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Sample records for z-pinch driven inertial

  1. Measurement of Radiation Symmetry in Z-Pinch Driven Hohlraums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, David L.

    2001-10-01

    The z-pinch driven hohlraum (ZPDH) is a promising approach to high yield inertial confinement fusion currently being characterized in experiments on the Sandia Z accelerator [1]. In this concept [2], x rays are produced by an axial z-pinch in a primary hohlraum at each end of a secondary hohlraum. A fusion capsule in the secondary is imploded by a symmetric x-ray flux distribution, effectively smoothed by wall reemission during transport to the capsule position. Capsule radiation symmetry, a critical issue in the design of such a system, is influenced by hohlraum geometry, wall motion and time-dependent albedo, as well as power balance and pinch timing between the two z-pinch x-ray sources. In initial symmetry studies on Z, we used solid low density burnthrough spheres to diagnose highly asymmetric, single-sided-drive hohlraum geometries. We then applied this technique to the more symmetric double z-pinch geometry [3]. As a result of design improvements, radiation flux symmetry in Z double-pinch wire array experiments now exceeds the measurement sensitivity of this self-backlit foam ball symmetry diagnostic (15% max-min flux asymmetry). To diagnose radiation symmetry at the 2 - 5% level attainable with our present ZPDH designs, we are using high-energy x rays produced by the recently-completed Z-Beamlet laser backlighter for point-projection imaging of thin-wall implosion and symmetry capsules. We will present the results of polar flux symmetry measuremets on Z for several ZPDH capsule geometries together with radiosity and radiation-hydrodynamics simulations for comparison. [1] M. E. Cuneo et al., Phys. Plasmas 8,2257(2001); [2] J. H. Hammer et al., Phys. Plasmas 6,2129(1999); [3] D. L. Hanson et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 45,360(2000).

  2. Optimization of Capsule Symmetry in Z-Pinch Driven Hohlraums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesey, R. A.; Cuneo, M.; Hanson, D.; Porter, J.; Mehlhorn, T.; Ruggles, L.; Simpson, W.; Vargas, M.; Hammer, J.; Landen, O.

    1999-11-01

    The uniformity of the radiation flux incident on the capsule is a critical issue for indirect drive fusion using the z-pinch driven hohlraum high-yield concept(J.H. Hammer et al., Phys. Plas. 6), 2129 (1999).. Experiments on the Z accelerator at Sandia have demonstrated the ability to diagnose the uniformity of the flux striking a foam ball (surrogate capsule)(P.A. Amendt et al., Phys. Plas. 4), 1862 (1997); S.G. Glendinning et al. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 536 (1999).. These single-sided drive experiments have been modeled using radiosity and radiation-hydrodynamics codes, yielding agreement with the measured ablation rate vs. angle on the foam ball. Flux uniformity at the 1-2% level needed for high-convergence capsule implosions requires a 2-sided drive (top and bottom z-pinch) configuration. Constrained optimization methods have identified hohlraum geometries with improved symmetry.

  3. Hotspot ignition using a Z-pinch precursor plasma in a magneto-inertial ICF scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chittenden, J. P.; Vincent, P.; Jennings, C. A.; Ciardi, A.

    2006-01-01

    Precursor plasma flow is a common feature of wire array Z-pinches. The precursor flow represents a fraction of the mass of the array which arrives on the axis early in time and remains confined at high density by the inertia of further material bombarding the axis. Later on, the main implosion of the Z-pinch then compresses this precursor to substantially higher density. We show that if the same system can be generated with a Deuterium-Tritium plasma then the precursor provides an ideal target for a cylindrical magneto-inertial ICF scheme. The implosion of the DT Z-pinch produces a dense, low temperature shell which compressively heats the precursor target to high temperatures and tamps its expansion. The azimuthal magnetic field in the hotspot is sufficient to reduce the Larmor radius for the alpha particles to much less than the hotspot size, which dramatically reduces the pR required for ignition. A computational analysis of this approach is presented, including a study of the thermonuclear burn wave propagation. The robustness of the scheme with respect to instabilities, confinement time and drive parameters is examined. The results indicate that a high energy gain can be achieved using Z-pinches with 50-100 MA currents and a few hundred nanosecond rise-times. This work was partially supported by the U.S. Department of Energy through cooperative agreement DE-FC03-02NA00057.

  4. Z-Pinch Magneto-Inertial Fusion Propulsion Engine Design Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miernik, Janie H.; Statham, Geoffrey; Adams, Robert B.; Polsgrove, Tara; Fincher, Sharon; Fabisinski, Leo; Maples, C. Dauphne; Percy, Thomas K.; Cortez, Ross J.; Cassibry, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Fusion-based nuclear propulsion has the potential to enable fast interplanetary transportation. Due to the great distances between the planets of our solar system and the harmful radiation environment of interplanetary space, high specific impulse (Isp) propulsion in vehicles with high payload mass fractions must be developed to provide practical and safe vehicles for human spaceflight missions. Magneto-Inertial Fusion (MIF) is an approach which has been shown to potentially lead to a low cost, small fusion reactor/engine assembly (1). The Z-Pinch dense plasma focus method is an MIF concept in which a column of gas is compressed to thermonuclear conditions by an estimated axial current of approximately 100 MA. Recent advancements in experiments and the theoretical understanding of this concept suggest favorable scaling of fusion power output yield as I(sup 4) (2). The magnetic field resulting from the large current compresses the plasma to fusion conditions, and this is repeated over short timescales (10(exp -6) sec). This plasma formation is widely used in the field of Nuclear Weapons Effects (NWE) testing in the defense industry, as well as in fusion energy research. There is a wealth of literature characterizing Z-Pinch physics and existing models (3-5). In order to be useful in engineering analysis, a simplified Z-Pinch fusion thermodynamic model was developed to determine the quantity of plasma, plasma temperature, rate of expansion, energy production, etc. to calculate the parameters that characterize a propulsion system. The amount of nuclear fuel per pulse, mixture ratio of the D-T and nozzle liner propellant, and assumptions about the efficiency of the engine, enabled the sizing of the propulsion system and resulted in an estimate of the thrust and Isp of a Z-Pinch fusion propulsion system for the concept vehicle. MIF requires a magnetic nozzle to contain and direct the nuclear pulses, as well as a robust structure and radiation shielding. The structure

  5. Designs and Plans for MAIZE: a 1 MA LTD-Driven Z-Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilgenbach, R. M.; Gomez, M. R.; Zier, J.; Tang, W.; French, D. M.; Hoff, B. W.; Jordan, N.; Cruz, E.; Lau, Y. Y.; Fowler-Guzzardo, T.; Meisel, J.; Mazarakis, M. G.; Cuneo, M. E.; Johnston, M. D.; Mehlhorn, T. A.; Kim, A. A.; Sinebryukhov, V. A.

    2007-11-01

    We present designs and experimental plans of the first 1 MA z-pinch in the USA to be driven by a Linear Transformer Driver (LTD). The Michigan Accelerator for Inductive Z-pinch Experiments, (MAIZE), is based on the LTD developed at the Institute for High Current Electronics, utilizing 80 capacitors and 40 spark gap switches to deliver a 1 MA, 100 kV pulse with <100 ns risetime. Designs will be presented of a low-inductance MITL terminated in a wire-array z-pinch. Initial, planned experiments will evaluate the LTD driving time-changing inductance of imploding 4-16 wire-array z-pinches. Wire ablation dynamics, axial-correlations and instability development will be explored. *This work was supported by U. S. DoE through Sandia National Laboratories award number 240985 to the University of Michigan. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  6. Polar Radiation-Flux Symmetry Measurements in Z-Pinch-Driven Hohlraums with Symmetric Double-Pinch Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, D. L.; Vesey, R. A.; Cuneo Porter, M. E., Jr.; Chandler, G. A.; Ruggles, L. E.; Simpson, W. W.; Seamen, H.; Primm, P.; Torres, J.; McGurn, J.; Gilliland, T. L.; Reynolds, P.; Hebron, D. E.; Dropinski, S. C.; Schroen-Carey, D. G.; Hammer, J. H.; Landen, O.; Koch, J.

    2000-10-01

    We are currently exploring symmetry requirements of the z-pinch-driven hohlraum concept [1] for high-yield inertial confinement fusion. In experiments on the Z accelerator, the burnthrough of a low-density self-backlit foam ball has been used to diagnose the large time-dependent flux asymmetry of several single-sided-drive hohlraum geometries [2]. We are currently applying this technique to study polar radiation flux symmetry in a symmetric double z-pinch geometry. Wire arrays on opposite ends of the hohlraum, connected in series to a single current drive of 18 MA, implode and stagnate on axis, efficiently radiating about 100 TW of x rays which heat the secondary to 75 eV. Comparisons with 3-D radiosity and 2-D rad-hydro models of hohlraum symmetry performance will be presented. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. 1 J. H. Hammer et al., Phys. Plasmas 6, 2129 (1999). 2 D. L. Hanson et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 44, 40 (1999).

  7. Capsule symmetry sensitivity and hohlraum symmetry calculations for the z-pinch driven hohlraum high-yield concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesey, Roger; Cuneo, M. E.; Hanson Porter, D. L., Jr.; Mehlhorn, T. A.; Ruggles, L. E.; Simpson, W. W.; Hammer, J. H.; Landen, O.

    2000-10-01

    Capsule radiation symmetry is a crucial issue in the design of the z-pinch driven hohlraum approach to high-yield inertial confinement fusion [1]. Capsule symmetry may be influenced by power imbalance of the two z-pinch x-ray sources, and by hohlraum effects (geometry, time-dependent albedo, wall motion). We have conducted two-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics calculations to estimate the symmetry sensitivity of the 220 eV beryllium ablator capsule that nominally yields 400 MJ in this concept. These estimates then determine the symmetry requirements to be met by the hohlraum design (for even Legendre modes) and by the top-bottom pinch imbalance and mistiming (for odd Legendre modes). We have used a combination of 2- and 3-D radiosity ("viewfactor"), and 2-D radiation-hydrodynamics calculations to identify hohlraum geometries that meet these symmetry requirements for high-yield, and are testing these models against ongoing Z foam ball symmetry experiments. 1. J. H. Hammer et al., Phys. Plas. 6, 2129 (1999).

  8. Experimental study of z-pinch driven radiative shocks in low density gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skidmore, Jonathan; Lebedev, S. V.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Swadling, G.; Bland, S. N.; Burdiak, G.; Chittenden, J. P.; de Grouchy, P.; Hall, G. N.; Pickworth, L.; Suttle, L.; Bennett, M.; Ciardi, A.

    2012-10-01

    Results of experiments performed on MAGPIE pulsed power facility (1.4MA, 250ns) will be presented. Shocks with velocities of 50-70km/s are driven in Ar, Xe and He gases at density ˜10-5g/cc using radial foil z-pinch configuration [1]. Measurements of the structure of the shocks obtained with laser probing will be presented and observations of the development of instabilities will be discussed. It was found that the structure of the shocks and the development of instabilities strongly depend on the rate of radiative cooling, increasing for gases with higher atomic numbers.[4pt] [1] F. Suzuki-Vidal et al., PoP 19, 022708 (2012)

  9. Particle drift model for Z-pinch-driven magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan, Jia Kun; Xu, Qiang; Wang, Kun Lun; Ren, Xiao Dong; Huang, Xian Bin

    2016-09-01

    A theoretical model of Z-pinch driven magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability is proposed based on the particle drift point of view, which can explain the helical instability structure observed in premagnetized imploding liner experiments. It is demonstrated that all possible drift motions, including polarization drift, gradient drift, and curvature drift, which can lead to charge separations, each will attribute to an effective gravity acceleration. Theoretical predictions given by this model are dramatically different from those given by previous theories which have been readily recovered in the theory presented here as a limiting case. The theory shows qualitative agreement with available experimental data of the pitch angle and provides certain predictions to be verified.

  10. Evolution of sausage and helical modes in magnetized thin-foil cylindrical liners driven by a Z-pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yager-Elorriaga, D. A.; Lau, Y. Y.; Zhang, P.; Campbell, P. C.; Steiner, A. M.; Jordan, N. M.; McBride, R. D.; Gilgenbach, R. M.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we present experimental results on axially magnetized (Bz = 0.5 - 2.0 T), thin-foil (400 nm-thick) cylindrical liner-plasmas driven with ˜600 kA by the Michigan Accelerator for Inductive Z-Pinch Experiments, which is a linear transformer driver at the University of Michigan. We show that: (1) the applied axial magnetic field, irrespective of its direction (e.g., parallel or anti-parallel to the flow of current), reduces the instability amplitude for pure magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes [defined as modes devoid of the acceleration-driven magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instability]; (2) axially magnetized, imploding liners (where MHD modes couple to MRT) generate m = 1 or m = 2 helical modes that persist from the implosion to the subsequent explosion stage; (3) the merging of instability structures is a mechanism that enables the appearance of an exponential instability growth rate for a longer than expected time-period; and (4) an inverse cascade in both the axial and azimuthal wavenumbers, k and m, may be responsible for the final m = 2 helical structure observed in our experiments. These experiments are particularly relevant to the magnetized liner inertial fusion program pursued at Sandia National Laboratories, where helical instabilities have been observed.

  11. Preconditioned wire array Z-pinches driven by a double pulse current generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jian; Lu, Yihan; Sun, Fengju; Li, Xingwen; Jiang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Daoyuan; Qiu, Aici; Lebedev, Sergey

    2018-07-01

    Suppression of the core-corona structure and wire ablation in wire array Z-pinches is investigated using a novel double pulse current generator ‘Qin-1’ facility. The ‘Qin-1’ facility allows coupling a ∼10 kA 20 ns prepulse generator with a ∼0.8 MA 160 ns main current generator. The tailored prepulse current preheats wires to a gaseous state and the time interval between the prepulse and the main current pulse allows formation of a more uniform mass distribution for the implosion. The implosion of a gasified two aluminum-wire array showed no ablation phase and allowed all array mass to participate in the implosion. The initial perturbations formed from the inhomogeneous ablation were suppressed, however, the magneto Rayleigh–Taylor (MRT) instability during the implosion was still significant and further researches on the generation and development of the MRT instabilities of this gasified wire array are needed.

  12. MAIZE: a 1 MA LTD-Driven Z-Pinch at The University of Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilgenbach, R. M.; Gomez, M. R.; Zier, J. C.; Tang, W. W.; French, D. M.; Lau, Y. Y.; Mazarakis, M. G.; Cuneo, M. E.; Johnston, M. D.; Oliver, B. V.; Mehlhorn, T. A.; Kim, A. A.; Sinebryukhov, V. A.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers at The University of Michigan have constructed and tested a 1-MA Linear Transformer Driver (LTD), the first of its type to reach the USA. The Michigan Accelerator for Inductive Z-pinch Experiments, (MAIZE), is based on the LTD developed at the Institute of High Current Electronics in collaboration with Sandia National Labs and UM. This LTD utilizes 80 capacitors and 40 spark gap switches, arranged in 40 "bricks," to deliver a 1 MA, 100 kV pulse with 100 ns risetime into a matched resistive load. Preliminary resistive-load test results are presented for the LTD facility. Planned experimental research programs at UM include: a) Studies of Magneto-Raleigh-Taylor instability of planar foils, and b) Vacuum convolute studies including cathode and anode plasma.

  13. Construction and Initial Tests of MAIZE: 1 MA LTD-Driven Z-Pinch *

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilgenbach, R. M.; Gomez, M. R.; Zier, J. C.; Tang, W.; French, D. M.; Lau, Y. Y.; Mazarakis, M. G.; Cuneo, M. E.; Johnston, M. D.; Oliver, B. V.; Mehlhorn, T. A.; Kim, A. A.; Sinebryukhov, V. A.

    2008-11-01

    We report construction and initial testing of a 1-MA Linear Transformer Driver (LTD), The Michigan Accelerator for Inductive Z-pinch Experiments, (MAIZE). This machine, the first of its type to reach the USA, is based on the joint HCEI, Sandia Laboratories, and UM development effort. The compact LTD uses 80 capacitors and 40 spark gap switches, in 40 ``bricks'', to deliver 1 MA, 100 kV pulses with 70 ns risetime into a matched resistive load. Test results will be presented for a single brick and the full LTD. Design and construction will be presented of a low-inductance MITL. Experimental research programs under design and construction at UM include: a) Studies of Magneto-Raleigh-Taylor Instability of planar foils, and b) Vacuum convolute studies including cathode and anode plasma. Theory and simulation results will be presented for these planned experiments. Initial experimental designs and moderate-current feasibility experiments will be discussed. *Research supported by U. S. DoE through Sandia National Laboratories award document numbers 240985, 768225, 790791 and 805234 to the UM. MRG supported by NNSA Fellowship and JCZ supported by NPSC Fellowship / Sandia National Labs.

  14. Compression of an Applied Bz field by a z-pinch onto a Tamped DT Fiber for Inertial Confinement Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nash, Tom

    2009-11-01

    Simulations of a z-pinch compressing an applied 100 kG Bz field onto an on-axis DT fiber tamped with beryllium show the field reaching over 100 MG in the tamp, sufficient to confine DT alpha particles and to form a thermal barrier. The barrier allows the DT plasma to burn at a rho*r value as low as 0.045 g/cm^2, and at temperatures over 50 keV for a 63 MA drive current. Driving currents between 21 and 63 MA are considered with cryogenic DT fiber diameters between 600 μm and 1.6 mm. Pinch implosion times are 120 ns with a peak implosion velocity of 35 cm/μs. 1D simulations are of a foil pinch, but for improved stability we propose a nested wire-array. Simulated fusion yields with this system scale as the sixth power of the current, with burn fractions scaling as the fourth power of the current. At 63 MA the simulated yield is 521 MJ from 4.2 mg/cm of DT with a 37% burn fraction at a rho*r of only 0.18 g/cm^2.

  15. Fusion in a staged Z-pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessel, F. J.; Rahman, H. U.; Ney, P.; Valenzuela, J.; Beg, F.; McKee, E.; Darling, T.

    2016-03-01

    This paper is dedicated to Norman Rostoker, our (FJW and HUR) mentor and long-term collaborator, who will always be remembered for the incredible inspiration that he has provided us. Norman's illustrious career dealt with a broad range of fundamental-physics problems and we were fortunate to have worked with him on many important topics: intense-charged-particle beams, field-reversed configurations, and Z-pinches. Rostoker 's group at the University of CA, Irvine was well known for having implemented many refinements to the Z-pinch, that make it more stable, scalable, and efficient, including the development of: the gas-puff Z-pinch [1], which provides for the use of an expanded range of pinch-load materials; the gas-mixture Z-pinch [2], which enhances the pinch stability and increases its radiation efficiency; e-beam pre-ionization [3], which enhances the uniformity of the initial-breakdown process in a gas pinch; magnetic-flux-compression [4, 5], which allows for the amplification of an axial-magnetic field Bz; the Z-θ pinch [6], which predicts fusion in a pinch-on-fiber configuration; the Staged Z-pinch (SZP) [7], which allows for the amplification of the pinch self-magnetic field, Bθ , in addition to a Bz, and leads to a stable implosion and high-gain fusion [8, 9, 10]. This paper describes the physical basis for a magneto-inertial compression in a liner-on-target SZP [11]. Initially a high-atomic-number liner implodes under the action of the J →×B → , Lorentz Force. As the implosion becomes super Alfvénic, magnetosonic waves form, transporting current and magnetic field through the liner toward the interface of the low-atomic-number target. The target implosion remains subsonic with its surface bounded by a stable-shock front. Shock waves that pass into the target provide a source of target plasma pre-heat. At peak compression the assembly is compressed by liner inertia, with flux compression producing an intense-magnetic field near the target

  16. Dynamics of a Z-pinch x-ray source for heating inertial-confinement-fusion relevant hohlraums to 120-160 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanford, T. W. L.; Olson, R. E.; Mock, R. C.; Chandler, G. A.; Leeper, R. J.; Nash, T. J.; Ruggles, L. E.; Simpson, W. W.; Struve, K. W.; Peterson, D. L.; Bowers, R. L.; Matuska, W.

    2000-11-01

    A Z-pinch radiation source has been developed that generates 60±20 kJ of x rays with a peak power of 13±4 TW through a 4-mm-diam axial aperture on the Z facility. The source has heated National Ignition Facility-scale (6-mm-diam by 7-mm-high) hohlraums to 122±6 eV and reduced-scale (4-mm-diam by 4-mm-high) hohlraums to 155±8 eV—providing environments suitable for indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion studies. Eulerian-RMHC (radiation-magnetohydrodynamics code) simulations that take into account the development of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the r-z plane provide integrated calculations of the implosion, x-ray generation, and hohlraum heating, as well as estimates of wall motion and plasma fill within the hohlraums. Lagrangian-RMHC simulations suggest that the addition of a 6 mg/cm3 CH2 fill in the reduced-scale hohlraum decreases hohlraum inner-wall velocity by ˜40% with only a 3%-5% decrease in peak temperature, in agreement with measurements.

  17. Z-Pinch Fusion Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miernik, Janie

    2011-01-01

    Fusion-based nuclear propulsion has the potential to enable fast interplanetary transportation. Shorter trips are better for humans in the harmful radiation environment of deep space. Nuclear propulsion and power plants can enable high Ispand payload mass fractions because they require less fuel mass. Fusion energy research has characterized the Z-Pinch dense plasma focus method. (1) Lightning is form of pinched plasma electrical discharge phenomena. (2) Wire array Z-Pinch experiments are commonly studied and nuclear power plant configurations have been proposed. (3) Used in the field of Nuclear Weapons Effects (NWE) testing in the defense industry, nuclear weapon x-rays are simulated through Z-Pinch phenomena.

  18. Recent advances in theoretical and numerical studies of wire array Z-pinch in the IAPCM

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Ning, E-mail: ding-ning@iapcm.ac.cn; Zhang, Yang, E-mail: ding-ning@iapcm.ac.cn; Xiao, Delong, E-mail: ding-ning@iapcm.ac.cn

    2014-12-15

    Fast Z-pinch has produced the most powerful X-ray radiation source in laboratory and also shows the possibility to drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Recent advances in wire-array Z-pinch researches at the Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics are presented in this paper. A typical wire array Z-pinch process has three phases: wire plasma formation and ablation, implosion and the MRT instability development, stagnation and radiation. A mass injection model with azimuthal modulation coefficient is used to describe the wire initiation, and the dynamics of ablated plasmas of wire-array Z-pinches in (r, θ) geometry is numerically studied. In the implosionmore » phase, a two-dimensional(r, z) three temperature radiation MHD code MARED has been developed to investigate the development of the Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor(MRT) instability. We also analyze the implosion modes of nested wire-array and find that the inner wire-array is hardly affected before the impaction of the outer wire-array. While the plasma accelerated to high speed in the implosion stage stagnates on the axis, abundant x-ray radiation is produced. The energy spectrum of the radiation and the production mechanism are investigated. The computational x-ray pulse shows a reasonable agreement with the experimental result. We also suggest that using alloyed wire-arrays can increase multi-keV K-shell yield by decreasing the opacity of K-shell lines. In addition, we use a detailed circuit model to study the energy coupling between the generator and the Z-pinch implosion. Recently, we are concentrating on the problems of Z-pinch driven ICF, such as dynamic hohlraum and capsule implosions. Our numerical investigations on the interaction of wire-array Z-pinches on foam convertors show qualitative agreements with experimental results on the “Qiangguang I” facility. An integrated two-dimensional simulation of dynamic hohlraum driven capsule implosion provides us the physical insights of

  19. Z-Pinch Pulsed Plasma Propulsion Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polsgrove, Tara; Adams, Robert B.; Fabisinski, Leo; Fincher, Sharon; Maples, C. Dauphne; Miernik, Janie; Percy, Tom; Statham, Geoff; Turner, Matt; Cassibry, Jason; hide

    2010-01-01

    Fusion-based propulsion can enable fast interplanetary transportation. Magneto-inertial fusion (MIF) is an approach which has been shown to potentially lead to a low cost, small reactor for fusion break even. The Z-Pinch/dense plasma focus method is an MIF concept in which a column of gas is compressed to thermonuclear conditions by an axial current (I approximates 100 MA). Recent advancements in experiments and the theoretical understanding of this concept suggest favorable scaling of fusion power output yield as I(sup 4). This document presents a conceptual design of a Z-Pinch fusion propulsion system and a vehicle for human exploration. The purpose of this study is to apply Z-Pinch fusion principles to the design of a propulsion system for an interplanetary spacecraft. This study took four steps in service of that objective; these steps are identified below. 1. Z-Pinch Modeling and Analysis: There is a wealth of literature characterizing Z-Pinch physics and existing Z-Pinch physics models. In order to be useful in engineering analysis, simplified Z-Pinch fusion thermodynamic models are required to give propulsion engineers the quantity of plasma, plasma temperature, rate of expansion, etc. The study team developed these models in this study. 2. Propulsion Modeling and Analysis: While the Z-Pinch models characterize the fusion process itself, propulsion models calculate the parameters that characterize the propulsion system (thrust, specific impulse, etc.) The study team developed a Z-Pinch propulsion model and used it to determine the best values for pulse rate, amount of propellant per pulse, and mixture ratio of the D-T and liner materials as well as the resulting thrust and specific impulse of the system. 3. Mission Analysis: Several potential missions were studied. Trajectory analysis using data from the propulsion model was used to determine the duration of the propulsion burns, the amount of propellant expended to complete each mission considered. 4

  20. α Heating in a Stagnated Z-pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appelbe, Brian; Chittenden, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    A computational investigation of a scheme for magneto-inertial confinement fusion in a Z-pinch is carried out. In the scheme implosion of a deuterium-tritium fuel mass is preceded by formation of a hotspot containing warm, dense plasma on axis. The presence of the hotspot increases energy yield. Compression of the hotspot by the main fuel mass initiates thermonuclear burn. There is significant heating of the plasma by thermonuclear α particles which are confined by the strong magnetic field of the Z-pinch.

  1. Preliminary experimental results of tungsten wire-array Z-pinches on primary test stand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xian-Bin; Zhou, Shao-Tong; Dan, Jia-Kun; Ren, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Kun-Lun; Zhang, Si-Qun; Li, Jing; Xu, Qiang; Cai, Hong-Chun; Duan, Shu-Chao; Ouyang, Kai; Chen, Guang-Hua; Ji, Ce; Wei, Bing; Feng, Shu-Ping; Wang, Meng; Xie, Wei-Ping; Deng, Jian-Jun; Zhou, Xiu-Wen; Yang, Yi

    2015-07-01

    The Primary Test Stand (PTS) developed at the China Academy of Engineering Physics is a 20 TW pulsed power driver, which can deliver a ˜10 MA, 70 ns rise-time (10%-90%) current to a short-circuit load and has important applications in Z-pinch driven inertial confinement fusion and high energy density physics. Preliminary results of tungsten wire-array Z-pinch experiments on PTS are presented. The load geometries investigated include 15-mm-tall cylindrical single and nested arrays with diameter ranging from 13 mm to 30 mm, consisting of 132-300 tungsten wires with 5-10 μm in diameter. Multiple diagnostics were fielded to characterize the x-ray radiation from wire-array Z pinches. The x-ray peak power (˜50 TW) and total radiated energy (˜500 kJ) were obtained from a single 20-mm-diam array with 80-ns stagnation time. The highest x-ray peak power up to 80 TW with 2.4 ns FWHM was achieved by using a nested array with 20-mm outer diameter, and the total x-ray energy from the nested array is comparable to that of single array. Implosion velocity estimated from the time-resolved image measurement exceeds 30 cm/μs. The detailed experimental results and other findings are presented and discussed.

  2. Fusion Propulsion Z-Pinch Engine Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miernik, J.; Statham, G.; Fabisinski, L.; Maples, C. D.; Adams, R.; Polsgrove, T.; Fincher, S.; Cassibry, J.; Cortez, R.; Turner, M.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Fusion-based nuclear propulsion has the potential to enable fast interplanetary transportation. Due to the great distances between the planets of our solar system and the harmful radiation environment of interplanetary space, high specific impulse (Isp) propulsion in vehicles with high payload mass fractions must be developed to provide practical and safe vehicles for human spaceflight missions. The Z-Pinch dense plasma focus method is a Magneto-Inertial Fusion (MIF) approach that may potentially lead to a small, low cost fusion reactor/engine assembly1. Recent advancements in experimental and theoretical understanding of this concept suggest favorable scaling of fusion power output yield 2. The magnetic field resulting from the large current compresses the plasma to fusion conditions, and this process can be pulsed over short timescales (10(exp -6 sec). This type of plasma formation is widely used in the field of Nuclear Weapons Effects testing in the defense industry, as well as in fusion energy research. A Decade Module 2 (DM2), approx.500 KJ pulsed-power is coming to the RSA Aerophysics Lab managed by UAHuntsville in January, 2012. A Z-Pinch propulsion concept was designed for a vehicle based on a previous fusion vehicle study called "Human Outer Planet Exploration" (HOPE), which used Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) 3 propulsion. The reference mission is the transport of crew and cargo to Mars and back, with a reusable vehicle.

  3. The microscopic Z-pinch process of current-carrying rarefied deuterium plasma shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Cheng; Feng, Zhixing; Xue, Chuang; Li, Baiwen

    2015-02-01

    For insight into the microscopic mechanism of Z-pinch dynamic processes, a code of two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation has been developed in cylindrical coordinates. In principle, the Z-pinch of current-carrying rarefied deuterium plasma shell has been simulated by means of this code. Many results related to the microscopic processes of the Z-pinch are obtained. They include the spatio-temporal distributions of electromagnetic field, current density, forces experienced by the ions and electrons, positions and energy distributions of particles, and trailing mass and current. In radial direction, the electric and magnetic forces exerted on the electrons are comparable in magnitude, while the forces exerted on the ions are mainly the electric forces. So in the Z-pinch process, the electrons are first accelerated in Z direction and get higher velocities; then, they are driven inwards to the axis at the same time by the radial magnetic forces (i.e., Lorentz forces) of them. That causes the separations between the electrons and ions because the ion mass is much larger than the electron's, and in turn a strong electrostatic field is produced. The produced electrostatic field attracts the ions to move towards the electrons. When the electrons are driven along the radial direction to arrive at the axis, they shortly move inversely due to the static repellency among them and their tiny mass, while the ions continue to move inertially inwards, and later get into stagnation, and finally scatter outwards. Near the stagnation, the energies of the deuterium ions mostly range from 0.3 to 6 keV, while the electron energies are mostly from 5 to 35 keV. The radial components, which can contribute to the pinched plasma temperature, of the most probable energies of electron and ion at the stagnation are comparable to the Bennett equilibrium temperature (about 1 keV), and also to the highest temperatures of electron and ion obtained in one dimensional radiation

  4. Z-Pinch Fusion for Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect

    SPIELMAN,RICK B.

    2000-01-01

    Z pinches, the oldest fusion concept, have recently been revisited in light of significant advances in the fields of plasma physics and pulsed power engineering. The possibility exists for z-pinch fusion to play a role in commercial energy applications. We report on work to develop z-pinch fusion concepts, the result of an extensive literature search, and the output for a congressionally-mandated workshop on fusion energy held in Snowmass, Co July 11-23,1999.

  5. Neutron generation from Z-pinches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vikhrev, V. V.; Korolev, V. D.

    2007-05-01

    Recent advances in both experimental and theoretical studies on neutron generation in various Z-pinch facilities are reviewed. The main methods for enhancing neutron emission from the Z-pinch plasma are described, and the problems of igniting a thermonuclear burn wave in this plasma are discussed.

  6. Analytic model for the dynamic Z-pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Piriz, A. R., E-mail: roberto.piriz@uclm.es; Sun, Y. B.; Tahir, N. A.

    2015-06-15

    A model is presented for describing the cylindrical implosion of a shock wave driven by an accelerated piston. It is based in the identification of the acceleration of the shocked mass with the acceleration of the piston. The model yields the separate paths of the piston and the shock. In addition, by considering that the shocked region evolves isentropically, the approximate profiles of all the magnitudes in the shocked region are obtained. The application to the dynamic Z-pinch is presented and the results are compared with the well known snowplow and slug models which are also derived as limiting casesmore » of the present model. The snowplow model is seen to yield a trajectory in between those of the shock and the piston. Instead, the neglect of the inertial effects in the slug model is seen to produce a too fast implosion, and the pressure uniformity is shown to lead to an unphysical instantaneous piston stopping when the shock arrives to the axis.« less

  7. Dynamics of conical wire array Z-pinch implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Ampleford, D. J.; Lebedev, S. V.; Bland, S. N.

    2007-10-15

    A modification of the wire array Z pinch, the conical wire array, has applications to the understanding of wire array implosions and potentially to pulse shaping relevant to inertial confinement fusion. Results are presented from imploding conical wire array experiments performed on university scale 1 MA generators--the MAGPIE generator (1 MA, 240 ns) at Imperial College London [I. H. Mitchell et al., Rev. Sci Instrum. 67, 1533 (1996)] and the Nevada Terawatt Facility's Zebra generator (1 MA, 100 ns) at the University of Nevada, Reno [B. Bauer et al., in Dense Z-Pinches, edited by N. Pereira, J. Davis, and P.more » Pulsifer (AIP, New York, 1997), Vol. 409, p. 153]. This paper will discuss the implosion dynamics of conical wire arrays. Data indicate that mass ablation from the wires in this complex system can be reproduced with a rocket model with fixed ablation velocity. Modulations in the ablated plasma are present, the wavelength of which is invariant to a threefold variation in magnetic field strength. The axial variation in the array leads to a zippered precursor column formation. An initial implosion of a magnetic bubble near the cathode is followed by the implosion zippering upwards. Spectroscopic data demonstrating a variation of plasma parameters (e.g., electron temperature) along the Z-pinch axis is discussed, and experimental data are compared to magnetohydrodynamic simulations.« less

  8. Primary experimental results of wire-array Z-pinches on PTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, X. B.; Zhou, S. T.; Ren, X. D.; Dan, J. K.; Wang, K. L.; Zhang, S. Q.; Li, J.; Xu, Q.; Cai, H. C.; Duan, S. C.; Ouyang, K.; Chen, G. H.; Ji, C.; Wang, M.; Feng, S. P.; Yang, L. B.; Xie, W. P.; Deng, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Primary Test Stand (PTS) developed at the China Academy of Engineering Physics is a multiterawatt pulsed power driver, which can deliver a ˜10 MA, 70 ns rise-time (10%-90%) current to a short circuit load and has important applications in Z-pinch driven inertial confinement fusion and high energy density physics. In this paper, primary results of tungsten wire-array Z-pinch experiments on PTS are presented. The load geometries investigated include 15-mm-tall cylindrical single and nested arrays with diameter ranging from 14.4-26.4 mm, and consisting of 132˜276 tungsten wires with 5˜10 μm in diameter. Multiple diagnostics were fielded to determine the characteristics of x-ray radiations and to obtain self-emitting images of imploding plasmas. X-ray power up to 80 TW with ˜3 ns FWMH is achieved by using nested wire arrays. The total x-ray energy exceeds 500 kJ and the peak radiation temperature is about 150 eV. Typical velocity of imploding plasmas goes around 3˜5×107 cm/s and the radial convergence ratio is between 10 and 20.

  9. Review of effects of dielectric coatings on electrical exploding wires and Z pinches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jian; Li, Xingwen; Li, Mo; Li, Yang; Qiu, Aici

    2017-10-01

    As the most powerful x-ray source in the laboratories, the wire array Z pinches have been of great relevance to inertial confinement fusions, laboratory astrophysics, and other high-energy density applications. In order to produce x-ray with greater power and higher efficiency, the dynamics of wire array has been investigated extensively, and various methods have been proposed to improve the implosion quality of the wire array. This review focuses on the experimental and theoretical investigations regarding the effects of the dielectric coatings on electrical exploding wires and Z pinches. Since the early 2000, the electrical wire explosion related to the first stage of the wire array Z pinches has been studied extensively, and the results indicated that the dielectric coatings can significantly increase the joule energy deposition into a wire in the initial stage, and even the corona free explosion of tungsten wires can be achieved. Recently, there is an increasing interest in the dynamics of insulated wire array Z pinches. By applying dielectric coatings, the ablation process is suppressed, the x-ray start time is delayed, and the possibility of multi-peak radiation is decreased. This review is organized by the evolution dynamics of wire array Z pinches, and a broad introduction to relevant scientific concepts and various other applications are presented. According to the current research status, the challenges, opportunities and further developments of Z pinch loads using dielectric coatings are proposed to further promote the researches and their applications.

  10. Theoretical z -pinch scaling relations for thermonuclear-fusion experiments.

    PubMed

    Stygar, W A; Cuneo, M E; Vesey, R A; Ives, H C; Mazarakis, M G; Chandler, G A; Fehl, D L; Leeper, R J; Matzen, M K; McDaniel, D H; McGurn, J S; McKenney, J L; Muron, D J; Olson, C L; Porter, J L; Ramirez, J J; Seamen, J F; Speas, C S; Spielman, R B; Struve, K W; Torres, J A; Waisman, E M; Wagoner, T C; Gilliland, T L

    2005-08-01

    We have developed wire-array z -pinch scaling relations for plasma-physics and inertial-confinement-fusion (ICF) experiments. The relations can be applied to the design of z -pinch accelerators for high-fusion-yield (approximately 0.4 GJ/shot) and inertial-fusion-energy (approximately 3 GJ/shot) research. We find that (delta(a)/delta(RT)) proportional (m/l)1/4 (Rgamma)(-1/2), where delta(a) is the imploding-sheath thickness of a wire-ablation-dominated pinch, delta(RT) is the sheath thickness of a Rayleigh-Taylor-dominated pinch, m is the total wire-array mass, l is the axial length of the array, R is the initial array radius, and gamma is a dimensionless functional of the shape of the current pulse that drives the pinch implosion. When the product Rgamma is held constant the sheath thickness is, at sufficiently large values of m/l, determined primarily by wire ablation. For an ablation-dominated pinch, we estimate that the peak radiated x-ray power P(r) proportional (I/tau(i))(3/2)Rlphigamma, where I is the peak pinch current, tau(i) is the pinch implosion time, and phi is a dimensionless functional of the current-pulse shape. This scaling relation is consistent with experiment when 13 MA < or = I < or = 20 MA, 93 ns < or = tau(i) < or = 169 ns, 10 mm < or = R < or = 20 mm, 10 mm < or = l < or = 20 mm, and 2.0 mg/cm < or = m/l < or = 7.3 mg/cm. Assuming an ablation-dominated pinch and that Rlphigamma is held constant, we find that the x-ray-power efficiency eta(x) congruent to P(r)/P(a) of a coupled pinch-accelerator system is proportional to (tau(i)P(r)(7/9 ))(-1), where P(a) is the peak accelerator power. The pinch current and accelerator power required to achieve a given value of P(r) are proportional to tau(i), and the requisite accelerator energy E(a) is proportional to tau2(i). These results suggest that the performance of an ablation-dominated pinch, and the efficiency of a coupled pinch-accelerator system, can be improved substantially by decreasing the

  11. Z-Pinch fusion-based nuclear propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miernik, J.; Statham, G.; Fabisinski, L.; Maples, C. D.; Adams, R.; Polsgrove, T.; Fincher, S.; Cassibry, J.; Cortez, R.; Turner, M.; Percy, T.

    2013-02-01

    Fusion-based nuclear propulsion has the potential to enable fast interplanetary transportation. Due to the great distances between the planets of our solar system and the harmful radiation environment of interplanetary space, high specific impulse (Isp) propulsion in vehicles with high payload mass fractions must be developed to provide practical and safe vehicles for human space flight missions. The Z-Pinch dense plasma focus method is a Magneto-Inertial Fusion (MIF) approach that may potentially lead to a small, low cost fusion reactor/engine assembly [1]. Recent advancements in experimental and theoretical understanding of this concept suggest favorable scaling of fusion power output yield [2]. The magnetic field resulting from the large current compresses the plasma to fusion conditions, and this process can be pulsed over short timescales (10-6 s). This type of plasma formation is widely used in the field of Nuclear Weapons Effects testing in the defense industry, as well as in fusion energy research. A Z-Pinch propulsion concept was designed for a vehicle based on a previous fusion vehicle study called "Human Outer Planet Exploration" (HOPE), which used Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) [3] propulsion. The reference mission is the transport of crew and cargo to Mars and back, with a reusable vehicle. The analysis of the Z-Pinch MIF propulsion system concludes that a 40-fold increase of Isp over chemical propulsion is predicted. An Isp of 19,436 s and thrust of 3812 N s/pulse, along with nearly doubling the predicted payload mass fraction, warrants further development of enabling technologies.

  12. Producing High-Performance, Stable, Sheared-Flow Z-Pinches in the FuZE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golingo, R. P.; Shumlak, U.,; Nelson, B. A.; Claveau, E. L.; Forbes, E. G.; Stepanov, A. D.; Weber, T. R.; Zhang, Y.; McLean, H. S.; Tummel, K. K.; Higginson, D. P.; Schmidt, A. E.; University of Washington (UW) Collaboration; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    The Fusion Z-Pinch Experiment (FuZE) has made significant strides towards generating high-performance, stable Z-pinch plasmas with goals of ne = 1018 cm-3 and T =1 keV. The Z-pinch plasmas are stabilized with a sheared axial flow that is driven by a coaxial accelerator. The new FuZE device has been constructed and reproduces the major scientific achievements the ZaP project at the University of Washington; ne = 1016 cm-3,T = 100 eV, r<1 cm, and tstable >20 μs. These parameters are measured with an array of magnetic field probes, spectroscopy, and fast framing cameras. The plasma parameters are achieved using a small fraction of the maximum energy storage and gas injection capability of the FuZE device. Higher density, ne = 5×1017 cm-3, and temperature, T = 500 eV, Z-pinch plasmas are formed by increasing the pinch current. At the higher voltages and currents, the ionization rates in the accelerator increase. By modifying the neutral gas profile in the accelerator, the plasma flow from the accelerator is maintained, driving the flow shear. Formation and sustainment of the sheared-flow Z-pinch plasma will be discussed. Experimental data demonstrating high performance plasmas in a stable Z-pinches will be shown. This work is supported by an award from US ARPA-E.

  13. A conservative MHD scheme on unstructured Lagrangian grids for Z-pinch hydrodynamic simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Fuyuan; Ramis, Rafael; Li, Zhenghong

    2018-03-01

    A new algorithm to model resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) in Z-pinches has been developed. Two-dimensional axisymmetric geometry with azimuthal magnetic field Bθ is considered. Discretization is carried out using unstructured meshes made up of arbitrarily connected polygons. The algorithm is fully conservative for mass, momentum, and energy. Matter energy and magnetic energy are managed separately. The diffusion of magnetic field is solved using a derivative of the Symmetric-Semi-Implicit scheme, Livne et al. (1985) [23], where unconditional stability is obtained without needing to solve large sparse systems of equations. This MHD package has been integrated into the radiation-hydrodynamics code MULTI-2D, Ramis et al. (2009) [20], that includes hydrodynamics, laser energy deposition, heat conduction, and radiation transport. This setup allows to simulate Z-pinch configurations relevant for Inertial Confinement Fusion.

  14. On the Heating of Ions in Noncylindrical Z-Pinches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svirsky, E. B.

    2018-01-01

    The method proposed here for analyzing processes in a hot plasma of noncylindrical Z-pinches is based on separation of the group of high-energy ions into a special fraction. Such ions constitute an insignificant fraction ( 10%) of the total volume of the Z-pinch plasma, but these ions contribute the most to the formation of conditions in which the pinch becomes a source of nuclear fusion products and X-ray radiation. The method allows a quite correct approach to obtaining quantitative estimates of the plasma parameters, the nuclear fusion energy yield, and the features of neutron fluxes in experiments with Z-pinches.

  15. About plasma points' generation in Z-pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonin, V. I.; Potapov, A. V.; Lazarchuk, V. P.; Murugov, V. M.; Senik, A. V.

    1997-05-01

    The streak tube study results (at visible and x-ray ranges) of dynamics of fast Z-pinch formed at explosion of metal wire in diode of high current generator are presented. Amplitude of current in the load reached ˜180 kA at increase time ˜50 ns. The results' analysis points to capability of controlling hot plasma points generation process in Z-pinch.

  16. Small-amplitude magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth in cylindrical liners and Z-pinches imploded in an axial magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velikovich, A. L.; Giuliani, J. L.; Clark, R. W.; Mikitchuk, D.; Kroupp, E.; Maron, Y.; Fisher, A.; Schmit, P. F.

    2014-10-01

    Recent progress in developing the MagLIF approach to pulsed-power driven inertial confinement fusion has stimulated the interest in observation and mitigation of the magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability (MRTI) of liners and Z-pinches imploded in an axial magnetic field. Theoretical analysis of these issues is particularly important because direct numerical simulation of the MRTI development is challenging due to intrinsically 3D helical structure of the fastest-growing modes. We review the analytical small-amplitude theory of the MRTI perturbation development and the weakly nonlinear theory of MRTI mode interaction, emphasizing basic physics, opportunity for 3D code verification against exact analytical solutions, and stabilization criteria. The theory is compared to the experimental results obtained at Weizmann Institute with gas-puff Z pinches and on the Z facility at Sandia with solid liners imploded in an axial magnetic field. Work supported by the US DOE/NNSA, and by the US-Israel Binational Science Foundation. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  17. Wire-number effects on high-power annular z-pinches and some characteristics at high wire number

    SciTech Connect

    SANFORD,THOMAS W. L.

    2000-05-23

    Characteristics of annular wire-array z-pinches as a function of wire number and at high wire number are reviewed. The data, taken primarily using aluminum wires on Saturn are comprehensive. The experiments have provided important insights into the features of wire-array dynamics critical for high x-ray power generation, and have initiated a renaissance in z-pinches when high numbers of wires are used. In this regime, for example, radiation environments characteristic of those encountered during the early pulses required for indirect-drive ICF ignition on the NIF have been produced in hohlraums driven by x-rays from a z-pinch, and are commented on here.

  18. Internally driven inertial waves in geodynamo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjan, A.; Davidson, P. A.; Christensen, U. R.; Wicht, J.

    2018-05-01

    Inertial waves are oscillations in a rotating fluid, such as the Earth's outer core, which result from the restoring action of the Coriolis force. In an earlier work, it was argued by Davidson that inertial waves launched near the equatorial regions could be important for the α2 dynamo mechanism, as they can maintain a helicity distribution which is negative (positive) in the north (south). Here, we identify such internally driven inertial waves, triggered by buoyant anomalies in the equatorial regions in a strongly forced geodynamo simulation. Using the time derivative of vertical velocity, ∂uz/∂t, as a diagnostic for traveling wave fronts, we find that the horizontal movement in the buoyancy field near the equator is well correlated with a corresponding movement of the fluid far from the equator. Moreover, the azimuthally averaged spectrum of ∂uz/∂t lies in the inertial wave frequency range. We also test the dispersion properties of the waves by computing the spectral energy as a function of frequency, ϖ, and the dispersion angle, θ. Our results suggest that the columnar flow in the rotation-dominated core, which is an important ingredient for the maintenance of a dipolar magnetic field, is maintained despite the chaotic evolution of the buoyancy field on a fast timescale by internally driven inertial waves.

  19. Linear Transformer Drivers for Z-pinch Based Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Robert; Seidler, William; Giddens, Patrick; Fabisinski, Leo; Cassibry, Jason

    2017-01-01

    The MSFC/UAH team has been developing of a novel power management and distribution system called a Linear Transformer Driver (LTD). LTD's hold the promise of dramatically reducing the required mass to drive a z-pinch by replacing the capacitor banks which constitute half the mass of the entire system. The MSFC?UAH tea, is developing this technology in hope of integrating it with the Pulsed Fission Fusion (PuFF) propulsion concept. High-Voltage pulsed power systems used for Z-Pinch experimentation have in the past largely been based on Marx Generators. Marx generators deliver the voltage and current required for the Z-Pinch, but suffer from two significant drawbacks when applied to a flight system: they are very massive, consisting of high-voltage capacitor banks insulated in oil-filled tanks and they do not lend themselves to rapid pulsing. The overall goal of Phase 2 is to demonstrate the construction of a higher voltage stack from a number of cavities each of the design proven in Phase 1 and to characterize and understand the techniques for designing the stack. The overall goal of Phase 3 is to demonstrate the feasibility of constructing a higher energy cavity from a number of smaller LTD stacks, to characterize and understand the way in which the constituent stacks combine, and to extend this demonstration LTD to serve as the basis for a 64 kJ pulse generator for Z-Pinch experiments.

  20. Using a Z-pinch precursor plasma to produce a cylindrical, hotspot ignition, ICF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chittenden, Jeremy

    2005-10-01

    We show that if the same precursor plasma that exists in metal wire arrays can be generated with a Deuterium-Tritium plasma then this precursor provides an ideal target for a cylindrical magneto-inertial ICF scheme. The precursor is generated from a fraction of the mass of the array which arrives on the axis early in time and remains confined at high density by the inertia of further material bombarding the axis. Later on, the main implosion of the DT Z-pinch produces a dense, low temperature shell which compressively heats the precursor target to high temperatures and tamps its expansion. The azimuthal magnetic field in the hotspot is sufficient to reduce the Larmor radius for the alpha particles to much less than the hotspot size, which dramatically reduces the ρR required for ignition. A computational analysis of this approach is presented, including a study of the thermonuclear burn wave propagation. The robustness of the scheme with respect to instabilities, confinement time and drive parameters is examined. The results indicate that a high energy gain can be achieved using Z-pinches with 50-100 MA currents and a few hundred nanosecond rise-times. This work was partially supported by the U.S. Department of Energy through cooperative agreement DE-FC03-02NA00057.

  1. Radiation characteristics and implosion dynamics of Z-pinch dynamic hohlraums performed on PTS facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xian Bin; Ren, Xiao Dong; Dan, Jia Kun; Wang, Kun Lun; Xu, Qiang; Zhou, Shao Tong; Zhang, Si Qun; Cai, Hong Chun; Li, Jing; Wei, Bing; Ji, Ce; Feng, Shu Ping; Wang, Meng; Xie, Wei Ping; Deng, Jian Jun

    2017-09-01

    The preliminary experimental results of Z-pinch dynamic hohlraums conducted on the Primary Test Stand (PTS) facility are presented herein. Six different types of dynamic hohlraums were used in order to study the influence of load parameters on radiation characteristics and implosion dynamics, including dynamic hohlraums driven by single and nested arrays with different array parameters and different foams. The PTS facility can deliver a current of 6-8 MA in the peak current and 60-70 ns in the 10%-90% rising time to dynamic hohlraum loads. A set of diagnostics monitor the implosion dynamics of plasmas, the evolution of shock waves in the foam and the axial/radial X-ray radiation, giving the key parameters characterizing the features of dynamic hohlraums, such as the trajectory and related velocity of shock waves, radiation temperature, and so on. The experimental results presented here put our future study on Z-pinch dynamic hohlraums on the PTS facility on a firm basis.

  2. Finite-Larmor-radius effects on z-pinch stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheffel, Jan; Faghihi, Mostafa

    1989-06-01

    The effect of finite Larmor radius (FLR) on the stability of m = 1 small-axial-wavelength kinks in a z-pinch with purely poloidal magnetic field is investigated. We use the incompressible FLR MHD model; a collisionless fluid model that consistently includes the relevant FLR terms due to ion gyroviscosity, Hall effect and electron diamagnetism. With FLR terms absent, the Kadomtsev criterion of ideal MHD, 2r dp/dr + m2B2/μ0 ≥ 0 predicts instability for internal modes unless the current density is singular at the centre of the pinch. The same result is obtained in the present model, with FLR terms absent. When the FLR terms are included, a normal-mode analysis of the linearized equations yields the following results. Marginally unstable (ideal) modes are stabilized by gyroviscosity. The Hall term has a damping (but not absolutely stabilizing) effect - in agreement with earlier work. On specifying a constant current and particle density equilibrium, the effect of electron diamagnetism vanishes. For a z-pinch with parameters relevant to the EXTRAP experiment, the m = 1 modes are then fully stabilized over the crosssection for wavelengths λ/a ≤ 1, where a denotes the pinch radius. As a general z-pinch result a critical line-density limit Nmax = 5 × 1018 m-1 is found, above which gyroviscous stabilization near the plasma boundary becomes insufficient. This limit corresponds to about five Larmor radii along the pinch radius. The result holds for wavelengths close to, or smaller than, the pinch radius and for realistic equilibrium profiles. This limit is far below the required limit for a reactor with contained alpha particles, which is in excess of 1020 m-1.

  3. High energy density Z-pinch plasmas using flow stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Shumlak, U., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Golingo, R. P., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Nelson, B. A., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu

    The ZaP Flow Z-Pinch research project[1] at the University of Washington investigates the effect of sheared flows on MHD instabilities. Axially flowing Z-pinch plasmas are produced that are 100 cm long with a 1 cm radius. The plasma remains quiescent for many radial Alfvén times and axial flow times. The quiescent periods are characterized by low magnetic mode activity measured at several locations along the plasma column and by stationary visible plasma emission. Plasma evolution is modeled with high-resolution simulation codes – Mach2, WARPX, NIMROD, and HiFi. Plasma flow profiles are experimentally measured with a multi-chord ion Doppler spectrometer. Amore » sheared flow profile is observed to be coincident with the quiescent period, and is consistent with classical plasma viscosity. Equilibrium is determined by diagnostic measurements: interferometry for density; spectroscopy for ion temperature, plasma flow, and density[2]; Thomson scattering for electron temperature; Zeeman splitting for internal magnetic field measurements[3]; and fast framing photography for global structure. Wall stabilization has been investigated computationally and experimentally by removing 70% of the surrounding conducting wall to demonstrate no change in stability behavior.[4] Experimental evidence suggests that the plasma lifetime is only limited by plasma supply and current waveform. The flow Z-pinch concept provides an approach to achieve high energy density plasmas,[5] which are large, easy to diagnose, and persist for extended durations. A new experiment, ZaP-HD, has been built to investigate this approach by separating the flow Z-pinch formation from the radial compression using a triaxial-electrode configuration. This innovation allows more detailed investigations of the sheared flow stabilizing effect, and it allows compression to much higher densities than previously achieved on ZaP by reducing the linear density and increasing the pinch current. Experimental results

  4. Laser-driven magnetized liner inertial fusion

    DOE PAGES

    Davies, J. R.

    2017-06-05

    A laser-driven, magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) experiment is designed in this paper for the OMEGA Laser System by scaling down the Z point design to provide the first experimental data on MagLIF scaling. OMEGA delivers roughly 1000× less energy than Z, so target linear dimensions are reduced by factors of ~10. Magneto-inertial fusion electrical discharge system could provide an axial magnetic field of 10 T. Two-dimensional hydrocode modeling indicates that a single OMEGA beam can preheat the fuel to a mean temperature of ~200 eV, limited by mix caused by heat flow into the wall. One-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modelingmore » is used to determine the pulse duration and fuel density that optimize neutron yield at a fuel convergence ratio of roughly 25 or less, matching the Z point design, for a range of shell thicknesses. A relatively thinner shell, giving a higher implosion velocity, is required to give adequate fuel heating on OMEGA compared to Z because of the increase in thermal losses in smaller targets. Two-dimensional MHD modeling of the point design gives roughly a 50% reduction in compressed density, temperature, and magnetic field from 1-D because of end losses. Finally, scaling up the OMEGA point design to the MJ laser energy available on the National Ignition Facility gives a 500-fold increase in neutron yield in 1-D modeling.« less

  5. Laser-driven magnetized liner inertial fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, J. R.

    A laser-driven, magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) experiment is designed in this paper for the OMEGA Laser System by scaling down the Z point design to provide the first experimental data on MagLIF scaling. OMEGA delivers roughly 1000× less energy than Z, so target linear dimensions are reduced by factors of ~10. Magneto-inertial fusion electrical discharge system could provide an axial magnetic field of 10 T. Two-dimensional hydrocode modeling indicates that a single OMEGA beam can preheat the fuel to a mean temperature of ~200 eV, limited by mix caused by heat flow into the wall. One-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modelingmore » is used to determine the pulse duration and fuel density that optimize neutron yield at a fuel convergence ratio of roughly 25 or less, matching the Z point design, for a range of shell thicknesses. A relatively thinner shell, giving a higher implosion velocity, is required to give adequate fuel heating on OMEGA compared to Z because of the increase in thermal losses in smaller targets. Two-dimensional MHD modeling of the point design gives roughly a 50% reduction in compressed density, temperature, and magnetic field from 1-D because of end losses. Finally, scaling up the OMEGA point design to the MJ laser energy available on the National Ignition Facility gives a 500-fold increase in neutron yield in 1-D modeling.« less

  6. Investigation of trailing mass in Z-pinch implosions and comparison to experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Edmund

    2007-11-01

    Wire-array Z pinches represent efficient, high-power x-ray sources with application to inertial confinement fusion, high energy density plasmas, and laboratory astrophysics. The first stage of a wire-array Z pinch is described by a mass ablation phase, during which stationary wires cook off material, which is then accelerated radially inwards by the JxB force. The mass injection rate varies axially and azimuthally, so that once the ablation phase concludes, the subsequent implosion is highly 3D in nature. In particular, a network of trailing mass and current is left behind the imploding plasma sheath, which can significantly affect pinch performance. In this work we focus on the implosion phase, electing to model the mass ablation via a mass injection scheme. Such a scheme has a number of injection parameters, but this freedom also allows us to gain understanding into the nature of the trailing mass network. For instance, a new result illustrates the role of azimuthal correlation. For an implosion which is 100% azimuthally correlated (corresponding to an azimuthally symmetric 2D r-z problem), current is forced to flow on the imploding plasma sheath, resulting in strong Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) growth. If, however, the implosion is not azimuthally symmetric, the additional azimuthal degree of freedom opens up new conducting paths of lower magnetic energy through the trailing mass network, effectively reducing RT growth. Consequently the 3D implosion experiences lower RT growth than the 2D r-z equivalent, and actually results in a more shell-like implosion. A second major goal of this work is to constrain the injection parameters by comparison to a well-diagnosed experimental data set, in which array mass was varied. In collaboration with R. Lemke, M. Desjarlais, M. Cuneo, C. Jennings, D. Sinars, E. Waisman

  7. Resolving microstructures in Z pinches with intensity interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Apruzese, J. P.; Kroupp, E.; Maron, Y.

    2014-03-15

    Nearly 60 years ago, Hanbury Brown and Twiss [R. Hanbury Brown and R. Q. Twiss, Nature 178, 1046 (1956)] succeeded in measuring the 30 nrad angular diameter of Sirius using a new type of interferometry that exploited the interference of photons independently emitted from different regions of the stellar disk. Its basis was the measurement of intensity correlations as a function of detector spacing, with no beam splitting or preservation of phase information needed. Applied to Z pinches, X pinches, or laser-produced plasmas, this method could potentially provide spatial resolution under one micron. A quantitative analysis based on the workmore » of Purcell [E. M. Purcell, Nature 178, 1449 (1956)] reveals that obtaining adequate statistics from x-ray interferometry of a Z-pinch microstructure would require using the highest-current generators available. However, using visible light interferometry would reduce the needed photon count and could enable its use on sub-MA machines.« less

  8. Z pinches as intense x-ray sources for high-energy density physics applications

    SciTech Connect

    Matzen, M.K.

    1997-05-01

    Fast Z-pinch implosions can efficiently convert the stored electrical energy in a pulsed-power accelerator into x rays. These x rays are produced when an imploding cylindrical plasma, driven by the magnetic field pressure associated with very large axial currents, stagnates upon the cylindrical axis of symmetry. On the Saturn pulsed-power accelerator [R. B. Spielman {ital et al.}, in {ital Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Dense Z Pinches}, Laguna Beach, CA, 1989, edited by N. R. Pereira, J. Davis, and N. Rostoker (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1989), p. 3] at Sandia National Laboratories, for example, currents ofmore » 6{endash}8 MA with a rise time of less than 50 ns are driven through cylindrically symmetric loads, producing implosion velocities as high as 10{sup 8}cm/s and x-ray energies exceeding 400 kJ. Hydromagnetic Rayleigh{endash}Taylor instabilities and cylindrical load symmetry are critical, limiting factors in determining the assembled plasma densities and temperatures, and thus in the x-ray energies and pulse widths that can be produced on these accelerators. In recent experiments on the Saturn accelerator, these implosion nonuniformities have been minimized by using wire arrays with as many as 192 wires. Increasing the wire number produced significant improvements in the pinched plasma quality, reproducibility, and x-ray output power. X-ray pulse widths of less than 5 ns and peak powers of 75{plus_minus}10TW have been achieved with arrays of 120 tungsten wires. Similar loads have recently been fielded on the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator (PBFA II), producing x-ray energies in excess of 1.8 MJ at powers in excess of 160 TW. These intense x-ray sources offer the potential for performing many new basic physics and fusion-relevant experiments. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}« less

  9. Overview of the Fusion Z-Pinch Experiment FuZE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, T. R.; Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Golingo, R. P.; Claveau, E. L.; McLean, H. S.; Tummel, K. K.; Higginson, D. P.; Schmidt, A. E.; UW/LLNL Team

    2016-10-01

    Previously, the ZaP device, at the University of Washington, demonstrated sheared flow stabilized (SFS) Z-pinch plasmas. Instabilities that have historically plagued Z-pinch plasma confinement were mitigated using sheared flows generated from a coaxial plasma gun of the Marshall type. Based on these results, a new SFS Z-pinch experiment, the Fusion Z-pinch Experiment (FuZE), has been constructed. FuZE is designed to investigate the scaling of SFS Z-pinch plasmas towards fusion conditions. The experiment will be supported by high fidelity physics modeling using kinetic and fluid simulations. Initial plans are in place for a pulsed fusion reactor following the results of FuZE. Notably, the design relies on proven commercial technologies, including a modest discharge current (1.5 MA) and voltage (40 kV), and liquid metal electrodes. Supported by DoE FES, NNSA, and ARPA-E ALPHA.

  10. A kind of fast shutter for Z pinch diagnosis device.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liangping; Zhang, Xinjun; Sun, Tieping; Mao, Wentin

    2016-09-01

    A kind of fast shutter for protecting the diagnosis devices in Z pinch experiments is introduced in this paper. The shutter is composed of a pulling rod, a magnetic core, and a solenoid. Different from the traditional coils which were used at the voltage of 220 V, the solenoid we used must endure the high voltage of 5-10 kV and the deformation which maybe caused by the 5-10 T intense magnetic field. A creative configuration for the solenoid is developed including the winding guide, insulating sleeve, and stainless-steel sleeve. The experimental results show that the configuration of the solenoid is effective. The velocity of the valve is nearly 19 m/s and the time jitter of the shutdown is within 75 μs.

  11. A kind of fast shutter for Z pinch diagnosis device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liangping; Zhang, Xinjun; Sun, Tieping; Mao, Wentin

    2016-09-01

    A kind of fast shutter for protecting the diagnosis devices in Z pinch experiments is introduced in this paper. The shutter is composed of a pulling rod, a magnetic core, and a solenoid. Different from the traditional coils which were used at the voltage of 220 V, the solenoid we used must endure the high voltage of 5-10 kV and the deformation which maybe caused by the 5-10 T intense magnetic field. A creative configuration for the solenoid is developed including the winding guide, insulating sleeve, and stainless-steel sleeve. The experimental results show that the configuration of the solenoid is effective. The velocity of the valve is nearly 19 m/s and the time jitter of the shutdown is within 75 μs.

  12. Conceptual Design of a Z-Pinch Fusion Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Robert; Polsgrove, Tara; Fincher, Sharon; Fabinski, Leo; Maples, Charlotte; Miernik, Janie; Stratham, Geoffrey; Cassibry, Jason; Cortez, Ross; Turner, Matthew; hide

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews a project that aims to develop a conceptual design for a Z-pinch thruster, that could be applied to develop advanced thruster designs which promise high thrust/high specific impulse propulsion. Overviews shows the concept of the design, which use annular nozzles with deuterium-tritium (D-T) fuel and a Lithium mixture as a cathode, Charts show the engine performance as a function of linear mass, nozzle performance (i.e., plasma segment trajectories), and mission analysis for possible Mars and Jupiter missions using this concept for propulsion. Slides show views of the concepts for the vehicle configuration, thrust coil configuration, the power management system, the structural analysis of the magnetic nozzle, the thermal management system, and the avionics suite,

  13. A reassessment study of multi-material-shell gas puff z-pinches as a pulsed neutron source on the sandia ZR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, Y. K.; Velikovich, A. L.; Thornhil, J. W.; Giuliani, J. L.; Knapp, P.; Jennings, C.

    2013-10-01

    Over the last few years, numerous 1D and 2D MHD simulation studies of deuterium (D) based double-shell gas-puff Z-pinch implosions driven by the Sandia ZR accelerator have been carried out to assess the Z-pinch as a pulsed thermal fusion neutron source. In these studies, an ad-hoc time-dependent shunt impedance model was used within the external driving circuit model in order to account for the unresolved current loss in the MITL and the load. In this study, we incorporate an improved ZR circuit model recently formulated based on the recent Sandia argon gas-puff experiment circuit data into the multi-material version of the Mach +DDTCRE RMHD code. We reinvestigate the effects of multidimensional structure and nonuniform gradients as well as the outer- and inner-shell material interaction on the implosion physics and dynamics of both D-on-D and argon-on-D Z-pinch loads using the model. Then, we characterize the neutron production performance of the Z-pinch loads as a function of total mass, mass ratio and/or radius toward their optimization as a pulsed thernonuclear neutron source. Work supported by DOE/NNSA. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. DOE's NNSA under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  14. Investigation of magnetic flux transport and shock formation in a staged Z-pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narkis, J.; Rahman, H. U.; Wessel, F. J.; Beg, F. N.

    2017-10-01

    Target preheating is an integral component of magnetized inertial fusion in reducing convergence ratio. In the staged Z-pinch concept, it is achieved via one or more shocks. Previous work [Narkis et al., Phys. Plasmas 23, 122706 (2016)] found that shock formation in the target occurred earlier in higher-Z liners due to faster flux transport to the target/liner interface. However, a corresponding increase in magnitude of magnetic pressure was not observed, and target implosion velocity (and therefore shock strength) remained unchanged. To investigate other means of increasing the magnitude of transported flux, a Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers equation from the 1-D single-fluid, resistive magnetohydrodynamic equations is obtained. Solutions to the nondispersive (i.e., Burgers) equation depend on nondimensional coefficients, whose dependence on liner density, temperature, etc., suggests an increase in target implosion velocity, and therefore shock strength, can be obtained by tailoring the mass of a single-liner gas puff to a double-liner configuration. In the selected test cases of 1-D simulated implosions of krypton on deuterium, the peak Mach number increased from ˜ 5 to ˜ 8 . While a notable increase was seen, Mach numbers exceeding 10 (implosion velocities exceeding ˜25 cm/μs) are necessary for adequate shock preheating.

  15. Staged Z-pinch Experiments on Cobra and Zebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessel, Frank J.; Anderson, A.; Banasek, J. T.; Byvank, T.; Conti, F.; Darling, T. W.; Dutra, E.; Glebov, V.; Greenly, J.; Hammer, D. A.; Potter, W. M.; Rocco, S. V.; Ross, M. P.; Ruskov, E.; Valenzuela, J.; Beg, F.; Covington, A.; Narkis, J.; Rahman, H. U.

    2017-10-01

    A Staged Z-pinch (SZP), configured as a pre-magnetized, high-Z (Ar, or Kr) annular liner imploding onto a low-Z (H, or D) target, was tested on the Cornell University, Cobra Facility and the University of Nevada, Reno, Zebra Facility; each characterized similarly by a nominal 1-MA current and 100-ns risetime while possessing different diagnostic packages. XUV-fast imaging reveals that the SZP implosion dynamics is similar on both machines and that it is more stable with an axial (Bz) magnetic field, a target, or both, than without. On Zebra, where neutron production is possible, reproducible thermonuclear (DD) yields were recorded at levels in excess of 109/shot. Flux compression in the SZP is also expected to produce magnetic field intensities of the order of kilo-Tesla. Thus, the DD reaction produced tritions should also yield secondary DT neutrons. Indeed, secondaries are measured above the noise threshold at levels approaching 106/shot. Funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy, under Grant Number DE-AR0000569.

  16. Polytropic scaling of a flow Z-pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, M. C.; Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Golingo, R. P.; Claveau, E. L.; Doty, S. A.; Forbes, E. G.; Kim, B.; Ross, M. P.; Weed, J. R.

    2015-11-01

    The ZaP Flow Z-Pinch project investigates the use of velocity shear to mitigate MHD instabilities. The ZaP-HD experiment produces 50 cm long pinches of varying radii. The power to the experiment is split between the plasma formation and acceleration process and the pinch assembly and compression process. Once the pinch is formed, low magnetic fluctuations indicate a quiescent, long-lived pinch. The split power supply allows more control of the pinch current than previous machine iterations, with a designed range from 50 to 150 kA. Radial force balance leads to the Bennett relation which indicates that as the pinch compresses due to increasing currents, the plasma pressure and/or linear density must change. Through ion spectroscopy and digital holographic interferometry coupled with magnetic measurements of the pinch current, the components of the Bennett relation can be fully measured. A scaling relation is then assumed to follow a polytrope as the pinch pressure, initially approximately 250 kPa, increases from an initially formed state to much higher values, approaching 100 MPa. A preliminary analysis of pinch scaling is shown corroborating with other diagnostics on the machine along with extrapolations to required currents for an HEDLP machine. This work is supported by grants from the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration.

  17. Diagnostics for Z-pinch implosion experiments on PTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, X. D.; Huang, X. B.; Zhou, S. T.; Zhang, S. Q.; Dan, J. K.; Li, J.; Cai, H. C.; Wang, K. L.; Ouyang, K.; Xu, Q.; Duan, S. C.; Chen, G. H.; Wang, M.; Feng, S. P.; Yang, L. B.; Xie, W. P.; Deng, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    The preliminary experiments of wire array implosion were performed on PTS, a 10 MA z-pinch driver with a 70 ns rise time. A set of diagnostics have been developed and fielded on PTS to study pinch physics and implosion dynamics of wire array. Radiated power measurement for soft x-rays was performed by multichannel filtered x-ray diode array, and flat spectral responses x-ray diode detector. Total x-ray yield was measured by a calibrated, unfiltered nickel bolometer which was also used to obtain pinch power. Multiple time-gated pinhole cameras were used to produce spatial-resolved images of x-ray self-emission from plasmas. Two time-integrated pinhole cameras were used respectively with 20-μm Be filter and with multilayer mirrors to record images produced by >1-keV and 277±5 eV self-emission. An optical streak camera was used to produce radial implosion trajectories, and an x-ray streak camera paired with a horizontal slit was used to record a continuous time-history of emission with one-dimensional spatial resolution. A frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser (532 nm) was used to produce four frame laser shadowgraph images with 6 ns time interval. We will briefly describe each of these diagnostics and present some typical results from them.

  18. Dynamical analysis of surface-insulated planar wire array Z-pinches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang; Sheng, Liang; Hei, Dongwei; Li, Xingwen; Zhang, Jinhai; Li, Mo; Qiu, Aici

    2018-05-01

    The ablation and implosion dynamics of planar wire array Z-pinches with and without surface insulation are compared and discussed in this paper. This paper first presents a phenomenological model named the ablation and cascade snowplow implosion (ACSI) model, which accounts for the ablation and implosion phases of a planar wire array Z-pinch in a single simulation. The comparison between experimental data and simulation results shows that the ACSI model could give a fairly good description about the dynamical characteristics of planar wire array Z-pinches. Surface insulation introduces notable differences in the ablation phase of planar wire array Z-pinches. The ablation phase is divided into two stages: insulation layer ablation and tungsten wire ablation. The two-stage ablation process of insulated wires is simulated in the ACSI model by updating the formulas describing the ablation process.

  19. Current redistribution and generation of kinetic energy in the stagnated Z pinch.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, V V; Anderson, A A; Papp, D; Astanovitskiy, A L; Talbot, B R; Chittenden, J P; Niasse, N

    2013-07-01

    The structure of magnetic fields was investigated in stagnated wire-array Z pinches using a Faraday rotation diagnostic at the wavelength of 266 nm. The distribution of current in the pinch and trailing material was reconstructed. A significant part of current can switch from the main pinch to the trailing plasma preheated by x-ray radiation of the pinch. Secondary implosions of trailing plasma generate kinetic energy and provide enhanced heating and radiation of plasma at stagnation. Hot spots in wire-array Z pinches also provide enhanced radiation of the Z pinch. A collapse of a single hot spot radiates 1%-3% of x-ray energy of the Z pinch with a total contribution of hot spots of 10%-30%.

  20. Overview of the FuZE Fusion Z-Pinch Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Claveau, E. L.; Forbes, E. G.; Golingo, R. P.; Stepanov, A. D.; Weber, T. R.; Zhang, Y.; McLean, H. S.; Higginson, D. P.; Schmidt, A.; Tummel, K. K.

    2017-10-01

    Successful results of the sheared flow stabilized (SFS) Z-pinch from ZaP and ZaP-HD have motivated the new FuZE project to scale the plasma performance to fusion conditions. The SFS Z-pinch is immune to the instabilities that plague the conventional Z-pinch yet maintains the same favorable radial scaling. The plasma density and temperature increase rapidly with decreasing plasma radius, which naturally leads to a compact configuration at fusion conditions. The SFS Z-pinch is being investigated as a novel approach to a compact fusion device in a collaborative ARPA-E ALPHA project with the University of Washington and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The project includes an experimental effort coupled with high-fidelity physics modeling using kinetic and fluid simulations. Along with scaling law analysis, computational and experimental results from the FuZE device are presented. This work is supported by an award from US ARPA-E.

  1. Magnetoelectric confinement and stabilization of Z pinch in a soft-x-ray Ar(+8) laser.

    PubMed

    Szasz, J; Kiss, M; Santa, I; Szatmari, S; Kukhlevsky, S V

    2013-05-03

    Magnetoelectric confinement and stabilization of the plasma column in a soft-x-ray Ar(+8) laser, which is excited by a capillary Z pinch, via the combined magnetic and electric fields of the gliding surface discharge is experimentally demonstrated. Unlike soft-x-ray lasers excited by the conventional capillary Z pinches, the magnetoelectric confinement and stabilization of plasma do provide the laser operation without using any external preionization circuit.

  2. Charger 1: A New Facility for Z-Pinch Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Brian; Cassibry, Jason; Cortez, Ross; Doughty, Glen; Adams, Robert; DeCicco, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Charger 1 is a multipurpose pulsed power laboratory located on Redstone Arsenal, with a focus on fusion propulsion relevant experiments involving testing z-pinch diodes, pulsed magnetic nozzle and other related physics experiments. UAH and its team of pulsed power researchers are investigating ways to increase and optimize fusion production from Charger 1. Currently the team has reached high-power testing. Due to the unique safety issues related to high power operations the UAH/MSFC team has slowed repair efforts to develop safety and operations protocols. The facility is expected to be operational by the time DZP 2017 convenes. Charger 1 began life as the Decade Module 2, an experimental prototype built to prove the Decade Quad pinch configuration. The system was donated to UAH by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DRTA) in 2012. For the past 5 years a UAH/MSFC/Boeing team has worked to refurbish, assemble and test the system. With completion of high power testing in summer 2017 Charger 1 will become operational for experimentation. Charger 1 utilizes a Marx Bank of 72 100-kV capacitors that are charged in parallel and discharged in series. The Marx output is compressed to a pulse width of approximately 200 ns via a pulse forming network of 32 coaxial stainless steel tubes using water as a dielectric. After pulse compression a set of SF6 switches are triggered, allowing the wave front to propagate through the output line to the load. Charger 1 is capable of storing 572-kJ of energy and time compressing discharge to less than 250 ns discharge time producing a discharge of about 1 TW of discharge with 1 MV and 1 MA peak voltage and current, respectively. This capability will be used to study energy yield scaling and physics from solid density target as applied to advanced propulsion research.

  3. Dynamics of current sheath in a hollow electrode Z-pinch discharge using slug model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd Al-Halim, Mohamed A.; Afify, M. S.

    2017-03-01

    The hollow electrode Z-pinch (HEZP) experiment is a new construction for the electromagnetic propulsion application in which the plasma is formed by the discharge between a plate and ring electrodes through which the plasma is propelled. The experimental results for 8 kV charging voltage shows that the peak discharge current is about 109 kA, which is in good agreement with the value obtained from the simulation in the slug model that simulates the sheath dynamics in the HEZP. The fitting of the discharge current from the slug model indicates that the total system inductance is 238 nH which is relatively a high static inductance accompanied with a deeper pinch depth indicating that the fitted anomalous resistance would be about 95 mΩ. The current and mass factors vary with the changing the gas pressure and the charging voltage. The current factor is between 0.4 and 0.5 on average which is relatively low value. The mass factor decreases by increasing the gas pressure indicating that the sheath is heavy to be driven by the magnetic pressure, which is also indicated from the decreases of the drive factor, hence the radial sheath velocity decreases. The plasma inductance and temperature increase with the increase of the drive factor while the minimum pinch radius decreases.

  4. New compact hohlraum configuration research at the 1.7 MA Z-pinch generator

    SciTech Connect

    Kantsyrev, V. L., E-mail: victor@unr.edu; Shrestha, I. K.; Esaulov, A. A.

    A new compact Z-pinch x-ray hohlraum design with parallel-driven x-ray sources was experimentally demonstrated in a full configuration with a central target and tailored shine shields (to provide a symmetric temperature distribution on the target) at the 1.7 MA Zebra generator. This presentation reports on the joint success of two independent lines of research. One of these was the development of new sources – planar wire arrays (PWAs). PWAs turned out to be a prolific radiator. Another success was the drastic improvement in energy efficiency of pulsed-power systems, such as the Load Current Multiplier (LCM). The Zebra/LCM generator almost doubledmore » the plasma load current to 1.7 MA. The two above-mentioned innovative approaches were used in combination to produce a new compact hohlraum design for ICF, as jointly proposed by SNL and UNR. Good agreement between simulated and measured radiation temperature of the central target is shown. Experimental comparison of PWAs with planar foil liners (PFL) - another viable alternative to wire array loads at multi-MA generators show promising data. Results of research at the University of Nevada Reno allowed for the study of hohlraum coupling physics at University-scale generators. The advantages of new hohlraum design applications for multi-MA facilities with W or Au double PWAs or PFL x-ray sources are discussed.« less

  5. Numerical simulations of Z-Pinch experiments to create supersonic differentially-rotating plasma flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochi, Matteo; Ummels, Sebastiaan; Chittenden, Jeremy; Lebedev, Sergey

    2011-10-01

    Recently, it was proposed that a small number of plasma jets produced by lasers could be used to generate a plasma configuration relevant to some features of astrophysical accretion disc physics. We propose complementary experimental configurations which employ converging flows generated in a cylindrical wire array Z-pinch modified to produce a rotating plasma. In this paper we present 3D MHD simulations using the code GORGON which show how this approach can be implemented at the MAGPIE facility at Imperial College, London. We will present the general scenario and the results of a parametric study relating the parameters of the array with the features of the resulting plasma. In particular, we will show how a rotating plasma cylinder or ring, with typical rotation velocity 30 Km/s and Mach number 8 is formed, and how, after about 1-2 revolutions, the material of the plasma ring is ejected in a pair of thermally driven, conical outflows propagating along the rotation axis. We will discuss to what aspects of the physics of accretion discs, the results of such experiments could be relevant. We will also consider the effects of different magnetic configurations, which further expand the possibility to relate the experiments with the astrophysical discs. Experimental implementation of some of these setups is currently in progress on MAGPIE.

  6. Effect of driver impedance on dense plasma focus Z-pinch neutron yield

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, Jason, E-mail: sears8@llnl.gov, E-mail: schmidt36@llnl.gov; Link, Anthony, E-mail: sears8@llnl.gov, E-mail: schmidt36@llnl.gov; Schmidt, Andrea, E-mail: sears8@llnl.gov, E-mail: schmidt36@llnl.gov

    2014-12-15

    The Z-pinch phase of a dense plasma focus (DPF) heats the plasma by rapid compression and accelerates ions across its intense electric fields, producing neutrons through both thermonuclear and beam-target fusion. Driver characteristics have empirically been shown to affect performance, as measured by neutron yield per unit of stored energy. We are exploring the effect of driver characteristics on DPF performance using particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of a kJ scale DPF. In this work, our PIC simulations are fluid for the run-down phase and transition to fully kinetic for the pinch phase, capturing kinetic instabilities, anomalous resistivity, and beam formation duringmore » the pinch. The anode-cathode boundary is driven by a circuit model of the capacitive driver, including system inductance, the load of the railgap switches, the guard resistors, and the coaxial transmission line parameters. It is known that the driver impedance plays an important role in the neutron yield: first, it sets the peak current achieved at pinch time; and second, it affects how much current continues to flow through the pinch when the pinch inductance and resistance suddenly increase. Here we show from fully kinetic simulations how total neutron yield depends on the impedance of the driver and the distributed parameters of the transmission circuit. Direct comparisons between the experiment and simulations enhance our understanding of these plasmas and provide predictive design capability for neutron source applications.« less

  7. ZaP-HD: High Energy Density Z-Pinch Plasmas using Sheared Flow Stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golingo, R. P.; Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Claveau, E. L.; Doty, S. A.; Forbes, E. G.; Hughes, M. C.; Kim, B.; Ross, M. P.; Weed, J. R.

    2015-11-01

    The ZaP-HD flow Z-pinch project investigates scaling the flow Z-pinch to High Energy Density Plasma, HEDP, conditions by using sheared flow stabilization. ZaP used a single power supply to produce 100 cm long Z-pinches that were quiescent for many radial Alfven times and axial flow-through times. The flow Z-pinch concept provides an approach to achieve HED plasmas, which are dimensionally large and persist for extended durations. The ZaP-HD device replaces the single power supply from ZaP with two separate power supplies to independently control the plasma flow and current in the Z-pinch. Equilibrium is determined by diagnostic measurements of the density with interferometry and digital holography, the plasma flow and temperature with passive spectroscopy, the magnetic field with surface magnetic probes, and plasma emission with optical imaging. The diagnostics fully characterize the plasma from its initiation in the coaxial accelerator, through the pinch, and exhaust from the assembly region. The plasma evolution is modeled with high resolution codes: Mach2, WARPX, and NIMROD. Experimental results and scaling analyses are presented. This work is supported by grants from the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration.

  8. 2D Kinetic Particle in Cell Simulations of a Shear-Flow Stabilized Z-Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tummel, Kurt; Higginson, Drew; Schmidt, Andrea; Link, Anthony; McLean, Harry; Shumlak, Uri; Nelson, Brian; Golingo, Raymond; Claveau, Elliot; Lawrence Livermore National Lab Team; University of Washington Team

    2016-10-01

    The Z-pinch is a relatively simple and attractive potential fusion reactor design, but attempts to develop such a reactor have consistently struggled to overcome Z-pinch instabilities. The ``sausage'' and ``kink'' modes are among the most robust and prevalent Z-pinch instabilities, but theory and simulations suggest that axial flow-shear, dvz / dr ≠ 0 , can suppress these modes. Experiments have confirmed that Z-pinch plasmas with embedded axial flow-shear display a significantly enhanced resilience to the sausage and kink modes at a demonstration current of 50kAmps. A new experiment is under way to test the concept at higher current, and efforts to model these plasmas are being expanded. The performance and stability of these devices will depend on features like the plasma viscosity, anomalous resistivity, and finite Larmor radius effects, which are most accurately characterized in kinetic models. To predict these features, kinetic simulations using the particle in cell code LSP are now in development, and initial benchmarking and 2D stability analyses of the sausage mode are presented here. These results represent the first kinetic modeling of the flow-shear stabilized Z-pinch. This work is funded by the USDOE/ARPAe Alpha Program. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  9. Inertial Wave Turbulence Driven by Elliptical Instability.

    PubMed

    Le Reun, Thomas; Favier, Benjamin; Barker, Adrian J; Le Bars, Michael

    2017-07-21

    The combination of elliptical deformation of streamlines and vorticity can lead to the destabilization of any rotating flow via the elliptical instability. Such a mechanism has been invoked as a possible source of turbulence in planetary cores subject to tidal deformations. The saturation of the elliptical instability has been shown to generate turbulence composed of nonlinearly interacting waves and strong columnar vortices with varying respective amplitudes, depending on the control parameters and geometry. In this Letter, we present a suite of numerical simulations to investigate the saturation and the transition from vortex-dominated to wave-dominated regimes. This is achieved by simulating the growth and saturation of the elliptical instability in an idealized triply periodic domain, adding a frictional damping to the geostrophic component only, to mimic its interaction with boundaries. We reproduce several experimental observations within one idealized local model and complement them by reaching more extreme flow parameters. In particular, a wave-dominated regime that exhibits many signatures of inertial wave turbulence is characterized for the first time. This regime is expected in planetary interiors.

  10. Inertial Wave Turbulence Driven by Elliptical Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Reun, Thomas; Favier, Benjamin; Barker, Adrian J.; Le Bars, Michael

    2017-07-01

    The combination of elliptical deformation of streamlines and vorticity can lead to the destabilization of any rotating flow via the elliptical instability. Such a mechanism has been invoked as a possible source of turbulence in planetary cores subject to tidal deformations. The saturation of the elliptical instability has been shown to generate turbulence composed of nonlinearly interacting waves and strong columnar vortices with varying respective amplitudes, depending on the control parameters and geometry. In this Letter, we present a suite of numerical simulations to investigate the saturation and the transition from vortex-dominated to wave-dominated regimes. This is achieved by simulating the growth and saturation of the elliptical instability in an idealized triply periodic domain, adding a frictional damping to the geostrophic component only, to mimic its interaction with boundaries. We reproduce several experimental observations within one idealized local model and complement them by reaching more extreme flow parameters. In particular, a wave-dominated regime that exhibits many signatures of inertial wave turbulence is characterized for the first time. This regime is expected in planetary interiors.

  11. Characterisation of the current switch mechanism in two-stage wire array Z-pinches

    SciTech Connect

    Burdiak, G. C.; Lebedev, S. V.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.

    2015-11-15

    In this paper, we describe the operation of a two-stage wire array z-pinch driven by the 1.4 MA, 240 ns rise-time Magpie pulsed-power device at Imperial College London. In this setup, an inverse wire array acts as a fast current switch, delivering a current pre-pulse into a cylindrical load wire array, before rapidly switching the majority of the generator current into the load after a 100–150 ns dwell time. A detailed analysis of the evolution of the load array during the pre-pulse is presented. Measurements of the load resistivity and energy deposition suggest significant bulk heating of the array mass occurs. Themore » ∼5 kA pre-pulse delivers ∼0.8 J of energy to the load, leaving it in a mixed, predominantly liquid-vapour state. The main current switch occurs as the inverse array begins to explode and plasma expands into the load region. Electrical and imaging diagnostics indicate that the main current switch may evolve in part as a plasma flow switch, driven by the expansion of a magnetic cavity and plasma bubble along the length of the load array. Analysis of implosion trajectories suggests that approximately 1 MA switches into the load in 100 ns, corresponding to a doubling of the generator dI/dt. Potential scaling of the device to higher current machines is discussed.« less

  12. The quest for a z-pinch based fusion energy source—a historical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sethian, John

    1997-05-01

    Ever since 1958, when Oscar Anderson observed copious neutrons emanating from a "magnetically self-constricted column of deuterium plasma," scientists have attempted to develop the simple linear pinch into a fusion power source. After all, simple calculations show that if one can pass a current of slightly less than 2 million amperes through a stable D-T plasma, then one could achieve not just thermonuclear break-even, but thermonuclear gain. Moreover, several reactor studies have shown that a simple linear pinch could be the basis for a very attractive fusion system. The problem is, of course, that the seemingly simple act of passing 2 MA through a stable pinch has proven to be quite difficult to accomplish. The pinch tends to disrupt due to instabilities, either by the m=0 (sausage) or m=1 (kink) modes. Curtailing the growth of these instabilities has been the primary thrust of z-pinch fusion research, and over the years a wide variety of formation techniques have been tried. The early pinches were driven by relatively slow capacitive discharges and were formed by imploding a plasma column. The advent of fast pulsed power technology brought on a whole new repertoire of formation techniques, including: fast implosions, laser or field-enhanced breakdown in a uniform volume of gas, a discharge inside a small capillary, a frozen deuterium fiber isolated by vacuum, and staged concepts in which one pinch implodes upon another. And although none of these have yet to be successful, some have come tantalizingly close. This paper will review the history of this four-decade long quest for fusion power.

  13. Energy balance in a Z pinch with suppressed Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baksht, R. B.; Oreshkin, V. I.; Rousskikh, A. G.; Zhigalin, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    At present Z-pinch has evolved into a powerful plasma source of soft x-ray. This paper considers the energy balance in a radiating metallic gas-puff Z pinch. In this type of Z pinch, a power-law density distribution is realized, promoting suppression of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities that occur in the pinch plasma during compression. The energy coupled into the pinch plasma, is determined as the difference between the total energy delivered to the load from the generator and the magnetic energy of the load inductance. A calibrated voltage divider and a Rogowski coil were used to determine the coupled energy and the load inductance. Time-gated optical imaging of the pinch plasma showed its stable compression up to the stagnation phase. The pinch implosion was simulated using a 1D two-temperature radiative magnetohydrodynamic code. Comparison of the experimental and simulation results has shown that the simulation adequately describes the pinch dynamics for conditions in which RT instability is suppressed. It has been found that the proportion of the Ohmic heating in the energy balance of a Z pinch with suppressed RT instability is determined by Spitzer resistance and makes no more than ten percent.

  14. Efficient Neutron Production from a Novel Configuration of Deuterium Gas-Puff Z-Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klir, D.; Kubes, P.; Rezac, K.; Cikhardt, J.; Kravarik, J.; Sila, O.; Shishlov, A. V.; Kovalchuk, B. M.; Ratakhin, N. A.; Kokshenev, V. A.; Labetsky, A. Yu.; Cherdizov, R. K.; Fursov, F. I.; Kurmaev, N. E.; Dudkin, G. N.; Nechaev, B. A.; Padalko, V. N.; Orcikova, H.; Turek, K.

    2014-03-01

    A novel configuration of a deuterium z pinch has been used to generate fusion neutrons. Injecting an outer hollow cylindrical plasma shell around an inner deuterium gas puff, neutron yields from DD reactions reached Yn=(2.9±0.3)×1012 at 700 ns implosion time and 2.7 MA current. Such a neutron yield means a tenfold increase in comparison with previous deuterium gas puff experiments at the same current generator. The increase of beam-target yields was obtained by a larger amount of current assembled on the z-pinch axis, and subsequently by higher induced voltage and higher energies of deuterons. A stack of CR-39 track detectors on the z-pinch axis showed hydrogen ions up to 38 MeV. Maximum neutron energies of 15 and 22 MeV were observed by radial and axial time-of-flight detectors, respectively. The number of DD neutrons per one joule of stored plasma energy approached 5×107. This implies that deuterium gas puff z pinches belong to the most efficient plasma-based sources of DD neutrons.

  15. AN ACCELERATION MECHANISM FOR NEUTRON PRODUCTION IN Z-PINCH DISCHARGES,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A model has been developed for the acceleration of deuterons in the tightly compressed column of a z-pinch discharge, in particular that of a plasma ... focus discharge. It was assumed that an annular current distribution undergoes a rapidly contracting transition to an axially peaked distribution, and

  16. A Multiple Z-Pinch Configuration for the Generation of High-Density, Magnetized Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarditi, Alfonso G.

    2015-11-01

    The z-pinch is arguably the most straightforward and economical approach for the generation and confinement of hot plasmas, with a long history of theoretical investigations and experimental developments. While most of the past studies were focused on countering the natural tendency of z-pinches to develop instabilities, this study attempts to take advantage of those unstable regimes to form a quasi-stable plasma, with higher density and temperature, possibly of interest for a fusion reactor concept. For this purpose, a configuration with four z-pinch discharges, with axis parallel to each other and symmetrically positioned, is considered. Electrodes for the generation of the discharges and magnetic coils are arranged to favor the formation of concave discharge patterns. The mutual attraction from the co-streaming discharge currents enhances this pattern, leading to bent plasma streams, all nearing towards the axis. This configuration is intended to excite and sustain a ``kink'' unstable mode for each z-pinch, eventually producing either plasmoid structures, detached from each discharge, or sustained kink patterns: both these cases appear to lead to plasmas merging in the central region. The feasibility of this approach in creating a higher density, hotter, meta-stable plasma regime is investigated computationally, addressing both the kink excitation phase and the dynamics of the converging plasma columns.

  17. Numerical simulation of fiber and wire array Z-pinches with Trac-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisman, David Barton

    Trac-II is a two dimensional axisymmetric resistive MHD code. It simulates all three spatial components (r, z, φ) of the magnetic field and fluid velocity vectors, and the plasma is treated as a single fluid with two temperatures (Te,Ti). In addition, it can optionally include a self-consistent external circuit. Recent modifications to the code include the addition of the 3-T radiation model, a 4-phase (solid- liquid-vapor-plasma) equation of state model (QEOS), a 4- phase electrical/thermal conductivity model, and an implicit solution of poloidal (Bz,Br) magnetic field diffusion. These changes permit a detailed study of fiber and wire array Z-pinches. Specifically, Trac-II is used to study the wire array Z-pinch at the PBFA-Z pulse power generator at Sandia National Laboratory. First, in 1-D we examine the behavior of a single wire in the Z-pinch. Then, using these results as initial radial conditions in 2-D, we investigate the dynamics of wire array configurations in the r-z and r-θ plane. In the r- z plane we examine the growth of the m = 0 or ``sausage'' instability in single wires within the array. In the r-θ plane we examine the merging behavior between neighboring wires. Special emphasis is placed on trying to explain how instability growth affects the performance of the Z-pinch. Lastly, we introduce Trac-III, a 3-D MHD code, and illustrate the m = 1 or ``kink'' instability. We also discuss how Trac-III can be modified to simulate the wire array Z-pinch.

  18. Study of the internal structure, instabilities, and magnetic fields in the dense Z-pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, Vladimir V.

    Z-pinches are sources of hot dense plasma which generates powerful x-ray bursts and can been applied to various areas of high-energy-density physics (HEDP). The 26-MA Z machine is at the forefront of many of these applications, but important aspects of HEDP have been studied on generators at the 1 MA current level. Recent development of laser diagnostics and upgrade of the Leopard laser at Nevada Terawatt Facility (NTF) give new opportunities for the dense Z-pinch study. The goal of this project is the investigation of the internal structure of the stagnated Z pinch including sub-mm and micron-scale instabilities, plasma dynamics,more » magnetic fields, and hot spots formation and initiation. New plasma diagnostics will be developed for this project. A 3D structure and instabilities of the pinch will be compared with 3D MHD and spectroscopic modeling and theoretical analysis. The structure and dynamics of stagnated Z pinches has been studied with x-ray self-radiation diagnostics which derive a temperature map of the pinch with a spatial resolution of 70-150 µm. The regular laser diagnostics at 532 nm does not penetrate in the dense pinch due to strong absorption and refraction in trailing plasma. Recent experiments at NTF showed that shadowgraphy at the UV wavelength of 266 nm unfolds a fine structure of the stagnated Z-pinch with unprecedented detail. We propose to develop laser UV diagnostics for Z pinches with a spatial resolution <5 μm to study the small-scale plasma structures, implement two-frame shadowgraphy/interferometry, and develop methods for investigation of strong magnetic fields. New diagnostics will help to understand better basic physical processes in Z pinches. A 3D internal structure of the pinch and characteristic instabilities will be studied in wire arrays with different configurations and compared with 3D MHD simulations and analytical models. Mechanisms of “enhanced heating” of Z-pinch plasma will be studied. Fast dynamics of

  19. Hard X-ray and Particle Beams Research on 1.7 MA Z-pinch and Laser Plasma Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Ishor; Kantsyrev, Victor; Safronova, Alla; Esaulov, Andrey; Nishio, Mineyuki; Shlyaptseva, Veronica; Keim, Steven; Weller, Michael; Stafford, Austin; Petkov, Emil; Schultz, Kimberly; Cooper, Matthew; PPDL Team

    2013-10-01

    Studies of hard x-ray (HXR) emission, electron and ion beam generation in z-pinch and laser plasmas are important for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and development of HXR sources from K-shell and L-shell radiation. The characteristics of HXR and particle beams produced by implosions of planar wire arrays, nested and single cylindrical wire arrays, and X-pinches were analyzed on 100 ns UNR Zebra generator with current up to 1.7 MA. In addition, the comparison of characteristics of HXR and electron beams on Zebra and 350 fs UNR Leopard laser experiments with foils has been performed. The diagnostics include Faraday cups, HXR diodes, different x-ray spectrometers and imaging systems, and ion mass spectrometer using the technique of Thomson parabola. Future work on HXRs and particle beams in HED plasmas is discussed. This work was supported by the DOE/NNSA Cooperative agreement DE-NA0001984 and in part by DE-FC52-06NA27616. This work was also supported by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Basic Research Award # HDTRA1-13-1-0033, to University of Nevada, Reno.

  20. Dynamic characteristics of azimuthally correlated structures of axial instability of wire-array Z pinches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan, Jia Kun; Huang, Xian Bin; Ren, Xiao Dong; Chen, Guang Hua; Xu, Qiang; Wang, Kun Lun; Ouyang, Kai; Wei, Bing

    2017-04-01

    Particular attention was placed on observations of dynamic properties of the azimuthally correlated structures of axial instability of wire-array Z pinches, which were conducted at 10-MA (for short circuit load) pulsed power generator-the Primary Test Stand facility. Not well fabricated loads, which were expected to preset bubble or spike in plasma, were used to degrade the implosion symmetry in order to magnify the phenomenon of instability. The side-view sequence of evolution of correlation given by laser shadowgraphy clearly demonstrates the dynamic processes of azimuthal correlation of the bubble and spike. A possible mechanism presented here suggests that it is the substantial current redistribution especially in regions surrounding the bubble/spike resulting from change of inductance due to the presence of the bubble/spike that plays an essential part in establishment of azimuthal correlation of wire array and liner Z pinches.

  1. Electron beam generation in the turbulent plasma of Z-pinch discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vikhrev, Victor V.; Baronova, Elena O.

    1997-05-01

    Numerical modeling of the process of electron beam generation in z-pinch discharges are presented. The proposed model represents the electron beam generation under turbulent plasma conditions. Strong current distribution inhomogeneity in the plasma column has been accounted for the adequate generation process investigation. Electron beam is generated near the maximum of compression due to run away mechanism and it is not related with the current break effect.

  2. Increasing Plasma Parameters using Sheared Flow Stabilization of a Z-Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumlak, Uri

    2016-10-01

    Recent experiments on the ZaP Flow Z-Pinch at the University of Washington have been successful in compressing the plasma column to smaller radii, producing the predicted increases in plasma density (1018 cm-3), temperature (200 eV), and magnetic fields (4 T), while maintaining plasma stability for many Alfven times (over 40 μs) using sheared plasma flows. These results indicate the suitability of the device as a discovery science platform for astrophysical and high energy density plasma research, and keeps open a possible path to achieving burning plasma conditions in a compact fusion device. Long-lived Z-pinch plasmas have been produced with dimensions of 1 cm radius and 100 cm long that are stabilized by sheared axial flows for over 1000 Alfven radial transit times. The observed plasma stability is coincident with the presence of a sheared flow as measured by time-resolved multi-chord ion Doppler spectroscopy applied to impurity ion radiation. These measurements yield insights into the evolution of the velocity profile and show that the stabilizing behavior of flow shear agrees with theoretical calculations and 2-D MHD computational simulations. The flow shear value, extent, and duration are shown to be consistent with theoretical models of the plasma viscosity, which places a design constraint on the maximum axial length of a sheared flow stabilized Z-pinch. Measurements of the magnetic field topology indicate simultaneous azimuthal symmetry and axial uniformity along the entire 100 cm length of the Z-pinch plasma. Separate control of plasma acceleration and compression have increased the accessible plasma parameters and have generated stable plasmas with radii below 0.5 cm, as measured with a high resolution digital holographic interferometer. This work was supported by Grants from U.S. DOE, NNSA, and ARPA-E.

  3. Effect of Pressure Anisotropy on the m = 1 Small Wavelength Modes in Z-Pinches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faghihi, M.

    1987-05-01

    A generalization of Freidberg's perpendicular MHD model is used to investigate the effect of pressure anisotropy on the small wavelength internal kink (m = 1) mode instability in a Z-Pinch. A normal mode analysis of perturbed motion of an incompressible, collisionless and cylindrical plasma is performed. The stability criterion is (rΣB2)' <= 0, where Σ = 1 - (P|| - P⊥)/B2. It cannot be fulfilled without violation of the fire hose stability condition Σ >= 0.

  4. The application of high-speed photography in z-pinch high-temperature plasma diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kui-lu; Qiu, Meng-tong; Hei, Dong-wei

    2007-01-01

    This invited paper is presented to discuss the application of high speed photography in z-pinch high temperature plasma diagnostics in recent years in Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology in concentrative mode. The developments and applications of soft x-ray framing camera, soft x-ray curved crystal spectrometer, optical framing camera, ultraviolet four-frame framing camera and ultraviolet-visible spectrometer are introduced.

  5. Coronal plasma development in wire-array z-pinches made of twisted-pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyt, C. L.; Greenly, J. B.; Gourdain, P. A.; Knapp, P. F.; Pikuz, S. A.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Hammer, D. A.; Kusse, B. R.

    2009-11-01

    We have investigated coronal and core plasma development in wire array z-pinches in which single fine wires are replaced by twisted-pairs (``cable'') on the 1 MA, 100 ns rise time COBRA pulsed power generator. X-ray radiography, employed to investigate dense wire core expansion, showed periodic axial nonuniformity and evidence for shock waves developing where the individual wire plasmas collide. Laser shadowgraphy images indicated that the axial instability properties of the coronal plasma are substantially modified from ordinary wire arrays. Cable mass per unit length, material and the twist wavelength were varied in order to study their effects upon the instability wavelength. Implosion uniformity and bright-spot formation, as well as magnetic topology evolution, have also been investigated using self-emission imaging, x-ray diagnostics and small B-dot probes, respectively. Results from the cable-array z-pinches will be compared with results from ordinary wire-array z-pinches. This research was supported by the SSAA program of the National Nuclear Security Administration under DOE Cooperative agreement DE-FC03-02NA00057.

  6. Analysis of staged Z-pinch implosion trajectories from experiments on Zebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Mike P.; Conti, F.; Darling, T. W.; Ruskov, E.; Valenzuela, J.; Wessel, F. J.; Beg, F.; Narkis, J.; Rahman, H. U.

    2017-10-01

    The Staged Z-pinch plasma confinement concept relies on compressing an annular liner of high-Z plasma onto a target plasma column of deuterium fuel. The interface between the liner and target is stable against the Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor Instability, which leads to effective fuel compression and makes the concept interesting as a potential fusion reactor. The liner initiates as a neutral gas puff, while the target plasma is a partially ionized (Zeff < 10 percent column ejected from a coaxial plasma gun. The Zebra pulsed power generator (1 MA peak current, 100 ns rise time) provides the discharge that ionizes the liner and drives the Z-pinch implosion. Diverse diagnostics observe the 100-300 km/s implosions including silicon diodes, photo-conducting detectors (PCDs), laser shadowgraphy, an XUV framing camera, and a visible streak camera. The imaging diagnostics track instabilities smaller than 0.1 mm, and Z-pinch diameters below 2.5 mm are seen at peak compression. This poster correlates the data from these diagnostics to elucidate implosion behavior dependencies on liner gas, liner pressure, target pressure, and applied, axial-magnetic field. Funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy, DE-AR0000569.

  7. Radiation characteristics and implosion dynamics of tungsten wire array Z-pinches on the YANG accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xian-Bin; Yang, Li-Bing; Li, Jing; Zhou, Shao-Tong; Ren, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Si-Qun; Dan, Jia-Kun; Cai, Hong-Chun; Duan, Shu-Chao; Chen, Guang-Hua; Zhang, Zheng-Wei; Ouyang, Kai; Li, Jun; Zhang, Zhao-Hui; Zhou, Rong-Guo; Wang, Gui-Lin

    2012-05-01

    We investigated the radiation characteristics and implosion dynamics of low-wire-number cylindrical tungsten wire array Z-pinches on the YANG accelerator with a peak current 0.8-1.1 MA and a rising time ~ 90 ns. The arrays are made up of (8-32) × 5 μm wires 6/10 mm in diameter and 15 mm in height. The highest X-ray power obtained in the experiments was about 0.37 TW with the total radiation energy ~ 13 kJ and the energy conversion efficiency ~ 9% (24 × 5 μm wires, 6 mm in diameter). Most of the X-ray emissions from tungsten Z-pinch plasmas were distributed in the spectral band of 100-600 eV, peaked at 250 and 375 eV. The dominant wavelengths of the wire ablation and the magneto-Rayleigh—Taylor instability were found and analyzed through measuring the time-gated self-emission and laser interferometric images. Through analyzing the implosion trajectories obtained by an optical streak camera, the run-in velocities of the Z-pinch plasmas at the end of the implosion phase were determined to be about (1.3-2.1) × 107 cm/s.

  8. Effect of Initial Conditions on Gas-Puff Z-Pinch Dynamics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Gus Gordon

    This dissertation concerns the effects initial conditions have on the dynamics of an imploded, annular gas-puff z-pinch. The influence of axial magnetic fields, nozzle size and composition, different gases, pre-ionization, and electrode design on pinch quality and x-ray yield is investigated. The experiment uses a 5-kJ capacitor bank to deliver 0.35 MA to the pinch load in 1.4 mu rm s. This research establishes parameters important to increasing the x-ray yield of dense z-pinches. The initial stage of the implosion is diagnosed with a framing camera that photographs visible light emitted from z-pinch gas breakdown. Data from subsequent stages of the pinch is recorded with a B-dot probe, filtered x-ray diodes, an x-ray filtered pinhole camera, and a nitrogen laser interferometer. Applied axial magnetic fields of ~100 gauss increase average x-ray yield by more than 20%. A substantial increase of K-shell x -ray yield of more than 200% was obtained by increasing the energy delivered to the plasma by enlarging the nozzle diameter from 4 to 5 cm. The use of a Teflon outer-mantle for the nozzle resulted in less uniform gas breakdown as compared to graphite and copper outer-mantles, but x-ray yield and final state uniformity were not reduced. Lower Z gases showed poorer breakdown uniformity. Pre-ionization improved the uniformity of helium and neon breakdown but did not appear to affect subsequent dynamics. X-ray yield was significantly higher using a knife-edge annular anode, as opposed to a flat stainless steel honeycomb anode. Annular anodes with diameters more than a few millimeters different than the nozzle diameter produced low quality pinches with substantially lower x-ray yield.

  9. Grazing incidence extreme ultraviolet spectrometer fielded with time resolution in a hostile z-pinch environment.

    PubMed

    Williamson, K M; Kantsyrev, V L; Safronova, A S; Wilcox, P G; Cline, W; Batie, S; LeGalloudec, B; Nalajala, V; Astanovitsky, A

    2011-09-01

    This recently developed diagnostic was designed to allow for time-gated spectroscopic study of the EUV radiation (4 nm < λ < 15 nm) present during harsh wire array z-pinch implosions. The spectrometer utilizes a 25 μm slit, an array of 3 spherical blazed gratings at grazing incidence, and a microchannel plate (MCP) detector placed in an off-Rowland position. Each grating is positioned such that its diffracted radiation is cast over two of the six total independently timed frames of the MCP. The off-Rowland configuration allows for a much greater spectral density on the imaging plate but only focuses at one wavelength per grating. The focal wavelengths are chosen for their diagnostic significance. Testing was conducted at the Zebra pulsed-power generator (1 MA, 100 ns risetime) at the University of Nevada, Reno on a series of wire array z-pinch loads. Within this harsh z-pinch environment, radiation yields routinely exceed 20 kJ in the EUV and soft x-ray. There are also strong mechanical shocks, high velocity debris, sudden vacuum changes during operation, energic ion beams, and hard x-ray radiation in excess of 50 keV. The spectra obtained from the precursor plasma of an Al double planar wire array contained lines of Al IX and AlX ions indicating a temperature near 60 eV during precursor formation. Detailed results will be presented showing the fielding specifications and the techniques used to extract important plasma parameters using this spectrometer. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  10. The inverse skin effect in the Z-pinch and plasma focus

    SciTech Connect

    Usenko, P. L., E-mail: otd4@expd.vniief.ru; Gaganov, V. V.

    The inverse skin effect and its influence on the dynamics of high-current Z-pinch and plasma focus discharges in deuterium are analyzed. It is shown that the second compression responsible for the major fraction of the neutron yield can be interpreted as a result of the inverse skin effect resulting in the axial concentration of the longitudinal current density and the appearance of a reversed current in the outer layers of plasma pinches. Possible conditions leading to the enhancement of the inverse skin effect and accessible for experimental verification by modern diagnostics are formulated.

  11. Spatially resolved single crystal x-ray spectropolarimetry of wire array z-pinch plasmas.

    PubMed

    Wallace, M S; Haque, S; Neill, P; Pereira, N R; Presura, R

    2018-01-01

    A recently developed single-crystal x-ray spectropolarimeter has been used to record paired sets of polarization-dependent and axially resolved x-ray spectra emitted by wire array z-pinches. In this measurement, two internal planes inside a suitable crystal diffract the x-rays into two perpendicular directions that are normal to each other, thereby separating incident x-rays into their linearly polarized components. This paper gives considerations for fielding the instrument on extended sources. Results from extended sources are difficult to interpret because generally the incident x-rays are not separated properly by the crystal. This difficulty is mitigated by using a series of collimating slits to select incident x-rays that propagate in a plane of symmetry between the polarization-splitting planes. The resulting instrument and some of the spatially resolved polarized x-ray spectra recorded for a 1-MA aluminum wire array z-pinch at the Nevada Terawatt Facility at the University of Nevada, Reno will be presented.

  12. History of HERMES III diode to z-pinch breakthrough and beyond :

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, Thomas Williamlou.

    HERMES III and Z are two flagship accelerators of Sandias pulsed-power program developed to generate intense -ray fields for the study of nuclear radiation effects, and to explore high energy-density physics (including the production of intense x-ray fields for Inertia Confinement Fusion [ICF]), respectively. A diode at the exit of HERMES III converts its 20-MeV electron beam into -rays. In contrast, at the center of Z, a z-pinch is used to convert its 20-MA current into an intense burst of x-rays. Here the history of how the HERMES III diode emerged from theoretical considerations to actual hardware is discussed. Next,more » the reverse process of how the experimental discovery of wire-array stabilization in a z-pinch, led to a better theory of wirearray implosions and its application to one of the ICF concepts on Z--the DH (Dynamic Hohlraum) is reviewed. Lastly, the report concludes with how the unexpected axial radiation asymmetry measured in the DH is understood. The first discussion illustrates the evolution of physics from theory-to-observationto- refinement. The second two illustrate the reverse process of observationto- theory-to refinement. The histories are discussed through the vehicle of my research at Sandia, illustrating the unique environment Sandia provides for personal growth and development into a scientific leader.« less

  13. Pulse Power Compression by Cutting a Dense Z-Pinch with a Laser Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterberg, F.

    1999-07-01

    A thin cut made through a z-pinch by an intense laser beam can become a magnetically insulated diode crossed by an intense ion beam. For larger cuts, the gap is crossed by an intense relativistic electron beam, stopped by magnetic bremsstrahlung resulting in a pointlike intense x-ray source. In either case, the impedance of the pinch discharge is increased, with the power delivered rising in the same pro-portion. A magnetically insulated cut is advantageous for three reasons: First, with the ion current com-parable to the Alfvèn ion current, the pinch instabilities are reduced. Second, with the energy deposit-ed into fast ions, a non-Maxwellian velocity distribution is established increasing<σ ν> value for nuclear fusion reactions taking place in the pinch discharge. Third, in a high density z-pinch plasma, the intense ion beam can launch a thermonuclear detonation wave propagating along the pinch discharge channel. For larger cuts the soft x-rays produced by magnetic bremsstrahlung can be used to drive a thermonuclear hohlraum target. Finally, the proposed pulse power compression scheme permits to use a cheap low power d.c. source charging a magnetic storage coil delivering the magnetically stored energy to the pinch discharge load by an exploding wire opening switch.

  14. A short-pulse mode for the SPHINX LTD Z-pinch driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Almeida, Thierry; Lassalle, Francis; Zucchini, Frederic; Loyen, Arnaud; Morell, Alain; Chuvatin, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    The SPHINX machine is a 6MA, 1 μs, LTD Z-pinch driver at CEA Gramat (France) and primarily used for studying radiation effects. Different power amplification concepts were examined in order to reduce the current rise time without modifying the generator discharge scheme, including the Dynamic Load Current Multiplier (DLCM) proposed by Chuvatin. A DLCM device, capable of shaping the current pulse without reducing the rise time, was developed at CEA. This device proved valuable for isentropic compression experiments in cylindrical geometry. Recently, we achieved a short pulse operation mode by inserting a vacuum closing switch between the DLCM and the load. The current rise time was reduced to ~300 ns. We explored the use of a reduced-height wire array for the Dynamic Flux Extruder in order to improve the wire array compression rate and increase the efficiency of the current transfer to the load. These developments are presented. Potential benefits of these developments for future Z pinch experiments are discussed.

  15. Performance of a Liner-on-Target Injector for Staged Z-Pinch Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, F.; Valenzuela, J. C.; Narkis, J.; Krasheninnikov, I.; Beg, F.; Wessel, F. J.; Ruskov, E.; Rahman, H. U.; McGee, E.

    2016-10-01

    We present the design and characterization of a compact liner-on-target injector, used in the Staged Z-pinch experiments conducted on the UNR-NTF Zebra Facility. Previous experiments and analysis indicate that high-Z gas liners produce a uniform and efficient implosion on a low-Z target plasma. The liner gas shell is produced by an annular solenoid valve and a converging-diverging nozzle designed to achieve a collimated, supersonic, Mach-5 flow. The on-axis target is produced by a coaxial plasma gun, where a high voltage pulse is applied to ionize neutral gas and accelerate the plasma by the J-> × B-> force. Measurements of the liner and target dynamics, resolved by interferometry in space and time, fast imaging, and collection of the emitted light, are presented. The results are compared to the predictions from Computational Fluid Dynamics and MHD simulations that model the injector. Optimization of the design parameters, for upcoming Staged Z-pinch experiments, will be discussed. Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy, DE-AR0000569.

  16. Spatially resolved single crystal x-ray spectropolarimetry of wire array z-pinch plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, M. S.; Haque, S.; Neill, P.; Pereira, N. R.; Presura, R.

    2018-01-01

    A recently developed single-crystal x-ray spectropolarimeter has been used to record paired sets of polarization-dependent and axially resolved x-ray spectra emitted by wire array z-pinches. In this measurement, two internal planes inside a suitable crystal diffract the x-rays into two perpendicular directions that are normal to each other, thereby separating incident x-rays into their linearly polarized components. This paper gives considerations for fielding the instrument on extended sources. Results from extended sources are difficult to interpret because generally the incident x-rays are not separated properly by the crystal. This difficulty is mitigated by using a series of collimating slits to select incident x-rays that propagate in a plane of symmetry between the polarization-splitting planes. The resulting instrument and some of the spatially resolved polarized x-ray spectra recorded for a 1-MA aluminum wire array z-pinch at the Nevada Terawatt Facility at the University of Nevada, Reno will be presented.

  17. Recombination-pumped XUV lasing in capillary discharges and dynamic z-pinches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pöckl, M.; Hebenstreit, M.; Fertner, R.; Neger, T.; Aumayr, F.

    1996-08-01

    A fully time-dependent collisional - radiative model is employed to calculate relevant population densities in a recombining carbon/hydrogen z-pinch plasma. In particular, the dependence of the small signal gain G on the maximum electron temperature and cooling rate, as well as the influence of Lyman-0022-3727/29/8/005/img8 reabsorption, are studied. Although in conditions typical for dynamic z-pinches the maximum electron temperature and cooling rates would, in principle, be sufficiently high, gain on the Balmer-0022-3727/29/8/005/img8 transition is strongly reduced by Lyman-0022-3727/29/8/005/img8 reabsorption. In order to investigate vacuum spark capillary discharges, the system of rate equations is coupled with balance equations of the plasma energy and the total number of heavy particles. The resulting set of equations is solved self-consistently. Results are presented that show the systematic dependence of the small signal gain on electrical input power, wall material, and capillary geometry. High gain coefficients 0022-3727/29/8/005/img11 could be achieved by modelling high-voltage discharges with short ringing periods through capillaries containing boron or carbon. While the maximum achievable gain coefficient for lithium is rather poor 0022-3727/29/8/005/img12 the duration of population inversion would be long enough (a few tens of nanoseconds) to make multi-pass operation possible.

  18. Analytic model to estimate thermonuclear neutron yield in z-pinches using the magnetic Noh problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Robert C.

    The objective was to build a model which could be used to estimate neutron yield in pulsed z-pinch experiments, benchmark future z-pinch simulation tools and to assist scaling for breakeven systems. To accomplish this, a recent solution to the magnetic Noh problem was utilized which incorporates a self-similar solution with cylindrical symmetry and azimuthal magnetic field (Velikovich, 2012). The self-similar solution provides the conditions needed to calculate the time dependent implosion dynamics from which batch burn is assumed and used to calculate neutron yield. The solution to the model is presented. The ion densities and time scales fix the initial mass and implosion velocity, providing estimates of the experimental results given specific initial conditions. Agreement is shown with experimental data (Coverdale, 2007). A parameter sweep was done to find the neutron yield, implosion velocity and gain for a range of densities and time scales for DD reactions and a curve fit was done to predict the scaling as a function of preshock conditions.

  19. The study of hard x-ray emission and electron beam generation in wire array Z-pinch and X-pinch plasmas at university-scale generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Ishor Kumar

    The studies of hard x-ray (HXR) emission and electron beam generation in Z-pinch plasmas are very important for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) research and HXR emission application for sources of K-shell and L-shell radiation. Energetic electron beams from Z-pinch plasmas are potentially a problem in the development of ICF. The electron beams and the accompanying HXR emission can preheat the fuel of a thermonuclear target, thereby preventing the fuel compression from reaching densities required for the ignition of a fusion reaction. The photons above 3-4 keV radiated from a Z pinch can provide detailed information about the high energy density plasmas produced at stagnation. Hence, the investigation of characteristics of hard x-rays and electron beams produced during implosions of wire array loads on university scale-generators may provide important data for future ICF, sources of K-shell and L-shell radiations and basic plasma research. This dissertation presents the results of experimental studies of HXR and electron beam generation in wire-array and X-pinch on the 1.7 MA, 100-ns current rise time Zebra generator at University of Nevada, Reno and 1-MA 100-ns current rise-time Cornell Beam Research Accelerator (COBRA) at Cornell University. The experimental study of characteristics of HXR produced by multi-planar wire arrays, compact cylindrical wire array (CCWA) and nested cylindrical wire array (NCWA) made from Al, Cu, Mo, Ag, W and Au were analyzed. The dependence of the HXR yield and power on geometry of the load, the wire material, and load mass was observed. The presence of aluminum wires in the load with the main material such as stainless steel, Cu, Mo, Ag, W or Au in combined wire array decreases HXR yield. The comparison of emission characteristics of HXR and generation of electron beams in CCWA and NCWA on both the high impedance Zebra generator and low impedance COBRA generator were investigated. Some of the "cold" K- shell spectral lines (0.7-2.3

  20. Enhanced energy coupling and x-ray emission in Z-pinch plasma implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, K. G.; Thornhill, J. W.; Apruzese, J. P.; Davis, J.; Deeney, C.; Coverdale, C. A.

    2004-08-01

    Recent experiments conducted on the Saturn pulsed-power generator at Sandia National Laboratories [R. B. Spielman et al., in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Dense Z Pinches, Laguna Beach, CA, 1989, edited by N. R. Pereira, J. Davis, and N. Rostoker (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1989), p. 3] have produced large amounts of x-ray output, which cannot be accounted for in conventional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) calculations. In these experiments, the Saturn current had a rise time of ~180 ns in contrast to a rise time of ~60 ns in Saturn's earlier mode of operation. In both aluminum and tungsten wire-array Z-pinch implosions, 2-4 times more x-ray output was generated than could be supplied according to one-dimensional (1D) magnetohydrodynamic calculations by the combined action of the j×B acceleration forces and ohmic heating (as described by a classical Braginskii resistivity). In this paper, we reexamine the problem of coupling transmission line circuits to plasma fluid equations and derive expressions for the Z-pinch load circuit resistance and inductance that relate these quantities in a 1D analysis to the surface resistivity of the fluid, and to the magnetic field energy that is stored in the vacuum diode, respectively. Enhanced energy coupling in this analysis, therefore, comes from enhancements to the surface resistivity, and we show that plasma resistivities approximately three orders of magnitude larger than classical are needed in order to achieve energy inputs that are comparable to the Saturn experiment x-ray outputs. Large enhancements of the plasma resistivity increase the rate of magnetic field and current diffusion, significantly modify the qualitative features of the MHD, and raise important questions as to how the plasma fluid dynamics converts enhanced energy inputs into enhanced x-ray outputs. One-dimensional MHD calculations in which resistivity values are adjusted phenomenologically are used to illustrate how

  1. 3D MHD Simulations of Radial Wire Array Z-pinches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niasse, N.; Chittenden, J. P.; Bland, S. N.; Suzuki-Vidal, F. A.; Hall, G. N.; Lebedev, S. V.; Calamy, H.; Zucchini, F.; Lassalle, F.; Bedoch, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    Recent experiments carried out on the MAGPIE (1 MA, 250 ns), OEDIPE (730 kA, 1.5 μs) and SPHINX (4 MA, 700 ns)[1] facilities have shown the relatively high level of scalability of the Radial Wire Array Z-pinches. These configurations where the wires stretch radially outwards from a central cathode offer numerous advantages over standard cylindrical arrays. In particular, imploding in a very stable and compact way, they seem suitable for coupling to small scale hohlraums. Making use of the 3D resistive magneto-hydrodynamic code GORGON[2] developed at Imperial College, the dynamic of the radial wire arrays is investigated. Influence of the cathode hotspots and wires angle on the x-ray emissions is also discussed. Comparison with experiments is offered to validate the numerical studies.

  2. Use of vacuum arc plasma guns for a metal puff Z-pinch system

    SciTech Connect

    Rousskikh, A. G.; Zhigalin, A. S.; Oreshkin, V. I.

    The performance of a metal puff Z-pinch system has been studied experimentally. In this type of system, the initial cylindrical shell 4 cm in diameter was produced by ten plasma guns. Each gun initiates a vacuum arc operating between magnesium electrodes. The net current of the guns was 80 kA. The arc-produced plasma shell was compressed by using a 450-kA, 450-ns driver, and as a result, a plasma column 0.3 cm in diameter was formed. The electron temperature of the plasma reached 400 eV at an average ion concentration of 1.85 {center_dot} 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}. The power of themore » Mg K-line radiation emitted by the plasma for 15-30 ns was 300 MW/cm.« less

  3. 250 kA compact linear transformer driver for wire array z-pinch loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bott, S. C.; Haas, D. M.; Madden, R. E.; Ueda, U.; Eshaq, Y.; Collins, G., IV; Gunasekera, K.; Mariscal, D.; Peebles, J.; Beg, F. N.; Mazarakis, M.; Struve, K.; Sharpe, R.

    2011-05-01

    We present the application of a short rise (˜150ns) 250 kA linear transformer driver (LTD) to wire array z-pinch loads for the first time. The generator is a modification of a previous driver in which a new conical power feed provides a low inductance coupling to wire loads. Performance of the new design using both short circuit and plasma loads is presented and discussed. The final design delivers ˜200kA to a wire array load which is in good agreement with SCREAMER calculations using a simplified representative circuit. Example results demonstrate successful experiments using cylindrical, conical, and inverse wire arrays as well as previously published work on x-pinch loads.

  4. The effects of insulating coatings and current prepulse on tungsten planar wire array Z-pinches

    SciTech Connect

    Li, M., E-mail: limo@nint.ac.cn; Li, Y.; State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Radiation Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an 710024

    2015-12-15

    This paper presents experimental results on the effects of insulating coatings and current prepulse on tungsten planar wire array Z-pinches on ∼100 ns main current facility. Optical framing images indicated that without a current prepulse the wire ablation process was asymmetrical and the implosion was zippered. The x-ray peak power was ∼320 GW. By using insulating coatings on the wire surface the asymmetry remained, and the processes of ablation and implosion were delayed by ∼30 ns. The x-ray burst was narrow and decreased to ∼200 GW. When current prepulses were used on both standard and insulated wire arrays, implosion symmetry was improved and themore » x-ray burst was improved (to ∼520 GW peak power). In addition, there was a strong emitting precursor column for insulated loads with the current prepulse.« less

  5. Design of Z-Pinch and Dense Plasma Focus Powered Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polsgrove, Tara; Fincher, Sharon; Adams, Robert B.; Cassibry, Jason; Cortez, Ross; Turner, Matthew; Maples, C. Daphne; Miermik, Janie N.; Statham, Geoffrey N.; Fabisinski, Leo; hide

    2011-01-01

    Z-pinch and Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) are two promising techniques for bringing fusion power to the field of in-space propulsion. A design team comprising of engineers and scientists from UAHuntsville, NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center and the University of Wisconsin developed concept vehicles for a crewed round trip mission to Mars and an interstellar precursor mission. Outlined in this paper are vehicle concepts, complete with conceptual analysis of the mission profile, operations, structural and thermal analysis and power/avionics design. Additionally engineering design of the thruster itself is included. The design efforts adds greatly to the fidelity of estimates for power density (alpha) and overall performance for these thruster concepts

  6. Implosion dynamics of condensed Z-pinch at the Angara-5-1 facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrov, V. V.; Grabovski, E. V.; Gritsuk, A. N.; Volobuev, I. V.; Kazakov, E. D.; Kalinin, Yu. G.; Korolev, V. D.; Laukhin, Ya. I.; Medovshchikov, S. F.; Mitrofanov, K. N.; Oleinik, G. M.; Pimenov, V. G.; Smirnova, E. A.; Ustroev, G. I.; Frolov, I. N.

    2017-08-01

    The implosion dynamics of a condensed Z-pinch at load currents of up to 3.5 MA and a current rise time of 100 ns was studied experimentally at the Angara-5-1 facility. To increase the energy density, 1- to 3-mm-diameter cylinders made of a deuterated polyethylene-agar-agar mixture or microporous deuterated polyethylene with a mass density of 0.03-0.5 g/cm3 were installed in the central region of the loads. The plasma spatiotemporal characteristics were studied using the diagnostic complex of the Angara-5-1 facility, including electron-optical streak and frame imaging, time-integrated X-ray imaging, soft X-ray (SXR) measurements, and vacuum UV spectroscopy. Most information on the plasma dynamics was obtained using a ten-frame X-ray camera ( E > 100 eV) with an exposure of 4 ns. SXR pulses were recorded using photoemissive vacuum X-ray detectors. The energy characteristics of neutron emission were measured using the time-offlight method with the help of scintillation detectors arranged along and across the pinch axis. The neutron yield was measured by activation detectors. The experimental results indicate that the plasma dynamics depends weakly on the load density. As a rule, two stages of plasma implosion were observed. The formation of hot plasma spots in the initial stage of plasma expansion from the pinch axis was accompanied by short pulses of SXR and neutron emission. The neutron yield reached (0.4-3) × 1010 neutrons/shot and was almost independent of the load density due to specific features of Z-pinch dynamics.

  7. A Compact Soft X-Ray Microscope using an Electrode-less Z-Pinch Source.

    PubMed

    Horne, S F; Silterra, J; Holber, W

    2009-01-01

    Soft X-rays (< 1Kev) are of medical interest both for imaging and microdosimetry applications. X-ray sources at this low energy present a technological challenge. Synchrotrons, while very powerful and flexible, are enormously expensive national research facilities. Conventional X-ray sources based on electron bombardment can be compact and inexpensive, but low x-ray production efficiencies at low electron energies restrict this approach to very low power applications. Laser-based sources tend to be expensive and unreliable. Energetiq Technology, Inc. (Woburn, MA, USA) markets a 92 eV, 10W(2pi sr) electrode-less Z-pinch source developed for advanced semiconductor lithography. A modified version of this commercial product has produced 400 mW at 430 eV (2pi sr), appropriate for water window soft X-ray microscopy. The US NIH has funded Energetiq to design and construct a demonstration microscope using this source, coupled to a condenser optic, as the illumination system. The design of the condenser optic matches the unique characteristics of the source to the illumination requirements of the microscope, which is otherwise a conventional design. A separate program is underway to develop a microbeam system, in conjunction with the RARAF facility at Columbia University, NY, USA. The objective is to develop a focused, sub-micron beam capable of delivering > 1 Gy/second to the nucleus of a living cell. While most facilities of this type are coupled to a large and expensive particle accelerator, the Z-pinch X-ray source enables a compact, stand-alone design suitable to a small laboratory. The major technical issues in this system involve development of suitable focusing X-ray optics. Current status of these programs will be reported.

  8. A Compact Soft X-Ray Microscope using an Electrode-less Z-Pinch Source

    PubMed Central

    Silterra, J; Holber, W

    2009-01-01

    Soft X-rays (< 1Kev) are of medical interest both for imaging and microdosimetry applications. X-ray sources at this low energy present a technological challenge. Synchrotrons, while very powerful and flexible, are enormously expensive national research facilities. Conventional X-ray sources based on electron bombardment can be compact and inexpensive, but low x-ray production efficiencies at low electron energies restrict this approach to very low power applications. Laser-based sources tend to be expensive and unreliable. Energetiq Technology, Inc. (Woburn, MA, USA) markets a 92 eV, 10W(2pi sr) electrode-less Z-pinch source developed for advanced semiconductor lithography. A modified version of this commercial product has produced 400 mW at 430 eV (2pi sr), appropriate for water window soft X-ray microscopy. The US NIH has funded Energetiq to design and construct a demonstration microscope using this source, coupled to a condenser optic, as the illumination system. The design of the condenser optic matches the unique characteristics of the source to the illumination requirements of the microscope, which is otherwise a conventional design. A separate program is underway to develop a microbeam system, in conjunction with the RARAF facility at Columbia University, NY, USA. The objective is to develop a focused, sub-micron beam capable of delivering > 1 Gy/second to the nucleus of a living cell. While most facilities of this type are coupled to a large and expensive particle accelerator, the Z-pinch X-ray source enables a compact, stand-alone design suitable to a small laboratory. The major technical issues in this system involve development of suitable focusing X-ray optics. Current status of these programs will be reported. PMID:20198115

  9. Digital holographic interferometry employing Fresnel transform reconstruction for the study of flow shear stabilized Z-pinch plasmas.

    PubMed

    Ross, M P; Shumlak, U

    2016-10-01

    The ZaP-HD flow Z-pinch project provides a platform to explore how shear flow stabilized Z-pinches could scale to high-energy-density plasma (plasma with pressures exceeding 1 Mbar) and fusion reactor conditions. The Z-pinch is a linear plasma confinement geometry in which the plasma carries axial electric current and is confined by its self-induced magnetic field. ZaP-HD generates shear stabilized, axisymmetric Z-pinches with stable lifetimes approaching 60 μs. The goal of the project is to increase the plasma density and temperature compared to the previous ZaP project by compressing the plasma to smaller radii (≈1 mm). Radial and axial plasma electron density structure is measured using digital holographic interferometry (DHI), which provides the necessary fine spatial resolution. ZaP-HD's DHI system uses a 2 ns Nd:YAG laser pulse with a second harmonic generator (λ = 532 nm) to produce holograms recorded by a Nikon D3200 digital camera. The holograms are numerically reconstructed with the Fresnel transform reconstruction method to obtain the phase shift caused by the interaction of the laser beam with the plasma. This provides a two-dimensional map of line-integrated electron density, which can be Abel inverted to determine the local number density. The DHI resolves line-integrated densities down to 3 × 10 20 m -2 with spatial resolution near 10 μm. This paper presents the first application of Fresnel transform reconstruction as an analysis technique for a plasma diagnostic, and it analyzes the method's accuracy through study of synthetic data. It then presents an Abel inversion procedure that utilizes data on both sides of a Z-pinch local number density profile to maximize profile symmetry. Error estimation and Abel inversion are applied to the measured data.

  10. Simulation and characterization of a laterally-driven inertial micro-switch

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wenguo; Wang, Yang; Wang, Huiying

    2015-04-15

    A laterally-driven inertial micro-switch was designed and fabricated using surface micromachining technology. The dynamic response process was simulated by ANSYS software, which revealed the vibration process of movable electrode when the proof mass is shocked by acceleration in sensitive direction. The test results of fabricated inertial micro-switches with and without anti-shock beams indicated that the contact process of micro-switch with anti-shock beams is more reliable than the one without anti-shock beams. The test results indicated that three contact signals had been observed in the contact process of the inertial switch without anti-shock beams, and only one contact signal in themore » inertial switch with anti-shock beams, which demonstrated that the anti-shock beams can effectively constrain the vibration in non-sensitive direction.« less

  11. Temperature Evolution of a 1 MA Triple-Nozzle Gas-Puff Z-Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Grouchy, Philip; Banasek, Jacob; Engelbrecht, Joey; Qi, Niansheng; Atoyan, Levon; Byvank, Tom; Cahill, Adam; Moore, Hannah; Potter, William; Ransohoff, Lauren; Hammer, David; Kusse, Bruce; Laboratory of Plasma Studies Team

    2015-11-01

    Mitigation of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) plays a critical role in optimizing x-ray output at high-energy ~ 13 keV using the triple-nozzle Krypton gas-puff at Sandia National Laboratory. RTI mitigation by gas-puff density profiling using a triple-nozzle gas-puff valve has recently been recently demonstrated on the COBRA 1MA z-pinch at Cornell University. In support of this work we investigate the role of shell cooling in the growth of RTI during gas-puff implosions. Temperature measurements within the imploding plasma shell are recorded using a 527 nm, 10 GW Thomson scattering diagnostic for Neon, Argon and Krypton puffs. The mass-density profile is held constant at 22 microgram per centimeter for all three puffs and the temperature evolution of the imploding material is recorded. In the case of Argon puffs we find that the shell ion and electron effective temperatures remain in equilibrium at around 1keV for the majority of the implosion phase. In contrast scattered spectra from Krypton are dominated by of order 10 keV effective ion temperatures. Supported by the NNSA Stewardship Sciences Academic Programs.

  12. Radial and Azimuthal Velocity Profiles in Gas-Puff Z-Pinches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocco, Sophia; Engelbrecht, Joseph; Banasek, Jacob; de Grouchy, Philip; Qi, Niansheng; Hammer, David

    2016-10-01

    The dynamics of neon, argon, and krypton (either singly or in combination) gas puff z-pinch plasmas are studied on Cornell's 1MA, 100-200ns rise-time COBRA pulsed power generator. The triple-nozzle gas puff valve, consisting of two annular gas puffs and a central jet, allows radial tailoring of the gas puff mass-density profile and the use of 1, 2 or 3 different gases at different pressures. Interferometry supplies information on sheath thickness and electron density, variously filtered PCDs and silicon diodes measure hard and soft x-ray production, and multi frame visible and extreme UV imaging systems allow tracking of the morphology of the plasma. A 527nm, 10J Thomson scattering diagnostic system is used to determine radial and azimuthal velocities. Implosion velocities of 170km/s (Kr) and 300km/s (Ne/Ar) are observed. We are investigating the correlations between instability growth, plasma density profile, velocity partitioning as a function of radius, and radiation production. Research supported by the NNSA Stewardship Sciences Academic Programs under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NA0001836.

  13. Staged Z-pinch Experiments at the 1MA Zebra pulsed-power generator: Neutron measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruskov, Emil; Darling, T.; Glebov, V.; Wessel, F. J.; Anderson, A.; Beg, F.; Conti, F.; Covington, A.; Dutra, E.; Narkis, J.; Rahman, H.; Ross, M.; Valenzuela, J.

    2017-10-01

    We report on neutron measurements from the latest Staged Z-pinch experiments at the 1MA Zebra pulsed-power generator. In these experiments a hollow shell of argon or krypton gas liner, injected between the 1 cm anode-cathode gap, compresses a deuterium plasma target of varying density. Axial magnetic field Bz <= 2 kGs, applied throughout the pinch region, stabilizes the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The standard silver activation diagnostics and 4 plastic scintillator neutron Time of Flight (nTOF) detectors are augmented with a large area ( 1400 cm2) liquid scintillator detector to which fast gatedPhotek photomultipliers are attached. Sample data from these neutron diagnostics systems is presented. Consistently high neutron yields YDD >109 are measured, with highest yield of 2.6 ×109 . A pair of horizontally and vertically placed plastic scintillator nTOFs suggest isotropic i.e. thermonuclear origin of the neutrons produced. nTOF data from the liquid scintillator detector was cross-calibrated with the silver activation detector, and can be used for accurate calculation of the neutron yield. Funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy, under Grant Number DE-AR0000569.

  14. Parameter scaling toward high-energy density in a quasi-steady flow Z-pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, M. C.; Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Golingo, R. P.; Claveau, E. L.; Doty, S. A.; Forbes, E. G.; Kim, B.; Ross, M. P.

    2016-10-01

    Sheared axial flows are utilized by the ZaP Flow Z-Pinch Experiment to stabilize MHD instabilities. The pinches formed are 50 cm long with radii ranging from 0.3 to 1.0 cm. The plasma is generated in a coaxial acceleration region, similar to a Marshall gun, which provides a steady supply of plasma for approximately 100 us. The power to the plasma is partially decoupled between the acceleration and pinch assembly regions through the use of separate power supplies. Adiabatic scaling of the Bennett relation gives targets for future devices to reach high-energy density conditions or fusion reactors. The applicability of an adiabatic assumption is explored and work is done experimentally to clarify the plasma compression process, which may be more generally polytropic. The device is capable of a much larger parameter space than previous machine iterations, allowing flexibility in the initial conditions of the compression process to preserve stability. This work is supported by DoE FES and NNSA.

  15. Use of microsecond current prepulse for dramatic improvements of wire array Z-pinch implosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calamy, H.; Lassalle, F.; Loyen, A.; Zucchini, F.; Chittenden, J. P.; Hamann, F.; Maury, P.; Georges, A.; Bedoch, J. P.; Morell, A.

    2008-01-01

    The Sphinx machine [F. Lassalle et al., "Status on the SPHINX machine based on the 1microsecond LTD technology"] based on microsecond linear transformer driver (LTD) technology is used to implode an aluminium wire array with an outer diameter up to 140mm and maximum current from 3.5to5MA. 700to800ns implosion Z-pinch experiments are performed on this driver essentially with aluminium. Best results obtained before the improvement described in this paper were 1-3TW radial total power, 100-300kJ total yield, and 20-30kJ energy above 1keV. An auxiliary generator was added to the Sphinx machine in order to allow a multi microsecond current to be injected through the wire array load before the start of the main current. Amplitude and duration of this current prepulse are adjustable, with maxima ˜10kA and 50μs. This prepulse dramatically changes the ablation phase leading to an improvement of the axial homogeneity of both the implosion and the final radiating column. Total power was multiplied by a factor of 6, total yield by a factor of 2.5 with a reproducible behavior. This paper presents experimental results, magnetohydrodynamic simulations, and analysis of the effect of such a long current prepulse.

  16. Development And Characterization Of A Liner-On-Target Injector For Staged Z-Pinch Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenzuela, J. C.; Conti, F.; Krasheninnikov, I.; Narkis, J.; Beg, F.; Wessel, F. J.; Rahman, H. U.

    2016-10-01

    We present the design and optimization of a liner-on-target injector for Staged Z-pinch experiments. The injector is composed of an annular high atomic number (e.g. Ar, Kr) gas-puff and an on-axis plasma gun that delivers the ionized deuterium target. The liner nozzle injector has been carefully studied using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations to produce a highly collimated 1 cm radius gas profile that satisfies the theoretical requirement for best performance on the 1 MA Zebra current driver. The CFD simulations produce density profiles as a function of the nozzle shape and gas. These profiles are initialized in the MHD MACH2 code to find the optimal liner density for a stable, uniform implosion. We use a simple Snowplow model to study the plasma sheath acceleration in a coaxial plasma gun to help us properly design the target injector. We have performed line-integrated density measurements using a CW He-Ne laser to characterize the liner gas and the plasma gun density as a function of time. The measurements are compared with models and calculations and benchmarked accordingly. Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy, DE-AR0000569.

  17. High brightness electrodeless Z-Pinch EUV source for mask inspection tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horne, Stephen F.; Partlow, Matthew J.; Gustafson, Deborah S.; Besen, Matthew M.; Smith, Donald K.; Blackborow, Paul A.

    2012-03-01

    Energetiq Technology has been shipping the EQ-10 Electrodeless Z-pinchTM light source since 1995. The source is currently being used for metrology, mask inspection, and resist development. Energetiq's higher brightness source has been selected as the source for pre-production actinic mask inspection tools. This improved source enables the mask inspection tool suppliers to build prototype tools with capabilities of defect detection and review down to 16nm design rules. In this presentation we will present new source technology being developed at Energetiq to address the critical source brightness issue. The new technology will be shown to be capable of delivering brightness levels sufficient to meet the HVM requirements of AIMS and ABI and potentially API tools. The basis of the source technology is to use the stable pinch of the electrodeless light source and have a brightness of up to 100W/mm(carat)2-sr. We will explain the source design concepts, discuss the expected performance and present the modeling results for the new design.

  18. Cinematic Characterization of Convected Coherent Structures Within an Continuous Flow Z-Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underwood, Thomas; Rodriguez, Jesse; Loebner, Keith; Cappelli, Mark

    2017-10-01

    In this study, two separate diagnostics are applied to a plasma jet produced from a coaxial accelerator with characteristic velocities exceeding 105 m/s and timescales of 10 μs. In the first of these, an ultra-high frame rate CMOS camera coupled to a Z-type laser Schlieren apparatus is used to obtain flow-field refractometry data for the continuous flow Z-pinch formed within the plasma deflagration jet. The 10 MHz frame rate for 256 consecutive frames provides high temporal resolution, enabling turbulent fluctuations and plasma instabilities to be visualized over the course of a single pulse. The unique advantage of this diagnostic is its ability to simultaneously resolve both structural and temporal evolution of instabilities and density gradients within the flow. To allow for a more meaningful statistical analysis of the resulting wave motion, a multiple B-dot probe array was constructed and calibrated to operate over a broadband frequency range up to 100 MHz. The resulting probe measurements are incorporated into a wavelet analysis to uncover the dispersion relation of recorded wave motion and furthermore uncover instability growth rates. Finally these results are compared with theoretical growth rate estimates to identify underlying physics. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Stewardship Science Academic Program in addition to the National Defense Science Engineering Graduate Fellowship.

  19. Measurements of high energy photons in Z-pinch experiments on primary test stand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Fenni; Zhang, Chuanfei; Xu, Rongkun; Yuan, Xi; Huang, Zhanchang; Xu, Zeping; Ye, Fan; Yang, Jianlun; Ning, Jiamin; Hu, Qingyuan; Zhu, Xuebin

    2015-08-01

    High energy photons are measured for the first time in wire-array Z-pinch experiments on the Primary Test Stand (PTS) which delivers a current up to 8 MA with a rise time of 70 ns. A special designed detecting system composed of three types of detectors is used to measure the average energy, intensity, and pulse waveform of high energy photons. Results from Pb-TLD (thermoluminescence dosimeter) detector indicate that the average energy is 480 keV (±15%). Pulse shape of high energy photons is measured by the photodiode detector consisted of scintillator coupled with a photodiode, and it is correlated with soft x-ray power by the same timing signal. Intensity is measured by both TLD and the photodiode detector, showing good accordance with each other, and it is 1010 cm-2 (±20%) at 2 m in the horizontal direction. Measurement results show that high energy photons are mainly produced in pinch regions due to accelerated electrons. PTS itself also produces high energy photons due to power flow electrons, which is one order smaller in amplitude than those from pinch region.

  20. Measurements of high energy photons in Z-pinch experiments on primary test stand.

    PubMed

    Si, Fenni; Zhang, Chuanfei; Xu, Rongkun; Yuan, Xi; Huang, Zhanchang; Xu, Zeping; Ye, Fan; Yang, Jianlun; Ning, Jiamin; Hu, Qingyuan; Zhu, Xuebin

    2015-08-01

    High energy photons are measured for the first time in wire-array Z-pinch experiments on the Primary Test Stand (PTS) which delivers a current up to 8 MA with a rise time of 70 ns. A special designed detecting system composed of three types of detectors is used to measure the average energy, intensity, and pulse waveform of high energy photons. Results from Pb-TLD (thermoluminescence dosimeter) detector indicate that the average energy is 480 keV (±15%). Pulse shape of high energy photons is measured by the photodiode detector consisted of scintillator coupled with a photodiode, and it is correlated with soft x-ray power by the same timing signal. Intensity is measured by both TLD and the photodiode detector, showing good accordance with each other, and it is 10(10) cm(-2) (±20%) at 2 m in the horizontal direction. Measurement results show that high energy photons are mainly produced in pinch regions due to accelerated electrons. PTS itself also produces high energy photons due to power flow electrons, which is one order smaller in amplitude than those from pinch region.

  1. Scaling the Shear-flow Stabilized Z-pinch to Reactor Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, H. S.; Schmidt, A.; Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Golingo, R. P.; Cleveau, E.

    2015-11-01

    We present a conceptual design along with scaling calculations for a pulsed fusion reactor based on the shear-flow-stabilized Z-pinch device. Experiments performed on the ZaP device, at the University of Washington, have demonstrated stable operation for durations of 20 usec at ~100kA discharge current for pinches that are ~1 cm in diameter and 100 cm long. The inverse of the pinch diameter and plasma energy density scale strongly with pinch current and calculations show that maintaining stabilization durations of ~7 usec for increased discharge current (~15x) in a shortened pinch (10 cm) results in a pinch diameter of ~200 um and plasma conditions that approach those needed to support significant fusion burn and energy gain (Ti ~ 30keV, density ~ 3e26/m3, ntau ~1.4e20 sec/m3). Compelling features of the concept include operation at modest discharge current (1.5 MA) and voltage (40kV) along with direct adoption of liquid metals for at least one electrode--technological capabilities that have been proven in existing, commercial, pulse power devices such as large ignitrons. LLNL-ABS-674920. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy ARPAe ALPHA Program by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  2. A Reactor Development Scenario for the FUZE Shear-flow Stabilized Z-pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, H. S.; Higginson, D. P.; Schmidt, A.; Tummel, K. K.; Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Claveau, E. L.; Golingo, R. P.; Weber, T. R.

    2016-10-01

    We present a conceptual design, scaling calculations, and a development path for a pulsed fusion reactor based on the shear-flow-stabilized Z-pinch device. Experiments performed on the ZaP device have demonstrated stable operation for 40 us at 150 kA total discharge current (with 100 kA in the pinch) for pinches that are 1cm in diameter and 100 cm long. Scaling calculations show that achieving stabilization for a pulse of 100 usec, for discharge current 1.5 MA, in a shortened pinch 50 cm, results in a pinch diameter of 200 um and a reactor plant Q 5 for reasonable assumptions of the various system efficiencies. We propose several key intermediate performance levels in order to justify further development. These include achieving operation at pinch currents of 300 kA, where Te and Ti are calculated to exceed 1 keV, 700 kA where fusion power exceeds pinch input power, and 1 MA where fusion energy per pulse exceeds input energy per pulse. This work funded by USDOE ARPAe ALPHA Program and performed under the auspices of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-697801.

  3. A Reactor Development Scenario for the FuZE Sheared-Flow Stabilized Z-pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, Harry S.; Higginson, D. P.; Schmidt, A.; Tummel, K. K.; Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Claveau, E. L.; Forbes, E. G.; Golingo, R. P.; Stepanov, A. D.; Weber, T. R.; Zhang, Y.

    2017-10-01

    We present a conceptual design, scaling calculations, and development path for a pulsed fusion reactor based on a flow-stabilized Z-pinch. Experiments performed on the ZaP and ZaP-HD devices have largely demonstrated the basic physics of sheared-flow stabilization at pinch currents up to 100 kA. Initial experiments on the FuZE device, a high-power upgrade of ZaP, have achieved 20 usec of stability at pinch current 100-200 kA and pinch diameter few mm for a pinch length of 50 cm. Scaling calculations based on a quasi-steady-state power balance show that extending stable duration to 100 usec at a pinch current of 1.5 MA and pinch length of 50 cm, results in a reactor plant Q 5. Future performance milestones are proposed for pinch currents of: 300 kA, where Te and Ti are calculated to exceed 1-2 keV; 700 kA, where DT fusion power would be expected to exceed pinch input power; and 1 MA, where fusion energy per pulse exceeds input energy per pulse. This work funded by USDOE ARPA-E and performed under the auspices of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-734770.

  4. Diagnostics of deuterium gas-puff z-pinch experiments on the GIT-12 generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cikhardt, J.; Klir, D.; Rezac, K.; Kubes, P.; Kravarik, J.; Batobolotova, B.; Sila, O.; Turek, K.; Shishlov, A.; Labetsky, A.; Kokshenev, V.; Chedizov, R.; Ratakhin, N.; Varlachev, V.; Garapatsky, A.; Dudkin, G.; Padalko, V.; GIT-12 Team

    2014-10-01

    Z-pinch experiments with a deuterium gas-puff and an outer plasma shell generated by plasma guns were carried out on the GIT-12 generator at the IHCE in Tomsk. Using this novel configuration of the load, the neutron yields from the DD reaction were significantly increased from 2×1011 up to 3×1012 neutrons per shot at the current level of about 3 MA. In addition to recent experiments, the threshold activation detectors were used in order to get the information about the energy spectrum of the generated neutrons. The copper, indium, and lead samples were irradiated by the pulse of the neutrons generated during the experimental shot. The decay radiation of the products from the reactions 63Cu(n,2n)62Cu, 115In(n, γ) 116 mIn and 206Pb (n,3n)204mPb was observed using gamma spectrometer. According to the used neutron ToF scintillation detectors, the energy of neutrons reaches up to 20 MeV. The work was supported by the MSMT of the Czech Republic research Programs No. ME090871, No. LG13029, by the GACR Grant No. P205/12/0454, Grant CRA IAEA No. 17088 and RFBR research Project No. 13-08-00479-a.

  5. Neutron spectra from beam-target reactions in dense Z-pinches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appelbe, B.; Chittenden, J.

    2015-10-01

    The energy spectrum of neutrons emitted by a range of deuterium and deuterium-tritium Z-pinch devices is investigated computationally using a hybrid kinetic-MHD model. 3D MHD simulations are used to model the implosion, stagnation, and break-up of dense plasma focus devices at currents of 70 kA, 500 kA, and 2 MA and also a 15 MA gas puff. Instabilities in the MHD simulations generate large electric and magnetic fields, which accelerate ions during the stagnation and break-up phases. A kinetic model is used to calculate the trajectories of these ions and the neutron spectra produced due to the interaction of these ions with the background plasma. It is found that these beam-target neutron spectra are sensitive to the electric and magnetic fields at stagnation resulting in significant differences in the spectra emitted by each device. Most notably, magnetization of the accelerated ions causes the beam-target spectra to be isotropic for the gas puff simulations. It is also shown that beam-target spectra can have a peak intensity located at a lower energy than the peak intensity of a thermonuclear spectrum. A number of other differences in the shapes of beam-target and thermonuclear spectra are also observed for each device. Finally, significant differences between the shapes of beam-target DD and DT neutron spectra, due to differences in the reaction cross-sections, are illustrated.

  6. Fully kinetic simulations of dense plasma focus Z-pinch devices.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, A; Tang, V; Welch, D

    2012-11-16

    Dense plasma focus Z-pinch devices are sources of copious high energy electrons and ions, x rays, and neutrons. The mechanisms through which these physically simple devices generate such high-energy beams in a relatively short distance are not fully understood. We now have, for the first time, demonstrated a capability to model these plasmas fully kinetically, allowing us to simulate the pinch process at the particle scale. We present here the results of the initial kinetic simulations, which reproduce experimental neutron yields (~10(7)) and high-energy (MeV) beams for the first time. We compare our fluid, hybrid (kinetic ions and fluid electrons), and fully kinetic simulations. Fluid simulations predict no neutrons and do not allow for nonthermal ions, while hybrid simulations underpredict neutron yield by ~100x and exhibit an ion tail that does not exceed 200 keV. Only fully kinetic simulations predict MeV-energy ions and experimental neutron yields. A frequency analysis in a fully kinetic simulation shows plasma fluctuations near the lower hybrid frequency, possibly implicating lower hybrid drift instability as a contributor to anomalous resistivity in the plasma.

  7. EQ-10 electrodeless Z-pinch EUV source for metrology applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafson, Deborah; Horne, Stephen F.; Partlow, Matthew J.; Besen, Matthew M.; Smith, Donald K.; Blackborow, Paul A.

    2011-11-01

    With EUV Lithography systems shipping, the requirements for highly reliable EUV sources for mask inspection and resist outgassing are becoming better defined, and more urgent. The sources needed for metrology applications are very different than that needed for lithography; brightness (not power) is the key requirement. Suppliers for HVM EUV sources have all resources working on high power and have not entered the smaller market for metrology. Energetiq Technology has been shipping the EQ-10 Electrodeless Z-pinchTM light source since 19951. The source is currently being used for metrology, mask inspection, and resist development2-4. These applications require especially stable performance in both output power and plasma size and position. Over the last 6 years Energetiq has made many source modifications which have included better thermal management to increase the brightness and power of the source. We now have introduced a new source that will meet requirements of some of the mask metrology first generation tools; this source will be reviewed.

  8. Staged Z-pinch experiments on the Mega-Ampere current driver COBRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenzuela, Julio; Banasek, Jacob; Byvank, Thomas; Conti, Fabio; Greenly, John; Hammer, David; Potter, William; Rocco, Sophia; Ross, Michael; Wessel, Frank; Narkis, Jeff; Rahman, Hafiz; Ruskov, Emil; Beg, Farhat

    2017-10-01

    Experiments were conducted on the Cornell's 1 MA, 100 ns current driver COBRA with the goal of better understanding the Staged Z-pinch physics and validating MHD codes. We used a gas injector composed of an annular (1.2 cm radius) high atomic number (e.g., Ar or Kr) gas-puff and an on-axis plasma gun that delivers the ionized hydrogen target. Liner implosion velocity and stability were studied using laser shadowgraphy and interferometry as well as XUV imaging. From the data, the signature of the MRT instability and zippering effect can be seen, but time integrated X-ray imaging show a stable target plasma. A key component of the experiment was the use of optical Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostics to characterize the liner and target plasmas. By fitting the experimental scattered spectra with synthetic data, electron and ion temperature as well as density can be obtained. Preliminary analysis shows significant scattered line broadening from the plasma on-axis ( 0.5 mm diameter) which can be explained by either a low temperature H plasma with Te =Ti =75eV, or by a hot plasma with Ti =3keV, Te =350eV if an Ar-H mixture is present with an Ar fraction higher than 10%. Funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy, DE-AR0000569.

  9. X-ray Power Increase from Symmetrized Wire-Array z-Pinch Implosions on Saturn.*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanford, T. W. L.; Allshouse, G. O.; Marder, B. M.; Nash, T. J.; Mock, R. C.; Douglas, M. R.; Spielman, R. B.; Seaman, J. F.; McGurn, J. S.; Jobe, D.; Gilliland, T. L.; Vargas, M.; Struve, K. W.; Stygar, W. A.; Hammer, J. H.; Degroot, J. S.; Eddleman, J. L.; Peterson, D. L.; Whitney, K. G.; Thornhill, J. W.; Pulsifer, P. E.; Apruzese, J. P.; Mosher, D.; Maron, Y.

    1996-11-01

    A systematic experimental study of annular aluminum wire z-pinches on the Saturn accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories shows that, for the first time, many of the measured spatial characteristics and x-ray powers can be correlated to 1D and 2D, radiation-magneto-hydrodynamic code (RMHC) simulations when large numbers of wires are used. Calculations show that the implosion begins to transition from that of individual wire plasmas to that of a continuous plasma shell when the circumferential gap between wires in the array is reduced below 1.4 +1.3/-0.7 mm. This calculated gap coincides with the measured transition of 1.4±0.4 mm between the observed regimes of slow and rapid improvement in power output with decreasing gap. In the plasma-shell regime, x-ray power has been more than tripled over that generated in the wire-plasma regime. In the full paper, measured characteristics in the plasma-shell regime are compared with 2D, 1- and 20-mm axial length simulations of the implosion using a multi-photon-group Lagrangian RMHC^1 and a three-temperature Eulerian RMHC,^2 respectively. ^1J.H. Hammer, et al., Phys. Plasmas 3, 2063 (1996). ^2D.L. Peterson, et al., Phys. Plasmas 3, 368 (1996). Work supported by U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  10. Electron temperature diagnostics of aluminium plasma in a z-pinch experiment at the “QiangGuang-1" facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mo; Wu, Jian; Wang, Liang-Ping; Wu, Gang; Han, Juan-Juan; Guo, Ning; Qiu, Meng-Tong

    2012-12-01

    Two curved crystal spectrometers are set up on the “QiangGuang-1" generator to measure the z-pinch plasma spectra emitted from planar aluminum wire array loads. Kodak Biomax-MS film and an IRD AXUVHS5# array are employed to record time-integrated and time-resolved free-bound radiation, respectively. The photon energy recorded by each detector is ascertained by using the L-shell lines of molybdenum plasma. Based on the exponential relation between the continuum power and photon energies, the aluminum plasma electron temperatures are measured. For the time-integrated diagnosis, several “bright spots" indicate electron temperatures between (450 eV ~ 520 eV) ± 35%. And for the time-resolved ones, the result shows that the electron temperature reaches about 800 eV ± 30% at peak power. The system satisfies the demand of z-pinch plasma electron temperature diagnosis on a ~ 1 MA facility.

  11. [Contrast of Z-Pinch X-Ray Yield Measure Technique].

    PubMed

    Li, Mo; Wang, Liang-ping; Sheng, Liang; Lu, Yi

    2015-03-01

    Resistive bolometer and scintillant detection system are two mainly Z-pinch X-ray yield measure techniques which are based on different diagnostic principles. Contrasting the results from two methods can help with increasing precision of X-ray yield measurement. Experiments with different load material and shape were carried out on the "QiangGuang-I" facility. For Al wire arrays, X-ray yields measured by the two techniques were largely consistent. However, for insulating coating W wire arrays, X-ray yields taken from bolometer changed with load parameters while data from scintillant detection system hardly changed. Simulation and analysis draw conclusions as follows: (1) Scintillant detection system is much more sensitive to X-ray photons with low energy and its spectral response is wider than the resistive bolometer. Thus, results from the former method are always larger than the latter. (2) The responses of the two systems are both flat to Al plasma radiation. Thus, their results are consistent for Al wire array loads. (3) Radiation form planar W wire arrays is mainly composed of sub-keV soft X-ray. X-ray yields measured by the bolometer is supposed to be accurate because of the nickel foil can absorb almost all the soft X-ray. (4) By contrast, using planar W wire arrays, data from scintillant detection system hardly change with load parameters. A possible explanation is that while the distance between wires increases, plasma temperature at stagnation reduces and spectra moves toward the soft X-ray region. Scintillator is much more sensitive to the soft X-ray below 200 eV. Thus, although the total X-ray yield reduces with large diameter load, signal from the scintillant detection system is almost the same. (5) Both Techniques affected by electron beams produced by the loads.

  12. Oblique shock structures formed during the ablation phase of aluminium wire array z-pinches

    SciTech Connect

    Swadling, G. F.; Lebedev, S. V.; Niasse, N.

    A series of experiments has been conducted in order to investigate the azimuthal structures formed by the interactions of cylindrically converging plasma flows during the ablation phase of aluminium wire array Z pinch implosions. These experiments were carried out using the 1.4 MA, 240 ns MAGPIE generator at Imperial College London. The main diagnostic used in this study was a two-colour, end-on, Mach-Zehnder imaging interferometer, sensitive to the axially integrated electron density of the plasma. The data collected in these experiments reveal the strongly collisional dynamics of the aluminium ablation streams. The structure of the flows is dominated by amore » dense network of oblique shock fronts, formed by supersonic collisions between adjacent ablation streams. An estimate for the range of the flow Mach number (M = 6.2-9.2) has been made based on an analysis of the observed shock geometry. Combining this measurement with previously published Thomson Scattering measurements of the plasma flow velocity by Harvey-Thompson et al.[Physics of Plasmas 19, 056303 (2012)] allowed us to place limits on the range of the ZT{sub e} of the plasma. The detailed and quantitative nature of the dataset lends itself well as a source for model validation and code verification exercises, as the exact shock geometry is sensitive to many of the plasma parameters. Comparison of electron density data produced through numerical modelling with the Gorgon 3D MHD code demonstrates that the code is able to reproduce the collisional dynamics observed in aluminium arrays reasonably well.« less

  13. X-ray Spectropolarimetry of Z-pinch Plasmas with a Single-Crystal Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Matt; Haque, Showera; Neill, Paul; Pereira, Nino; Presura, Radu

    2017-10-01

    When directed beams of energetic electrons exist in a plasma the resulting x-rays emitted by the plasma can be partially polarized. This makes plasma x-ray polarization spectroscopy, spectropolarimetry, useful for revealing information about the anisotropy of the electron velocity distribution. X-ray spectropolarimetry has indeed been used for this in both space and laboratory plasmas. X-ray polarization measurements are typically performed employing two crystals, both at a 45° Bragg angle. A single-crystal spectropolarimeter can replace two crystal schemes by utilizing two matching sets of internal planes for polarization-splitting. The polarization-splitting planes diffract the incident x-rays into two directions that are perpendicular to each other and the incident beam as well, so the two sets of diffracted x-rays are linearly polarized perpendicularly to each other. An X-cut quartz crystal with surface along the [11-20] planes and a paired set of [10-10] planes in polarization-splitting orientation is now being used on aluminum z-pinches at the University of Nevada, Reno. Past x-ray polarization measurements have been reserved for point-like sources. Recently a slotted collimating aperture has been used to maintain the required geometry for polarization-splitting enabling the spectropolarimetry of extended sources. The design of a single-crystal x-ray spectropolarimeter and experimental results will be presented. Work was supported by U.S. DOE, NNSA Grant DE-NA0001834 and cooperative agreement DE-FC52-06NA27616.

  14. Optimization of K-shell emission in aluminum z-pinch implosions: Theory versus experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, K. G.; Thornhill, J. W.; Giuliani, J. L.; Davis, J.; Miles, L. A.; Nolting, E. E.; Kenyon, V. L.; Speicer, W. A.; Draper, J. A.; Parsons, C. R.; Dang, P.; Spielman, R. B.; Nash, T. J.; McGurn, J. S.; Ruggles, L. E.; Deeney, C.; Prasad, R. R.; Warren, L.

    1994-09-01

    Two sets of z-pinch experiments were recently completed at the Saturn and Phoenix facilities of Sandia National Laboratories and the Naval Surface Warfare Center, respectively, using aluminum wire arrays of different wire and array diameters. Measurements of the total x-ray yield from the K shell of aluminum were made. In this paper, a comparison of these measurements is made to both theoretical predictions and to a similar set of earlier measurements that were made at the Double Eagle facility of Physics International Company. These three sets of yield measurements have points of agreement with predicted yields and with each other, but they also show points of mutual disagreement, whose significance is discussed. The data are analyzed using a slightly revised version of a previously published K-shell yield scaling law, and they support the existence of a reasonably well defined region in (load mass)-(implosion velocity) space in which plasma kinetic energy is efficiently converted into K-shell x rays. Furthermore, a correlation is observed between the inferred conversion efficiencies and the times in which the implosions occur relative to the times when each generator's short-circuit current reaches its peak value. Finally, unlike the Double Eagle experiments, the largest measured yields in the new experiments were observed to occur at the upper velocity boundary of the efficient emission region. Moreover, the observed yields are in fairly good quantitative agreement with an earlier scaling law prediction of the maximum K-shell x-ray yield from aluminum as a function of load mass assuming kinetic energy conversion alone.

  15. Wire array Z-pinch insights for enhanced x-ray production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanford, T. W. L.; Mock, R. C.; Spielman, R. B.; Haines, M. G.; Chittenden, J. P.; Whitney, K. G.; Apruzese, J. P.; Peterson, D. L.; Greenly, J. B.; Sinars, D. B.; Reisman, D. B.; Mosher, D.

    1999-05-01

    Comparisons of measured total radiated x-ray power from annular wire-array z-pinches with a variety of models as a function of wire number, array mass, and load radius are reviewed. The data, which are comprehensive, have provided important insights into the features of wire-array dynamics that are critical for high x-ray power generation. Collectively, the comparisons of the data with the model calculations suggest that a number of underlying dynamical mechanisms involving cylindrical asymmetries and plasma instabilities contribute to the measured characteristics. For example, under the general assumption that the measured risetime of the total-radiated-power pulse is related to the thickness of the plasma shell formed on axis, the Heuristic Model [IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 26, 1275 (1998)] agrees with the measured risetime under a number of specific assumptions about the way the breakdown of the wires, the wire-plasma expansion, and the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the r-z plane, develop. Likewise, in the high wire-number regime (where the wires are calculated to form a plasma shell prior to significant radial motion of the shell) the comparisons show that the variation in the power of the radiation generated as a function of load mass and array radius can be simulated by the two-dimensional Eulerian-radiation- magnetohydrodynamics code (E-RMHC) [Phys. Plasmas 3, 368 (1996)], using a single random-density perturbation that seeds the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the r-z plane. For a given pulse-power generator, the comparisons suggest that (1) the smallest interwire gaps compatible with practical load construction and (2) the minimum implosion time consistent with the optimum required energy coupling of the generator to the load should produce the highest total-radiated-power levels.

  16. Symmetric aluminum-wire arrays generate high-quality Z pinches at large array radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanford, T. W. L.; Mock, R. C.; Spielman, R. B.; Peterson, D. L.; Mosher, D.; Roderick, N. F.

    1998-10-01

    A Saturn-accelerator study of annular, aluminum-wire array, Z-pinch implosions, in the calculated high-wire-number plasma-shell regime [Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5063 (1996)], shows that the radiated x-ray pulse width increases from about 4 nsec to about 7 nsec, when the radius of the array is increased from 8.75 to 20 mm at a fixed array mass of 0.6 mg. Eulerian radiation- magnetohydrodynamic code (E-RMHC) simulations in the r-z plane suggest that this pulse-width increase with radius is due to the faster growth of the shell thickness (that arises from a two-stage development in the magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability) relative to the increase in the shell implosion velocity. Over the array radii explored, the measured peak total x-ray power of ˜40 TW and energy of ˜325 kJ show little change outside of a ±15% shot-to-shot fluctuation and are consistent with the E-RMHC simulations. Similarly, the measured peak K-shell (lines plus continuum) power of ˜8 TW and energy of ˜70 kJ show little change with radius. The minimal change in K-shell yield is in agreement with simple K-shell radiation scaling models that assume a fixed radial compression for all initial array radii. These results suggest that the improved uniformity provided by the large number of wires in the initial array reduces the disruptive effects of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability observed in small-wire-number imploding loads.

  17. Servo Driven Corotation: Development of AN Inertial Clock.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Wah-Kwan Stephen

    An inertial clock to test non-metricity of gravity is proposed here. A first, room-temperature, servo corotation -protected, double magnetically suspended precision rotor system is developed for this purpose. The specific goal was to exhibit the properties of such a clock in its entirety at whatever level of precision was achievable. A monolithic system has been completed for these preliminary studies. It includes particular development of individual experimental sub-systems (a hybrid double magnetic suspension; a diffusion pumping system; a microcomputer -controlled eddy-current drive system; and the angular period measuring schemes for the doubly suspended rotors). Double magnetic suspension had been investigated by Beams for other purposes. The upper transducer is optical but parametrized and the lower transducer employs the frequency modulation characteristic of a LC tank circuit. The doubly suspended rotors corotate so that the upper rotor is servoed to rotate at the same angular velocity as that of the lower rotor. This creates a "drag free" environment for the lower rotor and effectively eliminates the gas drag on the lower rotor. Consequently, the decay time constant of the lower rotor increases. With other means of protection, the lower rotor will then, with perfect system operation, suffer no drag and therefore become the inertial time keeper. A commercial microcomputer is introduced to execute the servo-corotation. The tests thus far are, with one exception, run at atmospheric pressure. An idealized analysis for open and closed loop corotation is shown. Such analysis includes only the viscous drag acting on the corotating rotors. The analysis suggests that angular position control be added to the present feedback drive which is of derivative nature only. Open and closed corotation runs show that a strong torsional coupling besides that of the gas drag exists between the rotors. When misalignment of the support pole pieces is deliberately made significant

  18. Wire Array Z-pinches on Sphinx Machine: Experimental Results and Relevant Points of Microsecond Implosion Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calamy, H.; Hamann, F.; Lassalle, F.; Bayol, F.; Mangeant, C.; Morell, A.; Huet, D.; Bedoch, J. P.; Chittenden, J. P.; Lebedev, S. V.; Jennings, C. A.; Bland, S. N.

    2006-01-01

    Centre d'Etudes de Gramat (France) has developed an efficient long implosion time (800 ns) Aluminum plasma radiation source (PRS). Based on the LTD technology, the SPHINX facility is developed as a 1-3MJ, 1μs rise time, 4-10 MA current driver. In this paper, it was used in 1MJ, 4MA configuration to drive Aluminum nested wire arrays Z-pinches with K-shell yield up to 20 kJ and a FWHM of the x-ray pulse of about 50 ns. We present latest SPHINX experiments and some of the main physic issues of the microsecond regime. Experimental setup and results are described with the aim of giving trends that have been obtained. The main features of microsecond implosion of wire arrays can be analyzed thanks to same methods and theories as used for faster Z-pinches. The effect of load polarity was examined. The stability of the implosion , one of the critical point of microsecond wire arrays due to the load dimensions imposed by the time scale, is tackled. A simple scaling from 100 ns Z-pinch results to 800 ns ones gives good results and the use of nested arrays improves dramatically the implosion quality and the Kshell yield of the load. However, additional effects such as the impact of the return current can geometry on the implosion have to be taken into account on our loads. Axial inhomogeneity of the implosion the origin of which is not yet well understood occurs in some shots and impacts the radiation output. The shape of the radiative pulse is discussed and compared with the homogeneity of the implosion. Numerical 2D R-Z and R-θ simulations are used to highlight some experimental results and understand the plasma conditions during these microsecond wire arrays implosions.

  19. Wire Array Z-pinches on Sphinx Machine: Experimental Results and Relevant Points of Microsecond Implosion Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Calamy, H.; Hamann, F.; Lassalle, F.

    Centre d'Etudes de Gramat (France) has developed an efficient long implosion time (800 ns) Aluminum plasma radiation source (PRS). Based on the LTD technology, the SPHINX facility is developed as a 1-3MJ, 1{mu}s rise time, 4-10 MA current driver. In this paper, it was used in 1MJ, 4MA configuration to drive Aluminum nested wire arrays Z-pinches with K-shell yield up to 20 kJ and a FWHM of the x-ray pulse of about 50 ns. We present latest SPHINX experiments and some of the main physic issues of the microsecond regime. Experimental setup and results are described with the aim ofmore » giving trends that have been obtained. The main features of microsecond implosion of wire arrays can be analyzed thanks to same methods and theories as used for faster Z-pinches. The effect of load polarity was examined. The stability of the implosion , one of the critical point of microsecond wire arrays due to the load dimensions imposed by the time scale, is tackled. A simple scaling from 100 ns Z-pinch results to 800 ns ones gives good results and the use of nested arrays improves dramatically the implosion quality and the Kshell yield of the load. However, additional effects such as the impact of the return current can geometry on the implosion have to be taken into account on our loads. Axial inhomogeneity of the implosion the origin of which is not yet well understood occurs in some shots and impacts the radiation output. The shape of the radiative pulse is discussed and compared with the homogeneity of the implosion. Numerical 2D R-Z and R-{theta} simulations are used to highlight some experimental results and understand the plasma conditions during these microsecond wire arrays implosions.« less

  20. The Physics of the Dense Z-Pinch in Theory and in Experiment With Application to Fusion Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines, M. G.

    1982-01-01

    A new generation of Z-pinches employing high voltage, high current pulsed lines as power sources produce dense hot plasmas with enhanced stability properties. Three methods of Z-pinch formation are currently in use: (1) cylindrical collapse and compression of a pre-ionised gas; (2) laser initiation and Joule heating of a gas embedded pinch, and (3) hollow gas puff and subsequent collapse to the axis. The first method shows no dynamic bounce and no instability over about ten radial Alfvén transit times. The laser initiated Z-pinch shows benign helical structures, whilst the gas puff experiments are known for their high X-ray energy conversion associated with m = 0 instabilities. The first two experimental conditions are relevant for fusion. A calculation of energy balance for satisfying Lawson conditions with axial and radial energy losses and radiation loss shows that a current I of ~ 106 A and a line density N of 6 × 1018m-1 are required. This leads to two coincidences of physical quantities that are very favourable for controlled fusion. The first is that at this line density and under pressure balance the ratio of the ion Larmor radius to pinch radius is of order 1 so that a marked stabilisation of the configuration is expected. The second coincidence is that the current is only just below the Pease-Braginskii limit; this will permit the possibility of radiative collapse to attain the high density (~ 4 × 1027 m-3) and small radius (~ 20 μm) required for a compact (0.1 m long) discharge. The confining self-magnetic field is 104 T, the confinement time ~ 100 ns, and a matrix of pulsed discharges is envisaged in a moderator and breeding medium which does not have the wall-loading limitations of tokamaks.

  1. Investigating radial wire array Z pinches as a compact x-ray source on the Saturn generator

    SciTech Connect

    Ampleford, David J.; Bland, S. N.; Jennings, Christopher A.

    2015-08-27

    Radial wire array z pinches, where wires are positioned radially outward from a central cathode to a concentric anode, can act as a compact bright x-ray source that could potentially be used to drive a hohlraum. Experiments were performed on the 7-MA Saturn generator using radial wire arrays. These experiments studied a number of potential risks in scaling radial wire arrays up from the 1-MA level, where they have been shown to be a promising compact X-ray source. Data indicates that at 7 MA, radial wire arrays can radiate ~9 TW with 10-ns full-width at half-maximum from a compact pinch.

  2. Measurement and analysis of x-ray absorption in Al and MgF2 plasmas heated by Z-pinch radiation.

    SciTech Connect

    MacFarlane, Joseph John; Rochau, Gregory Alan; Bailey, James E.

    2005-06-01

    High-power Z pinches on Sandia National Laboratories Z facility can be used in a variety of experiments to radiatively heat samples placed some distance away from the Z-pinch plasma. In such experiments, the heating radiation spectrum is influenced by both the Z-pinch emission and the re-emission of radiation from the high-Z surfaces that make up the Z-pinch diode. To test the understanding of the amplitude and spectral distribution of the heating radiation, thin foils containing both Al and MgF{sub 2} were heated by a 100-130 TW Z pinch. The heating of these samples was studied through the ionization distribution inmore » each material as measured by x-ray absorption spectra. The resulting plasma conditions are inferred from a least-squares comparison between the measured spectra and calculations of the Al and Mg 1s {yields} 2p absorption over a large range of temperatures and densities. These plasma conditions are then compared to radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of the sample dynamics and are found to agree within 1{sigma} to the best-fit conditions. This agreement indicates that both the driving radiation spectrum and the heating of the Al and MgF{sub 2} samples is understood within the accuracy of the spectroscopic method.« less

  3. Measurement and analysis of x-ray absorption in Al and MgF2 plasmas heated by Z-pinch radiation.

    PubMed

    Rochau, Gregory A; Bailey, J E; Macfarlane, J J

    2005-12-01

    High-power Z pinches on Sandia National Laboratories' Z facility can be used in a variety of experiments to radiatively heat samples placed some distance away from the Z-pinch plasma. In such experiments, the heating radiation spectrum is influenced by both the Z-pinch emission and the re-emission of radiation from the high-Z surfaces that make up the Z-pinch diode. To test the understanding of the amplitude and spectral distribution of the heating radiation, thin foils containing both Al and MgF2 were heated by a 100-130 TW Z pinch. The heating of these samples was studied through the ionization distribution in each material as measured by x-ray absorption spectra. The resulting plasma conditions are inferred from a least-squares comparison between the measured spectra and calculations of the Al and Mg 1s-->2p absorption over a large range of temperatures and densities. These plasma conditions are then compared to radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of the sample dynamics and are found to agree within 1sigma to the best-fit conditions. This agreement indicates that both the driving radiation spectrum and the heating of the Al and MgF2 samples is understood within the accuracy of the spectroscopic method.

  4. Deconvolution of Stark broadened spectra for multi-point density measurements in a flow Z-pinch

    DOE PAGES

    Vogman, G. V.; Shumlak, U.

    2011-10-13

    Stark broadened emission spectra, once separated from other broadening effects, provide a convenient non-perturbing means of making plasma density measurements. A deconvolution technique has been developed to measure plasma densities in the ZaP flow Z-pinch experiment. The ZaP experiment uses sheared flow to mitigate MHD instabilities. The pinches exhibit Stark broadened emission spectra, which are captured at 20 locations using a multi-chord spectroscopic system. Spectra that are time- and chord-integrated are well approximated by a Voigt function. The proposed method simultaneously resolves plasma electron density and ion temperature by deconvolving the spectral Voigt profile into constituent functions: a Gaussian functionmore » associated with instrument effects and Doppler broadening by temperature; and a Lorentzian function associated with Stark broadening by electron density. The method uses analytic Fourier transforms of the constituent functions to fit the Voigt profile in the Fourier domain. The method is discussed and compared to a basic least-squares fit. The Fourier transform fitting routine requires fewer fitting parameters and shows promise in being less susceptible to instrumental noise and to contamination from neighboring spectral lines. The method is evaluated and tested using simulated lines and is applied to experimental data for the 229.69 nm C III line from multiple chords to determine plasma density and temperature across the diameter of the pinch. As a result, these measurements are used to gain a better understanding of Z-pinch equilibria.« less

  5. Conversion of electromagnetic energy in Z-pinch process of single planar wire arrays at 1.5 MA

    SciTech Connect

    Liangping, Wang; Mo, Li; Juanjuan, Han

    The electromagnetic energy conversion in the Z-pinch process of single planar wire arrays was studied on Qiangguang generator (1.5 MA, 100 ns). Electrical diagnostics were established to monitor the voltage of the cathode-anode gap and the load current for calculating the electromagnetic energy. Lumped-element circuit model of wire arrays was employed to analyze the electromagnetic energy conversion. Inductance as well as resistance of a wire array during the Z-pinch process was also investigated. Experimental data indicate that the electromagnetic energy is mainly converted to magnetic energy and kinetic energy and ohmic heating energy can be neglected before the final stagnation. Themore » kinetic energy can be responsible for the x-ray radiation before the peak power. After the stagnation, the electromagnetic energy coupled by the load continues increasing and the resistance of the load achieves its maximum of 0.6–1.0 Ω in about 10–20 ns.« less

  6. Deconvolution of Stark broadened spectra for multi-point density measurements in a flow Z-pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Vogman, G. V.; Shumlak, U.

    2011-10-15

    Stark broadened emission spectra, once separated from other broadening effects, provide a convenient non-perturbing means of making plasma density measurements. A deconvolution technique has been developed to measure plasma densities in the ZaP flow Z-pinch experiment. The ZaP experiment uses sheared flow to mitigate MHD instabilities. The pinches exhibit Stark broadened emission spectra, which are captured at 20 locations using a multi-chord spectroscopic system. Spectra that are time- and chord-integrated are well approximated by a Voigt function. The proposed method simultaneously resolves plasma electron density and ion temperature by deconvolving the spectral Voigt profile into constituent functions: a Gaussian functionmore » associated with instrument effects and Doppler broadening by temperature; and a Lorentzian function associated with Stark broadening by electron density. The method uses analytic Fourier transforms of the constituent functions to fit the Voigt profile in the Fourier domain. The method is discussed and compared to a basic least-squares fit. The Fourier transform fitting routine requires fewer fitting parameters and shows promise in being less susceptible to instrumental noise and to contamination from neighboring spectral lines. The method is evaluated and tested using simulated lines and is applied to experimental data for the 229.69 nm C III line from multiple chords to determine plasma density and temperature across the diameter of the pinch. These measurements are used to gain a better understanding of Z-pinch equilibria.« less

  7. A non-LTE kinetic model for quick analysis of K-shell spectra from Z-pinch plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J., E-mail: s.duan@163.com; Huang, X. B., E-mail: s.duan@163.com; Cai, H. C., E-mail: s.duan@163.com

    Analyzing and modeling K-shell spectra emitted by low-to moderate-atomic number plasma is a useful and effective way to retrieve temperature density of z-pinch plasmas. In this paper, a non-LTE population kinetic model for quick analysis of K-shell spectra was proposed. The model contains ionization stages from bare nucleus to neutral atoms and includes all the important atomic processes. In the present form of the model, the plasma is assumed to be both optically thin and homogeneous with constant temperature and density, and only steady-state situation is considered. According to the detailed calculations for aluminum plasmas, contours of ratios of certainmore » K-shell lines in electron temperature and density plane as well as typical synthesized spectra were presented and discussed. The usefulness of the model is demonstrated by analyzing the spectrum from a neon gas-puff Z-pinch experiment performed on a 1 MA pulsed-power accelerator.« less

  8. Long implosion time (240 ns) Z-pinch experiments with a large diameter (12 cm) double-shell nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, J. S.; Banister, J. W.; Failor, B. H.; Qi, N.; Song, Y.; Sze, H. M.; Fisher, A.

    2004-05-01

    Recently, an 8 cm diameter double-shell nozzle has produced argon Z pinches with high K-shell yields with implosion time of 210 ns. To produce even longer implosion time Z pinches for facilities such as Decade Quad [D. Price, et al., "Electrical and Mechanical Design of the Decade Quad in PRS Mode," in Proceedings of the 12th IEEE Pulsed Power Conference, Monterey, CA, edited by C. Stallings and H. Kirbie (IEEE, New York, 1999), p. 489] (9 MA short circuit current at 300 ns), a larger nozzle (12 cm outer diameter) was designed and fabricated. During initial testing on Double-EAGLE [P. Sincerny et al., Proceedings of the 5th IEEE Pulsed Power Conference, Arlington, VA, edited by M. F. Rose and P. J. Turchi (IEEE, New York, 1985), p. 151], 9 kJ of argon K-shell radiation in a 6 ns full width at half maximum pulse was produced with a 240 ns implosion. The initial gas distributions produced by various nozzle configurations have been measured and their impact on the final radiative characteristics of the pinch are presented. The addition of a central jet to increase the initial gas density near the axis is observed to enhance the pinch quality, increasing K-shell yield by 17% and power by 40% in the best configuration tested.

  9. Simulations of Radiation-Driven Shock Wave Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dukart, R. J.; Asay, J. R.; Porter, J. L.; Matzen, M. K.

    1997-07-01

    For inertial confinement fusion (I.C.F.) target design, we need to understand material properties between 1- and 150-Mbar pressure. In this presentation we will show that we can use radiatively-driven ablation to generate high pressures in a wide variety of materials. PBFA-Z is being developed to generate centimeter scale hohlraums with temperatures from 80 to 150 eV. 1-D radiation/hydrodynamic simulations using these hohlraums predict the generation 1- to 15-Mbar pressures in a wide variety of materials through direct ablation. Through the use of thick ablators, we can obtain 4.5- to 25-Mbar pressures in Aluminum. This pressure regime can be extended to 40 Mbar for 200-eV hohlraums predicted for the X1, next generation, Z-pinch driver.

  10. Inertial effects on thermochemically driven convection and hydromagnetic dynamos in a spherical shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šimkanin, Ján; Kyselica, Juraj; Guba, Peter

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the thermochemical convection and hydromagnetic dynamos in a spherical shell using the so-called codensity formulation with different buoyancy sources: the secular cooling from the mantle, the buoyancy sources due to the solidification at the inner core boundary and the combination of the two sources. Numerical simulations of the fully non-linear problem are performed using the PARODY code. In the thermochemical regime, we find that when the Prandtl numbers are lower than Ekman numbers, inertial convection is preferred, while the large-scale columnar convection is preferred otherwise. Unlike the large-scale convection, the inertial convection is found to be almost independent of the nature of driving buoyancy source. Moreover, the codensity field evolves to a new, radially symmetric stationary state. At the Ekman numbers much smaller than the Prandtl numbers, we have obtained the westward equatorial zonal flow in the chemically driven regime, while for the other cases zonal flows are eastward near the equator. In the dynamo regime, inertial convection is preferred when the Prandtl numbers are lower than Ekman numbers and the generated dipolar magnetic fields oscillate from the polar region to the mid-latitudes and back. In this case, the generated magnetic fields are independent of the type of buoyancy source. At the Prandtl numbers greater than Ekman numbers, both dipolar and hemispherical dynamos are found.

  11. Investigating plasma viscosity with fast framing photography in the ZaP-HD Flow Z-Pinch experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weed, Jonathan Robert

    The ZaP-HD Flow Z-Pinch experiment investigates the stabilizing effect of sheared axial flows while scaling toward a high-energy-density laboratory plasma (HEDLP > 100 GPa). Stabilizing flows may persist until viscous forces dissipate a sheared flow profile. Plasma viscosity is investigated by measuring scale lengths in turbulence intentionally introduced in the plasma flow. A boron nitride turbulence-tripping probe excites small scale length turbulence in the plasma, and fast framing optical cameras are used to study time-evolved turbulent structures and viscous dissipation. A Hadland Imacon 790 fast framing camera is modified for digital image capture, but features insufficient resolution to study turbulent structures. A Shimadzu HPV-X camera captures the evolution of turbulent structures with great spatial and temporal resolution, but is unable to resolve the anticipated Kolmogorov scale in ZaP-HD as predicted by a simplified pinch model.

  12. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of aluminum z-pinch plasma with tungsten backlighter planar wire array source.

    PubMed

    Osborne, G C; Kantsyrev, V L; Safronova, A S; Esaulov, A A; Weller, M E; Shrestha, I; Shlyaptseva, V V; Ouart, N D

    2012-10-01

    Absorption features from K-shell aluminum z-pinch plasmas have recently been studied on Zebra, the 1.7 MA pulse power generator at the Nevada Terawatt Facility. In particular, tungsten plasma has been used as a semi-backlighter source in the generation of aluminum K-shell absorption spectra by placing a single Al wire at or near the end of a single planar W array. All spectroscopic experimental results were recorded using a time-integrated, spatially resolved convex potassium hydrogen phthalate (KAP) crystal spectrometer. Other diagnostics used to study these plasmas included x-ray detectors, optical imaging, laser shadowgraphy, and time-gated and time-integrated x-ray pinhole imagers. Through comparisons with previous publications, Al K-shell absorption lines are shown to be from much lower electron temperature (∼10-40 eV) plasmas than emission spectra (∼350-500 eV).

  13. Fusion neutron detector for time-of-flight measurements in z-pinch and plasma focus experiments.

    PubMed

    Klir, D; Kravarik, J; Kubes, P; Rezac, K; Litseva, E; Tomaszewski, K; Karpinski, L; Paduch, M; Scholz, M

    2011-03-01

    We have developed and tested sensitive neutron detectors for neutron time-of-flight measurements in z-pinch and plasma focus experiments with neutron emission times in tens of nanoseconds and with neutron yields between 10(6) and 10(12) per one shot. The neutron detectors are composed of a BC-408 fast plastic scintillator and Hamamatsu H1949-51 photomultiplier tube (PMT). During the calibration procedure, a PMT delay was determined for various operating voltages. The temporal resolution of the neutron detector was measured for the most commonly used PMT voltage of 1.4 kV. At the PF-1000 plasma focus, a novel method of the acquisition of a pulse height distribution has been used. This pulse height analysis enabled to determine the single neutron sensitivity for various neutron energies and to calibrate the neutron detector for absolute neutron yields at about 2.45 MeV.

  14. Efficient generation of fast neutrons by magnetized deuterons in an optimized deuterium gas-puff z-pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klir, D.; Shishlov, A. V.; Kokshenev, V. A.; Kubes, P.; Labetsky, A. Yu; Rezac, K.; Cherdizov, R. K.; Cikhardt, J.; Cikhardtova, B.; Dudkin, G. N.; Fursov, F. I.; Garapatsky, A. A.; Kovalchuk, B. M.; Kravarik, J.; Kurmaev, N. E.; Orcikova, H.; Padalko, V. N.; Ratakhin, N. A.; Sila, O.; Turek, K.; Varlachev, V. A.

    2015-04-01

    Z-pinch experiments with deuterium gas puffs have been carried out on the GIT-12 generator at 3 MA currents. Recently, a novel configuration of a deuterium gas-puff z-pinch was used to accelerate deuterons and to generate fast neutrons. In order to form a homogeneous, uniformly conducting layer at a large initial radius, an inner deuterium gas puff was surrounded by an outer hollow cylindrical plasma shell. The plasma shell consisting of hydrogen and carbon ions was formed at the diameter of 350 mm by 48 plasma guns. A linear mass of the plasma shell was about 5 µg cm-1 whereas a total linear mass of deuterium gas in single or double shell gas puffs was about 100 µg cm-1. The implosion lasted 700 ns and seemed to be stable up to a 5 mm radius. During stagnation, m = 0 instabilities became more pronounced. When a disruption of necks occurred, the plasma impedance reached 0.4 Ω and high energy (>2 MeV) bremsstrahlung radiation together with high energy deuterons were produced. Maximum neutron energies of 33 MeV were observed by axial time-of-flight detectors. The observed neutron spectra could be explained by a suprathermal distribution of deuterons with a high energy tail f≤ft({{E}\\text{d}}\\right)\\propto E\\text{d}-(1.8+/- 0.2) . Neutron yields reached 3.6 × 1012 at a 2.7 MA current. A high neutron production efficiency of 6 × 107 neutrons per one joule of plasma energy resulted from the generation of high energy deuterons and from their magnetization inside plasmas.

  15. Acceleration of Hydrogen Ions up to 30 MeV and Generation of 3 × 1012 Neutrons in Megaampere Deuterium Gas-Puff Z-Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klir, D.; Cikhardt, J.; Kravarik, J.; Kubes, P.; Rezac, K.; Sila, O.; Shishlov, A.; Cherdizov, R.; Fursov, F.; Kokshenev, V.; Kovalchuk, B.; Kurmaev, N.; Labetsky, A.; Ratakhin, N.; Orcikova, H.; Turek, K.

    2013-10-01

    Fusion neutrons were produced with a deuterium gas-puff z-pinch on the GIT-12 generator at the Institute of High Current Electronics in Tomsk. The peak neutron yield from DD reactions reached Yn = (2 . 9 +/- 0 . 3) ×1012 at 100 μg/cm linear mass density of deuterium, 700 ns implosion time and 2.7 MA current. Such a neutron yield means that the scaling law of deuterium z-pinches Yn ~I4 was extended to 3 MA currents. The further increase of neutron yields up to (3 . 7 +/- 0 . 4) ×1012 was achieved by placing a deuterated polyethylene catcher onto the axis. Maximum neutron energies of 15 and 22 MeV were observed by radial and axial nToF detectors, respectively. A stack of CR-39 track detectors showed up to 40 MeV deuterons (or 30 MeV protons) on the z-pinch axis. Since the energy input into plasmas was 70 kJ, the number of DD neutrons per one joule of stored plasma energy exceeded the value of 5 ×107 . This value implies that deuterium gas-puff z-pinches belong to the most efficient plasma-based sources of DD neutrons. This work was partially supported by the GACR grant No. P205/12/0454 and by the RFBR research project No. 13-08-00479-a.

  16. Laser targets compensate for limitations in inertial confinement fusion drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilkenny, J. D.; Alexander, N. B.; Nikroo, A.; Steinman, D. A.; Nobile, A.; Bernat, T.; Cook, R.; Letts, S.; Takagi, M.; Harding, D.

    2005-10-01

    Success in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) requires sophisticated, characterized targets. The increasing fidelity of three-dimensional (3D), radiation hydrodynamic computer codes has made it possible to design targets for ICF which can compensate for limitations in the existing single shot laser and Z pinch ICF drivers. Developments in ICF target fabrication technology allow more esoteric target designs to be fabricated. At present, requirements require new deterministic nano-material fabrication on micro scale.

  17. Inertial piezoelectric linear motor driven by a single-phase harmonic wave with automatic clamping mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Liangguo; Chu, Yuheng; Hao, Sai; Zhao, Xiaoyong; Dong, Yuge; Wang, Yong

    2018-05-01

    A novel, single-phase, harmonic-driven, inertial piezoelectric linear motor using an automatic clamping mechanism was designed, fabricated, and tested to reduce the sliding friction and simplify the drive mechanism and power supply control of the inertial motor. A piezoelectric bimorph and a flexible hinge were connected in series to form the automatic clamping mechanism. The automatic clamping mechanism was used as the driving and clamping elements. A dynamic simulation by Simulink was performed to prove the feasibility of the motor. The finite element method software COMSOL was used to design the structure of the motor. An experimental setup was built to validate the working principle and evaluate the performance of the motor. The prototype motor outputted a no-load velocity of 3.178 mm/s at a voltage of 220 Vp-p and a maximum traction force of 4.25 N under a preload force of 8 N. The minimum resolution of 1.14 μm was achieved at a driving frequency of 74 Hz, a driving voltage of 50 Vp-p, and a preload force of 0 N.

  18. Inertial migration of elastic particles in a pressure-driven power-law fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowie, Samuel; Alexeev, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    Using three-dimensional computer simulations, we study the cross-stream migration of deformable particles in a channel filled with a non-Newtonian fluid driven by a pressure gradient. Our numerical approach integrates lattice Boltzmann method and lattice spring method in order to model fluid structural interactions of the elastic particle and the surrounding power fluid in the channel. The particles are modeled as elastic shells filled with a viscous fluid that are initially spherical. We focus on the regimes where the inertial effects cannot be neglected and cause cross-stream drift of particles. We probe the flow with different power law indexes including both the shear thickening and thinning fluids. We also examine migration of particles of with different elasticity and relative size. To isolate the non-Newtonian effects on particle migration, we compare the results with the inertial migration results found in the case where the channel is filled with a simple Newtonian fluid. The results can be useful for applications requiring high throughput separation, sorting, and focusing of both synthetic particles and biological cells in microfluidic devices. Financial support provided by National Science Foundation (NSF) Grant No. CMMI1538161.

  19. One- and two-dimensional modeling of argon K-shell emission from gas-puff Z-pinch plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Thornhill, J. W.; Chong, Y. K.; Apruzese, J. P.

    2007-06-15

    In this paper, a theoretical model is described and demonstrated that serves as a useful tool for understanding K-shell radiating Z-pinch plasma behavior. Such understanding requires a self-consistent solution to the complete nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium kinetics and radiation transport in order to realistically model opacity effects and the high-temperature state of the plasma. For this purpose, we have incorporated into the MACH2 two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code [R. E. Peterkin et al., J. Comput. Phys. 140, 148 (1998)] an equation of state, called the tabular collisional radiative equilibrium (TCRE) model [J. W. Thornhill et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 3480 (2001)], thatmore » provides reasonable approximations to the plasma's opacity state. MACH2 with TCRE is applied toward analyzing the multidimensional implosion behavior that occurred in Decade Quad (DQ) [D. Price et al., Proceedings of the 12th IEEE Pulsed Power Conference, Monterey, CA, edited by C. Stallings and H. Kirbie (IEEE, New York, 1999), p. 489] argon gas puff experiments that employed a 12 cm diameter nozzle with and without a central gas jet on axis. Typical peak drive currents and implosion times in these experiments were {approx}6 MA and {approx}230 ns. By using Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence measured initial density profiles as input to the calculations, the effect these profiles have on the ability of the pinch to efficiently produce K-shell emission can be analyzed with this combined radiation-MHD model. The calculated results are in agreement with the experimental result that the DQ central-jet configuration is superior to the no-central-jet experiment in terms of producing more K-shell emission. These theoretical results support the contention that the improved operation of the central-jet nozzle is due to the better suppression of instabilities and the higher-density K-shell radiating conditions that the central-jet configuration promotes. When we applied the model

  20. Semi-analytic model of plasma-jet-driven magneto-inertial fusion

    DOE PAGES

    Langendorf, Samuel J.; Hsu, Scott C.

    2017-03-01

    A semi-analytic model for plasma-jet-driven magneto-inertial fusion is presented here. Compressions of a magnetized plasma target by a spherically imploding plasma liner are calculated in one dimension (1D), accounting for compressible hydrodynamics and ionization of the liner material, energy losses due to conduction and radiation, fusion burn and alpha deposition, separate ion and electron temperatures in the target, magnetic pressure, and fuel burn-up. Results show 1D gains of 3–30 at spherical convergence ratio <15 and 20–40 MJ of liner energy, for cases in which the liner thickness is 1 cm and the initial radius of a preheated magnetized target ismore » 4 cm. Some exploration of parameter space and physics settings is presented. The yields observed suggest that there is a possibility of igniting additional dense fuel layers to reach high gain.« less

  1. Theory of formation of helical structures in a perfectly conducting, premagnetized Z-pinch liner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Edmund; Velikovich, Alexander; Peterson, Kyle

    2014-10-01

    The magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) concept uses an azimuthal magnetic field to collapse a thick metallic liner containing preheated fusion fuel. A critical component of the concept is an axial magnetic field, permeating both the fuel and surrounding liner, which reduces the compression necessary to achieve fusion conditions. Recent experiments demonstrate that a liner premagnetized with a 10 T axial field develops helical structures with a pitch significantly larger than an estimate of Bz /Bθ would suggest. The cause of the helical perturbations is still not understood. In this work, we present an analytic, linear theory in which we model the liner as a perfectly conducting metal, and study how bumps and divots on its surface redirect current flow, resulting in perturbations to B as well as j × B . We show that in the presence of axial and azimuthal magnetic field, the theory predicts divots will grow and deform at an angle determined by the magnetic field. We compare theoretical results with three dimensional, resistive MHD simulations. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the National Nuclear Security Administration under DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  2. Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability driven by a rotating magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Shuchao; Xie, Weiping; Cao, Jintao; Li, Ding

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we analyze theoretically the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability driven by a rotating magnetic field. Slab configurations of finite thickness are treated both with and without using the Wenzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation. Regardless of the slab thickness, the directional rotation of the driving magnetic field contributes to suppressing these instabilities. The two factors of the finite thickness and directional rotation of the magnetic field cooperate to enhance suppression, with the finite thickness playing a role only when the orientation of the magnetic field is time varying. The suppression becomes stronger as the driving magnetic field rotates faster, and all modes are suppressed, in contrast to the case of a non-rotating magnetic field, for which the vertical mode cannot be suppressed. This implies that the dynamically alternate configuration of a Theta-pinch and a Z-pinch may be applicable to the concept of Theta-Z liner inertial fusion.

  3. Neutron Activation Diagnostics in Deuterium Gas-Puff Experiments on the 3 MA GIT-12 Z-Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cikhardt, J.; Klir, D.; Rezac, K.; Cikhardtova, B.; Kravarik, J.; Kubes, P.; Sila, O.; Shishlov, A. V.; Cherdizov, R. K.; Fursov, F. I.; Kokshenev, V. A.; Kurmaev, N. E.; Labetsky, A. Yu; Ratakhin, N. A.; Dudkin, G. N.; Garapatsky, A. A.; Padalko, V. N.; Varlachev, V. A.; Turek, K.

    2016-10-01

    The experiments with a deuterium z-pinch on the GIT-12 generator at IHCE in Tomsk were performed in the frame of the Czech-Russian agreement. A set of neutron diagnostics included scintillation time-of-flight detectors, bubble detectors, and several kinds of threshold nuclear activation detectors in the order to obtain information about the yield, anisotropy, and spectrum of the neutrons produced by a deuterium gas-puff. The average neutron yield in these experiments was of the order of 1012 neutrons per a single shot. The energy spectrum of the produced neutrons was evaluated using neutron time-of-flight detectors and a set of neutron activation detectors. Because the deuterons in the pinch achieve multi-MeV energies, non-DD neutrons are produced by nuclear reactions of deuterons with a stainless steel vacuum chamber and aluminum components of diagnostics inside the chamber. An estimated number of the non-DD was of the order of 1011. GACR (Grant No. 16-07036S), CME (Grant Nos. LD14089, LG13029, and LH13283), MESRF (Grant No. RFMEFI59114X0001), IAEA (Grant No. RC17088), CTU (Grant No. SGS 16/223/OHK3/3T/13).

  4. Neutron production in deuterium gas-puff z-pinch with outer plasma shell at current of 3 MA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cikhardt, J.; Klir, D.; Rezac, K.; Cikhardtova, B.; Kravarik, J.; Kubes, P.; Sila, O.; Shishlov, A. V.; Cherdizov, R. K.; Frusov, F. I.; Kokshenev, V. A.; Kurmaev, N. E.; Labetsky, A. Yu.; Ratakhin, N. A.; Dudkin, G. N.; Garapatsky, A. A.; Padalko, V. N.; Varlachev, V. A.; Turek, K.; Krasa, J.

    2015-11-01

    Z-pinch experiments at the current of about 3 MA were carried out on the GIT-12 generator. The outer plasma shell of deuterium gas-puff was generated by the system of 48 plasma guns. This configuration exhibits a high efficiency of the production of DD fusion neutrons with the yield of above 1012 neutrons produced in a single shot with the duration of about 20 ns. The maximum energy of the neutrons produced in this pulse exceeded 30 MeV. The neutron radiation was measured using scintillation TOF detectors, CR-39 nuclear track detectors, bubble detectors BD-PND and BDS-10000 and by several types of nuclear activation detectors. These diagnostic tools were used to measure the anisotropy of neutron fluence and neutron energy spectra. It allows us to estimate the total number of DD neutrons, the contribution of other nuclear reactions, the amount of scattered neutrons, and other parameters of neutron production. This work was supported by the MSMT grants LH13283, LD14089.

  5. Simulations of Ar gas-puff Z-pinch radiation sources with double shells and central jets on the Z generator

    DOE PAGES

    Tangri, V.; Harvey-Thompson, Adam James; Giuliani, J. L.; ...

    2016-10-19

    Radiation-magnetohydrodynamic simulations using the non-LTE Mach2-TCRE code in (r,z) geometry are performed for two pairs of recent Ar gas-puff Z-pinch experiments on the refurbished Z generator with an 8 cm diameter nozzle. One pair of shots had an outer-to-inner shell mass ratio of 1:1.6 and a second pair had a ratio of 1:1.

  6. Experimental study of surface insulated-standard hybrid tungsten planar wire array Z-pinches at “QiangGuang-I” facility

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Liang; Peng, Bodong; Yuan, Yuan

    The experimental results of the insulated-standard hybrid wire array Z pinches carried out on “QiangGuang-I” facility at Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology were presented and discussed. The surface insulating can impose a significant influence on the dynamics and radiation characteristics of the hybrid wire array Z pinches, especially on the early stage (t/t{sub imp} < 0.6). The expansion of insulated wires at the ablation stage is suppressed, while the streams stripped from the insulated wires move faster than that from the standard wires. The foot radiation of X-ray is enhanced by increment of the number of insulated wires, 19.6 GW, 33.6 GW, and 68.6 GWmore » for shots 14037S, 14028H, and 14039I, respectively. The surface insulation also introduces nonhomogeneity along the single wire—the streams move much faster near the electrodes. The colliding boundary of the hybrid wire array Z pinches is bias to the insulated side approximately 0.6 mm.« less

  7. Experimental study of surface insulated-standard hybrid tungsten planar wire array Z-pinches at "QiangGuang-I" facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Liang; Peng, Bodong; Li, Yang; Yuan, Yuan; Li, Mo; Zhang, Mei; Zhao, Chen; Zhao, Jizhen; Wang, Liangping

    2016-01-01

    The experimental results of the insulated-standard hybrid wire array Z pinches carried out on "QiangGuang-I" facility at Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology were presented and discussed. The surface insulating can impose a significant influence on the dynamics and radiation characteristics of the hybrid wire array Z pinches, especially on the early stage (t/timp < 0.6). The expansion of insulated wires at the ablation stage is suppressed, while the streams stripped from the insulated wires move faster than that from the standard wires. The foot radiation of X-ray is enhanced by increment of the number of insulated wires, 19.6 GW, 33.6 GW, and 68.6 GW for shots 14037S, 14028H, and 14039I, respectively. The surface insulation also introduces nonhomogeneity along the single wire—the streams move much faster near the electrodes. The colliding boundary of the hybrid wire array Z pinches is bias to the insulated side approximately 0.6 mm.

  8. Multicolor, time-gated, soft x-ray pinhole imaging of wire array and gas puff Z pinches on the Z and Saturn pulsed power generators.

    PubMed

    Jones, B; Coverdale, C A; Nielsen, D S; Jones, M C; Deeney, C; Serrano, J D; Nielsen-Weber, L B; Meyer, C J; Apruzese, J P; Clark, R W; Coleman, P L

    2008-10-01

    A multicolor, time-gated, soft x-ray pinhole imaging instrument is fielded as part of the core diagnostic set on the 25 MA Z machine [M. E. Savage et al., in Proceedings of the Pulsed Power Plasma Sciences Conference (IEEE, New York, 2007), p. 979] for studying intense wire array and gas puff Z-pinch soft x-ray sources. Pinhole images are reflected from a planar multilayer mirror, passing 277 eV photons with <10 eV bandwidth. An adjacent pinhole camera uses filtration alone to view 1-10 keV photons simultaneously. Overlaying these data provides composite images that contain both spectral as well as spatial information, allowing for the study of radiation production in dense Z-pinch plasmas. Cu wire arrays at 20 MA on Z show the implosion of a colder cloud of material onto a hot dense core where K-shell photons are excited. A 528 eV imaging configuration has been developed on the 8 MA Saturn generator [R. B. Spielman et al., and A. I. P. Conf, Proc. 195, 3 (1989)] for imaging a bright Li-like Ar L-shell line. Ar gas puff Z pinches show an intense K-shell emission from a zippering stagnation front with L-shell emission dominating as the plasma cools.

  9. Characterization of neutron emission from mega-ampere deuterium gas puff Z-pinch at microsecond implosion times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klir, D.; Shishlov, A. V.; Kokshenev, V. A.; Kubes, P.; Labetsky, A. Yu; Rezac, K.; Cikhardt, J.; Fursov, F. I.; Kovalchuk, B. M.; Kravarik, J.; Kurmaev, N. E.; Ratakhin, N. A.; Sila, O.; Stodulka, J.

    2013-08-01

    Experiments with deuterium (D2) triple shell gas puffs were carried out on the GIT-12 generator at a 3 MA current level and microsecond implosion times. The outer, middle and inner nozzle diameters were 160 mm, 80 mm and 30 mm, respectively. The influence of the mass of deuterium shells on neutron emission times, neutron yields and neutron energy spectra was studied. The injected linear mass of deuterium varied between 50 and 255 µg cm-1. Gas puffs imploded onto the axis before the peak of generator current at 700-1100 ns. Most of the neutrons were emitted during the second neutron pulse after the development of instabilities. Despite higher currents, heavier gas puffs produced lower neutron yields. Optimal mass and a short time delay between the valve opening and the generator triggering were more important than the better coincidence of stagnation with peak current. The peak neutron yield from D(d, n)3He reactions reached 3 × 1011 at 2.8 MA current, 90 µg cm-1 injected linear mass and 37 mm anode-cathode gap. In the case of lower mass shots, a large number of 10 MeV neutrons were produced either by secondary DT reactions or by DD reactions of deuterons with energies above 7 MeV. The average neutron yield ratio Y>10 MeV/Y2.5 MeV reached (6 ± 3) × 10-4. Such a result can be explained by a power law distribution for deuterons as \\rmd N_d/\\rmd E_d\\propto E_d^{-3} . The optimization of a D2 gas puff Z-pinch and similarities to a plasma focus and its drive parameter are described.

  10. Self-pinched transport for ion-driven inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, D.R.; Olson, C.L.

    Efficient transport of intense ion beams is necessary for ion-driven inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The self-pinched transport scheme involves the focusing of an ion beam to a radius of about 1 cm or less. At this radius, using the beam`s self-magnetic field for confinement, the ion beam propagates through the reactor chamber to an ICF target. A promising regime for self-pinched transport involves the injection of a high current beam into an initially neutral gas at about 200 mTorr less. A simple equilibrium theory of a beam with a temporally pinching radial envelope predicts that large confining magnetic fields aremore » possible with net currents of more than 50% of the beam current. The magnitude of these fields is strongly dependent on the rate of ionization of the given ion species. The authors have simulated ion-beam propagation, using the hybrid code IPROP, which self-consistently calculates the gas breakdown and electromagnetic fields. In agreement, with the theory, a propagation window of 20-200 mTorr of argon is calculated for a 50 kA, 5 MeV proton beam similar to the parameters of the SABRE accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories. The authors present simulations of the focusing and propagation of the SABRE beam, with the purpose of designing a self-pinch experiment.« less

  11. Fuel Areal-Density Measurements in Laser-Driven Magnetized Inertial Fusion from Secondary Neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, J. R.; Barnak, D. H.; Betti, R.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Knauer, J. P.; Peebles, J. L.

    2017-10-01

    Laser-driven magnetized liner inertial fusion is being developed on the OMEGA laser to provide the first data at a significantly smaller scale than the Z pulsed-power machine in order to test scaling and to provide more shots with better diagnostic access than Z. In OMEGA experiments, a 0.6-mm-outer-diam plastic cylinder filled with 11 atm of D2 is placed in an axial magnetic field of 10 T, the D2 is preheated by a single beam along the axis, and then the cylinder is compressed by 40 beams. Secondary DT neutron yields provide a measurement of the areal density of the compressed D2 because the compressed fuel is much smaller than the mean free path and the Larmor radius of the T produced in D-D fusion. Measured secondary yields confirm theoretical predictions that preheating and magnetization reduce fuel compression. Higher fuel compression is found to consistently lead to lower neutron yields, which is not predicted by simulations. The information, data, or work presented herein was funded in part by the Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E), U.S. Department of Energy, under Award Number DE-AR0000568 and the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  12. Deuteron Beam Driven Fast Ignition of a Pre-Compressed Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Fuel Capsule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaoling; Miley, George; Flippo, Kirk; Hora, Heinrich; Gaillard, Sandrine; Offermann, Dustin

    2012-10-01

    We proposed to utilize a new ``Deuterium Cluster'' type structure for the laser interaction foil to generate an energetic deuteron beam as the fast igniter to ignite inertial confinement fusion fuel capsule. The benefit of deuteron beam driven fast ignition is that its deposition in the target fuel will not only provide heating but also fuse with fuel as they slow down in the target. The preliminary results from recent laser-deuteron acceleration experiment at LANL were encouraging. Also, in most recent calculations, we found that a 12.73% extra energy gain from deuteron beam-target fusion could be achieved when quasi-Maxwellian deuteron beam was assumed, and when a ρrb = 4.5 g/cm2 was considered, where ρ is the fuel density, and rb is the ion beam focusing radius on the target. These results provide some insight into the contribution of the extra heat produced by deuteron beam-target fusion to the hot spot ignition process. If the physics works as anticipated, this novel type of interaction foil can efficiently generate energetic deuterons during intense laser pulses. The massive yield of deuterons should turn out to be the most efficient way of igniting the DT fuel, making the dream of near-term commercialization of FI fusion more achievable.

  13. The US ICF Ignition Program and the Inertial Fusion Program

    SciTech Connect

    Lindl, J D; Hammel, B A; Logan, B G

    2003-07-02

    There has been rapid progress in inertial fusion in the past few years. This progress spans the construction of ignition facilities, a wide range of target concepts, and the pursuit of integrated programs to develop fusion energy using lasers, ion beams and z-pinches. Two ignition facilities are under construction (NIF in the U.S. and LMJ in France) and both projects are progressing toward an initial experimental capability. The LIL prototype beamline for LMJ and the first 4 beams of NIF will be available for experiments in 2003. The full 192 beam capability of NIF will be available in 2009 andmore » ignition experiments are expected to begin shortly after that time. There is steady progress in the target science and target fabrication in preparation for indirect drive ignition experiments on NIF. Advanced target designs may lead to 5-10 times more yield than initial target designs. There has also been excellent progress on the science of ion beam and z-pinch driven indirect drive targets. Excellent progress on direct-drive targets has been obtained on the Omega laser at the University of Rochester. This includes improved performance of targets with a pulse shape predicted to result in reduced hydrodynamic instability. Rochester has also obtained encouraging results from initial cryogenic implosions. There is widespread interest in the science of fast ignition because of its potential for achieving higher target gain with lower driver energy and relaxed target fabrication requirements. Researchers from Osaka have achieved outstanding implosion and heating results from the Gekko XII Petawatt facility and implosions suitable for fast ignition have been tested on the Omega laser. A broad based program to develop lasers and ions beams for IFE is under way with excellent progress in drivers, chambers, target fabrication and target injection. KrF and Diode Pumped Solid-State lasers (DPSSL) are being developed in conjunction with drywall chambers and direct drive

  14. Diagnosing x-ray power and energy of tungsten wire array z-pinch with a flat spectral response x-ray diode

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Kun-lun; Ren, Xiao-dong; Huang, Xian-bin, E-mail: caephxb2003@aliyun.com

    2015-11-15

    Fast z-pinch is a very efficient way of converting electromagnetic energy to radiation. With an 8-10 MA current on primary test stand facility, about 1 MJ electromagnetic energy is delivered to vacuum chamber, which heats z-pinch plasma to radiate soft x-ray. To develop a pulsed high power x-ray source, we studied the applicability of diagnosing x-ray power from tungsten wire array z-pinch with a flat spectral response x-ray diode (FSR-XRD). The detector was originally developed to diagnose radiation of a hohlraum in SG-III prototype laser facility. It utilized a gold cathode XRD and a specially configured compound gold filter tomore » yield a nearly flat spectral response in photon energy range of 0.1-4 keV. In practice, it was critical to avoid surface contamination of gold cathode. It is illustrated that an exposure of an XRD to multiple shots caused a significant change of response. Thus, in diagnosing x-ray power and energy, we used each XRD in only one shot after calibration. In a shot serial, output of FSR-XRD was compared with output of a nickel bolometer. In these shots, the outputs agreed with each other within their uncertainties which were about 12% for FSR-XRD and about 15% for bolometer. Moreover, the ratios between the FSR-XRD and the bolometer among different shots were explored. In 8 shots, the standard deviation of the ratio was 6%. It is comparable to XRD response change of 7%.« less

  15. Study of the formation, stability, and X-ray emission of the Z-pinch formed during implosion of fiber arrays at the Angara-5-1 facility

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, V. V.; Volkov, G. S.; Grabovski, E. V.

    Results from experimental studies on the implosion of arrays made of kapron fibers coated with different metals (Al, In, Sn, and Bi) are presented. It is shown that the power, total energy, and spectrum of radiation emitted by the imploding array depend on the number of metallized fibers and the mass of the metal layer deposited on them but are independent of the metal characteristics (density, atomic number, etc.). Analysis of frame X-ray images shows that the Z-pinches formed in the implosion of metallized kapron fiber arrays are more stable than those formed in wire arrays and that MHD perturbationsmore » in them develop at a slower growth rate. Due to the lower rate of plasma production from kapron fibers, the plasma formed at the periphery of the array forms a layer that plays the role of a hohlraum wall partially trapping soft X-ray emission of the Z-pinch formed in the implosion of the material of the deposited metal layer. The closure of the anode aperture doubles the energy of radiation emitted in the radial direction.« less

  16. Development and demonstration of a water-window soft x-ray microscope using a Z-pinching capillary discharge source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawaz, M. F.; Jancarek, Alexandr; Nevrkla, Michal; Duda, Martin Jakub; Pina, Ladislav

    2017-05-01

    The development and demonstration of a soft X-ray (SXR) microscope, based on a Z-pinching capillary discharge source has been realized. The Z-pinching plasma acts as a source of SXR radiation. A ceramic capacitor bank is pulsed charged up to 80 kV, and discharged through a pre- ionized nitrogen filled ceramic capillary. The discharge current has an amplitude of 25 kA. Working within the water-window spectral region (λ = 2.88 nm), corresponding to the 1s2-1s2p quantum transition of helium-like nitrogen (N5+), the microscope has a potential in exploiting the natural contrast existing between the K-absorption edges of carbon and oxygen as the main constituents of biological materials, and hence imaging them with high spatial resolution. The SXR microscope uses the grazing incidence ellipsoidal condenser mirror for the illumination, and the Fresnel zone plate optics for the imaging of samples onto a BI-CCD camera. The half- pitch spatial resolution of 100 nm [1] was achieved, as demonstrated by the knife-edge test. In order to enhance the photon-flux at the sample plane, a new scheme for focusing the radiation, from multiple capillary sources has been investigated. Details about the source, and the construction of the microscope are presented and discussed.

  17. Observation of emission process in hydrogen-like nitrogen Z-pinch discharge with time integrated soft X-ray spectrum pinhole image

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Y.; Kumai, H.; Nakanishi, Y.

    2013-02-15

    The emission spectra of hydrogen-like nitrogen Balmer at the wavelength of 13.4 nm in capillary Z-pinch discharge plasma are experimentally examined. Ionization to fully strip nitrogen at the pinch maximum, and subsequent rapid expansion cooling are required to establish the population inversion between the principal quantum number of n = 2 and n = 3. The ionization and recombination processes with estimated plasma parameters are evaluated by utilizing a time integrated spectrum pinhole image containing radial spatial information. A cylindrical capillary plasma is pinched by a triangular pulsed current with peak amplitude of 50 kA and pulse width of 50more » ns.« less

  18. Experimental research of neutron yield and spectrum from deuterium gas-puff z-pinch on the GIT-12 generator at current above 2 MA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherdizov, R. K.; Fursov, F. I.; Kokshenev, V. A.; Kurmaev, N. E.; Labetsky, A. Yu; Ratakhin, N. A.; Shishlov, A. V.; Cikhardt, J.; Cikhardtova, B.; Klir, D.; Kravarik, J.; Kubes, P.; Rezac, K.; Dudkin, G. N.; Garapatsky, A. A.; Padalko, V. N.; Varlachev, V. A.

    2017-05-01

    The Z-pinch experiments with deuterium gas-puff surrounded by an outer plasma shell were carried out on the GIT-12 generator (Tomsk, Russia) at currents of 2 MA. The plasma shell consisting of hydrogen and carbon ions was formed by 48 plasma guns. The deuterium gas-puff was created by a fast electromagnetic valve. This configuration provides an efficient mode of the neutron production in DD reaction, and the neutron yield reaches a value above 1012 neutrons per shot. Neutron diagnostics included scintillation TOF detectors for determination of the neutron energy spectrum, bubble detectors BD-PND, a silver activation detector, and several activation samples for determination of the neutron yield analysed by a Sodium Iodide (NaI) and a high-purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors. Using this neutron diagnostic complex, we measured the total neutron yield and amount of high-energy neutrons.

  19. Variation of high-power aluminum-wire array Z-pinch dynamics with wire number, load mass, and array radius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanford, T. W. L.; Mock, R. C.; Marder, B. M.; Nash, T. J.; Spielman, R. B.; Peterson, D. L.; Roderick, N. F.; Hammer, J. H.; De Groot, J. S.; Mosher, D.; Whitney, K. G.; Apruzese, J. P.

    1997-05-01

    A systematic study of annular aluminum-wire z-pinches on the Saturn accelerator shows that the quality of the implosion, (as measured by the radial convergence, the radiated energy, pulse width, and power), increases with wire number. Radiation magnetohydrodynamic (RMHC) xy simulations suggest that the implosion transitions from that of individual wire plasmas to that of a continuous plasma shell when the interwire spacing is reduced below ˜1.4 mm. In this "plasma-shell regime," many of the global radiation and plasma characteristics are in agreement with those simulated by 2D-RMHC rz simulations. In this regime, measured changes in the radiation pulse width with variations in load mass and array radius are consistent with the simulations and are explained by the development of 2D fluid motion in the rz plane. Associated variations in the K-shell yield are qualitatively explained by simple radiation-scaling models.

  20. Evaluation of Turner relaxed state as a model of long-lived ion-trapping structures in plasma focus and Z-pinches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auluck, S. K. H.

    2011-03-01

    Relatively long-lived spheroidal structures coincident with the neutron emission phase have been observed in frozen deuterium fiber Z-pinch and some plasma focus devices. Existence of energetic ion-trapping mechanism in plasma focus has also been inferred from experimental data. It has been conjectured that these are related phenomena. This paper applies Turner's theory [L. Turner, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 14, 849 (1986)] of relaxation of a Hall magnetofluid to construct a model of these structures and ion-trapping mechanism. Turner's solution modified for a finite-length plasma is used to obtain expressions for the magnetic field, velocity, and equilibrium pressure fields and is shown to represent an entity which is simultaneously a fluid vortex, a force-free magnetic field, a confined finite-pressure plasma, a charged object, and a trapped energetic ion beam. Characteristic features expected from diagnostic experiments are evaluated and shown to resemble experimental observations.

  1. Facilitated movement of inertial Brownian motors driven by a load under an asymmetric potential.

    PubMed

    Ai, Bao-quan; Liu, Liang-gang

    2007-10-01

    Based on recent work [L. Machura, M. Kostur, P. Talkner, J. Luczka, and P. Hanggi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 040601 (2007)], we extend the study of inertial Brownian motors to the case of an asymmetric potential. It is found that some transport phenomena appear in the presence of an asymmetric potential. Within tailored parameter regimes, there exists two optimal values of the load at which the mean velocity takes its maximum, which means that a load can facilitate the transport in the two parameter regimes. In addition, the phenomenon of multiple current reversals can be observed when the load is increased.

  2. Inertial ratchet driven by colored Lévy noise: current inversion and mass separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Yan; Lu, Hong

    2018-05-01

    Transport of underdamped particles subjected to colored Lévy noise in an asymmetric periodic potential is investigated. Besides the competition between the long jumps and the noise correlation that leads to current inversion, the inertial effect is another important factor that can influence the transport behavior. Note that the critical correlation time at which the current inversion occurs depends on mass. This leads to the current reversals on varying mass and implies mass separation even in the absence of whatever additional load force. Additionally, we find that the region of allowed correlation times for mass separation moves toward a smaller value of with increasing Lévy index or noise intensity.

  3. Project Icarus: Analysis of Plasma jet driven Magneto-Inertial Fusion as potential primary propulsion driver for the Icarus probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanic, M.; Cassibry, J. T.; Adams, R. B.

    2013-05-01

    Hopes of sending probes to another star other than the Sun are currently limited by the maturity of advanced propulsion technologies. One of the few candidate propulsion systems for providing interstellar flight capabilities is nuclear fusion. In the past many fusion propulsion concepts have been proposed and some of them have even been explored in detail, Project Daedalus for example. However, as scientific progress in this field has advanced, new fusion concepts have emerged that merit evaluation as potential drivers for interstellar missions. Plasma jet driven Magneto-Inertial Fusion (PJMIF) is one of those concepts. PJMIF involves a salvo of converging plasma jets that form a uniform liner, which compresses a magnetized target to fusion conditions. It is an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF)-Magnetic Confinement Fusion (MCF) hybrid approach that has the potential for a multitude of benefits over both ICF and MCF, such as lower system mass and significantly lower cost. This paper concentrates on a thermodynamic assessment of basic performance parameters necessary for utilization of PJMIF as a candidate propulsion system for the Project Icarus mission. These parameters include: specific impulse, thrust, exhaust velocity, mass of the engine system, mass of the fuel required etc. This is a submission of the Project Icarus Study Group.

  4. Spectrum Analysis of Inertial and Subinertial Motions Based on Analyzed Winds and Wind-Driven Currents from a Primitive Equation General Ocean Circulation Model.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    1Muter.Te Motions Based on Ana lyzed Winds and wind-driven December 1982 Currents from. a Primitive Squat ion General a.OW -love"*..* Oean Circulation...mew se"$ (comeS.... do oISN..u am ae~ 00do OWaor NUN Fourier and Rotary Spc , Analysis Modeled Inertial and Subinrtial Motion 4 Primitive Equation

  5. Preliminary investigation on the use of low current pulsed power Z-pinch plasma devices for the study of early stage plasma instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaselouris, E.; Dimitriou, V.; Fitilis, I.; Skoulakis, A.; Koundourakis, G.; Clark, E. L.; Chatzakis, J.; Bakarezos, Μ; Nikolos, I. K.; Papadogiannis, N. A.; Tatarakis, M.

    2018-01-01

    This article addresses key features for the implementation of low current pulsed power plasma devices for the study of matter dynamics from the solid to the plasma phase. The renewed interest in such low current plasma devices lies in the need to investigate methods for the mitigation of prompt seeding mechanisms for the generation of plasma instabilities. The low current when driven into thick wires (skin effect mode) allows for the simultaneous existence of all phases of matter from solid to plasma. Such studies are important for the concept of inertial confinement fusion where the mitigation of the instability seeding mechanisms arising from the very early moments within the target’s heating is of crucial importance. Similarly, in the magnetized liner inertial fusion concept it is an open question as to how much surface non-uniformity correlates with the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability, which develops during the implosion. This study presents experimental and simulation results, which demonstrate that the use of low current pulsed power devices in conjunction with appropriate diagnostics can be important for studying seeding mechanisms for the imminent generation of plasma instabilities in future research.

  6. Microcharge neutralization transport experiments and simulations for ion-driven inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, C.L.; Hanson, D.L.; Poukey, J.W.

    Space charge neutralization for intense beams for inertial confinement fusion is usually assumed to be perfect. However, small charge clumps in the beam will not be totally charge neutralized, and the residual net minimum potential set by electron trapping (e{phi} {approx} {1/2}m{sub e}v{sup 2}{sub i}, where m{sub e} is the electron mass and v{sub i} is the ion velocity) may lead to a substantial microdivergence. Experiments on the SABRE accelerator and simulations with the IPROP computer code are being performed to assess this mechanism. The authors have successfully created a 5 mrad beam on the SABRE accelerator, by expanding themore » beam (a process consistent with Liouville`s theorem) and, by passing the beam through a plate with pinholes, they have created low divergence beamlets to study this mechanism. Results clearly show: (1) at low pressures, trapping does neutralize the beamlets, but only down to e{phi} {approx} {1/2}m{sub e}v{sup 2}{sub i}; and (2) at higher pressures ({approx} 0.1-1 Torr), plasma shielding does remove the effect.« less

  7. High-resolution modeling of indirectly driven high-convergence layered inertial confinement fusion capsule implosions

    DOE PAGES

    Haines, Brian M.; Aldrich, C. H.; Campbell, J. M.; ...

    2017-04-24

    In this study, we present the results of high-resolution simulations of the implosion of high-convergence layered indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion capsules of the type fielded on the National Ignition Facility using the xRAGE radiation-hydrodynamics code. In order to evaluate the suitability of xRAGE to model such experiments, we benchmark simulation results against available experimental data, including shock-timing, shock-velocity, and shell trajectory data, as well as hydrodynamic instability growth rates. We discuss the code improvements that were necessary in order to achieve favorable comparisons with these data. Due to its use of adaptive mesh refinement and Eulerian hydrodynamics, xRAGE is particularlymore » well suited for high-resolution study of multi-scale engineering features such as the capsule support tent and fill tube, which are known to impact the performance of high-convergence capsule implosions. High-resolution two-dimensional (2D) simulations including accurate and well-resolved models for the capsule fill tube, support tent, drive asymmetry, and capsule surface roughness are presented. These asymmetry seeds are isolated in order to study their relative importance and the resolution of the simulations enables the observation of details that have not been previously reported. We analyze simulation results to determine how the different asymmetries affect hotspot reactivity, confinement, and confinement time and how these combine to degrade yield. Yield degradation associated with the tent occurs largely through decreased reactivity due to the escape of hot fuel mass from the hotspot. Drive asymmetries and the fill tube, however, degrade yield primarily via burn truncation, as associated instability growth accelerates the disassembly of the hotspot. Finally, modeling all of these asymmetries together in 2D leads to improved agreement with experiment but falls short of explaining the experimentally observed yield degradation

  8. Dynamic symmetry of indirectly driven inertial confinement fusion capsules on the National Ignition Facilitya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Town, R. P. J.; Bradley, D. K.; Kritcher, A.; Jones, O. S.; Rygg, J. R.; Tommasini, R.; Barrios, M.; Benedetti, L. R.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Celliers, P. M.; Döppner, T.; Dewald, E. L.; Eder, D. C.; Field, J. E.; Glenn, S. M.; Izumi, N.; Haan, S. W.; Khan, S. F.; Kline, J. L.; Kyrala, G. A.; Ma, T.; Milovich, J. L.; Moody, J. D.; Nagel, S. R.; Pak, A.; Peterson, J. L.; Robey, H. F.; Ross, J. S.; Scott, R. H. H.; Spears, B. K.; Edwards, M. J.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Landen, O. L.

    2014-05-01

    In order to achieve ignition using inertial confinement fusion it is important to control the growth of low-mode asymmetries as the capsule is compressed. Understanding the time-dependent evolution of the shape of the hot spot and surrounding fuel layer is crucial to optimizing implosion performance. A design and experimental campaign to examine sources of asymmetry and to quantify symmetry throughout the implosion has been developed and executed on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [E. I. Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)]. We have constructed a large simulation database of asymmetries applied during different time intervals. Analysis of the database has shown the need to measure and control the hot-spot shape, areal density distribution, and symmetry swings during the implosion. The shape of the hot spot during final stagnation is measured using time-resolved imaging of the self-emission, and information on the shape of the fuel at stagnation can be obtained from Compton radiography [R. Tommasini et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 056309 (2011)]. For the first time on NIF, two-dimensional inflight radiographs of gas-filled and cryogenic fuel layered capsules have been measured to infer the symmetry of the radiation drive on the capsule. These results have been used to modify the hohlraum geometry and the wavelength tuning to improve the inflight implosion symmetry. We have also expanded our shock timing capabilities by the addition of extra mirrors inside the re-entrant cone to allow the simultaneous measurement of shock symmetry in three locations on a single shot, providing asymmetry information up to Legendre mode 4. By diagnosing the shape at nearly every step of the implosion, we estimate that shape has typically reduced fusion yield by about 50% in ignition experiments.

  9. On the Evolution From Micrometer-Scale Inhomogeneity to Global Overheated Structure During the Intense Joule Heating of a z-Pinch Rod

    DOE PAGES

    Awe, T. J.; Yu, E. P.; Yates, K. C.; ...

    2017-02-21

    Ultrafast optical microscopy of metal z-pinch rods pulsed with megaampere current is contributing new data and critical insight into what provides the fundamental seed for the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instability. A two-frame near infrared/visible intensified-charge-coupled device gated imager with 2-ns temporal resolution and 3-μm spatial resolution captured emissions from the nonuniformly Joule heated surfaces of ultrasmooth aluminum (Al) rods. Nonuniform surface emissions are consistently first observed from discrete, 10-μm scale, subelectronvolt spots. Aluminum 6061 alloy, with micrometer-scale nonmetallic resistive inclusions, forms several times more spots than 99.999% pure Al 5N; 5-10 ns later, azimuthally stretched elliptical spots and distinct strata (40-100more » μm wide by 10 μm tall) are observed on Al 6061, but not on Al 5N. In such overheat strata, aligned parallel to the magnetic field, we find that they are highly effective seeds for MRT instability growth. Our data give credence to the hypothesis that early nonuniform Joule heating, such as the electrothermal instability, may provide the dominant seed for MRT.« less

  10. Investigating the effect of adding an on-axis jet to Ar gas puff Z pinches on Z.

    DOE PAGES

    Harvey-Thompson, Adam James; Jennings, Christopher Ashley; Jones, Brent M.; ...

    2016-10-20

    Double-shell Ar gas puff implosions driven by 16.5±0.5 MA on the Z generator at Sandia National Laboratories are very effective emitters of Ar K-shell radiation (photon energy >3 keV), producing yields of 330 ± 9% kJ (B. Jones et al., Phys. Plasmas, 22, 020706, 2015). In addition, previous simulations and experiments have reported dramatic increases in K-shell yields when adding an on-axis jet to double shell gas puffs for some configurations.

  11. Diagnosing residual motion via the x-ray self emission from indirectly driven inertial confinement implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Pak, A., E-mail: pak5@llnl.gov; Field, J. E.; Benedetti, L. R.

    2014-11-15

    In an indirectly driven implosion, non-radial translational motion of the compressed fusion capsule is a signature of residual kinetic energy not coupled into the compressional heating of the target. A reduction in compression reduces the peak pressure and nuclear performance of the implosion. Measuring and reducing the residual motion of the implosion is therefore necessary to improve performance and isolate other effects that degrade performance. Using the gated x-ray diagnostic, the x-ray Bremsstrahlung emission from the compressed capsule is spatially and temporally resolved at x-ray energies of >8.7 keV, allowing for measurements of the residual velocity. Here details of themore » x-ray velocity measurement and fitting routine will be discussed and measurements will be compared to the velocities inferred from the neutron time of flight detectors.« less

  12. Status On Multi-microsecond Prepulse Technique On Sphinx Machine Going From Nested To Single Wire Array For 800 ns Implosion Time Z-pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maury, P.; Calamy, H.; Grunenwald, J.; Lassalle, F.; Zucchini, F.; Loyen, A.; Georges, A.; Morell, A.; Bedoch, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    The Sphinx machine[1] is a 6 MA, 1 μS driver based on the LTD technology, used for Z-pinch experiments. Important improvements of Sphinx radiation output were recently obtained using a multi-microsecond current prepulse[2]. Total power per unit of length is multiplied by a factor of 6 and FWHM divided by a factor of 2.5. Early breakdown of the wires during the prepulse phase dramatically changes the ablation phase leading to an improvement of axial homogeneity of both the implosion and the final radiating column. As a consequence, the cathode bubble observed on classical shots is definitively removed. The implosion is then centered and zippering effect is reduced, leading to simultaneous x-ray emission of the whole length. A great reproducibility is obtained. Nested arrays were used before to mitigate the Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities during the implosion phase. Further experiments with pre-pulse technique are described here were inner array was removed. The goal of these experiments was to see if long prepulse could give stable enough implosion with single array and at the same time increase the η parameter by reducing the mass of the load. Experimental results of single wire array loads of typical dimension 5 cm in height with implosion time between 700 and 900 ns and diameter varying between 80 and 140 mm are given. Parameters of the loads were varying in term of radius and number of wires. Comparisons with nested wire array loads are done and trends are proposed. Characteristics of both the implosion and the final radiating column are shown. 2D MHD numerical simulations of single wire array become easier as there is no interaction between outer and inner array anymore. A systematic study was done using injection mass model to benchmark simulation with experiments.

  13. Simulations of Ar gas-puff Z-pinch radiation sources with double shells and central jets on the Z generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tangri, V.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Giuliani, J. L.; Thornhill, J. W.; Velikovich, A. L.; Apruzese, J. P.; Ouart, N. D.; Dasgupta, A.; Jones, B.; Jennings, C. A.

    2016-10-01

    Radiation-magnetohydrodynamic simulations using the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium Mach2-Tabular Collisional-Radiative Equilibrium code in (r, z) geometry are performed for two pairs of recent Ar gas-puff Z-pinch experiments on the refurbished Z generator with an 8 cm diameter nozzle. One pair of shots had an outer-to-inner shell mass ratio of 1:1.6 and a second pair had a ratio of 1:1. In each pair, one of the shots had a central jet. The experimental trends in the Ar K-shell yield and power are reproduced in the calculations. However, the K-shell yield and power are significantly lower than the other three shots for the case of a double-shell puff of 1:1 mass ratio and no central jet configuration. Further simulations of a hypothetical experiment with the same relative density profile of this configuration, but higher total mass, show that the coupled energy from the generator and the K-shell yield can be increased to levels achieved in the other three configurations, but not the K-shell power. Based on various measures of effective plasma radius, the compression in the 1:1 mass ratio and no central jet case is found to be less because the plasma inside the magnetic piston is hotter and of lower density. Because of the reduced density, and the reduced radiation cooling (which is proportional to the square of the density), the core plasma is hotter. Consequently, for the 1:1 outer-to-inner shell mass ratio, the load mass controls the yield and the center jet controls the power.

  14. Assessment of ion kinetic effects in shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions using fusion burn imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, M. J.; Séguin, F. H.; Amendt, P. A.; Atzeni, S.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Hoffman, N. M.; Zylstra, A. B.; Li, C. K.; Sio, H.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Frenje, J. A.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Stoeckl, C.; Seka, W.; Marshall, F. J.; Delettrez, J. A.; Sangster, T. C.; Betti, R.; Wilks, S. C.; Pino, J.; Kagan, G.; Molvig, K.; Nikroo, A.

    2015-06-01

    The significance and nature of ion kinetic effects in D3He-filled, shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions are assessed through measurements of fusion burn profiles. Over this series of experiments, the ratio of ion-ion mean free path to minimum shell radius (the Knudsen number, NK) was varied from 0.3 to 9 in order to probe hydrodynamic-like to strongly kinetic plasma conditions; as the Knudsen number increased, hydrodynamic models increasingly failed to match measured yields, while an empirically-tuned, first-step model of ion kinetic effects better captured the observed yield trends [Rosenberg et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 185001 (2014)]. Here, spatially resolved measurements of the fusion burn are used to examine kinetic ion transport effects in greater detail, adding an additional dimension of understanding that goes beyond zero-dimensional integrated quantities to one-dimensional profiles. In agreement with the previous findings, a comparison of measured and simulated burn profiles shows that models including ion transport effects are able to better match the experimental results. In implosions characterized by large Knudsen numbers (NK ˜ 3), the fusion burn profiles predicted by hydrodynamics simulations that exclude ion mean free path effects are peaked far from the origin, in stark disagreement with the experimentally observed profiles, which are centrally peaked. In contrast, a hydrodynamics simulation that includes a model of ion diffusion is able to qualitatively match the measured profile shapes. Therefore, ion diffusion or diffusion-like processes are identified as a plausible explanation of the observed trends, though further refinement of the models is needed for a more complete and quantitative understanding of ion kinetic effects.

  15. Assessment of ion kinetic effects in shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions using fusion burn imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, M. J., E-mail: mros@lle.rochester.edu; Séguin, F. H.; Rinderknecht, H. G.

    The significance and nature of ion kinetic effects in D{sup 3}He-filled, shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions are assessed through measurements of fusion burn profiles. Over this series of experiments, the ratio of ion-ion mean free path to minimum shell radius (the Knudsen number, N{sub K}) was varied from 0.3 to 9 in order to probe hydrodynamic-like to strongly kinetic plasma conditions; as the Knudsen number increased, hydrodynamic models increasingly failed to match measured yields, while an empirically-tuned, first-step model of ion kinetic effects better captured the observed yield trends [Rosenberg et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 185001 (2014)]. Here, spatiallymore » resolved measurements of the fusion burn are used to examine kinetic ion transport effects in greater detail, adding an additional dimension of understanding that goes beyond zero-dimensional integrated quantities to one-dimensional profiles. In agreement with the previous findings, a comparison of measured and simulated burn profiles shows that models including ion transport effects are able to better match the experimental results. In implosions characterized by large Knudsen numbers (N{sub K} ∼ 3), the fusion burn profiles predicted by hydrodynamics simulations that exclude ion mean free path effects are peaked far from the origin, in stark disagreement with the experimentally observed profiles, which are centrally peaked. In contrast, a hydrodynamics simulation that includes a model of ion diffusion is able to qualitatively match the measured profile shapes. Therefore, ion diffusion or diffusion-like processes are identified as a plausible explanation of the observed trends, though further refinement of the models is needed for a more complete and quantitative understanding of ion kinetic effects.« less

  16. Assessment of ion kinetic effects in shock-driven inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions using fusion burn imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, M. J.; Séguin, F. H.; Amendt, P. A.

    The significance and nature of ion kinetic effects in D³He-filled, shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions are assessed through measurements of fusion burn profiles. Over this series of experiments, the ratio of ion-ion mean free path to minimum shell radius (the Knudsen number, N K) was varied from 0.3 to 9 in order to probe hydrodynamic-like to strongly kinetic plasma conditions; as the Knudsen number increased, hydrodynamic models increasingly failed to match measured yields, while an empirically-tuned, first-step model of ion kinetic effects better captured the observed yield trends [Rosenberg et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 185001 (2014)]. Here, spatially resolvedmore » measurements of the fusion burn are used to examine kinetic ion transport effects in greater detail, adding an additional dimension of understanding that goes beyond zero-dimensional integrated quantities to one-dimensional profiles. In agreement with the previous findings, a comparison of measured and simulated burn profiles shows that models including ion transport effects are able to better match the experimental results. In implosions characterized by large Knudsen numbers (N K ~ 3), the fusion burn profiles predicted by hydrodynamics simulations that exclude ion mean free path effects are peaked far from the origin, in stark disagreement with the experimentally observed profiles, which are centrally peaked. In contrast, a hydrodynamics simulation that includes a model of ion diffusion is able to qualitatively match the measured profile shapes. Therefore, ion diffusion or diffusion-like processes are identified as a plausible explanation of the observed trends, though further refinement of the models is needed for a more complete and quantitative understanding of ion kinetic effects.« less

  17. Assessment of ion kinetic effects in shock-driven inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions using fusion burn imaging

    DOE PAGES

    Rosenberg, M. J.; Séguin, F. H.; Amendt, P. A.; ...

    2015-06-02

    The significance and nature of ion kinetic effects in D³He-filled, shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions are assessed through measurements of fusion burn profiles. Over this series of experiments, the ratio of ion-ion mean free path to minimum shell radius (the Knudsen number, N K) was varied from 0.3 to 9 in order to probe hydrodynamic-like to strongly kinetic plasma conditions; as the Knudsen number increased, hydrodynamic models increasingly failed to match measured yields, while an empirically-tuned, first-step model of ion kinetic effects better captured the observed yield trends [Rosenberg et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 185001 (2014)]. Here, spatially resolvedmore » measurements of the fusion burn are used to examine kinetic ion transport effects in greater detail, adding an additional dimension of understanding that goes beyond zero-dimensional integrated quantities to one-dimensional profiles. In agreement with the previous findings, a comparison of measured and simulated burn profiles shows that models including ion transport effects are able to better match the experimental results. In implosions characterized by large Knudsen numbers (N K ~ 3), the fusion burn profiles predicted by hydrodynamics simulations that exclude ion mean free path effects are peaked far from the origin, in stark disagreement with the experimentally observed profiles, which are centrally peaked. In contrast, a hydrodynamics simulation that includes a model of ion diffusion is able to qualitatively match the measured profile shapes. Therefore, ion diffusion or diffusion-like processes are identified as a plausible explanation of the observed trends, though further refinement of the models is needed for a more complete and quantitative understanding of ion kinetic effects.« less

  18. Using 1D theory to understand 3D stagnation of a wire-array Z pinch in the absence of radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Edmund

    2015-11-01

    Many high-energy-density systems implode towards the axis of symmetry, where it collides on itself, forming a hot plasma. However, experiments show these imploding plasmas develop three-dimensional (3D) structures. As a result, the plasma cannot completely dissipate its kinetic energy at stagnation, instead retaining significant 3D flow. A useful tool for understanding the effects of this residual flow is 3D simulation, but the amount and complexity of information can be daunting. To address this problem, we explore the connection between 3D simulation and one-dimensional (1D) theory. Such a connection, if it exists, is mutually beneficial: 1D theory can provide a clear picture of the underlying dynamics of 3D stagnation. On the other hand, deviations between theory and simulation suggest how 1D theory must be modified to account for 3D effects. In this work, we focus on a 3D, magnetohydrodynamic simulation of a compact wire-array Z pinch. To provide a simpler background against which to test our ideas, we artificially turn off radiation during the stagnation phase. Examination of the initial accumulation of mass on axis reveals oblique collision between jets, shock accretion, and vortex formation. Despite evidence for shock-dominated stagnation, a 1D shockless stagnation solution is more appropriate for describing the global dynamics, in that it reproduces the increase of on-axis density with time. However, the 1D solution must be modified to account for 3D effects: the flows suggest enhanced thermal transport as well as centrifugal force. Upon reaching peak compression, the stagnation transitions to a second phase, in which the high-pressure core on axis expands outward into the remaining imploding plasma. During this phase, a 1D shock solution describes the growth of the shock accretion region, as well as the decrease of on-axis density with time. However, the effect of 3D flows is still present: the on-axis temperature does not cool during expansion, which

  19. Design and Optimization of a Stationary Electrode in a Vertically-Driven MEMS Inertial Switch for Extending Contact Duration

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qiu; Yang, Zhuo-Qing; Fu, Bo; Bao, Yan-Ping; Wu, Hao; Sun, Yun-Na; Zhao, Meng-Yuan; Li, Jian; Ding, Gui-Fu; Zhao, Xiao-Lin

    2017-01-01

    A novel micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) inertial microswitch with a flexible contact-enhanced structure to extend the contact duration has been proposed in the present work. In order to investigate the stiffness k of the stationary electrodes, the stationary electrodes with different shapes, thickness h, width b, and length l were designed, analyzed, and simulated using ANSYS software. Both the analytical and the simulated results indicate that the stiffness k increases with thickness h and width b, while decreasing with an increase of length l, and it is related to the shape. The inertial micro-switches with different kinds of stationary electrodes were simulated using ANSYS software and fabricated using surface micromachining technology. The dynamic simulation indicates that the contact time will decrease with the increase of thickness h and width b, but increase with the length l, and it is related to the shape. As a result, the contact time decreases with the stiffness k of the stationary electrode. Furthermore, the simulated results reveal that the stiffness k changes more rapidly with h and l compared to b. However, overlarge dimension of the whole microswitch is contradicted with small footprint area expectation in the structure design. Therefore, it is unreasonable to extend the contact duration by increasing the length l excessively. Thus, the best and most convenient way to prolong the contact time is to reduce the thickness h of the stationary electrode while keeping the plane geometric structure of the inertial micro-switch unchanged. Finally, the fabricated micro-switches with different shapes of stationary electrodes have been evaluated by a standard dropping hammer system. The test maximum contact time under 288 g acceleration can reach 125 µs. It is shown that the test results are in accordance with the simulated results. The conclusions obtained in this work can provide guidance for the future design and fabrication of inertial

  20. Design and Optimization of a Stationary Electrode in a Vertically-Driven MEMS Inertial Switch for Extending Contact Duration.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiu; Yang, Zhuo-Qing; Fu, Bo; Bao, Yan-Ping; Wu, Hao; Sun, Yun-Na; Zhao, Meng-Yuan; Li, Jian; Ding, Gui-Fu; Zhao, Xiao-Lin

    2017-03-07

    A novel micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) inertial microswitch with a flexible contact-enhanced structure to extend the contact duration has been proposed in the present work. In order to investigate the stiffness k of the stationary electrodes, the stationary electrodes with different shapes, thickness h , width b , and length l were designed, analyzed, and simulated using ANSYS software. Both the analytical and the simulated results indicate that the stiffness k increases with thickness h and width b , while decreasing with an increase of length l , and it is related to the shape. The inertial micro-switches with different kinds of stationary electrodes were simulated using ANSYS software and fabricated using surface micromachining technology. The dynamic simulation indicates that the contact time will decrease with the increase of thickness h and width b , but increase with the length l , and it is related to the shape. As a result, the contact time decreases with the stiffness k of the stationary electrode. Furthermore, the simulated results reveal that the stiffness k changes more rapidly with h and l compared to b . However, overlarge dimension of the whole microswitch is contradicted with small footprint area expectation in the structure design. Therefore, it is unreasonable to extend the contact duration by increasing the length l excessively. Thus, the best and most convenient way to prolong the contact time is to reduce the thickness h of the stationary electrode while keeping the plane geometric structure of the inertial micro-switch unchanged. Finally, the fabricated micro-switches with different shapes of stationary electrodes have been evaluated by a standard dropping hammer system. The test maximum contact time under 288 g acceleration can reach 125 µs. It is shown that the test results are in accordance with the simulated results. The conclusions obtained in this work can provide guidance for the future design and fabrication of inertial

  1. Inertial Mass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kenneth P.

    2007-01-01

    The inertial balance is one device that can help students to quantify the quality of inertia--a body's resistance to a change in movement--in more generally understood terms of mass. In this hands-on activity, students use the inertial balance to develop a more quantitative idea of what mass means in an inertial sense. The activity also helps…

  2. Fill-Tube-Induced Mass Perturbations on X-Ray-Driven, Ignition-Scale, Inertial-Confinement-Fusion Capsule Shells and the Implications for Ignition Experiments

    DOE PAGES

    Bennett, G. R.; Herrmann, M. C.; Edwards, M. J.; ...

    2007-11-13

    We present on the first inertial-confinement-fusion ignition facility, the target capsule will be DT filled through a long, narrow tube inserted into the shell. μg-scale shell perturbations Δm' arising from multiple, 10–50 μm-diameter, hollow SiO 2 tubes on x-ray-driven, ignition-scale, 1-mg capsules have been measured on a subignition device. Finally, simulations compare well with observation, whence it is corroborated that Δm' arises from early x-ray shadowing by the tube rather than tube mass coupling to the shell, and inferred that 10–20 μm tubes will negligibly affect fusion yield on a full-ignition facility.

  3. Relative Advantages of Direct and Indirect Drive for an Inertial Fusion Energy Power Plant Driven by a Diode-Pumped Solid-State Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orth, C. D.

    2001-03-01

    This paper reviews our current understanding of the relative advantages of direct drive (DD) and indirect drive (ID) for a 1 GWe inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant driven by a diode-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL). This comparison is motivated by a recent study (1) that shows that the projected cost of electricity (COE) for DD is actually about the same as that for ID even though the target gain for DD can be much larger. We can therefore no longer assume that DD is the ultimate targeting scenario for IFE, and must begin a more rigorous comparison of these two drive options. The comparison begun here shows that ID may actually end up being preferred, but the uncertainties are still rather large.

  4. Plasma-Jet-Driven Magneto-Inertial Fusion (PJMIF): Physics and Design for a Plasma Liner Formation Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Scott; Cassibry, Jason; Witherspoon, F. Douglas

    2014-10-01

    Spherically imploding plasma liners are a potential standoff compression driver for magneto-inertial fusion, which is a hybrid of and operates in an intermediate density between those of magnetic and inertial fusion. We propose to use an array of merging supersonic plasma jets to form a spherically imploding plasma liner. The jets are to be formed by pulsed coaxial guns with contoured electrodes that are placed sufficiently far from the location of target compression such that no hardware is repetitively destroyed. As such, the repetition rate can be higher (e.g., 1 Hz) and ultimately the power-plant economics can be more attractive than most other MIF approaches. During the R&D phase, a high experimental shot rate at reasonably low cost (e.g., < 1 k/shot) may be achieved with excellent diagnostic access, thus enabling a rapid learning rate. After some background on PJMIF and its prospects for reactor-relevant energy gain, this poster describes the physics objectives and design of a proposed 60-gun plasma-liner-formation experiment, which will provide experimental data on: (i) scaling of peak liner ram pressure versus initial jet parameters, (ii) liner non-uniformity characterization and control, and (iii) control of liner profiles for eventual gain optimization.

  5. Simulations of inertial confinement fusion driven by a novel synchrotron-radiation-based x-ray igniter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shlyaptsev, Vyacheslav N.; Tatchyn, Roman O.

    2004-01-01

    The advantages and challenges of using a powerful x-ray source for the fast ignition of compressed Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) targets have been considered. The requirements for such a source together with the optics to focus the x-rays onto compressed DT cores lead to a conceptual design based on Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs) and long wigglers to produce x-ray pulses with the appropriate phase space properties. A comparative assessment of the parameters of the igniter system indicates that the technologies for building it, although expensive, are physically achievable. Our x-ray fast ignition (XFI) scheme requires substantially smaller energy for the initiation of nuclear fusion reactions than other methods.

  6. Effects of alpha stopping power modelling on the ignition threshold in a directly-driven inertial confinement fusion capsule

    DOE PAGES

    Temporal, Mauro; Canaud, Benoit; Cayzac, Witold; ...

    2017-05-25

    The alpha-particle energy deposition mechanism modifies the ignition conditions of the thermonuclear Deuterium-Tritium fusion reactions, and constitutes a key issue in achieving high gain in Inertial Confinement Fusion implosions. One-dimensional hydrodynamic calculations have been performed with the code Multi-IFE to simulate the implosion of a capsule directly irradiated by a laser beam. The diffusion approximation for the alpha energy deposition has been used to optimize three laser profiles corresponding to different implosion velocities. A Monte-Carlo package has been included in Multi-IFE to calculate the alpha energy transport, and in this case the energy deposition uses both the LP and themore » BPS stopping power models. Homothetic transformations that maintain a constant implosion velocity have been used to map out the transition region between marginally-igniting and high-gain configurations. Furthermore, the results provided by the two models have been compared and it is found that – close to the ignition threshold – in order to produce the same fusion energy, the calculations performed with the BPS model require about 10% more invested energy with respect to the LP model.« less

  7. Effects of alpha stopping power modelling on the ignition threshold in a directly-driven inertial confinement fusion capsule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temporal, Mauro; Canaud, Benoit; Cayzac, Witold; Ramis, Rafael; Singleton, Robert L.

    2017-05-01

    The alpha-particle energy deposition mechanism modifies the ignition conditions of the thermonuclear Deuterium-Tritium fusion reactions, and constitutes a key issue in achieving high gain in Inertial Confinement Fusion implosions. One-dimensional hydrodynamic calculations have been performed with the code Multi-IFE [R. Ramis, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, Comput. Phys. Commun. 203, 226 (2016)] to simulate the implosion of a capsule directly irradiated by a laser beam. The diffusion approximation for the alpha energy deposition has been used to optimize three laser profiles corresponding to different implosion velocities. A Monte-Carlo package has been included in Multi-IFE to calculate the alpha energy transport, and in this case the energy deposition uses both the LP [C.K. Li, R.D. Petrasso, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3059 (1993)] and the BPS [L.S. Brown, D.L. Preston, R.L. Singleton Jr., Phys. Rep. 410, 237 (2005)] stopping power models. Homothetic transformations that maintain a constant implosion velocity have been used to map out the transition region between marginally-igniting and high-gain configurations. The results provided by the two models have been compared and it is found that - close to the ignition threshold - in order to produce the same fusion energy, the calculations performed with the BPS model require about 10% more invested energy with respect to the LP model.

  8. On the importance of minimizing "coast-time" in x-ray driven inertially confined fusion implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurricane, O. A.; Kritcher, A.; Callahan, D. A.; Landen, O.; Patel, P. K.; Springer, P. T.; Casey, D. T.; Dewald, E. L.; Dittrich, T. R.; Döppner, T.; Hinkel, D. E.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Kline, J.; Le Pape, S.; Ma, T.; MacPhee, A. G.; Moore, A.; Pak, A.; Park, H.-S.; Ralph, J.; Salmonson, J. D.; Widmann, K.

    2017-09-01

    By the time an inertially confined fusion (ICF) implosion has converged a factor of 20, its surface area has shrunk 400 × , making it an inefficient x-ray energy absorber. So, ICF implosions are traditionally designed to have the laser drive shut off at a time, toff, well before bang-time, tBT, for a coast-time of t coast = t B T - t o f f > 1 ns. High-foot implosions on NIF showed a strong dependence of many key ICF performance quantities on reduced coast-time (by extending the duration of laser power after the peak power is first reached), most notably stagnation pressure and fusion yield. Herein we show that the ablation pressure, pabl, which drives high-foot implosions, is essentially triangular in temporal shape, and that reducing tcoast boosts pabl by as much as ˜ 2 × prior to stagnation thus increasing fuel and hot-spot compression and implosion speed. One-dimensional simulations are used to track hydrodynamic characteristics for implosions with various coast-times and various assumed rates of hohlraum cooling after toff to illustrate how the late-time conditions exterior to the implosion can impact the fusion performance. A simple rocket model-like analytic theory demonstrates that reducing coast-time can lead to a ˜ 15 % higher implosion velocity because the reduction in x-ray absorption efficiency at late-time is somewhat compensated by small ( ˜ 5 % - 10 %) ablator mass remaining. Together with the increased ablation pressure, the additional implosion speed for short coast-time implosions can boost the stagnation pressure by ˜ 2 × as compared to a longer coast-time version of the same implosion. Four key dimensionless parameters are identified and we find that reducing coast-time to as little as 500 ps still provides some benefit. Finally, we show how the high-foot implosion data is consistent with the above mentioned picture.

  9. On the importance of minimizing “coast-time” in x-ray driven inertially confined fusion implosions

    DOE PAGES

    Hurricane, O. A.; Kritcher, A.; Callahan, D. A.; ...

    2017-09-01

    By the time an inertially confined fusion (ICF) implosion has converged a factor of 20, its surface area has shrunk 400×, making it an inefficient x-ray energy absorber. So, ICF implosions are traditionally designed to have the laser drive shut off at a time, t off, well before bang-time, t BT, for a coast-time of t coast = t BT – t off > 1 ns. High-foot implosions on NIF showed a strong dependence of many key ICF performance quantities on reduced coast-time (by extending the duration of laser power after the peak power is first reached), most notably stagnationmore » pressure and fusion yield. Herein we show that the ablation pressure, p abl, which drives high-foot implosions, is essentially triangular in temporal shape, and that reducing t coast boosts p abl by as much as ~2× prior to stagnation thus increasing fuel and hot-spot compression and implosion speed. One-dimensional simulations are used to track hydrodynamic characteristics for implosions with various coast-times and various assumed rates of hohlraum cooling after t off to illustrate how the late-time conditions exterior to the implosion can impact the fusion performance. A simple rocket model-like analytic theory demonstrates that reducing coast-time can lead to a ~15% higher implosion velocity because the reduction in x-ray absorption efficiency at late-time is somewhat compensated by small (~5%–10%) ablator mass remaining. Together with the increased ablation pressure, the additional implosion speed for short coast-time implosions can boost the stagnation pressure by ~2× as compared to a longer coast-time version of the same implosion. Four key dimensionless parameters are identified and we find that reducing coast-time to as little as 500 ps still provides some benefit. Lastly, we show how the high-foot implosion data is consistent with the above mentioned picture.« less

  10. On the importance of minimizing “coast-time” in x-ray driven inertially confined fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Hurricane, O. A.; Kritcher, A.; Callahan, D. A.

    By the time an inertially confined fusion (ICF) implosion has converged a factor of 20, its surface area has shrunk 400×, making it an inefficient x-ray energy absorber. So, ICF implosions are traditionally designed to have the laser drive shut off at a time, t off, well before bang-time, t BT, for a coast-time of t coast = t BT – t off > 1 ns. High-foot implosions on NIF showed a strong dependence of many key ICF performance quantities on reduced coast-time (by extending the duration of laser power after the peak power is first reached), most notably stagnationmore » pressure and fusion yield. Herein we show that the ablation pressure, p abl, which drives high-foot implosions, is essentially triangular in temporal shape, and that reducing t coast boosts p abl by as much as ~2× prior to stagnation thus increasing fuel and hot-spot compression and implosion speed. One-dimensional simulations are used to track hydrodynamic characteristics for implosions with various coast-times and various assumed rates of hohlraum cooling after t off to illustrate how the late-time conditions exterior to the implosion can impact the fusion performance. A simple rocket model-like analytic theory demonstrates that reducing coast-time can lead to a ~15% higher implosion velocity because the reduction in x-ray absorption efficiency at late-time is somewhat compensated by small (~5%–10%) ablator mass remaining. Together with the increased ablation pressure, the additional implosion speed for short coast-time implosions can boost the stagnation pressure by ~2× as compared to a longer coast-time version of the same implosion. Four key dimensionless parameters are identified and we find that reducing coast-time to as little as 500 ps still provides some benefit. Lastly, we show how the high-foot implosion data is consistent with the above mentioned picture.« less

  11. Implosion dynamics of a megampere wire-array Z-pinch with an inner low-density foam shell at the Angara-5-1 facility

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, V. V.; Bolkhovitinov, E. A.; Volkov, G. S., E-mail: volkov@triniti.ru

    The implosion dynamics of a pinch with a highly inhomogeneous initial axial distribution of the load mass was studied experimentally. A cascade array consisting of a double nested tungsten wire array and a coaxial inner cylindrical shell located symmetrically with respect to the high-voltage electrodes was used as a load of the Angara-5-1 high-current generator. The cylindrical foam shell was half as long as the cathode− anode gap, and its diameter was equal to the diameter of the inner wire array. It is shown experimentally that two stages are typical of the implosion dynamics of such a load: the formationmore » of two separate pinches formed as a result of implosion of the wire array near the cathode and anode and the subsequent implosion of the central part of the load containing the cylindrical foam shell. The conditions are determined at which the implosion of the central part of the pinch with the foam cylinder is preceded by intense irradiation of the foam with the soft X-ray (SXR) emission generated by the near-electrode pinches and converting it into the plasma state. Using such a load, which models the main elements of the scheme of a dynamic hohlraum for inertial confinement fusion, it is possible to increase the efficiency of interaction between the outer accelerated plasma sheath and the inner foam shell by preionizing the foam with the SXR emission of the near-electrode pinches.« less

  12. Range shortening, radiation transport, and Rayleigh-Taylor instability phenomena in ion-beam-driven inertial-fusion-reactor-size targets: Implosion, ignition, and burn phases

    SciTech Connect

    Long, K.A.; Tahir, N.A.

    In this paper we present an analysis of the theory of the energy deposition of ions in cold materials and hot dense plasmas together with numerical calculations for heavy and light ions of interest to ion-beam fusion. We have used the g-smcapso-smcapsr-smcapsg-smcapso-smcapsn-smcaps computer code of Long, Moritz, and Tahir (which is an extension of the code originally written for protons by Nardi, Peleg, and Zinamon) to carry out these calculations. The energy-deposition data calculated in this manner has been used in the design of heavy-ion-beam-driven fusion targets suitable for a reactor, by its inclusion in the m-smcapse-smcapsd-smcapsu-smcapss-smcapsa-smcaps code of Christiansen,more » Ashby, and Roberts as extended by Tahir and Long. A number of other improvements have been made in this code and these are also discussed. Various aspects of the theoretical analysis of such targets are discussed including the calculation of the hydrodynamic stability, the hydrodynamic efficiency, and the gain. Various different target designs have been used, some of them new. In general these targets are driven by Bi/sup +/ ions of energy 8--12 GeV, with an input energy of 4--6.5 MJ, with output energies in the range 600--900 MJ, and with gains in the range 120--180. The peak powers are in the range of 500--750 TW. We present detailed calculations of the ablation, compression, ignition, and burn phases. By the application of a new stability analysis which includes ablation and density-gradient effects we show that these targets appear to implode in a stable manner. Thus the targets designed offer working examples suited for use in a future inertial-confinement fusion reactor.« less

  13. Proton Radiography of Spontaneous Fields, Plasma Flows and Dynamics in X-Ray Driven Inertial-Confinement Fusion Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Rosenberg, M.; Zylstra, A. B.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Petrasso, R. D.; Amendt, P. A.; Landen, O. L.; Town, R. P. J.; Betti, R.; Knauer, J. P.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Back, C. A.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Nikroo, A.

    2010-11-01

    Backlighting of x-ray-driven implosions in empty hohlraums with mono-energetic protons on the OMEGA laser facility has allowed a number of important phenomena to be observed. Several critical parameters were determined, including plasma flow, three types of spontaneous electric fields and megaGauss magnetic fields. These results provide insight into important issues in indirect-drive ICF. Even though the cavity is effectively a Faraday cage, the strong, local fields inside the hohlraum can affect laser-plasma instabilities, electron distributions and implosion symmetry. They are of fundamental scientific importance for a range of new experiments at the frontiers of high-energy-density physics. Future experiments designed to characterize the field formation and evolution in low-Z gas fill hohlraums will be discussed.

  14. Stellar Inertial Navigation Workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W.; Johnson, B.; Swaminathan, N.

    1989-01-01

    Software and hardware assembled to support specific engineering activities. Stellar Inertial Navigation Workstation (SINW) is integrated computer workstation providing systems and engineering support functions for Space Shuttle guidance and navigation-system logistics, repair, and procurement activities. Consists of personal-computer hardware, packaged software, and custom software integrated together into user-friendly, menu-driven system. Designed to operate on IBM PC XT. Applied in business and industry to develop similar workstations.

  15. The LICPA-driven collider—a novel efficient tool for the production of ultra-high pressures in condensed media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badziak, J.; Krousky, E.; Kucharik, M.; Liska, R.

    2016-03-01

    Generation of strong shock waves for the production of Mbar or Gbar pressures is a topic of high relevance for contemporary research in various domains, including inertial confinement fusion, laboratory astrophysics, planetology and material science. The pressures in the multi-Mbar range can be produced by the shocks generated using chemical explosions, light-gas guns, Z-pinch machines or lasers. Higher pressures, in the sub-Gbar or Gbar range are attainable only with nuclear explosions or laser-based methods. Unfortunately, due to the low efficiency of energy conversion from a laser to the shock (below a few percent), multi-kJ, multi-beam lasers are needed to produce such pressures with these methods. Here, we propose and investigate a novel scheme for generating high-pressure shocks which is much more efficient than the laser-based schemes known so far. In the proposed scheme, the shock is generated in a dense target by the impact of a fast projectile driven by the laser-induced cavity pressure acceleration (LICPA) mechanism. Using two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations and the measurements performed at the kilojoule PALS laser facility it is shown that in the LICPA-driven collider the laser-to-shock energy conversion efficiency can reach a very high value ~ 15-20 % and, as a result, the shock pressure ~ 0.5-1 Gbar can be produced using lasers of energy <= 0.5 kJ. On the other hand, the pressures in the multi-Mbar range could be produced in this collider with low-energy (~ 10 J) lasers available on the market. It would open up the possibility of conducting research in high energy-density science also in small, university-class laboratories.

  16. EDITORIAL: Inertial Fusion State of the Art---A Collection of Overview and Technical Papers from IFSA2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, W. J.

    2004-12-01

    -rays. Peyrusse et al examine atomic physics and radiative processes in hot dense plasmas. Koenig et al examine ways to simulate planetary physics processes using high pressures generated in laser driven shocks. Non-laser approaches to inertial fusion were also fully represented at IFSA2003. The paper by Lebedev et al shows important physics developments in Z-pinch plasmas. Sharp et al present chamber transport modelling for heavy ion fusion drivers. Technology development studies were also well represented at IFSA2003. There was a special session on facility and driver developments that contained several papers. Presented here are the papers by Miller et al on the NIF, Danson et al on the Vulcan petawatt facility, and Myers et al on KrF lasers for IFE. A paper by Goodin et al shows progress in finding cost effective target manufacturing methods for IFE. Finally, there were many papers at IFSA2003 that focused upon the very promising but more immature field of fast ignition. Barty et al give an overview of the development issues for short pulse lasers that will be essential if fast ignition is to become mainstream. A paper by Kodama et al looks at target physics using cone focus targets. Fast ignition lasers and innovative target physics within this concept were a `hot topic' at IFSA2003. The IFSA conferences have become the principal forum for the exchange of research results in inertial fusion and high energy and density science. There is a unique blend of science and technology. All fields of inertial fusion are represented. This special issue is a snapshot and a cross-section of the field at this time. We hope the reader is encouraged to look into more of the papers in areas that interest them. References [1] Inertial Fusion Sciences and Applications: State of the Art 2003 ed B. Hammel, D. Meyerhofer, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn and H. Azechi American Nuclear Society (July 2004) These IFSA2003 proceedings may be purchased on-line at http://www.ans.org.

  17. Yield degradation in inertial-confinement-fusion implosions due to shock-driven kinetic fuel-species stratification and viscous heating

    DOE PAGES

    Taitano, William T.; Simakov, Andrei N.; Chacon, Luis; ...

    2018-04-09

    Anomalous thermonuclear yield degradation (i.e., that not describable by single-fluid radiation hydrodynamics) in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) implosions is ubiquitously observed in both Omega and National Ignition experiments. Multiple experimental and theoretical studies have been carried out to investigate the origin of such a degradation. Relative concentration changes of fuel-ion species, as well as kinetically enhanced viscous heating, have been among possible explanations proposed for certain classes of ICF experiments. In this study, we investigate the role of such kinetic plasma effects in detail. To this end, we use the iFP code to perform multi-species ion Vlasov-Fokker-Planck simulations of ICFmore » capsule implosions with the fuel comprising various hydrodynamically equivalent mixtures of deuterium (D) and helium-3 (3He), as in the original. We employ the same computational setup as in O. Larroche, which was the first to simulate the experiments kinetically. However, unlike the Larroche study, and in partial agreement with experimental data, we find a systematic yield degradation in multi-species simulations versus averaged-ion simulations when the D-fuel fraction is decreased. This yield degradation originates in the fuel-ion species stratification induced by plasma shocks, which imprints the imploding system and results in the relocation of the D ions from the core of the capsule to its periphery, thereby reducing the yield relative to a non-separable averaged-ion case. By comparing yields from the averaged-ion kinetic simulations and from the hydrodynamic scaling, we also observe yield variations associated with ion kinetic effects other than fuel-ion stratification, such as ion viscous heating, which is typically neglected in hydrodynamic implosions' simulations. Since our kinetic simulations are driven by hydrodynamic boundary conditions at the fuel-ablator interface, they cannot capture the effects of ion viscosity on the capsule

  18. Yield degradation in inertial-confinement-fusion implosions due to shock-driven kinetic fuel-species stratification and viscous heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taitano, W. T.; Simakov, A. N.; Chacón, L.; Keenan, B.

    2018-05-01

    Anomalous thermonuclear yield degradation (i.e., that not describable by single-fluid radiation hydrodynamics) in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) implosions is ubiquitously observed in both Omega and National Ignition experiments. Multiple experimental and theoretical studies have been carried out to investigate the origin of such a degradation. Relative concentration changes of fuel-ion species, as well as kinetically enhanced viscous heating, have been among possible explanations proposed for certain classes of ICF experiments. In this study, we investigate the role of such kinetic plasma effects in detail. To this end, we use the iFP code to perform multi-species ion Vlasov-Fokker-Planck simulations of ICF capsule implosions with the fuel comprising various hydrodynamically equivalent mixtures of deuterium (D) and helium-3 (3He), as in the original Rygg experiments [J. R. Rygg et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 052702 (2006)]. We employ the same computational setup as in O. Larroche [Phys. Plasmas 19, 122706 (2012)], which was the first to simulate the experiments kinetically. However, unlike the Larroche study, and in partial agreement with experimental data, we find a systematic yield degradation in multi-species simulations versus averaged-ion simulations when the D-fuel fraction is decreased. This yield degradation originates in the fuel-ion species stratification induced by plasma shocks, which imprints the imploding system and results in the relocation of the D ions from the core of the capsule to its periphery, thereby reducing the yield relative to a non-separable averaged-ion case. By comparing yields from the averaged-ion kinetic simulations and from the hydrodynamic scaling, we also observe yield variations associated with ion kinetic effects other than fuel-ion stratification, such as ion viscous heating, which is typically neglected in hydrodynamic implosions' simulations. Since our kinetic simulations are driven by hydrodynamic boundary conditions at the

  19. Yield degradation in inertial-confinement-fusion implosions due to shock-driven kinetic fuel-species stratification and viscous heating

    SciTech Connect

    Taitano, William T.; Simakov, Andrei N.; Chacon, Luis

    Anomalous thermonuclear yield degradation (i.e., that not describable by single-fluid radiation hydrodynamics) in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) implosions is ubiquitously observed in both Omega and National Ignition experiments. Multiple experimental and theoretical studies have been carried out to investigate the origin of such a degradation. Relative concentration changes of fuel-ion species, as well as kinetically enhanced viscous heating, have been among possible explanations proposed for certain classes of ICF experiments. In this study, we investigate the role of such kinetic plasma effects in detail. To this end, we use the iFP code to perform multi-species ion Vlasov-Fokker-Planck simulations of ICFmore » capsule implosions with the fuel comprising various hydrodynamically equivalent mixtures of deuterium (D) and helium-3 (3He), as in the original. We employ the same computational setup as in O. Larroche, which was the first to simulate the experiments kinetically. However, unlike the Larroche study, and in partial agreement with experimental data, we find a systematic yield degradation in multi-species simulations versus averaged-ion simulations when the D-fuel fraction is decreased. This yield degradation originates in the fuel-ion species stratification induced by plasma shocks, which imprints the imploding system and results in the relocation of the D ions from the core of the capsule to its periphery, thereby reducing the yield relative to a non-separable averaged-ion case. By comparing yields from the averaged-ion kinetic simulations and from the hydrodynamic scaling, we also observe yield variations associated with ion kinetic effects other than fuel-ion stratification, such as ion viscous heating, which is typically neglected in hydrodynamic implosions' simulations. Since our kinetic simulations are driven by hydrodynamic boundary conditions at the fuel-ablator interface, they cannot capture the effects of ion viscosity on the capsule

  20. Auto-magnetizing liners for magnetized inertial fusion

    DOE PAGES

    Slutz, S. A.; Jennings, C. A.; Awe, T. J.; ...

    2017-01-20

    Here, the MagLIF (Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion) concept has demonstrated fusion-relevant plasma conditions on the Z accelerator using external field coils to magnetize the fuel before compression. We present a novel concept (AutoMag), which uses a composite liner with helical conduction paths separated by insulating material to provide fuel magnetization from the early part of the drive current, which by design rises slowly enough to avoid electrical breakdown of the insulators. Once the magnetization field is established, the drive current rises more quickly, which causes the insulators to break down allowing the drive current to follow an axial path andmore » implode the liner in the conventional z-pinch manner. There are two important advantages to AutoMag over external field coils for the operation of MagLIF. Low inductance magnetically insulated power feeds can be used to increase the drive current, and AutoMag does not interfere with diagnostic access. Also, AutoMag enables a pathway to energy applications for MagLIF, since expensive field coils will not be damaged each shot. Finally, it should be possible to generate Field Reversed Configurations (FRC) by using both external field coils and AutoMag in opposite polarities. This would provide a means to studying FRC liner implosions on the 100 ns time scale.« less

  1. Z-Pinch Plasma Neutron Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-24

    deuterium into 9 to 14 keV (around 10 keV), which is well in the fusion energy range we are interested in. To make plasma radiation sources work, we...showing the 1-D dynamics of the pinch plasma implosion, temperature, fusion energy production and deposition for the conditions of shot Z1422. The minimum...histories of ion and electron temperatures, fusion energy production and energy deposition in ID RMHD run modeling deuterium shot Z1422. In our simulations

  2. Stretched Inertial Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghabache, Elisabeth; Antkowiak, Arnaud; Seon, Thomas; Villermaux, Emmanuel

    2015-11-01

    Liquid jets often arise as short-lived bursting liquid flows. Cavitation or impact-driven jets, bursting champagne bubbles, shaped-charge jets, ballistospores or drop-on-demand inkjet printing are a few examples where liquid jets are suddenly released. The trademark of all these discharge jets is the property of being stretched, due to the quenching injection. the present theoretical and experimental investigation, the structure of the jet flow field will be unraveled experimentally for a few emblematic occurrences of discharge jets. Though the injection markedly depends on each flow configuration, the jet velocity field will be shown to be systematically and rapidly attracted to the universal stretching flow z/t. The emergence of this inertial attractor actually only relies on simple kinematic ingredients, and as such is fairly generic. The universality of the jet velocity structure will be discussed.

  3. Inertial navigation without accelerometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehm, M.

    The Kennedy-Thorndike (1932) experiment points to the feasibility of fiber-optic inertial velocimeters, to which state-of-the-art technology could furnish substantial sensitivity and accuracy improvements. Velocimeters of this type would obviate the use of both gyros and accelerometers, and allow inertial navigation to be conducted together with vehicle attitude control, through the derivation of rotation rates from the ratios of the three possible velocimeter pairs. An inertial navigator and reference system based on this approach would probably have both fewer components and simpler algorithms, due to the obviation of the first level of integration in classic inertial navigators.

  4. Magneto-Inertial Fusion

    DOE PAGES

    Wurden, G. A.; Hsu, S. C.; Intrator, T. P.; ...

    2015-11-17

    In this community white paper, we describe an approach to achieving fusion which employs a hybrid of elements from the traditional magnetic and inertial fusion concepts, called magneto-inertial fusion (MIF). Furthermore, the status of MIF research in North America at multiple institutions is summarized including recent progress, research opportunities, and future plans.

  5. A Smartphone Inertial Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrera-Garrido, Azael

    2017-01-01

    In order to measure the mass of an object in the absence of gravity, one useful tool for many decades has been the inertial balance. One of the simplest forms of inertial balance is made by two mass holders or pans joined together with two stiff metal plates, which act as springs.

  6. Inertial confinement fusion ablator physics experiments on Saturn and Nova

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, R.E.; Porter, J.L.; Chandler, G.A.

    1997-05-01

    The Saturn pulsed power accelerator [R. B. Spielman {ital et al.}, in {ital Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Dense} Z-{ital pinches}, Laguna Beach, CA, 1989, edited by N. R. Pereira, J. Davis, and N. Rostoker (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1989), p. 3] at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Nova laser [J. T. Hunt and D. R. Speck, Opt. Eng. {bold 28}, 461 (1989)] at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have been used to explore techniques for studying the behavior of ablator material in x-ray radiation environments comparable in magnitude, spectrum, and duration to those thatmore » would be experienced in National Ignition Facility (NIF) hohlraums [J. D. Lindl, Phys. Plasmas {bold 2}, 3933 (1995)]. The large x-ray outputs available from the Saturn pulsed-power-driven z pinch have enabled us to drive hohlraums of full NIF ignition scale size at radiation temperatures and time scales comparable to those required for the low-power foot pulse of an ignition capsule. The high-intensity drives available in the Nova laser have allowed us to study capsule ablator physics in smaller-scale hohlraums at radiation temperatures and time scales relevant to the peak power pulse for an ignition capsule. Taken together, these experiments have pointed the way to possible techniques for testing radiation-hydrodynamics code predictions of radiation flow, opacity, equation of state, and ablator shock velocity over the range of radiation environments that will be encountered in a NIF hohlraum. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}« less

  7. Axial magnetic field injection in magnetized liner inertial fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourdain, P.-A.; Adams, M. B.; Davies, J. R.; Seyler, C. E.

    2017-10-01

    MagLIF is a fusion concept using a Z-pinch implosion to reach thermonuclear fusion. In current experiments, the implosion is driven by the Z-machine using 19 MA of electrical current with a rise time of 100 ns. MagLIF requires an initial axial magnetic field of 30 T to reduce heat losses to the liner wall during compression and to confine alpha particles during fusion burn. This field is generated well before the current ramp starts and needs to penetrate the transmission lines of the pulsed-power generator, as well as the liner itself. Consequently, the axial field rise time must exceed hundreds of microseconds. Any coil capable of being submitted to such a field for that length of time is inevitably bulky. The space required to fit the coil near the liner, increases the inductance of the load. In turn, the total current delivered to the load decreases since the voltage is limited by driver design. Yet, the large amount of current provided by the Z-machine can be used to produce the required 30 T field by tilting the return current posts surrounding the liner, eliminating the need for a separate coil. However, the problem now is the field penetration time, across the liner wall. This paper discusses why skin effect arguments do not hold in the presence of resistivity gradients. Numerical simulations show that fields larger than 30 T can diffuse across the liner wall in less than 60 ns, demonstrating that external coils can be replaced by return current posts with optimal helicity.

  8. A new time and space resolved transmission spectrometer for research in inertial confinement fusion and radiation source development.

    PubMed

    Knapp, P F; Ball, C; Austin, K; Hansen, S B; Kernaghan, M D; Lake, P W; Ampleford, D J; McPherson, L A; Sandoval, D; Gard, P; Wu, M; Bourdon, C; Rochau, G A; McBride, R D; Sinars, D B

    2017-01-01

    We describe the design and function of a new time and space resolved x-ray spectrometer for use in Z-pinch inertial confinement fusion and radiation source development experiments. The spectrometer is designed to measure x-rays in the range of 0.5-1.5 Å (8-25 keV) with a spectral resolution λ/Δλ ∼ 400. The purpose of this spectrometer is to measure the time- and one-dimensional space-dependent electron temperature and density during stagnation. These relatively high photon energies are required to escape the dense plasma created at stagnation and to obtain sensitivity to electron temperatures ≳3 keV. The spectrometer is of the Cauchois type, employing a large 30 × 36 mm 2 , transmissive quartz optic for which a novel solid beryllium holder was designed. The performance of the crystal was verified using offline tests, and the integrated system was tested using experiments on the Z pulsed power accelerator.

  9. Dragging of inertial frames.

    PubMed

    Ciufolini, Ignazio

    2007-09-06

    The origin of inertia has intrigued scientists and philosophers for centuries. Inertial frames of reference permeate our daily life. The inertial and centrifugal forces, such as the pull and push that we feel when our vehicle accelerates, brakes and turns, arise because of changes in velocity relative to uniformly moving inertial frames. A classical interpretation ascribed these forces to acceleration relative to some absolute frame independent of the cosmological matter, whereas an opposite view related them to acceleration relative to all the masses and 'fixed stars' in the Universe. An echo and partial realization of the latter idea can be found in Einstein's general theory of relativity, which predicts that a spinning mass will 'drag' inertial frames along with it. Here I review the recent measurements of frame dragging using satellites orbiting Earth.

  10. Laser interferometry of radiation driven gas jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, Kyle James; Ivanov, Vladimir; Mancini, Roberto; Mayes, Daniel C.

    2017-06-01

    In a series of experiments performed at the 1MA Zebra pulsed power accelerator of the Nevada Terawatt Facility nitrogen gas jets were driven with the broadband x-ray flux produced during the collapse of a wire-array z-pinch implosion. The wire arrays were comprised of 4 and 8, 10μm-thick gold wires and 17μm-thick nickel wires, 2cm and 3cm tall, and 0.3cm in diameter. They radiated 12kJ to 16kJ of x-ray energy, most of it in soft x-ray photons of less than 1keV of energy, in a time interval of 30ns. This x-ray flux was used to drive a nitrogen gas jet located at 0.8cm from the axis of the z-pinch radiation source and produced with a supersonic nozzle. The x-ray flux ionizes the nitrogen gas thus turning it into a photoionized plasma. We used laser interferometry to probe the ionization of the plasma. To this end, a Mach-Zehnder interferometer at the wavelength of 266 nm was set up to extract the atom number density profile of the gas jet just before the Zebra shot, and air-wedge interferometers at 266 and 532 nm were used to determine the electron number density of the plasma right during the Zebra shot. The ratio of electron to atom number densities gives the distribution of average ionization state of the plasma. A python code was developed to perform the image data processing, extract phase shift spatial maps, and obtain the atom and electron number densities via Abel inversion. Preliminary results from the experiment are promising and do show that a plasma has been created in the gas jet driven by the x-ray flux, thus demonstrating the feasibility of a new experimental platform to study photoionized plasmas in the laboratory. These plasmas are found in astrophysical scenarios including x-ray binaries, active galactic nuclei, and the accretion disks surrounding black holes1. This work was sponsored in part by DOE Office of Science Grant DE-SC0014451.1R. C. Mancini et al, Phys. Plasmas 16, 041001 (2009)

  11. Micromachined Fluid Inertial Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shiqiang; Zhu, Rong

    2017-01-01

    Micromachined fluid inertial sensors are an important class of inertial sensors, which mainly includes thermal accelerometers and fluid gyroscopes, which have now been developed since the end of the last century for about 20 years. Compared with conventional silicon or quartz inertial sensors, the fluid inertial sensors use a fluid instead of a solid proof mass as the moving and sensitive element, and thus offer advantages of simple structures, low cost, high shock resistance, and large measurement ranges while the sensitivity and bandwidth are not competitive. Many studies and various designs have been reported in the past two decades. This review firstly introduces the working principles of fluid inertial sensors, followed by the relevant research developments. The micromachined thermal accelerometers based on thermal convection have developed maturely and become commercialized. However, the micromachined fluid gyroscopes, which are based on jet flow or thermal flow, are less mature. The key issues and technologies of the thermal accelerometers, mainly including bandwidth, temperature compensation, monolithic integration of tri-axis accelerometers and strategies for high production yields are also summarized and discussed. For the micromachined fluid gyroscopes, improving integration and sensitivity, reducing thermal errors and cross coupling errors are the issues of most concern. PMID:28216569

  12. The Inertial Property of Approximately Inertial Frames of Reference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chubykalo, Andrew E.; Espinoza, Augusto; Kosyakov, B. P.

    2011-01-01

    Is it possible to compare approximately inertial frames in the inertial property? If this is the case, the inertial property becomes a measurable quantity. We give a positive answer to this question, and discuss the general principle of design of devices for making the required measurements. This paper is intended for advanced undergraduate and…

  13. Magnetic Inertial Confinement Fusion (MICF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Feng; Zheng, Xianjun; Deng, Baiquan; Liu, Wei; Ou, Wei; Huang, Yi

    2016-11-01

    Based on the similarity in models of the early Sun and the 3-D common focal region of the micro-pinch in X-pinch experiments, a novel hybrid fusion configuration by continuous focusing of multiple Z-pinched plasma beams on spatially symmetric plasma is proposed. By replacing gravity with Lorentz force with subsequent centripetal spherical pinch, the beam-target fusion reactivity is enhanced in a quasi-spherical converging region, thus achieving MICF. An assessment, presented here, suggests that a practical fusion power source could be achieved using deuterium alone. Plasma instabilities can be suppressed by fast rotation resulting from an asymmetric tangential torsion in the spherical focal region of this configuration. Mathematical equivalence with the Sun allows the development of appropriate equations for the focal region of MICF, which are solved numerically to provide density, temperature and pressure distributions that produce net fusion energy output. An analysis of MICF physics and a preliminary experimental demonstration of a single beam are also carried out. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11374217 and 11176020)

  14. Inertial Navigation Sensors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Characterization Solutions Enabled by Laser Doppler Vibrometer Measurements, Proc. SPIE, Fifth International Conference on Vibration Measurements by Laser ...commercial capabilities: Ring Laser Gyros, Fiber Optic Gyros, and Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) gyros and accelerometers. RLGs and FOGs are now...augmentation sensors have been tied into the inertial systems; e.g., GPS, velocity meters, seekers, star trackers, magnetometers, lidar , etc. The

  15. Work and Inertial Frames

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Richard

    2017-01-01

    A fairly recent paper resolves a large discrepancy in the internal energy utilized to fire a cannon as calculated by two inertial observers. Earth and its small reaction velocity must be considered in the system so that the change in kinetic energy is calculated correctly. This paper uses a car in a similar scenario, but considers the work done by…

  16. Elasto-inertial turbulence

    PubMed Central

    Samanta, Devranjan; Dubief, Yves; Holzner, Markus; Schäfer, Christof; Morozov, Alexander N.; Wagner, Christian; Hof, Björn

    2013-01-01

    Turbulence is ubiquitous in nature, yet even for the case of ordinary Newtonian fluids like water, our understanding of this phenomenon is limited. Many liquids of practical importance are more complicated (e.g., blood, polymer melts, paints), however; they exhibit elastic as well as viscous characteristics, and the relation between stress and strain is nonlinear. We demonstrate here for a model system of such complex fluids that at high shear rates, turbulence is not simply modified as previously believed but is suppressed and replaced by a different type of disordered motion, elasto-inertial turbulence. Elasto-inertial turbulence is found to occur at much lower Reynolds numbers than Newtonian turbulence, and the dynamical properties differ significantly. The friction scaling observed coincides with the so-called “maximum drag reduction” asymptote, which is exhibited by a wide range of viscoelastic fluids. PMID:23757498

  17. Elasto-inertial turbulence.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Devranjan; Dubief, Yves; Holzner, Markus; Schäfer, Christof; Morozov, Alexander N; Wagner, Christian; Hof, Björn

    2013-06-25

    Turbulence is ubiquitous in nature, yet even for the case of ordinary Newtonian fluids like water, our understanding of this phenomenon is limited. Many liquids of practical importance are more complicated (e.g., blood, polymer melts, paints), however; they exhibit elastic as well as viscous characteristics, and the relation between stress and strain is nonlinear. We demonstrate here for a model system of such complex fluids that at high shear rates, turbulence is not simply modified as previously believed but is suppressed and replaced by a different type of disordered motion, elasto-inertial turbulence. Elasto-inertial turbulence is found to occur at much lower Reynolds numbers than Newtonian turbulence, and the dynamical properties differ significantly. The friction scaling observed coincides with the so-called "maximum drag reduction" asymptote, which is exhibited by a wide range of viscoelastic fluids.

  18. Work and Inertial Frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Richard

    2017-12-01

    A fairly recent paper resolves a large discrepancy in the internal energy utilized to fire a cannon as calculated by two inertial observers. Earth and its small reaction velocity must be considered in the system so that the change in kinetic energy is calculated correctly. This paper uses a car in a similar scenario, but considers the work done by forces acting over distances. An analysis of the system must include all energy interactions, including the work done on the car and especially the (negative) work done on Earth in a moving reference frame. This shows the importance of considering the force on Earth and the distance Earth travels. For calculation of work in inertial reference frames, the center of mass perspective is shown to be useful. We also consider the energy requirements to efficiently accelerate a mass among interacting masses.

  19. Microelectromechanical inertial sensor

    DOEpatents

    Okandan, Murat [Edgewood, NM; Nielson, Gregory N [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-06-26

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) inertial sensor is disclosed which can be used to sense a linear acceleration, or a Coriolis acceleration due to an angular rotation rate, or both. The MEM inertial sensor has a proof mass which is supported on a bridge extending across an opening through a substrate, with the proof mass being balanced on the bridge by a pivot, or suspended from the bridge by the pivot. The proof mass can be oscillated in a tangential direction in the plane of the substrate, with any out-of-plane movement of the proof mass in response to a sensed acceleration being optically detected using transmission gratings located about an outer edge of the proof mass to generate a diffracted light pattern which changes with the out-of-plane movement of the proof mass.

  20. Inertial Confinement fusion targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, C. D.

    1982-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets are made as simple flat discs, as hollow shells or as complicated multilayer structures. Many techniques were devised for producing the targets. Glass and metal shells are made by using drop and bubble techniques. Solid hydrogen shells are also produced by adapting old methods to the solution of modern problems. Some of these techniques, problems, and solutions are discussed. In addition, the applications of many of the techniques to fabrication of ICF targets is presented.

  1. Inertial microfluidic physics.

    PubMed

    Amini, Hamed; Lee, Wonhee; Di Carlo, Dino

    2014-08-07

    Microfluidics has experienced massive growth in the past two decades, and especially with advances in rapid prototyping researchers have explored a multitude of channel structures, fluid and particle mixtures, and integration with electrical and optical systems towards solving problems in healthcare, biological and chemical analysis, materials synthesis, and other emerging areas that can benefit from the scale, automation, or the unique physics of these systems. Inertial microfluidics, which relies on the unconventional use of fluid inertia in microfluidic platforms, is one of the emerging fields that make use of unique physical phenomena that are accessible in microscale patterned channels. Channel shapes that focus, concentrate, order, separate, transfer, and mix particles and fluids have been demonstrated, however physical underpinnings guiding these channel designs have been limited and much of the development has been based on experimentally-derived intuition. Here we aim to provide a deeper understanding of mechanisms and underlying physics in these systems which can lead to more effective and reliable designs with less iteration. To place the inertial effects into context we also discuss related fluid-induced forces present in particulate flows including forces due to non-Newtonian fluids, particle asymmetry, and particle deformability. We then highlight the inverse situation and describe the effect of the suspended particles acting on the fluid in a channel flow. Finally, we discuss the importance of structured channels, i.e. channels with boundary conditions that vary in the streamwise direction, and their potential as a means to achieve unprecedented three-dimensional control over fluid and particles in microchannels. Ultimately, we hope that an improved fundamental and quantitative understanding of inertial fluid dynamic effects can lead to unprecedented capabilities to program fluid and particle flow towards automation of biomedicine, materials

  2. Zonal flow generation in inertial confinement fusion implosions

    DOE PAGES

    Peterson, J. L.; Humbird, K. D.; Field, J. E.; ...

    2017-03-06

    A supervised machine learning algorithm trained on a multi-petabyte dataset of inertial confinement fusion simulations has identified a class of implosions that robustly achieve high yield, even in the presence of drive variations and hydrodynamic perturbations. These implosions are purposefully driven with a time-varying asymmetry, such that coherent flow generation during hotspot stagnation forces the capsule to self-organize into an ovoid, a shape that appears to be more resilient to shell perturbations than spherical designs. Here this new class of implosions, whose configurations are reminiscent of zonal flows in magnetic fusion devices, may offer a path to robust inertial fusion.

  3. Zonal flow generation in inertial confinement fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J. L.; Humbird, K. D.; Field, J. E.

    A supervised machine learning algorithm trained on a multi-petabyte dataset of inertial confinement fusion simulations has identified a class of implosions that robustly achieve high yield, even in the presence of drive variations and hydrodynamic perturbations. These implosions are purposefully driven with a time-varying asymmetry, such that coherent flow generation during hotspot stagnation forces the capsule to self-organize into an ovoid, a shape that appears to be more resilient to shell perturbations than spherical designs. Here this new class of implosions, whose configurations are reminiscent of zonal flows in magnetic fusion devices, may offer a path to robust inertial fusion.

  4. Effects of Inertial Power and Inertial Force on Bat Wings.

    PubMed

    Yin, Dongfu; Zhang, Zhisheng; Dai, Min

    2016-06-01

    The inertial power and inertial force of wings are important factors in evaluating the flight performance of native bats. Based on measurement data of wing size and motions of Eptesicus fuscus, we present a new computational bat wing model with divided fragments of skeletons and membrane. The motions of the model were verified by comparing the joint and tip trajectories with native bats. The influences of flap, sweep, elbow, wrist and digits motions, the effects of different bones and membrane of bat wing, the components on vertical, spanwise and fore-aft directions of the inertial power and force were analyzed. Our results indicate that the flap, sweep, and elbow motions contribute the main inertial power and force; the membrane occupies an important proportion of the inertial power and force; inertial power on flap direction was larger, while variations of inertial forces on different directions were not evident. These methods and results offer insights into flight dynamics in other flying animals and may contribute to the design of future robotic bats.

  5. Inertial energy storage device

    DOEpatents

    Knight, Jr., Charles E.; Kelly, James J.; Pollard, Roy E.

    1978-01-01

    The inertial energy storage device of the present invention comprises a composite ring formed of circumferentially wound resin-impregnated filament material, a flanged hollow metal hub concentrically disposed in the ring, and a plurality of discrete filament bandsets coupling the hub to the ring. Each bandset is formed of a pair of parallel bands affixed to the hub in a spaced apart relationship with the axis of rotation of the hub being disposed between the bands and with each band being in the configuration of a hoop extending about the ring along a chordal plane thereof. The bandsets are disposed in an angular relationship with one another so as to encircle the ring at spaced-apart circumferential locations while being disposed in an overlapping relationship on the flanges of the hub. The energy storage device of the present invention has the capability of substantial energy storage due to the relationship of the filament bands to the ring and the flanged hub.

  6. Inertial Mass from Spin Nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Marcus

    The inertial mass of a Fermion shows up as chiral cross-coupling in its Dirac system. No scalar term can invariantly couple left and right chirality fields; the Dirac matrices must be spin tensors of mixed chirality. We show how such tensor couplings could arise from nonlinear mixing of four spinor fields, two representing the local electron fields and two inertial spinor fields sourced in the distant masses. We thus give a model that implements Mach's principle. Following Mendel Sachs,1 we let the inertial spinors factor the moving spacetime tetrads qα(x) and bar {q}α (x) that appear in the Dirac operator. The inertial spinors do more than set the spacetime "stage;" they are players in the chiral dynamics. Specifically, we show how the massive Dirac system arises as the envelope modulation equations coupling left and right chirality electron fields on a Friedmann universe via nonlinear "spin gratings" with the inertial spinor fields. These gratings implement Penrose's "mass-scatterings," which keep the null zig-zags of the bispinor wave function confined to a timelike world tube. Local perturbations to the inertial spinor fields appear in the Dirac system as Abelian and non-Abelian vector potentials.

  7. Inertial cavitation threshold of nested microbubbles.

    PubMed

    Wallace, N; Dicker, S; Lewin, Peter; Wrenn, S P

    2015-04-01

    Cavitation of ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) promotes both beneficial and detrimental bioeffects in vivo (Radhakrishnan et al., 2013) [1]. The ability to determine the inertial cavitation threshold of UCA microbubbles has potential application in contrast imaging, development of therapeutic agents, and evaluation of localized effects on the body (Ammi et al., 2006) [2]. This study evaluates a novel UCA and its inertial cavitation behavior as determined by a home built cavitation detection system. Two 2.25 MHz transducers are placed at a 90° angle to one another where one transducer is driven by a high voltage pulser and the other transducer receives the signal from the oscillating microbubble. The sample chamber is placed in the overlap of the focal region of the two transducers where the microbubbles are exposed to a pulser signal consisting of 600 pulse trains per experiment at a pulse repetition frequency of 5 Hz where each train has four pulses of four cycles. The formulation being analyzed is comprised of an SF6 microbubble coated by a DSPC PEG-3000 monolayer nested within a poly-lactic acid (PLA) spherical shell. The effect of varying shell diameters and microbubble concentration on cavitation threshold profile for peak negative pressures ranging from 50 kPa to 2 MPa are presented and discussed in this paper. The nesting shell decreases inertial cavitation events from 97.96% for an un-nested microbubble to 19.09% for the same microbubbles nested within a 2.53 μm shell. As shell diameter decreases, the percentage of inertially cavitating microbubbles also decreases. For nesting formulations with average outer capsule diameters of 20.52, 14.95, 9.95, 5.55, 2.53, and 1.95 μm, the percentage of sample destroyed at 1 MPa was 51.02, 38.94, 33.25, 25.27, 19.09, and 5.37% respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Lightweight, Miniature Inertial Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Liang; Crassidis, Agamemnon

    2012-01-01

    A miniature, lighter-weight, and highly accurate inertial navigation system (INS) is coupled with GPS receivers to provide stable and highly accurate positioning, attitude, and inertial measurements while being subjected to highly dynamic maneuvers. In contrast to conventional methods that use extensive, groundbased, real-time tracking and control units that are expensive, large, and require excessive amounts of power to operate, this method focuses on the development of an estimator that makes use of a low-cost, miniature accelerometer array fused with traditional measurement systems and GPS. Through the use of a position tracking estimation algorithm, onboard accelerometers are numerically integrated and transformed using attitude information to obtain an estimate of position in the inertial frame. Position and velocity estimates are subject to drift due to accelerometer sensor bias and high vibration over time, and so require the integration with GPS information using a Kalman filter to provide highly accurate and reliable inertial tracking estimations. The method implemented here uses the local gravitational field vector. Upon determining the location of the local gravitational field vector relative to two consecutive sensors, the orientation of the device may then be estimated, and the attitude determined. Improved attitude estimates further enhance the inertial position estimates. The device can be powered either by batteries, or by the power source onboard its target platforms. A DB9 port provides the I/O to external systems, and the device is designed to be mounted in a waterproof case for all-weather conditions.

  9. PREFACE: The fifth International Conference on Inertial Fusion Sciences and Applications (IFSA2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azechi, Hiroshi; Hammel, Bruce; Gauthier, Jean-Claude

    2008-06-01

    by fast-ignition and related ultra-intense laser interaction. Progress in direct drive over the past few years resulted in the achievement of high-density cryogenic implosions at OMEGA. Continuous progresses in hohlraum physics gave confidence in the achievement of ignition at NIF and LMJ. Advances in Z-pinch included double-hohlraum irradiation symmetry and the PW laser beam for the Z-facility. Progress of laser material development for IFE driver was a very interesting topic of inertial fusion energy drivers, including KrF and DPSSL lasers and particle beams. Of special interest, a future session was focused on strategy of inertial fusion energy development. Laboratory tours were held in the middle of the Conference. The Laser for Fusion EXperiments (LFEX), a new high-energy petawatt laser at ILE, was one of the key attractions of IFSA 2007. 83 participants toured LFEX and GEKKO XII lasers, and 35 joined a tour of KPSA-JAEA. In parallel to the tour, the `Symposium on Academics-Industries Cooperation for Applications of High-Power Lasers' was held with more than 90 participants mostly from the industrial community. These Proceedings start with special chapters on the keynote and focus speeches and the Teller lectures. The keynotes and focus give an overview of progress in inertial fusion in Asia, North America, and Europe. The Teller lectures show the contributions of this year's two winners: Brian Thomas of AWE, UK and Kunioki Mima of ILE. The remainder of the Proceedings is divided into three parts. Part A covers the physics of inertial fusion; Part B covers laser, particle beams, and fusion technology including IFE reactors and target fabrication; and Part C covers science and technology applications such as laboratory astrophysics, laser particle acceleration, x-ray and EUV sources, and new applications of intense lasers. These parts are further divided into chapters covering specific areas of science or technology. Within each chapter the talks relevant to that

  10. Interplanetary propulsion using inertial fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orth, Charles D.; Hoffman, Nate; Murray, Kathy; Klein, Gail; Diaz, Franklin Chang

    1987-01-01

    Inertial fusion can be used to power spacecraft within the solar system and beyond. Such spacecraft have the potential for short duration manned mission performance exceeding other technologies. A study was conducted to assess the systems aspects of inertial as applied to such missions, based on the conceptual engine design of Hyde (1983). The required systems for an entirely new spacecraft design called VISTA that is based on the use of DT fuel is described. Preliminary design details are given for the power conversion and power conditioning systems for manned missions to Mars of total duration of about 100 days.

  11. Inertial measurement unit using rotatable MEMS sensors

    DOEpatents

    Kohler, Stewart M [Albuquerque, NM; Allen, James J [Albuquerque, NM

    2007-05-01

    A MEM inertial sensor (e.g. accelerometer, gyroscope) having integral rotational means for providing static and dynamic bias compensation is disclosed. A bias compensated MEM inertial sensor is described comprising a MEM inertial sense element disposed on a rotatable MEM stage. A MEM actuator drives the rotation of the stage between at least two predetermined rotational positions. Measuring and comparing the output of the MEM inertial sensor in the at least two rotational positions allows for both static and dynamic bias compensation in inertial calculations based on the sensor's output. An inertial measurement unit (IMU) comprising a plurality of independently rotatable MEM inertial sensors and methods for making bias compensated inertial measurements are disclosed.

  12. Inertial measurement unit using rotatable MEMS sensors

    DOEpatents

    Kohler, Stewart M.; Allen, James J.

    2006-06-27

    A MEM inertial sensor (e.g. accelerometer, gyroscope) having integral rotational means for providing static and dynamic bias compensation is disclosed. A bias compensated MEM inertial sensor is described comprising a MEM inertial sense element disposed on a rotatable MEM stage. A MEM actuator for drives the rotation of the stage between at least two predetermined rotational positions. Measuring and comparing the output of the MEM inertial sensor in the at least two rotational positions allows, for both static and dynamic bias compensation in inertial calculations based on the sensor's output. An inertial measurement unit (IMU) comprising a plurality of independently rotatable MEM inertial sensors and methods for making bias compensated inertial measurements are disclosed.

  13. Automated Driftmeter Fused with Inertial Navigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    6 IMU Inertial Measurement Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 SLAM Simultaneous...timing lines to remain horizontal at all times, regardless of turbulence and within 20 degrees of roll , pitch, and yaw of the aircraft. It had two...introduced in 1960 [2]. The Kalman filter algorithm has been used to merge inertial navigational data from Inertial Measurement Units ( IMU ) with

  14. Inertial Response of Wind Power Plants: A Comparison of Frequency-Based Inertial Control and Stepwise Inertial Control

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiao; Gao, Wenzhong; Wang, Jianhui

    The frequency regulation capability of a wind power plant plays an important role in enhancing frequency reliability especially in an isolated power system with high wind power penetration levels. A comparison of two types of inertial control methods, namely frequency-based inertial control (FBIC) and stepwise inertial control (SIC), is presented in this paper. Comprehensive case studies are carried out to reveal features of the different inertial control methods, simulated in a modified Western System Coordination Council (WSCC) nine-bus power grid using real-time digital simulator (RTDS) platform. The simulation results provide an insight into the inertial control methods under various scenarios.

  15. Inertial Pointing and Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, Robert (Inventor); Robbins, Fred (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An inertial pointing and control system and method for pointing to a designated target with known coordinates from a platform to provide accurate position, steering, and command information. The system continuously receives GPS signals and corrects Inertial Navigation System (INS) dead reckoning or drift errors. An INS is mounted directly on a pointing instrument rather than in a remote location on the platform for-monitoring the terrestrial position and instrument attitude. and for pointing the instrument at designated celestial targets or ground based landmarks. As a result. the pointing instrument and die INS move independently in inertial space from the platform since the INS is decoupled from the platform. Another important characteristic of the present system is that selected INS measurements are combined with predefined coordinate transformation equations and control logic algorithms under computer control in order to generate inertial pointing commands to the pointing instrument. More specifically. the computer calculates the desired instrument angles (Phi, Theta. Psi). which are then compared to the Euler angles measured by the instrument- mounted INS. and forms the pointing command error angles as a result of the compared difference.

  16. Application of Roll-Isolated Inertial Measurement Units to the Instrumentation of Spinning Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    BEADER,MARK E.

    Roll-isolated inertial measurement units are developed at Sandia for use in the instrumentation, guidance, and control of rapidly spinning vehicles. Roll-isolation is accomplished by supporting the inertial instrument cluster (gyros and accelerometers) on a single gimbal, the axis of which is parallel to the vehicle's spin axis. A rotary motor on the gimbal is driven by a servo loop to null the roll gyro output, thus inertially stabilizing the gimbal and instrument cluster while the vehicle spins around it. Roll-isolation prevents saturation of the roll gyro by the high vehicle spin rate, and vastly reduces measurement errors arising from gyromore » scale factor and alignment uncertainties. Nine versions of Sandia-developed roll-isolated inertial measurement units have been flown on a total of 27 flight tests since 1972.« less

  17. Nonlinear Laser-Plasma Interaction in Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion

    DOE PAGES

    Geissel, Matthias; Awe, Thomas James; Bliss, David E.; ...

    2016-03-04

    Sandia National Laboratories is pursuing a variation of Magneto-Inertial Fusion called Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion, or MagLIF. The MagLIF approach requires magnetization of the deuterium fuel, which is accomplished by an initial external B-Field and laser-driven pre-heat. Although magnetization is crucial to the concept, it is challenging to couple sufficient energy to the fuel, since laser-plasma instabilities exist, and a compromise between laser spot size, laser entrance window thickness, and fuel density must be found. Ultimately, nonlinear processes in laser plasma interaction, or laser-plasma instabilities (LPI), complicate the deposition of laser energy by enhanced absorption, backscatter, filamentation and beam-spray. Wemore » determine and discuss key LPI processes and mitigation methods. Results with and without improvement measures are presented.« less

  18. Nonlinear Laser-Plasma Interaction in Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Geissel, Matthias; Awe, Thomas James; Bliss, David E.

    Sandia National Laboratories is pursuing a variation of Magneto-Inertial Fusion called Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion, or MagLIF. The MagLIF approach requires magnetization of the deuterium fuel, which is accomplished by an initial external B-Field and laser-driven pre-heat. Although magnetization is crucial to the concept, it is challenging to couple sufficient energy to the fuel, since laser-plasma instabilities exist, and a compromise between laser spot size, laser entrance window thickness, and fuel density must be found. Ultimately, nonlinear processes in laser plasma interaction, or laser-plasma instabilities (LPI), complicate the deposition of laser energy by enhanced absorption, backscatter, filamentation and beam-spray. Wemore » determine and discuss key LPI processes and mitigation methods. Results with and without improvement measures are presented.« less

  19. BOW SHOCK FRAGMENTATION DRIVEN BY A THERMAL INSTABILITY IN LABORATORY ASTROPHYSICS EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Lebedev, S. V.; Pickworth, L. A.

    The role of radiative cooling during the evolution of a bow shock was studied in laboratory-astrophysics experiments that are scalable to bow shocks present in jets from young stellar objects. The laboratory bow shock is formed during the collision of two counterstreaming, supersonic plasma jets produced by an opposing pair of radial foil Z-pinches driven by the current pulse from the MAGPIE pulsed-power generator. The jets have different flow velocities in the laboratory frame, and the experiments are driven over many times the characteristic cooling timescale. The initially smooth bow shock rapidly develops small-scale nonuniformities over temporal and spatial scalesmore » that are consistent with a thermal instability triggered by strong radiative cooling in the shock. The growth of these perturbations eventually results in a global fragmentation of the bow shock front. The formation of a thermal instability is supported by analysis of the plasma cooling function calculated for the experimental conditions with the radiative packages ABAKO/RAPCAL.« less

  20. Interplanetary propulsion using inertial fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orth, C. D.; Hogan, W. J.; Hoffman, N.; Murray, K.; Klein, G.; Diaz, F. C.

    1987-01-01

    Inertial fusion can be used to power spacecraft within the solar system and beyond. Such spacecraft have the potential for short-duration manned-mission performance exceeding other technologies. We are conducting a study to assess the systems aspects of inertial fusion as applied to such missions, based on the conceptual engine design of Hyde (1983) we describe the required systems for an entirely new spacecraft design called VISTA that is based on the use of DT fuel. We give preliminary design details for the power conversion and power conditioning systems for manned missions to Mars of total duration of about 100 days. Specific mission performance results will be published elsewhere, after the study has been completed.

  1. Integrated inertial stellar attitude sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, Tye M. (Inventor); Kourepenis, Anthony S. (Inventor); Wyman, Jr., William F. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    An integrated inertial stellar attitude sensor for an aerospace vehicle includes a star camera system, a gyroscope system, a controller system for synchronously integrating an output of said star camera system and an output of said gyroscope system into a stream of data, and a flight computer responsive to said stream of data for determining from the star camera system output and the gyroscope system output the attitude of the aerospace vehicle.

  2. Ion beam inertial confinement target

    DOEpatents

    Bangerter, Roger O.; Meeker, Donald J.

    1985-01-01

    A target for implosion by ion beams composed of a spherical shell of frozen DT surrounded by a low-density, low-Z pusher shell seeded with high-Z material, and a high-density tamper shell. The target has various applications in the inertial confinement technology. For certain applications, if desired, a low-density absorber shell may be positioned intermediate the pusher and tamper shells.

  3. Inertial objects in complex flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syed, Rayhan; Ho, George; Cavas, Samuel; Bao, Jialun; Yecko, Philip

    2017-11-01

    Chaotic Advection and Finite Time Lyapunov Exponents both describe stirring and transport in complex and time-dependent flows, but FTLE analysis has been largely limited to either purely kinematic flow models or high Reynolds number flow field data. The neglect of dynamic effects in FTLE and Lagrangian Coherent Structure studies has stymied detailed information about the role of pressure, Coriolis effects and object inertia. We present results of laboratory and numerical experiments on time-dependent and multi-gyre Stokes flows. In the lab, a time-dependent effectively two-dimensional low Re flow is used to distinguish transport properties of passive tracer from those of small paramagnetic spheres. Companion results of FTLE calculations for inertial particles in a time-dependent multi-gyre flow are presented, illustrating the critical roles of density, Stokes number and Coriolis forces on their transport. Results of Direct Numerical Simulations of fully resolved inertial objects (spheroids) immersed in a three dimensional (ABC) flow show the role of shape and finite size in inertial transport at small finite Re. We acknowledge support of NSF DMS-1418956.

  4. Apparatus for producing cryogenic inertially driven fusion targets

    DOEpatents

    Miller, John R.

    1981-01-01

    A new technique for producing uniform layers of solid DT on microballoon surfaces. Local heating of the target, typically by means of a focused laser, within an isothermal freezing cell containing a low pressure cryogenic exchange gas such as helium, vaporizes the DT fuel contained within the microballoon. Removal of the laser heating source causes the DT gas to rapidly condense and freeze in a layer which exhibits a good degree of uniformity.

  5. Methods and apparatus for producing cryogenic inertially driven fusion targets

    DOEpatents

    Miller, John R.

    1981-01-01

    A new technique for producing uniform layers of solid DT on microballoon surfaces. Local heating of the target, typically by means of a focused laser, within an isothermal freezing cell containing a low pressure cryogenic exchange gas such as helium, vaporizes the DT fuel. Removal of the laser heating source causes the DT gas to rapidly condense and freeze in a layer which exhibits a good degree of uniformity.

  6. One-dimensional model of inertial pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornilovitch, Pavel E.; Govyadinov, Alexander N.; Markel, David P.; Torniainen, Erik D.

    2013-02-01

    A one-dimensional model of inertial pumping is introduced and solved. The pump is driven by a high-pressure vapor bubble generated by a microheater positioned asymmetrically in a microchannel. The bubble is approximated as a short-term impulse delivered to the two fluidic columns inside the channel. Fluid dynamics is described by a Newton-like equation with a variable mass, but without the mass derivative term. Because of smaller inertia, the short column refills the channel faster and accumulates a larger mechanical momentum. After bubble collapse the total fluid momentum is nonzero, resulting in a net flow. Two different versions of the model are analyzed in detail, analytically and numerically. In the symmetrical model, the pressure at the channel-reservoir connection plane is assumed constant, whereas in the asymmetrical model it is reduced by a Bernoulli term. For low and intermediate vapor bubble pressures, both models predict the existence of an optimal microheater location. The predicted net flow in the asymmetrical model is smaller by a factor of about 2. For unphysically large vapor pressures, the asymmetrical model predicts saturation of the effect, while in the symmetrical model net flow increases indefinitely. Pumping is reduced by nonzero viscosity, but to a different degree depending on the microheater location.

  7. One-dimensional model of inertial pumping.

    PubMed

    Kornilovitch, Pavel E; Govyadinov, Alexander N; Markel, David P; Torniainen, Erik D

    2013-02-01

    A one-dimensional model of inertial pumping is introduced and solved. The pump is driven by a high-pressure vapor bubble generated by a microheater positioned asymmetrically in a microchannel. The bubble is approximated as a short-term impulse delivered to the two fluidic columns inside the channel. Fluid dynamics is described by a Newton-like equation with a variable mass, but without the mass derivative term. Because of smaller inertia, the short column refills the channel faster and accumulates a larger mechanical momentum. After bubble collapse the total fluid momentum is nonzero, resulting in a net flow. Two different versions of the model are analyzed in detail, analytically and numerically. In the symmetrical model, the pressure at the channel-reservoir connection plane is assumed constant, whereas in the asymmetrical model it is reduced by a Bernoulli term. For low and intermediate vapor bubble pressures, both models predict the existence of an optimal microheater location. The predicted net flow in the asymmetrical model is smaller by a factor of about 2. For unphysically large vapor pressures, the asymmetrical model predicts saturation of the effect, while in the symmetrical model net flow increases indefinitely. Pumping is reduced by nonzero viscosity, but to a different degree depending on the microheater location.

  8. Inertial Effects in Suspension Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    J. F. Brady; Subramanian, G.

    2000-01-01

    The present work analyses the dynamics of a suspension of heavy particles in shear flow. The magnitude of the particle inertia is given by the Stokes number St = m(gamma/6(pi)a, which is the ratio of the viscous relaxation time of a particle tau(sub p) = m=6pi(eta)a to the flow time gamma(sup -1). Here, m is the mass of the particle, a is its size, eta is the viscosity of the suspending fluid and gamma is the shear rate. The ratio of the Stokes number to the Reynolds number, Re = (rho)f(gamma)a(exp 2)/eta, is the density ratio rho(sub p)/rho(sub f). Of interest is to understand the separate roles of particle (St) and fluid (Re) inertia in the dynamics of suspensions. In this study we focus on heavy particles, rho(sub p)/rho(sub f) much greater than 1, for which the Stokes number is finite, but the Reynolds number is sufficiently small for inertial forces in the fluid to be neglected; thus, the fluid motion is governed by the Stokes equations. On the other hand, the probability density governing the statistics of the suspended particles satisfies a Fokker-Planck equation that accounts for both configuration and momentum coordinates, the latter being essential for finite St. The solution of the Fokker-Planck equation is obtained to O(St) via a Chapman-Enskog type-procedure, and the conditional velocity distribution so obtained is used to derive a configuration-space Smoluchowski equation with inertial corrections. The inertial effects are responsible for asymmetry in the relative trajectories of two spheres in shear flow, in contrast to the well known symmetric structure in the absence of inertia. Finite St open trajectories in the plane of shear suffer a downward lateral displacement resulting from the inability of a particle of finite mass to follow the curvature of the zero-Stokes-number pathlines. In addition to the induced asymmetry, the O(St) inertial perturbation dramatically alters the nature of the near-field trajectories. The stable closed orbits (for St

  9. Inertial floaters in stratified turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sozza, A.; De Lillo, F.; Boffetta, G.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate numerically the dynamics and statistics of inertial particles transported by stratified turbulence, in the case of particle density intermediate in the average density profile of the fluid. Under these conditions, particles tend to form a thin layer around the corresponding fluid isopycnal. The thickness of the resulting layer is determined by a balance between buoyancy (which attracts the particle to the isopycnal) and inertia (which prevents them from following it exactly). By means of extensive numerical simulations, we explore the parameter space of the system and we find that in a range of parameters particles form fractal clusters within the layer.

  10. Adaptive inertial shock-absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraj, Rami; Holnicki-Szulc, Jan; Knap, Lech; Seńko, Jarosław

    2016-03-01

    This paper introduces and discusses a new concept of impact absorption by means of impact energy management and storage in dedicated rotating inertial discs. The effectiveness of the concept is demonstrated in a selected case-study involving spinning management, a recently developed novel impact-absorber. A specific control technique performed on this device is demonstrated to be the main source of significant improvement in the overall efficiency of impact damping process. The influence of various parameters on the performance of the shock-absorber is investigated. Design and manufacturing challenges and directions of further research are formulated.

  11. Inertial impaction air sampling device

    DOEpatents

    Dewhurst, Katharine H.

    1990-01-01

    An inertial impactor to be used in an air sampling device for collection of respirable size particles in ambient air which may include a graphite furnace as the impaction substrate in a small-size, portable, direct analysis structure that gives immediate results and is totally self-contained allowing for remote and/or personal sampling. The graphite furnace collects suspended particles transported through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles may be analyzed for elements, quantitatively and qualitatively, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

  12. Redundancy management of inertial systems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckern, R. A.; Musoff, H.

    1973-01-01

    The paper reviews developments in failure detection and isolation techniques applicable to gimballed and strapdown systems. It examines basic redundancy management goals of improved reliability, performance and logistic costs, and explores mechanizations available for both input and output data handling. The meaning of redundant system reliability in terms of available coverage, system MTBF, and mission time is presented and the practical hardware performance limitations of failure detection and isolation techniques are explored. Simulation results are presented illustrating implementation coverages attainable considering IMU performance models and mission detection threshold requirements. The implications of a complete GN&C redundancy management method on inertial techniques are also explored.

  13. Inertial impaction air sampling device

    DOEpatents

    Dewhurst, K.H.

    1990-05-22

    An inertial impactor is designed which is to be used in an air sampling device for collection of respirable size particles in ambient air. The device may include a graphite furnace as the impaction substrate in a small-size, portable, direct analysis structure that gives immediate results and is totally self-contained allowing for remote and/or personal sampling. The graphite furnace collects suspended particles transported through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles may be analyzed for elements, quantitatively and qualitatively, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. 3 figs.

  14. Inertial impaction air sampling device

    DOEpatents

    Dewhurst, K.H.

    1987-12-10

    An inertial impactor to be used in an air sampling device for collection of respirable size particles in ambient air which may include a graphite furnace as the impaction substrate in a small-size, portable, direct analysis structure that gives immediate results and is totally self-contained allowing for remote and/or personal sampling. The graphite furnace collects suspended particles transported through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles may be analyzed for elements, quantitatively and qualitatively, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. 3 figs.

  15. Laser-driven Mach waves for gigabar-range shock experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swift, Damian; Jenei, Amy; Coppari, Federica; Saunders, Alison; Nilsen, Joseph

    2017-06-01

    Mach reflection offers possibilities for generating planar, supported shocks at higher pressures than are practical even with laser ablation. We have studied the formation of Mach waves by algebraic solution and hydrocode simulation for drive pressures at much than reported previously, and for realistic equations of state. We predict that Mach reflection continues to occur as the drive pressure increases, and the pressure enhancement increases monotonically with drive pressure even though the ``enhancement spike'' characteristic of low-pressure Mach waves disappears. The growth angle also increases monotonically with pressure, so a higher drive pressure seems always to be an advantage. However, there are conditions where the Mach wave is perturbed by reflections. We have performed trial experiments at the Omega facility, using a laser-heated halfraum to induce a Mach wave in a polystyrene cone. Pulse length and energy limitations meant that the drive was not maintained long enough to fully support the shock, but the results indicated a Mach wave of 25-30 TPa from a drive pressure of 5-6 TPa, consistent with simulations. A similar configuration should perform well at the NIF, and a Z-pinch driven configuration may be possible. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  16. Laser-driven Mach waves for gigabar-range shock experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swift, Damian; Lazicki, Amy; Coppari, Federica; Saunders, Alison; Nilsen, Joseph

    2017-10-01

    Mach reflection offers possibilities for generating planar, supported shocks at higher pressures than are practical even with laser ablation. We have studied the formation of Mach waves by algebraic solution and hydrocode simulation for drive pressures at much than reported previously, and for realistic equations of state. We predict that Mach reflection continues to occur as the drive pressure increases, and the pressure enhancement increases monotonically with drive pressure even though the ``enhancement spike'' characteristic of low-pressure Mach waves disappears. The growth angle also increases monotonically with pressure, so a higher drive pressure seems always to be an advantage. However, there are conditions where the Mach wave is perturbed by reflections. We have performed trial experiments at the Omega facility, using a laser-heated halfraum to induce a Mach wave in a polystyrene cone. Pulse length and energy limitations meant that the drive was not maintained long enough to fully support the shock, but the results indicated a Mach wave of 25-30 TPa from a drive pressure of 5-6 TPa, consistent with simulations. A similar configuration should be tested at the NIF, and a Z-pinch driven configuration may be possible. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  17. Free-Inertial and Damped-Inertial Navigation Mechanization and Error Equations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-04-18

    AD-A014 356 FREE-INERTIAL AND DAMPED-INERTIAL NAVIGATION MECHANIZATION AND ERROR EQUATIONS Warren G. Heller Analytic Sciences Corporation Prepared...IHI IL JI -J THE ANALYTIC SCIENCES CORPORATION TR-312-1-1 FREE-INERTIAL AND DAMPED-INERTIAL NAViGATION MECHANIZATION AND ERROR EQUATIONS Ap~ril 18...PERIOO COVC/REO Fr-,- 1wer l and Dmped-Inertial Navigation Technical Mechanization and Error Equations 8/20-73 - 8/20/74 S. PjLtFORJ4djNjOjO, REPORT

  18. Scientific and technological advancements in inertial fusion energy

    DOE PAGES

    Hinkel, D. E.

    2013-09-26

    Scientific advancements in inertial fusion energy (IFE) were reported on at the IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, October 2012. Results presented transect the different ways to assemble the fuel, different scenarios for igniting the fuel, and progress in IFE technologies. The achievements of the National Ignition Campaign within the USA, using the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to indirectly drive laser fusion, have found beneficial the achievements in other IFE arenas such as directly driven laser fusion and target fabrication. Moreover, the successes at NIF have pay-off to alternative scenarios such as fast ignition, shock ignition, and heavy-ion fusion as well asmore » to directly driven laser fusion. As a result, this synergy is summarized here, and future scientific studies are detailed.« less

  19. Mechanical Energy Change in Inertial Reference Frames

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghanbari, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical energy change of a system in an inertial frame of reference equals work done by the total nonconservative force in the same frame. This relation is covariant under the Galilean transformations from inertial frame S to S', where S' moves with constant velocity relative to S. In the presence of nonconservative forces, such as normal…

  20. Fluvial experiments using inertial sensors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maniatis, Georgios; Valyrakis, Manousos; Hodge, Rebecca; Drysdale, Tim; Hoey, Trevor

    2017-04-01

    During the last four years we have announced results on the development of a smart pebble that is constructed and calibrated specifically for capturing the dynamics of coarse sediment motion in river beds, at a grain scale. In this presentation we report details of our experimental validation across a range of flow regimes. The smart pebble contains Inertial Measurements Units (IMUs), which are sensors capable of recording the inertial acceleration and the angular velocity of the rigid bodies into which they are attached. IMUs are available across a range of performance levels, with commensurate increase in size, cost and performance as one progresses from integrated-circuit devices for use in commercial applications such as gaming and mobile phones, to larger brick-sized systems sometimes found in industrial applications such as vibration monitoring and quality control, or even the rack-mount equipment used in some aerospace and navigation applications (which can go as far as to include lasers and optical components). In parallel with developments in commercial and industrial settings, geomorphologists started recently to explore means of deploying IMUs in smart pebbles. The less-expensive, chip-scale IMUs have been shown to have adequate performance for this application, as well as offering a sufficiently compact form-factor. Four prototype sensors have been developed so far, and the latest (400 g acceleration range, 50-200 Hz sampling frequency) has been tested in fluvial laboratory experiments. We present results from three different experimental regimes designed for the evaluation of this sensor: a) an entrainment threshold experiment ; b) a bed impact experiment ; and c) a rolling experiment. All experiments used a 100 mm spherical sensor, and set a) were repeated using an equivalent size elliptical sensor. The experiments were conducted in the fluvial laboratory of the University of Glasgow (0.9 m wide flume) under different hydraulic conditions. The use of

  1. Multishell inertial confinement fusion target

    DOEpatents

    Holland, James R.; Del Vecchio, Robert M.

    1984-01-01

    A method of fabricating multishell fuel targets for inertial confinement fusion usage. Sacrificial hemispherical molds encapsulate a concentric fuel pellet which is positioned by fiber nets stretched tautly across each hemispherical mold section. The fiber ends of the net protrude outwardly beyond the mold surfaces. The joint between the sacrificial hemispheres is smoothed. A ceramic or glass cover is then deposited about the finished mold surfaces to produce an inner spherical surface having continuously smooth surface configuration. The sacrificial mold is removed by gaseous reaction accomplished through the porous ceramic cover prior to enclosing of the outer sphere by addition of an outer coating. The multishell target comprises the inner fuel pellet concentrically arranged within a surrounding coated cover or shell by fiber nets imbedded within the cover material.

  2. Multishell inertial confinement fusion target

    DOEpatents

    Holland, James R.; Del Vecchio, Robert M.

    1987-01-01

    A method of fabricating multishell fuel targets for inertial confinement fusion usage. Sacrificial hemispherical molds encapsulate a concentric fuel pellet which is positioned by fiber nets stretched tautly across each hemispherical mold section. The fiber ends of the net protrude outwardly beyond the mold surfaces. The joint between the sacrificial hemispheres is smoothed. A ceramic or glass cover is then deposited about the finished mold surfaces to produce an inner spherical surface having continuously smooth surface configuration. The sacrificial mold is removed by gaseous reactions accomplished through the porous ceramic cover prior to enclosing of the outer sphere by addition of an outer coating. The multishell target comprises the inner fuel pellet concentrically arranged within a surrounding coated cover or shell by fiber nets imbedded within the cover material.

  3. Delta launch vehicle inertial guidance system (DIGS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duck, K. I.

    1973-01-01

    The Delta inertial guidance system, part of the Delta launch vehicle improvement effort, has been flown on three launches and was found to perform as expected for a variety of mission profiles and vehicle configurations.

  4. Inertial modes in a rotating triaxial ellipsoid

    PubMed Central

    Vantieghem, S.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we present an algorithm that enables computation of inertial modes and their corresponding frequencies in a rotating triaxial ellipsoid. The method consists of projecting the inertial mode equation onto finite-dimensional bases of polynomial vector fields. It is shown that this leads to a well-posed eigenvalue problem, and hence, that eigenmodes are of polynomial form. Furthermore, these results shed new light onto the question whether the eigenmodes form a complete basis, i.e. whether any arbitrary velocity field can be expanded in a sum of inertial modes. Finally, we prove that two intriguing integral properties of inertial modes in rotating spheres and spheroids also extend to triaxial ellipsoids. PMID:25104908

  5. Inertial effects in suspension dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, Ganesh

    2002-04-01

    This work analyses the role of small but finite particle inertia on the microstructure of suspensions of heavy particles subjected to an external flow. The magnitude of particle inertia is characterized by the Stokes number (St), defined as the ratio of the inertial relaxation time of a particle to the flow time scale. Fluid inertia is neglected so that the fluid motion satisfies the quasi-steady Stokes equations. The statistics of the particles is governed by a Fokker-Planck equation in position and velocity space. For small St, a multiple scales formalism is developed to solve for the phase-space probability density of a single spherical Brownian particle in a linear flow. Though valid for an arbitrary flow field, the method fails for a spatially varying mass and drag coefficient. In all cases, however, a Chapman-Enskog-like formulation provides a valid multi-scale description of the dynamics both for a single Brownian particle and a suspension of interacting particles. For long times, the leading order solution simplifies to the product of a local Maxwellian in velocity space and a spatial density satisfying the Smoluchowski equation. The higher order corrections capture both short-time momentum relaxations and long-time deviations from the Maxwellian. The inertially corrected Smoluchowski equation includes a non-Fickian term at O( St). The pair problem is solved to O(St) for non-Brownian spherical particles in simple shear flow. In contrast to the zero inertia case, the relative trajectories of two particles are asymmetric. Open trajectories in the plane of shear suffer a downward displacement in the velocity gradient direction. The surface of the reference sphere 'repels' nearby trajectories that spiral out onto a new stable limit cycle in the shearing plane. This limit cycle acts as a local attractor and all in-plane trajectories from an initial offset of O(St½ ) or less approach the limit cycle. The topology of the off-plane trajectories is more complicated

  6. Segregation of helicity in inertial wave packets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjan, A.

    2017-03-01

    Inertial waves are known to exist in the Earth's rapidly rotating outer core and could be important for the dynamo generation. It is well known that a monochromatic inertial plane wave traveling parallel to the rotation axis (along positive z ) has negative helicity while the wave traveling antiparallel (negative z ) has positive helicity. Such a helicity segregation, north and south of the equator, is necessary for the α2-dynamo model based on inertial waves [Davidson, Geophys. J. Int. 198, 1832 (2014), 10.1093/gji/ggu220] to work. The core is likely to contain a myriad of inertial waves of different wave numbers and frequencies. In this study, we investigate whether this characteristic of helicity segregation also holds for an inertial wave packet comprising waves with the same sign of Cg ,z, the z component of group velocity. We first derive the polarization relations for inertial waves and subsequently derive the resultant helicity in wave packets forming as a result of superposition of two or more waves. We find that the helicity segregation does hold for an inertial wave packet unless the wave numbers of the constituent waves are widely separated. In the latter case, regions of opposite color helicity do appear, but the mean helicity retains the expected sign. An illustration of this observation is provided by (a) calculating the resultant helicity for a wave packet formed by superposition of four upward-propagating inertial waves with different wave vectors and (b) conducting the direct numerical simulation of a Gaussian eddy under rapid rotation. Last, the possible effects of other forces such as the viscous dissipation, the Lorentz force, buoyancy stratification, and nonlinearity on helicity are investigated and discussed. The helical structure of the wave packet is likely to remain unaffected by dissipation or the magnetic field, but can be modified by the presence of linearly stable stratification and nonlinearity.

  7. Robot vibration control using inertial damping forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Soo Han; Book, Wayne J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper concerns the suppression of the vibration of a large flexible robot by inertial forces of a small robot which is located at the tip of the large robot. A controller for generating damping forces to a large robot is designed based on the two time scale model. The controller does not need to calculate the quasi-steady variables and is efficient in computation. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the inertial forces and the controller designed.

  8. Robot vibration control using inertial damping forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Soo Han; Book, Wayne J.

    1989-01-01

    The suppression is examined of the vibration of a large flexible robot by inertial forces of a small robot which is located at the tip of the large robot. A controller for generating damping forces to a large robot is designed based on the two time scale mode. The controller does not need to calculate the quasi-steady state variables and is efficient in computation. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the inertial forces and the controller designed.

  9. Wellbore inertial directional surveying system

    DOEpatents

    Andreas, R.D.; Heck, G.M.; Kohler, S.M.; Watts, A.C.

    1982-09-08

    A wellbore inertial directional surveying system for providing a complete directional survey of an oil or gas well borehole to determine the displacement in all three directions of the borehole path relative to the well head at the surface. The information generated by the present invention is especially useful when numerous wells are drilled to different geographical targets from a single offshore platform. Accurate knowledge of the path of the borehole allows proper well spacing and provides assurance that target formations are reached. The tool is lowered down into a borehole on an electrical cable. A computer positioned on the surface communicates with the tool via the cable. The tool contains a sensor block which is supported on a single gimbal, the rotation axis of which is aligned with the cylinder axis of the tool and, correspondingly, the borehole. The gyroscope measurement of the sensor block rotation is used in a null-seeking servo loop which essentially prevents rotation of the sensor block about the gimbal axis. Angular rates of the sensor block about axes which are perpendicular to te gimbal axis are measured by gyroscopes in a manner similar to a strapped-down arrangement. Three accelerometers provide acceleration information as the tool is lowered within the borehole. The uphole computer derives position information based upon acceleration information and angular rate information. Kalman estimation techniques are used to compensate for system errors. 25 figures.

  10. Inertial Energy Storage for Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, G. E.

    1984-01-01

    The feasibility of inertial energy storage in a spacecraft power system is evaluated on the basis of a conceptual integrated design that encompasses a composite rotor, magnetic suspension and a permanent magnet (PM) motor/generator for a 3-kW orbital average payload at a bus distribution voltage of 250 volts dc. The conceptual design, is referred to as a Mechanical Capacitor. The baseline power system configuration selected is a series system employing peak-power-tracking for a Low Earth-Orbiting application. Power processing, required in the motor/generator, provides potential alternative that can only be achieved in systems with electrochemical energy storage by the addition of power processing components. One such alternative configuration provides for peak-power-tracking of the solar array and still maintains a regulated bus, without the expense of additional power processing components. Precise speed control of the two counterrotating wheels is required to reduce interaction with the attitude control system (ACS) or alternatively, used to perform attitude control functions.

  11. Wellbore inertial directional surveying system

    DOEpatents

    Andreas, Ronald D.; Heck, G. Michael; Kohler, Stewart M.; Watts, Alfred C.

    1991-01-01

    A wellbore inertial directional surveying system for providing a complete directional survey of an oil or gas well borehole to determine the displacement in all three directions of the borehole path relative to the well head at the surface. The information generated by the present invention is especially useful when numerous wells are drilled to different geographical targets from a single off-shore platform. Accurate knowledge of the path of the borehole allows proper well spacing and provides assurance that target formations are reached. The tool is lowered down into a borehole on the electrical cable. A computer positioned on the surface communicates with the tool via the cable. The tool contains a sensor block which is supported on a single gimbal, the rotation axis of which is aligned with the cylinder axis of the tool and, correspondingly, the borehole. The gyroscope measurement of the sensor block rotation is used in a null-seeking servo loop which essentially prevents rotation of the sensor block aboutthe gimbal axis. Angular rates of the sensor block about axes which are perpendicular to the gimbal axis are measured by gyroscopes in a manner similar to a strapped-down arrangement. Three accelerometers provide acceleration information as the tool is lowered within the borehole. The uphole computer derives position information based upon acceleration information and anular rate information. Kalman estimation techniques are used to compensate for system errors.

  12. Current interruption in inductive storage systems with inertial current source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitkovitsky, I. M.; Conte, D.; Ford, R. D.; Lupton, W. H.

    1980-03-01

    Utilization of inertial current source inductive storage with high power output requires a switch with short opening time. This switch must operate as a circuit breaker, i.e., be capable to carry the current for a time period characteristic of inertial systems, such as homopolar generators. For reasonable efficiency, its opening time must be fast to minimize the energy dissipated in downstream fuse stages required for any additional pulse compression. A switch that satisfies these criteria, as well as other requirements such as that for high voltage operation associated with high power output, is an explosively driven switch consisting of large number of gaps arranged in series. The performance of this switch in limiting and/or interrupting currents produced by large generators has been studied. Single switch modules were designed and tested for limiting the commutating current output of 1 MW, 60 Hz, generator and 500 KJ capacitor banks. Current limiting and commutation were evaluated, using these sources, for currents ranging up to 0.4 MA. The explosive opening of the switch was found to provide an effective first stage for further pulse compression. It opens in tens of microseconds, commutates current at high efficiency ( = 905) recovers very rapidly over a wide range of operating conditions.

  13. Ion Fast Ignition-Establishing a Scientific Basis for Inertial Fusion Energy --- Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, Richard Burnite; Foord, Mark N.; Wei, Mingsheng

    The Fast Ignition (FI) Concept for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) has the potential to provide a significant advance in the technical attractiveness of Inertial Fusion Energy reactors. FI differs from conventional ?central hot spot? (CHS) target ignition by decoupling compression from heating: using a laser (or heavy ion beam or Z pinch) drive pulse (10?s of nanoseconds) to create a dense fuel and a second, much shorter (~10 picoseconds) high intensity pulse to ignite a small volume within the dense fuel. The compressed fuel is opaque to laser light. The ignition laser energy must be converted to a jet ofmore » energetic charged particles to deposit energy in the dense fuel. The original concept called for a spray of laser-generated hot electrons to deliver the energy; lack of ability to focus the electrons put great weight on minimizing the electron path. An alternative concept, proton-ignited FI, used those electrons as intermediaries to create a jet of protons that could be focused to the ignition spot from a more convenient distance. Our program focused on the generation and directing of the proton jet, and its transport toward the fuel, none of which were well understood at the onset of our program. We have developed new experimental platforms, diagnostic packages, computer modeling analyses, and taken advantage of the increasing energy available at laser facilities to create a self-consistent understanding of the fundamental physics underlying these issues. Our strategy was to examine the new physics emerging as we added the complexity necessary to use proton beams in an inertial fusion energy (IFE) application. From the starting point of a proton beam accelerated from a flat, isolated foil, we 1) curved it to focus the beam, 2) attached the foil to a superstructure, 3) added a side sheath to protect it from the surrounding plasma, and finally 4) studied the proton beam behavior as it passed through a protective end cap into plasma. We built up, as we

  14. Stochastic control of inertial sea wave energy converter.

    PubMed

    Raffero, Mattia; Martini, Michele; Passione, Biagio; Mattiazzo, Giuliana; Giorcelli, Ermanno; Bracco, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    The ISWEC (inertial sea wave energy converter) is presented, its control problems are stated, and an optimal control strategy is introduced. As the aim of the device is energy conversion, the mean absorbed power by ISWEC is calculated for a plane 2D irregular sea state. The response of the WEC (wave energy converter) is driven by the sea-surface elevation, which is modeled by a stationary and homogeneous zero mean Gaussian stochastic process. System equations are linearized thus simplifying the numerical model of the device. The resulting response is obtained as the output of the coupled mechanic-hydrodynamic model of the device. A stochastic suboptimal controller, derived from optimal control theory, is defined and applied to ISWEC. Results of this approach have been compared with the ones obtained with a linear spring-damper controller, highlighting the capability to obtain a higher value of mean extracted power despite higher power peaks.

  15. Stochastic Control of Inertial Sea Wave Energy Converter

    PubMed Central

    Mattiazzo, Giuliana; Giorcelli, Ermanno

    2015-01-01

    The ISWEC (inertial sea wave energy converter) is presented, its control problems are stated, and an optimal control strategy is introduced. As the aim of the device is energy conversion, the mean absorbed power by ISWEC is calculated for a plane 2D irregular sea state. The response of the WEC (wave energy converter) is driven by the sea-surface elevation, which is modeled by a stationary and homogeneous zero mean Gaussian stochastic process. System equations are linearized thus simplifying the numerical model of the device. The resulting response is obtained as the output of the coupled mechanic-hydrodynamic model of the device. A stochastic suboptimal controller, derived from optimal control theory, is defined and applied to ISWEC. Results of this approach have been compared with the ones obtained with a linear spring-damper controller, highlighting the capability to obtain a higher value of mean extracted power despite higher power peaks. PMID:25874267

  16. Inertial frictional ratchets and their load bearing efficiencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharkongor, D.; Reenbohn, W. L.; Mahato, Mangal C.

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the performance of an inertial frictional ratchet in a sinusoidal potential driven by a sinusoidal external field. The dependence of the performance on the parameters of the sinusoidally varying friction, such as the mean friction coefficient and its phase difference with the potential, is studied in detail. Interestingly, under certain circumstances, the thermodynamic efficiency of the ratchet against an applied load shows a non-monotonic behaviour as a function of the mean friction coefficient. Also, in the large friction ranges, the efficiency is shown to increase with increasing applied load even though the corresponding ratchet current decreases as the applied load increases. These counterintuitive numerical results are explained in the text.

  17. Review of Inertial Confinement Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines, M. G.

    The physics of inertial confinement fusion is reviewed. The trend to short-wavelength lasers is argued, and the distinction between direct and indirect (soft X-ray) drive is made. Key present issues include the non-linear growth of Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instabilities, the seeding of this instability by the initial laser imprint, the relevance of self-generated magnetic fields, and the importance of parametric instabilities (stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering) in gas-filled hohlraums. Experiments are reviewed which explore the R-T instability in both planar and converging geometry. The employment of various optical smoothing techniques is contrasted with the overcoating of the capsule by gold coated plastic foams to reduce considerably the imprint problem. The role of spontaneously generated magnetic fields in non-symmetric plasmas is discussed. Recent hohlraum compression results are presented together with gas bag targets which replicate the long-scale-length low density plasmas expected in NIF gas filled hohlraums. The onset of first Brillouin and then Raman scattering is observed. The fast ignitor scheme is a proposal to use an intense short pulse laser to drill a hole through the coronal plasma and then, with laser excited fast electrons, create a propagating thermonuclear spark in a dense, relatively cold laser-compressed target. Some preliminary results of laser hole drilling and 2-D and 3-D PIC simulations of this and the > 10^8 Gauss self-generated magnetic fields are presented. The proposed National Ignition Facility (NIF) is described.

  18. Theory of inertial waves in rotating fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelash, Andrey; L'vov, Victor; Zakharov, Vladimir

    2017-04-01

    The inertial waves emerge in the geophysical and astrophysical flows as a result of Earth rotation [1]. The linear theory of inertial waves is known well [2] while the influence of nonlinear effects of wave interactions are subject of many recent theoretical and experimental studies. The three-wave interactions which are allowed by inertial waves dispersion law (frequency is proportional to cosine of the angle between wave direction and axes of rotation) play an exceptional role. The recent studies on similar type of waves - internal waves, have demonstrated the possibility of formation of natural wave attractors in the ocean (see [3] and references herein). This wave focusing leads to the emergence of strong three-wave interactions and subsequent flows mixing. We believe that similar phenomena can take place for inertial waves in rotating flows. In this work we present theoretical study of three-wave and four-wave interactions for inertial waves. As the main theoretical tool we suggest the complete Hamiltonian formalism for inertial waves in rotating incompressible fluids [4]. We study three-wave decay instability and then present statistical description of inertial waves in the frame of Hamiltonian formalism. We obtain kinetic equation, anisotropic wave turbulence spectra and study the problem of parametric wave turbulence. These spectra were previously found in [5] by helicity decomposition method. Taking this into account we discuss the advantages of suggested Hamiltonian formalism and its future applications. Andrey Gelash thanks support of the RFBR (Grant No.16-31-60086 mol_a_dk) and Dr. E. Ermanyuk, Dr. I. Sibgatullin for the fruitful discussions. [1] Le Gal, P. Waves and instabilities in rotating and stratified flows, Fluid Dynamics in Physics, Engineering and Environmental Applications. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 25-40, 2013. [2] Greenspan, H. P. The theory of rotating fluids. CUP Archive, 1968. [3] Brouzet, C., Sibgatullin, I. N., Scolan, H., Ermanyuk, E

  19. Dual-use micromechanical inertial sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elwell, John M., Jr.

    1995-03-01

    A new industry, which will provide low-cost silicon-based inertial sensors to the commercial and military markets. is being created. Inertial measurement units are used extensively in military systems, and new versions are expected to find their way into commercial products, such as automobiles, as production costs fall as technology advances. An automotive inertial measurement unit can be expected to perform a complete range of control, diagnostic, and navigation functions. These functions are expected to provide significant active safety, performance, comfort, convenience, and fuel economy advantages to the automotive consumer. An inertial measurement unit applicable to the automobile industry would meet many of the performance requirements for the military in important areas, such as antenna and image stabilization, autopilot control, and the guidance of smart weapons. Such a new industrial base will significantly reduce the acquisition cost of many future tactical weapons systems. An alliance, consisting of the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory and Rockwell International, has been created to develop inertial products for this new industry.

  20. Inertial processing of vestibulo-ocular signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, B. J.; Angelaki, D. E.

    1999-01-01

    New evidence for a central resolution of gravito-inertial signals has been recently obtained by analyzing the properties of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) in response to combined lateral translations and roll tilts of the head. It is found that the VOR generates robust compensatory horizontal eye movements independent of whether or not the interaural translatory acceleration component is canceled out by a gravitational acceleration component due to simultaneous roll-tilt. This response property of the VOR depends on functional semicircular canals, suggesting that the brain uses both otolith and semicircular canal signals to estimate head motion relative to inertial space. Vestibular information about dynamic head attitude relative to gravity is the basis for computing head (and body) angular velocity relative to inertial space. Available evidence suggests that the inertial vestibular system controls both head attitude and velocity with respect to a gravity-centered reference frame. The basic computational principles underlying the inertial processing of otolith and semicircular canal afferent signals are outlined.

  1. MEMS inertial sensors with integral rotation means.

    SciTech Connect

    Kohler, Stewart M.

    The state-of-the-art of inertial micro-sensors (gyroscopes and accelerometers) has advanced to the point where they are displacing the more traditional sensors in many size, power, and/or cost-sensitive applications. A factor limiting the range of application of inertial micro-sensors has been their relatively poor bias stability. The incorporation of an integral sensitive axis rotation capability would enable bias mitigation through proven techniques such as indexing, and foster the use of inertial micro-sensors in more accuracy-sensitive applications. Fabricating the integral rotation mechanism in MEMS technology would minimize the penalties associated with incorporation of this capability, and preserve the inherent advantages of inertialmore » micro-sensors.« less

  2. INERTIAL INSTRUMENT SYSTEM FOR AERIAL SURVEYING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Russell H.; Chapman, William H.; Hanna, William F.; Mongan, Charles E.; Hursh, John W.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe an inertial guidance or navigation system that will enable use of relatively light aircraft for efficient data-gathering in geologgy, hydrology, terrain mapping, and gravity-field mapping. The instrument system capitalizes not only on virtual state-of-the-art inertial guidance technology but also on similarly advanced technology for measuring distance with electromagnetic radiating devices. The distance measurement can be made with a transceiver beamed at either a cooperative taget, with a specially designed reflecting surface, or a noncooperative target, such as the Earth's surface. The instrument system features components that use both techniques. Thus, a laser tracker device, which updates the inertial guidance unit or navigator in flight, makes distance measurements to a retroreflector target mounted at a ground-control point; a laser profiler device, beamed vertically downward, makes distance measurements to the Earth's surface along a path that roughly mirrors the aircraft flight path.

  3. Inertial Oscillations and the Galilean Transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotaev, G. K.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a general solution of shallow-water equations on the f-plane. The solution describes the generation of inertial oscillations by wind-pulse forcing over the background of currents arbitrarily changing in time and space in a homogeneous fluid. It is shown that the existence of such a complete solution of shallow-water equations on the f-plane is related to their invariance with respect to the generalized Galilean transformations. Examples of velocity hodographs of inertial oscillations developing over the background of a narrow jet are presented which explain the diversity in their forms.

  4. Inertial Range Dynamics in Boussinesq Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubinstein, Robert

    1996-01-01

    L'vov and Falkovich have shown that the dimensionally possible inertial range scaling laws for Boussinesq turbulence, Kolmogorov and Bolgiano scaling, describe steady states with constant flux of kinetic energy and of entropy respectively. These scaling laws are treated as similarity solutions of the direct interaction approximation for Boussinesq turbulence. The Kolmogorov scaling solution corresponds to a weak perturbation by gravity of a state in which the temperature is a passive scalar but in which a source of temperature fluctuations exists. Using standard inertial range balances, the renormalized viscosity and conductivity, turbulent Prandtl number, and spectral scaling law constants are computed for Bolgiano scaling.

  5. The inertial power and inertial force of robotic and natural bat wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Dongfu; Zhang, Zhisheng

    2016-03-01

    Based on the acquired length and angle data of bat skeletons, a four-degree freedom robotic bat wing and an identical computational model with flap, sweep, elbow and wrist motions were presented. By considering the digits motions, a biomimetic bat skeleton model with seven-degree freedom was established as well. The effects of frequency, amplitude and downstroke ratio, as well as the components of inertial power and force on different directions, were studied. The experimental and computational results indicated that the inertial power and force accounted for the largest part on flap direction, the wing fold during upstroke could reduce the inertial power and force.

  6. The impact of inertial navigation on air safety.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1971-05-01

    An analysis of inertial navigation system performance data was carried out to assess the probable impact of inertial navigation on the aircraft collision risk in the North Atlantic region. These data were used to calculate the collision risk between ...

  7. Z-pinch Plasma Temperature and Implosion Velocity from Laboratory Plasma Jets using Thomson Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banasek, Jacob; Byvank, Tom; Kusse, Bruce; Hammer, David

    2016-10-01

    We discuss the use of collective Thomson scattering to determine the implosion velocity and other properties of laboratory plasma jets. The plasma jet is created using a 1 MA pulsed power machine with a 15 μm Al radial foil load. The Thomson scattering laser has a maximum energy of 10 J at 526.5 nm with a pulse duration of 3 ns. Using a time gated ICCD camera and spectrometer system we are able to record the scattered spectrum from 9 or 18 regions along the laser path with sub-mm spatial resolution. Collecting scattered radiation from the same area at two different angles simultaneously enables determination of both the radial and azimuthal velocities. The scattered spectrum for non-magnetized jets indicates a radial implosion velocity of 27 km/s into the jets. A determination of ion and electron temperatures from the scattered spectrum is in progress. Comparing results using a laser energy of 10 J and 1 J shows noticeable effects on plasma jet properties when using 10 J. Therefore the lower laser energy must be used to determine the plasma properties. This research is supported by the NNSA Stewardship Sciences Academic Programs under DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-NA0001836.

  8. Measurements of high-current electron beams from X pinches and wire array Z pinches.

    PubMed

    Shelkovenko, T A; Pikuz, S A; Blesener, I C; McBride, R D; Bell, K S; Hammer, D A; Agafonov, A V; Romanova, V M; Mingaleev, A R

    2008-10-01

    Some issues concerning high-current electron beam transport from the X pinch cross point to the diagnostic system and measurements of the beam current by Faraday cups are discussed. Results of computer simulation of electron beam propagation from the pinch to the Faraday cup give limits for the measured current for beams having different energy spreads. The beam is partially neutralized as it propagates from the X pinch to a diagnostic system, but within a Faraday cup diagnostic, space charge effects can be very important. Experimental results show evidence of such effects.

  9. Larger sized wire arrays on 1.5 MA Z-pinch generator

    SciTech Connect

    Safronova, A. S., E-mail: alla@unr.edu; Kantsyrev, V. L., E-mail: alla@unr.edu; Weller, M. E., E-mail: alla@unr.edu

    Experiments on the UNR Zebra generator with Load Current Multiplier (LCM) allow for implosions of larger sized wire array loads than at standard current of 1 MA. Advantages of larger sized planar wire array implosions include enhanced energy coupling to plasmas, better diagnostic access to observable plasma regions, and more complex geometries of the wire loads. The experiments with larger sized wire arrays were performed on 1.5 MA Zebra with LCM (the anode-cathode gap was 1 cm, which is half the gap used in the standard mode). In particular, larger sized multi-planar wire arrays had two outer wire planes frommore » mid-atomic-number wires to create a global magnetic field (gmf) and plasma flow between them. A modified central plane with a few Al wires at the edges was put in the middle between outer planes to influence gmf and to create Al plasma flow in the perpendicular direction (to the outer arrays plasma flow). Such modified plane has different number of empty slots: it was increased from 6 up to 10, hence increasing the gap inside the middle plane from 4.9 to 7.7 mm, respectively. Such load configuration allows for more independent study of the flows of L-shell mid-atomic-number plasma (between the outer planes) and K-shell Al plasma (which first fills the gap between the edge wires along the middle plane) and their radiation in space and time. We demonstrate that such configuration produces higher linear radiation yield and electron temperatures as well as advantages of better diagnostics access to observable plasma regions and how the load geometry (size of the gap in the middle plane) influences K-shell Al radiation. In particular, K-shell Al radiation was delayed compared to L-shell mid-atomic-number radiation when the gap in the middle plane was large enough (when the number of empty slots was increased up to ten)« less

  10. A z-pinch photo-pumped pulsed atomic iodine laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, D. H.; Saunders, D. P.; Clark, M. C.

    1984-03-01

    A pulsed atomic iodine laser (CF3I) was designed and constructed using a coaxial xenon flash lamp as a pump source. The flash lamp was operated at low pressure to obtain pulse compression via xenon self-pinch. Electrical and optical diagnostics were performed for various xenon and CF3I pressures. Calorimeter data and burn patterns were obtained for the laser. Time-resolved spectroscopic data were taken throughout the CF3I pump band.

  11. Improvements in the EQ-10 electrodeless Z-pinch EUV source for metrology applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horne, Stephen F.; Gustafson, Deborah; Partlow, Matthew J.; Besen, Matthew M.; Smith, Donald K.; Blackborow, Paul A.

    2011-04-01

    Now that EUV lithography systems are beginning to ship into the fabs for next generation chips it is more critical that the EUV infrastructure developments are keeping pace. Energetiq Technology has been shipping the EQ-10 Electrodeless Z-pinch™ light source since 2005. The source is currently being used for metrology, mask inspection, and resist development. These applications require especially stable performance in both power and source size. Over the last 5 years Energetiq has made many source modifications which have included better thermal management as well as high pulse rate operation6. Recently we have further increased the system power handling and electrical pulse reproducibility. The impact of these modifications on source performance will be reported.

  12. Numerical simulations of Z-Pinch experiments to create supersonic differentially-rotating plasma flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocchi, M.; Ummels, B.; Chittenden, J. P.; Lebedev, S. V.

    2012-02-01

    In the context of high energy density laboratory astrophysics, we aim to produce and study a rotating plasma relevant to accretion discs physics. We devised an experimental setup based on a modified cylindrical wire array and we studied it numerically with the three-dimensional, resistive magneto-hydrodynamic code GORGON. The simulations show that a rotating plasma cylinder is formed, with typical rotation velocity ~35 km/s and Mach number ~5. In addition, the plasma ring is differentially rotating and strongly radiatively cooled. The introduction of external magnetic fields is discussed.

  13. Relaxation model for extended magnetohydrodynamics: Comparison to magnetohydrodynamics for dense Z-pinches

    DOE PAGES

    Seyler, C. E.; Martin, M. R.

    2011-01-14

    In this study, it is shown that the two-fluid model under a generalized Ohm’s law formulation and the resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) can both be described as relaxation systems. In the relaxation model, the under-resolved stiff source terms constrain the dynamics of a set of hyperbolic equations to give the correct asymptotic solution. When applied to the collisional two-fluid model, the relaxation of fast time scales associated with displacement current and finite electron mass allows for a natural transition from a system where Ohm’s law determines the current density to a system where Ohm’s law determines the electric field. This resultmore » is used to derive novel algorithms, which allow for multiscale simulation of low and high frequency extended-MHD physics. This relaxation formulation offers an efficient way to implicitly advance the Hall term and naturally simulate a plasma-vacuum interface without invoking phenomenological models. The relaxation model is implemented as an extended-MHD code, which is used to analyze pulsed power loads such as wire arrays and ablating foils. Two-dimensional simulations of pulsed power loads are compared for extended-MHD and MHD. For these simulations, it is also shown that the relaxation model properly recovers the resistive-MHD limit.« less

  14. Linear and nonlinear evolution of azimuthal clumping instabilities in a Z-pinch wire array

    DOE PAGES

    Tang, Wilkin; Strickler, T. S.; Lau, Y. Y.; ...

    2007-01-31

    This study presents an analytic theory on the linear and nonlinear evolution of the most unstable azimuthal clumping mode, known as the pi-mode, in a discrete wire array. In the pi-mode, neighboring wires of the array pair-up as a result of the mutual attraction of the wires which carry current in the same direction. The analytic solution displays two regimes, where the collective interactions of all wires dominate, versus where the interaction of the neighboring, single wire dominates. This solution was corroborated by two vastly different numerical codes which were used to simulate arrays with both high wire numbers (upmore » to 600) and low wire number (8). All solutions show that azimuthal clumping of discrete wires occurs before appreciable radial motion of the wires. Thus, absence of azimuthal clumping of wires in comparison with the wires’ radial motion may imply substantial lack of wire currents. Finally, while the present theory and simulations have ignored the plasma corona and axial variations, it is argued that their effects, and the complete account of the three-dimensional feature of the pi-mode, together with a scaling study of the wire number, may be expediently simulated by using only one single wire in an annular wedge with a reflection condition imposed on the wedge’s boundary.« less

  15. A Solvable Self-Similar Model of the Sausage Instability in a Resistive Z-Pinch

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-20

    Ithaca, NY 14853 Dr. V. Nardi Dr. John C. Riordan Stevens Institute of Technology Physics International Co. Hoboken, NJ 07803 2700 Merced Street Dr...92122 Dr. Rick B. Spielman Dr. Frank C. Young Sandia National Laboratories Naval Research Laboratory P.O. Box 5800 Code 4770.1 Albuquerque, NM 87115

  16. Spectroscopic Study of Neon Z-Pinch Plasma for Sodium-Neon Photopumping Experiments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-06

    enhancement of the 11-A radiation from the n=4 level of neon when the sodium pump was present. For the 25-GV pump power, theoretical calculations predict...when the neon plasma is photopumped. Extensive theoretical analysis has been devoted to establishing the appropriate conditions for these plasmas. 5 ,44...producing thermonuclear neutrons. 63-65 Extensive theoretical modeling of the stability of these plasmas has guided this work.66 An imploding-liner Z

  17. Staged Z-pinch for the production of high-flux neutrons and net energy

    SciTech Connect

    Wessel, Frank J.; Rahman, Hafiz Ur; Rostoker, Norman

    A fusible target is embedded in a high Z liner, ohmically heated and then shock wave heated by implosion of an enveloping high Z liner. The target is adiabatically heated by compression, fusibly ignited and charged-particle heated as it is being ignited. A shock front forms as the liner implodes which shock front detaches from the more slowly moving liner, collides with the outer surface of the target, accelerates inward, rapidly heating the target, adiabatically compressing the target and liner and amplifying the current to converge the liner mass toward a central axis thereby compressing the target to a fusionmore » condition when it begins to ignite and produce charged particles. The charged particles are trapped in a large magnetic field surrounding the target. The energy of the charged particles is deposited into the target to further heat the target to produce an energy gain.« less

  18. 40 CFR 1065.395 - Inertial PM balance verifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inertial PM balance verifications... Inertial PM balance verifications. This section describes how to verify the performance of an inertial PM balance. (a) Independent verification. Have the balance manufacturer (or a representative approved by the...

  19. 40 CFR 1065.395 - Inertial PM balance verifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Inertial PM balance verifications... Inertial PM balance verifications. This section describes how to verify the performance of an inertial PM balance. (a) Independent verification. Have the balance manufacturer (or a representative approved by the...

  20. Use of inertial properties to orient tomatoes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent theoretical and experimental results have demonstrated that it is possible to orient quasi-round objects such as apples by taking advantage of inertial-effects during rotation. In practice, an apple rolled down a track consisting of two parallel rails tends to move to an orientation where the...

  1. Inertial frames and breakthrough propulsion physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millis, Marc G.

    2017-09-01

    The term ;Breakthrough Propulsion Physics; comes from the NASA project by that name which examined non-rocket space drives, gravity control, and faster-than-light travel. The focus here is on space drives and the related unsolved physics of inertial frames. A ;space drive; is a generic term encompassing any concept for using as-yet undiscovered physics to move a spacecraft instead of existing rockets, sails, or tethers. The collective state of the art spans mostly steps 1-3 of the scientific method: defining the problem, collecting data, and forming hypotheses. The key issues include (1) conservation of momentum, (2) absence of obvious reaction mass, and (3) the net-external thrusting requirement. Relevant open problems in physics include: (1) the sources and mechanisms of inertial frames, (2) coupling of gravitation to the other fundamental forces, and (3) the nature of the quantum vacuum. Rather than following the assumption that inertial frames are an immutable, intrinsic property of space, this paper revisits Mach's Principle, where it is posited that inertia is relative to the distant surrounding matter. This perspective allows conjectures that a space drive could impart reaction forces to that matter, via some as-yet undiscovered interaction with the inertial frame properties of space. Thought experiments are offered to begin a process to derive new hypotheses. It is unknown if this line of inquiry will be fruitful, but it is hoped that, by revisiting unsolved physics from a propulsion point of view, new insights will be gained.

  2. The ideal Kolmogorov inertial range and constant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, YE

    1993-01-01

    The energy transfer statistics measured in numerically simulated flows are found to be nearly self-similar for wavenumbers in the inertial range. Using the measured self-similar form, an 'ideal' energy transfer function and the corresponding energy flux rate were deduced. From this flux rate, the Kolmogorov constant was calculated to be 1.5, in excellent agreement with experiments.

  3. Design issues for LISA inertial sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitale, Stefano; Speake, Clive

    1998-12-01

    In this paper we discuss a few design issues of the inertial sensor for LISA. These issues include the role of the stiffness and the losses that are introduced by the readout and by other parasitic sources. A possible plan for testing those effects on ground is also discussed.

  4. Near-Inertial Surface Currents and their influence on Surface Dispersion in the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico near the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gough, M.; Reniers, A.; MacMahan, J. H.; Howden, S. D.

    2014-12-01

    The continental shelf along the northeastern Gulf of Mexico is transected by the critical latitude (30°N) for inertial motions. At this latitude the inertial period is 24 hours and diurnal surface current oscillations can amplify due to resonance with diurnal wind and tidal forcing. Tidal amplitudes are relatively small in this region although K1 tidal currents can be strong over the shelf west of the DeSoto Canyon where the K1 tide propagates onshore as a Sverdrup wave. Other sources of diurnal motions include internal tidal currents, Poincaré waves, and basin resonance. It is therefore very difficult to separate inertial wind-driven motions from other diurnal motions. Spatiotemporal surface currents were measured using hourly 6 km resolution HF radar data collected in June 2010 during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill and July 2012 during the Grand Lagrangian Deployment (GLAD). Surface currents were also measured using GLAD GPS-tracked drifters. NDBC buoy wind data were used to determine wind-forcing, and OSU Tidal Inversion Software (OTIS) were used to predict tidal currents. The relative spatiotemporal influence of diurnal wind and tidal forcing on diurnal surface current oscillations is determined through a series of comparative analyses: phase and amplitude of bandpassed timeseries, wavelet analyses, wind-driven inertial oscillation calculations, and tidal current predictions. The wind-driven inertial ocean response is calculated by applying a simple "slab" model where wind-forcing is allowed to excite a layer of low-density water riding over high density water. The spatial variance of diurnal motions are found to be correlated with satellite turbidity imagery indicating that stratification influences the sea surface inertial response to wind-forcing. Surface dispersion is found to be minimized in regions of high diurnal variance suggesting that mean surface transport is restricted in regions of inertial motions associated with stratification.

  5. Inertial-confinement fusion with lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betti, R.; Hurricane, O. A.

    2016-05-01

    The quest for controlled fusion energy has been ongoing for over a half century. The demonstration of ignition and energy gain from thermonuclear fuels in the laboratory has been a major goal of fusion research for decades. Thermonuclear ignition is widely considered a milestone in the development of fusion energy, as well as a major scientific achievement with important applications in national security and basic sciences. The US is arguably the world leader in the inertial confinement approach to fusion and has invested in large facilities to pursue it, with the objective of establishing the science related to the safety and reliability of the stockpile of nuclear weapons. Although significant progress has been made in recent years, major challenges still remain in the quest for thermonuclear ignition via laser fusion. Here, we review the current state of the art in inertial confinement fusion research and describe the underlying physical principles.

  6. Internal Structure of Inertial Granular Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azéma, Emilien; Radjaï, Farhang

    2014-02-01

    We analyze inertial granular flows and show that, for all values of the inertial number I, the effective friction coefficient μ arises from three different parameters pertaining to the contact network and force transmission: (1) contact anisotropy, (2) force chain anisotropy, and (3) friction mobilization. Our extensive 3D numerical simulations reveal that μ increases with I mainly due to an increasing contact anisotropy and partially by friction mobilization whereas the anisotropy of force chains declines as a result of the destabilizing effect of particle inertia. The contact network undergoes topological transitions, and beyond I≃0.1 the force chains break into clusters immersed in a background "soup" of floating particles. We show that this transition coincides with the divergence of the size of fluidized zones characterized from the local environments of floating particles and a slower increase of μ with I.

  7. Internal structure of inertial granular flows.

    PubMed

    Azéma, Emilien; Radjaï, Farhang

    2014-02-21

    We analyze inertial granular flows and show that, for all values of the inertial number I, the effective friction coefficient μ arises from three different parameters pertaining to the contact network and force transmission: (1) contact anisotropy, (2) force chain anisotropy, and (3) friction mobilization. Our extensive 3D numerical simulations reveal that μ increases with I mainly due to an increasing contact anisotropy and partially by friction mobilization whereas the anisotropy of force chains declines as a result of the destabilizing effect of particle inertia. The contact network undergoes topological transitions, and beyond I≃0.1 the force chains break into clusters immersed in a background "soup" of floating particles. We show that this transition coincides with the divergence of the size of fluidized zones characterized from the local environments of floating particles and a slower increase of μ with I.

  8. A novel visual-inertial monocular SLAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Wenjuan; Xu, Li; Liu, JiangGuo

    2018-02-01

    With the development of sensors and computer vision research community, cameras, which are accurate, compact, wellunderstood and most importantly cheap and ubiquitous today, have gradually been at the center of robot location. Simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) using visual features, which is a system getting motion information from image acquisition equipment and rebuild the structure in unknown environment. We provide an analysis of bioinspired flights in insects, employing a novel technique based on SLAM. Then combining visual and inertial measurements to get high accuracy and robustness. we present a novel tightly-coupled Visual-Inertial Simultaneous Localization and Mapping system which get a new attempt to address two challenges which are the initialization problem and the calibration problem. experimental results and analysis show the proposed approach has a more accurate quantitative simulation of insect navigation, which can reach the positioning accuracy of centimeter level.

  9. Mechanisms for the clustering of inertial particles in the inertial range of isotropic turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Bragg, Andrew D.; Ireland, Peter J.; Collins, Lance R.

    2015-08-27

    In this study, we consider the physical mechanism for the clustering of inertial particles in the inertial range of isotropic turbulence. We analyze the exact, but unclosed, equation governing the radial distribution function (RDF) and compare the mechanisms it describes for clustering in the dissipation and inertial ranges. We demonstrate that in the limit St r <<1, where St r is the Stokes number based on the eddy turnover time scale at separation r, the clustering in the inertial range can be understood to be due to the preferential sampling of the coarse-grained fluid velocity gradient tensor at that scale.more » When St r≳O(1) this mechanism gives way to a nonlocal clustering mechanism. These findings reveal that the clustering mechanisms in the inertial range are analogous to the mechanisms that we identified for the dissipation regime. Further, we discuss the similarities and differences between the clustering mechanisms we identify in the inertial range and the “sweep-stick” mechanism developed by Coleman and Vassilicos. We show that the idea that initial particles are swept along with acceleration stagnation points is only approximately true because there always exists a finite difference between the velocity of the acceleration stagnation points and the local fluid velocity. This relative velocity is sufficient to allow particles to traverse the average distance between the stagnation points within the correlation time scale of the acceleration field. We also show that the stick part of the mechanism is only valid for St r<<1 in the inertial range. We emphasize that our clustering mechanism provides the more fundamental explanation since it, unlike the sweep-stick mechanism, is able to explain clustering in arbitrary spatially correlated velocity fields. We then consider the closed, model equation for the RDF given in Zaichik and Alipchenkov and use this, together with the results from our analysis, to predict the analytic form of the RDF in the

  10. IFE Chamber Technology - Status and Future Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W.R.; Raffray, A.R.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.

    2003-07-15

    Significant progress has been made on addressing critical issues for inertial fusion energy (IFE) chambers for heavy-ion, laser and Z-pinch drivers. A variety of chamber concepts are being investigated including drywall (currently favored for laser IFE), wetted-wall (applicable to both laser and ion drivers), and thick-liquid-wall (favored by heavy ion and z-pinch drivers). Recent progress and remaining challenges in developing IFE chambers are reviewed.

  11. Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) software analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grayson, W. L.; Nickel, C. E.; Rose, P. L.; Singh, R. P.

    1979-01-01

    The Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) System, an extension of the Space Transportation System (STS) operating regime to include higher orbits, orbital plane changes, geosynchronous orbits, and interplanetary trajectories is presented. The IUS software design, the IUS software interfaces with other systems, and the cost effectiveness in software verification are described. Tasks of the IUS discussed include: (1) design analysis; (2) validation requirements analysis; (3) interface analysis; and (4) requirements analysis.

  12. Inertial focusing of microparticles and its limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, FJ; Hooshmand Zadeh, S.; Wu, ZG; Hjort, K.

    2016-10-01

    Microfluidic devices are useful tools for healthcare, biological and chemical analysis and materials synthesis amongst fields that can benefit from the unique physics of these systems. In this paper we studied inertial focusing as a tool for hydrodynamic sorting of particles by size. Theory and experimental results are provided as a background for a discussion on how to extend the technology to submicron particles. Different geometries and dimensions of microchannels were designed and simulation data was compared to the experimental results.

  13. Non-inertial calibration of vibratory gyroscopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutierrez, Roman C. (Inventor); Tang, Tony K. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    The electrostatic elements already present in a vibratory gyroscope are used to simulate the Coriolis forces. An artificial electrostatic rotation signal is added to the closed-loop force rebalance system. Because the Coriolis force is at the same frequency as the artificial electrostatic force, the simulated force may be introduced into the system to perform an inertial test on MEMS vibratory gyroscopes without the use of a rotation table.

  14. Modern Inertial and Satellite Navigation Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-02

    rotor spins, the harder it is to disturb it. This technique is called spin stabilization and it is commonly used for communication satellites. Moder... using a generalization of the complex number called the quaternion . Modem Inertial and Satellite Navigation Systems page 32. 4.2 Exdrson in Pincile...length by an integer. Positive feedback arises from the use of a lasing medium, a gas, liquid, crystal ions, or any of a number of other possibilities

  15. Inertial Survey Application to Civil Works,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    closer together the ZUPTS must be performed. ZUPTS are used by the system to provide external information to the error control system used (Kalman...the best estimate of the system states. Accuracy of the system is increased when the sensor information from the inertial platform is compared with the...building a new version of its Auto-Surveyor System to be known as LASS II. This version will be based on the production model of the PADS presently

  16. Precise laser gyroscope for autonomous inertial navigation

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, A G; Molchanov, A V; Izmailov, E A

    2015-01-31

    Requirements to gyroscopes of strapdown inertial navigation systems for aircraft application are formulated. The construction of a ring helium – neon laser designed for autonomous navigation is described. The processes that determine the laser service life and the relation between the random error of the angular velocity measurement and the surface relief features of the cavity mirrors are analysed. The results of modelling one of the promising approaches to processing the laser gyroscope signals are presented. (laser gyroscopes)

  17. Retrieval techniques: LVLH and inertially stabilized payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yglesias, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Procedures and techniques are discussed for retrieving payloads that are inertially or local vertical/local horizontal (LVLH) stabilized. Selection of the retrieval profile to be used depends on several factors: (1) control authority of the payload, (2) payload sensitivity to primary reaction control system (PRCS) plumes, (3) whether the payload is inertially or LVLH stabilized, (4) location of the grapple fixture, and (5) orbiter propellant consumption. The general retrieval profiles recommended are a V-bar approach for payloads that are LVLH or gravity-gradient stabilized, and the V-bar approach with one or two phase flyaround for inertially stabilized payloads. Once the general type of profile has been selected, the detailed retrieval profile and timeline should consider the various guidelines, groundrules, and constraints associated with a particular payload or flight. Reaction control system (RCS) propellant requirements for the recommended profiles range from 200 to 1500 pounds, depending on such factors as braking techniques, flyaround maneuvers (if necessary), and stationkeeping operations. The time required to perform a retrieval (starting from 1000 feet) varies from 20 to 130 minutes, depending on the complexity of the profile. The goals of this project are to develop a profile which ensures mission success; to make the retrieval profiles simple; and to keep the pilot workload to a minimum by making use of the automatic features of the orbiter flight software whenever possible.

  18. Inertial effects in systems with magnetic charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armitage, N. P.

    2018-05-01

    This short article sets out some of the basic considerations that go into detecting the mass of quasiparticles with effective magnetic charge in solids. Effective magnetic charges may be appear as defects in particular magnetic textures. A magnetic monopole is a defect in this texture and as such these are not monopoles in the actual magnetic field B, but instead in the auxiliary field H. They may have particular properties expected for such quasiparticles such as magnetic charge and mass. This effective mass may-in principle-be detected in the same fashion that the mass is detected of other particles classically e.g. through their inertial response to time-dependent electromagnetic fields. I discuss this physics in the context of the "simple" case of the quantum spin ices, but aspects are broadly applicable. Based on extensions to Ryzkhin's model for classical spin ice, a hydrodynamic formulation can be given that takes into account inertial and entropic forces. Ultimately, a form for the susceptibility is obtained that is equivalent to the Rocard equation, which is a classic form used to account for inertial effects in the context of Debye-like relaxation.

  19. Inertial particle manipulation in microscale oscillatory flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Siddhansh; Rallabandi, Bhargav; Raju, David; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha

    2017-11-01

    Recent work has shown that inertial effects in oscillating flows can be exploited for simultaneous transport and differential displacement of microparticles, enabling size sorting of such particles on extraordinarily short time scales. Generalizing previous theory efforts, we here derive a two-dimensional time-averaged version of the Maxey-Riley equation that includes the effect of an oscillating interface to model particle dynamics in such flows. Separating the steady transport time scale from the oscillatory time scale results in a simple and computationally efficient reduced model that preserves all slow-time features of the full unsteady Maxey-Riley simulations, including inertial particle displacement. Comparison is made not only to full simulations, but also to experiments using oscillating bubbles as the driving interfaces. In this case, the theory predicts either an attraction to or a repulsion from the bubble interface due to inertial effects, so that versatile particle manipulation is possible using differences in particle size, particle/fluid density contrast and streaming strength. We also demonstrate that these predictions are in agreement with experiments.

  20. Vortex formation through inertial wave focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duran-Matute, Matias; Flor, Jan-Bert; Godeferd, Fabien

    2011-11-01

    We present a novel experimental and numerical study on the formation of columnar vortical structures by inertial waves in a rotating fluid. Two inertial-wave cones are generated by a vertically oscillating torus in a fluid in solid body rotation At the tip of the cones, there is a singular point towards which the energy of the waves gets focused. The particularity of this configuration, as compared to those of previous experiments (e.g. oscillating sphere or disc), is that the singular point's position within the fluid leads to complex non-linear wave interaction, which may lead to the formation of a localized vortex that expands in the vertical in the form of a Taylor column. Using detailed PIV measurements we consider the flow evolution from the localized wave overturning motion to the Taylor column formation as well as the inertial wave dynamics during this process, The results are discussed in the context of turbulence in rotating fluids. We acknowledge financial support from projects ANR ANISO and CIBLE.

  1. Capturing inertial particle transport in turbulent flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stott, Harry; Lawrie, Andrew; Szalai, Robert

    2017-11-01

    The natural world is replete with examples of particle advection; mankind is both a beneficiary from and sufferer of the consequences. As such, the study of inertial particle dynamics, both aerosol and bubble, is vitally important. In many interesting examples such as cloud microphysics, sedimentation, or sewage transport, many millions of particles are advected in a relatively small volume of fluid. It is impossible to model these processes computationally and simulate every particle. Instead, we advect the probability density field of particle positions allowing unbiased sampling of particle behaviour across the domain. Given a 3-dimensional space discretised into cubes, we construct a transport operator that encodes the flow of particles through the faces of the cubes. By assuming that the dynamics of the particles lie close to an inertial manifold, it is possible to preserve the majority of the inertial properties of the particles between the time steps. We demonstrate the practical use of this method in a pair of instances: the first is an analogue to cloud microphysics- the turbulent breakdown of Taylor Green vortices; the second example is the case of a turbulent jet which has application both in sewage pipe outflow and pesticide spray dynamics. EPSRC.

  2. Prolate-Spheroid (``Rugby-Shaped'') Hohlraum for Inertial Confinement Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandenboomgaerde, M.; Bastian, J.; Casner, A.; Galmiche, D.; Jadaud, J.-P.; Laffite, S.; Liberatore, S.; Malinie, G.; Philippe, F.

    2007-08-01

    A novel rugby-ball shaped hohlraum is designed in the context of the indirect-drive scheme of inertial-confinement fusion (ICF). Experiments were performed on the OMEGA laser and are the first use of rugby hohlraums for ICF studies. Analysis of experimental data shows that the hohlraum energetics is well understood. We show that the rugby-ball shape exhibits advantages over cylinder, in terms of temperature and of symmetry control of the capsule implosion. Simulations indicate that rugby hohlraum driven targets may be candidates for ignition in a context of early Laser MegaJoule experiments with reduced laser energy.

  3. The Minkowski metric in non-inertial observer radar coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minguzzi, E.

    2005-12-01

    We give a closed expression for the Minkowski (1+1)-dimensional metric in the radar coordinates of an arbitrary non-inertial observer O in terms of O's proper acceleration. Knowledge of the metric allows the non-inertial observer to perform experiments in spacetime without making reference to inertial frames. To clarify the relation between inertial and non-inertial observers the coordinate transformation between radar and inertial coordinates also is given. We show that every conformally flat coordinate system can be regarded as the radar coordinate system of a suitable observer for a suitable parametrization of the observer worldline. Therefore, the coordinate transformation between arbitrarily moving observers is a conformal transformation and conformally invariant (1+1)-dimensional theories lead to the same physics for all observers, independently of their relative motion.

  4. Description and Applications for an Automated Inertial Azimuth Measuring System,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    specialized field environment. The present system consists of two integrated inertial sensors , an angle transfer system, a tiltmeter array and a...optical path. Highly sensitive tiltmeters are used to measure and correct for errors due to base motions of the inertial sensors . Data handling and...microprocessor. The inertial sensors use gimbal-mounted rate gyrocompasses to indicate the azimuths of two transfer mirrors with respect to true North. The

  5. Continuous and scalable polymer capsule processing for inertial fusion energy target shell fabrication using droplet microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin; Lindley-Start, Jack; Porch, Adrian; Barrow, David

    2017-07-24

    High specification, polymer capsules, to produce inertial fusion energy targets, were continuously fabricated using surfactant-free, inertial centralisation, and ultrafast polymerisation, in a scalable flow reactor. Laser-driven, inertial confinement fusion depends upon the interaction of high-energy lasers and hydrogen isotopes, contained within small, spherical and concentric target shells, causing a nuclear fusion reaction at ~150 M°C. Potentially, targets will be consumed at ~1 M per day per reactor, demanding a 5000x unit cost reduction to ~$0.20, and is a critical, key challenge. Experimentally, double emulsions were used as templates for capsule-shells, and were formed at 20 Hz, on a fluidic chip. Droplets were centralised in a dynamic flow, and their shapes both evaluated, and mathematically modeled, before subsequent shell solidification. The shells were photo-cured individually, on-the-fly, with precisely-actuated, millisecond-length (70 ms), uniform-intensity UV pulses, delivered through eight, radially orchestrated light-pipes. The near 100% yield rate of uniform shells had a minimum 99.0% concentricity and sphericity, and the solidification processing period was significantly reduced, over conventional batch methods. The data suggest the new possibility of a continuous, on-the-fly, IFE target fabrication process, employing sequential processing operations within a continuous enclosed duct system, which may include cryogenic fuel-filling, and shell curing, to produce ready-to-use IFE targets.

  6. Adiabat-shaping in indirect drive inertial confinement fusion

    DOE PAGES

    Baker, K. L.; Robey, H. F.; Milovich, J. L.; ...

    2015-05-05

    Adiabat-shaping techniques were investigated in this paper in indirect drive inertial confinement fusion experiments on the National Ignition Facility as a means to improve implosion stability, while still maintaining a low adiabat in the fuel. Adiabat-shaping was accomplished in these indirect drive experiments by altering the ratio of the picket and trough energies in the laser pulse shape, thus driving a decaying first shock in the ablator. This decaying first shock is designed to place the ablation front on a high adiabat while keeping the fuel on a low adiabat. These experiments were conducted using the keyhole experimental platform formore » both three and four shock laser pulses. This platform enabled direct measurement of the shock velocities driven in the glow-discharge polymer capsule and in the liquid deuterium, the surrogate fuel for a DT ignition target. The measured shock velocities and radiation drive histories are compared to previous three and four shock laser pulses. This comparison indicates that in the case of adiabat shaping the ablation front initially drives a high shock velocity, and therefore, a high shock pressure and adiabat. The shock then decays as it travels through the ablator to pressures similar to the original low-adiabat pulses when it reaches the fuel. Finally, this approach takes advantage of initial high ablation velocity, which favors stability, and high-compression, which favors high stagnation pressures.« less

  7. A semi-analytic model of magnetized liner inertial fusion

    DOE PAGES

    McBride, Ryan D.; Slutz, Stephen A.

    2015-05-21

    Presented is a semi-analytic model of magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF). This model accounts for several key aspects of MagLIF, including: (1) preheat of the fuel (optionally via laser absorption); (2) pulsed-power-driven liner implosion; (3) liner compressibility with an analytic equation of state, artificial viscosity, internal magnetic pressure, and ohmic heating; (4) adiabatic compression and heating of the fuel; (5) radiative losses and fuel opacity; (6) magnetic flux compression with Nernst thermoelectric losses; (7) magnetized electron and ion thermal conduction losses; (8) end losses; (9) enhanced losses due to prescribed dopant concentrations and contaminant mix; (10) deuterium-deuterium and deuterium-tritium primarymore » fusion reactions for arbitrary deuterium to tritium fuel ratios; and (11) magnetized α-particle fuel heating. We show that this simplified model, with its transparent and accessible physics, can be used to reproduce the general 1D behavior presented throughout the original MagLIF paper [S. A. Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)]. We also discuss some important physics insights gained as a result of developing this model, such as the dependence of radiative loss rates on the radial fraction of the fuel that is preheated.« less

  8. A semi-analytic model of magnetized liner inertial fusion

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, Ryan D.; Slutz, Stephen A.

    Presented is a semi-analytic model of magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF). This model accounts for several key aspects of MagLIF, including: (1) preheat of the fuel (optionally via laser absorption); (2) pulsed-power-driven liner implosion; (3) liner compressibility with an analytic equation of state, artificial viscosity, internal magnetic pressure, and ohmic heating; (4) adiabatic compression and heating of the fuel; (5) radiative losses and fuel opacity; (6) magnetic flux compression with Nernst thermoelectric losses; (7) magnetized electron and ion thermal conduction losses; (8) end losses; (9) enhanced losses due to prescribed dopant concentrations and contaminant mix; (10) deuterium-deuterium and deuterium-tritium primarymore » fusion reactions for arbitrary deuterium to tritium fuel ratios; and (11) magnetized α-particle fuel heating. We show that this simplified model, with its transparent and accessible physics, can be used to reproduce the general 1D behavior presented throughout the original MagLIF paper [S. A. Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)]. We also discuss some important physics insights gained as a result of developing this model, such as the dependence of radiative loss rates on the radial fraction of the fuel that is preheated.« less

  9. Electron acceleration by inertial Alfven waves

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, B.J.; Lysak, R.L.

    1996-03-01

    Alfven waves reflected by the ionosphere and by inhomogeneities in the Alfven speed can develop an oscillating parallel electric field when electron inertial effects are included. These waves, which have wavelengths of the order of an Earth radius, can develop a coherent structure spanning distances of several Earth radii along geomagnetic field lines. This system has characteristic frequencies in the range of 1 Hz and can exhibit electric fields capable of accelerating electrons in several senses: via Landua resonance, bounce or transit time resonance as discussed by Andre and Eliasson or through the effective potential drop which appears when themore » transit time of the electrons is much smaller than the wave period, so that the electric fields appear effectively static. A time-dependent model of wave propagation is developed which represents inertial Alfven wave propagation along auroral field lines. The disturbance is modeled as it travels earthward, experiences partial reflections in regions of rapid variation, and finally reflects off a conducting ionosphere to continue propagating antiearthward. The wave experiences partial trapping by the ionospheric and the Alfven speed peaks discussed earlier by Polyakov and Rapoport and Trakhtengerts and Feldstein and later by Lysak. Results of the wave simulation and an accompanying test particle simulation are presented, which indicate that inertial Alfven waves are a possible mechanism for generating electron conic distributions and field-aligned particle precipitation. The model incorporates conservation of energy by allowing electrons to affect the wave via Landau damping, which appears to enhance the effect of the interactions which heat electron populations. 22 refs., 14 figs.« less

  10. Minimizing scatter-losses during pre-heat for magneto-inertial fusion targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissel, Matthias; Harvey-Thompson, Adam J.; Awe, Thomas J.; Bliss, David E.; Glinsky, Michael E.; Gomez, Matthew R.; Harding, Eric; Hansen, Stephanie B.; Jennings, Christopher; Kimmel, Mark W.; Knapp, Patrick; Lewis, Sean M.; Peterson, Kyle; Schollmeier, Marius; Schwarz, Jens; Shores, Jonathon E.; Slutz, Stephen A.; Sinars, Daniel B.; Smith, Ian C.; Speas, C. Shane; Vesey, Roger A.; Weis, Matthew R.; Porter, John L.

    2018-02-01

    The size, temporal and spatial shape, and energy content of a laser pulse for the pre-heat phase of magneto-inertial fusion affect the ability to penetrate the window of the laser-entrance-hole and to heat the fuel behind it. High laser intensities and dense targets are subject to laser-plasma-instabilities (LPI), which can lead to an effective loss of pre-heat energy or to pronounced heating of areas that should stay unexposed. While this problem has been the subject of many studies over the last decades, the investigated parameters were typically geared towards traditional laser driven Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) with densities either at 10% and above or at 1% and below the laser's critical density, electron temperatures of 3-5 keV, and laser powers near (or in excess of) 1 × 1015 W/cm2. In contrast, Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) [Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010) and Slutz and Vesey, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 025003 (2012)] currently operates at 5% of the laser's critical density using much thicker windows (1.5-3.5 μm) than the sub-micron thick windows of traditional ICF hohlraum targets. This article describes the Pecos target area at Sandia National Laboratories using the Z-Beamlet Laser Facility [Rambo et al., Appl. Opt. 44(12), 2421 (2005)] as a platform to study laser induced pre-heat for magneto-inertial fusion targets, and the related progress for Sandia's MagLIF program. Forward and backward scattered light were measured and minimized at larger spatial scales with lower densities, temperatures, and powers compared to LPI studies available in literature.

  11. Inertial navigation sensor integrated obstacle detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhanu, Bir (Inventor); Roberts, Barry A. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A system that incorporates inertial sensor information into optical flow computations to detect obstacles and to provide alternative navigational paths free from obstacles. The system is a maximally passive obstacle detection system that makes selective use of an active sensor. The active detection typically utilizes a laser. Passive sensor suite includes binocular stereo, motion stereo and variable fields-of-view. Optical flow computations involve extraction, derotation and matching of interest points from sequential frames of imagery, for range interpolation of the sensed scene, which in turn provides obstacle information for purposes of safe navigation.

  12. Electron Shock Ignition of Inertial Fusion Targets

    DOE PAGES

    Shang, W. L.; Betti, R.; Hu, S. X.; ...

    2017-11-07

    Here, it is shown that inertial fusion targets designed with low implosion velocities can be shock ignited using laser–plasma interaction generated hot electrons (hot-e) to obtain high-energy gains. These designs are robust to multimode asymmetries and are predicted to ignite even for significantly distorted implosions. Electron shock ignition requires tens of kilojoules of hot-e, which can only be produced on a large laser facility like the National Ignition Facility, with the laser to hot-e conversion efficiency greater than 10% at laser intensities ~10 16 W/cm 2.

  13. Fast inertial particle manipulation in oscillating flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thameem, Raqeeb; Rallabandi, Bhargav; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha

    2017-05-01

    It is demonstrated that micron-sized particles suspended in fluid near oscillating interfaces experience strong inertial displacements above and beyond the fluid streaming. Experiments with oscillating bubbles show rectified particle lift over extraordinarily short (millisecond) times. A quantitative model on both the oscillatory and the steady time scales describes the particle displacement relative to the fluid motion. The formalism yields analytical predictions confirming the observed scaling behavior with particle size and experimental control parameters. It applies to a large class of oscillatory flows with applications from particle trapping to size sorting.

  14. In-space inertial energy storage design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, P. A.; Evans, H. E.

    1981-01-01

    Flywheel energy storage is a means of significantly improving the performance of space power systems. Two study contracts have been completed to investigate the merits of a magnetically suspended, ironless armature, ring rotor 'Mechanical Capacitor' design. The design of a suitable energy storage system is evaluated, taking into account baseline requirements, the motor generator, details regarding the suspension design, power conditioning, the rotor, and an example design. It appears on the basis of this evaluation that the inertial (flywheel) energy storage design is feasible.

  15. Next generation laser for Inertial Confinement Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, C.D.; Beach, J.; Bibeau, C.

    1997-07-18

    We are in the process of developing and building the ``Mercury`` laser system as the first in a series of a new generation of diode-pumped solid-state Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) lasers at LLNL. Mercury will be the first integrated demonstration of a scalable laser architecture compatible with advanced high energy density (HED) physics applications. Primary performance goals include 10% efficiencies at 10 Hz and a 1-10 ns pulse with 1{omega} energies of 100 J and with 2{omega}/3{omega} frequency conversion.

  16. Electron Shock Ignition of Inertial Fusion Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, W. L.; Betti, R.; Hu, S. X.; Woo, K.; Hao, L.; Ren, C.; Christopherson, A. R.; Bose, A.; Theobald, W.

    2017-11-01

    It is shown that inertial confinement fusion targets designed with low implosion velocities can be shock-ignited using laser-plasma interaction generated hot electrons (hot-e 's) to obtain high energy gains. These designs are robust to multimode asymmetries and are predicted to ignite even for significantly distorted implosions. Electron shock ignition requires tens of kilojoules of hot-e 's which can be produced only at a large laser facility like the National Ignition Facility, with the laser-to-hot-e conversion efficiency greater than 10% at laser intensities ˜1016 W /cm2 .

  17. Electron Shock Ignition of Inertial Fusion Targets.

    PubMed

    Shang, W L; Betti, R; Hu, S X; Woo, K; Hao, L; Ren, C; Christopherson, A R; Bose, A; Theobald, W

    2017-11-10

    It is shown that inertial confinement fusion targets designed with low implosion velocities can be shock-ignited using laser-plasma interaction generated hot electrons (hot-e's) to obtain high energy gains. These designs are robust to multimode asymmetries and are predicted to ignite even for significantly distorted implosions. Electron shock ignition requires tens of kilojoules of hot-e's which can be produced only at a large laser facility like the National Ignition Facility, with the laser-to-hot-e conversion efficiency greater than 10% at laser intensities ∼10^{16}  W/cm^{2}.

  18. Inertial instrument system for aerial surveying

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, R.H.; Chapman, W.H.; Hanna, W.F.; Mongan, C.E.; Hursh, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    An inertial guidance system for aerial surveying has been developed under contract to the U.S. Geological Survey. This prototype system, known as the aerial profiling of terrain (APT) system, is designed to determine continuously the positions of points along an aircraft flight path, or the underlying terrain profile, to an accuracy of + or - 0.5 ft (15 cm) vertically and + or - 2 ft (61 cm) horizontally. The system 's objective thus is to accomplish, from a fixed-wing aircraft, what would traditionally be accomplished from ground-based topographic surveys combined with aerial photography and photogrammetry. The two-part strategy for measuring the terrain profile entails: (1) use of an inertial navigator for continuous determination of the three-coordinate position of the aircraft, and (2) use of an eye-safe pulsed laser profiler for continuous measurement of the vertical distance from aircraft to land surface, so that the desired terrain profile can then be directly computed. The APT system, installed in a DeHavilland Twin Otter aircraft, is typically flown at a speed of 115 mph (105 knots) at an altitude of 2,000 ft (610 m) above the terrain. Performance-evaluation flights have shown that the vertical and horizontal accuracy specifications are met. (USGS)

  19. Physics of Non-Inertial Reference Frames

    SciTech Connect

    Kamalov, Timur F.

    2010-12-22

    Physics of non-inertial reference frames is a generalizing of Newton's laws to any reference frames. It is the system of general axioms for classical and quantum mechanics. The first, Kinematics Principle reads: the kinematic state of a body free of forces conserves and equal in absolute value to an invariant of the observer's reference frame. The second, Dynamics Principle extended Newton's second law to non-inertial reference frames and also contains additional variables there are higher derivatives of coordinates. Dynamics Principle reads: a force induces a change in the kinematic state of the body and is proportional to the rate ofmore » its change. It is mean that if the kinematic invariant of the reference frame is n-th derivative with respect the time, then the dynamics of a body being affected by the force F is described by the 2n-th differential equation. The third, Statics Principle reads: the sum of all forces acting a body at rest is equal to zero.« less

  20. Phase diagram for inertial granular flows.

    PubMed

    DeGiuli, E; McElwaine, J N; Wyart, M

    2016-07-01

    Flows of hard granular materials depend strongly on the interparticle friction coefficient μ_{p} and on the inertial number I, which characterizes proximity to the jamming transition where flow stops. Guided by numerical simulations, we derive the phase diagram of dense inertial flow of spherical particles, finding three regimes for 10^{-4}≲I≲10^{-1}: frictionless, frictional sliding, and rolling. These are distinguished by the dominant means of energy dissipation, changing from collisional to sliding friction, and back to collisional, as μ_{p} increases from zero at constant I. The three regimes differ in their kinetics and rheology; in particular, the velocity fluctuations and the stress ratio both display nonmonotonic behavior with μ_{p}, corresponding to transitions between the three regimes of flow. We rationalize the phase boundaries between these regimes, show that energy balance yields scaling relations between microscopic properties in each of them, and derive the strain scale at which particles lose memory of their velocity. For the frictional sliding regime most relevant experimentally, we find for I≥10^{-2.5} that the growth of the macroscopic friction μ(I) with I is induced by an increase of collisional dissipation. This implies in that range that μ(I)-μ(0)∼I^{1-2b}, where b≈0.2 is an exponent that characterizes both the dimensionless velocity fluctuations L∼I^{-b} and the density of sliding contacts χ∼I^{b}.

  1. Implementation and Performance of a GPS/INS Tightly Coupled Assisted PLL Architecture Using MEMS Inertial Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Tawk, Youssef; Tomé, Phillip; Botteron, Cyril; Stebler, Yannick; Farine, Pierre-André

    2014-01-01

    The use of global navigation satellite system receivers for navigation still presents many challenges in urban canyon and indoor environments, where satellite availability is typically reduced and received signals are attenuated. To improve the navigation performance in such environments, several enhancement methods can be implemented. For instance, external aid provided through coupling with other sensors has proven to contribute substantially to enhancing navigation performance and robustness. Within this context, coupling a very simple GPS receiver with an Inertial Navigation System (INS) based on low-cost micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) inertial sensors is considered in this paper. In particular, we propose a GPS/INS Tightly Coupled Assisted PLL (TCAPLL) architecture, and present most of the associated challenges that need to be addressed when dealing with very-low-performance MEMS inertial sensors. In addition, we propose a data monitoring system in charge of checking the quality of the measurement flow in the architecture. The implementation of the TCAPLL is discussed in detail, and its performance under different scenarios is assessed. Finally, the architecture is evaluated through a test campaign using a vehicle that is driven in urban environments, with the purpose of highlighting the pros and cons of combining MEMS inertial sensors with GPS over GPS alone. PMID:24569773

  2. Integrated micro-electro-mechanical sensor development for inertial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, J.J.; Kinney, R.D.; Sarsfield, J.

    Electronic sensing circuitry and micro electro mechanical sense elements can be integrated to produce inertial instruments for applications unheard of a few years ago. This paper will describe the Sandia M3EMS fabrication process, inertial instruments that have been fabricated, and the results of initial characterization tests of micro-machined accelerometers.

  3. Inertial Force Coupling to Nonlinear Aeroelasticity of Flexible Wing Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.; Ting, Eric

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the inertial force effect on nonlinear aeroelasticity of flexible wing aircraft. The geometric are nonlinearity due to rotational and tension stiffening. The effect of large bending deflection will also be investigated. Flutter analysis will be conducted for a truss-braced wing aircraft concept with tension stiffening and inertial force coupling.

  4. Shock Ignition Target Design for Inertial Fusion Energy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Shock ignition target design for inertial fusion energy Andrew J. Schmitt,1, a) Jason W. Bates,1 Steven P. Obenschain,1 Steven T. Zalesak,2 and David...2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Shock ignition target design for inertial fusion energy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  5. Ensemble simulations of inertial confinement fusion implosions

    DOE PAGES

    Nora, Ryan; Peterson, Jayson Luc; Spears, Brian Keith; ...

    2017-05-24

    The achievement of inertial confinement fusion ignition on the National Ignition Facility relies on the collection and interpretation of a limited (and expensive) set of experimental data. These data are therefore supplemented with state-of-the-art multi-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic simulations to provide a better understanding of implosion dynamics and behavior. We present a relatively large number (~4000) of systematically perturbed 2D simulations to probe our understanding of low-mode fuel and ablator asymmetries seeded by asymmetric illumination. We find that Gaussian process surrogate models are able to predict both the total neutron yield and the degradation in performance due to asymmetries. Furthermore, the surrogatesmore » are then applied to simulations containing new sources of degradation to quantify the impact of the new source.« less

  6. Inertial-confinement fusion with lasers

    DOE PAGES

    Betti, R.; Hurricane, O. A.

    2016-05-03

    The quest for controlled fusion energy has been ongoing for over a half century. The demonstration of ignition and energy gain from thermonuclear fuels in the laboratory has been a major goal of fusion research for decades. Thermonuclear ignition is widely considered a milestone in the development of fusion energy, as well as a major scientific achievement with important applications to national security and basic sciences. The U.S. is arguably the world leader in the inertial con fment approach to fusion and has invested in large facilities to pursue it with the objective of establishing the science related to themore » safety and reliability of the stockpile of nuclear weapons. Even though significant progress has been made in recent years, major challenges still remain in the quest for thermonuclear ignition via laser fusion.« less

  7. Magnetic bearings for inertial energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, G. Ernest; Eakin, Vickie

    1987-01-01

    Advanced flywheels utilizing high strength fibers must operate at high rotational speeds and as such must operate in vacuum to reduce windage losses. The utilization of magnetic bearings in the flywheels overcome lubrication and seal problems, resulting in an energy storage system offering potential improvements over conventional electrochemical energy storage. Magnetic bearings evolved in the 1950s from the simple application of permanent magnets positioned to exert repulsive forces to the present where permanent magnets and electromagnets have been combined to provide axial and radial suspension. Further development of magnetic suspension has led to the design of a shaftless flywheel system for aerospace application. Despite the lack of proof of concept, integrated magnetic suspension in inertial storage systems can provide significant performance improvements to warrant development and tests.

  8. Method of producing an inertial sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor); Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention discloses an inertial sensor comprising a planar mechanical resonator with embedded sensing and actuation for substantially in-plane vibration and having a central rigid support for the resonator. At least one excitation or torquer electrode is disposed within an interior of the resonator to excite in-plane vibration of the resonator and at least one sensing or pickoff electrode is disposed within the interior of the resonator for sensing the motion of the excited resonator. In one embodiment, the planar resonator includes a plurality of slots in an annular pattern; in another embodiment, the planar mechanical resonator comprises four masses; each embodiment having a simple degenerate pair of in-plane vibration modes.

  9. Generalized Lawson Criteria for Inertial Confinement Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Tipton, Robert E.

    2015-08-27

    The Lawson Criterion was proposed by John D. Lawson in 1955 as a general measure of the conditions necessary for a magnetic fusion device to reach thermonuclear ignition. Over the years, similar ignition criteria have been proposed which would be suitable for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) designs. This paper will compare and contrast several ICF ignition criteria based on Lawson’s original ideas. Both analytical and numerical results will be presented which will demonstrate that although the various criteria differ in some details, they are closely related and perform similarly as ignition criteria. A simple approximation will also be presented whichmore » allows the inference of each ignition parameter directly from the measured data taken on most shots fired at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) with a minimum reliance on computer simulations. Evidence will be presented which indicates that the experimentally inferred ignition parameters on the best NIF shots are very close to the ignition threshold.« less

  10. Inertial focusing dynamics in spiral microchannels

    PubMed Central

    Martel, Joseph M.; Toner, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    This report details a comprehensive study of inertial focusing dynamics and particle behavior in low aspect ratio (h/w ∼ 1/1 to 1/8) spiral microchannels. A continuum of particle streak behavior is shown with longitudinal, cross-sectional, and velocity resolution, yielding a large analyzed parameter space. The dataset is then summarized and compared to prior results from both straight microchannels and other low aspect ratio spiral microchannel designs. Breakdown of focusing into a primary and secondary fluorescent streak is observed in the lowest aspect ratio channels at high average downstream velocities. Streak movement away from the theoretically predicted near inner wall equilibrium position towards the center of the channel at high average downstream velocities is also detailed as a precursor to breakdown. State diagrams detail the overall performance of each device including values of the required channel lengths and the range of velocities over which quality focusing can be achieved. PMID:22454556

  11. Membrane-less microfiltration using inertial microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Warkiani, Majid Ebrahimi; Tay, Andy Kah Ping; Guan, Guofeng; Han, Jongyoon

    2015-01-01

    Microfiltration is a ubiquitous and often crucial part of many industrial processes, including biopharmaceutical manufacturing. Yet, all existing filtration systems suffer from the issue of membrane clogging, which fundamentally limits the efficiency and reliability of the filtration process. Herein, we report the development of a membrane-less microfiltration system by massively parallelizing inertial microfluidics to achieve a macroscopic volume processing rates (~ 500 mL/min). We demonstrated the systems engineered for CHO (10–20 μm) and yeast (3–5 μm) cells filtration, which are two main cell types used for large-scale bioreactors. Our proposed system can replace existing filtration membrane and provide passive (no external force fields), continuous filtration, thus eliminating the need for membrane replacement. This platform has the desirable combinations of high throughput, low-cost, and scalability, making it compatible for a myriad of microfiltration applications and industrial purposes. PMID:26154774

  12. High-gain magnetized inertial fusion.

    PubMed

    Slutz, Stephen A; Vesey, Roger A

    2012-01-13

    Magnetized inertial fusion (MIF) could substantially ease the difficulty of reaching plasma conditions required for significant fusion yields, but it has been widely accepted that the gain is not sufficient for fusion energy. Numerical simulations are presented showing that high-gain MIF is possible in cylindrical liner implosions based on the MagLIF concept [S. A. Slutz et al Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)] with the addition of a cryogenic layer of deuterium-tritium (DT). These simulations show that a burn wave propagates radially from the magnetized hot spot into the surrounding much denser cold DT given sufficient hot-spot areal density. For a drive current of 60 MA the simulated gain exceeds 100, which is more than adequate for fusion energy applications. The simulated gain exceeds 1000 for a drive current of 70 MA.

  13. Inertial Orientation Trackers with Drift Compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foxlin, Eric M.

    2008-01-01

    A class of inertial-sensor systems with drift compensation has been invented for use in measuring the orientations of human heads (and perhaps other, similarly sized objects). These systems can be designed to overcome some of the limitations of prior orientation-measuring systems that are based, variously, on magnetic, optical, mechanical-linkage, and acoustical principles. The orientation signals generated by the systems of this invention could be used for diverse purposes, including controlling head-orientation-dependent virtual reality visual displays or enabling persons whose limbs are paralyzed to control machinery by means of head motions. The inventive concept admits to variations too numerous to describe here, making it necessary to limit this description to a typical system, the selected aspects of which are illustrated in the figure. A set of sensors is mounted on a bracket on a band or a cap that gently but firmly grips the wearer s head to be tracked. Among the sensors are three drift-sensitive rotationrate sensors (e.g., integrated-circuit angular- rate-measuring gyroscopes), which put out DC voltages nominally proportional to the rates of rotation about their sensory axes. These sensors are mounted in mutually orthogonal orientations for measuring rates of rotation about the roll, pitch, and yaw axes of the wearer s head. The outputs of these rate sensors are conditioned and digitized, and the resulting data are fed to an integrator module implemented in software in a digital computer. In the integrator module, the angular-rate signals are jointly integrated by any of several established methods to obtain a set of angles that represent approximately the orientation of the head in an external, inertial coordinate system. Because some drift is always present as a component of an angular position computed by integrating the outputs of angular-rate sensors, the orientation signal is processed further in a drift-compensator software module.

  14. Inertial Sensor-Based Gait Recognition: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Sprager, Sebastijan; Juric, Matjaz B.

    2015-01-01

    With the recent development of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), inertial sensors have become widely used in the research of wearable gait analysis due to several factors, such as being easy-to-use and low-cost. Considering the fact that each individual has a unique way of walking, inertial sensors can be applied to the problem of gait recognition where assessed gait can be interpreted as a biometric trait. Thus, inertial sensor-based gait recognition has a great potential to play an important role in many security-related applications. Since inertial sensors are included in smart devices that are nowadays present at every step, inertial sensor-based gait recognition has become very attractive and emerging field of research that has provided many interesting discoveries recently. This paper provides a thorough and systematic review of current state-of-the-art in this field of research. Review procedure has revealed that the latest advanced inertial sensor-based gait recognition approaches are able to sufficiently recognise the users when relying on inertial data obtained during gait by single commercially available smart device in controlled circumstances, including fixed placement and small variations in gait. Furthermore, these approaches have also revealed considerable breakthrough by realistic use in uncontrolled circumstances, showing great potential for their further development and wide applicability. PMID:26340634

  15. Upstroke wing flexion and the inertial cost of bat flight

    PubMed Central

    Riskin, Daniel K.; Bergou, Attila; Breuer, Kenneth S.; Swartz, Sharon M.

    2012-01-01

    Flying vertebrates change the shapes of their wings during the upstroke, thereby decreasing wing surface area and bringing the wings closer to the body than during downstroke. These, and other wing deformations, might reduce the inertial cost of the upstroke compared with what it would be if the wings remained fully extended. However, wing deformations themselves entail energetic costs that could exceed any inertial energy savings. Using a model that incorporates detailed three-dimensional wing kinematics, we estimated the inertial cost of flapping flight for six bat species spanning a 40-fold range of body masses. We estimate that folding and unfolding comprises roughly 44 per cent of the inertial cost, but that the total inertial cost is only approximately 65 per cent of what it would be if the wing remained extended and rigid throughout the wingbeat cycle. Folding and unfolding occurred mostly during the upstroke; hence, our model suggests inertial cost of the upstroke is not less than that of downstroke. The cost of accelerating the metacarpals and phalanges accounted for around 44 per cent of inertial costs, although those elements constitute only 12 per cent of wing weight. This highlights the energetic benefit afforded to bats by the decreased mineralization of the distal wing bones. PMID:22496186

  16. Effects of ultrasound-induced inertial cavitation on enzymatic thrombolysis.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Yueh-Hsun; Cheng, Po-Wen; Chen, Szu-Chia; Ruan, Jia-Ling; Li, Pai-Chi

    2010-04-01

    Cavitation induced by ultrasound enhances enzymatic fibrinolysis by increasing the transport of reactants. However, the effects of cavitation need to be fully understood before sonothrombolysis can be applied clinically. In order to understand the underlying mechanisms, we examined the effects of combining ultrasound, microbubbles and thrombolytic enzymes on thrombolysis. First, we evaluated the relations between inertial cavitation and the reduction in the weight of a blood clot. Inertial cavitation was varied by changing the amplitude and duration of the transmitted acoustic wave as well as the concentration of microbubbles used to induce cavitation. Second, we studied the combined effects of streptokinase and inertial cavitation on thrombolysis. The results show that inertial cavitation increases the weight reduction of a blood clot by up to 33.9%. With linear regression fitting, the measured differential inertial cavitation dose and the weight reduction had a correlation coefficient of 0.66. Microscopically, enzymatic thrombolysis effects manifest as multiple large cavities within the clot that are uniformly distributed on the side exposed to ultrasound. This suggests that inertial cavitation plays an important role in producing cavities, while microjetting of the microbubbles induces pits on the clot surface. These observations preliminarily demonstrate the clinical potential of sonothrombolysis. The use of the differential inertial cavitation dose as an indicator of blood clot weight loss for controlled sonothrombolysis is also possible and will be further explored.

  17. Mixing with applications to inertial-confinement-fusion implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, V.; Lim, H.; Melvin, J.; Glimm, J.; Cheng, B.; Sharp, D. H.

    2017-01-01

    Approximate one-dimensional (1D) as well as 2D and 3D simulations are playing an important supporting role in the design and analysis of future experiments at National Ignition Facility. This paper is mainly concerned with 1D simulations, used extensively in design and optimization. We couple a 1D buoyancy-drag mix model for the mixing zone edges with a 1D inertial confinement fusion simulation code. This analysis predicts that National Ignition Campaign (NIC) designs are located close to a performance cliff, so modeling errors, design features (fill tube and tent) and additional, unmodeled instabilities could lead to significant levels of mix. The performance cliff we identify is associated with multimode plastic ablator (CH) mix into the hot-spot deuterium and tritium (DT). The buoyancy-drag mix model is mode number independent and selects implicitly a range of maximum growth modes. Our main conclusion is that single effect instabilities are predicted not to lead to hot-spot mix, while combined mode mixing effects are predicted to affect hot-spot thermodynamics and possibly hot-spot mix. Combined with the stagnation Rayleigh-Taylor instability, we find the potential for mix effects in combination with the ice-to-gas DT boundary, numerical effects of Eulerian species CH concentration diffusion, and ablation-driven instabilities. With the help of a convenient package of plasma transport parameters developed here, we give an approximate determination of these quantities in the regime relevant to the NIC experiments, while ruling out a variety of mix possibilities. Plasma transport parameters affect the 1D buoyancy-drag mix model primarily through its phenomenological drag coefficient as well as the 1D hydro model to which the buoyancy-drag equation is coupled.

  18. Mixing with applications to inertial-confinement-fusion implosions.

    PubMed

    Rana, V; Lim, H; Melvin, J; Glimm, J; Cheng, B; Sharp, D H

    2017-01-01

    Approximate one-dimensional (1D) as well as 2D and 3D simulations are playing an important supporting role in the design and analysis of future experiments at National Ignition Facility. This paper is mainly concerned with 1D simulations, used extensively in design and optimization. We couple a 1D buoyancy-drag mix model for the mixing zone edges with a 1D inertial confinement fusion simulation code. This analysis predicts that National Ignition Campaign (NIC) designs are located close to a performance cliff, so modeling errors, design features (fill tube and tent) and additional, unmodeled instabilities could lead to significant levels of mix. The performance cliff we identify is associated with multimode plastic ablator (CH) mix into the hot-spot deuterium and tritium (DT). The buoyancy-drag mix model is mode number independent and selects implicitly a range of maximum growth modes. Our main conclusion is that single effect instabilities are predicted not to lead to hot-spot mix, while combined mode mixing effects are predicted to affect hot-spot thermodynamics and possibly hot-spot mix. Combined with the stagnation Rayleigh-Taylor instability, we find the potential for mix effects in combination with the ice-to-gas DT boundary, numerical effects of Eulerian species CH concentration diffusion, and ablation-driven instabilities. With the help of a convenient package of plasma transport parameters developed here, we give an approximate determination of these quantities in the regime relevant to the NIC experiments, while ruling out a variety of mix possibilities. Plasma transport parameters affect the 1D buoyancy-drag mix model primarily through its phenomenological drag coefficient as well as the 1D hydro model to which the buoyancy-drag equation is coupled.

  19. Bundle adjustment with raw inertial observations in UAV applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucci, Davide Antonio; Rehak, Martin; Skaloud, Jan

    2017-08-01

    It is well known that accurate aerial position and attitude control is beneficial for image orientation in airborne photogrammetry. The aerial control is traditionally obtained by Kalman filtering/smoothing inertial and GNSS observations prior to the bundle-adjustment. However, in Micro Aerial Vehicles this process may result in poor attitude determination due to the limited quality of the inertial sensors, large alignment uncertainty and residual correlations between sensor biases and initial attitude. We propose to include the raw inertial observations directly into the bundle-adjustment instead of as position and attitude weighted observations from a separate inertial/GNSS fusion step. The necessary observation models are derived in detail within the context of the so called "Dynamic Networks". We examine different real world cases and we show that the proposed approach is superior to the established processing pipeline in challenging scenarios such as mapping in corridors and in areas where the reception of GNSS signals is denied.

  20. Human Perception of Ambiguous Inertial Motion Cues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Guan-Lu

    2010-01-01

    Human daily activities on Earth involve motions that elicit both tilt and translation components of the head (i.e. gazing and locomotion). With otolith cues alone, tilt and translation can be ambiguous since both motions can potentially displace the otolithic membrane by the same magnitude and direction. Transitions between gravity environments (i.e. Earth, microgravity and lunar) have demonstrated to alter the functions of the vestibular system and exacerbate the ambiguity between tilt and translational motion cues. Symptoms of motion sickness and spatial disorientation can impair human performances during critical mission phases. Specifically, Space Shuttle landing records show that particular cases of tilt-translation illusions have impaired the performance of seasoned commanders. This sensorimotor condition is one of many operational risks that may have dire implications on future human space exploration missions. The neural strategy with which the human central nervous system distinguishes ambiguous inertial motion cues remains the subject of intense research. A prevailing theory in the neuroscience field proposes that the human brain is able to formulate a neural internal model of ambiguous motion cues such that tilt and translation components can be perceptually decomposed in order to elicit the appropriate bodily response. The present work uses this theory, known as the GIF resolution hypothesis, as the framework for experimental hypothesis. Specifically, two novel motion paradigms are employed to validate the neural capacity of ambiguous inertial motion decomposition in ground-based human subjects. The experimental setup involves the Tilt-Translation Sled at Neuroscience Laboratory of NASA JSC. This two degree-of-freedom motion system is able to tilt subjects in the pitch plane and translate the subject along the fore-aft axis. Perception data will be gathered through subject verbal reports. Preliminary analysis of perceptual data does not indicate that

  1. Grooved impactor and inertial trap for sampling inhalable particulate matter

    DOEpatents

    Loo, Billy W.

    1984-01-01

    An inertial trap and grooved impactor for providing a sharp cutoff for particles over 15 microns from entering an inhalable particulate sampler. The impactor head has a tapered surface and is provided with V-shaped grooves. The tapered surface functions for reducing particle blow-off or reentrainment while the grooves prevent particle bounce. Water droplets and any resuspended material over the 15 micron size are collected by the inertial trap and deposited in a reservoir associated with the impactor.

  2. Motion capture based identification of the human body inertial parameters.

    PubMed

    Venture, Gentiane; Ayusawa, Ko; Nakamura, Yoshihiko

    2008-01-01

    Identification of body inertia, masses and center of mass is an important data to simulate, monitor and understand dynamics of motion, to personalize rehabilitation programs. This paper proposes an original method to identify the inertial parameters of the human body, making use of motion capture data and contact forces measurements. It allows in-vivo painless estimation and monitoring of the inertial parameters. The method is described and then obtained experimental results are presented and discussed.

  3. Accuracy Enhancement of Inertial Sensors Utilizing High Resolution Spectral Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Noureldin, Aboelmagd; Armstrong, Justin; El-Shafie, Ahmed; Karamat, Tashfeen; McGaughey, Don; Korenberg, Michael; Hussain, Aini

    2012-01-01

    In both military and civilian applications, the inertial navigation system (INS) and the global positioning system (GPS) are two complementary technologies that can be integrated to provide reliable positioning and navigation information for land vehicles. The accuracy enhancement of INS sensors and the integration of INS with GPS are the subjects of widespread research. Wavelet de-noising of INS sensors has had limited success in removing the long-term (low-frequency) inertial sensor errors. The primary objective of this research is to develop a novel inertial sensor accuracy enhancement technique that can remove both short-term and long-term error components from inertial sensor measurements prior to INS mechanization and INS/GPS integration. A high resolution spectral analysis technique called the fast orthogonal search (FOS) algorithm is used to accurately model the low frequency range of the spectrum, which includes the vehicle motion dynamics and inertial sensor errors. FOS models the spectral components with the most energy first and uses an adaptive threshold to stop adding frequency terms when fitting a term does not reduce the mean squared error more than fitting white noise. The proposed method was developed, tested and validated through road test experiments involving both low-end tactical grade and low cost MEMS-based inertial systems. The results demonstrate that in most cases the position accuracy during GPS outages using FOS de-noised data is superior to the position accuracy using wavelet de-noising.

  4. Inertial Motion Capture Costume Design Study

    PubMed Central

    Szczęsna, Agnieszka; Skurowski, Przemysław; Lach, Ewa; Pruszowski, Przemysław; Pęszor, Damian; Paszkuta, Marcin; Słupik, Janusz; Lebek, Kamil; Janiak, Mateusz; Polański, Andrzej; Wojciechowski, Konrad

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes a scalable, wearable multi-sensor system for motion capture based on inertial measurement units (IMUs). Such a unit is composed of accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer. The final quality of an obtained motion arises from all the individual parts of the described system. The proposed system is a sequence of the following stages: sensor data acquisition, sensor orientation estimation, system calibration, pose estimation and data visualisation. The construction of the system’s architecture with the dataflow programming paradigm makes it easy to add, remove and replace the data processing steps. The modular architecture of the system allows an effortless introduction of a new sensor orientation estimation algorithms. The original contribution of the paper is the design study of the individual components used in the motion capture system. The two key steps of the system design are explored in this paper: the evaluation of sensors and algorithms for the orientation estimation. The three chosen algorithms have been implemented and investigated as part of the experiment. Due to the fact that the selection of the sensor has a significant impact on the final result, the sensor evaluation process is also explained and tested. The experimental results confirmed that the choice of sensor and orientation estimation algorithm affect the quality of the final results. PMID:28304337

  5. Inertially confined fusion using heavy ion drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Bangerter, R.O.; Bock, R.

    1991-10-01

    The various technical issues of HIF will be briefly reviewed in this paper. It will be seen that there are numerous areas in common in all the approaches to HIF. In the recent International Symposium on Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion, the attendees met in specialized workshop sessions to consider the needs for research in each area. Each of the workshop groups considered the key questions of this report: (1) Is this an appropriate time for international collaboration in HIF (2) Which problems are most appropriate for such collaboration (3) Can the sharing of target design information be set aside untilmore » other driver and systems issues are better resolved, by which time it might be supposed that there could be a relaxation of classification of target issues (4) What form(s) of collaboration are most appropriate, e.g., bilateral or multilateral (5) Can international collaboration be sensibly attempted without significant increases in funding for HIF The authors of this report share the conviction that collaboration on a broad scale is mandatory for HIF to have the resources, both financial and personnel, to progress to a demonstration experiment. Ultimately it may be possible for a single driver with the energy, power, focusibility, and pulse shape to satisfy the needs of the international community for target physics research. Such a facility could service multiple experimental chambers with a variety of beam geometries and target concepts.« less

  6. Inertially confined fusion using heavy ion drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Bangerter, R.O.; Bock, R.

    1991-10-01

    The various technical issues of HIF will be briefly reviewed in this paper. It will be seen that there are numerous areas in common in all the approaches to HIF. In the recent International Symposium on Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion, the attendees met in specialized workshop sessions to consider the needs for research in each area. Each of the workshop groups considered the key questions of this report: (1) Is this an appropriate time for international collaboration in HIF? (2) Which problems are most appropriate for such collaboration? (3) Can the sharing of target design information be set aside untilmore » other driver and systems issues are better resolved, by which time it might be supposed that there could be a relaxation of classification of target issues? (4) What form(s) of collaboration are most appropriate, e.g., bilateral or multilateral? (5) Can international collaboration be sensibly attempted without significant increases in funding for HIF? The authors of this report share the conviction that collaboration on a broad scale is mandatory for HIF to have the resources, both financial and personnel, to progress to a demonstration experiment. Ultimately it may be possible for a single driver with the energy, power, focusibility, and pulse shape to satisfy the needs of the international community for target physics research. Such a facility could service multiple experimental chambers with a variety of beam geometries and target concepts.« less

  7. Progress on micromechanical inertial guidance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poth, Tim; Elwell, John

    1992-02-01

    The development of a lightweight inertial measurement units (IMUs) is described which uses micromechanical gyroscopes and accelerometers. The IMU concept is described in terms of the silicon components of the instrument and the projected size, cost, and accuracies. The gyroscopes and accelerometers are chemically etched from wafers of single-crystal silicon that can yield up to 4000 single instruments from one 4-inch wafer. Particular emphasis is placed on the control-loop analysis, designing the electronics, and increasing the instrument signal. Attention is given to the development of a buffer amplifier that is fabricated on the same substrate as the instrument to minimize readout noise. These advances are important for improving the signal-to-noise ratio, and 12 hrs of testing data show that the control and readout electronics are responsible for most of the residual walk. The IMUs have potential applications in automobile skid detectors and airbags, GPS navigation systems, and in aerospace guidance systems where weight is a primary concern.

  8. Inertial sensor and method of use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutierrez, Roman C. (Inventor); Tang, Tony K. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    The inertial sensor of the present invention utilizes a proof mass suspended from spring structures forming a nearly degenerate resonant structure into which a perturbation is introduced, causing a split in frequency of the two modes so that the mode shape become uniquely defined, and to the first order, remains orthogonal. The resonator is provided with a mass or inertia tensor with off-diagonal elements. These off-diagonal elements are large enough to change the mode shape of the two nearly degenerate modes from the original coordinate frame. The spring tensor is then provided with a compensating off-diagonal element, such that the mode shape is again defined in the original coordinate frame. The compensating off-diagonal element in the spring tensor is provided by a biasing voltage that softens certain elements in the spring tensor. Acceleration disturbs the compensation and the mode shape again changes from the original coordinate frame. By measuring the change in the mode shape, the acceleration is measured.

  9. Nacelle Aerodynamic and Inertial Loads (NAIL) project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A flight test survey of pressures measured on wing, pylon, and nacelle surfaces and of the operating loads on Boeing 747/Pratt & Whitney JT9D-7A nacelles was made to provide information on airflow patterns surrounding the propulsion system installations and to clarify processes responsible for inservice deterioration of fuel economy. Airloads at takeoff rotation were found to be larger than at any other normal service condition because of the combined effects of high angle of attack and high engine airflow. Inertial loads were smaller than previous estimates indicated. A procedure is given for estimating inlet airloads at low speeds and high angles of attack for any underwing high bypass ratio turbofan installation approximately resembling the one tested. Flight procedure modifications are suggested that may result in better fuel economy retention in service. Pressures were recorded on the core cowls and pylons of both engine installations and on adjacent wing surfaces for use in development of computer codes for analysis of installed propulsion system aerodynamic drag interference effects.

  10. New design for inertial piezoelectric motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lige; Ge, Weifeng; Meng, Wenjie; Hou, Yubin; Zhang, Jing; Lu, Qingyou

    2018-03-01

    We have designed, implemented, and tested a novel inertial piezoelectric motor (IPM) that is the first IPM to have controllable total friction force, which means that it sticks with large total friction forces and slips with severely reduced total friction forces. This allows the IPM to work with greater robustness and produce a larger output force at a lower threshold voltage while also providing higher rigidity. This is a new IPM design that means that the total friction force can be dramatically reduced or even canceled where necessary by pushing the clamping points at the ends of a piezoelectric tube that contains the sliding shaft inside it in the opposite directions during piezoelectric deformation. Therefore, when the shaft is propelled forward by another exterior piezoelectric tube, the inner piezoelectric tube can deform to reduce the total friction force acting on the shaft instantly and cause more effective stepping movement of the shaft. While our new IPM requires the addition of another piezoelectric tube, which leads to an increase in volume of 120% when compared with traditional IPMs, the average step size has increased by more than 400% and the threshold voltage has decreased by more than 50 V. The improvement in performance is far more significant than the increase in volume. This enhanced performance will allow the proposed IPM to work under large load conditions where a simple and powerful piezoelectric motor is needed.

  11. Measurements of Inertial Torques on Sedimenting Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamati, Rami; Roy, Anubhab; Koch, Don; Voth, Greg

    2017-11-01

    Stokes flow solutions predict that ellipsoids sedimenting in quiescent fluid keep their initial orientation. However, preferential alignment in low Reynolds number sedimentation is easily observed. For example, sun dogs form from alignment of sedimenting ice crystals. The cause of this preferential alignment is a torque due to non-zero fluid inertia that aligns particles with a long axis in the horizontal direction. These torques are predicted analytically for slender fibers with low Reynolds number based on the fiber diameter (ReD) by Khayat and Cox (JFM 209:435, 1989). Despite increasingly widespread use of these expressions, we did not find experimental measurements of these inertial torques at parameters where the theory was valid, so we performed a set of sedimentation experiments using fore-aft symmetric cylinders and asymmetric cylinders with their center of mass offset from their center of drag. Measured rotation rates as a function of orientation using carefully prepared glass capillaries in silicon oil show good agreement with the theory. We quantify the effect of finite tank size and compare with other experiments in water where the low ReD condition is not met. Supported by Army Research Office Grant W911NF1510205.

  12. HARP: A Dynamic Inertial Spectral Partitioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Horst D.; Sohn, Andrew; Biswas, Rupak

    1997-01-01

    Partitioning unstructured graphs is central to the parallel solution of computational science and engineering problems. Spectral partitioners, such recursive spectral bisection (RSB), have proven effecfive in generating high-quality partitions of realistically-sized meshes. The major problem which hindered their wide-spread use was their long execution times. This paper presents a new inertial spectral partitioner, called HARP. The main objective of the proposed approach is to quickly partition the meshes at runtime in a manner that works efficiently for real applications in the context of distributed-memory machines. The underlying principle of HARP is to find the eigenvectors of the unpartitioned vertices and then project them onto the eigerivectors of the original mesh. Results for various meshes ranging in size from 1000 to 100,000 vertices indicate that HARP can indeed partition meshes rapidly at runtime. Experimental results show that our largest mesh can be partitioned sequentially in only a few seconds on an SP2 which is several times faster than other spectral partitioners while maintaining the solution quality of the proven RSB method. A parallel WI version of HARP has also been implemented on IBM SP2 and Cray T3E. Parallel HARP, running on 64 processors SP2 and T3E, can partition a mesh containing more than 100,000 vertices into 64 subgrids in about half a second. These results indicate that graph partitioning can now be truly embedded in dynamically-changing real-world applications.

  13. MEMS and FOG Technologies for Tactical and Navigation Grade Inertial Sensors—Recent Improvements and Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Deppe, Olaf; Dorner, Georg; König, Stefan; Martin, Tim; Voigt, Sven; Zimmermann, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    In the following paper, we present an industry perspective of inertial sensors for navigation purposes driven by applications and customer needs. Microelectromechanical system (MEMS) inertial sensors have revolutionized consumer, automotive, and industrial applications and they have started to fulfill the high end tactical grade performance requirements of hybrid navigation systems on a series production scale. The Fiber Optic Gyroscope (FOG) technology, on the other hand, is further pushed into the near navigation grade performance region and beyond. Each technology has its special pros and cons making it more or less suitable for specific applications. In our overview paper, we present latest improvements at NG LITEF in tactical and navigation grade MEMS accelerometers, MEMS gyroscopes, and Fiber Optic Gyroscopes, based on our long-term experience in the field. We demonstrate how accelerometer performance has improved by switching from wet etching to deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) technology. For MEMS gyroscopes, we show that better than 1°/h series production devices are within reach, and for FOGs we present how limitations in noise performance were overcome by signal processing. The paper also intends a comparison of the different technologies, emphasizing suitability for different navigation applications, thus providing guidance to system engineers. PMID:28287483

  14. High-throughput rare cell separation from blood samples using steric hindrance and inertial microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Shen, Shaofei; Ma, Chao; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Yaolei; Wang, Jian-Chun; Xu, Juan; Li, Tianbao; Pang, Long; Wang, Jinyi

    2014-07-21

    The presence and quantity of rare cells in the bloodstream of cancer patients provide a potentially accessible source for the early detection of invasive cancer and for monitoring the treatment of advanced diseases. The separation of rare cells from peripheral blood, as a "virtual and real-time liquid biopsy", is expected to replace conventional tissue biopsies of metastatic tumors for therapy guidance. However, technical obstacles, similar to looking for a needle in a haystack, have hindered the broad clinical utility of this method. In this study, we developed a multistage microfluidic device for continuous label-free separation and enrichment of rare cells from blood samples based on cell size and deformability. We successfully separated tumor cells (MCF-7 and HeLa cells) and leukemic (K562) cells spiked in diluted whole blood using a unique complementary combination of inertial microfluidics and steric hindrance in a microfluidic system. The processing parameters of the inertial focusing and steric hindrance regions were optimized to achieve high-throughput and high-efficiency separation, significant advantages compared with existing rare cell isolation technologies. The results from experiments with rare cells spiked in 1% hematocrit blood indicated >90% cell recovery at a throughput of 2.24 × 10(7) cells min(-1). The enrichment of rare cells was >2.02 × 10(5)-fold. Thus, this microfluidic system driven by purely hydrodynamic forces has practical potential to be applied either alone or as a sample preparation platform for fundamental studies and clinical applications.

  15. Inertial nonvacuum states viewed from the Rindler frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lochan, Kinjalk; Padmanabhan, T.

    2015-02-01

    The appearance of the inertial vacuum state in Rindler frame has been extensively studied in the literature, both from the point of view of quantum field theory developed using Rindler foliation and using the response of an Unruh-Dewitt detector. In comparison, less attention has been devoted to the study of inertial nonvacuum states when viewed from the Rindler frame. We provide a comprehensive study of this issue in this paper. We first present a general formalism describing the characterization of arbitrary inertial state (i) when described using an arbitrary foliation and (ii) using the response of an Unruh-DeWitt detector moving along an arbitrary trajectory. This allows us to calculate the mean number of particles in an arbitrary inertial state, when the QFT is described using an arbitrary foliation of spacetime or when the state is probed by a detector moving along an arbitrary trajectory. We use this formalism to explicitly compute the results for the Rindler frame and uniformly accelerated detectors. Any arbitrary inertial state will always have a thermal component in the Rindler frame with additional contributions arising from the nonvacuum nature. We classify the nature of the additional contributions in terms of functions characterizing the inertial state. We establish that for all physically well-behaved normalizable inertial states, the correction terms decrease rapidly with the energy of the Rindler mode so that the high frequency limit is dominated by the thermal noise in any normalizable inertial state. However, inertial states which are not strictly normalizable like, for example, the one-particle state with definite momentum, lead to a constant contribution at all high frequencies in the Rindler frame. We show that a similar behavior arises in the response of the Unruh-DeWitt detector as well. In the case of the detector response, we provide a physical interpretation for the constant contribution at high frequencies in terms of total detection

  16. Conceptual design and issues of the laser inertial fusion test (LIFT) reactor—targets and chamber systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norimatsu, T.; Kozaki, Y.; Shiraga, H.; Fujita, H.; Okano, K.; Members of LIFT Design Team

    2017-11-01

    We present the conceptual design of an experimental laser fusion plant known as the laser inertial fusion test (LIFT) reactor. The conceptual design aims at technically connecting a single-shot experiment and a commercial power plant. The LIFT reactor is designed on a three-phase scheme, where each phase has specific goals and the dedicated chambers of each phase are driven by the same laser. Technical issues related to the chamber technology including radiation safety to repeat burst mode operation are discussed in this paper.

  17. Modification of inertial oscillations by the mesoscale eddy field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elipot, Shane; Lumpkin, Rick; Prieto, GermáN.

    2010-09-01

    The modification of near-surface near-inertial oscillations (NIOs) by the geostrophic vorticity is studied globally from an observational standpoint. Surface drifter are used to estimate NIO characteristics. Despite its spatial resolution limits, altimetry is used to estimate the geostrophic vorticity. Three characteristics of NIOs are considered: the relative frequency shift with respect to the local inertial frequency; the near-inertial variance; and the inverse excess bandwidth, which is interpreted as a decay time scale. The geostrophic mesoscale flow shifts the frequency of NIOs by approximately half its vorticity. Equatorward of 30°N and S, this effect is added to a global pattern of blue shift of NIOs. While the global pattern of near-inertial variance is interpretable in terms of wind forcing, it is also observed that the geostrophic vorticity organizes the near-inertial variance; it is maximum for near zero values of the Laplacian of the vorticity and decreases for nonzero values, albeit not as much for positive as for negative values. Because the Laplacian of vorticity and vorticity are anticorrelated in the altimeter data set, overall, more near-inertial variance is found in anticyclonic vorticity regions than in cyclonic regions. While this is compatible with anticyclones trapping NIOs, the organization of near-inertial variance by the Laplacian of vorticity is also in very good agreement with previous theoretical and numerical predictions. The inverse bandwidth is a decreasing function of the gradient of vorticity, which acts like the gradient of planetary vorticity to increase the decay of NIOs from the ocean surface. Because the altimetry data set captures the largest vorticity gradients in energetic mesoscale regions, it is also observed that NIOs decay faster in large geostrophic eddy kinetic energy regions.

  18. Near-inertial waves and deep ocean mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrira, V. I.; Townsend, W. A.

    2013-07-01

    For the existing pattern of global oceanic circulation to exist, there should be sufficiently strong turbulent mixing in the abyssal ocean, the mechanisms of which are not well understood as yet. The review discusses a plausible mechanism of deep ocean mixing caused by near-inertial waves in the abyssal ocean. It is well known how winds in the atmosphere generate near-inertial waves in the upper ocean, which then propagate downwards losing their energy in the process; only a fraction of the energy at the surface reaches the abyssal ocean. An open question is whether and, if yes, how these weakened inertial motions could cause mixing in the deep. We review the progress in the mathematical description of a mechanism that results in an intense breaking of near-inertial waves near the bottom of the ocean and thus enhances the mixing. We give an overview of the present state of understanding of the problem covering both the published and the unpublished results; we also outline the key open questions. For typical ocean stratification, the account of the horizontal component of the Earth's rotation leads to the existence of near-bottom wide waveguides for near-inertial waves. Due to the β-effect these waveguides are narrowing in the poleward direction. Near-inertial waves propagating poleward get trapped in the waveguides; we describe how in the process these waves are focusing more and more in the vertical direction, while simultaneously their group velocity tends to zero and wave-induced vertical shear significantly increases. This causes the development of shear instability, which is interpreted as wave breaking. Remarkably, this mechanism of local intensification of turbulent mixing in the abyssal ocean can be adequately described within the framework of linear theory. The qualitative picture is similar to wind wave breaking on a beach: the abyssal ocean always acts as a surf zone for near-inertial waves.

  19. First downscattered neutron images from Inertial Confinement Fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guler, Nevzat; Aragonez, Robert J.; Archuleta, Thomas N.; Batha, Steven H.; Clark, David D.; Clark, Deborah J.; Danly, Chris R.; Day, Robert D.; Fatherley, Valerie E.; Finch, Joshua P.; Gallegos, Robert A.; Garcia, Felix P.; Grim, Gary; Hsu, Albert H.; Jaramillo, Steven A.; Loomis, Eric N.; Mares, Danielle; Martinson, Drew D.; Merrill, Frank E.; Morgan, George L.; Munson, Carter; Murphy, Thomas J.; Oertel, John A.; Polk, Paul J.; Schmidt, Derek W.; Tregillis, Ian L.; Valdez, Adelaida C.; Volegov, Petr L.; Wang, Tai-Sen F.; Wilde, Carl H.; Wilke, Mark D.; Wilson, Douglas C.; Atkinson, Dennis P.; Bower, Dan E.; Drury, Owen B.; Dzenitis, John M.; Felker, Brian; Fittinghoff, David N.; Frank, Matthias; Liddick, Sean N.; Moran, Michael J.; Roberson, George P.; Weiss, Paul; Buckles, Robert A.; Cradick, Jerry R.; Kaufman, Morris I.; Lutz, Steve S.; Malone, Robert M.; Traille, Albert

    2013-11-01

    Inertial Confinement Fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) are designed to understand and test the basic principles of self-sustaining fusion reactions by laser driven compression of deuterium-tritium (DT) filled cryogenic plastic (CH) capsules. The experimental campaign is ongoing to tune the implosions and characterize the burning plasma conditions. Nuclear diagnostics play an important role in measuring the characteristics of these burning plasmas, providing feedback to improve the implosion dynamics. The Neutron Imaging (NI) diagnostic provides information on the distribution of the central fusion reaction region and the surrounding DT fuel by collecting images at two different energy bands for primary (13-15 MeV) and downscattered (10-12 MeV) neutrons. From these distributions, the final shape and size of the compressed capsule can be estimated and the symmetry of the compression can be inferred. The first downscattered neutron images from imploding ICF capsules are shown in this paper.

  20. Inertial Confinement Fusion Quarterly Report: April--June 1993. Volume 3, Number 3

    SciTech Connect

    MacGowan, B.J.; Kotowski, M.; Schleich, D.

    1993-11-01

    This issue of the ICF Quarterly contains six articles describing recent advances in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s inertial confinement fusion (ICF) program. The current emphasis of the ICF program is in support of DOE`s National Ignition Facility (NIF) initiative for demonstrating ignition and gain with a 1-2 MJ glass laser. The articles describe recent Nova experiments and investigations tailored towards enhancing understanding of the key physics and technological issues for the NIF. Titles of the articles are: development of large-aperture KDP crystals; inner-shell photo-ionized X-ray lasers; X-ray radiographic measurements of radiation-driven shock and interface motion in solid density materials; themore » role of nodule defects in laser-induced damage of multilayer optical coatings; techniques for Mbar to near-Gbar equation-of-state measurements with the Nova laser; parametric instabilities and laser-beam smoothing.« less

  1. Regulation of pressure anisotropy in the solar wind: processes within inertial range of turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strumik, M.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Squire, J.; Bale, S. D.

    2016-12-01

    Dynamics of weakly collisional plasmas may lead to thermal pressure anisotropies that are driven by velocity shear, plasma expansion/compression or temperature gradients. The pressure anisotropies can provide free energy for the growth of micro-scale instabilities, like the mirror of firehose instabilities, that are commonly believed to constrain the pressure anisotropy in the solar wind if appropriate thresholds are exceeded. We discuss possible alternative mechanisms of regulation of the pressure anisotropy in the inertial range of solar wind turbulence that provide β-dependent constraints on the amplitude of fluctuations of pressure components and other quantities. In particular it is shown that double-adiabatic (CGL) closure for magnetohydrodynamic regime leads to 1/β scaling of the amplitude of the pressure component fluctuations and the pressure anisotropy. Both freely decaying and forced turbulence are discussed based on results of 3D numerical simulations and analytical theoretical predictions. The theoretical results are contrasted with WIND spacecraft measurements.

  2. The HALNA project: Diode-pumped solid-state laser for inertial fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, T.; Ikegawa, T.; Kawanaka, J.; Miyanaga, N.; Nakatsuka, M.; Izawa, Y.; Matsumoto, O.; Yasuhara, R.; Kurita, T.; Sekine, T.; Miyamoto, M.; Kan, H.; Furukawa, H.; Motokoshi, S.; Kanabe, T.

    2006-06-01

    High-enery, rep.-rated, diode-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL) is one of leading candidates for inertial fusion energy driver (IFE) and related laser-driven high-field applications. The project for the development of IFE laser driver in Japan, HALNA (High Average-power Laser for Nuclear Fusion Application) at ILE, Osaka University, aims to demonstrate 100-J pulse energy at 10 Hz rep. rate with 5 times diffraction limited beam quality. In this article, the advanced solid-state laser technologies for one half scale of HALNA (50 J, 10 Hz) are presented including thermally managed slab amplifier of Nd:phosphate glass and zig-zag optical geometry, and uniform, large-area diode-pumping.

  3. The MICROSCOPE inertial sensor: qualification status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos Rodrigues, Manuel; Touboul, Pierre; Liorzou, Francoise; Bodoville, Guillaume

    The payload of the MICROSCOPE space mission embarks two pairs of test-masses, made of Platinum Rhodium alloy and Titanium alloy, that are used to perform the test of the Uni-versality of free fall, i.e. of the Equivalence Principle (EP). These cylindrical test-masses are at the core of the inertial sensors used to perform the full drag-free and attitude control of the satellite. Based on electrostatic space accelerometers developed in ONERA, the payload has been designed with challenging technologies for the electronics and for the sensor core. Following a very specific development plan, the payload is currently in the qualification phase, by being integrated after a long period of challenging accurate production and metrology. The results obtained for the driving components of the expected performance will be addressed. In particular, the micrometric metrology of the instrument core, made in gold coated silica, will be presented: the specific ultra-sonic machining processes, optimized for this production, indeed exhibit a few micrometers accuracy. Similar accuracy is obtained for the geometry of the test-masses, produced and controlled in collaboration with the PTB, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. This accurate geometry and the specific selected shape is mandatory to balance the mass moment of inertia for gravity gradient rejection and to highly decouple the instru-ment measurement axes. The first results of the flight model electronics will be also presented demonstrating micro-volt low noise and weak thermal sensitivity in good agreement with the requirements. At last, the development status of the payload will be mentioned insisting on the coming milestones.

  4. Definition of Ignition in Inertial Confinement Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christopherson, A. R.; Betti, R.

    2017-10-01

    Defining ignition in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is an unresolved problem. In ICF, a distinction must be made between the ignition of the hot spot and the propagation of the burn wave in the surrounding dense fuel. Burn propagation requires that the hot spot is robustly ignited and the dense shell exhibits enough areal density. Since most of the energy gain comes from burning the dense shell, in a scale of increasing yields, hot-spot ignition comes before high gains. Identifying this transition from hot-spot ignition to burn-wave propagation is key to defining ignition in general terms applicable to all fusion approaches that use solid DT fuel. Ad hoc definitions such as gain = 1 or doubling the temperature are not generally valid. In this work, we show that it is possible to identify the onset of ignition through a unique value of the yield amplification defined as the ratio of the fusion yield including alpha-particle deposition to the fusion yield without alphas. Since the yield amplification is a function of the fractional alpha energy fα =EαEα 2Ehs 2Ehs (a measurable quantity), it appears possible not only to define ignition but also to measure the onset of ignition by the experimental inference of the fractional alpha energy and yield amplification. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy Office of Fusion Energy Services under Award Number DE-FC02-04ER54789 and National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  5. Inertial wave beams and inertial wave modes in a rotating cylinder with time-modulated rotation rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borcia, Ion D.; Ghasemi V., Abouzar; Harlander, Uwe

    2014-05-01

    Inertial gravity waves play an crucial role in atmospheres, oceans, and the fluid inside of planets and moons. In the atmosphere, the effect of rotation is neglected for small wavelength and the waves bear the character of internal gravity waves. For long waves, the hydrostatic assumption is made which in turn makes the atmosphere inelastic with respect to inertial motion. In contrast, in the Earth's interior, pure inertial waves are considered as an important fundamental part of the motion. Moreover, as the deep ocean is nearly homogeneous, there the inertial gravity waves bear the character of inertial waves. Excited at the oceans surface mainly due to weather systems the waves can propagate downward and influence the deep oceans motion. In the light of the aforesaid it is important to understand better fundamental inertial wave dynamics. We investigate inertial wave modes by experimental and numerical methods. Inertial modes are excited in a fluid filled rotating annulus by modulating the rotation rate of the outer cylinder and the upper and lower lids. This forcing leads to inertial wave beams emitted from the corner regions of the annulus due to periodic motions in the boundary layers (Klein et al., 2013). When the forcing frequency matches with the eigenfrequency of the rotating annulus the beam pattern amplitude is increasing, the beams broaden and mode structures can be observed (Borcia et al., 2013a). The eigenmodes are compared with analytical solutions of the corresponding inviscid problem (Borcia et al, 2013b). In particular for the pressure field a good agreement can be found. However, shear layers related to the excited wave beams are present for all frequencies. This becomes obvious in particular in the experimental visualizations that are done by using Kalliroscope particles, highlighting relative motion in the fluid. Comparing the eigenfrequencies we find that relative to the analytical frequencies, the experimental and numerical ones show a small

  6. Inertial Confinement Fusion Annual Report 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Correll, D

    The ICF Annual Report provides documentation of the achievements of the LLNL ICF Program during the fiscal year by the use of two formats: (1) an Overview that is a narrative summary of important results for the fiscal year and (2) a compilation of the articles that previously appeared in the ICF Quarterly Report that year. Both the Overview and Quarterly Report are also on the Web at http://lasers.llnl.gov/lasers/pubs/icfq.html. Beginning in Fiscal Year 1997, the fourth quarter issue of the ICF Quarterly was no longer printed as a separate document but rather included in the ICF Annual. This change providedmore » a more efficient process of documenting our accomplishments with-out unnecessary duplication of printing. In addition we introduced a new document, the ICF Program Monthly Highlights. Starting with the September 1997 issue and each month following, the Monthly Highlights will provide a brief description of noteworthy activities of interest to our DOE sponsors and our stakeholders. The underlying theme for LLNL's ICF Program research continues to be defined within DOE's Defense Programs missions and goals. In support of these missions and goals, the ICF Program advances research and technology development in major interrelated areas that include fusion target theory and design, target fabrication, target experiments, and laser and optical science and technology. While in pursuit of its goal of demonstrating thermonuclear fusion ignition and energy gain in the laboratory, the ICF Program provides research and development opportunities in fundamental high-energy-density physics and supports the necessary research base for the possible long-term application of inertial fusion energy for civilian power production. ICF technologies continue to have spin-off applications for additional government and industrial use. In addition to these topics, the ICF Annual Report covers non-ICF funded, but related, laser research and development and associated applications

  7. Simulations of the interaction of intense petawatt laser pulses with dense Z-pinch plasmas : final report LDRD 39670.

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, Dale Robert; MacFarlane, Joseph John; Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan

    We have studied the feasibility of using the 3D fully electromagnetic implicit hybrid particle code LSP (Large Scale Plasma) to study laser plasma interactions with dense, compressed plasmas like those created with Z, and which might be created with the planned ZR. We have determined that with the proper additional physics and numerical algorithms developed during the LDRD period, LSP was transformed into a unique platform for studying such interactions. Its uniqueness stems from its ability to consider realistic compressed densities and low initial target temperatures (if required), an ability that conventional PIC codes do not possess. Through several testmore » cases, validations, and applications to next generation machines described in this report, we have established the suitability of the code to look at fast ignition issues for ZR, as well as other high-density laser plasma interaction problems relevant to the HEDP program at Sandia (e.g. backlighting).« less

  8. Thermonuclear ignition by Z-pinch X-ray radiation produced by current of an explosive magnetic generator

    SciTech Connect

    Garanin, S. G.; Ivanovskiy, A. V., E-mail: ivanovsky@elph.vniief.ru

    2015-12-15

    The scheme of a device based a superpower disk-type magnetic explosion generator to produce a pulse of X-ray radiation with the energy exceeding the target ignition threshold is described and validated.

  9. Neutron Energy and Flux Distributions from a Crossed-Field Acceleration Model of Plasma Focus and Z-Pinch Discharges.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    plasma focus . A generalized beam-target model is assumed where (1) high-energy deuterons have angular distributions consistent with a crossed-field acceleration mechanism, and (2) these energetic deuterons undergo fusion collisions primarily with stationary target ions. Energy distributions of ions proportional to 1/(E sub d) cubed in the range from 50 to as high as 600 keV give computed results agreeing with many experimental observations at laboratory angles of 0, 90, and 180 deg. These ion-energy distributions can account for a 50- to 100-fold increase in neutron yeild

  10. Formation of a dual-stage pinch-accelerator in a Z-pinch (plasma focus) device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behbahani, R. A.; Hirose, A.; Xiao, C.

    2018-01-01

    A novel dense plasma focus configuration with two separate concentric current sheet run-down regions has been demonstrated to produce several consecutive plasma focusing events. In a proof-of-principle experiment on a low-energy plasma focus device, the measured tube voltages and discharge current have been explained by using circuit analyses of the device. Based on the calculated plasma voltages the occurrence of flash-over phase, axial phase, and compression phase has been discussed. The electrical signals along with the calculated plasma voltages suggest the occurrence of several focusing events in the new structure.

  11. Thermonuclear ignition by Z-pinch X-ray radiation produced by current of an explosive magnetic generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garanin, S. G.; Ivanovskiy, A. V.

    2015-12-01

    The scheme of a device based a superpower disk-type magnetic explosion generator to produce a pulse of X-ray radiation with the energy exceeding the target ignition threshold is described and validated.

  12. Convective Excitation of Inertial Modes in Binary Neutron Star Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Pietri, Roberto; Feo, Alessandra; Font, José A.; Löffler, Frank; Maione, Francesco; Pasquali, Michele; Stergioulas, Nikolaos

    2018-06-01

    We present the first very long-term simulations (extending up to ˜140 ms after merger) of binary neutron star mergers with piecewise polytropic equations of state and in full general relativity. Our simulations reveal that, at a time of 30-50 ms after merger, parts of the star become convectively unstable, which triggers the excitation of inertial modes. The excited inertial modes are sustained up to several tens of milliseconds and are potentially observable by the planned third-generation gravitational-wave detectors at frequencies of a few kilohertz. Since inertial modes depend on the rotation rate of the star and they are triggered by a convective instability in the postmerger remnant, their detection in gravitational waves will provide a unique opportunity to probe the rotational and thermal state of the merger remnant. In addition, our findings have implications for the long-term evolution and stability of binary neutron star remnants.

  13. Inflight alignment of payload inertial reference from Shuttle navigation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treder, A. J.; Norris, R. E.; Ruprecht, R.

    Two methods for payload attitude initialization from the STS Orbiter have been proposed: body axis maneuvers (BAM) and star line maneuvers (SLM). The first achieves alignment directly through the Shuttle star tracker, while the second, indirectly through the stellar-updated Shuttle inertial platform. The Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) with its strapdown navigation system is used to demonstrate in-flight alignment techniques. Significant accuracy can be obtained with minimal impact on Orbiter operations, with payload inertial reference potentially approaching the accuracy of the Shuttle star tracker. STS-6 flight performance parameters, including alignment stability, are discussed and compared with operational complexity. Results indicate overall alignment stability of .06 deg, 3 sigma per axis.

  14. Active Vibration Isolation Devices with Inertial Servo Actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melik-Shakhnazarov, V. A.; Strelov, V. I.; Sofiyanchuk, D. V.; Tregubenko, A. A.

    2018-03-01

    The use of active vibration isolation devices (AVIDs) in aerospace engineering is subject to the following restrictions. First, the volume for installing additional devices is always limited in instrument racks and compartments. Secondly, in many cases, it is impossible to add supports for servo actuators for fundamental or design considerations. In the paper, it has been shown that this problem can be solved if the inertial servo actuators are used in AVIDs instead of reference actuators. A transfer function has been theoretically calculated for an AVID controlled by inertial actuators. It has been shown that the volume of a six-mode single-housing AVID with inertial actuators can be 2-2.5 times smaller than that of devices with support actuators.

  15. Detecting inertial effects with airborne matter-wave interferometry

    PubMed Central

    Geiger, R.; Ménoret, V.; Stern, G.; Zahzam, N.; Cheinet, P.; Battelier, B.; Villing, A.; Moron, F.; Lours, M.; Bidel, Y.; Bresson, A.; Landragin, A.; Bouyer, P.

    2011-01-01

    Inertial sensors relying on atom interferometry offer a breakthrough advance in a variety of applications, such as inertial navigation, gravimetry or ground- and space-based tests of fundamental physics. These instruments require a quiet environment to reach their performance and using them outside the laboratory remains a challenge. Here we report the first operation of an airborne matter-wave accelerometer set up aboard a 0g plane and operating during the standard gravity (1g) and microgravity (0g) phases of the flight. At 1g, the sensor can detect inertial effects more than 300 times weaker than the typical acceleration fluctuations of the aircraft. We describe the improvement of the interferometer sensitivity in 0g, which reaches 2 x 10-4 ms-2 / √Hz with our current setup. We finally discuss the extension of our method to airborne and spaceborne tests of the Universality of free fall with matter waves. PMID:21934658

  16. Inertial vestibular coding of motion: concepts and evidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, B. J.; Angelaki, D. E.

    1997-01-01

    Central processing of inertial sensory information about head attitude and motion in space is crucial for motor control. Vestibular signals are coded relative to a non-inertial system, the head, that is virtually continuously in motion. Evidence for transformation of vestibular signals from head-fixed sensory coordinates to gravity-centered coordinates have been provided by studies of the vestibulo-ocular reflex. The underlying central processing depends on otolith afferent information that needs to be resolved in terms of head translation related inertial forces and head attitude dependent pull of gravity. Theoretical solutions have been suggested, but experimental evidence is still scarce. It appears, along these lines, that gaze control systems are intimately linked to motor control of head attitude and posture.

  17. Performance Thresholds for Application of MEMS Inertial Sensors in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smit, Geoffrey N.

    1995-01-01

    We review types of inertial sensors available and current usage of inertial sensors in space and the performance requirements for these applications. We then assess the performance available from micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) devices, both in the near and far term. Opportunities for the application of these devices are identified. A key point is that although the performance available from MEMS inertial sensors is significantly lower than that achieved by existing macroscopic devices (at least in the near term), the low cost, low size, and power of the MEMS devices opens up a number of applications. In particular, we show that there are substantial benefits to using MEMS devices to provide vibration, and for some missions, attitude sensing. In addition, augmentation for global positioning system (GPS) navigation systems holds much promise.

  18. Inertial Frames Without the Relativity Principle: Breaking Lorentz Symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baccetti, Valentina; Tate, Kyle; Visser, Matt

    2015-01-01

    We investigate inertial frames in the absence of Lorentz invariance, reconsidering the usual group structure implied by the relativity principle. We abandon the relativity principle, discarding the group structure for the transformations between inertial frames, while requiring these transformations to be at least linear (to preserve homogeneity). In theories with a preferred frame (aether), the set of transformations between inertial frames forms a groupoid/pseudogroup instead of a group, a characteristic essential to evading the von Ignatowsky theorems. In order to understand the dynamics, we also demonstrate that the transformation rules for energy and momentum are in general affine. We finally focus on one specific and compelling model implementing a minimalist violation of Lorentz invariance.

  19. X-Ray Radiography of Laser-Driven Shocks for Inertial Confinement Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kar, A.; Radha, P. B.; Edgell, D. H.; Hu, S. X.; Boehly, T. R.; Goncharov, V. N.; Regan, S. P.; Shvydky, A.

    2017-10-01

    Side-on x-ray radiography of shock waves transiting through the planar plastic ablator and cryogenic fuel layer will be used to study shock timing, shock coalescence, shock breakout, and hydrodynamic mixing at the ablator-fuel interface. The injection of ablator material into the fuel can potentially compromise implosion target performance. The difference in refractive indices of the ablator and the fuel can be exploited to image shocks transiting the interface. An experiment to probe the ablator-fuel interface and a postprocessor to the hydrodynamic code DRACO that uses refraction enhanced imaging to view shocks are presented. The advantages of this technique to view shocks are explored and additional applications such as viewing the spatial location of multiple shocks, or the evolution of nonuniformity on shock fronts are discussed. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  20. Systematic Fuel Cavity Asymmetries in Directly Driven Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions

    DOE PAGES

    Shah, Rahul C.; Haines, Brian Michael; Wysocki, Frederick Joseph; ...

    2017-03-30

    Here, we present narrow-band self-emission x-ray images from a titanium tracer layer placed at the fuel-shell interface in 60-laser-beam implosion experiments at the OMEGA facility. The images are acquired during deceleration with inferred convergences of ~9-14. Novel here is that a systematically observed asymmetry of the emission is linked, using full sphere 3D implosion modeling, to performance-limiting low mode asymmetry of the drive.

  1. Beam Requirements for Light-Ion-Driven Inertial-Confinement Fusion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-27

    NN 8711S Attn: J. R. Freenan I copy General Electric Company S. Hmphries 1 copy Space Division o. J. Johnson I copy Valley Forge Space Center G. W...for 3141 Sandia RPT Coll I copy Attn: J. C. Penden VFSC. PA. 4230M 1 copy AVCO Iesearch ard Systems Sroup General Electric Company 201 Lowell Street...copy Attn: P. Sub 1 copy Beeing Company . The Institute for Defense Analyses P. 0. Box 3707 400 Army-Navy Drive Seattle. VA 9蕌 Arlington, VA 22202 Attn

  2. Characteristics of inertial currents observed in offshore wave records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemmrich, J.; Garrett, C.

    2012-04-01

    It is well known that ambient currents can change the amplitude, direction and frequency of ocean surface waves. Regions with persistent strong currents, such as the Agulhas current off the east coast of South Africa, are known as areas of extreme waves, and wave height modulations of up to 50% observed in the shallow North Sea have been linked to tidal currents. In the open ocean, inertial currents, while intermittent, are typically the most energetic currents with speeds up to 0.5 m/s, and can interact with the surface wave field to create wave modulation, though this has not previously been reported. We use long records of significant wave heights from buoy observations in the northeast Pacific and show evidence of significant modulation at frequencies that are slightly higher than the local inertial frequency. Quite apart from the relevance to surface waves, this result can provide a consistent and independent measurement, over a wide range of latitudes, of the frequency blue-shift, the strength and intermittency of ocean surface inertial currents. Near-inertial waves constitute the most energetic portion of the internal wave band and play a significant role in deep ocean mixing. So far, observational data on near-surface inertial currents has tended to come from short records that do not permit the reliable determination of the frequency blue-shift, though this is an important factor affecting the energy flux from the surface into deeper waters. Long records from routine wave height observations are widely available and could help to shed new light globally on the blue-shift and on the characteristics of inertial currents.

  3. Sensorimotor Adaptation Following Exposure to Ambiguous Inertial Motion Cues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, S. J.; Clement, G. R.; Rupert, A. H.; Reschke, M. F.; Harm, D. L.; Guedry, F. E.

    2007-01-01

    The central nervous system must resolve the ambiguity of inertial motion sensory cues in order to derive accurate spatial orientation awareness. Adaptive changes in how inertial cues from the otolith system are integrated with other sensory information lead to perceptual and postural disturbances upon return to Earth s gravity. The primary goals of this ground-based research investigation are to explore physiological mechanisms and operational implications of tilt-translation disturbances during and following re-entry, and to evaluate a tactile prosthesis as a countermeasure for improving control of whole-body orientation during tilt and translation motion.

  4. Sampling and Control Circuit Board for an Inertial Measurement Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chelmins, David T (Inventor); Sands, Obed (Inventor); Powis, Richard T., Jr. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A circuit board that serves as a control and sampling interface to an inertial measurement unit ("IMU") is provided. The circuit board is also configured to interface with a local oscillator and an external trigger pulse. The circuit board is further configured to receive the external trigger pulse from an external source that time aligns the local oscillator and initiates sampling of the inertial measurement device for data at precise time intervals based on pulses from the local oscillator. The sampled data may be synchronized by the circuit board with other sensors of a navigation system via the trigger pulse.

  5. New amplifying laser concept for inertial fusion driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourou, G. A.; Labaune, C.; Hulin, D.; Galvanauskas, A.

    2008-05-01

    This paper presents a new amplifying laser concept designed to produce high energy in either short or long pulses using coherent or incoherent addition of few millions fibers. These are called respectively CAN for Coherent Amplification Network and FAN for Fiber Amplification Network. The fibers would be large core or Large Mode Area (LMA) which have demonstrated up to 10, mJ output energy per fiber1. Such a system could meet the driver criteria of Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) power plants based on Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF), in particular high efficiency and high repetition rate.

  6. Critical Science Issues for Direct Drive Inertial Fusion Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlburg, Jill P.; Gardner, John H.; Schmitt, Andrew J.; Obenschain, S. P.

    1998-09-01

    There are several topics that require resolution prior to the construction of an Inertial Fusion Energy [IFE] laboratory Engineering Test Facility [ETF]: a pellet that produces high gain; a pellet fabrication system that cost-effectively and rapidly manufactures these pellets; a sufficiently uniform and durable high repetition-rate laser pellet driver; a practical target injection system that provides accurate pellet aiming; and, a target chamber that will survive the debris and radiation of repeated high-gain pellet implosions. In this summary we describe the science issues and opportunities that are involved in the design of a successful high gain direct drive Inertial Confinement Fusion [ICF] pellet.

  7. Walking Distance Estimation Using Walking Canes with Inertial Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Young Soo

    2018-01-01

    A walking distance estimation algorithm for cane users is proposed using an inertial sensor unit attached to various positions on the cane. A standard inertial navigation algorithm using an indirect Kalman filter was applied to update the velocity and position of the cane during movement. For quadripod canes, a standard zero-velocity measurement-updating method is proposed. For standard canes, a velocity-updating method based on an inverted pendulum model is proposed. The proposed algorithms were verified by three walking experiments with two different types of canes and different positions of the sensor module. PMID:29342971

  8. Diagnosing magnetized liner inertial fusion experiments on Z

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, S. B., E-mail: sbhanse@sandia.gov; Gomez, M. R.; Sefkow, A. B.

    Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion experiments performed at Sandia's Z facility have demonstrated significant thermonuclear fusion neutron yields (∼10{sup 12} DD neutrons) from multi-keV deuterium plasmas inertially confined by slow (∼10 cm/μs), stable, cylindrical implosions. Effective magnetic confinement of charged fusion reactants and products is signaled by high secondary DT neutron yields above 10{sup 10}. Analysis of extensive power, imaging, and spectroscopic x-ray measurements provides a detailed picture of ∼3 keV temperatures, 0.3 g/cm{sup 3} densities, gradients, and mix in the fuel and liner over the 1–2 ns stagnation duration.

  9. Gravito-inertial sensitivity of the spider - Araneus sericatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finck, A.

    1982-01-01

    The gravito-inertial transfer function of the orb-weaving spider was evaluated by changes in the cardiac reflex. A non-intrusive method, using a laser system recorded the cardiac pulse. Between 1.001 and 1.5 Gz the data are 'best-fit' by a log function (r-squared 0.92). The response of the neurogenic heart is seen to be a good dependent variable for invetebrate research. The arachnid lyriform organ has those qualities which complement the obtained gravity function. It is hypothesized that the cardiac pump maintains the spiders equilibrium in the gravito-inertial field.

  10. Two-plasmon decay mitigation in direct-drive inertial-confinement-fusion experiments using multilayer targets

    DOE PAGES

    Follett, R. K.; Delettrez, J. A.; Edgell, D. H.; ...

    2016-04-15

    Multilayer direct-drive inertial-confinement-fusion (ICF) targets are shown to significantly reduce two-plasmon-decay (TPD) driven hot-electron production while maintaining high hydrodynamic efficiency. Implosion experiments on the OMEGA Laser used targets with silicon layered between an inner beryllium and outer silicon-doped plastic ablator. A factor of five reduction in hot-electron generation (> 50 keV) was observed in the multilayer targets relative to pure CH targets. Three-dimensional simulations of the TPD driven hot-electron production using a laser-plasma interaction code (LPSE) that includes nonlinear and kinetic effects show excellent agreement with the measurements. As a result, the simulations suggest that the reduction in hot-electron productionmore » observed in the multilayer targets is primarily due to increased electron-ion collisional damping.« less

  11. Two-Plasmon Decay Mitigation in Direct-Drive Inertial-Confinement-Fusion Experiments Using Multilayer Targets.

    PubMed

    Follett, R K; Delettrez, J A; Edgell, D H; Goncharov, V N; Henchen, R J; Katz, J; Michel, D T; Myatt, J F; Shaw, J; Solodov, A A; Stoeckl, C; Yaakobi, B; Froula, D H

    2016-04-15

    Multilayer direct-drive inertial-confinement-fusion targets are shown to significantly reduce two-plasmon decay (TPD) driven hot-electron production while maintaining high hydrodynamic efficiency. Implosion experiments on the OMEGA laser used targets with silicon layered between an inner beryllium and outer silicon-doped plastic ablator. A factor-of-5 reduction in hot-electron generation (>50  keV) was observed in the multilayer targets relative to pure CH targets. Three-dimensional simulations of the TPD-driven hot-electron production using a laser-plasma interaction code (lpse) that includes nonlinear and kinetic effects show good agreement with the measurements. The simulations suggest that the reduction in hot-electron production observed in the multilayer targets is primarily caused by increased electron-ion collisional damping.

  12. Inertial confinement fusion and fast ignitor studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willi, O.; Barringer, L.; Bell, A.; Borghesi, M.; Davies, J.; Gaillard, R.; Iwase, A.; MacKinnon, A.; Malka, G.; Meyer, C.; Nuruzzaman, S.; Taylor, R.; Vickers, C.; Hoarty, D.; Gobby, P.; Johnson, R.; Watt, R. G.; Blanchot, N.; Canaud, B.; Croso, H.; Meyer, B.; Miquel, J. L.; Reverdin, C.; Pukhov, A.; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.

    2000-03-01

    Laser imprinting has been studied and, in particular, saturation of areal density perturbations induced by near single mode laser imprinting was observed. Several issues important for the foam buffered direct drive scheme have been investigated. These studies included measurements of the absolute levels of stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering observed from laser irradiated low density foam targets, either bare or overcoated with a thin layer of gold. A novel scheme is proposed to increase the pressure in indirectly driven targets. By heating a foam supersonically that is attached to a solid target the pressure generated is not only the ablation pressure but also the combined pressure due to ablation at the foam-foil interface and the heated foam material. Planar brominated plastic foil targets overcoated with a low density foam were irradiated by a soft X ray pulse. The pressure was obtained by comparing the rear side trajectory of the driven target observed by soft X ray radiography with one dimensional radiation hydrodynamic simulations. Observations were also carried out of the transition from supersonic to subsonic propagation of an ionization front in low density chlorinated foam targets irradiated by an intense soft X ray pulse. The diagnostic for these measurements was K shell point projection absorption spectroscopy. In the fast ignitor area the channelling and guiding of picosecond laser pulses through underdense plasmas, preformed density channels and microtubes were investigated. It was observed that a large fraction of the incident laser energy can be propagated. Megagauss magnetic fields were measured, with a polarimetric technique, during and after propagation of intense picosecond pulses in preionized plasmas. Two types of toroidal fields, of opposite orientation, were detected. In addition, the production and propagation of an electron beam through solid glass targets irradiated at intensities above 1019W/cm2 were observed using optical probing

  13. Flight test results of the Strapdown hexad Inertial Reference Unit (SIRU). Volume 1: Flight test summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hruby, R. J.; Bjorkman, W. S.

    1977-01-01

    Flight test results of the strapdown inertial reference unit (SIRU) navigation system are presented. The fault-tolerant SIRU navigation system features a redundant inertial sensor unit and dual computers. System software provides for detection and isolation of inertial sensor failures and continued operation in the event of failures. Flight test results include assessments of the system's navigational performance and fault tolerance.

  14. 40 CFR 1065.295 - PM inertial balance for field-testing analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PM inertial balance for field-testing... inertial balance for field-testing analysis. (a) Application. You may use an inertial balance to quantify... balance that meets the specifications in Table 1 of § 1065.205. Note that your balance-based system must...

  15. 40 CFR 1065.295 - PM inertial balance for field-testing analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false PM inertial balance for field-testing... inertial balance for field-testing analysis. (a) Application. You may use an inertial balance to quantify... balance that meets the specifications in Table 1 of § 1065.205. Note that your balance-based system must...

  16. Systematic Calibration for Ultra-High Accuracy Inertial Measurement Units.

    PubMed

    Cai, Qingzhong; Yang, Gongliu; Song, Ningfang; Liu, Yiliang

    2016-06-22

    An inertial navigation system (INS) has been widely used in challenging GPS environments. With the rapid development of modern physics, an atomic gyroscope will come into use in the near future with a predicted accuracy of 5 × 10(-6)°/h or better. However, existing calibration methods and devices can not satisfy the accuracy requirements of future ultra-high accuracy inertial sensors. In this paper, an improved calibration model is established by introducing gyro g-sensitivity errors, accelerometer cross-coupling errors and lever arm errors. A systematic calibration method is proposed based on a 51-state Kalman filter and smoother. Simulation results show that the proposed calibration method can realize the estimation of all the parameters using a common dual-axis turntable. Laboratory and sailing tests prove that the position accuracy in a five-day inertial navigation can be improved about 8% by the proposed calibration method. The accuracy can be improved at least 20% when the position accuracy of the atomic gyro INS can reach a level of 0.1 nautical miles/5 d. Compared with the existing calibration methods, the proposed method, with more error sources and high order small error parameters calibrated for ultra-high accuracy inertial measurement units (IMUs) using common turntables, has a great application potential in future atomic gyro INSs.

  17. 120. INERTIAL MEASUREMENT UNIT (IMU) NITROGEN PURGE REGULATOR PANEL FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    120. INERTIAL MEASUREMENT UNIT (IMU) NITROGEN PURGE REGULATOR PANEL FOR DEFENSE METEOROLOGICAL SYSTEM PROGRAM (DMSP) PAYLOADS IN SOUTHWEST CORNER OF VEHICLE MECHANICAL SYSTEMS ROOM (111), LSB (BLDG. 770) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  18. Compression of magnetized target in the magneto-inertial fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzenov, V. V.

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model, numerical method and results of the computer analysis of the compression process and the energy transfer in the target plasma, used in magneto-inertial fusion. The computer simulation of the compression process of magnetized cylindrical target by high-power laser pulse is presented.

  19. Inertial Particle Migration in the Presence of a Permeate Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Mike; Singelton, Amanda; Pennathur, Sumita

    2016-11-01

    Tangential Flow Filtration (TFF) is a rapid and efficient method for the filtration and separation of suspensions of particles such as viruses, bacteria or cellular material. Enhancing the efficacy of TFF not only requires a detailed understanding of particle transport mechanisms, but also the interactions between these mechanisms and a porous wall. In this work, we numerically and experimentally explore the mechanisms of inertial particle migration in the presence of a permeate flow through the porous walls of a microchannel. Numerically, we develop a force balance model to understand the competition between permeate and inertial forces and the resultant consequences on the particle equilibrium location. Experimentally, we fabricated MEMS TFF devices to study the migration of 5, 10 and 15 µm fluorescent polystyrene beads in straight channels with perpendicular permeate flow rates up to 90% of the inlet flow rate. We find that the permeate flow directly influences the inertial focusing position of the particles, both as a function of downstream channel position and ratio of inlet to outlet flow rate. Comparing experiments to our model, we can identify inertial, viscous and a co-dominant regimes.

  20. Experimental verification of a tuned inertial mass electromagnetic transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yuta; Sugiura, Keita; Asai, Takehiko

    2018-03-01

    This research reports on the design and experimental verification of a tuned inertial mass electromagnetic trans- ducer (TIMET) for energy harvesting from vibrating large structures and structural vibration control devices. The TIMET consists of a permanent-magnetic synchronous motor (PMSM), a rotational mass, and a tuning spring. The PMSM and the rotational mass are connected to a ball screw mechanism so that the rotation of the PMSM is synchronized with the rotational mass. And the tuning spring interfaced to the shaft of the ball screw mechanism is connected to the vibrating structure. Thus, through this ball screw mechanism, transla- tional vibration motion of the structure is converted to rotational behavior and mechanical energy is absorbed as electrical energy by the PMSM. Moreover, the amplified equivalent inertial mass effect is obtained by rotating relatively small physical masses. Therefore, when the stiffness of the tuning spring is determined so that the inertial mass resonates with the natural frequency of the vibratory structure, the PMSM rotates more effectively. As a result, the generated energy by the PMSM can be increased. The authors design a prototype of the TIMET and carry out experiments using sine and sine seep waves to show the effectiveness of the tuned inertial mass mechanism. Also, an analytical model of the proposed device is developed using a curve fitting technique to simulate the behavior of the TIMET.

  1. INERTIAL CASCADE IMPACTOR SUBSTRATE MEDIA FOR FLUE GAS SAMPLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes Southern Research Institute's experience with greases and glass fiber filter material used as collection substrates in inertial cascade impactors. Available greases and glass fiber filter media have been tested to determine which are most suitable for flue g...

  2. Conservation laws in baroclinic inertial-symmetric instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grisouard, Nicolas; Fox, Morgan B.; Nijjer, Japinder

    2017-04-01

    Submesoscale oceanic density fronts are structures in geostrophic and hydrostatic balance, but are more prone to instabilities than mesoscale flows. As a consequence, they are believed to play a large role in air-sea exchanges, near-surface turbulence and dissipation of kinetic energy of geostrophically and hydrostatically balanced flows. We will present two-dimensional (x, z) Boussinesq numerical experiments of submesoscale baroclinic fronts on the f-plane. Instabilities of the mixed inertial and symmetric types (the actual name varies across the literature) develop, with the absence of along-front variations prohibiting geostrophic baroclinic instabilities. Two new salient facts emerge. First, contrary to pure inertial and/or pure symmetric instability, the potential energy budget is affected, the mixed instability extracting significant available potential energy from the front and dissipating it locally. Second, in the submesoscale regime, the growth rate of this mixed instability is sufficiently large that significant radiation of near-inertial internal waves occurs. Although energetically small compared to e.g. local dissipation within the front, this process might be a significant source of near-inertial energy in the ocean.

  3. Dynamics of a magnetic skyrmionium driven by spin waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Sai; Xia, Jing; Zhang, Xichao; Ezawa, Motohiko; Kang, Wang; Liu, Xiaoxi; Zhou, Yan; Zhao, Weisheng

    2018-04-01

    A magnetic skyrmionium is a skyrmion-like structure, but carries a zero net skyrmion number which can be used as a building block for non-volatile information processing devices. Here, we study the dynamics of a magnetic skyrmionium driven by propagating spin waves. It is found that the skyrmionium can be effectively driven into motion by spin waves showing a tiny skyrmion Hall effect, whose mobility is much better than that of the skyrmion at the same condition. We also show that the skyrmionium mobility depends on the nanotrack width and the damping coefficient and can be controlled by an external out-of-plane magnetic field. In addition, we demonstrate that the skyrmionium motion driven by spin waves is inertial. Our results indicate that the skyrmionium is a promising building block for building spin-wave spintronic devices.

  4. Coordinates of Human Visual and Inertial Heading Perception.

    PubMed

    Crane, Benjamin Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Heading estimation involves both inertial and visual cues. Inertial motion is sensed by the labyrinth, somatic sensation by the body, and optic flow by the retina. Because the eye and head are mobile these stimuli are sensed relative to different reference frames and it remains unclear if a perception occurs in a common reference frame. Recent neurophysiologic evidence has suggested the reference frames remain separate even at higher levels of processing but has not addressed the resulting perception. Seven human subjects experienced a 2s, 16 cm/s translation and/or a visual stimulus corresponding with this translation. For each condition 72 stimuli (360° in 5° increments) were delivered in random order. After each stimulus the subject identified the perceived heading using a mechanical dial. Some trial blocks included interleaved conditions in which the influence of ±28° of gaze and/or head position were examined. The observations were fit using a two degree-of-freedom population vector decoder (PVD) model which considered the relative sensitivity to lateral motion and coordinate system offset. For visual stimuli gaze shifts caused shifts in perceived head estimates in the direction opposite the gaze shift in all subjects. These perceptual shifts averaged 13 ± 2° for eye only gaze shifts and 17 ± 2° for eye-head gaze shifts. This finding indicates visual headings are biased towards retina coordinates. Similar gaze and head direction shifts prior to inertial headings had no significant influence on heading direction. Thus inertial headings are perceived in body-centered coordinates. Combined visual and inertial stimuli yielded intermediate results.

  5. Coordinates of Human Visual and Inertial Heading Perception

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Benjamin Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Heading estimation involves both inertial and visual cues. Inertial motion is sensed by the labyrinth, somatic sensation by the body, and optic flow by the retina. Because the eye and head are mobile these stimuli are sensed relative to different reference frames and it remains unclear if a perception occurs in a common reference frame. Recent neurophysiologic evidence has suggested the reference frames remain separate even at higher levels of processing but has not addressed the resulting perception. Seven human subjects experienced a 2s, 16 cm/s translation and/or a visual stimulus corresponding with this translation. For each condition 72 stimuli (360° in 5° increments) were delivered in random order. After each stimulus the subject identified the perceived heading using a mechanical dial. Some trial blocks included interleaved conditions in which the influence of ±28° of gaze and/or head position were examined. The observations were fit using a two degree-of-freedom population vector decoder (PVD) model which considered the relative sensitivity to lateral motion and coordinate system offset. For visual stimuli gaze shifts caused shifts in perceived head estimates in the direction opposite the gaze shift in all subjects. These perceptual shifts averaged 13 ± 2° for eye only gaze shifts and 17 ± 2° for eye-head gaze shifts. This finding indicates visual headings are biased towards retina coordinates. Similar gaze and head direction shifts prior to inertial headings had no significant influence on heading direction. Thus inertial headings are perceived in body-centered coordinates. Combined visual and inertial stimuli yielded intermediate results. PMID:26267865

  6. Local inertial oscillations in the surface ocean generated by time-varying winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shengli; Polton, Jeff A.; Hu, Jianyu; Xing, Jiuxing

    2015-12-01

    A new relationship is presented to give a review study on the evolution of inertial oscillations in the surface ocean locally generated by time-varying wind stress. The inertial oscillation is expressed as the superposition of a previous oscillation and a newly generated oscillation, which depends upon the time-varying wind stress. This relationship is employed to investigate some idealized wind change events. For a wind series varying temporally with different rates, the induced inertial oscillation is dominated by the wind with the greatest variation. The resonant wind, which rotates anti-cyclonically at the local inertial frequency with time, produces maximal amplitude of inertial oscillations, which grows monotonically. For the wind rotating at non-inertial frequencies, the responses vary periodically, with wind injecting inertial energy when it is in phase with the currents, but removing inertial energy when it is out of phase. The wind rotating anti-cyclonically with time is much more favorable to generate inertial oscillations than the cyclonic rotating wind. The wind with a frequency closer to the inertial frequency generates stronger inertial oscillations. For a diurnal wind, the induced inertial oscillation is dependent on latitude and is most significant at 30 °. This relationship is also applied to examine idealized moving cyclones. The inertial oscillation is much stronger on the right-hand side of the cyclone path than on the left-hand side (in the northern hemisphere). This is due to the wind being anti-cyclonic with time on the right-hand side, but cyclonic on the other side. The inertial oscillation varies with the cyclone translation speed. The optimal translation speed generating the greatest inertial oscillations is 2 m/s at the latitude of 10 ° and gradually increases to 6 m/s at the latitude of 30 °.

  7. Mean flow generation mechanism by inertial waves and normal modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Will, Andreas; Ghasemi, Abouzar

    2016-04-01

    The mean flow generation mechanism by nonlinearity of the inertial normal modes and inertial wave beams in a rotating annular cavity with longitudinally librating walls in stable regime is discussed. Inertial normal modes (standing waves) are excited when libration frequency matches eigenfrequencies of the system. Inertial wave beams are produced by Ekman pumping and suction in a rotating cylinder and form periodic orbits or periodic ray trajectories at selected frequencies. Inertial wave beams emerge as concentrated shear layers in a librating annular cavity, while normal modes appear as global recirculation cells. Both (inertial wave beam and mode) are helical and thus intrinsically non-linear flow structures. No second mode or wave is necessary for non-linearity. We considered the low order normal modes (1,1), (2,1) and (2,2) which are expected to be excited in the planetary objects and investigate the mean flow generation mechanism using two independent solutions: 1) analytical solution (Borcia 2012) and 2) the wave component of the flow (ω0 component) obtained from the direct numerical simulation (DNS). It is well known that a retrograde bulk mean flow is generated by the Ekman boundary layer and E1/4-Stewartson layer close to the outer cylinder side wall due to libration. At and around the normal mode resonant frequencies we found additionally a prograde azimuthal mean flow (Inertial Normal Mode Mean Flow: INMMF) in the bulk of the fluid. The fluid in the bulk is in geostrophic balance in the absence of the inertial normal modes. However, when INMMF is excited, we found that the geostrophic balance does not hold in the region occupied by INMMF. We hypothesize that INMMF is generated by the nonlinearity of the normal modes or by second order effects. Expanding the velocity {V}(u_r,u_θ,u_z) and pressure (p) in a power series in ɛ (libration amplitude), the Navier-Stokes equations are segregated into the linear and nonlinear parts at orders ɛ1 and ɛ^2

  8. X-ray shadow imprint of hydrodynamic instabilities on the surface of inertial confinement fusion capsules by the fuel fill tube

    SciTech Connect

    MacPhee, A. G.; Casey, D. T.; Clark, D. S.

    Measurements of hydrodynamic instability growth for a high-density carbon ablator for indirectly driven inertial confinement fusion implosions on the National Ignition Facility are reported. We observe significant unexpected features on the capsule surface created by shadows of the capsule fill tube, as illuminated by laser-irradiated x-ray spots on the hohlraum wall. These shadows increase the spatial size and shape of the fill tube perturbation in a way that can significantly degrade performance in layered implosions compared to previous expectations. The measurements were performed at a convergence ratio of ~2 using in-flight x-ray radiography. The initial seed due to shadow imprintmore » is estimated to be equivalent to ~50–100 nm of solid ablator material. As a result, this discovery has prompted the need for a mitigation strategy for future inertial confinement fusion designs as proposed here.« less

  9. X-ray shadow imprint of hydrodynamic instabilities on the surface of inertial confinement fusion capsules by the fuel fill tube

    DOE PAGES

    MacPhee, A. G.; Casey, D. T.; Clark, D. S.; ...

    2017-03-30

    Measurements of hydrodynamic instability growth for a high-density carbon ablator for indirectly driven inertial confinement fusion implosions on the National Ignition Facility are reported. We observe significant unexpected features on the capsule surface created by shadows of the capsule fill tube, as illuminated by laser-irradiated x-ray spots on the hohlraum wall. These shadows increase the spatial size and shape of the fill tube perturbation in a way that can significantly degrade performance in layered implosions compared to previous expectations. The measurements were performed at a convergence ratio of ~2 using in-flight x-ray radiography. The initial seed due to shadow imprintmore » is estimated to be equivalent to ~50–100 nm of solid ablator material. As a result, this discovery has prompted the need for a mitigation strategy for future inertial confinement fusion designs as proposed here.« less

  10. On the relativistic micro-canonical ensemble and relativistic kinetic theory for N relativistic particles in inertial and non-inertial rest frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alba, David; Crater, Horace W.; Lusanna, Luca

    2015-03-01

    A new formulation of relativistic classical mechanics allows a reconsideration of old unsolved problems in relativistic kinetic theory and in relativistic statistical mechanics. In particular a definition of the relativistic micro-canonical partition function is given strictly in terms of the Poincaré generators of an interacting N-particle system both in the inertial and non-inertial rest frames. The non-relativistic limit allows a definition of both the inertial and non-inertial micro-canonical ensemble in terms of the Galilei generators.

  11. Bubble Proliferation in Shock Wave Lithotripsy Occurs during Inertial Collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pishchalnikov, Yuri A.; McAteer, James A.; Pishchalnikova, Irina V.; Williams, James C.; Bailey, Michael R.; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.

    2008-06-01

    In shock wave lithotripsy (SWL), firing shock pulses at slow pulse repetition frequency (0.5 Hz) is more effective at breaking kidney stones than firing shock waves (SWs) at fast rate (2 Hz). Since at fast rate the number of cavitation bubbles increases, it appears that bubble proliferation reduces the efficiency of SWL. The goal of this work was to determine the basis for bubble proliferation when SWs are delivered at fast rate. Bubbles were studied using a high-speed camera (Imacon 200). Experiments were conducted in a test tank filled with nondegassed tap water at room temperature. Acoustic pulses were generated with an electromagnetic lithotripter (DoLi-50). In the focus of the lithotripter the pulses consisted of a ˜60 MPa positive-pressure spike followed by up to -8 MPa negative-pressure tail, all with a total duration of about 7 μs. Nonlinear propagation steepened the shock front of the pulses to become sufficiently thin (˜0.03 μm) to impose differential pressure across even microscopic bubbles. High-speed camera movies showed that the SWs forced preexisting microbubbles to collapse, jet, and break up into daughter bubbles, which then grew rapidly under the negative-pressure phase of the pulse, but later coalesced to re-form a single bubble. Subsequent bubble growth was followed by inertial collapse and, usually, rebound. Most, if not all, cavitation bubbles emitted micro-jets during their first inertial collapse and re-growth. After jetting, these rebounding bubbles could regain a spherical shape before undergoing a second inertial collapse. However, either upon this second inertial collapse, or sometimes upon the first inertial collapse, the rebounding bubble emerged from the collapse as a cloud of smaller bubbles rather than a single bubble. These daughter bubbles could continue to rebound and collapse for a few cycles, but did not coalesce. These observations show that the positive-pressure phase of SWs fragments preexisting bubbles but this initial

  12. Optimizing DER Participation in Inertial and Primary-Frequency Response

    SciTech Connect

    Dall-Anese, Emiliano; Zhao, Changhong; Guggilam, Swaroop

    This paper develops an approach to enable the optimal participation of distributed energy resources (DERs) in inertial and primary-frequency response alongside conventional synchronous generators. Leveraging a reduced-order model description of frequency dynamics, DERs' synthetic inertias and droop coefficients are designed to meet time-domain performance objectives of frequency overshoot and steady-state regulation. Furthermore, an optimization-based method centered around classical economic dispatch is developed to ensure that DERs share the power injections for inertial- and primary-frequency response in proportion to their power ratings. Simulations for a modified New England test-case system composed of ten synchronous generators and six instances of the IEEEmore » 37-node test feeder with frequency-responsive DERs validate the design strategy.« less

  13. Hydrodynamic interaction of swimming organisms in an inertial regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gaojin; Ostace, Anca; Ardekani, Arezoo M.

    2016-11-01

    We numerically investigate the hydrodynamic interaction of swimming organisms at small to intermediate Reynolds number regimes, i.e., Re˜O (0.1 -100 ) , where inertial effects are important. The hydrodynamic interaction of swimming organisms in this regime is significantly different from the Stokes regime for microorganisms, as well as the high Reynolds number flows for fish and birds, which involves strong flow separation and detached vortex structures. Using an archetypal swimmer model, called a "squirmer," we find that the inertial effects change the contact time and dispersion dynamics of a pair of pusher swimmers, and trigger hydrodynamic attraction for two pullers. These results are potentially important in investigating predator-prey interactions, sexual reproduction, and the encounter rate of marine organisms such as copepods, ctenophora, and larvae.

  14. Investigation of electric charge on inertial particle dynamics in turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jiang; Shaw, Raymond

    2014-11-01

    The behavior of electrically charged, inertial particles in homogeneous, isotropic turbulence is investigated. Both like-charged and oppositely-charged particle interactions are considered. Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulence in a periodic box using the pseudospectral numerical method are performed, with Lagrangian tracking of the particles. We study effects of mutual electrostatic repulsion and attraction on the particle dynamics, as quantified by the radial distribution function (RDF) and the radial relative velocity. For the like-charged particle case, the Coulomb force leads to a short range repulsion behavior and an RDF reminiscent of that for a dilute gas. For the oppositely-charged particle case, the Coulomb force increases the RDF beyond that already occurring for neutral inertial particles. For both cases, the relative velocities are calculated as a function of particle separation distance and show distinct deviations from the expected scaling within the dissipation range. This research was supported by NASA Grant NNX113AF90G.

  15. Inertial constraints on limb proprioception are independent of visual calibration.

    PubMed

    Riley, M A; Turvey, M T

    2001-04-01

    When the coincidence of a limb's spatial axes and inertial eigenvectors is broken, haptic proprioception of the limb's position conforms to the eigenvectors. Additionally, when prisms break the coincidence between an arm's visual and actual positions, haptic proprioception is shifted toward the visual-spatial direction. In 3 experiments, variation of the arm's mass distribution was combined with prism adaptation to investigate the hypothesis that the proprioceptive effects of inertial and visual manipulations are additive. This hypothesis was supported across manipulations of plane of motion, body posture, proprioceptive target, and proprioceptive experience during prism adaptation. Haptic proprioception seems to depend on local, physical reference frames that are relative to the physical reference frames for the body's environmental position and orientation.

  16. Compensation of Horizontal Gravity Disturbances for High Precision Inertial Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Juliang; Wu, Meiping; Lian, Junxiang; Cai, Shaokun; Wang, Lin

    2018-01-01

    Horizontal gravity disturbances are an important factor that affects the accuracy of inertial navigation systems in long-duration ship navigation. In this paper, from the perspective of the coordinate system and vector calculation, the effects of horizontal gravity disturbance on the initial alignment and navigation calculation are simultaneously analyzed. Horizontal gravity disturbances cause the navigation coordinate frame built in initial alignment to not be consistent with the navigation coordinate frame in which the navigation calculation is implemented. The mismatching of coordinate frame violates the vector calculation law, which will have an adverse effect on the precision of the inertial navigation system. To address this issue, two compensation methods suitable for two different navigation coordinate frames are proposed, one of the methods implements the compensation in velocity calculation, and the other does the compensation in attitude calculation. Finally, simulations and ship navigation experiments confirm the effectiveness of the proposed methods. PMID:29562653

  17. Application of inertial instruments for DSN antenna pointing and tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldred, D. B.; Nerheim, N. M.; Holmes, K. G.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of using inertial instruments to determine the pointing attitude of the NASA Deep Space Network antennas is examined. The objective is to obtain 1 mdeg pointing knowledge in both blind pointing and tracking modes to facilitate operation of the Deep Space Network 70 m antennas at 32 GHz. A measurement system employing accelerometers, an inclinometer, and optical gyroscopes is proposed. The initial pointing attitude is established by determining the direction of the local gravity vector using the accelerometers and the inclinometer, and the Earth's spin axis using the gyroscopes. Pointing during long-term tracking is maintained by integrating the gyroscope rates and augmenting these measurements with knowledge of the local gravity vector. A minimum-variance estimator is used to combine measurements to obtain the antenna pointing attitude. A key feature of the algorithm is its ability to recalibrate accelerometer parameters during operation. A survey of available inertial instrument technologies is also given.

  18. Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) Fusion for Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadler, Jon

    1999-01-01

    An Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) device was assembled at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Propulsion Research Center (PRC) to study the possibility of using EEC technology for deep space propulsion and power. Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement is capable of containing a nuclear fusion plasma in a series of virtual potential wells. These wells would substantially increase plasma confinement, possibly leading towards a high-gain, breakthrough fusion device. A one-foot in diameter IEC vessel was borrowed from the Fusion Studies Laboratory at the University of Illinois@Urbana-Champaign for the summer. This device was used in initial parameterization studies in order to design a larger, actively cooled device for permanent use at the PRC.

  19. Near-Inertial Internal Gravity Waves in the Ocean.

    PubMed

    Alford, Matthew H; MacKinnon, Jennifer A; Simmons, Harper L; Nash, Jonathan D

    2016-01-01

    We review the physics of near-inertial waves (NIWs) in the ocean and the observations, theory, and models that have provided our present knowledge. NIWs appear nearly everywhere in the ocean as a spectral peak at and just above the local inertial period f, and the longest vertical wavelengths can propagate at least hundreds of kilometers toward the equator from their source regions; shorter vertical wavelengths do not travel as far and do not contain as much energy, but lead to turbulent mixing owing to their high shear. NIWs are generated by a variety of mechanisms, including the wind, nonlinear interactions with waves of other frequencies, lee waves over bottom topography, and geostrophic adjustment; the partition among these is not known, although the wind is likely the most important. NIWs likely interact strongly with mesoscale and submesoscale motions, in ways that are just beginning to be understood.

  20. Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) Fusion For Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadler, Jon

    1999-01-01

    An Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) device was assembled at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Propulsion Research Center (PRC) to study the possibility of using IEC technology for deep space propulsion and power. Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement is capable of containing a nuclear fusion plasma in a series of virtual potential wells. These wells would substantially increase plasma confinement, possibly leading towards a high-gain, breakthrough fusion device. A one-foot in diameter IEC vessel was borrowed from the Fusion Studies Laboratory at the University of Illinois @ Urbana-Champaign for the summer. This device was used in initial parameterization studies in order to design a larger, actively cooled device for permanent use at the PRC.

  1. Next-generation laser for inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, C; Bibeau, C; Bayramian, A

    1998-03-13

    We are developing and building the ''Mercury'' laser system as the first in a series of a new generation of diode-pumped solid-state lasers (DPSSL) for advanced high energy density (HED) physics experiments at LLNL. Mercury will be the first integrated demonstration of a scalable laser architecture compatible with advanced Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) goals. Primary performance goals include 10% efficiencies at 10 Hz and a <10 ns pulse with l {omega} energies of 100 J and with 2 {omega}/3 {omega} frequency conversion. Achieving this performance will provide a near term capability for HED experiments and prove the potential of DPSSLsmore » for inertial fusion energy (IFE).« less

  2. Systems and Methods for Determining Inertial Navigation System Faults

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bharadwaj, Raj Mohan (Inventor); Bageshwar, Vibhor L. (Inventor); Kim, Kyusung (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An inertial navigation system (INS) includes a primary inertial navigation system (INS) unit configured to receive accelerometer measurements from an accelerometer and angular velocity measurements from a gyroscope. The primary INS unit is further configured to receive global navigation satellite system (GNSS) signals from a GNSS sensor and to determine a first set of kinematic state vectors based on the accelerometer measurements, the angular velocity measurements, and the GNSS signals. The INS further includes a secondary INS unit configured to receive the accelerometer measurements and the angular velocity measurements and to determine a second set of kinematic state vectors of the vehicle based on the accelerometer measurements and the angular velocity measurements. A health management system is configured to compare the first set of kinematic state vectors and the second set of kinematic state vectors to determine faults associated with the accelerometer or the gyroscope based on the comparison.

  3. Superconducting tensor gravity gradiometer for satellite geodesy and inertial navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paik, H. J.

    1981-01-01

    A sensitive gravity gradiometer can provide much needed gravity data of the earth and improve the accuracy of inertial navigation. Superconductivity and other properties of materials at low temperatures can be used to obtain a sensitive, low-drift gravity gradiometer; by differencing the outputs of accelerometer pairs using superconducting circuits, it is possible to construct a tensor gravity gradiometer which measures all the in-line and cross components of the tensor simultaneously. Additional superconducting circuits can be provided to determine the linear and angular acceleration vectors. A tensor gravity gradiometer with these features is being developed for satellite geodesy. The device constitutes a complete package of inertial navigation instruments with angular and linear acceleration readouts as well as gravity signals.

  4. Influence of gravity on inertial particle clustering in turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, J.; Nordsiek, H.; Saw, E. W.; Fugal, J. P.; Shaw, R. A.

    2008-11-01

    We report results from experiments aimed at studying inertial particles in homogeneous, isotropic turbulence, under the influence of gravitational settling. Conditions are selected to investigate the transition from negligible role of gravity to gravitationally dominated, as is expected to occur in atmospheric clouds. We measure droplet clustering, relative velocities, and the distribution of collision angles in this range. The experiments are carried out in a laboratory chamber with nearly homogeneous, isotropic turbulence. The turbulence is characterized using LDV and 2-frame holographic particle tracking velocimetry. We seed the flow with particles of various Stokes and Froude numbers and use digital holography to obtain 3D particle positions and velocities. From particle positions, we investigate the impact of gravity on inertial clustering through the calculation of the radial distribution function and we compare to computational results and other recent experiments.

  5. Lead (Pb) Hohlraum: Target for Inertial Fusion Energy

    PubMed Central

    Ross, J. S.; Amendt, P.; Atherton, L. J.; Dunne, M.; Glenzer, S. H.; Lindl, J. D.; Meeker, D.; Moses, E. I.; Nikroo, A.; Wallace, R.

    2013-01-01

    Recent progress towards demonstrating inertial confinement fusion (ICF) ignition at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) has sparked wide interest in Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) for carbon-free large-scale power generation. A LIFE-based fleet of power plants promises clean energy generation with no greenhouse gas emissions and a virtually limitless, widely available thermonuclear fuel source. For the LIFE concept to be viable, target costs must be minimized while the target material efficiency or x-ray albedo is optimized. Current ICF targets on the NIF utilize a gold or depleted uranium cylindrical radiation cavity (hohlraum) with a plastic capsule at the center that contains the deuterium and tritium fuel. Here we show a direct comparison of gold and lead hohlraums in efficiently ablating deuterium-filled plastic capsules with soft x rays. We report on lead hohlraum performance that is indistinguishable from gold, yet costing only a small fraction. PMID:23486285

  6. Lead (Pb) hohlraum: target for inertial fusion energy.

    PubMed

    Ross, J S; Amendt, P; Atherton, L J; Dunne, M; Glenzer, S H; Lindl, J D; Meeker, D; Moses, E I; Nikroo, A; Wallace, R

    2013-01-01

    Recent progress towards demonstrating inertial confinement fusion (ICF) ignition at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) has sparked wide interest in Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) for carbon-free large-scale power generation. A LIFE-based fleet of power plants promises clean energy generation with no greenhouse gas emissions and a virtually limitless, widely available thermonuclear fuel source. For the LIFE concept to be viable, target costs must be minimized while the target material efficiency or x-ray albedo is optimized. Current ICF targets on the NIF utilize a gold or depleted uranium cylindrical radiation cavity (hohlraum) with a plastic capsule at the center that contains the deuterium and tritium fuel. Here we show a direct comparison of gold and lead hohlraums in efficiently ablating deuterium-filled plastic capsules with soft x rays. We report on lead hohlraum performance that is indistinguishable from gold, yet costing only a small fraction.

  7. Production and characterization of pure cryogenic inertial fusion targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, B. A.; Kamerman, G. W.

    An experimental cryogenic inertial fusion target generator and two optical techniques for automated target inspection are described. The generator produces 100 microns diameter solid hydrogen spheres at a rate compatible with fueling requirements of conceptual inertial fusion power plants. A jet of liquified hydrogen is disrupted into droplets by an ultrasonically excited nozzle. The droplets solidify into microspheres while falling through a chamber maintained below the hydrogen triple point pressure. Stable operation of the generator has been demonstrated for up to three hours. The optical inspection techniques are computer aided photomicrography and coarse diffraction pattern analysis (CDPA). The photomicrography system uses a conventional microscope coupled to a computer by a solid state camera and digital image memory. The computer enhances the stored image and performs feature extraction to determine pellet parameters. The CDPA technique uses Fourier transform optics and a special detector array to perform optical processing of a target image.

  8. Steady-state turbulence with a narrow inertial range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weatherall, J. C.; Nicholson, D. R.; Goldman, M. V.

    1983-01-01

    Coupled two-dimensional wave equations are solved on a computer to model Langmuir wave turbulence excited by a weak electron beam. The model includes wave growth due to beam-plasma interaction, and dissipation by Landau damping. The inertial range is limited to a relatively small number of modes such as could occur when the ratio of masses between the negative and positive ions is larger than in a hydrogen plasma, or when there is damping in long wavelength Langmuir waves. A steady state is found consisting of quasistable, collapsed wave packets. The effects of different beam parameters and the assumed narrow inertial range are considered. The results may be relevant to plasma turbulence observed in connection with type III solar bursts.

  9. A Sensor Fusion Method for Tracking Vertical Velocity and Height Based on Inertial and Barometric Altimeter Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Sabatini, Angelo Maria; Genovese, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    A sensor fusion method was developed for vertical channel stabilization by fusing inertial measurements from an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and pressure altitude measurements from a barometric altimeter integrated in the same device (baro-IMU). An Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) estimated the quaternion from the sensor frame to the navigation frame; the sensed specific force was rotated into the navigation frame and compensated for gravity, yielding the vertical linear acceleration; finally, a complementary filter driven by the vertical linear acceleration and the measured pressure altitude produced estimates of height and vertical velocity. A method was also developed to condition the measured pressure altitude using a whitening filter, which helped to remove the short-term correlation due to environment-dependent pressure changes from raw pressure altitude. The sensor fusion method was implemented to work on-line using data from a wireless baro-IMU and tested for the capability of tracking low-frequency small-amplitude vertical human-like motions that can be critical for stand-alone inertial sensor measurements. Validation tests were performed in different experimental conditions, namely no motion, free-fall motion, forced circular motion and squatting. Accurate on-line tracking of height and vertical velocity was achieved, giving confidence to the use of the sensor fusion method for tracking typical vertical human motions: velocity Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) was in the range 0.04–0.24 m/s; height RMSE was in the range 5–68 cm, with statistically significant performance gains when the whitening filter was used by the sensor fusion method to track relatively high-frequency vertical motions. PMID:25061835

  10. A sensor fusion method for tracking vertical velocity and height based on inertial and barometric altimeter measurements.

    PubMed

    Sabatini, Angelo Maria; Genovese, Vincenzo

    2014-07-24

    A sensor fusion method was developed for vertical channel stabilization by fusing inertial measurements from an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and pressure altitude measurements from a barometric altimeter integrated in the same device (baro-IMU). An Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) estimated the quaternion from the sensor frame to the navigation frame; the sensed specific force was rotated into the navigation frame and compensated for gravity, yielding the vertical linear acceleration; finally, a complementary filter driven by the vertical linear acceleration and the measured pressure altitude produced estimates of height and vertical velocity. A method was also developed to condition the measured pressure altitude using a whitening filter, which helped to remove the short-term correlation due to environment-dependent pressure changes from raw pressure altitude. The sensor fusion method was implemented to work on-line using data from a wireless baro-IMU and tested for the capability of tracking low-frequency small-amplitude vertical human-like motions that can be critical for stand-alone inertial sensor measurements. Validation tests were performed in different experimental conditions, namely no motion, free-fall motion, forced circular motion and squatting. Accurate on-line tracking of height and vertical velocity was achieved, giving confidence to the use of the sensor fusion method for tracking typical vertical human motions: velocity Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) was in the range 0.04-0.24 m/s; height RMSE was in the range 5-68 cm, with statistically significant performance gains when the whitening filter was used by the sensor fusion method to track relatively high-frequency vertical motions.

  11. Inertial waste separation system for zero G WMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The design, operation, and flight test are presented for an inertial waste separation system. Training personnel to use this system under simulated conditions is also discussed. Conclusions indicate that before the system is usable in zero gravity environments, a mirror for the user's guidance should be installed, the bounce cycle and bag changing system should be redesigned, and flange clips should be added to improve the user's balance.

  12. Inertial confinement fusion method producing line source radiation fluence

    DOEpatents

    Rose, Ronald P.

    1984-01-01

    An inertial confinement fusion method in which target pellets are imploded in sequence by laser light beams or other energy beams at an implosion site which is variable between pellet implosions along a line. The effect of the variability in position of the implosion site along a line is to distribute the radiation fluence in surrounding reactor components as a line source of radiation would do, thereby permitting the utilization of cylindrical geometry in the design of the reactor and internal components.

  13. Inertial Measurements for Aero-assisted Navigation (IMAN)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jah, Moriba; Lisano, Michael; Hockney, George

    2007-01-01

    IMAN is a Python tool that provides inertial sensor-based estimates of spacecraft trajectories within an atmospheric influence. It provides Kalman filter-derived spacecraft state estimates based upon data collected onboard, and is shown to perform at a level comparable to the conventional methods of spacecraft navigation in terms of accuracy and at a higher level with regard to the availability of results immediately after completion of an atmospheric drag pass.

  14. Quantum correlations in non-inertial cavity systems

    SciTech Connect

    Harsij, Zeynab, E-mail: z.harsij@ph.iut.ac.ir; Mirza, Behrouz, E-mail: b.mirza@cc.iut.ac.ir

    2016-10-15

    Non-inertial cavities are utilized to store and send Quantum Information between mode pairs. A two-cavity system is considered where one is inertial and the other accelerated in a finite time. Maclaurian series are applied to expand the related Bogoliubov coefficients and the problem is treated perturbatively. It is shown that Quantum Discord, which is a measure of quantumness of correlations, is degraded periodically. This is almost in agreement with previous results reached in accelerated systems where increment of acceleration decreases the degree of quantum correlations. As another finding of the study, it is explicitly shown that degradation of Quantum Discordmore » disappears when the state is in a single cavity which is accelerated for a finite time. This feature makes accelerating cavities useful instruments in Quantum Information Theory. - Highlights: • Non-inertial cavities are utilized to store and send information in Quantum Information Theory. • Cavities include boundary conditions which will protect the entanglement once it has been created. • The problem is treated perturbatively and the maclaurian series are applied to expand the related Bogoliubov coefficients. • When two cavities are considered degradation in the degree of quantum correlation happens and it appears periodically. • The interesting issue is when a single cavity is studied and the degradation in quantum correlations disappears.« less

  15. The Coupling between Earth's Inertial and Rotational Eigenmodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triana, S. A.; Rekier, J.; Trinh, A.; Laguerre, R.; Zhu, P.; Dehant, V. M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Wave motions in the Earth's fluid core, supported by the restoring action of both buoyancy (within the stably stratified top layer) and the Coriolis force, lead to the existence of global oscillation modes, the so-called gravito-inertial modes. These fluid modes can couple with the rotational modes of the Earth by exerting torques on the mantle and the inner core. Viscous shear stresses at the fluid boundaries, along with pressure and gravitation, contribute to the overall torque balance. Previous research by Rogister & Valette (2009) suggests that indeed rotational and gravito-inertial modes are coupled, thus shifting the frequencies of the Chandler Wobble (CW), the Free Core Nutation (FCN) and the Free Inner Core Nutation (FICN). Here we present the first results from a numerical model of the Earth's fluid core and its interaction with the rotational eigenmodes. In this first step we consider a fluid core without a solid inner core and we restrict to ellipticities of the same order as the Ekman number. We formulate the problem as a generalised eigenvalue problem that solves simultaneously the Liouville equation for the rotational modes (the torque balance), and the Navier-Stokes equation for the inertial modes.

  16. Wearable inertial sensors in swimming motion analysis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    de Magalhaes, Fabricio Anicio; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Gatta, Giorgio; Fantozzi, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The use of contemporary technology is widely recognised as a key tool for enhancing competitive performance in swimming. Video analysis is traditionally used by coaches to acquire reliable biomechanical data about swimming performance; however, this approach requires a huge computational effort, thus introducing a delay in providing quantitative information. Inertial and magnetic sensors, including accelerometers, gyroscopes and magnetometers, have been recently introduced to assess the biomechanics of swimming performance. Research in this field has attracted a great deal of interest in the last decade due to the gradual improvement of the performance of sensors and the decreasing cost of miniaturised wearable devices. With the aim of describing the state of the art of current developments in this area, a systematic review of the existing methods was performed using the following databases: PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, IEEE Xplore, Google Scholar, Scopus and Science Direct. Twenty-seven articles published in indexed journals and conference proceedings, focusing on the biomechanical analysis of swimming by means of inertial sensors were reviewed. The articles were categorised according to sensor's specification, anatomical sites where the sensors were attached, experimental design and applications for the analysis of swimming performance. Results indicate that inertial sensors are reliable tools for swimming biomechanical analyses.

  17. Ambulatory position and orientation tracking fusing magnetic and inertial sensing.

    PubMed

    Roetenberg, Daniel; Slycke, Per J; Veltink, Peter H

    2007-05-01

    This paper presents the design and testing of a portable magnetic system combined with miniature inertial sensors for ambulatory 6 degrees of freedom (DOF) human motion tracking. The magnetic system consists of three orthogonal coils, the source, fixed to the body and 3-D magnetic sensors, fixed to remote body segments, which measure the fields generated by the source. Based on the measured signals, a processor calculates the relative positions and orientations between source and sensor. Magnetic actuation requires a substantial amount of energy which limits the update rate with a set of batteries. Moreover, the magnetic field can easily be disturbed by ferromagnetic materials or other sources. Inertial sensors can be sampled at high rates, require only little energy and do not suffer from magnetic interferences. However, accelerometers and gyroscopes can only measure changes in position and orientation and suffer from integration drift. By combing measurements from both systems in a complementary Kalman filter structure, an optimal solution for position and orientation estimates is obtained. The magnetic system provides 6 DOF measurements at a relatively low update rate while the inertial sensors track the changes position and orientation in between the magnetic updates. The implemented system is tested against a lab-bound camera tracking system for several functional body movements. The accuracy was about 5 mm for position and 3 degrees for orientation measurements. Errors were higher during movements with high velocities due to relative movement between source and sensor within one cycle of magnetic actuation.

  18. Inertial flow regimes of the suspension of finite size particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lashgari, Iman; Picano, Francesco; Brandt, Luca

    2015-03-01

    We study inertial flow regimes of the suspensions of finite size neutrally buoyant particles. These suspensions experience three different regimes by varying the Reynolds number, Re , and particle volume fraction, Φ. At low values of Re and Φ, flow is laminar-like where viscous stress is the dominating term in the stress budget. At high Re and relatively small Φ, the flow is turbulent-like where Reynolds stress has the largest contribution to the total stress. At high Φ, the flow regime is as a form of inertial shear-thickening characterized by a significant enhancement in the wall shear stress not due to the increment of Reynolds stress but to the particle stress. We further analyze the local behavior of the suspension in the three different regimes by studying the particle dispersion and collisions. Turbulent cases shows higher level of particle dispersion and higher values of the collision kernel (the radial distribution function times the particle relative velocity as a function of the distance between the particles) than those of the inertial shear-thickening regimes providing additional evidence of two different transport mechanisms in the Bagnoldian regime. Support from the European Research Council (ERC) is acknowledged.

  19. Miniaturized inertial impactor for personal airborne particulate monitoring: Prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasini, Silvia; Bianchi, Elena; Dubini, Gabriele; Cortelezzi, Luca

    2017-11-01

    Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations allowed us to conceive and design a miniaturized inertial impactor able to collect fine airborne particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5 and PM1). We created, by 3D printing, a prototype of the impactor. We first performed a set of experiments by applying a suction pump to the outlets and sampling the airborne particulate of our laboratory. The analysis of the slide showed a collection of a large number of particles, spanning a wide range of sizes, organized in a narrow band located below the exit of the nozzle. In order to show that our miniaturized inertial impactor can be truly used as a personal air-quality monitor, we performed a second set of experiments where the suction needed to produce the airflow through the impactor is generated by a human being inhaling through the outlets of the prototype. To guarantee a number of particles sufficient to perform a quantitative characterization, we collected particles performing ten consecutive deep inhalations. Finally, the potentiality for realistic applications of our miniaturized inertial impactor used in combination with a miniaturized single-particle detector will be discussed. CARIPLO Fundation - project MINUTE (Grant No. 2011-2118).

  20. Analysis of the correlation dimension for inertial particles

    SciTech Connect

    Gustavsson, Kristian; Department of Physics, Göteborg University, 41296 Gothenburg; Mehlig, Bernhard

    2015-07-15

    We obtain an implicit equation for the correlation dimension which describes clustering of inertial particles in a complex flow onto a fractal measure. Our general equation involves a propagator of a nonlinear stochastic process in which the velocity gradient of the fluid appears as additive noise. When the long-time limit of the propagator is considered our equation reduces to an existing large-deviation formalism from which it is difficult to extract concrete results. In the short-time limit, however, our equation reduces to a solvability condition on a partial differential equation. In the case where the inertial particles are much denser thanmore » the fluid, we show how this approach leads to a perturbative expansion of the correlation dimension, for which the coefficients can be obtained exactly and in principle to any order. We derive the perturbation series for the correlation dimension of inertial particles suspended in three-dimensional spatially smooth random flows with white-noise time correlations, obtaining the first 33 non-zero coefficients exactly.« less

  1. Inertial Pocket Navigation System: Unaided 3D Positioning

    PubMed Central

    Munoz Diaz, Estefania

    2015-01-01

    Inertial navigation systems use dead-reckoning to estimate the pedestrian's position. There are two types of pedestrian dead-reckoning, the strapdown algorithm and the step-and-heading approach. Unlike the strapdown algorithm, which consists of the double integration of the three orthogonal accelerometer readings, the step-and-heading approach lacks the vertical displacement estimation. We propose the first step-and-heading approach based on unaided inertial data solving 3D positioning. We present a step detector for steps up and down and a novel vertical displacement estimator. Our navigation system uses the sensor introduced in the front pocket of the trousers, a likely location of a smartphone. The proposed algorithms are based on the opening angle of the leg or pitch angle. We analyzed our step detector and compared it with the state-of-the-art, as well as our already proposed step length estimator. Lastly, we assessed our vertical displacement estimator in a real-world scenario. We found that our algorithms outperform the literature step and heading algorithms and solve 3D positioning using unaided inertial data. Additionally, we found that with the pitch angle, five activities are distinguishable: standing, sitting, walking, walking up stairs and walking down stairs. This information complements the pedestrian location and is of interest for applications, such as elderly care. PMID:25897501

  2. Inertial particles in a shearless mixing layer: direct numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireland, Peter; Collins, Lance

    2010-11-01

    Entrainment, the drawing in of external fluid by a turbulent flow, is present in nearly all turbulent processes, from exhaust plumes to oceanic thermoclines to cumulus clouds. While the entrainment of fluid and of passive scalars in turbulent flows has been studied extensively, comparatively little research has been undertaken on inertial particle entrainment. We explore entrainment of inertial particles in a shearless mixing layer across a turbulent-non-turbulent interface (TNI) and a turbulent-turbulent interface (TTI) through direct numerical simulation (DNS). Particles are initially placed on one side of the interface and are advanced in time in decaying turbulence. Our results show that the TTI is more efficient in mixing droplets than the TNI. We also find that without the influence of gravity, over the range of Stokes numbers present in cumulus clouds, particle concentration statistics are essentially independent of the dissipation scale Stokes number. The DNS data agrees with results from experiments performed in a wind tunnel with close parametric overlap. We anticipate that a better understanding of the role of gravity and turbulence in inertial particle entrainment will lead to improved cloud evolution predictions and more accurate climate models. Sponsored by the U.S. NSF.

  3. On the magnetized disruption of inertially-confined plasma flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manuel, Mario; Kuranz, Carolyn; Rasmus, Alexander; Klein, Sallee; MacDonald, Michael; Trantham, Matt; Fein, Jeff; Belancourt, Patrick; Young, Rachel; Keiter, Paul; Drake, R. Paul; Pollock, Brad; Park, Jaebum; Hazi, Andrew; Williams, Jackson; Chen, Hui

    2016-10-01

    The creation and disruption of inertially-collimated plasma flows is investigated through experiment, simulation, and analytical modeling. Laser-generated plasma-jets are shown to be disrupted by an applied 5T B-field along the jet axis. An analytical model of the system describes the disruption mechanism through the competing effects of B-field advection and diffusion. These results indicate that for Rem 10-100, the ratio of inertial to magnetic pressures plays an important role in determining whether a jet is formed, but at high enough Rem , axial B-field amplification prevents inertial collimation altogether. This work is funded by the U.S. DOE, through the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in HED Laboratory Plasmas, Grant Number DE-NA0001840 and in collaboration with LLNL under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Support for this work was provided by NASA, under contract NAS8-03060, through Einstein Postdoctoral Fellowship Grant Number PF3-140111. Software used in this work was developed in part by the DOE NNSA ASC- and DOE Office of Science ASCR-supported Flash Center.

  4. Kinematic Repulsions Between Inertial Systems in AN Expanding Inflationary Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savickas, D.

    2013-09-01

    The cosmological background radiation is observed to be isotropic only within a coordinate system that is at rest relative to its local Hubble drift. This indicates that the Hubble motion describes the recessional motion of an inertial system that is at rest relative to its local Hubble drift. It is shown that when the Hubble parameter is kinematically defined directly in terms of the positions and velocities of mass particles in the universe, it then also defines inertial systems themselves in terms of the distribution and motion of mass particles. It is independent of the velocity of photons because photons always have a speed c relative to the inertial system in which they are located. Therefore the definition of their velocity depends on the definition of the Hubble parameter itself and cannot be used to define H. The derivative of the kinematically defined Hubble parameter with respect to time is shown to always be positive and highly repulsive at the time of the origin of the universe. A model is used which describes a universe that is balanced at the time of its origin so that H approaches zero as the universe expands to infinity.

  5. Experimental Study of Inertial Particle-Pair Relative Velocity in Isotropic Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Zhongwang

    The investigation of turbulence-enhanced inertial particle collision in isotropic turbulence could improve our understanding and modeling of many particle-laden turbulent flows in engineering and nature. In this study, we investigate one of the most critical factors of particle collision - particle-pair relative velocity (RV) in three major steps. First, to generate a reliable homogeneous and isotropic turbulence (HIT) field, we have designed and implemented a high Reynolds number (R lambda), enclosed, fan-driven HIT chamber in the shape of 'soccer ball', conducive for studying inertial particle dynamics using whole-field imaging techniques. The characterization of turbulence in this near-zero-mean flow chamber was performed using a new two-scale particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) approach. The measurement results showed that turbulence in the apparatus achieved high homogeneity and isotropy in a large central region (48mm diameter) of the chamber with minimized gravity effect. A maximum Rlambda of 384 was achieved. Second, to measure particle-pair RV accurately, we have employed numerical experiments to systemically analyze the measurement error in the previous particle-pair RV measurement by holographic PIV. We found that accurate RV measurement requires high accuracy of both particle positioning and particle pairing. To meet these requirements, we have devised a novel planar 4-frame particle tracking velocimetry technique (4F-PTV) combining two PIV systems. It tracks particles in four consecutive frames in high speed to increase particle pairing accuracy. Furthermore, the particles are tracked only in a thin laser light sheet, thus negating the intrinsic position uncertainty in the depth direction in holographic PIV. In addition, we have studied the laser thickness effect on the RV measurement and attempted to use Monte Carlo analysis to correct this effect. Third, and most importantly, to better understand turbulence-enhanced inertial particle collision, we

  6. Inertial particle focusing in serpentine channels on a centrifugal platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamloo, Amir; Mashhadian, Ali

    2018-01-01

    Inertial particle focusing as a powerful passive method is widely used in diagnostic test devices. It is common to use a curved channel in this approach to achieve particle focusing through balancing of the secondary flow drag force and the inertial lift force. Here, we present a focusing device on a disk based on the interaction of secondary flow drag force, inertial lift force, and centrifugal forces to focus particles. By choosing a channel whose cross section has a low aspect ratio, the mixing effect of the secondary flow becomes negligible. To calculate inertial lift force, which is exerted on the particle from the fluid, the interaction between the fluid and particle is investigated accurately through implementation of 3D Direct Numerical Solution (DNS) method. The particle focusing in three serpentine channels with different corner angles of 75°, 85°, and 90° is investigated for three polystyrene particles with diameters of 8 μm, 9.9 μm, and 13 μm. To show the simulation reliability, the results obtained from the simulations of two examples, namely, particle focusing and centrifugal platform, are verified against experimental counterparts. The effects of angular velocity of disk on the fluid velocity and on the focusing parameters are studied. Fluid velocity in a channel with corner angle of 75° is greater than two other channels. Furthermore, the particle equilibrium positions at the cross section of channel are obtained at the outlet. There are two equilibrium positions located at the centers of the long walls. Finally, the effect of particle density on the focusing length is investigated. A particle with a higher density and larger diameter is focused in a shorter length of the channel compared to its counterpart with a lower density and shorter diameter. The channel with a corner angle of 90° has better focusing efficiency compared to other channels. This design focuses particles without using any pump or sheath flow. Inertial particle focusing

  7. Inertial effects on mechanically braked Wingate power calculations.

    PubMed

    Reiser, R F; Broker, J P; Peterson, M L

    2000-09-01

    The standard procedure for determining subject power output from a 30-s Wingate test on a mechanically braked (friction-loaded) ergometer includes only the braking resistance and flywheel velocity in the computations. However, the inertial effects associated with accelerating and decelerating the crank and flywheel also require energy and, therefore, represent a component of the subject's power output. The present study was designed to determine the effects of drive-system inertia on power output calculations. Twenty-eight male recreational cyclists completed Wingate tests on a Monark 324E mechanically braked ergometer (resistance: 8.5% body mass (BM), starting cadence: 60 rpm). Power outputs were then compared using both standard (without inertial contribution) and corrected methods (with inertial contribution) of calculating power output. Relative 5-s peak power and 30-s average power for the corrected method (14.8 +/- 1.2 W x kg(-1) BM; 9.9 +/- 0.7 W x kg(-1) BM) were 20.3% and 3.1% greater than that of the standard method (12.3 +/- 0.7 W x kg(-1) BM; 9.6 +/- 0.7 W x kg(-1) BM), respectively. Relative 5-s minimum power for the corrected method (6.8 +/- 0.7 W x kg(-1) BM) was 6.8% less than that of the standard method (7.3 +/- 0.8 W x kg(-1) BM). The combined differences in the peak power and minimum power produced a fatigue index for the corrected method (54 +/- 5%) that was 31.7% greater than that of the standard method (41 +/- 6%). All parameter differences were significant (P < 0.01). The inertial contribution to power output was dominated by the flywheel; however, the contribution from the crank was evident. These results indicate that the inertial components of the ergometer drive system influence the power output characteristics, requiring care when computing, interpreting, and comparing Wingate results, particularly among different ergometer designs and test protocols.

  8. Estimation of Full-Body Poses Using Only Five Inertial Sensors: An Eager or Lazy Learning Approach?

    PubMed Central

    Wouda, Frank J.; Giuberti, Matteo; Bellusci, Giovanni; Veltink, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    Human movement analysis has become easier with the wide availability of motion capture systems. Inertial sensing has made it possible to capture human motion without external infrastructure, therefore allowing measurements in any environment. As high-quality motion capture data is available in large quantities, this creates possibilities to further simplify hardware setups, by use of data-driven methods to decrease the number of body-worn sensors. In this work, we contribute to this field by analyzing the capabilities of using either artificial neural networks (eager learning) or nearest neighbor search (lazy learning) for such a problem. Sparse orientation features, resulting from sensor fusion of only five inertial measurement units with magnetometers, are mapped to full-body poses. Both eager and lazy learning algorithms are shown to be capable of constructing this mapping. The full-body output poses are visually plausible with an average joint position error of approximately 7 cm, and average joint angle error of 7∘. Additionally, the effects of magnetic disturbances typical in orientation tracking on the estimation of full-body poses was also investigated, where nearest neighbor search showed better performance for such disturbances. PMID:27983676

  9. Estimation of Full-Body Poses Using Only Five Inertial Sensors: An Eager or Lazy Learning Approach?

    PubMed

    Wouda, Frank J; Giuberti, Matteo; Bellusci, Giovanni; Veltink, Peter H

    2016-12-15

    Human movement analysis has become easier with the wide availability of motion capture systems. Inertial sensing has made it possible to capture human motion without external infrastructure, therefore allowing measurements in any environment. As high-quality motion capture data is available in large quantities, this creates possibilities to further simplify hardware setups, by use of data-driven methods to decrease the number of body-worn sensors. In this work, we contribute to this field by analyzing the capabilities of using either artificial neural networks (eager learning) or nearest neighbor search (lazy learning) for such a problem. Sparse orientation features, resulting from sensor fusion of only five inertial measurement units with magnetometers, are mapped to full-body poses. Both eager and lazy learning algorithms are shown to be capable of constructing this mapping. The full-body output poses are visually plausible with an average joint position error of approximately 7 cm, and average joint angle error of 7 ∘ . Additionally, the effects of magnetic disturbances typical in orientation tracking on the estimation of full-body poses was also investigated, where nearest neighbor search showed better performance for such disturbances.

  10. Design and testing of a novel piezoelectric micro-motor actuated by asymmetrical inertial impact driving principle.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ping; Sun, Shujie; Li, Li'an; Xu, Feng; Cheng, Guangming

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, an asymmetrical inertial impact driving principle is first proposed, and accordingly a novel piezoelectrically actuated linear micro-motor is developed. It is driven by the inertial impact force generated by piezoelectric smart cantilever (PSC) with asymmetrical clamping locations during a driving cycle. When the PSC is excited by typical harmonic voltage signals, different equivalent stiffness will be induced due to its asymmetrical clamping locations when it is vibrating back and forth, leading to a tiny displacement difference on the two opposite directions in a cycle, and then the accumulation of tiny displacement difference will allow directional movements. A prototype of the proposed motor has been developed and investigated by means of experimental tests. The motion and dynamics characteristics of the prototype are well studied. The experimental results demonstrate that the resolution of the micro-motor is 0.02 μm, the maximum velocity is 16.87 mm/s, and the maximum loading capacity can reach up to 1 kg with a voltage of 100 V and 35 Hz.

  11. Inertial Oscillation of a Vertical Rotating Draft with Application to a Supercell Storm: Video Supplement to NASA-TP-3230

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costen, Robert C.; Stock, Larry V.

    1992-01-01

    In this video (8 min., color, sound, VHS), animation depicts the inertial oscillation of a new mathematical model ('vertical rotating draft') for spinning up a single supercell storm. The oscillation consists of a long quiescent phase when the draft is large in diameter and rotates anticyclonically and a short intense phase when the draft is small and cyclonic. During the intense phase, the rotating draft resembles a supercell. The physical basis for the oscillation is depicted by tracking air parcels in the draft as they move along inertial circles (projected on a horizontal plane), where the horizontal pressure gradient is zero and the Coriolis force balances the centrifugal force. A side view of the oscillation shows that contraction and expansion are linked, respectively, to buoyantly driven compressible downdraft and updraft. An aerial view tracks the draft as it moves above the surface of the Earth and turns to the right during the intense phase. Radar echoes from a supercell storm are superimposed for comparison. The data appear to support only the intense phase. A critical experiment would measure the predominantly downward flow that theoretically occurs before the right turn in a supercell track and causes contraction and spin-up.

  12. Optimal geometrical design of inertial vibration DC piezoelectric nanogenerators based on obliquely aligned InN nanowire arrays.

    PubMed

    Ku, Nai-Jen; Liu, Guocheng; Wang, Chao-Hung; Gupta, Kapil; Liao, Wei-Shun; Ban, Dayan; Liu, Chuan-Pu

    2017-09-28

    Piezoelectric nanogenerators have been investigated to generate electricity from environmental vibrations due to their energy conversion capabilities. In this study, we demonstrate an optimal geometrical design of inertial vibration direct-current piezoelectric nanogenerators based on obliquely aligned InN nanowire (NW) arrays with an optimized oblique angle of ∼58°, and driven by the inertial force of their own weight, using a mechanical shaker without any AC/DC converters. The nanogenerator device manifests potential applications not only as a unique energy harvesting device capable of scavenging energy from weak mechanical vibrations, but also as a sensitive strain sensor. The maximum output power density of the nanogenerator is estimated to be 2.9 nW cm -2 , leading to an improvement of about 3-12 times that of vertically aligned ZnO NW DC nanogenerators. Integration of two nanogenerators also exhibits a linear increase in the output power, offering an enormous potential for the creation of self-powered sustainable nanosystems utilizing incessantly natural ambient energy sources.

  13. Magnetic flux and heat losses by diffusive, advective, and Nernst effects in magnetized liner inertial fusion-like plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Velikovich, A. L.; Giuliani, J. L.; Zalesak, S. T.

    The magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) approach to inertial confinement fusion [Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010); Cuneo et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 40, 3222 (2012)] involves subsonic/isobaric compression and heating of a deuterium-tritium plasma with frozen-in magnetic flux by a heavy cylindrical liner. The losses of heat and magnetic flux from the plasma to the liner are thereby determined by plasma advection and gradient-driven transport processes, such as thermal conductivity, magnetic field diffusion, and thermomagnetic effects. Theoretical analysis based on obtaining exact self-similar solutions of the classical collisional Braginskii's plasma transport equations in one dimension demonstratesmore » that the heat loss from the hot compressed magnetized plasma to the cold liner is dominated by transverse heat conduction and advection, and the corresponding loss of magnetic flux is dominated by advection and the Nernst effect. For a large electron Hall parameter (ω{sub e}τ{sub e}≫1), the effective diffusion coefficients determining the losses of heat and magnetic flux to the liner wall are both shown to decrease with ω{sub e}τ{sub e} as does the Bohm diffusion coefficient cT/(16eB), which is commonly associated with low collisionality and two-dimensional transport. We demonstrate how this family of exact solutions can be used for verification of codes that model the MagLIF plasma dynamics.« less

  14. Schlieren Cinematography of Current Driven Plasma Jet Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loebner, Keith; Underwood, Thomas; Cappelli, Mark

    2016-10-01

    Schlieren cinematography of a pulsed plasma deflagration jet is presented and analyzed. An ultra-high frame rate CMOS camera coupled to a Z-type laser Schlieren apparatus is used to obtain flow-field refractometry data for the continuous flow Z-pinch formed within the plasma deflagration jet. The 10 MHz frame rate for 256 consecutive frames provides high temporal resolution, enabling turbulent fluctuations and plasma instabilities to be visualized over the course of a single pulse (20 μs). The Schlieren signal is radiometrically calibrated to obtain a two dimensional mapping of the refraction angle of the axisymmetric pinch plasma, and this mapping is then Abel inverted to derive the plasma density distribution as a function radius, axial coordinate, and time. Analyses of previously unknown discharge characteristics and comparisons with prior work are discussed.

  15. Microfluidic inertial focusing fundamentals, limitations and applications for biomedical sample processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reece, Amy E.

    The microfabrication of microfluidic control systems and advances in molecular amplification tools has enabled the miniaturization of single cell analytical platforms for the efficient, highly selective enumeration and molecular characterization of rare and diseased cells from clinical samples. In many cases, the high-throughput nature of microfluidic inertial focusing has enabled the popularization of this new class of Lab-on-a-Chip devices that exhibit numerous advantages over conventional methods as prognostic and diagnostic tools. Inertial focusing is the passive, sheathless alignment of particles and cells to precise spatiotemporal equilibrium positions that arise from a force balance between opposing inertial lift forces and hydrodynamic repulsions. The applicability of inertial focusing to a spectrum of filtration, separation and encapsulation challenges places heavy emphasis upon the accurate description of the hydrodynamic forces responsible for predictable inertial focusing behavior. These inertial focusing fundamentals, limitations and their applications are studied extensively throughout this work.

  16. Simultaneous usage of pinhole and penumbral apertures for imaging small scale neutron sources from inertial confinement fusion experiments.

    PubMed

    Guler, N; Volegov, P; Danly, C R; Grim, G P; Merrill, F E; Wilde, C H

    2012-10-01

    Inertial confinement fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility are designed to understand the basic principles of creating self-sustaining fusion reactions by laser driven compression of deuterium-tritium (DT) filled cryogenic plastic capsules. The neutron imaging diagnostic provides information on the distribution of the central fusion reaction region and the surrounding DT fuel by observing neutron images in two different energy bands for primary (13-17 MeV) and down-scattered (6-12 MeV) neutrons. From this, the final shape and size of the compressed capsule can be estimated and the symmetry of the compression can be inferred. These experiments provide small sources with high yield neutron flux. An aperture design that includes an array of pinholes and penumbral apertures has provided the opportunity to image the same source with two different techniques. This allows for an evaluation of these different aperture designs and reconstruction algorithms.

  17. Modeling and numerical analysis of a magneto-inertial fusion concept with the target created through FRC merging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chenguang; Yang, Xianjun

    2016-10-01

    The Magnetized Plasma Fusion Reactor concept is proposed as a magneto-inertial fusion approach based on the target plasma created through the collision merging of two oppositely translating field reversed configuration plasmas, which is then compressed by the imploding liner driven by the pulsed-power driver. The target creation process is described by a two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics model, resulting in the typical target parameters. The implosion process and the fusion reaction are modeled by a simple zero-dimensional model, taking into account the alpha particle heating and the bremsstrahlung radiation loss. The compression on the target can be 2D cylindrical or 2.4D with the additive axial contraction taken into account. The dynamics of the liner compression and fusion burning are simulated and the optimum fusion gain and the associated target parameters are predicted. The scientific breakeven could be achieved at the optimized conditions.

  18. SeaVipers- Computer Vision and Inertial Position/Reference Sensor System (CVIPRSS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    uses an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) to detect changes in roll , pitch, and yaw (x-, y-, and z-axis movement). We use a 9DOF Razor IMU from SparkFun... inertial measurement unit (IMU) and cameras that are hardware synchronized to provide close coupling. Several fast food companies, Internet giants like...light cameras [32]. 4.1.4 Inertial Measurement Unit To assist the PTU in video stabilization for the camera and aiming the rangefinder, Sea- Vipers

  19. Flight test results of the strapdown hexad inertial reference unit (SIRU). Volume 2: Test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hruby, R. J.; Bjorkman, W. S.

    1977-01-01

    Results of flight tests of the Strapdown Inertial Reference Unit (SIRU) navigation system are presented. The fault tolerant SIRU navigation system features a redundant inertial sensor unit and dual computers. System software provides for detection and isolation of inertial sensor failures and continued operation in the event of failures. Flight test results include assessments of the system's navigational performance and fault tolerance. Performance shortcomings are analyzed.

  20. Tightly-Coupled Image-Aided Inertial Navigation Using the Unscented Kalman Filter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Integrated GPS/MEMS Inertial Navigation Package. In Proceedings of ION GNSS 2004, pp. 825–832, September 2004. [2] R. G. Brown and P. Y. Hwang ...Tightly-Coupled Image-Aided Inertial Navigation Using the Unscented Kalman Filter S. Ebcin, Air Force Institute of Technology M. Veth, Air Force...inertial sen- sors using an extended Kalman filter (EKF) algo- rithm. In this approach, the image feature corre- spondence search was aided using the