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Sample records for z-dna

  1. Detection of Z DNA binding proteins in tissue culture cells.

    PubMed Central

    Leith, I R; Hay, R T; Russell, W C

    1988-01-01

    A gel electrophoresis DNA binding assay to detect Z DNA binding proteins has been developed utilising [32P] labelled poly [d(G-C)] which was converted to the Z form by incubation in 100 microM Co(NH3)6Cl3. The parameters of the assay were established using a Z DNA antibody as a model system and then applied to extracts of Hela and BHK21 cells. Using an anti-Z DNA antibody conditions were established which allowed resolution of antibody-DNA complexes and free DNA in the presence of 100 microM Co(NH3)6Cl3. The inclusion of unlabelled complementary homopolymers eliminated non-specific binding to the labelled Z-DNA probe. Competition experiments demonstrated that the assay was highly specific for double stranded non-B DNA. Application of the technique to extracts of mammalian cells demonstrated that human and hamster cells contain Z-DNA binding proteins; further characterisation by a blotting technique indicated that a 56,000 molecular weight cell protein preferentially binds Z-DNA. Images PMID:3419919

  2. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for Z-DNA.

    PubMed

    Thomas, M J; Strobl, J S

    1988-10-01

    Dot blot and transblot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (e.l.i.s.a.) are described which provide sensitive non-radioactive methods for screening Z-DNA-specific antisera and for detecting Z-DNA in polydeoxyribonucleotides and supercoiled plasmids. In the alkaline phosphatase dot blot e.l.i.s.a., Z-DNA, Br-poly(dG-dC).poly(dG-dC), or B-DNA, poly(dG-dC).poly(dG-dC), poly(dA-dT).poly(dA-dT), Br-poly(dI-dC).poly(dI-dC), or salmon sperm DNA were spotted onto nitrocellulose discs and baked. The e.l.i.s.a. was conducted in 48-well culture dishes at 37 degrees C using a rabbit polyclonal antiserum developed against Br-poly(dG-dC).poly(dG-dC), an alkaline phosphatase-conjugated second antibody, and p-nitrophenol as the substrate. Under conditions where antibody concentrations were not limiting, alkaline phosphatase activity was linear for 2 h. Dot blot e.l.i.s.a. conditions are described which allow quantification of Z-DNA [Br-poly(dG-dC).poly(dG-dC)] within the range 5-250 ng. Dot blot and transblot horseradish peroxidase e.l.i.s.a. are described that detect Z-DNA within supercoiled plasmid DNAs immobilized on diazophenylthioether (DPT) paper. In the transblot e.l.i.s.a., plasmid pUC8 derivatives containing 16, 24, or 32 residues of Z-DNA were electrophoresed in agarose gels and electrophoretically transferred to DPT paper. Z-DNA-antibody complexes were detected by the horseradish peroxidase-catalysed conversion of 4-chloro-1-naphthol to a coloured product that was covalently bound to the DPT paper. Z-DNA antibody reactivity was specific for supercoiled Z-DNA containing plasmids after removal of the antibodies cross-reactive with B-DNA by absorption onto native DNA-cellulose. The transblot e.l.i.s.a. was sensitive enough to detect 16 base pairs of alternating G-C residues in 100 ng of pUC8 DNA.

  3. Z-DNA binding protein from chicken blood nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbert, A. G.; Spitzner, J. R.; Lowenhaupt, K.; Rich, A.

    1993-01-01

    A protein (Z alpha) that appears to be highly specific for the left-handed Z-DNA conformer has been identified in chicken blood nuclear extracts. Z alpha activity is measured in a band-shift assay by using a radioactive probe consisting of a (dC-dG)35 oligomer that has 50% of the deoxycytosines replaced with 5-bromodeoxycytosine. In the presence of 10 mM Mg2+, the probe converts to the Z-DNA conformation and is bound by Z alpha. The binding of Z alpha to the radioactive probe is specifically blocked by competition with linear poly(dC-dG) stabilized in the Z-DNA form by chemical bromination but not by B-form poly(dC-dG) or boiled salmon-sperm DNA. In addition, the binding activity of Z alpha is competitively blocked by supercoiled plasmids containing a Z-DNA insert but not by either the linearized plasmid or by an equivalent amount of the parental supercoiled plasmid without the Z-DNA-forming insert. Z alpha can be crosslinked to the 32P-labeled brominated probe with UV light, allowing us to estimate that the minimal molecular mass of Z alpha is 39 kDa.

  4. Left-handed Z-DNA: structure and function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbert, A.; Rich, A.

    1999-01-01

    Z-DNA is a high energy conformer of B-DNA that forms in vivo during transcription as a result of torsional strain generated by a moving polymerase. An understanding of the biological role of Z-DNA has advanced with the discovery that the RNA editing enzyme double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase type I (ADAR1) has motifs specific for the Z-DNA conformation. Editing by ADAR1 requires a double-stranded RNA substrate. In the cases known, the substrate is formed by folding an intron back onto the exon that is targeted for modification. The use of introns to direct processing of exons requires that editing occurs before splicing. Recognition of Z-DNA by ADAR1 may allow editing of nascent transcripts to be initiated immediately after transcription, ensuring that editing and splicing are performed in the correct sequence. Structural characterization of the Z-DNA binding domain indicates that it belongs to the winged helix-turn-helix class of proteins and is similar to the globular domain of histone-H5.

  5. B-DNA to Z-DNA structural transitions in the SV40 enhancer: stabilization of Z-DNA in negatively supercoiled DNA minicircles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruskin, E. A.; Rich, A.

    1993-01-01

    During replication and transcription, the SV40 control region is subjected to significant levels of DNA unwinding. There are three, alternating purine-pyrimidine tracts within this region that can adopt the Z-DNA conformation in response to negative superhelix density: a single copy of ACACACAT and two copies of ATGCATGC. Since the control region is essential for both efficient transcription and replication, B-DNA to Z-DNA transitions in these vital sequence tracts may have significant biological consequences. We have synthesized DNA minicircles to detect B-DNA to Z-DNA transitions in the SV40 enhancer, and to determine the negative superhelix density required to stabilize the Z-DNA. A variety of DNA sequences, including the entire SV40 enhancer and the two segments of the enhancer with alternating purine-pyrimidine tracts, were incorporated into topologically relaxed minicircles. Negative supercoils were generated, and the resulting topoisomers were resolved by electrophoresis. Using an anti-Z-DNA Fab and an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, Z-DNA was detected in the enhancer-containing minicircles at a superhelix density of -0.05. Fab saturation binding experiments demonstrated that three, independent Z-DNA tracts were stabilized in the supercoiled minicircles. Two other minicircles, each with one of the two alternating purine-pyrimidine tracts, also contained single Z-DNA sites. These results confirm the identities of the Z-DNA-forming sequences within the control region. Moreover, the B-DNA to Z-DNA transitions were detected at superhelix densities observed during normal replication and transcription processes in the SV40 life cycle.

  6. Negatively supercoiled simian virus 40 DNA contains Z-DNA segments within transcriptional enhancer sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordheim, A.; Rich, A.

    1983-01-01

    Three 8-base pair (bp) segments of alternating purine-pyrimidine from the simian virus 40 enhancer region form Z-DNA on negative supercoiling; minichromosome DNase I-hypersensitive sites determined by others bracket these three segments. A survey of transcriptional enhancer sequences reveals a pattern of potential Z-DNA-forming regions which occur in pairs 50-80 bp apart. This may influence local chromatin structure and may be related to transcriptional activation.

  7. Characterization of an In Vivo Z-DNA Detection Probe Based on a Cell Nucleus Accumulating Intrabody.

    PubMed

    Gulis, Galina; Silva, Izabel Cristina Rodrigues; Sousa, Herdson Renney; Sousa, Isabel Garcia; Bezerra, Maryani Andressa Gomes; Quilici, Luana Salgado; Maranhao, Andrea Queiroz; Brigido, Marcelo Macedo

    2016-09-01

    Left-handed Z-DNA is a physiologically unstable DNA conformation, and its existence in vivo can be attributed to localized torsional distress. Despite evidence for the existence of Z-DNA in vivo, its precise role in the control of gene expression is not fully understood. Here, an in vivo probe based on an anti-Z-DNA intrabody is proposed for native Z-DNA detection. The probe was used for chromatin immunoprecipitation of potential Z-DNA-forming sequences in the human genome. One of the isolated putative Z-DNA-forming sequences was cloned upstream of a reporter gene expression cassette under control of the CMV promoter. The reporter gene encoded an antibody fragment fused to GFP. Transient co-transfection of this vector along with the Z-probe coding vector improved reporter gene expression. This improvement was demonstrated by measuring reporter gene mRNA and protein levels and the amount of fluorescence in co-transfected CHO-K1 cells. These results suggest that the presence of the anti-Z-DNA intrabody can interfere with a Z-DNA-containing reporter gene expression. Therefore, this in vivo probe for the detection of Z-DNA could be used for global correlation of Z-DNA-forming sequences and gene expression regulation.

  8. A method to identify and characterize Z-DNA binding proteins using a linear oligodeoxynucleotide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbert, A. G.; Rich, A.

    1993-01-01

    An oligodeoxynucleotide that readily flips to the Z-DNA conformation in 10mM MgCl2 was produced by using Klenow enzyme to incorporate 5-bromodeoxycytosine and deoxyguanosine into a (dC-dG)22 template. During synthesis the oligomer can be labeled with 32P to high specific activity. The labeled oligodeoxynucleotide can be used in bandshift experiment to detect proteins that bind Z-DNA. This allows the binding specificity of such proteins to be determined with high reliability using unlabeled linear and supercoiled DNA competitors. In addition, because the radioactive oligodeoxynucleotide contains bromine atoms, DNA-protein complexes can be readily crosslinked using UV light. This allows an estimate to be made of the molecular weight of the proteins that bind to the radioactive probe. Both techniques are demonstrated using a goat polyclonal anti-Z-DNA antiserum.

  9. Structural basis for stabilization of Z-DNA by cobalt hexaammine and magnesium cations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gessner, R. V.; Quigley, G. J.; Wang, A. H.; van der Marel, G. A.; van Boom, J. H.; Rich, A.

    1985-01-01

    In the equilibrium between B-DNA and Z-DNA in poly(dC-dG), the [Co(NH3)6]3+ ion stabilizes the Z form 4 orders of magnitude more effectively than the Mg2+ ion. The structural basis of this difference is revealed in Z-DNA crystal structures of d(CpGpCpGpCpG) stabilized by either Na+/Mg2+ or Na+/Mg2+ plus [Co(NH3)6]3+. The crystals diffract X-rays to high resolution, and the structures were refined at 1.25 A. The [Co(NH3)6]3+ ion forms five hydrogen bonds onto the surface of Z-DNA, bonding to a guanine O6 and N7 as well as to a phosphate group in the ZII conformation. The Mg2+ ion binds through its hydration shell with up to three hydrogen bonds to guanine N7 and O6. Higher charge, specific fitting of more hydrogen bonds, and a more stable complex all contribute to the great effectiveness of [Co(NH3)6]3+ in stabilizing Z-DNA.

  10. Fluorescence properties of 2-aminopurine-cytidine-7-deazaguanine (5'-ApCdzG-3') trimer in B- and Z-DNA.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Takumi; Kawai, Kiyohiko; Majima, Tetsuro

    2004-02-07

    The electron transfer quenching of 2-aminopurine by guanine and 7-deazaguanine was investigated in B- and Z-DNA, and an increase in the fluorescence intensity of 2-aminopurine upon B- to Z-DNA transition was demonstrated.

  11. Ultrahigh-resolution crystal structures of Z-DNA in complex with Mn(2+) and Zn(2+) ions.

    PubMed

    Drozdzal, Pawel; Gilski, Miroslaw; Kierzek, Ryszard; Lomozik, Lechoslaw; Jaskolski, Mariusz

    2013-06-01

    X-ray crystal structures of the spermine(4+) form of the Z-DNA duplex with the self-complementary d(CG)3 sequence in complexes with Mn(2+) and Zn(2+) cations have been determined at the ultrahigh resolutions of 0.75 and 0.85 Å, respectively. Stereochemical restraints were only used for the sperminium cation (in both structures) and for nucleotides with dual conformation in the Zn(2+) complex. The Mn(2+) and Zn(2+) cations at the major site, designated M(2+)(1), bind at the N7 position of G6 by direct coordination. The coordination geometry of this site was octahedral, with complete hydration shells. An additional Zn(2+)(2) cation was bis-coordinated in a tetrahedral fashion by the N7 atoms of G10 and G12 from a symmetry-related molecule. The coordination distances of Zn(2+)(1) and Zn(2+)(2) to the O6 atom of the guanine residues were 3.613 (6) and 3.258 (5) Å, respectively. Moreover, a chloride ion was also identified in the coordination sphere of Zn(2+)(2). Alternate conformations were observed in the Z-DNA-Zn(2+) structure not only at internucleotide linkages but also at the terminal C3'-OH group of G12. The conformation of the sperminium chain in the Z-DNA-Mn(2+) complex is similar to the spermine(4+) conformation in analogous Z-DNA-Mg(2+) structures. In the Z-DNA-Zn(2+) complex the sperminium cation is disordered and partially invisible in electron-density maps. In the Z-DNA-Zn(2+) complex the sperminium cation only interacts with the phosphate groups of the Z-DNA molecules, while in the Z-DNA-Mn(2+) structure it forms hydrogen bonds to both the phosphate groups and DNA bases.

  12. Proteolytic dissection of Zab, the Z-DNA-binding domain of human ADAR1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, T.; Lowenhaupt, K.; Kim, Y. G.; Li, L.; Brown, B. A. 2nd; Herbert, A.; Rich, A.

    1999-01-01

    Zalpha is a peptide motif that binds to Z-DNA with high affinity. This motif binds to alternating dC-dG sequences stabilized in the Z-conformation by means of bromination or supercoiling, but not to B-DNA. Zalpha is part of the N-terminal region of double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase (ADAR1), a candidate enzyme for nuclear pre-mRNA editing in mammals. Zalpha is conserved in ADAR1 from many species; in each case, there is a second similar motif, Zbeta, separated from Zalpha by a more divergent linker. To investigate the structure-function relationship of Zalpha, its domain structure was studied by limited proteolysis. Proteolytic profiles indicated that Zalpha is part of a domain, Zab, of 229 amino acids (residues 133-361 in human ADAR1). This domain contains both Zalpha and Zbeta as well as a tandem repeat of a 49-amino acid linker module. Prolonged proteolysis revealed a minimal core domain of 77 amino acids (positions 133-209), containing only Zalpha, which is sufficient to bind left-handed Z-DNA; however, the substrate binding is strikingly different from that of Zab. The second motif, Zbeta, retains its structural integrity only in the context of Zab and does not bind Z-DNA as a separate entity. These results suggest that Zalpha and Zbeta act as a single bipartite domain. In the presence of substrate DNA, Zab becomes more resistant to proteases, suggesting that it adopts a more rigid structure when bound to its substrate, possibly with conformational changes in parts of the protein.

  13. Zuotin, a putative Z-DNA binding protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, S.; Lockshin, C.; Herbert, A.; Winter, E.; Rich, A.

    1992-01-01

    A putative Z-DNA binding protein, named zuotin, was purified from a yeast nuclear extract by means of a Z-DNA binding assay using [32P]poly(dG-m5dC) and [32P]oligo(dG-Br5dC)22 in the presence of B-DNA competitor. Poly(dG-Br5dC) in the Z-form competed well for the binding of a zuotin containing fraction, but salmon sperm DNA, poly(dG-dC) and poly(dA-dT) were not effective. Negatively supercoiled plasmid pUC19 did not compete, whereas an otherwise identical plasmid pUC19(CG), which contained a (dG-dC)7 segment in the Z-form was an excellent competitor. A Southwestern blot using [32P]poly(dG-m5dC) as a probe in the presence of MgCl2 identified a protein having a molecular weight of 51 kDa. The 51 kDa zuotin was partially sequenced at the N-terminal and the gene, ZUO1, was cloned, sequenced and expressed in Escherichia coli; the expressed zuotin showed similar Z-DNA binding activity, but with lower affinity than zuotin that had been partially purified from yeast. Zuotin was deduced to have a number of potential phosphorylation sites including two CDC28 (homologous to the human and Schizosaccharomyces pombe cdc2) phosphorylation sites. The hexapeptide motif KYHPDK was found in zuotin as well as in several yeast proteins, DnaJ of E.coli, csp29 and csp32 proteins of Drosophila and the small t and large T antigens of the polyoma virus. A 60 amino acid segment of zuotin has similarity to several histone H1 sequences. Disruption of ZUO1 in yeast resulted in a slow growth phenotype.

  14. Cerium chloride stimulated controlled conversion of B-to-Z DNA in self-assembled nanostructures

    SciT

    Bhanjadeo, Madhabi M.; Academy of Scientific & Innovative Research; Nayak, Ashok K.

    DNA adopts different conformation not only because of novel base pairs but also while interacting with inorganic or organic compounds. Self-assembled branched DNA (bDNA) structures or DNA origami that change conformation in response to environmental cues hold great promises in sensing and actuation at the nanoscale. Recently, the B-Z transition in DNA is being explored to design various nanomechanical devices. In this communication we have demonstrated that Cerium chloride binds to the phosphate backbone of self-assembled bDNA structure and induce B-to-Z transition at physiological concentration. The mechanism of controlled conversion from right-handed to left-handed has been assayed by various dyemore » binding studies using CD and fluorescence spectroscopy. Three different bDNA structures have been identified to display B-Z transition. This approach provides a rapid and reversible means to change bDNA conformation, which can be used for dynamic and progressive control at the nanoscale. - Highlights: • Cerium-induced B-to-Z DNA transition in self-assembled nanostructures. • Lower melting temperature of Z-DNA than B-DNA confirmed by CD spectroscopy. • Binding mechanism of cerium chloride is explained using fluorescence spectroscopy. • Right-handed to left-handed DNA conformation is also noticed in modified bDNA structure.« less

  15. Synthesis, properties, and NMR studies of a C8-phenylguanine modified oligonucleotide that preferentially adopts the Z DNA conformation.

    PubMed

    Gannett, Peter M; Heavner, Sue; Daft, Jonathan R; Shaughnessy, Kevin H; Epperson, Jon D; Greenbaum, Nancy L

    2003-10-01

    Carcinogenic aryl hydrazines produce C8-arylated purine adducts. The effect of these adducts on DNA conformation and their role in hydrazine carcinogenesis are unknown. Here, we describe a new synthetic route to produce these adducts that is also compatible with the synthesis of the corresponding phosphoramidites needed for oligonucleotide synthesis. Two oligonucleotides were prepared, an unmodified oligonucleotide, d((5)(')CGCGCGCGCG(3)(')), and a C8-phenylguanine modified oligonucleotide, d((5)(')CGCGCGCGCG(3)(')) (G = 8-phenylguanine). These oligonucleotides were compared using thermal denaturation, circular dichroism, NMR, and molecular modeling. The phenyl modification destabilizes the B DNA form and stabilizes the Z DNA form such that the B:Z ratio is near one under physiological conditions. In light of recent studies that show a role for Z DNA in gene expression and cell transformation, Z DNA stabilization by C8-arylguanine formation from aryl hydrazines may be relevant to their role in carcinogenesis.

  16. Z-DNA-induced super-transport of energy within genomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulish, Vladimir V.; Heng, Li; Dröge, Peter

    2007-10-01

    Spontaneous transitions of genomic DNA segments from right-handed B-DNA into the left-handed, high-energy Z conformation are unstable within topologically relaxed DNA molecules, such as mammalian chromosomes. Here we show, from direct application of the principles of statistical physics with a promoter region in the mouse genome as a representative example, that the life span for this alternate DNA conformation may be much smaller than the characteristic time of thermal fluctuations that cause the B-to-Z transition. Surprisingly, such a short existence of Z-DNA is important because it can be responsible for super-transport of energy within a genome. This type of energy transport can be utilized by a cell to communicate information about the state of particular chromatin domains within chromosomes or as a buffer against genome instability.

  17. Variola virus E3L Zα domain, but not its Z-DNA binding activity, is required for PKR inhibition.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Meghna; Seo, Eun Joo; Dever, Thomas E

    2014-02-01

    Responding to viral infection, the interferon-induced, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated protein kinase PKR phosphorylates translation initiation factor eIF2α to inhibit cellular and viral protein synthesis. To overcome this host defense mechanism, many poxviruses express the protein E3L, containing an N-terminal Z-DNA binding (Zα) domain and a C-terminal dsRNA-binding domain (dsRBD). While E3L is thought to inhibit PKR activation by sequestering dsRNA activators and by directly binding the kinase, the role of the Zα domain in PKR inhibition remains unclear. Here, we show that the E3L Zα domain is required to suppress the growth-inhibitory properties associated with expression of human PKR in yeast, to inhibit PKR kinase activity in vitro, and to reverse the inhibitory effects of PKR on reporter gene expression in mammalian cells treated with dsRNA. Whereas previous studies revealed that the Z-DNA binding activity of E3L is critical for viral pathogenesis, we identified point mutations in E3L that functionally uncouple Z-DNA binding and PKR inhibition. Thus, our studies reveal a molecular distinction between the nucleic acid binding and PKR inhibitory functions of the E3L Zα domain, and they support the notion that E3L contributes to viral pathogenesis by targeting PKR and other components of the cellular anti-viral defense pathway.

  18. Transition between B-DNA and Z-DNA: free energy landscape for the B-Z junction propagation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Juyong; Kim, Yang-Gyun; Kim, Kyeong Kyu; Seok, Chaok

    2010-08-05

    Canonical, right-handed B-DNA can be transformed into noncanonical, left-handed Z-DNA in vitro at high salt concentrations or in vivo under physiological conditions. The molecular mechanism of this drastic conformational transition is still unknown despite numerous studies. Inspired by the crystal structure of a B-Z junction and the previous zipper model, we show here, with the aid of molecular dynamics simulations, that a stepwise propagation of a B-Z junction is a highly probable pathway for the B-Z transition. In this paper, the movement of a B-Z junction by a two-base-pair step in a double-strand nonamer, [d(GpCpGpCpGpCpGpCpG)](2), is considered. Targeted molecular dynamics simulations and umbrella sampling for this transition resulted in a transition pathway with a free energy barrier of 13 kcal/mol. This barrier is much more favorable than those obtained from previous atomistic simulations that lead to concerted transitions of the whole strands. The free energy difference between B-DNA and Z-DNA evaluated from our simulation is 0.9 kcal/mol per dinucleotide unit, which is consistent with previous experiments. The current computation thus strongly supports the proposal that the B-Z transition involves a relatively fast extension of B-DNA or Z-DNA by sequential propagation of B-Z junctions once nucleation of junctions is established.

  19. A computer aided thermodynamic approach for predicting the formation of Z-DNA in naturally occurring sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, P. S.; Ellison, M. J.; Quigley, G. J.; Rich, A.

    1986-01-01

    The ease with which a particular DNA segment adopts the left-handed Z-conformation depends largely on the sequence and on the degree of negative supercoiling to which it is subjected. We describe a computer program (Z-hunt) that is designed to search long sequences of naturally occurring DNA and retrieve those nucleotide combinations of up to 24 bp in length which show a strong propensity for Z-DNA formation. Incorporated into Z-hunt is a statistical mechanical model based on empirically determined energetic parameters for the B to Z transition accumulated to date. The Z-forming potential of a sequence is assessed by ranking its behavior as a function of negative superhelicity relative to the behavior of similar sized randomly generated nucleotide sequences assembled from over 80,000 combinations. The program makes it possible to compare directly the Z-forming potential of sequences with different base compositions and different sequence lengths. Using Z-hunt, we have analyzed the DNA sequences of the bacteriophage phi X174, plasmid pBR322, the animal virus SV40 and the replicative form of the eukaryotic adenovirus-2. The results are compared with those previously obtained by others from experiments designed to locate Z-DNA forming regions in these sequences using probes which show specificity for the left-handed DNA conformation.

  20. Four highly pseudosymmetric and/or twinned structures of d(CGCGCG) 2 extend the repertoire of crystal structures of Z-DNA

    SciT

    Luo, Zhipu; Dauter, Zbigniew; Gilski, Miroslaw

    DNA oligomer duplexes containing alternating cytosines and guanines in their sequences tend to form left-handed helices of the Z-DNA type, with the sugar and phosphate backbone in a zigzag conformation and a helical repeat of two successive nucleotides. Z-DNA duplexes usually crystallize as hexagonally arranged parallel helical tubes, with various relative orientations and translation of neighboring duplexes. Four novel high-resolution crystal structures of d(CGCGCG) 2duplexes are described here. They are characterized by a high degree of pseudosymmetry and/or twinning, with three or four independent duplexes differently oriented in a monoclinicP2 1lattice of hexagonal metric. The various twinning criteria give somewhatmore » conflicting indications in these complicated cases of crystal pathology. The details of molecular packing in these crystal structures are compared with other known crystal forms of Z-DNA.« less

  1. The structures of non-CG-repeat Z-DNAs co-crystallized with the Z-DNA-binding domain, hZ alpha(ADAR1).

    PubMed

    Ha, Sung Chul; Choi, Jongkeun; Hwang, Hye-Yeon; Rich, Alexander; Kim, Yang-Gyun; Kim, Kyeong Kyu

    2009-02-01

    The Z-DNA conformation preferentially occurs at alternating purine-pyrimidine repeats, and is specifically recognized by Z alpha domains identified in several Z-DNA-binding proteins. The binding of Z alpha to foreign or chromosomal DNA in various sequence contexts is known to influence various biological functions, including the DNA-mediated innate immune response and transcriptional modulation of gene expression. For these reasons, understanding its binding mode and the conformational diversity of Z alpha bound Z-DNAs is of considerable importance. However, structural studies of Z alpha bound Z-DNA have been mostly limited to standard CG-repeat DNAs. Here, we have solved the crystal structures of three representative non-CG repeat DNAs, d(CACGTG)(2), d(CGTACG)(2) and d(CGGCCG)(2) complexed to hZ alpha(ADAR1) and compared those structures with that of hZ alpha(ADAR1)/d(CGCGCG)(2) and the Z alpha-free Z-DNAs. hZ alpha(ADAR1) bound to each of the three Z-DNAs showed a well conserved binding mode with very limited structural deviation irrespective of the DNA sequence, although varying numbers of residues were in contact with Z-DNA. Z-DNAs display less structural alterations in the Z alpha-bound state than in their free form, thereby suggesting that conformational diversities of Z-DNAs are restrained by the binding pocket of Z alpha. These data suggest that Z-DNAs are recognized by Z alpha through common conformational features regardless of the sequence and structural alterations.

  2. Cooperative roles of fish protein kinase containing Z-DNA binding domains and double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase in interferon-mediated antiviral response.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ting-Kai; Zhang, Yi-Bing; Liu, Ying; Sun, Fan; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2011-12-01

    The double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-dependent protein kinase (PKR) inhibits protein synthesis by phosphorylating eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α). In fish species, in addition to PKR, there exists a PKR-like protein kinase containing Z-DNA binding domains (PKZ). However, the antiviral role of fish PKZ and the functional relationship between fish PKZ and PKR remain unknown. Here we confirmed the coexpression of fish PKZ and PKR proteins in Carassius auratus blastula embryonic (CAB) cells and identified them as two typical interferon (IFN)-inducible eIF2α kinases, both of which displayed an ability to inhibit virus replication. Strikingly, fish IFN or all kinds of IFN stimuli activated PKZ and PKR to phosphorylated eIF2α. Overexpression of both fish kinases together conferred much more significant inhibition of virus replication than overexpression of either protein, whereas morpholino knockdown of both made fish cells more vulnerable to virus infection than knockdown of either. The antiviral ability of fish PKZ was weaker than fish PKR, which correlated with its lower ability to phosphorylate eIF2α than PKR. Moreover, the independent association of fish PKZ or PKR reveals that each of them formed homodimers and that fish PKZ phosphorylated eIF2α independently on fish PKR and vice versa. These results suggest that fish PKZ and PKR play a nonredundant but cooperative role in IFN antiviral response.

  3. Microdosimetry of DNA conformations: relation between direct effect of (60)Co gamma rays and topology of DNA geometrical models in the calculation of A-, B- and Z-DNA radiation-induced damage yields.

    PubMed

    Semsarha, Farid; Raisali, Gholamreza; Goliaei, Bahram; Khalafi, Hossein

    2016-05-01

    In order to obtain the energy deposition pattern of ionizing radiation in the nanometric scale of genetic material and to investigate the different sensitivities of the DNA conformations, direct effects of (60)Co gamma rays on the three A, B and Z conformations of DNA have been studied. For this purpose, single-strand breaks (SSB), double-strand breaks (DSB), base damage (BD), hit probabilities and three microdosimetry quantities (imparted energy, mean chord length and lineal energy) in the mentioned DNA conformations have been calculated and compared by using GEometry ANd Tracking 4 (Geant4) toolkit. The results show that A-, B- and Z-DNA conformations have the highest yields of DSB (1.2 Gy(-1) Gbp(-1)), SSB (25.2 Gy(-1) Gbp(-1)) and BD (4.81 Gy(-1) Gbp(-1)), respectively. Based on the investigation of direct effects of radiation, it can be concluded that the DSB yield is largely correlated to the topological characteristics of DNA models, although the SSB yield is not. Moreover, according to the comparative results of the present study, a reliable candidate parameter for describing the relationship between DNA damage yields and geometry of DNA models in the theoretical radiation biology research studies would be the mean chord length (4 V/S) of the models.

  4. The importance of the specific Z-DNA structure and polyamines in carcinogenesis: fact or fiction.

    PubMed

    Juranic, Z; Kidric, M; Tomin, R; Juranić, I; Spuzić, I; Petrović, J

    1991-08-01

    In this work some aspects of carcinogenesis are given. The importance of the emergence of Z or H DNA structure in the gene, or in the flanking gene sequences for the gene deletion and unusual gene recombination, is discussed. Some considerations on the role of selective pressure (of polyamines, of Mg2+, of the various levels of topoisomerase II, and of ATP) in the process of oncogene amplification, are given too.

  5. Cerium chloride stimulated controlled conversion of B-to-Z DNA in self-assembled nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Bhanjadeo, Madhabi M; Nayak, Ashok K; Subudhi, Umakanta

    2017-01-22

    DNA adopts different conformation not only because of novel base pairs but also while interacting with inorganic or organic compounds. Self-assembled branched DNA (bDNA) structures or DNA origami that change conformation in response to environmental cues hold great promises in sensing and actuation at the nanoscale. Recently, the B-Z transition in DNA is being explored to design various nanomechanical devices. In this communication we have demonstrated that Cerium chloride binds to the phosphate backbone of self-assembled bDNA structure and induce B-to-Z transition at physiological concentration. The mechanism of controlled conversion from right-handed to left-handed has been assayed by various dye binding studies using CD and fluorescence spectroscopy. Three different bDNA structures have been identified to display B-Z transition. This approach provides a rapid and reversible means to change bDNA conformation, which can be used for dynamic and progressive control at the nanoscale. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Stabilization of Z-RNA under Physiological Conditions and Recognition by Anti-Z DNA Antibodies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    Raising the ionic strength to 6 M NaBr or NaCIO 4 results in a transition in Br-poly[r(C-G)] to a Z-RNA (ZR) conformation as judged by CD spectroscopy . At... cytidine residues in Br-poly[[r(C-G)] were brominated. The extinction coefficient for Br-poly[r(C-G)] was taken as 5770 M- 1 cmŕ. CD. absorbance and...Raman scattering spectroscopy . CD spectra were recorded on a JASCO J500C spectropolarimeter in 1 cm pathlength quartz cuvettes surrounded by a

  7. Twisting Right to Left: A…A Mismatch in a CAG Trinucleotide Repeat Overexpansion Provokes Left-Handed Z-DNA Conformation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Conformational polymorphism of DNA is a major causative factor behind several incurable trinucleotide repeat expansion disorders that arise from overexpansion of trinucleotide repeats located in coding/non-coding regions of specific genes. Hairpin DNA structures that are formed due to overexpansion of CAG repeat lead to Huntington’s disorder and spinocerebellar ataxias. Nonetheless, DNA hairpin stem structure that generally embraces B-form with canonical base pairs is poorly understood in the context of periodic noncanonical A…A mismatch as found in CAG repeat overexpansion. Molecular dynamics simulations on DNA hairpin stems containing A…A mismatches in a CAG repeat overexpansion show that A…A dictates local Z-form irrespective of starting glycosyl conformation, in sharp contrast to canonical DNA duplex. Transition from B-to-Z is due to the mechanistic effect that originates from its pronounced nonisostericity with flanking canonical base pairs facilitated by base extrusion, backbone and/or base flipping. Based on these structural insights we envisage that such an unusual DNA structure of the CAG hairpin stem may have a role in disease pathogenesis. As this is the first study that delineates the influence of a single A…A mismatch in reversing DNA helicity, it would further have an impact on understanding DNA mismatch repair. PMID:25876062

  8. Inhibition of DAI-dependent necroptosis by the Z-DNA binding domain of the vaccinia virus innate immune evasion protein, E3.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Heather; Cotsmire, Samantha; Langland, Jeffrey; Kibler, Karen V; Kalman, Daniel; Upton, Jason W; Mocarski, Edward S; Jacobs, Bertram L

    2017-10-24

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) encodes an innate immune evasion protein, E3, which contains an N-terminal Z-nucleic acid binding (Zα) domain that is critical for pathogenicity in mice. Here we demonstrate that the N terminus of E3 is necessary to inhibit an IFN-primed virus-induced necroptosis. VACV deleted of the Zα domain of E3 (VACV-E3LΔ83N) induced rapid RIPK3-dependent cell death in IFN-treated L929 cells. Cell death was inhibited by the RIPK3 inhibitor, GSK872, and infection with this mutant virus led to phosphorylation and aggregation of MLKL, the executioner of necroptosis. In 293T cells, induction of necroptosis depended on expression of RIPK3 as well as the host-encoded Zα domain-containing DNA sensor, DAI. VACV-E3LΔ83N is attenuated in vivo, and pathogenicity was restored in either RIPK3- or DAI-deficient mice. These data demonstrate that the N terminus of the VACV E3 protein prevents DAI-mediated induction of necroptosis.

  9. Understanding the recognition mechanisms of Zα domain of human editing enzyme ADAR1 (hZα(ADAR1)) and various Z-DNAs from molecular dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qianqian; Li, Lanlan; Wang, Xiaoting; Liu, Huanxiang; Yao, Xiaojun

    2014-11-01

    The Z-DNA-binding domain of human double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase I (hZαADAR1) can specifically recognize the left-handed Z-DNA which preferentially occurs at alternating purine-pyrimidine repeats, especially the CG-repeats. The interactions of hZαADAR1 and Z-DNAs in different sequence contexts can affect many important biological functions including gene regulation and chromatin remodeling. Therefore it is of great necessity to fully understand their recognition mechanisms. However, most existing studies are aimed at the standard CG-repeat Z-DNA rather than the non-CG-repeats, and whether the molecular basis of hZαADAR1 binding to various Z-DNAs are identical or not is still unclear on the atomic level. Here, based on the recently determined crystal structures of three representative non-CG-repeat Z-DNAs (d(CACGTG)2, d(CGTACG)2 and d(CGGCCG)2) in complex with hZαADAR1, 40 ns molecular dynamics simulation together with binding free energy calculation were performed for each system. For comparison, the standard CG-repeat Z-DNA (d(CGCGCG)2) complexed with hZαADAR1 was also simulated. The consistent results demonstrate that nonpolar interaction is the driving force during the protein-DNA binding process, and that polar interaction mainly from helix α3 also provides important contributions. Five common hot-spot residues were identified, namely Lys169, Lys170, Asn173, Arg174 and Tyr177. Hydrogen bond analysis coupled with surface charge distribution further reveal the interfacial information between hZαADAR1 and Z-DNA in detail. All of the analysis illustrate that four complexes share the common key features and the similar binding modes irrespective of Z-DNA sequences, suggesting that Z-DNA recognition by hZαADAR1 is conformation-specific rather than sequence-specific. Additionally, by analyzing the conformational changes of hZαADAR1, we found that the binding of Z-DNA could effectively stabilize hZαADAR1 protein. Our study can provide some valuable

  10. Conformation-dependent DNA attraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weifeng; Nordenskiöld, Lars; Zhou, Ruhong; Mu, Yuguang

    2014-05-01

    Understanding how DNA molecules interact with other biomolecules is related to how they utilize their functions and is therefore critical for understanding their structure-function relationships. For a long time, the existence of Z-form DNA (a left-handed double helical version of DNA, instead of the common right-handed B-form) has puzzled the scientists, and the definitive biological significance of Z-DNA has not yet been clarified. In this study, the effects of DNA conformation in DNA-DNA interactions are explored by molecular dynamics simulations. Using umbrella sampling, we find that for both B- and Z-form DNA, surrounding Mg2+ ions always exert themselves to screen the Coulomb repulsion between DNA phosphates, resulting in very weak attractive force. On the contrary, a tight and stable bound state is discovered for Z-DNA in the presence of Mg2+ or Na+, benefiting from their hydrophobic nature. Based on the contact surface and a dewetting process analysis, a two-stage binding process of Z-DNA is outlined: two Z-DNA first attract each other through charge screening and Mg2+ bridges to phosphate groups in the same way as that of B-DNA, after which hydrophobic contacts of the deoxyribose groups are formed via a dewetting effect, resulting in stable attraction between two Z-DNA molecules. The highlighted hydrophobic nature of Z-DNA interaction from the current study may help to understand the biological functions of Z-DNA in gene transcription.Understanding how DNA molecules interact with other biomolecules is related to how they utilize their functions and is therefore critical for understanding their structure-function relationships. For a long time, the existence of Z-form DNA (a left-handed double helical version of DNA, instead of the common right-handed B-form) has puzzled the scientists, and the definitive biological significance of Z-DNA has not yet been clarified. In this study, the effects of DNA conformation in DNA-DNA interactions are explored by

  11. Conformation-dependent DNA attraction.

    PubMed

    Li, Weifeng; Nordenskiöld, Lars; Zhou, Ruhong; Mu, Yuguang

    2014-06-21

    Understanding how DNA molecules interact with other biomolecules is related to how they utilize their functions and is therefore critical for understanding their structure-function relationships. For a long time, the existence of Z-form DNA (a left-handed double helical version of DNA, instead of the common right-handed B-form) has puzzled the scientists, and the definitive biological significance of Z-DNA has not yet been clarified. In this study, the effects of DNA conformation in DNA-DNA interactions are explored by molecular dynamics simulations. Using umbrella sampling, we find that for both B- and Z-form DNA, surrounding Mg(2+) ions always exert themselves to screen the Coulomb repulsion between DNA phosphates, resulting in very weak attractive force. On the contrary, a tight and stable bound state is discovered for Z-DNA in the presence of Mg(2+) or Na(+), benefiting from their hydrophobic nature. Based on the contact surface and a dewetting process analysis, a two-stage binding process of Z-DNA is outlined: two Z-DNA first attract each other through charge screening and Mg(2+) bridges to phosphate groups in the same way as that of B-DNA, after which hydrophobic contacts of the deoxyribose groups are formed via a dewetting effect, resulting in stable attraction between two Z-DNA molecules. The highlighted hydrophobic nature of Z-DNA interaction from the current study may help to understand the biological functions of Z-DNA in gene transcription.

  12. A one- and two-dimensional NMR study of the B to Z transition of (m5dC-dG)3 in methanolic solution.

    PubMed Central

    Feigon, J; Wang, A H; van der Marel, G A; Van Boom, J H; Rich, A

    1984-01-01

    The deoxyribose hexanucleoside pentaphosphate (m5dC-dG)3 has been studied by 500 MHz 1H NMR in D2O (0.1 M NaCl) and in D2O/deuterated methanol mixtures. Two conformations, in slow equilibrium on the NMR time scale, were detected in methanolic solution. Two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) experiments were used to assign the base and many of the sugar resonances as well as to determine structural features for both conformations. The results were consistent with the an equilibrium in solution between B-DNA and Z-DNA. The majority of the molecules have a B-DNA structure in low-salt D2O and a Z-DNA structure at high methanol concentrations. A cross-strand NOE between methyl groups on adjacent cytosines is observed for Z-DNA but not B-DNA. The B-DNA conformation predominates at low methanol concentrations and is stabilized by increasing temperature, while the Z-DNA conformation predominates at high methanol concentrations and low temperatures. 31P NMR spectra gave results consistent with those obtained by 1H NMR. Comparison of the 31P spectra with those obtained on poly(dG-m5dC) allow assignment of the lower field resonances to GpC in the Z conformation. PMID:6694910

  13. Reintroducing Electrostatics into Macromolecular Crystallographic Refinement: Application to Neutron Crystallography and DNA Hydration

    PubMed Central

    Fenn, Timothy D.; Schnieders, Michael J.; Mustyakimov, Marat; Wu, Chuanjie; Langan, Paul; Pande, Vijay S.; Brunger, Axel T.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Most current crystallographic structure refinements augment the diffraction data with a priori information consisting of bond, angle, dihedral, planarity restraints and atomic repulsion based on the Pauli exclusion principle. Yet, electrostatics and van der Waals attraction are physical forces that provide additional a priori information. Here we assess the inclusion of electrostatics for the force field used for all-atom (including hydrogen) joint neutron/X-ray refinement. Two DNA and a protein crystal structure were refined against joint neutron/X-ray diffraction data sets using force fields without electrostatics or with electrostatics. Hydrogen bond orientation/geometry favors the inclusion of electrostatics. Refinement of Z-DNA with electrostatics leads to a hypothesis for the entropic stabilization of Z-DNA that may partly explain the thermodynamics of converting the B form of DNA to its Z form. Thus, inclusion of electrostatics assists joint neutron/X-ray refinements, especially for placing and orienting hydrogen atoms. PMID:21481775

  14. [DNA structure from A to Z--biological implications of structural diversity of DNA].

    PubMed

    Bukowiecka-Matusiak, Małgorzata; Woźniak, Lucyna A

    2006-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a biopolymer of nucleotides, usually adopting a double-stranded helical form in cells, with complementary base pairing holding the two strands together. The most stable is B-DNA conformation, although numerous other double helical structures can occur under specific conditions (A-DNA, Z-DNA, P-DNA). The existence of multiple-stranded (triplex, tetraplex) forms in vivo and their biological function in cells are subject of intensive studies.

  15. Competition between B-Z and B-L transitions in a single DNA molecule: Computational studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Ah-Young; Nam, Gi-Moon; Johner, Albert; Kim, Seyong; Hong, Seok-Cheol; Lee, Nam-Kyung

    2016-02-01

    Under negative torsion, DNA adopts left-handed helical forms, such as Z-DNA and L-DNA. Using the random copolymer model developed for a wormlike chain, we represent a single DNA molecule with structural heterogeneity as a helical chain consisting of monomers which can be characterized by different helical senses and pitches. By Monte Carlo simulation, where we take into account bending and twist fluctuations explicitly, we study sequence dependence of B-Z transitions under torsional stress and tension focusing on the interaction with B-L transitions. We consider core sequences, (GC) n repeats or (TG) n repeats, which can interconvert between the right-handed B form and the left-handed Z form, imbedded in a random sequence, which can convert to left-handed L form with different (tension dependent) helical pitch. We show that Z-DNA formation from the (GC) n sequence is always supported by unwinding torsional stress but Z-DNA formation from the (TG) n sequence, which are more costly to convert but numerous, can be strongly influenced by the quenched disorder in the surrounding random sequence.

  16. High salt solution structure of a left-handed RNA double helix

    PubMed Central

    Popenda, Mariusz; Milecki, Jan; Adamiak, Ryszard W.

    2004-01-01

    Right-handed RNA duplexes of (CG)n sequence undergo salt-induced helicity reversal, forming left-handed RNA double helices (Z-RNA). In contrast to the thoroughly studied Z-DNA, no Z-RNA structure of natural origin is known. Here we report the NMR structure of a half-turn, left-handed RNA helix (CGCGCG)2 determined in 6 M NaClO4. This is the first nucleic acid motif determined at such high salt. Sequential assignments of non-exchangeable proton resonances of the Z-form were based on the hitherto unreported NOE connectivity path [H6(n)-H5′/H5″(n)-H8(n+1)-H1′(n+1)-H6(n+2)] found for left-handed helices. Z-RNA structure shows several conformational features significantly different from Z-DNA. Intra-strand but no inter-strand base stacking was observed for both CpG and GpC steps. Helical twist angles for CpG steps have small positive values (4–7°), whereas GpC steps have large negative values (−61°). In the full-turn model of Z-RNA (12.4 bp per turn), base pairs are much closer to the helix axis than in Z-DNA, thus both the very deep, narrow minor groove with buried cytidine 2′-OH groups, and the major groove are well defined. The 2′-OH group of cytidines plays a crucial role in the Z-RNA structure and its formation; 2′-O-methylation of cytidine, but not of guanosine residues prohibits A to Z helicity reversal. PMID:15292450

  17. Fish SAMHD1 performs as an activator for IFN expression.

    PubMed

    Li, Meifeng; Xu, Xiaowen; Jiang, Zeyin; Liu, Changxin; Shi, Xiao; Qi, Guoqin; Li, Yinping; Chen, Xin; Huang, Qingli; Mao, Huiling; Hu, Chengyu

    2018-09-01

    As a host limiting factor, Sterile Alpha Motif and Histidine-Aspartate Domain 1 protein (SAMHD1) is associated with IRF3-mediated antiviral and apoptotic responses in mammals. However, the antiviral mechanism of SAMHD1 remains indistinct in fish. In this study, we found the expression of Ctenopharyngodon idella SAMHD1 (MF326081) was up-regulated after transfection with poly I:C (dsRNA analog), B-DNA or Z-DNA into C. idella kidney cells (CIKs), but these expression profiles had no obvious change when the cells were incubated with these nucleic acids. These data may indicate that CiSAMHD1 participates in the intracellular PRR-mediated signaling pathway rather than extracellular PRR-mediated signaling pathway. Subcellular localization assay suggested that a part of over-expressed CiSAMHD1 were translocated from nuclear to cytoplasm when C. idella ovary cells (COs) were transfected with poly I:C, B-DNA or Z-DNA. Nucleic acid pulldown assays were performed to investigate the reason for nuclear-cytoplasm translocation of CiSAMHD1. The results showed that CiSAMHD1 had a high affinity with B-DNA, Z-DNA and ISD-PS (dsRNA analog). In addition, co-IP assays revealed the interaction of CiSAMHD1 with CiSTING (KF494194). Taken together, all these results suggest that grass carp SAMHD1 performs as an activator for innate immune response through STING-mediated signaling pathway. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Chemical datuments as scientific enablers.

    PubMed

    Rzepa, Henry S

    2013-01-23

    This article is an attempt to construct a chemical datument as a means of presenting insights into chemical phenomena in a scientific journal. An exploration of the interactions present in a small fragment of duplex Z-DNA and the nature of the catalytic centre of a carbon-dioxide/alkene epoxide alternating co-polymerisation is presented in this datument, with examples of the use of three software tools, one based on Java, the other two using Javascript and HTML5 technologies. The implications for the evolution of scientific journals are discussed.

  19. Chemical datuments as scientific enablers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This article is an attempt to construct a chemical datument as a means of presenting insights into chemical phenomena in a scientific journal. An exploration of the interactions present in a small fragment of duplex Z-DNA and the nature of the catalytic centre of a carbon-dioxide/alkene epoxide alternating co-polymerisation is presented in this datument, with examples of the use of three software tools, one based on Java, the other two using Javascript and HTML5 technologies. The implications for the evolution of scientific journals are discussed. PMID:23343381

  20. FACT is a sensor of DNA torsional stress in eukaryotic cells

    PubMed Central

    Safina, Alfiya; Cheney, Peter; Pal, Mahadeb; Brodsky, Leonid; Ivanov, Alexander; Kirsanov, Kirill; Lesovaya, Ekaterina; Naberezhnov, Denis; Nesher, Elimelech; Koman, Igor; Wang, Dan; Wang, Jianming; Yakubovskaya, Marianna; Winkler, Duane

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Transitions of B-DNA to alternative DNA structures (ADS) can be triggered by negative torsional strain, which occurs during replication and transcription, and may lead to genomic instability. However, how ADS are recognized in cells is unclear. We found that the binding of candidate anticancer drug, curaxin, to cellular DNA results in uncoiling of nucleosomal DNA, accumulation of negative supercoiling and conversion of multiple regions of genomic DNA into left-handed Z-form. Histone chaperone FACT binds rapidly to the same regions via the SSRP1 subunit in curaxin-treated cells. In vitro binding of purified SSRP1 or its isolated CID domain to a methylated DNA fragment containing alternating purine/pyrimidines, which is prone to Z-DNA transition, is much stronger than to other types of DNA. We propose that FACT can recognize and bind Z-DNA or DNA in transition from a B to Z form. Binding of FACT to these genomic regions triggers a p53 response. Furthermore, FACT has been shown to bind to other types of ADS through a different structural domain, which also leads to p53 activation. Thus, we propose that FACT acts as a sensor of ADS formation in cells. Recognition of ADS by FACT followed by a p53 response may explain the role of FACT in DNA damage prevention. PMID:28082391

  1. Polarizable Force Field for DNA Based on the Classical Drude Oscillator: I. Refinement Using Quantum Mechanical Base Stacking and Conformational Energetics.

    PubMed

    Lemkul, Justin A; MacKerell, Alexander D

    2017-05-09

    Empirical force fields seek to relate the configuration of a set of atoms to its energy, thus yielding the forces governing its dynamics, using classical physics rather than more expensive quantum mechanical calculations that are computationally intractable for large systems. Most force fields used to simulate biomolecular systems use fixed atomic partial charges, neglecting the influence of electronic polarization, instead making use of a mean-field approximation that may not be transferable across environments. Recent hardware and software developments make polarizable simulations feasible, and to this end, polarizable force fields represent the next generation of molecular dynamics simulation technology. In this work, we describe the refinement of a polarizable force field for DNA based on the classical Drude oscillator model by targeting quantum mechanical interaction energies and conformational energy profiles of model compounds necessary to build a complete DNA force field. The parametrization strategy employed in the present work seeks to correct weak base stacking in A- and B-DNA and the unwinding of Z-DNA observed in the previous version of the force field, called Drude-2013. Refinement of base nonbonded terms and reparametrization of dihedral terms in the glycosidic linkage, deoxyribofuranose rings, and important backbone torsions resulted in improved agreement with quantum mechanical potential energy surfaces. Notably, we expand on previous efforts by explicitly including Z-DNA conformational energetics in the refinement.

  2. Reintroducing electrostatics into macromolecular crystallographic refinement: application to neutron crystallography and DNA hydration.

    PubMed

    Fenn, Timothy D; Schnieders, Michael J; Mustyakimov, Marat; Wu, Chuanjie; Langan, Paul; Pande, Vijay S; Brunger, Axel T

    2011-04-13

    Most current crystallographic structure refinements augment the diffraction data with a priori information consisting of bond, angle, dihedral, planarity restraints, and atomic repulsion based on the Pauli exclusion principle. Yet, electrostatics and van der Waals attraction are physical forces that provide additional a priori information. Here, we assess the inclusion of electrostatics for the force field used for all-atom (including hydrogen) joint neutron/X-ray refinement. Two DNA and a protein crystal structure were refined against joint neutron/X-ray diffraction data sets using force fields without electrostatics or with electrostatics. Hydrogen-bond orientation/geometry favors the inclusion of electrostatics. Refinement of Z-DNA with electrostatics leads to a hypothesis for the entropic stabilization of Z-DNA that may partly explain the thermodynamics of converting the B form of DNA to its Z form. Thus, inclusion of electrostatics assists joint neutron/X-ray refinements, especially for placing and orienting hydrogen atoms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessing Diversity of DNA Structure-Related Sequence Features in Prokaryotic Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yongjie; Mrázek, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Prokaryotic genomes are diverse in terms of their nucleotide and oligonucleotide composition as well as presence of various sequence features that can affect physical properties of the DNA molecule. We present a survey of local sequence patterns which have a potential to promote non-canonical DNA conformations (i.e. different from standard B-DNA double helix) and interpret the results in terms of relationships with organisms' habitats, phylogenetic classifications, and other characteristics. Our present work differs from earlier similar surveys not only by investigating a wider range of sequence patterns in a large number of genomes but also by using a more realistic null model to assess significant deviations. Our results show that simple sequence repeats and Z-DNA-promoting patterns are generally suppressed in prokaryotic genomes, whereas palindromes and inverted repeats are over-represented. Representation of patterns that promote Z-DNA and intrinsic DNA curvature increases with increasing optimal growth temperature (OGT), and decreases with increasing oxygen requirement. Additionally, representations of close direct repeats, palindromes and inverted repeats exhibit clear negative trends with increasing OGT. The observed relationships with environmental characteristics, particularly OGT, suggest possible evolutionary scenarios of structural adaptation of DNA to particular environmental niches. PMID:24408877

  4. FT-IR Spectroscopy Study in Early Diagnosis of Skin Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kyriakidou, Maria; Anastassopoulou, Jane; Tsakiris, Aristeidis; Koui, Maria; Theophanides, Theophile

    2017-01-01

    Mid-infrared spectroscopy (4000-500 cm -1 ) was used to analyze the spectral changes and differences of the characteristic absorption bands of the skin components due to cancer development for early clinical diagnosis. Human biopsies from basal cell carcinoma, malignant melanoma, and nevus were used, while normal skin tissue served as a control. The high quality of Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra showed that upon cancer development the intensity of the absorption band at approximately 3062 cm -1 was increased, indicating that most of the proteins had the configuration of amide B and the β-sheet protein structure predominated. The stretching vibration bands of vCH 2 in the region 2950-2850 cm -1 were increased in melanoma and nevus, while were less pronounced in basal cell carcinoma due to the increased lipophilic environment. In addition, the intensity of a new band at 1744 cm -1 , which is assigned to aldehyde, was increased in melanoma and nevus and appeared as a shoulder in the spectra of normal skin. The absorption band of amide I at 1650 cm -1 was split into two bands, at 1650 cm -1 and 1633 cm -1 , due to the presence of both α-helix and random coil protein conformations for melanoma and nevus. This was confirmed from the amide II band at 1550 cm -1 , which shifted to lower frequencies at 1536 cm -1 and 1540 cm -1 for basal cell carcinoma and melanoma, respectively, indicating a damage of the native structure of proteins. The bands at 841 and 815 cm -1 , which are assigned to B-DNA and Z-DNA, respectively, indicated that only the bands of the cancerous Z-DNA form are pronounced in melanoma, while in BCC both the characteristic bands of B-DNA and Z-DNA forms are found. It is proposed that the bands described above could be used as "diagnostic marker" bands for DNA forms, in the diagnosis of skin cancer. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  5. Lanthanum induced B-to-Z transition in self-assembled Y-shaped branched DNA structure

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Ashok K.; Mishra, Aseem; Jena, Bhabani S.; Mishra, Barada K.; Subudhi, Umakanta

    2016-01-01

    Controlled conversion of right-handed B-DNA to left-handed Z-DNA is one of the greatest conformational transitions in biology. Recently, the B-Z transition has been explored from nanotechnological points of view and used as the driving machinery of many nanomechanical devices. Using a combination of CD spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and PAGE, we demonstrate that low concentration of lanthanum chloride can mediate B-to-Z transition in self-assembled Y-shaped branched DNA (bDNA) structure. The transition is sensitive to the sequence and structure of the bDNA. Thermal melting and competitive dye binding experiments suggest that La3+ ions are loaded to the major and minor grooves of DNA and stabilize the Z-conformation. Our studies also show that EDTA and EtBr play an active role in reversing the transition from Z-to-B DNA. PMID:27241949

  6. Lanthanum induced B-to-Z transition in self-assembled Y-shaped branched DNA structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Ashok K.; Mishra, Aseem; Jena, Bhabani S.; Mishra, Barada K.; Subudhi, Umakanta

    2016-05-01

    Controlled conversion of right-handed B-DNA to left-handed Z-DNA is one of the greatest conformational transitions in biology. Recently, the B-Z transition has been explored from nanotechnological points of view and used as the driving machinery of many nanomechanical devices. Using a combination of CD spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and PAGE, we demonstrate that low concentration of lanthanum chloride can mediate B-to-Z transition in self-assembled Y-shaped branched DNA (bDNA) structure. The transition is sensitive to the sequence and structure of the bDNA. Thermal melting and competitive dye binding experiments suggest that La3+ ions are loaded to the major and minor grooves of DNA and stabilize the Z-conformation. Our studies also show that EDTA and EtBr play an active role in reversing the transition from Z-to-B DNA.

  7. SciT

    Man, Viet Hoang; Pan, Feng; Sagui, Celeste, E-mail: sagui@ncsu.edu

    We explore the use of a fast laser melting simulation approach combined with atomistic molecular dynamics simulations in order to determine the melting and healing responses of B-DNA and Z-DNA dodecamers with the same d(5′-CGCGCGCGCGCG-3′){sub 2} sequence. The frequency of the laser pulse is specifically tuned to disrupt Watson-Crick hydrogen bonds, thus inducing melting of the DNA duplexes. Subsequently, the structures relax and partially refold, depending on the field strength. In addition to the inherent interest of the nonequilibrium melting process, we propose that fast melting by an infrared laser pulse could be used as a technique for a fastmore » comparison of relative stabilities of same-sequence oligonucleotides with different secondary structures with full atomistic detail of the structures and solvent. This could be particularly useful for nonstandard secondary structures involving non-canonical base pairs, mismatches, etc.« less

  8. DNATCO: assignment of DNA conformers at dnatco.org.

    PubMed

    Černý, Jiří; Božíková, Paulína; Schneider, Bohdan

    2016-07-08

    The web service DNATCO (dnatco.org) classifies local conformations of DNA molecules beyond their traditional sorting to A, B and Z DNA forms. DNATCO provides an interface to robust algorithms assigning conformation classes called NTC: to dinucleotides extracted from DNA-containing structures uploaded in PDB format version 3.1 or above. The assigned dinucleotide NTC: classes are further grouped into DNA structural alphabet NTA: , to the best of our knowledge the first DNA structural alphabet. The results are presented at two levels: in the form of user friendly visualization and analysis of the assignment, and in the form of a downloadable, more detailed table for further analysis offline. The website is free and open to all users and there is no login requirement. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of poly[d(G-z5C)]. B-Z transition and inhibition of DNA methylase.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, L P; Zielinski, W S; Kalisch, B W; Pfeifer, G P; Sprinzl, M; Drahovsky, D; van de Sande, J H; Jovin, T M

    1985-08-27

    Deoxy-5-azacytidine 5'-triphosphate was synthesized and used as a substrate for the enzymatic synthesis of the polynucleotide poly[d(G-z5C)]. Whereas the triphosphate decomposes in solution, the azacytosine analogue incorporated into DNA is stable under conditions preserving the double-helical structure. Poly[d(G-z5C)] undergoes the transition to the left-handed Z conformation at salt (NaCl and MgCl2) concentrations approximately 30% higher than those required for unsubstituted poly[d(G-C)]. However, the incorporation of azacytidine potentiates the formation at room temperature of the Z helix stabilized by the transition metal Mn2+; in the case of poly[d(G-C)], a heating step is required. The spectral properties of the two polymers in the B and Z forms are similar. Both left-handed forms are recognized by anti-Z DNA immunoglobulins, indicating that the DNAs bear common antigenic features. Poly[d(G-z5C)] is not a substrate for the DNA cytosine 5-methyltransferase from human placenta. It is a potent inhibitor of the enzyme when tested in a competitive binding assay. These results are compatible with a very strong, possibly covalent, mode of interaction between methyltransferases and DNA containing 5-azacytosine.

  10. ZBP1/DAI is an innate sensor of influenza virus triggering the NLRP3 inflammasome and programmed cell death pathways

    PubMed Central

    Kuriakose, Teneema; Man, Si Ming; Malireddi, R.K. Subbarao; Karki, Rajendra; Kesavardhana, Sannula; Place, David E.; Neale, Geoffrey; Vogel, Peter; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi

    2016-01-01

    The interferon-inducible protein Z-DNA binding protein 1 (ZBP1, also known as DNA-dependent activator of IFN-regulatory factors (DAI) and DLM-1) was identified as a dsDNA sensor, which instigates innate immune responses. However, this classification has been disputed and whether ZBP1 functions as a pathogen sensor during an infection has remained unknown. Herein, we demonstrated ZBP1-mediated sensing of the influenza A virus (IAV) proteins NP and PB1, triggering cell death and inflammatory responses via the RIPK1–RIPK3–Caspase-8 axis. ZBP1 regulates NLRP3 inflammasome activation as well as induction of apoptosis, necroptosis and pyroptosis in IAV-infected cells. Importantly, ZBP1 deficiency protected mice from mortality during IAV infection owing to reduced inflammatory responses and epithelial damage. Overall, these findings indicate that ZBP1 is an innate immune sensor of IAV and highlight its importance in the pathogenesis of IAV infection. PMID:27917412

  11. Transposon-like properties of the major, long repetitive sequence family in the genome of Physarum polycephalum

    PubMed Central

    Pearston, Douglas H.; Gordon, Mairi; Hardman, Norman

    1985-01-01

    A family of long, highly-repetitive sequences, referred to previously as `HpaII-repeats', dominates the genome of the eukaryotic slime mould Physarum polycephalum. These sequences are found exclusively in scrambled clusters. They account for about one-half of the total complement of repetitive DNA in Physarum, and represent the major sequence component found in hypermethylated, 20-50 kb segments of Physarum genomic DNA that fail to be cleaved using the restriction endonuclease HpaII. The structure of this abundant repetitive element was investigated by analysing cloned segments derived from the hypermethylated genomic DNA compartment. We show that the `HpaII-repeat' forms part of a larger repetitive DNA structure, ∼8.6 kb in length, with several structural features in common with recognised eukaryotic transposable genetic elements. Scrambled clusters of the sequence probably arise as a result of transposition-like events, during which the element preferentially recombines in either orientation with target sites located in other copies of the same repeated sequence. The target sites for transposition/recombination are not related in sequence but in all cases studied they are potentially capable of promoting the formation of small `cruciforms' or `Z-DNA' structures which might be recognised during the recombination process. ImagesFig. 3.Fig. 4. PMID:16453652

  12. Sequences in the intergenic spacer influence RNA Pol I transcription from the human rRNA promoter

    SciT

    Li, W.M.; Sylvester, J.E.

    1994-09-01

    In most eucaryotic species, ribosomal genes are tandemly repeated about 100-5000 times per haploid genome. The 43 Kb human rDNA repeat consists of a 13 Kb coding region for the 18S, 5.8S, 28S ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and transcribed spacers separated by a 30 Kb intergenic spacer. For species such as frog, mouse and rat, sequences in the intergenic spacer other than the gene promoter have been shown to modulate transcription of the ribosomal gene. These sequences are spacer promoters, enhancers and the terminator for spacer transcription. We are addressing whether the human ribosomal gene promoter is similarly influenced. In-vitro transcriptionmore » run-off assays have revealed that the 4.5 kb region (CBE), directly upstream of the gene promoter, has cis-stimulation and trans-competition properties. This suggests that the CBE fragment contains an enhancer(s) for ribosomal gene transcription. Further experiments have shown that a fragment ({approximately}1.6 kb) within the CBE fragment also has trans-competition function. Deletion subclones of this region are being tested to delineate the exact sequences responsible for these modulating activities. Previous sequence analysis and functional studies have revealed that CBE contains regions of DNA capable of adopting alternative structures such as bent DNA, Z-DNA, and triple-stranded DNA. Whether these structures are required for modulating transcription remains to be determined as does the specific DNA-protein interaction involved.« less

  13. Translocation and deletion breakpoints in cancer genomes are associated with potential non-B DNA-forming sequences.

    PubMed

    Bacolla, Albino; Tainer, John A; Vasquez, Karen M; Cooper, David N

    2016-07-08

    Gross chromosomal rearrangements (including translocations, deletions, insertions and duplications) are a hallmark of cancer genomes and often create oncogenic fusion genes. An obligate step in the generation of such gross rearrangements is the formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Since the genomic distribution of rearrangement breakpoints is non-random, intrinsic cellular factors may predispose certain genomic regions to breakage. Notably, certain DNA sequences with the potential to fold into secondary structures [potential non-B DNA structures (PONDS); e.g. triplexes, quadruplexes, hairpin/cruciforms, Z-DNA and single-stranded looped-out structures with implications in DNA replication and transcription] can stimulate the formation of DNA DSBs. Here, we tested the postulate that these DNA sequences might be found at, or in close proximity to, rearrangement breakpoints. By analyzing the distribution of PONDS-forming sequences within ±500 bases of 19 947 translocation and 46 365 sequence-characterized deletion breakpoints in cancer genomes, we find significant association between PONDS-forming repeats and cancer breakpoints. Specifically, (AT)n, (GAA)n and (GAAA)n constitute the most frequent repeats at translocation breakpoints, whereas A-tracts occur preferentially at deletion breakpoints. Translocation breakpoints near PONDS-forming repeats also recur in different individuals and patient tumor samples. Hence, PONDS-forming sequences represent an intrinsic risk factor for genomic rearrangements in cancer genomes. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  14. Similarities and Differences between RNA and DNA Double-Helical Structures in Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy: A SAC-CI Study.

    PubMed

    Miyahara, Tomoo; Nakatsuji, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2016-11-17

    The helical structures of DNA and RNA are investigated experimentally using circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The signs and the shapes of the CD spectra are much different between the right- and left-handed structures as well as between DNA and RNA. The main difference lies in the sign at around 295 nm of the CD spectra: it is positive for the right-handed B-DNA and the left-handed Z-RNA but is negative for the left-handed Z-DNA and the right-handed A-RNA. We calculated the SAC-CI CD spectra of DNA and RNA using the tetramer models, which include both hydrogen-bonding and stacking interactions that are important in both DNA and RNA. The SAC-CI results reproduced the features at around 295 nm of the experimental CD spectra of each DNA and RNA, and elucidated that the strong stacking interaction between the two base pairs is the origin of the negative peaks at 295 nm of the CD spectra for both DNA and RNA. On the basis of these facts, we discuss the similarities and differences between RNA and DNA double-helical structures in the CD spectroscopy based on the ChiraSac methodology.

  15. Biosynthesis and processing of the somatostatin family of peptide hormones.

    PubMed

    Andrews, P C; Dixon, J E

    1986-01-01

    Understanding of the biosynthesis of the somatostatin family of peptide hormones has greatly increased in recent years. Isolation and sequencing of the rat somatostatin gene indicates that it contains a single intron located between the codons for Gn(-57) and Glu(-56) of pre-prosomatostatin. The gene contains three repetitive sequences, one at the 5' end of the gene and two of them 3' to the coding portion. Two of the sequences consist of alternating purine-pyrimidine bases and have been shown to adopt Z-DNA structures in vitro. The cDNA for rat somatostatin codes for a 116-residue peptide structurally similar to the anglerfish and catfish precursors to the 14-residue somatostatin (SST-14). In addition to SST-14, the catfish and the anglerfish both contain an additional pancreatic somatostatin, each derived from a different gene. The catfish contains a 22-residue somatostatin, which is O-glycosylated at Thr-5. The second somatostatin gene from anglerfish encodes a prosomatostatin that is processed to a 28-residue peptide. The mature peptide contains a hydroxylated lysine at position 23.

  16. 5-Methyldeoxycytidine in the Physarum minichromosome containing the ribosomal RNA genes.

    PubMed Central

    Cooney, C A; Matthews, H R; Bradbury, E M

    1984-01-01

    5-Methyldeoxycytidine (5MC) was analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and by restriction enzyme digestion in rDNA isolated from Physarum polycephalum. rDNA from Physarum M3C strain microplasmodia has a significant 5MC content (about half that of the whole genomic DNA). This rDNA contains many C5MCGG sites because it is clearly digested further by Msp I than by Hpa II. However, most 5MC is in other sites. In particular, alternating CG sequences appear to be highly methylated. HPLC of deoxyribonucleosides shows tha most of the transcribed regions contain little or no 5MC. Restriction digestion indicates that there is little or no 5MC in any of the transcribed regions including the transcription origin and adjacent sequences. Over 90% of the total 5MC is in or near the central nontranscribed spacer and most methylated restriction sites are in inverted repeats of this spacer. rDNA is very heterogeneous with respect to 5MC. The 5MC pattern doesn't appear to change with inactivation of the rRNA genes during reversible differentiation from microplasmodia (growing) to microsclerotia (dormant), showing that inactivation is due to changes in other chromatin variables. The 5MC pattern is different between Physarum strains. The possible involvement of this 5MC in rDNA chromatin structure and in cruciform and Z-DNA formation is discussed. Images PMID:6322108

  17. Topological Behavior of Plasmid DNA

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, N. Patrick; Vologodskii, Alexander V.

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of the B-form structure of DNA by Watson and Crick led to an explosion of research on nucleic acids in the fields of biochemistry, biophysics, and genetics. Powerful techniques were developed to reveal a myriad of different structural conformations that change B-DNA as it is transcribed, replicated, and recombined and as sister chromosomes are moved into new daughter cell compartments during cell division. This article links the original discoveries of superhelical structure and molecular topology to non-B form DNA structure and contemporary biochemical and biophysical techniques. The emphasis is on the power of plasmids for studying DNA structure and function. The conditions that trigger the formation of alternative DNA structures such as left-handed Z-DNA, inter- and intra-molecular triplexes, triple-stranded DNA, and linked catenanes and hemicatenanes are explained. The DNA dynamics and topological issues are detailed for stalled replication forks and for torsional and structural changes on DNA in front of and behind a transcription complex and a replisome. The complex and interconnected roles of topoisomerases and abundant small nucleoid association proteins are explained. And methods are described for comparing in vivo and in vitro reactions to probe and understand the temporal pathways of DNA and chromosome chemistry that occur inside living cells. PMID:26104708

  18. Preliminary studies of the effects of psychological stress on circulating lymphocytes analyzed by synchrotron radiation based-Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas-Caraveo, Alejandra; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Mejia-Carmona, Gloria Erika; Pérez-Ishiwara, David Guillermo; Cotte, Marine; Martínez-Martínez, Alejandro

    2014-07-01

    Psychological stress is a condition that not only generates behavioral disorders but also disrupts homeostasis and immune activity that can exacerbate or lead to inflammatory diseases. The aim of this work was to study biochemical changes in circulating immune cells from rats under psychological stress by using vibrational spectroscopy. A stress model was used, where exposure to a stressor was repeated for 5 days. Subsequently, circulating lymphocytes were examined for their biomolecular vibrational fingerprints with synchrotron radiation based-Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy. The results showed an increased absorption at the ester lipid region (1720-1755 cm-1) in lymphocytes from stressed rats, suggesting lipid peroxidation. Statistical significant changes in wavenumber peak position and absorbance in the nucleic acid region were also observed (915-950 cm-1 Z-DNA, 1090-1150 cm-1 symmetric stretching of Psbnd Osbnd C, 1200-1260 cm-1 asymmetric PO2 and 1570-1510 cm-1 methylated nucleotides) which suggest a reduction of transcriptional activity in lymphocytes from stressed rat. These results unravel part of the mechanisms by which psychological stress may affect the immune system leading to systemic consequences.

  19. Non-B DB: a database of predicted non-B DNA-forming motifs in mammalian genomes.

    PubMed

    Cer, Regina Z; Bruce, Kevin H; Mudunuri, Uma S; Yi, Ming; Volfovsky, Natalia; Luke, Brian T; Bacolla, Albino; Collins, Jack R; Stephens, Robert M

    2011-01-01

    Although the capability of DNA to form a variety of non-canonical (non-B) structures has long been recognized, the overall significance of these alternate conformations in biology has only recently become accepted en masse. In order to provide access to genome-wide locations of these classes of predicted structures, we have developed non-B DB, a database integrating annotations and analysis of non-B DNA-forming sequence motifs. The database provides the most complete list of alternative DNA structure predictions available, including Z-DNA motifs, quadruplex-forming motifs, inverted repeats, mirror repeats and direct repeats and their associated subsets of cruciforms, triplex and slipped structures, respectively. The database also contains motifs predicted to form static DNA bends, short tandem repeats and homo(purine•pyrimidine) tracts that have been associated with disease. The database has been built using the latest releases of the human, chimp, dog, macaque and mouse genomes, so that the results can be compared directly with other data sources. In order to make the data interpretable in a genomic context, features such as genes, single-nucleotide polymorphisms and repetitive elements (SINE, LINE, etc.) have also been incorporated. The database is accessed through query pages that produce results with links to the UCSC browser and a GBrowse-based genomic viewer. It is freely accessible at http://nonb.abcc.ncifcrf.gov.

  20. Non-B DB v2.0: a database of predicted non-B DNA-forming motifs and its associated tools.

    PubMed

    Cer, Regina Z; Donohue, Duncan E; Mudunuri, Uma S; Temiz, Nuri A; Loss, Michael A; Starner, Nathan J; Halusa, Goran N; Volfovsky, Natalia; Yi, Ming; Luke, Brian T; Bacolla, Albino; Collins, Jack R; Stephens, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    The non-B DB, available at http://nonb.abcc.ncifcrf.gov, catalogs predicted non-B DNA-forming sequence motifs, including Z-DNA, G-quadruplex, A-phased repeats, inverted repeats, mirror repeats, direct repeats and their corresponding subsets: cruciforms, triplexes and slipped structures, in several genomes. Version 2.0 of the database revises and re-implements the motif discovery algorithms to better align with accepted definitions and thresholds for motifs, expands the non-B DNA-forming motifs coverage by including short tandem repeats and adds key visualization tools to compare motif locations relative to other genomic annotations. Non-B DB v2.0 extends the ability for comparative genomics by including re-annotation of the five organisms reported in non-B DB v1.0, human, chimpanzee, dog, macaque and mouse, and adds seven additional organisms: orangutan, rat, cow, pig, horse, platypus and Arabidopsis thaliana. Additionally, the non-B DB v2.0 provides an overall improved graphical user interface and faster query performance.

  1. Torque measurements reveal sequence-specific cooperative transitions in supercoiled DNA

    PubMed Central

    Oberstrass, Florian C.; Fernandes, Louis E.; Bryant, Zev

    2012-01-01

    B-DNA becomes unstable under superhelical stress and is able to adopt a wide range of alternative conformations including strand-separated DNA and Z-DNA. Localized sequence-dependent structural transitions are important for the regulation of biological processes such as DNA replication and transcription. To directly probe the effect of sequence on structural transitions driven by torque, we have measured the torsional response of a panel of DNA sequences using single molecule assays that employ nanosphere rotational probes to achieve high torque resolution. The responses of Z-forming d(pGpC)n sequences match our predictions based on a theoretical treatment of cooperative transitions in helical polymers. “Bubble” templates containing 50–100 bp mismatch regions show cooperative structural transitions similar to B-DNA, although less torque is required to disrupt strand–strand interactions. Our mechanical measurements, including direct characterization of the torsional rigidity of strand-separated DNA, establish a framework for quantitative predictions of the complex torsional response of arbitrary sequences in their biological context. PMID:22474350

  2. SciT

    Zhao, Jianmin; Weaver, L.M.; Herrmann, K.M.

    A cDNA for potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase, the first enzyme of the shikimate pathway, encodes a 56 KD polypeptide whose amino terminus resembles a chloroplast transit sequence. The cDNA was placed downstream of the phage T7 polymerase recognition sequence in plasmid pGEM-3Z. DNA of the resulting plasmid pGEM-DWZ directed T7 polymerase to synthesize potato DAHP synthase mRNA in vitro. The mRNA was used in wheat germ and rabbit reticulocyte lysates for the synthesis of {sup 35}S-labeled pro-DAHP synthase. The predominant translation product is a 59 KD polypeptide that can be immunoprecipitated by rabbit polyclonal antibodies raised againstmore » the 53 KD DAHP synthase purified from potato tubers. Isolated spinach chloroplasts process the 59 KD pro-DAHP synthase to a 50 KD polypeptide. The processed polypeptide is protected from protease degradation, suggesting uptake of the enzyme into the cell organelle. Fractionation of reisolated chloroplasts after import of pro-DAHP synthase showed mature enzyme in the stroma. The uptake and processing of DAHP synthase is inhibited by antibodies raised against the mature enzyme. Our results are consistent with the assumption that potato contains a nuclear DNA encoded DAHP synthase that is synthesized as a proenzyme and whose mature form resides in the chloroplasts. Our data provide further evidence that green plants synthesize aromatic amino acids in plastids.« less

  3. Conformation-dependent restraints for polynucleotides: I. Clustering of the geometry of the phosphodiester group

    PubMed Central

    Kowiel, Marcin; Brzezinski, Dariusz; Jaskolski, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    The refinement of macromolecular structures is usually aided by prior stereochemical knowledge in the form of geometrical restraints. Such restraints are also used for the flexible sugar-phosphate backbones of nucleic acids. However, recent highly accurate structural studies of DNA suggest that the phosphate bond angles may have inadequate description in the existing stereochemical dictionaries. In this paper, we analyze the bonding deformations of the phosphodiester groups in the Cambridge Structural Database, cluster the studied fragments into six conformation-related categories and propose a revised set of restraints for the O-P-O bond angles and distances. The proposed restraints have been positively validated against data from the Nucleic Acid Database and an ultrahigh-resolution Z-DNA structure in the Protein Data Bank. Additionally, the manual classification of PO4 geometry is compared with geometrical clusters automatically discovered by machine learning methods. The machine learning cluster analysis provides useful insights and a practical example for general applications of clustering algorithms for automatic discovery of hidden patterns of molecular geometry. Finally, we describe the implementation and application of a public-domain web server for automatic generation of the proposed restraints. PMID:27521371

  4. A Novel C2H2 Transcription Factor that Regulates gliA Expression Interdependently with GliZ in Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Schoberle, Taylor J.; Nguyen-Coleman, C. Kim; Herold, Jennifer; Yang, Ally; Weirauch, Matt; Hughes, Timothy R.; McMurray, John S.; May, Gregory S.

    2014-01-01

    Secondary metabolites are produced by numerous organisms and can either be beneficial, benign, or harmful to humans. Genes involved in the synthesis and transport of these secondary metabolites are frequently found in gene clusters, which are often coordinately regulated, being almost exclusively dependent on transcription factors that are located within the clusters themselves. Gliotoxin, which is produced by a variety of Aspergillus species, Trichoderma species, and Penicillium species, exhibits immunosuppressive properties and has therefore been the subject of research for many laboratories. There have been a few proteins shown to regulate the gliotoxin cluster, most notably GliZ, a Zn2Cys6 binuclear finger transcription factor that lies within the cluster, and LaeA, a putative methyltransferase that globally regulates secondary metabolism clusters within numerous fungal species. Using a high-copy inducer screen in A. fumigatus, our lab has identified a novel C2H2 transcription factor, which plays an important role in regulating the gliotoxin biosynthetic cluster. This transcription factor, named GipA, induces gliotoxin production when present in extra copies. Furthermore, loss of gipA reduces gliotoxin production significantly. Through protein binding microarray and mutagenesis, we have identified a DNA binding site recognized by GipA that is in extremely close proximity to a potential GliZ DNA binding site in the 5′ untranslated region of gliA, which encodes an efflux pump within the gliotoxin cluster. Not surprisingly, GliZ and GipA appear to work in an interdependent fashion to positively control gliA expression. PMID:24784729

  5. Base pairing and base mis-pairing in nucleic acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, A. H. J.; Rich, A.

    1986-01-01

    In recent years we have learned that DNA is conformationally active. It can exist in a number of different stable conformations including both right-handed and left-handed forms. Using single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis we are able to discover not only additional conformations of the nucleic acids but also different types of hydrogen bonded base-base interactions. Although Watson-Crick base pairings are the predominant type of interaction in double helical DNA, they are not the only types. Recently, we have been able to examine mismatching of guanine-thymine base pairs in left-handed Z-DNA at atomic resolution (1A). A minimum amount of distortion of the sugar phosphate backbone is found in the G x T pairing in which the bases are held together by two hydrogen bonds in the wobble pairing interaction. Because of the high resolution of the analysis we can visualize water molecules which fill in to accommodate the other hydrogen bonding positions in the bases which are not used in the base-base interactions. Studies on other DNA oligomers have revealed that other types of non-Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding interactions can occur. In the structure of a DNA octamer with the sequence d(GCGTACGC) complexed to an antibiotic triostin A, it was found that the two central AT base pairs are held together by Hoogsteen rather than Watson-Crick base pairs. Similarly, the G x C base pairs at the ends are also Hoogsteen rather than Watson-Crick pairing. Hoogsteen base pairs make a modified helix which is distinct from the Watson-Crick double helix.

  6. Structural features based genome-wide characterization and prediction of nucleosome organization

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nucleosome distribution along chromatin dictates genomic DNA accessibility and thus profoundly influences gene expression. However, the underlying mechanism of nucleosome formation remains elusive. Here, taking a structural perspective, we systematically explored nucleosome formation potential of genomic sequences and the effect on chromatin organization and gene expression in S. cerevisiae. Results We analyzed twelve structural features related to flexibility, curvature and energy of DNA sequences. The results showed that some structural features such as DNA denaturation, DNA-bending stiffness, Stacking energy, Z-DNA, Propeller twist and free energy, were highly correlated with in vitro and in vivo nucleosome occupancy. Specifically, they can be classified into two classes, one positively and the other negatively correlated with nucleosome occupancy. These two kinds of structural features facilitated nucleosome binding in centromere regions and repressed nucleosome formation in the promoter regions of protein-coding genes to mediate transcriptional regulation. Based on these analyses, we integrated all twelve structural features in a model to predict more accurately nucleosome occupancy in vivo than the existing methods that mainly depend on sequence compositional features. Furthermore, we developed a novel approach, named DLaNe, that located nucleosomes by detecting peaks of structural profiles, and built a meta predictor to integrate information from different structural features. As a comparison, we also constructed a hidden Markov model (HMM) to locate nucleosomes based on the profiles of these structural features. The result showed that the meta DLaNe and HMM-based method performed better than the existing methods, demonstrating the power of these structural features in predicting nucleosome positions. Conclusions Our analysis revealed that DNA structures significantly contribute to nucleosome organization and influence chromatin structure and gene

  7. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa ribbon-helix-helix DNA-binding protein AlgZ (AmrZ) controls twitching motility and biogenesis of type IV pili.

    PubMed

    Baynham, Patricia J; Ramsey, Deborah M; Gvozdyev, Borys V; Cordonnier, Ellen M; Wozniak, Daniel J

    2006-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that is commonly found in water and soil. In order to colonize surfaces with low water content, P. aeruginosa utilizes a flagellum-independent form of locomotion called twitching motility, which is dependent upon the extension and retraction of type IV pili. This study demonstrates that AlgZ, previously identified as a DNA-binding protein absolutely required for transcription of the alginate biosynthetic operon, is required for twitching motility. AlgZ may be required for the biogenesis or function of type IV pili in twitching motility. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of an algZ deletion in nonmucoid PAO1 failed to detect surface pili. To examine expression and localization of PilA (the major pilin subunit), whole-cell extracts and cell surface pilin preparations were analyzed by Western blotting. While the PilA levels present in whole-cell extracts were similar for wild-type P. aeruginosa and P. aeruginosa with the algZ deletion, the amount of PilA on the surface of the cells was drastically reduced in the algZ mutant. Analysis of algZ and algD mutants indicates that the DNA-binding activity of AlgZ is essential for the regulation of twitching motility and that this is independent of the role of AlgZ in alginate expression. These data show that AlgZ DNA-binding activity is required for twitching motility independently of its role in alginate production and that this involves the surface localization of type IV pili. Given this new role in twitching motility, we propose that algZ (PA3385) be designated amrZ (alginate and motility regulator Z).

  8. Antisense RNA: effect of ribosome binding sites, target location, size, and concentration on the translation of specific mRNA molecules.

    PubMed

    Daugherty, B L; Hotta, K; Kumar, C; Ahn, Y H; Zhu, J D; Pestka, S

    1989-01-01

    A series of plasmids were constructed to generate RNA complementary to the beta-galactosidase messenger RNA under control of the phage lambda PL promoter. These plasmids generate anti-lacZ mRNA bearing or lacking a synthetic ribosome binding site adjacent to the lambda PL promoter and/or the lacZ ribosome binding site in reverse orientation. Fragments of lacZ DNA from the 5' and/or the 3' region were used in these constructions. When these anti-mRNA molecules were produced in Escherichia coli 294, maximal inhibition of beta-galactosidase synthesis occurred when a functional ribosome binding site was present near the 5' end of the anti-mRNA and the anti-mRNA synthesized was complementary to the 5' region of the mRNA corresponding to the lacZ ribosome binding site and/or the 5'-coding sequence. Anti-mRNAs producing maximal inhibition of beta-galactosidase synthesis exhibited an anti-lacZ mRNA:normal lacZ mRNA ratio of 100:1 or higher. Those showing lower levels of inhibition exhibited much lower anti-lacZ mRNA:normal lacZ mRNA ratios. A functional ribosome binding site at the 5'-end was found to decrease the decay rate of the anti-lacZ mRNAs. In addition, the incorporation of a transcription terminator just downstream of the antisense segment provided for more efficient inhibition of lacZ mRNA translation due to synthesis of smaller and more abundant anti-lacZ mRNAs. The optimal constructions produced undetectable levels of beta-galactosidase synthesis.

  9. Hydration properties of natural and synthetic DNA sequences with methylated adenine or cytosine bases in the R.DpnI target and BDNF promoter studied by molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanak, Siba; Helms, Volkhard

    2014-12-01

    Adenine and cytosine methylation are two important epigenetic modifications of DNA sequences at the levels of the genome and transcriptome. To characterize the differential roles of methylating adenine or cytosine with respect to their hydration properties, we performed conventional MD simulations and free energy perturbation calculations for two particular DNA sequences, namely the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promoter and the R.DpnI-bound DNA that are known to undergo methylation of C5-methyl cytosine and N6-methyl adenine, respectively. We found that a single methylated cytosine has a clearly favorable hydration free energy over cytosine since the attached methyl group has a slightly polar character. In contrast, capping the strongly polar N6 of adenine with a methyl group gives a slightly unfavorable contribution to its free energy of solvation. Performing the same demethylation in the context of a DNA double-strand gave quite similar results for the more solvent-accessible cytosine but much more unfavorable results for the rather buried adenine. Interestingly, the same demethylation reactions are far more unfavorable when performed in the context of the opposite (BDNF or R.DpnI target) sequence. This suggests a natural preference for methylation in a specific sequence context. In addition, free energy calculations for demethylating adenine or cytosine in the context of B-DNA vs. Z-DNA suggest that the conformational B-Z transition of DNA transition is rather a property of cytosine methylated sequences but is not preferable for the adenine-methylated sequences investigated here.

  10. RIPK1 counteracts ZBP1-mediated necroptosis to inhibit inflammation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Juan; Kumari, Snehlata; Kim, Chun; Van, Trieu-My; Wachsmuth, Laurens; Polykratis, Apostolos; Pasparakis, Manolis

    2016-12-01

    Receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) regulates cell death and inflammation through kinase-dependent and -independent functions. RIPK1 kinase activity induces caspase-8-dependent apoptosis and RIPK3 and mixed lineage kinase like (MLKL)-dependent necroptosis. In addition, RIPK1 inhibits apoptosis and necroptosis through kinase-independent functions, which are important for late embryonic development and the prevention of inflammation in epithelial barriers. The mechanism by which RIPK1 counteracts RIPK3-MLKL-mediated necroptosis has remained unknown. Here we show that RIPK1 prevents skin inflammation by inhibiting activation of RIPK3-MLKL-dependent necroptosis mediated by Z-DNA binding protein 1 (ZBP1, also known as DAI or DLM1). ZBP1 deficiency inhibited keratinocyte necroptosis and skin inflammation in mice with epidermis-specific RIPK1 knockout. Moreover, mutation of the conserved RIP homotypic interaction motif (RHIM) of endogenous mouse RIPK1 (RIPK1 mRHIM ) caused perinatal lethality that was prevented by RIPK3, MLKL or ZBP1 deficiency. Furthermore, mice expressing only RIPK1 mRHIM in keratinocytes developed skin inflammation that was abrogated by MLKL or ZBP1 deficiency. Mechanistically, ZBP1 interacted strongly with phosphorylated RIPK3 in cells expressing RIPK1 mRHIM , suggesting that the RIPK1 RHIM prevents ZBP1 from binding and activating RIPK3. Collectively, these results show that RIPK1 prevents perinatal death as well as skin inflammation in adult mice by inhibiting ZBP1-induced necroptosis. Furthermore, these findings identify ZBP1 as a critical mediator of inflammation beyond its previously known role in antiviral defence and suggest that ZBP1 might be implicated in the pathogenesis of necroptosis-associated inflammatory diseases.

  11. Hydration properties of natural and synthetic DNA sequences with methylated adenine or cytosine bases in the R.DpnI target and BDNF promoter studied by molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Shanak, Siba; Helms, Volkhard

    2014-12-14

    Adenine and cytosine methylation are two important epigenetic modifications of DNA sequences at the levels of the genome and transcriptome. To characterize the differential roles of methylating adenine or cytosine with respect to their hydration properties, we performed conventional MD simulations and free energy perturbation calculations for two particular DNA sequences, namely the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promoter and the R.DpnI-bound DNA that are known to undergo methylation of C5-methyl cytosine and N6-methyl adenine, respectively. We found that a single methylated cytosine has a clearly favorable hydration free energy over cytosine since the attached methyl group has a slightly polar character. In contrast, capping the strongly polar N6 of adenine with a methyl group gives a slightly unfavorable contribution to its free energy of solvation. Performing the same demethylation in the context of a DNA double-strand gave quite similar results for the more solvent-accessible cytosine but much more unfavorable results for the rather buried adenine. Interestingly, the same demethylation reactions are far more unfavorable when performed in the context of the opposite (BDNF or R.DpnI target) sequence. This suggests a natural preference for methylation in a specific sequence context. In addition, free energy calculations for demethylating adenine or cytosine in the context of B-DNA vs. Z-DNA suggest that the conformational B-Z transition of DNA transition is rather a property of cytosine methylated sequences but is not preferable for the adenine-methylated sequences investigated here.

  12. Nbs1 ChIP-Seq Identifies Off-Target DNA Double-Strand Breaks Induced by AID in Activated Splenic B Cells

    PubMed Central

    Linehan, Erin K.; Schrader, Carol E.; Stavnezer, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is required for initiation of Ig class switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM) of antibody genes during immune responses. AID has also been shown to induce chromosomal translocations, mutations, and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) involving non-Ig genes in activated B cells. To determine what makes a DNA site a target for AID-induced DSBs, we identify off-target DSBs induced by AID by performing chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) for Nbs1, a protein that binds DSBs, followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-Seq). We detect and characterize hundreds of off-target AID-dependent DSBs. Two types of tandem repeats are highly enriched within the Nbs1-binding sites: long CA repeats, which can form Z-DNA, and tandem pentamers containing the AID target hotspot WGCW. These tandem repeats are not nearly as enriched at AID-independent DSBs, which we also identified. Msh2, a component of the mismatch repair pathway and important for genome stability, increases off-target DSBs, similar to its effect on Ig switch region DSBs, which are required intermediates during CSR. Most of the off-target DSBs are two-ended, consistent with generation during G1 phase, similar to DSBs in Ig switch regions. However, a minority are one-ended, presumably due to conversion of single-strand breaks to DSBs during replication. One-ended DSBs are repaired by processes involving homologous recombination, including break-induced replication repair, which can lead to genome instability. Off-target DSBs, especially those present during S phase, can lead to chromosomal translocations, deletions and gene amplifications, resulting in the high frequency of B cell lymphomas derived from cells that express or have expressed AID. PMID:26263206

  13. EspL is a bacterial cysteine protease effector that cleaves RHIM proteins to block necroptosis and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Jaclyn S; Giogha, Cristina; Mühlen, Sabrina; Nachbur, Ueli; Pham, Chi L L; Zhang, Ying; Hildebrand, Joanne M; Oates, Clare V; Lung, Tania Wong Fok; Ingle, Danielle; Dagley, Laura F; Bankovacki, Aleksandra; Petrie, Emma J; Schroeder, Gunnar N; Crepin, Valerie F; Frankel, Gad; Masters, Seth L; Vince, James; Murphy, James M; Sunde, Margaret; Webb, Andrew I; Silke, John; Hartland, Elizabeth L

    2017-01-13

    Cell death signalling pathways contribute to tissue homeostasis and provide innate protection from infection. Adaptor proteins such as receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 (RIPK1), receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 3 (RIPK3), TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF) and Z-DNA-binding protein 1 (ZBP1)/DNA-dependent activator of IFN-regulatory factors (DAI) that contain receptor-interacting protein (RIP) homotypic interaction motifs (RHIM) play a key role in cell death and inflammatory signalling 1-3 . RHIM-dependent interactions help drive a caspase-independent form of cell death termed necroptosis 4,5 . Here, we report that the bacterial pathogen enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) uses the type III secretion system (T3SS) effector EspL to degrade the RHIM-containing proteins RIPK1, RIPK3, TRIF and ZBP1/DAI during infection. This requires a previously unrecognized tripartite cysteine protease motif in EspL (Cys47, His131, Asp153) that cleaves within the RHIM of these proteins. Bacterial infection and/or ectopic expression of EspL leads to rapid inactivation of RIPK1, RIPK3, TRIF and ZBP1/DAI and inhibition of tumour necrosis factor (TNF), lipopolysaccharide or polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C))-induced necroptosis and inflammatory signalling. Furthermore, EPEC infection inhibits TNF-induced phosphorylation and plasma membrane localization of mixed lineage kinase domain-like pseudokinase (MLKL). In vivo, EspL cysteine protease activity contributes to persistent colonization of mice by the EPEC-like mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium. The activity of EspL defines a family of T3SS cysteine protease effectors found in a range of bacteria and reveals a mechanism by which gastrointestinal pathogens directly target RHIM-dependent inflammatory and necroptotic signalling pathways.

  14. A minimal murine Msx-1 gene promoter. Organization of its cis-regulatory motifs and their role in transcriptional activation in cells in culture and in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, T; Guron, C; Shetty, S; Matsui, H; Raghow, R

    1997-09-05

    Drosophila cell line cotransfected with Msx-1-luciferase and an Sp1 expression vector pPacSp1. The transgenic mice embryos containing -165/106-bp Msx-1 promoter-LacZ DNA in their genomes abundantly expressed beta-galactosidase in maxillae and mandibles and in the cellular primordia involved in the formation of the meninges and the bones of the skull. Thus, the truncated murine Msx-1 promoter can target expression of a heterologous gene in the craniofacial tissues of transgenic embryos known for high level of expression of the endogenous Msx-1 gene and found to be severely defective in the Msx-1 knock-out mice.

  15. Blind Predictions of DNA and RNA Tweezers Experiments with Force and Torque

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Fang-Chieh; Lipfert, Jan; Das, Rhiju

    2014-01-01

    Single-molecule tweezers measurements of double-stranded nucleic acids (dsDNA and dsRNA) provide unprecedented opportunities to dissect how these fundamental molecules respond to forces and torques analogous to those applied by topoisomerases, viral capsids, and other biological partners. However, tweezers data are still most commonly interpreted post facto in the framework of simple analytical models. Testing falsifiable predictions of state-of-the-art nucleic acid models would be more illuminating but has not been performed. Here we describe a blind challenge in which numerical predictions of nucleic acid mechanical properties were compared to experimental data obtained recently for dsRNA under applied force and torque. The predictions were enabled by the HelixMC package, first presented in this paper. HelixMC advances crystallography-derived base-pair level models (BPLMs) to simulate kilobase-length dsDNAs and dsRNAs under external forces and torques, including their global linking numbers. These calculations recovered the experimental bending persistence length of dsRNA within the error of the simulations and accurately predicted that dsRNA's “spring-like” conformation would give a two-fold decrease of stretch modulus relative to dsDNA. Further blind predictions of helix torsional properties, however, exposed inaccuracies in current BPLM theory, including three-fold discrepancies in torsional persistence length at the high force limit and the incorrect sign of dsRNA link-extension (twist-stretch) coupling. Beyond these experiments, HelixMC predicted that ‘nucleosome-excluding’ poly(A)/poly(T) is at least two-fold stiffer than random-sequence dsDNA in bending, stretching, and torsional behaviors; Z-DNA to be at least three-fold stiffer than random-sequence dsDNA, with a near-zero link-extension coupling; and non-negligible effects from base pair step correlations. We propose that experimentally testing these predictions should be powerful next steps for

  16. Magnesium-DNA interactions and the possible relation of magnesium to carcinogenesis. Irradiation and free radicals.

    PubMed

    Anastassopoulou, J; Theophanides, T

    2002-04-01

    Magnesium deficiency causes renal complications. The appearance of several diseases is related to its depletion in the human body. In radiotherapy, as well as in chemotherapy, especially in treatment of cancers with cis-platinum, hypomagnesaemia is observed. The site effects of chemotherapy that are due to hypomagnesaemia are decreased using Mg supplements. The role of magnesium in DNA stabilization is concentration dependent. At high concentrations there is an accumulation of Mg binding, which induces conformational changes leading to Z-DNA, while at low concentration there is deficiency and destabilization of DNA. The biological and clinical consequences of abnormal concentrations are DNA cleavage leading to diseases and cancer. Carcinogenesis and cell growth are also magnesium-ion concentration dependent. Several reports point out that the interaction of magnesium in the presence of other metal ions showed that there is synergism with Li and Mn, but there is magnesium antagonism in DNA binding with the essential metal ions in the order: Zn>Mg>Ca. In the case of toxic metals such as Cd, Ga and Ni there is also antagonism for DNA binding. It was found from radiolysis of deaerated aqueous solutions of the nucleoside 5'-guanosine monophosphate (5'-GMP) in the presence as well as in the absence of magnesium ions that, although the addition of hydroxyl radicals (*OH) has been increased by 2-fold, the opening of the imidazole ring of the guanine base was prevented. This effect was due to the binding of Mg2+ ions to N7 site of the molecule by stabilizing the five-member ring imitating cis-platinum. It was also observed using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and Fast Atom Bombardment mass spectrometry that *OH radicals subtract H atoms from the C1', C4' and C5' sites of the nucleotide. Irradiation of 5'-GMP in the presence of oxygen (2.5 x 10(-4) M) shows that magnesium is released from the complex. There is spectroscopic evidence that