells labeled with group 1 medium. After implantation into pig knees, hMSCs labeled with group 1 medium showed significantly shorter T2 relaxation times than hMSCs labeled with group 2-5 media (P = .0022). Conclusion The protein corona around ferumoxytol nanoparticles can facilitate stem cell labeling for clinical cell tracking with MR imaging. © RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  4. Automatic Stem Cell Detection in Microscopic Whole Mouse Cryo-imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wuttisarnwattana, Patiwet; Gargesha, Madhusudhana; Hof, Wouter van’t; Cooke, Kenneth R.

    2016-01-01

    With its single cell sensitivity over volumes as large as or larger than a mouse, cryo-imaging enables imaging of stem cell biodistribution, homing, engraftment, and molecular mechanisms. We developed and evaluated a highly automated software tool to detect fluorescently labeled stem cells within very large (~200GB) cryo-imaging datasets. Cell detection steps are: preprocess, remove immaterial regions, spatially filter to create features, identify candidate pixels, classify pixels using bagging decision trees, segment cell patches, and perform 3D labeling. There are options for analysis and visualization. To train the classifier, we created synthetic images by placing realistic digital cell models onto cryo-images of control mice devoid of cells. Very good cell detection results were (precision=98.49%, recall=99.97%) for synthetic cryo-images, (precision=97.81%, recall=97.71%) for manually evaluated, actual cryo-images, and <1% false positives in control mice. An α-multiplier applied to features allows one to correct for experimental variations in cell brightness due to labeling. On dim cells (37% of standard brightness), with correction, we improved recall (49.26%→99.36%) without a significant drop in precision (99.99%→99.75%). With tail vein injection, multipotent adult progenitor cells in a graft-versus-host-disease model in the first days post injection were predominantly found in lung, liver, spleen, and bone marrow. Distribution was not simply related to blood flow. The lung contained clusters of cells while other tissues contained single cells. Our methods provided stem cell distribution anywhere in mouse with single cell sensitivity. Methods should provide a rational means of evaluating dosing, delivery methods, cell enhancements, and mechanisms for therapeutic cells. PMID:26552080

  5. Insights into the physical chemistry of materials from advances in HAADF-STEM

    DOE PAGES

    Sohlberg, Karl; Pennycook, Timothy J.; Zhou, Wu; ...

    2014-11-13

    The observation that, ‘‘New tools lead to new science’’[P. S. Weiss, ACS Nano., 2012, 6(3), 1877–1879], is perhaps nowhere more evident than in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Advances in STEM have endowed this technique with several powerful and complimentary capabilities. For example, the application of high-angle annular dark-field imaging has made possible real-space imaging at subangstrom resolution with Z-contrast (Z = atomic number). Further advances have wrought: simultaneous real-space imaging and elemental identification by using electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS); 3-dimensional (3D) mapping by depth sectioning; monitoring of surface diffusion by time-sequencing of images; reduced electron energy imaging formore » probing graphenes; etc. In this paper we review how these advances, often coupled with first-principles theory, have led to interesting and important new insights into the physical chemistry of materials. We then review in detail a few specific applications that highlight some of these STEM capabilities.« less

  6. Three-dimensional imaging of adherent cells using FIB/SEM and STEM.

    PubMed

    Villinger, Clarissa; Schauflinger, Martin; Gregorius, Heiko; Kranz, Christine; Höhn, Katharina; Nafeey, Soufi; Walther, Paul

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter we describe three different approaches for three-dimensional imaging of electron microscopic samples: serial sectioning transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) tomography, and focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM) tomography. With these methods, relatively large volumes of resin-embedded biological structures can be analyzed at resolutions of a few nm within a reasonable expenditure of time. The traditional method is serial sectioning and imaging the same area in all sections. Another method is TEM tomography that involves tilting a section in the electron beam and then reconstruction of the volume by back projection of the images. When the scanning transmission (STEM) mode is used, thicker sections (up to 1 μm) can be analyzed. The third approach presented here is focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM) tomography, in which a sample is repeatedly milled with a focused ion beam (FIB) and each newly produced block face is imaged with the scanning electron microscope (SEM). This process can be repeated ad libitum in arbitrary small increments allowing 3D analysis of relatively large volumes such as eukaryotic cells. We show that resolution of this approach is considerably improved when the secondary electron signal is used. However, the most important prerequisite for three-dimensional imaging is good specimen preparation. For all three imaging methods, cryo-fixed (high-pressure frozen) and freeze-substituted samples have been used.

  7. Long Term Non-Invasive Imaging of Embryonic Stem Cells Using Reporter Genes

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ning; Lee, Andrew; Wu, Joseph C.

    2013-01-01

    Development of non-invasive and accurate methods to track cell fate following delivery will greatly expedite transition of embryonic stem (ES) cell therapy to the clinic. Here we describe a protocol for the in vivo monitoring of stem cell survival, proliferation, and migration using reporter genes. We established stable ES cell lines constitutively expressing double fusion (DF; enhanced green fluorescent protein and firefly luciferase) or triple fusion (TF; monomeric red fluorescent protein, firefly luciferase, and herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase) reporter genes using lentiviral transduction. We used fluorescence activated cell sorting to purify these populations in vitro, bioluminescence imaging and positron emission tomography imaging to track them in vivo, and fluorescence immunostaining to confirm the results ex vivo. Unlike other methods of cell tracking such as iron particle and radionuclide labeling, reporter genes are inherited genetically and can be used to monitor cell proliferation and survival for the lifetime of transplanted cells and their progeny. PMID:19617890

  8. Multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging of metabolic status in mesenchymal stem cell during adipogenic differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meleshina, A. V.; Dudenkova, V. V.; Shirmanova, M. V.; Bystrova, A. S.; Zagaynova, E. V.

    2016-03-01

    Non-invasive imaging of cell metabolism is a valuable approach to assess the efficacy of stem cell therapy and understand the tissue development. In this study we analyzed metabolic trajectory of the mesenchymal stem cells (MCSs) during differentiation into adipocytes by measuring fluorescence lifetimes of free and bound forms of the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(P)H) and flavine adenine dinucleotide (FAD). Undifferentiated MSCs and MSCs on the 5, 12, 19, 26 days of differentiation were imaged on a Zeiss 710 microscope with fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) system B&H (Germany). Fluorescence of NAD(P)H and FAD was excited at 750 nm and 900 nm, respectively, by a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser and detected in a range 455-500 nm and 500-550 nm, correspondingly. We observed the changes in the NAD(P)H and FAD fluorescence lifetimes and their relative contributions in the differentiated adipocytes compare to undifferentiated MSCs. Increase of fluorescence lifetimes of the free and bound forms of NAD(P)H and the contribution of protein-bound NAD(P)H was registered, that can be associated with a metabolic switch from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation and/or synthesis of lipids in adipogenically differentiated MSCs. We also found that the contribution of protein-bound FAD decreased during differentiation. After carrying out appropriate biochemical measurements, the observed changes in cellular metabolism can potentially serve to monitor stem cell differentiation by FLIM.

  9. A method for quantifying limbal stem cell niches using OCT imaging.

    PubMed

    Haagdorens, Michel; Behaegel, Joséphine; Rozema, Jos; Van Gerwen, Veerle; Michiels, Sofie; Ní Dhubhghaill, Sorcha; Tassignon, Marie-José; Zakaria, Nadia

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of Fourier domain-optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) in imaging and quantifying the limbal palisades of Vogt and to correlate these images with histological findings. The superior and inferior limbal region of both eyes of 50 healthy volunteers were imaged by FD-OCT. Images were processed and analysed using Matlab software. In vitro immunofluorescent staining of a cadaveric donor limbus was analysed to correlate the presence of stem cells in the visualised structures. FD-OCT could successfully visualise limbal crypts and the palisades of Vogt in the limbus region. Fluorescent labelling confirmed the presence of stem cells in these structures. The mean palisade ridge width (Δ PR ) and the mean interpalisade epithelial rete peg width (Δ ERP ) were both of the order of 72 μm, leading to a palisade density (PD) of about 7.4 palisades/mm . A significant difference in Δ PR , Δ ERP and PD was seen between the inferior and superior sides of the right eye and the superior sides of the left and right eye(p<0.05.). A significant influence of iris colour on parameters Δ PR , Δ ERP and PD was found, and of age on PD and Δ ERP (p<0.05). In vivo OCT imaging is a safe and effective modality to image the limbus and can be used to visualise the palisades of Vogt. Image processing using Matlab software enabled quantification and density calculation of imaged limbal palisades of Vogt. This technique may enhance targeted limbal biopsies for transplantation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. In vivo imaging of endogenous neural stem cells in the adult brain

    PubMed Central

    Rueger, Maria Adele; Schroeter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of endogenous neural stem cells (eNSCs) in the adult mammalian brain with their ability to self-renew and differentiate into functional neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes has raised the hope for novel therapies of neurological diseases. Experimentally, those eNSCs can be mobilized in vivo, enhancing regeneration and accelerating functional recovery after, e.g., focal cerebral ischemia, thus constituting a most promising approach in stem cell research. In order to translate those current experimental approaches into a clinical setting in the future, non-invasive imaging methods are required to monitor eNSC activation in a longitudinal and intra-individual manner. As yet, imaging protocols to assess eNSC mobilization non-invasively in the live brain remain scarce, but considerable progress has been made in this field in recent years. This review summarizes and discusses the current imaging modalities suitable to monitor eNSCs in individual experimental animals over time, including optical imaging, magnetic resonance tomography and-spectroscopy, as well as positron emission tomography (PET). Special emphasis is put on the potential of each imaging method for a possible clinical translation, and on the specificity of the signal obtained. PET-imaging with the radiotracer 3’-deoxy-3’-[18F]fluoro-L-thymidine in particular constitutes a modality with excellent potential for clinical translation but low specificity; however, concomitant imaging of neuroinflammation is feasible and increases its specificity. The non-invasive imaging strategies presented here allow for the exploitation of novel treatment strategies based upon the regenerative potential of eNSCs, and will help to facilitate a translation into the clinical setting. PMID:25621107

  11. Effects of Epigenetic Modulation on Reporter Gene Expression: Implications for Stem Cell Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Manickam; Park, Jinha M.; Cao, Feng; Wang, Dongxu; Paulmurugan, Ramasay; Tseng, Jeffrey R.; Gonzalgo, Mark L.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.; Wu, Joseph C.

    2013-01-01

    Tracking stem cell localization, survival, differentiation, and proliferation following transplantation in living subjects is essential for understanding stem cell biology and physiology. In this study, we investigated the long-term stability of reporter gene expression in an embryonic rat cardiomyoblast cell line and the role of epigenetic modulation on reversing reporter gene silencing. Cells were stably transfected with plasmids carrying cytomegalovirus promoter driving firefly luciferase reporter gene (CMV-Fluc) and passaged repeatedly for 3–8 months. Within the highest expressor clone, the firefly luciferase activity decreased progressively from passage-1 (843±28) to passage-20 (250±10) to passage-40 (44±3) to passage-60 (3±1 RLU/µg) (P<0.05 vs. passage-1). Firefly luciferase activity was maximally rescued by treatment with 5-azacytidine (DNA methyltransferase inhibitor) compared to trichostatin A (histone deacetylase inhibitor) and retinoic acid (transcriptional activator) (P<0.05). Increasing dosages of 5-azacytidine treatment led to higher levels of firefly luciferase mRNA (RT-PCR) and protein (Western blots) and inversely lower levels of methylation in the CMV promoter (DNA nucleotide sequence). These in vitro results were extended to in vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI) of cell transplant in living animals. Cells treated with 5-azacytidine were monitored for 2 weeks compared to 1 week for untreated cells (P<0.05). These findings should have important implications for reporter gene-based imaging of stem cell transplantation. PMID:16246867

  12. MR imaging of stem cell apoptosis in arthritic joints with a caspase-activatable contrast agent

    PubMed Central

    Nejadnik, Hossein; Ye, Deju; Lenkov, Olga D.; Donig, Jessica; Martin, John E.; Castillo, Rostislav; Derugin, Nikita; Sennino, Barbara; Rao, Jianghong; Daldrup-Link, Heike E.

    2015-01-01

    About 43 million individuals in the U.S. encounter cartilage injuries due to trauma or osteoarthritis, leading to joint pain and functional disability. Matrix associated stem cell implants (MASI) represent a promising approach for repair of cartilage defects. However, limited survival of MASI creates a significant bottleneck for successful cartilage regeneration outcomes and functional reconstitution. We report a new approach for non-invasive detection of stem cell apoptosis with MR imaging, based on a caspase-3 sensitive nano-aggregation MRI probe (C-SNAM). C-SNAM self-assembles into nanoparticles after hydrolysis by caspase-3, leading to 90% amplification of 1H MR and prolonged in vivo retention. Following intra-articular injection, C-SNAM causes significant MR signal enhancement in apoptotic MASI compared to viable MASI. Our results indicate that C-SNAM functions as an imaging biomarker for stem cell apoptosis in MASI. This concept could be applied to a broad range of cell transplants and target sites. PMID:25597243

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging of stem cell apoptosis in arthritic joints with a caspase activatable contrast agent.

    PubMed

    Nejadnik, Hossein; Ye, Deju; Lenkov, Olga D; Donig, Jessica S; Martin, John E; Castillo, Rostislav; Derugin, Nikita; Sennino, Barbara; Rao, Jianghong; Daldrup-Link, Heike

    2015-02-24

    About 43 million individuals in the U.S. encounter cartilage injuries due to trauma or osteoarthritis, leading to joint pain and functional disability. Matrix-associated stem cell implants (MASI) represent a promising approach for repair of cartilage defects. However, limited survival of MASI creates a significant bottleneck for successful cartilage regeneration outcomes and functional reconstitution. We report an approach for noninvasive detection of stem cell apoptosis with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), based on a caspase-3-sensitive nanoaggregation MRI probe (C-SNAM). C-SNAM self-assembles into nanoparticles after hydrolysis by caspase-3, leading to 90% amplification of (1)H MR signal and prolonged in vivo retention. Following intra-articular injection, C-SNAM causes significant MR signal enhancement in apoptotic MASI compared to viable MASI. Our results indicate that C-SNAM functions as an imaging probe for stem cell apoptosis in MASI. This concept could be applied to a broad range of cell transplants and target sites.

  14. Quantitative Magnetic Particle Imaging Monitors the Transplantation, Biodistribution, and Clearance of Stem Cells In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Bo; von See, Marc P.; Yu, Elaine; Gunel, Beliz; Lu, Kuan; Vazin, Tandis; Schaffer, David V.; Goodwill, Patrick W.; Conolly, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Stem cell therapies have enormous potential for treating many debilitating diseases, including heart failure, stroke and traumatic brain injury. For maximal efficacy, these therapies require targeted cell delivery to specific tissues followed by successful cell engraftment. However, targeted delivery remains an open challenge. As one example, it is common for intravenous deliveries of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to become entrapped in lung microvasculature instead of the target tissue. Hence, a robust, quantitative imaging method would be essential for developing efficacious cell therapies. Here we show that Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI), a novel technique that directly images iron-oxide nanoparticle-tagged cells, can longitudinally monitor and quantify MSC administration in vivo. MPI offers near-ideal image contrast, depth penetration, and robustness; these properties make MPI both ultra-sensitive and linearly quantitative. Here, we imaged, for the first time, the dynamic trafficking of intravenous MSC administrations using MPI. Our results indicate that labeled MSC injections are immediately entrapped in lung tissue and then clear to the liver within one day, whereas standard iron oxide particle (Resovist) injections are immediately taken up by liver and spleen. Longitudinal MPI-CT imaging also indicated a clearance half-life of MSC iron oxide labels in the liver at 4.6 days. Finally, our ex vivo MPI biodistribution measurements of iron in liver, spleen, heart, and lungs after injection showed excellent agreement (R2 = 0.943) with measurements from induction coupled plasma spectrometry. These results demonstrate that MPI offers strong utility for noninvasively imaging and quantifying the systemic distribution of cell therapies and other therapeutic agents. PMID:26909106

  15. Label-free imaging of metabolism and oxidative stress in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Rupsa; Heylman, Christopher; George, Steven C.; Gratton, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    In this work we demonstrate a label-free optical imaging technique to assess metabolic status and oxidative stress in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes by two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging of endogenous fluorophores. Our results show the sensitivity of this method to detect shifts in metabolism and oxidative stress in the cardiomyocytes upon pathological stimuli of hypoxia and cardiotoxic drugs. This non-invasive imaging technique could prove beneficial for drug development and screening, especially for in vitro cardiac models created from stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes and to study the pathogenesis of cardiac diseases and therapy. PMID:27231614

  16. Photoacoustic imaging of mesenchymal stem cells in living mice via silica-coated gold nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokerst, Jesse V.; Thangaraj, Mridhula; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.

    2014-03-01

    Imaging is crucial for stem cell therapy to monitor the location(s), numbers, and state of the implanted cells. Real-time imaging in particular can ensure proper cell delivery for best engraftment. However, established imaging tools such as MRI are limited by their temporal resolution for guidance during delivery. In contrast, photoacoustic imaging is ideally suited for real time, image-guided therapy. Here, we use silica-coated gold nanorods as photoacoustic contrast agents and deploy them to image and quantitate mesenchymal stem cells during implant into the muscle tissue of live mice. Silica-coated gold nanorods (SiGNRs) were created with standard methods and loaded into mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) without transfection agents. There was no significant (p<0.05) toxicity or changes to cell proliferation after incubating MSCs with 0.05 nM SiGNRs for 3 hours. A panel of cytokines should only minor upregulation of inflammatory markers including interleukin-6. We used electron microscopy to illustrate vacuole-bound SiGNRs inside the cells. This cell staining increased photoacoustic signal 175% relative to MSCs without contrast agent—the silica coat itself increased signal 55% relative to uncoated GNRs. Using inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy, we found that there were 100,000 SiGNRs per MSC. This value was 5-fold higher than a MSC population stained with GNRs in the absence of silica coat. After labeling, cells were washed and injected into murine muscle tissue to simulate a muscular dystrophy patient. Mice (N=5) treated with these SiGNRlabeled MSCs exhibited no adverse events and implants up to 5 mm deep were easily visualized. The in vivo detection limit was 90,000 cells in a 100 uL bolus in mouse thigh muscle. Here, the B-mode signal is useful for orienting the treatment area and visualizing the delivery catheter while the photoacoustic mode offers cell-specific content. The photoacoustic signal was validated with histology a long-term fluorescent tracking

  17. Automated mitosis detection of stem cell populations in phase-contrast microscopy images.

    PubMed

    Huh, Seungil; Ker, Dai Fei Elmer; Bise, Ryoma; Chen, Mei; Kanade, Takeo

    2011-03-01

    Due to the enormous potential and impact that stem cells may have on regenerative medicine, there has been a rapidly growing interest for tools to analyze and characterize the behaviors of these cells in vitro in an automated and high throughput fashion. Among these behaviors, mitosis, or cell division, is important since stem cells proliferate and renew themselves through mitosis. However, current automated systems for measuring cell proliferation often require destructive or sacrificial methods of cell manipulation such as cell lysis or in vitro staining. In this paper, we propose an effective approach for automated mitosis detection using phase-contrast time-lapse microscopy, which is a nondestructive imaging modality, thereby allowing continuous monitoring of cells in culture. In our approach, we present a probabilistic model for event detection, which can simultaneously 1) identify spatio-temporal patch sequences that contain a mitotic event and 2) localize a birth event, defined as the time and location at which cell division is completed and two daughter cells are born. Our approach significantly outperforms previous approaches in terms of both detection accuracy and computational efficiency, when applied to multipotent C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal and C2C12 myoblastic stem cell populations.

  18. Labeling of stem cells with monocrystalline iron oxide for tracking and localization by magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Calzi, Sergio Li; Kent, David L.; Chang, Kyung-Hee; Padgett, Kyle R.; Afzal, Aqeela; Chandra, Saurav B.; Caballero, Sergio; English, Denis; Garlington, Wendy; Hiscott, Paul S.; Sheridan, Carl M.; Grant, Maria B.; Forder, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Precise localization of exogenously delivered stem cells is critical to our understanding of their reparative response. Our current inability to determine the exact location of small numbers of cells may hinder optimal development of these cells for clinical use. We describe a method using magnetic resonance imaging to track and localize small numbers of stem cells following transplantation. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) were labeled with monocrystalline iron oxide nanoparticles (MIONs) which neither adversely altered their viability nor their ability to migrate in vitro and allowed successful detection of limited numbers of these cells in muscle. MION-labeled stem cells were also injected into the vitreous cavity of mice undergoing the model of choroidal neovascularization, laser rupture of Bruch’s membrane. Migration of the MION-labeled cells from the injection site towards the laser burns was visualized by MRI. In conclusion, MION labeling of EPC provides a non-invasive means to define the location of small numbers of these cells. Localization of these cells following injection is critical to their optimization for therapy. PMID:19345699

  19. Spatiotemporal PET Imaging of Dynamic Metabolic Changes After Therapeutic Approaches of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, Neuronal Stem Cells, and a Chinese Patent Medicine in Stroke.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Song, Fahuan; Xu, Caiyun; Liu, Hao; Wang, Zefeng; Li, Jinhui; Wu, Shuang; YehuaShen; Chen, Yao; Zhu, Yunqi; Du, Ruili; Tian, Mei

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to use spatiotemporal PET imaging to investigate the dynamic metabolic changes after a combined therapeutic approach of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), neuronal stem cells (NSCs), and Chinese patent medicine in a rat model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Cerebral ischemia was established by the middle cerebral artery occlusion approach. Thirty-six male rats were randomly assigned to 1 of the 6 groups: control phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), Chinese patent medicine (Qing-kai-ling [QKL]), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), combination of iPSCs and QKL, neuronal stem cells (NSCs), and combination of NSCs and QKL. Serial (18)F-FDG small-animal PET imaging and neurofunctional tests were performed weekly. Autoradiographic imaging and immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent analyses were performed at 4 wk after stem cell transplantation. Compared with the PBS control group, significantly higher (18)F-FDG accumulations in the ipsilateral cerebral infarction were observed in 5 treatment groups from weeks 1-4. Interestingly, the most intensive (18)F-FDG accumulation was found in the NSCs + QKL group at week 1 but in the iPSCs + QKL group at week 4. The neurofunctional scores in the 5 treatment groups were significantly higher than that of the PBS group from week 3 to 4. In addition, there was a significant correlation between the PET imaging findings and neurofunctional recovery (P < 0.05) or glucose transporter-1 expression (P < 0.01). Immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence studies found that transplanted iPSCs survived and migrated to the ischemic region and expressed protein markers for cells of interest. Spatiotemporal PET imaging with (18)F-FDG demonstrated dynamic metabolic and functional recovery after iPSCs or NSCs combined with QKL in a rat model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. iPSCs or NSCs combined with Chinese medicine QKL seemed to be a better therapeutic approach than these stem cells used individually.

  20. Characterization of rapid intervascular transport of cadmium in rice stem by radioisotope imaging

    PubMed Central

    Tanoi, Keitaro

    2013-01-01

    Participation of the intervascular transport system within the rice stem during cadmium (Cd) partitioning was investigated by characterizing 109Cd behaviour in the shoot. In addition, 45Ca, 32P, and 35S partitioning patterns were analysed for comparison with that of 109Cd. Each tracer was applied to the seedling roots for 15min, and the shoots were harvested either at 15min (i.e. immediately after tracer application) or at 48h. Distribution patterns of each element at 15min were studied to identify the primary transport pathway before remobilization was initiated. 32P was preferentially transported to completely expanded leaf blades having the highest transpiration rate. The newest leaf received minimal amounts of 32P. In contrast, the amount of 35S transported to the newest leaf was similar to that transported to the other mature leaf blades. Preferential movement towards the newest leaf was evident for 109Cd and 45Ca. These results directly indicate that elemental transport is differentially regulated in the vegetative stem as early as 15min before the elements are transported to leaves. Cd behaviour in the stem was investigated in detail by obtaining serial section images from the bottom part of shoots after 109Cd was applied to a single crown root. At 30min, the maximum amount of 109Cd was distributed in the peripheral cylinder of the longitudinal vascular bundles (PV) and, interestingly, some amount of 109Cd was transported downwards along the PV. This transport manner of 109Cd provides evidence that Cd can be loaded on the phloem at the stem immediately after Cd is transported from the root. PMID:23202130

  1. A review of novel optical imaging strategies of the stroke pathology and stem cell therapy in stroke

    PubMed Central

    Aswendt, Markus; Adamczak, Joanna; Tennstaedt, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Transplanted stem cells can induce and enhance functional recovery in experimental stroke. Invasive analysis has been extensively used to provide detailed cellular and molecular characterization of the stroke pathology and engrafted stem cells. But post mortem analysis is not appropriate to reveal the time scale of the dynamic interplay between the cell graft, the ischemic lesion and the endogenous repair mechanisms. This review describes non-invasive imaging techniques which have been developed to provide complementary in vivo information. Recent advances were made in analyzing simultaneously different aspects of the cell graft (e.g., number of cells, viability state, and cell fate), the ischemic lesion (e.g., blood–brain-barrier consistency, hypoxic, and necrotic areas) and the neuronal and vascular network. We focus on optical methods, which permit simple animal preparation, repetitive experimental conditions, relatively medium-cost instrumentation and are performed under mild anesthesia, thus nearly under physiological conditions. A selection of recent examples of optical intrinsic imaging, fluorescence imaging and bioluminescence imaging to characterize the stroke pathology and engrafted stem cells are discussed. Special attention is paid to novel optimal reporter genes/probes for genetic labeling and tracking of stem cells and appropriate transgenic animal models. Requirements, advantages and limitations of these imaging platforms are critically discussed and placed into the context of other non-invasive techniques, e.g., magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography, which can be joined with optical imaging in multimodal approaches. PMID:25177269

  2. Oxygen octahedra picker: A software tool to extract quantitative information from STEM images.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Salzberger, Ute; Sigle, Wilfried; Eren Suyolcu, Y; van Aken, Peter A

    2016-09-01

    In perovskite oxide based materials and hetero-structures there are often strong correlations between oxygen octahedral distortions and functionality. Thus, atomistic understanding of the octahedral distortion, which requires accurate measurements of atomic column positions, will greatly help to engineer their properties. Here, we report the development of a software tool to extract quantitative information of the lattice and of BO6 octahedral distortions from STEM images. Center-of-mass and 2D Gaussian fitting methods are implemented to locate positions of individual atom columns. The precision of atomic column distance measurements is evaluated on both simulated and experimental images. The application of the software tool is demonstrated using practical examples. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Aberration-Corrected STEM Imaging Through Off-Site Remote Operation

    SciT

    Jarvis, Karalee; Allard Jr, Lawrence Frederick; Jerome, Timothy Y

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in aberration-corrected electron microscopy have allowed researchers to image materials at sub- ngstr m resolution. Many of these modern instruments are designed to be operated from separate 'control' rooms, removing the effect of the operator on the instrument s physical environment. This capability also allows operation from suitable workstations, over internet connections, from literally anywhere in the world [1]. Researchers at the University of Texas at Austin (UTA) have collaborated with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and JEOL Ltd. to routinely conduct research sessions in which high-resolution images and X-ray microanalytical data are acquired during after-hours research sessions,more » utilizing the JEOL 2200FS aberration-corrected STEM/TEM at ORNL from their lab in Austin. Details of the remote operation are presented here.« less

  4. Quantitative nanoscopy: Tackling sampling limitations in (S)TEM imaging of polymers and composites.

    PubMed

    Gnanasekaran, Karthikeyan; Snel, Roderick; de With, Gijsbertus; Friedrich, Heiner

    2016-01-01

    Sampling limitations in electron microscopy questions whether the analysis of a bulk material is representative, especially while analyzing hierarchical morphologies that extend over multiple length scales. We tackled this problem by automatically acquiring a large series of partially overlapping (S)TEM images with sufficient resolution, subsequently stitched together to generate a large-area map using an in-house developed acquisition toolbox (TU/e Acquisition ToolBox) and stitching module (TU/e Stitcher). In addition, we show that quantitative image analysis of the large scale maps provides representative information that can be related to the synthesis and process conditions of hierarchical materials, which moves electron microscopy analysis towards becoming a bulk characterization tool. We demonstrate the power of such an analysis by examining two different multi-phase materials that are structured over multiple length scales. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Machine Learning Approach to Automated Quality Identification of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Colony Images.

    PubMed

    Joutsijoki, Henry; Haponen, Markus; Rasku, Jyrki; Aalto-Setälä, Katriina; Juhola, Martti

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this research is on automated identification of the quality of human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) colony images. iPS cell technology is a contemporary method by which the patient's cells are reprogrammed back to stem cells and are differentiated to any cell type wanted. iPS cell technology will be used in future to patient specific drug screening, disease modeling, and tissue repairing, for instance. However, there are technical challenges before iPS cell technology can be used in practice and one of them is quality control of growing iPSC colonies which is currently done manually but is unfeasible solution in large-scale cultures. The monitoring problem returns to image analysis and classification problem. In this paper, we tackle this problem using machine learning methods such as multiclass Support Vector Machines and several baseline methods together with Scaled Invariant Feature Transformation based features. We perform over 80 test arrangements and do a thorough parameter value search. The best accuracy (62.4%) for classification was obtained by using a k-NN classifier showing improved accuracy compared to earlier studies.

  6. Susceptibility-weighted imaging of the venous networks around the brain stem.

    PubMed

    Cai, Ming; Zhang, Xiao-Fen; Qiao, Hui-Huang; Lin, Zhong-Xiao; Ren, Chuan-Gen; Li, Jian-Ce; Chen, Cheng-Chun; Zhang, Nu

    2015-02-01

    The venous network of the brainstem is complex and significant. Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) is a practical technique which is sensitive to veins, especially tiny veins. Our purpose of this study was to evaluate the visualization of the venous network of brainstem by using SWI at 3.0 T. The occurrence rate of each superficial veins of brainstem was evaluated by using SWI on a 3 T MR imaging system in 60 volunteers. The diameter of the lateral mesencephalic vein and peduncular vein were measured by SWI using the reconstructed mIP images in the sagittal view. And the outflow of the veins of brainstem were studied and described according to the reconstructed images. The median anterior pontomesencephalic vein, median anterior medullary vein, peduncular vein, right vein of the pontomesencephalic sulcus, and right lateral anterior pontomesencephalic vein were detected in all the subjects (100%). The outer diameter of peduncular vein was 1.38 ± 0.26 mm (range 0.8-1.8 mm). The lateral mesencephalic vein was found in 75% of the subjects and the mean outer diameter was 0.81 ± 0.2 mm (range 0.5-1.2 mm). The inner veins of mesencephalon were found by using SWI. The venous networks around the brain stem can be visualized by SWI clearly. This result can not only provide data for anatomical study, but also may be available for the surgical planning in the infratentorial region.

  7. Hybrid statistics-simulations based method for atom-counting from ADF STEM images.

    PubMed

    De Wael, Annelies; De Backer, Annick; Jones, Lewys; Nellist, Peter D; Van Aert, Sandra

    2017-06-01

    A hybrid statistics-simulations based method for atom-counting from annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (ADF STEM) images of monotype crystalline nanostructures is presented. Different atom-counting methods already exist for model-like systems. However, the increasing relevance of radiation damage in the study of nanostructures demands a method that allows atom-counting from low dose images with a low signal-to-noise ratio. Therefore, the hybrid method directly includes prior knowledge from image simulations into the existing statistics-based method for atom-counting, and accounts in this manner for possible discrepancies between actual and simulated experimental conditions. It is shown by means of simulations and experiments that this hybrid method outperforms the statistics-based method, especially for low electron doses and small nanoparticles. The analysis of a simulated low dose image of a small nanoparticle suggests that this method allows for far more reliable quantitative analysis of beam-sensitive materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular Imaging of Human Embryonic Stem Cells Stably Expressing Human PET Reporter Genes After Zinc Finger Nuclease-Mediated Genome Editing.

    PubMed

    Wolfs, Esther; Holvoet, Bryan; Ordovas, Laura; Breuls, Natacha; Helsen, Nicky; Schönberger, Matthias; Raitano, Susanna; Struys, Tom; Vanbilloen, Bert; Casteels, Cindy; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; Van Laere, Koen; Lambrichts, Ivo; Verfaillie, Catherine M; Deroose, Christophe M

    2017-10-01

    Molecular imaging is indispensable for determining the fate and persistence of engrafted stem cells. Standard strategies for transgene induction involve the use of viral vectors prone to silencing and insertional mutagenesis or the use of nonhuman genes. Methods: We used zinc finger nucleases to induce stable expression of human imaging reporter genes into the safe-harbor locus adeno-associated virus integration site 1 in human embryonic stem cells. Plasmids were generated carrying reporter genes for fluorescence, bioluminescence imaging, and human PET reporter genes. Results: In vitro assays confirmed their functionality, and embryonic stem cells retained differentiation capacity. Teratoma formation assays were performed, and tumors were imaged over time with PET and bioluminescence imaging. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the application of genome editing for targeted integration of human imaging reporter genes in human embryonic stem cells for long-term molecular imaging. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  9. Photothermal optical coherence tomography for depth-resolved imaging of mesenchymal stem cells via single wall carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subhash, Hrebesh M.; Connolly, Emma; Murphy, Mary; Barron, Valerie; Leahy, Martin

    2014-03-01

    The progress in stem cell research over the past decade holds promise and potential to address many unmet clinical therapeutic needs. Tracking stem cell with modern imaging modalities are critically needed for optimizing stem cell therapy, which offers insight into various underlying biological processes such as cell migration, engraftment, homing, differentiation, and functions etc. In this study we report the feasibility of photothermal optical coherence tomography (PT-OCT) to image human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) labeled with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) for in vitro cell tracking in three dimensional scaffolds. PT-OCT is a functional extension of conventional OCT with extended capability of localized detection of absorbing targets from scattering background to provide depth-resolved molecular contrast imaging. A 91 kHz line rate, spectral domain PT-OCT system at 1310nm was developed to detect the photothermal signal generated by 800nm excitation laser. In general, MSCs do not have obvious optical absorption properties and cannot be directly visualized using PT-OCT imaging. However, the optical absorption properties of hMSCs can me modified by labeling with SWNTs. Using this approach, MSC were labeled with SWNT and the cell distribution imaged in a 3D polymer scaffold using PT-OCT.

  10. Three-dimensional morphological imaging of human induced pluripotent stem cells by using low-coherence quantitative phase microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Toyohiko; Kakuno, Yumi; Goto, Kentaro; Fukami, Tadashi; Sugiyama, Norikazu; Iwai, Hidenao; Mizuguchi, Yoshinori; Yamashita, Yutaka

    2014-03-01

    There is an increasing need for non-invasive imaging techniques in the field of stem cell research. Label-free techniques are the best choice for assessment of stem cells because the cells remain intact after imaging and can be used for further studies such as differentiation induction. To develop a high-resolution label-free imaging system, we have been working on a low-coherence quantitative phase microscope (LC-QPM). LC-QPM is a Linnik-type interference microscope equipped with nanometer-resolution optical-path-length control and capable of obtaining three-dimensional volumetric images. The lateral and vertical resolutions of our system are respectively 0.5 and 0.93 μm and this performance allows capturing sub-cellular morphological features of live cells without labeling. Utilizing LC-QPM, we reported on three-dimensional imaging of membrane fluctuations, dynamics of filopodia, and motions of intracellular organelles. In this presentation, we report three-dimensional morphological imaging of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPS cells). Two groups of monolayer hiPS cell cultures were prepared so that one group was cultured in a suitable culture medium that kept the cells undifferentiated, and the other group was cultured in a medium supplemented with retinoic acid, which forces the stem cells to differentiate. The volumetric images of the 2 groups show distinctive differences, especially in surface roughness. We believe that our LC-QPM system will prove useful in assessing many other stem cell conditions.

  11. Cellular internalization of LiNbO3 nanocrystals for second harmonic imaging and the effects on stem cell differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianhua; Qiu, Jichuan; Guo, Weibo; Wang, Shu; Ma, Baojin; Mou, Xiaoning; Tanes, Michael; Jiang, Huaidong; Liu, Hong

    2016-03-01

    Second harmonic generation (SHG) nanocrystals have recently been reported to label cancer cells and other functional cell lines due to their unique double-frequency property. In this paper, we report for the first time the use of lithium niobate (LiNbO3, LN) nanocrystals as SHG labels for imaging stem cells. Rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) were labeled with LN nanocrystals in order to study the cellular internalization of the nanocrystals and the influence on stem cell differentiation. The results showed that LN nanocrystals were endocytosed by the rMSCs and the distribution of the internalized nanoparticles demonstrated a high consistency with the orientation of the actin filaments. Besides, LN-labeled rMSCs showed a concentration-dependent viability. Most importantly, rMSCs labeled with 50 μg per mL of LN nanocrystals retained their ability to differentiate into both osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. The results prove that LN nanocrystals can be used as a cytocompatible, near-infrared (NIR) light driven cell label for long-term imaging, without hindering stem cell differentiation. This work will promote the use of LN nanocrystals to broader applications like deep-tissue tracking, remote drug delivery and stem cell therapy.Second harmonic generation (SHG) nanocrystals have recently been reported to label cancer cells and other functional cell lines due to their unique double-frequency property. In this paper, we report for the first time the use of lithium niobate (LiNbO3, LN) nanocrystals as SHG labels for imaging stem cells. Rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) were labeled with LN nanocrystals in order to study the cellular internalization of the nanocrystals and the influence on stem cell differentiation. The results showed that LN nanocrystals were endocytosed by the rMSCs and the distribution of the internalized nanoparticles demonstrated a high consistency with the orientation of the actin filaments. Besides, LN-labeled rMSCs showed a concentration

  12. Preclinical Derivation and Imaging of Autologously Transplanted Canine Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Andrew S.; Xu, Dan; Plews, Jordan R.; Nguyen, Patricia K.; Nag, Divya; Lyons, Jennifer K.; Han, Leng; Hu, Shijun; Lan, Feng; Liu, Junwei; Huang, Mei; Narsinh, Kazim H.; Long, Charles T.; de Almeida, Patricia E.; Levi, Benjamin; Kooreman, Nigel; Bangs, Charles; Pacharinsak, Cholawat; Ikeno, Fumiaki; Yeung, Alan C.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.; Robbins, Robert C.; Longaker, Michael T.; Wu, Joseph C.

    2011-01-01

    Derivation of patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) opens a new avenue for future applications of regenerative medicine. However, before iPSCs can be used in a clinical setting, it is critical to validate their in vivo fate following autologous transplantation. Thus far, preclinical studies have been limited to small animals and have yet to be conducted in large animals that are physiologically more similar to humans. In this study, we report the first autologous transplantation of iPSCs in a large animal model through the generation of canine iPSCs (ciPSCs) from the canine adipose stromal cells and canine fibroblasts of adult mongrel dogs. We confirmed pluripotency of ciPSCs using the following techniques: (i) immunostaining and quantitative PCR for the presence of pluripotent and germ layer-specific markers in differentiated ciPSCs; (ii) microarray analysis that demonstrates similar gene expression profiles between ciPSCs and canine embryonic stem cells; (iii) teratoma formation assays; and (iv) karyotyping for genomic stability. Fate of ciPSCs autologously transplanted to the canine heart was tracked in vivo using clinical positron emission tomography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. To demonstrate clinical potential of ciPSCs to treat models of injury, we generated endothelial cells (ciPSC-ECs) and used these cells to treat immunodeficient murine models of myocardial infarction and hindlimb ischemia. PMID:21719696

  13. When will Low-Contrast Features be Visible in a STEM X-Ray Spectrum Image?

    PubMed

    Parish, Chad M

    2015-06-01

    When will a small or low-contrast feature, such as an embedded second-phase particle, be visible in a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) X-ray map? This work illustrates a computationally inexpensive method to simulate X-ray maps and spectrum images (SIs), based upon the equations of X-ray generation and detection. To particularize the general procedure, an example of nanostructured ferritic alloy (NFA) containing nm-sized Y2Ti2O7 embedded precipitates in ferritic stainless steel matrix is chosen. The proposed model produces physically appearing simulated SI data sets, which can either be reduced to X-ray dot maps or analyzed via multivariate statistical analysis. Comparison to NFA X-ray maps acquired using three different STEM instruments match the generated simulations quite well, despite the large number of simplifying assumptions used. A figure of merit of electron dose multiplied by X-ray collection solid angle is proposed to compare feature detectability from one data set (simulated or experimental) to another. The proposed method can scope experiments that are feasible under specific analysis conditions on a given microscope. Future applications, such as spallation proton-neutron irradiations, core-shell nanoparticles, or dopants in polycrystalline photovoltaic solar cells, are proposed.

  14. When will low-contrast features be visible in a STEM X-ray spectrum image?

    DOE PAGES

    Parish, Chad M.

    2015-04-01

    When will a small or low-contrast feature, such as an embedded second-phase particle, be visible in a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) X-ray map? This work illustrates a computationally inexpensive method to simulate X-ray maps and spectrum images (SIs), based upon the equations of X-ray generation and detection. To particularize the general procedure, an example of nanostructured ferritic alloy (NFA) containing nm-sized Y 2Ti 2O 7 embedded precipitates in ferritic stainless steel matrix is chosen. The proposed model produces physically appearing simulated SI data sets, which can either be reduced to X-ray dot maps or analyzed via multivariate statistical analysis.more » Comparison to NFA X-ray maps acquired using three different STEM instruments match the generated simulations quite well, despite the large number of simplifying assumptions used. A figure of merit of electron dose multiplied by X-ray collection solid angle is proposed to compare feature detectability from one data set (simulated or experimental) to another. The proposed method can scope experiments that are feasible under specific analysis conditions on a given microscope. As a result, future applications, such as spallation proton–neutron irradiations, core-shell nanoparticles, or dopants in polycrystalline photovoltaic solar cells, are proposed.« less

  15. Relationship between nanotopographical alignment and stem cell fate with live imaging and shape analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Peter; Galenano-Niño, Jorge Luis; Graney, Pamela; Razal, Joselito M.; Minett, Andrew I.; Ribas, João; Ovalle-Robles, Raquel; Biro, Maté; Zreiqat, Hala

    2016-12-01

    The topography of a biomaterial regulates cellular interactions and determine stem cell fate. A complete understanding of how topographical properties affect cell behavior will allow the rational design of material surfaces that elicit specified biological functions once placed in the body. To this end, we fabricate substrates with aligned or randomly organized fibrous nanostructured topographies. Culturing adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), we explore the dynamic relationship between the alignment of topography, cell shape and cell differentiation to osteogenic and myogenic lineages. We show aligned topographies differentiate cells towards a satellite cell muscle progenitor state - a distinct cell myogenic lineage responsible for postnatal growth and repair of muscle. We analyze cell shape between the different topographies, using fluorescent time-lapse imaging over 21 days. In contrast to previous work, this allows the direct measurement of cell shape at a given time rather than defining the morphology of the underlying topography and neglecting cell shape. We report quantitative metrics of the time-based morphological behaviors of cell shape in response to differing topographies. This analysis offers insights into the relationship between topography, cell shape and cell differentiation. Cells differentiating towards a myogenic fate on aligned topographies adopt a characteristic elongated shape as well as the alignment of cells.

  16. Nanomaterials in Neural-Stem-Cell-Mediated Regenerative Medicine: Imaging and Treatment of Neurological Diseases.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bingbo; Yan, Wei; Zhu, Yanjing; Yang, Weitao; Le, Wenjun; Chen, Bingdi; Zhu, Rongrong; Cheng, Liming

    2018-04-01

    Patients are increasingly being diagnosed with neuropathic diseases, but are rarely cured because of the loss of neurons in damaged tissues. This situation creates an urgent clinical need to develop alternative treatment strategies for effective repair and regeneration of injured or diseased tissues. Neural stem cells (NSCs), highly pluripotent cells with the ability of self-renewal and potential for multidirectional differentiation, provide a promising solution to meet this demand. However, some serious challenges remaining to be addressed are the regulation of implanted NSCs, tracking their fate, monitoring their interaction with and responsiveness to the tissue environment, and evaluating their treatment efficacy. Nanomaterials have been envisioned as innovative components to further empower the field of NSC-based regenerative medicine, because their unique physicochemical characteristics provide unparalleled solutions to the imaging and treatment of diseases. By building on the advantages of nanomaterials, tremendous efforts have been devoted to facilitate research into the clinical translation of NSC-based therapy. Here, recent work on emerging nanomaterials is highlighted and their performance in the imaging and treatment of neurological diseases is evaluated, comparing the strengths and weaknesses of various imaging modalities currently used. The underlying mechanisms of therapeutic efficacy are discussed, and future research directions are suggested. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Siloxane nanoprobes for labeling and dual modality imaging of neural stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Addington, Caroline P.; Cusick, Alex; Shankar, Rohini Vidya; Agarwal, Shubhangi; Stabenfeldt, Sarah E.; Kodibagkar, Vikram D.

    2015-01-01

    Cell therapy represents a promising therapeutic for a myriad of medical conditions, including cancer, traumatic brain injury, and cardiovascular disease among others. A thorough understanding of the efficacy and cellular dynamics of these therapies necessitates the ability to non-invasively track cells in vivo. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides a platform to track cells as a non-invasive modality with superior resolution and soft tissue contrast. We recently reported a new nanoprobe platform for cell labeling and imaging using fluorophore doped siloxane core nanoemulsions as dual modality (1H MRI/Fluorescence), dual-functional (oximetry/detection) nanoprobes. Here, we successfully demonstrate the labeling, dual-modality imaging, and oximetry of neural progenitor/stem cells (NPSCs) in vitro using this platform. Labeling at a concentration of 10 μl/104 cells with a 40%v/v polydimethylsiloxane core nanoemulsion, doped with rhodamine, had minimal effect on viability, no effect on migration, proliferation and differentiation of NPSCs and allowed for unambiguous visualization of labeled NPSCs by 1H MR and fluorescence and local pO2 reporting by labeled NPSCs. This new approach for cell labeling with a positive contrast 1H MR probe has the potential to improve mechanistic knowledge of current therapies, and guide the design of future cell therapies due to its clinical translatability. PMID:26597417

  18. Selective isolation and noninvasive analysis of circulating cancer stem cells through Raman imaging.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyeon-Yeol; Hossain, Md Khaled; Lee, Jin-Ho; Han, Jiyou; Lee, Hun Joo; Kim, Kyeong-Jun; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Lee, Ki-Bum; Choi, Jeong-Woo

    2018-04-15

    Circulating cancer stem cells (CCSCs), a rare circulating tumor cell (CTC) type, recently arose as a useful resource for monitoring and characterizing both cancers and their metastatic derivatives. However, due to the scarcity of CCSCs among hematologic cells in the blood and the complexity of the phenotype confirmation process, CCSC research can be extremely challenging. Hence, we report a nanoparticle-mediated Raman imaging method for CCSC characterization which profiles CCSCs based on their surface marker expression phenotypes. We have developed an integrated combinatorial Raman-Active Nanoprobe (RAN) system combined with a microfluidic chip to successfully process complete blood samples. CCSCs and CTCs were detected (90% efficiency) and classified in accordance with their respective surface marker expression via completely distinct Raman signals of RANs. Selectively isolated CCSCs (93% accuracy) were employed for both in vitro and in vivo tumor phenotyping to identify the tumorigenicity of the CCSCs. We utilized our new method to predict metastasis by screening blood samples from xenograft models, showing that upon CCSC detection, all subjects exhibited liver metastasis. Having highly efficient detection and noninvasive isolation capabilities, we have demonstrated that our RAN-based Raman imaging method will be valuable for predicting cancer metastasis and relapse via CCSC detection. Moreover, the exclusion of peak overlapping in CCSC analysis with our Raman imaging method will allow to expand the RAN families for various cancer types, therefore, increasing therapeutic efficacy by providing detailed molecular features of tumor subtypes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. In vivo imaging of transplanted hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in mouse calvarium bone marrow

    PubMed Central

    Lo Celso, Cristina; Lin, Charles P; Scadden, David T

    2011-01-01

    In vivo imaging of transplanted hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) was developed to investigate the relationship between HSPCs and components of their microenvironment in the bone marrow. In particular, it allows a direct observation of the behavior of hematopoietic cells during the first few days after transplantation, when the critical events in homing and early engraftment are occurring. By directly imaging these events in living animals, this method permits a detailed assessment of functions previously evaluated by crude assessments of cell counts (homing) or after prolonged periods (engraftment). This protocol offers a new means of investigating the role of cell-intrinsic and cell-extrinsic molecular regulators of hematopoiesis during the early stages of transplantation, and it is the first to allow the study of cell-cell interactions within the bone marrow in three dimensions and in real time. In this paper, we describe how to isolate, label and inject HSPCs, as well as how to perform calvarium intravital microscopy and analyze the resulting images. A typical experiment can be performed and analyzed in ~1 week. PMID:21212779

  20. Noninvasive Detection and Imaging of Molecular Markers in Live Cardiomyocytes Derived from Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pascut, Flavius C.; Goh, Huey T.; Welch, Nathan; Buttery, Lee D.; Denning, Chris; Notingher, Ioan

    2011-01-01

    Raman microspectroscopy (RMS) was used to detect and image molecular markers specific to cardiomyocytes (CMs) derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). This technique is noninvasive and thus can be used to discriminate individual live CMs within highly heterogeneous cell populations. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the Raman spectra was used to build a classification model for identification of individual CMs. Retrospective immunostaining imaging was used as the gold standard for phenotypic identification of each cell. We were able to discriminate CMs from other phenotypes with >97% specificity and >96% sensitivity, as calculated with the use of cross-validation algorithms (target 100% specificity). A comparison between Raman spectral images corresponding to selected Raman bands identified by the PCA model and immunostaining of the same cells allowed assignment of the Raman spectral markers. We conclude that glycogen is responsible for the discrimination of CMs, whereas myofibril proteins have a lesser contribution. This study demonstrates the potential of RMS for allowing the noninvasive phenotypic identification of hESC progeny. With further development, such label-free optical techniques may enable the separation of high-purity cell populations with mature phenotypes, and provide repeated measurements to monitor time-dependent molecular changes in live hESCs during differentiation in vitro. PMID:21190678

  1. Time-lapse microscopy and image processing for stem cell research: modeling cell migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustavsson, Tomas; Althoff, Karin; Degerman, Johan; Olsson, Torsten; Thoreson, Ann-Catrin; Thorlin, Thorleif; Eriksson, Peter

    2003-05-01

    This paper presents hardware and software procedures for automated cell tracking and migration modeling. A time-lapse microscopy system equipped with a computer controllable motorized stage was developed. The performance of this stage was improved by incorporating software algorithms for stage motion displacement compensation and auto focus. The microscope is suitable for in-vitro stem cell studies and allows for multiple cell culture image sequence acquisition. This enables comparative studies concerning rate of cell splits, average cell motion velocity, cell motion as a function of cell sample density and many more. Several cell segmentation procedures are described as well as a cell tracking algorithm. Statistical methods for describing cell migration patterns are presented. In particular, the Hidden Markov Model (HMM) was investigated. Results indicate that if the cell motion can be described as a non-stationary stochastic process, then the HMM can adequately model aspects of its dynamic behavior.

  2. Large-angle illumination STEM: Toward three-dimensional atom-by-atom imaging

    DOE PAGES

    Ishikawa, Ryo; Lupini, Andrew R.; Hinuma, Yoyo; ...

    2014-11-26

    To completely understand and control materials and their properties, it is of critical importance to determine their atomic structures in all three dimensions. Recent revolutionary advances in electron optics – the inventions of geometric and chromatic aberration correctors as well as electron source monochromators – have provided fertile ground for performing optical depth sectioning at atomic-scale dimensions. In this study we theoretically demonstrate the imaging of top/sub-surface atomic structures and identify the depth of single dopants, single vacancies and the other point defects within materials by large-angle illumination scanning transmission electron microscopy (LAI-STEM). The proposed method also allows us tomore » measure specimen properties such as thickness or three-dimensional surface morphology using observations from a single crystallographic orientation.« less

  3. Single-cell in vivo imaging of adult neural stem cells in the zebrafish telencephalon.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Joana S; Di Giaimo, Rossella; Götz, Magdalena; Ninkovic, Jovica

    2016-08-01

    Adult neural stem cells (aNSCs) in zebrafish produce mature neurons throughout their entire life span in both the intact and regenerating brain. An understanding of the behavior of aNSCs in their intact niche and during regeneration in vivo should facilitate the identification of the molecular mechanisms controlling regeneration-specific cellular events. A greater understanding of the process in regeneration-competent species may enable regeneration to be achieved in regeneration-incompetent species, including humans. Here we describe a protocol for labeling and repetitive imaging of aNSCs in vivo. We label single aNSCs, allowing nonambiguous re-identification of single cells in repetitive imaging sessions using electroporation of a red-reporter plasmid in Tg(gfap:GFP)mi2001 transgenic fish expressing GFP in aNSCs. We image using two-photon microscopy through the thinned skull of anesthetized and immobilized fish. Our protocol allows imaging every 2 d for a period of up to 1 month. This methodology allowed the visualization of aNSC behavior in vivo in their natural niche, in contrast to previously available technologies, which rely on the imaging of either dissociated cells or tissue slices. We used this protocol to follow the mode of aNSC division, fate changes and cell death in both the intact and injured zebrafish telencephalon. This experimental setup can be widely used, with minimal prior experience, to assess key factors for processes that modulate aNSC behavior. A typical experiment with data analysis takes up to 1.5 months.

  4. Brain stem/brain stem occipital bone ratio and the four-line view in nuchal translucency images of fetuses with open spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Iuculano, Ambra; Zoppi, Maria Angelica; Piras, Alessandra; Arras, Maurizio; Monni, Giovanni

    2014-09-10

    Abstract Objective: Brain stem depth/brain stem occipital bone distance (BS/BSOB ratio) and the four-line view, in images obtained for nuchal translucency (NT) screening in fetuses with open spina bifida (OSB). Methods: Single center, retrospective study based on the assessment of NT screening images of fetuses with OSB. A ratio between the BS depth and the BSOB distance was calculated (BS/BSOB ratio) and the four-line view observed, and the sensitivity for a BS/BSOB ratio superior/equal to 1, and for the lack of detection of the four-line view were calculated. Results: There were 17 cases of prenatal diagnosis OSB. In six cases, the suspicion on OSB was raised during NT screening, in six cases, the diagnosis was made before 20 weeks and in five cases during anomaly scan. The BS/BSOB ratio was superior/equal to 1 in all 17 cases, and three lines, were visualized in 15/17 images of the OSB cases, being the sensitivity 100% (95% CI, 81 to 100%) and 88% (95% CI, 65 to 96%). Conclusion: Assessment of BS/BSOB ratio and four-line view in NT images is feasible detecting affected by OSB with high sensitivity. The presence of associated anomalies or of an enlarged NT enhances the early detection.

  5. Semiautomated volumetry of the cerebrum, cerebellum-brain stem, and temporal lobe on brain magnetic resonance images.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Norio; Sanada, Shigeru; Suzuki, Masayuki; Matsuura, Yukihiro; Kawahara, Kazuhiro; Tsujii, Hideo; Yamamoto, Tomoyuki; Matsui, Osamu

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an automated method of segmenting the cerebrum, cerebellum-brain stem, and temporal lobe simultaneously on magnetic resonance (MR) images. We obtained T1-weighted MR images from 10 normal subjects and 19 patients with brain atrophy. To perform automated volumetry from MR images, we performed the following three steps: (1) segmentation of the brain region; (2) separation between the cerebrum and the cerebellum-brain stem; and (3) segmentation of the temporal lobe. Evaluation was based on the correctly recognized region (CRR) (i.e., the region recognized by both the automated and manual methods). The mean CRRs of the normal and atrophic brains were 98.2% and 97.9% for the cerebrum, 87.9% and 88.5% for the cerebellum-brain stem, and 76.9% and 85.8% for the temporal lobe, respectively. We introduce an automated volumetric method for the cerebrum, cerebellum-brain stem, and temporal lobe on brain MR images. Our method can be applied to not only the normal brain but also the atrophic brain.

  6. Tracking of Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Fluorescence Endomicroscopy Imaging in Radiotherapy-Induced Lung Injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Jessica R.; Ybarra, Norma; Chagnon, Frederic; Serban, Monica; Lee, Sangkyu; Seuntjens, Jan; Lesur, Olivier; El Naqa, Issam

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have potential for reducing inflammation and promoting organ repair. However, limitations in available techniques to track them and assess this potential for lung repair have hindered their applicability. In this work, we proposed, implemented and evaluated the use of fluorescence endomicroscopy as a novel imaging tool to track MSCs in vivo. MSCs were fluorescently labeled and injected into a rat model of radiation-induced lung injury via endotracheal (ET) or intravascular (IV) administration. Our results show that MSCs were visible in the lungs with fluorescence endomicroscopy. Moreover, we developed an automatic cell counting algorithm to quantify the number of detected cells in each condition. We observed a significantly higher number of detected cells in ET injection compared to IV and a slight increase in the mean number of detected cells in irradiated lungs compared to control, although the latter did not reach statistical significance. Fluorescence endomicroscopy imaging is a powerful new minimally invasive and translatable tool that can be used to track and quantify MSCs in the lungs and help assess their potential in organ repair.

  7. Labeling and Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Exosomes Isolated from Adipose Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Busato, Alice; Bonafede, Roberta; Bontempi, Pietro; Scambi, Ilaria; Schiaffino, Lorenzo; Benati, Donatella; Malatesta, Manuela; Sbarbati, Andrea; Marzola, Pasquina; Mariotti, Raffaella

    2017-06-19

    Adipose stem cells (ASC) represent a promising therapeutic approach for neurodegenerative diseases. Most biological effects of ASC are probably mediated by extracellular vesicles, such as exosomes, which influence the surrounding cells. Current development of exosome therapies requires efficient and noninvasive methods to localize, monitor, and track the exosomes. Among imaging methods used for this purpose, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has advantages: high spatial resolution, rapid in vivo acquisition, and radiation-free operation. To be detectable with MRI, exosomes must be labeled with MR contrast agents, such as ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (USPIO). Here, we set up an innovative approach for exosome labeling that preserves their morphology and physiological characteristics. We show that by labeling ASC with USPIO before extraction of nanovesicles, the isolated exosomes retain nanoparticles and can be visualized by MRI. The current work aims at validating this novel USPIO-based exosome labeling method by monitoring the efficiency of the labeling with MRI both in ASC and in exosomes. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  8. Multiparameter double hole contrast detail phantom: Ability to detect image displacement due to off position anode stem

    SciT

    Pauzi, Nur Farahana; Majid, Zafri Azran Abdul; Sapuan, Abdul Halim

    Contrast Detail phantom is a quality control tool to analyze the performance of imaging devices. Currently, its function is solely to evaluate the contrast detail characteristic of imaging system. It consists of drilled hole which gives effect to the penetration of x-ray beam divergence to pass through the base of each hole. This effect will lead to false appearance of image from its original location but it does not being visualized in the radiograph. In this study, a new design of Contrast Detail phantom’s hole which consists of double hole construction has been developed. It can detect the image displacementmore » which is due to off position of anode stem from its original location. The double hole differs from previous milled hole, whereby it consists of combination of different hole diameters. Small hole diameter (3 mm) is positioned on top of larger hole diameter (10 mm). The thickness of double hole acrylic blocks is 13 mm. Result revealed that Multiparameter Double Hole Contrast Detail phantom can visualize the shifted flaw image quality produced by x-ray machine due to improper position of the anode stem which is attached to rotor and stator. The effective focal spot of x-ray beam also has been shifted from the center of collimator as a result of off-position anode stem. As a conclusion, the new design of double hole Contrast Detail phantom able to measure those parameters in a well manner.« less

  9. Method for evaluation of human induced pluripotent stem cell quality using image analysis based on the biological morphology of cells.

    PubMed

    Wakui, Takashi; Matsumoto, Tsuyoshi; Matsubara, Kenta; Kawasaki, Tomoyuki; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Akutsu, Hidenori

    2017-10-01

    We propose an image analysis method for quality evaluation of human pluripotent stem cells based on biologically interpretable features. It is important to maintain the undifferentiated state of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) while culturing the cells during propagation. Cell culture experts visually select good quality cells exhibiting the morphological features characteristic of undifferentiated cells. Experts have empirically determined that these features comprise prominent and abundant nucleoli, less intercellular spacing, and fewer differentiating cellular nuclei. We quantified these features based on experts' visual inspection of phase contrast images of iPSCs and found that these features are effective for evaluating iPSC quality. We then developed an iPSC quality evaluation method using an image analysis technique. The method allowed accurate classification, equivalent to visual inspection by experts, of three iPSC cell lines.

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging tractography as a diagnostic tool in patients with spinal cord injury treated with human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Shroff, Geeta

    2017-02-01

    Introduction Spinal cord injury is a cause of severe disability and mortality. The pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods used, are unable to improve the quality of life in spinal cord injury. Spinal disorders have been treated with human embryonic stem cells. Magnetic resonance imaging and tractography were used as imaging modality to document the changes in the damaged cord, but the magnetic resonance imaging tractography was seen to be more sensitive in detecting the changes in the spinal cord. The present study was conducted to evaluate the diagnostic modality of magnetic resonance imaging tractography to determine the efficacy of human embryonic stem cells in chronic spinal cord injury. Materials and methods The study included the patients with spinal cord injury for whom magnetic resonance imaging tractography was performed before and after the therapy. Omniscan (gadodiamide) magnetic resonance imaging tractography was analyzed to assess the spinal defects and the improvement by human embryonic stem cell treatment. The patients were also scored by American Spinal Injury Association scale. Results Overall, 15 patients aged 15-44 years with clinical manifestations of spinal cord injury had magnetic resonance imaging tractography performed. The average treatment period was nine months. The majority of subjects ( n = 13) had American Spinal Injury Association score A, and two patients were at score C at the beginning of therapy. At the end of therapy, 10 patients were at score A, two patients were at score B and three patients were at score C. Improvements in patients were clearly understood through magnetic resonance imaging tractography as well as in clinical signs and symptoms. Conclusion Magnetic resonance imaging tractography can be a crucial diagnostic modality to assess the improvement in spinal cord injury patients.

  11. Characterization of tumor cells and stem cells by differential nuclear methylation imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajbakhsh, Jian; Wawrowsky, Kolja A.; Gertych, Arkadiusz; Bar-Nur, Ori; Vishnevsky, Eugene; Lindsley, Erik H.; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2008-02-01

    DNA methylation plays a key role in cellular differentiation. Aberrant global methylation patterns are associated with several cancer types, as a result of changes in long-term activation status of up to 50% of genes, including oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes, which are regulated by methylation and demethylation of promoter region CpG dinucleotides (CpG islands). Furthermore, DNA methylation also occurs in nonisland CpG sites (> 95% of the genome), present once per 80 dinucleotides on average. Nuclear DNA methylation increases during the course of cellular differentiation while cancer cells usually show a net loss in methylation. Given the large dynamic range in DNA methylation load, the methylation pattern of a cell can provide a valuable distinction as to its status during differentiation versus the disease state. By applying immunofluorescence, confocal microscopy and 3D image analysis we assessed the potential of differential nuclear distribution of methylated DNA to be utilized as a biomarker to characterize cells during development and when diseased. There are two major fields that may immediately benefit from this development: (1) the search for factors that contribute to pluripotency and cell fate in human embryonic stem cell expansion and differentiation, and (2) the characterization of tumor cells with regard to their heterogeneity in molecular composition and behavior. We performed topological analysis of the distribution of methylated CpG-sites (MeC) versus heterochromatin. This innovative approach revealed significant differences in colocalization patterns of MeC and heterochromatin-derived signals between undifferentiated and differentiated human embryonic stem cells, as well as untreated AtT20 mouse pituitary tumor cells compared to a subpopulation of these cells treated with 5-azacytidine for 48 hours.

  12. Multiplication free neural network for cancer stem cell detection in H-and-E stained liver images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawi, Diaa; Akhan, Ece; Mallah, Ma'en; Üner, Ayşegül; ćetin-Atalay, Rengül; ćetin, A. Enis

    2017-05-01

    Markers such as CD13 and CD133 have been used to identify Cancer Stem Cells (CSC) in various tissue images. It is highly likely that CSC nuclei appear as brown in CD13 stained liver tissue images. We observe that there is a high correlation between the ratio of brown to blue colored nuclei in CD13 images and the ratio between the dark blue to blue colored nuclei in H&E stained liver images. Therefore, we recommend that a pathologist observing many dark blue nuclei in an H&E stained tissue image may also order CD13 staining to estimate the CSC ratio. In this paper, we describe a computer vision method based on a neural network estimating the ratio of dark blue to blue colored nuclei in an H&E stained liver tissue image. The neural network structure is based on a multiplication free operator using only additions and sign operations. Experimental results are presented.

  13. Multi-scale imaging and informatics pipeline for in situ pluripotent stem cell analysis.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Bryan R; Lu, Junjie; Baccei, Anna; Lowry, Nathan C; Purvis, Jeremy E; Mangoubi, Rami S; Lerou, Paul H

    2014-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem (hPS) cells are a potential source of cells for medical therapy and an ideal system to study fate decisions in early development. However, hPS cells cultured in vitro exhibit a high degree of heterogeneity, presenting an obstacle to clinical translation. hPS cells grow in spatially patterned colony structures, necessitating quantitative single-cell image analysis. We offer a tool for analyzing the spatial population context of hPS cells that integrates automated fluorescent microscopy with an analysis pipeline. It enables high-throughput detection of colonies at low resolution, with single-cellular and sub-cellular analysis at high resolutions, generating seamless in situ maps of single-cellular data organized by colony. We demonstrate the tool's utility by analyzing inter- and intra-colony heterogeneity of hPS cell cycle regulation and pluripotency marker expression. We measured the heterogeneity within individual colonies by analyzing cell cycle as a function of distance. Cells loosely associated with the outside of the colony are more likely to be in G1, reflecting a less pluripotent state, while cells within the first pluripotent layer are more likely to be in G2, possibly reflecting a G2/M block. Our multi-scale analysis tool groups colony regions into density classes, and cells belonging to those classes have distinct distributions of pluripotency markers and respond differently to DNA damage induction. Lastly, we demonstrate that our pipeline can robustly handle high-content, high-resolution single molecular mRNA FISH data by using novel image processing techniques. Overall, the imaging informatics pipeline presented offers a novel approach to the analysis of hPS cells that includes not only single cell features but also colony wide, and more generally, multi-scale spatial configuration.

  14. StatSTEM: An efficient approach for accurate and precise model-based quantification of atomic resolution electron microscopy images.

    PubMed

    De Backer, A; van den Bos, K H W; Van den Broek, W; Sijbers, J; Van Aert, S

    2016-12-01

    An efficient model-based estimation algorithm is introduced to quantify the atomic column positions and intensities from atomic resolution (scanning) transmission electron microscopy ((S)TEM) images. This algorithm uses the least squares estimator on image segments containing individual columns fully accounting for overlap between neighbouring columns, enabling the analysis of a large field of view. For this algorithm, the accuracy and precision with which measurements for the atomic column positions and scattering cross-sections from annular dark field (ADF) STEM images can be estimated, has been investigated. The highest attainable precision is reached even for low dose images. Furthermore, the advantages of the model-based approach taking into account overlap between neighbouring columns are highlighted. This is done for the estimation of the distance between two neighbouring columns as a function of their distance and for the estimation of the scattering cross-section which is compared to the integrated intensity from a Voronoi cell. To provide end-users this well-established quantification method, a user friendly program, StatSTEM, is developed which is freely available under a GNU public license. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of conductive nanobiomaterials derived from viral assemblies by low-voltage STEM imaging and Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plascencia-Villa, Germán; Carreño-Fuentes, Liliana; Bahena, Daniel; José-Yacamán, Miguel; Palomares, Laura A.; Ramírez, Octavio T.

    2014-09-01

    New technologies require the development of novel nanomaterials that need to be fully characterized to achieve their potential. High-resolution low-voltage scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) has proven to be a very powerful technique in nanotechnology, but its use for the characterization of nanobiomaterials has been limited. Rotavirus VP6 self-assembles into nanotubular assemblies that possess an intrinsic affinity for Au ions. This property was exploited to produce hybrid nanobiomaterials by the in situ functionalization of recombinant VP6 nanotubes with gold nanoparticles. In this work, Raman spectroscopy and advanced analytical electron microscopy imaging with spherical aberration-corrected (Cs) STEM and nanodiffraction at low-voltage doses were employed to characterize nanobiomaterials. STEM imaging revealed the precise structure and arrangement of the protein templates, as well as the nanostructure and atomic arrangement of gold nanoparticles with high spatial sub-Angstrom resolution and avoided radiation damage. The imaging was coupled with backscattered electron imaging, ultra-high resolution scanning electron microscopy and x-ray spectroscopy. The hybrid nanobiomaterials that were obtained showed unique properties as bioelectronic conductive devices and showed enhanced Raman scattering by their precise arrangement into superlattices, displaying the utility of viral assemblies as functional integrative self-assembled nanomaterials for novel applications.

  16. Efficient creation of electron vortex beams for high resolution STEM imaging.

    PubMed

    Béché, A; Juchtmans, R; Verbeeck, J

    2017-07-01

    The recent discovery of electron vortex beams carrying quantised angular momentum in the TEM has led to an active field of research, exploring a variety of potential applications including the possibility of mapping magnetic states at the atomic scale. A prerequisite for this is the availability of atomic sized electron vortex beams at high beam current and mode purity. In this paper we present recent progress showing that by making use of the Aharonov-Bohm effect near the tip of a long single domain ferromagnetic Nickel needle, a very efficient aperture for the production of electron vortex beams can be realised. The aperture transmits more than 99% of all electrons and provides a vortex mode purity of up to 92%. Placing this aperture in the condenser plane of a state of the art Cs corrected microscope allows us to demonstrate atomic resolution HAADF STEM images with spatial resolution better than 1 Angström, in agreement with theoretical expectations and only slightly inferior to the performance of a non-vortex probe on the same instrument. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Glioblastoma stem cell differentiation into endothelial cells evidenced through live-cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Mei, Xin; Chen, Yin-Sheng; Chen, Fu-Rong; Xi, Shao-Yan; Chen, Zhong-Ping

    2017-08-01

    Glioblastoma cell-initiated vascularization is an alternative angiogenesis called vasculogenic mimicry. However, current knowledge on the mechanism of de novo vessel formation from glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) is limited. Sixty-four glioblastoma samples from patients and 10 fluorescent glioma xenograft samples were examined by immunofluorescence staining for endothelial marker (CD34 and CD31) and glial cell marker (glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP]) expression. GSCs were then isolated from human glioblastoma tissue and CD133+/Sox2+ red fluorescent protein-containing (RFP)-GSC-1 cells were established. The ability of these cells to form vascular structures was examined by live-cell imaging of 3D cultures. CD34-GFAP or CD31-GFAP coexpressing glioblastoma-derived endothelial cells (GDEC) were found in 30 of 64 (46.9%) of clinical glioblastoma samples. In those 30 samples, GDEC were found to form vessel structures in 21 (70%) samples. Among 21 samples with GDEC vessels, the CD34+ GDEC vessels and CD31+ GDEC vessels accounted for about 14.16% and 18.08% of total vessels, respectively. In the xenograft samples, CD34+ GDEC were found in 7 out of 10 mice, and 4 out of 7 mice had CD34+ GDEC vessels. CD31+ GDEC were also found in 7 mice, and 4 mice had CD31+ GDEC vessels (10 mice in total). Through live-cell imaging, we observed gradual CD34 expression when cultured with vascular endothelial growth factor in some glioma cells, and a dynamic increase in endothelial marker expression in RFP-GSC-1 in vitro was recorded. Cells expressed CD34 (9.46%) after 6 hours in culture. The results demonstrated that GSCs may differentiate into endothelial cells and promote angiogenesis in glioblastomas. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  18. Detecting and locating light atoms from high-resolution STEM images: The quest for a single optimal design.

    PubMed

    Gonnissen, J; De Backer, A; den Dekker, A J; Sijbers, J; Van Aert, S

    2016-11-01

    In the present paper, the optimal detector design is investigated for both detecting and locating light atoms from high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (HR STEM) images. The principles of detection theory are used to quantify the probability of error for the detection of light atoms from HR STEM images. To determine the optimal experiment design for locating light atoms, use is made of the so-called Cramér-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB). It is investigated if a single optimal design can be found for both the detection and location problem of light atoms. Furthermore, the incoming electron dose is optimised for both research goals and it is shown that picometre range precision is feasible for the estimation of the atom positions when using an appropriate incoming electron dose under the optimal detector settings to detect light atoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Large field of view quantitative phase imaging of induced pluripotent stem cells and optical pathlength reference materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwee, Edward; Peterson, Alexander; Stinson, Jeffrey; Halter, Michael; Yu, Liya; Majurski, Michael; Chalfoun, Joe; Bajcsy, Peter; Elliott, John

    2018-02-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are reprogrammed cells that can have heterogeneous biological potential. Quality assurance metrics of reprogrammed iPSCs will be critical to ensure reliable use in cell therapies and personalized diagnostic tests. We present a quantitative phase imaging (QPI) workflow which includes acquisition, processing, and stitching multiple adjacent image tiles across a large field of view (LFOV) of a culture vessel. Low magnification image tiles (10x) were acquired with a Phasics SID4BIO camera on a Zeiss microscope. iPSC cultures were maintained using a custom stage incubator on an automated stage. We implement an image acquisition strategy that compensates for non-flat illumination wavefronts to enable imaging of an entire well plate, including the meniscus region normally obscured in Zernike phase contrast imaging. Polynomial fitting and background mode correction was implemented to enable comparability and stitching between multiple tiles. LFOV imaging of reference materials indicated that image acquisition and processing strategies did not affect quantitative phase measurements across the LFOV. Analysis of iPSC colony images demonstrated mass doubling time was significantly different than area doubling time. These measurements were benchmarked with prototype microsphere beads and etched-glass gratings with specified spatial dimensions designed to be QPI reference materials with optical pathlength shifts suitable for cell microscopy. This QPI workflow and the use of reference materials can provide non-destructive traceable imaging method for novel iPSC heterogeneity characterization.

  20. Serial computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings of biphasic acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis localized to the brain stem and cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nyoung Keun; Lee, Byung Hoon; Hwang, Yoon Joon; Kim, Su Young; Lee, Ji Young; Joo, Mee

    2011-04-01

    Acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis (AHL) is a rare and usually fatal disease characterized by an acute onset of neurological abnormalities. We describe the case of a 37-year-old man with biphasic AHL with a focus on the rare involvement of the brain stem and cerebellum. Initial computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging revealed two hemorrhagic foci in the left middle cerebellar peduncle. After 15 days multifocal hematomas in the contralateral cerebellar hemisphere were imaged using CT. The pathological diagnosis was AHL. Following high-dose steroid treatment, the patient recovered with minor neurological sequelae.

  1. Dynamic multiphoton imaging of acellular dermal matrix scaffolds seeded with mesenchymal stem cells in diabetic wound healing.

    PubMed

    Chu, Jing; Shi, Panpan; Deng, Xiaoyuan; Jin, Ying; Liu, Hao; Chen, Maosheng; Han, Xue; Liu, Hanping

    2018-03-25

    Significantly effective therapies need to be developed for chronic nonhealing diabetic wounds. In this work, the topical transplantation of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) seeded on an acellular dermal matrix (ADM) scaffold is proposed as a novel therapeutic strategy for diabetic cutaneous wound healing. GFP-labeled MSCs were cocultured with an ADM scaffold that was decellularized from normal mouse skin. These cultures were subsequently transplanted as a whole into the full-thickness cutaneous wound site in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Wounds treated with MSC-ADM demonstrated an increased percentage of wound closure. The treatment of MSC-ADM also greatly increased angiogenesis and rapidly completed the reepithelialization of newly formed skin on diabetic mice. More importantly, multiphoton microscopy was used for the intravital and dynamic monitoring of collagen type I (Col-I) fibers synthesis via second harmonic generation imaging. The synthesis of Col-I fibers during diabetic wound healing is of great significance for revealing wound repair mechanisms. In addition, the activity of GFP-labeled MSCs during wound healing was simultaneously traced via two-photon excitation fluorescence imaging. Our research offers a novel advanced nonlinear optical imaging method for monitoring the diabetic wound healing process while the ADM and MSCs interact in situ. Schematic of dynamic imaging of ADM scaffolds seeded with mesenchymal stem cells in diabetic wound healing using multiphoton microscopy. PMT, photo-multiplier tube. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Imaging and Selective Elimination of Glioblastoma Stem Cells with Theranostic Near-Infrared-Labeled CD133-Specific Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Jing, Hua; Weidensteiner, Claudia; Reichardt, Wilfried; Gaedicke, Simone; Zhu, Xuekai; Grosu, Anca-Ligia; Kobayashi, Hisataka; Niedermann, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Near-infrared photoimmunotherapy (NIR-PIT), which employs monoclonal antibody (mAb)-phototoxic phthalocyanine dye IR700 conjugates, permits the specific, image-guided and spatiotemporally controlled elimination of tumor cells. Here, we report the highly efficient NIR-PIT of human tumor xenografts initiated from patient-derived cancer stem cells (CSCs). Using glioblastoma stem cells (GBM-SCs) expressing the prototypic CSC marker AC133/CD133, we also demonstrate here for the first time that NIR-PIT is highly effective against brain tumors. The intravenously injected theranostic AC133 mAb conjugate enabled the non-invasive detection of orthotopic gliomas by NIR fluorescence imaging, and reached AC133+ GBM-SCs at the invasive tumor front. AC133-targeted NIR-PIT induced the rapid cell death of AC133+ GBM-SCs and thereby strong shrinkage of both subcutaneous and invasively growing brain tumors. A single round of NIR-PIT extended the overall survival of mice with established orthotopic gliomas by more than a factor of two, even though the harmless NIR light was applied through the intact skull. Humanised versions of this theranostic agent may facilitate intraoperative imaging and histopathological evaluation of tumor borders and enable the highly specific and efficient eradication of CSCs.

  3. Texture Descriptors Ensembles Enable Image-Based Classification of Maturation of Human Stem Cell-Derived Retinal Pigmented Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Caetano dos Santos, Florentino Luciano; Skottman, Heli; Juuti-Uusitalo, Kati; Hyttinen, Jari

    2016-01-01

    Aims A fast, non-invasive and observer-independent method to analyze the homogeneity and maturity of human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) derived retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is warranted to assess the suitability of hPSC-RPE cells for implantation or in vitro use. The aim of this work was to develop and validate methods to create ensembles of state-of-the-art texture descriptors and to provide a robust classification tool to separate three different maturation stages of RPE cells by using phase contrast microscopy images. The same methods were also validated on a wide variety of biological image classification problems, such as histological or virus image classification. Methods For image classification we used different texture descriptors, descriptor ensembles and preprocessing techniques. Also, three new methods were tested. The first approach was an ensemble of preprocessing methods, to create an additional set of images. The second was the region-based approach, where saliency detection and wavelet decomposition divide each image in two different regions, from which features were extracted through different descriptors. The third method was an ensemble of Binarized Statistical Image Features, based on different sizes and thresholds. A Support Vector Machine (SVM) was trained for each descriptor histogram and the set of SVMs combined by sum rule. The accuracy of the computer vision tool was verified in classifying the hPSC-RPE cell maturation level. Dataset and Results The RPE dataset contains 1862 subwindows from 195 phase contrast images. The final descriptor ensemble outperformed the most recent stand-alone texture descriptors, obtaining, for the RPE dataset, an area under ROC curve (AUC) of 86.49% with the 10-fold cross validation and 91.98% with the leave-one-image-out protocol. The generality of the three proposed approaches was ascertained with 10 more biological image datasets, obtaining an average AUC greater than 97%. Conclusions Here we

  4. Self-assembled dual-modality contrast agents for non-invasive stem cell tracking via near-infrared fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Tan, Yan; Xie, Lisi; Yang, Lei; Zhao, Jing; Bai, Jingxuan; Huang, Ping; Zhan, Wugen; Wan, Qian; Zou, Chao; Han, Yali; Wang, Zhiyong

    2016-09-15

    Stem cells hold great promise for treating various diseases. However, one of the main drawbacks of stem cell therapy is the lack of non-invasive image-tracking technologies. Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging have been employed to analyse cellular and subcellular events via the assistance of contrast agents, the sensitivity and temporal resolution of MRI and the spatial resolution of NIRF are still shortcomings. In this study, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanocrystals and IR-780 dyes were co-encapsulated in stearic acid-modified polyethylenimine to form a dual-modality contrast agent with nano-size and positive charge. These resulting agents efficiently labelled stem cells and did not influence the cellular viability and differentiation. Moreover, the labelled cells showed the advantages of dual-modality imaging in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Imaging cellular pharmacokinetics of 18F-FDG and 6-NBDG uptake by inflammatory and stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zaman, Raiyan T; Tuerkcan, Silvan; Mahmoudi, Morteza; Saito, Toshinobu; Yang, Phillip C; Chin, Frederick T; McConnell, Michael V; Xing, Lei

    2018-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) causes significant loss of cardiomyocytes, myocardial tissue damage, and impairment of myocardial function. The inability of cardiomyocytes to proliferate prevents the heart from self-regeneration. The treatment for advanced heart failure following an MI is heart transplantation despite the limited availability of the organs. Thus, stem-cell-based cardiac therapies could ultimately prevent heart failure by repairing injured myocardium that reverses cardiomyocyte loss. However, stem-cell-based therapies lack understanding of the mechanisms behind a successful therapy, including difficulty tracking stem cells to provide information on cell migration, proliferation and differentiation. In this study, we have investigated the interaction between different types of stem and inflammatory cells and cell-targeted imaging molecules, 18F-FDG and 6-NBDG, to identify uptake patterns and pharmacokinetics in vitro. Macrophages (both M1 and M2), human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), and human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) were incubated with either 18F-FDG or 6-NBDG. Excess radiotracer and fluorescence were removed and a 100 μm-thin CdWO4 scintillator plate was placed on top of the cells for radioluminescence microscopy imaging of 18F-FDG uptake, while no scintillator was needed for fluorescence imaging of 6-NBDG uptake. Light produced following beta decay was imaged with a highly sensitive inverted microscope (LV200, Olympus) and an Electron Multiplying Charge-Couple Device (EM-CCD) camera. Custom-written software was developed in MATLAB for image processing. The average cellular activity of 18F-FDG in a single cell of hAMSCs (0.670±0.028 fCi/μm2, P = 0.001) was 20% and 36% higher compared to uptake in hiPSCs (0.540±0.026 fCi/μm2, P = 0.003) and macrophages (0.430±0.023 fCi/μm2, P = 0.002), respectively. hAMSCs exhibited the slowest influx (0.210 min-1) but the fastest efflux (0.327 min-1) rate compared to the other tested

  6. Development of a Monitoring Method for Nonlabeled Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Growth by Time-Lapse Image Analysis.

    PubMed

    Suga, Mika; Kii, Hiroaki; Niikura, Keiichi; Kiyota, Yasujiro; Furue, Miho K

    2015-07-01

    : Cell growth is an important criterion for determining healthy cell conditions. When somatic cells or cancer cells are dissociated into single cells for passaging, the cell numbers can be counted at each passage, providing information on cell growth as an indicator of the health conditions of these cells. In the case of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), because the cells are usually dissociated into cell clumps of ∼50-100 cells for passaging, cell counting is time-consuming. In the present study, using a time-lapse imaging system, we developed a method to determine the growth of hPSCs from nonlabeled live cell phase-contrast images without damaging these cells. Next, the hPSC colony areas and number of nuclei were determined and used to derive equations to calculate the cell number in hPSC colonies, which were assessed on time-lapse images acquired using a culture observation system. The relationships between the colony areas and nuclei numbers were linear, although the equation coefficients were dependent on the cell line used, colony size, colony morphology, and culture conditions. When the culture conditions became improper, the change in cell growth conditions could be detected by analysis of the phase-contrast images. This method provided real-time information on colony growth and cell growth rates without using treatments that can damage cells and could be useful for basic research on hPSCs and cell processing for hPSC-based therapy. This is the first study to use a noninvasive method using images to systemically determine the growth of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) without damaging or wasting cells. This method would be useful for quality control during cell culture of clinical hPSCs. ©AlphaMed Press.

  7. A comparative study of metabolic state of stem cells during osteogenic and adipogenic differentiations via fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Sandeep; Ou, Meng-Hsin; Kuo, Jean-Cheng; Chiou, Arthur

    2016-10-01

    Cellular metabolic state can serve as a biomarker to indicate the differentiation potential of stem cells into other specialized cell lineages. In this study, two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (2P-FLIM) was applied to determine the fluorescence lifetime and the amounts of the auto-fluorescent metabolic co-factor reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) to elucidate the cellular metabolism of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation processes. 2P-FLIM provides the free to protein-bound NADH ratio which can serve as the indicator of cellular metabolic state. We measured NADH fluorescence lifetime at 0, 7, and 14 days after hMSCs were induced for either osteogenesis or adipogenesis. In both cases, the average fluorescence lifetime increased significantly at day 14 (P < 0.001), while the ratio of free to protein-bound NADH ratio decreased significantly in 7- days (P < 0.001) and 14-days (P < 0.001). Thus, our results indicated a higher metabolic rate in both osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation processes when compared with undifferentiated hMSCs. This approach may be further utilized to study proliferation efficiency and differentiation potential of stem cells into other specialized cell lineages.

  8. Dual-Mode Imaging-Guided Synergistic Chemo- and Magnetohyperthermia Therapy in a Versatile Nanoplatform To Eliminate Cancer Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jinglong; Zhou, Huige; Liu, Jiaming; Liu, Jing; Li, Wanqi; Wang, Yuqing; Hu, Fan; Huo, Qing; Li, Jiayang; Liu, Ying; Chen, Chunying

    2017-07-19

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been identified as a new target for therapy in diverse cancers. Traditional therapies usually kill the bulk of cancer cells, but are often unable to effectively eliminate CSCs, which may lead to drug resistance and cancer relapse. Herein, we propose a novel strategy: fabricating multifunctional magnetic Fe 3 O 4 @PPr@HA hybrid nanoparticles and loading it with the Notch signaling pathway inhibitor N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl-l-alanyl)]-S-phenylglycinet-butylester (DAPT) to eliminate CSCs. Hyaluronic acid ligands greatly enhance the accumulation of the hybrid nanoparticles in the tumor site and in the CSCs. Both hyaluronase in the tumor microenvironment and the magnetic hyperthermia effect of the inner magnetic core can accelerate the release of DAPT. This controlled release of DAPT in the tumor site further enhances the ability of the combination of chemo- and magnetohyperthermia therapy to eliminate cancer stem cells. With the help of polypyrrole-mediated photoacoustic and Fe 3 O 4 -mediated magnetic resonance imaging, the drug release can be precisely monitored in vivo. This versatile nanoplatform enables effective elimination of the cancer stem cells and monitoring of the drugs.

  9. Fused X-ray and MR Imaging Guidance of Intrapericardial Delivery of Microencapsulated Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Immunocompetent Swine

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yingli; Azene, Nicole; Ehtiati, Tina; Flammang, Aaron; Gilson, Wesley D.; Gabrielson, Kathleen; Weiss, Clifford R.; Bulte, Jeff W. M.; Solaiyappan, Meiyappan; Johnston, Peter V.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess intrapericardial delivery of microencapsulated, xenogeneic human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) by using x-ray fused with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (x-ray/MR imaging) guidance as a potential treatment for ischemic cardiovascular disease in an immunocompetent swine model. Materials and Methods All animal experiments were approved by the institutional animal care and use committee. Stem cell microencapsulation was performed by using a modified alginate-poly-l-lysine-alginate encapsulation method to include 10% (wt/vol) barium sulfate to create barium-alginate microcapsules (BaCaps) that contained hMSCs. With x-ray/MR imaging guidance, eight female pigs (approximately 25 kg) were randomized to receive either BaCaps with hMSCs, empty BaCaps, naked hMSCs, or saline by using a percutaneous subxiphoid approach and were compared with animals that received empty BaCaps (n = 1) or BaCaps with hMSCs (n = 2) by using standard fluoroscopic delivery only. MR images and C-arm computed tomographic (CT) images were acquired before injection and 1 week after delivery. Animals were sacrificed immediately or at 1 week for histopathologic validation. Cardiac function between baseline and 1 week after delivery was evaluated by using a paired Student t test. Results hMSCs remained highly viable (94.8% ± 6) 2 days after encapsulation in vitro. With x-ray/MR imaging, successful intrapericardial access and delivery were achieved in all animals. BaCaps were visible fluoroscopically and at C-arm CT immediately and 1 week after delivery. Whereas BaCaps were free floating immediately after delivery, they consolidated into a pseudoepicardial tissue patch at 1 week, with hMSCs remaining highly viable within BaCaps; naked hMSCs were poorly retained. Follow-up imaging 1 week after x-ray/MR imaging–guided intrapericardial delivery showed no evidence of pericardial adhesion and/or effusion or adverse effect on cardiac function. In contradistinction, BaCaps delivery with x

  10. Identification of nodes and internodes of chopped biomass stems by Image analysis

    Separating the morphological components of biomass leads to better handling, more efficient processing as well as value added product generation, as these components vary in their chemical composition and can be preferentially utilized. Nodes and internodes of biomass stems have distinct chemical co...

  11. Quantitative metabolic imaging using endogenous fluorescence to detect stem cell differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Kyle P.; Sridharan, Gautham V.; Hayden, Rebecca S.; Kaplan, David L.; Lee, Kyongbum; Georgakoudi, Irene

    2013-12-01

    The non-invasive high-resolution spatial mapping of cell metabolism within tissues could provide substantial advancements in assessing the efficacy of stem cell therapy and understanding tissue development. Here, using two-photon excited fluorescence microscopy, we elucidate the relationships among endogenous cell fluorescence, cell redox state, and the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells into adipogenic and osteoblastic lineages. Using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and quantitative PCR, we evaluate the sensitivity of an optical redox ratio of FAD/(NADH + FAD) to metabolic changes associated with stem cell differentiation. Furthermore, we probe the underlying physiological mechanisms, which relate a decrease in the redox ratio to the onset of differentiation. Because traditional assessments of stem cells and engineered tissues are destructive, time consuming, and logistically intensive, the development and validation of a non-invasive, label-free approach to defining the spatiotemporal patterns of cell differentiation can offer a powerful tool for rapid, high-content characterization of cell and tissue cultures.

  12. Profile based image analysis for identification of chopped biomass stem nodes and internodes

    Because of their significant variation in chemical composition, segregation of chopped biomass into nodes and internodes helps in efficient utilization of these feedstocks. Stem internodes having low ash content are a better feedstock for bioenergy and biofuel applications than nodes. However, separ...

  13. 3D reconstruction of a tree stem using video images and pulse distances

    N. E. Clark

    2002-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how a 3D tree stem model can be reconstructed using video imagery combined with laser pulse distance measurements. Perspective projection is used to place the data collected with the portable video laser-rangefinding device into a real world coordinate system. This hybrid methodology uses a relatively small number of range measurements (compared...

  14. Graphene-supporting films and low-voltage STEM in SEM toward imaging nanobio materials without staining: Observation of insulin amyloid fibrils.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Takashi; Gang, Geun Won; Thieu, Minh Thu; Kwon, Hyuksang; Ahn, Sang Jung; Ha, Tai Hwan; Cho, Boklae

    2017-05-01

    Utilization of graphene-supporting films and low-voltage scanning transmission electron microscopy (LV-STEM) in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is shown to be an effective means of observing unstained nanobio materials. Insulin amyloid fibrils, which are implicated as a cause of type II diabetes, are formed in vitro and observed without staining at room temperature. An in-lens cold field-emission SEM, equipped with an additional homemade STEM detector, provides dark field (DF)-STEM images in the low energy range of 5-30keV, together with secondary electron (SE) images. Analysis based on Lenz's theory is used to interpret the experimental results. Graphene films, where the fibrils are deposited, reduce the background level of the STEM images compared with instances when conventional amorphous carbon films are used. Using 30keV, which is lower than that for conventional TEM (100-300keV), together with low detection angles (15-55mrad) enhances the signals from the fibrils. These factors improve image quality, which enables observation of thin fibrils with widths of 7-8nm. STEM imaging clearly reveals a twisted-ribbon structure of a fibril, and SE imaging shows an emphasized striped pattern of the fibril. The LV-STEM in SEM enables acquisition of two types of images of an identical fibril in a single instrument, which is useful for understanding the structure. This study expands the application of SEM to other systems of interest, which is beneficial to a large number of users. The method in this study can be applied to the observation of various nanobio materials and analysis of their native structures, thus contributing to research in materials and life sciences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mixture of learners for cancer stem cell detection using CD13 and H and E stained images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oǧuz, Oǧuzhan; Akbaş, Cem Emre; Mallah, Maen; Taşdemir, Kasım.; Akhan Güzelcan, Ece; Muenzenmayer, Christian; Wittenberg, Thomas; Üner, Ayşegül; Cetin, A. E.; ćetin Atalay, Rengül

    2016-03-01

    In this article, algorithms for cancer stem cell (CSC) detection in liver cancer tissue images are developed. Conventionally, a pathologist examines of cancer cell morphologies under microscope. Computer aided diagnosis systems (CAD) aims to help pathologists in this tedious and repetitive work. The first algorithm locates CSCs in CD13 stained liver tissue images. The method has also an online learning algorithm to improve the accuracy of detection. The second family of algorithms classify the cancer tissues stained with H and E which is clinically routine and cost effective than immunohistochemistry (IHC) procedure. The algorithms utilize 1D-SIFT and Eigen-analysis based feature sets as descriptors. Normal and cancerous tissues can be classified with 92.1% accuracy in H and E stained images. Classification accuracy of low and high-grade cancerous tissue images is 70.4%. Therefore, this study paves the way for diagnosing the cancerous tissue and grading the level of it using H and E stained microscopic tissue images.

  16. In vitro and in vivo imaging and tracking of intestinal organoids from human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kwang Bo; Lee, Hana; Son, Ye Seul; Lee, Ji Hye; Cho, Hyun-Soo; Lee, Mi-Ok; Oh, Jung-Hwa; Lee, Jaemin; Kim, Seokho; Jung, Cho-Rok; Kim, Janghwan; Son, Mi-Young

    2018-01-01

    Human intestinal organoids (hIOs) derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have immense potential as a source of intestines. Therefore, an efficient system is needed for visualizing the stage of intestinal differentiation and further identifying hIOs derived from hPSCs. Here, 2 fluorescent biosensors were developed based on human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) lines that stably expressed fluorescent reporters driven by intestine-specific gene promoters Krüppel-like factor 5 monomeric Cherry (KLF5 mCherry ) and intestine-specific homeobox enhanced green fluorescence protein (ISX eGFP ). Then hIOs were efficiently induced from those transgenic hiPSC lines in which mCherry- or eGFP-expressing cells, which appeared during differentiation, could be identified in intact living cells in real time. Reporter gene expression had no adverse effects on differentiation into hIOs and proliferation. Using our reporter system to screen for hIO differentiation factors, we identified DMH1 as an efficient substitute for Noggin. Transplanted hIOs under the kidney capsule were tracked with fluorescence imaging (FLI) and confirmed histologically. After orthotopic transplantation, the localization of the hIOs in the small intestine could be accurately visualized using FLI. Our study establishes a selective system for monitoring the in vitro differentiation and for tracking the in vivo localization of hIOs and contributes to further improvement of cell-based therapies and preclinical screenings in the intestinal field.-Jung, K. B., Lee, H., Son, Y. S., Lee, J. H., Cho, H.-S., Lee, M.-O., Oh, J.-H., Lee, J., Kim, S., Jung, C.-R., Kim, J., Son, M.-Y. In vitro and in vivo imaging and tracking of intestinal organoids from human induced pluripotent stem cells. © FASEB.

  17. Phosphorus detection in vitrified bacteria by cryo-STEM annular dark-field analysis.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Sharon Grayer; Rez, Peter; Elbaum, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Bacterial cells often contain dense granules. Among these, polyphosphate bodies (PPBs) store inorganic phosphate for a variety of essential functions. Identification of PPBs has until now been accomplished by analytical methods that required drying or chemically fixing the cells. These methods entail large electron doses that are incompatible with low-dose imaging of cryogenic specimens. We show here that Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) of fully hydrated, intact, vitrified bacteria provides a simple means for mapping of phosphorus-containing dense granules based on quantitative sensitivity of the electron scattering to atomic number. A coarse resolution of the scattering angles distinguishes phosphorus from the abundant lighter atoms: carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. The theoretical basis is similar to Z contrast of materials science. EDX provides a positive identification of phosphorus, but importantly, the method need not involve a more severe electron dose than that required for imaging. The approach should prove useful in general for mapping of heavy elements in cryopreserved specimens when the element identity is known from the biological context. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  18. SU-D-201-03: Imaging Cellular Pharmacokinetics of 18F-FDG in Inflammatory/Stem Cells

    SciT

    Zaman, R; Tuerkcan, S; Mahmoudi, M

    Purpose: Atherosclerosis is a progressive inflammatory condition that underlies coronary artery disease (CAD)—the leading cause of death in the USA. Thus, understating the metabolism of inflammatory cells can be a valuable tool for investigating CAD. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to successfully investigate the pharmacokinetics of [18F]fluoro-deoxyglucose (18F-FDG) uptake in a single macrophages and compared with induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with a novel imaging technique, radioluminescence microscopy, initially developed for cancer imaging. Methods: Live cells were cultured sparsely on Matrigel in a glass-bottom dish and starved for 1 hourmore » before incubation with 250 microCi of 18F-FDG for 45 minutes. Excess radiotracer was removed using DMEM medium without glucose. Before imaging, DMEM (1 mL) was added to the cell culture and a 100 microm-thin CdWO4 scintillator plate was placed on top of the cells. Light produced following beta decay was imaged with a highly sensitive inverted microscope (LV200, Olympus) fitted with a 40x/1.3 high-NA oil objective, and an EM-CCD camera. The images were collected over 18,000 frames with 4×4 binning (1200 MHz EM Gain, 300ms exposure). Custom-written software was developed in MATLAB for image processing (Figure 1). For statistical analysis 10 different region-of-interests (ROIs) were selected for each cell type. Results: Figures 2A–2B show bright-field/fusion images for all three different cell types. The relationship between cell-to-cell comparisons was found to be linear for macrophages unlike iPSCs and MSCs, which were best fitted with moving or rolling average (Figure 2C). The average observed decay of 18F-FDG in a single cell of MSCs per second (0.067) was 20% and 36% higher compared to iPSCs (0.054) and macrophages (0.043), respectively (Figure 2D). Conclusion: MSCs was found to be 2–3x more sensitive to glucose molecule despite constant parameters for

  19. High-content image informatics of the structural nuclear protein NuMA parses trajectories for stem/progenitor cell lineages and oncogenic transformation

    SciT

    Vega, Sebastián L.; Liu, Er; Arvind, Varun

    Stem and progenitor cells that exhibit significant regenerative potential and critical roles in cancer initiation and progression remain difficult to characterize. Cell fates are determined by reciprocal signaling between the cell microenvironment and the nucleus; hence parameters derived from nuclear remodeling are ideal candidates for stem/progenitor cell characterization. Here we applied high-content, single cell analysis of nuclear shape and organization to examine stem and progenitor cells destined to distinct differentiation endpoints, yet undistinguishable by conventional methods. Nuclear descriptors defined through image informatics classified mesenchymal stem cells poised to either adipogenic or osteogenic differentiation, and oligodendrocyte precursors isolated from different regionsmore » of the brain and destined to distinct astrocyte subtypes. Nuclear descriptors also revealed early changes in stem cells after chemical oncogenesis, allowing the identification of a class of cancer-mitigating biomaterials. To capture the metrology of nuclear changes, we developed a simple and quantitative “imaging-derived” parsing index, which reflects the dynamic evolution of the high-dimensional space of nuclear organizational features. A comparative analysis of parsing outcomes via either nuclear shape or textural metrics of the nuclear structural protein NuMA indicates the nuclear shape alone is a weak phenotypic predictor. In contrast, variations in the NuMA organization parsed emergent cell phenotypes and discerned emergent stages of stem cell transformation, supporting a prognosticating role for this protein in the outcomes of nuclear functions. - Highlights: • High-content analysis of nuclear shape and organization classify stem and progenitor cells poised for distinct lineages. • Early oncogenic changes in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are also detected with nuclear descriptors. • A new class of cancer-mitigating biomaterials was identified based on

  20. Coregistration of Magnetic Resonance and Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography Images for Noninvasive Localization of Stem Cells Grafted in the Infarcted Rat Myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Dinggang; Liu, Dengfeng; Cao, Zixiong; Acton, Paul D.; Zhou, Rong

    2008-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the application of mutual information based coregistration of radionuclide and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in an effort to use multimodality imaging for noninvasive localization of stem cells grafted in the infarcted myocardium in rats. Radionuclide imaging such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or positron emission tomography (PET) inherently has high sensitivity and is suitable for tracking of labeled stem cells, while high-resolution MRI is able to provide detailed anatomical and functional information of myocardium. Thus, coregistration of PET or SPECT images with MRI will map the location and distribution of stem cells on detailed myocardium structures. To validate this coregistration method, SPECT data were simulated by using a Monte Carlo-based projector that modeled the pinhole-imaging physics assuming nonzero diameter and photon penetration at the edge. Translational and rotational errors of the coregistration were examined with respect to various SPECT activities, and they are on average about 0.50 mm and 0.82°, respectively. Only the rotational error is dependent on activity of SPECT data. Stem cells were labeled with 111 Indium oxyquinoline and grafted in the ischemic myocardium of a rat model. Dual-tracer small-animal SPECT images were acquired, which allowed simultaneous detection of 111In-labeled stem cells and of [99mTc]sestamibi to assess myocardial perfusion deficit. The same animals were subjected to cardiac MRI. A mutual-information-based coregistration method was then applied to the SPECT and MRIs. By coregistration, the 111 In signal from labeled cells was mapped into the akinetic region identified on cine MRIs; the regional perfusion deficit on the SPECT images also coincided with the akinetic region on the MR image. PMID:17053860

  1. Human induced pluripotent stem cells labeled with fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles for targeted imaging and hyperthermia therapy for gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Ruan, Jing; Yang, Meng; Pan, Fei; Gao, Guo; Qu, Su; Shen, You-Lan; Dang, Yong-Jun; Wang, Kan; Jin, Wei-Lin; Cui, Da-Xiang

    2015-09-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells exhibit great potential for generating functional human cells for medical therapies. In this paper, we report for use of human iPS cells labeled with fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles (FMNPs) for targeted imaging and synergistic therapy of gastric cancer cells in vivo. Human iPS cells were prepared and cultured for 72 h. The culture medium was collected, and then was co-incubated with MGC803 cells. Cell viability was analyzed by the MTT method. FMNP-labeled human iPS cells were prepared and injected into gastric cancer-bearing nude mice. The mouse model was observed using a small-animal imaging system. The nude mice were irradiated under an external alternating magnetic field and evaluated using an infrared thermal mapping instrument. Tumor sizes were measured weekly. iPS cells and the collected culture medium inhibited the growth of MGC803 cells. FMNP-labeled human iPS cells targeted and imaged gastric cancer cells in vivo, as well as inhibited cancer growth in vivo through the external magnetic field. FMNP-labeled human iPS cells exhibit considerable potential in applications such as targeted dual-mode imaging and synergistic therapy for early gastric cancer.

  2. Non-invasive in vivo molecular imaging of intra-articularly transplanted immortalized bone marrow stem cells for osteoarthritis treatment.

    PubMed

    Peng, Bou-Yue; Chiou, Chi-Sheng; Dubey, Navneet Kumar; Yu, Sung-Hsun; Deng, Yue-Hua; Tsai, Feng-Chou; Chiang, Han-Sun; Shieh, Ying-Hua; Chen, Wei-Hong; Deng, Win-Ping

    2017-11-14

    Pathophysiology of osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by progressive loss of articular cartilage in the knee-joints. To impart regenerative ability in lowly metabolizing chondrocytes, the bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) has recently been recognized as a superior alternative treatment for OA. However, study of primary BMSCs-mediated chondrogenesis is difficult due to progressive cellular aging and replicative senescence. To obtain a therapeutic cell population for OA, BMSCs were immortalized by human papilloma virus (HPV)-16 E6/E7 along with mCherry luciferase (mCL), a gene marker for non-invasive imaging, and designated as iBMSCs-mCL. Next, their cell morphology, population doubling time (PDT) and colony forming ability (CFU) were evaluated. Furthermore, pluripotency and immunophenotypic markers were investigated. To deduce therapeutic ability, iBMSCs-mCL were intra-articularly injected into right knee of anterior cruciate ligament transaction (ACLT)-OA mice model and tracked through non-invasive bioluminescence imaging. Cell morphology of iBMSCs-mCL was similar to parental BMSCs. PDT and CFU ability of iBMSCs-mCLs were significantly increased. Pluripotency and immunophenotypic markers were highly expressed in iBMSC-mCL. Long-term survival and tri-lineage differentiation particularly chondrogenic potential of iBMSCs-mCL were also demonstrated in vitro and then in vivo which was monitored through non-invasive imaging. Intensive bioluminescent signals in iBMSCs-mCL administered knee-joint indicated a marked in vivo survival and proliferation of iBMSCs-mCL. Immunohistochemical staining for type II collagen (IHC of Col II) and alcian blue & safranin o staining of proteoglycans also corroborated cartilage regeneration by iBMSCs-mCL. Conclusively, iBMSCs-mCL maintains stemness and in vivo cartilage regeneration potential suggesting a promising avenue for development of OA therapeutics.

  3. High-content image informatics of the structural nuclear protein NuMA parses trajectories for stem/progenitor cell lineages and oncogenic transformation.

    PubMed

    Vega, Sebastián L; Liu, Er; Arvind, Varun; Bushman, Jared; Sung, Hak-Joon; Becker, Matthew L; Lelièvre, Sophie; Kohn, Joachim; Vidi, Pierre-Alexandre; Moghe, Prabhas V

    2017-02-01

    Stem and progenitor cells that exhibit significant regenerative potential and critical roles in cancer initiation and progression remain difficult to characterize. Cell fates are determined by reciprocal signaling between the cell microenvironment and the nucleus; hence parameters derived from nuclear remodeling are ideal candidates for stem/progenitor cell characterization. Here we applied high-content, single cell analysis of nuclear shape and organization to examine stem and progenitor cells destined to distinct differentiation endpoints, yet undistinguishable by conventional methods. Nuclear descriptors defined through image informatics classified mesenchymal stem cells poised to either adipogenic or osteogenic differentiation, and oligodendrocyte precursors isolated from different regions of the brain and destined to distinct astrocyte subtypes. Nuclear descriptors also revealed early changes in stem cells after chemical oncogenesis, allowing the identification of a class of cancer-mitigating biomaterials. To capture the metrology of nuclear changes, we developed a simple and quantitative "imaging-derived" parsing index, which reflects the dynamic evolution of the high-dimensional space of nuclear organizational features. A comparative analysis of parsing outcomes via either nuclear shape or textural metrics of the nuclear structural protein NuMA indicates the nuclear shape alone is a weak phenotypic predictor. In contrast, variations in the NuMA organization parsed emergent cell phenotypes and discerned emergent stages of stem cell transformation, supporting a prognosticating role for this protein in the outcomes of nuclear functions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. An inexpensive approach for bright-field and dark-field imaging by scanning transmission electron microscopy in scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Patel, Binay; Watanabe, Masashi

    2014-02-01

    Scanning transmission electron microscopy in scanning electron microscopy (STEM-in-SEM) is a convenient technique for soft materials characterization. Various specimen-holder geometries and detector arrangements have been used for bright-field (BF) STEM-in-SEM imaging. In this study, to further the characterization potential of STEM-IN-SEM, a new specimen holder has been developed to facilitate direct detection of BF signals and indirect detection of dark-field (DF) signals without the need for substantial instrument modification. DF imaging is conducted with the use of a gold (Au)-coated copper (Cu) plate attached to the specimen holder which directs highly scattered transmitted electrons to an off-axis yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG) detector. A hole in the copper plate allows for BF imaging with a transmission electron (TE) detector. The inclusion of an Au-coated Cu plate enhanced DF signal intensity. Experiments validating the acquisition of true DF signals revealed that atomic number (Z) contrast may be achieved for materials with large lattice spacing. However, materials with small lattice spacing still exhibit diffraction contrast effects in this approach. The calculated theoretical fine probe size is 1.8 nm. At 30 kV, in this indirect approach, DF spatial resolution is limited to 3.2 nm as confirmed experimentally.

  5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Tracking of Ferumoxytol-Labeled Human Neural Stem Cells: Studies Leading to Clinical Use

    PubMed Central

    Gutova, Margarita; Frank, Joseph A.; D'Apuzzo, Massimo; Khankaldyyan, Vazgen; Gilchrist, Megan M.; Annala, Alexander J.; Metz, Marianne Z.; Abramyants, Yelena; Herrmann, Kelsey A.; Ghoda, Lucy Y.; Najbauer, Joseph; Brown, Christine E.; Blanchard, M. Suzette; Lesniak, Maciej S.; Kim, Seung U.; Barish, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous stem cell-based therapies are currently under clinical investigation, including the use of neural stem cells (NSCs) as delivery vehicles to target therapeutic agents to invasive brain tumors. The ability to monitor the time course, migration, and distribution of stem cells following transplantation into patients would provide critical information for optimizing treatment regimens. No effective cell-tracking methodology has yet garnered clinical acceptance. A highly promising noninvasive method for monitoring NSCs and potentially other cell types in vivo involves preloading them with ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (USPIOs) to enable cell tracking using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We report here the preclinical studies that led to U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval for first-in-human investigational use of ferumoxytol to label NSCs prior to transplantation into brain tumor patients, followed by surveillance serial MRI. A combination of heparin, protamine sulfate, and ferumoxytol (HPF) was used to label the NSCs. HPF labeling did not affect cell viability, growth kinetics, or tumor tropism in vitro, and it enabled MRI visualization of NSC distribution within orthotopic glioma xenografts. MRI revealed dynamic in vivo NSC distribution at multiple time points following intracerebral or intravenous injection into glioma-bearing mice that correlated with histological analysis. Preclinical safety/toxicity studies of intracerebrally administered HPF-labeled NSCs in mice were also performed, and they showed no significant clinical or behavioral changes, no neuronal or systemic toxicities, and no abnormal accumulation of iron in the liver or spleen. These studies support the clinical use of ferumoxytol labeling of cells for post-transplant MRI visualization and tracking. PMID:24014682

  6. Behaviour of adipose-derived canine mesenchymal stem cells after superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles labelling for magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Kolecka, Malgorzata Anna; Arnhold, Stefan; Schmidt, Martin; Reich, Christine; Kramer, Martin; Failing, Klaus; von Pückler, Kerstin

    2017-02-24

    Therapy with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been reported to provide beneficial effects in the treatment of neurological and orthopaedic disorders in dogs. The exact mechanism of action is poorly understood. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gives the opportunity to observe MSCs after clinical administration. To visualise MSCs with the help of MRI, labelling with an MRI contrast agent is necessary. However, it must be clarified whether there is any negative influence on cell function and viability after labelling prior to clinical administration. For the purpose of the study, seven samples with canine adipose-derived stem cells were incubated with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO: 319.2 μg/mL Fe) for 24 h. The internalisation of the iron particles occurred via endocytosis. SPIO particles were localized as free clusters in the cytoplasm or within lysosomes depending on the time of investigation. The efficiency of the labelling was investigated using Prussian blue staining and MACS assay. After 3 weeks the percentage of SPIO labelled canine stem cells decreased. Phalloidin staining showed no negative effect on the cytoskeleton. Labelled cells underwent osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation. Chondrogenic differentiation occurred to a lesser extent compared with a control sample. MTT-Test and wound healing assay showed no influence of labelling on the proliferation. The duration of SPIO labelling was assessed using a 1 Tesla clinical MRI scanner and T2 weighted turbo spin echo and T2 weighted gradient echo MRI sequences 1, 2 and 3 weeks after labelling. The hypointensity caused by SPIO lasted for 3 weeks in both sequences. An Endorem labelling concentration of 319.2 μg/mL Fe (448 μg/mL SPIO) had no adverse effects on the viability of canine ASCs. Therefore, this contrast agent could be used as a model for iron oxide labelling agents. However, the tracking ability in vivo has to be evaluated in further studies.

  7. Comparison of Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Serum Biomarkers for Detection of Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Teratomas.

    PubMed

    Riegler, Johannes; Ebert, Antje; Qin, Xulei; Shen, Qi; Wang, Mouer; Ameen, Mohamed; Kodo, Kazuki; Ong, Sang-Ging; Lee, Won Hee; Lee, Grace; Neofytou, Evgenios; Gold, Joseph D; Connolly, Andrew J; Wu, Joseph C

    2016-02-09

    The use of cells derived from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) for regenerative therapies confers a considerable risk for neoplastic growth and teratoma formation. Preclinical and clinical assessment of such therapies will require suitable monitoring strategies to understand and mitigate these risks. Here we generated human-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), selected clones that continued to express reprogramming factors after differentiation into cardiomyocytes, and transplanted these cardiomyocytes into immunocompromised rat hearts post-myocardial infarction. We compared magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), cardiac ultrasound, and serum biomarkers for their ability to delineate teratoma formation and growth. MRI enabled the detection of teratomas with a volume >8 mm(3). A combination of three plasma biomarkers (CEA, AFP, and HCG) was able to detect teratomas with a volume >17 mm(3) and with a sensitivity of more than 87%. Based on our findings, a combination of serum biomarkers with MRI screening may offer the highest sensitivity for teratoma detection and tracking. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Hypertensive brain stem encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Liao, Pen-Yuan; Lee, Chien-Chang; Chen, Cheng-Yu

    2015-01-01

    A 48-year-old man presented with headache and extreme hypertension. Computed tomography showed diffuse brain stem hypodensity. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed diffuse brain stem vasogenic edema. Hypertensive brain stem encephalopathy is an uncommon manifestation of hypertensive encephalopathy, which classically occurs at parietooccipital white matter. Because of its atypical location, the diagnosis can be challenging. Moreover, the coexistence of hypertension and brain stem edema could also direct clinicians toward a diagnosis of ischemic infarction, leading to a completely contradictory treatment goal.

  9. Lesson Imaging in Math and Science: Anticipating Student Ideas and Questions for Deeper STEM Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephan, Michelle; Pugalee, David; Cline, Julie; Cline, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Help turn students into problem solvers. With lesson imaging, teachers anticipate how chosen activities will unfold in real time--what solutions, questions, and misconceptions students might have and how teachers can promote deeper reasoning. When lesson imaging occurs before instruction, students achieve lesson objectives more naturally and…

  10. Efficient phase contrast imaging in STEM using a pixelated detector. Part 1: Experimental demonstration at atomic resolution

    DOE PAGES

    Pennycook, Timothy J.; Lupini, Andrew R.; Yang, Hao; ...

    2014-10-15

    In this paper, we demonstrate a method to achieve high efficiency phase contrast imaging in aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) with a pixelated detector. The pixelated detector is used to record the Ronchigram as a function of probe position which is then analyzed with ptychography. Ptychography has previously been used to provide super-resolution beyond the diffraction limit of the optics, alongside numerically correcting for spherical aberration. Here we rely on a hardware aberration corrector to eliminate aberrations, but use the pixelated detector data set to utilize the largest possible volume of Fourier space to create high efficiency phasemore » contrast images. The use of ptychography to diagnose the effects of chromatic aberration is also demonstrated. In conclusion, the four dimensional dataset is used to compare different bright field detector configurations from the same scan for a sample of bilayer graphene. Our method of high efficiency ptychography produces the clearest images, while annular bright field produces almost no contrast for an in-focus aberration-corrected probe.« less

  11. Monitoring the RNA distribution in human embryonic stem cells using Raman micro-spectroscopy and fluorescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falamas, A.; Kalra, S.; Chis, V.; Notingher, I.

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor the intracellular distribution of nucleic acids in human embryonic stem cells. Raman micro-spectroscopy and fluorescence imaging investigations were employed to obtain high-spatial resolution maps of nucleic acids. The DNA Raman signal was identified based on the 782 cm-1 band, while the RNA characteristic signal was detected based on the 813 cm-1 fingerprint band assigned to O-P-O symmetric stretching vibrations. Additionally, principal components analysis was performed and nucleic acids characteristic Raman signals were identified in the data set, which were plotted at each position in the cells. In this manner, high intensity RNA signal was identified in the cells nucleolus and cytoplasm, while the nucleus presented a much lower signal.

  12. Embryonic stem cell grafting in normal and infarcted myocardium: serial assessment with MR imaging and PET dual detection.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Hui; Zhang, Hualei; Zheng, Yuanjie; Ponde, Datta E; Shen, Dinggang; Gao, Fabao; Bakken, Ashley B; Schmitz, Alexander; Kung, Hank F; Ferrari, Victor A; Zhou, Rong

    2009-03-01

    To use magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and positron emission tomography (PET) dual detection of cardiac-grafted embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to examine (a) survival and proliferation of ESCs in normal and infarcted myocardium, (b) host macrophage versus grafted ESC contribution to serial MR imaging signal over time, and (c) cardiac function associated with the formation of grafts and whether improvement in cardiac function is related to cardiac differentiation of ESCs. All animal procedures were approved by the institutional animal care and use committee. Murine ESCs were stably transfected with a mutant version of herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase, HSV1-sr39tk, and also were labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particles. Cells were injected directly in the border zone of the infarcted heart or in corresponding regions of normal hearts in athymic rats. PET and MR imaging were performed longitudinally for 4 weeks in the same animals. ESCs survived and underwent proliferation in the infarcted and normal hearts, as demonstrated by serial increases in 9-(4-[(18)F]fluoro-3-hydroxymethylbutyl) guanine PET signals. In parallel, the hypointense areas on MR images at the injection sites decreased over time. Double staining for host macrophages and SPIO particles revealed that the majority of SPIO-containing cells were macrophages at week 4 after injection. Left ventricular ejection fraction increased in the ESC-treated rats but decreased in culture media-treated rats, and border-zone function was preserved in ESC-treated animals; however, cardiac differentiation of ESCs was less than 0.5%. Dual-modality imaging permits complementary information in regard to cell survival and proliferation, graft formation, and effects on cardiac function. http://radiology.rsnajnls.org/cgi/content/full/250/3/821/DC1. RSNA, 2009

  13. Multimodal Imaging for In Vivo Evaluation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells in a Murine Model of Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Sebastian V; Meier, Martin; Zweigerdt, Robert; Eckardt, Dominik; Rathert, Christian; Schecker, Natalie; Schmitto, Jan D; Rojas-Hernandez, Sara; Martin, Ulrich; Kutschka, Ingo; Haverich, Axel; Martens, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    Myocardial stem cell therapy in heart failure is strongly dependent on successful cellular transfer, engraftment, and survival. Moreover, massive cell loss directly after intramyocardial injection is commonly observed, generating the need for efficient longitudinal monitoring of transplanted cells in order to develop more efficient transplantation techniques. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess viability and cardiac retention of induced pluripotent stem cells after intramyocardial delivery using in vivo bioluminescence analysis (BLI) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Murine induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were transfected for luciferase reporter gene expression and labeled intracellularly with supraparamagnetic iron oxide particles. Consequently, 5 × 10 5 cells were transplanted intramyocardially following left anterior descending coronary artery ligation in mice. Cardiac iPSCs were detected using BLI and serial T2* sequences by MRI in a 14-day follow-up. Additionally, infarct extension and left ventricular (LV) function were assessed by MRI. Controls received the same surgical procedure without cell injection. MRI sequences showed a strong MRI signal of labeled iPSCs correlating with myocardial late enhancement, demonstrating engraftment in the infarcted area. Mean iPSC volumes were 4.2 ± 0.4 mm 3 at Day 0; 3.1 ± 0.4 mm 3 at Day 7; and 5.1 ± 0.8 mm 3 after 2 weeks. Thoracic BLI radiance decreased directly after injection from 1.0 × 10 6  ± 4.2 × 10 4 (p/s/cm 2 /sr) to 1.0 × 10 5  ± 4.9 × 10 3 (p/s/cm 2 /sr) on Day 1. Afterward, BLI radiance increased to 1.1 × 10 6  ± 4.2 × 10 4 (p/s/cm 2 /sr) 2 weeks after injection. Cardiac graft localization was confirmed by ex vivo BLI analysis and histology. Left ventricular ejection fraction was higher in the iPSC group (30.9 ± 0.9%) compared to infarct controls (24.0 ± 2.1%; P < 0.05). The combination of MRI and BLI assesses stem cell fate in

  14. Quantitative Evaluation of Brain Stem Atrophy Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Adult Patients with Alexander Disease.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Tomokatsu; Yasuda, Rei; Mizuta, Ikuko; Nakagawa, Masanori; Mizuno, Toshiki

    2017-01-01

    Brain MRI in adult patients with Alexander disease (AxD) mainly shows atrophy in the medulla oblongata. However, currently there is no quantitative standard for assessing this atrophy. In this study, we quantitatively evaluated the brain stem of AxD patients with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) mutation using conventional MRI to evaluate its usefulness as an aid to diagnosing AxD in daily clinical practice. Nineteen AxD patients with GFAP mutation were compared with 14 patients negative for GFAP mutation in whom AxD was suspected due to "atrophy of the medulla oblongata." In the GFAP mutation-positive group, the sagittal diameter of the medulla oblongata, the ratio of the diameter of the medulla oblongata to that of the midbrain (MO/MB), and the ratio of the sagittal diameter of the medulla oblongata to that of the pons (MO/Po) were significantly smaller compared to those of the GFAP mutation-negative group (p < 0.01). The sensitivity and specificity of each parameter were 87.5 and 92.3%, 91.7 and 81.3%, and 88.2 and 100% with a sagittal diameter of the medulla oblongata <9.0 mm, MO/MB <0.60, and sagittal MO/Po <0.46, respectively. These parameters can provide very useful information to differentially diagnose AxD from other disorders associated with brain stem atrophy in adult patients. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Full-field measurement of micromotion around a cementless femoral stem using micro-CT imaging and radiopaque markers.

    PubMed

    Malfroy Camine, V; Rüdiger, H A; Pioletti, D P; Terrier, A

    2016-12-08

    A good primary stability of cementless femoral stems is essential for the long-term success of total hip arthroplasty. Experimental measurement of implant micromotion with linear variable differential transformers is commonly used to assess implant primary stability in pre-clinical testing. But these measurements are often limited to a few distinct points at the interface. New techniques based on micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) have recently been introduced, such as Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) or markers-based approaches. DVC is however limited to measurement around non-metallic implants due to metal-induced imaging artifacts, and markers-based techniques are confined to a small portion of the implant. In this paper, we present a technique based on micro-CT imaging and radiopaque markers to provide the first full-field micromotion measurement at the entire bone-implant interface of a cementless femoral stem implanted in a cadaveric femur. Micromotion was measured during compression and torsion. Over 300 simultaneous measurement points were obtained. Micromotion amplitude ranged from 0 to 24µm in compression and from 0 to 49µm in torsion. Peak micromotion was distal in compression and proximal in torsion. The technique bias was 5.1µm and its repeatability standard deviation was 4µm. The method was thus highly reliable and compared well with results obtained with linear variable differential transformers (LVDTs) reported in the literature. These results indicate that this micro-CT based technique is perfectly relevant to observe local variations in primary stability around metallic implants. Possible applications include pre-clinical testing of implants and validation of patient-specific models for pre-operative planning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Quantitative Live Imaging of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Derived Neural Rosettes Reveals Structure-Function Dynamics Coupled to Cortical Development.

    PubMed

    Ziv, Omer; Zaritsky, Assaf; Yaffe, Yakey; Mutukula, Naresh; Edri, Reuven; Elkabetz, Yechiel

    2015-10-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are progenitor cells for brain development, where cellular spatial composition (cytoarchitecture) and dynamics are hypothesized to be linked to critical NSC capabilities. However, understanding cytoarchitectural dynamics of this process has been limited by the difficulty to quantitatively image brain development in vivo. Here, we study NSC dynamics within Neural Rosettes--highly organized multicellular structures derived from human pluripotent stem cells. Neural rosettes contain NSCs with strong epithelial polarity and are expected to perform apical-basal interkinetic nuclear migration (INM)--a hallmark of cortical radial glial cell development. We developed a quantitative live imaging framework to characterize INM dynamics within rosettes. We first show that the tendency of cells to follow the INM orientation--a phenomenon we referred to as radial organization, is associated with rosette size, presumably via mechanical constraints of the confining structure. Second, early forming rosettes, which are abundant with founder NSCs and correspond to the early proliferative developing cortex, show fast motions and enhanced radial organization. In contrast, later derived rosettes, which are characterized by reduced NSC capacity and elevated numbers of differentiated neurons, and thus correspond to neurogenesis mode in the developing cortex, exhibit slower motions and decreased radial organization. Third, later derived rosettes are characterized by temporal instability in INM measures, in agreement with progressive loss in rosette integrity at later developmental stages. Finally, molecular perturbations of INM by inhibition of actin or non-muscle myosin-II (NMII) reduced INM measures. Our framework enables quantification of cytoarchitecture NSC dynamics and may have implications in functional molecular studies, drug screening, and iPS cell-based platforms for disease modeling.

  17. Evaluating reporter genes of different luciferases for optimized in vivo bioluminescence imaging of transplanted neural stem cells in the brain.

    PubMed

    Mezzanotte, Laura; Aswendt, Markus; Tennstaedt, Annette; Hoeben, Rob; Hoehn, Mathias; Löwik, Clemens

    2013-01-01

    Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) has become the method of choice for optical tracking of cells in small laboratory animals. However, the use of luciferases from different species, depending on different substrates and emitting at distinct wavelengths, has not been optimized for sensitive neuroimaging. In order to identify the most suitable luciferase, this quantitative study compared the luciferases Luc2, CBG99, PpyRE9 and hRluc. Human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cells and mouse neural stem cells were transduced by lentiviral vector-mediated transfer to express one of the four luciferases, together with copGFP. A T2A peptide linker promoted stoichiometric expression between both imaging reporters and the comparison of cell populations upon flow cytometry. Cell dilution series were used to determine highest BLI sensitivity in vitro for Luc2. However, Coelenterazine h-dependent hRluc signals clearly exceeded d-luciferin-dependent BLI in vitro. For the quantitative in vivo analysis, cells were transplanted into mouse brain and BLI was performed including the recording of emission kinetics and spectral characteristics. Differences in light kinetics were observed for d-luciferin vs Coelenterazine h. The emission spectra of Luc2 and PpyRE9 remained almost unchanged, while the emission spectrum of CBG99 became biphasic. Most importantly, photon emission decreased in the order of Luc2, CBG99, PpyRE9 to hRluc. The feasibility of combining different luciferases for dual color and dual substrate neuroimaging was tested and discussed. This investigation provides the first complete quantitative comparison of different luciferases expressed by neural stem cells. It results in a clear recommendation of Luc2 as the best luciferase selection for in vivo neuroimaging. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. STEM, STEM Education, STEMmania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Mark

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author introduces integrative STEM (science, technology, engineering, and/or mathematics) education and discusses the importance of the program. The notion of integrative STEM education includes approaches that explore teaching and learning between/among any two or more of the STEM subject areas, and/or between a STEM subject…

  19. Monoamine neurons in the human brain stem: anatomy, magnetic resonance imaging findings, and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Makoto; Shibata, Eri; Tohyama, Koujiro; Kudo, Kohsuke; Endoh, Jin; Otsuka, Kotaro; Sakai, Akio

    2008-11-19

    By using high-resolution, conventional, and neuromelanin-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging techniques, we reviewed the normal anatomy of the nuclei consisting of monoamine neurons such as dopaminergic, noradrenergic, and serotoninergic neurons and noted the changes in these nuclei that occur in some degenerative and psychiatric disorders. Multimodal MR images can directly or indirectly help in identifying the substantia nigra, locus ceruleus, and raphe nuclei that contain monoamine neurons. Neuromelanin-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging can detect signal alterations in the substantia nigra pars compacta and/or locus ceruleus that occur in Parkinson's disease and psychiatric disorders such as depression and schizophrenia. This technique seems to be promising for the noninvasive evaluation of the pathological or functional changes in the monoamine system that occur in degenerative and psychiatric disorders.

  20. Bioluminescent imaging demonstrates transplanted human embryonic stem cell-derived CD34+ cells preferentially develop into endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xinghui; Hexum, Melinda K.; Penchev, Vesselin R.; Taylor, Russell J.; Shultz, Leonard D.; Kaufman, Dan S

    2010-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) provide an important resource for novel regenerative medicine therapies and have been used to derive diverse cell populations, including hematopoietic and endothelial cells. However, it remains a challenge to achieve significant engraftment of hESC-derived blood cells when transplanted into animal models. To better understand mechanisms that enhance or limit the in vivo developmental potential of hESC-derived cells, we utilized hESCs that express firefly luciferase (luc) to allow non-invasive, real-time bioluminescent imaging of hESC-derived CD34+ cells transplanted into the liver of neonatal immunodeficient mice. Serial imaging demonstrated stable engraftment and expansion of the luc+ hESC-derived cells in vivo over several months. While we found that these hESC-derived CD34+ cells have bipotential ability to generate both hematopoietic and endothelial lineages in vitro, these studies demonstrate preferential differentiation into endothelial cells in vivo, with only low levels of hematopoietic cell engraftment. Therefore, these studies reveal key differences in the developmental potential of hESC-derived cells using in vitro and in vivo analyses. While transplanted hESC-derived CD34+ cells are well suited for revascularization therapies, additional measures are needed to provide higher levels of long-term hematopoietic engraftment. PMID:19711457

  1. Latex imaging by environmental STEM: application to the study of the surfactant outcome in hybrid alkyd/acrylate systems.

    PubMed

    Faucheu, Jenny; Chazeau, Laurent; Gauthier, Catherine; Cavaillé, Jean-Yves; Goikoetxea, Monika; Minari, Roque; Asua, José M

    2009-09-01

    Among other uses, latexes are a successful alternative to solvent-borne binders for coatings. Efforts are made to produce hybrid nanostructured latexes containing an acrylic phase and an alkyd phase. However, after the film-forming process, the surfactant used to stabilize these latexes remains in the film, and its location can have a drastic effect on the application properties. Among the processing parameters, the alkyd hydrophobicity can strongly influence this location. This article aims at the imaging of these surfactant molecules in two hybrid latexes with different hydrophobicity level of the alkyd resin. A first part of this paper is dedicated to the understanding of the contrast provided by the surfactant in environmental STEM imaging of latexes. Then, the influence of surfactant-polymer affinity on the surfactant location after film-forming of those hybrid alkyd/acrylate latexes is studied by this technique. It is shown that in the hybrid latex with an alkyd shell (obtained with the most hydrophilic resin), the surfactant molecules tend to remain buried in the alkyd phase. Conversely, in the hybrid latex with an acrylate shell (in the case of the most hydrophobic resin), the surfactant molecules tend to gather into islands like in pure acrylate latex films.

  2. Stem Cells

    MedlinePlus

    Stem cells are cells with the potential to develop into many different types of cells in the body. They serve as a repair ... body. There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Stem ...

  3. In Vivo Long-Term Tracking of Neural Stem Cells Transplanted into an Acute Ischemic Stroke model with Reporter Gene-Based Bimodal MR and Optical Imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang; Duan, Xiaohui; Lu, Liejing; Zhang, Xiang; Chen, Meiwei; Mao, Jiaji; Cao, Minghui; Shen, Jun

    2017-10-01

    Transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) is emerging as a new therapeutic approach for stroke. Real-time imaging of transplanted NSCs is essential for successful cell delivery, safety monitoring, tracking cell fate and function, and understanding the interactions of transplanted cells with the host environment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of magnetic nanoparticle-labeled cells has been the most widely used means to track stem cells in vivo. Nevertheless, it does not allow for the reliable discrimination between live and dead cells. Reporter gene-based MRI was considered as an alternative strategy to overcome this shortcoming. In this work, a class of lentiviral vector-encoding ferritin heavy chain (FTH) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was constructed to deliver reporter genes into NSCs. After these transgenic NSCs were transplanted into the contralateral hemisphere of rats with acute ischemic stroke, MRI and fluorescence imaging (FLI) were performed in vivo for tracking the fate of transplanted cells over a long period of 6 wk. The results demonstrated that the FTH and EGFP can be effectively and safely delivered to NSCs via the designed lentiviral vector. The distribution and migration of grafted stem cells could be monitored by bimodal MRI and FLI. FTH can be used as a robust MRI reporter for reliable reporting of the short-term viability of cell grafts, whereas its capacity for tracking the long-term viability of stem cells remains dependent on several confounding factors such as cell death and the concomitant reactive inflammation.

  4. Options for tracking GFP-Labeled transplanted myoblasts using in vivo fluorescence imaging: implications for tracking stem cell fate.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhong; Wang, Yaming; Li, Yanan; Liu, Qiang; Zeng, Qing; Xu, Xiaoyin

    2014-06-12

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) is a useful biomarker, widely used in biomedical research to track stem cells after transplantation and/or to assess therapeutic transgene expression. However, both GFP and therapeutic gene products themselves may be immunogenic to the recipient. The main aim of this study was to use animal models to evaluate potential impact of GFP on the cell engraftment and to optimize tracking strategies prior to transplantation. By using a fluorescent imaging (FLI) system, we investigated the dynamic cell behavior of GFP-transduced myoblasts in tibialis anterior (TA) muscles of immunocompetent mdx mice and immuno-compromised nude mice over a period of three months. The results suggested an apparent underlying host immunorejection in the mdx mice. Dystrophin immunostaining showed that the engraftment of wild type myoblasts was much more effective than that of the GFP-labeled counterparts in the mdx mice, further confirming an antigen role of GFP in this process. We tracked the GFP-transduced myoblasts in C57BL/6 mice and found GFP to be minimally immunogenic in these animals, as indicated by the GFP signal maintaining a much stronger level than that found in mdx and BALB/c mice at parallel time points. We also compared the in vivo cell behavior differences between myoblasts from virally GFP-transduced and GFP transgenic mice. The latter displayed much better engraftment, as determined both biomaging and histological observations. Our results not only demonstrated the immunogenicity of GFP in immunocompetent mice, but determined the optimized conditions for GFP-based in vivo stem cells tracking, that can potentially be extrapolated to human biomedical research.

  5. Imaging of extracellular vesicles derived from human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells using fluorescent and magnetic labels.

    PubMed

    Dabrowska, Sylwia; Del Fattore, Andrea; Karnas, Elzbieta; Frontczak-Baniewicz, Malgorzata; Kozlowska, Hanna; Muraca, Maurizio; Janowski, Miroslaw; Lukomska, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells have been shown therapeutic in various neurological disorders. Recent studies support the notion that the predominant mechanism by which MSCs act is through the release of extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs seem to have similar therapeutic activity as their cellular counterparts and may represent an interesting alternative standalone therapy for various diseases. The aim of the study was to optimize the method of EV imaging to better understand therapeutic effects mediated by EVs. The fluorescent lipophilic stain PKH26 and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles conjugated with rhodamine (Molday ION Rhodamine B™) were used for the labeling of vesicles in human bone marrow MSCs (hBM-MSCs). The entire cycle from intracellular vesicles to EVs followed by their uptake by hBM-MSCs has been studied. The identity of vesicles has been proven by antibodies against: anti-CD9, -CD63, and -CD81 (tetraspanins). NanoSight particle tracking analysis (NTA), high-resolution flow cytometric analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ELYRA PS.1 super-resolution microscopy, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used for the characterization of vesicles. The PKH26 and Molday ION were exclusively localized in intracellular vesicles positively stained for EV markers: CD9, CD63, and CD81. The isolated EVs represent heterogeneous population of various sizes as confirmed by NTA. The TEM and MRI were capable to show successful labeling of EVs using ION. Co-culture of EVs with hBM-MSCs revealed their uptake by cells in vitro, as visualized by the co-localization of PKH26 or Molday ION with tetraspanins inside hBM-MSCs. PKH26 and Molday ION seem to be biocompatible with EVs, and the labeling did not interfere with the capability of EVs to re-enter hBM-MSCs during co-culture in vitro. Magnetic properties of IONs provide an additional advantage for the imaging of EV using TEM and MRI.

  6. Imaging Stem Cell Therapy for the Treatment of Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ransohoff, Julia D.; Wu, Joseph C.

    2013-01-01

    Arteriosclerotic cardiovascular diseases are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Therapeutic angiogenesis aims to treat ischemic myocardial and peripheral tissues by delivery of recombinant proteins, genes, or cells to promote neoangiogenesis. Concerns regarding the safety, side effects, and efficacy of protein and gene transfer studies have led to the development of cell-based therapies as alternative approaches to induce vascular regeneration and to improve function of damaged tissue. Cell-based therapies may be improved by the application of imaging technologies that allow investigators to track the location, engraftment, and survival of the administered cell population. The past decade of investigations has produced promising clinical data regarding cell therapy, but design of trials and evaluation of treatments stand to be improved by emerging insight from imaging studies. Here, we provide an overview of pre-clinical and clinical experience using cell-based therapies to promote vascular regeneration in the treatment of peripheral arterial disease. We also review four major imaging modalities and underscore the importance of in vivo analysis of cell fate for a full understanding of functional outcomes. PMID:22239638

  7. Evaluation of the Curative Effect of Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy for Knee Arthritis in Dogs Using Imaging Technology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bei-Ying; Wang, Bing-Yun; Li, Shao-Chuan; Luo, Dong-Zhang; Zhan, Xiaoshu; Chen, Sheng-Feng; Chen, Zhi-Sheng; Liu, Can-Ying; Ji, Hui-Qin; Bai, Yin-Shan; Li, Dong-Sheng; He, Yang

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of canine umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) on the treatment of knee osteoarthritis in dogs. Eight dogs were evenly assigned to two groups. The canine model of knee osteoarthritis was established by surgical manipulation of knee articular cartilage on these eight dogs. UC-MSCs were isolated from umbilical cord Wharton's jelly by 0.1% type collagenase I and identified by immunofluorescence staining and adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation in vitro . A suspension of allogeneic UC-MSCs (1 × 10 6 ) and an equal amount of physiological saline was injected into the cavitas articularis in the treated and untreated control groups, respectively, on days 1 and 3 posttreatment. The structure of the canine knee joint was observed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), B-mode ultrasonography, and X-ray imaging at the 3rd, 7th, 14th, and 28th days after treatment. Concurrently, the levels of IL-6, IL-7, and TNF- α in the blood of the examined dogs were measured. Moreover, the recovery of cartilage and patella surface in the treated group and untreated group was compared using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) after a 35-day treatment. Results revealed that the isolated cells were UC-MSCs, because they were positive for CD44 and negative for CD34 surface markers, and the cells were differentiated into adipocytes and osteoblasts. Imaging technology showed that as treatment time increased, the high signal in the MRI T2-weighted images decreased, the echo-free space in B ultrasonography images disappeared basically, and the continuous linear hypoechoic region at the trochlear sulcus thickened. On X-ray images, the serrate defect at the ventral cortex of the patella improved, and the low-density gap of the ventral patella and trochlear crest gradually increased in the treated group. On the contrary, the high signal in the MRI T2-weighted images and the echo-free space in B ultrasonography images still

  8. Evaluation of the Curative Effect of Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy for Knee Arthritis in Dogs Using Imaging Technology

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bei-ying; Li, Shao-chuan; Luo, Dong-zhang; Zhan, Xiaoshu; Chen, Sheng-feng; Chen, Zhi-sheng; Liu, Can-ying; Ji, Hui-qin; Bai, Yin-shan; Li, Dong-sheng; He, Yang

    2018-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of canine umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) on the treatment of knee osteoarthritis in dogs. Methods Eight dogs were evenly assigned to two groups. The canine model of knee osteoarthritis was established by surgical manipulation of knee articular cartilage on these eight dogs. UC-MSCs were isolated from umbilical cord Wharton's jelly by 0.1% type collagenase I and identified by immunofluorescence staining and adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation in vitro. A suspension of allogeneic UC-MSCs (1 × 106) and an equal amount of physiological saline was injected into the cavitas articularis in the treated and untreated control groups, respectively, on days 1 and 3 posttreatment. The structure of the canine knee joint was observed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), B-mode ultrasonography, and X-ray imaging at the 3rd, 7th, 14th, and 28th days after treatment. Concurrently, the levels of IL-6, IL-7, and TNF-α in the blood of the examined dogs were measured. Moreover, the recovery of cartilage and patella surface in the treated group and untreated group was compared using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) after a 35-day treatment. Results Results revealed that the isolated cells were UC-MSCs, because they were positive for CD44 and negative for CD34 surface markers, and the cells were differentiated into adipocytes and osteoblasts. Imaging technology showed that as treatment time increased, the high signal in the MRI T2-weighted images decreased, the echo-free space in B ultrasonography images disappeared basically, and the continuous linear hypoechoic region at the trochlear sulcus thickened. On X-ray images, the serrate defect at the ventral cortex of the patella improved, and the low-density gap of the ventral patella and trochlear crest gradually increased in the treated group. On the contrary, the high signal in the MRI T2-weighted images and the echo-free space in B ultrasonography

  9. Hydrogel-based scaffolds to support intrathecal stem cell transplantation as a gateway to the spinal cord: clinical needs, biomaterials, and imaging technologies.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, J Miguel; Carvalho, Luisa; Silva-Correia, Joana; Vieira, Sílvia; Majchrzak, Malgorzata; Lukomska, Barbara; Stanaszek, Luiza; Strymecka, Paulina; Malysz-Cymborska, Izabela; Golubczyk, Dominika; Kalkowski, Lukasz; Reis, Rui L; Janowski, Miroslaw; Walczak, Piotr

    2018-01-01

    The prospects for cell replacement in spinal cord diseases are impeded by inefficient stem cell delivery. The deep location of the spinal cord and complex surgical access, as well as densely packed vital structures, question the feasibility of the widespread use of multiple spinal cord punctures to inject stem cells. Disorders characterized by disseminated pathology are particularly appealing for the distribution of cells globally throughout the spinal cord in a minimally invasive fashion. The intrathecal space, with access to a relatively large surface area along the spinal cord, is an attractive route for global stem cell delivery, and, indeed, is highly promising, but the success of this approach relies on the ability of cells (1) to survive in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), (2) to adhere to the spinal cord surface, and (3) to migrate, ultimately, into the parenchyma. Intrathecal infusion of cell suspension, however, has been insufficient and we postulate that embedding transplanted cells within hydrogel scaffolds will facilitate reaching these goals. In this review, we focus on practical considerations that render the intrathecal approach clinically viable, and then discuss the characteristics of various biomaterials that are suitable to serve as scaffolds. We also propose strategies to modulate the local microenvironment with nanoparticle carriers to improve the functionality of cellular grafts. Finally, we provide an overview of imaging modalities for in vivo monitoring and characterization of biomaterials and stem cells. This comprehensive review should serve as a guide for those planning preclinical and clinical studies on intrathecal stem cell transplantation.

  10. In Vivo Imaging and Tracking of Technetium-99m Labeled Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Equine Tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Dudhia, Jayesh; Becerra, Patricia; Valdés, Miguel A.; Neves, Francisco; Hartman, Neil G.; Smith, Roger K.W.

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in the application of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSC) for the treatment of tendon and ligament injuries in the horse suggest improved outcome measures in both experimental and clinical studies. Although the BMMSC are implanted into the tendon lesion in large numbers (usually 10 - 20 million cells), only a relatively small number survive (<10%) although these can persist for up to 5 months after implantation. This appears to be a common observation in other species where BMMSC have been implanted into other tissues and it is important to understand when this loss occurs, how many survive the initial implantation process and whether the cells are cleared into other organs. Tracking the fate of the cells can be achieved by radiolabeling the BMMSC prior to implantation which allows non-invasive in vivo imaging of cell location and quantification of cell numbers. This protocol describes a cell labeling procedure that uses Technetium-99m (Tc-99m), and tracking of these cells following implantation into injured flexor tendons in horses. Tc-99m is a short-lived (t1/2 of 6.01 hr) isotope that emits gamma rays and can be internalized by cells in the presence of the lipophilic compound hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO). These properties make it ideal for use in nuclear medicine clinics for the diagnosis of many different diseases. The fate of the labeled cells can be followed in the short term (up to 36 hr) by gamma scintigraphy to quantify both the number of cells retained in the lesion and distribution of the cells into lungs, thyroid and other organs. This technique is adapted from the labeling of blood leukocytes and could be utilized to image implanted BMMSC in other organs. PMID:26709915

  11. Comparison of red-shifted firefly luciferase Ppy RE9 and conventional Luc2 as bioluminescence imaging reporter genes for in vivo imaging of stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yajie; Walczak, Piotr; Bulte, Jeff W. M.

    2012-01-01

    One critical issue for noninvasive imaging of transplanted bioluminescent cells is the large amount of light absorption in tissue when emission wavelengths below 600 nm are used. Luciferase with a red-shifted spectrum can potentially bypass this limitation. We assessed and compared a mutant of firefly luciferase (Ppy RE9, PRE9) against the yellow luciferase luc2 gene for use in cell transplantation studies. C17.2 neural stem cells expressing PRE9-Venus and luc2-Venus were sorted by flow cytometry and assessed for bioluminescence in vitro in culture and in vivo after transplantation into the brain of immunodeficient Rag2-/- mice. We found that the luminescence from PRE9 was stable, with a peak emission at 620 nm, shifted to the red compared to that of luc2. The emission peak for PRE9 was pH-independent, in contrast to luc2, and much less affected by tissue absorbance compared to that of luc2. However, the total emitted light radiance from PRE9 was substantially lower than that of luc2, both in vitro and in vivo. We conclude that PRE9 has favorable properties as compared to luc2 in terms of pH independence, red-shifted spectrum, tissue light penetration, and signal quantification, justifying further optimization of protein expression and enzymatic activity.

  12. Manganese-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Enables In Vivo Confirmation of Peri-Infarct Restoration Following Stem Cell Therapy in a Porcine Ischemia-Reperfusion Model.

    PubMed

    Dash, Rajesh; Kim, Paul J; Matsuura, Yuka; Ikeno, Fumiaki; Metzler, Scott; Huang, Ngan F; Lyons, Jennifer K; Nguyen, Patricia K; Ge, Xiaohu; Foo, Cheryl Wong Po; McConnell, Michael V; Wu, Joseph C; Yeung, Alan C; Harnish, Phillip; Yang, Phillip C

    2015-07-27

    The exact mechanism of stem cell therapy in augmenting the function of ischemic cardiomyopathy is unclear. In this study, we hypothesized that increased viability of the peri-infarct region (PIR) produces restorative benefits after stem cell engraftment. A novel multimodality imaging approach simultaneously assessed myocardial viability (manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging [MEMRI]), myocardial scar (delayed gadolinium enhancement MRI), and transplanted stem cell engraftment (positron emission tomography reporter gene) in the injured porcine hearts. Twelve adult swine underwent ischemia-reperfusion injury. Digital subtraction of MEMRI-negative myocardium (intrainfarct region) from delayed gadolinium enhancement MRI-positive myocardium (PIR and intrainfarct region) clearly delineated the PIR in which the MEMRI-positive signal reflected PIR viability. Human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) represent a unique population of immunomodulatory mesodermal stem cells that restored the murine PIR. Immediately following hAMSC delivery, MEMRI demonstrated an increased PIR viability signal compared with control. Direct PIR viability remained higher in hAMSC-treated hearts for >6 weeks. Increased PIR viability correlated with improved regional contractility, left ventricular ejection fraction, infarct size, and hAMSC engraftment, as confirmed by immunocytochemistry. Increased MEMRI and positron emission tomography reporter gene signal in the intrainfarct region and the PIR correlated with sustained functional augmentation (global and regional) within the hAMSC group (mean change, left ventricular ejection fraction: hAMSC 85±60%, control 8±10%; P<0.05) and reduced chamber dilatation (left ventricular end-diastole volume increase: hAMSC 24±8%, control 110±30%; P<0.05). The positron emission tomography reporter gene signal of hAMSC engraftment correlates with the improved MEMRI signal in the PIR. The increased MEMRI signal represents PIR viability and the

  13. Volumetric evaluation of the relations among the cerebrum, cerebellum and brain stem in young subjects: a combination of stereology and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Ekinci, Nihat; Acer, Niyazi; Akkaya, Akcan; Sankur, Seref; Kabadayi, Taner; Sahin, Bünyamin

    2008-08-01

    The Cavalieri estimator using a point grid is used to estimate the volume of three-dimensional structures based on two-dimensional slices of the object. The size of the components of intracranial neural structures should have proportional relations among them. The volume fraction approach of stereological methods provides information about volumetric relations of the components of structures. The purpose of our study is to estimate the volume and volume fraction data related to the cerebrum, cerebellum and brain stem. In this study, volume of the total brain, cerebrum, cerebellum and brain stem were estimated in 24 young Turkish volunteers (12 males and 12 females) who are free of any neurological symptoms and signs. The volume and volume fraction of the total brain, cerebrum, cerebellum and brain stem were determined on magnetic resonance (MR) images using the point-counting approach of stereological methods. The mean (+/-SD) total brain, cerebrum and cerebellum volumes were 1,202.05 +/- 103.51, 1,143.65 +/- 106.25 cm3 in males and females, 1,060.0 +/- 94.6, 1,008.9 +/- 104.3 cm3 in males and females, 117.75 +/- 10.7, 111.83 +/- 8.0 cm3 in males and females, respectively. The mean brain stem volumes were 24.3 +/- 2.89, 22.9 +/- 4.49 cm3 in males and females, respectively. Our results revealed that female subjects have less cerebral, cerebellar and brain stem volumes compared to males, although there was no statistically significant difference between genders (P > 0.05). The volume ratio of the cerebrum to total brain volume (TBV), cerebellum to TBV and brain stem to TBV were 88.16 and 88.13% in males and females, 9.8 and 9.8% in males and females, 2.03 and 2.03% in males and females, respectively. The volume ratio of the cerebellum to cerebrum, brain stem to cerebrum and brain stem to cerebellum were 11.12 and 11.16% in males and females, 2.30 and 2.31% in males and females, 20.7 and 20.6% in males and females, respectively. The difference between the genders was

  14. Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging of the Palisades of Vogt to Assist Clinical Evaluation and Surgical Planning in a Case of Limbal Stem-Cell Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Espandar, Ladan; Steele, Jessica F; Lathrop, Kira L

    2017-09-01

    To describe the use of volumetric optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging to assist evaluation of a patient referred for autologous limbal stem-cell transplant. This is a case report of a 50-year-old patient presenting with unilateral limbal stem-cell deficiency who was referred for autologous limbal stem-cell transplant. The presence of Salzmann nodules in the donor eye raised questions about the efficacy of transplantation, prompting examination of both eyes using volumetric OCT imaging to determine whether there were palisades of Vogt (POV) present. Image volumes were acquired in all clock hours and were compared against those of an age-matched normal subject. Palisades were found in both eyes, although in both eyes there were fewer palisade ridges, and those that were present were not as distinct as those of the normal subject. The OCT volumes also showed that stromal scarring was present only in the anterior stroma of the intended transplant eye. These findings suggested that the patient may be able to sustain a deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty without an autologous transplant, which would spare any insult to the opposing eye and require less surgery to restore vision in the affected eye. Nine months postsurgical follow-up revealed significant improvement in visual acuity and no scar tissue development. The OCT evaluation of the POV provides detailed information to the clinician that may assist in diagnosis and evaluation of patients before transplantation. Further development of this technique is necessary to make it clinically available.

  15. A transmission electron microscopy study of CoFe2O4 ferrite nanoparticles in silica aerogel matrix using HREM and STEM imaging and EDX spectroscopy and EELS.

    PubMed

    Falqui, Andrea; Corrias, Anna; Wang, Peng; Snoeck, Etienne; Mountjoy, Gavin

    2010-04-01

    Magnetic nanocomposite materials consisting of 5 and 10 wt% CoFe2O4 nanoparticles in a silica aerogel matrix have been synthesized by the sol-gel method. For the CoFe2O4-10wt% sample, bright-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (BF STEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HREM) images showed distinct, rounded CoFe2O4 nanoparticles, with typical diameters of roughly 8 nm. For the CoFe2O4-5wt% sample, BF STEM images and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) measurements showed CoFe2O4 nanoparticles with diameters of roughly 3 +/- 1 nm. EDX measurements indicate that all nanoparticles consist of stoichiometric CoFe2O4, and electron energy-loss spectroscopy measurements from lines crossing nanoparticles in the CoFe2O4-10wt% sample show a uniform composition within nanoparticles, with a precision of at best than +/-0.5 nm in analysis position. BF STEM images obtained for the CoFe2O4-10wt% sample showed many "needle-like" nanostructures that typically have a length of 10 nm and a width of 1 nm, and frequently appear to be attached to nanoparticles. These needle-like nanostructures are observed to contain layers with interlayer spacing 0.33 +/- 0.1 nm, which could be consistent with Co silicate hydroxide, a known precursor phase in these nanocomposite materials.

  16. Identification of nodes and internodes of chopped biomass stems by Image analysis using profile curvature and slope

    Morphological components of biomass stems vary in their chemical composition and they can be better utilized when processed after segregation. Within the stem, nodes and internodes have significantly different compositions. The internodes have low ash content and are a better feedstock for bioenergy...

  17. Stem cells enhance reperfusion following ischemia: Validation using laser speckle imaging in predicting tissue repair.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ya Hui; Thompson, R Will; Nathan, Cherie-Ann; Alexander, Jonathan Steven; Lian, Timothy

    2018-06-01

    The lack of real-time assessment of vascular perfusion changes remains a major weakness in assessing the efficacy of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) therapeutic ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury. This study provides for the first time the real-time in vivo perfusion monitoring in I/R mice with BMSC therapy. Animal model. Surgically created cutaneous flaps perfused by the inferior epigastric vessels were subjected to 3.5 hours of ischemia/reperfusion. Wound healing and vascular perfusion were assessed by Image-J and laser speckle contrast analysis (LSCA) in three groups (sham, I/R, and I/R + BMSC). BMSC tracking was quantified in an additional two groups (with/without I/R) using intravital fluorescent microscopy. The histopathology of skin flaps was examined by hematoxylin and eosin stain. Infiltrated macrophages were analyzed by confocal immunofluorescent microscopy. Postischemic tissues treated with BMSC demonstrated significantly greater survival than I/R control. On days 3 to 7 postreperfusion, both proximal and distal areas in BMSC-treated flaps demonstrated greater levels of perfusion than untreated I/R flaps (P < 0.05). Intravital fluorescent microscopy revealed that numbers of labeled BMSC were significantly increased in the distal area compared to the proximal area in both with and without ischemic mice. Histological examination showed lower necrosis and infiltrated inflammatory cells in I/R + BMSC-treated mice versus I/R controls. BMSC accumulated in I/R flaps and exerted beneficial effects including: 1) improving vascular perfusion and 2) attenuating inflammatory cell infiltration. LSCA facilitates monitoring of the real-time restitution of perfusion during flap wound healing in experimental animals and could also similarly applied in clinical investigations. NA. Laryngoscope, 128:E198-E205, 2018. © 2018 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. Stem cell-mediated accelerated bone healing observed with in vivo molecular and small animal imaging technologies in a model of skeletal injury.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sheen-Woo; Padmanabhan, Parasuraman; Ray, Pritha; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam; Doyle, Timothy; Contag, Christopher; Goodman, Stuart B; Biswal, Sandip

    2009-03-01

    Adult stem cells are promising therapeutic reagents for skeletal regeneration. We hope to validate by molecular imaging technologies the in vivo life cycle of adipose-derived multipotent cells (ADMCs) in an animal model of skeletal injury. Primary ADMCs were lentivirally transfected with a fusion reporter gene and injected intravenously into mice with bone injury or sham operation. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI), [(18)F]FHBG (9-(fluoro-hydroxy-methyl-butyl-guanine)-micro-PET, [(18)F]Fluoride ion micro-PET and micro-CT were performed to monitor stem cells and their effect. Bioluminescence microscopy and immunohistochemistry were done for histological confirmation. BLI showed ADMC's traffic from the lungs then to the injury site. BLI microscopy and immunohistochemistry confirmed the ADMCs in the bone defect. Micro-CT measurements showed increased bone healing in the cell-injected group compared to the noninjected group at postoperative day 7 (p < 0.05). Systemically administered ADMC's traffic to the site of skeletal injury and facilitate bone healing, as demonstrated by molecular and small animal imaging. Molecular imaging technologies can validate the usage of adult adipose tissue-derived multipotent cells to promote fracture healing. Imaging can in the future help establish therapeutic strategies including dosage and administration route. (c) 2008 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  19. Longitudinal monitoring adipose-derived stem cell survival by PET imaging hexadecyl-4-{sup 124}I-iodobenzoate in rat myocardial infarction model

    SciT

    Kim, Min Hwan; School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul; Woo, Sang-Keun

    Highlights: • We developed a safe, simple and appropriate stem cell labeling method with {sup 124}I-HIB. • ADSC survival can be monitored with PET in MI model via direct labeling. • Tracking of ADSC labeled with {sup 124}I-HIB was possible for 3 days in MI model using PET. • ADSC viability and differentiation were not affected by {sup 124}I-HIB labeling. • Survival of ADSC in living bodies can be longitudinally tracked with PET imaging. - Abstract: This study aims to monitor how the change of cell survival of transplanted adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) responds to myocardial infarction (MI) via themore » hexadecyl-4-{sup 124}I-iodobenzoate ({sup 124}I-HIB) mediated direct labeling method in vivo. Stem cells have shown the potential to improve cardiac function after MI. However, monitoring of the fate of transplanted stem cells at target sites is still unclear. Rat ADSCs were labeled with {sup 124}I-HIB, and radiolabeled ADSCs were transplanted into the myocardium of normal and MI model. In the group of {sup 124}I-HIB-labeled ADSC transplantation, in vivo imaging was performed using small-animal positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) for 9 days. Twenty-one days post-transplantation, histopathological analysis and apoptosis assay were performed. ADSC viability and differentiation were not affected by {sup 124}I-HIB labeling. In vivo tracking of the {sup 124}I-HIB-labeled ADSCs was possible for 9 and 3 days in normal and MI model, respectively. Apoptosis of transplanted cells increased in the MI model compared than that in normal model. We developed a direct labeling agent, {sup 124}I-HIB, and first tried to longitudinally monitor transplanted stem cell to MI. This approach may provide new insights on the roles of stem cell monitoring in living bodies for stem cell therapy from pre-clinical studies to clinical trials.« less

  20. Music modulation of pain perception and pain-related activity in the brain, brain stem, and spinal cord: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Dobek, Christine E; Beynon, Michaela E; Bosma, Rachael L; Stroman, Patrick W

    2014-10-01

    The oldest known method for relieving pain is music, and yet, to date, the underlying neural mechanisms have not been studied. Here, we investigate these neural mechanisms by applying a well-defined painful stimulus while participants listened to their favorite music or to no music. Neural responses in the brain, brain stem, and spinal cord were mapped with functional magnetic resonance imaging spanning the cortex, brain stem, and spinal cord. Subjective pain ratings were observed to be significantly lower when pain was administered with music than without music. The pain stimulus without music elicited neural activity in brain regions that are consistent with previous studies. Brain regions associated with pleasurable music listening included limbic, frontal, and auditory regions, when comparing music to non-music pain conditions. In addition, regions demonstrated activity indicative of descending pain modulation when contrasting the 2 conditions. These regions include the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, periaqueductal gray matter, rostral ventromedial medulla, and dorsal gray matter of the spinal cord. This is the first imaging study to characterize the neural response of pain and how pain is mitigated by music, and it provides new insights into the neural mechanism of music-induced analgesia within the central nervous system. This article presents the first investigation of neural processes underlying music analgesia in human participants. Music modulates pain responses in the brain, brain stem, and spinal cord, and neural activity changes are consistent with engagement of the descending analgesia system. Copyright © 2014 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A semi-Markov model for mitosis segmentation in time-lapse phase contrast microscopy image sequences of stem cell populations.

    PubMed

    Liu, An-An; Li, Kang; Kanade, Takeo

    2012-02-01

    We propose a semi-Markov model trained in a max-margin learning framework for mitosis event segmentation in large-scale time-lapse phase contrast microscopy image sequences of stem cell populations. Our method consists of three steps. First, we apply a constrained optimization based microscopy image segmentation method that exploits phase contrast optics to extract candidate subsequences in the input image sequence that contains mitosis events. Then, we apply a max-margin hidden conditional random field (MM-HCRF) classifier learned from human-annotated mitotic and nonmitotic sequences to classify each candidate subsequence as a mitosis or not. Finally, a max-margin semi-Markov model (MM-SMM) trained on manually-segmented mitotic sequences is utilized to reinforce the mitosis classification results, and to further segment each mitosis into four predefined temporal stages. The proposed method outperforms the event-detection CRF model recently reported by Huh as well as several other competing methods in very challenging image sequences of multipolar-shaped C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cells. For mitosis detection, an overall precision of 95.8% and a recall of 88.1% were achieved. For mitosis segmentation, the mean and standard deviation for the localization errors of the start and end points of all mitosis stages were well below 1 and 2 frames, respectively. In particular, an overall temporal location error of 0.73 ± 1.29 frames was achieved for locating daughter cell birth events.

  2. Atomic resolution characterization of a SrTiO{sub 3} grain boundary in the STEM

    SciT

    McGibbon, M.M.; Browning, N.D.; Chisholm, M.F.

    This paper uses the complementary techniques of high resolution Z-contrast imaging and PEELS (parallel detection electron energy loss spectroscopy) to investigate the atomic structure and chemistry of a 25 degree symmetric tilt boundary in a bicrystal of the electroceramic SrTiO{sub 3}. The gain boundary is composed of two different boundary structural units which occur in about equal numbers: one which contains Ti-O columns and the other without.

  3. Comparison of 3D cellular imaging techniques based on scanned electron probes: Serial block face SEM vs. Axial bright-field STEM tomography.

    PubMed

    McBride, E L; Rao, A; Zhang, G; Hoyne, J D; Calco, G N; Kuo, B C; He, Q; Prince, A A; Pokrovskaya, I D; Storrie, B; Sousa, A A; Aronova, M A; Leapman, R D

    2018-06-01

    Microscopies based on focused electron probes allow the cell biologist to image the 3D ultrastructure of eukaryotic cells and tissues extending over large volumes, thus providing new insight into the relationship between cellular architecture and function of organelles. Here we compare two such techniques: electron tomography in conjunction with axial bright-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (BF-STEM), and serial block face scanning electron microscopy (SBF-SEM). The advantages and limitations of each technique are illustrated by their application to determining the 3D ultrastructure of human blood platelets, by considering specimen geometry, specimen preparation, beam damage and image processing methods. Many features of the complex membranes composing the platelet organelles can be determined from both approaches, although STEM tomography offers a higher ∼3 nm isotropic pixel size, compared with ∼5 nm for SBF-SEM in the plane of the block face and ∼30 nm in the perpendicular direction. In this regard, we demonstrate that STEM tomography is advantageous for visualizing the platelet canalicular system, which consists of an interconnected network of narrow (∼50-100 nm) membranous cisternae. In contrast, SBF-SEM enables visualization of complete platelets, each of which extends ∼2 µm in minimum dimension, whereas BF-STEM tomography can typically only visualize approximately half of the platelet volume due to a rapid non-linear loss of signal in specimens of thickness greater than ∼1.5 µm. We also show that the limitations of each approach can be ameliorated by combining 3D and 2D measurements using a stereological approach. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. A preclinical murine model for the early detection of radiation-induced brain injury using magnetic resonance imaging and behavioral tests for learning and memory: with applications for the evaluation of possible stem cell imaging agents and therapies.

    PubMed

    Ngen, Ethel J; Wang, Lee; Gandhi, Nishant; Kato, Yoshinori; Armour, Michael; Zhu, Wenlian; Wong, John; Gabrielson, Kathleen L; Artemov, Dmitri

    2016-06-01

    Stem cell therapies are being developed for radiotherapy-induced brain injuries (RIBI). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers advantages for imaging transplanted stem cells. However, most MRI cell-tracking techniques employ superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIOs), which are difficult to distinguish from hemorrhage. In current preclinical RIBI models, hemorrhage occurs concurrently with other injury markers. This makes the evaluation of the recruitment of transplanted SPIO-labeled stem cells to injury sites difficult. Here, we developed a RIBI model, with early injury markers reflective of hippocampal dysfunction, which can be detected noninvasively with MRI and behavioral tests. Lesions were generated by sub-hemispheric irradiation of mouse hippocampi with single X-ray beams of 80 Gy. Lesion formation was monitored with anatomical and contrast-enhanced MRI and changes in memory and learning were assessed with fear-conditioning tests. Early injury markers were detected 2 weeks after irradiation. These included an increase in the permeability of the blood-brain barrier, demonstrated by a 92 ± 20 % contrast enhancement of the irradiated versus the non-irradiated brain hemispheres, within 15 min of the administration of an MRI contrast agent. A change in short-term memory was also detected, as demonstrated by a 40.88 ± 5.03 % decrease in the freezing time measured during the short-term memory context test at this time point, compared to that before irradiation. SPIO-labeled stem cells transplanted contralateral to the lesion migrated toward the lesion at this time point. No hemorrhage was detected up to 10 weeks after irradiation. This model can be used to evaluate SPIO-based stem cell-tracking agents, short-term.

  5. Bioluminescence Imaging of Transplanted Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Overexpression of Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor4α: Tracking Biodistribution and Survival.

    PubMed

    Xie, Peiyi; Hu, Xiaojun; Li, Dan; Xie, Sidong; Zhou, Zhiyang; Meng, Xiaochun; Shan, Hong

    2018-05-14

    The purposes of this study were to construct immortalized human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (UE7T-13) with overexpression of the hepatocyte nuclear factor4α (hHNF4α) and luciferase2-mKate2 dual-fusion reporter gene, further investigate their impact on treating acute liver injury (ALI) in rats, and track their biodistribution and survival by bioluminescence imaging (BLI). The hHNF4α and luciferase2-mKate2 genes were transduced by a lentiviral vector into UE7T-13 cells (named E7-hHNF4α-R cells), and expression was verified by immunofluorescence, RT-PCR, and flow cytometry. E7-hGFP-R cells expressing the luciferase2-mKate2/hGFP gene served as a negative group. A correlation between the bioluminescence signal and cell number was detected by BLI. The ALI rats were established and divided into three groups: PBS, E7-hGFP-R, and E7-hHNF4α-R. After transplantation of 2.0 × 10 6 cells, BLI was used to dynamically track their biodistribution and survival. The restoration of biological functions was assessed by serum biochemical and histological analyses. Stable high-level expression of hHNF4α and mKate2 protein was established in the E7-hHNF4α-R cells in vitro. The E7-hHNF4α-R cells strongly expressed hGFP, hHNF4α, and mKate2 proteins, and the hHNF4α gene. hGFP-mKate2 dual-positive cell expression reached approximately 93 %. BLI verified that a linear relationship existed between the cell number and bioluminescence signal (R 2  = 0.9991). The cells improved liver function in vivo after transplantation into the ALI rat liver, as evidenced by the fact that AST and ALT temporarily returned to normal levels in the recipient ALI rats. The presence of the transplanted E7-hGFP-R and E7-hHNF4α-R cells in recipient rat livers was confirmed by BLI and immunohistochemistry. However, the cells were cleared by the immune system a short time after transplantation into ALI rats with a normal immune system. Our data revealed that the E7-hHNF4α-R cells can

  6. Imaging mesenchymal stem cells containing single wall nanotube nanoprobes in a 3D scaffold using photo-thermal optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, Emma; Subhash, Hrebesh M.; Leahy, Martin; Rooney, Niall; Barry, Frank; Murphy, Mary; Barron, Valerie

    2014-02-01

    Despite the fact, that a range of clinically viable imaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), photo emission tomography (PET), ultrasound and bioluminescence imaging are being optimised to track cells in vivo, many of these techniques are subject to limitations such as the levels of contrast agent required, toxic effects of radiotracers, photo attenuation of tissue and backscatter. With the advent of nanotechnology, nanoprobes are leading the charge to overcome these limitations. In particular, single wall nanotubes (SWNT) have been shown to be taken up by cells and as such are effective nanoprobes for cell imaging. Consequently, the main aim of this research is to employ mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) containing SWNT nanoprobes to image cell distribution in a 3D scaffold for cartilage repair. To this end, MSC were cultured in the presence of 32μg/ml SWNT in cell culture medium (αMEM, 10% FBS, 1% penicillin/streptomycin) for 24 hours. Upon confirmation of cell viability, the MSC containing SWNT were encapsulated in hyaluronic acid gels and loaded on polylactic acid polycaprolactone scaffolds. After 28 days in complete chondrogenic medium, with medium changes every 2 days, chondrogenesis was confirmed by the presence of glycosaminoglycan. Moreover, using photothermal optical coherence tomography (PT-OCT), the cells were seen to be distributed through the scaffold with high resolution. In summary, these data reveal that MSC containing SWNT nanoprobes in combination with PT-OCT offer an exciting opportunity for stem cell tracking in vitro for assessing seeding scaffolds and in vivo for determining biodistribution.

  7. Biodistribution and Clearance of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Quantitative Three-Dimensional Cryo-Imaging After Intravenous Infusion in a Rat Lung Injury Model.

    PubMed

    Schmuck, Eric G; Koch, Jill M; Centanni, John M; Hacker, Timothy A; Braun, Rudolf K; Eldridge, Marlowe; Hei, Derek J; Hematti, Peiman; Raval, Amish N

    2016-12-01

    : Cell tracking is a critical component of the safety and efficacy evaluation of therapeutic cell products. To date, cell-tracking modalities have been hampered by poor resolution, low sensitivity, and inability to track cells beyond the shortterm. Three-dimensional (3D) cryo-imaging coregisters fluorescent and bright-field microcopy images and allows for single-cell quantification within a 3D organ volume. We hypothesized that 3D cryo-imaging could be used to measure cell biodistribution and clearance after intravenous infusion in a rat lung injury model compared with normal rats. A bleomycin lung injury model was established in Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 12). Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) labeled with QTracker655 were infused via jugular vein. After 2, 4, or 8 days, a second dose of hMSCs labeled with QTracker605 was infused, and animals were euthanized after 60, 120, or 240 minutes. Lungs, liver, spleen, heart, kidney, testis, and intestine were cryopreserved, followed by 3D cryo-imaging of each organ. At 60 minutes, 82% ± 9.7% of cells were detected; detection decreased to 60% ± 17% and 66% ± 22% at 120 and 240 minutes, respectively. At day 2, 0.06% of cells were detected, and this level remained constant at days 4 and 8 postinfusion. At 60, 120, and 240 minutes, 99.7% of detected cells were found in the liver, lungs, and spleen, with cells primarily retained in the liver. This is the first study using 3D cryo-imaging to track hMSCs in a rat lung injury model. hMSCs were retained primarily in the liver, with fewer detected in lungs and spleen. Effective bench-to-bedside clinical translation of cellular therapies requires careful understanding of cell fate through tracking. Tracking cells is important to measure cell retention so that delivery methods and cell dose can be optimized and so that biodistribution and clearance can be defined to better understand potential off-target toxicity and redosing strategies. This article demonstrates, for the first

  8. 18F-FDG labeling of mesenchymal stem cells and multipotent adult progenitor cells for PET imaging: effects on ultrastructure and differentiation capacity.

    PubMed

    Wolfs, Esther; Struys, Tom; Notelaers, Tineke; Roberts, Scott J; Sohni, Abhishek; Bormans, Guy; Van Laere, Koen; Luyten, Frank P; Gheysens, Olivier; Lambrichts, Ivo; Verfaillie, Catherine M; Deroose, Christophe M

    2013-03-01

    molecular imaging purposes. The main cellular properties are not rigorously affected. TEM confirmed that the cells' ultrastructural properties are not influenced by (18)F-FDG labeling. Small-animal PET studies confirmed the intracellular location of the tracer and the possibility of imaging injected prelabeled stem cell types in vivo. Therefore, direct labeling of MSCs and MAPCs with (18)F-FDG is a suitable technique to noninvasively assess cell delivery and early retention with PET.

  9. Diffusion tensor imaging as a biomarker for assessing neuronal stem cell treatments affecting areas distal to the site of spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Jirjis, Michael B; Valdez, Chris; Vedantam, Aditya; Schmit, Brian D; Kurpad, Shekar N

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE The aims of this study were to determine if the morphological and functional changes induced by neural stem cell (NSC) grafts after transplantation into the rodent spinal cord can be detected using MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and, furthermore, if the DTI-derived mean diffusivity (MD) metric could be a biomarker for cell transplantation in spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS A spinal contusion was produced at the T-8 vertebral level in 40 Sprague Dawley rats that were separated into 4 groups, including a sham group (injury without NSC injection), NSC control group (injury with saline injection), co-injection control group (injury with Prograf), and the experimental group (injury with NSC and Prograf injection). The NSC injection was completed 1 week after injury into the site of injury and the rats in the experimental group were compared to the rats from the sham, NSC control, and co-injection groups. The DTI index, MD, was assessed in vivo at 2, 5, and 10 weeks and ex vivo at 10 weeks postinjury on a 9.4-T Bruker scanner using a spin-echo imaging sequence. DTI data of the cervical spinal cord from the sham surgery, injury with saline injection, injury with injection of Prograf only, and injury with C17.2 NSC and Prograf injection were examined to evaluate if cellular proliferation induced by intrathoracic C17.2 engraftment was detectable in a noninvasive manner. RESULTS At 5 weeks after injury, the average fractional anisotropy, longitudinal diffusion (LD) and radial diffusion (RD) coefficients, and MD of water (average of the RD and LD eigenvalues in the stem cell line-treated group) increased to an average of 1.44 × 10 -3 sec/mm 2 in the cervical segments, while the control groups averaged 0.98 × 10 -3 s/mm 2 . Post hoc Tukey's honest significant difference tests demonstrated that the transplanted stem cells had significantly higher MD values than the other groups (p = 0.032 at 5 weeks). In vivo and ex vivo findings at 10 weeks displayed similar

  10. Single Stem Cell Imaging and Analysis Reveals Telomere Length Differences in Diseased Human and Mouse Skeletal Muscles.

    PubMed

    Tichy, Elisia D; Sidibe, David K; Tierney, Matthew T; Stec, Michael J; Sharifi-Sanjani, Maryam; Hosalkar, Harish; Mubarak, Scott; Johnson, F Brad; Sacco, Alessandra; Mourkioti, Foteini

    2017-10-10

    Muscle stem cells (MuSCs) contribute to muscle regeneration following injury. In many muscle disorders, the repeated cycles of damage and repair lead to stem cell dysfunction. While telomere attrition may contribute to aberrant stem cell functions, methods to accurately measure telomere length in stem cells from skeletal muscles have not been demonstrated. Here, we have optimized and validated such a method, named MuQ-FISH, for analyzing telomere length in MuSCs from either mice or humans. Our analysis showed no differences in telomere length between young and aged MuSCs from uninjured wild-type mice, but MuSCs isolated from young dystrophic mice exhibited significantly shortened telomeres. In corroboration, we demonstrated that telomere attrition is present in human dystrophic MuSCs, which underscores its importance in diseased regenerative failure. The robust technique described herein provides analysis at a single-cell resolution and may be utilized for other cell types, especially rare populations of cells. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Same-View Nano-XAFS/STEM-EDS Imagings of Pt Chemical Species in Pt/C Cathode Catalyst Layers of a Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell.

    PubMed

    Takao, Shinobu; Sekizawa, Oki; Samjeské, Gabor; Nagamatsu, Shin-ichi; Kaneko, Takuma; Yamamoto, Takashi; Higashi, Kotaro; Nagasawa, Kensaku; Uruga, Tomoya; Iwasawa, Yasuhiro

    2015-06-04

    We have made the first success in the same-view imagings of 2D nano-XAFS and TEM/STEM-EDS under a humid N2 atmosphere for Pt/C cathode catalyst layers in membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) with Nafion membrane to examine the degradation of Pt/C cathodes by anode gas exchange cycles (start-up/shut-down simulations of PEFC vehicles). The same-view imaging under the humid N2 atmosphere provided unprecedented spatial information on the distribution of Pt nanoparticles and oxidation states in the Pt/C cathode catalyst layer as well as Nafion ionomer-filled nanoholes of carbon support in the wet MEA, which evidence the origin of the formation of Pt oxidation species and isolated Pt nanoparticles in the nanohole areas of the cathode layer with different Pt/ionomer ratios, relevant to the degradation of PEFC catalysts.

  12. Symmetrical Curvilinear Cytotoxic Edema Along the Surface of the Brain Stem: A Probable New Magnetic Resonance Imaging Finding of Leptomeningeal Carcinomatosis.

    PubMed

    Khil, Eun Kyung; Lee, A Leum; Chang, Kee-Hyun; Yun, Tae Jin; Hong, Hyun Sook

    2015-07-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most common neoplasms to appear leptomeningeal metastasis (LM). Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is better diagnostic choice for LM and usually shows focal nodular or diffuse linear enhancement on the leptomeninges along the sulci and tentorium in the brain. We experienced atypical 2 cases of lung cancer in patients who showed unusual brain MRI finding of symmetrical curvilinear or band-like, nonenhancing cytotoxic edema along the surface of the brain stem. This finding is unique and different from the general findings of leptomeningeal metastasis. This unique imaging finding of symmetric curvilinear nonenhancing cytotoxic edema along the brainstem is extremely rare and represents a new presentation of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis.

  13. Evaluation of engraftment of superparamagnetic iron oxide-labeled mesenchymal stem cells using three-dimensional reconstruction of magnetic resonance imaging in photothrombotic cerebral infarction models of rats.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jaehyun; Kwak, Byung Kook; Jung, Jisung; Park, Serah

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate engraftment by visualizing the location of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) three-dimensionally in photothrombotic cerebral infarction (PTCI) models of rats. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of an agarose block containing superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-labeled hBM-MSCs was performed using a 3.0-T MRI, T2-(T2WI), T2(*)-(T2(*)WI), and susceptibility-weighted images (SWI). PTCI was induced in 6 rats, and 2.5 × 10(5) SPIO-labeled hBM-MSCs were infused through the ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA group) or tail vein (IV group). MRI was performed on days 1, 3, 7, and 14 after stem cell injection. Dark signal regions were confirmed using histology. Three-dimensional MRI reconstruction was performed using the clinical workflow solution to evaluate the engraftment of hBM-MSCs. Volumetric analysis of the engraftment was also performed. The volumes of SPIO-labeled hBM-MSCs in the phantom MRI were 129.3, 68.4, and 25.9 µL using SWI, T2(*)WI, and T2WI, respectively. SPIO-labeled hBM-MSCs appeared on day 1 after injection, encircling the cerebral infarction from the ventral side. Dark signal regions matched iron positive cells and human origin (positive) cells. The volume of the engraftment was larger in the ICA group on days 1, 3, and 7, after stem cell injection (p < 0.05 on SWI). SWI was the most sensitive MRI pulse sequence (p < 0.05). The volume of infarction decreased until day 14. The engraftment of SPIO-labeled hBM-MSCs can be visualized and evaluated three-dimensionally in PTCI models of rats. The engraftment volume was larger in the ICA group than IV group on early stage within one week.

  14. 3D analysis of semiconductor devices: A combination of 3D imaging and 3D elemental analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Bianzhu; Gribelyuk, Michael A.

    2018-04-01

    3D analysis of semiconductor devices using a combination of scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) Z-contrast tomography and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) elemental tomography is presented. 3D STEM Z-contrast tomography is useful in revealing the depth information of the sample. However, it suffers from contrast problems between materials with similar atomic numbers. Examples of EDS elemental tomography are presented using an automated EDS tomography system with batch data processing, which greatly reduces the data collection and processing time. 3D EDS elemental tomography reveals more in-depth information about the defect origin in semiconductor failure analysis. The influence of detector shadowing and X-rays absorption on the EDS tomography's result is also discussed.

  15. Theranostic mesoporous silica nanoparticles biodegrade after pro-survival drug delivery and ultrasound/magnetic resonance imaging of stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kempen, Paul J; Greasley, Sarah; Parker, Kelly A; Campbell, Jos L; Chang, Huan-Yu; Jones, Julian R; Sinclair, Robert; Gambhir, Sanjiv S; Jokerst, Jesse V

    2015-01-01

    Increasing cell survival in stem cell therapy is an important challenge for the field of regenerative medicine. Here, we report theranostic mesoporous silica nanoparticles that can increase cell survival through both diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. First, the nanoparticle offers ultrasound and MRI signal to guide implantation into the peri-infarct zone and away from the most necrotic tissue. Second, the nanoparticle serves as a slow release reservoir of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-a protein shown to increase cell survival. Mesenchymal stem cells labeled with these nanoparticles had detection limits near 9000 cells with no cytotoxicity at the 250 µg/mL concentration required for labeling. We also studied the degradation of the nanoparticles and showed that they clear from cells in approximately 3 weeks. The presence of IGF increased cell survival up to 40% (p<0.05) versus unlabeled cells under in vitro serum-free culture conditions.

  16. Detection of Repair of the Zone of Calcified Cartilage with Osteoarthritis through Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Ultrashort Echo Time Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Quan; Li, Shao-Lin; Ma, Ya-Jun; de Tal, Vicki; Li, Wei; Zhao, Ying-Hua

    2018-05-05

    Currently, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most commonly used imaging modality for observing the growth and development of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) after in vivo transplantation to treat osteoarthritis (OA). However, it is a challenge to accurately monitor the treatment effects of MSCs in the zone of calcified cartilage (ZCC) with OA. This is especially true in the physiological and biochemical views that are not accurately detected by MRI contrast agents. In contrast, ultrashort time echo (UTE) MRI has been shown to be sensitive to the presence of the ZCC, creating the potential for more effectively observing the repair of the ZCC in OA by MSCs. A special focus is given to the outlook of the use of UTE MRI to detect repair of the ZCC with OA through MSCs. The limitations of the current techniques for clinical applications and future directions are also discussed. Using the combined keywords: "osteoarthritis", "mesenchymal stem cells", "calcified cartilage", and "magnetic resonance imaging", the PubMed/MEDLINE literature search was conducted up to June 1, 2017. A total of 132 published articles were initially identified citations. Of the 132 articles, 48 articles were selected after further detailed review. This study referred to all the important English literature in full. In contrast, UTE MRI has been shown to be sensitive to the presence of the ZCC, creating the potential for more effectively observing the repair of the ZCC in OA by MSCs. The current studies showed that the ZCC could be described in terms of its histomorphology and biochemistry by UTE MRI. We prospected that UTE MRI has been shown the potential for more effectively observing the repair of the ZCC in OA by MSCs in vivo.

  17. Cryopreservation of embryonic stem cell-derived multicellular neural aggregates labeled with micron-sized particles of iron oxide for magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yuanwei; Sart, Sébastien; Calixto Bejarano, Fabian; Muroski, Megan E; Strouse, Geoffrey F; Grant, Samuel C; Li, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides an effective approach to track labeled pluripotent stem cell (PSC)-derived neural progenitor cells (NPCs) for neurological disorder treatments after cell labeling with a contrast agent, such as an iron oxide derivative. Cryopreservation of pre-labeled neural cells, especially in three-dimensional (3D) structure, can provide a uniform cell population and preserve the stem cell niche for the subsequent applications. In this study, the effects of cryopreservation on PSC-derived multicellular NPC aggregates labeled with micron-sized particles of iron oxide (MPIO) were investigated. These NPC aggregates were labeled prior to cryopreservation because labeling thawed cells can be limited by inefficient intracellular uptake, variations in labeling efficiency, and increased culture time before use, minimizing their translation to clinical settings. The results indicated that intracellular MPIO incorporation was retained after cryopreservation (70-80% labeling efficiency), and MPIO labeling had little adverse effects on cell recovery, proliferation, cytotoxicity and neural lineage commitment post-cryopreservation. MRI analysis showed comparable detectability for the MPIO-labeled cells before and after cryopreservation indicated by T2 and T2* relaxation rates. Cryopreserving MPIO-labeled 3D multicellular NPC aggregates can be applied in in vivo cell tracking studies and lead to more rapid translation from preservation to clinical implementation. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  18. Research and Teaching: Methods for Creating and Evaluating 3D Tactile Images to Teach STEM Courses to the Visually Impaired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasper, Eric; Windhorst, Rogier; Hedgpeth, Terri; Van Tuyl, Leanne; Gonzales, Ashleigh; Martinez, Britta; Yu, Hongyu; Farkas, Zolton; Baluch, Debra P.

    2015-01-01

    Project 3D IMAGINE or 3D Image Arrays to Graphically Implement New Education is a pilot study that researches the effectiveness of incorporating 3D tactile images, which are critical for learning science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, into entry-level lab courses. The focus of this project is to increase the participation and…

  19. Micrometer-sized iron oxide particle labeling of mesenchymal stem cells for magnetic resonance imaging-based monitoring of cartilage tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Saldanha, Karl J; Doan, Ryan P; Ainslie, Kristy M; Desai, Tejal A; Majumdar, Sharmila

    2011-01-01

    To examine mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) labeling with micrometer-sized iron oxide particles (MPIOs) for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based tracking and its application to monitoring articular cartilage regeneration. Rabbit MSCs were labeled using commercial MPIOs. In vitro MRI was performed with gradient echo (GRE) and spin echo (SE) sequences at 3T and quantitatively characterized using line profile and region of interest analysis. Ex vivo MRI of hydrogel-encapsulated labeled MSCs implanted within a bovine knee was performed with spoiled GRE (SPGR) and T(1ρ) sequences. Fluorescence microscopy, labeling efficiency, and chondrogenesis of MPIO-labeled cells were also examined. MPIO labeling results in efficient contrast uptake and signal loss that can be visualized and quantitatively characterized via MRI. SPGR imaging of implanted cells results in ex vivo detection within native tissue, and T(1ρ) imaging is unaffected by the presence of labeled cells immediately following implantation. MPIO labeling does not affect quantitative glycosaminoglycan production during chondrogenesis, but iron aggregation hinders extracellular matrix visualization. This aggregation may result from excess unincorporated particles following labeling and is an issue that necessitates further investigation. This study demonstrates the promise of MPIO labeling for monitoring cartilage regeneration and highlights its potential in the development of cell-based tissue engineering strategies. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Detection of Repair of the Zone of Calcified Cartilage with Osteoarthritis through Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Ultrashort Echo Time Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Quan; Li, Shao-Lin; Ma, Ya-Jun; de Tal, Vicki; Li, Wei; Zhao, Ying-Hua

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Currently, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most commonly used imaging modality for observing the growth and development of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) after in vivo transplantation to treat osteoarthritis (OA). However, it is a challenge to accurately monitor the treatment effects of MSCs in the zone of calcified cartilage (ZCC) with OA. This is especially true in the physiological and biochemical views that are not accurately detected by MRI contrast agents. In contrast, ultrashort time echo (UTE) MRI has been shown to be sensitive to the presence of the ZCC, creating the potential for more effectively observing the repair of the ZCC in OA by MSCs. A special focus is given to the outlook of the use of UTE MRI to detect repair of the ZCC with OA through MSCs. The limitations of the current techniques for clinical applications and future directions are also discussed. Data Sources: Using the combined keywords: “osteoarthritis”, “mesenchymal stem cells”, “calcified cartilage”, and “magnetic resonance imaging”, the PubMed/MEDLINE literature search was conducted up to June 1, 2017. Study Selection: A total of 132 published articles were initially identified citations. Of the 132 articles, 48 articles were selected after further detailed review. This study referred to all the important English literature in full. Results: In contrast, UTE MRI has been shown to be sensitive to the presence of the ZCC, creating the potential for more effectively observing the repair of the ZCC in OA by MSCs. Conclusions: The current studies showed that the ZCC could be described in terms of its histomorphology and biochemistry by UTE MRI. We prospected that UTE MRI has been shown the potential for more effectively observing the repair of the ZCC in OA by MSCs in vivo. PMID:29451138

  1. Stem cells.

    PubMed

    Behr, Björn; Ko, Sae Hee; Wong, Victor W; Gurtner, Geoffrey C; Longaker, Michael T

    2010-10-01

    Stem cells are self-renewing cells capable of differentiating into multiple cell lines and are classified according to their origin and their ability to differentiate. Enormous potential exists in use of stem cells for regenerative medicine. To produce effective stem cell-based treatments for a range of diseases, an improved understanding of stem cell biology and better control over stem cell fate are necessary. In addition, the barriers to clinical translation, such as potential oncologic properties of stem cells, need to be addressed. With renewed government support and continued refinement of current stem cell methodologies, the future of stem cell research is exciting and promises to provide novel reconstructive options for patients and surgeons limited by traditional paradigms.

  2. STEM Symposium

    2012-02-28

    Lorenzo L. Esters, Vice President, APLU (Association of Public and Land-grant Universities), and Project Director, MMSI (Minority Male STEM Initiative) addresses STEM initiative report findings at the Symposium on Supporting Underrepresented Minority Males in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM), Tuesday, February 28, 2012 at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  3. STEM Sell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantic, Zorica

    2007-01-01

    Between 1994 and 2003, employment in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) fields grew by a remarkable 23 percent, compared with 17 percent in non-STEM fields, according to federal data. The Bureau of Labor Statistics predicts continued strong growth in STEM job openings through 2014, with emphasis on life sciences, environmental…

  4. Quantitative, Structural and Image-based Mechanical Analysis of Nonunion Fracture Repaired by Genetically Engineered Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kallai, Ilan; van Lenthe, G. Harry; Ruffoni, Davide; Zilberman, Yoram; Müller, Ralph; Pelled, Gadi; Gazit, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Stem cell-mediated gene therapy for fracture repair, utilizes genetically engineered mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for the induction of bone growth and is considered a promising approach in skeletal tissue regeneration. Previous studies have shown that murine nonunion fractures can be repaired by implanting MSCs over-expressing recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2). Nanoindentation studies of bone tissue induced by MSCs in a radius fracture site indicated similar elastic modulus compared to intact murine bone, eight weeks post treatment. In the present study we sought to investigate temporal changes in microarchitecture and biomechanical properties of repaired murine radius bones, following the implantation of MSCs. High resolution micro computed tomography (Micro-CT) was performed 10 and 35 weeks post MSC implantation, followed by micro finite element (Micro-FE) analysis. The results have shown that the regenerated bone tissue remodels over time, as indicated by a significant decrease in bone volume, total volume and connectivity density combined with an increase in mineral density. In addition, the axial stiffness of limbs repaired with MSCs was 2 to 1.5 times higher compared to the contralateral intact limbs, at 10 and 35 weeks post treatment. These results could be attributed to the fusion that occurred between in the ulna and radius bones. In conclusion, although MSCs induce bone formation, which exceeds the fracture site, significant remodeling of the repair callus occurs over time. In addition, limbs treated with an MSC graft demonstrated superior biomechanical properties, which could indicate the clinical benefit of future MSC application in nonunion fracture repair. PMID:20471652

  5. Types of Stem Cells

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cell Glossary Search Toggle Nav Types of Stem Cells Stem cells are the foundation from which all ... About Stem Cells > Types of Stem Cells Stem cells Stem cells are the foundation for every organ ...

  6. High-Throughput Phenotyping of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes and Neurons Using Electric Field Stimulation and High-Speed Fluorescence Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Daily, Neil J.; Du, Zhong-Wei

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Electrophysiology of excitable cells, including muscle cells and neurons, has been measured by making direct contact with a single cell using a micropipette electrode. To increase the assay throughput, optical devices such as microscopes and microplate readers have been used to analyze electrophysiology of multiple cells. We have established a high-throughput (HTP) analysis of action potentials (APs) in highly enriched motor neurons and cardiomyocytes (CMs) that are differentiated from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). A multichannel electric field stimulation (EFS) device enabled the ability to electrically stimulate cells and measure dynamic changes in APs of excitable cells ultra-rapidly (>100 data points per second) by imaging entire 96-well plates. We found that the activities of both neurons and CMs and their response to EFS and chemicals are readily discerned by our fluorescence imaging-based HTP phenotyping assay. The latest generation of calcium (Ca2+) indicator dyes, FLIPR Calcium 6 and Cal-520, with the HTP device enables physiological analysis of human iPSC-derived samples highlighting its potential application for understanding disease mechanisms and discovering new therapeutic treatments. PMID:28525289

  7. Imaging of hepatic toxicity of systemic therapy in a tertiary cancer centre: chemotherapy, haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, molecular targeted therapies, and immune checkpoint inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Alessandrino, F; Tirumani, S H; Krajewski, K M; Shinagare, A B; Jagannathan, J P; Ramaiya, N H; Di Salvo, D N

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this review is to familiarise radiologists with the spectrum of hepatic toxicity seen in the oncology setting, in view of the different systemic therapies used in cancer patients. Drug-induced liver injury can manifest in various forms, and anti-neoplastic agents are associated with different types of hepatotoxicity. Although chemotherapy-induced liver injury can present as hepatitis, steatosis, sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, and chronic parenchymal damages, molecular targeted therapy-associated liver toxicity ranges from mild liver function test elevation to fulminant life-threatening acute liver failure. The recent arrival of immune checkpoint inhibitors in oncology has introduced a new range of immune-related adverse events, with differing mechanisms of liver toxicity and varied imaging presentation of liver injury. High-dose chemotherapy regimens for haematopoietic stem cell transplantation are associated with sinusoidal obstruction syndrome. Management of hepatic toxicity depends on the clinical scenario, the drug in use, and the severity of the findings. In this article, we will (1) present the most common types of oncological drugs associated with hepatic toxicity and associated liver injuries; (2) illustrate imaging findings of hepatic toxicities and the possible differential diagnosis; and (3) provide a guide for management of these conditions. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Light-sheet Bayesian microscopy enables deep-cell super-resolution imaging of heterochromatin in live human embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ying S; Zhu, Quan; Elkins, Keri; Tse, Kevin; Li, Yu; Fitzpatrick, James A J; Verma, Inder M; Cang, Hu

    2016-01-01

    Background Heterochromatin in the nucleus of human embryonic cells plays an important role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. The architecture of heterochromatin and its dynamic organization remain elusive because of the lack of fast and high-resolution deep-cell imaging tools. We enable this task by advancing instrumental and algorithmic implementation of the localization-based super-resolution technique. Results We present light-sheet Bayesian super-resolution microscopy (LSBM). We adapt light-sheet illumination for super-resolution imaging by using a novel prism-coupled condenser design to illuminate a thin slice of the nucleus with high signal-to-noise ratio. Coupled with a Bayesian algorithm that resolves overlapping fluorophores from high-density areas, we show, for the first time, nanoscopic features of the heterochromatin structure in both fixed and live human embryonic stem cells. The enhanced temporal resolution allows capturing the dynamic change of heterochromatin with a lateral resolution of 50–60 nm on a time scale of 2.3 s. Conclusion Light-sheet Bayesian microscopy opens up broad new possibilities of probing nanometer-scale nuclear structures and real-time sub-cellular processes and other previously difficult-to-access intracellular regions of living cells at the single-molecule, and single cell level. PMID:27795878

  9. Light-sheet Bayesian microscopy enables deep-cell super-resolution imaging of heterochromatin in live human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ying S; Zhu, Quan; Elkins, Keri; Tse, Kevin; Li, Yu; Fitzpatrick, James A J; Verma, Inder M; Cang, Hu

    2013-01-01

    Heterochromatin in the nucleus of human embryonic cells plays an important role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. The architecture of heterochromatin and its dynamic organization remain elusive because of the lack of fast and high-resolution deep-cell imaging tools. We enable this task by advancing instrumental and algorithmic implementation of the localization-based super-resolution technique. We present light-sheet Bayesian super-resolution microscopy (LSBM). We adapt light-sheet illumination for super-resolution imaging by using a novel prism-coupled condenser design to illuminate a thin slice of the nucleus with high signal-to-noise ratio. Coupled with a Bayesian algorithm that resolves overlapping fluorophores from high-density areas, we show, for the first time, nanoscopic features of the heterochromatin structure in both fixed and live human embryonic stem cells. The enhanced temporal resolution allows capturing the dynamic change of heterochromatin with a lateral resolution of 50-60 nm on a time scale of 2.3 s. Light-sheet Bayesian microscopy opens up broad new possibilities of probing nanometer-scale nuclear structures and real-time sub-cellular processes and other previously difficult-to-access intracellular regions of living cells at the single-molecule, and single cell level.

  10. Periocular and Intra-Articular Injection of Canine Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells: An In Vivo Imaging and Migration Study

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Joshua A.; Chung, Dai-Jung; Park, Shin Ae; Zwingenberger, Allison L.; Reilly, Christopher M.; Ly, Irene; Walker, Naomi J.; Vernau, William; Hayashi, Kei; Wisner, Erik R.; Cannon, Matthew S.; Kass, Philip H.; Cherry, Simon R.; Borjesson, Dori L.; Russell, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Purpose Immune-mediated diseases affect millions of people worldwide with an economic impact measured in the billions of dollars. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are being investigated in the treatment of certain immune mediated diseases, but their application in the treatment of the majority of these disorders remains largely unexplored. Keratoconjunctivitis sicca can occur as a result of progressive immune-mediated destruction of lacrimal tissue in dogs and humans, and immune-mediated joint disease is common to both species. In dogs, allogeneic MSC engraftment and migration have yet to be investigated in vivo in the context of repeated injections. Methods With these aims in mind, the engraftment of allogeneic canine MSCs after an injection into the periocular and intra-articular regions was followed in vivo using magnetic resonance and fluorescent imaging. Results The cells were shown to be resident near the site of the injection for a minimum of 2 weeks. Analysis of 61 tissues demonstrated preferential migration and subsequent engraftment of MSCs in the thymus as well as the gastrointestinal tract. These results also detail a novel in vivo imaging technique and demonstrate the differential spatial distribution of MSCs after migration away from the sites of local delivery. Conclusion The active engraftment of the MSCs in combination with their previously documented immunomodulatory capabilities suggests the potential for therapeutic benefit in using MSCs for the treatment of periocular and joint diseases with immune involvement. PMID:22175793

  11. [Features of maxillary and mandibular nerves imaging during stem regional blockades. From paresthesia to 3D-CT guidance].

    PubMed

    Zaytsev, A Yu; Nazaryan, D N; Kim, S Yu; Dubrovin, K V; Svetlov, V A; Khovrin, V V

    2014-01-01

    There are difficulties in procedure of regional block of 2 and 3 brunches of the trigeminal nerve despite availability of many different methods of nerves imaging. The difficulties are connected with complex anatomy structure. Neurostimulation not always effective and as a rule, is accompanied with wrong interpretation of movement response on stimulation. The changing of the tactics on paraesthesia search improves the situation. The use of new methods of nerves imaging (3D-CT) also allows decreasing the frequency of fails during procedure of regional block of the brunches of the trigeminal nerve.

  12. Magnetic resonance and photoacoustic imaging of brain tumor mediated by mesenchymal stem cell labeled with multifunctional nanoparticle introduced via carotid artery injection.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yang; Gumin, Joy; MacLellan, Christopher J; Gao, Feng; Bouchard, Richard; Lang, Frederick F; Stafford, R Jason; Melancon, Marites P

    2018-04-20

    To evaluate the feasibility of visualizing bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) labeled with a gold-coated magnetic resonance (MR)-active multifunctional nanoparticle and injected via the carotid artery for assessing the extent of MSC homing in glioma-bearing mice. Nanoparticles containing superparamagnetic iron oxide coated with gold (SPIO@Au) with a diameter of ∼82 nm and maximum absorbance in the near infrared region were synthesized. Bone marrow-derived MSCs conjugated with green fluorescent protein (GFP) were successfully labeled with SPIO@Au at 4 μg ml -1 and injected via the internal carotid artery in six mice bearing orthotopic U87 tumors. Unlabeled MSCs were used as a control. The ability of SPIO@Au-loaded MSCs to be imaged using MR and photoacoustic (PA) imaging at t = 0 h, 2 h, 24 h, and 72 h was assessed using a 7 T Bruker Biospec experimental MR scanner and a Vevo LAZR PA imaging system with a 5 ns laser as the excitation source. Histological analysis of the brain tissue was performed 72 h after MSC injection using GFP fluorescence, Prussian blue staining, and hematoxylin-and-eosin staining. MSCs labeled with SPIO@Au at 4 μg ml -1 did not exhibit cell death or any adverse effects on differentiation or migration. The PA signal in tumors injected with SPIO@Au-loaded MSCs was clearly more enhanced post-injection, as compared with the tumors injected with unlabeled MSCs at t = 72 h. Using the same mice, T2-weighted MR imaging results taken before injection and at t = 2 h, 24 h, and 72 h were consistent with the PA imaging results, showing significant hypointensity of the tumor in the presence of SPIO@Au-loaded MSCs. Histological analysis also showed co-localization of GFP fluorescence and iron, thereby confirming that SPIO@Au-labeled MSCs continue to carry their nanoparticle payloads even at 72 h after injection. Our results demonstrated the feasibility of tracking carotid artery-injected SPIO@Au-labeled MSCs in vivo via MR and

  13. Magnetic resonance and photoacoustic imaging of brain tumor mediated by mesenchymal stem cell labeled with multifunctional nanoparticle introduced via carotid artery injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Yang; Gumin, Joy; MacLellan, Christopher J.; Gao, Feng; Bouchard, Richard; Lang, Frederick F.; Stafford, R. Jason; Melancon, Marites P.

    2018-04-01

    Objective. To evaluate the feasibility of visualizing bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) labeled with a gold-coated magnetic resonance (MR)-active multifunctional nanoparticle and injected via the carotid artery for assessing the extent of MSC homing in glioma-bearing mice. Materials and methods. Nanoparticles containing superparamagnetic iron oxide coated with gold (SPIO@Au) with a diameter of ˜82 nm and maximum absorbance in the near infrared region were synthesized. Bone marrow-derived MSCs conjugated with green fluorescent protein (GFP) were successfully labeled with SPIO@Au at 4 μg ml-1 and injected via the internal carotid artery in six mice bearing orthotopic U87 tumors. Unlabeled MSCs were used as a control. The ability of SPIO@Au-loaded MSCs to be imaged using MR and photoacoustic (PA) imaging at t = 0 h, 2 h, 24 h, and 72 h was assessed using a 7 T Bruker Biospec experimental MR scanner and a Vevo LAZR PA imaging system with a 5 ns laser as the excitation source. Histological analysis of the brain tissue was performed 72 h after MSC injection using GFP fluorescence, Prussian blue staining, and hematoxylin-and-eosin staining. Results. MSCs labeled with SPIO@Au at 4 μg ml-1 did not exhibit cell death or any adverse effects on differentiation or migration. The PA signal in tumors injected with SPIO@Au-loaded MSCs was clearly more enhanced post-injection, as compared with the tumors injected with unlabeled MSCs at t = 72 h. Using the same mice, T2-weighted MR imaging results taken before injection and at t = 2 h, 24 h, and 72 h were consistent with the PA imaging results, showing significant hypointensity of the tumor in the presence of SPIO@Au-loaded MSCs. Histological analysis also showed co-localization of GFP fluorescence and iron, thereby confirming that SPIO@Au-labeled MSCs continue to carry their nanoparticle payloads even at 72 h after injection. Conclusions. Our results demonstrated the feasibility of tracking carotid artery

  14. Live Cell Imaging of the Nascent Inactive X Chromosome during the Early Differentiation Process of Naive ES Cells towards Epiblast Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guyochin, Aurélia; Maenner, Sylvain; Chu, Erin Tsi-Jia; Hentati, Asma; Attia, Mikael; Avner, Philip; Clerc, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Random X-chromosome inactivation ensures dosage compensation in mammals through the transcriptional silencing of one of the two X chromosomes present in each female cell. Silencing is initiated in the differentiating epiblast of the mouse female embryos through coating of the nascent inactive X chromosome by the non-coding RNA Xist, which subsequently recruits the Polycomb Complex PRC2 leading to histone H3-K27 methylation. Here we examined in mouse ES cells the early steps of the transition from naive ES cells towards epiblast stem cells as a model for inducing X chromosome inactivation in vitro. We show that these conditions efficiently induce random XCI. Importantly, in a transient phase of this differentiation pathway, both X chromosomes are coated with Xist RNA in up to 15% of the XX cells. In an attempt to determine the dynamics of this process, we designed a strategy aimed at visualizing the nascent inactive X-chromosome in live cells. We generated transgenic female XX ES cells expressing the PRC2 component Ezh2 fused to the fluorescent protein Venus. The fluorescent fusion protein was expressed at sub-physiological levels and located in nuclei of ES cells. Upon differentiation of ES cell towards epiblast stem cell fate, Venus-fluorescent territories appearing in interphase nuclei were identified as nascent inactive X chromosomes by their association with Xist RNA. Imaging of Ezh2-Venus for up to 24 hours during the differentiation process showed survival of some cells with two fluorescent domains and a surprising dynamics of the fluorescent territories across cell division and in the course of the differentiation process. Our data reveal a strategy for visualizing the nascent inactive X chromosome and suggests the possibility for a large plasticity of the nascent inactive X chromosome. PMID:25546018

  15. Traumatic axonal injury: the prognostic value of lesion load in corpus callosum, brain stem, and thalamus in different magnetic resonance imaging sequences.

    PubMed

    Moen, Kent G; Brezova, Veronika; Skandsen, Toril; Håberg, Asta K; Folvik, Mari; Vik, Anne

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the prognostic value of visible traumatic axonal injury (TAI) loads in different MRI sequences from the early phase after adjusting for established prognostic factors. Likewise, we sought to explore the prognostic role of early apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in normal-appearing corpus callosum. In this prospective study, 128 patients (mean age, 33.9 years; range, 11-69) with moderate (n = 64) and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) were examined with MRI at a median of 8 days (range, 0-28) postinjury. TAI lesions in fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and T2*-weighted gradient echo (T2*GRE) sequences were counted and FLAIR lesion volumes estimated. In patients and 47 healthy controls, mean ADC values were computed in 10 regions of interests in the normal-appearing corpus callosum. Outcome measure was the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOS-E) at 12 months. In patients with severe TBI, number of DWI lesions and volume of FLAIR lesions in the corpus callosum, brain stem, and thalamus predicted outcome in analyses with adjustment for age, Glasgow Coma Scale score, and pupillary dilation (odds ratio, 1.3-6.9; p = <0.001-0.017). The addition of Rotterdam CT score and DWI lesions in the corpus callosum yielded the highest R2 (0.24), compared to all other MRI variables, including brain stem lesions. For patients with moderate TBI only the number of cortical contusions (p = 0.089) and Rotterdam CT score (p = 0.065) tended to predict outcome. Numbers of T2*GRE lesions did not affect outcome. Mean ADC values in the normal-appearing corpus callosum did not differ from controls. In conclusion, the loads of visible TAI lesions in the corpus callosum, brain stem, and thalamus in DWI and FLAIR were independent prognostic factors in patients with severe TBI. DWI lesions in the corpus callosum were the most important predictive MRI variable. Interestingly, number of cortical

  16. Effect of Mobile Phone-Induced Electromagnetic Field on Brain Hemodynamics and Human Stem Cell Functioning: Possible Mechanistic Link to Cancer Risk and Early Diagnostic Value of Electronphotonic Imaging.

    PubMed

    Bhargav, Hemant; Srinivasan, T M; Varambally, S; Gangadhar, B N; Koka, Prasad

    2015-01-01

    The mobile phones (MP) are low power radio devices which work on electromagnetic fields (EMFs), in the frequency range of 900-1800 MHz. Exposure to MPEMFs may affect brain physiology and lead to various health hazards including brain tumors. Earlier studies with positron emission tomography (PET) have found alterations in cerebral blood flow (CBF) after acute exposure to MPEMFs. It is widely accepted that DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and their misrepair in stem cells are critical events in the multistage origination of various leukemia and tumors, including brain tumors such as gliomas. Both significant misbalance in DSB repair and severe stress response have been triggered by MPEMFs and EMFs from cell towers. It has been shown that stem cells are most sensitive to microwave exposure and react to more frequencies than do differentiated cells. This may be important for cancer risk assessment and indicates that stem cells are the most relevant cellular model for validating safe mobile communication signals. Recently developed technology for recording the human bio-electromagnetic (BEM) field using Electron photonic Imaging (EPI) or Gas Discharge Visualisation (GDV) technique provides useful information about the human BEM. Studies have recorded acute effects of Mobile Phone Electromagnetic Fields (MPEMFs) using EPI and found quantifiable effects on human BEM field. Present manuscript reviews evidences of altered brain physiology and stem cell functioning due to mobile phone/cell tower radiations, its association with increased cancer risk and explores early diagnostic value of EPI imaging in detecting EMF induced changes on human BEM.

  17. Discordance in lymphoid tissue recovery following stem cell transplantation in rhesus macaques: an in vivo imaging study.

    PubMed

    Donahue, Robert E; Srinivasula, Sharat; Uchida, Naoya; Kim, Insook; St Claire, Alexis; Duralde, Gorka; DeGrange, Paula; St Claire, Marisa; Reba, Richard C; Bonifacino, Aylin C; Krouse, Allen E; Metzger, Mark E; Paik, Chang H; Lane, H Clifford; Tisdale, John F; Di Mascio, Michele

    2015-12-10

    Ionizing irradiation is used routinely to induce myeloablation and immunosuppression. However, it has not been possible to evaluate the extent of ablation without invasive biopsy. For lymphoid recovery, peripheral blood (PB) lymphocytes (PBLs) have been used for analysis, but they represent <2% of cells in lymphoid tissues (LTs). Using a combination of single-photon emission computed tomography imaging and a radiotracer ((99m)Tc-labeled rhesus immunoglobulin G1 anti-CD4R1 (Fab')2), we sequentially imaged CD4(+) cell recovery in rhesus macaques following total body irradiation (TBI) and reinfusion of vector-transduced, autologous CD34(+) cells. Our results present for the first time a sequential, real-time, noninvasive method to evaluate CD4(+) cell recovery. Importantly, despite myeloablation of circulating leukocytes following TBI, total depletion of CD4(+) lymphocytes in LTs such as the spleen is not achieved. The impact of TBI on LTs and PBLs is discordant, in which as few as 32.4% of CD4(+) cells were depleted from the spleen. In addition, despite full lymphocyte recovery in the spleen and PB, lymph nodes have suboptimal recovery. This highlights concerns about residual disease, endogenous contributions to recovery, and residual LT damage following ionizing irradiation. Such methodologies also have direct application to immunosuppressive therapy and other immunosuppressive disorders, such as those associated with viral monitoring.

  18. Discordance in lymphoid tissue recovery following stem cell transplantation in rhesus macaques: an in vivo imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasula, Sharat; Uchida, Naoya; Kim, Insook; St. Claire, Alexis; Duralde, Gorka; DeGrange, Paula; St. Claire, Marisa; Reba, Richard C.; Bonifacino, Aylin C.; Krouse, Allen E.; Metzger, Mark E.; Paik, Chang H.; Lane, H. Clifford; Tisdale, John F.; Di Mascio, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing irradiation is used routinely to induce myeloablation and immunosuppression. However, it has not been possible to evaluate the extent of ablation without invasive biopsy. For lymphoid recovery, peripheral blood (PB) lymphocytes (PBLs) have been used for analysis, but they represent <2% of cells in lymphoid tissues (LTs). Using a combination of single-photon emission computed tomography imaging and a radiotracer (99mTc-labeled rhesus immunoglobulin G1 anti-CD4R1 (Fab′)2), we sequentially imaged CD4+ cell recovery in rhesus macaques following total body irradiation (TBI) and reinfusion of vector-transduced, autologous CD34+ cells. Our results present for the first time a sequential, real-time, noninvasive method to evaluate CD4+ cell recovery. Importantly, despite myeloablation of circulating leukocytes following TBI, total depletion of CD4+ lymphocytes in LTs such as the spleen is not achieved. The impact of TBI on LTs and PBLs is discordant, in which as few as 32.4% of CD4+ cells were depleted from the spleen. In addition, despite full lymphocyte recovery in the spleen and PB, lymph nodes have suboptimal recovery. This highlights concerns about residual disease, endogenous contributions to recovery, and residual LT damage following ionizing irradiation. Such methodologies also have direct application to immunosuppressive therapy and other immunosuppressive disorders, such as those associated with viral monitoring. PMID:26492933

  19. The human somatostatin receptor type 2 as an imaging and suicide reporter gene for pluripotent stem cell-derived therapy of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Neyrinck, Katrien; Breuls, Natacha; Holvoet, Bryan; Oosterlinck, Wouter; Wolfs, Esther; Vanbilloen, Hubert; Gheysens, Olivier; Duelen, Robin; Gsell, Willy; Lambrichts, Ivo; Himmelreich, Uwe; Verfaillie, Catherine M; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; Deroose, Christophe M

    2018-01-01

    Rationale: Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are being investigated as a cell source for regenerative medicine since they provide an infinitive pool of cells that are able to differentiate towards every cell type of the body. One possible therapeutic application involves the use of these cells to treat myocardial infarction (MI), a condition where billions of cardiomyocytes (CMs) are lost. Although several protocols have been developed to differentiate PSCs towards CMs, none of these provide a completely pure population, thereby still posing a risk for neoplastic teratoma formation. Therefore, we developed a strategy to (i) monitor cell behavior noninvasively via site-specific integration of firefly luciferase (Fluc) and the human positron emission tomography (PET) imaging reporter genes, sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) and somatostatin receptor type 2 (hSSTr2), and (ii) perform hSSTr2-mediated suicide gene therapy via the clinically used radiopharmacon 177 Lu-DOTATATE. Methods: Human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) were gene-edited via zinc finger nucleases to express Fluc and either hNIS or hSSTr2 in the safe harbor locus, adeno-associated virus integration site 1. Firstly, these cells were exposed to 4.8 MBq 177 Lu-DOTATATE in vitro and cell survival was monitored via bioluminescence imaging (BLI). Afterwards, hNIS + and hSSTr2 + ESCs were transplanted subcutaneously and teratomas were allowed to form. At day 59, baseline 124 I and 68 Ga-DOTATATE PET and BLI scans were performed. The day after, animals received either saline or 55 MBq 177 Lu-DOTATATE. Weekly BLI scans were performed, accompanied by 124 I and 68 Ga-DOTATATE PET scans at days 87 and 88, respectively. Finally, hSSTr2 + ESCs were differentiated towards CMs and transplanted intramyocardially in the border zone of an infarct that was induced by left anterior descending coronary artery ligation. After transplantation, the animals were monitored via BLI and PET, while global cardiac function was evaluated using

  20. The human somatostatin receptor type 2 as an imaging and suicide reporter gene for pluripotent stem cell-derived therapy of myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Neyrinck, Katrien; Breuls, Natacha; Holvoet, Bryan; Oosterlinck, Wouter; Wolfs, Esther; Vanbilloen, Hubert; Gheysens, Olivier; Duelen, Robin; Gsell, Willy; Lambrichts, Ivo; Himmelreich, Uwe; Verfaillie, Catherine M.; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; Deroose, Christophe M.

    2018-01-01

    Rationale: Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are being investigated as a cell source for regenerative medicine since they provide an infinitive pool of cells that are able to differentiate towards every cell type of the body. One possible therapeutic application involves the use of these cells to treat myocardial infarction (MI), a condition where billions of cardiomyocytes (CMs) are lost. Although several protocols have been developed to differentiate PSCs towards CMs, none of these provide a completely pure population, thereby still posing a risk for neoplastic teratoma formation. Therefore, we developed a strategy to (i) monitor cell behavior noninvasively via site-specific integration of firefly luciferase (Fluc) and the human positron emission tomography (PET) imaging reporter genes, sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) and somatostatin receptor type 2 (hSSTr2), and (ii) perform hSSTr2-mediated suicide gene therapy via the clinically used radiopharmacon 177Lu-DOTATATE. Methods: Human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) were gene-edited via zinc finger nucleases to express Fluc and either hNIS or hSSTr2 in the safe harbor locus, adeno-associated virus integration site 1. Firstly, these cells were exposed to 4.8 MBq 177Lu-DOTATATE in vitro and cell survival was monitored via bioluminescence imaging (BLI). Afterwards, hNIS+ and hSSTr2+ ESCs were transplanted subcutaneously and teratomas were allowed to form. At day 59, baseline 124I and 68Ga-DOTATATE PET and BLI scans were performed. The day after, animals received either saline or 55 MBq 177Lu-DOTATATE. Weekly BLI scans were performed, accompanied by 124I and 68Ga-DOTATATE PET scans at days 87 and 88, respectively. Finally, hSSTr2+ ESCs were differentiated towards CMs and transplanted intramyocardially in the border zone of an infarct that was induced by left anterior descending coronary artery ligation. After transplantation, the animals were monitored via BLI and PET, while global cardiac function was evaluated using cardiac

  1. Noninvasive near-infrared live imaging of human adult mesenchymal stem cells transplanted in a rodent model of Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Bossolasco, P; Cova, L; Levandis, G; Diana, V; Cerri, S; Deliliers, G Lambertenghi; Polli, E; Silani, V; Blandini, F; Armentero, MT

    2012-01-01

    Background We have previously shown that human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) can reduce toxin-induced neurodegeneration in a well characterized rodent model of Parkinson’s disease. However, the precise mechanisms, optimal cell concentration required for neuroprotection, and detailed cell tracking need to be defined. We exploited a near-infrared imaging platform to perform noninvasive tracing following transplantation of tagged hMSCs in live parkinsonian rats. Methods hMSCs were labeled both with a membrane intercalating dye, emitting in the near- infrared 815 nm spectrum, and the nuclear counterstain, Hoechst 33258. Effects of near-infrared dye on cell metabolism and proliferation were extensively evaluated in vitro. Tagged hMSCs were then administered to parkinsonian rats bearing a 6-hydroxydopamine-induced lesion of the nigrostriatal pathway, via two alternative routes, ie, intrastriatal or intranasal, and the cells were tracked in vivo and ex vivo using near-infrared technology. Results In vitro, NIR815 staining was stable in long-term hMSC cultures and did not interfere with cell metabolism or proliferation. A significant near-infrared signal was detectable in vivo, confined around the injection site for up to 14 days after intrastriatal transplantation. Conversely, following intranasal delivery, a strong near-infrared signal was immediately visible, but rapidly faded and was completely lost within 1 hour. After sacrifice, imaging data were confirmed by presence/absence of the Hoechst signal ex vivo in coronal brain sections. Semiquantitative analysis and precise localization of transplanted hMSCs were further performed ex vivo using near-infrared imaging. Conclusion Near-infrared technology allowed longitudinal detection of fluorescent-tagged cells in living animals giving immediate information on how different delivery routes affect cell distribution in the brain. Near-infrared imaging represents a valuable tool to evaluate multiple outcomes of

  2. STEM Education.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yu; Fang, Michael; Shauman, Kimberlee

    2015-08-01

    Improving science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education, especially for traditionally disadvantaged groups, is widely recognized as pivotal to the U.S.'s long-term economic growth and security. In this article, we review and discuss current research on STEM education in the U.S., drawing on recent research in sociology and related fields. The reviewed literature shows that different social factors affect the two major components of STEM education attainment: (1) attainment of education in general, and (2) attainment of STEM education relative to non-STEM education conditional on educational attainment. Cognitive and social psychological characteristics matter for both major components, as do structural influences at the neighborhood, school, and broader cultural levels. However, while commonly used measures of socioeconomic status (SES) predict the attainment of general education, social psychological factors are more important influences on participation and achievement in STEM versus non-STEM education. Domestically, disparities by family SES, race, and gender persist in STEM education. Internationally, American students lag behind those in some countries with less economic resources. Explanations for group disparities within the U.S. and the mediocre international ranking of US student performance require more research, a task that is best accomplished through interdisciplinary approaches.

  3. STEM | News

    the field. STEM Career Expo at Fermilab From NCTV17, April 20, 2018: The next generation of scientists Career Expo. Watch the 90-second segment. In photos: Dare to Dream shares joys of STEM with Latina middle Lab professionals discussed their work, shared their experiences in different career areas and

  4. STEM Symposium

    2012-02-28

    Christine Keller, right, Director of Research, APLU (Association of Public and Land-grant Universities) presents STEM initiative report findings at the Symposium on Supporting Underrepresented Minority Males in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM), Tuesday, February 28, 2012 at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  5. STEM Symposium

    2012-02-28

    Christine Keller, Director of Research, APLU (Association of Public and Land-grant Universities) presents STEM initiative report findings at the Symposium on Supporting Underrepresented Minority Males in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM), Tuesday, February 28, 2012 at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  6. STEM Education

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yu; Fang, Michael; Shauman, Kimberlee

    2015-01-01

    Improving science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education, especially for traditionally disadvantaged groups, is widely recognized as pivotal to the U.S.’s long-term economic growth and security. In this article, we review and discuss current research on STEM education in the U.S., drawing on recent research in sociology and related fields. The reviewed literature shows that different social factors affect the two major components of STEM education attainment: (1) attainment of education in general, and (2) attainment of STEM education relative to non-STEM education conditional on educational attainment. Cognitive and social psychological characteristics matter for both major components, as do structural influences at the neighborhood, school, and broader cultural levels. However, while commonly used measures of socioeconomic status (SES) predict the attainment of general education, social psychological factors are more important influences on participation and achievement in STEM versus non-STEM education. Domestically, disparities by family SES, race, and gender persist in STEM education. Internationally, American students lag behind those in some countries with less economic resources. Explanations for group disparities within the U.S. and the mediocre international ranking of US student performance require more research, a task that is best accomplished through interdisciplinary approaches. PMID:26778893

  7. Live Cell Imaging in Microfluidic Device Proves Resistance to Oxygen/Glucose Deprivation in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Martewicz, Sebastian; Gabrel, Giulia; Campesan, Marika; Canton, Marcella; Di Lisa, Fabio; Elvassore, Nicola

    2018-05-01

    Analyses of cellular responses to fast oxygen dynamics are challenging and require ad hoc technological solutions, especially when decoupling from liquid media composition is required. In this work, we present a microfluidic device specifically designed for culture analyses with high resolution and magnification objectives, providing full optical access to the cell culture chamber. This feature allows fluorescence-based assays, photoactivated surface chemistry, and live cell imaging under tightly controlled pO 2 environments. The device has a simple design, accommodates three independent cell cultures, and can be employed by users with basic cell culture training in studies requiring fast oxygen dynamics, defined media composition, and in-line data acquisition with optical molecular probes. We apply this technology to produce an oxygen/glucose deprived (OGD) environment and analyze cell mortality in murine and human cardiac cultures. Neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes show an OGD time-dependent sensitivity, resulting in a robust and reproducible 66 ± 5% death rate after 3 h of stress. Applying an equivalent stress to human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPS-CMs) provides direct experimental evidence for fetal-like OGD-resistant phenotype. Investigation on the nature of such phenotype exposed large glycogen deposits. We propose a culture strategy aimed at depleting these intracellular energy stores and concurrently activate positive regulation of aerobic metabolic molecular markers. The observed process, however, is not sufficient to induce an OGD-sensitive phenotype in hiPS-CMs, highlighting defective development of mature aerobic metabolism in vitro.

  8. Non-invasive imaging of transplanted human neural stem cells and ECM scaffold remodeling in the stroke-damaged rat brain by 19F- and diffusion-MRI

    PubMed Central

    Bible, Ellen; Dell’Acqua, Flavio; Solanky, Bhavana; Balducci, Anthony; Crapo, Peter; Badylak, Stephen F.; Ahrens, Eric T.; Modo, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Transplantation of human neural stem cells (hNSCs) is emerging as a viable treatment for stroke related brain injury. However, intraparenchymal grafts do not regenerate lost tissue, but rather integrate into the host parenchyma without significantly affecting the lesion cavity. Providing a structural support for the delivered cells appears important for cell based therapeutic approaches. The non-invasive monitoring of therapeutic methods would provide valuable information regarding therapeutic strategies but remains a challenge. Labeling transplanted cells with metal-based 1H-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents affects the visualization of the lesion cavity. Herein, we demonstrate that a 19F-MRI contrast agent can adequately monitor the distribution of transplanted cells, whilst allowing an evaluation of the lesion cavity and the formation of new tissue on 1H-MRI scans. Twenty percent of cells labeled with the 19F-agent were of host origin, potentially reflecting the re-uptake of label from dead transplanted cells. Both T2- and diffusion-weighted MRI scans indicated that transplantation of hNSCs suspended in a gel form of a xenogeneic extracellular matrix (ECM) bioscaffold resulted in uniformly distributed cells throughout the lesion cavity. However, diffusion MRI indicated that the injected materials did not yet establish diffusion barriers (i.e. cellular network, fiber tracts) normally found within striatal tissue. The ECM bioscaffold therefore provides an important support to hNSCs for the creation of de novo tissue and multi-nuclei MRI represents an adept method for the visualization of some aspects of this process. However, significant developments of both the transplantation paradigm, as well as regenerative imaging, are required to successfully create new tissue in the lesion cavity and to monitor this process non-invasively. PMID:22244696

  9. [Multifunctional nano-vector for gene delivery into human adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells and in vitro cellular magnetic resonance imaging].

    PubMed

    Pang, Pengfei; Li, Bing; Hu, Xiaojun; Kang, Zhuang; Guan, Shouhai; Gong, Faming; Meng, Xiaochun; Li, Dan; Huang, Mingsheng; Shan, Hong

    2014-04-08

    To examine the feasibility and efficacy of using superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated with polyethylene glycol-grafted polyethylenimine (PEG-g-PEI-SPION) as a carrier for gene delivery into human adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADMSCs) and in vitro cellular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). PEG-g-PEI-SPION was synthesized as previously reported. Gel electrophoresis was performed to assess the pDNA condensation capacity of PEG-g-PEI-SPION. The particle size and zeta potential of PEG-g-PEI-SPION/pDNA complexes were determined by dynamic light scattering. Cytotoxicity of PEG-g-PEI-SPION was evaluated by CCK-8 assay with hADMSCs. Gene transfection efficiency of PEG-g-PEI-SPION in hADMSCs was quantified by flow cytometry. The cellular internalization of PEG-g-PEI-SPION/pDNA nanocomplexes was studied by confocal laser scanning microscopy and Prussian blue staining. MRI function of PEG-g-PEI-SPION was studied by in vitro cellular MRI scanning. PEG-g-PEI-SPION condensed pDNA to form stable complexes of 80-100 nm in diameter and showed low cytotoxicity in hADMSCs. At the optimal N/P ratio of 20, PEG-g-PEI-SPION/pDNA obtained the highest transfection efficiency of 22.8% ± 3.6% in hADMSCs. And it was higher than that obtained with lipofectamine 11.2% ± 2.6% (P < 0.05). Furthermore, hADMSCs labeled with PEG-g-PEI-SPION showed sensitive low signal intensity on MRI T2-weighted images in vitro. PEG-g-PEI-SPION is an efficient and MRI-visible nano-vector for gene delivery into hADMSCs.

  10. Non-invasive imaging of transplanted human neural stem cells and ECM scaffold remodeling in the stroke-damaged rat brain by (19)F- and diffusion-MRI.

    PubMed

    Bible, Ellen; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Solanky, Bhavana; Balducci, Anthony; Crapo, Peter M; Badylak, Stephen F; Ahrens, Eric T; Modo, Michel

    2012-04-01

    Transplantation of human neural stem cells (hNSCs) is emerging as a viable treatment for stroke related brain injury. However, intraparenchymal grafts do not regenerate lost tissue, but rather integrate into the host parenchyma without significantly affecting the lesion cavity. Providing a structural support for the delivered cells appears important for cell based therapeutic approaches. The non-invasive monitoring of therapeutic methods would provide valuable information regarding therapeutic strategies but remains a challenge. Labeling transplanted cells with metal-based (1)H-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents affects the visualization of the lesion cavity. Herein, we demonstrate that a (19)F-MRI contrast agent can adequately monitor the distribution of transplanted cells, whilst allowing an evaluation of the lesion cavity and the formation of new tissue on (1)H-MRI scans. Twenty percent of cells labeled with the (19)F agent were of host origin, potentially reflecting the re-uptake of label from dead transplanted cells. Both T(2)- and diffusion-weighted MRI scans indicated that transplantation of hNSCs suspended in a gel form of a xenogeneic extracellular matrix (ECM) bioscaffold resulted in uniformly distributed cells throughout the lesion cavity. However, diffusion MRI indicated that the injected materials did not yet establish diffusion barriers (i.e. cellular network, fiber tracts) normally found within striatal tissue. The ECM bioscaffold therefore provides an important support to hNSCs for the creation of de novo tissue and multi-nuclei MRI represents an adept method for the visualization of some aspects of this process. However, significant developments of both the transplantation paradigm, as well as regenerative imaging, are required to successfully create new tissue in the lesion cavity and to monitor this process non-invasively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Imaging stem cell distribution, growth, migration, and differentiation in 3-D scaffolds for bone tissue engineering using mesoscopic fluorescence tomography.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qinggong; Piard, Charlotte; Lin, Jonathan; Nan, Kai; Guo, Ting; Caccamese, John; Fisher, John; Chen, Yu

    2018-01-01

    Regenerative medicine has emerged as an important discipline that aims to repair injury or replace damaged tissues or organs by introducing living cells or functioning tissues. Successful regenerative medicine strategies will likely depend upon a simultaneous optimization strategy for the design of biomaterials, cell-seeding methods, cell-biomaterial interactions, and molecular signaling within the engineered tissues. It remains a challenge to image three-dimensional (3-D) structures and functions of the cell-seeded scaffold in mesoscopic scale (>2 ∼ 3 mm). In this study, we utilized angled fluorescence laminar optical tomography (aFLOT), which allows depth-resolved molecular characterization of engineered tissues in 3-D to investigate cell viability, migration, and bone mineralization within bone tissue engineering scaffolds in situ. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Learn About Stem Cells

    MedlinePlus

    ... Handbook Stem Cell Glossary Search Toggle Nav Stem Cell Basics Stem cells are the foundation from which ... Home > Learn About Stem Cells > Stem Cell Basics Cells in the human body The human body comprises ...

  13. Cell motion predicts human epidermal stemness

    PubMed Central

    Toki, Fujio; Tate, Sota; Imai, Matome; Matsushita, Natsuki; Shiraishi, Ken; Sayama, Koji; Toki, Hiroshi; Higashiyama, Shigeki

    2015-01-01

    Image-based identification of cultured stem cells and noninvasive evaluation of their proliferative capacity advance cell therapy and stem cell research. Here we demonstrate that human keratinocyte stem cells can be identified in situ by analyzing cell motion during their cultivation. Modeling experiments suggested that the clonal type of cultured human clonogenic keratinocytes can be efficiently determined by analysis of early cell movement. Image analysis experiments demonstrated that keratinocyte stem cells indeed display a unique rotational movement that can be identified as early as the two-cell stage colony. We also demonstrate that α6 integrin is required for both rotational and collective cell motion. Our experiments provide, for the first time, strong evidence that cell motion and epidermal stemness are linked. We conclude that early identification of human keratinocyte stem cells by image analysis of cell movement is a valid parameter for quality control of cultured keratinocytes for transplantation. PMID:25897083

  14. STEM Symposium

    2012-02-28

    U.S. Congresswoman Eddie Bernice Johnson (D-TX) addresses the Symposium on Supporting Underrepresented Minority Males in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM), Tuesday, February 28, 2012 at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  15. Dynamic scan control in STEM: Spiral scans

    DOE PAGES

    Lupini, Andrew R.; Borisevich, Albina Y.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; ...

    2016-06-13

    Here, scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) has emerged as one of the foremost techniques to analyze materials at atomic resolution. However, two practical difficulties inherent to STEM imaging are: radiation damage imparted by the electron beam, which can potentially damage or otherwise modify the specimen and slow-scan image acquisition, which limits the ability to capture dynamic changes at high temporal resolution. Furthermore, due in part to scan flyback corrections, typical raster scan methods result in an uneven distribution of dose across the scanned area. A method to allow extremely fast scanning with a uniform residence time would enable imaging atmore » low electron doses, ameliorating radiation damage and at the same time permitting image acquisition at higher frame-rates while maintaining atomic resolution. The practical complication is that rastering the STEM probe at higher speeds causes significant image distortions. Non-square scan patterns provide a solution to this dilemma and can be tailored for low dose imaging conditions. Here, we develop a method for imaging with alternative scan patterns and investigate their performance at very high scan speeds. A general analysis for spiral scanning is presented here for the following spiral scan functions: Archimedean, Fermat, and constant linear velocity spirals, which were tested for STEM imaging. The quality of spiral scan STEM images is generally comparable with STEM images from conventional raster scans, and the dose uniformity can be improved.« less

  16. Dynamic scan control in STEM: Spiral scans

    SciT

    Lupini, Andrew R.; Borisevich, Albina Y.; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    Here, scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) has emerged as one of the foremost techniques to analyze materials at atomic resolution. However, two practical difficulties inherent to STEM imaging are: radiation damage imparted by the electron beam, which can potentially damage or otherwise modify the specimen and slow-scan image acquisition, which limits the ability to capture dynamic changes at high temporal resolution. Furthermore, due in part to scan flyback corrections, typical raster scan methods result in an uneven distribution of dose across the scanned area. A method to allow extremely fast scanning with a uniform residence time would enable imaging atmore » low electron doses, ameliorating radiation damage and at the same time permitting image acquisition at higher frame-rates while maintaining atomic resolution. The practical complication is that rastering the STEM probe at higher speeds causes significant image distortions. Non-square scan patterns provide a solution to this dilemma and can be tailored for low dose imaging conditions. Here, we develop a method for imaging with alternative scan patterns and investigate their performance at very high scan speeds. A general analysis for spiral scanning is presented here for the following spiral scan functions: Archimedean, Fermat, and constant linear velocity spirals, which were tested for STEM imaging. The quality of spiral scan STEM images is generally comparable with STEM images from conventional raster scans, and the dose uniformity can be improved.« less

  17. CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dots-Labeled Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Targeted Fluorescence Imaging of Pancreas Tissues and Therapy of Type 1 Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haoqi; Tang, Wei; Li, Chao; Lv, Pinlei; Wang, Zheng; Liu, Yanlei; Zhang, Cunlei; Bao, Yi; Chen, Haiyan; Meng, Xiangying; Song, Yan; Xia, Xiaoling; Pan, Fei; Cui, Daxiang; Shi, Yongquan

    2015-12-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used for therapy of type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, the in vivo distribution and therapeutic effects of transplanted MSCs are not clarified well. Herein, we reported that CdSe/ZnS quantum dots-labeled MSCs were prepared for targeted fluorescence imaging and therapy of pancreas tissues in rat models with type 1 diabetes. CdSe/ZnS quantum dots were synthesized, their biocompatibility was evaluated, and then, the appropriate concentration of quantum dots was selected to label MSCs. CdSe/ZnS quantum dots-labeled MSCs were injected into mouse models with type 1 diabetes via tail vessel and then were observed by using the Bruker In-Vivo F PRO system, and the blood glucose levels were monitored for 8 weeks. Results showed that prepared CdSe/ZnS quantum dots owned good biocompatibility. Significant differences existed in distribution of quantum dots-labeled MSCs between normal control rats and diabetic rats (p < 0.05). The ratios of the fluorescence intensity (RFI) analysis showed an accumulation rate of MSCs in the pancreas of rats in the diabetes group which was about 32 %, while that in the normal control group rats was about 18 %. The blood glucose levels were also monitored for 8 weeks after quantum dots-labeled MSC injection. Statistical differences existed between the blood glucose levels of the diabetic rat control group and MSC-injected diabetic rat group (p < 0.01), and the MSC-injected diabetic rat group displayed lower blood glucose levels. In conclusion, CdSe/ZnS-labeled MSCs can target in vivo pancreas tissues in diabetic rats, and significantly reduce the blood glucose levels in diabetic rats, and own potential application in therapy of diabetic patients in the near future.

  18. In Vivo MR Imaging of Dual MRI Reporter Genes and Deltex-1 Gene-modified Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells in the Treatment of Closed Penile Fracture.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ruomi; Li, Qingling; Yang, Fei; Hu, Xiaojun; Jiao, Ju; Guo, Yu; Wang, Jin; Zhang, Yong

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of dual magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reporter genes, including ferritin heavy subunit (Fth) and transferrin receptor (TfR), which provide sufficient MRI contrast for in vivo MRI tracking, and the Deltex-1 (DTX1) gene, which promotes human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) differentiation to smooth muscle cells (SMCs), to treat closed penile fracture (CPF). Multi-gene co-expressing hMSCs were generated. The expression of mRNA and proteins was assessed, and the original biological properties of hMSCs were determined and compared. The intracellular uptake of iron was evaluated, and the ability to differentiate into SMCs was detected. Fifty rabbits with CPF were randomly transplanted with PBS, hMSCs, Fth-TfR-hMSCs, DTX1-hMSCs, and Fth-TfR-DTX1-hMSCs. In vivo MRI was performed to detect the distribution and migration of the grafted cells and healing progress of CPF, and the results were correlated with histology. The mRNA and proteins of the multi-gene were highly expressed. The transgenes could not influence the original biological properties of hMSCs. The dual MRI reporter genes increased the iron accumulation capacity, and the DTX1 gene promoted hMSC differentiation into SMCs. The distribution and migration of the dual MRI reporter gene-modified hMSCs, and the healing state of CPF could be obviously detected by MRI and confirmed by histology. The dual MRI reporter genes could provide sufficient MRI contrast, and the distribution and migration of MSCs could be detected in vivo. The DTX1 gene can promote MSC differentiation into SMCs for the treatment of CPF and effectively inhibit granulation tissue formation.

  19. Use of FDSS/μCell imaging platform for preclinical cardiac electrophysiology safety screening of compounds in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Haoyu; Roman, Maria I; Lis, Edward; Lagrutta, Armando; Sannajust, Frederick

    2016-01-01

    FDSS/μCell is a high-speed acquisition imaging platform (Hamamatsu Ltd., Hamamatsu, Japan) that allows for simultaneous high-throughput reading under controlled conditions. We evaluated the Ca(2+) transients or optical membrane potential changes of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) (iCells) in the presence or absence of 44 pharmacological agents known to interfere with cardiac ion channels (e.g., hERG, IKs, NaV1.5, CaV1.2). We tested two Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescence dyes (Codex ACTOne® and EarlyTox®) and a membrane potential dye (FLIPR® membrane potential dye). We were able to quantify and report drug-induced early-after depolarizations (EAD)-like waveforms, cardiomyocyte ectopic beats and changes in beating rate from a subgroup of pharmacological agents acting acutely (within a 1-hour period). Cardiovascular drugs, such as dofetilide and d,l-sotalol, exhibited EAD-like signals at 3nM and 10μM, respectively. CNS drugs, such as haloperidol and sertindole, exhibited EAD-like signals and ectopic beats at 30nM and 1μM, respectively. Other drugs, such as astemizole, solifenacin, and moxifloxacin, exhibited similar arrhythmias at 30nM, 3μM and 300μM, respectively. Our data suggest that the membrane potential and intracellular Ca(2+) signal are tightly coupled, supporting the idea that the EAD-like signals reported are the accurate representation of an EAD signal of the cardiac action potential. Finally, the EAD-like Ca(2+) signal was well correlated to clinically-relevant concentrations where Torsade de Pointes (TdPs) arrhythmias were noted in healthy volunteers treated orally with some of the compounds we tested, as reported in PharmaPendium®. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dots-Labeled Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Targeted Fluorescence Imaging of Pancreas Tissues and Therapy of Type 1 Diabetic Rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haoqi; Tang, Wei; Li, Chao; Lv, Pinlei; Wang, Zheng; Liu, Yanlei; Zhang, Cunlei; Bao, Yi; Chen, Haiyan; Meng, Xiangying; Song, Yan; Xia, Xiaoling; Pan, Fei; Cui, Daxiang; Shi, Yongquan

    2015-06-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used for therapy of type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, the in vivo distribution and therapeutic effects of transplanted MSCs are not clarified well. Herein, we reported that CdSe/ZnS quantum dots-labeled MSCs were prepared for targeted fluorescence imaging and therapy of pancreas tissues in rat models with type 1 diabetes. CdSe/ZnS quantum dots were synthesized, their biocompatibility was evaluated, and then, the appropriate concentration of quantum dots was selected to label MSCs. CdSe/ZnS quantum dots-labeled MSCs were injected into mouse models with type 1 diabetes via tail vessel and then were observed by using the Bruker In-Vivo F PRO system, and the blood glucose levels were monitored for 8 weeks. Results showed that prepared CdSe/ZnS quantum dots owned good biocompatibility. Significant differences existed in distribution of quantum dots-labeled MSCs between normal control rats and diabetic rats ( p < 0.05). The ratios of the fluorescence intensity (RFI) analysis showed an accumulation rate of MSCs in the pancreas of rats in the diabetes group, and was about 32 %, while that in the normal control group rats was about 18 %. The blood glucose levels were also monitored for 8 weeks after quantum dots-labeled MSC injection. Statistical differences existed between the blood glucose levels of the diabetic rat control group and MSC-injected diabetic rat group ( p < 0.01), and the MSC-injected diabetic rat group displayed lower blood glucose levels. In conclusion, CdSe/ZnS-labeled MSCs can target in vivo pancreas tissues in diabetic rats, and significantly reduce the blood glucose levels in diabetic rats, and own potential application in therapy of diabetic patients in the near future.

  1. Images

    : Upload Date Photo Date 1 2 3 4 5 Next Arctic Edge 2018 Download Full Image Photo Details Arctic Edge 2018 Download Full Image Photo Details Arctic Edge 2018 Download Full Image Photo Details Arctic Edge 2018 Download Full Image Photo Details Arctic Edge 2018 Download Full Image Photo Details Arctic Edge 2018

  2. Stem Cell Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tips Info Center Research Topics Federal Policy Glossary Stem Cell Information General Information Clinical Trials Funding Information Current ... Basics » Stem Cell Basics I. Back to top Stem Cell Basics I. Introduction: What are stem cells, and ...

  3. Diffusion-weighted imaging score of the brain stem: A predictor of outcome in acute basilar artery occlusion treated with the Solitaire FR device.

    PubMed

    Mourand, I; Machi, P; Nogué, E; Arquizan, C; Costalat, V; Picot, M-C; Bonafé, A; Milhaud, D

    2014-06-01

    The prognosis for ischemic stroke due to acute basilar artery occlusion is very poor: Early recanalization remains the main factor that can improve outcomes. The baseline extent of brain stem ischemic damage can also influence outcomes. We evaluated the validity of an easy-to-use DWI score to predict clinical outcome in patients with acute basilar artery occlusion treated by mechanical thrombectomy. We analyzed the baseline clinical and DWI parameters of 31 patients with acute basilar artery occlusion, treated within 24 hours of symptom onset by using a Solitaire FR device. The DWI score of the brain stem was assessed with a 12-point semiquantitative score that separately considered each side of the medulla, pons, and midbrain. Clinical outcome was assessed at 180 days by using the mRS. According to receiver operating characteristic analyses, the cutoff score determined the optimal positive predictive value for outcome. The Spearman rank correlation coefficient assessed the correlation between the DWI brain stem score and baseline characteristics. Successful recanalization (Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction 3-2b) was achieved in 23 patients (74%). A favorable outcome (mRS ≤ 2) was observed in 11 patients (35%). An optimal DWI brain stem score of <3 predicted a favorable outcome. The probability of a very poor outcome (mRS ≥ 5) if the DWI brain stem score was ≥5 reached 80% (positive predictive value) and 100% if this score was ≥6. Interobserver reliability of the DWI brain stem score was excellent, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.97 (95% CI, 0.96-0.99). The DWI brain stem score was significantly associated with baseline tetraplegia (P = .001) and coma (P = .005). In patients with acute basilar artery occlusion treated by mechanical thrombectomy, the baseline DWI brain lesion score seems to predict clinical outcome. © 2014 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  4. STEM Symposium

    2012-02-28

    Carl Wieman, Associate Director, Office of Science and Technology Policy, The White House, speaks at the Symposium on Supporting Underrepresented Minority Males in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM), Tuesday, February 28, 2012 at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  5. Why STEM?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitts, Charles R.

    2016-01-01

    The International Technology and Engineering Educators Association (ITEEA) defines STEM as a new transdisciplinary subject in schools that integrates the disciplines of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics into a single course of study. There are three major problems with this definition: There is no consensus in support of the ITEEA…

  6. STEM Thinking!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeve, Edward M.

    2015-01-01

    Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) is a term seen almost daily in the news. In 2009, President Obama launched the Educate to Innovate initiative to move American students from the middle to the top of the pack in science and math achievement over the next decade (The White House, n.d.). Learning about the attributes of STEM…

  7. STEM Symposium

    2012-02-28

    J. Keith Motley, Chancellor, University of Massachusetts Boston, and Chair, APLU (Association of Public and Land-grant Universities) Commission on Access, Diversity and Excellence, speaks at the Symposium on Supporting Underrepresented Minority Males in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM), Tuesday, February 28, 2012 at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  8. STEM Symposium

    2012-02-28

    Woodrow Whitlow, NASA Associate Administrator, Mission Support Directorate, gives opening remarks at the Symposium on Supporting Underrepresented Minority Males in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM), Tuesday, February 28, 2012 at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  9. STEM Symposium

    2012-02-28

    Leland Melvin, Associate Administrator, Office of Education and former astronaut, gives opening remarks at the Symposium on Supporting Underrepresented Minority Males in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM), Tuesday, February 28, 2012 at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  10. Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Rosemary Ackley

    The packet of visual images, designed by Ojibwe artist Steven Premo, is intended to provide teachers of Indian students with contemporary, positive, non-stereotypical images of native cultures, particularly Indian women, that can be used in all classes for any aged student to assist in increasing the self-esteem of Indian children and help raise…

  11. Fast Atomic-Scale Elemental Mapping of Crystalline Materials by STEM Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy Achieved with Thin Specimens [Fast Atomic-Scale Chemical Imaging of Crystalline Materials by STEM Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy Achieved with Thin Specimens].

    SciT

    Lu, Ping; Yuan, Renliang; Zuo, Jian Min

    Abstract Elemental mapping at the atomic-scale by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) provides a powerful real-space approach to chemical characterization of crystal structures. However, applications of this powerful technique have been limited by inefficient X-ray emission and collection, which require long acquisition times. Recently, using a lattice-vector translation method, we have shown that rapid atomic-scale elemental mapping using STEM-EDS can be achieved. This method provides atomic-scale elemental maps averaged over crystal areas of ~few 10 nm 2with the acquisition time of ~2 s or less. Here we report the details of this method, and, inmore » particular, investigate the experimental conditions necessary for achieving it. It shows, that in addition to usual conditions required for atomic-scale imaging, a thin specimen is essential for the technique to be successful. Phenomenological modeling shows that the localization of X-ray signals to atomic columns is a key reason. The effect of specimen thickness on the signal delocalization is studied by multislice image simulations. The results show that the X-ray localization can be achieved by choosing a thin specimen, and the thickness of less than about 22 nm is preferred for SrTiO 3in [001] projection for 200 keV electrons.« less

  12. Fast Atomic-Scale Elemental Mapping of Crystalline Materials by STEM Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy Achieved with Thin Specimens [Fast Atomic-Scale Chemical Imaging of Crystalline Materials by STEM Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy Achieved with Thin Specimens].

    DOE PAGES

    Lu, Ping; Yuan, Renliang; Zuo, Jian Min

    2017-02-23

    Abstract Elemental mapping at the atomic-scale by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) provides a powerful real-space approach to chemical characterization of crystal structures. However, applications of this powerful technique have been limited by inefficient X-ray emission and collection, which require long acquisition times. Recently, using a lattice-vector translation method, we have shown that rapid atomic-scale elemental mapping using STEM-EDS can be achieved. This method provides atomic-scale elemental maps averaged over crystal areas of ~few 10 nm 2with the acquisition time of ~2 s or less. Here we report the details of this method, and, inmore » particular, investigate the experimental conditions necessary for achieving it. It shows, that in addition to usual conditions required for atomic-scale imaging, a thin specimen is essential for the technique to be successful. Phenomenological modeling shows that the localization of X-ray signals to atomic columns is a key reason. The effect of specimen thickness on the signal delocalization is studied by multislice image simulations. The results show that the X-ray localization can be achieved by choosing a thin specimen, and the thickness of less than about 22 nm is preferred for SrTiO 3in [001] projection for 200 keV electrons.« less

  13. StemTextSearch: Stem cell gene database with evidence from abstracts.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chou-Cheng; Ho, Chung-Liang

    2017-05-01

    Previous studies have used many methods to find biomarkers in stem cells, including text mining, experimental data and image storage. However, no text-mining methods have yet been developed which can identify whether a gene plays a positive or negative role in stem cells. StemTextSearch identifies the role of a gene in stem cells by using a text-mining method to find combinations of gene regulation, stem-cell regulation and cell processes in the same sentences of biomedical abstracts. The dataset includes 5797 genes, with 1534 genes having positive roles in stem cells, 1335 genes having negative roles, 1654 genes with both positive and negative roles, and 1274 with an uncertain role. The precision of gene role in StemTextSearch is 0.66, and the recall is 0.78. StemTextSearch is a web-based engine with queries that specify (i) gene, (ii) category of stem cell, (iii) gene role, (iv) gene regulation, (v) cell process, (vi) stem-cell regulation, and (vii) species. StemTextSearch is available through http://bio.yungyun.com.tw/StemTextSearch.aspx. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Does an Injection of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Loaded in Fibrin Glue Influence Rotator Cuff Repair Outcomes? A Clinical and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Sang; Sung, Chang Hun; Chung, Sung Hoon; Kwak, Sang Joon; Koh, Yong Gon

    2017-07-01

    The mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based tissue engineering approach has been developed to improve the treatment of rotator cuff tears. Hypothesis/Purpose: The purpose was to determine the effect of an injection of adipose-derived MSCs loaded in fibrin glue during arthroscopic rotator cuff repair on clinical outcomes and to evaluate its effect on structural integrity using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The hypothesis was that the application of adipose-derived MSCs would improve outcomes after the surgical repair of a rotator cuff tear. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Among 182 patients treated with arthroscopic surgery for a rotator cuff tear, 35 patients treated with arthroscopic rotator cuff repair alone (conventional group) were matched with 35 patients who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with an injection of adipose-derived MSCs loaded in fibrin glue (injection group) based on sex, age, and lesion size. Outcomes were assessed with respect to the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, range of motion (ROM) (including forward flexion, external rotation at the side, and internal rotation at the back), and functional measures of the Constant score and University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) shoulder rating scale. Repaired tendon structural integrity was assessed by using MRI at a minimum of 12 months after surgery, and the mean clinical follow-up was 28.8 ± 4.2 months in the conventional group and 28.3 ± 3.8 months in the injection group. The mean VAS score at rest and during motion improved significantly in both groups after surgery. However, there were no significant differences between the groups at the final follow-up ( P = .256 and .776, respectively). Compared with preoperative measurements, forward flexion and external rotation at the side significantly improved at the final follow-up in both groups (all P < .05). However, no significant improvements in internal rotation at the back were observed in either group ( P = .625 and .834 for

  15. Image

    SciT

    Marsh, Amber; Harsch, Tim; Pitt, Julie

    2007-08-31

    The computer side of the IMAGE project consists of a collection of Perl scripts that perform a variety of tasks; scripts are available to insert, update and delete data from the underlying Oracle database, download data from NCBI's Genbank and other sources, and generate data files for download by interested parties. Web scripts make up the tracking interface, and various tools available on the project web-site (image.llnl.gov) that provide a search interface to the database.

  16. Stem cell biobanks.

    PubMed

    Bardelli, Silvana

    2010-04-01

    Stem cells contribute to innate healing and harbor a promising role for regenerative medicine. Stem cell banking through long-term storage of different stem cell platforms represents a fundamental source to preserve original features of stem cells for patient-specific clinical applications. Stem cell research and clinical translation constitute fundamental and indivisible modules catalyzed through biobanking activity, generating a return of investment.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging with superparamagnetic iron oxide fails to track the long-term fate of mesenchymal stem cells transplanted into heart.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ning; Cheng, Huaibing; Lu, Minjie; Liu, Qiong; Chen, Xiuyu; Yin, Gang; Zhu, Hao; Zhang, Lianfeng; Meng, Xianmin; Tang, Yue; Zhao, Shihua

    2015-03-12

    MRI for in vivo stem cell tracking remains controversial. Here we tested the hypothesis that MRI can track the long-term fate of the superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles labelled mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) following intramyocardially injection in AMI rats. MSCs (1 × 10(6)) from male rats doubly labeled with SPIO and DAPI were injected 2 weeks after myocardial infarction. The control group received cell-free media injection. In vivo serial MRI was performed at 24 hours before cell delivery (baseline), 3 days, 1, 2, and 4 weeks after cell delivery, respectively. Serial follow-up MRI demonstrated large persistent intramyocardial signal-voids representing SPIO during the follow-up of 4 weeks, and MSCs did not moderate the left ventricular dysfunction. The TUNEL analysis confirmed that MSCs engrafted underwent apoptosis. The histopathological studies revealed that the site of cell injection was infiltrated by inflammatory cells progressively and the iron-positive cells were macrophages identified by CD68 staining, but very few or no DAPI-positive stem cells at 4 weeks after cells transplantation. The presence of engrafted cells was confirmed by real-time PCR, which showed that the amount of Y-chromosome-specific SRY gene was consistent with the results. MRI may not reliably track the long-term fate of SPIO-labeled MSCs engraftment in heart.

  18. Stem Cell Sciences plc.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Sebnem

    2006-09-01

    Stem Cell Sciences' core objective is to develop safe and effective stem cell-based therapies for currently incurable diseases. In order to achieve this goal, Stem Cell Sciences recognizes the need for multiple technologies and a globally integrated stem cell initiative. The key challenges for the successful application of stem cells in the clinic is the need for a reproducible supply of pure, fully characterized stem cells that have been grown in suitable conditions for use in the clinic.

  19. Nanotechnology in the regulation of stem cell behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, King-Chuen; Tseng, Ching-Li; Wu, Chi-Chang; Kao, Feng-Chen; Tu, Yuan-Kun; So, Edmund C.; Wang, Yang-Kao

    2013-10-01

    Stem cells are known for their potential to repair damaged tissues. The adhesion, growth and differentiation of stem cells are likely controlled by the surrounding microenvironment which contains both chemical and physical cues. Physical cues in the microenvironment, for example, nanotopography, were shown to play important roles in stem cell fate decisions. Thus, controlling stem cell behavior by nanoscale topography has become an important issue in stem cell biology. Nanotechnology has emerged as a new exciting field and research from this field has greatly advanced. Nanotechnology allows the manipulation of sophisticated surfaces/scaffolds which can mimic the cellular environment for regulating cellular behaviors. Thus, we summarize recent studies on nanotechnology with applications to stem cell biology, including the regulation of stem cell adhesion, growth, differentiation, tracking and imaging. Understanding the interactions of nanomaterials with stem cells may provide the knowledge to apply to cell-scaffold combinations in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  20. System for tracking transplanted limbal epithelial stem cells in the treatment of corneal stem cell deficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boadi, J.; Sangwal, V.; MacNeil, S.; Matcher, S. J.

    2015-03-01

    The prevailing hypothesis for the existence and healing of the avascular corneal epithelium is that this layer of cells is continually produced by stem cells in the limbus and transported onto the cornea to mature into corneal epithelium. Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency (LSCD), in which the stem cell population is depleted, can lead to blindness. LSCD can be caused by chemical and thermal burns to the eye. A popular treatment, especially in emerging economies such as India, is the transplantation of limbal stem cells onto damaged limbus with hope of repopulating the region. Hence regenerating the corneal epithelium. In order to gain insights into the success rates of this treatment, new imaging technologies are needed in order to track the transplanted cells. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is well known for its high resolution in vivo images of the retina. A custom OCT system has been built to image the corneal surface, to investigate the fate of transplanted limbal stem cells. We evaluate two methods to label and track transplanted cells: melanin labelling and magneto-labelling. To evaluate melanin labelling, stem cells are loaded with melanin and then transplanted onto a rabbit cornea denuded of its epithelium. The melanin displays strongly enhanced backscatter relative to normal cells. To evaluate magneto-labelling the stem cells are loaded with magnetic nanoparticles (20-30nm in size) and then imaged with a custom-built, magneto-motive OCT system.

  1. Rotatable stem and lock

    DOEpatents

    Deveney, Joseph E.; Sanderson, Stephen N.

    1984-01-01

    A valve stem and lock include a housing surrounding a valve stem, a solenoid affixed to an interior wall of the housing, an armature affixed to the valve stem and a locking device for coupling the armature to the housing body. When the solenoid is energized, the solenoid moves away from the housing body, permitting rotation of the valve stem.

  2. Rotatable stem and lock

    DOEpatents

    Deveney, J.E.; Sanderson, S.N.

    1981-10-27

    A valve stem and lock is disclosed which includes a housing surrounding a valve stem, a solenoid affixed to an interior wall of the housing, an armature affixed to the valve stem and a locking device for coupling the armature to the housing body. When the solenoid is energized, the solenoid moves away from the housing body, permitting rotation of the valve stem.

  3. Seeing Stem Cells at Work In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Amit K.; Bulte, Jeff W. M.

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell based-therapies are novel therapeutic strategies that hold key for developing new treatments for diseases conditions with very few or no cures. Although there has been an increase in the number of clinical trials involving stem cell-based therapies in the last few years, the long-term risks and benefits of these therapies are still unknown. Detailed in vivo studies are needed to monitor the fate of transplanted cells, including their distribution, differentiation, and longevity over time. Advancements in non-invasive cellular imaging techniques to track engrafted cells in real-time present a powerful tool for determining the efficacy of stem cell-based therapies. In this review, we describe the latest approaches to stem cell labeling and tracking using different imaging modalities. PMID:23975604

  4. First-Year Non-STEM Majors' Use of Definitions to Solve Calculus Tasks: Benefits of Using Concept Image over Concept Definition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Bettina

    2017-01-01

    Six US first-year university students in humanities or social science degree programmes were interviewed while solving 4 tasks on continuity and asymptotes in a required mathematics course. The focus was on how the students referred to the definitions or to the concept images when solving the tasks and if partial understandings appeared. Partial…

  5. Nanotechnology in stem cells research: advances and applications.

    PubMed

    Deb, Kaushik Dilip; Griffith, May; Muinck, Ebo De; Rafat, Mehrdad

    2012-01-01

    Human beings suffer from a myriad of disorders caused by biochemical or biophysical alteration of physiological systems leading to organ failure. For a number of these conditions, stem cells and their enormous reparative potential may be the last hope for restoring function to these failing organ or tissue systems. To harness the potential of stem cells for biotherapeutic applications, we need to work at the size scale of molecules and processes that govern stem cells fate. Nanotechnology provides us with such capacity. Therefore, effective amalgamation of nanotechnology and stem cells - medical nanoscience or nanomedicine - offers immense benefits to the human race. The aim of this paper is to discuss the role and importance of nanotechnology in stem cell research by focusing on several important areas such as stem cell visualization and imaging, genetic modifications and reprogramming by gene delivery systems, creating stem cell niche, and similar therapeutic applications.

  6. On the dynamics of StemBells: Microbubble-conjugated stem cells for ultrasound-controlled delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokhuis, Tom J. A.; Naaijkens, Benno A.; Juffermans, Lynda J. M.; Kamp, Otto; van der Steen, Antonius F. W.; Versluis, Michel; de Jong, Nico

    2017-07-01

    The use of stem cells for regenerative tissue repair is promising but hampered by the low number of cells delivered to the site of injury. To increase the delivery, we propose a technique in which stem cells are linked to functionalized microbubbles, creating echogenic complex dubbed StemBells. StemBells are highly susceptible to acoustic radiation force which can be employed after injection to push the StemBells locally to the treatment site. To optimally benefit from the delivery technique, a thorough characterization of the dynamics of StemBells during ultrasound exposure is needed. Using high-speed optical imaging, we study the dynamics of StemBells as a function of the applied frequency from which resonance curves were constructed. A theoretical model, based on a modified Rayleigh-Plesset type equation, captured the experimental resonance characteristics and radial dynamics in detail.

  7. Plant stem cell niches.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Yvonne; Simon, Rüdiger

    2005-01-01

    Stem cells are required to support the indeterminate growth style of plants. Meristems are a plants stem cell niches that foster stem cell survival and the production of descendants destined for differentiation. In shoot meristems, stem cell fate is decided at the populational level. The size of the stem cell domain at the meristem tip depends on signals that are exchanged with cells of the organizing centre underneath. In root meristems, individual stem cells are controlled by direct interaction with cells of the quiescent centre that lie in the immediate neighbourhood. Analysis of the interactions and signaling processes in the stem cell niches has delivered some insights into the molecules that are involved and revealed that the two major niches for plant stem cells are more similar than anticipated.

  8. Understanding STEM: Current Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ryan; Brown, Joshua; Reardon, Kristin; Merrill, Chris

    2011-01-01

    In many ways, the push for STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) education appears to have grown from a concern for the low number of future professionals to fill STEM jobs and careers and economic and educational competitiveness. The proponents of STEM education believe that by increasing math and science requirements in…

  9. STEM Curricula. Premiere PD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ryan, Ed.; Ernst, Jeremy, Ed.; Clark, Aaron, Ed.; DeLuca, Bill, Ed.; Kelly, Daniel, Ed.

    2017-01-01

    This professional development activity on STEM Education is designed to keep Technology and Engineering teachers up to date regarding current and important issues in the discipline. This article describes why there is a focus on STEM Education, defines STEM Education, and discusses curriculum integration and its elements.

  10. Creative Teaching in STEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, Vikki; Hains-Wesson, Rachael; Young, Karen

    2018-01-01

    If Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) disciplines in higher education are to retain students, there needs to be a shift towards teaching in more enriching and interesting ways. Creative teaching needs to become more prominent in STEM. This article presents a study that defines creative teaching in the STEM context and…

  11. Expanding STEM Education | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Editor’s note: This article is written as a reflection on experiential STEM education by a student who completed her Werner H. Kirsten internship in June 2015. Here, she advocates for incorporating hands-on experience into STEM curricula. If the only way for high school students to learn science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) is through textbooks, then count

  12. Resolving individual Shockley partials of a dissociated dislocation by STEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, Hiroyuki; Saka, Hiroyasu

    2017-02-01

    A practical method was developed to image detailed features of defects in a crystal using STEM. This method is essentially a STEM version of the conventional CTEM g/3g weak beam dark field (WBDF) method. The method was successfully applied to resolving individual Shockley partials of a dissociated dislocation in a Cu-6.44at.%Al alloy.

  13. Plant stem cell niches.

    PubMed

    Aichinger, Ernst; Kornet, Noortje; Friedrich, Thomas; Laux, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Multicellular organisms possess pluripotent stem cells to form new organs, replenish the daily loss of cells, or regenerate organs after injury. Stem cells are maintained in specific environments, the stem cell niches, that provide signals to block differentiation. In plants, stem cell niches are situated in the shoot, root, and vascular meristems-self-perpetuating units of organ formation. Plants' lifelong activity-which, as in the case of trees, can extend over more than a thousand years-requires that a robust regulatory network keep the balance between pluripotent stem cells and differentiating descendants. In this review, we focus on current models in plant stem cell research elaborated during the past two decades, mainly in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We address the roles of mobile signals on transcriptional modules involved in balancing cell fates. In addition, we discuss shared features of and differences between the distinct stem cell niches of Arabidopsis.

  14. Stem Cell Pathology.

    PubMed

    Fu, Dah-Jiun; Miller, Andrew D; Southard, Teresa L; Flesken-Nikitin, Andrea; Ellenson, Lora H; Nikitin, Alexander Yu

    2018-01-24

    Rapid advances in stem cell biology and regenerative medicine have opened new opportunities for better understanding disease pathogenesis and the development of new diagnostic, prognostic, and treatment approaches. Many stem cell niches are well defined anatomically, thereby allowing their routine pathological evaluation during disease initiation and progression. Evaluation of the consequences of genetic manipulations in stem cells and investigation of the roles of stem cells in regenerative medicine and pathogenesis of various diseases such as cancer require significant expertise in pathology for accurate interpretation of novel findings. Therefore, there is an urgent need for developing stem cell pathology as a discipline to facilitate stem cell research and regenerative medicine. This review provides examples of anatomically defined niches suitable for evaluation by diagnostic pathologists, describes neoplastic lesions associated with them, and discusses further directions of stem cell pathology.

  15. Direct Observation of the Growth of Au-Pd Core-Shell Nanoparticles Using in situ Low-Dose Liquid Cell STEM imaging

    DOE PAGES

    Bhattarai, Nabraj; Prozorov, Tanya

    2016-07-25

    Bimetallic core-shell nanoparticles are widely used as catalysts in several industrial reactions, with core-shell structures permitting facile surface modification and allowing increased stability and durability, and cost-effectiveness of the catalysts. We report, for the first time, on observing the early stages of the formation of Au-Pd core-shell bimetallic nanoparticles via the seed-mediated growth in the presence of reducing agent, while employing the low-dose scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging with the fluid cell in situ. Use of the continuous flow in situ fluid cell platform allows for delivery of reagent solutions and generation of near-native reaction environment in the reaction chamber,more » and permits direct visualization of the early stages of formation of Au-Pd core-shell structures at low dose rate (0.1 e -/(Å 2s)) in the presence of ascorbic acid. No core-shell structures were detected in the absence of reducing agent at the electron dose of 32.6 e -/Å 2. While the core-shell structures formed in situ under the low-dose imaging closely resemble those obtained in solution synthesis, the reaction kinetics in the fluid cell is affected by the radiolysis of liquid reagents induced by electron beam, altering the rate-determining reaction steps. The enhanced reduction of Pd ions leads to initial rapid growth of the nascent Pd shell along the <111> direction at the Au interface, followed by a slower rearrangement of the outer Pd layer. The latter becomes the rate-determining step in the in situ reaction and appears to follow the oriented attachment-like movement to yield a remodeled, compact and stable Au-Pd core-shell nanostructure. Our findings highlight the differences between the two reaction pathways and aid in understanding the mechanism of formation of the core-shell nanostructure in situ.« less

  16. Study Choice and Career Development in STEM Fields: An Overview and Integration of the Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Tuijl, Cathy; van der Molen, Juliette H.

    2016-01-01

    Although science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) study paths and STEM work fields may be relatively difficult and therefore not appropriate for everyone, too many children prematurely exclude STEM-related study and work options, based on negative images of the field or negative ability beliefs. In the present article, we provide an…

  17. Stem cell research: cloning, therapy and scientific fraud.

    PubMed

    Rusnak, A J; Chudley, A E

    2006-10-01

    Stem cell research has generated intense excitement, awareness, and debate. Events in the 2005-2006 saw the rise and fall of a South Korean scientist who had claimed to be the first to clone a human embryonic stem cell line. From celebration of the potential use of stem cells in the treatment of human disease to disciplinary action taken against the disgraced scientists, the drama has unfolded throughout the world media. Prompted by an image of therapeutic cloning presented on a South Korean stamp, a brief review of stem cell research and the events of the Woo-suk Hwang scandal are discussed.

  18. High refractive index substrates for fluorescence microscopy of biological interfaces with high z contrast

    PubMed Central

    Ajo-Franklin, Caroline M.; Kam, Lance; Boxer, Steven G.

    2001-01-01

    Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy is widely used to confine the excitation of a complex fluorescent sample very close to the material on which it is supported. By working with high refractive index solid supports, it is possible to confine even further the evanescent field, and by varying the angle of incidence, to obtain quantitative information on the distance of the fluorescent object from the surface. We report the fabrication of hybrid surfaces consisting of nm layers of SiO2 on lithium niobate (LiNbO3, n = 2.3). Supported lipid bilayer membranes can be assembled and patterned on these hybrid surfaces as on conventional glass. By varying the angle of incidence of the excitation light, we are able to obtain fluorescent contrast between 40-nm fluorescent beads tethered to a supported bilayer and fluorescently labeled protein printed on the surface, which differ in vertical position by only tens of nm. Preliminary experiments that test theoretical models for the fluorescence-collection factor near a high refractive index surface are presented, and this factor is incorporated into a semiquantitative model used to predict the contrast of the 40-nm bead/protein system. These results demonstrate that it should be possible to profile the vertical location of fluorophores on the nm distance scale in real time, opening the possibility of many experiments at the interface between supported membranes and living cells. Improvements in materials and optical techniques are outlined. PMID:11717428

  19. Investigating Preservice STEM Teacher Conceptions of STEM Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radloff, Jeff; Guzey, Selcen

    2016-01-01

    Surrounding the national emphasis on improving STEM education, effective STEM educators are required. Connected, yet often overlooked, is the need for effective preservice STEM teaching instruction for incoming educators. At a basic level, preservice STEM teacher education should include STEM content, pedagogy, and conceptualization. However, the…

  20. Watching stem cells at work with a flexible multiphoton tomograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchugonova, Aisada; Hoffmann, Robert; Weinigel, Martin; König, Karsten

    2012-03-01

    There is a high demand for non-invasive imaging techniques that allow observation of stem cells in their native environment without significant input on cell metabolism, reproduction, and behavior. Easy accessible hair follicle pluripotent stem cells in the bulge area and dermal papilla are potential sources for stem cell based therapy. It has been shown that these cells are able to generate hair, non-follicle skin cells, nerves, vessels, smooth muscles etc. and may participate in wound healing processes. We report on the finding of nestin-GFP expressing stem cells in their native niche in the bulge of the hair follicle of living mice by using high-resolution in-vivo multiphoton tomography. The 3D imaging with submicron resolution was based on two-photon induced fluorescence and second harmonic generation (SHG) of collagen. Migrating stem cells from the bulge to their microenvironment have been detected inside the skin during optical deep tissue sectioning.

  1. Lipstick and labcoats: Undergraduate women's gender negotiation in STEM fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Emily Grey

    While women have made significant progress in the work force and in education, gender gaps still exist in many industries and occupations, including science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields. This research aims to understand how undergraduate women negotiate gender within STEM fields, looking specifically at these women's experiences related to gender as they pursue STEM academic majors. The results of the study suggest that (1) the experience of being a woman in a STEM field is different than the experience of being a man; (2) undergraduate women in STEM fields are not necessarily conscious of gender and its potential impact on their experiences; and, (3) the women in the study perceived a certain image of what a woman in a STEM field was expected to look like and how she was expected to behave.

  2. Image-based evaluation of contraction-relaxation kinetics of human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes: Correlation and complementarity with extracellular electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Tomohiro; Kunihiro, Takeshi; Ando, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Seiji; Matsui, Eriko; Yada, Hiroaki; Kanda, Yasunari; Kurokawa, Junko; Furukawa, Tetsushi

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we used high-speed video microscopy with motion vector analysis to investigate the contractile characteristics of hiPS-CM monolayer, in addition to further characterizing the motion with extracellular field potential (FP), traction force and the Ca(2+) transient. Results of our traction force microscopy demonstrated that the force development of hiPS-CMs correlated well with the cellular deformation detected by the video microscopy with motion vector analysis. In the presence of verapamil and isoproterenol, contractile motion of hiPS-CMs showed alteration in accordance with the changes in fluorescence peak of the Ca(2+) transient, i.e., upstroke, decay, amplitude and full-width at half-maximum. Simultaneously recorded hiPS-CM motion and FP showed that there was a linear correlation between changes in the motion and field potential duration in response to verapamil (30-150nM), isoproterenol (0.1-10μM) and E-4031 (10-50nM). In addition, tetrodotoxin (3-30μM)-induced delay of sodium current was corresponded with the delay of the contraction onset of hiPS-CMs. These results indicate that the electrophysiological and functional behaviors of hiPS-CMs are quantitatively reflected in the contractile motion detected by this image-based technique. In the presence of 100nM E-4031, the occurrence of early after-depolarization-like negative deflection in FP was also detected in the hiPS-CM motion as a characteristic two-step relaxation pattern. These findings offer insights into the interpretation of the motion kinetics of the hiPS-CMs, and are relevant for understanding electrical and mechanical relationship in hiPS-CMs. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Global Collaborative STEM Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meabh Kelly, Susan; Smith, Walter

    2016-04-01

    Global Collaborative STEM Education, as the name suggests, simultaneously supports two sets of knowledge and skills. The first set is STEM -- science, technology, engineering and math. The other set of content knowledge and skills is that of global collaboration. Successful global partnerships require awareness of one's own culture, the biases embedded within that culture, as well as developing awareness of the collaborators' culture. Workforce skills fostered include open-mindedness, perseverance when faced with obstacles, and resourceful use of technological "bridges" to facilitate and sustain communication. In respect for the 2016 GIFT Workshop focus, Global Collaborative STEM Education projects dedicated to astronomy research will be presented. The projects represent different benchmarks within the Global Collaborative STEM Education continuum, culminating in an astronomy research experience that fully reflects how the global STEM workforce collaborates. To facilitate wider engagement in Global Collaborative STEM Education, project summaries, classroom resources and contact information for established international collaborative astronomy research projects will be disseminated.

  4. Stem Cells and Aging.

    PubMed

    Koliakos, George

    2017-02-01

    The article is a presentation at the 4th Conference of ESAAM, which took place on October 30-31, 2015, in Athens, Greece. Its purpose was not to cover all aspects of cellular aging but to share with the audience of the Conference, in a 15-minute presentation, current knowledge about the rejuvenating and repairing somatic stem cells that are distinct from other stem cell types (such as embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells), emphasize that our body in old age cannot take advantage of these rejuvenating cells, and provide some examples of novel experimental stem cell applications in the field of rejuvenation and antiaging biomedical research.

  5. Stem cells and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Du, Hongling; Taylor, Hugh S

    2010-06-01

    To review the latest developments in reproductive tract stem cell biology. In 2004, two studies indicated that ovaries contain stem cells which form oocytes in adults and that can be cultured in vitro into mature oocytes. A live birth after orthotopic transplantation of cryopreserved ovarian tissue in a woman whose ovaries were damaged by chemotherapy demonstrates the clinical potential of these cells. In the same year, another study provided novel evidence of endometrial regeneration by stem cells in women who received bone marrow transplants. This finding has potential for the use in treatment of uterine disorders. It also supports a new theory for the cause of endometriosis, which may have its origin in ectopic transdifferentiation of stem cells. Several recent studies have demonstrated that fetal cells enter the maternal circulation and generate microchimerism in the mother. The uterus is a dynamic organ permeable to fetal stem cells, capable of transdifferentiation and an end organ in which bone marrow stem cells may differentiate. Finally stem cell transformation can be an underlying cause of ovarian cancer. Whereas we are just beginning to understand stem cells, the potential implications of stem cells to reproductive biology and medicine are apparent.

  6. Characterization of Nb Superconducting Radio Frequency Cavities Based On In-Situ STEM And EELS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Runzhe

    Niobium, a 4d transition metal, has the highest superconducting transition temperature (Tc=9.2K) of any elemental superconductor as type II superconductor with coherent length, sigma approximately that of the penetration length, lambda. Pure niobium is grey in color and very soft, which makes this metal easily fabricable into different shapes for superconducting radio- frequency (SRF) cavities. Such cavities are used in some modern accelerators (SNS, CEBAF, XFEL), and are intended for usage in the next generation of particle accelerators, such as ILC. Since the crucial part of the cavities is top 100 nm of Nb near the inner cavity surface, considering the penetration depth is around 40 nm, it has attracted more and more attention in improving the surface process for optimizing the performance of the cavities. Nowadays, the main treatment of the Nb surface includes electro polishing (EP), buffered chemical polishing (BCP), high temperature baking (800 °C, 1000 °C and 1200 °C) and mild baking (120 °C). Firstly, the two half cells are welded together and the weld line is quite rough; there exists a lot of visible pits and defects on the inner shell of cavities. In this Ph.D. thesis, novel techniques in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) that can be used to analyze the atomic scale structure-property relationship, both at room tem- perature and high/LN 2 temperature, are explored. Specifically, by using correlated Z-contrast imaging and electron energy loss spectrum (EELS), the structure, composition and bonding can be characterized directly on the atomic scale, also, light atoms, like H, O and C, are visible in ABF images. For the examining the defect behavior on the cavity surface, heating and cold stages are involved to simulate the baking treatment and low-temperature environments. These studies will serve as an important reference for qualifying different surface treatments to further improve SRF cavities' performance. The experimental results

  7. Bringing STEM to Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkeihiser, Mike; Ray, Dori

    2013-01-01

    The interdisciplinary approach that science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) projects inspire in both teachers and students "brings to light a larger picture that promotes real-world scientific applications, which has in turn been shown to increase undergraduate persistence in STEM." The high school students have been…

  8. Teaching STEM by Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billiar, Kristen; Hubelbank, Jeanne; Oliva, Thomas; Camesano, Terri

    2014-01-01

    Developing innovative science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) curricula that elicit student excitement for learning is a continuous challenge for K-12 STEM teachers. Generating these lessons while meeting conflicting pedagogical objectives and constraints of time, content, and cost from various parties is truly a challenging task…

  9. The Hidden STEM Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothwell, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Workers in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) fields play a direct role in driving economic growth. Yet, because of how the STEM economy has been defined, policymakers have mainly focused on supporting workers with at least a bachelor's (BA) degree, overlooking a strong potential workforce of those with less than a BA. This report…

  10. State of STEM

    2013-02-13

    NASA Deputy Administrator Lori Garver listens to a question during the first-ever State of Science, Technology, Engineering and Math Event (SoSTEM) held at the Eisenhower Executive Office Building, Wednesday, Feb. 13, 2013 in Washington. Garver was part of a panel that took questions from a crowd of STEM students. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. Lock For Valve Stem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Richard K.; Guirguis, Kamal S.

    1991-01-01

    Simple, cheap device locks valve stem so its setting cannot be changed by unauthorized people. Device covers valve stem; cover locked in place with standard padlock. Valve lock made of PVC pipe and packing band. Shears, drill or punch, and forming rod only tools needed.

  12. Making STEM Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stump, Sheryl L.; Bryan, Joel A.; McConnell, Tom J.

    2016-01-01

    Integrated approaches to education in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), especially those set in the context of real-world situations, can motivate and deepen students' learning of the STEM subjects (National Academy of Engineering and National Research Council 2014). This article describes two integrated investigations used…

  13. STEM School Discourse Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tofel-Grehl, Colby; Callahan, Carolyn M.

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of discursive practices in science classrooms within STEM schools may provide meaningful information about the nature of these classrooms and, potentially, their uniqueness. Full descriptions of current practice can serve as a foundation for exploring the differences in instructional norms within STEM specialized schools and across…

  14. Investigating Preservice STEM Teacher Conceptions of STEM Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radloff, Jeff; Guzey, Selcen

    2016-10-01

    Surrounding the national emphasis on improving STEM education, effective STEM educators are required. Connected, yet often overlooked, is the need for effective preservice STEM teaching instruction for incoming educators. At a basic level, preservice STEM teacher education should include STEM content, pedagogy, and conceptualization. However, the literature suggests no leading conception of STEM education, and little is known about how preservice STEM teachers are conceptualizing STEM education. In order to explore preservice STEM teacher conceptions of STEM education, preservice teachers at a large, Midwestern research university were given an open-ended survey eliciting both textual and visual responses. Here, we report and discuss the results of employing this instrument in relation with the current STEM conceptualization literature.

  15. The pea stem

    PubMed Central

    Karahara, Ichirou

    2012-01-01

    The Casparian strip is commonly observed in the endodermis of roots of vascular plants and, in some cases, also in the stems. Pea stems develop the Casparian strip, and its development has been reported to be regulated by blue light. In addition, for the purpose of photobiological studies, pea stems provide a unique experimental system for other physiological studies of the development of the Casparian strip. In this article, I have briefly summarized (1) the effects of environmental factors on the development of the Casparian strip, (2) the advantage of using pea stems for physiological studies of the development of the Casparian strip, and (3) cellular events indicated to be involved in the development of the Casparian strip, focusing on the studies using pea stems as well as other recent studies. PMID:22899074

  16. Expanding STEM Education | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Editor’s note: This article is written as a reflection on experiential STEM education by a student who completed her Werner H. Kirsten internship in June 2015. Here, she advocates for incorporating hands-on experience into STEM curricula. If the only way for high school students to learn science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) is through textbooks, then count me out. But how then do you get students to learn STEM outside of the classroom? The focus of this article is to advocate for high school STEM education through experiential learning. Tom Freston, one of the founders and the chief executive officer (CEO) of MTV Productions, said in an interview in Men’s Journal that “innovation is taking two things that already exist and...

  17. Nanotechnology for mesenchymal stem cell therapies.

    PubMed

    Corradetti, Bruna; Ferrari, Mauro

    2016-10-28

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) display great proliferative, differentiative, chemotactic, and immune-modulatory properties required to promote tissue repair. Several clinical trials based on the use of MSC are currently underway for therapeutic purposes. The aim of this article is to examine the current trends and potential impact of nanotechnology in MSC-driven regenerative medicine. Nanoparticle-based approaches are used as powerful carrier systems for the targeted delivery of bioactive molecules to ensure MSC long-term maintenance in vitro and to enhance their regenerative potential. Nanostructured materials have been developed to recapitulate the stem cell niche within a tissue and to instruct MSC toward the creation of regeneration-permissive environment. Finally, the capability of MSC to migrate toward the site of injury/inflammation has allowed for the development of diagnostic imaging systems able to monitor transplanted stem cell bio-distribution, toxicity, and therapeutic effectiveness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. State of STEM (SoSTEM) Address

    2014-01-29

    Environmentalist and third-year law student at Elon University School of Law Tyrone Davis speaks at the annual White House State of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (SoSTEM) address, Wednesday, Jan. 29, 2014, in the South Court Auditorium in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building on the White House complex in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. State of STEM (SoSTEM) Address

    2014-01-29

    NASA associate administrator for education and former astronaut Leland Melvin speaks at the annual White House State of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (SoSTEM) address, Wednesday, Jan. 29, 2014, in the South Court Auditorium in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building on the White House complex in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  20. State of STEM (SoSTEM) Address

    2014-01-29

    White House innovation expert Cristin Dorgelo speaks at the annual White House State of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (SoSTEM) address, Wednesday, Jan. 29, 2014, in the South Court Auditorium in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building on the White House complex in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. State of STEM (SoSTEM) Address

    2014-01-29

    Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Gill Pratt speaks at the annual White House State of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (SoSTEM) address, Wednesday, Jan. 29, 2014, in the South Court Auditorium in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building on the White House complex in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. State of STEM (SoSTEM) Address

    2014-01-29

    NASA Astronaut Joe Acaba, left, is interviewed by National Geographic Kids reporter Trevor Jehl ahead of the annual White House State of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (SoSTEM) address, Wednesday, Jan. 29, 2014, in the South Court Auditorium in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building on the White House complex in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  3. State of STEM (SoSTEM) Address

    2014-01-29

    NASA Astronaut Joe Acaba, left, is interviewed by TIME for Kids reporter Grace Clark ahead of the annual White House State of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (SoSTEM) address, Wednesday, Jan. 29, 2014, in the South Court Auditorium in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building on the White House complex in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  4. What is a stem cell?

    PubMed

    Slack, Jonathan M W

    2018-05-15

    The historical roots of the stem cell concept are traced with respect to its usage in embryology and in hematology. The modern consensus definition of stem cells, comprising both pluripotent stem cells in culture and tissue-specific stem cells in vivo, is explained and explored. Methods for identifying stem cells are discussed with respect to cell surface markers, telomerase, label retention and transplantability, and properties of the stem cell niche are explored. The CreER method for identifying stem cells in vivo is explained, as is evidence in favor of a stochastic rather than an obligate asymmetric form of cell division. In conclusion, it is found that stem cells do not possess any unique and specific molecular markers; and stem cell behavior depends on the environment of the cell as well as the stem cell's intrinsic qualities. Furthermore, the stochastic mode of division implies that stem cell behavior is a property of a cell population not of an individual cell. In this sense, stem cells do not exist in isolation but only as a part of multicellular system. This article is categorized under: Adult Stem Cells, Tissue Renewal, and Regeneration > Tissue Stem Cells and Niches Adult Stem Cells, Tissue Renewal, and Regeneration > Methods and Principles Adult Stem Cells, Tissue Renewal, and Regeneration > Environmental Control of Stem Cells. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Verfaillie, C

    2009-05-01

    The isolation of human embryonic stem cells (ESC) in 1998 has created the hope that stem cells will one day be used to regenerate tissues and organs, even though it is obvious that a number of hurdles will need to be overcome for such therapies to become reality. The cloning of "Dolly" in 1997, more than 40 years after the first frogs were cloned, combined with the very fast progress made in our understanding of the molecular processes that govern the pluripotency of ESC has lead to the ability of scientists to recreate a pluripotent state in fibroblasts and other cells from mouse, rat and man, named induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC). This feat makes it theoretically possible to create patient specific pluripotent stem cells whose differentiated progeny could be used in an autologous manner obviating the need for immunosuppression that would be needed to use allogeneic ESC-derived differentiated cells. In addition, the ability to generate custom made pluripotent stem cells will no doubt lead to the development of protein or small molecule drugs that can induce differentiation not only of iPSC or ESC to mature tissue cells, but also endogenous tissue stem cells. Moreover, it allows scientists to create models of human diseases and may aid the pharmaceutical industry in testing more rigorously toxicity of drugs for human differentiated cells. Thus, there is little doubt that progress in stem cell biology will change many aspects of medicine as we know it in the next one to two decades.

  6. Haemopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Bellantuono, Ilaria

    2004-04-01

    Considerable effort has been made in recent years in understanding the mechanisms that govern stem cell generation, proliferation, self-renewal, commitment and lately plasticity. In the development of the haemopoietic system during embryonic and fetal life the notion of different pools of stem cells arising from the endothelium is gaining consensus. Gene expression profiling of populations of stem cells is bringing to light categories of genes important for self-renewal or commitment. Besides the role of transcription factors in lineage decision, the role of soluble factors and transmembrane proteins, very active at the time of embryo development, are taking central stage in the maintenance and in vitro expansion of haemopoietic stem cells (HSCs). The hierarchical model of haemopoietic development is being questioned with reports of lineage switching and plasticity of haemopoietic stem cells to non-haemopoietic cells. Yet the understanding of the overall process is still very fragmented and hypothetical. This is mainly due to the absence of appropriate markers to enable selection of homogeneous stem cell populations and the need to rely on retrospective functional assays, able only to determine the overall behaviour of a population of cells. This review is intended to be an overview of the haemopoietic system and a critical re-visitation of issues such as plasticity and self-renewal important for therapeutic applications of haemopoietic stem cells.

  7. Fish stem cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ni; Li, Zhendong; Hong, Yunhan

    2011-04-13

    Stem cells have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation. First stem cell cultures were derived 30 years ago from early developing mouse embryos. These are pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells. Efforts towards ES cell derivation have been attempted in other mammalian and non-mammalian species. Work with stem cell culture in fish started 20 years ago. Laboratory fish species, in particular zebrafish and medaka, have been the focus of research towards stem cell cultures. Medaka is the second organism that generated ES cells and the first that gave rise to a spermatogonial stem cell line capable of test-tube sperm production. Most recently, the first haploid stem cells capable of producing whole animals have also been generated from medaka. ES-like cells have been reported also in zebrafish and several marine species. Attempts for germline transmission of ES cell cultures and gene targeting have been reported in zebrafish. Recent years have witnessed the progress in markers and procedures for ES cell characterization. These include the identification of fish homologs/paralogs of mammalian pluripotency genes and parameters for optimal chimera formation. In addition, fish germ cell cultures and transplantation have attracted considerable interest for germline transmission and surrogate production. Haploid ES cell nuclear transfer has proven in medaka the feasibility of semi-cloning as a novel assisted reproductive technology. In this special issue on "Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transfer", we will focus our review on medaka to illustrate the current status and perspective of fish stem cells in research and application. We will also mention semi-cloning as a new development to conventional nuclear transfer.

  8. Fish Stem Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Ni; Li, Zhendong; Hong, Yunhan

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation. First stem cell cultures were derived 30 years ago from early developing mouse embryos. These are pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells. Efforts towards ES cell derivation have been attempted in other mammalian and non-mammalian species. Work with stem cell culture in fish started 20 years ago. Laboratory fish species, in particular zebrafish and medaka, have been the focus of research towards stem cell cultures. Medaka is the second organism that generated ES cells and the first that gave rise to a spermatogonial stem cell line capable of test-tube sperm production. Most recently, the first haploid stem cells capable of producing whole animals have also been generated from medaka. ES-like cells have been reported also in zebrafish and several marine species. Attempts for germline transmission of ES cell cultures and gene targeting have been reported in zebrafish. Recent years have witnessed the progress in markers and procedures for ES cell characterization. These include the identification of fish homologs/paralogs of mammalian pluripotency genes and parameters for optimal chimera formation. In addition, fish germ cell cultures and transplantation have attracted considerable interest for germline transmission and surrogate production. Haploid ES cell nuclear transfer has proven in medaka the feasibility of semi-cloning as a novel assisted reproductive technology. In this special issue on “Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transfer”, we will focus our review on medaka to illustrate the current status and perspective of fish stem cells in research and application. We will also mention semi-cloning as a new development to conventional nuclear transfer. PMID:21547056

  9. Autophagy in stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Jun-Lin; Simon, Anna Katharina; Prescott, Mark; Menendez, Javier A.; Liu, Fei; Wang, Fen; Wang, Chenran; Wolvetang, Ernst; Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; Zhang, Jue

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy is a highly conserved cellular process by which cytoplasmic components are sequestered in autophagosomes and delivered to lysosomes for degradation. As a major intracellular degradation and recycling pathway, autophagy is crucial for maintaining cellular homeostasis as well as remodeling during normal development, and dysfunctions in autophagy have been associated with a variety of pathologies including cancer, inflammatory bowel disease and neurodegenerative disease. Stem cells are unique in their ability to self-renew and differentiate into various cells in the body, which are important in development, tissue renewal and a range of disease processes. Therefore, it is predicted that autophagy would be crucial for the quality control mechanisms and maintenance of cellular homeostasis in various stem cells given their relatively long life in the organisms. In contrast to the extensive body of knowledge available for somatic cells, the role of autophagy in the maintenance and function of stem cells is only beginning to be revealed as a result of recent studies. Here we provide a comprehensive review of the current understanding of the mechanisms and regulation of autophagy in embryonic stem cells, several tissue stem cells (particularly hematopoietic stem cells), as well as a number of cancer stem cells. We discuss how recent studies of different knockout mice models have defined the roles of various autophagy genes and related pathways in the regulation of the maintenance, expansion and differentiation of various stem cells. We also highlight the many unanswered questions that will help to drive further research at the intersection of autophagy and stem cell biology in the near future. PMID:23486312

  10. GE STEM Teacher's Conference

    2017-07-13

    Education Specialists Lynn Dotson, left, of the NASA Public Engagement Center, and Lester Morales, right, of Texas State University's NASA STEM Educator Professional Development Collaborative, explain the Rocketry Engineering Design Challenge to teachers participating in the 2017 GE Foundation High School STEM Integration Conference at the Center for Space Education at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. High school teachers from across the country took part in the week-long conference, which is designed to explore effective ways for teachers, schools and districts from across the country to integrate STEM throughout the curriculum. The conference is a partnership between GE Foundation and the National Science Teachers Association.

  11. Nanotechnology and stem cell therapy for cardiovascular diseases: potential applications.

    PubMed

    La Francesca, Saverio

    2012-01-01

    The use of stem cell therapy for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases has generated significant interest in recent years. Limitations to the clinical application of this therapy center on issues of stem cell delivery, engraftment, and fate. Nanotechnology-based cell labeling and imaging techniques facilitate stem cell tracking and engraftment studies. Nanotechnology also brings exciting new opportunities to translational stem cell research as it enables the controlled engineering of nanoparticles and nanomaterials that can properly relate to the physical scale of cell-cell and cell-niche interactions. This review summarizes the most relevant potential applications of nanoscale technologies to the field of stem cell therapy for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  12. A Scan through the History of STEM

    SciT

    Pennycook, Stephen J

    2011-01-01

    The development of Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) is outlined from the first developments by Baron Manfred von Ardenne, through the first successful field emission gun STEM by Albert Crewe and his collaborators, to its widespread application today in the era of aberration correction. The review focuses on the development and understanding of incoherent imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy at atomic resolution and will not include details on microanalysis, low loss imaging, or specialized modes such as cathodoluminescence. Although it attempts to cover all the major advances in approximately chronological order, undoubtedly there are omissions and an overemphasis onmore » developments that the author is most familiar with from his own history.« less

  13. [Stem cells in adults].

    PubMed

    Borge, O J; Funderud, S

    2001-08-30

    We present a literature review of the plasticity observed by adult stem cells. We have reviewed the literature regarding stem cells from adults in order to summarise their ability to generate cells of other types than those of the tissue/organ from which they were isolated. Adult stem cells have recently been demonstrated to terminally differentiate into cells of other tissues than those from which they were originally isolated. For example, bone marrow cells have been shown to generate liver, nerve, heart and skeletal muscle cells in addition to their well-known ability to produce blood and mesenchymal cells. Most studies demonstrate a proof-of-principle in animal models; much more research is needed before adult stem cells can be utilised in human medicine. However, the published reports are encouraging and give reasons for a cautious optimism with regard to future clinical use.

  14. [STEM on Station Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundebjerg, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    The STEM on Station team is part of Education which is part of the External Relations organization (ERO). ERO has traditional goals based around BHAG (Big Hairy Audacious Goal). The BHAG model is simplified to a saying: Everything we do stimulates actions by others to advance human space exploration. The STEM on Station education initiate is a project focused on bringing off the earth research and learning into classrooms. Educational resources such as lesson plans, activities to connect with the space station and STEM related contests are available and hosted by the STEM on Station team along with their partners such as Texas Instruments. These educational activities engage teachers and students in the current happenings aboard the international space station, inspiring the next generation of space explorers.

  15. Innovation and STEM Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Julia Link

    2015-01-01

    How do schools with a focus on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fit in with state goals to increase innovation and to boost the economy? This article briefly discusses how educators can encourage creativity and innovation.

  16. Neurotoxicity Associated With Dimethyl Sulfoxide Used in Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ataseven, Eda; Tüfekçi, Özlem; Yilmaz, Şebnem; Güleryüz, Handan; Ören, Hale

    2017-07-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a cryoprotective agent used in storage of frozen stem cells in stem cell transplantation. Central nervous system side effects of DMSO such as epileptic seizures, stroke, transient global amnesia, and temporary leucoencephalopathy are rarely seen. Here, we report a pediatric patient who developed seizures after DMSO-cryopreserved stem cell infusion and whose magnetic resonance imaging of the brain demonstrated parietal and occipital focal cortical T2-signal intensity increase. DMSO toxicity should be kept in mind in patients who received cryopreserved stem cell infusion and magnetic resonance imaging may be helpful in differential diagnosis of central nervous system involvement.

  17. GE STEM Teacher's Conference

    2017-07-13

    Teachers participate in the Rocketry Engineering Design Challenge during the 2017 GE Foundation High School STEM Integration Conference at the Center for Space Education at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. High school teachers from across the country took part in the week-long conference, which is designed to explore effective ways for teachers, schools and districts from across the country to integrate STEM throughout the curriculum. The conference is a partnership between GE Foundation and the National Science Teachers Association.

  18. State of STEM

    2013-02-13

    Bobak Ferdowsi, Flight Director, Mars Curiosity Rover, answers questions from Scholastic News young reporter Emily Shao prior to the start of the first-ever State of Science, Technology, Engineering and Math Event (SoSTEM) held at the Eisenhower Executive Office Building, Wednesday, Feb. 13, 2013 in Washington. Ferdowsi was part of a panel that took questions from a crowd of STEM students. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. STEM Workforce Pipeline

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-30

    more about STEM. From museums, to gardens, to planetariums and more, Places to Go mobilizes people to explore the STEM resources offered by their...Works website was developed utilizing a phased approach. This approach allowed for informed, periodic updates to the structure, design, and backend ...our web development team, throughout this phase. A significant amount of backend development work on the website, as well as design work was completed

  20. State of STEM (SoSTEM) Address

    2014-01-29

    Dr. John P. Holdren, Assistant to the President for Science and Technology and Director of the White House Office of Science & Technology Policy, right, is interviewed by National Geographic Kids reporter Trevor Jehl ahead of the annual White House State of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (SoSTEM) address, Wednesday, Jan. 29, 2014, in the South Court Auditorium in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building on the White House complex in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. State of STEM (SoSTEM) Address

    2014-01-29

    Dr. John P. Holdren, Assistant to the President for Science and Technology and Director of the White House Office of Science & Technology Policy, listens to a question during the annual White House State of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (SoSTEM) address, Wednesday, Jan. 29, 2014, in the South Court Auditorium in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building on the White House complex in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. State of STEM (SoSTEM) Address

    2014-01-29

    Dr. John P. Holdren, Assistant to the President for Science and Technology and Director of the White House Office of Science & Technology Policy, speaks at the annual White House State of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (SoSTEM) address, Wednesday, Jan. 29, 2014, in the South Court Auditorium in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building on the White House complex in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  3. State of STEM (SoSTEM) Address

    2014-01-29

    Dr. John P. Holdren, Assistant to the President for Science and Technology and Director of the White House Office of Science & Technology Policy is interviewed by TIME for Kids reporter Kristen Rigsby, ahead of the annual White House State of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (SoSTEM) address, Wednesday, Jan. 29, 2014, in the South Court Auditorium in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building on the White House complex in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  4. State of STEM (SoSTEM) Address

    2014-01-29

    Dr. John P. Holdren, Assistant to the President for Science and Technology and Director of the White House Office of Science & Technology Policy, talks with NASA's 2013 astronaut candidates at the annual White House State of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (SoSTEM) address, Wednesday, Jan. 29, 2014, in the South Court Auditorium in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building on the White House complex in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. State of STEM (SoSTEM) Address

    2014-01-29

    NASA associate administrator for education and former astronaut Leland Melvin, left, watches as astronauts, Rick Mastracchio, screen left, and Michael Hopkins, deliver a message from the International Space Station (ISS) to attendees of the annual White House State of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (SoSTEM) address, Wednesday, Jan. 29, 2014, in the South Court Auditorium in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building on the White House complex in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. State of STEM (SoSTEM) Address

    2014-01-29

    Dr. John P. Holdren, Assistant to the President for Science and Technology and Director of the White House Office of Science & Technology Policy, left, is interviewed by TIME for Kids reporter Grace Clark ahead of the annual White House State of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (SoSTEM) address, Wednesday, Jan. 29, 2014, in the South Court Auditorium in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building on the White House complex in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  7. State of STEM (SoSTEM) Address

    2014-01-29

    Montgomery Blair High School Student Newspaper “Silver Chips” Online Editor-in-Chief Aanchal Johri, right, and Photo Editor Emma Howells, left, from Silver Spring, MD. interview NASA Astronaut Joe Acaba at the annual White House State of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (SoSTEM) address, Wednesday, Jan. 29, 2014, in the South Court Auditorium in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building on the White House complex in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. Arrhythmia in Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Shone O.; Skelton, Rhys J.; Adigopula, Sasikanth; Ardehali, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Stem cell regenerative therapies hold promise for treating diseases across the spectrum of medicine. Recent clinical trials have confirmed the safety of stem cell delivery to the heart with promising but variable results. While significant progress has been made in the preclinical stages, the clinical application of cardiac cell therapy is limited by technical challenges, including inability to isolate a pure population of cardiac-specific progenitors capable of robust engraftment and regeneration, lack of appropriate pre-clinical animal models, uncertainty about the best mode of delivery, paucity of adequate imaging modalities, and lack of knowledge about the fate of transplanted cells. The inability of transplanted cells to structurally and functionally integrate into the host myocardium may pose arrhythmogenic risk to patients. This is in part dependent on the type of cell transplanted, where the expression of gap junctions such as connexin-43 is essential not only for electromechanical integration, but has also been found to be protective against electrical instability post-transplant. Additionally, certain methods of cell delivery, such as intramyocardial injection, carry a higher rate of arrhythmias. Other potential contributors to the arrhythmogenicity of cell transplantation include re-entrant pathways due to heterogeneity in conduction velocities between graft and host as well as graft automaticity. In this paper, we discuss the arrhythmogenic potential of cell delivery to the heart. PMID:26002399

  9. Advances in Bone Marrow Stem Cell Therapy for Retinal Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Park, Susanna S.; Moisseiev, Elad; Bauer, Gerhard; Anderson, Johnathon D.; Grant, Maria B.; Zam, Azhar; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Werner, John S.; Nolta, Jan A.

    2016-01-01

    The most common cause of untreatable vision loss is dysfunction of the retina. Conditions, such as age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma remain leading causes of untreatable blindness worldwide. Various stem cell approaches are being explored for treatment of retinal regeneration. The rationale for using bone marrow stem cells to treat retinal dysfunction is based on preclinical evidence showing that bone marrow stem cells can rescue degenerating and ischemic retina. These stem cells have primarily paracrine trophic effects although some cells can directly incorporate into damaged tissue. Since the paracrine trophic effects can have regenerative effects on multiple cells in the retina, the use of this cell therapy is not limited to a particular retinal condition. Autologous bone marrow-derived stem cells are being explored in early clinical trials as therapy for various retinal conditions. These bone marrow stem cells include mesenchymal stem cells, mononuclear cells and CD34+ cells. Autologous therapy requires no systemic immunosuppression or donor matching. Intravitreal delivery of CD34+ cells and mononuclear cells appears to be tolerated and is being explored since some of these cells can home into the damaged retina after intravitreal administration. The safety of intravitreal delivery of mesenchymal stem cells has not been well established. This review provides an update of the current evidence in support of the use of bone marrow stem cells as treatment for retinal dysfunction. The potential limitations and complications of using certain forms of bone marrow stem cells as therapy are discussed. Future directions of research include methods to optimize the therapeutic potential of these stem cells, non-cellular alternatives using extracellular vesicles, and in vivo high-resolution retinal imaging to detect cellular changes in the retina following cell therapy. PMID:27784628

  10. Stem sap flow in plants under low gravity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokuda, Ayako; Hirai, Hiroaki; Kitaya, Yoshiaki

    2016-07-01

    A study was conducted to obtain a fundamental knowledge for plant functions in bio-regenerative life support systems in space. Stem sap flow in plants is important indicators for water transport from roots to atmosphere through leaves. In this study, stem sap flow in sweetpotato was assessed at gravity levels from 0.01 to 2 g for about 20 seconds each during parabolic airplane flights. Stem sap flow was monitored with a heat balance method in which heat generated with a tiny heater installed in the stem was transferred upstream and downstream by conduction and upstream by convection with the sap flow through xylems of the vascular tissue. Thermal images of stem surfaces near heated points were captured using infrared thermography and the internal heat convection corresponding to the sap flow was analyzed. In results, the sap flow in stems was suppressed more at lower gravity levels without forced air circulation. No suppression of the stem sap flow was observed with forced air circulation. Suppressed sap flow in stems would be caused by suppression of transpiration in leaves and would cause restriction of water and nutrient uptake in roots. The forced air movement is essential to culture healthy plants at a high growth rate under low gravity conditions in space.

  11. Characterizing probe performance in the aberration corrected STEM.

    PubMed

    Batson, P E

    2006-01-01

    Sub-Angstrom imaging using the 120 kV IBM STEM is now routine if the probe optics is carefully controlled and fully characterized. However, multislice simulation using at least a frozen phonon approximation is required to understand the Annular Dark Field image contrast. Analysis of silicon dumbbell structures in the [110] and [211] projections illustrate this finding. Using fast image acquisition, atomic movement appears ubiquitous under the electron beam, and may be useful to illuminate atomic level processes.

  12. Valve stem and packing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Wordin, John J.

    1991-01-01

    A valve stem and packing assembly is provided in which a rotatable valve stem includes a first tractrix surface for sliding contact with a stem packing and also includes a second tractrix surface for sliding contact with a bonnet. Force is applied by means of a spring, gland flange, and gland on the stem packing so the stem packing seals to the valve stem and bonnet. This configuration serves to create and maintain a reliable seal between the stem packing and the valve stem. The bonnet includes a second complementary tractrix surface for contacting the second sliding tractrix surface, the combination serving as a journal bearing for the entire valve stem and packing assembly. The journal bearing so configured is known as a Schiele's pivot. The Schiele's pivot also serves to maintain proper alignment of the valve stem with respect to the bonnet. Vertical wear between the surfaces of the Schiele's pivot is uniform at all points of contact between the second sliding tractrix surface and the second complementary tractrix surface of a bonnet. The valve stem is connected to a valve plug by means of a slip joint. The valve is opened and closed by rotating the valve stem. The slip joint compensates for wear on the Schiele's pivot and on the valve plug. A ledge is provided on the valve bonnet for the retaining nut to bear against. The ledge prevents overtightening of the retaining nut and the resulting excessive friction between stem and stem packing.

  13. Valve stem and packing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Wordin, J.J.

    1991-09-03

    A valve stem and packing assembly is provided in which a rotatable valve stem includes a first tractrix surface for sliding contact with a stem packing and also includes a second tractrix surface for sliding contact with a bonnet. Force is applied by means of a spring, gland flange, and gland on the stem packing so the stem packing seals to the valve stem and bonnet. This configuration serves to create and maintain a reliable seal between the stem packing and the valve stem. The bonnet includes a second complementary tractrix surface for contacting the second sliding tractrix surface, the combination serving as a journal bearing for the entire valve stem and packing assembly. The journal bearing so configured is known as a Schiele's pivot. The Schiele's pivot also serves to maintain proper alignment of the valve stem with respect to the bonnet. Vertical wear between the surfaces of the Schiele's pivot is uniform at all points of contact between the second sliding tractrix surface and the second complementary tractrix surface of a bonnet. The valve stem is connected to a valve plug by means of a slip joint. The valve is opened and closed by rotating the valve stem. The slip joint compensates for wear on the Schiele's pivot and on the valve plug. A ledge is provided on the valve bonnet for the retaining nut to bear against. The ledge prevents over tightening of the retaining nut and the resulting excessive friction between stem and stem packing. 2 figures.

  14. Characterization of Femoral Component Initial Stability and Cortical Strain in a Reduced Stem-Length Design.

    PubMed

    Small, Scott R; Hensley, Sarah E; Cook, Paige L; Stevens, Rebecca A; Rogge, Renee D; Meding, John B; Berend, Michael E

    2017-02-01

    Short-stemmed femoral components facilitate reduced exposure surgical techniques while preserving native bone. A clinically successful stem should ideally reduce risk for stress shielding while maintaining adequate primary stability for biological fixation. We asked (1) how stem-length changes cortical strain distribution in the proximal femur in a fit-and-fill geometry and (2) if short-stemmed components exhibit primary stability on par with clinically successful designs. Cortical strain was assessed via digital image correlation in composite femurs implanted with long, medium, and short metaphyseal fit-and-fill stem designs in a single-leg stance loading model. Strain was compared to a loaded, unimplanted femur. Bone-implant micromotion was then compared with reduced lateral shoulder short stem and short tapered-wedge designs in cyclic axial and torsional testing. Femurs implanted with short-stemmed components exhibited cortical strain response most closely matching that of the intact femur model, theoretically reducing the potential for proximal stress shielding. In micromotion testing, no difference in primary stability was observed as a function of reduced stem length within the same component design. Our findings demonstrate that within this fit-and-fill stem design, reduction in stem length improved proximal cortical strain distribution and maintained axial and torsional stability on par with other stem designs in a composite femur model. Short-stemmed implants may accommodate less invasive surgical techniques while facilitating more physiological femoral loading without sacrificing primary implant stability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of stem morphology and anatomy of two alfalfa clonal lines exhibiting divergent cell wall composition.

    PubMed

    Gronwald, John W; Bucciarelli, Bruna

    2013-08-30

    In previous research, two alfalfa clonal lines (252 and 1283) were identified that exhibited environmentally stable differences in stem cell walls. Compared with stems of 1283, stems of 252 have a higher cell wall concentration and greater amounts of lignin and cellulose but reduced levels of pectic sugar residues. These results suggest greater deposition of secondary xylem and a reduction in pith in stems of 252 compared with 1283. The stem morphology and anatomy of first-cut and second-cut harvests of field-grown 1283 and 252 were examined. For both harvests, stems of 1283 were thicker and had a higher leaf/stem ratio compared with stems of 252. Stem cross-sections of both genotypes were stained for lignin, and the proportions of stem area that were pith and secondary xylem were measured using ImageJ. Stems of 252 exhibited greater deposition of secondary xylem and a reduction in pith proportion compared with stems of 1283 for the first-cut harvest, but this difference was not statistically significant for the second-cut harvest. The results indicate that the proportions of secondary xylem and pith are not environmentally stable in these two genotypes and hence cannot be the sole basis for the differences in cell wall concentration/composition. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Time-resolved imaging of gas phase nanoparticle synthesis by laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geohegan, David B.; Puretzky, Alex A.; Duscher, Gerd; Pennycook, Stephen J.

    1998-06-01

    The dynamics of nanoparticle formation, transport, and deposition by pulsed laser ablation of c-Si into 1-10 Torr He and Ar gases are revealed by imaging laser-induced photoluminescence and Rayleigh-scattered light from gas-suspended 1-10 nm SiOx particles. Two sets of dynamic phenomena are presented for times up to 15 s after KrF-laser ablation. Ablation of Si into heavier Ar results in a uniform, stationary plume of nanoparticles, while Si ablation into lighter He results in a turbulent ring of particles which propagates forward at 10 m/s. Nanoparticles unambiguously formed in the gas phase were collected on transmission electron microscope grids for Z-contrast imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy analysis. The effects of gas flow on nanoparticle formation, photoluminescence, and collection are described.

  17. 5. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE, STEM, STEM GUIDE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE, STEM, STEM GUIDE AND WHEEL (10' HARDESTY CAST IRON VERTICAL LIFT GATE), LOOKING WEST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Weir Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  18. 5. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE, (12' DIAMETER HARDESTY MODEL 112 CIRCULAR GATE), LOOKING NORTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Island Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  19. 5. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE, LOOKING NORTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Drift Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 11.4 miles Northwest of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  20. 7. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE (15' HARDESTY MODEL 115 GATE), LOOKING NORTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Marjorie Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  1. 6. VIEW SHOWING INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW SHOWING INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE (18' HARDESTY GATE), LOOKING SOUTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Long Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  2. 7. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE, WHEEL STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE, WHEEL STEM AND STEM GUIDE (14' DIAMETER CIRCULAR CALCO CAST IRON SLIDE GATE), LOOKING SOUTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Fire Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  3. 5. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE (HARDESTY CAST IRON RECTANGULAR SLIDE GATE), LOOKING SOUTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Lost Lake Dam, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  4. 4. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE, STEM, STEM GUIDE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE, STEM, STEM GUIDE AND WHEEL (10' HARDESTY VERTICAL LIFT GATE), LOOKING NORTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Pot Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  5. 5. VIEW SHOWING INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW SHOWING INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE (28' WIDE HARDESTY CAST IRON SLIDE HEADGATE), LOOKING NORTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Duck Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  6. Does an injection of a stromal vascular fraction containing adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells influence the outcomes of marrow stimulation in osteochondral lesions of the talus? A clinical and magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Sang; Lee, Ho Jin; Choi, Yun Jin; Kim, Yong Il; Koh, Yong Gon

    2014-10-01

    Marrow stimulation for the treatment of osteochondral lesions of the talus (OLTs) is controversial in patients with poor prognostic factors of OLTs. Currently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are expected to biologically augment the treatment of OLTs. To compare the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) outcomes between an injection of MSCs with marrow stimulation and marrow stimulation alone in patients with OLTs. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 49 patients (50 ankles) with OLTs underwent follow-up MRI after arthroscopic treatment. Among these 50 ankles, 26 underwent marrow stimulation alone (conventional group), and 24 underwent marrow stimulation with an injection of a stromal vascular fraction (SVF) containing MSCs (MSC group). Clinical outcomes were evaluated according to the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Ankle-Hindfoot Scale, and Tegner activity scale. The magnetic resonance observation of cartilage repair tissue (MOCART) score was used for the MRI evaluation of repaired lesions. The mean VAS score, AOFAS score, and Tegner score improved from 7.1 ± 1.2, 68.5 ± 5.6, and 3.4 ± 0.6 to 3.9 ± 0.8, 78.3 ± 4.9, and 3.5 ± 0.8, respectively, in the conventional group and from 7.1 ± 0.8, 67.7 ± 4.7, and 3.4 ± 0.5 to 3.2 ± 0.8, 83.3 ± 7.0, and 3.9 ± 0.7, respectively, in the MSC group. All clinical outcomes, including the VAS, AOFAS, and Tegner scores, improved significantly in the MSC group compared with the conventional group (P = .003, .009, and .041, respectively). There was a significant difference (P = .037) in the mean MOCART score between the conventional and MSC groups (49.4 ± 16.6 vs 62.1 ± 21.8, respectively), and significant correlations of the MOCART score with clinical outcomes were found in both groups (P < .05). Patient age (≥46.1 years), large lesion size (≥151.2 mm(2)), and the presence of subchondral cysts were associated with a worse MOCART score in the

  7. State of STEM (SoSTEM) Address

    2014-01-29

    Dr. John P. Holdren, Assistant to the President for Science and Technology and Director of the White House Office of Science & Technology Policy, left, is interviewed by Montgomery Blair High School Student Newspaper “Silver Chips” Online Editor-in-Chief Aanchal Johri, center, and Photo Editor Emma Howells, from Silver Spring, MD. ahead of the annual White House State of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (SoSTEM) address, Wednesday, Jan. 29, 2014, in the South Court Auditorium in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building on the White House complex in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. State of STEM (SoSTEM) Address

    2014-01-29

    Dr. John P. Holdren, Assistant to the President for Science and Technology and Director of the White House Office of Science & Technology Policy, left, smiles along with 16-year-old Joey Hudy, a former White House Science Fair participant and self-described “Maker” at the annual White House State of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (SoSTEM) address, Wednesday, Jan. 29, 2014, in the South Court Auditorium in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building on the White House complex in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. State of STEM (SoSTEM) Address

    2014-01-29

    Dr. John P. Holdren, Assistant to the President for Science and Technology and Director of the White House Office of Science & Technology Policy, center, poses for a group photograph with NASA's 2013 astronaut candidates, from left, Josh A. Cassada, Nicole Aunapu Mann, Jessica U. Meir, Tyler N. "Nick" Hague, Holdren, Victor J. Glover, Christina M. Hammock, Andrew R. Morgan, and, Anne C. McClain at the annual White House State of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (SoSTEM) address, Wednesday, Jan. 29, 2014, in the South Court Auditorium in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building on the White House complex in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. State of STEM (SoSTEM) Address

    2014-01-29

    Dr. John P. Holdren, Assistant to the President for Science and Technology and Director of the White House Office of Science & Technology Policy, left, is interviewed by TIME for Kids reporter Kristen Rigsby, as Moira Vahey, Deputy Assistant Director for Strategic Communications at the White House Office of Science & Technology Policy, right, takes notes ahead of the annual White House State of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (SoSTEM) address, Wednesday, Jan. 29, 2014, in the South Court Auditorium in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building on the White House complex in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. State of STEM (SoSTEM) Address

    2014-01-29

    NASA Astronaut Joe Acaba, center, moderates a panel discussion with NASA's 2013 astronaut candidates, from left, Christina M. Hammock, Andrew R. Morgan, Victor J. Glover, Jessica U. Meir, Tyler N. "Nick" Hague, Josh A. Cassada, Anne C. McClain, and, Nicole Aunapu Mann, at the annual White House State of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (SoSTEM) address, Wednesday, Jan. 29, 2014, in the South Court Auditorium in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building on the White House complex in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  12. State of STEM (SoSTEM) Address

    2014-01-29

    A student ask a question to NASA Astronaut Joe Acaba, center, and NASA's 2013 astronaut candidates, from left, Christina M. Hammock, Andrew R. Morgan, Victor J. Glover, Jessica U. Meir, Tyler N. "Nick" Hague, Josh A. Cassada, Anne C. McClain, and, Nicole Aunapu Mann, at the annual White House State of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (SoSTEM) address, Wednesday, Jan. 29, 2014, in the South Court Auditorium in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building on the White House complex in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  13. Induction of muscle stem cell quiescence by the secreted niche factor Oncostatin M.

    PubMed

    Sampath, Srinath C; Sampath, Srihari C; Ho, Andrew T V; Corbel, Stéphane Y; Millstone, Joshua D; Lamb, John; Walker, John; Kinzel, Bernd; Schmedt, Christian; Blau, Helen M

    2018-04-18

    The balance between stem cell quiescence and proliferation in skeletal muscle is tightly controlled, but perturbed in a variety of disease states. Despite progress in identifying activators of stem cell proliferation, the niche factor(s) responsible for quiescence induction remain unclear. Here we report an in vivo imaging-based screen which identifies Oncostatin M (OSM), a member of the interleukin-6 family of cytokines, as a potent inducer of muscle stem cell (MuSC, satellite cell) quiescence. OSM is produced by muscle fibers, induces reversible MuSC cell cycle exit, and maintains stem cell regenerative capacity as judged by serial transplantation. Conditional OSM receptor deletion in satellite cells leads to stem cell depletion and impaired regeneration following injury. These results identify Oncostatin M as a secreted niche factor responsible for quiescence induction, and for the first time establish a direct connection between induction of quiescence, stemness, and transplantation potential in solid organ stem cells.

  14. New Clinically Feasible 3T MRI Protocol to Discriminate Internal Brain Stem Anatomy.

    PubMed

    Hoch, M J; Chung, S; Ben-Eliezer, N; Bruno, M T; Fatterpekar, G M; Shepherd, T M

    2016-06-01

    Two new 3T MR imaging contrast methods, track density imaging and echo modulation curve T2 mapping, were combined with simultaneous multisection acquisition to reveal exquisite anatomic detail at 7 canonical levels of the brain stem. Compared with conventional MR imaging contrasts, many individual brain stem tracts and nuclear groups were directly visualized for the first time at 3T. This new approach is clinically practical and feasible (total scan time = 20 minutes), allowing better brain stem anatomic localization and characterization. © 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  15. Stem cell plasticity.

    PubMed

    Lakshmipathy, Uma; Verfaillie, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    The central dogma in stem cell biology has been that cells isolated from a particular tissue can renew and differentiate into lineages of the tissue it resides in. Several studies have challenged this idea by demonstrating that tissue specific cell have considerable plasticity and can cross-lineage restriction boundary and give rise to cell types of other lineages. However, the lack of a clear definition for plasticity has led to confusion with several reports failing to demonstrate that a single cell can indeed differentiate into multiple lineages at significant levels. Further, differences between results obtained in different labs has cast doubt on some results and several studies still await independent confirmation. In this review, we critically evaluate studies that report stem cell plasticity using three rigid criteria to define stem cell plasticity; differentiation of a single cell into multiple cell lineages, functionality of differentiated cells in vitro and in vivo, robust and persistent engraft of transplanted cells.

  16. Germline Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Spradling, Allan; Fuller, Margaret T.; Braun, Robert E.; Yoshida, Shosei

    2011-01-01

    Sperm and egg production requires a robust stem cell system that balances self-renewal with differentiation. Self-renewal at the expense of differentiation can cause tumorigenesis, whereas differentiation at the expense of self-renewal can cause germ cell depletion and infertility. In most organisms, and sometimes in both sexes, germline stem cells (GSCs) often reside in a defined anatomical niche. Factors within the niche regulate a balance between GSC self-renewal and differentiation. Asymmetric division of the germline stem cell to form daughter cells with alternative fates is common. The exception to both these tendencies is the mammalian testis where there does not appear to be an obvious anatomical niche and where GSC homeostasis is likely accomplished by a stochastic balance of self-renewal and differentiation and not by regulated asymmetric cell division. Despite these apparent differences, GSCs in all organisms share many common mechanisms, although not necessarily molecules, to guarantee survival of the germline. PMID:21791699

  17. Use of a Non-Metric Digital Camera for Tree Stem Evaluation

    Neil Clark; Randolph H. Wynne; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Philip A. Araman; Matthew F. Winn

    1998-01-01

    We are investigating the use of a commercially-available solid-state matrix camera as a dendrometer for tree stem measurements. Thirty-two images of four hardwood stems were used to measure 54 diameters at various heights on the stems ranging from 1.4 m to 21 m. These measurements were compared to caliper measurements taken at the same heights. The percent inaccuracy...

  18. Expanding STEM Opportunities through Inclusive STEM-Focused High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Means, Barbara; Wang, Haiwen; Wei, Xin; Lynch, Sharon; Peters, Vanessa; Young, Viki; Allen, Carrie

    2017-01-01

    Inclusive STEM high schools (ISHSs) (where STEM is science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) admit students on the basis of interest rather than competitive examination. This study examines the central assumption behind these schools--that they provide students from subgroups underrepresented in STEM with experiences that equip them…

  19. GE STEM Teacher's Conference

    2017-07-13

    Teachers prepare to demonstrate the projects they built for the Rocketry Engineering Design Challenge during the 2017 GE Foundation High School STEM Integration Conference at the Center for Space Education at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. High school teachers from across the country took part in the week-long conference, which is designed to explore effective ways for teachers, schools and districts from across the country to integrate STEM throughout the curriculum. The conference is a partnership between GE Foundation and the National Science Teachers Association.

  20. Biomechanics of stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spector, A. A.; Yuan, D.; Somers, S.; Grayson, W. L.

    2018-04-01

    Stem cells play a key role in the healthy development and maintenance of organisms. They are also critically important in medical treatments of various diseases. It has been recently demonstrated that the mechanical factors such as forces, adhesion, stiffness, relaxation, etc. have significant effects on stem cell functions. Under physiological conditions, cells (stem cells) in muscles, heart, and blood vessels are under the action of externally applied strains. We consider the stem cell microenvironment and performance associated with their conversion (differentiation) into skeletal muscle cells. Two problems are studied by using mathematical models whose parameters are then optimized by fitting experiments. First, we present our analysis of the process of stem cell differentiation under the application of cyclic unidirectional strain. This process is interpreted as a transition through several (six) stages where each of them is defined in terms of expression of a set of factors typical to skeletal muscle cells. The stem cell evolution toward muscle cells is described by a system of nonlinear ODEs. The parameters of the model are determined by fitting the experimental data on the time course of expression of the factors under consideration. Second, we analyse the mechanical (relaxation) properties of a scaffold that serves as the microenvironment for stem cells differentiation into skeletal muscle cells. This scaffold (surrounded by a liquid solution) is composed of unidirectional fibers with pores between them. The relaxation properties of the scaffold are studied in an experiment where a long cylindrical specimen is loaded by the application of ramp displacement until the strain reaches a prescribed value. The magnitude of the corresponding load is recorded. The specimen is considered as transversely isotropic poroelastic cylinder whose force relaxation is associated with liquid diffusion through the pores. An analytical solution for the total force applied to

  1. STEM on the radio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-10-01

    Looking for an Internet radio station focusing on programing about science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM)? The U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) announced on 26 September the launch of Science360 Radio, which it says is the first Internet radio stream dedicated to STEM programing. Science360 includes more than 100 radio shows and podcasts that are available on the Web as well as on iPhone and Android devices. The shows originate from a variety of sources, including NSF, other U.S. government agencies, science organizations, universities, and media outlets. For more information, see http://science360.gov/files/.

  2. Application of STEM characterization for investigating radiation effects in BCC Fe-based alloys

    SciT

    Parish, Chad M.; Field, Kevin G.; Certain, Alicia G.

    2015-04-20

    This paper provides a general overview of advanced scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) techniques used for characterization of irradiated BCC Fe-based alloys. Advanced STEM methods provide the high-resolution imaging and chemical analysis necessary to understand the irradiation response of BCC Fe-based alloys. The use of STEM with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) for measurement of radiation-induced segregation (RIS) is described, with an illustrated example of RIS in proton- and self-ion irradiated T91. Aberration-corrected STEM-EDX for nanocluster/nanoparticle imaging and chemical analysis is also discussed, and examples are provided from ion-irradiated oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys. In conclusion, STEM techniques for void,more » cavity, and dislocation loop imaging are described, with examples from various BCC Fe-based alloys.« less

  3. Stem cells in kidney regeneration.

    PubMed

    Yokote, Shinya; Yokoo, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Currently many efforts are being made to apply regenerative medicine to kidney diseases using several types of stem/progenitor cells, such as mesenchymal stem cells, renal stem/progenitor cells, embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. Stem cells have the ability to repair injured organs and ameliorate damaged function. The strategy for kidney tissue repair is the recruitment of stem cells and soluble reparative factors to the kidney to elicit tissue repair and the induction of dedifferentiation of resident renal cells. On the other hand, where renal structure is totally disrupted, absolute kidney organ regeneration is needed to rebuild a whole functional kidney. In this review, we describe current advances in stem cell research for kidney tissue repair and de novo organ regeneration.

  4. Stem cells and female reproduction.

    PubMed

    Du, Hongling; Taylor, Hugh S

    2009-02-01

    Several recent findings in stem cell biology have resulted in new opportunities for the treatment of reproductive disease. Endometrial regeneration can be driven by bone marrow derived stem cells. This finding has potential implications for the treatment of uterine disorders. It also supports a new theory for the etiology of endometriosis. The ovaries have been shown to contain stem cells that form oocytes in adults and can be cultured in vitro to develop mature oocytes. Stem cells from the fetus have been demonstrated to lead to microchimerism in the mother and implicated in several maternal diseases. Additionally the placenta may be another source of hematopoietic stem cell. Finally endometrial derived stem cells have been demonstrated to differentiate into non-reproductive tissues. While we are just beginning to understand stem cells and many key questions remain, the potential advantages of stem cells in reproductive biology and medicine are apparent.

  5. Multipotent Stem Cell and Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Khanlarkhani, Neda; Baazm, Maryam; Mohammadzadeh, Farzaneh; Najafi, Atefeh; Mehdinejadiani, Shayesteh; Sobhani, Aligholi

    Stem cells are self-renewing and undifferentiated cell types that can be differentiate into functional cells. Stem cells can be classified into two main types based on their source of origin: Embryonic and Adult stem cells. Stem cells also classified based on the range of differentiation potentials into Totipotent, Pluripotent, Multipotent, and Unipotent. Multipotent stem cells have the ability to differentiate into all cell types within one particular lineage. There are plentiful advantages and usages for multipotent stem cells. Multipotent Stem cells act as a significant key in procedure of development, tissue repair, and protection. The accessibility and adaptability of these amazing cells create them a great therapeutic choice for different part of medical approaches, and it becomes interesting topic in the scientific researches to found obvious method for the most advantageous use of MSC-based therapies. Recent studies in the field of stem cell biology have provided new perspectives and opportunities for the treatment of infertility disorders.

  6. [Progress in epidermal stem cells].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Juan; Wang, You-Liang; Yang, Xiao

    2010-03-01

    Mammalian skin epidermis contains different epidermal stem cell pools which contribute to the homeostasis and repair of skin epithelium. Epidermal stem cells possess two essential features common to all stem cells: self-renewal and differentiation. Disturbing the balance between self-renewal and differentiation of epidermal stem cell often causes tumors or other skin diseases. Epidermal stem cell niches provide a special microenvironment that maintains a balance of stem cell quiescence and activity. This review primarily concentrates on the following points of the epidermal stem cells: the existing evidences, the self-renewal and differentiation, the division pattern, the signal pathways regulating self-renewal and differentiation, and the microenvironment (niche) and macroenvironment maintaining the homeostasis of stem cells.

  7. Laser biomodulation on stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Timon C.; Duan, Rui; Li, Yan; Li, Xue-Feng; Tan, Li-Ling; Liu, Songhao

    2001-08-01

    Stem cells are views from the perspectives of their function, evolution, development, and cause. Counterintuitively, most stem cells may arise late in development, to act principally in tissue renewal, thus ensuring an organisms long-term survival. Surprisingly, recent reports suggest that tissue-specific adult stem cells have the potential to contribute to replenishment of multiple adult tissues. Stem cells are currently in the news for two reasons: the successful cultivation of human embryonic stem cell lines and reports that adult stem cells can differentiate into developmentally unrelated cell types, such as nerve cells into blood cells. The spotlight on stem cells has revealed gaps in our knowledge that must be filled if we are to take advantage of their full potential for treating devastating degenerative diseases such as Parkinsons's disease and muscular dystrophy. We need to know more about the intrinsic controls that keep stem cells as stem cells or direct them along particular differentiation pathways. Such intrinsic regulators are, in turn, sensitive to the influences of the microenvironment, or niche, where stem cells normally reside. Both intrinsic and extrinsic signals regular stem cell fate and some of these signals have now been identified. Vacek et al and Wang et al have studied the effect of low intensity laser on the haemopoietic stem cells in vitro. There experiments show there is indeed the effect of low intensity laser on the haemopoietic stem cells in vitro, and the present effect is the promotion of haemopoietic stem cells proliferation. In other words, low intensity laser irradiation can act as an extrinsic signal regulating stem cell fate. In this paper, we study how low intensity laser can be used to regulate stem cell fate from the viewpoint of collective phototransduction.

  8. Information on Stem Cell Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... of stem cells share similar properties there are differences as well. For example, ES cells and iPS cells are able to differentiate into any type of cell, whereas adult stem cells are more restricted in their potential. The promise of all stem cells for use ...

  9. STEM--Beyond the Acronym

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez, Jo Anne

    2015-01-01

    When most educators think of STEM education, they think of fully integrated projects seamlessly combining all four disciplines--science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Although such transdisciplinary STEM units are ideal, writes Vasquez, they are not the only way to give students valuable STEM experiences. She gives examples of two…

  10. Phase contrast STEM for thin samples: Integrated differential phase contrast.

    PubMed

    Lazić, Ivan; Bosch, Eric G T; Lazar, Sorin

    2016-01-01

    It has been known since the 1970s that the movement of the center of mass (COM) of a convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) pattern is linearly related to the (projected) electrical field in the sample. We re-derive a contrast transfer function (CTF) for a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) imaging technique based on this movement from the point of view of image formation and continue by performing a two-dimensional integration on the two images based on the two components of the COM movement. The resulting integrated COM (iCOM) STEM technique yields a scalar image that is linear in the phase shift caused by the sample and therefore also in the local (projected) electrostatic potential field of a thin sample. We confirm that the differential phase contrast (DPC) STEM technique using a segmented detector with 4 quadrants (4Q) yields a good approximation for the COM movement. Performing a two-dimensional integration, just as for the COM, we obtain an integrated DPC (iDPC) image which is approximately linear in the phase of the sample. Beside deriving the CTFs of iCOM and iDPC, we clearly point out the objects of the two corresponding imaging techniques, and highlight the differences to objects corresponding to COM-, DPC-, and (HA) ADF-STEM. The theory is validated with simulations and we present first experimental results of the iDPC-STEM technique showing its capability for imaging both light and heavy elements with atomic resolution and a good signal to noise ratio (SNR). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Fake news portrayals of stem cells and stem cell research.

    PubMed

    Marcon, Alessandro R; Murdoch, Blake; Caulfield, Timothy

    2017-10-01

    This study examines how stem cells and stem cell research are portrayed on websites deemed to be purveyors of distorted and dubious information. Content analysis was conducted on 224 articles from 2015 to 2016, compiled by searching with the keywords 'stem cell(s)' on a list of websites flagged for containing either 'fake' or 'junk science' news. Articles contained various exaggerated positive and negative claims about stem cells and stem cell science, health and science related conspiracy theories, and statements promoting fear and mistrust of conventional medicine. Findings demonstrate the existence of organized misinformation networks, which may lead the public away from accurate information and facilitate a polarization of public discourse.

  12. The pillars of land plants: new insights into stem development.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Mislata, Antonio; Sablowski, Robert

    2018-05-12

    In spite of its central importance in evolution, plant architecture and crop improvement, stem development remains poorly understood relative to other plant organs. Here, we summarise current knowledge of stem ontogenesis and its regulation, including insights from new image analysis and biophysical approaches. The stem initiates in the rib zone (RZ) of the shoot apical meristem, under transcriptional control by DELLA and BLH proteins. Links have emerged between these regulators and cell proliferation, patterning and oriented growth in the RZ. During subsequent internode elongation, cell wall properties and mechanics have been analysed in detail, revealing pectin modification as a prominent control point. Recent work has also highlighted signalling to coordinate growth of stem tissues with different mechanical properties. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. STEMMING the Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahler, Jim; Valentine, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    America has a gap when it comes to youth pursuing science and technology careers. In an effort to improve the knowledge and application of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM), after-school programs can work in conjunction with formal in-school curriculum to improve science education. One organization that actively addresses this…

  14. Bolden STEM Event

    2011-01-28

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden visits with students from Albert Hill Middle School during a visit to the MathScience Innovation Center, Friday, Jan. 28, 2011, in Richmond, Va. During his visit, Bolden highlighted the importance of science, technology, engineering and math, or STEM, as he shared his life experiences with the students. Photo Credit:(NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  15. Bolden STEM Event

    2011-01-28

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden speaks to students from Albert Hill Middle School during a visit to the MathScience Innovation Center, Friday, Jan. 28, 2011, in Richmond, Va. During his talk, Bolden highlighted the importance of science, technology, engineering and math, or STEM, as he shared his life experiences with the students. Photo Credit (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  16. Helping STEM Take Root

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachter, Ron

    2011-01-01

    STEM--the catchy shorthand for "science, technology, engineering and mathematics"--has been part of the school improvement discussion for more than a decade, as educational leaders and policy makers have underscored the importance of these areas in preparing students for an internationally competitive, 21st-century economy. But while the…

  17. "Excellence" in STEM Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Aaron C.

    2012-01-01

    So what does it take to achieve excellence in STEM education? That is the title of the author's presentation delivered at International Technology and Engineering Educators Association's (ITEEA's) FTEE "Spirit of Excellence" Breakfast on March 16, 2012, in Long Beach, California. In preparation for this presentation, the author went back and read…

  18. Paraneoplastic brain stem encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Blaes, Franz

    2013-04-01

    Paraneoplastic brain stem encephalitis can occur as an isolated clinical syndrome or, more often, may be part of a more widespread encephalitis. Different antineuronal autoantibodies, such as anti-Hu, anti-Ri, and anti-Ma2 can be associated with the syndrome, and the most frequent tumors are lung and testicular cancer. Anti-Hu-associated brain stem encephalitis does not normally respond to immunotherapy; the syndrome may stabilize under tumor treatment. Brain stem encephalitis with anti-Ma2 often improves after immunotherapy and/or tumor therapy, whereas only a minority of anti-Ri positive patients respond to immunosuppressants or tumor treatment. The Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) in children, almost exclusively associated with neuroblastoma, shows a good response to steroids, ACTH, and rituximab, some patients do respond to intravenous immunoglobulins or cyclophosphamide. In adults, OMS is mainly associated with small cell lung cancer or gynecological tumors and only a small part of the patients show improvement after immunotherapy. Earlier diagnosis and treatment seem to be one major problem to improve the prognosis of both, paraneoplastic brain stem encephalitis, and OMS.

  19. A Problem with STEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marder, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Striking differences between physics and biology have important implications for interdisciplinary science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. The author is a physicist with interdisciplinary connections. The research group in which he works, the Center for Nonlinear Dynamics at the University of Texas at Austin, is…

  20. Helping STEM Take Root

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachter, Ron

    2011-01-01

    STEM--shorthand for "science, technology, engineering, and mathematics"--has been part of the school improvement discussion for more than a decade, as educational leaders and policy makers have underscored the importance of these areas in an internationally competitive, 21st-century economy. But building and implementing programs that…

  1. STEM Comes to Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moomaw, Sally; Davis, Jaumall A.

    2010-01-01

    Math and science and the related technology and engineering are natural pairings. These four disciplines form the acronym STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math) and can be readily combined into an integrated curriculum for early childhood classrooms. Many educators believe that children learn best when disciplines are interconnected. An…

  2. NASA STEM Event

    2013-01-19

    School children are taught to build their own spacecraft and habitat during a Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) education event held at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel in Arlington, VA on Saturday, Jan. 19, 2013. Students were able to meet with Astronaut Leland Melvin, conduct experiments, build their own space jab, and touch a mockup space suit. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  3. NASA STEM Event

    2013-01-19

    School children react to food shrinking in a vacuum chamber during an Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) education event held at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel in Arlington, VA on Saturday, Jan. 19, 2013. Students were able to meet with Astronaut Melvin, conduct experiments, build their own space jab, and touch a mockup space suit. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  4. Integrated STEM Assessment Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bicer, Ali; Capraro, Robert M.; Capraro, Mary M.

    2017-01-01

    Previous research identified a strong correlation between mathematics and science performance albeit for small samples of students. Even though there was a high correlation between mathematics and science performance, researchers examining students' STEM achievement investigated mathematics and science achievement separately. The present study…

  5. STEM Sense and Nonsense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charette, Robert N.

    2015-01-01

    If you can believe the daily flood of mass media stories, journal articles, and white papers, the United States is facing a STEM worker crisis. Business leaders and politicians warn that the nation is falling hopelessly behind in the global economic race because our students are unprepared for and uninterested in science, technology, engineering,…

  6. Chimeric animal models in human stem cell biology.

    PubMed

    Glover, Joel C; Boulland, Jean-Luc; Halasi, Gabor; Kasumacic, Nedim

    2009-01-01

    The clinical use of stem cells for regenerative medicine is critically dependent on preclinical studies in animal models. In this review we examine some of the key issues and challenges in the use of animal models to study human stem cell biology-experimental standardization, body size, immunological barriers, cell survival factors, fusion of host and donor cells, and in vivo imaging and tracking. We focus particular attention on the various imaging modalities that can be used to track cells in living animals, comparing their strengths and weaknesses and describing technical developments that are likely to lead to new opportunities for the dynamic assessment of stem cell behavior in vivo. We then provide an overview of some of the most commonly used animal models, their advantages and disadvantages, and examples of their use for xenotypic transplantation of human stem cells, with separate reviews of models involving rodents, ungulates, nonhuman primates, and the chicken embryo. As the use of human somatic, embryonic, and induced pluripotent stem cells increases, so too will the range of applications for these animal models. It is likely that increasingly sophisticated uses of human/animal chimeric models will be developed through advances in genetic manipulation, cell delivery, and in vivo imaging.

  7. State of STEM (SoSTEM) Address

    2014-01-29

    Panels participants, from left, Dr. John P. Holdren, Assistant to the President for Science and Technology and Director of the White House Office of Science & Technology Policy, former White House Science Fair participant Joey Hudy, Environmentalist and third-year law student at Elon University School of Law Tyrone Davis, White House innovation expert Cristin Dorgelo, and Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Gill Pratt, take a question from the audience during the annual White House State of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (SoSTEM) address, Wednesday, Jan. 29, 2014, in the South Court Auditorium in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building on the White House complex in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. State of STEM (SoSTEM) Address

    2014-01-29

    Joey Hudy, Anthem, AZ, 16-year-old self-described “Maker” answers a question from the audience at the annual White House State of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (SoSTEM) address, Wednesday, Jan. 29, 2014, in the South Court Auditorium in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building on the White House complex in Washington. Joey sat with the First Lady at the President’s 2014 State of the Union Address after his first shot to fame in 2012 when he attended the White House Science Fair where the President took a turn using his “extreme marshmallow cannon” to launch a marshmallow across the East Room of the White House. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. State of STEM (SoSTEM) Address

    2014-01-29

    Montgomery Blair High School Student Newspaper “Silver Chips” Online Editor-in-Chief Aanchal Johri, right, and Photo Editor Emma Howells, left, from Silver Spring, MD. interview Joey Hudy, Anthem, AZ, 16-year-old self-described “Maker” at the annual White House State of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (SoSTEM) address, Wednesday, Jan. 29, 2014, in the South Court Auditorium in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building on the White House complex in Washington. Joey sat with the First Lady at the President’s 2014 State of the Union Address after his first shot to fame in 2012 when he attended the White House Science Fair where the President took a turn using his “extreme marshmallow cannon” to launch a marshmallow across the East Room of the White House. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. State of STEM (SoSTEM) Address

    2014-01-29

    National Geographic Kids reporter Trevor Jehl, right, interviews Joey Hudy, Anthem, AZ, 16-year-old self-described “Maker” at the annual White House State of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (SoSTEM) address, Wednesday, Jan. 29, 2014, in the South Court Auditorium in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building on the White House complex in Washington. Joey sat with the First Lady at the President’s 2014 State of the Union Address after his first shot to fame in 2012 when he attended the White House Science Fair where the President took a turn using his “extreme marshmallow cannon” to launch a marshmallow across the East Room of the White House. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. State of STEM (SoSTEM) Address

    2014-01-29

    Environmentalist and third-year law student at Elon University School of Law Tyrone Davis is interviewed by TIME for Kids reporter Grace Clark ahead of the annual White House State of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (SoSTEM) address, Wednesday, Jan. 29, 2014, in the South Court Auditorium in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building on the White House complex in Washington. Davis sat with the First Lady at the President’s 2014 State of the Union Address. As a Fellow with the Environmental Defense Fund in 2010, he helped show Elizabeth City State University how to save more than $31,000 a year and 200 tons of carbon emissions reductions annually by using technology and efficiency solutions. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  12. Stemming on STEM: A STEM Education Framework for Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Jiwon; Taylor, Jonte C.

    2016-01-01

    There has been increased attention paid to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics also known as STEM. The focus on STEM has been both educational and occupational. Unfortunately, students with disabilities perform below their peers without disabilities in math and science. The authors discuss issues related to STEM and students with…

  13. Gravitropism in Leafy Dicot Stems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salisbury, F. B.

    1985-01-01

    A polarizing research microscope with rotating stage and associated camera equipment were ordered, and techniques of fixation and preparation of specimens were perfected for studying possible changes in orientation of cellulose microfibrils in cell walls of gravistimulated dicot stems. Acid ethephon solutions or acid without ethephon caused elongation of stem tissues where they were applied; stems bent away from the side of application. Acid solutions applied to the bottom of horizontal stems greatly delayed bending. Research in tissue sensitivity changes during gravitropic bending of soybean hypocotyls while immersed in auxin and in castor bean stems is also reported.

  14. Stem Cells in Mammalian Gonads.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ji; Ding, Xinbao; Wang, Jian

    Stem cells have great value in clinical application because of their ability to self-renew and their potential to differentiate into many different cell types. Mammalian gonads, including testes for males and ovaries for females, are composed of germline and somatic cells. In male mammals, spermatogonial stem cells maintain spermatogenesis which occurs continuously in adult testis. Likewise, a growing body of evidence demonstrated that female germline stem cells could be found in mammalian ovaries. Meanwhile, prior studies have shown that somatic stem cells exist in both testes and ovaries. In this chapter, we focus on mammalian gonad stem cells and discuss their characteristics as well as differentiation potentials.

  15. Biochemistry of epidermal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Eckert, Richard L; Adhikary, Gautam; Balasubramanian, Sivaprakasam; Rorke, Ellen A; Vemuri, Mohan C; Boucher, Shayne E; Bickenbach, Jackie R; Kerr, Candace

    2013-02-01

    The epidermis is an important protective barrier that is essential for maintenance of life. Maintaining this barrier requires continuous cell proliferation and differentiation. Moreover, these processes must be balanced to produce a normal epidermis. The stem cells of the epidermis reside in specific locations in the basal epidermis, hair follicle and sebaceous glands and these cells are responsible for replenishment of this tissue. A great deal of effort has gone into identifying protein epitopes that mark stem cells, in identifying stem cell niche locations, and in understanding how stem cell populations are related. We discuss these studies as they apply to understanding normal epidermal homeostasis and skin cancer. An assortment of stem cell markers have been identified that permit assignment of stem cells to specific regions of the epidermis, and progress has been made in understanding the role of these cells in normal epidermal homeostasis and in conditions of tissue stress. A key finding is the multiple stem cell populations exist in epidermis that give rise to different structures, and that multiple stem cell types may contribute to repair in damaged epidermis. Understanding epidermal stem cell biology is likely to lead to important therapies for treating skin diseases and cancer, and will also contribute to our understanding of stem cells in other systems. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biochemistry of Stem Cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Biochemistry of epidermal stem cells☆

    PubMed Central

    Eckert, Richard L.; Adhikary, Gautam; Balasubramanian, Sivaprakasam; Rorke, Ellen A.; Vemuri, Mohan C.; Boucher, Shayne E.; Bickenbach, Jackie R.; Kerr, Candace

    2014-01-01

    Background The epidermis is an important protective barrier that is essential for maintenance of life. Maintaining this barrier requires continuous cell proliferation and differentiation. Moreover, these processes must be balanced to produce a normal epidermis. The stem cells of the epidermis reside in specific locations in the basal epidermis, hair follicle and sebaceous glands and these cells are responsible for replenishment of this tissue. Scope of review A great deal of effort has gone into identifying protein epitopes that mark stem cells, in identifying stem cell niche locations, and in understanding how stem cell populations are related. We discuss these studies as they apply to understanding normal epidermal homeostasis and skin cancer. Major conclusions An assortment of stem cell markers have been identified that permit assignment of stem cells to specific regions of the epidermis, and progress has been made in understanding the role of these cells in normal epidermal homeostasis and in conditions of tissue stress. A key finding is the multiple stem cell populations exist in epidermis that give rise to different structures, and that multiple stem cell types may contribute to repair in damaged epidermis. General significance Understanding epidermal stem cell biology is likely to lead to important therapies for treating skin diseases and cancer, and will also contribute to our understanding of stem cells in other systems. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biochemistry of Stem Cells. PMID:22820019

  17. Materials as stem cell regulators

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, William L.; McDevitt, Todd C.; Engler, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    The stem cell/material interface is a complex, dynamic microenvironment in which the cell and the material cooperatively dictate one another's fate: the cell by remodelling its surroundings, and the material through its inherent properties (such as adhesivity, stiffness, nanostructure or degradability). Stem cells in contact with materials are able to sense their properties, integrate cues via signal propagation and ultimately translate parallel signalling information into cell fate decisions. However, discovering the mechanisms by which stem cells respond to inherent material characteristics is challenging because of the highly complex, multicomponent signalling milieu present in the stem cell environment. In this Review, we discuss recent evidence that shows that inherent material properties may be engineered to dictate stem cell fate decisions, and overview a subset of the operative signal transduction mechanisms that have begun to emerge. Further developments in stem cell engineering and mechanotransduction are poised to have substantial implications for stem cell biology and regenerative medicine. PMID:24845994

  18. Multiphoton luminescent graphene quantum dots for in vivo tracking of human adipose-derived stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin; Song, Sung Ho; Jin, Yoonhee; Park, Hyun-Ji; Yoon, Hyewon; Jeon, Seokwoo; Cho, Seung-Woo

    2016-04-01

    The applicability of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) for the in vitro and in vivo live imaging and tracking of different types of human stem cells is investigated. GQDs synthesized by the modified graphite intercalated compound method show efficient cellular uptake with improved biocompatibility and highly sensitive optical properties, indicating their feasibility as a bio-imaging probe for stem cell therapy.The applicability of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) for the in vitro and in vivo live imaging and tracking of different types of human stem cells is investigated. GQDs synthesized by the modified graphite intercalated compound method show efficient cellular uptake with improved biocompatibility and highly sensitive optical properties, indicating their feasibility as a bio-imaging probe for stem cell therapy. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional results. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr02143c

  19. Ovarian cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zeimet, A G; Reimer, D; Sopper, S; Boesch, M; Martowicz, A; Roessler, J; Wiedemair, A M; Rumpold, H; Untergasser, G; Concin, N; Hofstetter, G; Muller-Holzner, E; Fiegl, H; Marth, C; Wolf, D; Pesta, M; Hatina, J

    2012-01-01

    Because of its semi-solid character in dissemination and growth, advanced ovarian cancer with its hundreds of peritoneal tumor nodules and plaques appears to be an excellent in vivo model for studying the cancer stem cell hypothesis. The most important obstacle, however, is to adequately define and isolate these tumor-initiating cells endowed with the properties of anoikis-resistance and unlimited self-renewal. Until now, no universal single marker or marker constellation has been found to faithfully isolate (ovarian) cancer stem cells. As these multipotent cells are known to possess highly elaborated efflux systems for cytotoxic agents, these pump systems have been exploited to outline putative stem cells as a side-population (SP) via dye exclusion analysis. Furthermore, the cells in question have been isolated via flow cytometry on the basis of cell surface markers thought to be characteristic for stem cells.In the Vienna variant of the ovarian cancer cell line A2780 a proof-of-principle model with both a stable SP and a stable ALDH1A1+ cell population was established. Double staining clearly revealed that both cell fractions were not identical. Of note, A2780V cells were negative for expression of surface markers CD44 and CD117 (c-kit). When cultured on monolayers of healthy human mesothelial cells, green-fluorescence-protein (GFP)-transfected SP of A2780V exhibited spheroid-formation, whereas non-side-population (NSP) developed a spare monolayer growing over the healthy mesothelium. Furthermore, A2780V SP was found to be partially resistant to platinum. However, this resistance could not be explained by over-expression of the "excision repair cross-complementation group 1" (ERCC1) gene, which is essentially involved in the repair of platinated DNA damage. ERCC1 was, nonetheless, over-expressed in A2780V cells grown as spheres under stem cell-selective conditions as compared to adherent monolayers cultured under differentiating conditions. The same was true for

  20. Bolden STEM Event

    2011-01-28

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden speaks to students from Albert Hill Middle School during a visit to the MathScience Innovation Center, Friday, Jan. 28, 2011, in Richmond, Va., as U.S. Sen. Mark Warner, D-Va., U.S. Rep. Bobby Scott, D-Va., seated, look on. During his talk, Administrator Bolden highlighted the importance of science, technology, engineering and math, or STEM, as he shared his life experiences with the students. (Photo Credit:NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  1. Bolden STEM Event

    2011-01-28

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, left, holds a box of spiders as MathScience Innovation Center Instructor Rhonda Hawley describes them during a visit to the "Spider Room" at the center, Friday, Jan. 28. 2011, at the center in Richmond, Va. Earlier, Bolden spoke to students from Albert Hill Middle School, where he highlighted the importance of science, technology, engineering and math, or STEM, as he shared his life experiences with the students. (Photo Credit:NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  2. Global STEM Navigators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalimonte, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    In the STEM classroom, students can work in collaborative teams to build those essential skills needed for the 21st-century world. In project-based learning (PBL), teams of four to six students are often randomly selected to describe a realistic situation that may occur in today's workplace; this may be done by counting off in fours, fives,…

  3. Diversifying the STEM pipeline

    PubMed Central

    Boelter, Christina; Link, Tanja C.; Perry, Brea L.; Leukefeld, Carl

    2017-01-01

    Structured Abstract Purpose The current paper focuses on the description and evaluation of a two-year STEM intervention targeting underserved middle schools students from minority and low SES backgrounds. Design/methodology/approach Middle school students from low-income and minority backgrounds (n = 166) were targeted to participate in a two-year, intensive, hands-on science and technology intervention to increase their interest in biomedical and health sciences. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from TRY-IT! Students as well as a control group that did not participate in the intervention, teachers, and parents to assess changes in attitudes and knowledge with respect to a variety of STEM-related topics. Findings Quantitative analyses did not reveal significant long-lasting differences between the TRY-IT! and the control group, thus providing a mixed assessment of the effectiveness of the intervention. However, qualitative student responses collected during the second year of participation revealed positive attitudes toward the program experience and benefits of their exposure to science. In light of these findings, insights drawn from reflecting on successes and challenges experienced during the course of planning and implementing the study are provided to guide future programs and research. Originality/value The intervention was developed in response to the continued under representation of minority and lower SES individuals in STEM careers. An effort to boost positive attitudes toward science and math, as well as confidence in the accessibility of STEM careers among this population is important given the promising outlook of this career field compared to others for future generations. PMID:28553067

  4. NASA STEM Event

    2013-01-19

    NASA Astronaut and Associate Administrator for Education, Leland Melvin, talks to school children during an Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) education event held at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel in Arlington, VA on Saturday, Jan. 19, 2013. Students were able to meet with Astronaut Melvin, conduct experiments, build their own space jab, and touch a mockup space suit. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. NASA STEM Event

    2013-01-19

    School children are photographed by their parents during a hands-on experience with a mock spacesuit during a Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) education event held at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel in Arlington, VA on Saturday, Jan. 19, 2013. Students were able to meet with Astronaut Leland Melvin, conduct experiments, build their own space jab, and touch a mockup space suit. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. NASA STEM Event

    2013-01-19

    School children are given a hands-on experience with a mock spacesuit during a Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) education event held at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel in Arlington, VA on Saturday, Jan. 19, 2013. Students were able to meet with Astronaut Leland Melvin, conduct experiments, build their own space jab, and touch a mockup space suit. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  7. NASA STEM Event

    2013-01-19

    School children watch a TV program showing how the Mars rover Curiosity landed on Mars during an Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) education event held at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel in Arlington, VA on Saturday, Jan. 19, 2013. Students were able to meet with Astronaut Melvin, conduct experiments, build their own space jab, and touch a mockup space suit. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. Stem cells in psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Hou, Ruixia; Li, Junqin; Niu, Xuping; Liu, Ruifeng; Chang, Wenjuan; Zhao, Xincheng; Wang, Qiang; Li, Xinhua; Yin, Guohua; Zhang, Kaiming

    2017-06-01

    Psoriasis is a complex chronic relapsing inflammatory disease. Although the exact mechanism remains unknown, it is commonly accepted that the development of psoriasis is a result of multi-system interactions among the epidermis, dermis, blood vessels, immune system, neuroendocrine system, metabolic system, and hematopoietic system. Many cell types have been confirmed to participate in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Here, we review the stem cell abnormalities related to psoriasis that have been investigated recently. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Stem cells are dispensable for lung homeostasis but restore airways after injury.

    PubMed

    Giangreco, Adam; Arwert, Esther N; Rosewell, Ian R; Snyder, Joshua; Watt, Fiona M; Stripp, Barry R

    2009-06-09

    Local tissue stem cells have been described in airways of the lung but their contribution to normal epithelial maintenance is currently unknown. We therefore developed aggregation chimera mice and a whole-lung imaging method to determine the relative contributions of progenitor (Clara) and bronchiolar stem cells to epithelial maintenance and repair. In normal and moderately injured airways chimeric patches were small in size and not associated with previously described stem cell niches. This finding suggested that single, randomly distributed progenitor cells maintain normal epithelial homeostasis. In contrast we found that repair following severe lung injury resulted in the generation of rare, large clonal cell patches that were associated with stem cell niches. This study provides evidence that epithelial stem cells are dispensable for normal airway homeostasis. We also demonstrate that stem cell activation and robust clonal cellular expansion occur only during repair from severe lung injury.

  10. Stem cells in dentistry--part I: stem cell sources.

    PubMed

    Egusa, Hiroshi; Sonoyama, Wataru; Nishimura, Masahiro; Atsuta, Ikiru; Akiyama, Kentaro

    2012-07-01

    Stem cells can self-renew and produce different cell types, thus providing new strategies to regenerate missing tissues and treat diseases. In the field of dentistry, adult mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have been identified in several oral and maxillofacial tissues, which suggests that the oral tissues are a rich source of stem cells, and oral stem and mucosal cells are expected to provide an ideal source for genetically reprogrammed cells such as induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Furthermore, oral tissues are expected to be not only a source but also a therapeutic target for stem cells, as stem cell and tissue engineering therapies in dentistry continue to attract increasing clinical interest. Part I of this review outlines various types of intra- and extra-oral tissue-derived stem cells with regard to clinical availability and applications in dentistry. Additionally, appropriate sources of stem cells for regenerative dentistry are discussed with regard to differentiation capacity, accessibility and possible immunomodulatory properties. Copyright © 2012 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Detection of homing-in of stem cells labeled with technetium-99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime in infarcted myocardium after intracoronary injection

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Chetan D; Agarwal, Snehlata; Seth, Sandeep; Mohanty, Sujata; Aggarwal, Himesh; Gupta, Namit

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow stem cells having myogenic potential are promising candidates for various cell-based therapies for myocardial disease. We present here images showing homing of technetium-99m (Tc-99m) hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) labeled stem cells in the infarcted myocardium from a pilot study conducted to radio-label part of the stem cells in patients enrolled in a stem cell clinical trial for recent myocardial infarction. PMID:25400375

  12. Phase contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging of light and heavy atoms at the limit of contrast and resolution.

    PubMed

    Yücelen, Emrah; Lazić, Ivan; Bosch, Eric G T

    2018-02-08

    Using state of the art scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) it is nowadays possible to directly image single atomic columns at sub-Å resolution. In standard (high angle) annular dark field STEM ((HA)ADF-STEM), however, light elements are usually invisible when imaged together with heavier elements in one image. Here we demonstrate the capability of the recently introduced Integrated Differential Phase Contrast STEM (iDPC-STEM) technique to image both light and heavy atoms in a thin sample at sub-Å resolution. We use the technique to resolve both the Gallium and Nitrogen dumbbells in a GaN crystal in [[Formula: see text

  13. Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency and Treatment with Stem Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Barut Selver, Özlem; Yağcı, Ayşe; Eğrilmez, Sait; Gürdal, Mehmet; Palamar, Melis; Çavuşoğlu, Türker; Ateş, Utku; Veral, Ali; Güven, Çağrı; Wolosin, Jose Mario

    2017-10-01

    The cornea is the outermost tissue of the eye and it must be transparent for the maintenance of good visual function. The superficial epithelium of the cornea, which is renewed continuously by corneal stem cells, plays a critical role in the permanence of this transparency. These stem cells are localized at the cornea-conjunctival transition zone, referred to as the limbus. When this zone is affected/destroyed, limbal stem cell deficiency ensues. Loss of limbal stem cell function allows colonization of the corneal surface by conjunctival epithelium. Over 6 million people worldwide are affected by corneal blindness, and limbal stem cell deficiency is one of the main causes. Fortunately, it is becoming possible to recover vision by autologous transplantation of limbal cells obtained from the contralateral eye in unilateral cases. Due to the potential risks to the donor eye, only a small amount of tissue can be obtained, in which only 1-2% of the limbal epithelial cells are actually limbal stem cells. Vigorous attempts are being made to expand limbal stem cells in culture to preserve or even enrich the stem cell population. Ex vivo expanded limbal stem cell treatment in limbal stem cell deficiency was first reported in 1997. In the 20 years since, various protocols have been developed for the cultivation of limbal epithelial cells. It is still not clear which method promotes effective stem cell viability and this remains a subject of ongoing research. The most preferred technique for limbal cell culture is the explant culture model. In this approach, a small donor eye limbal biopsy is placed as an explant onto a biocompatible substrate (preferably human amniotic membrane) for expansion. The outgrowth (cultivated limbal epithelial cells) is then surgically transferred to the recipient eye. Due to changing regulations concerning cell-based therapy, the implementation of cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation in accordance with Good Laboratory Practice using

  14. Characterization of Amniotic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Koike, Chika; Zhou, Kaixuan; Takeda, Yuji; Fathy, Moustafa; Okabe, Motonori; Yoshida, Toshiko; Nakamura, Yukio; Kato, Yukio

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The amnion membrane is developed from embryo-derived cells, and amniotic cells have been shown to exhibit multidifferentiation potential. These cells represent a desirable source for stem cells for a variety of reasons. However, to date very few molecular analyses of amnion-derived cells have been reported, and efficient markers for isolating the stem cells remain unclear. This paper assesses the characterization of amnion-derived cells as stem cells by examining stemness marker expressions for amnion-derived epithelial cells and mesenchymal cells by flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry, and quantitative PCR. Flow cytometry revealed that amnion epithelial cells expressed CD133, CD 271, and TRA-1-60, whereas mecenchymal cells expressed CD44, CD73, CD90, and CD105. Immunohistochemistry showed that both cells expressed the stemness markers Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and SSEA4. Stemness genes' expression in amnion epithelial cells, mesenchymal cells, fibroblast, bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) was compared by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Amnion-derived epithelial cells and mesenchymal cells expressed Oct3/4, Nanog, and Klf4 more than bone marrow–derived MSCs. The sorted TRA1-60–positive cells expressed Oct3/4, Nanog, and Klf4 more than unsorted cells or TRA1-60–negative cells. TRA1-60 can be a marker for isolating amnion epithelial stem cells. PMID:25068631

  15. Contrasting views on STEM employment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Matthew; Huber, Michael

    2015-07-01

    In reply to “Unemployed and STEM” (Careers, May pp46-47), in which Penny Jackson described how her efforts to find a job in science, technology, engineering or mathematics (STEM) met with little success at first, even though she has a BSc in physics and a Master's in accelerator science. And in reply to “STEM paradox revisited” (Editorial, June p15), on why employers are expressing concerns about STEM shortages at a time when many recent STEM graduates are struggling to find jobs.

  16. STEm Minority Graduate Program

    SciT

    Nicholas, Kaen E

    ABSTRACT The state of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) education in the United States has seen some unfavorable assessments over the past decade. In early February, 2010 the House of Representatives heard testimony on undergraduate and graduate education. The message from the panel, which included experts from academia, STEM-based industries, and the National Science Foundation (NSF) was dire and required an urgent response. The experts along with the committee's chairperson, U. S. Representative Daniel Lipinski (D-IL) cited that the complexity of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics applications and coursework and the methodology utilized to teach these subjects are forcingmore » students out of these disciplines. As the National Academies described in its 2007 report Rising Above the Gathering Storm, successful STEM education is not just an academic pursuit it's a necessity for competing in the knowledge-based economy that the United States had a key role in creating. The potential for action is being made available again as the America COMPETES Act of 2007 is up for reauthorization. Its initial focus was on STEM education at the K-12 levels, but efforts at the undergraduate and graduate levels are needed to retain students to fill the jobs left vacant as baby boomers retire. The Educational Advancement Alliance, Inc. (EAA) has for two decades created programs that have not only addressed the issues of ensuring that students are aptly prepared for college but have focused its efforts over the past decade on increasing the number of students who pursue degrees in STEM disciplines. For the EAA, the introduction of the wonders of science begins at the elementary and middle school level via the Learning Lab, a state-of-the-art mobile science laboratory that visits students in grades 4-6 at the various schools throughout Philadelphia and The Math/Tech Academy which meets on Saturdays for students in grades 5-7. For the past two years the

  17. The king is dead, long live the king: entering a new era of stem cell research and clinical development.

    PubMed

    Ichim, Thomas; Riordan, Neil H; Stroncek, David F

    2011-12-20

    In mid November the biopharma industry was shocked by the announcement from Geron that they were ending work on embryonic stem cell research and therapy. For more than 10 years the public image of all stem cell research has been equated with embryonic stem cells. Unfortunately, a fundamentally important medical and financial fact was being ignored: embryonic stem cell therapy is extremely immature. In parallel to efforts in embryonic stem cell research and development, scientists and physicians in the field of adult stem cells realized that the natural role of adult stem cells in the body is to promote healing and to act like endogenous "repair cells" and, as a result, numerous companies have entered the field of adult stem cell therapy with the goal of expanding numbers of adult stem cells for administration to patients with various conditions. In contrast to embryonic stem cells, which are extremely expensive and potentially dangerous, adult cell cells are inexpensive and have an excellent safety record when used in humans. Many studies are now showing that adult stem cells are practical, patient-applicable, therapeutics that are very close to being available for incorporation into the practice of medicine. These events signal the entrance of the field of stem cells into a new era: an era where hype and misinformation no longer triumph over economic and medical realities.

  18. Structural phenotyping of stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Pasqualini, Francesco Silvio; Sheehy, Sean Paul; Agarwal, Ashutosh; Aratyn-Schaus, Yvonne; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2015-03-10

    Structural phenotyping based on classical image feature detection has been adopted to elucidate the molecular mechanisms behind genetically or pharmacologically induced changes in cell morphology. Here, we developed a set of 11 metrics to capture the increasing sarcomere organization that occurs intracellularly during striated muscle cell development. To test our metrics, we analyzed the localization of the contractile protein α-actinin in a variety of primary and stem-cell derived cardiomyocytes. Further, we combined these metrics with data mining algorithms to unbiasedly score the phenotypic maturity of human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Brain stem hypoplasia associated with Cri-du-Chat syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jin Ho; Lee, Ha Young; Lim, Myung Kwan; Kim, Mi Young; Kang, Young Hye; Lee, Kyung Hee; Cho, Soon Gu

    2013-01-01

    Cri-du-Chat syndrome, also called the 5p-syndrome, is a rare genetic abnormality, and only few cases have been reported on its brain MRI findings. We describe the magnetic resonance imaging findings of a 1-year-old girl with Cri-du-Chat syndrome who showed brain stem hypoplasia, particularly in the pons, with normal cerebellum and diffuse hypoplasia of the cerebral hemispheres. We suggest that Cri-du-Chat syndrome chould be suspected in children with brain stem hypoplasia, particularly for those with high-pitched cries.

  20. Bolden STEM Event

    2011-01-28

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, right, shares a laugh with U.S. Sen. Mark Warner, D-Va., center and U.S. Rep. Bobby Scott, D-Va., prior to an event at the MathScience Innovation Center, Friday, Jan. 28, 2011, in Richmond, Va. Bolden later spoke to students from Albert Hill Middle School highlighting the importance of science, technology, engineering and math, or STEM, as he shared his life experiences with the students. (Photo Credit:NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  1. Bolden STEM Event

    2011-01-28

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, right, counts down along with others as U.S. Sen. Mark Warner, D-Va., readies to launch a paper rocket as U.S. Rep. Bobby Scott, D-Va., third right, looks on, Friday, Jan. 28, 2011, at the MathScience Innovation Center in Richmond, Va. Earlier, Bolden, spoke to students from Albert Hill Middle School where he highlighted the importance of science, technology, engineering and math, or STEM, as he shared his life experiences with the students. (Photo Credit:NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  2. Atom-counting in High Resolution Electron Microscopy:TEM or STEM - That's the question.

    PubMed

    Gonnissen, J; De Backer, A; den Dekker, A J; Sijbers, J; Van Aert, S

    2017-03-01

    In this work, a recently developed quantitative approach based on the principles of detection theory is used in order to determine the possibilities and limitations of High Resolution Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR STEM) and HR TEM for atom-counting. So far, HR STEM has been shown to be an appropriate imaging mode to count the number of atoms in a projected atomic column. Recently, it has been demonstrated that HR TEM, when using negative spherical aberration imaging, is suitable for atom-counting as well. The capabilities of both imaging techniques are investigated and compared using the probability of error as a criterion. It is shown that for the same incoming electron dose, HR STEM outperforms HR TEM under common practice standards, i.e. when the decision is based on the probability function of the peak intensities in HR TEM and of the scattering cross-sections in HR STEM. If the atom-counting decision is based on the joint probability function of the image pixel values, the dependence of all image pixel intensities as a function of thickness should be known accurately. Under this assumption, the probability of error may decrease significantly for atom-counting in HR TEM and may, in theory, become lower as compared to HR STEM under the predicted optimal experimental settings. However, the commonly used standard for atom-counting in HR STEM leads to a high performance and has been shown to work in practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Aging, metabolism and stem cells: Spotlight on muscle stem cells.

    PubMed

    García-Prat, Laura; Muñoz-Cánoves, Pura

    2017-04-15

    All tissues and organs undergo a progressive regenerative decline as they age. This decline has been mainly attributed to loss of stem cell number and/or function, and both stem cell-intrinsic changes and alterations in local niches and/or systemic environment over time are known to contribute to the stem cell aging phenotype. Advancing in the molecular understanding of the deterioration of stem cell cells with aging is key for targeting the specific causes of tissue regenerative dysfunction at advanced stages of life. Here, we revise exciting recent findings on why stem cells age and the consequences on tissue regeneration, with a special focus on regeneration of skeletal muscle. We also highlight newly identified common molecular pathways affecting diverse types of aging stem cells, such as altered proteostasis, metabolism, or senescence entry, and discuss the questions raised by these findings. Finally, we comment on emerging stem cell rejuvenation strategies, principally emanating from studies on muscle stem cells, which will surely burst tissue regeneration research for future benefit of the increasing human aging population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Are STEM High School Students Entering the STEM Pipeline?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franco, M. Suzanne; Patel, Nimisha H.; Lindsey, Jill

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the career skills and interests for students in two STEM schools to national data. Students completed the KUDER skills assessment and career planning online tools. Results were compared across school, grade level, and sex. The results provided evidence that STEM high school students expressed career intents in predominately…

  5. 6. VIEW SHOWING UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW SHOWING UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE, WITH LOG ACCESS STRUCTURE, LOOKING WEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Bluebell Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 11.2 miles Northwest of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  6. 5. VIEW SHOWING UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW SHOWING UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE, WITH LOG ACCESS STRUCTURE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Bluebell Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 11.2 miles Northwest of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  7. STEM TIPS: Supporting the Beginning Secondary STEM Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Griff; Dana, Thomas; LaFramenta, Joanne; Adams, Thomasenia Lott; Arnold, Jason Dean

    2016-01-01

    The STEM TIPS mobile-ready support platform gives institutions or school districts the ability to provide immediate and customized mentoring to teachers through multiple tiers of web-based support and resources. Using the results of a needs assessment, STEM TIPS was created and launched in partnership with 18 Florida school districts. Further…

  8. Whose STEM? Disrupting the Gender Crisis within STEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heybach, Jessica; Pickup, Austin

    2017-01-01

    This article challenges implicit understandings of scientific inquiry and gender within contemporary responses to the underrepresentation of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Failing to recognize the gendered history of science, and thus STEM disciplines, we argue that much research and curricular interventions are…

  9. Learning for STEM Literacy: STEM Literacy for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zollman, Alan

    2012-01-01

    We are in the STEM generation whose comprehensive purpose is to resolve (1) societal needs for new technological and scientific advances; (2) economic needs for national security; and (3) personal needs to become a fulfilled, productive, knowledgeable citizen. STEM specifically refers to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, but now…

  10. International Society for Stem Cell Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... cell and regenerative medicine community. More stem cell research Take a closer look Recent Blogs View All ... nonprofit organization & the voice of the stem cell research community The International Society for Stem Cell Research ( ...

  11. Toward Reconciliation of STEM and SAXS Data from Ionomers by Investigating Gold Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benetatos, Nicholas; Smith, Brian; Heiney, Paul; Winey, Karen

    2005-03-01

    We have recently pioneered the use of scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) for direct, model independent imaging of the nano-scale morphology of ionomers. To date, the sizes of ionic aggregates determined in STEM experiments are inconsistent with SAXS data interpreted by the Yarusso-Cooper model. To address this discrepancy we have investigated a pair of model nanoparticles (11 and 55 atom Au clusters) with both STEM and SAXS. Using this model system we have improved our method of measuring nanometer scale objects and evaluated the importance of STEM probe size and specimen thickness. While the size of the STEM probe was inconsequential, specimen thicker than 50 nm showed significant depreciation of image quality, which limits our ability to accurately measure particle size. SAXS was performed on dilute suspensions of nanoparticles and fit using a monodisperse, hard-sphere form factor model. For Au11, STEM finds a diameter of 1.3 nm + .14 and SAXS finds a diameter of 1.4 nm. Similarly, both STEM and SAXS determine a diameter of 1.7 nm for Au55. Analysis of these model systems have allowed us to evaluate several factors of potential importance in reconciling STEM and SAXS data from ionomers.

  12. STEM: Science Technology Engineering Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnevale, Anthony P.; Smith, Nicole; Melton, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    The generative economic power and social influence of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) has made the production of a capable science and engineering workforce a priority among business and policy leaders. They are rightly concerned that without a robust STEM workforce, the nation will become less competitive in the global…

  13. Building STEM Opportunities for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Sharon J.; Peters-Burton, Erin; Ford, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In response to a report from the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology, President Obama issued a challenge to the U.S. education system to create more than 1,000 new STEM-focused schools, including 200 high schools. Inclusive STEM-focused high schools--which focus their efforts on females, minorities, and students who are…

  14. Engaging Students in STEM Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, T. J.; Odell, M. R. L.

    2014-01-01

    With the "flattening" of the global economy in the 21st century, the teaching of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) has taken on new importance as economic competition has become truly global. STEM education has evolved into a meta-discipline, an integrated effort that removes the traditional barriers between these…

  15. University Festival Promotes STEM Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quagliata, Andrew B.

    2015-01-01

    STEM education is argued as an essential ingredient in preparing our children for careers of the future. This study describes a university festival that includes the promotion of STEM-related career interests in young people among its goals. A total of 203 participants between the age of 7 and 17 completed both pre-event and post-event surveys. In…

  16. Deconstruction Geography: A STEM Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehlhar, Adam M.; Duffield, Stacy K.

    2015-01-01

    This article will define the engineering design process used to create an integrated curriculum at STEM Center Middle School, and it features the planning, implementation, and revision of the Deconstruction Geography unit. The Science Technology Engineering and Math (STEM) Center opened in the fall of 2009 as a way to relieve overcrowding at the…

  17. Ethical Reasoning in STEM Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tekerek, Mehmet; Karakaya, Ferhat; Tekerek, Betül

    2016-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to determine ethical reasoning of lecturers in STEM disciplines in terms of several independent variables (gender, working another institution, age, academic title, academic discipline, service period). This study was designed as a survey research. Lecturers in STEM disciplines in Kahramanmaras Sutçuimam University were…

  18. AccessSTEM: Building Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DO-IT, 2009

    2009-01-01

    A series of activities were undertaken to understand the underrepresentation of people with disabilities in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers and increase their participation in these fields. "AccessSTEM" collaborated with key stakeholders to conduct a "Capacity-Building Institute"…

  19. Bone marrow (stem cell) donation

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000839.htm Bone marrow (stem cell) donation To use the sharing features on this page, please enable ... cells are more likely to help patients than stem cells from older people. People who register must either: Use a cotton swab to take a sample of ...

  20. Bi-stem gripping apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Fred G. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    This invention relates to devices which grip cylindrical structures and more particularly to a device which has three arcuate gripping members having frictional surfaces for gripping and compressing a bi-stem. The bi-stem gripping apparatus is constructed having a pair of side gripping members, and an intermediate gripping member disposed between them. Sheets of a gum stock silicone rubber with frictional gripping surfaces are bonded to the inner region of the gripping members and provide frictional engagement between the bi-stem and the apparatus. A latch secures the gripping apparatus to a bi-stem, and removable handles are attached, allowing an astronaut to pull the bi-stem from its cassette. A tethering ring on the outside of the gripping apparatus provides a convenient point to which a lanyard may be attached.

  1. Bioprinting for stem cell research

    PubMed Central

    Tasoglu, Savas; Demirci, Utkan

    2012-01-01

    Recently, there has been a growing interest to apply bioprinting techniques to stem cell research. Several bioprinting methods have been developed utilizing acoustics, piezoelectricity, and lasers to deposit living cells onto receiving substrates. Using these technologies, spatially defined gradients of immobilized proteins can be engineered to direct stem cell differentiation into multiple subpopulations of different lineages. Stem cells can also be patterned in a high-throughput manner onto flexible implementation patches for tissue regeneration or onto substrates with the goal of accessing encapsulated stem cell of interest for genomic analysis. Here, we review recent achievements with bioprinting technologies in stem cell research, and identify future challenges and potential applications including tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, wound healing, and genomics. PMID:23260439

  2. Haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from human pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Sugimura, Ryohichi; Jha, Deepak Kumar; Han, Areum; Soria-Valles, Clara; da Rocha, Edroaldo Lummertz; Lu, Yi-Fen; Goettel, Jeremy A.; Serrao, Erik; Rowe, R. Grant; Malleshaiah, Mohan; Wong, Irene; Sousa, Patricia; Zhu, Ted N.; Ditadi, Andrea; Keller, Gordon; Engelman, Alan N.; Snapper, Scott B.; Doulatov, Sergei; Daley, George Q.

    2018-01-01

    A variety of tissue lineages can be differentiated from pluripotent stem cells by mimicking embryonic development through stepwise exposure to morphogens, or by conversion of one differentiated cell type into another by enforced expression of master transcription factors. Here, to yield functional human haematopoietic stem cells, we perform morphogen-directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into haemogenic endothelium followed by screening of 26 candidate haematopoietic stem-cell-specifying transcription factors for their capacity to promote multi-lineage haematopoietic engraftment in mouse hosts. We recover seven transcription factors (ERG, HOXA5, HOXA9, HOXA10, LCOR, RUNX1 and SPI1) that are sufficient to convert haemogenic endothelium into haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells that engraft myeloid, B and T cells in primary and secondary mouse recipients. Our combined approach of morphogen-driven differentiation and transcription-factor-mediated cell fate conversion produces haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from pluripotent stem cells and holds promise for modelling haematopoietic disease in humanized mice and for therapeutic strategies in genetic blood disorders. PMID:28514439

  3. Severe traumatic head injury: prognostic value of brain stem injuries detected at MRI.

    PubMed

    Hilario, A; Ramos, A; Millan, J M; Salvador, E; Gomez, P A; Cicuendez, M; Diez-Lobato, R; Lagares, A

    2012-11-01

    Traumatic brain injuries represent an important cause of death for young people. The main objectives of this work are to correlate brain stem injuries detected at MR imaging with outcome at 6 months in patients with severe TBI, and to determine which MR imaging findings could be related to a worse prognosis. One hundred and eight patients with severe TBI were studied by MR imaging in the first 30 days after trauma. Brain stem injury was categorized as anterior or posterior, hemorrhagic or nonhemorrhagic, and unilateral or bilateral. Outcome measures were GOSE and Barthel Index 6 months postinjury. The relationship between MR imaging findings of brain stem injuries, outcome, and disability was explored by univariate analysis. Prognostic capability of MR imaging findings was also explored by calculation of sensitivity, specificity, and area under the ROC curve for poor and good outcome. Brain stem lesions were detected in 51 patients, of whom 66% showed a poor outcome, as expressed by the GOSE scale. Bilateral involvement was strongly associated with poor outcome (P < .05). Posterior location showed the best discriminatory capability in terms of outcome (OR 6.8, P < .05) and disability (OR 4.8, P < .01). The addition of nonhemorrhagic and anterior lesions or unilateral injuries showed the highest odds and best discriminatory capacity for good outcome. The prognosis worsens in direct relationship to the extent of traumatic injury. Posterior and bilateral brain stem injuries detected at MR imaging are poor prognostic signs. Nonhemorrhagic injuries showed the highest positive predictive value for good outcome.

  4. Leaving STEM: STEM Ph.D. Holders in Non-STEM Careers. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk-Bicakci, Lori; Berger, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    During the last few decades, national, state, and institutional-level initiatives have been implemented to build and expand the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) workforce by recruiting and retaining groups of individuals that have been traditionally underrepresented in STEM in higher education. The underlying theory of…

  5. Development and Application of STEM for the Biological Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Alioscka A.; Leapman, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    The design of the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM), as conceived originally by Crewe and coworkers, enables the highly efficient and flexible collection of different elastic and inelastic signals resulting from the interaction of a focused probe of incident electrons with a specimen. In the present paper we provide a brief review for how the STEM today can be applied towards a range of different problems in the biological sciences, emphasizing four main areas of application. (1) For three decades, the most widely used STEM technique has been the mass determination of proteins and other macromolecular assemblies. Such measurements can be performed at low electron dose by collecting the high-angle dark-field signal using an annular detector. STEM mass mapping has proven valuable for characterizing large protein assemblies such as filamentous proteins with a well-defined mass per length. (2) The annular dark-field signal can also be used to image ultrasmall, functionalized nanoparticles of heavy atoms for labeling specific aminoacid sequences in protein assemblies. (3) By acquiring electron energy loss spectra (EELS) at each pixel in a hyperspectral image, it is possible to map the distributions of specific bound elements like phosphorus, calcium and iron in isolated macromolecular assemblies or in compartments within sectioned cells. Near single atom sensitivity is feasible provided that the specimen can tolerate a very high incident electron dose. (4) Electron tomography is a new application of STEM that enables three-dimensional reconstruction of micrometer-thick sections of cells. In this technique a probe of small convergence angle gives a large depth of field throughout the thickness of the specimen while maintaining a probe diameter of < 2 nm; and the use of an on-axis bright-field detector reduces the effects of beam broadening and thus improves the spatial resolution compared to that attainable by STEM dark-field tomography. PMID:22749213

  6. STEM crisis or STEM surplus? Yes and yes.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yi; Larson, Richard C

    2015-05-01

    The last decade has seen considerable concern regarding a shortage of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) workers to meet the demands of the labor market. At the same time, many experts have presented evidence of a STEM worker surplus. A comprehensive literature review, in conjunction with employment statistics, newspaper articles, and our own interviews with company recruiters, reveals a significant heterogeneity in the STEM labor market: the academic sector is generally oversupplied, while the government sector and private industry have shortages in specific areas.

  7. STEM crisis or STEM surplus? Yes and yes

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Yi; Larson, Richard C.

    2018-01-01

    The last decade has seen considerable concern regarding a shortage of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) workers to meet the demands of the labor market. At the same time, many experts have presented evidence of a STEM worker surplus. A comprehensive literature review, in conjunction with employment statistics, newspaper articles, and our own interviews with company recruiters, reveals a significant heterogeneity in the STEM labor market: the academic sector is generally oversupplied, while the government sector and private industry have shortages in specific areas. PMID:29422698

  8. Whole mouse cryo-imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, David; Roy, Debashish; Steyer, Grant; Gargesha, Madhusudhana; Stone, Meredith; McKinley, Eliot

    2008-03-01

    The Case cryo-imaging system is a section and image system which allows one to acquire micron-scale, information rich, whole mouse color bright field and molecular fluorescence images of an entire mouse. Cryo-imaging is used in a variety of applications, including mouse and embryo anatomical phenotyping, drug delivery, imaging agents, metastastic cancer, stem cells, and very high resolution vascular imaging, among many. Cryo-imaging fills the gap between whole animal in vivo imaging and histology, allowing one to image a mouse along the continuum from the mouse -> organ -> tissue structure -> cell -> sub-cellular domains. In this overview, we describe the technology and a variety of exciting applications. Enhancements to the system now enable tiled acquisition of high resolution images to cover an entire mouse. High resolution fluorescence imaging, aided by a novel subtraction processing algorithm to remove sub-surface fluorescence, makes it possible to detect fluorescently-labeled single cells. Multi-modality experiments in Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Cryo-imaging of a whole mouse demonstrate superior resolution of cryo-images and efficiency of registration techniques. The 3D results demonstrate the novel true-color volume visualization tools we have developed and the inherent advantage of cryo-imaging in providing unlimited depth of field and spatial resolution. The recent results continue to demonstrate the value cryo-imaging provides in the field of small animal imaging research.

  9. Technology-Supported Science Instruction through Integrated STEM Guitar Building: The Case for STEM and Non-STEM Instructor Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauze, Sean; French, Debbie

    2017-01-01

    With a national emphasis on integrated science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education in K-16 courses, incorporating technology in a meaningful way is critical. This research examines whether STEM and non-STEM teachers were able to incorporate technology in STEM courses successfully with sufficient professional development. The…

  10. Improving Signal-to-Noise Ratio in Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Energy-Dispersive X-Ray (STEM-EDX) Spectrum Images Using Single-Atomic-Column Cross-Correlation Averaging.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jong Seok; Mkhoyan, K Andre

    2016-06-01

    Acquiring an atomic-resolution compositional map of crystalline specimens has become routine practice, thus opening possibilities for extracting subatomic information from such maps. A key challenge for achieving subatomic precision is the improvement of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of compositional maps. Here, we report a simple and reliable solution for achieving high-SNR energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy spectrum images for individual atomic columns. The method is based on standard cross-correlation aided by averaging of single-column EDX maps with modifications in the reference image. It produces EDX maps with minimal specimen drift, beam drift, and scan distortions. Step-by-step procedures to determine a self-consistent reference map with a discussion on the reliability, stability, and limitations of the method are presented here.

  11. "Black butterfly" sign on T2*-weighted and susceptibility-weighted imaging: A novel finding of chronic venous congestion of the brain stem and spinal cord associated with dural arteriovenous fistulas.

    PubMed

    Enokizono, Mikako; Sato, Noriko; Morikawa, Minoru; Kimura, Yukio; Sugiyama, Atsuhiko; Maekawa, Tomoko; Sone, Daichi; Takewaki, Daiki; Okamoto, Tomoko; Takahashi, Yuji; Horie, Nobutaka; Matsuo, Takayuki

    2017-08-15

    A dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) with spinal perimedullary venous drainage can cause progressive myelopathy, and it is sometimes incorrectly diagnosed as another spinal cord disease. Here we report the cases of three individuals with a DAVF (one craniocervical junction DAVF and two tentorial DAVFs) with progressive myelopathy showing unique magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings. MR T2*WI or susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) demonstrated symmetrical dark signal intensity lesions predominantly in the dorsal aspect of medulla and the central gray matter of cervical spinal cord that showed the "black butterfly" silhouette. Cerebral angiography revealed DAVFs draining into anterior and posterior spinal veins. Dark signals on T2*WI and SWI were presumed to be hemorrhages, which were probably caused by prolonged venous congestion. Identifying this "black butterfly" sign can facilitate the diagnosis of DAVF, differentiating DAVF from other spinal cord diseases such as demyelinating lesions and neoplasms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Stem cells in pharmaceutical biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Zuba-Surma, Ewa K; Józkowicz, Alicja; Dulak, Józef

    2011-11-01

    Multiple populations of stem cells have been indicated to potentially participate in regeneration of injured organs. Especially, embryonic stem cells (ESC) and recently inducible pluripotent stem cells (iPS) receive a marked attention from scientists and clinicians for regenerative medicine because of their high proliferative and differentiation capacities. Despite that ESC and iPS cells are expected to give rise into multiple regenerative applications when their side effects are overcame during appropriate preparation procedures, in fact their most recent application of human ESC may, however, reside in their use as a tool in drug development and disease modeling. This review focuses on the applications of stem cells in pharmaceutical biotechnology. We discuss possible relevance of pluripotent cell stem populations in developing physiological models for any human tissue cell type useful for pharmacological, metabolic and toxicity evaluation necessary in the earliest steps of drug development. The present models applied for preclinical drug testing consist of primary cells or immortalized cell lines that show limitations in terms of accessibility or relevance to their in vivo counterparts. The availability of renewable human cells with functional similarities to their in vivo counterparts is the first landmark for a new generation of cell-based assays. We discuss the approaches for using stem cells as valuable physiological targets of drug activity which may increase the strength of target validation and efficacy potentially resulting in introducing new safer remedies into clinical trials and the marketplace. Moreover, we discuss the possible applications of stem cells for elucidating mechanisms of disease pathogenesis. The knowledge about the mechanisms governing the development and progression of multitude disorders which would come from the cellular models established based on stem cells, may give rise to new therapeutical strategies for such diseases. All

  13. System for tracking transplanted limbal epithelial stem cells in the treatment of corneal stem cell deficiency (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boadi, Joseph; Matcher, Stephen; MacNeil, Sheila; Sangwan, Virender S.

    2016-04-01

    The prevailing hypothesis for the existence and healing of the avascular corneal epithelium is that this layer of cells are continually produced by stem cells in the limbus and transported onto the cornea to mature into corneal epithelium. In the event that the cornea is damaged and the limbal stem cell population is severely reduced, this condition known as Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency and can lead to blindness. There are numerous treatments but most have high long term failure rates. Most treatment methods include the transplantation of limbal stem cells into damaged limbus with hope of repopulating the region and regenerating at healthy corneal epithelium. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is well known for its high resolution in vivo images. A bespoke OCT has been built to investigate the trajectories of these limbal stem cells after transplantation to see whether if they do repopulate the damaged limbus or not. In the experimentation magneto-labelling was used to track the limbal stem cells. For the magneto-labelling a mixture of limbal stem cells and cornea epithelium are cultured with super paramagnetic iron (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (20-30nm in size) for 24hours, to allow for uptake. The cells are then transplanted onto the denuded cornea. The transplanted cell mixture with the encapsulated magnetic nanoparticles is actuated with an external magnetic field 0.08T leading to a phase modulation on the signal. A Phase sensitive Magneto-motive OCT is used to locate the transplanted cells. The location of the cells with embed SPIOs were located both in 2D and 3D.

  14. Bone regeneration and stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Arvidson, K; Abdallah, B M; Applegate, L A; Baldini, N; Cenni, E; Gomez-Barrena, E; Granchi, D; Kassem, M; Konttinen, Y T; Mustafa, K; Pioletti, D P; Sillat, T; Finne-Wistrand, A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This invited review covers research areas of central importance for orthopaedic and maxillofacial bone tissue repair, including normal fracture healing and healing problems, biomaterial scaffolds for tissue engineering, mesenchymal and foetal stem cells, effects of sex steroids on mesenchymal stem cells, use of platelet-rich plasma for tissue repair, osteogenesis and its molecular markers. A variety of cells in addition to stem cells, as well as advances in materials science to meet specific requirements for bone and soft tissue regeneration by addition of bioactive molecules, are discussed. PMID:21129153

  15. The Current Status of STEM Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Josh

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the current Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education research base through an analysis of articles from eight journals focused on the STEM disciplines. Analyzed are both practitioner and research publications to determine the current scope of STEM education research, where current STEM education…

  16. The STEM Initiative: Constraints and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herschbach, Dennis R.

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable national interest in STEM initiatives, but yet there is little discussion concerning what STEM means in terms of a curriculum concept to be applied to school programming. This article focuses on STEM as a curriculum concept. First, STEM programming is discussed in terms of separate subjects, correlated and broad fields…

  17. 7 CFR 29.6039 - Stem rot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stem rot. 29.6039 Section 29.6039 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6039 Stem rot. The deterioration of an uncured or frozen stem resulting from bacterial action. Although stem rot results from bacterial action, it is inactive in cured tobacco...

  18. 30 CFR 75.1322 - Stemming boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Stemming boreholes. 75.1322 Section 75.1322... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1322 Stemming boreholes. (a) Only noncombustible material shall be used for stemming boreholes. (b) Stemming materials other than...

  19. 7 CFR 29.6039 - Stem rot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Stem rot. 29.6039 Section 29.6039 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6039 Stem rot. The deterioration of an uncured or frozen stem resulting from bacterial action. Although stem rot results from bacterial action, it is inactive in cured tobacco...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1322 - Stemming boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Stemming boreholes. 75.1322 Section 75.1322... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1322 Stemming boreholes. (a) Only noncombustible material shall be used for stemming boreholes. (b) Stemming materials other than...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1322 - Stemming boreholes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Stemming boreholes 75.1322 Section 75.1322... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1322 Stemming boreholes (a) Only noncombustible material shall be used for stemming boreholes. (b) Stemming materials other than...

  2. 7 CFR 29.6039 - Stem rot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Stem rot. 29.6039 Section 29.6039 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6039 Stem rot. The deterioration of an uncured or frozen stem resulting from bacterial action. Although stem rot results from bacterial action, it is inactive in cured tobacco...

  3. 30 CFR 75.1322 - Stemming boreholes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Stemming boreholes 75.1322 Section 75.1322... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1322 Stemming boreholes (a) Only noncombustible material shall be used for stemming boreholes. (b) Stemming materials other than...

  4. 7 CFR 29.6039 - Stem rot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Stem rot. 29.6039 Section 29.6039 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6039 Stem rot. The deterioration of an uncured or frozen stem resulting from bacterial action. Although stem rot results from bacterial action, it is inactive in cured tobacco...

  5. 7 CFR 29.6039 - Stem rot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Stem rot. 29.6039 Section 29.6039 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6039 Stem rot. The deterioration of an uncured or frozen stem resulting from bacterial action. Although stem rot results from bacterial action, it is inactive in cured tobacco...

  6. Expanding STEM opportunities through inclusive STEM-focused high schools.

    PubMed

    Means, Barbara; Wang, Haiwen; Wei, Xin; Lynch, Sharon; Peters, Vanessa; Young, Viki; Allen, Carrie

    2017-09-01

    Inclusive STEM high schools (ISHSs) (where STEM is science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) admit students on the basis of interest rather than competitive examination. This study examines the central assumption behind these schools-that they provide students from subgroups underrepresented in STEM with experiences that equip them academically and attitudinally to enter and stay in the STEM pipeline. Hierarchical modeling was applied to data from student surveys and state longitudinal data records for 5113 students graduating from 39 ISHSs and 22 comprehensive high schools in North Carolina and Texas. Compared to peers from the same demographic group with similar Grade 8 achievement levels, underrepresented minority and female ISHS students in both states were more likely to undertake advanced STEM coursework. Hispanics in Texas and females in both states expressed more STEM career interest in Grade 12 if they attended an ISHS. Positive relationships between ISHS attendance and grade point average were found in the total sample and each subgroup in North Carolina. Positive ISHS advantages in terms of test scores for the total student sample were found for science in both states and for mathematics in Texas. For the various student subgroups, test score differences favored the ISHS samples but attained statistical significance only for African Americans' science achievement scores in the Texas study.

  7. The effect of cement on hip stem fixation: a biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Çelik, Talip; Mutlu, İbrahim; Özkan, Arif; Kişioğlu, Yasin

    2017-06-01

    This study presents the numerical analysis of stem fixation in hip surgery using with/without cement methods since the use of cement is still controversial based on the clinical studies in the literature. Many different factors such as stress shielding, aseptic loosening, material properties of the stem, surgeon experiences etc. play an important role in the failure of the stem fixations. The stem fixation methods, cemented and uncemented, were evaluated in terms of mechanical failure aspects using computerized finite element method. For the modeling processes, three dimensional (3D) femur model was generated from computerized tomography (CT) images taken from a patient using the MIMICS Software. The design of the stem was also generated as 3D CAD model using the design parameters taken from the manufacturer catalogue. These 3D CAD models were generated and combined with/without cement considering the surgical procedure using SolidWorks program and then imported into ANSYS Workbench Software. Two different material properties, CoCrMo and Ti6Al4V, for the stem model and Poly Methyl Methacrylate (PMMA) for the cement were assigned. The material properties of the femur were described according to a density calculated from the CT images. Body weight and muscle forces were applied on the femur and the distal femur was fixed for the boundary conditions. The calculations of the stress distributions of the models including cement and relative movements of the contacts examined to evaluate the effects of the cement and different stem material usage on the failure of stem fixation. According to the results, the use of cement for the stem fixation reduces the stress shielding but increases the aseptic loosening depending on the cement crack formations. Additionally, using the stiffer material for the stem reduces the cement stress but increases the stress shielding. Based on the results obtained in the study, even when taking the disadvantages into account, the cement usage

  8. [Progress in stem cells and regenerative medicine].

    PubMed

    Wang, Libin; Zhu, He; Hao, Jie; Zhou, Qi

    2015-06-01

    Stem cells have the ability to differentiate into all types of cells in the body and therefore have great application potential in regenerative medicine, in vitro disease modelling and drug screening. In recent years, stem cell technology has made great progress, and induced pluripotent stem cell technology revolutionizes the whole stem cell field. At the same time, stem cell research in our country has also achieved great progress and becomes an indispensable power in the worldwide stem cell research field. This review mainly focuses on the research progress in stem cells and regenerative medicine in our country since the advent of induced pluripotent stem cell technology, including induced pluripotent stem cells, transdifferentiation, haploid stem cells, and new gene editing tools.

  9. Dynamic and social behaviors of human pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Phadnis, Smruti M; Loewke, Nathan O; Dimov, Ivan K; Pai, Sunil; Amwake, Christine E; Solgaard, Olav; Baer, Thomas M; Chen, Bertha; Reijo Pera, Renee A

    2015-09-18

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) can self-renew or differentiate to diverse cell types, thus providing a platform for basic and clinical applications. However, pluripotent stem cell populations are heterogeneous and functional properties at the single cell level are poorly documented leading to inefficiencies in differentiation and concerns regarding reproducibility and safety. Here, we use non-invasive time-lapse imaging to continuously examine hPSC maintenance and differentiation and to predict cell viability and fate. We document dynamic behaviors and social interactions that prospectively distinguish hPSC survival, self-renewal, and differentiation. Results highlight the molecular role of E-cadherin not only for cell-cell contact but also for clonal propagation of hPSCs. Results indicate that use of continuous time-lapse imaging can distinguish cellular heterogeneity with respect to pluripotency as well as a subset of karyotypic abnormalities whose dynamic properties were monitored.

  10. Dynamic and social behaviors of human pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Phadnis, Smruti M.; Loewke, Nathan O.; Dimov, Ivan K.; Pai, Sunil; Amwake, Christine E.; Solgaard, Olav; Baer, Thomas M.; Chen, Bertha; Pera, Renee A. Reijo

    2015-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) can self-renew or differentiate to diverse cell types, thus providing a platform for basic and clinical applications. However, pluripotent stem cell populations are heterogeneous and functional properties at the single cell level are poorly documented leading to inefficiencies in differentiation and concerns regarding reproducibility and safety. Here, we use non-invasive time-lapse imaging to continuously examine hPSC maintenance and differentiation and to predict cell viability and fate. We document dynamic behaviors and social interactions that prospectively distinguish hPSC survival, self-renewal, and differentiation. Results highlight the molecular role of E-cadherin not only for cell-cell contact but also for clonal propagation of hPSCs. Results indicate that use of continuous time-lapse imaging can distinguish cellular heterogeneity with respect to pluripotency as well as a subset of karyotypic abnormalities whose dynamic properties were monitored. PMID:26381699

  11. Stem cells: sources and applications.

    PubMed

    Vats, A; Tolley, N S; Polak, J M; Buttery, L D K

    2002-08-01

    Tissue engineering is a multidisciplinary area of research aimed at regeneration of tissues and restoration of function of organs through implantation of cells/tissues grown outside the body, or stimulating cells to grow into implanted matrix. In this short review, some of the most recent developments in the use of stem cells for tissue repair and regeneration will be discussed. There is no doubt that stem cells derived from adult and embryonic sources hold great therapeutic potential but it is clear that there is still much research required before their use is commonplace. There is much debate over adult versus embryonic stem cells and whether both are required. It is probably too early to disregard one or other of these cell sources. With regard to embryonic stem cells, the major concern relates to the ethics of their creation and the proposed practice of therapeutic cloning.

  12. Megakaryocytopoiesis in Stem Cell Transplantation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-10-01

    megakaryocyte production by at least 3-fold by a still unknown mechanism. We were able to rule out any role of stromal concentrations of thrombopoietin, interleukins 3 and 6, stem cell factor and heparan sulfates on this enhancing effect.

  13. Using Transgenic Zebrafish to Study Muscle Stem/Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phong D; Currie, Peter D

    2017-01-01

    Understanding muscle stem cell behaviors can potentially provide insights into how these cells act and respond during normal growth and diseased contexts. The zebrafish is an ideal model organism to examine these behaviors in vivo where it would normally be technically challenging in other mammalian models. This chapter will describe the procedures required to successfully conduct live imaging of zebrafish transgenics that has specifically been adapted for skeletal muscle.

  14. Progress in myeloma stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Richard Dela; Tricot, Guido; Zangari, Maurizio; Zhan, Fenghuang

    2011-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second most common hematologic malignancy in the United States and affects about 4 in 100,000 Americans. Even though much progress has been made in MM therapy, MM remains an incurable disease for the vast majority of patients. The existence of MM stem cell is considered one of the major causes of MM drug-resistance, leading to relapse. This highlights the importance and urgency of developing approaches to target MM stem cells. However, very little is known about the molecular characteristics of the MM stem cells, which makes it difficult to target MM stem cells therapeutically. Evidence of the existence of a myeloma stem cell has been provided by Matsui et al. showing that the CD138- and CD20+ fraction, which is a minor population of the MM cells, has a greater clonogenic potential and has the phenotype of a memory B-cell (CD19+, CD27+). In this review, we report recent progress of cell surface markers in cancer stem cells, especially in myeloma and the molecular mechanisms related to drug resistance and myeloma disease progression. PMID:22432075

  15. Diabetes and Stem Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Fujimaki, Shin; Wakabayashi, Tamami; Takemasa, Tohru; Asashima, Makoto; Kuwabara, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common serious metabolic diseases that results in hyperglycemia due to defects of insulin secretion or insulin action or both. The present review focuses on the alterations to the diabetic neuronal tissues and skeletal muscle, including stem cells in both tissues, and the preventive effects of physical activity on diabetes. Diabetes is associated with various nervous disorders, such as cognitive deficits, depression, and Alzheimer's disease, and that may be caused by neural stem cell dysfunction. Additionally, diabetes induces skeletal muscle atrophy, the impairment of energy metabolism, and muscle weakness. Similar to neural stem cells, the proliferation and differentiation are attenuated in skeletal muscle stem cells, termed satellite cells. However, physical activity is very useful for preventing the diabetic alteration to the neuronal tissues and skeletal muscle. Physical activity improves neurogenic capacity of neural stem cells and the proliferative and differentiative abilities of satellite cells. The present review proposes physical activity as a useful measure for the patients in diabetes to improve the physiological functions and to maintain their quality of life. It further discusses the use of stem cell-based approaches in the context of diabetes treatment. PMID:26075247

  16. Drosophila's contribution to stem cell research.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gyanesh

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of Drosophila stem cells with striking similarities to mammalian stem cells has brought new hope for stem cell research. Recent developments in Drosophila stem cell research is bringing wider opportunities for contemporary stem cell biologists. In this regard, Drosophila germ cells are becoming a popular model of stem cell research. In several cases, genes that controlled Drosophila stem cells were later discovered to have functional homologs in mammalian stem cells. Like mammals, Drosophila germline stem cells (GSCs) are controlled by both intrinsic as well as external signals. Inside the Drosophila testes, germline and somatic stem cells form a cluster of cells (the hub). Hub cells depend on JAK-STAT signaling, and, in absence of this signal, they do not self-renew. In Drosophila, significant changes occur within the stem cell niche that contributes to a decline in stem cell number over time. In case of aging Drosophila, somatic niche cells show reduced DE-cadherin and unpaired (Upd) proteins. Unpaired proteins are known to directly decrease stem cell number within the niches, and, overexpression of upd within niche cells restored GSCs in older males also . Stem cells in the midgut of Drosophila are also very promising. Reduced Notch signaling was found to increase the number of midgut progenitor cells. On the other hand, activation of the Notch pathway decreased proliferation of these cells. Further research in this area should lead to the discovery of additional factors that regulate stem and progenitor cells in Drosophila.

  17. Drosophila's contribution to stem cell research

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gyanesh

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of Drosophila stem cells with striking similarities to mammalian stem cells has brought new hope for stem cell research. Recent developments in Drosophila stem cell research is bringing wider opportunities for contemporary stem cell biologists. In this regard, Drosophila germ cells are becoming a popular model of stem cell research. In several cases, genes that controlled Drosophila stem cells were later discovered to have functional homologs in mammalian stem cells. Like mammals, Drosophila germline stem cells (GSCs) are controlled by both intrinsic as well as external signals. Inside the Drosophila testes, germline and somatic stem cells form a cluster of cells (the hub). Hub cells depend on JAK-STAT signaling, and, in absence of this signal, they do not self-renew. In Drosophila, significant changes occur within the stem cell niche that contributes to a decline in stem cell number over time. In case of aging Drosophila, somatic niche cells show reduced DE-cadherin and unpaired (Upd) proteins. Unpaired proteins are known to directly decrease stem cell number within the niches, and, overexpression of upd within niche cells restored GSCs in older males also . Stem cells in the midgut of Drosophila are also very promising. Reduced Notch signaling was found to increase the number of midgut progenitor cells. On the other hand, activation of the Notch pathway decreased proliferation of these cells. Further research in this area should lead to the discovery of additional factors that regulate stem and progenitor cells in Drosophila. PMID:26180635

  18. Stimulatory effect of icariin on the proliferation of neural stem cells from rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaolong; Li, Shujun; Zhou, Shaoyu; Wu, Qin; Jin, Feng; Shi, Jingshan

    2018-01-29

    Icariin (ICA), a major ingredient of Epimediumbrevicornum, has various pharmacological activities including central nervous system protective functions such as the improvement of learning and memory function in mice models of Alzheimer's disease. It has been reported that ICA can promote regeneration of peripheral nerve and functional recovery. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potentiating effect of ICA on the proliferation of rat hippocampal neural stem cells, and explore the possible mechanism involved. Primary neural stem cells were prepared from the hippocampus of newly born SD rats, and cells were cultured in special stem cell culture medium. Neural stem cells were confirmed by immunofluorescence detection of nestin, NSE and GFAP expression. The effect of ICA on the growth and proliferation of the neural stem cells was evaluated by 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU) labeling of proliferating cells, and photomicrographic images of the cultured neural stem cells. Further, the mechanism of ICA-induced cell proliferation of neural stem cells was investigated by analyzing the gene and protein expression of cell cycle related genes cyclin D1 and p21. The present study showed that icariin promotes the growth and proliferation of neural stem cells from rat hippocampus in a dose-dependent manner. Incubation of cells with icariin resulted in significant increase in the number of stem cell spheres as well as the increased incorporation of EdU when compared with cells exposed to control vehicle. In addition, it was found that icariin-induced effect on neural stem cells is associated with increased mRNA and protein expression of cell cycle genes cyclin D1 and p21. This study evidently demonstrates the potentiating effect of ICA on neural stem cell growth and proliferation, which might be mediated through regulation of cell cycle gene and protein expression promoting cell cycle progression.

  19. Elucidating the identity and behavior of spermatogenic stem cells in the mouse testis.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Shosei

    2012-09-01

    Spermatogenesis in mice and other mammalians is supported by a robust stem cell system. Stem cells maintain themselves and continue to produce progeny that will differentiate into sperm over a long period. The pioneering studies conducted from the 1950s to the 1970s, which were based largely on extensive morphological analyses, have established the fundamentals of mammalian spermatogenesis and its stem cells. The prevailing so-called A(single) (A(s)) model, which was originally established in 1971, proposes that singly isolated A(s) spermatogonia are in fact the stem cells. In 1994, the first functional stem cell assay was established based on the formation of repopulating colonies after transplantation in germ cell-depleted host testes, which substantially accelerated the understanding of spermatogenic stem cells. However, because testicular tissues are dissociated into single-cell suspension before transplantation, it was impossible to evaluate the A(s) and other classical models solely by this technique. From 2007 onwards, functional assessment of stem cells without destroying the tissue architecture has become feasible by means of pulse-labeling and live-imaging strategies. Results obtained from these experiments have been challenging the classical thought of stem cells, in which stem cells are a limited number of specialized cells undergoing asymmetric division to produce one self-renewing and one differentiating daughter cells. In contrast, the emerging data suggest that an extended and heterogeneous population of cells exhibiting different degrees of self-renewing and differentiating probabilities forms a reversible, flexible, and stochastic stem cell system as a population. These features may lead to establishment of a more universal principle on stem cells that is shared by other systems.

  20. Stem Cell Monitoring with a Direct or Indirect Labeling Method.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Hwan; Lee, Yong Jin; Kang, Joo Hyun

    2016-12-01

    The molecular imaging techniques allow monitoring of the transplanted cells in the same individuals over time, from early localization to the survival, migration, and differentiation. Generally, there are two methods of stem cell labeling: direct and indirect labeling methods. The direct labeling method introduces a labeling agent into the cell, which is stably incorporated or attached to the cells prior to transplantation. Direct labeling of cells with radionuclides is a simple method with relatively fewer adverse events related to genetic responses. However, it can only allow short-term distribution of transplanted cells because of the decreasing imaging signal with radiodecay, according to the physical half-lives, or the signal becomes more diffuse with cell division and dispersion. The indirect labeling method is based on the expression of a reporter gene transduced into the cell before transplantation, which is then visualized upon the injection of an appropriate probe or substrate. In this review, various imaging strategies to monitor the survival and behavior change of transplanted stem cells are covered. Taking these new approaches together, the direct and indirect labeling methods may provide new insights on the roles of in vivo stem cell monitoring, from bench to bedside.

  1. The Effect of Laser Irradiation on Adipose Derived Stem Cell Proliferation and Differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahamse, H.; de Villiers, J.; Mvula, B.

    2009-06-01

    There are two fundamental types of stem cells: Embryonic Stem cells and Adult Stem cells. Adult Stem cells have a more restricted potential and can usually differentiate into a few different cell types. In the body these cells facilitate the replacement or repair of damaged or diseased cells in organs. Low intensity laser irradiation was shown to increase stem cell migration and stimulate proliferation and it is thought that treatment of these cells with laser irradiation may increase the stem cell harvest and have a positive effect on the viability and proliferation. Our research is aimed at determining the effect of laser irradiation on differentiation of Adipose Derived Stem Cells (ADSCs) into different cell types using a diode laser with a wavelength of 636 nm and at 5 J/cm2. Confirmation of stem cell characteristics and well as subsequent differentiation were assessed using Western blot analysis and cellular morphology supported by fluorescent live cell imaging. Functionality of subsequent differentiated cells was confirmed by measuring adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production and cell viability.

  2. Transplantation of induced pluripotent stem cells improves functional recovery in Huntington's disease rat model.

    PubMed

    Mu, Shuhua; Wang, Jiachuan; Zhou, Guangqian; Peng, Wenda; He, Zhendan; Zhao, Zhenfu; Mo, CuiPing; Qu, Junle; Zhang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the functional recovery of the transplanted induced pluripotent stem cells in a rat model of Huntington's disease with use of 18F-FDG microPET/CT imaging. In a quinolinic acid-induced rat model of striatal degeneration, induced pluripotent stem cells were transplanted into the ipsilateral lateral ventricle ten days after the quinolinic acid injection. The response to the treatment was evaluated by serial 18F-FDG PET/CT scans and Morris water maze test. Histological analyses and Western blotting were performed six weeks after stem cell transplantation. After induced pluripotent stem cells transplantation, higher 18F-FDG accumulation in the injured striatum was observed during the 4 to 6-weeks period compared with the quinolinic acid-injected group, suggesting the metabolic recovery of injured striatum. The induced pluripotent stem cells transplantation improved learning and memory function (and striatal atrophy) of the rat in six week in the comparison with the quinolinic acid-treated controls. In addition, immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that transplanted stem cells survived and migrated into the lesioned area in striatum, and most of the stem cells expressed protein markers of neurons and glial cells. Our findings show that induced pluripotent stem cells can survive, differentiate to functional neurons and improve partial striatal function and metabolism after implantation in a rat Huntington's disease model.

  3. Mammary Stem Cells: Premise, Properties, and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Lloyd-Lewis, Bethan; Harris, Olivia B; Watson, Christine J; Davis, Felicity M

    2017-08-01

    Adult mammary stem cells (MaSCs) drive postnatal organogenesis and remodeling in the mammary gland, and their longevity and potential have important implications for breast cancer. However, despite intense investigation the identity, location, and differentiation potential of MaSCs remain subject to deliberation. The application of genetic lineage-tracing models, combined with quantitative 3D imaging and biophysical methods, has provided new insights into the mammary epithelial hierarchy that challenge classical definitions of MaSC potency and behaviors. We review here recent advances - discussing fundamental unresolved properties of MaSC potency, dynamics, and plasticity - and point to evolving technologies that promise to shed new light on this intractable debate. Elucidation of the physiological mammary differentiation hierarchy is paramount to understanding the complex heterogeneous breast cancer landscape. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Stem cell motility enables a density-dependent rate of fate commitment during scaled resizing of adult organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Xinxin; O'Brien, Lucy; Riedel-Kruse, Ingmar

    Many adult organs grow or shrink to accommodate fluctuating levels of physiological demand. Specifically, the intestine of the fruit fly (the midgut) expands four-fold in the number of mature cells and, proportionally, the number of stem cells when the fly eats. However, the cellular behaviors that give rise to this stem scaling are not well-understood. Here we present a biophysical model of the adult fly midgut. A set of differential equations can recapitulate the physiological kinetics of cells during midgut growth and shrinkage as long as the rate of stem cell fate commitment depends on the stem cell number density in the tissue. To elucidate the source of this dependence, we model the tissue in a 2D simulation with soft spheres, where stem cells choose fate commitment through Delta-Notch pathway interactions with other stem cells, a known process in fly midguts. We find that as long as stem cells exhibit a large enough amplitude of random motion through the tissue (`stem cell motility'), and explore a large enough `territory' in their lifetime, stem cell scaling can occur. These model observations are confirmed through in vivo live-imaging, where we indeed see that stem cells are motile in the fly midgut.

  5. Stem cells in cardiac repair.

    PubMed

    Henning, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    Myocardial infarction is the leading cause of death among people in industrialized nations. Although the heart has some ability to regenerate after infarction, myocardial restoration is inadequate. Consequently, investigators are currently exploring the use of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), skeletal myoblasts and adult bone marrow stem cells to limit infarct size. hESCs are pluripotent cells that can regenerate myocardium in infarcted hearts, attenuate heart remodeling and contribute to left ventricle (LV) systolic force development. Since hESCs can form heart teratomas, investigators are differentiating hESCs toward cardiac progenitor cells prior to transplantation into hearts. Large quantities of hESCs cardiac progenitor cells, however, must be generated, immune rejection must be prevented and grafts must survive over the long term to significantly improve myocardial performance. Transplanted autologous skeletal myoblasts can survive in infarcted myocardium in small numbers, proliferate, differentiate into skeletal myofibers and increase the LV ejection fraction. These cells, however, do not form electromechanical connections with host cardiomyocytes. Consequently, electrical re-entry can occur and cause cardiac arrhythmias. Autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells contain hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells. In several meta-analyses, patients with coronary disease who received autologous bone marrow cells by intracoronary injection show significant 3.7% (range: 1.9-5.4%) increases in LV ejection fraction, decreases in LV end-systolic volume of -4.8 ml (range: -1.4 to -8.2 ml) and reductions in infarct size of 5.5% (-1.9 to -9.1%), without experiencing arrhythmias. Bone marrow cells appear to release biologically active factors that limit myocardial damage. Unfortunately, bone marrow cells from patients with chronic diseases propagate poorly and can die prematurely. Substantial challenges must be addressed and resolved to advance the use of stem cells

  6. Stem cells therapy for ALS.

    PubMed

    Mazzini, Letizia; Vescovi, Angelo; Cantello, Roberto; Gelati, Maurizio; Vercelli, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Despite knowledge on the molecular basis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) having quickly progressed over the last few years, such discoveries have not yet translated into new therapeutics. With the advancement of stem cell technologies there is hope for stem cell therapeutics as novel treatments for ALS. We discuss in detail the therapeutic potential of different types of stem cells in preclinical and clinical works. Moreover, we address many open questions in clinical translation. SC therapy is a potentially promising new treatment for ALS and the need to better understand how to develop cell-based experimental treatments, and how to implement them in clinical trials, becomes more pressing. Mesenchymal stem cells and neural fetal stem cells have emerged as safe and potentially effective cell types, but there is a need to carry out appropriately designed experimental studies to verify their long-term safety and possibly efficacy. Moreover, the cost-benefit analysis of the results must take into account the quality of life of the patients as a major end point. It is our opinion that a multicenter international clinical program aime d at fine-tuning and coordinating transplantation procedures and protocols is mandatory.

  7. Stem Cells in Spinal Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Haudenschild, Dominik R.; Wegner, Adam M.; Klineberg, Eric O.

    2017-01-01

    Study Design: Review of literature. Objectives: This review of literature investigates the application of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in spinal fusion, highlights potential uses in the development of bone grafts, and discusses limitations based on both preclinical and clinical models. Methods: A review of literature was conducted looking at current studies using stem cells for augmentation of spinal fusion in both animal and human models. Results: Eleven preclinical studies were found that used various animal models. Average fusion rates across studies were 59.8% for autograft and 73.7% for stem cell–based grafts. Outcomes included manual palpation and stressing of the fusion, radiography, micro–computed tomography (μCT), and histological analysis. Fifteen clinical studies, 7 prospective and 8 retrospective, were found. Fusion rates ranged from 60% to 100%, averaging 87.1% in experimental groups and 87.2% in autograft control groups. Conclusions: It appears that there is minimal clinical difference between commercially available stem cells and bone marrow aspirates indicating that MSCs may be a good choice in a patient with poor marrow quality. Overcoming morbidity and limitations of autograft for spinal fusion, remains a significant problem for spinal surgeons and further studies are needed to determine the efficacy of stem cells in augmenting spinal fusion. PMID:29238646

  8. Influence of students' STEM self-efficacy on STEM and physics career choice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halim, Lilia; Rahman, Norshariani Abd; Ramli, Nor Aidillina Mohd; Mohtar, Lilia Ellany

    2018-01-01

    Interest towards STEM and STEM careers is declining worldwide. Among the STEM related careers, the physics discipline has been the most affected in terms of numbers and imbalance of gender. This study investigates the role of self-efficacy in STEM towards STEM careers and Physics career based on gender and types of school. Findings showed that there is a positive and significant correlation between students' STEM self-efficacy and interest towards all disciplines in STEM and Physics career. Boys showed high level of self-efficacy in engineering discipline while the girls' associate more with science. Students from boarding schools showed higher self-efficacy and interest towards STEM careers compared to students from public schools. An implication of the study is that self-efficacy and interest in STEM careers are enhanced through engagement with STEM activities in and outside of school. Emphasis should be given to the role of counselors in making STEM careers relevant to students.

  9. STEM connections to the GOES-R Satellite Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooney, M. E.; Schmit, T.

    2015-12-01

    GOES-R, a new Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) is scheduled to be launched in October of 2016. Its role is to continue western hemisphere satellite coverage while the existing GOES series winds down its 20-year operation. However, instruments on the next generation GOES-R satellite series will provide major improvements to the current GOES, both in the frequency of images acquired and the spectral and spatial resolution of the images, providing a perfect conduit for STEM education. Most of these improvements will be provided by the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI). ABI will provide three times more spectral information, four times the spatial resolution, and more than five times faster temporal coverage than the current GOES. Another exciting addition to the GOES-R satellite series will be the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM). The all new GLM on GOES-R will measure total lightning activity continuously over the Americas and adjacent ocean regions with near uniform spatial resolution of approximately 10 km! Due to ABI, GLM and improved spacecraft calibration and navigation, the next generation GOES-R satellite series will usher in an exciting era of satellite applications and opportunities for STEM education. This session will present and demonstrate exciting next-gen imagery advancements and new HTML5 WebApps that demonstrate STEM connections to these improvements. Participants will also be invited to join the GOES-R Education Proving Ground, a national network of educators who will receive stipends to attend 4 webinars during the spring of 2016, pilot a STEM lesson plan, and organize a school-wide launch awareness event.

  10. Noninvasive Assessment of Cell Fate and Biology in Transplanted Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Franchi, Federico; Rodriguez-Porcel, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Recently, molecular imaging has become a conditio sine qua non for cell-based regenerative medicine. Developments in molecular imaging techniques, such as reporter gene technology, have increasingly enabled the noninvasive assessment of the fate and biology of cells after cardiovascular applications. In this context, bioluminescence imaging is the most commonly used imaging modality in small animal models of preclinical studies. Here, we present a detailed protocol of a reporter gene imaging approach for monitoring the viability and biology of Mesenchymal Stem Cells transplanted in a mouse model of myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury.

  11. Microscopy of semiconducting materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennycook, S. J.

    1991-04-01

    The purpose of the trip was to present an invited talk at the 7th Oxford Conference on Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials entitled, High-Resolution Z-Contrast Imaging of Heterostructures and Superlattices, (Oxford, United Kingdom) and to visit VG Microscopes, East Grinstead, for discussions on the progress of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) 300-kV high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM), which is currently on order. The traveler also visited three other institutions with 100-kV STEMs that either have or intend to purchase the necessary modifications to provide Z-contrast capability similar to that of the existing ORNL machine. Specifically, Max-Planck Institut fuer Metallforschung (Stuttgart, Germany); Cambridge University, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy (Cambridge, United Kingdom); and Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge University (Cambridge, United Kingdom) were visited. In addition, discussions were held with C. Humphreys on the possibility of obtaining joint funding for collaborative research involving electron beam writing and Z-contrast imaging in the Cambridge and Oak Ridge STEMs, respectively.

  12. Simplifying Electron Beam Channeling in Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM).

    PubMed

    Wu, Ryan J; Mittal, Anudha; Odlyzko, Michael L; Mkhoyan, K Andre

    2017-08-01

    Sub-angstrom scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) allows quantitative column-by-column analysis of crystalline specimens via annular dark-field images. The intensity of electrons scattered from a particular location in an atomic column depends on the intensity of the electron probe at that location. Electron beam channeling causes oscillations in the STEM probe intensity during specimen propagation, which leads to differences in the beam intensity incident at different depths. Understanding the parameters that control this complex behavior is critical for interpreting experimental STEM results. In this work, theoretical analysis of the STEM probe intensity reveals that intensity oscillations during specimen propagation are regulated by changes in the beam's angular distribution. Three distinct regimes of channeling behavior are observed: the high-atomic-number (Z) regime, in which atomic scattering leads to significant angular redistribution of the beam; the low-Z regime, in which the probe's initial angular distribution controls intensity oscillations; and the intermediate-Z regime, in which the behavior is mixed. These contrasting regimes are shown to exist for a wide range of probe parameters. These results provide a new understanding of the occurrence and consequences of channeling phenomena and conditions under which their influence is strengthened or weakened by characteristics of the electron probe and sample.

  13. Aberration corrected STEM by means of diffraction gratings

    SciT

    Linck, Martin; Ercius, Peter A.; Pierce, Jordan S.

    In the past 15 years, the advent of aberration correction technology in electron microscopy has enabled materials analysis on the atomic scale. This is made possible by precise arrangements of multipole electrodes and magnetic solenoids to compensate the aberrations inherent to any focusing element of an electron microscope. In this paper, we describe an alternative method to correct for the spherical aberration of the objective lens in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) using a passive, nanofabricated diffractive optical element. This holographic device is installed in the probe forming aperture of a conventional electron microscope and can be designed to removemore » arbitrarily complex aberrations from the electron's wave front. In this work, we show a proof-of-principle experiment that demonstrates successful correction of the spherical aberration in STEM by means of such a grating corrector (GCOR). Our GCOR enables us to record aberration-corrected high-resolution high-angle annular dark field (HAADF-) STEM images, although yet without advancement in probe current and resolution. Finally, improvements in this technology could provide an economical solution for aberration-corrected high-resolution STEM in certain use scenarios.« less

  14. Aberration corrected STEM by means of diffraction gratings

    DOE PAGES

    Linck, Martin; Ercius, Peter A.; Pierce, Jordan S.; ...

    2017-06-12

    In the past 15 years, the advent of aberration correction technology in electron microscopy has enabled materials analysis on the atomic scale. This is made possible by precise arrangements of multipole electrodes and magnetic solenoids to compensate the aberrations inherent to any focusing element of an electron microscope. In this paper, we describe an alternative method to correct for the spherical aberration of the objective lens in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) using a passive, nanofabricated diffractive optical element. This holographic device is installed in the probe forming aperture of a conventional electron microscope and can be designed to removemore » arbitrarily complex aberrations from the electron's wave front. In this work, we show a proof-of-principle experiment that demonstrates successful correction of the spherical aberration in STEM by means of such a grating corrector (GCOR). Our GCOR enables us to record aberration-corrected high-resolution high-angle annular dark field (HAADF-) STEM images, although yet without advancement in probe current and resolution. Finally, improvements in this technology could provide an economical solution for aberration-corrected high-resolution STEM in certain use scenarios.« less

  15. Nanotechniques Inactivate Cancer Stem Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goltsev, Anatoliy N.; Babenko, Natalya N.; Gaevskaya, Yulia A.; Bondarovich, Nikolay A.; Dubrava, Tatiana G.; Ostankov, Maksim V.; Chelombitko, Olga V.; Malyukin, Yuriy V.; Klochkov, Vladimir K.; Kavok, Nataliya S.

    2017-06-01

    One of the tasks of current oncology is identification of cancer stem cells and search of therapeutic means capable of their specific inhibition. The paper presents the data on phenotype characteristics of Ehrlich carcinoma cells as convenient and easy-to-follow model of tumor growth. The evidence of cancer stem cells as a part of Ehrlich carcinoma and significance of CD44+ and CD44- subpopulations in maintaining the growth of this type of tumor were demonstrated. A high (tenfold) tumorigenic activity of the Ehrlich carcinoma CD44+ cells if compared to CD44- cells was proven. In this pair of comparison, the CD44+ cells had a higher potential of generating in peritoneal cavity of CD44high, CD44+CD24-, CD44+CD24+ cell subpopulations, highlighting the presence of cancer stem cells in a pool of CD44+ cells.

  16. Kidney regeneration and stem cells.

    PubMed

    Takaori, Koji; Yanagita, Motoko

    2014-01-01

    The kidney has the capacity to recover from ischemic and toxic insults. Although there has been debate about the origin of cells that replace injured epithelial cells, it is now widely recognized that intrinsic surviving tubular cells are responsible for the repair. On the other hand, the cells, which have stem cell-like characteristics, have been isolated in the kidney using various methods, but it remains unknown if these stem cells actually exist in the adult kidney and if they are involved in kidney regeneration. This review will focus on the pathophysiology of kidney regeneration and the contribution of renal stem cells. We also discuss possible therapeutic applications to kidney disease. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Stem Cells and Calcium Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Tonelli, Fernanda M.P.; Santos, Anderson K.; Gomes, Dawidson A.; da Silva, Saulo L.; Gomes, Katia N.; Ladeira, Luiz O.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing interest in stem cell research is linked to the promise of developing treatments for many lifethreatening, debilitating diseases, and for cell replacement therapies. However, performing these therapeutic innovations with safety will only be possible when an accurate knowledge about the molecular signals that promote the desired cell fate is reached. Among these signals are transient changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentration [Ca2+]i. Acting as an intracellular messenger, Ca2+ has a key role in cell signaling pathways in various differentiation stages of stem cells. The aim of this chapter is to present a broad overview of various moments in which Ca2+-mediated signaling is essential for the maintenance of stem cells and for promoting their development and differentiation, also focusing on their therapeutic potential. PMID:22453975

  18. Epigenetics in cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Toh, Tan Boon; Lim, Jhin Jieh; Chow, Edward Kai-Hua

    2017-02-01

    Compelling evidence have demonstrated that bulk tumors can arise from a unique subset of cells commonly termed "cancer stem cells" that has been proposed to be a strong driving force of tumorigenesis and a key mechanism of therapeutic resistance. Recent advances in epigenomics have illuminated key mechanisms by which epigenetic regulation contribute to cancer progression. In this review, we present a discussion of how deregulation of various epigenetic pathways can contribute to cancer initiation and tumorigenesis, particularly with respect to maintenance and survival of cancer stem cells. This information, together with several promising clinical and preclinical trials of epigenetic modulating drugs, offer new possibilities for targeting cancer stem cells as well as improving cancer therapy overall.

  19. Stem cells and calcium signaling.

    PubMed

    Tonelli, Fernanda M P; Santos, Anderson K; Gomes, Dawidson A; da Silva, Saulo L; Gomes, Katia N; Ladeira, Luiz O; Resende, Rodrigo R

    2012-01-01

    The increasing interest in stem cell research is linked to the promise of developing treatments for many lifethreatening, debilitating diseases, and for cell replacement therapies. However, performing these therapeutic innovations with safety will only be possible when an accurate knowledge about the molecular signals that promote the desired cell fate is reached. Among these signals are transient changes in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration [Ca(2+)](i). Acting as an intracellular messenger, Ca(2+) has a key role in cell signaling pathways in various differentiation stages of stem cells. The aim of this chapter is to present a broad overview of various moments in which Ca(2+)-mediated signaling is essential for the maintenance of stem cells and for promoting their development and differentiation, also focusing on their therapeutic potential.

  20. Nine Things to Know About Stem Cell Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... Toggle Nav Nine Things To Know About Stem Cell Treatments Home > Stem Cells and Medicine > Nine Things ... About Stem Cell Treatments Many clinics offering stem cell treatments make claims that are not supported by ...