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Sample records for z-pinch implosions driven

  1. Dynamics of conical wire array Z-pinch implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Ampleford, D. J.; Lebedev, S. V.; Bland, S. N.

    2007-10-15

    A modification of the wire array Z pinch, the conical wire array, has applications to the understanding of wire array implosions and potentially to pulse shaping relevant to inertial confinement fusion. Results are presented from imploding conical wire array experiments performed on university scale 1 MA generators--the MAGPIE generator (1 MA, 240 ns) at Imperial College London [I. H. Mitchell et al., Rev. Sci Instrum. 67, 1533 (1996)] and the Nevada Terawatt Facility's Zebra generator (1 MA, 100 ns) at the University of Nevada, Reno [B. Bauer et al., in Dense Z-Pinches, edited by N. Pereira, J. Davis, and P.more » Pulsifer (AIP, New York, 1997), Vol. 409, p. 153]. This paper will discuss the implosion dynamics of conical wire arrays. Data indicate that mass ablation from the wires in this complex system can be reproduced with a rocket model with fixed ablation velocity. Modulations in the ablated plasma are present, the wavelength of which is invariant to a threefold variation in magnetic field strength. The axial variation in the array leads to a zippered precursor column formation. An initial implosion of a magnetic bubble near the cathode is followed by the implosion zippering upwards. Spectroscopic data demonstrating a variation of plasma parameters (e.g., electron temperature) along the Z-pinch axis is discussed, and experimental data are compared to magnetohydrodynamic simulations.« less

  2. Optimization of Capsule Symmetry in Z-Pinch Driven Hohlraums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesey, R. A.; Cuneo, M.; Hanson, D.; Porter, J.; Mehlhorn, T.; Ruggles, L.; Simpson, W.; Vargas, M.; Hammer, J.; Landen, O.

    1999-11-01

    The uniformity of the radiation flux incident on the capsule is a critical issue for indirect drive fusion using the z-pinch driven hohlraum high-yield concept(J.H. Hammer et al., Phys. Plas. 6), 2129 (1999).. Experiments on the Z accelerator at Sandia have demonstrated the ability to diagnose the uniformity of the flux striking a foam ball (surrogate capsule)(P.A. Amendt et al., Phys. Plas. 4), 1862 (1997); S.G. Glendinning et al. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 536 (1999).. These single-sided drive experiments have been modeled using radiosity and radiation-hydrodynamics codes, yielding agreement with the measured ablation rate vs. angle on the foam ball. Flux uniformity at the 1-2% level needed for high-convergence capsule implosions requires a 2-sided drive (top and bottom z-pinch) configuration. Constrained optimization methods have identified hohlraum geometries with improved symmetry.

  3. Measurement of Radiation Symmetry in Z-Pinch Driven Hohlraums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, David L.

    2001-10-01

    The z-pinch driven hohlraum (ZPDH) is a promising approach to high yield inertial confinement fusion currently being characterized in experiments on the Sandia Z accelerator [1]. In this concept [2], x rays are produced by an axial z-pinch in a primary hohlraum at each end of a secondary hohlraum. A fusion capsule in the secondary is imploded by a symmetric x-ray flux distribution, effectively smoothed by wall reemission during transport to the capsule position. Capsule radiation symmetry, a critical issue in the design of such a system, is influenced by hohlraum geometry, wall motion and time-dependent albedo, as well as power balance and pinch timing between the two z-pinch x-ray sources. In initial symmetry studies on Z, we used solid low density burnthrough spheres to diagnose highly asymmetric, single-sided-drive hohlraum geometries. We then applied this technique to the more symmetric double z-pinch geometry [3]. As a result of design improvements, radiation flux symmetry in Z double-pinch wire array experiments now exceeds the measurement sensitivity of this self-backlit foam ball symmetry diagnostic (15% max-min flux asymmetry). To diagnose radiation symmetry at the 2 - 5% level attainable with our present ZPDH designs, we are using high-energy x rays produced by the recently-completed Z-Beamlet laser backlighter for point-projection imaging of thin-wall implosion and symmetry capsules. We will present the results of polar flux symmetry measuremets on Z for several ZPDH capsule geometries together with radiosity and radiation-hydrodynamics simulations for comparison. [1] M. E. Cuneo et al., Phys. Plasmas 8,2257(2001); [2] J. H. Hammer et al., Phys. Plasmas 6,2129(1999); [3] D. L. Hanson et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 45,360(2000).

  4. Diagnostics for Z-pinch implosion experiments on PTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, X. D.; Huang, X. B.; Zhou, S. T.; Zhang, S. Q.; Dan, J. K.; Li, J.; Cai, H. C.; Wang, K. L.; Ouyang, K.; Xu, Q.; Duan, S. C.; Chen, G. H.; Wang, M.; Feng, S. P.; Yang, L. B.; Xie, W. P.; Deng, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    The preliminary experiments of wire array implosion were performed on PTS, a 10 MA z-pinch driver with a 70 ns rise time. A set of diagnostics have been developed and fielded on PTS to study pinch physics and implosion dynamics of wire array. Radiated power measurement for soft x-rays was performed by multichannel filtered x-ray diode array, and flat spectral responses x-ray diode detector. Total x-ray yield was measured by a calibrated, unfiltered nickel bolometer which was also used to obtain pinch power. Multiple time-gated pinhole cameras were used to produce spatial-resolved images of x-ray self-emission from plasmas. Two time-integrated pinhole cameras were used respectively with 20-μm Be filter and with multilayer mirrors to record images produced by >1-keV and 277±5 eV self-emission. An optical streak camera was used to produce radial implosion trajectories, and an x-ray streak camera paired with a horizontal slit was used to record a continuous time-history of emission with one-dimensional spatial resolution. A frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser (532 nm) was used to produce four frame laser shadowgraph images with 6 ns time interval. We will briefly describe each of these diagnostics and present some typical results from them.

  5. Radiation characteristics and implosion dynamics of Z-pinch dynamic hohlraums performed on PTS facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xian Bin; Ren, Xiao Dong; Dan, Jia Kun; Wang, Kun Lun; Xu, Qiang; Zhou, Shao Tong; Zhang, Si Qun; Cai, Hong Chun; Li, Jing; Wei, Bing; Ji, Ce; Feng, Shu Ping; Wang, Meng; Xie, Wei Ping; Deng, Jian Jun

    2017-09-01

    The preliminary experimental results of Z-pinch dynamic hohlraums conducted on the Primary Test Stand (PTS) facility are presented herein. Six different types of dynamic hohlraums were used in order to study the influence of load parameters on radiation characteristics and implosion dynamics, including dynamic hohlraums driven by single and nested arrays with different array parameters and different foams. The PTS facility can deliver a current of 6-8 MA in the peak current and 60-70 ns in the 10%-90% rising time to dynamic hohlraum loads. A set of diagnostics monitor the implosion dynamics of plasmas, the evolution of shock waves in the foam and the axial/radial X-ray radiation, giving the key parameters characterizing the features of dynamic hohlraums, such as the trajectory and related velocity of shock waves, radiation temperature, and so on. The experimental results presented here put our future study on Z-pinch dynamic hohlraums on the PTS facility on a firm basis.

  6. Analysis of staged Z-pinch implosion trajectories from experiments on Zebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Mike P.; Conti, F.; Darling, T. W.; Ruskov, E.; Valenzuela, J.; Wessel, F. J.; Beg, F.; Narkis, J.; Rahman, H. U.

    2017-10-01

    The Staged Z-pinch plasma confinement concept relies on compressing an annular liner of high-Z plasma onto a target plasma column of deuterium fuel. The interface between the liner and target is stable against the Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor Instability, which leads to effective fuel compression and makes the concept interesting as a potential fusion reactor. The liner initiates as a neutral gas puff, while the target plasma is a partially ionized (Zeff < 10 percent column ejected from a coaxial plasma gun. The Zebra pulsed power generator (1 MA peak current, 100 ns rise time) provides the discharge that ionizes the liner and drives the Z-pinch implosion. Diverse diagnostics observe the 100-300 km/s implosions including silicon diodes, photo-conducting detectors (PCDs), laser shadowgraphy, an XUV framing camera, and a visible streak camera. The imaging diagnostics track instabilities smaller than 0.1 mm, and Z-pinch diameters below 2.5 mm are seen at peak compression. This poster correlates the data from these diagnostics to elucidate implosion behavior dependencies on liner gas, liner pressure, target pressure, and applied, axial-magnetic field. Funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy, DE-AR0000569.

  7. Radiation characteristics and implosion dynamics of tungsten wire array Z-pinches on the YANG accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xian-Bin; Yang, Li-Bing; Li, Jing; Zhou, Shao-Tong; Ren, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Si-Qun; Dan, Jia-Kun; Cai, Hong-Chun; Duan, Shu-Chao; Chen, Guang-Hua; Zhang, Zheng-Wei; Ouyang, Kai; Li, Jun; Zhang, Zhao-Hui; Zhou, Rong-Guo; Wang, Gui-Lin

    2012-05-01

    We investigated the radiation characteristics and implosion dynamics of low-wire-number cylindrical tungsten wire array Z-pinches on the YANG accelerator with a peak current 0.8-1.1 MA and a rising time ~ 90 ns. The arrays are made up of (8-32) × 5 μm wires 6/10 mm in diameter and 15 mm in height. The highest X-ray power obtained in the experiments was about 0.37 TW with the total radiation energy ~ 13 kJ and the energy conversion efficiency ~ 9% (24 × 5 μm wires, 6 mm in diameter). Most of the X-ray emissions from tungsten Z-pinch plasmas were distributed in the spectral band of 100-600 eV, peaked at 250 and 375 eV. The dominant wavelengths of the wire ablation and the magneto-Rayleigh—Taylor instability were found and analyzed through measuring the time-gated self-emission and laser interferometric images. Through analyzing the implosion trajectories obtained by an optical streak camera, the run-in velocities of the Z-pinch plasmas at the end of the implosion phase were determined to be about (1.3-2.1) × 107 cm/s.

  8. Investigation of trailing mass in Z-pinch implosions and comparison to experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Edmund

    2007-11-01

    Wire-array Z pinches represent efficient, high-power x-ray sources with application to inertial confinement fusion, high energy density plasmas, and laboratory astrophysics. The first stage of a wire-array Z pinch is described by a mass ablation phase, during which stationary wires cook off material, which is then accelerated radially inwards by the JxB force. The mass injection rate varies axially and azimuthally, so that once the ablation phase concludes, the subsequent implosion is highly 3D in nature. In particular, a network of trailing mass and current is left behind the imploding plasma sheath, which can significantly affect pinch performance. In this work we focus on the implosion phase, electing to model the mass ablation via a mass injection scheme. Such a scheme has a number of injection parameters, but this freedom also allows us to gain understanding into the nature of the trailing mass network. For instance, a new result illustrates the role of azimuthal correlation. For an implosion which is 100% azimuthally correlated (corresponding to an azimuthally symmetric 2D r-z problem), current is forced to flow on the imploding plasma sheath, resulting in strong Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) growth. If, however, the implosion is not azimuthally symmetric, the additional azimuthal degree of freedom opens up new conducting paths of lower magnetic energy through the trailing mass network, effectively reducing RT growth. Consequently the 3D implosion experiences lower RT growth than the 2D r-z equivalent, and actually results in a more shell-like implosion. A second major goal of this work is to constrain the injection parameters by comparison to a well-diagnosed experimental data set, in which array mass was varied. In collaboration with R. Lemke, M. Desjarlais, M. Cuneo, C. Jennings, D. Sinars, E. Waisman

  9. Implosion dynamics of condensed Z-pinch at the Angara-5-1 facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrov, V. V.; Grabovski, E. V.; Gritsuk, A. N.; Volobuev, I. V.; Kazakov, E. D.; Kalinin, Yu. G.; Korolev, V. D.; Laukhin, Ya. I.; Medovshchikov, S. F.; Mitrofanov, K. N.; Oleinik, G. M.; Pimenov, V. G.; Smirnova, E. A.; Ustroev, G. I.; Frolov, I. N.

    2017-08-01

    The implosion dynamics of a condensed Z-pinch at load currents of up to 3.5 MA and a current rise time of 100 ns was studied experimentally at the Angara-5-1 facility. To increase the energy density, 1- to 3-mm-diameter cylinders made of a deuterated polyethylene-agar-agar mixture or microporous deuterated polyethylene with a mass density of 0.03-0.5 g/cm3 were installed in the central region of the loads. The plasma spatiotemporal characteristics were studied using the diagnostic complex of the Angara-5-1 facility, including electron-optical streak and frame imaging, time-integrated X-ray imaging, soft X-ray (SXR) measurements, and vacuum UV spectroscopy. Most information on the plasma dynamics was obtained using a ten-frame X-ray camera ( E > 100 eV) with an exposure of 4 ns. SXR pulses were recorded using photoemissive vacuum X-ray detectors. The energy characteristics of neutron emission were measured using the time-offlight method with the help of scintillation detectors arranged along and across the pinch axis. The neutron yield was measured by activation detectors. The experimental results indicate that the plasma dynamics depends weakly on the load density. As a rule, two stages of plasma implosion were observed. The formation of hot plasma spots in the initial stage of plasma expansion from the pinch axis was accompanied by short pulses of SXR and neutron emission. The neutron yield reached (0.4-3) × 1010 neutrons/shot and was almost independent of the load density due to specific features of Z-pinch dynamics.

  10. Enhanced energy coupling and x-ray emission in Z-pinch plasma implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, K. G.; Thornhill, J. W.; Apruzese, J. P.; Davis, J.; Deeney, C.; Coverdale, C. A.

    2004-08-01

    Recent experiments conducted on the Saturn pulsed-power generator at Sandia National Laboratories [R. B. Spielman et al., in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Dense Z Pinches, Laguna Beach, CA, 1989, edited by N. R. Pereira, J. Davis, and N. Rostoker (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1989), p. 3] have produced large amounts of x-ray output, which cannot be accounted for in conventional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) calculations. In these experiments, the Saturn current had a rise time of ~180 ns in contrast to a rise time of ~60 ns in Saturn's earlier mode of operation. In both aluminum and tungsten wire-array Z-pinch implosions, 2-4 times more x-ray output was generated than could be supplied according to one-dimensional (1D) magnetohydrodynamic calculations by the combined action of the j×B acceleration forces and ohmic heating (as described by a classical Braginskii resistivity). In this paper, we reexamine the problem of coupling transmission line circuits to plasma fluid equations and derive expressions for the Z-pinch load circuit resistance and inductance that relate these quantities in a 1D analysis to the surface resistivity of the fluid, and to the magnetic field energy that is stored in the vacuum diode, respectively. Enhanced energy coupling in this analysis, therefore, comes from enhancements to the surface resistivity, and we show that plasma resistivities approximately three orders of magnitude larger than classical are needed in order to achieve energy inputs that are comparable to the Saturn experiment x-ray outputs. Large enhancements of the plasma resistivity increase the rate of magnetic field and current diffusion, significantly modify the qualitative features of the MHD, and raise important questions as to how the plasma fluid dynamics converts enhanced energy inputs into enhanced x-ray outputs. One-dimensional MHD calculations in which resistivity values are adjusted phenomenologically are used to illustrate how

  11. Use of microsecond current prepulse for dramatic improvements of wire array Z-pinch implosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calamy, H.; Lassalle, F.; Loyen, A.; Zucchini, F.; Chittenden, J. P.; Hamann, F.; Maury, P.; Georges, A.; Bedoch, J. P.; Morell, A.

    2008-01-01

    The Sphinx machine [F. Lassalle et al., "Status on the SPHINX machine based on the 1microsecond LTD technology"] based on microsecond linear transformer driver (LTD) technology is used to implode an aluminium wire array with an outer diameter up to 140mm and maximum current from 3.5to5MA. 700to800ns implosion Z-pinch experiments are performed on this driver essentially with aluminium. Best results obtained before the improvement described in this paper were 1-3TW radial total power, 100-300kJ total yield, and 20-30kJ energy above 1keV. An auxiliary generator was added to the Sphinx machine in order to allow a multi microsecond current to be injected through the wire array load before the start of the main current. Amplitude and duration of this current prepulse are adjustable, with maxima ˜10kA and 50μs. This prepulse dramatically changes the ablation phase leading to an improvement of the axial homogeneity of both the implosion and the final radiating column. Total power was multiplied by a factor of 6, total yield by a factor of 2.5 with a reproducible behavior. This paper presents experimental results, magnetohydrodynamic simulations, and analysis of the effect of such a long current prepulse.

  12. X-ray Power Increase from Symmetrized Wire-Array z-Pinch Implosions on Saturn.*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanford, T. W. L.; Allshouse, G. O.; Marder, B. M.; Nash, T. J.; Mock, R. C.; Douglas, M. R.; Spielman, R. B.; Seaman, J. F.; McGurn, J. S.; Jobe, D.; Gilliland, T. L.; Vargas, M.; Struve, K. W.; Stygar, W. A.; Hammer, J. H.; Degroot, J. S.; Eddleman, J. L.; Peterson, D. L.; Whitney, K. G.; Thornhill, J. W.; Pulsifer, P. E.; Apruzese, J. P.; Mosher, D.; Maron, Y.

    1996-11-01

    A systematic experimental study of annular aluminum wire z-pinches on the Saturn accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories shows that, for the first time, many of the measured spatial characteristics and x-ray powers can be correlated to 1D and 2D, radiation-magneto-hydrodynamic code (RMHC) simulations when large numbers of wires are used. Calculations show that the implosion begins to transition from that of individual wire plasmas to that of a continuous plasma shell when the circumferential gap between wires in the array is reduced below 1.4 +1.3/-0.7 mm. This calculated gap coincides with the measured transition of 1.4±0.4 mm between the observed regimes of slow and rapid improvement in power output with decreasing gap. In the plasma-shell regime, x-ray power has been more than tripled over that generated in the wire-plasma regime. In the full paper, measured characteristics in the plasma-shell regime are compared with 2D, 1- and 20-mm axial length simulations of the implosion using a multi-photon-group Lagrangian RMHC^1 and a three-temperature Eulerian RMHC,^2 respectively. ^1J.H. Hammer, et al., Phys. Plasmas 3, 2063 (1996). ^2D.L. Peterson, et al., Phys. Plasmas 3, 368 (1996). Work supported by U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  13. Wire Array Z-pinches on Sphinx Machine: Experimental Results and Relevant Points of Microsecond Implosion Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calamy, H.; Hamann, F.; Lassalle, F.; Bayol, F.; Mangeant, C.; Morell, A.; Huet, D.; Bedoch, J. P.; Chittenden, J. P.; Lebedev, S. V.; Jennings, C. A.; Bland, S. N.

    2006-01-01

    Centre d'Etudes de Gramat (France) has developed an efficient long implosion time (800 ns) Aluminum plasma radiation source (PRS). Based on the LTD technology, the SPHINX facility is developed as a 1-3MJ, 1μs rise time, 4-10 MA current driver. In this paper, it was used in 1MJ, 4MA configuration to drive Aluminum nested wire arrays Z-pinches with K-shell yield up to 20 kJ and a FWHM of the x-ray pulse of about 50 ns. We present latest SPHINX experiments and some of the main physic issues of the microsecond regime. Experimental setup and results are described with the aim of giving trends that have been obtained. The main features of microsecond implosion of wire arrays can be analyzed thanks to same methods and theories as used for faster Z-pinches. The effect of load polarity was examined. The stability of the implosion , one of the critical point of microsecond wire arrays due to the load dimensions imposed by the time scale, is tackled. A simple scaling from 100 ns Z-pinch results to 800 ns ones gives good results and the use of nested arrays improves dramatically the implosion quality and the Kshell yield of the load. However, additional effects such as the impact of the return current can geometry on the implosion have to be taken into account on our loads. Axial inhomogeneity of the implosion the origin of which is not yet well understood occurs in some shots and impacts the radiation output. The shape of the radiative pulse is discussed and compared with the homogeneity of the implosion. Numerical 2D R-Z and R-θ simulations are used to highlight some experimental results and understand the plasma conditions during these microsecond wire arrays implosions.

  14. Wire Array Z-pinches on Sphinx Machine: Experimental Results and Relevant Points of Microsecond Implosion Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Calamy, H.; Hamann, F.; Lassalle, F.

    Centre d'Etudes de Gramat (France) has developed an efficient long implosion time (800 ns) Aluminum plasma radiation source (PRS). Based on the LTD technology, the SPHINX facility is developed as a 1-3MJ, 1{mu}s rise time, 4-10 MA current driver. In this paper, it was used in 1MJ, 4MA configuration to drive Aluminum nested wire arrays Z-pinches with K-shell yield up to 20 kJ and a FWHM of the x-ray pulse of about 50 ns. We present latest SPHINX experiments and some of the main physic issues of the microsecond regime. Experimental setup and results are described with the aim ofmore » giving trends that have been obtained. The main features of microsecond implosion of wire arrays can be analyzed thanks to same methods and theories as used for faster Z-pinches. The effect of load polarity was examined. The stability of the implosion , one of the critical point of microsecond wire arrays due to the load dimensions imposed by the time scale, is tackled. A simple scaling from 100 ns Z-pinch results to 800 ns ones gives good results and the use of nested arrays improves dramatically the implosion quality and the Kshell yield of the load. However, additional effects such as the impact of the return current can geometry on the implosion have to be taken into account on our loads. Axial inhomogeneity of the implosion the origin of which is not yet well understood occurs in some shots and impacts the radiation output. The shape of the radiative pulse is discussed and compared with the homogeneity of the implosion. Numerical 2D R-Z and R-{theta} simulations are used to highlight some experimental results and understand the plasma conditions during these microsecond wire arrays implosions.« less

  15. Optimization of K-shell emission in aluminum z-pinch implosions: Theory versus experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, K. G.; Thornhill, J. W.; Giuliani, J. L.; Davis, J.; Miles, L. A.; Nolting, E. E.; Kenyon, V. L.; Speicer, W. A.; Draper, J. A.; Parsons, C. R.; Dang, P.; Spielman, R. B.; Nash, T. J.; McGurn, J. S.; Ruggles, L. E.; Deeney, C.; Prasad, R. R.; Warren, L.

    1994-09-01

    Two sets of z-pinch experiments were recently completed at the Saturn and Phoenix facilities of Sandia National Laboratories and the Naval Surface Warfare Center, respectively, using aluminum wire arrays of different wire and array diameters. Measurements of the total x-ray yield from the K shell of aluminum were made. In this paper, a comparison of these measurements is made to both theoretical predictions and to a similar set of earlier measurements that were made at the Double Eagle facility of Physics International Company. These three sets of yield measurements have points of agreement with predicted yields and with each other, but they also show points of mutual disagreement, whose significance is discussed. The data are analyzed using a slightly revised version of a previously published K-shell yield scaling law, and they support the existence of a reasonably well defined region in (load mass)-(implosion velocity) space in which plasma kinetic energy is efficiently converted into K-shell x rays. Furthermore, a correlation is observed between the inferred conversion efficiencies and the times in which the implosions occur relative to the times when each generator's short-circuit current reaches its peak value. Finally, unlike the Double Eagle experiments, the largest measured yields in the new experiments were observed to occur at the upper velocity boundary of the efficient emission region. Moreover, the observed yields are in fairly good quantitative agreement with an earlier scaling law prediction of the maximum K-shell x-ray yield from aluminum as a function of load mass assuming kinetic energy conversion alone.

  16. Preconditioned wire array Z-pinches driven by a double pulse current generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jian; Lu, Yihan; Sun, Fengju; Li, Xingwen; Jiang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Daoyuan; Qiu, Aici; Lebedev, Sergey

    2018-07-01

    Suppression of the core-corona structure and wire ablation in wire array Z-pinches is investigated using a novel double pulse current generator ‘Qin-1’ facility. The ‘Qin-1’ facility allows coupling a ∼10 kA 20 ns prepulse generator with a ∼0.8 MA 160 ns main current generator. The tailored prepulse current preheats wires to a gaseous state and the time interval between the prepulse and the main current pulse allows formation of a more uniform mass distribution for the implosion. The implosion of a gasified two aluminum-wire array showed no ablation phase and allowed all array mass to participate in the implosion. The initial perturbations formed from the inhomogeneous ablation were suppressed, however, the magneto Rayleigh–Taylor (MRT) instability during the implosion was still significant and further researches on the generation and development of the MRT instabilities of this gasified wire array are needed.

  17. Long implosion time (240 ns) Z-pinch experiments with a large diameter (12 cm) double-shell nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, J. S.; Banister, J. W.; Failor, B. H.; Qi, N.; Song, Y.; Sze, H. M.; Fisher, A.

    2004-05-01

    Recently, an 8 cm diameter double-shell nozzle has produced argon Z pinches with high K-shell yields with implosion time of 210 ns. To produce even longer implosion time Z pinches for facilities such as Decade Quad [D. Price, et al., "Electrical and Mechanical Design of the Decade Quad in PRS Mode," in Proceedings of the 12th IEEE Pulsed Power Conference, Monterey, CA, edited by C. Stallings and H. Kirbie (IEEE, New York, 1999), p. 489] (9 MA short circuit current at 300 ns), a larger nozzle (12 cm outer diameter) was designed and fabricated. During initial testing on Double-EAGLE [P. Sincerny et al., Proceedings of the 5th IEEE Pulsed Power Conference, Arlington, VA, edited by M. F. Rose and P. J. Turchi (IEEE, New York, 1985), p. 151], 9 kJ of argon K-shell radiation in a 6 ns full width at half maximum pulse was produced with a 240 ns implosion. The initial gas distributions produced by various nozzle configurations have been measured and their impact on the final radiative characteristics of the pinch are presented. The addition of a central jet to increase the initial gas density near the axis is observed to enhance the pinch quality, increasing K-shell yield by 17% and power by 40% in the best configuration tested.

  18. Designs and Plans for MAIZE: a 1 MA LTD-Driven Z-Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilgenbach, R. M.; Gomez, M. R.; Zier, J.; Tang, W.; French, D. M.; Hoff, B. W.; Jordan, N.; Cruz, E.; Lau, Y. Y.; Fowler-Guzzardo, T.; Meisel, J.; Mazarakis, M. G.; Cuneo, M. E.; Johnston, M. D.; Mehlhorn, T. A.; Kim, A. A.; Sinebryukhov, V. A.

    2007-11-01

    We present designs and experimental plans of the first 1 MA z-pinch in the USA to be driven by a Linear Transformer Driver (LTD). The Michigan Accelerator for Inductive Z-pinch Experiments, (MAIZE), is based on the LTD developed at the Institute for High Current Electronics, utilizing 80 capacitors and 40 spark gap switches to deliver a 1 MA, 100 kV pulse with <100 ns risetime. Designs will be presented of a low-inductance MITL terminated in a wire-array z-pinch. Initial, planned experiments will evaluate the LTD driving time-changing inductance of imploding 4-16 wire-array z-pinches. Wire ablation dynamics, axial-correlations and instability development will be explored. *This work was supported by U. S. DoE through Sandia National Laboratories award number 240985 to the University of Michigan. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  19. Evolution of sausage and helical modes in magnetized thin-foil cylindrical liners driven by a Z-pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yager-Elorriaga, D. A.; Lau, Y. Y.; Zhang, P.; Campbell, P. C.; Steiner, A. M.; Jordan, N. M.; McBride, R. D.; Gilgenbach, R. M.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we present experimental results on axially magnetized (Bz = 0.5 - 2.0 T), thin-foil (400 nm-thick) cylindrical liner-plasmas driven with ˜600 kA by the Michigan Accelerator for Inductive Z-Pinch Experiments, which is a linear transformer driver at the University of Michigan. We show that: (1) the applied axial magnetic field, irrespective of its direction (e.g., parallel or anti-parallel to the flow of current), reduces the instability amplitude for pure magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes [defined as modes devoid of the acceleration-driven magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instability]; (2) axially magnetized, imploding liners (where MHD modes couple to MRT) generate m = 1 or m = 2 helical modes that persist from the implosion to the subsequent explosion stage; (3) the merging of instability structures is a mechanism that enables the appearance of an exponential instability growth rate for a longer than expected time-period; and (4) an inverse cascade in both the axial and azimuthal wavenumbers, k and m, may be responsible for the final m = 2 helical structure observed in our experiments. These experiments are particularly relevant to the magnetized liner inertial fusion program pursued at Sandia National Laboratories, where helical instabilities have been observed.

  20. Experimental study of z-pinch driven radiative shocks in low density gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skidmore, Jonathan; Lebedev, S. V.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Swadling, G.; Bland, S. N.; Burdiak, G.; Chittenden, J. P.; de Grouchy, P.; Hall, G. N.; Pickworth, L.; Suttle, L.; Bennett, M.; Ciardi, A.

    2012-10-01

    Results of experiments performed on MAGPIE pulsed power facility (1.4MA, 250ns) will be presented. Shocks with velocities of 50-70km/s are driven in Ar, Xe and He gases at density ˜10-5g/cc using radial foil z-pinch configuration [1]. Measurements of the structure of the shocks obtained with laser probing will be presented and observations of the development of instabilities will be discussed. It was found that the structure of the shocks and the development of instabilities strongly depend on the rate of radiative cooling, increasing for gases with higher atomic numbers.[4pt] [1] F. Suzuki-Vidal et al., PoP 19, 022708 (2012)

  1. Particle drift model for Z-pinch-driven magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan, Jia Kun; Xu, Qiang; Wang, Kun Lun; Ren, Xiao Dong; Huang, Xian Bin

    2016-09-01

    A theoretical model of Z-pinch driven magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability is proposed based on the particle drift point of view, which can explain the helical instability structure observed in premagnetized imploding liner experiments. It is demonstrated that all possible drift motions, including polarization drift, gradient drift, and curvature drift, which can lead to charge separations, each will attribute to an effective gravity acceleration. Theoretical predictions given by this model are dramatically different from those given by previous theories which have been readily recovered in the theory presented here as a limiting case. The theory shows qualitative agreement with available experimental data of the pitch angle and provides certain predictions to be verified.

  2. Z-pinch Plasma Temperature and Implosion Velocity from Laboratory Plasma Jets using Thomson Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banasek, Jacob; Byvank, Tom; Kusse, Bruce; Hammer, David

    2016-10-01

    We discuss the use of collective Thomson scattering to determine the implosion velocity and other properties of laboratory plasma jets. The plasma jet is created using a 1 MA pulsed power machine with a 15 μm Al radial foil load. The Thomson scattering laser has a maximum energy of 10 J at 526.5 nm with a pulse duration of 3 ns. Using a time gated ICCD camera and spectrometer system we are able to record the scattered spectrum from 9 or 18 regions along the laser path with sub-mm spatial resolution. Collecting scattered radiation from the same area at two different angles simultaneously enables determination of both the radial and azimuthal velocities. The scattered spectrum for non-magnetized jets indicates a radial implosion velocity of 27 km/s into the jets. A determination of ion and electron temperatures from the scattered spectrum is in progress. Comparing results using a laser energy of 10 J and 1 J shows noticeable effects on plasma jet properties when using 10 J. Therefore the lower laser energy must be used to determine the plasma properties. This research is supported by the NNSA Stewardship Sciences Academic Programs under DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-NA0001836.

  3. Characterization of neutron emission from mega-ampere deuterium gas puff Z-pinch at microsecond implosion times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klir, D.; Shishlov, A. V.; Kokshenev, V. A.; Kubes, P.; Labetsky, A. Yu; Rezac, K.; Cikhardt, J.; Fursov, F. I.; Kovalchuk, B. M.; Kravarik, J.; Kurmaev, N. E.; Ratakhin, N. A.; Sila, O.; Stodulka, J.

    2013-08-01

    Experiments with deuterium (D2) triple shell gas puffs were carried out on the GIT-12 generator at a 3 MA current level and microsecond implosion times. The outer, middle and inner nozzle diameters were 160 mm, 80 mm and 30 mm, respectively. The influence of the mass of deuterium shells on neutron emission times, neutron yields and neutron energy spectra was studied. The injected linear mass of deuterium varied between 50 and 255 µg cm-1. Gas puffs imploded onto the axis before the peak of generator current at 700-1100 ns. Most of the neutrons were emitted during the second neutron pulse after the development of instabilities. Despite higher currents, heavier gas puffs produced lower neutron yields. Optimal mass and a short time delay between the valve opening and the generator triggering were more important than the better coincidence of stagnation with peak current. The peak neutron yield from D(d, n)3He reactions reached 3 × 1011 at 2.8 MA current, 90 µg cm-1 injected linear mass and 37 mm anode-cathode gap. In the case of lower mass shots, a large number of 10 MeV neutrons were produced either by secondary DT reactions or by DD reactions of deuterons with energies above 7 MeV. The average neutron yield ratio Y>10 MeV/Y2.5 MeV reached (6 ± 3) × 10-4. Such a result can be explained by a power law distribution for deuterons as \\rmd N_d/\\rmd E_d\\propto E_d^{-3} . The optimization of a D2 gas puff Z-pinch and similarities to a plasma focus and its drive parameter are described.

  4. Study of the formation, stability, and X-ray emission of the Z-pinch formed during implosion of fiber arrays at the Angara-5-1 facility

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, V. V.; Volkov, G. S.; Grabovski, E. V.

    Results from experimental studies on the implosion of arrays made of kapron fibers coated with different metals (Al, In, Sn, and Bi) are presented. It is shown that the power, total energy, and spectrum of radiation emitted by the imploding array depend on the number of metallized fibers and the mass of the metal layer deposited on them but are independent of the metal characteristics (density, atomic number, etc.). Analysis of frame X-ray images shows that the Z-pinches formed in the implosion of metallized kapron fiber arrays are more stable than those formed in wire arrays and that MHD perturbationsmore » in them develop at a slower growth rate. Due to the lower rate of plasma production from kapron fibers, the plasma formed at the periphery of the array forms a layer that plays the role of a hohlraum wall partially trapping soft X-ray emission of the Z-pinch formed in the implosion of the material of the deposited metal layer. The closure of the anode aperture doubles the energy of radiation emitted in the radial direction.« less

  5. Status On Multi-microsecond Prepulse Technique On Sphinx Machine Going From Nested To Single Wire Array For 800 ns Implosion Time Z-pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maury, P.; Calamy, H.; Grunenwald, J.; Lassalle, F.; Zucchini, F.; Loyen, A.; Georges, A.; Morell, A.; Bedoch, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    The Sphinx machine[1] is a 6 MA, 1 μS driver based on the LTD technology, used for Z-pinch experiments. Important improvements of Sphinx radiation output were recently obtained using a multi-microsecond current prepulse[2]. Total power per unit of length is multiplied by a factor of 6 and FWHM divided by a factor of 2.5. Early breakdown of the wires during the prepulse phase dramatically changes the ablation phase leading to an improvement of axial homogeneity of both the implosion and the final radiating column. As a consequence, the cathode bubble observed on classical shots is definitively removed. The implosion is then centered and zippering effect is reduced, leading to simultaneous x-ray emission of the whole length. A great reproducibility is obtained. Nested arrays were used before to mitigate the Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities during the implosion phase. Further experiments with pre-pulse technique are described here were inner array was removed. The goal of these experiments was to see if long prepulse could give stable enough implosion with single array and at the same time increase the η parameter by reducing the mass of the load. Experimental results of single wire array loads of typical dimension 5 cm in height with implosion time between 700 and 900 ns and diameter varying between 80 and 140 mm are given. Parameters of the loads were varying in term of radius and number of wires. Comparisons with nested wire array loads are done and trends are proposed. Characteristics of both the implosion and the final radiating column are shown. 2D MHD numerical simulations of single wire array become easier as there is no interaction between outer and inner array anymore. A systematic study was done using injection mass model to benchmark simulation with experiments.

  6. Polar Radiation-Flux Symmetry Measurements in Z-Pinch-Driven Hohlraums with Symmetric Double-Pinch Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, D. L.; Vesey, R. A.; Cuneo Porter, M. E., Jr.; Chandler, G. A.; Ruggles, L. E.; Simpson, W. W.; Seamen, H.; Primm, P.; Torres, J.; McGurn, J.; Gilliland, T. L.; Reynolds, P.; Hebron, D. E.; Dropinski, S. C.; Schroen-Carey, D. G.; Hammer, J. H.; Landen, O.; Koch, J.

    2000-10-01

    We are currently exploring symmetry requirements of the z-pinch-driven hohlraum concept [1] for high-yield inertial confinement fusion. In experiments on the Z accelerator, the burnthrough of a low-density self-backlit foam ball has been used to diagnose the large time-dependent flux asymmetry of several single-sided-drive hohlraum geometries [2]. We are currently applying this technique to study polar radiation flux symmetry in a symmetric double z-pinch geometry. Wire arrays on opposite ends of the hohlraum, connected in series to a single current drive of 18 MA, implode and stagnate on axis, efficiently radiating about 100 TW of x rays which heat the secondary to 75 eV. Comparisons with 3-D radiosity and 2-D rad-hydro models of hohlraum symmetry performance will be presented. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. 1 J. H. Hammer et al., Phys. Plasmas 6, 2129 (1999). 2 D. L. Hanson et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 44, 40 (1999).

  7. Capsule symmetry sensitivity and hohlraum symmetry calculations for the z-pinch driven hohlraum high-yield concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesey, Roger; Cuneo, M. E.; Hanson Porter, D. L., Jr.; Mehlhorn, T. A.; Ruggles, L. E.; Simpson, W. W.; Hammer, J. H.; Landen, O.

    2000-10-01

    Capsule radiation symmetry is a crucial issue in the design of the z-pinch driven hohlraum approach to high-yield inertial confinement fusion [1]. Capsule symmetry may be influenced by power imbalance of the two z-pinch x-ray sources, and by hohlraum effects (geometry, time-dependent albedo, wall motion). We have conducted two-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics calculations to estimate the symmetry sensitivity of the 220 eV beryllium ablator capsule that nominally yields 400 MJ in this concept. These estimates then determine the symmetry requirements to be met by the hohlraum design (for even Legendre modes) and by the top-bottom pinch imbalance and mistiming (for odd Legendre modes). We have used a combination of 2- and 3-D radiosity ("viewfactor"), and 2-D radiation-hydrodynamics calculations to identify hohlraum geometries that meet these symmetry requirements for high-yield, and are testing these models against ongoing Z foam ball symmetry experiments. 1. J. H. Hammer et al., Phys. Plas. 6, 2129 (1999).

  8. MAIZE: a 1 MA LTD-Driven Z-Pinch at The University of Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilgenbach, R. M.; Gomez, M. R.; Zier, J. C.; Tang, W. W.; French, D. M.; Lau, Y. Y.; Mazarakis, M. G.; Cuneo, M. E.; Johnston, M. D.; Oliver, B. V.; Mehlhorn, T. A.; Kim, A. A.; Sinebryukhov, V. A.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers at The University of Michigan have constructed and tested a 1-MA Linear Transformer Driver (LTD), the first of its type to reach the USA. The Michigan Accelerator for Inductive Z-pinch Experiments, (MAIZE), is based on the LTD developed at the Institute of High Current Electronics in collaboration with Sandia National Labs and UM. This LTD utilizes 80 capacitors and 40 spark gap switches, arranged in 40 "bricks," to deliver a 1 MA, 100 kV pulse with 100 ns risetime into a matched resistive load. Preliminary resistive-load test results are presented for the LTD facility. Planned experimental research programs at UM include: a) Studies of Magneto-Raleigh-Taylor instability of planar foils, and b) Vacuum convolute studies including cathode and anode plasma.

  9. Construction and Initial Tests of MAIZE: 1 MA LTD-Driven Z-Pinch *

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilgenbach, R. M.; Gomez, M. R.; Zier, J. C.; Tang, W.; French, D. M.; Lau, Y. Y.; Mazarakis, M. G.; Cuneo, M. E.; Johnston, M. D.; Oliver, B. V.; Mehlhorn, T. A.; Kim, A. A.; Sinebryukhov, V. A.

    2008-11-01

    We report construction and initial testing of a 1-MA Linear Transformer Driver (LTD), The Michigan Accelerator for Inductive Z-pinch Experiments, (MAIZE). This machine, the first of its type to reach the USA, is based on the joint HCEI, Sandia Laboratories, and UM development effort. The compact LTD uses 80 capacitors and 40 spark gap switches, in 40 ``bricks'', to deliver 1 MA, 100 kV pulses with 70 ns risetime into a matched resistive load. Test results will be presented for a single brick and the full LTD. Design and construction will be presented of a low-inductance MITL. Experimental research programs under design and construction at UM include: a) Studies of Magneto-Raleigh-Taylor Instability of planar foils, and b) Vacuum convolute studies including cathode and anode plasma. Theory and simulation results will be presented for these planned experiments. Initial experimental designs and moderate-current feasibility experiments will be discussed. *Research supported by U. S. DoE through Sandia National Laboratories award document numbers 240985, 768225, 790791 and 805234 to the UM. MRG supported by NNSA Fellowship and JCZ supported by NPSC Fellowship / Sandia National Labs.

  10. Fusion in a staged Z-pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessel, F. J.; Rahman, H. U.; Ney, P.; Valenzuela, J.; Beg, F.; McKee, E.; Darling, T.

    2016-03-01

    This paper is dedicated to Norman Rostoker, our (FJW and HUR) mentor and long-term collaborator, who will always be remembered for the incredible inspiration that he has provided us. Norman's illustrious career dealt with a broad range of fundamental-physics problems and we were fortunate to have worked with him on many important topics: intense-charged-particle beams, field-reversed configurations, and Z-pinches. Rostoker 's group at the University of CA, Irvine was well known for having implemented many refinements to the Z-pinch, that make it more stable, scalable, and efficient, including the development of: the gas-puff Z-pinch [1], which provides for the use of an expanded range of pinch-load materials; the gas-mixture Z-pinch [2], which enhances the pinch stability and increases its radiation efficiency; e-beam pre-ionization [3], which enhances the uniformity of the initial-breakdown process in a gas pinch; magnetic-flux-compression [4, 5], which allows for the amplification of an axial-magnetic field Bz; the Z-θ pinch [6], which predicts fusion in a pinch-on-fiber configuration; the Staged Z-pinch (SZP) [7], which allows for the amplification of the pinch self-magnetic field, Bθ , in addition to a Bz, and leads to a stable implosion and high-gain fusion [8, 9, 10]. This paper describes the physical basis for a magneto-inertial compression in a liner-on-target SZP [11]. Initially a high-atomic-number liner implodes under the action of the J →×B → , Lorentz Force. As the implosion becomes super Alfvénic, magnetosonic waves form, transporting current and magnetic field through the liner toward the interface of the low-atomic-number target. The target implosion remains subsonic with its surface bounded by a stable-shock front. Shock waves that pass into the target provide a source of target plasma pre-heat. At peak compression the assembly is compressed by liner inertia, with flux compression producing an intense-magnetic field near the target

  11. Recent advances in theoretical and numerical studies of wire array Z-pinch in the IAPCM

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Ning, E-mail: ding-ning@iapcm.ac.cn; Zhang, Yang, E-mail: ding-ning@iapcm.ac.cn; Xiao, Delong, E-mail: ding-ning@iapcm.ac.cn

    2014-12-15

    Fast Z-pinch has produced the most powerful X-ray radiation source in laboratory and also shows the possibility to drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Recent advances in wire-array Z-pinch researches at the Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics are presented in this paper. A typical wire array Z-pinch process has three phases: wire plasma formation and ablation, implosion and the MRT instability development, stagnation and radiation. A mass injection model with azimuthal modulation coefficient is used to describe the wire initiation, and the dynamics of ablated plasmas of wire-array Z-pinches in (r, θ) geometry is numerically studied. In the implosionmore » phase, a two-dimensional(r, z) three temperature radiation MHD code MARED has been developed to investigate the development of the Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor(MRT) instability. We also analyze the implosion modes of nested wire-array and find that the inner wire-array is hardly affected before the impaction of the outer wire-array. While the plasma accelerated to high speed in the implosion stage stagnates on the axis, abundant x-ray radiation is produced. The energy spectrum of the radiation and the production mechanism are investigated. The computational x-ray pulse shows a reasonable agreement with the experimental result. We also suggest that using alloyed wire-arrays can increase multi-keV K-shell yield by decreasing the opacity of K-shell lines. In addition, we use a detailed circuit model to study the energy coupling between the generator and the Z-pinch implosion. Recently, we are concentrating on the problems of Z-pinch driven ICF, such as dynamic hohlraum and capsule implosions. Our numerical investigations on the interaction of wire-array Z-pinches on foam convertors show qualitative agreements with experimental results on the “Qiangguang I” facility. An integrated two-dimensional simulation of dynamic hohlraum driven capsule implosion provides us the physical insights of

  12. Implosion dynamics of a megampere wire-array Z-pinch with an inner low-density foam shell at the Angara-5-1 facility

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, V. V.; Bolkhovitinov, E. A.; Volkov, G. S., E-mail: volkov@triniti.ru

    The implosion dynamics of a pinch with a highly inhomogeneous initial axial distribution of the load mass was studied experimentally. A cascade array consisting of a double nested tungsten wire array and a coaxial inner cylindrical shell located symmetrically with respect to the high-voltage electrodes was used as a load of the Angara-5-1 high-current generator. The cylindrical foam shell was half as long as the cathode− anode gap, and its diameter was equal to the diameter of the inner wire array. It is shown experimentally that two stages are typical of the implosion dynamics of such a load: the formationmore » of two separate pinches formed as a result of implosion of the wire array near the cathode and anode and the subsequent implosion of the central part of the load containing the cylindrical foam shell. The conditions are determined at which the implosion of the central part of the pinch with the foam cylinder is preceded by intense irradiation of the foam with the soft X-ray (SXR) emission generated by the near-electrode pinches and converting it into the plasma state. Using such a load, which models the main elements of the scheme of a dynamic hohlraum for inertial confinement fusion, it is possible to increase the efficiency of interaction between the outer accelerated plasma sheath and the inner foam shell by preionizing the foam with the SXR emission of the near-electrode pinches.« less

  13. Spatiotemporal and spectral characteristics of X-ray radiation emitted by the Z-pinch during the current implosion of quasispherical multiwire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritsuk, A. N.

    2017-12-01

    For the first time, a quasi-spherical current implosion has been experimentally realized on a multimegaampere facility with the peak current of up to 4 MA and a soft X-ray source has been created with high radiation power density on its surface of up to 3 TW/cm2. An increase in the energy density at the centre of the source of soft X-ray radiation (SXR) was experimentally observed upon compression of quasi-spherical arrays with the linear-mass profiling. In this case, the average power density on the surface of the SXR source is three times higher than for implosions of cylindrical arrays of the same mass and close values of the discharge current. Obtained experimental data are compared with the results of modelling the current implosion of multi-wire arrays performed with the help of a three-dimensional radiation-magneto-hydrodynamic code.

  14. Z-Pinch Fusion Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miernik, Janie

    2011-01-01

    Fusion-based nuclear propulsion has the potential to enable fast interplanetary transportation. Shorter trips are better for humans in the harmful radiation environment of deep space. Nuclear propulsion and power plants can enable high Ispand payload mass fractions because they require less fuel mass. Fusion energy research has characterized the Z-Pinch dense plasma focus method. (1) Lightning is form of pinched plasma electrical discharge phenomena. (2) Wire array Z-Pinch experiments are commonly studied and nuclear power plant configurations have been proposed. (3) Used in the field of Nuclear Weapons Effects (NWE) testing in the defense industry, nuclear weapon x-rays are simulated through Z-Pinch phenomena.

  15. α Heating in a Stagnated Z-pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appelbe, Brian; Chittenden, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    A computational investigation of a scheme for magneto-inertial confinement fusion in a Z-pinch is carried out. In the scheme implosion of a deuterium-tritium fuel mass is preceded by formation of a hotspot containing warm, dense plasma on axis. The presence of the hotspot increases energy yield. Compression of the hotspot by the main fuel mass initiates thermonuclear burn. There is significant heating of the plasma by thermonuclear α particles which are confined by the strong magnetic field of the Z-pinch.

  16. Preliminary experimental results of tungsten wire-array Z-pinches on primary test stand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xian-Bin; Zhou, Shao-Tong; Dan, Jia-Kun; Ren, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Kun-Lun; Zhang, Si-Qun; Li, Jing; Xu, Qiang; Cai, Hong-Chun; Duan, Shu-Chao; Ouyang, Kai; Chen, Guang-Hua; Ji, Ce; Wei, Bing; Feng, Shu-Ping; Wang, Meng; Xie, Wei-Ping; Deng, Jian-Jun; Zhou, Xiu-Wen; Yang, Yi

    2015-07-01

    The Primary Test Stand (PTS) developed at the China Academy of Engineering Physics is a 20 TW pulsed power driver, which can deliver a ˜10 MA, 70 ns rise-time (10%-90%) current to a short-circuit load and has important applications in Z-pinch driven inertial confinement fusion and high energy density physics. Preliminary results of tungsten wire-array Z-pinch experiments on PTS are presented. The load geometries investigated include 15-mm-tall cylindrical single and nested arrays with diameter ranging from 13 mm to 30 mm, consisting of 132-300 tungsten wires with 5-10 μm in diameter. Multiple diagnostics were fielded to characterize the x-ray radiation from wire-array Z pinches. The x-ray peak power (˜50 TW) and total radiated energy (˜500 kJ) were obtained from a single 20-mm-diam array with 80-ns stagnation time. The highest x-ray peak power up to 80 TW with 2.4 ns FWHM was achieved by using a nested array with 20-mm outer diameter, and the total x-ray energy from the nested array is comparable to that of single array. Implosion velocity estimated from the time-resolved image measurement exceeds 30 cm/μs. The detailed experimental results and other findings are presented and discussed.

  17. Dynamical analysis of surface-insulated planar wire array Z-pinches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang; Sheng, Liang; Hei, Dongwei; Li, Xingwen; Zhang, Jinhai; Li, Mo; Qiu, Aici

    2018-05-01

    The ablation and implosion dynamics of planar wire array Z-pinches with and without surface insulation are compared and discussed in this paper. This paper first presents a phenomenological model named the ablation and cascade snowplow implosion (ACSI) model, which accounts for the ablation and implosion phases of a planar wire array Z-pinch in a single simulation. The comparison between experimental data and simulation results shows that the ACSI model could give a fairly good description about the dynamical characteristics of planar wire array Z-pinches. Surface insulation introduces notable differences in the ablation phase of planar wire array Z-pinches. The ablation phase is divided into two stages: insulation layer ablation and tungsten wire ablation. The two-stage ablation process of insulated wires is simulated in the ACSI model by updating the formulas describing the ablation process.

  18. Analytic model for the dynamic Z-pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Piriz, A. R., E-mail: roberto.piriz@uclm.es; Sun, Y. B.; Tahir, N. A.

    2015-06-15

    A model is presented for describing the cylindrical implosion of a shock wave driven by an accelerated piston. It is based in the identification of the acceleration of the shocked mass with the acceleration of the piston. The model yields the separate paths of the piston and the shock. In addition, by considering that the shocked region evolves isentropically, the approximate profiles of all the magnitudes in the shocked region are obtained. The application to the dynamic Z-pinch is presented and the results are compared with the well known snowplow and slug models which are also derived as limiting casesmore » of the present model. The snowplow model is seen to yield a trajectory in between those of the shock and the piston. Instead, the neglect of the inertial effects in the slug model is seen to produce a too fast implosion, and the pressure uniformity is shown to lead to an unphysical instantaneous piston stopping when the shock arrives to the axis.« less

  19. A reassessment study of multi-material-shell gas puff z-pinches as a pulsed neutron source on the sandia ZR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, Y. K.; Velikovich, A. L.; Thornhil, J. W.; Giuliani, J. L.; Knapp, P.; Jennings, C.

    2013-10-01

    Over the last few years, numerous 1D and 2D MHD simulation studies of deuterium (D) based double-shell gas-puff Z-pinch implosions driven by the Sandia ZR accelerator have been carried out to assess the Z-pinch as a pulsed thermal fusion neutron source. In these studies, an ad-hoc time-dependent shunt impedance model was used within the external driving circuit model in order to account for the unresolved current loss in the MITL and the load. In this study, we incorporate an improved ZR circuit model recently formulated based on the recent Sandia argon gas-puff experiment circuit data into the multi-material version of the Mach +DDTCRE RMHD code. We reinvestigate the effects of multidimensional structure and nonuniform gradients as well as the outer- and inner-shell material interaction on the implosion physics and dynamics of both D-on-D and argon-on-D Z-pinch loads using the model. Then, we characterize the neutron production performance of the Z-pinch loads as a function of total mass, mass ratio and/or radius toward their optimization as a pulsed thernonuclear neutron source. Work supported by DOE/NNSA. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. DOE's NNSA under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  20. The microscopic Z-pinch process of current-carrying rarefied deuterium plasma shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Cheng; Feng, Zhixing; Xue, Chuang; Li, Baiwen

    2015-02-01

    magnetohydrodynamic simulation of the plasma shell Z-pinch. The trailing mass is about 20% of the total mass of the shell, and the maximum trailing current is about 7% of the driven current under our trailing definition. Our PIC simulation also demonstrates that the plasma shell first experiences a snow-plow like implosion process, which is relatively stable.

  1. Theoretical z -pinch scaling relations for thermonuclear-fusion experiments.

    PubMed

    Stygar, W A; Cuneo, M E; Vesey, R A; Ives, H C; Mazarakis, M G; Chandler, G A; Fehl, D L; Leeper, R J; Matzen, M K; McDaniel, D H; McGurn, J S; McKenney, J L; Muron, D J; Olson, C L; Porter, J L; Ramirez, J J; Seamen, J F; Speas, C S; Spielman, R B; Struve, K W; Torres, J A; Waisman, E M; Wagoner, T C; Gilliland, T L

    2005-08-01

    We have developed wire-array z -pinch scaling relations for plasma-physics and inertial-confinement-fusion (ICF) experiments. The relations can be applied to the design of z -pinch accelerators for high-fusion-yield (approximately 0.4 GJ/shot) and inertial-fusion-energy (approximately 3 GJ/shot) research. We find that (delta(a)/delta(RT)) proportional (m/l)1/4 (Rgamma)(-1/2), where delta(a) is the imploding-sheath thickness of a wire-ablation-dominated pinch, delta(RT) is the sheath thickness of a Rayleigh-Taylor-dominated pinch, m is the total wire-array mass, l is the axial length of the array, R is the initial array radius, and gamma is a dimensionless functional of the shape of the current pulse that drives the pinch implosion. When the product Rgamma is held constant the sheath thickness is, at sufficiently large values of m/l, determined primarily by wire ablation. For an ablation-dominated pinch, we estimate that the peak radiated x-ray power P(r) proportional (I/tau(i))(3/2)Rlphigamma, where I is the peak pinch current, tau(i) is the pinch implosion time, and phi is a dimensionless functional of the current-pulse shape. This scaling relation is consistent with experiment when 13 MA < or = I < or = 20 MA, 93 ns < or = tau(i) < or = 169 ns, 10 mm < or = R < or = 20 mm, 10 mm < or = l < or = 20 mm, and 2.0 mg/cm < or = m/l < or = 7.3 mg/cm. Assuming an ablation-dominated pinch and that Rlphigamma is held constant, we find that the x-ray-power efficiency eta(x) congruent to P(r)/P(a) of a coupled pinch-accelerator system is proportional to (tau(i)P(r)(7/9 ))(-1), where P(a) is the peak accelerator power. The pinch current and accelerator power required to achieve a given value of P(r) are proportional to tau(i), and the requisite accelerator energy E(a) is proportional to tau2(i). These results suggest that the performance of an ablation-dominated pinch, and the efficiency of a coupled pinch-accelerator system, can be improved substantially by decreasing the

  2. Z pinches as intense x-ray sources for high-energy density physics applications

    SciTech Connect

    Matzen, M.K.

    1997-05-01

    Fast Z-pinch implosions can efficiently convert the stored electrical energy in a pulsed-power accelerator into x rays. These x rays are produced when an imploding cylindrical plasma, driven by the magnetic field pressure associated with very large axial currents, stagnates upon the cylindrical axis of symmetry. On the Saturn pulsed-power accelerator [R. B. Spielman {ital et al.}, in {ital Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Dense Z Pinches}, Laguna Beach, CA, 1989, edited by N. R. Pereira, J. Davis, and N. Rostoker (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1989), p. 3] at Sandia National Laboratories, for example, currents ofmore » 6{endash}8 MA with a rise time of less than 50 ns are driven through cylindrically symmetric loads, producing implosion velocities as high as 10{sup 8}cm/s and x-ray energies exceeding 400 kJ. Hydromagnetic Rayleigh{endash}Taylor instabilities and cylindrical load symmetry are critical, limiting factors in determining the assembled plasma densities and temperatures, and thus in the x-ray energies and pulse widths that can be produced on these accelerators. In recent experiments on the Saturn accelerator, these implosion nonuniformities have been minimized by using wire arrays with as many as 192 wires. Increasing the wire number produced significant improvements in the pinched plasma quality, reproducibility, and x-ray output power. X-ray pulse widths of less than 5 ns and peak powers of 75{plus_minus}10TW have been achieved with arrays of 120 tungsten wires. Similar loads have recently been fielded on the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator (PBFA II), producing x-ray energies in excess of 1.8 MJ at powers in excess of 160 TW. These intense x-ray sources offer the potential for performing many new basic physics and fusion-relevant experiments. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}« less

  3. Z-Pinch Fusion for Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect

    SPIELMAN,RICK B.

    2000-01-01

    Z pinches, the oldest fusion concept, have recently been revisited in light of significant advances in the fields of plasma physics and pulsed power engineering. The possibility exists for z-pinch fusion to play a role in commercial energy applications. We report on work to develop z-pinch fusion concepts, the result of an extensive literature search, and the output for a congressionally-mandated workshop on fusion energy held in Snowmass, Co July 11-23,1999.

  4. Current redistribution and generation of kinetic energy in the stagnated Z pinch.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, V V; Anderson, A A; Papp, D; Astanovitskiy, A L; Talbot, B R; Chittenden, J P; Niasse, N

    2013-07-01

    The structure of magnetic fields was investigated in stagnated wire-array Z pinches using a Faraday rotation diagnostic at the wavelength of 266 nm. The distribution of current in the pinch and trailing material was reconstructed. A significant part of current can switch from the main pinch to the trailing plasma preheated by x-ray radiation of the pinch. Secondary implosions of trailing plasma generate kinetic energy and provide enhanced heating and radiation of plasma at stagnation. Hot spots in wire-array Z pinches also provide enhanced radiation of the Z pinch. A collapse of a single hot spot radiates 1%-3% of x-ray energy of the Z pinch with a total contribution of hot spots of 10%-30%.

  5. Neutron generation from Z-pinches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vikhrev, V. V.; Korolev, V. D.

    2007-05-01

    Recent advances in both experimental and theoretical studies on neutron generation in various Z-pinch facilities are reviewed. The main methods for enhancing neutron emission from the Z-pinch plasma are described, and the problems of igniting a thermonuclear burn wave in this plasma are discussed.

  6. Review of effects of dielectric coatings on electrical exploding wires and Z pinches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jian; Li, Xingwen; Li, Mo; Li, Yang; Qiu, Aici

    2017-10-01

    As the most powerful x-ray source in the laboratories, the wire array Z pinches have been of great relevance to inertial confinement fusions, laboratory astrophysics, and other high-energy density applications. In order to produce x-ray with greater power and higher efficiency, the dynamics of wire array has been investigated extensively, and various methods have been proposed to improve the implosion quality of the wire array. This review focuses on the experimental and theoretical investigations regarding the effects of the dielectric coatings on electrical exploding wires and Z pinches. Since the early 2000, the electrical wire explosion related to the first stage of the wire array Z pinches has been studied extensively, and the results indicated that the dielectric coatings can significantly increase the joule energy deposition into a wire in the initial stage, and even the corona free explosion of tungsten wires can be achieved. Recently, there is an increasing interest in the dynamics of insulated wire array Z pinches. By applying dielectric coatings, the ablation process is suppressed, the x-ray start time is delayed, and the possibility of multi-peak radiation is decreased. This review is organized by the evolution dynamics of wire array Z pinches, and a broad introduction to relevant scientific concepts and various other applications are presented. According to the current research status, the challenges, opportunities and further developments of Z pinch loads using dielectric coatings are proposed to further promote the researches and their applications.

  7. Hotspot ignition using a Z-pinch precursor plasma in a magneto-inertial ICF scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chittenden, J. P.; Vincent, P.; Jennings, C. A.; Ciardi, A.

    2006-01-01

    Precursor plasma flow is a common feature of wire array Z-pinches. The precursor flow represents a fraction of the mass of the array which arrives on the axis early in time and remains confined at high density by the inertia of further material bombarding the axis. Later on, the main implosion of the Z-pinch then compresses this precursor to substantially higher density. We show that if the same system can be generated with a Deuterium-Tritium plasma then the precursor provides an ideal target for a cylindrical magneto-inertial ICF scheme. The implosion of the DT Z-pinch produces a dense, low temperature shell which compressively heats the precursor target to high temperatures and tamps its expansion. The azimuthal magnetic field in the hotspot is sufficient to reduce the Larmor radius for the alpha particles to much less than the hotspot size, which dramatically reduces the pR required for ignition. A computational analysis of this approach is presented, including a study of the thermonuclear burn wave propagation. The robustness of the scheme with respect to instabilities, confinement time and drive parameters is examined. The results indicate that a high energy gain can be achieved using Z-pinches with 50-100 MA currents and a few hundred nanosecond rise-times. This work was partially supported by the U.S. Department of Energy through cooperative agreement DE-FC03-02NA00057.

  8. Energy balance in a Z pinch with suppressed Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baksht, R. B.; Oreshkin, V. I.; Rousskikh, A. G.; Zhigalin, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    At present Z-pinch has evolved into a powerful plasma source of soft x-ray. This paper considers the energy balance in a radiating metallic gas-puff Z pinch. In this type of Z pinch, a power-law density distribution is realized, promoting suppression of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities that occur in the pinch plasma during compression. The energy coupled into the pinch plasma, is determined as the difference between the total energy delivered to the load from the generator and the magnetic energy of the load inductance. A calibrated voltage divider and a Rogowski coil were used to determine the coupled energy and the load inductance. Time-gated optical imaging of the pinch plasma showed its stable compression up to the stagnation phase. The pinch implosion was simulated using a 1D two-temperature radiative magnetohydrodynamic code. Comparison of the experimental and simulation results has shown that the simulation adequately describes the pinch dynamics for conditions in which RT instability is suppressed. It has been found that the proportion of the Ohmic heating in the energy balance of a Z pinch with suppressed RT instability is determined by Spitzer resistance and makes no more than ten percent.

  9. Efficient Neutron Production from a Novel Configuration of Deuterium Gas-Puff Z-Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klir, D.; Kubes, P.; Rezac, K.; Cikhardt, J.; Kravarik, J.; Sila, O.; Shishlov, A. V.; Kovalchuk, B. M.; Ratakhin, N. A.; Kokshenev, V. A.; Labetsky, A. Yu.; Cherdizov, R. K.; Fursov, F. I.; Kurmaev, N. E.; Dudkin, G. N.; Nechaev, B. A.; Padalko, V. N.; Orcikova, H.; Turek, K.

    2014-03-01

    A novel configuration of a deuterium z pinch has been used to generate fusion neutrons. Injecting an outer hollow cylindrical plasma shell around an inner deuterium gas puff, neutron yields from DD reactions reached Yn=(2.9±0.3)×1012 at 700 ns implosion time and 2.7 MA current. Such a neutron yield means a tenfold increase in comparison with previous deuterium gas puff experiments at the same current generator. The increase of beam-target yields was obtained by a larger amount of current assembled on the z-pinch axis, and subsequently by higher induced voltage and higher energies of deuterons. A stack of CR-39 track detectors on the z-pinch axis showed hydrogen ions up to 38 MeV. Maximum neutron energies of 15 and 22 MeV were observed by radial and axial time-of-flight detectors, respectively. The number of DD neutrons per one joule of stored plasma energy approached 5×107. This implies that deuterium gas puff z pinches belong to the most efficient plasma-based sources of DD neutrons.

  10. Dynamic characteristics of azimuthally correlated structures of axial instability of wire-array Z pinches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan, Jia Kun; Huang, Xian Bin; Ren, Xiao Dong; Chen, Guang Hua; Xu, Qiang; Wang, Kun Lun; Ouyang, Kai; Wei, Bing

    2017-04-01

    Particular attention was placed on observations of dynamic properties of the azimuthally correlated structures of axial instability of wire-array Z pinches, which were conducted at 10-MA (for short circuit load) pulsed power generator-the Primary Test Stand facility. Not well fabricated loads, which were expected to preset bubble or spike in plasma, were used to degrade the implosion symmetry in order to magnify the phenomenon of instability. The side-view sequence of evolution of correlation given by laser shadowgraphy clearly demonstrates the dynamic processes of azimuthal correlation of the bubble and spike. A possible mechanism presented here suggests that it is the substantial current redistribution especially in regions surrounding the bubble/spike resulting from change of inductance due to the presence of the bubble/spike that plays an essential part in establishment of azimuthal correlation of wire array and liner Z pinches.

  11. Fusion Propulsion Z-Pinch Engine Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miernik, J.; Statham, G.; Fabisinski, L.; Maples, C. D.; Adams, R.; Polsgrove, T.; Fincher, S.; Cassibry, J.; Cortez, R.; Turner, M.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Fusion-based nuclear propulsion has the potential to enable fast interplanetary transportation. Due to the great distances between the planets of our solar system and the harmful radiation environment of interplanetary space, high specific impulse (Isp) propulsion in vehicles with high payload mass fractions must be developed to provide practical and safe vehicles for human spaceflight missions. The Z-Pinch dense plasma focus method is a Magneto-Inertial Fusion (MIF) approach that may potentially lead to a small, low cost fusion reactor/engine assembly1. Recent advancements in experimental and theoretical understanding of this concept suggest favorable scaling of fusion power output yield 2. The magnetic field resulting from the large current compresses the plasma to fusion conditions, and this process can be pulsed over short timescales (10(exp -6 sec). This type of plasma formation is widely used in the field of Nuclear Weapons Effects testing in the defense industry, as well as in fusion energy research. A Decade Module 2 (DM2), approx.500 KJ pulsed-power is coming to the RSA Aerophysics Lab managed by UAHuntsville in January, 2012. A Z-Pinch propulsion concept was designed for a vehicle based on a previous fusion vehicle study called "Human Outer Planet Exploration" (HOPE), which used Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) 3 propulsion. The reference mission is the transport of crew and cargo to Mars and back, with a reusable vehicle.

  12. Producing High-Performance, Stable, Sheared-Flow Z-Pinches in the FuZE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golingo, R. P.; Shumlak, U.,; Nelson, B. A.; Claveau, E. L.; Forbes, E. G.; Stepanov, A. D.; Weber, T. R.; Zhang, Y.; McLean, H. S.; Tummel, K. K.; Higginson, D. P.; Schmidt, A. E.; University of Washington (UW) Collaboration; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    The Fusion Z-Pinch Experiment (FuZE) has made significant strides towards generating high-performance, stable Z-pinch plasmas with goals of ne = 1018 cm-3 and T =1 keV. The Z-pinch plasmas are stabilized with a sheared axial flow that is driven by a coaxial accelerator. The new FuZE device has been constructed and reproduces the major scientific achievements the ZaP project at the University of Washington; ne = 1016 cm-3,T = 100 eV, r<1 cm, and tstable >20 μs. These parameters are measured with an array of magnetic field probes, spectroscopy, and fast framing cameras. The plasma parameters are achieved using a small fraction of the maximum energy storage and gas injection capability of the FuZE device. Higher density, ne = 5×1017 cm-3, and temperature, T = 500 eV, Z-pinch plasmas are formed by increasing the pinch current. At the higher voltages and currents, the ionization rates in the accelerator increase. By modifying the neutral gas profile in the accelerator, the plasma flow from the accelerator is maintained, driving the flow shear. Formation and sustainment of the sheared-flow Z-pinch plasma will be discussed. Experimental data demonstrating high performance plasmas in a stable Z-pinches will be shown. This work is supported by an award from US ARPA-E.

  13. Staged Z-pinch Experiments on Cobra and Zebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessel, Frank J.; Anderson, A.; Banasek, J. T.; Byvank, T.; Conti, F.; Darling, T. W.; Dutra, E.; Glebov, V.; Greenly, J.; Hammer, D. A.; Potter, W. M.; Rocco, S. V.; Ross, M. P.; Ruskov, E.; Valenzuela, J.; Beg, F.; Covington, A.; Narkis, J.; Rahman, H. U.

    2017-10-01

    A Staged Z-pinch (SZP), configured as a pre-magnetized, high-Z (Ar, or Kr) annular liner imploding onto a low-Z (H, or D) target, was tested on the Cornell University, Cobra Facility and the University of Nevada, Reno, Zebra Facility; each characterized similarly by a nominal 1-MA current and 100-ns risetime while possessing different diagnostic packages. XUV-fast imaging reveals that the SZP implosion dynamics is similar on both machines and that it is more stable with an axial (Bz) magnetic field, a target, or both, than without. On Zebra, where neutron production is possible, reproducible thermonuclear (DD) yields were recorded at levels in excess of 109/shot. Flux compression in the SZP is also expected to produce magnetic field intensities of the order of kilo-Tesla. Thus, the DD reaction produced tritions should also yield secondary DT neutrons. Indeed, secondaries are measured above the noise threshold at levels approaching 106/shot. Funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy, under Grant Number DE-AR0000569.

  14. The effects of insulating coatings and current prepulse on tungsten planar wire array Z-pinches

    SciTech Connect

    Li, M., E-mail: limo@nint.ac.cn; Li, Y.; State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Radiation Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an 710024

    2015-12-15

    This paper presents experimental results on the effects of insulating coatings and current prepulse on tungsten planar wire array Z-pinches on ∼100 ns main current facility. Optical framing images indicated that without a current prepulse the wire ablation process was asymmetrical and the implosion was zippered. The x-ray peak power was ∼320 GW. By using insulating coatings on the wire surface the asymmetry remained, and the processes of ablation and implosion were delayed by ∼30 ns. The x-ray burst was narrow and decreased to ∼200 GW. When current prepulses were used on both standard and insulated wire arrays, implosion symmetry was improved and themore » x-ray burst was improved (to ∼520 GW peak power). In addition, there was a strong emitting precursor column for insulated loads with the current prepulse.« less

  15. Coronal plasma development in wire-array z-pinches made of twisted-pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyt, C. L.; Greenly, J. B.; Gourdain, P. A.; Knapp, P. F.; Pikuz, S. A.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Hammer, D. A.; Kusse, B. R.

    2009-11-01

    We have investigated coronal and core plasma development in wire array z-pinches in which single fine wires are replaced by twisted-pairs (``cable'') on the 1 MA, 100 ns rise time COBRA pulsed power generator. X-ray radiography, employed to investigate dense wire core expansion, showed periodic axial nonuniformity and evidence for shock waves developing where the individual wire plasmas collide. Laser shadowgraphy images indicated that the axial instability properties of the coronal plasma are substantially modified from ordinary wire arrays. Cable mass per unit length, material and the twist wavelength were varied in order to study their effects upon the instability wavelength. Implosion uniformity and bright-spot formation, as well as magnetic topology evolution, have also been investigated using self-emission imaging, x-ray diagnostics and small B-dot probes, respectively. Results from the cable-array z-pinches will be compared with results from ordinary wire-array z-pinches. This research was supported by the SSAA program of the National Nuclear Security Administration under DOE Cooperative agreement DE-FC03-02NA00057.

  16. Analytic model to estimate thermonuclear neutron yield in z-pinches using the magnetic Noh problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Robert C.

    The objective was to build a model which could be used to estimate neutron yield in pulsed z-pinch experiments, benchmark future z-pinch simulation tools and to assist scaling for breakeven systems. To accomplish this, a recent solution to the magnetic Noh problem was utilized which incorporates a self-similar solution with cylindrical symmetry and azimuthal magnetic field (Velikovich, 2012). The self-similar solution provides the conditions needed to calculate the time dependent implosion dynamics from which batch burn is assumed and used to calculate neutron yield. The solution to the model is presented. The ion densities and time scales fix the initial mass and implosion velocity, providing estimates of the experimental results given specific initial conditions. Agreement is shown with experimental data (Coverdale, 2007). A parameter sweep was done to find the neutron yield, implosion velocity and gain for a range of densities and time scales for DD reactions and a curve fit was done to predict the scaling as a function of preshock conditions.

  17. Characterisation of the current switch mechanism in two-stage wire array Z-pinches

    SciTech Connect

    Burdiak, G. C.; Lebedev, S. V.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.

    2015-11-15

    In this paper, we describe the operation of a two-stage wire array z-pinch driven by the 1.4 MA, 240 ns rise-time Magpie pulsed-power device at Imperial College London. In this setup, an inverse wire array acts as a fast current switch, delivering a current pre-pulse into a cylindrical load wire array, before rapidly switching the majority of the generator current into the load after a 100–150 ns dwell time. A detailed analysis of the evolution of the load array during the pre-pulse is presented. Measurements of the load resistivity and energy deposition suggest significant bulk heating of the array mass occurs. Themore » ∼5 kA pre-pulse delivers ∼0.8 J of energy to the load, leaving it in a mixed, predominantly liquid-vapour state. The main current switch occurs as the inverse array begins to explode and plasma expands into the load region. Electrical and imaging diagnostics indicate that the main current switch may evolve in part as a plasma flow switch, driven by the expansion of a magnetic cavity and plasma bubble along the length of the load array. Analysis of implosion trajectories suggests that approximately 1 MA switches into the load in 100 ns, corresponding to a doubling of the generator dI/dt. Potential scaling of the device to higher current machines is discussed.« less

  18. On the Heating of Ions in Noncylindrical Z-Pinches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svirsky, E. B.

    2018-01-01

    The method proposed here for analyzing processes in a hot plasma of noncylindrical Z-pinches is based on separation of the group of high-energy ions into a special fraction. Such ions constitute an insignificant fraction ( 10%) of the total volume of the Z-pinch plasma, but these ions contribute the most to the formation of conditions in which the pinch becomes a source of nuclear fusion products and X-ray radiation. The method allows a quite correct approach to obtaining quantitative estimates of the plasma parameters, the nuclear fusion energy yield, and the features of neutron fluxes in experiments with Z-pinches.

  19. The quest for a z-pinch based fusion energy source—a historical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sethian, John

    1997-05-01

    Ever since 1958, when Oscar Anderson observed copious neutrons emanating from a "magnetically self-constricted column of deuterium plasma," scientists have attempted to develop the simple linear pinch into a fusion power source. After all, simple calculations show that if one can pass a current of slightly less than 2 million amperes through a stable D-T plasma, then one could achieve not just thermonuclear break-even, but thermonuclear gain. Moreover, several reactor studies have shown that a simple linear pinch could be the basis for a very attractive fusion system. The problem is, of course, that the seemingly simple act of passing 2 MA through a stable pinch has proven to be quite difficult to accomplish. The pinch tends to disrupt due to instabilities, either by the m=0 (sausage) or m=1 (kink) modes. Curtailing the growth of these instabilities has been the primary thrust of z-pinch fusion research, and over the years a wide variety of formation techniques have been tried. The early pinches were driven by relatively slow capacitive discharges and were formed by imploding a plasma column. The advent of fast pulsed power technology brought on a whole new repertoire of formation techniques, including: fast implosions, laser or field-enhanced breakdown in a uniform volume of gas, a discharge inside a small capillary, a frozen deuterium fiber isolated by vacuum, and staged concepts in which one pinch implodes upon another. And although none of these have yet to be successful, some have come tantalizingly close. This paper will review the history of this four-decade long quest for fusion power.

  20. About plasma points' generation in Z-pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonin, V. I.; Potapov, A. V.; Lazarchuk, V. P.; Murugov, V. M.; Senik, A. V.

    1997-05-01

    The streak tube study results (at visible and x-ray ranges) of dynamics of fast Z-pinch formed at explosion of metal wire in diode of high current generator are presented. Amplitude of current in the load reached ˜180 kA at increase time ˜50 ns. The results' analysis points to capability of controlling hot plasma points generation process in Z-pinch.

  1. Wire-number effects on high-power annular z-pinches and some characteristics at high wire number

    SciTech Connect

    SANFORD,THOMAS W. L.

    2000-05-23

    Characteristics of annular wire-array z-pinches as a function of wire number and at high wire number are reviewed. The data, taken primarily using aluminum wires on Saturn are comprehensive. The experiments have provided important insights into the features of wire-array dynamics critical for high x-ray power generation, and have initiated a renaissance in z-pinches when high numbers of wires are used. In this regime, for example, radiation environments characteristic of those encountered during the early pulses required for indirect-drive ICF ignition on the NIF have been produced in hohlraums driven by x-rays from a z-pinch, and are commented on here.

  2. Z-Pinch Pulsed Plasma Propulsion Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polsgrove, Tara; Adams, Robert B.; Fabisinski, Leo; Fincher, Sharon; Maples, C. Dauphne; Miernik, Janie; Percy, Tom; Statham, Geoff; Turner, Matt; Cassibry, Jason; hide

    2010-01-01

    Fusion-based propulsion can enable fast interplanetary transportation. Magneto-inertial fusion (MIF) is an approach which has been shown to potentially lead to a low cost, small reactor for fusion break even. The Z-Pinch/dense plasma focus method is an MIF concept in which a column of gas is compressed to thermonuclear conditions by an axial current (I approximates 100 MA). Recent advancements in experiments and the theoretical understanding of this concept suggest favorable scaling of fusion power output yield as I(sup 4). This document presents a conceptual design of a Z-Pinch fusion propulsion system and a vehicle for human exploration. The purpose of this study is to apply Z-Pinch fusion principles to the design of a propulsion system for an interplanetary spacecraft. This study took four steps in service of that objective; these steps are identified below. 1. Z-Pinch Modeling and Analysis: There is a wealth of literature characterizing Z-Pinch physics and existing Z-Pinch physics models. In order to be useful in engineering analysis, simplified Z-Pinch fusion thermodynamic models are required to give propulsion engineers the quantity of plasma, plasma temperature, rate of expansion, etc. The study team developed these models in this study. 2. Propulsion Modeling and Analysis: While the Z-Pinch models characterize the fusion process itself, propulsion models calculate the parameters that characterize the propulsion system (thrust, specific impulse, etc.) The study team developed a Z-Pinch propulsion model and used it to determine the best values for pulse rate, amount of propellant per pulse, and mixture ratio of the D-T and liner materials as well as the resulting thrust and specific impulse of the system. 3. Mission Analysis: Several potential missions were studied. Trajectory analysis using data from the propulsion model was used to determine the duration of the propulsion burns, the amount of propellant expended to complete each mission considered. 4

  3. Diagnostics for Magnetically Driven Implosions on the 1-MA MAIZE Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Paul; Yager-Elorriaga, David; Miller, Stephanie; Woolstrum, Jeff; Jones, Michael; Jordan, Nicholas; Lau, Y. Y.; Gilgenbach, Ronald; McBride, Ryan

    2017-10-01

    The Michigan Accelerator for Inductive Z-pinch Experiments (MAIZE) is a 3-m-diameter Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) at the University of Michigan which supplies a fast electrical pulse (0-1 MA in 100 ns, for matched loads) to various experimental configurations. In order to better investigate these loads, new diagnostics are being developed. First, an EUV/XUV micro-channel plate pinhole camera and a UV laser imaging system are being implemented to better observe the instability structures that form during implosions. Second, an x-pinch radiography diagnostic is being developed to probe deeper into the plasma loads. Third, Rogowski coils are being developed for enhanced load current measurements. Finally, a bolometry system and photo-conducting diamond (PCD) detectors will be implemented to measure x-ray power and energy. These new systems, combined with the existing twelve-frame laser shadowgraphy, and b-dot current monitors, will be powerful tools for the investigation of imploding z-pinch experiments. This research was supported by the DOE through award DE-SC0012328, Sandia National Laboratories contract DE-NA0003525, the National Science Foundation, and a Nuclear Regulatory Commission new-faculty development Grant. D.Y.E. was supported by an NSF fello.

  4. Z-Pinch Plasma Neutron Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-24

    deuterium into 9 to 14 keV (around 10 keV), which is well in the fusion energy range we are interested in. To make plasma radiation sources work, we...showing the 1-D dynamics of the pinch plasma implosion, temperature, fusion energy production and deposition for the conditions of shot Z1422. The minimum...histories of ion and electron temperatures, fusion energy production and energy deposition in ID RMHD run modeling deuterium shot Z1422. In our simulations

  5. Effect of Initial Conditions on Gas-Puff Z-Pinch Dynamics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Gus Gordon

    This dissertation concerns the effects initial conditions have on the dynamics of an imploded, annular gas-puff z-pinch. The influence of axial magnetic fields, nozzle size and composition, different gases, pre-ionization, and electrode design on pinch quality and x-ray yield is investigated. The experiment uses a 5-kJ capacitor bank to deliver 0.35 MA to the pinch load in 1.4 mu rm s. This research establishes parameters important to increasing the x-ray yield of dense z-pinches. The initial stage of the implosion is diagnosed with a framing camera that photographs visible light emitted from z-pinch gas breakdown. Data from subsequent stages of the pinch is recorded with a B-dot probe, filtered x-ray diodes, an x-ray filtered pinhole camera, and a nitrogen laser interferometer. Applied axial magnetic fields of ~100 gauss increase average x-ray yield by more than 20%. A substantial increase of K-shell x -ray yield of more than 200% was obtained by increasing the energy delivered to the plasma by enlarging the nozzle diameter from 4 to 5 cm. The use of a Teflon outer-mantle for the nozzle resulted in less uniform gas breakdown as compared to graphite and copper outer-mantles, but x-ray yield and final state uniformity were not reduced. Lower Z gases showed poorer breakdown uniformity. Pre-ionization improved the uniformity of helium and neon breakdown but did not appear to affect subsequent dynamics. X-ray yield was significantly higher using a knife-edge annular anode, as opposed to a flat stainless steel honeycomb anode. Annular anodes with diameters more than a few millimeters different than the nozzle diameter produced low quality pinches with substantially lower x-ray yield.

  6. Grazing incidence extreme ultraviolet spectrometer fielded with time resolution in a hostile z-pinch environment.

    PubMed

    Williamson, K M; Kantsyrev, V L; Safronova, A S; Wilcox, P G; Cline, W; Batie, S; LeGalloudec, B; Nalajala, V; Astanovitsky, A

    2011-09-01

    This recently developed diagnostic was designed to allow for time-gated spectroscopic study of the EUV radiation (4 nm < λ < 15 nm) present during harsh wire array z-pinch implosions. The spectrometer utilizes a 25 μm slit, an array of 3 spherical blazed gratings at grazing incidence, and a microchannel plate (MCP) detector placed in an off-Rowland position. Each grating is positioned such that its diffracted radiation is cast over two of the six total independently timed frames of the MCP. The off-Rowland configuration allows for a much greater spectral density on the imaging plate but only focuses at one wavelength per grating. The focal wavelengths are chosen for their diagnostic significance. Testing was conducted at the Zebra pulsed-power generator (1 MA, 100 ns risetime) at the University of Nevada, Reno on a series of wire array z-pinch loads. Within this harsh z-pinch environment, radiation yields routinely exceed 20 kJ in the EUV and soft x-ray. There are also strong mechanical shocks, high velocity debris, sudden vacuum changes during operation, energic ion beams, and hard x-ray radiation in excess of 50 keV. The spectra obtained from the precursor plasma of an Al double planar wire array contained lines of Al IX and AlX ions indicating a temperature near 60 eV during precursor formation. Detailed results will be presented showing the fielding specifications and the techniques used to extract important plasma parameters using this spectrometer. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  7. Investigation of magnetic flux transport and shock formation in a staged Z-pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narkis, J.; Rahman, H. U.; Wessel, F. J.; Beg, F. N.

    2017-10-01

    Target preheating is an integral component of magnetized inertial fusion in reducing convergence ratio. In the staged Z-pinch concept, it is achieved via one or more shocks. Previous work [Narkis et al., Phys. Plasmas 23, 122706 (2016)] found that shock formation in the target occurred earlier in higher-Z liners due to faster flux transport to the target/liner interface. However, a corresponding increase in magnitude of magnetic pressure was not observed, and target implosion velocity (and therefore shock strength) remained unchanged. To investigate other means of increasing the magnitude of transported flux, a Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers equation from the 1-D single-fluid, resistive magnetohydrodynamic equations is obtained. Solutions to the nondispersive (i.e., Burgers) equation depend on nondimensional coefficients, whose dependence on liner density, temperature, etc., suggests an increase in target implosion velocity, and therefore shock strength, can be obtained by tailoring the mass of a single-liner gas puff to a double-liner configuration. In the selected test cases of 1-D simulated implosions of krypton on deuterium, the peak Mach number increased from ˜ 5 to ˜ 8 . While a notable increase was seen, Mach numbers exceeding 10 (implosion velocities exceeding ˜25 cm/μs) are necessary for adequate shock preheating.

  8. History of HERMES III diode to z-pinch breakthrough and beyond :

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, Thomas Williamlou.

    HERMES III and Z are two flagship accelerators of Sandias pulsed-power program developed to generate intense -ray fields for the study of nuclear radiation effects, and to explore high energy-density physics (including the production of intense x-ray fields for Inertia Confinement Fusion [ICF]), respectively. A diode at the exit of HERMES III converts its 20-MeV electron beam into -rays. In contrast, at the center of Z, a z-pinch is used to convert its 20-MA current into an intense burst of x-rays. Here the history of how the HERMES III diode emerged from theoretical considerations to actual hardware is discussed. Next,more » the reverse process of how the experimental discovery of wire-array stabilization in a z-pinch, led to a better theory of wirearray implosions and its application to one of the ICF concepts on Z--the DH (Dynamic Hohlraum) is reviewed. Lastly, the report concludes with how the unexpected axial radiation asymmetry measured in the DH is understood. The first discussion illustrates the evolution of physics from theory-to-observationto- refinement. The second two illustrate the reverse process of observationto- theory-to refinement. The histories are discussed through the vehicle of my research at Sandia, illustrating the unique environment Sandia provides for personal growth and development into a scientific leader.« less

  9. Performance of a Liner-on-Target Injector for Staged Z-Pinch Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, F.; Valenzuela, J. C.; Narkis, J.; Krasheninnikov, I.; Beg, F.; Wessel, F. J.; Ruskov, E.; Rahman, H. U.; McGee, E.

    2016-10-01

    We present the design and characterization of a compact liner-on-target injector, used in the Staged Z-pinch experiments conducted on the UNR-NTF Zebra Facility. Previous experiments and analysis indicate that high-Z gas liners produce a uniform and efficient implosion on a low-Z target plasma. The liner gas shell is produced by an annular solenoid valve and a converging-diverging nozzle designed to achieve a collimated, supersonic, Mach-5 flow. The on-axis target is produced by a coaxial plasma gun, where a high voltage pulse is applied to ionize neutral gas and accelerate the plasma by the J-> × B-> force. Measurements of the liner and target dynamics, resolved by interferometry in space and time, fast imaging, and collection of the emitted light, are presented. The results are compared to the predictions from Computational Fluid Dynamics and MHD simulations that model the injector. Optimization of the design parameters, for upcoming Staged Z-pinch experiments, will be discussed. Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy, DE-AR0000569.

  10. Using a Z-pinch precursor plasma to produce a cylindrical, hotspot ignition, ICF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chittenden, Jeremy

    2005-10-01

    We show that if the same precursor plasma that exists in metal wire arrays can be generated with a Deuterium-Tritium plasma then this precursor provides an ideal target for a cylindrical magneto-inertial ICF scheme. The precursor is generated from a fraction of the mass of the array which arrives on the axis early in time and remains confined at high density by the inertia of further material bombarding the axis. Later on, the main implosion of the DT Z-pinch produces a dense, low temperature shell which compressively heats the precursor target to high temperatures and tamps its expansion. The azimuthal magnetic field in the hotspot is sufficient to reduce the Larmor radius for the alpha particles to much less than the hotspot size, which dramatically reduces the ρR required for ignition. A computational analysis of this approach is presented, including a study of the thermonuclear burn wave propagation. The robustness of the scheme with respect to instabilities, confinement time and drive parameters is examined. The results indicate that a high energy gain can be achieved using Z-pinches with 50-100 MA currents and a few hundred nanosecond rise-times. This work was partially supported by the U.S. Department of Energy through cooperative agreement DE-FC03-02NA00057.

  11. Linear Transformer Drivers for Z-pinch Based Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Robert; Seidler, William; Giddens, Patrick; Fabisinski, Leo; Cassibry, Jason

    2017-01-01

    The MSFC/UAH team has been developing of a novel power management and distribution system called a Linear Transformer Driver (LTD). LTD's hold the promise of dramatically reducing the required mass to drive a z-pinch by replacing the capacitor banks which constitute half the mass of the entire system. The MSFC?UAH tea, is developing this technology in hope of integrating it with the Pulsed Fission Fusion (PuFF) propulsion concept. High-Voltage pulsed power systems used for Z-Pinch experimentation have in the past largely been based on Marx Generators. Marx generators deliver the voltage and current required for the Z-Pinch, but suffer from two significant drawbacks when applied to a flight system: they are very massive, consisting of high-voltage capacitor banks insulated in oil-filled tanks and they do not lend themselves to rapid pulsing. The overall goal of Phase 2 is to demonstrate the construction of a higher voltage stack from a number of cavities each of the design proven in Phase 1 and to characterize and understand the techniques for designing the stack. The overall goal of Phase 3 is to demonstrate the feasibility of constructing a higher energy cavity from a number of smaller LTD stacks, to characterize and understand the way in which the constituent stacks combine, and to extend this demonstration LTD to serve as the basis for a 64 kJ pulse generator for Z-Pinch experiments.

  12. Acceleration of Hydrogen Ions up to 30 MeV and Generation of 3 × 1012 Neutrons in Megaampere Deuterium Gas-Puff Z-Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klir, D.; Cikhardt, J.; Kravarik, J.; Kubes, P.; Rezac, K.; Sila, O.; Shishlov, A.; Cherdizov, R.; Fursov, F.; Kokshenev, V.; Kovalchuk, B.; Kurmaev, N.; Labetsky, A.; Ratakhin, N.; Orcikova, H.; Turek, K.

    2013-10-01

    Fusion neutrons were produced with a deuterium gas-puff z-pinch on the GIT-12 generator at the Institute of High Current Electronics in Tomsk. The peak neutron yield from DD reactions reached Yn = (2 . 9 +/- 0 . 3) ×1012 at 100 μg/cm linear mass density of deuterium, 700 ns implosion time and 2.7 MA current. Such a neutron yield means that the scaling law of deuterium z-pinches Yn ~I4 was extended to 3 MA currents. The further increase of neutron yields up to (3 . 7 +/- 0 . 4) ×1012 was achieved by placing a deuterated polyethylene catcher onto the axis. Maximum neutron energies of 15 and 22 MeV were observed by radial and axial nToF detectors, respectively. A stack of CR-39 track detectors showed up to 40 MeV deuterons (or 30 MeV protons) on the z-pinch axis. Since the energy input into plasmas was 70 kJ, the number of DD neutrons per one joule of stored plasma energy exceeded the value of 5 ×107 . This value implies that deuterium gas-puff z-pinches belong to the most efficient plasma-based sources of DD neutrons. This work was partially supported by the GACR grant No. P205/12/0454 and by the RFBR research project No. 13-08-00479-a.

  13. Measuring implosion velocities in experiments and simulations of laser-driven cylindrical implosions on the OMEGA laser

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, E. C.; Barnak, D. H.; Betti, R.

    Laser-driven magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) on OMEGA involves cylindrical implosions, a preheat beam, and an applied magnetic field. Initial experiments excluded the preheat beam and magnetic field to better characterize the implosion. X-ray self-emission as measured by framing cameras was used to determine the shell trajectory. The 1-D code LILAC was used to model the central region of the implosion, and results were compared to 2-D simulations from the HYDRA code. Post-processing of simulation output with SPECT3D and Yorick produced synthetic x-ray images that were used to compare the simulation results with the x-ray framing camera data. Quantitative analysismore » shows that higher measured neutron yields correlate with higher implosion velocities. The future goal is to further analyze the x-ray images to characterize the uniformity of the implosions and apply these analysis techniques to integrated laser-driven MagLIF shots to better understand the effects of preheat and the magnetic field.« less

  14. Measuring implosion velocities in experiments and simulations of laser-driven cylindrical implosions on the OMEGA laser

    DOE PAGES

    Hansen, E. C.; Barnak, D. H.; Betti, R.; ...

    2018-04-04

    Laser-driven magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) on OMEGA involves cylindrical implosions, a preheat beam, and an applied magnetic field. Initial experiments excluded the preheat beam and magnetic field to better characterize the implosion. X-ray self-emission as measured by framing cameras was used to determine the shell trajectory. The 1-D code LILAC was used to model the central region of the implosion, and results were compared to 2-D simulations from the HYDRA code. Post-processing of simulation output with SPECT3D and Yorick produced synthetic x-ray images that were used to compare the simulation results with the x-ray framing camera data. Quantitative analysismore » shows that higher measured neutron yields correlate with higher implosion velocities. The future goal is to further analyze the x-ray images to characterize the uniformity of the implosions and apply these analysis techniques to integrated laser-driven MagLIF shots to better understand the effects of preheat and the magnetic field.« less

  15. Measuring implosion velocities in experiments and simulations of laser-driven cylindrical implosions on the OMEGA laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, E. C.; Barnak, D. H.; Betti, R.; Campbell, E. M.; Chang, P.-Y.; Davies, J. R.; Glebov, V. Yu; Knauer, J. P.; Peebles, J.; Regan, S. P.; Sefkow, A. B.

    2018-05-01

    Laser-driven magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) on OMEGA involves cylindrical implosions, a preheat beam, and an applied magnetic field. Initial experiments excluded the preheat beam and magnetic field to better characterize the implosion. X-ray self-emission as measured by framing cameras was used to determine the shell trajectory. The 1D code LILAC was used to model the central region of the implosion, and results were compared to 2D simulations from the HYDRA code. Post-processing of simulation output with SPECT3D and Yorick produced synthetic x-ray images that were used to compare the simulation results with the x-ray framing camera data. Quantitative analysis shows that higher measured neutron yields correlate with higher implosion velocities. The future goal is to further analyze the x-ray images to characterize the uniformity of the implosions and apply these analysis techniques to integrated laser-driven MagLIF shots to better understand the effects of preheat and the magnetic field.

  16. Temperature Evolution of a 1 MA Triple-Nozzle Gas-Puff Z-Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Grouchy, Philip; Banasek, Jacob; Engelbrecht, Joey; Qi, Niansheng; Atoyan, Levon; Byvank, Tom; Cahill, Adam; Moore, Hannah; Potter, William; Ransohoff, Lauren; Hammer, David; Kusse, Bruce; Laboratory of Plasma Studies Team

    2015-11-01

    Mitigation of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) plays a critical role in optimizing x-ray output at high-energy ~ 13 keV using the triple-nozzle Krypton gas-puff at Sandia National Laboratory. RTI mitigation by gas-puff density profiling using a triple-nozzle gas-puff valve has recently been recently demonstrated on the COBRA 1MA z-pinch at Cornell University. In support of this work we investigate the role of shell cooling in the growth of RTI during gas-puff implosions. Temperature measurements within the imploding plasma shell are recorded using a 527 nm, 10 GW Thomson scattering diagnostic for Neon, Argon and Krypton puffs. The mass-density profile is held constant at 22 microgram per centimeter for all three puffs and the temperature evolution of the imploding material is recorded. In the case of Argon puffs we find that the shell ion and electron effective temperatures remain in equilibrium at around 1keV for the majority of the implosion phase. In contrast scattered spectra from Krypton are dominated by of order 10 keV effective ion temperatures. Supported by the NNSA Stewardship Sciences Academic Programs.

  17. Primary experimental results of wire-array Z-pinches on PTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, X. B.; Zhou, S. T.; Ren, X. D.; Dan, J. K.; Wang, K. L.; Zhang, S. Q.; Li, J.; Xu, Q.; Cai, H. C.; Duan, S. C.; Ouyang, K.; Chen, G. H.; Ji, C.; Wang, M.; Feng, S. P.; Yang, L. B.; Xie, W. P.; Deng, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Primary Test Stand (PTS) developed at the China Academy of Engineering Physics is a multiterawatt pulsed power driver, which can deliver a ˜10 MA, 70 ns rise-time (10%-90%) current to a short circuit load and has important applications in Z-pinch driven inertial confinement fusion and high energy density physics. In this paper, primary results of tungsten wire-array Z-pinch experiments on PTS are presented. The load geometries investigated include 15-mm-tall cylindrical single and nested arrays with diameter ranging from 14.4-26.4 mm, and consisting of 132˜276 tungsten wires with 5˜10 μm in diameter. Multiple diagnostics were fielded to determine the characteristics of x-ray radiations and to obtain self-emitting images of imploding plasmas. X-ray power up to 80 TW with ˜3 ns FWMH is achieved by using nested wire arrays. The total x-ray energy exceeds 500 kJ and the peak radiation temperature is about 150 eV. Typical velocity of imploding plasmas goes around 3˜5×107 cm/s and the radial convergence ratio is between 10 and 20.

  18. Z-Pinch fusion-based nuclear propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miernik, J.; Statham, G.; Fabisinski, L.; Maples, C. D.; Adams, R.; Polsgrove, T.; Fincher, S.; Cassibry, J.; Cortez, R.; Turner, M.; Percy, T.

    2013-02-01

    Fusion-based nuclear propulsion has the potential to enable fast interplanetary transportation. Due to the great distances between the planets of our solar system and the harmful radiation environment of interplanetary space, high specific impulse (Isp) propulsion in vehicles with high payload mass fractions must be developed to provide practical and safe vehicles for human space flight missions. The Z-Pinch dense plasma focus method is a Magneto-Inertial Fusion (MIF) approach that may potentially lead to a small, low cost fusion reactor/engine assembly [1]. Recent advancements in experimental and theoretical understanding of this concept suggest favorable scaling of fusion power output yield [2]. The magnetic field resulting from the large current compresses the plasma to fusion conditions, and this process can be pulsed over short timescales (10-6 s). This type of plasma formation is widely used in the field of Nuclear Weapons Effects testing in the defense industry, as well as in fusion energy research. A Z-Pinch propulsion concept was designed for a vehicle based on a previous fusion vehicle study called "Human Outer Planet Exploration" (HOPE), which used Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) [3] propulsion. The reference mission is the transport of crew and cargo to Mars and back, with a reusable vehicle. The analysis of the Z-Pinch MIF propulsion system concludes that a 40-fold increase of Isp over chemical propulsion is predicted. An Isp of 19,436 s and thrust of 3812 N s/pulse, along with nearly doubling the predicted payload mass fraction, warrants further development of enabling technologies.

  19. Finite-Larmor-radius effects on z-pinch stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheffel, Jan; Faghihi, Mostafa

    1989-06-01

    The effect of finite Larmor radius (FLR) on the stability of m = 1 small-axial-wavelength kinks in a z-pinch with purely poloidal magnetic field is investigated. We use the incompressible FLR MHD model; a collisionless fluid model that consistently includes the relevant FLR terms due to ion gyroviscosity, Hall effect and electron diamagnetism. With FLR terms absent, the Kadomtsev criterion of ideal MHD, 2r dp/dr + m2B2/μ0 ≥ 0 predicts instability for internal modes unless the current density is singular at the centre of the pinch. The same result is obtained in the present model, with FLR terms absent. When the FLR terms are included, a normal-mode analysis of the linearized equations yields the following results. Marginally unstable (ideal) modes are stabilized by gyroviscosity. The Hall term has a damping (but not absolutely stabilizing) effect - in agreement with earlier work. On specifying a constant current and particle density equilibrium, the effect of electron diamagnetism vanishes. For a z-pinch with parameters relevant to the EXTRAP experiment, the m = 1 modes are then fully stabilized over the crosssection for wavelengths λ/a ≤ 1, where a denotes the pinch radius. As a general z-pinch result a critical line-density limit Nmax = 5 × 1018 m-1 is found, above which gyroviscous stabilization near the plasma boundary becomes insufficient. This limit corresponds to about five Larmor radii along the pinch radius. The result holds for wavelengths close to, or smaller than, the pinch radius and for realistic equilibrium profiles. This limit is far below the required limit for a reactor with contained alpha particles, which is in excess of 1020 m-1.

  20. High energy density Z-pinch plasmas using flow stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Shumlak, U., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Golingo, R. P., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Nelson, B. A., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu

    The ZaP Flow Z-Pinch research project[1] at the University of Washington investigates the effect of sheared flows on MHD instabilities. Axially flowing Z-pinch plasmas are produced that are 100 cm long with a 1 cm radius. The plasma remains quiescent for many radial Alfvén times and axial flow times. The quiescent periods are characterized by low magnetic mode activity measured at several locations along the plasma column and by stationary visible plasma emission. Plasma evolution is modeled with high-resolution simulation codes – Mach2, WARPX, NIMROD, and HiFi. Plasma flow profiles are experimentally measured with a multi-chord ion Doppler spectrometer. Amore » sheared flow profile is observed to be coincident with the quiescent period, and is consistent with classical plasma viscosity. Equilibrium is determined by diagnostic measurements: interferometry for density; spectroscopy for ion temperature, plasma flow, and density[2]; Thomson scattering for electron temperature; Zeeman splitting for internal magnetic field measurements[3]; and fast framing photography for global structure. Wall stabilization has been investigated computationally and experimentally by removing 70% of the surrounding conducting wall to demonstrate no change in stability behavior.[4] Experimental evidence suggests that the plasma lifetime is only limited by plasma supply and current waveform. The flow Z-pinch concept provides an approach to achieve high energy density plasmas,[5] which are large, easy to diagnose, and persist for extended durations. A new experiment, ZaP-HD, has been built to investigate this approach by separating the flow Z-pinch formation from the radial compression using a triaxial-electrode configuration. This innovation allows more detailed investigations of the sheared flow stabilizing effect, and it allows compression to much higher densities than previously achieved on ZaP by reducing the linear density and increasing the pinch current. Experimental results

  1. Resolving microstructures in Z pinches with intensity interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Apruzese, J. P.; Kroupp, E.; Maron, Y.

    2014-03-15

    Nearly 60 years ago, Hanbury Brown and Twiss [R. Hanbury Brown and R. Q. Twiss, Nature 178, 1046 (1956)] succeeded in measuring the 30 nrad angular diameter of Sirius using a new type of interferometry that exploited the interference of photons independently emitted from different regions of the stellar disk. Its basis was the measurement of intensity correlations as a function of detector spacing, with no beam splitting or preservation of phase information needed. Applied to Z pinches, X pinches, or laser-produced plasmas, this method could potentially provide spatial resolution under one micron. A quantitative analysis based on the workmore » of Purcell [E. M. Purcell, Nature 178, 1449 (1956)] reveals that obtaining adequate statistics from x-ray interferometry of a Z-pinch microstructure would require using the highest-current generators available. However, using visible light interferometry would reduce the needed photon count and could enable its use on sub-MA machines.« less

  2. Radial and Azimuthal Velocity Profiles in Gas-Puff Z-Pinches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocco, Sophia; Engelbrecht, Joseph; Banasek, Jacob; de Grouchy, Philip; Qi, Niansheng; Hammer, David

    2016-10-01

    The dynamics of neon, argon, and krypton (either singly or in combination) gas puff z-pinch plasmas are studied on Cornell's 1MA, 100-200ns rise-time COBRA pulsed power generator. The triple-nozzle gas puff valve, consisting of two annular gas puffs and a central jet, allows radial tailoring of the gas puff mass-density profile and the use of 1, 2 or 3 different gases at different pressures. Interferometry supplies information on sheath thickness and electron density, variously filtered PCDs and silicon diodes measure hard and soft x-ray production, and multi frame visible and extreme UV imaging systems allow tracking of the morphology of the plasma. A 527nm, 10J Thomson scattering diagnostic system is used to determine radial and azimuthal velocities. Implosion velocities of 170km/s (Kr) and 300km/s (Ne/Ar) are observed. We are investigating the correlations between instability growth, plasma density profile, velocity partitioning as a function of radius, and radiation production. Research supported by the NNSA Stewardship Sciences Academic Programs under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NA0001836.

  3. Development And Characterization Of A Liner-On-Target Injector For Staged Z-Pinch Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenzuela, J. C.; Conti, F.; Krasheninnikov, I.; Narkis, J.; Beg, F.; Wessel, F. J.; Rahman, H. U.

    2016-10-01

    We present the design and optimization of a liner-on-target injector for Staged Z-pinch experiments. The injector is composed of an annular high atomic number (e.g. Ar, Kr) gas-puff and an on-axis plasma gun that delivers the ionized deuterium target. The liner nozzle injector has been carefully studied using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations to produce a highly collimated 1 cm radius gas profile that satisfies the theoretical requirement for best performance on the 1 MA Zebra current driver. The CFD simulations produce density profiles as a function of the nozzle shape and gas. These profiles are initialized in the MHD MACH2 code to find the optimal liner density for a stable, uniform implosion. We use a simple Snowplow model to study the plasma sheath acceleration in a coaxial plasma gun to help us properly design the target injector. We have performed line-integrated density measurements using a CW He-Ne laser to characterize the liner gas and the plasma gun density as a function of time. The measurements are compared with models and calculations and benchmarked accordingly. Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy, DE-AR0000569.

  4. Neutron spectra from beam-target reactions in dense Z-pinches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appelbe, B.; Chittenden, J.

    2015-10-01

    The energy spectrum of neutrons emitted by a range of deuterium and deuterium-tritium Z-pinch devices is investigated computationally using a hybrid kinetic-MHD model. 3D MHD simulations are used to model the implosion, stagnation, and break-up of dense plasma focus devices at currents of 70 kA, 500 kA, and 2 MA and also a 15 MA gas puff. Instabilities in the MHD simulations generate large electric and magnetic fields, which accelerate ions during the stagnation and break-up phases. A kinetic model is used to calculate the trajectories of these ions and the neutron spectra produced due to the interaction of these ions with the background plasma. It is found that these beam-target neutron spectra are sensitive to the electric and magnetic fields at stagnation resulting in significant differences in the spectra emitted by each device. Most notably, magnetization of the accelerated ions causes the beam-target spectra to be isotropic for the gas puff simulations. It is also shown that beam-target spectra can have a peak intensity located at a lower energy than the peak intensity of a thermonuclear spectrum. A number of other differences in the shapes of beam-target and thermonuclear spectra are also observed for each device. Finally, significant differences between the shapes of beam-target DD and DT neutron spectra, due to differences in the reaction cross-sections, are illustrated.

  5. Staged Z-pinch experiments on the Mega-Ampere current driver COBRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenzuela, Julio; Banasek, Jacob; Byvank, Thomas; Conti, Fabio; Greenly, John; Hammer, David; Potter, William; Rocco, Sophia; Ross, Michael; Wessel, Frank; Narkis, Jeff; Rahman, Hafiz; Ruskov, Emil; Beg, Farhat

    2017-10-01

    Experiments were conducted on the Cornell's 1 MA, 100 ns current driver COBRA with the goal of better understanding the Staged Z-pinch physics and validating MHD codes. We used a gas injector composed of an annular (1.2 cm radius) high atomic number (e.g., Ar or Kr) gas-puff and an on-axis plasma gun that delivers the ionized hydrogen target. Liner implosion velocity and stability were studied using laser shadowgraphy and interferometry as well as XUV imaging. From the data, the signature of the MRT instability and zippering effect can be seen, but time integrated X-ray imaging show a stable target plasma. A key component of the experiment was the use of optical Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostics to characterize the liner and target plasmas. By fitting the experimental scattered spectra with synthetic data, electron and ion temperature as well as density can be obtained. Preliminary analysis shows significant scattered line broadening from the plasma on-axis ( 0.5 mm diameter) which can be explained by either a low temperature H plasma with Te =Ti =75eV, or by a hot plasma with Ti =3keV, Te =350eV if an Ar-H mixture is present with an Ar fraction higher than 10%. Funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy, DE-AR0000569.

  6. Symmetric aluminum-wire arrays generate high-quality Z pinches at large array radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanford, T. W. L.; Mock, R. C.; Spielman, R. B.; Peterson, D. L.; Mosher, D.; Roderick, N. F.

    1998-10-01

    A Saturn-accelerator study of annular, aluminum-wire array, Z-pinch implosions, in the calculated high-wire-number plasma-shell regime [Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5063 (1996)], shows that the radiated x-ray pulse width increases from about 4 nsec to about 7 nsec, when the radius of the array is increased from 8.75 to 20 mm at a fixed array mass of 0.6 mg. Eulerian radiation- magnetohydrodynamic code (E-RMHC) simulations in the r-z plane suggest that this pulse-width increase with radius is due to the faster growth of the shell thickness (that arises from a two-stage development in the magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability) relative to the increase in the shell implosion velocity. Over the array radii explored, the measured peak total x-ray power of ˜40 TW and energy of ˜325 kJ show little change outside of a ±15% shot-to-shot fluctuation and are consistent with the E-RMHC simulations. Similarly, the measured peak K-shell (lines plus continuum) power of ˜8 TW and energy of ˜70 kJ show little change with radius. The minimal change in K-shell yield is in agreement with simple K-shell radiation scaling models that assume a fixed radial compression for all initial array radii. These results suggest that the improved uniformity provided by the large number of wires in the initial array reduces the disruptive effects of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability observed in small-wire-number imploding loads.

  7. Overview of the Fusion Z-Pinch Experiment FuZE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, T. R.; Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Golingo, R. P.; Claveau, E. L.; McLean, H. S.; Tummel, K. K.; Higginson, D. P.; Schmidt, A. E.; UW/LLNL Team

    2016-10-01

    Previously, the ZaP device, at the University of Washington, demonstrated sheared flow stabilized (SFS) Z-pinch plasmas. Instabilities that have historically plagued Z-pinch plasma confinement were mitigated using sheared flows generated from a coaxial plasma gun of the Marshall type. Based on these results, a new SFS Z-pinch experiment, the Fusion Z-pinch Experiment (FuZE), has been constructed. FuZE is designed to investigate the scaling of SFS Z-pinch plasmas towards fusion conditions. The experiment will be supported by high fidelity physics modeling using kinetic and fluid simulations. Initial plans are in place for a pulsed fusion reactor following the results of FuZE. Notably, the design relies on proven commercial technologies, including a modest discharge current (1.5 MA) and voltage (40 kV), and liquid metal electrodes. Supported by DoE FES, NNSA, and ARPA-E ALPHA.

  8. A kind of fast shutter for Z pinch diagnosis device.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liangping; Zhang, Xinjun; Sun, Tieping; Mao, Wentin

    2016-09-01

    A kind of fast shutter for protecting the diagnosis devices in Z pinch experiments is introduced in this paper. The shutter is composed of a pulling rod, a magnetic core, and a solenoid. Different from the traditional coils which were used at the voltage of 220 V, the solenoid we used must endure the high voltage of 5-10 kV and the deformation which maybe caused by the 5-10 T intense magnetic field. A creative configuration for the solenoid is developed including the winding guide, insulating sleeve, and stainless-steel sleeve. The experimental results show that the configuration of the solenoid is effective. The velocity of the valve is nearly 19 m/s and the time jitter of the shutdown is within 75 μs.

  9. A kind of fast shutter for Z pinch diagnosis device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liangping; Zhang, Xinjun; Sun, Tieping; Mao, Wentin

    2016-09-01

    A kind of fast shutter for protecting the diagnosis devices in Z pinch experiments is introduced in this paper. The shutter is composed of a pulling rod, a magnetic core, and a solenoid. Different from the traditional coils which were used at the voltage of 220 V, the solenoid we used must endure the high voltage of 5-10 kV and the deformation which maybe caused by the 5-10 T intense magnetic field. A creative configuration for the solenoid is developed including the winding guide, insulating sleeve, and stainless-steel sleeve. The experimental results show that the configuration of the solenoid is effective. The velocity of the valve is nearly 19 m/s and the time jitter of the shutdown is within 75 μs.

  10. Conceptual Design of a Z-Pinch Fusion Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Robert; Polsgrove, Tara; Fincher, Sharon; Fabinski, Leo; Maples, Charlotte; Miernik, Janie; Stratham, Geoffrey; Cassibry, Jason; Cortez, Ross; Turner, Matthew; hide

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews a project that aims to develop a conceptual design for a Z-pinch thruster, that could be applied to develop advanced thruster designs which promise high thrust/high specific impulse propulsion. Overviews shows the concept of the design, which use annular nozzles with deuterium-tritium (D-T) fuel and a Lithium mixture as a cathode, Charts show the engine performance as a function of linear mass, nozzle performance (i.e., plasma segment trajectories), and mission analysis for possible Mars and Jupiter missions using this concept for propulsion. Slides show views of the concepts for the vehicle configuration, thrust coil configuration, the power management system, the structural analysis of the magnetic nozzle, the thermal management system, and the avionics suite,

  11. Multicolor, time-gated, soft x-ray pinhole imaging of wire array and gas puff Z pinches on the Z and Saturn pulsed power generators.

    PubMed

    Jones, B; Coverdale, C A; Nielsen, D S; Jones, M C; Deeney, C; Serrano, J D; Nielsen-Weber, L B; Meyer, C J; Apruzese, J P; Clark, R W; Coleman, P L

    2008-10-01

    A multicolor, time-gated, soft x-ray pinhole imaging instrument is fielded as part of the core diagnostic set on the 25 MA Z machine [M. E. Savage et al., in Proceedings of the Pulsed Power Plasma Sciences Conference (IEEE, New York, 2007), p. 979] for studying intense wire array and gas puff Z-pinch soft x-ray sources. Pinhole images are reflected from a planar multilayer mirror, passing 277 eV photons with <10 eV bandwidth. An adjacent pinhole camera uses filtration alone to view 1-10 keV photons simultaneously. Overlaying these data provides composite images that contain both spectral as well as spatial information, allowing for the study of radiation production in dense Z-pinch plasmas. Cu wire arrays at 20 MA on Z show the implosion of a colder cloud of material onto a hot dense core where K-shell photons are excited. A 528 eV imaging configuration has been developed on the 8 MA Saturn generator [R. B. Spielman et al., and A. I. P. Conf, Proc. 195, 3 (1989)] for imaging a bright Li-like Ar L-shell line. Ar gas puff Z pinches show an intense K-shell emission from a zippering stagnation front with L-shell emission dominating as the plasma cools.

  12. Subscale HDC implosions driven at high radiation temperature using advanced hohlraums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, D.; Amendt, P.; Jones, O.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; Le Pape, S.

    2017-10-01

    Implosions using HDC ablators have received increased attention because of shorter pulse length and can access higher implosion velocity than CH ablators. Recent HDC midscale (979 m radius) implosion experiments have achieved DT neutron yields of 1.5e16. Our 2D simulations show that subscale (890 m radius) HDC capsules can achieve robust high-yield performance if driven at high enough radiation temperature 330 eV, because the penalty for less fuel mass can be offset by higher implosion velocity. To achieve 330 eV will likely require the use of innovative hohlraum concepts, e.g., subscale rugby-shaped hohlraum using 1.3 MJ of laser energy without incurring a risk of high laser backscatter. Radiation symmetry is currently under study. Confidence in our modeling of HDC implosions is high in part because our 2D modeling of recent HDC implosions experiments show good agreement with data. Work performed under auspices of U.S. DOE by LLNL under 15-ERD-058.

  13. Appraisal of UTIAS implosion-driven hypervelocity launchers and shock tubes.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, I. I.

    1972-01-01

    A critical appraisal is made of the design, research, development, and operation of the novel UTIAS implosion-driven hypervelocity launchers and shock tubes. Explosively driven (PbN6-lead azide, PETN-pentaerythritetetranitrate) implosions in detonating stoichiometric hydrogen-oxygen mixtures have been successfully developed as drivers for hypervelocity launchers and shock tubes in a safe and reusable facility. Intense loadings at very high calculated pressures, densities, and temperatures, at the implosion center, cause severe problems with projectile integrity. Misalignment of the focal point can occur and add to the difficulty in using small caliber projectiles. In addition, the extreme driving conditions cause barrel expansion, erosion, and possible gas leakage from the base to the head of the projectile which cut the predicted muzzle velocities to half or a third of the lossless calculated values. However, in the case of a shock-tube operation these difficulties are minimized or eliminated and the possibilities of approaching Jovian reentry velocities are encouraging.

  14. Polytropic scaling of a flow Z-pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, M. C.; Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Golingo, R. P.; Claveau, E. L.; Doty, S. A.; Forbes, E. G.; Kim, B.; Ross, M. P.; Weed, J. R.

    2015-11-01

    The ZaP Flow Z-Pinch project investigates the use of velocity shear to mitigate MHD instabilities. The ZaP-HD experiment produces 50 cm long pinches of varying radii. The power to the experiment is split between the plasma formation and acceleration process and the pinch assembly and compression process. Once the pinch is formed, low magnetic fluctuations indicate a quiescent, long-lived pinch. The split power supply allows more control of the pinch current than previous machine iterations, with a designed range from 50 to 150 kA. Radial force balance leads to the Bennett relation which indicates that as the pinch compresses due to increasing currents, the plasma pressure and/or linear density must change. Through ion spectroscopy and digital holographic interferometry coupled with magnetic measurements of the pinch current, the components of the Bennett relation can be fully measured. A scaling relation is then assumed to follow a polytrope as the pinch pressure, initially approximately 250 kPa, increases from an initially formed state to much higher values, approaching 100 MPa. A preliminary analysis of pinch scaling is shown corroborating with other diagnostics on the machine along with extrapolations to required currents for an HEDLP machine. This work is supported by grants from the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration.

  15. Overview of the FuZE Fusion Z-Pinch Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Claveau, E. L.; Forbes, E. G.; Golingo, R. P.; Stepanov, A. D.; Weber, T. R.; Zhang, Y.; McLean, H. S.; Higginson, D. P.; Schmidt, A.; Tummel, K. K.

    2017-10-01

    Successful results of the sheared flow stabilized (SFS) Z-pinch from ZaP and ZaP-HD have motivated the new FuZE project to scale the plasma performance to fusion conditions. The SFS Z-pinch is immune to the instabilities that plague the conventional Z-pinch yet maintains the same favorable radial scaling. The plasma density and temperature increase rapidly with decreasing plasma radius, which naturally leads to a compact configuration at fusion conditions. The SFS Z-pinch is being investigated as a novel approach to a compact fusion device in a collaborative ARPA-E ALPHA project with the University of Washington and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The project includes an experimental effort coupled with high-fidelity physics modeling using kinetic and fluid simulations. Along with scaling law analysis, computational and experimental results from the FuZE device are presented. This work is supported by an award from US ARPA-E.

  16. Studies of ion kinetic effects in OMEGA shock-driven implosions using fusion burn imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, M. J.; Seguin, F. H.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Sio, H.; Zylstra, A. B.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; Amendt, P. A.; Wilks, S. C.; Zimmerman, G.; Hoffman, N. M.; Kagan, G.; Molvig, K.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Stoeckl, C.; Marshall, F. J.; Seka, W.; Delettrez, J. A.; Sangster, T. C.; Betti, R.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Atzeni, S.; Nikroo, A.

    2014-10-01

    Ion kinetic effects have been inferred in a series of shock-driven implosions at OMEGA from an increasing yield discrepancy between observations and hydrodynamic simulations as the ion-ion mean free path increases. To more precisely identify the nature and impact of ion kinetic effects, spatial burn profile measurements of DD and D3He reactions in these D3He-filled shock-driven implosions are presented and contrasted to both purely hydrodynamic models and models that include ion kinetic effects. It is shown that in implosions where the ion mean free path is equal to or greater than the size of the fuel region, purely hydrodynamic models fail to capture the observed burn profiles, while a model that includes ion diffusion is able to recover the observed burn profile shape. These results further elucidate the ion kinetic mechanisms that are present under long mean-free-path conditions after shock convergence in both shock-driven and ablatively-driven implosions. This work was supported in part by the U.S. DOE, NLUF, LLE, and LLNL.

  17. Oblique shock structures formed during the ablation phase of aluminium wire array z-pinches

    SciTech Connect

    Swadling, G. F.; Lebedev, S. V.; Niasse, N.

    A series of experiments has been conducted in order to investigate the azimuthal structures formed by the interactions of cylindrically converging plasma flows during the ablation phase of aluminium wire array Z pinch implosions. These experiments were carried out using the 1.4 MA, 240 ns MAGPIE generator at Imperial College London. The main diagnostic used in this study was a two-colour, end-on, Mach-Zehnder imaging interferometer, sensitive to the axially integrated electron density of the plasma. The data collected in these experiments reveal the strongly collisional dynamics of the aluminium ablation streams. The structure of the flows is dominated by amore » dense network of oblique shock fronts, formed by supersonic collisions between adjacent ablation streams. An estimate for the range of the flow Mach number (M = 6.2-9.2) has been made based on an analysis of the observed shock geometry. Combining this measurement with previously published Thomson Scattering measurements of the plasma flow velocity by Harvey-Thompson et al.[Physics of Plasmas 19, 056303 (2012)] allowed us to place limits on the range of the ZT{sub e} of the plasma. The detailed and quantitative nature of the dataset lends itself well as a source for model validation and code verification exercises, as the exact shock geometry is sensitive to many of the plasma parameters. Comparison of electron density data produced through numerical modelling with the Gorgon 3D MHD code demonstrates that the code is able to reproduce the collisional dynamics observed in aluminium arrays reasonably well.« less

  18. Wire array Z-pinch insights for enhanced x-ray production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanford, T. W. L.; Mock, R. C.; Spielman, R. B.; Haines, M. G.; Chittenden, J. P.; Whitney, K. G.; Apruzese, J. P.; Peterson, D. L.; Greenly, J. B.; Sinars, D. B.; Reisman, D. B.; Mosher, D.

    1999-05-01

    Comparisons of measured total radiated x-ray power from annular wire-array z-pinches with a variety of models as a function of wire number, array mass, and load radius are reviewed. The data, which are comprehensive, have provided important insights into the features of wire-array dynamics that are critical for high x-ray power generation. Collectively, the comparisons of the data with the model calculations suggest that a number of underlying dynamical mechanisms involving cylindrical asymmetries and plasma instabilities contribute to the measured characteristics. For example, under the general assumption that the measured risetime of the total-radiated-power pulse is related to the thickness of the plasma shell formed on axis, the Heuristic Model [IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 26, 1275 (1998)] agrees with the measured risetime under a number of specific assumptions about the way the breakdown of the wires, the wire-plasma expansion, and the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the r-z plane, develop. Likewise, in the high wire-number regime (where the wires are calculated to form a plasma shell prior to significant radial motion of the shell) the comparisons show that the variation in the power of the radiation generated as a function of load mass and array radius can be simulated by the two-dimensional Eulerian-radiation- magnetohydrodynamics code (E-RMHC) [Phys. Plasmas 3, 368 (1996)], using a single random-density perturbation that seeds the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the r-z plane. For a given pulse-power generator, the comparisons suggest that (1) the smallest interwire gaps compatible with practical load construction and (2) the minimum implosion time consistent with the optimum required energy coupling of the generator to the load should produce the highest total-radiated-power levels.

  19. Magnetoelectric confinement and stabilization of Z pinch in a soft-x-ray Ar(+8) laser.

    PubMed

    Szasz, J; Kiss, M; Santa, I; Szatmari, S; Kukhlevsky, S V

    2013-05-03

    Magnetoelectric confinement and stabilization of the plasma column in a soft-x-ray Ar(+8) laser, which is excited by a capillary Z pinch, via the combined magnetic and electric fields of the gliding surface discharge is experimentally demonstrated. Unlike soft-x-ray lasers excited by the conventional capillary Z pinches, the magnetoelectric confinement and stabilization of plasma do provide the laser operation without using any external preionization circuit.

  20. Variation of high-power aluminum-wire array Z-pinch dynamics with wire number, load mass, and array radius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanford, T. W. L.; Mock, R. C.; Marder, B. M.; Nash, T. J.; Spielman, R. B.; Peterson, D. L.; Roderick, N. F.; Hammer, J. H.; De Groot, J. S.; Mosher, D.; Whitney, K. G.; Apruzese, J. P.

    1997-05-01

    A systematic study of annular aluminum-wire z-pinches on the Saturn accelerator shows that the quality of the implosion, (as measured by the radial convergence, the radiated energy, pulse width, and power), increases with wire number. Radiation magnetohydrodynamic (RMHC) xy simulations suggest that the implosion transitions from that of individual wire plasmas to that of a continuous plasma shell when the interwire spacing is reduced below ˜1.4 mm. In this "plasma-shell regime," many of the global radiation and plasma characteristics are in agreement with those simulated by 2D-RMHC rz simulations. In this regime, measured changes in the radiation pulse width with variations in load mass and array radius are consistent with the simulations and are explained by the development of 2D fluid motion in the rz plane. Associated variations in the K-shell yield are qualitatively explained by simple radiation-scaling models.

  1. One- and two-dimensional modeling of argon K-shell emission from gas-puff Z-pinch plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Thornhill, J. W.; Chong, Y. K.; Apruzese, J. P.

    2007-06-15

    In this paper, a theoretical model is described and demonstrated that serves as a useful tool for understanding K-shell radiating Z-pinch plasma behavior. Such understanding requires a self-consistent solution to the complete nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium kinetics and radiation transport in order to realistically model opacity effects and the high-temperature state of the plasma. For this purpose, we have incorporated into the MACH2 two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code [R. E. Peterkin et al., J. Comput. Phys. 140, 148 (1998)] an equation of state, called the tabular collisional radiative equilibrium (TCRE) model [J. W. Thornhill et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 3480 (2001)], thatmore » provides reasonable approximations to the plasma's opacity state. MACH2 with TCRE is applied toward analyzing the multidimensional implosion behavior that occurred in Decade Quad (DQ) [D. Price et al., Proceedings of the 12th IEEE Pulsed Power Conference, Monterey, CA, edited by C. Stallings and H. Kirbie (IEEE, New York, 1999), p. 489] argon gas puff experiments that employed a 12 cm diameter nozzle with and without a central gas jet on axis. Typical peak drive currents and implosion times in these experiments were {approx}6 MA and {approx}230 ns. By using Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence measured initial density profiles as input to the calculations, the effect these profiles have on the ability of the pinch to efficiently produce K-shell emission can be analyzed with this combined radiation-MHD model. The calculated results are in agreement with the experimental result that the DQ central-jet configuration is superior to the no-central-jet experiment in terms of producing more K-shell emission. These theoretical results support the contention that the improved operation of the central-jet nozzle is due to the better suppression of instabilities and the higher-density K-shell radiating conditions that the central-jet configuration promotes. When we applied the model

  2. Efficient generation of fast neutrons by magnetized deuterons in an optimized deuterium gas-puff z-pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klir, D.; Shishlov, A. V.; Kokshenev, V. A.; Kubes, P.; Labetsky, A. Yu; Rezac, K.; Cherdizov, R. K.; Cikhardt, J.; Cikhardtova, B.; Dudkin, G. N.; Fursov, F. I.; Garapatsky, A. A.; Kovalchuk, B. M.; Kravarik, J.; Kurmaev, N. E.; Orcikova, H.; Padalko, V. N.; Ratakhin, N. A.; Sila, O.; Turek, K.; Varlachev, V. A.

    2015-04-01

    Z-pinch experiments with deuterium gas puffs have been carried out on the GIT-12 generator at 3 MA currents. Recently, a novel configuration of a deuterium gas-puff z-pinch was used to accelerate deuterons and to generate fast neutrons. In order to form a homogeneous, uniformly conducting layer at a large initial radius, an inner deuterium gas puff was surrounded by an outer hollow cylindrical plasma shell. The plasma shell consisting of hydrogen and carbon ions was formed at the diameter of 350 mm by 48 plasma guns. A linear mass of the plasma shell was about 5 µg cm-1 whereas a total linear mass of deuterium gas in single or double shell gas puffs was about 100 µg cm-1. The implosion lasted 700 ns and seemed to be stable up to a 5 mm radius. During stagnation, m = 0 instabilities became more pronounced. When a disruption of necks occurred, the plasma impedance reached 0.4 Ω and high energy (>2 MeV) bremsstrahlung radiation together with high energy deuterons were produced. Maximum neutron energies of 33 MeV were observed by axial time-of-flight detectors. The observed neutron spectra could be explained by a suprathermal distribution of deuterons with a high energy tail f≤ft({{E}\\text{d}}\\right)\\propto E\\text{d}-(1.8+/- 0.2) . Neutron yields reached 3.6 × 1012 at a 2.7 MA current. A high neutron production efficiency of 6 × 107 neutrons per one joule of plasma energy resulted from the generation of high energy deuterons and from their magnetization inside plasmas.

  3. Compression of an Applied Bz field by a z-pinch onto a Tamped DT Fiber for Inertial Confinement Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nash, Tom

    2009-11-01

    Simulations of a z-pinch compressing an applied 100 kG Bz field onto an on-axis DT fiber tamped with beryllium show the field reaching over 100 MG in the tamp, sufficient to confine DT alpha particles and to form a thermal barrier. The barrier allows the DT plasma to burn at a rho*r value as low as 0.045 g/cm^2, and at temperatures over 50 keV for a 63 MA drive current. Driving currents between 21 and 63 MA are considered with cryogenic DT fiber diameters between 600 μm and 1.6 mm. Pinch implosion times are 120 ns with a peak implosion velocity of 35 cm/μs. 1D simulations are of a foil pinch, but for improved stability we propose a nested wire-array. Simulated fusion yields with this system scale as the sixth power of the current, with burn fractions scaling as the fourth power of the current. At 63 MA the simulated yield is 521 MJ from 4.2 mg/cm of DT with a 37% burn fraction at a rho*r of only 0.18 g/cm^2.

  4. Asymetrically driven implosion experiment on the Laser MégaJoule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philippe, Franck; Seytor, Patricia; Tassin, Veronique; Rosch, Rudolf; Villette, Bruno

    2017-10-01

    We report on the results of the first implosion experiments performed on the Laser MégaJoule (LMJ) facility. Their main purpose was to study implosion with large polar asymmetries of incident radiative flux on a capsule, while preserving azimuthal symmetry, in the context of ICF. In these experiments, one quad of LMJ is focused axially on a gold shield inside a hohlraum. The shield effectively divides the hohlraum in two compartments, and a capsule placed in the second compartment is indirectly driven by the x-ray flux generated in the first one. The subsequent asymmetric implosion is backlit by an x-ray source generated by another quad of LMJ and imaged with an x-ray microscope coupled to a framing camera. Time-gated x-ray radiographs of the imploding capsule and diode array measurements of the hohlraum x-ray emission are found to be in good agreement with FCI2 radiative hydrodynamics simulations.

  5. Diagnosing residual motion via the x-ray self emission from indirectly driven inertial confinement implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Pak, A., E-mail: pak5@llnl.gov; Field, J. E.; Benedetti, L. R.

    2014-11-15

    In an indirectly driven implosion, non-radial translational motion of the compressed fusion capsule is a signature of residual kinetic energy not coupled into the compressional heating of the target. A reduction in compression reduces the peak pressure and nuclear performance of the implosion. Measuring and reducing the residual motion of the implosion is therefore necessary to improve performance and isolate other effects that degrade performance. Using the gated x-ray diagnostic, the x-ray Bremsstrahlung emission from the compressed capsule is spatially and temporally resolved at x-ray energies of >8.7 keV, allowing for measurements of the residual velocity. Here details of themore » x-ray velocity measurement and fitting routine will be discussed and measurements will be compared to the velocities inferred from the neutron time of flight detectors.« less

  6. Charger 1: A New Facility for Z-Pinch Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Brian; Cassibry, Jason; Cortez, Ross; Doughty, Glen; Adams, Robert; DeCicco, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Charger 1 is a multipurpose pulsed power laboratory located on Redstone Arsenal, with a focus on fusion propulsion relevant experiments involving testing z-pinch diodes, pulsed magnetic nozzle and other related physics experiments. UAH and its team of pulsed power researchers are investigating ways to increase and optimize fusion production from Charger 1. Currently the team has reached high-power testing. Due to the unique safety issues related to high power operations the UAH/MSFC team has slowed repair efforts to develop safety and operations protocols. The facility is expected to be operational by the time DZP 2017 convenes. Charger 1 began life as the Decade Module 2, an experimental prototype built to prove the Decade Quad pinch configuration. The system was donated to UAH by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DRTA) in 2012. For the past 5 years a UAH/MSFC/Boeing team has worked to refurbish, assemble and test the system. With completion of high power testing in summer 2017 Charger 1 will become operational for experimentation. Charger 1 utilizes a Marx Bank of 72 100-kV capacitors that are charged in parallel and discharged in series. The Marx output is compressed to a pulse width of approximately 200 ns via a pulse forming network of 32 coaxial stainless steel tubes using water as a dielectric. After pulse compression a set of SF6 switches are triggered, allowing the wave front to propagate through the output line to the load. Charger 1 is capable of storing 572-kJ of energy and time compressing discharge to less than 250 ns discharge time producing a discharge of about 1 TW of discharge with 1 MV and 1 MA peak voltage and current, respectively. This capability will be used to study energy yield scaling and physics from solid density target as applied to advanced propulsion research.

  7. Dynamics of current sheath in a hollow electrode Z-pinch discharge using slug model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd Al-Halim, Mohamed A.; Afify, M. S.

    2017-03-01

    The hollow electrode Z-pinch (HEZP) experiment is a new construction for the electromagnetic propulsion application in which the plasma is formed by the discharge between a plate and ring electrodes through which the plasma is propelled. The experimental results for 8 kV charging voltage shows that the peak discharge current is about 109 kA, which is in good agreement with the value obtained from the simulation in the slug model that simulates the sheath dynamics in the HEZP. The fitting of the discharge current from the slug model indicates that the total system inductance is 238 nH which is relatively a high static inductance accompanied with a deeper pinch depth indicating that the fitted anomalous resistance would be about 95 mΩ. The current and mass factors vary with the changing the gas pressure and the charging voltage. The current factor is between 0.4 and 0.5 on average which is relatively low value. The mass factor decreases by increasing the gas pressure indicating that the sheath is heavy to be driven by the magnetic pressure, which is also indicated from the decreases of the drive factor, hence the radial sheath velocity decreases. The plasma inductance and temperature increase with the increase of the drive factor while the minimum pinch radius decreases.

  8. New compact hohlraum configuration research at the 1.7 MA Z-pinch generator

    SciTech Connect

    Kantsyrev, V. L., E-mail: victor@unr.edu; Shrestha, I. K.; Esaulov, A. A.

    A new compact Z-pinch x-ray hohlraum design with parallel-driven x-ray sources was experimentally demonstrated in a full configuration with a central target and tailored shine shields (to provide a symmetric temperature distribution on the target) at the 1.7 MA Zebra generator. This presentation reports on the joint success of two independent lines of research. One of these was the development of new sources – planar wire arrays (PWAs). PWAs turned out to be a prolific radiator. Another success was the drastic improvement in energy efficiency of pulsed-power systems, such as the Load Current Multiplier (LCM). The Zebra/LCM generator almost doubledmore » the plasma load current to 1.7 MA. The two above-mentioned innovative approaches were used in combination to produce a new compact hohlraum design for ICF, as jointly proposed by SNL and UNR. Good agreement between simulated and measured radiation temperature of the central target is shown. Experimental comparison of PWAs with planar foil liners (PFL) - another viable alternative to wire array loads at multi-MA generators show promising data. Results of research at the University of Nevada Reno allowed for the study of hohlraum coupling physics at University-scale generators. The advantages of new hohlraum design applications for multi-MA facilities with W or Au double PWAs or PFL x-ray sources are discussed.« less

  9. Numerical simulations of Z-Pinch experiments to create supersonic differentially-rotating plasma flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochi, Matteo; Ummels, Sebastiaan; Chittenden, Jeremy; Lebedev, Sergey

    2011-10-01

    Recently, it was proposed that a small number of plasma jets produced by lasers could be used to generate a plasma configuration relevant to some features of astrophysical accretion disc physics. We propose complementary experimental configurations which employ converging flows generated in a cylindrical wire array Z-pinch modified to produce a rotating plasma. In this paper we present 3D MHD simulations using the code GORGON which show how this approach can be implemented at the MAGPIE facility at Imperial College, London. We will present the general scenario and the results of a parametric study relating the parameters of the array with the features of the resulting plasma. In particular, we will show how a rotating plasma cylinder or ring, with typical rotation velocity 30 Km/s and Mach number 8 is formed, and how, after about 1-2 revolutions, the material of the plasma ring is ejected in a pair of thermally driven, conical outflows propagating along the rotation axis. We will discuss to what aspects of the physics of accretion discs, the results of such experiments could be relevant. We will also consider the effects of different magnetic configurations, which further expand the possibility to relate the experiments with the astrophysical discs. Experimental implementation of some of these setups is currently in progress on MAGPIE.

  10. Effect of driver impedance on dense plasma focus Z-pinch neutron yield

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, Jason, E-mail: sears8@llnl.gov, E-mail: schmidt36@llnl.gov; Link, Anthony, E-mail: sears8@llnl.gov, E-mail: schmidt36@llnl.gov; Schmidt, Andrea, E-mail: sears8@llnl.gov, E-mail: schmidt36@llnl.gov

    2014-12-15

    The Z-pinch phase of a dense plasma focus (DPF) heats the plasma by rapid compression and accelerates ions across its intense electric fields, producing neutrons through both thermonuclear and beam-target fusion. Driver characteristics have empirically been shown to affect performance, as measured by neutron yield per unit of stored energy. We are exploring the effect of driver characteristics on DPF performance using particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of a kJ scale DPF. In this work, our PIC simulations are fluid for the run-down phase and transition to fully kinetic for the pinch phase, capturing kinetic instabilities, anomalous resistivity, and beam formation duringmore » the pinch. The anode-cathode boundary is driven by a circuit model of the capacitive driver, including system inductance, the load of the railgap switches, the guard resistors, and the coaxial transmission line parameters. It is known that the driver impedance plays an important role in the neutron yield: first, it sets the peak current achieved at pinch time; and second, it affects how much current continues to flow through the pinch when the pinch inductance and resistance suddenly increase. Here we show from fully kinetic simulations how total neutron yield depends on the impedance of the driver and the distributed parameters of the transmission circuit. Direct comparisons between the experiment and simulations enhance our understanding of these plasmas and provide predictive design capability for neutron source applications.« less

  11. ZaP-HD: High Energy Density Z-Pinch Plasmas using Sheared Flow Stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golingo, R. P.; Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Claveau, E. L.; Doty, S. A.; Forbes, E. G.; Hughes, M. C.; Kim, B.; Ross, M. P.; Weed, J. R.

    2015-11-01

    The ZaP-HD flow Z-pinch project investigates scaling the flow Z-pinch to High Energy Density Plasma, HEDP, conditions by using sheared flow stabilization. ZaP used a single power supply to produce 100 cm long Z-pinches that were quiescent for many radial Alfven times and axial flow-through times. The flow Z-pinch concept provides an approach to achieve HED plasmas, which are dimensionally large and persist for extended durations. The ZaP-HD device replaces the single power supply from ZaP with two separate power supplies to independently control the plasma flow and current in the Z-pinch. Equilibrium is determined by diagnostic measurements of the density with interferometry and digital holography, the plasma flow and temperature with passive spectroscopy, the magnetic field with surface magnetic probes, and plasma emission with optical imaging. The diagnostics fully characterize the plasma from its initiation in the coaxial accelerator, through the pinch, and exhaust from the assembly region. The plasma evolution is modeled with high resolution codes: Mach2, WARPX, and NIMROD. Experimental results and scaling analyses are presented. This work is supported by grants from the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration.

  12. 2D Kinetic Particle in Cell Simulations of a Shear-Flow Stabilized Z-Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tummel, Kurt; Higginson, Drew; Schmidt, Andrea; Link, Anthony; McLean, Harry; Shumlak, Uri; Nelson, Brian; Golingo, Raymond; Claveau, Elliot; Lawrence Livermore National Lab Team; University of Washington Team

    2016-10-01

    The Z-pinch is a relatively simple and attractive potential fusion reactor design, but attempts to develop such a reactor have consistently struggled to overcome Z-pinch instabilities. The ``sausage'' and ``kink'' modes are among the most robust and prevalent Z-pinch instabilities, but theory and simulations suggest that axial flow-shear, dvz / dr ≠ 0 , can suppress these modes. Experiments have confirmed that Z-pinch plasmas with embedded axial flow-shear display a significantly enhanced resilience to the sausage and kink modes at a demonstration current of 50kAmps. A new experiment is under way to test the concept at higher current, and efforts to model these plasmas are being expanded. The performance and stability of these devices will depend on features like the plasma viscosity, anomalous resistivity, and finite Larmor radius effects, which are most accurately characterized in kinetic models. To predict these features, kinetic simulations using the particle in cell code LSP are now in development, and initial benchmarking and 2D stability analyses of the sausage mode are presented here. These results represent the first kinetic modeling of the flow-shear stabilized Z-pinch. This work is funded by the USDOE/ARPAe Alpha Program. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  13. Performance of indirectly driven capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility using adiabat-shaping

    DOE PAGES

    Robey, H. F.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Milovich, J. L.; ...

    2016-04-01

    A series of indirectly driven capsule implosions has been performed on the National Ignition Facility to assess the relative contributions of ablation-front instability growth vs. fuel compression on implosion performance. Laser pulse shapes for both low and high-foot pulses were modified to vary ablation-front growth & fuel adiabat, separately and controllably. Two principal conclusions are drawn from this study: 1) It is shown that an increase in laser picket energy reduces ablation-front instability growth in low-foot implosions resulting in a substantial (3-10X) increase in neutron yield with no loss of fuel compression. 2.) It is shown that a decrease inmore » laser trough power reduces the fuel adiabat in high-foot implosions results in a significant (36%) increase in fuel compression together with no reduction in neutron yield. These results taken collectively bridge the space between the higher compression low-foot results and the higher yield high-foot results.« less

  14. Pulsed-power-driven cylindrical liner implosions of laser preheated fuel magnetized with an axial field

    SciTech Connect

    Slutz, S. A.; Herrmann, M. C.; Vesey, R. A.

    2010-05-15

    The radial convergence required to reach fusion conditions is considerably higher for cylindrical than for spherical implosions since the volume is proportional to r{sup 2} versus r{sup 3}, respectively. Fuel magnetization and preheat significantly lowers the required radial convergence enabling cylindrical implosions to become an attractive path toward generating fusion conditions. Numerical simulations are presented indicating that significant fusion yields may be obtained by pulsed-power-driven implosions of cylindrical metal liners onto magnetized (>10 T) and preheated (100-500 eV) deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel. Yields exceeding 100 kJ could be possible on Z at 25 MA, while yields exceeding 50 MJ could bemore » possible with a more advanced pulsed power machine delivering 60 MA. These implosions occur on a much shorter time scale than previously proposed implosions, about 100 ns as compared to about 10 mus for magnetic target fusion (MTF) [I. R. Lindemuth and R. C. Kirkpatrick, Nucl. Fusion 23, 263 (1983)]. Consequently the optimal initial fuel density (1-5 mg/cc) is considerably higher than for MTF (approx1 mug/cc). Thus the final fuel density is high enough to axially trap most of the alpha-particles for cylinders of approximately 1 cm in length with a purely axial magnetic field, i.e., no closed field configuration is required for ignition. According to the simulations, an initial axial magnetic field is partially frozen into the highly conducting preheated fuel and is compressed to more than 100 MG. This final field is strong enough to inhibit both electron thermal conduction and the escape of alpha-particles in the radial direction. Analytical and numerical calculations indicate that the DT can be heated to 200-500 eV with 5-10 kJ of green laser light, which could be provided by the Z-Beamlet laser. The magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instability poses the greatest threat to this approach to fusion. Two-dimensional Lasnex simulations indicate that the liner

  15. Implosion of multilayered cylindrical targets driven by intense heavy ion beams.

    PubMed

    Piriz, A R; Portugues, R F; Tahir, N A; Hoffmann, D H H

    2002-11-01

    An analytical model for the implosion of a multilayered cylindrical target driven by an intense heavy ion beam has been developed. The target is composed of a cylinder of frozen hydrogen or deuterium, which is enclosed in a thick shell of solid lead. This target has been designed for future high-energy-density matter experiments to be carried out at the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt. The model describes the implosion dynamics including the motion of the incident shock and the first reflected shock and allows for calculation of the physical conditions of the hydrogen at stagnation. The model predicts that the conditions of the compressed hydrogen are not sensitive to significant variations in target and beam parameters. These predictions are confirmed by one-dimensional numerical simulations and thus allow for a robust target design.

  16. Hard X-ray and Particle Beams Research on 1.7 MA Z-pinch and Laser Plasma Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Ishor; Kantsyrev, Victor; Safronova, Alla; Esaulov, Andrey; Nishio, Mineyuki; Shlyaptseva, Veronica; Keim, Steven; Weller, Michael; Stafford, Austin; Petkov, Emil; Schultz, Kimberly; Cooper, Matthew; PPDL Team

    2013-10-01

    Studies of hard x-ray (HXR) emission, electron and ion beam generation in z-pinch and laser plasmas are important for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and development of HXR sources from K-shell and L-shell radiation. The characteristics of HXR and particle beams produced by implosions of planar wire arrays, nested and single cylindrical wire arrays, and X-pinches were analyzed on 100 ns UNR Zebra generator with current up to 1.7 MA. In addition, the comparison of characteristics of HXR and electron beams on Zebra and 350 fs UNR Leopard laser experiments with foils has been performed. The diagnostics include Faraday cups, HXR diodes, different x-ray spectrometers and imaging systems, and ion mass spectrometer using the technique of Thomson parabola. Future work on HXRs and particle beams in HED plasmas is discussed. This work was supported by the DOE/NNSA Cooperative agreement DE-NA0001984 and in part by DE-FC52-06NA27616. This work was also supported by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Basic Research Award # HDTRA1-13-1-0033, to University of Nevada, Reno.

  17. AN ACCELERATION MECHANISM FOR NEUTRON PRODUCTION IN Z-PINCH DISCHARGES,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A model has been developed for the acceleration of deuterons in the tightly compressed column of a z-pinch discharge, in particular that of a plasma ... focus discharge. It was assumed that an annular current distribution undergoes a rapidly contracting transition to an axially peaked distribution, and

  18. A Multiple Z-Pinch Configuration for the Generation of High-Density, Magnetized Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarditi, Alfonso G.

    2015-11-01

    The z-pinch is arguably the most straightforward and economical approach for the generation and confinement of hot plasmas, with a long history of theoretical investigations and experimental developments. While most of the past studies were focused on countering the natural tendency of z-pinches to develop instabilities, this study attempts to take advantage of those unstable regimes to form a quasi-stable plasma, with higher density and temperature, possibly of interest for a fusion reactor concept. For this purpose, a configuration with four z-pinch discharges, with axis parallel to each other and symmetrically positioned, is considered. Electrodes for the generation of the discharges and magnetic coils are arranged to favor the formation of concave discharge patterns. The mutual attraction from the co-streaming discharge currents enhances this pattern, leading to bent plasma streams, all nearing towards the axis. This configuration is intended to excite and sustain a ``kink'' unstable mode for each z-pinch, eventually producing either plasmoid structures, detached from each discharge, or sustained kink patterns: both these cases appear to lead to plasmas merging in the central region. The feasibility of this approach in creating a higher density, hotter, meta-stable plasma regime is investigated computationally, addressing both the kink excitation phase and the dynamics of the converging plasma columns.

  19. Simulation of alternate hohlraum shapes for improved inner beam propagation in indirectly-driven ICF implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robey, H. F.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.

    2017-10-01

    Recent indirectly-driven ICF experiments performed on the National Ignition Facility have shown that the propagation of the inner beam cones is impeded late in the laser pulse by the growth of a gold bubble, which is initiated at the location where the outer beams hit the hohlraum wall and which expands radially inward into the hohlraum as the implosion progresses. Late in time, this gold bubble intercepts a significant portion of the inner beams reducing the available energy reaching the waist of the hohlraum and affecting the implosion symmetry. Integrated hohlraum simulations of alternate hohlraum shapes using HYDRA are performed to explore options for reducing the impact of the gold bubble on inner beam propagation. The simulations are based on recent NIF implosions using High-Density Carbon (HDC) ablators, which have shown good performance, but which could benefit from improved inner beam propagation. This work was performed under the auspices of the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, (LLNS) under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  20. Data driven models of the performance and repeatability of NIF high foot implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffney, Jim; Casey, Dan; Callahan, Debbie; Hartouni, Ed; Ma, Tammy; Spears, Brian

    2015-11-01

    Recent high foot (HF) inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments performed at the national ignition facility (NIF) have consisted of enough laser shots that a data-driven analysis of capsule performance is feasible. In this work we use 20-30 individual implosions of similar design, spanning laser drive energies from 1.2 to 1.8 MJ, to quantify our current understanding of the behavior of HF ICF implosions. We develop a probabilistic model for the projected performance of a given implosion and use it to quantify uncertainties in predicted performance including shot-shot variations and observation uncertainties. We investigate the statistical significance of the observed performance differences between different laser pulse shapes, ablator materials, and capsule designs. Finally, using a cross-validation technique, we demonstrate that 5-10 repeated shots of a similar design are required before real trends in the data can be distinguished from shot-shot variations. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-674957.

  1. Multi-Fluid Interpenetration Mixing in X-ray and Directly Laser driven ICF Capsule Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Douglas

    2003-10-01

    Mix between a surrounding shell and the fuel leads to degradation in ICF capsule performance. Both indirectly (X-ray) and directly laser driven implosions provide a wealth of data to test mix models. One model, the multi-fluid interpenetration mix model of Scannapieco and Cheng (Phys. Lett. A., 299, 49, 2002), was implemented in an ICF code and applied to a wide variety of experiments (e.g. J. D. Kilkenny et al., Proc. Conf Plasm. Phys. Contr. Nuc. Fus. Res. 3, 29(1988), P. Amendt, R. E. Turner, O. L. Landen, Phy. Rev. Lett., 89, 165001 (2002), or Li et al., Phy. Rev. Lett, 89, 165002 (2002)). With its single adjustable parameter fixed, it replicates well the yield degradation with increasing convergence ratio for both directly and indirectly driven capsules. Often, but not always the ion temperatures with mixing are calculated to be higher than in an unmixed implosion, agreeing with observations. Comparison with measured directly driven implosion yield rates ( from the neutron temporal diagnostic or NTD) shows mixing increases rapidly during the burn. The model also reproduces the decrease of the fuel "rho-r" with fill gas pressure, measured by observing escaping deuterons or secondary neutrons. The mix model assumes fully atomically mixed constituents, but when experiments with deuterated plastic layers and 3He fuel are modeled, less that full atomic mix is appropriate. Applying the mix model to the ablator - solid DT interface in indirectly driven ignition capsules for the NIF or LMJ suggests that the capsules will ignite, but that burn after ignition may be somewhat degraded. Situations in which the Scannapieco and Cheng model fails to agree with experiments can guide us to improvements or the development of other models. Some directly driven symmetric implosions suggest that in highly mixed situations, a higher value of the mix parameter may needed. Others show the model underestimating the fuel burn temperature. This work was performed by the Los Alamos

  2. Numerical simulation of fiber and wire array Z-pinches with Trac-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisman, David Barton

    Trac-II is a two dimensional axisymmetric resistive MHD code. It simulates all three spatial components (r, z, φ) of the magnetic field and fluid velocity vectors, and the plasma is treated as a single fluid with two temperatures (Te,Ti). In addition, it can optionally include a self-consistent external circuit. Recent modifications to the code include the addition of the 3-T radiation model, a 4-phase (solid- liquid-vapor-plasma) equation of state model (QEOS), a 4- phase electrical/thermal conductivity model, and an implicit solution of poloidal (Bz,Br) magnetic field diffusion. These changes permit a detailed study of fiber and wire array Z-pinches. Specifically, Trac-II is used to study the wire array Z-pinch at the PBFA-Z pulse power generator at Sandia National Laboratory. First, in 1-D we examine the behavior of a single wire in the Z-pinch. Then, using these results as initial radial conditions in 2-D, we investigate the dynamics of wire array configurations in the r-z and r-θ plane. In the r- z plane we examine the growth of the m = 0 or ``sausage'' instability in single wires within the array. In the r-θ plane we examine the merging behavior between neighboring wires. Special emphasis is placed on trying to explain how instability growth affects the performance of the Z-pinch. Lastly, we introduce Trac-III, a 3-D MHD code, and illustrate the m = 1 or ``kink'' instability. We also discuss how Trac-III can be modified to simulate the wire array Z-pinch.

  3. Study of the internal structure, instabilities, and magnetic fields in the dense Z-pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, Vladimir V.

    Z-pinches are sources of hot dense plasma which generates powerful x-ray bursts and can been applied to various areas of high-energy-density physics (HEDP). The 26-MA Z machine is at the forefront of many of these applications, but important aspects of HEDP have been studied on generators at the 1 MA current level. Recent development of laser diagnostics and upgrade of the Leopard laser at Nevada Terawatt Facility (NTF) give new opportunities for the dense Z-pinch study. The goal of this project is the investigation of the internal structure of the stagnated Z pinch including sub-mm and micron-scale instabilities, plasma dynamics,more » magnetic fields, and hot spots formation and initiation. New plasma diagnostics will be developed for this project. A 3D structure and instabilities of the pinch will be compared with 3D MHD and spectroscopic modeling and theoretical analysis. The structure and dynamics of stagnated Z pinches has been studied with x-ray self-radiation diagnostics which derive a temperature map of the pinch with a spatial resolution of 70-150 µm. The regular laser diagnostics at 532 nm does not penetrate in the dense pinch due to strong absorption and refraction in trailing plasma. Recent experiments at NTF showed that shadowgraphy at the UV wavelength of 266 nm unfolds a fine structure of the stagnated Z-pinch with unprecedented detail. We propose to develop laser UV diagnostics for Z pinches with a spatial resolution <5 μm to study the small-scale plasma structures, implement two-frame shadowgraphy/interferometry, and develop methods for investigation of strong magnetic fields. New diagnostics will help to understand better basic physical processes in Z pinches. A 3D internal structure of the pinch and characteristic instabilities will be studied in wire arrays with different configurations and compared with 3D MHD simulations and analytical models. Mechanisms of “enhanced heating” of Z-pinch plasma will be studied. Fast dynamics of

  4. A conservative MHD scheme on unstructured Lagrangian grids for Z-pinch hydrodynamic simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Fuyuan; Ramis, Rafael; Li, Zhenghong

    2018-03-01

    A new algorithm to model resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) in Z-pinches has been developed. Two-dimensional axisymmetric geometry with azimuthal magnetic field Bθ is considered. Discretization is carried out using unstructured meshes made up of arbitrarily connected polygons. The algorithm is fully conservative for mass, momentum, and energy. Matter energy and magnetic energy are managed separately. The diffusion of magnetic field is solved using a derivative of the Symmetric-Semi-Implicit scheme, Livne et al. (1985) [23], where unconditional stability is obtained without needing to solve large sparse systems of equations. This MHD package has been integrated into the radiation-hydrodynamics code MULTI-2D, Ramis et al. (2009) [20], that includes hydrodynamics, laser energy deposition, heat conduction, and radiation transport. This setup allows to simulate Z-pinch configurations relevant for Inertial Confinement Fusion.

  5. Electron beam generation in the turbulent plasma of Z-pinch discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vikhrev, Victor V.; Baronova, Elena O.

    1997-05-01

    Numerical modeling of the process of electron beam generation in z-pinch discharges are presented. The proposed model represents the electron beam generation under turbulent plasma conditions. Strong current distribution inhomogeneity in the plasma column has been accounted for the adequate generation process investigation. Electron beam is generated near the maximum of compression due to run away mechanism and it is not related with the current break effect.

  6. Increasing Plasma Parameters using Sheared Flow Stabilization of a Z-Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumlak, Uri

    2016-10-01

    Recent experiments on the ZaP Flow Z-Pinch at the University of Washington have been successful in compressing the plasma column to smaller radii, producing the predicted increases in plasma density (1018 cm-3), temperature (200 eV), and magnetic fields (4 T), while maintaining plasma stability for many Alfven times (over 40 μs) using sheared plasma flows. These results indicate the suitability of the device as a discovery science platform for astrophysical and high energy density plasma research, and keeps open a possible path to achieving burning plasma conditions in a compact fusion device. Long-lived Z-pinch plasmas have been produced with dimensions of 1 cm radius and 100 cm long that are stabilized by sheared axial flows for over 1000 Alfven radial transit times. The observed plasma stability is coincident with the presence of a sheared flow as measured by time-resolved multi-chord ion Doppler spectroscopy applied to impurity ion radiation. These measurements yield insights into the evolution of the velocity profile and show that the stabilizing behavior of flow shear agrees with theoretical calculations and 2-D MHD computational simulations. The flow shear value, extent, and duration are shown to be consistent with theoretical models of the plasma viscosity, which places a design constraint on the maximum axial length of a sheared flow stabilized Z-pinch. Measurements of the magnetic field topology indicate simultaneous azimuthal symmetry and axial uniformity along the entire 100 cm length of the Z-pinch plasma. Separate control of plasma acceleration and compression have increased the accessible plasma parameters and have generated stable plasmas with radii below 0.5 cm, as measured with a high resolution digital holographic interferometer. This work was supported by Grants from U.S. DOE, NNSA, and ARPA-E.

  7. Effect of Pressure Anisotropy on the m = 1 Small Wavelength Modes in Z-Pinches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faghihi, M.

    1987-05-01

    A generalization of Freidberg's perpendicular MHD model is used to investigate the effect of pressure anisotropy on the small wavelength internal kink (m = 1) mode instability in a Z-Pinch. A normal mode analysis of perturbed motion of an incompressible, collisionless and cylindrical plasma is performed. The stability criterion is (rΣB2)' <= 0, where Σ = 1 - (P|| - P⊥)/B2. It cannot be fulfilled without violation of the fire hose stability condition Σ >= 0.

  8. The application of high-speed photography in z-pinch high-temperature plasma diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kui-lu; Qiu, Meng-tong; Hei, Dong-wei

    2007-01-01

    This invited paper is presented to discuss the application of high speed photography in z-pinch high temperature plasma diagnostics in recent years in Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology in concentrative mode. The developments and applications of soft x-ray framing camera, soft x-ray curved crystal spectrometer, optical framing camera, ultraviolet four-frame framing camera and ultraviolet-visible spectrometer are introduced.

  9. The study of hard x-ray emission and electron beam generation in wire array Z-pinch and X-pinch plasmas at university-scale generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Ishor Kumar

    The studies of hard x-ray (HXR) emission and electron beam generation in Z-pinch plasmas are very important for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) research and HXR emission application for sources of K-shell and L-shell radiation. Energetic electron beams from Z-pinch plasmas are potentially a problem in the development of ICF. The electron beams and the accompanying HXR emission can preheat the fuel of a thermonuclear target, thereby preventing the fuel compression from reaching densities required for the ignition of a fusion reaction. The photons above 3-4 keV radiated from a Z pinch can provide detailed information about the high energy density plasmas produced at stagnation. Hence, the investigation of characteristics of hard x-rays and electron beams produced during implosions of wire array loads on university scale-generators may provide important data for future ICF, sources of K-shell and L-shell radiations and basic plasma research. This dissertation presents the results of experimental studies of HXR and electron beam generation in wire-array and X-pinch on the 1.7 MA, 100-ns current rise time Zebra generator at University of Nevada, Reno and 1-MA 100-ns current rise-time Cornell Beam Research Accelerator (COBRA) at Cornell University. The experimental study of characteristics of HXR produced by multi-planar wire arrays, compact cylindrical wire array (CCWA) and nested cylindrical wire array (NCWA) made from Al, Cu, Mo, Ag, W and Au were analyzed. The dependence of the HXR yield and power on geometry of the load, the wire material, and load mass was observed. The presence of aluminum wires in the load with the main material such as stainless steel, Cu, Mo, Ag, W or Au in combined wire array decreases HXR yield. The comparison of emission characteristics of HXR and generation of electron beams in CCWA and NCWA on both the high impedance Zebra generator and low impedance COBRA generator were investigated. Some of the "cold" K- shell spectral lines (0.7-2.3

  10. Studies of multi-ion-fluid yield anomaly in shock-driven implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Li, C. K.; Zylstra, A. B.; Sio, H.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Frenje, J. A.; Séguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Amendt, P. A.; Bellei, C.; Wilks, S. C.; Zimmerman, G.; Hoffman, N. M.; Kagan, G.; Molvig, K.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Stoeckl, C.; Marshall, F. J.; Seka, W.; Delettrez, J. A.; Sangster, T. C.; Betti, R.; Goncharov, V. N.; Meyerhofer, D. D.

    2014-10-01

    A. NIKROO, GA - Anomalously reduced yields relative to hydrodynamically calculated values have been observed for mixtures of D:3He compared to pure D2 gas-filled implosions in a series of shock-driven implosions at OMEGA. An extensive suite of measurements including temporal and spatial measurements of both the DD- and D3He-fusion reactions were obtained to identify the origin and physics behind this anomalous yield reduction. Measured spectral linewidths of fusion products suggest that the D ions are not thermalized to 3He during the burn, contributing to the reduced yield. The hypothesis that ion-species separation due to diffusive processes contributes to the observed yield reduction is explored using hydrodynamic simulations incorporating ion diffusion. Recent observations by Rosenberg et al. of a yield reduction with increased ion-ion mean free path do not explain the observed anomalous yield trend. Future work that will directly probe species separation with high-precision relative fusion reaction rate measurements between DD-neutrons and D3He-protons using the DualPTD instrument is discussed. This work was supported in part by the U.S. DOE, NLUF, LLE, and LLNL.

  11. Hohlraum-Driven Ignition-Like Double-Shell Implosion Experiments on Omega: Analysis and Interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Amendt, P; Robey, H F; Park, H-S

    2003-08-22

    An experimental campaign to study hohlraum-driven ignition-like double-shell target performance using the Omega laser facility has begun. These targets are intended to incorporate as many ignition-like properties of the proposed National Ignition Facility (NIF) double-shell ignition design [1,2] as possible, given the energy constraints of the Omega laser. In particular, this latest generation of Omega double-shells is nominally predicted to produce over 99% of the (clean) DD neutron yield from the compressional or stagnation phase of the implosion as required in the NIF ignition design. By contrast, previous double-shell experience on Omega [3] was restricted to cases where a significantmore » fraction of the observed neutron yield was produced during the earlier shock convergence phase where the effects of mix are deemed negligibly small. These new targets are specifically designed to have optimized fall-line behavior for mitigating the effects of pusher-fuel mix after deceleration onset and, thereby, providing maximum neutron yield from the stagnation phase. Experimental results from this recent Omega ignition-like double-shell implosion campaign show favorable agreement with two-dimensional integrated hohlraum simulation studies when enhanced (gold) hohlraum M-band (2-5 keV) radiation is included at a level consistent with observations.« less

  12. X-ray driven implosions at ignition relevant velocities on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Meezan, N. B.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Hicks, D. G.

    2013-05-15

    Backlit convergent ablator experiments on the National Ignition Facility [E. I. Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)] are indirect drive implosions that study the inflight dynamics of an imploding capsule. Side-on, backlit radiography provides data used by the National Ignition Campaign to measure time-dependent properties of the capsule ablator including its center of mass radius, velocity, and unablated mass. Previously, Callahan [D. A. Callahan et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 056305 (2012)] and Hicks [D. H. Hicks et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 122702 (2012)] reported backlit convergent ablator experiments demonstrating velocities approaching those required for ignition. This paper focusesmore » on implosion performance data in the “rocket curve” plane, velocity vs. ablator mass. These rocket curve data, along with supporting numerical simulations, show that the nominal 195 μm-thick ignition capsule would reach the ignition velocity goal V = 370 km/s with low ablator mass remaining–below the goal of M = 0.25 mg. This finding led to experiments with thicker capsule ablators. A recent symmetry capsule experiment with a 20 μm thicker capsule driven by 520 TW, 1.86 MJ laser pulse (along with a companion backlit convergent ablator experiment) appears to have demonstrated V≥350 km/s with ablator mass remaining above the ignition goal.« less

  13. Ion Thermal Decoupling and Species Separation in Shock-Driven Implosions

    DOE PAGES

    Rinderknecht, Hans G.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Li, C. K.; ...

    2015-01-14

    Here, anomalous reduction of the fusion yields by 50% and anomalous scaling of the burn-averaged ion temperatures with the ion-species fraction has been observed for the first time in D 3He-filled shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions. Two ion kinetic mechanisms are used to explain the anomalous observations: thermal decoupling of the D and 3He populations and diffusive species separation. The observed insensitivity of ion temperature to a varying deuterium fraction is shown to be a signature of ion thermal decoupling in shock-heated plasmas. The burn-averaged deuterium fraction calculated from the experimental data demonstrates a reduction in the average core deuteriummore » density, as predicted by simulations that use a diffusion model. Accounting for each of these effects in simulations reproduces the observed yield trends.« less

  14. Small-amplitude magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth in cylindrical liners and Z-pinches imploded in an axial magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velikovich, A. L.; Giuliani, J. L.; Clark, R. W.; Mikitchuk, D.; Kroupp, E.; Maron, Y.; Fisher, A.; Schmit, P. F.

    2014-10-01

    Recent progress in developing the MagLIF approach to pulsed-power driven inertial confinement fusion has stimulated the interest in observation and mitigation of the magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability (MRTI) of liners and Z-pinches imploded in an axial magnetic field. Theoretical analysis of these issues is particularly important because direct numerical simulation of the MRTI development is challenging due to intrinsically 3D helical structure of the fastest-growing modes. We review the analytical small-amplitude theory of the MRTI perturbation development and the weakly nonlinear theory of MRTI mode interaction, emphasizing basic physics, opportunity for 3D code verification against exact analytical solutions, and stabilization criteria. The theory is compared to the experimental results obtained at Weizmann Institute with gas-puff Z pinches and on the Z facility at Sandia with solid liners imploded in an axial magnetic field. Work supported by the US DOE/NNSA, and by the US-Israel Binational Science Foundation. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  15. The inverse skin effect in the Z-pinch and plasma focus

    SciTech Connect

    Usenko, P. L., E-mail: otd4@expd.vniief.ru; Gaganov, V. V.

    The inverse skin effect and its influence on the dynamics of high-current Z-pinch and plasma focus discharges in deuterium are analyzed. It is shown that the second compression responsible for the major fraction of the neutron yield can be interpreted as a result of the inverse skin effect resulting in the axial concentration of the longitudinal current density and the appearance of a reversed current in the outer layers of plasma pinches. Possible conditions leading to the enhancement of the inverse skin effect and accessible for experimental verification by modern diagnostics are formulated.

  16. Spatially resolved single crystal x-ray spectropolarimetry of wire array z-pinch plasmas.

    PubMed

    Wallace, M S; Haque, S; Neill, P; Pereira, N R; Presura, R

    2018-01-01

    A recently developed single-crystal x-ray spectropolarimeter has been used to record paired sets of polarization-dependent and axially resolved x-ray spectra emitted by wire array z-pinches. In this measurement, two internal planes inside a suitable crystal diffract the x-rays into two perpendicular directions that are normal to each other, thereby separating incident x-rays into their linearly polarized components. This paper gives considerations for fielding the instrument on extended sources. Results from extended sources are difficult to interpret because generally the incident x-rays are not separated properly by the crystal. This difficulty is mitigated by using a series of collimating slits to select incident x-rays that propagate in a plane of symmetry between the polarization-splitting planes. The resulting instrument and some of the spatially resolved polarized x-ray spectra recorded for a 1-MA aluminum wire array z-pinch at the Nevada Terawatt Facility at the University of Nevada, Reno will be presented.

  17. Pulse Power Compression by Cutting a Dense Z-Pinch with a Laser Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterberg, F.

    1999-07-01

    A thin cut made through a z-pinch by an intense laser beam can become a magnetically insulated diode crossed by an intense ion beam. For larger cuts, the gap is crossed by an intense relativistic electron beam, stopped by magnetic bremsstrahlung resulting in a pointlike intense x-ray source. In either case, the impedance of the pinch discharge is increased, with the power delivered rising in the same pro-portion. A magnetically insulated cut is advantageous for three reasons: First, with the ion current com-parable to the Alfvèn ion current, the pinch instabilities are reduced. Second, with the energy deposit-ed into fast ions, a non-Maxwellian velocity distribution is established increasing<σ ν> value for nuclear fusion reactions taking place in the pinch discharge. Third, in a high density z-pinch plasma, the intense ion beam can launch a thermonuclear detonation wave propagating along the pinch discharge channel. For larger cuts the soft x-rays produced by magnetic bremsstrahlung can be used to drive a thermonuclear hohlraum target. Finally, the proposed pulse power compression scheme permits to use a cheap low power d.c. source charging a magnetic storage coil delivering the magnetically stored energy to the pinch discharge load by an exploding wire opening switch.

  18. A short-pulse mode for the SPHINX LTD Z-pinch driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Almeida, Thierry; Lassalle, Francis; Zucchini, Frederic; Loyen, Arnaud; Morell, Alain; Chuvatin, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    The SPHINX machine is a 6MA, 1 μs, LTD Z-pinch driver at CEA Gramat (France) and primarily used for studying radiation effects. Different power amplification concepts were examined in order to reduce the current rise time without modifying the generator discharge scheme, including the Dynamic Load Current Multiplier (DLCM) proposed by Chuvatin. A DLCM device, capable of shaping the current pulse without reducing the rise time, was developed at CEA. This device proved valuable for isentropic compression experiments in cylindrical geometry. Recently, we achieved a short pulse operation mode by inserting a vacuum closing switch between the DLCM and the load. The current rise time was reduced to ~300 ns. We explored the use of a reduced-height wire array for the Dynamic Flux Extruder in order to improve the wire array compression rate and increase the efficiency of the current transfer to the load. These developments are presented. Potential benefits of these developments for future Z pinch experiments are discussed.

  19. Spatially resolved single crystal x-ray spectropolarimetry of wire array z-pinch plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, M. S.; Haque, S.; Neill, P.; Pereira, N. R.; Presura, R.

    2018-01-01

    A recently developed single-crystal x-ray spectropolarimeter has been used to record paired sets of polarization-dependent and axially resolved x-ray spectra emitted by wire array z-pinches. In this measurement, two internal planes inside a suitable crystal diffract the x-rays into two perpendicular directions that are normal to each other, thereby separating incident x-rays into their linearly polarized components. This paper gives considerations for fielding the instrument on extended sources. Results from extended sources are difficult to interpret because generally the incident x-rays are not separated properly by the crystal. This difficulty is mitigated by using a series of collimating slits to select incident x-rays that propagate in a plane of symmetry between the polarization-splitting planes. The resulting instrument and some of the spatially resolved polarized x-ray spectra recorded for a 1-MA aluminum wire array z-pinch at the Nevada Terawatt Facility at the University of Nevada, Reno will be presented.

  20. Recombination-pumped XUV lasing in capillary discharges and dynamic z-pinches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pöckl, M.; Hebenstreit, M.; Fertner, R.; Neger, T.; Aumayr, F.

    1996-08-01

    A fully time-dependent collisional - radiative model is employed to calculate relevant population densities in a recombining carbon/hydrogen z-pinch plasma. In particular, the dependence of the small signal gain G on the maximum electron temperature and cooling rate, as well as the influence of Lyman-0022-3727/29/8/005/img8 reabsorption, are studied. Although in conditions typical for dynamic z-pinches the maximum electron temperature and cooling rates would, in principle, be sufficiently high, gain on the Balmer-0022-3727/29/8/005/img8 transition is strongly reduced by Lyman-0022-3727/29/8/005/img8 reabsorption. In order to investigate vacuum spark capillary discharges, the system of rate equations is coupled with balance equations of the plasma energy and the total number of heavy particles. The resulting set of equations is solved self-consistently. Results are presented that show the systematic dependence of the small signal gain on electrical input power, wall material, and capillary geometry. High gain coefficients 0022-3727/29/8/005/img11 could be achieved by modelling high-voltage discharges with short ringing periods through capillaries containing boron or carbon. While the maximum achievable gain coefficient for lithium is rather poor 0022-3727/29/8/005/img12 the duration of population inversion would be long enough (a few tens of nanoseconds) to make multi-pass operation possible.

  1. Z-Pinch Magneto-Inertial Fusion Propulsion Engine Design Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miernik, Janie H.; Statham, Geoffrey; Adams, Robert B.; Polsgrove, Tara; Fincher, Sharon; Fabisinski, Leo; Maples, C. Dauphne; Percy, Thomas K.; Cortez, Ross J.; Cassibry, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Fusion-based nuclear propulsion has the potential to enable fast interplanetary transportation. Due to the great distances between the planets of our solar system and the harmful radiation environment of interplanetary space, high specific impulse (Isp) propulsion in vehicles with high payload mass fractions must be developed to provide practical and safe vehicles for human spaceflight missions. Magneto-Inertial Fusion (MIF) is an approach which has been shown to potentially lead to a low cost, small fusion reactor/engine assembly (1). The Z-Pinch dense plasma focus method is an MIF concept in which a column of gas is compressed to thermonuclear conditions by an estimated axial current of approximately 100 MA. Recent advancements in experiments and the theoretical understanding of this concept suggest favorable scaling of fusion power output yield as I(sup 4) (2). The magnetic field resulting from the large current compresses the plasma to fusion conditions, and this is repeated over short timescales (10(exp -6) sec). This plasma formation is widely used in the field of Nuclear Weapons Effects (NWE) testing in the defense industry, as well as in fusion energy research. There is a wealth of literature characterizing Z-Pinch physics and existing models (3-5). In order to be useful in engineering analysis, a simplified Z-Pinch fusion thermodynamic model was developed to determine the quantity of plasma, plasma temperature, rate of expansion, energy production, etc. to calculate the parameters that characterize a propulsion system. The amount of nuclear fuel per pulse, mixture ratio of the D-T and nozzle liner propellant, and assumptions about the efficiency of the engine, enabled the sizing of the propulsion system and resulted in an estimate of the thrust and Isp of a Z-Pinch fusion propulsion system for the concept vehicle. MIF requires a magnetic nozzle to contain and direct the nuclear pulses, as well as a robust structure and radiation shielding. The structure

  2. Experiments and Simulations on Magnetically Driven Implosions in High Repetition Rate Dense Plasma Focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero Bendixsen, Luis; Bott-Suzuki, Simon; Cordaro, Samuel; Krishnan, Mahadevan; Chapman, Stephen; Coleman, Phil; Chittenden, Jeremy

    2015-11-01

    Results will be shown on coordinated experiments and MHD simulations on magnetically driven implosions, with an emphasis on current diffusion and heat transport. Experiments are run at a Mather-type dense plasma focus (DPF-3, Vc: 20 kV, Ip: 480 kA, E: 5.8 kJ). Typical experiments are run at 300 kA and 0.33 Hz repetition rate with different gas loads (Ar, Ne, and He) at pressures of ~ 1-3 Torr, usually gathering 1000 shots per day. Simulations are run at a 96-core HP blade server cluster using 3GHz processors with 4GB RAM per node.Preliminary results show axial and radial phase plasma sheath velocity of ~ 1x105 m/s. These are in agreement with the snow-plough model of DPFs. Peak magnetic field of ~ 1 Tesla in the radial compression phase are measured. Electron densities on the order of 1018 cm-3 anticipated. Comparison between 2D and 3D models with empirical results show a good agreement in the axial and radial phase.

  3. Down-bore two-laser heterodyne velocimetry of an implosion-driven hypervelocity launcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrand, Myles; Huneault, Justin; Loiseau, Jason; Higgins, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    The implosion-driven launcher uses explosives to shock-compress helium, driving well-characterized projectiles to velocities exceeding 10 km/s. The masses of projectiles range between 0.1 - 15 g, and the design shows excellent scalability, reaching similar velocities across different projectile sizes. In the past, velocity measurements have been limited to muzzle velocity obtained via a high-speed videography upon the projectile exiting the launch tube. Recently, Photon Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) has demonstrated the ability to continuously measure in-bore velocity, even in the presence of significant blow-by of high temperature helium propellant past the projectile. While a single laser system sampled at 40 GS/s with a 13 GHz detector/scope bandwidth is limited to 8 km/s, a two-laser PDV system is developed that uses two lasers operating near 1550 nm to provide velocity measurement capabilities up to 16 km/s with the same bandwidth and sampling rate. The two-laser PDV system is used to obtain a continuous velocity history of the projectile throughout the entire launch cycle. These internal ballistics trajectories are used to compare different advanced concepts aimed at increasing the projectile velocity to well beyond 10 km/s.

  4. Down-Bore Two-Laser Heterodyne Velocimetry of an Implosion-Driven Hypervelocity Launcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrand, Myles; Huneault, Justin; Loiseau, Jason; Higgins, Andrew J.

    2015-06-01

    The implosion-driven launcher uses explosives to shock-compress helium, driving well-characterized projectiles to velocities exceeding 10 km/s. The masses of projectiles range between 0.1 - 10 g, and the design shows excellent scalability, reaching similar velocities across different projectile sizes. In the past, velocity measurements have been limited to muzzle velocity obtained via a high-speed videography upon the projectile exiting the launch tube. Recently, Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) has demonstrated the ability to continuously measure in-bore velocity, even in the presence of significant blow-by of high temperature helium propellant past the projectile. While a single-laser PDV is limited to approximately 8 km/s, a two-laser PDV system is developed that uses two lasers operating near 1550 nm to provide velocity measurement capabilities up to 16 km/s. The two laser PDV system is used to obtain a continuous velocity history of the projectile throughout the entire launch cycle. These continuous velocity data are used to validate models of the launcher cycle and compare different advanced concepts aimed at increasing the projectile velocity to well beyond 10 km/s.

  5. Design and testing of a magnetically driven implosion peak current diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, M. H.; Peterson, K. J.; Ampleford, D. J.; Hutsel, B. T.; Jennings, C. A.; Gomez, M. R.; Dolan, D. H.; Robertson, G. K.; Payne, S. L.; Stygar, W. A.; Martin, M. R.; Sinars, D. B.

    2018-04-01

    A critical component of the magnetically driven implosion experiments at Sandia National Laboratories is the delivery of high-current, 10s of MA, from the Z pulsed power facility to a target. In order to assess the performance of the experiment, it is necessary to measure the current delivered to the target. Recent Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) experiments have included velocimetry diagnostics, such as PDV (Photonic Doppler Velocimetry) or Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector, in the final power feed section in order to infer the load current as a function of time. However, due to the nonlinear volumetrically distributed magnetic force within a velocimetry flyer, a complete time-dependent load current unfold is typically a time-intensive process and the uncertainties in the unfold can be difficult to assess. In this paper, we discuss how a PDV diagnostic can be simplified to obtain a peak current by sufficiently increasing the thickness of the flyer. This effectively keeps the magnetic force localized to the flyer surface, resulting in fast and highly accurate measurements of the peak load current. In addition, we show the results of experimental peak load current measurements from the PDV diagnostic in recent MagLIF experiments.

  6. Dynamics of a Z-pinch x-ray source for heating inertial-confinement-fusion relevant hohlraums to 120-160 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanford, T. W. L.; Olson, R. E.; Mock, R. C.; Chandler, G. A.; Leeper, R. J.; Nash, T. J.; Ruggles, L. E.; Simpson, W. W.; Struve, K. W.; Peterson, D. L.; Bowers, R. L.; Matuska, W.

    2000-11-01

    A Z-pinch radiation source has been developed that generates 60±20 kJ of x rays with a peak power of 13±4 TW through a 4-mm-diam axial aperture on the Z facility. The source has heated National Ignition Facility-scale (6-mm-diam by 7-mm-high) hohlraums to 122±6 eV and reduced-scale (4-mm-diam by 4-mm-high) hohlraums to 155±8 eV—providing environments suitable for indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion studies. Eulerian-RMHC (radiation-magnetohydrodynamics code) simulations that take into account the development of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the r-z plane provide integrated calculations of the implosion, x-ray generation, and hohlraum heating, as well as estimates of wall motion and plasma fill within the hohlraums. Lagrangian-RMHC simulations suggest that the addition of a 6 mg/cm3 CH2 fill in the reduced-scale hohlraum decreases hohlraum inner-wall velocity by ˜40% with only a 3%-5% decrease in peak temperature, in agreement with measurements.

  7. Proton Radiography of Spontaneous Fields, Plasma Flows and Dynamics in X-Ray Driven Inertial-Confinement Fusion Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Rosenberg, M.; Zylstra, A. B.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Petrasso, R. D.; Amendt, P. A.; Landen, O. L.; Town, R. P. J.; Betti, R.; Knauer, J. P.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Back, C. A.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Nikroo, A.

    2010-11-01

    Backlighting of x-ray-driven implosions in empty hohlraums with mono-energetic protons on the OMEGA laser facility has allowed a number of important phenomena to be observed. Several critical parameters were determined, including plasma flow, three types of spontaneous electric fields and megaGauss magnetic fields. These results provide insight into important issues in indirect-drive ICF. Even though the cavity is effectively a Faraday cage, the strong, local fields inside the hohlraum can affect laser-plasma instabilities, electron distributions and implosion symmetry. They are of fundamental scientific importance for a range of new experiments at the frontiers of high-energy-density physics. Future experiments designed to characterize the field formation and evolution in low-Z gas fill hohlraums will be discussed.

  8. Systematic Fuel Cavity Asymmetries in Directly Driven Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions

    DOE PAGES

    Shah, Rahul C.; Haines, Brian Michael; Wysocki, Frederick Joseph; ...

    2017-03-30

    Here, we present narrow-band self-emission x-ray images from a titanium tracer layer placed at the fuel-shell interface in 60-laser-beam implosion experiments at the OMEGA facility. The images are acquired during deceleration with inferred convergences of ~9-14. Novel here is that a systematically observed asymmetry of the emission is linked, using full sphere 3D implosion modeling, to performance-limiting low mode asymmetry of the drive.

  9. First results of radiation-driven, layered deuterium-tritium implosions with a 3-shock adiabat-shaped drive at the National Ignition Facility

    DOE PAGES

    Smalyuk, V. A.; Robey, H. F.; Döppner, T.; ...

    2015-08-27

    Radiation-driven, layered deuterium-tritium plastic capsule implosions were carried out using a new, 3-shock “adiabat-shaped” drive on the National Ignition Facility. The purpose of adiabat shaping is to use a stronger first shock, reducing hydrodynamic instability growth in the ablator. The shock can decay before reaching the deuterium-tritium fuel leaving it on a low adiabat and allowing higher fuel compression. The fuel areal density was improved by ~25% with this new drive compared to similar “high-foot” implosions, while neutron yield was improved by more than 4 times, compared to “low-foot” implosions driven at the same compression and implosion velocity.

  10. 3D MHD Simulations of Radial Wire Array Z-pinches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niasse, N.; Chittenden, J. P.; Bland, S. N.; Suzuki-Vidal, F. A.; Hall, G. N.; Lebedev, S. V.; Calamy, H.; Zucchini, F.; Lassalle, F.; Bedoch, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    Recent experiments carried out on the MAGPIE (1 MA, 250 ns), OEDIPE (730 kA, 1.5 μs) and SPHINX (4 MA, 700 ns)[1] facilities have shown the relatively high level of scalability of the Radial Wire Array Z-pinches. These configurations where the wires stretch radially outwards from a central cathode offer numerous advantages over standard cylindrical arrays. In particular, imploding in a very stable and compact way, they seem suitable for coupling to small scale hohlraums. Making use of the 3D resistive magneto-hydrodynamic code GORGON[2] developed at Imperial College, the dynamic of the radial wire arrays is investigated. Influence of the cathode hotspots and wires angle on the x-ray emissions is also discussed. Comparison with experiments is offered to validate the numerical studies.

  11. Use of vacuum arc plasma guns for a metal puff Z-pinch system

    SciTech Connect

    Rousskikh, A. G.; Zhigalin, A. S.; Oreshkin, V. I.

    The performance of a metal puff Z-pinch system has been studied experimentally. In this type of system, the initial cylindrical shell 4 cm in diameter was produced by ten plasma guns. Each gun initiates a vacuum arc operating between magnesium electrodes. The net current of the guns was 80 kA. The arc-produced plasma shell was compressed by using a 450-kA, 450-ns driver, and as a result, a plasma column 0.3 cm in diameter was formed. The electron temperature of the plasma reached 400 eV at an average ion concentration of 1.85 {center_dot} 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}. The power of themore » Mg K-line radiation emitted by the plasma for 15-30 ns was 300 MW/cm.« less

  12. 250 kA compact linear transformer driver for wire array z-pinch loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bott, S. C.; Haas, D. M.; Madden, R. E.; Ueda, U.; Eshaq, Y.; Collins, G., IV; Gunasekera, K.; Mariscal, D.; Peebles, J.; Beg, F. N.; Mazarakis, M.; Struve, K.; Sharpe, R.

    2011-05-01

    We present the application of a short rise (˜150ns) 250 kA linear transformer driver (LTD) to wire array z-pinch loads for the first time. The generator is a modification of a previous driver in which a new conical power feed provides a low inductance coupling to wire loads. Performance of the new design using both short circuit and plasma loads is presented and discussed. The final design delivers ˜200kA to a wire array load which is in good agreement with SCREAMER calculations using a simplified representative circuit. Example results demonstrate successful experiments using cylindrical, conical, and inverse wire arrays as well as previously published work on x-pinch loads.

  13. Design of Z-Pinch and Dense Plasma Focus Powered Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polsgrove, Tara; Fincher, Sharon; Adams, Robert B.; Cassibry, Jason; Cortez, Ross; Turner, Matthew; Maples, C. Daphne; Miermik, Janie N.; Statham, Geoffrey N.; Fabisinski, Leo; hide

    2011-01-01

    Z-pinch and Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) are two promising techniques for bringing fusion power to the field of in-space propulsion. A design team comprising of engineers and scientists from UAHuntsville, NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center and the University of Wisconsin developed concept vehicles for a crewed round trip mission to Mars and an interstellar precursor mission. Outlined in this paper are vehicle concepts, complete with conceptual analysis of the mission profile, operations, structural and thermal analysis and power/avionics design. Additionally engineering design of the thruster itself is included. The design efforts adds greatly to the fidelity of estimates for power density (alpha) and overall performance for these thruster concepts

  14. A Compact Soft X-Ray Microscope using an Electrode-less Z-Pinch Source.

    PubMed

    Horne, S F; Silterra, J; Holber, W

    2009-01-01

    Soft X-rays (< 1Kev) are of medical interest both for imaging and microdosimetry applications. X-ray sources at this low energy present a technological challenge. Synchrotrons, while very powerful and flexible, are enormously expensive national research facilities. Conventional X-ray sources based on electron bombardment can be compact and inexpensive, but low x-ray production efficiencies at low electron energies restrict this approach to very low power applications. Laser-based sources tend to be expensive and unreliable. Energetiq Technology, Inc. (Woburn, MA, USA) markets a 92 eV, 10W(2pi sr) electrode-less Z-pinch source developed for advanced semiconductor lithography. A modified version of this commercial product has produced 400 mW at 430 eV (2pi sr), appropriate for water window soft X-ray microscopy. The US NIH has funded Energetiq to design and construct a demonstration microscope using this source, coupled to a condenser optic, as the illumination system. The design of the condenser optic matches the unique characteristics of the source to the illumination requirements of the microscope, which is otherwise a conventional design. A separate program is underway to develop a microbeam system, in conjunction with the RARAF facility at Columbia University, NY, USA. The objective is to develop a focused, sub-micron beam capable of delivering > 1 Gy/second to the nucleus of a living cell. While most facilities of this type are coupled to a large and expensive particle accelerator, the Z-pinch X-ray source enables a compact, stand-alone design suitable to a small laboratory. The major technical issues in this system involve development of suitable focusing X-ray optics. Current status of these programs will be reported.

  15. A Compact Soft X-Ray Microscope using an Electrode-less Z-Pinch Source

    PubMed Central

    Silterra, J; Holber, W

    2009-01-01

    Soft X-rays (< 1Kev) are of medical interest both for imaging and microdosimetry applications. X-ray sources at this low energy present a technological challenge. Synchrotrons, while very powerful and flexible, are enormously expensive national research facilities. Conventional X-ray sources based on electron bombardment can be compact and inexpensive, but low x-ray production efficiencies at low electron energies restrict this approach to very low power applications. Laser-based sources tend to be expensive and unreliable. Energetiq Technology, Inc. (Woburn, MA, USA) markets a 92 eV, 10W(2pi sr) electrode-less Z-pinch source developed for advanced semiconductor lithography. A modified version of this commercial product has produced 400 mW at 430 eV (2pi sr), appropriate for water window soft X-ray microscopy. The US NIH has funded Energetiq to design and construct a demonstration microscope using this source, coupled to a condenser optic, as the illumination system. The design of the condenser optic matches the unique characteristics of the source to the illumination requirements of the microscope, which is otherwise a conventional design. A separate program is underway to develop a microbeam system, in conjunction with the RARAF facility at Columbia University, NY, USA. The objective is to develop a focused, sub-micron beam capable of delivering > 1 Gy/second to the nucleus of a living cell. While most facilities of this type are coupled to a large and expensive particle accelerator, the Z-pinch X-ray source enables a compact, stand-alone design suitable to a small laboratory. The major technical issues in this system involve development of suitable focusing X-ray optics. Current status of these programs will be reported. PMID:20198115

  16. Digital holographic interferometry employing Fresnel transform reconstruction for the study of flow shear stabilized Z-pinch plasmas.

    PubMed

    Ross, M P; Shumlak, U

    2016-10-01

    The ZaP-HD flow Z-pinch project provides a platform to explore how shear flow stabilized Z-pinches could scale to high-energy-density plasma (plasma with pressures exceeding 1 Mbar) and fusion reactor conditions. The Z-pinch is a linear plasma confinement geometry in which the plasma carries axial electric current and is confined by its self-induced magnetic field. ZaP-HD generates shear stabilized, axisymmetric Z-pinches with stable lifetimes approaching 60 μs. The goal of the project is to increase the plasma density and temperature compared to the previous ZaP project by compressing the plasma to smaller radii (≈1 mm). Radial and axial plasma electron density structure is measured using digital holographic interferometry (DHI), which provides the necessary fine spatial resolution. ZaP-HD's DHI system uses a 2 ns Nd:YAG laser pulse with a second harmonic generator (λ = 532 nm) to produce holograms recorded by a Nikon D3200 digital camera. The holograms are numerically reconstructed with the Fresnel transform reconstruction method to obtain the phase shift caused by the interaction of the laser beam with the plasma. This provides a two-dimensional map of line-integrated electron density, which can be Abel inverted to determine the local number density. The DHI resolves line-integrated densities down to 3 × 10 20 m -2 with spatial resolution near 10 μm. This paper presents the first application of Fresnel transform reconstruction as an analysis technique for a plasma diagnostic, and it analyzes the method's accuracy through study of synthetic data. It then presents an Abel inversion procedure that utilizes data on both sides of a Z-pinch local number density profile to maximize profile symmetry. Error estimation and Abel inversion are applied to the measured data.

  17. A near one-dimensional indirectly driven implosion at convergence ratio 30

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLaren, S. A.; Masse, L. P.; Czajka, C. E.; Khan, S. F.; Kyrala, G. A.; Ma, T.; Ralph, J. E.; Salmonson, J. D.; Bachmann, B.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bhandarkar, S. D.; Bradley, P. A.; Hatarik, R.; Herrmann, H. W.; Mariscal, D. A.; Millot, M.; Patel, P. K.; Pino, J. E.; Ratledge, M.; Rice, N. G.; Tipton, R. E.; Tommasini, R.; Yeamans, C. B.

    2018-05-01

    Inertial confinement fusion cryogenic-layered implosions at the National Ignition Facility, while successfully demonstrating self-heating due to alpha-particle deposition, have fallen short of the performance predicted by one-dimensional (1D) multi-physics implosion simulations. The current understanding, from experimental evidence as well as simulations, suggests that engineering features such as the capsule tent and fill tube, as well as time-dependent low-mode asymmetry, are to blame for the lack of agreement. A short series of experiments designed specifically to avoid these degradations to the implosion are described here in order to understand if, once they are removed, a high-convergence cryogenic-layered deuterium-tritium implosion can achieve the 1D simulated performance. The result is a cryogenic layered implosion, round at stagnation, that matches closely the performance predicted by 1D simulations. This agreement can then be exploited to examine the sensitivity of approximations in the model to the constraints imposed by the data.

  18. Probing off-Hugoniot states in Ta, Cu, and Al to 1000 GPa compression with magnetically driven liner implosions

    DOE PAGES

    Lemke, R. W.; Dolan, D. H.; Dalton, D. G.; ...

    2016-01-07

    We report on a new technique for obtaining off-Hugoniot pressure vs. density data for solid metals compressed to extreme pressure by a magnetically driven liner implosion on the Z-machine (Z) at Sandia National Laboratories. In our experiments, the liner comprises inner and outer metal tubes. The inner tube is composed of a sample material (e.g., Ta and Cu) whose compressed state is to be inferred. The outer tube is composed of Al and serves as the current carrying cathode. Another aluminum liner at much larger radius serves as the anode. A shaped current pulse quasi-isentropically compresses the sample as itmore » implodes. The iterative method used to infer pressure vs. density requires two velocity measurements. Photonic Doppler velocimetry probes measure the implosion velocity of the free (inner) surface of the sample material and the explosion velocity of the anode free (outer) surface. These two velocities are used in conjunction with magnetohydrodynamic simulation and mathematical optimization to obtain the current driving the liner implosion, and to infer pressure and density in the sample through maximum compression. This new equation of state calibration technique is illustrated using a simulated experiment with a Cu sample. Monte Carlo uncertainty quantification of synthetic data establishes convergence criteria for experiments. Results are presented from experiments with Al/Ta, Al/Cu, and Al liners. Symmetric liner implosion with quasi-isentropic compression to peak pressure ~1000 GPa is achieved in all cases. Lastly, these experiments exhibit unexpectedly softer behavior above 200 GPa, which we conjecture is related to differences in the actual and modeled properties of aluminum.« less

  19. Probing off-Hugoniot states in Ta, Cu, and Al to 1000 GPa compression with magnetically driven liner implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Lemke, R. W.; Dolan, D. H.; Dalton, D. G.

    We report on a new technique for obtaining off-Hugoniot pressure vs. density data for solid metals compressed to extreme pressure by a magnetically driven liner implosion on the Z-machine (Z) at Sandia National Laboratories. In our experiments, the liner comprises inner and outer metal tubes. The inner tube is composed of a sample material (e.g., Ta and Cu) whose compressed state is to be inferred. The outer tube is composed of Al and serves as the current carrying cathode. Another aluminum liner at much larger radius serves as the anode. A shaped current pulse quasi-isentropically compresses the sample as itmore » implodes. The iterative method used to infer pressure vs. density requires two velocity measurements. Photonic Doppler velocimetry probes measure the implosion velocity of the free (inner) surface of the sample material and the explosion velocity of the anode free (outer) surface. These two velocities are used in conjunction with magnetohydrodynamic simulation and mathematical optimization to obtain the current driving the liner implosion, and to infer pressure and density in the sample through maximum compression. This new equation of state calibration technique is illustrated using a simulated experiment with a Cu sample. Monte Carlo uncertainty quantification of synthetic data establishes convergence criteria for experiments. Results are presented from experiments with Al/Ta, Al/Cu, and Al liners. Symmetric liner implosion with quasi-isentropic compression to peak pressure ~1000 GPa is achieved in all cases. Lastly, these experiments exhibit unexpectedly softer behavior above 200 GPa, which we conjecture is related to differences in the actual and modeled properties of aluminum.« less

  20. A near one-dimensional 2-shock indirectly driven implosion at convergence ratio 30

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLaren, Steve

    2017-10-01

    Inertial confinement fusion implosions at the National Ignition Facility, while successfully demonstrating self-heating due to alpha-particle deposition, have fallen short of the performance predicted by one-dimensional multi-physics implosion simulations. The current understanding, based on simulations as well as experimental evidence, suggests that the principle reason for the disagreement is a breeching of the cold fuel assembly at stagnation which would otherwise completely confine the hot spot. 3-D simulations indicate a combination of low-mode symmetry swings and ablation-front hydrodynamic instability seeded by engineering features such as the capsule tent and fill tube lead to localized thinning and perforation of the stagnated fuel, resulting in a loss of hot spot pressure and energy. We describe a short series of experiments on the NIF designed specifically to avoid these issues in order to understand if, once they are removed, a suspended-fuel-layer deuterium-tritium implosion can achieve 1-D simulated performance. The particular implosion system combines a thick capsule shell with an elevated initial ablation temperature to minimize the ablation front perturbations from the engineering features, and incorporates a large ratio of hohlraum-to-capsule radius as a means to permit a higher degree of control over implosion symmetry. The resulting implosion at a convergence ratio of 30 was not perfectly spherically symmetric as observed by both neutron and time-resolved x-ray imaging diagnostics. However, the stagnation observables match closely the performance predicted by 1D simulations, including, when some hot spot motion is accounted for, the apparent ion temperature. We present this result along with the design for an upcoming 2-shock experiment to test whether this level of agreement with the 1D model can be achieved in the self-heating regime. This work was performed under the auspices of the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, (LLNS) under

  1. Staged Z-pinch Experiments at the 1MA Zebra pulsed-power generator: Neutron measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruskov, Emil; Darling, T.; Glebov, V.; Wessel, F. J.; Anderson, A.; Beg, F.; Conti, F.; Covington, A.; Dutra, E.; Narkis, J.; Rahman, H.; Ross, M.; Valenzuela, J.

    2017-10-01

    We report on neutron measurements from the latest Staged Z-pinch experiments at the 1MA Zebra pulsed-power generator. In these experiments a hollow shell of argon or krypton gas liner, injected between the 1 cm anode-cathode gap, compresses a deuterium plasma target of varying density. Axial magnetic field Bz <= 2 kGs, applied throughout the pinch region, stabilizes the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The standard silver activation diagnostics and 4 plastic scintillator neutron Time of Flight (nTOF) detectors are augmented with a large area ( 1400 cm2) liquid scintillator detector to which fast gatedPhotek photomultipliers are attached. Sample data from these neutron diagnostics systems is presented. Consistently high neutron yields YDD >109 are measured, with highest yield of 2.6 ×109 . A pair of horizontally and vertically placed plastic scintillator nTOFs suggest isotropic i.e. thermonuclear origin of the neutrons produced. nTOF data from the liquid scintillator detector was cross-calibrated with the silver activation detector, and can be used for accurate calculation of the neutron yield. Funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy, under Grant Number DE-AR0000569.

  2. Parameter scaling toward high-energy density in a quasi-steady flow Z-pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, M. C.; Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Golingo, R. P.; Claveau, E. L.; Doty, S. A.; Forbes, E. G.; Kim, B.; Ross, M. P.

    2016-10-01

    Sheared axial flows are utilized by the ZaP Flow Z-Pinch Experiment to stabilize MHD instabilities. The pinches formed are 50 cm long with radii ranging from 0.3 to 1.0 cm. The plasma is generated in a coaxial acceleration region, similar to a Marshall gun, which provides a steady supply of plasma for approximately 100 us. The power to the plasma is partially decoupled between the acceleration and pinch assembly regions through the use of separate power supplies. Adiabatic scaling of the Bennett relation gives targets for future devices to reach high-energy density conditions or fusion reactors. The applicability of an adiabatic assumption is explored and work is done experimentally to clarify the plasma compression process, which may be more generally polytropic. The device is capable of a much larger parameter space than previous machine iterations, allowing flexibility in the initial conditions of the compression process to preserve stability. This work is supported by DoE FES and NNSA.

  3. High brightness electrodeless Z-Pinch EUV source for mask inspection tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horne, Stephen F.; Partlow, Matthew J.; Gustafson, Deborah S.; Besen, Matthew M.; Smith, Donald K.; Blackborow, Paul A.

    2012-03-01

    Energetiq Technology has been shipping the EQ-10 Electrodeless Z-pinchTM light source since 1995. The source is currently being used for metrology, mask inspection, and resist development. Energetiq's higher brightness source has been selected as the source for pre-production actinic mask inspection tools. This improved source enables the mask inspection tool suppliers to build prototype tools with capabilities of defect detection and review down to 16nm design rules. In this presentation we will present new source technology being developed at Energetiq to address the critical source brightness issue. The new technology will be shown to be capable of delivering brightness levels sufficient to meet the HVM requirements of AIMS and ABI and potentially API tools. The basis of the source technology is to use the stable pinch of the electrodeless light source and have a brightness of up to 100W/mm(carat)2-sr. We will explain the source design concepts, discuss the expected performance and present the modeling results for the new design.

  4. Cinematic Characterization of Convected Coherent Structures Within an Continuous Flow Z-Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underwood, Thomas; Rodriguez, Jesse; Loebner, Keith; Cappelli, Mark

    2017-10-01

    In this study, two separate diagnostics are applied to a plasma jet produced from a coaxial accelerator with characteristic velocities exceeding 105 m/s and timescales of 10 μs. In the first of these, an ultra-high frame rate CMOS camera coupled to a Z-type laser Schlieren apparatus is used to obtain flow-field refractometry data for the continuous flow Z-pinch formed within the plasma deflagration jet. The 10 MHz frame rate for 256 consecutive frames provides high temporal resolution, enabling turbulent fluctuations and plasma instabilities to be visualized over the course of a single pulse. The unique advantage of this diagnostic is its ability to simultaneously resolve both structural and temporal evolution of instabilities and density gradients within the flow. To allow for a more meaningful statistical analysis of the resulting wave motion, a multiple B-dot probe array was constructed and calibrated to operate over a broadband frequency range up to 100 MHz. The resulting probe measurements are incorporated into a wavelet analysis to uncover the dispersion relation of recorded wave motion and furthermore uncover instability growth rates. Finally these results are compared with theoretical growth rate estimates to identify underlying physics. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Stewardship Science Academic Program in addition to the National Defense Science Engineering Graduate Fellowship.

  5. Measurements of high energy photons in Z-pinch experiments on primary test stand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Fenni; Zhang, Chuanfei; Xu, Rongkun; Yuan, Xi; Huang, Zhanchang; Xu, Zeping; Ye, Fan; Yang, Jianlun; Ning, Jiamin; Hu, Qingyuan; Zhu, Xuebin

    2015-08-01

    High energy photons are measured for the first time in wire-array Z-pinch experiments on the Primary Test Stand (PTS) which delivers a current up to 8 MA with a rise time of 70 ns. A special designed detecting system composed of three types of detectors is used to measure the average energy, intensity, and pulse waveform of high energy photons. Results from Pb-TLD (thermoluminescence dosimeter) detector indicate that the average energy is 480 keV (±15%). Pulse shape of high energy photons is measured by the photodiode detector consisted of scintillator coupled with a photodiode, and it is correlated with soft x-ray power by the same timing signal. Intensity is measured by both TLD and the photodiode detector, showing good accordance with each other, and it is 1010 cm-2 (±20%) at 2 m in the horizontal direction. Measurement results show that high energy photons are mainly produced in pinch regions due to accelerated electrons. PTS itself also produces high energy photons due to power flow electrons, which is one order smaller in amplitude than those from pinch region.

  6. Measurements of high energy photons in Z-pinch experiments on primary test stand.

    PubMed

    Si, Fenni; Zhang, Chuanfei; Xu, Rongkun; Yuan, Xi; Huang, Zhanchang; Xu, Zeping; Ye, Fan; Yang, Jianlun; Ning, Jiamin; Hu, Qingyuan; Zhu, Xuebin

    2015-08-01

    High energy photons are measured for the first time in wire-array Z-pinch experiments on the Primary Test Stand (PTS) which delivers a current up to 8 MA with a rise time of 70 ns. A special designed detecting system composed of three types of detectors is used to measure the average energy, intensity, and pulse waveform of high energy photons. Results from Pb-TLD (thermoluminescence dosimeter) detector indicate that the average energy is 480 keV (±15%). Pulse shape of high energy photons is measured by the photodiode detector consisted of scintillator coupled with a photodiode, and it is correlated with soft x-ray power by the same timing signal. Intensity is measured by both TLD and the photodiode detector, showing good accordance with each other, and it is 10(10) cm(-2) (±20%) at 2 m in the horizontal direction. Measurement results show that high energy photons are mainly produced in pinch regions due to accelerated electrons. PTS itself also produces high energy photons due to power flow electrons, which is one order smaller in amplitude than those from pinch region.

  7. Scaling the Shear-flow Stabilized Z-pinch to Reactor Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, H. S.; Schmidt, A.; Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Golingo, R. P.; Cleveau, E.

    2015-11-01

    We present a conceptual design along with scaling calculations for a pulsed fusion reactor based on the shear-flow-stabilized Z-pinch device. Experiments performed on the ZaP device, at the University of Washington, have demonstrated stable operation for durations of 20 usec at ~100kA discharge current for pinches that are ~1 cm in diameter and 100 cm long. The inverse of the pinch diameter and plasma energy density scale strongly with pinch current and calculations show that maintaining stabilization durations of ~7 usec for increased discharge current (~15x) in a shortened pinch (10 cm) results in a pinch diameter of ~200 um and plasma conditions that approach those needed to support significant fusion burn and energy gain (Ti ~ 30keV, density ~ 3e26/m3, ntau ~1.4e20 sec/m3). Compelling features of the concept include operation at modest discharge current (1.5 MA) and voltage (40kV) along with direct adoption of liquid metals for at least one electrode--technological capabilities that have been proven in existing, commercial, pulse power devices such as large ignitrons. LLNL-ABS-674920. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy ARPAe ALPHA Program by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  8. A Reactor Development Scenario for the FUZE Shear-flow Stabilized Z-pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, H. S.; Higginson, D. P.; Schmidt, A.; Tummel, K. K.; Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Claveau, E. L.; Golingo, R. P.; Weber, T. R.

    2016-10-01

    We present a conceptual design, scaling calculations, and a development path for a pulsed fusion reactor based on the shear-flow-stabilized Z-pinch device. Experiments performed on the ZaP device have demonstrated stable operation for 40 us at 150 kA total discharge current (with 100 kA in the pinch) for pinches that are 1cm in diameter and 100 cm long. Scaling calculations show that achieving stabilization for a pulse of 100 usec, for discharge current 1.5 MA, in a shortened pinch 50 cm, results in a pinch diameter of 200 um and a reactor plant Q 5 for reasonable assumptions of the various system efficiencies. We propose several key intermediate performance levels in order to justify further development. These include achieving operation at pinch currents of 300 kA, where Te and Ti are calculated to exceed 1 keV, 700 kA where fusion power exceeds pinch input power, and 1 MA where fusion energy per pulse exceeds input energy per pulse. This work funded by USDOE ARPAe ALPHA Program and performed under the auspices of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-697801.

  9. A Reactor Development Scenario for the FuZE Sheared-Flow Stabilized Z-pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, Harry S.; Higginson, D. P.; Schmidt, A.; Tummel, K. K.; Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Claveau, E. L.; Forbes, E. G.; Golingo, R. P.; Stepanov, A. D.; Weber, T. R.; Zhang, Y.

    2017-10-01

    We present a conceptual design, scaling calculations, and development path for a pulsed fusion reactor based on a flow-stabilized Z-pinch. Experiments performed on the ZaP and ZaP-HD devices have largely demonstrated the basic physics of sheared-flow stabilization at pinch currents up to 100 kA. Initial experiments on the FuZE device, a high-power upgrade of ZaP, have achieved 20 usec of stability at pinch current 100-200 kA and pinch diameter few mm for a pinch length of 50 cm. Scaling calculations based on a quasi-steady-state power balance show that extending stable duration to 100 usec at a pinch current of 1.5 MA and pinch length of 50 cm, results in a reactor plant Q 5. Future performance milestones are proposed for pinch currents of: 300 kA, where Te and Ti are calculated to exceed 1-2 keV; 700 kA, where DT fusion power would be expected to exceed pinch input power; and 1 MA, where fusion energy per pulse exceeds input energy per pulse. This work funded by USDOE ARPA-E and performed under the auspices of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-734770.

  10. Diagnostics of deuterium gas-puff z-pinch experiments on the GIT-12 generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cikhardt, J.; Klir, D.; Rezac, K.; Kubes, P.; Kravarik, J.; Batobolotova, B.; Sila, O.; Turek, K.; Shishlov, A.; Labetsky, A.; Kokshenev, V.; Chedizov, R.; Ratakhin, N.; Varlachev, V.; Garapatsky, A.; Dudkin, G.; Padalko, V.; GIT-12 Team

    2014-10-01

    Z-pinch experiments with a deuterium gas-puff and an outer plasma shell generated by plasma guns were carried out on the GIT-12 generator at the IHCE in Tomsk. Using this novel configuration of the load, the neutron yields from the DD reaction were significantly increased from 2×1011 up to 3×1012 neutrons per shot at the current level of about 3 MA. In addition to recent experiments, the threshold activation detectors were used in order to get the information about the energy spectrum of the generated neutrons. The copper, indium, and lead samples were irradiated by the pulse of the neutrons generated during the experimental shot. The decay radiation of the products from the reactions 63Cu(n,2n)62Cu, 115In(n, γ) 116 mIn and 206Pb (n,3n)204mPb was observed using gamma spectrometer. According to the used neutron ToF scintillation detectors, the energy of neutrons reaches up to 20 MeV. The work was supported by the MSMT of the Czech Republic research Programs No. ME090871, No. LG13029, by the GACR Grant No. P205/12/0454, Grant CRA IAEA No. 17088 and RFBR research Project No. 13-08-00479-a.

  11. Fully kinetic simulations of dense plasma focus Z-pinch devices.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, A; Tang, V; Welch, D

    2012-11-16

    Dense plasma focus Z-pinch devices are sources of copious high energy electrons and ions, x rays, and neutrons. The mechanisms through which these physically simple devices generate such high-energy beams in a relatively short distance are not fully understood. We now have, for the first time, demonstrated a capability to model these plasmas fully kinetically, allowing us to simulate the pinch process at the particle scale. We present here the results of the initial kinetic simulations, which reproduce experimental neutron yields (~10(7)) and high-energy (MeV) beams for the first time. We compare our fluid, hybrid (kinetic ions and fluid electrons), and fully kinetic simulations. Fluid simulations predict no neutrons and do not allow for nonthermal ions, while hybrid simulations underpredict neutron yield by ~100x and exhibit an ion tail that does not exceed 200 keV. Only fully kinetic simulations predict MeV-energy ions and experimental neutron yields. A frequency analysis in a fully kinetic simulation shows plasma fluctuations near the lower hybrid frequency, possibly implicating lower hybrid drift instability as a contributor to anomalous resistivity in the plasma.

  12. EQ-10 electrodeless Z-pinch EUV source for metrology applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafson, Deborah; Horne, Stephen F.; Partlow, Matthew J.; Besen, Matthew M.; Smith, Donald K.; Blackborow, Paul A.

    2011-11-01

    With EUV Lithography systems shipping, the requirements for highly reliable EUV sources for mask inspection and resist outgassing are becoming better defined, and more urgent. The sources needed for metrology applications are very different than that needed for lithography; brightness (not power) is the key requirement. Suppliers for HVM EUV sources have all resources working on high power and have not entered the smaller market for metrology. Energetiq Technology has been shipping the EQ-10 Electrodeless Z-pinchTM light source since 19951. The source is currently being used for metrology, mask inspection, and resist development2-4. These applications require especially stable performance in both output power and plasma size and position. Over the last 6 years Energetiq has made many source modifications which have included better thermal management to increase the brightness and power of the source. We now have introduced a new source that will meet requirements of some of the mask metrology first generation tools; this source will be reviewed.

  13. Electron temperature diagnostics of aluminium plasma in a z-pinch experiment at the “QiangGuang-1" facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mo; Wu, Jian; Wang, Liang-Ping; Wu, Gang; Han, Juan-Juan; Guo, Ning; Qiu, Meng-Tong

    2012-12-01

    Two curved crystal spectrometers are set up on the “QiangGuang-1" generator to measure the z-pinch plasma spectra emitted from planar aluminum wire array loads. Kodak Biomax-MS film and an IRD AXUVHS5# array are employed to record time-integrated and time-resolved free-bound radiation, respectively. The photon energy recorded by each detector is ascertained by using the L-shell lines of molybdenum plasma. Based on the exponential relation between the continuum power and photon energies, the aluminum plasma electron temperatures are measured. For the time-integrated diagnosis, several “bright spots" indicate electron temperatures between (450 eV ~ 520 eV) ± 35%. And for the time-resolved ones, the result shows that the electron temperature reaches about 800 eV ± 30% at peak power. The system satisfies the demand of z-pinch plasma electron temperature diagnosis on a ~ 1 MA facility.

  14. Comparison and analysis of the results of direct-driven targets implosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demchenko, N. N.; Dolgoleva, G. V.; Gus'kov, S. Yu; Kuchugov, P. A.; Rozanov, V. B.; Stepanov, R. V.; Zmitrenko, N. V.; Yakhin, R. A.

    2017-10-01

    The article presents calculation results, which were received for the implosion of the typical cryogenic thermonuclear direct-drive targets that are intended for use at the OMEGA facility, NIF and Russian laser facility. The compression and burning characteristics, which were obtained using various numerical codes of different scientific groups, are compared. The data indicate good agreement between the numerical results. Various sources of target irradiation inhomogeneity and their influence on the implosion parameters are considered. The nominal scales of these disturbances for various facilities are close to each other. The main negative effect on the efficiency of compression and burning is due to the accidental offset of the target from the center of the chamber.

  15. Investigating the effect of adding an on-axis jet to Ar gas puff Z pinches on Z.

    DOE PAGES

    Harvey-Thompson, Adam James; Jennings, Christopher Ashley; Jones, Brent M.; ...

    2016-10-20

    Double-shell Ar gas puff implosions driven by 16.5±0.5 MA on the Z generator at Sandia National Laboratories are very effective emitters of Ar K-shell radiation (photon energy >3 keV), producing yields of 330 ± 9% kJ (B. Jones et al., Phys. Plasmas, 22, 020706, 2015). In addition, previous simulations and experiments have reported dramatic increases in K-shell yields when adding an on-axis jet to double shell gas puffs for some configurations.

  16. Exploration of the Transition from the Hydrodynamic-like to the Strongly Kinetic Regime in Shock-Driven Implosions

    DOE PAGES

    Rosenberg, M. J.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Hoffman, N. M.; ...

    2014-05-05

    Clear evidence of the transition from hydrodynamiclike to strongly kinetic shock-driven implosions is, for the first time, revealed and quantitatively assessed. Implosions with a range of initial equimolar D 3He gas densities show that as the density is decreased, hydrodynamic simulations strongly diverge from and increasingly over-predict the observed nuclear yields, from a factor of ~2 at 3.1 mg/cm 3 to a factor of 100 at 0.14 mg/cm 3. (The corresponding Knudsen number, the ratio of ion mean-free path to minimum shell radius, varied from 0.3 to 9; similarly, the ratio of fusion burn duration to ion diffusion time, anothermore » figure of merit of kinetic effects, varied from 0.3 to 14.) This result is shown to be unrelated to the effects of hydrodynamic mix. As a first step to garner insight into this transition, a reduced ion kinetic (RIK) model that includes gradient-diffusion and loss-term approximations to several transport processes was implemented within the framework of a one-dimensional radiation-transport code. After empirical calibration, the RIK simulations reproduce the observed yield trends, largely as a result of ion diffusion and the depletion of the reacting tail ions.« less

  17. Imaging and spectroscopy of copper dopant migration of indirectly driven Beryllium capsule implosion on the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyrala, George; Zylstra, A.; Yi, S. A.; Klline, J. L.; Shah, R. C.; Lopez, F. E.; Batha, S. A.; Doppner, T.; Thorn, D. B.; MacLaren, S.; Masters, N.; Callahan, D.; Hurricane, O.; Rice, N.; Huang, H.; Krauland, C. M.; MacDonald, M.

    2017-10-01

    Using beryllium, as an ablator material for indirectly driven inertial fusion, requires the use of a Copper dopant to block preheat from the hohlraum M-band radiation. However, due to the microstructure and imperfections of the capsule, some of the copper may be injected into the core of the implosion, affecting the yield and performance. Alternatively, the copper dopant may blow into the ablated plasma affecting the hohlraum performance as well. We will present some of data on time integrated imaging of the copper dopant into the core of the capsule using either the 2-dimensional multiple monochromatic imaging of the implosion, as well as the 1D spectrally resolved imaging of the copper dopant emission. In either case we found that the copper did migrate to the hot core, while fewer copper ions ablated into the hohlraum. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LANL under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396, and by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  18. [Contrast of Z-Pinch X-Ray Yield Measure Technique].

    PubMed

    Li, Mo; Wang, Liang-ping; Sheng, Liang; Lu, Yi

    2015-03-01

    Resistive bolometer and scintillant detection system are two mainly Z-pinch X-ray yield measure techniques which are based on different diagnostic principles. Contrasting the results from two methods can help with increasing precision of X-ray yield measurement. Experiments with different load material and shape were carried out on the "QiangGuang-I" facility. For Al wire arrays, X-ray yields measured by the two techniques were largely consistent. However, for insulating coating W wire arrays, X-ray yields taken from bolometer changed with load parameters while data from scintillant detection system hardly changed. Simulation and analysis draw conclusions as follows: (1) Scintillant detection system is much more sensitive to X-ray photons with low energy and its spectral response is wider than the resistive bolometer. Thus, results from the former method are always larger than the latter. (2) The responses of the two systems are both flat to Al plasma radiation. Thus, their results are consistent for Al wire array loads. (3) Radiation form planar W wire arrays is mainly composed of sub-keV soft X-ray. X-ray yields measured by the bolometer is supposed to be accurate because of the nickel foil can absorb almost all the soft X-ray. (4) By contrast, using planar W wire arrays, data from scintillant detection system hardly change with load parameters. A possible explanation is that while the distance between wires increases, plasma temperature at stagnation reduces and spectra moves toward the soft X-ray region. Scintillator is much more sensitive to the soft X-ray below 200 eV. Thus, although the total X-ray yield reduces with large diameter load, signal from the scintillant detection system is almost the same. (5) Both Techniques affected by electron beams produced by the loads.

  19. X-ray Spectropolarimetry of Z-pinch Plasmas with a Single-Crystal Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Matt; Haque, Showera; Neill, Paul; Pereira, Nino; Presura, Radu

    2017-10-01

    When directed beams of energetic electrons exist in a plasma the resulting x-rays emitted by the plasma can be partially polarized. This makes plasma x-ray polarization spectroscopy, spectropolarimetry, useful for revealing information about the anisotropy of the electron velocity distribution. X-ray spectropolarimetry has indeed been used for this in both space and laboratory plasmas. X-ray polarization measurements are typically performed employing two crystals, both at a 45° Bragg angle. A single-crystal spectropolarimeter can replace two crystal schemes by utilizing two matching sets of internal planes for polarization-splitting. The polarization-splitting planes diffract the incident x-rays into two directions that are perpendicular to each other and the incident beam as well, so the two sets of diffracted x-rays are linearly polarized perpendicularly to each other. An X-cut quartz crystal with surface along the [11-20] planes and a paired set of [10-10] planes in polarization-splitting orientation is now being used on aluminum z-pinches at the University of Nevada, Reno. Past x-ray polarization measurements have been reserved for point-like sources. Recently a slotted collimating aperture has been used to maintain the required geometry for polarization-splitting enabling the spectropolarimetry of extended sources. The design of a single-crystal x-ray spectropolarimeter and experimental results will be presented. Work was supported by U.S. DOE, NNSA Grant DE-NA0001834 and cooperative agreement DE-FC52-06NA27616.

  20. Observation of a reflected shock in an indirectly driven spherical implosion at the national ignition facility.

    PubMed

    Le Pape, S; Divol, L; Berzak Hopkins, L; Mackinnon, A; Meezan, N B; Casey, D; Frenje, J; Herrmann, H; McNaney, J; Ma, T; Widmann, K; Pak, A; Grimm, G; Knauer, J; Petrasso, R; Zylstra, A; Rinderknecht, H; Rosenberg, M; Gatu-Johnson, M; Kilkenny, J D

    2014-06-06

    A 200  μm radius hot spot at more than 2 keV temperature, 1  g/cm^{3} density has been achieved on the National Ignition Facility using a near vacuum hohlraum. The implosion exhibits ideal one-dimensional behavior and 99% laser-to-hohlraum coupling. The low opacity of the remaining shell at bang time allows for a measurement of the x-ray emission of the reflected central shock in a deuterium plasma. Comparison with 1D hydrodynamic simulations puts constraints on electron-ion collisions and heat conduction. Results are consistent with classical (Spitzer-Harm) heat flux.

  1. Impact of flows on ion temperatures inferred from neutron spectra in asymmetrically driven OMEGA DT implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatu Johnson, M.; Frenje, J.; Lahmann, B.; Seguin, F.; Petrasso, R.; Appelbe, B.; Chittenden, J.; Walsh, C.; Delettrez, J.; Igumenshchev, I.; Knauer, J. P.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Forrest, C.; Grimble, W.; Marshall, F.; Michel, T.; Stoeckl, C.; Haines, B. M.; Zylstra, A. B.

    2017-10-01

    Ion temperatures (Tion) in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments have traditionally been inferred from the broadening of primary neutron spectra. Directional motion (flow) of the fuel at burn, expected to arise due to asymmetries imposed by e.g. engineering features or drive non-uniformity, also impacts broadening and may lead to artificially inflated ``Tion'' values. Flow due to low-mode asymmetries is expected to give rise to line-of-sight variations in measured Tion, as observed in OMEGA cryogenic DT implosions but not in similar experiments at the NIF. In this presentation, we report on OMEGA experiments with intentional drive asymmetry designed for testing the ability to accurately predict and measure line-of-sight differences in apparent Tion due to low-mode asymmetry-seeded flows. The measurements are contrasted to CHIMERA, RAGE and ASTER simulations, providing insight into implosion dynamics and the relative importance of laser drive non-uniformity, stalk and offset as sources of asymmetry. The results highlight the complexity of hot-spot dynamics, which is a problem that must be mastered to achieve ICF ignition. This work was supported in part by the U.S. DOE, NLUF and LLE.

  2. Hohlraum-driven mid-Z (SiO2) double-shell implosions on the omega laser facility and their scaling to NIF.

    PubMed

    Robey, H F; Amendt, P A; Milovich, J L; Park, H-S; Hamza, A V; Bono, M J

    2009-10-02

    High-convergence, hohlraum-driven implosions of double-shell capsules using mid-Z (SiO2) inner shells have been performed on the OMEGA laser facility [T. R. Boehly, Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. These experiments provide an essential extension of the results of previous low-Z (CH) double-shell implosions [P. A. Amendt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 065004 (2005)] to materials of higher density and atomic number. Analytic modeling, supported by highly resolved 2D numerical simulations, is used to account for the yield degradation due to interfacial atomic mixing. This extended experimental database from OMEGA enables a validation of the mix model, and provides a means for quantitatively assessing the prospects for high-Z double-shell implosions on the National Ignition Facility [Paisner, Laser Focus World 30, 75 (1994)].

  3. The I-Raum: A new shaped hohlraum for improved inner beam propagation in indirectly-driven ICF implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robey, H. F.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; Milovich, J. L.; Meezan, N. B.

    2018-01-01

    Recent work in indirectly-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions on the National Ignition Facility has indicated that late-time propagation of the inner cones of laser beams (23° and 30°) is impeded by the growth of a "bubble" of hohlraum wall material (Au or depleted uranium), which is initiated by and is located at the location where the higher-intensity outer beams (44° and 50°) hit the hohlraum wall. The absorption of the inner cone beams by this "bubble" reduces the laser energy reaching the hohlraum equator at late time driving an oblate or pancaked implosion, which limits implosion performance. In this article, we present the design of a new shaped hohlraum designed specifically to reduce the impact of this bubble by adding a recessed pocket at the location where the outer cones hit the hohlraum wall. This recessed pocket displaces the bubble radially outward, reducing the inward penetration of the bubble at all times throughout the implosion and increasing the time for inner beam propagation by approximately 1 ns. This increased laser propagation time allows one to drive a larger capsule, which absorbs more energy and is predicted to improve implosion performance. The new design is based on a recent National Ignition Facility shot, N170601, which produced a record neutron yield. The expansion rate and absorption of laser energy by the bubble is quantified for both cylindrical and shaped hohlraums, and the predicted performance is compared.

  4. High-resolution modeling of indirectly driven high-convergence layered inertial confinement fusion capsule implosions

    DOE PAGES

    Haines, Brian M.; Aldrich, C. H.; Campbell, J. M.; ...

    2017-04-24

    In this study, we present the results of high-resolution simulations of the implosion of high-convergence layered indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion capsules of the type fielded on the National Ignition Facility using the xRAGE radiation-hydrodynamics code. In order to evaluate the suitability of xRAGE to model such experiments, we benchmark simulation results against available experimental data, including shock-timing, shock-velocity, and shell trajectory data, as well as hydrodynamic instability growth rates. We discuss the code improvements that were necessary in order to achieve favorable comparisons with these data. Due to its use of adaptive mesh refinement and Eulerian hydrodynamics, xRAGE is particularlymore » well suited for high-resolution study of multi-scale engineering features such as the capsule support tent and fill tube, which are known to impact the performance of high-convergence capsule implosions. High-resolution two-dimensional (2D) simulations including accurate and well-resolved models for the capsule fill tube, support tent, drive asymmetry, and capsule surface roughness are presented. These asymmetry seeds are isolated in order to study their relative importance and the resolution of the simulations enables the observation of details that have not been previously reported. We analyze simulation results to determine how the different asymmetries affect hotspot reactivity, confinement, and confinement time and how these combine to degrade yield. Yield degradation associated with the tent occurs largely through decreased reactivity due to the escape of hot fuel mass from the hotspot. Drive asymmetries and the fill tube, however, degrade yield primarily via burn truncation, as associated instability growth accelerates the disassembly of the hotspot. Finally, modeling all of these asymmetries together in 2D leads to improved agreement with experiment but falls short of explaining the experimentally observed yield degradation

  5. The Physics of the Dense Z-Pinch in Theory and in Experiment With Application to Fusion Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines, M. G.

    1982-01-01

    A new generation of Z-pinches employing high voltage, high current pulsed lines as power sources produce dense hot plasmas with enhanced stability properties. Three methods of Z-pinch formation are currently in use: (1) cylindrical collapse and compression of a pre-ionised gas; (2) laser initiation and Joule heating of a gas embedded pinch, and (3) hollow gas puff and subsequent collapse to the axis. The first method shows no dynamic bounce and no instability over about ten radial Alfvén transit times. The laser initiated Z-pinch shows benign helical structures, whilst the gas puff experiments are known for their high X-ray energy conversion associated with m = 0 instabilities. The first two experimental conditions are relevant for fusion. A calculation of energy balance for satisfying Lawson conditions with axial and radial energy losses and radiation loss shows that a current I of ~ 106 A and a line density N of 6 × 1018m-1 are required. This leads to two coincidences of physical quantities that are very favourable for controlled fusion. The first is that at this line density and under pressure balance the ratio of the ion Larmor radius to pinch radius is of order 1 so that a marked stabilisation of the configuration is expected. The second coincidence is that the current is only just below the Pease-Braginskii limit; this will permit the possibility of radiative collapse to attain the high density (~ 4 × 1027 m-3) and small radius (~ 20 μm) required for a compact (0.1 m long) discharge. The confining self-magnetic field is 104 T, the confinement time ~ 100 ns, and a matrix of pulsed discharges is envisaged in a moderator and breeding medium which does not have the wall-loading limitations of tokamaks.

  6. Investigating radial wire array Z pinches as a compact x-ray source on the Saturn generator

    SciTech Connect

    Ampleford, David J.; Bland, S. N.; Jennings, Christopher A.

    2015-08-27

    Radial wire array z pinches, where wires are positioned radially outward from a central cathode to a concentric anode, can act as a compact bright x-ray source that could potentially be used to drive a hohlraum. Experiments were performed on the 7-MA Saturn generator using radial wire arrays. These experiments studied a number of potential risks in scaling radial wire arrays up from the 1-MA level, where they have been shown to be a promising compact X-ray source. Data indicates that at 7 MA, radial wire arrays can radiate ~9 TW with 10-ns full-width at half-maximum from a compact pinch.

  7. Assessment of ion kinetic effects in shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions using fusion burn imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, M. J.; Séguin, F. H.; Amendt, P. A.; Atzeni, S.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Hoffman, N. M.; Zylstra, A. B.; Li, C. K.; Sio, H.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Frenje, J. A.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Stoeckl, C.; Seka, W.; Marshall, F. J.; Delettrez, J. A.; Sangster, T. C.; Betti, R.; Wilks, S. C.; Pino, J.; Kagan, G.; Molvig, K.; Nikroo, A.

    2015-06-01

    The significance and nature of ion kinetic effects in D3He-filled, shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions are assessed through measurements of fusion burn profiles. Over this series of experiments, the ratio of ion-ion mean free path to minimum shell radius (the Knudsen number, NK) was varied from 0.3 to 9 in order to probe hydrodynamic-like to strongly kinetic plasma conditions; as the Knudsen number increased, hydrodynamic models increasingly failed to match measured yields, while an empirically-tuned, first-step model of ion kinetic effects better captured the observed yield trends [Rosenberg et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 185001 (2014)]. Here, spatially resolved measurements of the fusion burn are used to examine kinetic ion transport effects in greater detail, adding an additional dimension of understanding that goes beyond zero-dimensional integrated quantities to one-dimensional profiles. In agreement with the previous findings, a comparison of measured and simulated burn profiles shows that models including ion transport effects are able to better match the experimental results. In implosions characterized by large Knudsen numbers (NK ˜ 3), the fusion burn profiles predicted by hydrodynamics simulations that exclude ion mean free path effects are peaked far from the origin, in stark disagreement with the experimentally observed profiles, which are centrally peaked. In contrast, a hydrodynamics simulation that includes a model of ion diffusion is able to qualitatively match the measured profile shapes. Therefore, ion diffusion or diffusion-like processes are identified as a plausible explanation of the observed trends, though further refinement of the models is needed for a more complete and quantitative understanding of ion kinetic effects.

  8. Assessment of ion kinetic effects in shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions using fusion burn imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, M. J., E-mail: mros@lle.rochester.edu; Séguin, F. H.; Rinderknecht, H. G.

    The significance and nature of ion kinetic effects in D{sup 3}He-filled, shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions are assessed through measurements of fusion burn profiles. Over this series of experiments, the ratio of ion-ion mean free path to minimum shell radius (the Knudsen number, N{sub K}) was varied from 0.3 to 9 in order to probe hydrodynamic-like to strongly kinetic plasma conditions; as the Knudsen number increased, hydrodynamic models increasingly failed to match measured yields, while an empirically-tuned, first-step model of ion kinetic effects better captured the observed yield trends [Rosenberg et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 185001 (2014)]. Here, spatiallymore » resolved measurements of the fusion burn are used to examine kinetic ion transport effects in greater detail, adding an additional dimension of understanding that goes beyond zero-dimensional integrated quantities to one-dimensional profiles. In agreement with the previous findings, a comparison of measured and simulated burn profiles shows that models including ion transport effects are able to better match the experimental results. In implosions characterized by large Knudsen numbers (N{sub K} ∼ 3), the fusion burn profiles predicted by hydrodynamics simulations that exclude ion mean free path effects are peaked far from the origin, in stark disagreement with the experimentally observed profiles, which are centrally peaked. In contrast, a hydrodynamics simulation that includes a model of ion diffusion is able to qualitatively match the measured profile shapes. Therefore, ion diffusion or diffusion-like processes are identified as a plausible explanation of the observed trends, though further refinement of the models is needed for a more complete and quantitative understanding of ion kinetic effects.« less

  9. Assessment of ion kinetic effects in shock-driven inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions using fusion burn imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, M. J.; Séguin, F. H.; Amendt, P. A.

    The significance and nature of ion kinetic effects in D³He-filled, shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions are assessed through measurements of fusion burn profiles. Over this series of experiments, the ratio of ion-ion mean free path to minimum shell radius (the Knudsen number, N K) was varied from 0.3 to 9 in order to probe hydrodynamic-like to strongly kinetic plasma conditions; as the Knudsen number increased, hydrodynamic models increasingly failed to match measured yields, while an empirically-tuned, first-step model of ion kinetic effects better captured the observed yield trends [Rosenberg et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 185001 (2014)]. Here, spatially resolvedmore » measurements of the fusion burn are used to examine kinetic ion transport effects in greater detail, adding an additional dimension of understanding that goes beyond zero-dimensional integrated quantities to one-dimensional profiles. In agreement with the previous findings, a comparison of measured and simulated burn profiles shows that models including ion transport effects are able to better match the experimental results. In implosions characterized by large Knudsen numbers (N K ~ 3), the fusion burn profiles predicted by hydrodynamics simulations that exclude ion mean free path effects are peaked far from the origin, in stark disagreement with the experimentally observed profiles, which are centrally peaked. In contrast, a hydrodynamics simulation that includes a model of ion diffusion is able to qualitatively match the measured profile shapes. Therefore, ion diffusion or diffusion-like processes are identified as a plausible explanation of the observed trends, though further refinement of the models is needed for a more complete and quantitative understanding of ion kinetic effects.« less

  10. Assessment of ion kinetic effects in shock-driven inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions using fusion burn imaging

    DOE PAGES

    Rosenberg, M. J.; Séguin, F. H.; Amendt, P. A.; ...

    2015-06-02

    The significance and nature of ion kinetic effects in D³He-filled, shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions are assessed through measurements of fusion burn profiles. Over this series of experiments, the ratio of ion-ion mean free path to minimum shell radius (the Knudsen number, N K) was varied from 0.3 to 9 in order to probe hydrodynamic-like to strongly kinetic plasma conditions; as the Knudsen number increased, hydrodynamic models increasingly failed to match measured yields, while an empirically-tuned, first-step model of ion kinetic effects better captured the observed yield trends [Rosenberg et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 185001 (2014)]. Here, spatially resolvedmore » measurements of the fusion burn are used to examine kinetic ion transport effects in greater detail, adding an additional dimension of understanding that goes beyond zero-dimensional integrated quantities to one-dimensional profiles. In agreement with the previous findings, a comparison of measured and simulated burn profiles shows that models including ion transport effects are able to better match the experimental results. In implosions characterized by large Knudsen numbers (N K ~ 3), the fusion burn profiles predicted by hydrodynamics simulations that exclude ion mean free path effects are peaked far from the origin, in stark disagreement with the experimentally observed profiles, which are centrally peaked. In contrast, a hydrodynamics simulation that includes a model of ion diffusion is able to qualitatively match the measured profile shapes. Therefore, ion diffusion or diffusion-like processes are identified as a plausible explanation of the observed trends, though further refinement of the models is needed for a more complete and quantitative understanding of ion kinetic effects.« less

  11. On the importance of minimizing "coast-time" in x-ray driven inertially confined fusion implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurricane, O. A.; Kritcher, A.; Callahan, D. A.; Landen, O.; Patel, P. K.; Springer, P. T.; Casey, D. T.; Dewald, E. L.; Dittrich, T. R.; Döppner, T.; Hinkel, D. E.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Kline, J.; Le Pape, S.; Ma, T.; MacPhee, A. G.; Moore, A.; Pak, A.; Park, H.-S.; Ralph, J.; Salmonson, J. D.; Widmann, K.

    2017-09-01

    By the time an inertially confined fusion (ICF) implosion has converged a factor of 20, its surface area has shrunk 400 × , making it an inefficient x-ray energy absorber. So, ICF implosions are traditionally designed to have the laser drive shut off at a time, toff, well before bang-time, tBT, for a coast-time of t coast = t B T - t o f f > 1 ns. High-foot implosions on NIF showed a strong dependence of many key ICF performance quantities on reduced coast-time (by extending the duration of laser power after the peak power is first reached), most notably stagnation pressure and fusion yield. Herein we show that the ablation pressure, pabl, which drives high-foot implosions, is essentially triangular in temporal shape, and that reducing tcoast boosts pabl by as much as ˜ 2 × prior to stagnation thus increasing fuel and hot-spot compression and implosion speed. One-dimensional simulations are used to track hydrodynamic characteristics for implosions with various coast-times and various assumed rates of hohlraum cooling after toff to illustrate how the late-time conditions exterior to the implosion can impact the fusion performance. A simple rocket model-like analytic theory demonstrates that reducing coast-time can lead to a ˜ 15 % higher implosion velocity because the reduction in x-ray absorption efficiency at late-time is somewhat compensated by small ( ˜ 5 % - 10 %) ablator mass remaining. Together with the increased ablation pressure, the additional implosion speed for short coast-time implosions can boost the stagnation pressure by ˜ 2 × as compared to a longer coast-time version of the same implosion. Four key dimensionless parameters are identified and we find that reducing coast-time to as little as 500 ps still provides some benefit. Finally, we show how the high-foot implosion data is consistent with the above mentioned picture.

  12. Measurement and analysis of x-ray absorption in Al and MgF2 plasmas heated by Z-pinch radiation.

    SciTech Connect

    MacFarlane, Joseph John; Rochau, Gregory Alan; Bailey, James E.

    2005-06-01

    High-power Z pinches on Sandia National Laboratories Z facility can be used in a variety of experiments to radiatively heat samples placed some distance away from the Z-pinch plasma. In such experiments, the heating radiation spectrum is influenced by both the Z-pinch emission and the re-emission of radiation from the high-Z surfaces that make up the Z-pinch diode. To test the understanding of the amplitude and spectral distribution of the heating radiation, thin foils containing both Al and MgF{sub 2} were heated by a 100-130 TW Z pinch. The heating of these samples was studied through the ionization distribution inmore » each material as measured by x-ray absorption spectra. The resulting plasma conditions are inferred from a least-squares comparison between the measured spectra and calculations of the Al and Mg 1s {yields} 2p absorption over a large range of temperatures and densities. These plasma conditions are then compared to radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of the sample dynamics and are found to agree within 1{sigma} to the best-fit conditions. This agreement indicates that both the driving radiation spectrum and the heating of the Al and MgF{sub 2} samples is understood within the accuracy of the spectroscopic method.« less

  13. Measurement and analysis of x-ray absorption in Al and MgF2 plasmas heated by Z-pinch radiation.

    PubMed

    Rochau, Gregory A; Bailey, J E; Macfarlane, J J

    2005-12-01

    High-power Z pinches on Sandia National Laboratories' Z facility can be used in a variety of experiments to radiatively heat samples placed some distance away from the Z-pinch plasma. In such experiments, the heating radiation spectrum is influenced by both the Z-pinch emission and the re-emission of radiation from the high-Z surfaces that make up the Z-pinch diode. To test the understanding of the amplitude and spectral distribution of the heating radiation, thin foils containing both Al and MgF2 were heated by a 100-130 TW Z pinch. The heating of these samples was studied through the ionization distribution in each material as measured by x-ray absorption spectra. The resulting plasma conditions are inferred from a least-squares comparison between the measured spectra and calculations of the Al and Mg 1s-->2p absorption over a large range of temperatures and densities. These plasma conditions are then compared to radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of the sample dynamics and are found to agree within 1sigma to the best-fit conditions. This agreement indicates that both the driving radiation spectrum and the heating of the Al and MgF2 samples is understood within the accuracy of the spectroscopic method.

  14. Impact of flows on ion temperatures inferred from neutron spectra in asymmetrically driven OMEGA DT implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatu Johnson, M.; Frenje, J. A.; Seguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Aappelbe, B.; Chittenden, J.; Walsh, C.; Knauer, J. P.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Forrest, C.; Marshall, F.; Michel, T.; Stoeckl, C.; Sangster, T. C.; Zylstra, A.

    2016-10-01

    Ion temperatures (Tion) in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments have traditionally been inferred from the broadening of primary neutron spectra. Directional motion (flow) of the fuel at burn, expected to arise due to asymmetries imposed by engineering features (such as stalks, fill tubes, tents, or capsule imperfections) or drive non-uniformity, also impacts broadening and may lead to artificially inflated ``Tion'' values. Flow due to low-mode asymmetries is expected to give rise to line-of-sight variations in measured Tion, as observed in OMEGA cryogenic DT implosions but not in similar experiments at the NIF. In this presentation we report on an OMEGA experiment with intentionally asymmetric drive, designed to test the ability to accurately predict and measure line-of-sight differences in apparent Tion due to low-mode asymmetry-seeded flows. The results provide insight into the complexity of hot-spot dynamics, which is a problem that must be mastered to achieve ICF ignition. This work was supported in part by LLE, the U.S. DoE (NNSA, NLUF) and LLNL.

  15. Deconvolution of Stark broadened spectra for multi-point density measurements in a flow Z-pinch

    DOE PAGES

    Vogman, G. V.; Shumlak, U.

    2011-10-13

    Stark broadened emission spectra, once separated from other broadening effects, provide a convenient non-perturbing means of making plasma density measurements. A deconvolution technique has been developed to measure plasma densities in the ZaP flow Z-pinch experiment. The ZaP experiment uses sheared flow to mitigate MHD instabilities. The pinches exhibit Stark broadened emission spectra, which are captured at 20 locations using a multi-chord spectroscopic system. Spectra that are time- and chord-integrated are well approximated by a Voigt function. The proposed method simultaneously resolves plasma electron density and ion temperature by deconvolving the spectral Voigt profile into constituent functions: a Gaussian functionmore » associated with instrument effects and Doppler broadening by temperature; and a Lorentzian function associated with Stark broadening by electron density. The method uses analytic Fourier transforms of the constituent functions to fit the Voigt profile in the Fourier domain. The method is discussed and compared to a basic least-squares fit. The Fourier transform fitting routine requires fewer fitting parameters and shows promise in being less susceptible to instrumental noise and to contamination from neighboring spectral lines. The method is evaluated and tested using simulated lines and is applied to experimental data for the 229.69 nm C III line from multiple chords to determine plasma density and temperature across the diameter of the pinch. As a result, these measurements are used to gain a better understanding of Z-pinch equilibria.« less

  16. Conversion of electromagnetic energy in Z-pinch process of single planar wire arrays at 1.5 MA

    SciTech Connect

    Liangping, Wang; Mo, Li; Juanjuan, Han

    The electromagnetic energy conversion in the Z-pinch process of single planar wire arrays was studied on Qiangguang generator (1.5 MA, 100 ns). Electrical diagnostics were established to monitor the voltage of the cathode-anode gap and the load current for calculating the electromagnetic energy. Lumped-element circuit model of wire arrays was employed to analyze the electromagnetic energy conversion. Inductance as well as resistance of a wire array during the Z-pinch process was also investigated. Experimental data indicate that the electromagnetic energy is mainly converted to magnetic energy and kinetic energy and ohmic heating energy can be neglected before the final stagnation. Themore » kinetic energy can be responsible for the x-ray radiation before the peak power. After the stagnation, the electromagnetic energy coupled by the load continues increasing and the resistance of the load achieves its maximum of 0.6–1.0 Ω in about 10–20 ns.« less

  17. Deconvolution of Stark broadened spectra for multi-point density measurements in a flow Z-pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Vogman, G. V.; Shumlak, U.

    2011-10-15

    Stark broadened emission spectra, once separated from other broadening effects, provide a convenient non-perturbing means of making plasma density measurements. A deconvolution technique has been developed to measure plasma densities in the ZaP flow Z-pinch experiment. The ZaP experiment uses sheared flow to mitigate MHD instabilities. The pinches exhibit Stark broadened emission spectra, which are captured at 20 locations using a multi-chord spectroscopic system. Spectra that are time- and chord-integrated are well approximated by a Voigt function. The proposed method simultaneously resolves plasma electron density and ion temperature by deconvolving the spectral Voigt profile into constituent functions: a Gaussian functionmore » associated with instrument effects and Doppler broadening by temperature; and a Lorentzian function associated with Stark broadening by electron density. The method uses analytic Fourier transforms of the constituent functions to fit the Voigt profile in the Fourier domain. The method is discussed and compared to a basic least-squares fit. The Fourier transform fitting routine requires fewer fitting parameters and shows promise in being less susceptible to instrumental noise and to contamination from neighboring spectral lines. The method is evaluated and tested using simulated lines and is applied to experimental data for the 229.69 nm C III line from multiple chords to determine plasma density and temperature across the diameter of the pinch. These measurements are used to gain a better understanding of Z-pinch equilibria.« less

  18. A non-LTE kinetic model for quick analysis of K-shell spectra from Z-pinch plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J., E-mail: s.duan@163.com; Huang, X. B., E-mail: s.duan@163.com; Cai, H. C., E-mail: s.duan@163.com

    Analyzing and modeling K-shell spectra emitted by low-to moderate-atomic number plasma is a useful and effective way to retrieve temperature density of z-pinch plasmas. In this paper, a non-LTE population kinetic model for quick analysis of K-shell spectra was proposed. The model contains ionization stages from bare nucleus to neutral atoms and includes all the important atomic processes. In the present form of the model, the plasma is assumed to be both optically thin and homogeneous with constant temperature and density, and only steady-state situation is considered. According to the detailed calculations for aluminum plasmas, contours of ratios of certainmore » K-shell lines in electron temperature and density plane as well as typical synthesized spectra were presented and discussed. The usefulness of the model is demonstrated by analyzing the spectrum from a neon gas-puff Z-pinch experiment performed on a 1 MA pulsed-power accelerator.« less

  19. Hard x-ray (>100 keV) imager to measure hot electron preheat for indirectly driven capsule implosions on the NIF.

    PubMed

    Döppner, T; Dewald, E L; Divol, L; Thomas, C A; Burns, S; Celliers, P M; Izumi, N; Kline, J L; LaCaille, G; McNaney, J M; Prasad, R R; Robey, H F; Glenzer, S H; Landen, O L

    2012-10-01

    We have fielded a hard x-ray (>100 keV) imager with high aspect ratio pinholes to measure the spatially resolved bremsstrahlung emission from energetic electrons slowing in a plastic ablator shell during indirectly driven implosions at the National Ignition Facility. These electrons are generated in laser plasma interactions and are a source of preheat to the deuterium-tritium fuel. First measurements show that hot electron preheat does not limit obtaining the fuel areal densities required for ignition and burn.

  20. X-ray astronomy in the laboratory with a miniature compact object produced by laser-driven implosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujioka, Shinsuke; Takabe, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Norimasa; Salzmann, David; Wang, Feilu; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Li, Yutong; Dong, Quanli; Wang, Shoujun; Zhang, Yi; Rhee, Yong-Joo; Lee, Yong-Woo; Han, Jae-Min; Tanabe, Minoru; Fujiwara, Takashi; Nakabayashi, Yuto; Zhao, Gang; Zhang, Jie; Mima, Kunioki

    2009-11-01

    X-ray spectroscopy is an important tool for understanding the extreme photoionization processes that drive the behaviour of non-thermal equilibrium plasmas in compact astrophysical objects such as black holes. Even so, the distance of these objects from the Earth and the inability to control or accurately ascertain the conditions that govern their behaviour makes it difficult to interpret the origin of the features in astronomical X-ray measurements. Here, we describe an experiment that uses the implosion driven by a 3TW, 4kJ laser system to produce a 0.5keV blackbody radiator that mimics the conditions that exist in the neighbourhood of a black hole. The X-ray spectra emitted from photoionized silicon plasmas resemble those observed from the binary stars Cygnus X-3 (refs 7, 8) and Vela X-1 (refs 9, 10 11) with the Chandra X-ray satellite. As well as demonstrating the ability to create extreme radiation fields in a laboratory plasma, our theoretical interpretation of these laboratory spectra contrasts starkly with the generally accepted explanation for the origin of similar features in astronomical observations. Our experimental approach offers a powerful means to test and validate the computer codes used in X-ray astronomy.

  1. Comparison of X-ray Radiation Process in Single and Nested Wire Array Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z. H.; Xu, Z. P.; Yang, J. L.; Xu, R. K.; Guo, C.; Grabovsky, E. V.; Oleynic, G. M.; Smirnov, V. P.

    2006-01-01

    In order to understanding the difference between tungsten single-wire-array and tungsten nested-wire-array Z-pinches, we have measured the x-ray power, the temporal-spatial distributions of x-ray radiation from each of the two loads. The measurements were performed with 0.1mm spatial and 1 ns temporal resolutions at 2.5- and 3.5-MA currents. The experimental conditions, including wire material, number of wires, wire-array length, electrode design, and implosion time, remained unchanged from shot to shot. Analysis of the radiation power profiles suggests that the nested-wire-array radiate slightly less x-ray energy in relatively shorter time interval than the single wire-array, leading to a much greater x-ray power in nested-wire-array implosion. The temporal-spatial distributions of x-ray power show that in both cases, plasmas formed by wire-array ablation radiate not simultaneously along load axis. For nested-wire-array Z-pinch, plasmas near the anode begin to radiate in 2ns later than that near the cathode. As a contrast, the temporal divergence of radiation among different plasma zones of single-wire-array Z-pinch along Z-axis is more than 6ns. Measurements of the x-ray emissions from small segments of pinch (2mm length along axis) indicate that local radiation power profiles almost do not vary for the two loads. Photographs taken by X-ray framing camera give a same description about the radiation process of pinch. One may expect that, as a result of this study, if the single-wire-array can be redesigned so ingeniously that the x-rays are emitted at the same time all over the pinch zone, the radiation power of single wire array Z-pinch may be much greater than what have been achieved.

  2. Staged Z-pinch for the production of high-flux neutrons and net energy

    SciTech Connect

    Wessel, Frank J.; Rahman, Hafiz Ur; Rostoker, Norman

    A fusible target is embedded in a high Z liner, ohmically heated and then shock wave heated by implosion of an enveloping high Z liner. The target is adiabatically heated by compression, fusibly ignited and charged-particle heated as it is being ignited. A shock front forms as the liner implodes which shock front detaches from the more slowly moving liner, collides with the outer surface of the target, accelerates inward, rapidly heating the target, adiabatically compressing the target and liner and amplifying the current to converge the liner mass toward a central axis thereby compressing the target to a fusionmore » condition when it begins to ignite and produce charged particles. The charged particles are trapped in a large magnetic field surrounding the target. The energy of the charged particles is deposited into the target to further heat the target to produce an energy gain.« less

  3. On the importance of minimizing “coast-time” in x-ray driven inertially confined fusion implosions

    DOE PAGES

    Hurricane, O. A.; Kritcher, A.; Callahan, D. A.; ...

    2017-09-01

    By the time an inertially confined fusion (ICF) implosion has converged a factor of 20, its surface area has shrunk 400×, making it an inefficient x-ray energy absorber. So, ICF implosions are traditionally designed to have the laser drive shut off at a time, t off, well before bang-time, t BT, for a coast-time of t coast = t BT – t off > 1 ns. High-foot implosions on NIF showed a strong dependence of many key ICF performance quantities on reduced coast-time (by extending the duration of laser power after the peak power is first reached), most notably stagnationmore » pressure and fusion yield. Herein we show that the ablation pressure, p abl, which drives high-foot implosions, is essentially triangular in temporal shape, and that reducing t coast boosts p abl by as much as ~2× prior to stagnation thus increasing fuel and hot-spot compression and implosion speed. One-dimensional simulations are used to track hydrodynamic characteristics for implosions with various coast-times and various assumed rates of hohlraum cooling after t off to illustrate how the late-time conditions exterior to the implosion can impact the fusion performance. A simple rocket model-like analytic theory demonstrates that reducing coast-time can lead to a ~15% higher implosion velocity because the reduction in x-ray absorption efficiency at late-time is somewhat compensated by small (~5%–10%) ablator mass remaining. Together with the increased ablation pressure, the additional implosion speed for short coast-time implosions can boost the stagnation pressure by ~2× as compared to a longer coast-time version of the same implosion. Four key dimensionless parameters are identified and we find that reducing coast-time to as little as 500 ps still provides some benefit. Lastly, we show how the high-foot implosion data is consistent with the above mentioned picture.« less

  4. On the importance of minimizing “coast-time” in x-ray driven inertially confined fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Hurricane, O. A.; Kritcher, A.; Callahan, D. A.

    By the time an inertially confined fusion (ICF) implosion has converged a factor of 20, its surface area has shrunk 400×, making it an inefficient x-ray energy absorber. So, ICF implosions are traditionally designed to have the laser drive shut off at a time, t off, well before bang-time, t BT, for a coast-time of t coast = t BT – t off > 1 ns. High-foot implosions on NIF showed a strong dependence of many key ICF performance quantities on reduced coast-time (by extending the duration of laser power after the peak power is first reached), most notably stagnationmore » pressure and fusion yield. Herein we show that the ablation pressure, p abl, which drives high-foot implosions, is essentially triangular in temporal shape, and that reducing t coast boosts p abl by as much as ~2× prior to stagnation thus increasing fuel and hot-spot compression and implosion speed. One-dimensional simulations are used to track hydrodynamic characteristics for implosions with various coast-times and various assumed rates of hohlraum cooling after t off to illustrate how the late-time conditions exterior to the implosion can impact the fusion performance. A simple rocket model-like analytic theory demonstrates that reducing coast-time can lead to a ~15% higher implosion velocity because the reduction in x-ray absorption efficiency at late-time is somewhat compensated by small (~5%–10%) ablator mass remaining. Together with the increased ablation pressure, the additional implosion speed for short coast-time implosions can boost the stagnation pressure by ~2× as compared to a longer coast-time version of the same implosion. Four key dimensionless parameters are identified and we find that reducing coast-time to as little as 500 ps still provides some benefit. Lastly, we show how the high-foot implosion data is consistent with the above mentioned picture.« less

  5. Investigating plasma viscosity with fast framing photography in the ZaP-HD Flow Z-Pinch experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weed, Jonathan Robert

    The ZaP-HD Flow Z-Pinch experiment investigates the stabilizing effect of sheared axial flows while scaling toward a high-energy-density laboratory plasma (HEDLP > 100 GPa). Stabilizing flows may persist until viscous forces dissipate a sheared flow profile. Plasma viscosity is investigated by measuring scale lengths in turbulence intentionally introduced in the plasma flow. A boron nitride turbulence-tripping probe excites small scale length turbulence in the plasma, and fast framing optical cameras are used to study time-evolved turbulent structures and viscous dissipation. A Hadland Imacon 790 fast framing camera is modified for digital image capture, but features insufficient resolution to study turbulent structures. A Shimadzu HPV-X camera captures the evolution of turbulent structures with great spatial and temporal resolution, but is unable to resolve the anticipated Kolmogorov scale in ZaP-HD as predicted by a simplified pinch model.

  6. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of aluminum z-pinch plasma with tungsten backlighter planar wire array source.

    PubMed

    Osborne, G C; Kantsyrev, V L; Safronova, A S; Esaulov, A A; Weller, M E; Shrestha, I; Shlyaptseva, V V; Ouart, N D

    2012-10-01

    Absorption features from K-shell aluminum z-pinch plasmas have recently been studied on Zebra, the 1.7 MA pulse power generator at the Nevada Terawatt Facility. In particular, tungsten plasma has been used as a semi-backlighter source in the generation of aluminum K-shell absorption spectra by placing a single Al wire at or near the end of a single planar W array. All spectroscopic experimental results were recorded using a time-integrated, spatially resolved convex potassium hydrogen phthalate (KAP) crystal spectrometer. Other diagnostics used to study these plasmas included x-ray detectors, optical imaging, laser shadowgraphy, and time-gated and time-integrated x-ray pinhole imagers. Through comparisons with previous publications, Al K-shell absorption lines are shown to be from much lower electron temperature (∼10-40 eV) plasmas than emission spectra (∼350-500 eV).

  7. Fusion neutron detector for time-of-flight measurements in z-pinch and plasma focus experiments.

    PubMed

    Klir, D; Kravarik, J; Kubes, P; Rezac, K; Litseva, E; Tomaszewski, K; Karpinski, L; Paduch, M; Scholz, M

    2011-03-01

    We have developed and tested sensitive neutron detectors for neutron time-of-flight measurements in z-pinch and plasma focus experiments with neutron emission times in tens of nanoseconds and with neutron yields between 10(6) and 10(12) per one shot. The neutron detectors are composed of a BC-408 fast plastic scintillator and Hamamatsu H1949-51 photomultiplier tube (PMT). During the calibration procedure, a PMT delay was determined for various operating voltages. The temporal resolution of the neutron detector was measured for the most commonly used PMT voltage of 1.4 kV. At the PF-1000 plasma focus, a novel method of the acquisition of a pulse height distribution has been used. This pulse height analysis enabled to determine the single neutron sensitivity for various neutron energies and to calibrate the neutron detector for absolute neutron yields at about 2.45 MeV.

  8. Larger sized wire arrays on 1.5 MA Z-pinch generator

    SciTech Connect

    Safronova, A. S., E-mail: alla@unr.edu; Kantsyrev, V. L., E-mail: alla@unr.edu; Weller, M. E., E-mail: alla@unr.edu

    Experiments on the UNR Zebra generator with Load Current Multiplier (LCM) allow for implosions of larger sized wire array loads than at standard current of 1 MA. Advantages of larger sized planar wire array implosions include enhanced energy coupling to plasmas, better diagnostic access to observable plasma regions, and more complex geometries of the wire loads. The experiments with larger sized wire arrays were performed on 1.5 MA Zebra with LCM (the anode-cathode gap was 1 cm, which is half the gap used in the standard mode). In particular, larger sized multi-planar wire arrays had two outer wire planes frommore » mid-atomic-number wires to create a global magnetic field (gmf) and plasma flow between them. A modified central plane with a few Al wires at the edges was put in the middle between outer planes to influence gmf and to create Al plasma flow in the perpendicular direction (to the outer arrays plasma flow). Such modified plane has different number of empty slots: it was increased from 6 up to 10, hence increasing the gap inside the middle plane from 4.9 to 7.7 mm, respectively. Such load configuration allows for more independent study of the flows of L-shell mid-atomic-number plasma (between the outer planes) and K-shell Al plasma (which first fills the gap between the edge wires along the middle plane) and their radiation in space and time. We demonstrate that such configuration produces higher linear radiation yield and electron temperatures as well as advantages of better diagnostics access to observable plasma regions and how the load geometry (size of the gap in the middle plane) influences K-shell Al radiation. In particular, K-shell Al radiation was delayed compared to L-shell mid-atomic-number radiation when the gap in the middle plane was large enough (when the number of empty slots was increased up to ten)« less

  9. Development of new platforms for hydrodynamic instability and asymmetry measurements in deceleration phase of indirectly-driven implosions on NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickworth, Louisa

    2017-10-01

    Hydrodynamic instabilities and asymmetries are a major obstacle in the quest to achieve ignition as they cause pre-existing capsule perturbations to grow and ultimately quench the fusion burn in experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). This talk will review recent developments of the experimental platforms and techniques to measure high-mode instabilities and low-mode asymmetries in the deceleration phase of implosions. These new platforms provide a natural link between the acceleration-phase experiments and neutron performance of layered deuterium-tritium implosions. In one innovative technique, self-emission from the hot spot was enhanced with argon dopant to ``self-backlight'' the shell in-flight around peak compression. Experiments with pre-imposed 2-D perturbations measured instability growth factors, while experiments with 3-D, ``native-roughness'' perturbations measured shell integrity in the deceleration phase of implosions. In a complimentary technique, the inner surface of the shell, along with its low-mode asymmetries and high-mode perturbations were visualized in implosions using x-ray emission of a high-Z dopant added to the inner surface of the capsule. These new measurements were instrumental in revealing unexpected surprises and providing improved understanding of the role of instabilities and asymmetries on implosion performance. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  10. Probing off-Hugoniot states in Ta, Cu, and Al to 1000 GPa compression with magnetically driven liner implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Lemke, R. W., E-mail: rwlemke@sandia.gov; Dolan, D. H.; Dalton, D. G.

    We report on a new technique for obtaining off-Hugoniot pressure vs. density data for solid metals compressed to extreme pressure by a magnetically driven liner implosion on the Z-machine (Z) at Sandia National Laboratories. In our experiments, the liner comprises inner and outer metal tubes. The inner tube is composed of a sample material (e.g., Ta and Cu) whose compressed state is to be inferred. The outer tube is composed of Al and serves as the current carrying cathode. Another aluminum liner at much larger radius serves as the anode. A shaped current pulse quasi-isentropically compresses the sample as itmore » implodes. The iterative method used to infer pressure vs. density requires two velocity measurements. Photonic Doppler velocimetry probes measure the implosion velocity of the free (inner) surface of the sample material and the explosion velocity of the anode free (outer) surface. These two velocities are used in conjunction with magnetohydrodynamic simulation and mathematical optimization to obtain the current driving the liner implosion, and to infer pressure and density in the sample through maximum compression. This new equation of state calibration technique is illustrated using a simulated experiment with a Cu sample. Monte Carlo uncertainty quantification of synthetic data establishes convergence criteria for experiments. Results are presented from experiments with Al/Ta, Al/Cu, and Al liners. Symmetric liner implosion with quasi-isentropic compression to peak pressure ∼1000 GPa is achieved in all cases. These experiments exhibit unexpectedly softer behavior above 200 GPa, which we conjecture is related to differences in the actual and modeled properties of aluminum.« less

  11. Numerical modeling of the sensitivity of x-ray driven implosions to low-mode flux asymmetries.

    PubMed

    Scott, R H H; Clark, D S; Bradley, D K; Callahan, D A; Edwards, M J; Haan, S W; Jones, O S; Spears, B K; Marinak, M M; Town, R P J; Norreys, P A; Suter, L J

    2013-02-15

    The sensitivity of inertial confinement fusion implosions, of the type performed on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [1], to low-mode flux asymmetries is investigated numerically. It is shown that large-amplitude, low-order mode shapes (Legendre polynomial P(4), resulting from low-order flux asymmetries, cause spatial variations in capsule and fuel momentum that prevent the deuterium and tritium (DT) "ice" layer from being decelerated uniformly by the hot spot pressure. This reduces the transfer of implosion kinetic energy to internal energy of the central hot spot, thus reducing the neutron yield. Furthermore, synthetic gated x-ray images of the hot spot self-emission indicate that P(4) shapes may be unquantifiable for DT layered capsules. Instead the positive P(4) asymmetry "aliases" itself as an oblate P(2) in the x-ray images. Correction of this apparent P(2) distortion can further distort the implosion while creating a round x-ray image. Long wavelength asymmetries may be playing a significant role in the observed yield reduction of NIF DT implosions relative to detailed postshot two-dimensional simulations.

  12. Laser imprint reduction for the critical-density foam buffered target driven by a relatively strong foot pulse at early stage of laser implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J. W., E-mail: li-jiwei@iapcm.ac.cn; He, X. T.; Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, P. O. Box 8009, Beijing 100094

    In order to reduce the effect of laser imprint in direct-drive ignition scheme a low-density foam buffered target has been proposed. This target is driven by a laser pulse with a low-intensity foot at the early stage of implosion, which heats the foam and elongates the thermal conduction zone between the laser absorption region and ablation front, increasing the thermal smoothing effect. In this paper, a relatively strong foot pulse is adopted to irradiate the critical-density foam buffered target. The stronger foot, near 1 × 10{sup 14 }W/cm{sup 2}, is able to drive a radiative shock in the low-density foam, which helps smoothmore » the shock and further reduce the effect of laser imprint. The radiative shock also forms a double ablation front structure between the two ablation fronts to further stabilize the hydrodynamics, achieving the similar results to a target with a high-Z dopant in the ablator. 2D analysis shows that for the critical-density foam buffered target irradiated by the strong foot pulse, the laser imprint can be reduced due to the radiative shock in the foam and an increased thermal smoothing effect. It seems viable for the critical-density foam buffered target to be driven by a relatively strong foot pulse with the goal of reducing the laser imprint and achieving better implosion symmetry in the direct-drive laser fusion.« less

  13. Neutron Activation Diagnostics in Deuterium Gas-Puff Experiments on the 3 MA GIT-12 Z-Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cikhardt, J.; Klir, D.; Rezac, K.; Cikhardtova, B.; Kravarik, J.; Kubes, P.; Sila, O.; Shishlov, A. V.; Cherdizov, R. K.; Fursov, F. I.; Kokshenev, V. A.; Kurmaev, N. E.; Labetsky, A. Yu; Ratakhin, N. A.; Dudkin, G. N.; Garapatsky, A. A.; Padalko, V. N.; Varlachev, V. A.; Turek, K.

    2016-10-01

    The experiments with a deuterium z-pinch on the GIT-12 generator at IHCE in Tomsk were performed in the frame of the Czech-Russian agreement. A set of neutron diagnostics included scintillation time-of-flight detectors, bubble detectors, and several kinds of threshold nuclear activation detectors in the order to obtain information about the yield, anisotropy, and spectrum of the neutrons produced by a deuterium gas-puff. The average neutron yield in these experiments was of the order of 1012 neutrons per a single shot. The energy spectrum of the produced neutrons was evaluated using neutron time-of-flight detectors and a set of neutron activation detectors. Because the deuterons in the pinch achieve multi-MeV energies, non-DD neutrons are produced by nuclear reactions of deuterons with a stainless steel vacuum chamber and aluminum components of diagnostics inside the chamber. An estimated number of the non-DD was of the order of 1011. GACR (Grant No. 16-07036S), CME (Grant Nos. LD14089, LG13029, and LH13283), MESRF (Grant No. RFMEFI59114X0001), IAEA (Grant No. RC17088), CTU (Grant No. SGS 16/223/OHK3/3T/13).

  14. Neutron production in deuterium gas-puff z-pinch with outer plasma shell at current of 3 MA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cikhardt, J.; Klir, D.; Rezac, K.; Cikhardtova, B.; Kravarik, J.; Kubes, P.; Sila, O.; Shishlov, A. V.; Cherdizov, R. K.; Frusov, F. I.; Kokshenev, V. A.; Kurmaev, N. E.; Labetsky, A. Yu.; Ratakhin, N. A.; Dudkin, G. N.; Garapatsky, A. A.; Padalko, V. N.; Varlachev, V. A.; Turek, K.; Krasa, J.

    2015-11-01

    Z-pinch experiments at the current of about 3 MA were carried out on the GIT-12 generator. The outer plasma shell of deuterium gas-puff was generated by the system of 48 plasma guns. This configuration exhibits a high efficiency of the production of DD fusion neutrons with the yield of above 1012 neutrons produced in a single shot with the duration of about 20 ns. The maximum energy of the neutrons produced in this pulse exceeded 30 MeV. The neutron radiation was measured using scintillation TOF detectors, CR-39 nuclear track detectors, bubble detectors BD-PND and BDS-10000 and by several types of nuclear activation detectors. These diagnostic tools were used to measure the anisotropy of neutron fluence and neutron energy spectra. It allows us to estimate the total number of DD neutrons, the contribution of other nuclear reactions, the amount of scattered neutrons, and other parameters of neutron production. This work was supported by the MSMT grants LH13283, LD14089.

  15. Simulations of Ar gas-puff Z-pinch radiation sources with double shells and central jets on the Z generator

    DOE PAGES

    Tangri, V.; Harvey-Thompson, Adam James; Giuliani, J. L.; ...

    2016-10-19

    Radiation-magnetohydrodynamic simulations using the non-LTE Mach2-TCRE code in (r,z) geometry are performed for two pairs of recent Ar gas-puff Z-pinch experiments on the refurbished Z generator with an 8 cm diameter nozzle. One pair of shots had an outer-to-inner shell mass ratio of 1:1.6 and a second pair had a ratio of 1:1.

  16. Experimental study of surface insulated-standard hybrid tungsten planar wire array Z-pinches at “QiangGuang-I” facility

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Liang; Peng, Bodong; Yuan, Yuan

    The experimental results of the insulated-standard hybrid wire array Z pinches carried out on “QiangGuang-I” facility at Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology were presented and discussed. The surface insulating can impose a significant influence on the dynamics and radiation characteristics of the hybrid wire array Z pinches, especially on the early stage (t/t{sub imp} < 0.6). The expansion of insulated wires at the ablation stage is suppressed, while the streams stripped from the insulated wires move faster than that from the standard wires. The foot radiation of X-ray is enhanced by increment of the number of insulated wires, 19.6 GW, 33.6 GW, and 68.6 GWmore » for shots 14037S, 14028H, and 14039I, respectively. The surface insulation also introduces nonhomogeneity along the single wire—the streams move much faster near the electrodes. The colliding boundary of the hybrid wire array Z pinches is bias to the insulated side approximately 0.6 mm.« less

  17. Experimental study of surface insulated-standard hybrid tungsten planar wire array Z-pinches at "QiangGuang-I" facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Liang; Peng, Bodong; Li, Yang; Yuan, Yuan; Li, Mo; Zhang, Mei; Zhao, Chen; Zhao, Jizhen; Wang, Liangping

    2016-01-01

    The experimental results of the insulated-standard hybrid wire array Z pinches carried out on "QiangGuang-I" facility at Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology were presented and discussed. The surface insulating can impose a significant influence on the dynamics and radiation characteristics of the hybrid wire array Z pinches, especially on the early stage (t/timp < 0.6). The expansion of insulated wires at the ablation stage is suppressed, while the streams stripped from the insulated wires move faster than that from the standard wires. The foot radiation of X-ray is enhanced by increment of the number of insulated wires, 19.6 GW, 33.6 GW, and 68.6 GW for shots 14037S, 14028H, and 14039I, respectively. The surface insulation also introduces nonhomogeneity along the single wire—the streams move much faster near the electrodes. The colliding boundary of the hybrid wire array Z pinches is bias to the insulated side approximately 0.6 mm.

  18. Measurements of an ablator-gas atomic mix in indirectly driven implosions at the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Smalyuk, V A; Tipton, R E; Pino, J E; Casey, D T; Grim, G P; Remington, B A; Rowley, D P; Weber, S V; Barrios, M; Benedetti, L R; Bleuel, D L; Bradley, D K; Caggiano, J A; Callahan, D A; Cerjan, C J; Clark, D S; Edgell, D H; Edwards, M J; Frenje, J A; Gatu-Johnson, M; Glebov, V Y; Glenn, S; Haan, S W; Hamza, A; Hatarik, R; Hsing, W W; Izumi, N; Khan, S; Kilkenny, J D; Kline, J; Knauer, J; Landen, O L; Ma, T; McNaney, J M; Mintz, M; Moore, A; Nikroo, A; Pak, A; Parham, T; Petrasso, R; Sayre, D B; Schneider, M B; Tommasini, R; Town, R P; Widmann, K; Wilson, D C; Yeamans, C B

    2014-01-17

    We present the first results from an experimental campaign to measure the atomic ablator-gas mix in the deceleration phase of gas-filled capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility. Plastic capsules containing CD layers were filled with tritium gas; as the reactants are initially separated, DT fusion yield provides a direct measure of the atomic mix of ablator into the hot spot gas. Capsules were imploded with x rays generated in hohlraums with peak radiation temperatures of ∼294  eV. While the TT fusion reaction probes conditions in the central part (core) of the implosion hot spot, the DT reaction probes a mixed region on the outer part of the hot spot near the ablator-hot-spot interface. Experimental data were used to develop and validate the atomic-mix model used in two-dimensional simulations.

  19. Numerical Modeling of the Sensitivity of X-Ray Driven Implosions to Low-Mode Flux Asymmetries

    DOE PAGES

    Scott, R. H. H.; Clark, D. S.; Bradley, D. K.; ...

    2013-02-01

    In this study, the sensitivity of inertial confinement fusion implosions of the type performed on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [1] to low-mode flux asymmetries has been investigated numerically. It is shown that large-amplitude, low-order mode shapes (Legendre polynomial P4), resulting from associated low order flux asymmetries, cause spatial variations in capsule and fuel momentum that prevent the DT “ice” layer from being decelerated uniformly by the hot spot pressure. This reduces the transfer of kinetic to internal energy of the central hot spot, thus reducing neutron yield. Furthermore, synthetic gated x-ray images indicate that the P4 component of hotmore » spot self-emission shape is insensitive to P4 hot spot shapes, and a positive P4 asymmetry aliases itself as a negative or oblate P2 in these images. Correction of this apparent P2 distortion can further distort the implosion while creating a round x-ray image. Long wavelength asymmetries may be playing a significant role in the observed yield reduction of NIF DT implosions relative to detailed post-shot 2D simulations.« less

  20. Specific features of implosion of metallized fiber arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Mitrofanov, K. N., E-mail: mitrofan@triniti.ru; Aleksandrov, V. V.; Gritsuk, A. N.

    2017-02-15

    Implosion of metallized fiber arrays was studied experimentally at the Angara-5-1 facility. The use of such arrays makes it possible to investigate the production and implosion dynamics of plasmas of various metals (such as tin, indium, and bismuth) that were previously unavailable for such studies. The plasma production rates m-dot (in μg/(cm{sup 2} ns)) for different metals were determined and quantitatively compared. Varying the thickness of the metal layer deposited on kapron fibers (the total linear mass of the metal coating being maintained at the level of 220 μg/cm), the current and velocity of the plasma precursor were studied asmore » functions of the thickness of the metal coating. The strong difference in the rates of plasma production from the metal coating and kapron fibers results in the redistribution of the discharge current between the Z-pinch and the trailing fiber plasma. The outer boundary of the plasma produced from the metal coating is found to be stable against instabilities typical of the final stage of implosion of conventional wire arrays.« less

  1. Laser interferometry of radiation driven gas jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, Kyle James; Ivanov, Vladimir; Mancini, Roberto; Mayes, Daniel C.

    2017-06-01

    In a series of experiments performed at the 1MA Zebra pulsed power accelerator of the Nevada Terawatt Facility nitrogen gas jets were driven with the broadband x-ray flux produced during the collapse of a wire-array z-pinch implosion. The wire arrays were comprised of 4 and 8, 10μm-thick gold wires and 17μm-thick nickel wires, 2cm and 3cm tall, and 0.3cm in diameter. They radiated 12kJ to 16kJ of x-ray energy, most of it in soft x-ray photons of less than 1keV of energy, in a time interval of 30ns. This x-ray flux was used to drive a nitrogen gas jet located at 0.8cm from the axis of the z-pinch radiation source and produced with a supersonic nozzle. The x-ray flux ionizes the nitrogen gas thus turning it into a photoionized plasma. We used laser interferometry to probe the ionization of the plasma. To this end, a Mach-Zehnder interferometer at the wavelength of 266 nm was set up to extract the atom number density profile of the gas jet just before the Zebra shot, and air-wedge interferometers at 266 and 532 nm were used to determine the electron number density of the plasma right during the Zebra shot. The ratio of electron to atom number densities gives the distribution of average ionization state of the plasma. A python code was developed to perform the image data processing, extract phase shift spatial maps, and obtain the atom and electron number densities via Abel inversion. Preliminary results from the experiment are promising and do show that a plasma has been created in the gas jet driven by the x-ray flux, thus demonstrating the feasibility of a new experimental platform to study photoionized plasmas in the laboratory. These plasmas are found in astrophysical scenarios including x-ray binaries, active galactic nuclei, and the accretion disks surrounding black holes1. This work was sponsored in part by DOE Office of Science Grant DE-SC0014451.1R. C. Mancini et al, Phys. Plasmas 16, 041001 (2009)

  2. Diagnosing x-ray power and energy of tungsten wire array z-pinch with a flat spectral response x-ray diode

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Kun-lun; Ren, Xiao-dong; Huang, Xian-bin, E-mail: caephxb2003@aliyun.com

    2015-11-15

    Fast z-pinch is a very efficient way of converting electromagnetic energy to radiation. With an 8-10 MA current on primary test stand facility, about 1 MJ electromagnetic energy is delivered to vacuum chamber, which heats z-pinch plasma to radiate soft x-ray. To develop a pulsed high power x-ray source, we studied the applicability of diagnosing x-ray power from tungsten wire array z-pinch with a flat spectral response x-ray diode (FSR-XRD). The detector was originally developed to diagnose radiation of a hohlraum in SG-III prototype laser facility. It utilized a gold cathode XRD and a specially configured compound gold filter tomore » yield a nearly flat spectral response in photon energy range of 0.1-4 keV. In practice, it was critical to avoid surface contamination of gold cathode. It is illustrated that an exposure of an XRD to multiple shots caused a significant change of response. Thus, in diagnosing x-ray power and energy, we used each XRD in only one shot after calibration. In a shot serial, output of FSR-XRD was compared with output of a nickel bolometer. In these shots, the outputs agreed with each other within their uncertainties which were about 12% for FSR-XRD and about 15% for bolometer. Moreover, the ratios between the FSR-XRD and the bolometer among different shots were explored. In 8 shots, the standard deviation of the ratio was 6%. It is comparable to XRD response change of 7%.« less

  3. Yield degradation in inertial-confinement-fusion implosions due to shock-driven kinetic fuel-species stratification and viscous heating

    DOE PAGES

    Taitano, William T.; Simakov, Andrei N.; Chacon, Luis; ...

    2018-04-09

    Anomalous thermonuclear yield degradation (i.e., that not describable by single-fluid radiation hydrodynamics) in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) implosions is ubiquitously observed in both Omega and National Ignition experiments. Multiple experimental and theoretical studies have been carried out to investigate the origin of such a degradation. Relative concentration changes of fuel-ion species, as well as kinetically enhanced viscous heating, have been among possible explanations proposed for certain classes of ICF experiments. In this study, we investigate the role of such kinetic plasma effects in detail. To this end, we use the iFP code to perform multi-species ion Vlasov-Fokker-Planck simulations of ICFmore » capsule implosions with the fuel comprising various hydrodynamically equivalent mixtures of deuterium (D) and helium-3 (3He), as in the original. We employ the same computational setup as in O. Larroche, which was the first to simulate the experiments kinetically. However, unlike the Larroche study, and in partial agreement with experimental data, we find a systematic yield degradation in multi-species simulations versus averaged-ion simulations when the D-fuel fraction is decreased. This yield degradation originates in the fuel-ion species stratification induced by plasma shocks, which imprints the imploding system and results in the relocation of the D ions from the core of the capsule to its periphery, thereby reducing the yield relative to a non-separable averaged-ion case. By comparing yields from the averaged-ion kinetic simulations and from the hydrodynamic scaling, we also observe yield variations associated with ion kinetic effects other than fuel-ion stratification, such as ion viscous heating, which is typically neglected in hydrodynamic implosions' simulations. Since our kinetic simulations are driven by hydrodynamic boundary conditions at the fuel-ablator interface, they cannot capture the effects of ion viscosity on the capsule

  4. Yield degradation in inertial-confinement-fusion implosions due to shock-driven kinetic fuel-species stratification and viscous heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taitano, W. T.; Simakov, A. N.; Chacón, L.; Keenan, B.

    2018-05-01

    Anomalous thermonuclear yield degradation (i.e., that not describable by single-fluid radiation hydrodynamics) in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) implosions is ubiquitously observed in both Omega and National Ignition experiments. Multiple experimental and theoretical studies have been carried out to investigate the origin of such a degradation. Relative concentration changes of fuel-ion species, as well as kinetically enhanced viscous heating, have been among possible explanations proposed for certain classes of ICF experiments. In this study, we investigate the role of such kinetic plasma effects in detail. To this end, we use the iFP code to perform multi-species ion Vlasov-Fokker-Planck simulations of ICF capsule implosions with the fuel comprising various hydrodynamically equivalent mixtures of deuterium (D) and helium-3 (3He), as in the original Rygg experiments [J. R. Rygg et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 052702 (2006)]. We employ the same computational setup as in O. Larroche [Phys. Plasmas 19, 122706 (2012)], which was the first to simulate the experiments kinetically. However, unlike the Larroche study, and in partial agreement with experimental data, we find a systematic yield degradation in multi-species simulations versus averaged-ion simulations when the D-fuel fraction is decreased. This yield degradation originates in the fuel-ion species stratification induced by plasma shocks, which imprints the imploding system and results in the relocation of the D ions from the core of the capsule to its periphery, thereby reducing the yield relative to a non-separable averaged-ion case. By comparing yields from the averaged-ion kinetic simulations and from the hydrodynamic scaling, we also observe yield variations associated with ion kinetic effects other than fuel-ion stratification, such as ion viscous heating, which is typically neglected in hydrodynamic implosions' simulations. Since our kinetic simulations are driven by hydrodynamic boundary conditions at the

  5. Obtaining off-Hugoniot equation of state data on solid metals at extreme pressures via pulsed-power driven cylindrical liner implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemke, Raymond

    2015-06-01

    The focus of this talk is on magnetically driven, liner implosion experiments on the Z machine (Z) in which a solid, metal tube is shocklessly compressed to multi-megabar pressure. The goal of the experiments is to collect velocimetry data that can be used in conjunction with a new optimization based analysis technique to infer the principal isentrope of the tube material over a range of pressures. For the past decade, shock impact and ramp loading experiments on Z have used planar platforms exclusively. While producing state-of-the-art results for material science, it is difficult to produce drive pressures greater than 6 Mbar in the divergent planar geometry. In contrast, a cylindrical liner implosion is convergent; magnetic drive pressures approaching 50 Mbar are possible with the available current on Z (~ 20 MA). In our cylindrical experiments, the liner comprises an inner tube composed of the sample material (e.g., Ta) of unknown equation of state, and an outer tube composed of aluminum (Al) that serves as the current carrying cathode. Internal to the sample are fielded multiple PDV (Photonic Doppler Velocimetry) probes that measure velocity of the inner free surface of the imploding sample. External to the composite liner, at much larger radius, is an Al tube that is the return current anode. VISAR (velocity interferometry system for any reflector) probes measure free surface velocity of the exploding anode. Using the latter, MHD and optimization codes are employed to solve an inverse problem that yields the current driving the liner implosion. Then, the drive current, PDV velocity, MHD and optimization codes, are used to solve another inverse problem that yields pressure vs. density on approximately the principal isentrope of the sample material. Results for Ta, Re, and Cu compressed to ~ 10 Mbar are presented. Sandia National Laboratories is a multiprogram laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin

  6. Yield degradation in inertial-confinement-fusion implosions due to shock-driven kinetic fuel-species stratification and viscous heating

    SciTech Connect

    Taitano, William T.; Simakov, Andrei N.; Chacon, Luis

    Anomalous thermonuclear yield degradation (i.e., that not describable by single-fluid radiation hydrodynamics) in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) implosions is ubiquitously observed in both Omega and National Ignition experiments. Multiple experimental and theoretical studies have been carried out to investigate the origin of such a degradation. Relative concentration changes of fuel-ion species, as well as kinetically enhanced viscous heating, have been among possible explanations proposed for certain classes of ICF experiments. In this study, we investigate the role of such kinetic plasma effects in detail. To this end, we use the iFP code to perform multi-species ion Vlasov-Fokker-Planck simulations of ICFmore » capsule implosions with the fuel comprising various hydrodynamically equivalent mixtures of deuterium (D) and helium-3 (3He), as in the original. We employ the same computational setup as in O. Larroche, which was the first to simulate the experiments kinetically. However, unlike the Larroche study, and in partial agreement with experimental data, we find a systematic yield degradation in multi-species simulations versus averaged-ion simulations when the D-fuel fraction is decreased. This yield degradation originates in the fuel-ion species stratification induced by plasma shocks, which imprints the imploding system and results in the relocation of the D ions from the core of the capsule to its periphery, thereby reducing the yield relative to a non-separable averaged-ion case. By comparing yields from the averaged-ion kinetic simulations and from the hydrodynamic scaling, we also observe yield variations associated with ion kinetic effects other than fuel-ion stratification, such as ion viscous heating, which is typically neglected in hydrodynamic implosions' simulations. Since our kinetic simulations are driven by hydrodynamic boundary conditions at the fuel-ablator interface, they cannot capture the effects of ion viscosity on the capsule

  7. Effects of the P2 M-band flux asymmetry of laser-driven gold Hohlraums on the implosion of ICF ignition capsule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongsheng; Gu, Jianfa; Wu, Changshu; Song, Peng; Dai, Zhensheng; Li, Shuanggui; Li, Xin; Kang, Dongguo; Gu, Peijun; Zheng, Wudi; Zou, Shiyang; Ding, Yongkun; Lan, Ke; Ye, Wenhua; Zhang, Weiyan

    2016-07-01

    Low-mode asymmetries in the laser-indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion implosion experiments conducted on the National Ignition Facility [G. H. Miller et al., Nucl. Fusion 44, S228 (2004)] are deemed the main obstacles hindering further improvement of the nuclear performance of deuterium-tritium-layered capsules. The dominant seeds of these asymmetries include the P2 and P4 asymmetries of x-ray drives and P2 asymmetry introduced by the supporting "tent." Here, we explore the effects of another possible seed that can lead to low-mode asymmetric implosions, i.e., the M-band flux asymmetry (MFA) in laser-driven cylindrical gold Hohlraums. It is shown that the M-band flux facilitates the ablation and acceleration of the shell, and that positive P2 MFAs can result in negative P2 asymmetries of hot spots and positive P2 asymmetries of shell's ρR. An oblate or toroidal hot spot, depending on the P2 amplitude of MFA, forms at stagnation. The energy loss of such a hot spot via electron thermal conduction is seriously aggravated not only due to the enlarged hot spot surface but also due to the vortices that develop and help transferring thermal energy from the hotter center to the colder margin of such a hot spot. The cliffs of nuclear performance for the two methodologies of applying MFA (i.e., symmetric flux in the presence of MFA and MFA added for symmetric soft x-ray flux) are obtained locating at 9.5% and 5.0% of P2/P0 amplitudes, respectively.

  8. Effects of the P2 M-band flux asymmetry of laser-driven gold Hohlraums on the implosion of ICF ignition capsule

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yongsheng; Graduate School, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Beijing 100088; Gu, Jianfa

    Low-mode asymmetries in the laser-indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion implosion experiments conducted on the National Ignition Facility [G. H. Miller et al., Nucl. Fusion 44, S228 (2004)] are deemed the main obstacles hindering further improvement of the nuclear performance of deuterium-tritium-layered capsules. The dominant seeds of these asymmetries include the P2 and P4 asymmetries of x-ray drives and P2 asymmetry introduced by the supporting “tent.” Here, we explore the effects of another possible seed that can lead to low-mode asymmetric implosions, i.e., the M-band flux asymmetry (MFA) in laser-driven cylindrical gold Hohlraums. It is shown that the M-band flux facilitates themore » ablation and acceleration of the shell, and that positive P2 MFAs can result in negative P2 asymmetries of hot spots and positive P2 asymmetries of shell's ρR. An oblate or toroidal hot spot, depending on the P2 amplitude of MFA, forms at stagnation. The energy loss of such a hot spot via electron thermal conduction is seriously aggravated not only due to the enlarged hot spot surface but also due to the vortices that develop and help transferring thermal energy from the hotter center to the colder margin of such a hot spot. The cliffs of nuclear performance for the two methodologies of applying MFA (i.e., symmetric flux in the presence of MFA and MFA added for symmetric soft x-ray flux) are obtained locating at 9.5% and 5.0% of P2/P0 amplitudes, respectively.« less

  9. Development and demonstration of a water-window soft x-ray microscope using a Z-pinching capillary discharge source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawaz, M. F.; Jancarek, Alexandr; Nevrkla, Michal; Duda, Martin Jakub; Pina, Ladislav

    2017-05-01

    The development and demonstration of a soft X-ray (SXR) microscope, based on a Z-pinching capillary discharge source has been realized. The Z-pinching plasma acts as a source of SXR radiation. A ceramic capacitor bank is pulsed charged up to 80 kV, and discharged through a pre- ionized nitrogen filled ceramic capillary. The discharge current has an amplitude of 25 kA. Working within the water-window spectral region (λ = 2.88 nm), corresponding to the 1s2-1s2p quantum transition of helium-like nitrogen (N5+), the microscope has a potential in exploiting the natural contrast existing between the K-absorption edges of carbon and oxygen as the main constituents of biological materials, and hence imaging them with high spatial resolution. The SXR microscope uses the grazing incidence ellipsoidal condenser mirror for the illumination, and the Fresnel zone plate optics for the imaging of samples onto a BI-CCD camera. The half- pitch spatial resolution of 100 nm [1] was achieved, as demonstrated by the knife-edge test. In order to enhance the photon-flux at the sample plane, a new scheme for focusing the radiation, from multiple capillary sources has been investigated. Details about the source, and the construction of the microscope are presented and discussed.

  10. Increased nuclear energy yields from the fast implosion of cold shells driven by nonlinear laser plasma interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Hora, H.

    1976-02-01

    The nonlinear interaction force between intense laser fields and cold plasma shells efficiently transforms radiant energy into mechanical energy of implosion. This transfer of energy has been considered before in numerical experiments and it is treated here analytically in a didactic example starting with an inhomogeneous Rayleigh density profile. Up to 50% of the laser energy can be transformed into the energy of compression if a single ''untailored'' pulse of 2.5 x 10/sup 16/ W/cm/sup 2/ intensity and of only a few picosecond duration is used for spherical illumination of a shell. If the pulse is short enough to reducemore » collisional thermalization, then the collapse and compression of the plasma can remain at the threshold of Fermi degeneracy and still be adiabatic. This results in nuclear reaction gains G, based on the deposited energy, E/sub 0/, and without ..cap alpha..-particle reheating, of G=400 for E/sub 0/=2.25 kJ ((D--T reaction), 900 kJ (D--D), 13 MJ (H--B). About 1000 times less laser energy is necessary than in the case of gas dynamic ablation resulting in the same nuclear reaction yields. (AIP)« less

  11. Hybrid strategy for increasing fusion performance and stagnation pressure in x-ray driven inertially confined fusion implosions on the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurricane, O. A.; Callahan, D. A.; Edwards, M. J.; Casey, D.; Doeppner, T.; Hohenberger, M.; Hinkel, D.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; Le Pape, S.; MacLaren, S.; Masse, L.; Thomas, C.; Zylstra, A.

    2017-10-01

    Post NIC (2012), more stable and lower convergence implosions were developed and used as part of a `basecamp' strategy to identify obstacles to further performance. From 2013-2015 by probing away from a conservative working implosion in-steps towards conditions of higher velocity and compression, `Fuel Gain' and alpha-heating were obtained. In the process, performance cliffs unrelated to `mix' were identified the most impactful of which were symmetry control of the implosion and hydro seeded by engineering features. From 2015-2017 we focused on mitigating poor symmetry control and engineering improvements on fill-tubes and capsule mounting techniques. The results were more efficient implosions that can obtain the same performance levels as the earlier implosions, but with less laser energy. Presently, the best of these implosions is poised to step into a burning plasma state. Here, we describe the next step in our strategy that involves using the data we've acquired across parameter space to make a step to the largest symmetric implosions that can be fielded on NIF with the energy available. We describe the key principles that form the foundation of this approach. Performed under the auspices of U.S. Dept. of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  12. Observation of emission process in hydrogen-like nitrogen Z-pinch discharge with time integrated soft X-ray spectrum pinhole image

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Y.; Kumai, H.; Nakanishi, Y.

    2013-02-15

    The emission spectra of hydrogen-like nitrogen Balmer at the wavelength of 13.4 nm in capillary Z-pinch discharge plasma are experimentally examined. Ionization to fully strip nitrogen at the pinch maximum, and subsequent rapid expansion cooling are required to establish the population inversion between the principal quantum number of n = 2 and n = 3. The ionization and recombination processes with estimated plasma parameters are evaluated by utilizing a time integrated spectrum pinhole image containing radial spatial information. A cylindrical capillary plasma is pinched by a triangular pulsed current with peak amplitude of 50 kA and pulse width of 50more » ns.« less

  13. Experimental research of neutron yield and spectrum from deuterium gas-puff z-pinch on the GIT-12 generator at current above 2 MA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherdizov, R. K.; Fursov, F. I.; Kokshenev, V. A.; Kurmaev, N. E.; Labetsky, A. Yu; Ratakhin, N. A.; Shishlov, A. V.; Cikhardt, J.; Cikhardtova, B.; Klir, D.; Kravarik, J.; Kubes, P.; Rezac, K.; Dudkin, G. N.; Garapatsky, A. A.; Padalko, V. N.; Varlachev, V. A.

    2017-05-01

    The Z-pinch experiments with deuterium gas-puff surrounded by an outer plasma shell were carried out on the GIT-12 generator (Tomsk, Russia) at currents of 2 MA. The plasma shell consisting of hydrogen and carbon ions was formed by 48 plasma guns. The deuterium gas-puff was created by a fast electromagnetic valve. This configuration provides an efficient mode of the neutron production in DD reaction, and the neutron yield reaches a value above 1012 neutrons per shot. Neutron diagnostics included scintillation TOF detectors for determination of the neutron energy spectrum, bubble detectors BD-PND, a silver activation detector, and several activation samples for determination of the neutron yield analysed by a Sodium Iodide (NaI) and a high-purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors. Using this neutron diagnostic complex, we measured the total neutron yield and amount of high-energy neutrons.

  14. Evaluation of Turner relaxed state as a model of long-lived ion-trapping structures in plasma focus and Z-pinches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auluck, S. K. H.

    2011-03-01

    Relatively long-lived spheroidal structures coincident with the neutron emission phase have been observed in frozen deuterium fiber Z-pinch and some plasma focus devices. Existence of energetic ion-trapping mechanism in plasma focus has also been inferred from experimental data. It has been conjectured that these are related phenomena. This paper applies Turner's theory [L. Turner, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 14, 849 (1986)] of relaxation of a Hall magnetofluid to construct a model of these structures and ion-trapping mechanism. Turner's solution modified for a finite-length plasma is used to obtain expressions for the magnetic field, velocity, and equilibrium pressure fields and is shown to represent an entity which is simultaneously a fluid vortex, a force-free magnetic field, a confined finite-pressure plasma, a charged object, and a trapped energetic ion beam. Characteristic features expected from diagnostic experiments are evaluated and shown to resemble experimental observations.

  15. Preliminary investigation on the use of low current pulsed power Z-pinch plasma devices for the study of early stage plasma instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaselouris, E.; Dimitriou, V.; Fitilis, I.; Skoulakis, A.; Koundourakis, G.; Clark, E. L.; Chatzakis, J.; Bakarezos, Μ; Nikolos, I. K.; Papadogiannis, N. A.; Tatarakis, M.

    2018-01-01

    This article addresses key features for the implementation of low current pulsed power plasma devices for the study of matter dynamics from the solid to the plasma phase. The renewed interest in such low current plasma devices lies in the need to investigate methods for the mitigation of prompt seeding mechanisms for the generation of plasma instabilities. The low current when driven into thick wires (skin effect mode) allows for the simultaneous existence of all phases of matter from solid to plasma. Such studies are important for the concept of inertial confinement fusion where the mitigation of the instability seeding mechanisms arising from the very early moments within the target’s heating is of crucial importance. Similarly, in the magnetized liner inertial fusion concept it is an open question as to how much surface non-uniformity correlates with the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability, which develops during the implosion. This study presents experimental and simulation results, which demonstrate that the use of low current pulsed power devices in conjunction with appropriate diagnostics can be important for studying seeding mechanisms for the imminent generation of plasma instabilities in future research.

  16. On the Evolution From Micrometer-Scale Inhomogeneity to Global Overheated Structure During the Intense Joule Heating of a z-Pinch Rod

    DOE PAGES

    Awe, T. J.; Yu, E. P.; Yates, K. C.; ...

    2017-02-21

    Ultrafast optical microscopy of metal z-pinch rods pulsed with megaampere current is contributing new data and critical insight into what provides the fundamental seed for the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instability. A two-frame near infrared/visible intensified-charge-coupled device gated imager with 2-ns temporal resolution and 3-μm spatial resolution captured emissions from the nonuniformly Joule heated surfaces of ultrasmooth aluminum (Al) rods. Nonuniform surface emissions are consistently first observed from discrete, 10-μm scale, subelectronvolt spots. Aluminum 6061 alloy, with micrometer-scale nonmetallic resistive inclusions, forms several times more spots than 99.999% pure Al 5N; 5-10 ns later, azimuthally stretched elliptical spots and distinct strata (40-100more » μm wide by 10 μm tall) are observed on Al 6061, but not on Al 5N. In such overheat strata, aligned parallel to the magnetic field, we find that they are highly effective seeds for MRT instability growth. Our data give credence to the hypothesis that early nonuniform Joule heating, such as the electrothermal instability, may provide the dominant seed for MRT.« less

  17. Simulations of Ar gas-puff Z-pinch radiation sources with double shells and central jets on the Z generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tangri, V.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Giuliani, J. L.; Thornhill, J. W.; Velikovich, A. L.; Apruzese, J. P.; Ouart, N. D.; Dasgupta, A.; Jones, B.; Jennings, C. A.

    2016-10-01

    Radiation-magnetohydrodynamic simulations using the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium Mach2-Tabular Collisional-Radiative Equilibrium code in (r, z) geometry are performed for two pairs of recent Ar gas-puff Z-pinch experiments on the refurbished Z generator with an 8 cm diameter nozzle. One pair of shots had an outer-to-inner shell mass ratio of 1:1.6 and a second pair had a ratio of 1:1. In each pair, one of the shots had a central jet. The experimental trends in the Ar K-shell yield and power are reproduced in the calculations. However, the K-shell yield and power are significantly lower than the other three shots for the case of a double-shell puff of 1:1 mass ratio and no central jet configuration. Further simulations of a hypothetical experiment with the same relative density profile of this configuration, but higher total mass, show that the coupled energy from the generator and the K-shell yield can be increased to levels achieved in the other three configurations, but not the K-shell power. Based on various measures of effective plasma radius, the compression in the 1:1 mass ratio and no central jet case is found to be less because the plasma inside the magnetic piston is hotter and of lower density. Because of the reduced density, and the reduced radiation cooling (which is proportional to the square of the density), the core plasma is hotter. Consequently, for the 1:1 outer-to-inner shell mass ratio, the load mass controls the yield and the center jet controls the power.

  18. Using 1D theory to understand 3D stagnation of a wire-array Z pinch in the absence of radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Edmund

    2015-11-01

    Many high-energy-density systems implode towards the axis of symmetry, where it collides on itself, forming a hot plasma. However, experiments show these imploding plasmas develop three-dimensional (3D) structures. As a result, the plasma cannot completely dissipate its kinetic energy at stagnation, instead retaining significant 3D flow. A useful tool for understanding the effects of this residual flow is 3D simulation, but the amount and complexity of information can be daunting. To address this problem, we explore the connection between 3D simulation and one-dimensional (1D) theory. Such a connection, if it exists, is mutually beneficial: 1D theory can provide a clear picture of the underlying dynamics of 3D stagnation. On the other hand, deviations between theory and simulation suggest how 1D theory must be modified to account for 3D effects. In this work, we focus on a 3D, magnetohydrodynamic simulation of a compact wire-array Z pinch. To provide a simpler background against which to test our ideas, we artificially turn off radiation during the stagnation phase. Examination of the initial accumulation of mass on axis reveals oblique collision between jets, shock accretion, and vortex formation. Despite evidence for shock-dominated stagnation, a 1D shockless stagnation solution is more appropriate for describing the global dynamics, in that it reproduces the increase of on-axis density with time. However, the 1D solution must be modified to account for 3D effects: the flows suggest enhanced thermal transport as well as centrifugal force. Upon reaching peak compression, the stagnation transitions to a second phase, in which the high-pressure core on axis expands outward into the remaining imploding plasma. During this phase, a 1D shock solution describes the growth of the shock accretion region, as well as the decrease of on-axis density with time. However, the effect of 3D flows is still present: the on-axis temperature does not cool during expansion, which

  19. Controlling Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in solid liner implosions with rotating magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmit, P. F.; McBride, R. D.; Robertson, G. K.; Velikovich, A. L.

    2016-10-01

    We report calculations demonstrating that a remarkable reduction in the growth of the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability (MRTI) in initially solid, cylindrical metal shells can be achieved by applying a magnetic drive with a tilted, dynamic polarization, forming a solid-liner dynamic screw pinch (SLDSP). Using a self-consistent analytic framework, we demonstrate that MRTI growth factors of the most detrimental modes may be reduced by up to two orders of magnitude relative to conventional z-pinch implosions. One key application of this technique is to enable increasingly stable, higher performance liner implosions to achieve fusion. We weigh the potentially dramatic benefits of the SLDSP against the practical tradeoffs required to achieve the desired drive field history and identify promising target designs for future experimental and computational investigations. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. DoE's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  20. Zonal flow generation in inertial confinement fusion implosions

    DOE PAGES

    Peterson, J. L.; Humbird, K. D.; Field, J. E.; ...

    2017-03-06

    A supervised machine learning algorithm trained on a multi-petabyte dataset of inertial confinement fusion simulations has identified a class of implosions that robustly achieve high yield, even in the presence of drive variations and hydrodynamic perturbations. These implosions are purposefully driven with a time-varying asymmetry, such that coherent flow generation during hotspot stagnation forces the capsule to self-organize into an ovoid, a shape that appears to be more resilient to shell perturbations than spherical designs. Here this new class of implosions, whose configurations are reminiscent of zonal flows in magnetic fusion devices, may offer a path to robust inertial fusion.

  1. Zonal flow generation in inertial confinement fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J. L.; Humbird, K. D.; Field, J. E.

    A supervised machine learning algorithm trained on a multi-petabyte dataset of inertial confinement fusion simulations has identified a class of implosions that robustly achieve high yield, even in the presence of drive variations and hydrodynamic perturbations. These implosions are purposefully driven with a time-varying asymmetry, such that coherent flow generation during hotspot stagnation forces the capsule to self-organize into an ovoid, a shape that appears to be more resilient to shell perturbations than spherical designs. Here this new class of implosions, whose configurations are reminiscent of zonal flows in magnetic fusion devices, may offer a path to robust inertial fusion.

  2. Determination of plasma pinch time and effective current radius of double planar wire array implosions from current measurements on a 1-MA linear transformer driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, Adam M.; Yager-Elorriaga, David A.; Patel, Sonal G.; Jordan, Nicholas M.; Gilgenbach, Ronald M.; Safronova, Alla S.; Kantsyrev, Victor L.; Shlyaptseva, Veronica V.; Shrestha, Ishor; Schmidt-Petersen, Maximillian T.

    2016-10-01

    Implosions of planar wire arrays were performed on the Michigan Accelerator for Inductive Z-pinch Experiments, a linear transformer driver (LTD) at the University of Michigan. These experiments were characterized by lower than expected peak currents and significantly longer risetimes compared to studies performed on higher impedance machines. A circuit analysis showed that the load inductance has a significant impact on the current output due to the comparatively low impedance of the driver; the long risetimes were also attributed to high variability in LTD switch closing times. A circuit model accounting for these effects was employed to measure changes in load inductance as a function of time to determine plasma pinch timing and calculate a minimum effective current-carrying radius. These calculations showed good agreement with available shadowgraphy and x-ray diode measurements.

  3. Wellbottom fluid implosion treatment system

    DOEpatents

    Brieger, Emmet F.

    2001-01-01

    A system for inducing implosion shock forces on perforation traversing earth formations with fluid pressure where an implosion tool is selected relative to a shut in well pressure and a tubing pressure to have a large and small area piston relationship in a well tool so that at a predetermined tubing pressure the pistons move a sufficient distance to open an implosion valve which permits a sudden release of well fluid pressure into the tubing string and produces an implosion force on the perforations. A pressure gauge on the well tool records tubing pressure and well pressure as a function of time.

  4. Range shortening, radiation transport, and Rayleigh-Taylor instability phenomena in ion-beam-driven inertial-fusion-reactor-size targets: Implosion, ignition, and burn phases

    SciTech Connect

    Long, K.A.; Tahir, N.A.

    In this paper we present an analysis of the theory of the energy deposition of ions in cold materials and hot dense plasmas together with numerical calculations for heavy and light ions of interest to ion-beam fusion. We have used the g-smcapso-smcapsr-smcapsg-smcapso-smcapsn-smcaps computer code of Long, Moritz, and Tahir (which is an extension of the code originally written for protons by Nardi, Peleg, and Zinamon) to carry out these calculations. The energy-deposition data calculated in this manner has been used in the design of heavy-ion-beam-driven fusion targets suitable for a reactor, by its inclusion in the m-smcapse-smcapsd-smcapsu-smcapss-smcapsa-smcaps code of Christiansen,more » Ashby, and Roberts as extended by Tahir and Long. A number of other improvements have been made in this code and these are also discussed. Various aspects of the theoretical analysis of such targets are discussed including the calculation of the hydrodynamic stability, the hydrodynamic efficiency, and the gain. Various different target designs have been used, some of them new. In general these targets are driven by Bi/sup +/ ions of energy 8--12 GeV, with an input energy of 4--6.5 MJ, with output energies in the range 600--900 MJ, and with gains in the range 120--180. The peak powers are in the range of 500--750 TW. We present detailed calculations of the ablation, compression, ignition, and burn phases. By the application of a new stability analysis which includes ablation and density-gradient effects we show that these targets appear to implode in a stable manner. Thus the targets designed offer working examples suited for use in a future inertial-confinement fusion reactor.« less

  5. Diagnosing radiative shocks from deuterium and tritium implosions on NIF.

    PubMed

    Pak, A; Divol, L; Weber, S; Döppner, T; Kyrala, G A; Kilne, J; Izumi, N; Glenn, S; Ma, T; Town, R P; Bradley, D K; Glenzer, S H

    2012-10-01

    During the recent ignition tuning campaign at the National Ignition Facility, layered cryogenic deuterium and tritium capsules were imploded via x-ray driven ablation. The hardened gated x-ray imager diagnostic temporally and spatially resolves the x-ray emission from the core of the capsule implosion at energies above ~8 keV. On multiple implosions, ~200-400 ps after peak compression a spherically expanding radiative shock has been observed. This paper describes the methods used to characterize the radial profile and rate of expansion of the shock induced x-ray emission.

  6. Progress of LMJ-relevant implosions experiments on OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casner, A.; Philippe, F.; Tassin, V.; Seytor, P.; Monteil, M.-C.; Gauthier, P.; Park, H. S.; Robey, H.; Ross, J.; Amendt, P.; Girard, F.; Villette, B.; Reverdin, C.; Loiseau, P.; Caillaud, T.; Landoas, O.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R.; Seguin, F.; Rosenberg, M.; Renaudin, P.

    2013-11-01

    In preparation of the first ignition attempts on the Laser Mégajoule (LMJ), an experimental program is being pursued on OMEGA to investigate LMJ-relevant hohlraums. First, radiation temperature levels close to 300 eV were recently achieved in reduced-scale hohlraums with modest backscatter losses. Regarding the baseline target design for fusion experiments on LMJ, an extensive experimental database has also been collected for scaled implosions experiments in both empty and gas-filled rugby-shaped hohlraums. We acquired a full picture of hohlraum energetics and implosion dynamics. Not only did the rugby hohlraums show significantly higher x-ray drive energy over the cylindrical hohlraums, but symmetry control by power balance was demonstrated, as well as high-performance D2 implosions enabling the use of a complete suite of neutrons diagnostics. Charged particle diagnostics provide complementary insights into the physics of these x-ray driven implosions. An overview of these results demonstrates our ability to control the key parameters driving the implosion, lending more confidence in extrapolations to ignition-scale targets.

  7. Isochoric Implosions for Fast Ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Daniel; Tabak, Max

    2006-10-01

    Various gain models have shown the potentially great advantages of Fast Ignition (FI) Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) over its conventional hotspot ignition counterpart. These gain models, however, all assume nearly uniform-density fuel assemblies. By contrast, typical ICF implosions yield hollowed fuel assemblies with a high-density shell of fuel surrounding a low-density, high-pressure hotspot. To realize fully the advantages of FI, then, an alternative implosion design must be found which yields nearly isochoric fuel assemblies without substantial hotspots. Here, it is shown that a self-similar spherical implosion of the type originally studied by Guderley [Luftfahrtforschung 19, 302 (1942)] may be employed to yield precisely such quasi-isochoric imploded states. The difficulty remains, however, of accessing these self-similarly imploding configurations from initial conditions representing an actual ICF target, namely a uniform, solid-density shell at rest. Furthermore, these specialized implosions must be realized for practicable drive parameters, i.e., accessible peak pressures, shell aspect ratios, etc. An implosion scheme is presented which meets all of these requirements, suggesting the possibility of genuinely isochoric implosions for FI.

  8. First liquid-layer implosion experiments at the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zylstra, Alex

    2017-10-01

    Replacing the standard ice layer in an ignition design with a liquid layer allows fielding the target with a higher central vapor pressure, leading to reduced implosion convergence ratio (CR). At lower CR, the implosions are expected to be more robust to instabilities and asymmetries than standard ice-layer designs, and are also unique in that the hot spot can be primarily formed from material originating in the central fuel vapor. The first liquid-layer implosions on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) have been performed by wicking the liquid fuel into a supporting foam that lines the inside surface of the capsule. A series of shots has been conducted between CR of 12 and 20 using a HDC ablator driven by a 3-shock pulse in a near-vacuum Au hohlraum. At the lowest CR the implosion performance is well predicted by 2-D radiation-hydrodynamics calculations. However, as the CR is increased the nominal simulations do not capture the experimentally observed trends. Data-based models suggest that the hot spot formation is unexpectedly suppressed at higher convergence. The data could be explained by reduced hydrodynamic coupling efficiency, or an anomalously enhanced thermal conductivity in the mixed DT/foam material. We show that the latter hypothesis can explain observed trends in several experimental metrics, including the yield, ion temperature, and burn duration. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DoE by LANL under contract DE-AC52-06NA52396.

  9. Cryogenic Target-Implosion Experiments on OMEGA

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, D.R.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Sangster, T.C.

    The University of Rochester’s Laboratory for Laser Energetics has been imploding thick cryogenic targets for six years. Improvements in the Cryogenic Target Handling System and the ability to accurately design laser pulse shapes that properly time shocks and minimize electron preheat, produced high fuel areal densities in deuterium cryogenic targets (202+/-7 mg/cm^2). The areal density was inferred from the energy loss of secondary protons in the fuel (D2) shell. Targets were driven on a low final adiabat (alpha = 2) employing techniques to radially grade the adiabat (the highest adiabat at the ablation surface). The ice layer meets the target-designmore » toughness specification for DT ice of 1-um rms (all modes), while D2 ice layers average 3.0-um-rms roughness. The implosion experiments and the improvements in the quality and understanding of cryogenic targets are presented.« less

  10. Development of Improved Radiation Drive Environment for High Foot Implosions at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkel, D. E.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Ma, T.; Ralph, J. E.; Albert, F.; Benedetti, L. R.; Celliers, P. M.; Döppner, T.; Goyon, C. S.; Izumi, N.; Jarrott, L. C.; Khan, S. F.; Kline, J. L.; Kritcher, A. L.; Kyrala, G. A.; Nagel, S. R.; Pak, A. E.; Patel, P.; Rosen, M. D.; Rygg, J. R.; Schneider, M. B.; Turnbull, D. P.; Yeamans, C. B.; Callahan, D. A.; Hurricane, O. A.

    2016-11-01

    Analyses of high foot implosions show that performance is limited by the radiation drive environment, i.e., the hohlraum. Reported here are significant improvements in the radiation environment, which result in an enhancement in implosion performance. Using a longer, larger case-to-capsule ratio hohlraum at lower gas fill density improves the symmetry control of a high foot implosion. Moreover, for the first time, these hohlraums produce reduced levels of hot electrons, generated by laser-plasma interactions, which are at levels comparable to near-vacuum hohlraums, and well within specifications. Further, there is a noteworthy increase in laser energy coupling to the hohlraum, and discrepancies with simulated radiation production are markedly reduced. At fixed laser energy, high foot implosions driven with this improved hohlraum have achieved a 1.4 ×increase in stagnation pressure, with an accompanying relative increase in fusion yield of 50% as compared to a reference experiment with the same laser energy.

  11. Development of Improved Radiation Drive Environment for High Foot Implosions at the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Hinkel, D E; Berzak Hopkins, L F; Ma, T; Ralph, J E; Albert, F; Benedetti, L R; Celliers, P M; Döppner, T; Goyon, C S; Izumi, N; Jarrott, L C; Khan, S F; Kline, J L; Kritcher, A L; Kyrala, G A; Nagel, S R; Pak, A E; Patel, P; Rosen, M D; Rygg, J R; Schneider, M B; Turnbull, D P; Yeamans, C B; Callahan, D A; Hurricane, O A

    2016-11-25

    Analyses of high foot implosions show that performance is limited by the radiation drive environment, i.e., the hohlraum. Reported here are significant improvements in the radiation environment, which result in an enhancement in implosion performance. Using a longer, larger case-to-capsule ratio hohlraum at lower gas fill density improves the symmetry control of a high foot implosion. Moreover, for the first time, these hohlraums produce reduced levels of hot electrons, generated by laser-plasma interactions, which are at levels comparable to near-vacuum hohlraums, and well within specifications. Further, there is a noteworthy increase in laser energy coupling to the hohlraum, and discrepancies with simulated radiation production are markedly reduced. At fixed laser energy, high foot implosions driven with this improved hohlraum have achieved a 1.4×increase in stagnation pressure, with an accompanying relative increase in fusion yield of 50% as compared to a reference experiment with the same laser energy.

  12. Hydrodynamic instability growth of three-dimensional modulations in radiation-driven implosions with “low-foot” and “high-foot” drives at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Smalyuk, V. A.; Weber, C. R.; Robey, H. F.

    Hydrodynamic instability growth has been studied using three-dimensional (3-D) broadband modulations by comparing “high-foot” and “low-foot” spherical plastic (CH) capsule implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The initial perturbations included capsule outer-surface roughness and capsule-mounting membranes (“tents”) that were similar to those used in a majority of implosions on NIF. The tents with thicknesses of 31-nm, 46-nm, and 109-nm were used in the experiments. The outer-surface roughness in the “low-foot” experiment was similar to the standard specification, while it was increased by ~4 times in the “high-foot” experiment to compensate for the reduced growth. The ablation-front instability growth wasmore » measured using a Hydrodynamic Growth Radiography platform at a convergence ratio of 3. The dominant capsule perturbations, generated by the tent mountings, had measured perturbation amplitudes comparable to the capsule thickness with the “low-foot” drive. These tent perturbations were reduced by ~3 to 10 times in implosions with the “high-foot” drive. Unexpectedly, the measured perturbations with initially thinner tents were either larger or similar to the measured perturbations with thicker tents for both “high-foot” and “low-foot” drives. While the measured instability growth of 3-D broadband perturbations was also significantly reduced by ~5 to 10 times with the “high-foot” drive, compared to the “low-foot” drive, the growth mitigation was stronger than expected based on previous “growth-factor” results measured with two-dimensional modulations. Lastly, one of the hypotheses to explain the results is based on the 3-D modulations of the oxygen content in the bulk of the capsule having a stronger effect on the overall growth of capsule perturbations than the outer-surface capsule roughness.« less

  13. Hydrodynamic instability growth of three-dimensional modulations in radiation-driven implosions with “low-foot” and “high-foot” drives at the National Ignition Facility

    DOE PAGES

    Smalyuk, V. A.; Weber, C. R.; Robey, H. F.; ...

    2017-04-11

    Hydrodynamic instability growth has been studied using three-dimensional (3-D) broadband modulations by comparing “high-foot” and “low-foot” spherical plastic (CH) capsule implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The initial perturbations included capsule outer-surface roughness and capsule-mounting membranes (“tents”) that were similar to those used in a majority of implosions on NIF. The tents with thicknesses of 31-nm, 46-nm, and 109-nm were used in the experiments. The outer-surface roughness in the “low-foot” experiment was similar to the standard specification, while it was increased by ~4 times in the “high-foot” experiment to compensate for the reduced growth. The ablation-front instability growth wasmore » measured using a Hydrodynamic Growth Radiography platform at a convergence ratio of 3. The dominant capsule perturbations, generated by the tent mountings, had measured perturbation amplitudes comparable to the capsule thickness with the “low-foot” drive. These tent perturbations were reduced by ~3 to 10 times in implosions with the “high-foot” drive. Unexpectedly, the measured perturbations with initially thinner tents were either larger or similar to the measured perturbations with thicker tents for both “high-foot” and “low-foot” drives. While the measured instability growth of 3-D broadband perturbations was also significantly reduced by ~5 to 10 times with the “high-foot” drive, compared to the “low-foot” drive, the growth mitigation was stronger than expected based on previous “growth-factor” results measured with two-dimensional modulations. Lastly, one of the hypotheses to explain the results is based on the 3-D modulations of the oxygen content in the bulk of the capsule having a stronger effect on the overall growth of capsule perturbations than the outer-surface capsule roughness.« less

  14. Overview of pulsed-power-driven high-energy-density plasma research at the University of Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, R. D.; Campbell, P. C.; Miller, S. M.; Woolstrum, J. M.; Yager-Elorriaga, D. A.; Steiner, A. M.; Jordan, N. M.; Lau, Y. Y.; Gilgenbach, R. M.; Safronova, A. S.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Shrestha, I. K.; Butcher, C. J.; Laity, G. R.; Leckbee, J. J.; Wisher, M. L.; Slutz, S. A.; Cuneo, M. E.

    2017-10-01

    The Michigan Accelerator for Inductive Z-pinch Experiments (MAIZE) is a 3-m-diameter, single-cavity Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) at the University of Michigan (UM). MAIZE supplies a fast electrical pulse (0-1 MA in 100 ns for matched loads) to various experimental configurations, including wire-array z-pinches and cylindrical foil loads. This talk will report on projects aimed at upgrading the MAIZE facility (e.g., a new power feed and new diagnostics) as well as various physics campaigns on MAIZE (e.g., radiation source development, power flow, implosion instabilities, and other projects relevant to the MagLIF program at Sandia). In addition to MAIZE, UM is constructing a second, smaller LTD facility consisting of four 1.25-m-diameter cavities. These cavities were previously part of Sandia's 21-cavity Ursa Minor facility. The status of the four Ursa Minor cavities at UM will also be presented. This research was funded in part by the University of Michigan, a Faculty Development Grant from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the NNSA under DOE Grant DE-NA0003047 for UNR, and Sandia National Laboratories under DOE-NNSA contract DE-NA0003525.

  15. Investigation of ion kinetic effects in direct-drive exploding-pusher implosions at the NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, M. J., E-mail: mrosenbe@mit.edu; Zylstra, A. B.; Séguin, F. H.

    Measurements of yield, ion temperature, areal density (ρR), shell convergence, and bang time have been obtained in shock-driven, D{sub 2} and D{sup 3}He gas-filled “exploding-pusher” inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions at the National Ignition Facility to assess the impact of ion kinetic effects. These measurements probed the shock convergence phase of ICF implosions, a critical stage in hot-spot ignition experiments. The data complement previous studies of kinetic effects in shock-driven implosions. Ion temperature and fuel ρR inferred from fusion-product spectroscopy are used to estimate the ion-ion mean free path in the gas. A trend of decreasing yields relative to themore » predictions of 2D DRACO hydrodynamics simulations with increasing Knudsen number (the ratio of ion-ion mean free path to minimum shell radius) suggests that ion kinetic effects are increasingly impacting the hot fuel region, in general agreement with previous results. The long mean free path conditions giving rise to ion kinetic effects in the gas are often prevalent during the shock phase of both exploding pushers and ablatively driven implosions, including ignition-relevant implosions.« less

  16. Fire suppression as a thermal implosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novozhilov, Vasily

    2017-01-01

    The present paper discusses the possibility of the thermal implosion scenario. This process would be a reverse of the well known thermal explosion (autoignition) phenomenon. The mechanism for thermal implosion scenario is proposed which involves quick suppression of the turbulent diffusion flame. Classical concept of the thermal explosion is discussed first. Then a possible scenario for the reverse process (thermal implosion) is discussed and illustrated by a relevant mathematical model. Based on the arguments presented in the paper, thermal implosion may be observed as an unstable equilibrium point on the generalized Semenov diagram for turbulent flame, however this hypothesis requires ultimate experimental confirmation.

  17. Backlighting Direct-Drive Cryogenic DT Implosions on OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoeckl, C.

    2016-10-01

    X-ray backlighting has been frequently used to measure the in-flight characteristics of an imploding shell in both direct- and indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion implosions. These measurements provide unique insight into the early time and stagnation stages of an implosion and guide the modeling efforts to improve the target designs. Backlighting a layered DT implosion on OMEGA is a particular challenge because the opacity of the DT shell is low, the shell velocity is high, the size and wall thickness of the shell is small, and the self-emission from the hot core at the onset of burn is exceedingly bright. A framing-camera-based crystal imaging system with a Si Heα backlighter at 1.865keV driven by 10-ps short pulses from OMEGA EP was developed to meet these radiography challenges. A fast target inserter was developed to accurately place the Si backlighter foil at a distance of 5 mm to the implosion target following the removal of the cryogenic shroud and an ultra-stable triggering system was implemented to reliably trigger the framing camera coincident with the arrival of the OMEGA EP pulse. This talk will report on a series of implosions in which the DT shell is imaged for a range of convergence ratios and in-flight aspect ratios. The images acquired have been analyzed for low-mode shape variations, the DT shell thickness, the level of ablator mixing into the DT fuel (even 0.1% of carbon mix can be reliably inferred), the areal density of the DT shell, and the impact of the support stalk. The measured implosion performance will be compared with hydrodynamic simulations that include imprint (up to mode 200), cross-beam energy transfer, nonlocal thermal transport, and initial low-mode perturbations such as power imbalance and target misalignment. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  18. Influence and measurement of mass ablation in ICF implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Spears, B K; Hicks, D; Velsko, C

    2007-09-05

    Point design ignition capsules designed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) currently use an x-ray-driven Be(Cu) ablator to compress the DT fuel. Ignition specifications require that the mass of unablated Be(Cu), called residual mass, be known to within 1% of the initial ablator mass when the fuel reaches peak velocity. The specifications also require that the implosion bang time, a surrogate measurement for implosion velocity, be known to +/- 50 ps RMS. These specifications guard against several capsule failure modes associated with low implosion velocity or low residual mass. Experiments designed to measure and to tune experimentally the amount ofmore » residual mass are being developed as part of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC). Tuning adjustments of the residual mass and peak velocity can be achieved using capsule and laser parameters. We currently plan to measure the residual mass using streaked radiographic imaging of surrogate tuning capsules. Alternative techniques to measure residual mass using activated Cu debris collection and proton spectrometry have also been developed. These developing techniques, together with bang time measurements, will allow us to tune ignition capsules to meet NIC specs.« less

  19. A New Theory of Mix in Omega Capsule Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoll, Dana; Chacon, Luis; Rauenzahn, Rick; Simakov, Andrei; Taitano, William; Welser-Sherrill, Leslie

    2014-10-01

    We put forth a new mix model that relies on the development of a charge-separation electrostatic double-layer at the fuel-pusher interface early in the implosion of an Omega plastic ablator capsule. The model predicts a sizable pusher mix (several atom %) into the fuel. The expected magnitude of the double-layer field is consistent with recent radial electric field measurements in Omega plastic ablator implosions. Our theory relies on two distinct physics mechanisms. First, and prior to shock breakout, the formation of a double layer at the fuel-pusher interface due to fast preheat-driven ionization. The double-layer electric field structure accelerates pusher ions fairly deep into the fuel. Second, after the double-layer mix has occurred, the inward-directed fuel velocity and temperature gradients behind the converging shock transports these pusher ions inward. We first discuss the foundations of this new mix theory. Next, we discuss our interpretation of the radial electric field measurements on Omega implosions. Then we discuss the second mechanism that is responsible for transporting the pusher material, already mixed via the double-layer deep into the fuel, on the shock convergence time scale. Finally we make a connection to recent mix motivated experimental data on. This work conducted under the auspices of the National Nuclear Security Administration of the U.S. Department of Energy at Los Alamos National Laboratory, managed by LANS, LLC under Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  20. Shock formation in Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe on deuterium gas puff implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Narkis, J.; Rahman, H. U.; Ney, P.

    2016-12-29

    1- and 2-D simulations of 1-cm radius, gas-puff liners of Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe imploding onto a deuterium target are conducted using the discharge parameters for the Zebra (1 MA, 130 ns) driver using the resistive MHD code MACH2. This is an implementation of the Staged Z-pinch concept, in which the target is driven to high-energy-density first by shock compression launched by a diffused azimuthal magnetic field (J×B force), and then by the adiabatic compression as the liner converges on axis. During the run-in phase, the initial shock heating preheats the deuterium plasma, with a subsequent stable, adiabatic compressionmore » heating the target to high energy density. Shock compression of the target coincides with the development of a J×B force at the target/liner interface. Stronger B-field transport and earlier shock compression increases with higher-Z liners, which results in an earlier shock arrival on axis. As a result, delayed shock formation in lower-Z liners yields a relative increase in shock heating, however, the 2-D simulations show an increased target isolation from magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability penetration, suggesting that an optimal balance between these two effects is reached in an Ar or Kr liner, rather than with Xe.« less

  1. Buoyancy instability of homologous implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, B. M.

    2015-06-15

    With this study, I consider the hydrodynamic stability of imploding ideal gases as an idealized model for inertial confinement fusion capsules, sonoluminescent bubbles and the gravitational collapse of astrophysical gases. For oblate modes (short-wavelength incompressive modes elongated in the direction of the mean flow), a second-order ordinary differential equation is derived that can be used to assess the stability of any time-dependent flow with planar, cylindrical or spherical symmetry. Upon further restricting the analysis to homologous flows, it is shown that a monatomic gas is governed by the Schwarzschild criterion for buoyant stability. Under buoyantly unstable conditions, both entropy andmore » vorticity fluctuations experience power-law growth in time, with a growth rate that depends upon mean flow gradients and, in the absence of dissipative effects, is independent of mode number. If the flow accelerates throughout the implosion, oblate modes amplify by a factor (2C) |N0|ti, where C is the convergence ratio of the implosion, N 0 is the initial buoyancy frequency and t i is the implosion time scale. If, instead, the implosion consists of a coasting phase followed by stagnation, oblate modes amplify by a factor exp(π|N 0|t s), where N 0 is the buoyancy frequency at stagnation and t s is the stagnation time scale. Even under stable conditions, vorticity fluctuations grow due to the conservation of angular momentum as the gas is compressed. For non-monatomic gases, this additional growth due to compression results in weak oscillatory growth under conditions that would otherwise be buoyantly stable; this over-stability is consistent with the conservation of wave action in the fluid frame. The above analytical results are verified by evolving the complete set of linear equations as an initial value problem, and it is demonstrated that oblate modes are the fastest-growing modes and that high mode numbers are required to reach this limit (Legendre mode

  2. Defect Implosion Experiments (DIME) at OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobble, J. A.; Schmitt, M. J.; Tregillis, I. L.; Obrey, K. D.; Magelssen, G. R.; Wilke, M. D.; Glebov, V.; Marshall, F. J.; Kim, Y. H.; Bradley, P. A.; Batha, S. H.

    2010-11-01

    The Los Alamos DIME campaign involves perturbed spherical implosions, driven by 60 OMEGA beams with uniform, symmetrical illumination. D-T-filled CH-shell targets with equatorial-plane defects are designed to produce a non-spherical neutron burn region. The objectives of the DIME series are to observe the non-spherical burn with the neutron imaging system (NIS) and to simulate the physics of the neutron and x-ray production. We have demonstrated adequate neutron yield for NIS imaging with targets of diameter 860 μm. All targets are filled with 5 atm of DT. We used two separate shell thicknesses: 8 μm and 15 μm, thus testing both exploding pusher and ablative designs. Defect channel depth ranges from 0 -- 8 μm. Width is 20 -- 40 μm. Perfect targets have no defect. Numerical simulations predict enhanced x-ray emission, that is suggested by experiment. Results from a recent DIME campaign will be discussed.

  3. Polar-Direct-Drive Defect Implosions at OMEGA inPreparation for Experiments at NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobble, J. A.; Schmitt, M. J.; Murphy, T. J.; Tregillis, I. L.; Wysocki, F. J.; Obrey, K. D.; Magelssen, G. R.; Glebov, V.; Bradley, P. A.; Hsu, S. C.; Krasheninnikova, N. V.; Batha, S. H.

    2011-10-01

    The Defect-Implosion (DIME) campaign involves compressing perturbed spherical capsules with polar direct drive (PDD). For direct-drive implosions at NIF, PDD will be used. We have done simulations and experiments at OMEGA to test our modeling capability for equatorial-plane defects in fusion capsules and for PDD at NIF. Since PDD is anisotropic, we show the results of 0th hydrodynamics of implosions and perturbation-driven features near stagnation. Later presentations discuss defect-induced mix and neutronics, and laser pointing for NIF experiments. Prototype OMEGA shots used 865- μm diameter CH shells filled with 5 atm of D2. Machined channels 30- μm wide and up to 9- μm deep formed the defects. This work has been performed under the auspices of the US DOE, contract number DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  4. Symmetry Tuning with Cone Powers for Defect Induced Mix Experiment Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasheninnikova, N.; Schmitt, M.; Murphy, T.; Cobble, J.; Tregillis, I.; Kyrala, G.; Bradley, P.; Hakel, P.; Hsu, S.; Kanzleiter, R.; Obrey, K.; Baumgaertel, J.; Batha, S.; DIME Team

    2013-10-01

    Recent DIME campaigns have demonstrated the effectiveness of cone power tuning to control the implosion symmetry in PDD configuration. DIME aims to assess the effects of mix on thermonuclear burn during a thin-shell capsule implosion. Plastic shell capsules doped with mid-Z material and filled with 5 atm of DD, are ablatively driven in a PDD laser configuration to a CR of ~7. Time-gated, spectrally and spatially resolved, dopant emission images characterize mix and temperature morphology during the implosion, while neutron diagnostics concurrently give the information about burn. Symmetry should be maintained throughout the implosions to achieve high neutron yield and optimum spectroscopic signal. 2D and 3D computer simulations using code HYDRA were performed to validate and optimize implosion symmetry using cone power tuning. In particular, Omega campaign confirmed P2 tunability with cone powers while experiments on NIF demonstrated that by reducing the energy in polar cones P2 was reduced to <1%. However, during NIF campaigns, self-emission images revealed a complex internal structure around the equator, which was not seen in HYDRA simulations and could be attributed to LPI effects. Subsequent DIME campaigns on NIF were able to eliminate this equatorial feature by reducing the laser drive substantiating the LPI hypothesis. Work performed by LANL under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396 for the National Nuclear Security Administration of the USDoE.

  5. Hybrid-drive implosion system for ICF targets

    DOEpatents

    Mark, James W.

    1988-08-02

    Hybrid-drive implosion systems (20,40) for ICF targets (10,22,42) are described which permit a significant increase in target gain at fixed total driver energy. The ICF target is compressed in two phases, an initial compression phase and a final peak power phase, with each phase driven by a separate, optimized driver. The targets comprise a hollow spherical ablator (12) surroundingly disposed around fusion fuel (14). The ablator is first compressed to higher density by a laser system (24), or by an ion beam system (44), that in each case is optimized for this initial phase of compression of the target. Then, following compression of the ablator, energy is directly delivered into the compressed ablator by an ion beam driver system (30,48) that is optimized for this second phase of operation of the target. The fusion fuel (14) is driven, at high gain, to conditions wherein fusion reactions occur. This phase separation allows hydrodynamic efficiency and energy deposition uniformity to be individually optimized, thereby securing significant advantages in energy gain. In additional embodiments, the same or separate drivers supply energy for ICF target implosion.

  6. Hybrid-drive implosion system for ICF targets

    DOEpatents

    Mark, James W.

    1988-01-01

    Hybrid-drive implosion systems (20,40) for ICF targets (10,22,42) are described which permit a significant increase in target gain at fixed total driver energy. The ICF target is compressed in two phases, an initial compression phase and a final peak power phase, with each phase driven by a separate, optimized driver. The targets comprise a hollow spherical ablator (12) surroundingly disposed around fusion fuel (14). The ablator is first compressed to higher density by a laser system (24), or by an ion beam system (44), that in each case is optimized for this initial phase of compression of the target. Then, following compression of the ablator, energy is directly delivered into the compressed ablator by an ion beam driver system (30,48) that is optimized for this second phase of operation of the target. The fusion fuel (14) is driven, at high gain, to conditions wherein fusion reactions occur. This phase separation allows hydrodynamic efficiency and energy deposition uniformity to be individually optimized, thereby securing significant advantages in energy gain. In additional embodiments, the same or separate drivers supply energy for ICF target implosion.

  7. Hybrid-drive implosion system for ICF targets

    DOEpatents

    Mark, J.W.K.

    1987-10-14

    Hybrid-drive implosion systems for ICF targets are described which permit a significant increase in target gain at fixed total driver energy. The ICF target is compressed in two phases, an initial compression phase and a final peak power phase, with each phase driven by a separate, optimized driver. The targets comprise a hollow spherical ablator surroundingly disposed around fusion fuel. The ablator is first compressed to higher density by a laser system, or by an ion beam system, that in each case is optimized for this initial phase of compression of the target. Then, following compression of the ablator, energy is directly delivered into the compressed ablator by an ion beam driver system that is optimized for this second phase of operation of the target. The fusion fuel is driven, at high gain, to conditions wherein fusion reactions occur. This phase separation allows hydrodynamic efficiency and energy deposition uniformity to be individually optimized, thereby securing significant advantages in energy gain. In additional embodiments, the same or separate drivers supply energy for ICF target implosion. 3 figs.

  8. Implosion of Cylindrical Cavities via Short Duration Impulsive Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huneault, Justin; Higgins, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    An apparatus has been developed to study the collapse of a cylindrical cavity in gelatin subjected to a symmetric impact-driven impulsive loading. A gas-driven annular projectile is accelerated to approximately 50 m/s, at which point it impacts a gelatin casting confined by curved steel surfaces that allow a transition from an annular geometry to a cylindrically imploding motion. The implosion is visualized by a high-speed camera through a window which forms the top confining wall of the implosion cavity. The initial size of the cavity is such that the gelatin wall is two to five times thicker than the impacting projectile. Thus, during impact the compression wave which travels towards the cavity is closely followed by a rarefaction resulting from the free surface reflection of the compression wave in the projectile. As the compression wave in the gelatin reaches the inner surface, it will also reflect as a rarefaction wave. The interaction between the rarefaction waves from the gelatin and projectile free surfaces leads to large tensile stresses resulting in the spallation of a relatively thin shell. The study focuses on the effect of impact parameters on the thickness and uniformity of the imploding shell formed by the cavitation in the imploding gelatin cylinder.

  9. Impact of the population implosion

    SciTech Connect

    Kilpatrick, J.J.

    Mr. Kilpatrick evaluates Paul R. Ehrlich's thesis that mankind will breed itself into oblivion. Mr. Ehrlich in his book, ''The Population Bomb,'' sees population control as the only answer to mass starvation in such countries as India, Africa, Central America, and China. Mr. Kilpatrick says the U.S. has drifted toward the goal of zero population growth, where the total births per woman have dropped to 1.8. In Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Belgium, West Germany, Great Britain, and Austria, the births per woman have dropped even lower than in the U.S. The decline in births is attributed to women joining the workforce,more » advancement of birth control measures, and high costs of medical care, housing, and education. Women marrying later and fashion are also factors. Zero population growth will have gross implications on the financial markets in the U.S. Pension systems will be directly affected. The author cites the dilemma of the Social Security system when a smaller proportion of young people are contributing to it. Household savings trends will alter; new construction, new plant and equipment investment, and consumer loans will have to be reconsidered. If the trend toward implosion continues and social services demand an increasing share of the Federal budget, other interests will have to yield and the author cites the budget for national defense as declining. Some prophets feel the population decline is nothing of concern, the author concludes. (MCW)« less

  10. Implosive accretion and outbursts of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovelace, R. V. E.; Romanova, M. M.; Newman, W. I.

    1994-01-01

    A model and simulation code have been developed for time-dependent axisymmetric disk accretion onto a compact object including for the first time the influence of an ordered magnetic field. The accretion rate and radiative luminosity of the disk are naturally coupled to the rate of outflow of energy and angular momentum in magnetically driven (+/- z) winds. The magnetic field of the wind is treated in a phenomenological way suggested by self-consistent wind solutions. The radial accretion speed u(r, t) of the disk matter is shown to be the sum of the usual viscous contribution and a magnetic contribution proportional to r(exp 3/2)(B(sub p exp 2))/sigma, where B(sub p)(r,t) is the poloidal field threading the disk and sigma(r,t) is the disk's surface mass density. An enhancement or variation in B(sub p) at a large radial distance leads to the formation of a soliton-like structure in the disk density, temperature, and B-field which propagates implosively inward. The implosion gives a burst in the power output in winds or jets and a simultaneous burst in the disk radiation. The model is pertinent to the formation of discrete fast-moving components in jets observed by very long baseline interferometry. These components appear to originate at times of optical outbursts of the active galactic nucleus.

  11. Simulations of Radiation-Driven Shock Wave Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dukart, R. J.; Asay, J. R.; Porter, J. L.; Matzen, M. K.

    1997-07-01

    For inertial confinement fusion (I.C.F.) target design, we need to understand material properties between 1- and 150-Mbar pressure. In this presentation we will show that we can use radiatively-driven ablation to generate high pressures in a wide variety of materials. PBFA-Z is being developed to generate centimeter scale hohlraums with temperatures from 80 to 150 eV. 1-D radiation/hydrodynamic simulations using these hohlraums predict the generation 1- to 15-Mbar pressures in a wide variety of materials through direct ablation. Through the use of thick ablators, we can obtain 4.5- to 25-Mbar pressures in Aluminum. This pressure regime can be extended to 40 Mbar for 200-eV hohlraums predicted for the X1, next generation, Z-pinch driver.

  12. High performance capsule implosions on the OMEGA Laser facility with rugby hohlraumsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robey, H. F.; Amendt, P.; Park, H.-S.; Town, R. P. J.; Milovich, J. L.; Döppner, T.; Hinkel, D. E.; Wallace, R.; Sorce, C.; Strozzi, D. J.; Philippe, F.; Casner, A.; Caillaud, T.; Landoas, O.; Liberatore, S.; Monteil, M.-C.; Séguin, F.; Rosenberg, M.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R.; Glebov, V.; Stoeckl, C.; Nikroo, A.; Giraldez, E.

    2010-05-01

    Rugby-shaped hohlraums have been proposed as a method for x-ray drive enhancement for indirectly driven capsule implosions. This concept has recently been tested in a series of shots on the OMEGA laser facility [T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. In this paper, experimental results are presented comparing the performance of D2-filled capsules between standard cylindrical Au hohlraums and rugby-shaped hohlraums. The rugby hohlraums demonstrated 18% more x-ray drive energy as compared with the cylinders, and the high-performance design of these implosions (both cylinder and rugby) also provided ≈20× more deuterium (DD) neutrons than any previous indirectly driven campaign on OMEGA and ≈3× more than ever achieved on NOVA [E. M. Campbell, Laser Part. Beams 9, 209 (1991)] implosions driven with nearly twice the laser energy. This increase in performance enables, for the first time, a measurement of the neutron burn history and imaging of the neutron core shapes in an indirectly driven implosion. Previous DD neutron yields had been too low to register this key measurement of capsule performance and the effects of dynamic mix. A wealth of additional data on the fuel areal density from the suite of charged particle diagnostics was obtained on a subset of the shots that used D H3e rather than D2 fuel. Comparisons of the experimental results with numerical simulations are shown to be in very good agreement. The design techniques employed in this campaign, e.g., smaller laser entrance holes and hohlraum case-to-capsule ratios, provide added confidence in the pursuit of ignition on the National Ignition Facility [J. D. Lindl, P. Amendt, R. L. Berger et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 339 (2004)].

  13. High Performance Capsule Implosions on the Omega Laser Facility with Rugby Hohlraums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robey, Harry F.

    2009-11-01

    Rugby-shaped hohlraums have been proposed as a method for x-ray drive enhancement for indirectly-driven capsule implosions [1]. This concept has recently been tested in a series of shots on the OMEGA laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics at the University of Rochester. In this talk, experimental results are presented comparing the performance of D2-filled capsules between standard cylindrical Au hohlraums and rugby-shaped hohlraums. Not only did the rugby hohlraums demonstrate 18% more x-ray drive energy as compared with the cylinders, but the high-performance design of these implosions (both cylinder and rugby) also provided 20X more DD neutrons than any previous indirectly-driven campaign on Omega (and 3X more than ever achieved on Nova implosions driven with nearly twice the laser energy). This increase in performance enables, for the first time, a measurement of the neutron burn history of an indirectly-driven implosion. Previous DD neutron yields had been too low to register this key measurement of capsule performance and the effects of dynamic mix. A wealth of additional data on the fuel areal density from the suite of charged particle diagnostics was obtained on a subset of the shots that used D^3He rather than D2 fuel. Comparisons of the experimental results with numerical simulations are shown to be in excellent agreement. The design techniques employed in this campaign, e.g., smaller NIF-like laser entrance holes and hohlraum case-to-capsule ratios, provide added confidence in the pursuit of ignition on the National Ignition Facility. [4pt] [1] P. Amendt, C. Cerjan, D. E. Hinkel, J. L. Milovich, H.-S. Park, and H. F. Robey, ``Rugby-like hohlraum experimental designs for demonstrating x-ray drive enhancement'', Phys. Plasmas 15, 012702 (2008).

  14. Implosive Therapy as a Treatment for Insomnia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrera, Richard N.; Elenewski, Jeffrey J.

    1980-01-01

    The death implosion produced a decrease in insomnia beyond the strong expectancy effects that resulted from all experimental treatments. The failure to observe changes in reported fear of death was attributed to subjects' anxiety-based reluctance to acknowledge openly such fear. (Author)

  15. Demonstration of Ion Kinetic Effects in Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions and Investigation of Magnetic Reconnection Using Laser-Produced Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, M. J.

    2016-10-01

    Shock-driven laser inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions have demonstrated the presence of ion kinetic effects in ICF implosions and also have been used as a proton source to probe the strongly driven reconnection of MG magnetic fields in laser-generated plasmas. Ion kinetic effects arise during the shock-convergence phase of ICF implosions when the mean free path for ion-ion collisions (λii) approaches the size of the hot-fuel region (Rfuel) and may impact hot-spot formation and the possibility of ignition. To isolate and study ion kinetic effects, the ratio of N - K =λii /Rfuel was varied in D3He-filled, shock-driven implosions at the Omega Laser Facility and the National Ignition Facility, from hydrodynamic-like conditions (NK 0.01) to strongly kinetic conditions (NK 10). A strong trend of decreasing fusion yields relative to the predictions of hydrodynamic models is observed as NK increases from 0.1 to 10. Hydrodynamics simulations that include basic models of the kinetic effects that are likely to be present in these experiments-namely, ion diffusion and Knudsen-layer reduction of the fusion reactivity-are better able to capture the experimental results. This type of implosion has also been used as a source of monoenergetic 15-MeV protons to image magnetic fields driven to reconnect in laser-produced plasmas at conditions similar to those encountered at the Earth's magnetopause. These experiments demonstrate that for both symmetric and asymmetric magnetic-reconnection configurations, when plasma flows are much stronger than the nominal Alfvén speed, the rate of magnetic-flux annihilation is determined by the flow velocity and is largely insensitive to initial plasma conditions. This work was supported by the Department of Energy Grant Number DENA0001857.

  16. Design of laboratory experiments to study radiation-driven implosions

    DOE PAGES

    Keiter, P. A.; Trantham, M.; Malamud, G.; ...

    2017-02-03

    The interstellar medium is heterogeneous with dense clouds amid an ambient medium. Radiation from young OB stars asymmetrically irradiate the dense clouds. Bertoldi (1989) developed analytic formulae to describe possible outcomes of these clouds when irradiated by hot, young stars. One of the critical parameters that determines the cloud’s fate is the number of photon mean free paths in the cloud. For the extreme cases where the cloud size is either much greater than or much less than one mean free path, the radiation transport should be well understood. However, as one transitions between these limits, the radiation transport ismore » much more complex and is a challenge to solve with many of the current radiation transport models implemented in codes. In this paper, we present the design of laboratory experiments that use a thermal source of x-rays to asymmetrically irradiate a low-density plastic foam sphere. The experiment will vary the density and hence the number of mean free paths of the sphere to study the radiation transport in different regimes. Finally, we have developed dimensionless parameters to relate the laboratory experiment to the astrophysical system and we show that we can perform the experiment in the same transport regime.« less

  17. Implosion spectroscopy in Rugby hohlraums on OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philippe, Franck; Tassin, Veronique; Bitaud, Laurent; Seytor, Patricia; Reverdin, Charles

    2014-10-01

    The rugby hohlraum concept has been validated in previous experiments on the OMEGA laser facility. This new hohlraum type can now be used as a well-characterized experimental platform to study indirect drive implosion, at higher radiation temperatures than would be feasible at this scale with classical cylindrical hohlraums. Recent experiments have focused on the late stages of implosion and hotspot behavior. The capsules included both a thin buried Titanium tracer layer, 0-3 microns from the inner surface, Argon dopant in the deuterium gas fuel and Germanium doped CH shells, providing a variety of spectral signatures of the plasma conditions in different parts of the target. X-ray spectroscopy and imaging were used to study compression, Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities growth at the inner surface and mix between the shell and gas.

  18. Implosion dynamics measurements at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, D. G.; Meezan, N. B.; Dewald, E. L.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Olson, R. E.; Callahan, D. A.; Döppner, T.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bradley, D. K.; Celliers, P. M.; Clark, D. S.; Di Nicola, P.; Dixit, S. N.; Dzenitis, E. G.; Eggert, J. E.; Farley, D. R.; Frenje, J. A.; Glenn, S. M.; Glenzer, S. H.; Hamza, A. V.; Heeter, R. F.; Holder, J. P.; Izumi, N.; Kalantar, D. H.; Khan, S. F.; Kline, J. L.; Kroll, J. J.; Kyrala, G. A.; Ma, T.; MacPhee, A. G.; McNaney, J. M.; Moody, J. D.; Moran, M. J.; Nathan, B. R.; Nikroo, A.; Opachich, Y. P.; Petrasso, R. D.; Prasad, R. R.; Ralph, J. E.; Robey, H. F.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rygg, J. R.; Salmonson, J. D.; Schneider, M. B.; Simanovskaia, N.; Spears, B. K.; Tommasini, R.; Widmann, K.; Zylstra, A. B.; Collins, G. W.; Landen, O. L.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Hsing, W. W.; MacGowan, B. J.; Atherton, L. J.; Edwards, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    Measurements have been made of the in-flight dynamics of imploding capsules indirectly driven by laser energies of 1-1.7 MJ at the National Ignition Facility [Miller et al., Nucl. Fusion 44, 228 (2004)]. These experiments were part of the National Ignition Campaign [Landen et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 051002 (2011)] to iteratively optimize the inputs required to achieve thermonuclear ignition in the laboratory. Using gated or streaked hard x-ray radiography, a suite of ablator performance parameters, including the time-resolved radius, velocity, mass, and thickness, have been determined throughout the acceleration history of surrogate gas-filled implosions. These measurements have been used to establish a dynamically consistent model of the ablative drive history and shell compressibility throughout the implosion trajectory. First results showed that the peak velocity of the original 1.3-MJ Ge-doped polymer (CH) point design using Au hohlraums reached only 75% of the required ignition velocity. Several capsule, hohlraum, and laser pulse changes were then implemented to improve this and other aspects of implosion performance and a dedicated effort was undertaken to test the sensitivity of the ablative drive to the rise time and length of the main laser pulse. Changing to Si rather than Ge-doped inner ablator layers and increasing the pulse length together raised peak velocity to 93% ± 5% of the ignition goal using a 1.5 MJ, 420 TW pulse. Further lengthening the pulse so that the laser remained on until the capsule reached 30% (rather than 60%-70%) of its initial radius, reduced the shell thickness and improved the final fuel ρR on companion shots with a cryogenic hydrogen fuel layer. Improved drive efficiency was observed using U rather than Au hohlraums, which was expected, and by slowing the rise time of laser pulse, which was not. The effect of changing the Si-dopant concentration and distribution, as well as the effect of using a larger initial shell thickness

  19. Implosion dynamics measurements at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, D. G.; Meezan, N. B.; Dewald, E. L.

    2012-12-15

    Measurements have been made of the in-flight dynamics of imploding capsules indirectly driven by laser energies of 1-1.7 MJ at the National Ignition Facility [Miller et al., Nucl. Fusion 44, 228 (2004)]. These experiments were part of the National Ignition Campaign [Landen et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 051002 (2011)] to iteratively optimize the inputs required to achieve thermonuclear ignition in the laboratory. Using gated or streaked hard x-ray radiography, a suite of ablator performance parameters, including the time-resolved radius, velocity, mass, and thickness, have been determined throughout the acceleration history of surrogate gas-filled implosions. These measurements have been used tomore » establish a dynamically consistent model of the ablative drive history and shell compressibility throughout the implosion trajectory. First results showed that the peak velocity of the original 1.3-MJ Ge-doped polymer (CH) point design using Au hohlraums reached only 75% of the required ignition velocity. Several capsule, hohlraum, and laser pulse changes were then implemented to improve this and other aspects of implosion performance and a dedicated effort was undertaken to test the sensitivity of the ablative drive to the rise time and length of the main laser pulse. Changing to Si rather than Ge-doped inner ablator layers and increasing the pulse length together raised peak velocity to 93% {+-} 5% of the ignition goal using a 1.5 MJ, 420 TW pulse. Further lengthening the pulse so that the laser remained on until the capsule reached 30% (rather than 60%-70%) of its initial radius, reduced the shell thickness and improved the final fuel {rho}R on companion shots with a cryogenic hydrogen fuel layer. Improved drive efficiency was observed using U rather than Au hohlraums, which was expected, and by slowing the rise time of laser pulse, which was not. The effect of changing the Si-dopant concentration and distribution, as well as the effect of using a larger initial shell

  20. Cryogenic THD and DT layer implosions with high density carbon ablators in near-vacuum hohlraums

    DOE PAGES

    Meezan, N. B.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Le Pape, S.; ...

    2015-06-02

    High Density Carbon (HDC or diamond) is a promising ablator material for use in near-vacuum hohlraums, as its high density allows for ignition designs with laser pulse durations of <10 ns. A series of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments in 2013 on the National Ignition Facility [E. I. Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)] culminated in a DT layered implosion driven by a 6.8 ns, 2-shock laser pulse. This paper describes these experiments and comparisons with ICF design code simulations. Backlit radiography of a THD layered capsule demonstrated an ablator implosion velocity of 385 km/s with a slightlymore » oblate hot spot shape. Other diagnostics suggested an asymmetric compressed fuel layer. A streak camera-based hot spot self-emission diagnostic (SPIDER) showed a double-peaked history of the capsule self-emission. Simulations suggest that this is a signature of low quality hot spot formation. Changes to the laser pulse and pointing for a subsequent DT implosion resulted in a higher temperature, prolate hot spot and a thermonuclear yield of 1.8 x 10¹⁵ neutrons, 40% of the 1D simulated yield.« less

  1. High-adiabat high-foot inertial confinement fusion implosion experiments on the national ignition facility.

    PubMed

    Park, H-S; Hurricane, O A; Callahan, D A; Casey, D T; Dewald, E L; Dittrich, T R; Döppner, T; Hinkel, D E; Berzak Hopkins, L F; Le Pape, S; Ma, T; Patel, P K; Remington, B A; Robey, H F; Salmonson, J D; Kline, J L

    2014-02-07

    This Letter reports on a series of high-adiabat implosions of cryogenic layered deuterium-tritium (DT) capsules indirectly driven by a "high-foot" laser drive pulse at the National Ignition Facility. High-foot implosions have high ablation velocities and large density gradient scale lengths and are more resistant to ablation-front Rayleigh-Taylor instability induced mixing of ablator material into the DT hot spot. Indeed, the observed hot spot mix in these implosions was low and the measured neutron yields were typically 50% (or higher) of the yields predicted by simulation. On one high performing shot (N130812), 1.7 MJ of laser energy at a peak power of 350 TW was used to obtain a peak hohlraum radiation temperature of ∼300  eV. The resulting experimental neutron yield was (2.4±0.05)×10(15) DT, the fuel ρR was (0.86±0.063)  g/cm2, and the measured Tion was (4.2±0.16)  keV, corresponding to 8 kJ of fusion yield, with ∼1/3 of the yield caused by self-heating of the fuel by α particles emitted in the initial reactions. The generalized Lawson criteria, an ignition metric, was 0.43 and the neutron yield was ∼70% of the value predicted by simulations that include α-particle self-heating.

  2. Mitigating the impact of hohlraum asymmetries in National Ignition Facility implosions using capsule shims

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D. S.; Weber, C. R.; Smalyuk, V. A.

    2016-07-15

    Current indirect drive implosion experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)] are believed to be strongly impacted by long wavelength perturbations driven by asymmetries in the hohlraum x-ray flux. To address this perturbation source, active efforts are underway to develop modified hohlraum designs with reduced asymmetry imprint. An alternative strategy, however, is to modify the capsule design to be more resilient to a given amount of hohlraum asymmetry. In particular, the capsule may be deliberately misshaped, or “shimmed,” so as to counteract the expected asymmetries from the hohlraum. Here, the efficacy ofmore » capsule shimming to correct the asymmetries in two recent NIF implosion experiments is assessed using two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations. Despite the highly time-dependent character of the asymmetries and the high convergence ratios of these implosions, simulations suggest that shims could be highly effective at counteracting current asymmetries and result in factors of a few enhancements in neutron yields. For higher compression designs, the yield improvement could be even greater.« less

  3. Mitigating the impact of hohlraum asymmetries in National Ignition Facility implosions using capsule shims

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Daniel; Weber, Christopher; Smalyuk, Vladimir; Robey, Harry; Kritcher, Andrea; Milovich, Jose; Salmonson, Jay

    2016-10-01

    Current indirect drive implosion experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) are believed to be strongly impacted by long wavelength perturbations driven by asymmetries in the hohlraum x-ray flux. To address this perturbation source, active efforts are underway to develop modified hohlraum designs with reduced asymmetry imprint. An alternative strategy, however, is to modify the capsule design to be more resilient to a given amount of hohlraum asymmetry. In particular, the capsule may be deliberately misshaped, or ``shimmed,'' so as to counteract the expected asymmetries from the hohlraum. Here, the efficacy of capsule shimming to correct the asymmetries in two recent NIF implosion experiments is assessed using two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations. Despite the highly time-dependent character of the asymmetries and the high convergence ratios of these implosions, simulations suggest that shims could be highly effective at counteracting current asymmetries and result in factors of a few enhancements in neutron yields. For higher compression designs, the yield improvement could be even greater. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  4. Mitigating the impact of hohlraum asymmetries in National Ignition Facility implosions using capsule shims

    DOE PAGES

    Clark, D. S.; Weber, C. R.; Smalyuk, V. A.; ...

    2016-07-22

    Here, current indirect drive implosion experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) are believed to be strongly impacted by long wavelength perturbations driven by asymmetries in the hohlraum x-ray flux. To address this perturbation source, active efforts are underway to develop modified hohlraum designs with reduced asymmetry imprint. An alternative strategy, however, is to modify the capsule design to be more resilient to a given amount of hohlraum asymmetry. In particular, the capsule may be deliberately misshaped, or “shimmed,” so as to counteract the expected asymmetries from the hohlraum. Here, the efficacy of capsule shimming to correct the asymmetries inmore » two recent NIF implosion experiments is assessed using two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations. Despite the highly time-dependent character of the asymmetries and the high convergence ratios of these implosions, simulations suggest that shims could be highly effective at counteracting current asymmetries and result in factors of a few enhancements in neutron yields. For higher compression designs, the yield improvement could be even greater.« less

  5. ICF Implosions, Space-Charge Electric Fields, and Their Impact on Mix and Compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoll, Dana; Chacon, Luis; Simakov, Andrei

    2013-10-01

    The single-fluid, quasi-neutral, radiation hydrodynamics codes, used to design the NIF targets, predict thermonuclear ignition for the conditions that have been achieved experimentally. A logical conclusion is that the physics model used in these codes is missing one, or more, key phenomena. Two key model-experiment inconsistencies on NIF are: 1) a lower implosion velocity than predicted by the design codes, and 2) transport of pusher material deep into the hot spot. We hypothesize that both of these model-experiment inconsistencies may be a result of a large, space-charge, electric field residing on the distinct interfaces in a NIF target. Large space-charge fields have been experimentally observed in Omega experiments. Given our hypothesis, this presentation will: 1) Develop a more complete physics picture of initiation, sustainment, and dissipation of a current-driven plasma sheath / double-layer at the Fuel-Pusher interface of an ablating plastic shell implosion on Omega, 2) Characterize the mix that can result from a double-layer field at the Fuel-Pusher interface, prior to the onset of fluid instabilities, and 3) Quantify the impact of the double-layer induced surface tension at the Fuel-Pusher interface on the peak observed implosion velocity in Omega.

  6. Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability driven by a rotating magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Shuchao; Xie, Weiping; Cao, Jintao; Li, Ding

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we analyze theoretically the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability driven by a rotating magnetic field. Slab configurations of finite thickness are treated both with and without using the Wenzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation. Regardless of the slab thickness, the directional rotation of the driving magnetic field contributes to suppressing these instabilities. The two factors of the finite thickness and directional rotation of the magnetic field cooperate to enhance suppression, with the finite thickness playing a role only when the orientation of the magnetic field is time varying. The suppression becomes stronger as the driving magnetic field rotates faster, and all modes are suppressed, in contrast to the case of a non-rotating magnetic field, for which the vertical mode cannot be suppressed. This implies that the dynamically alternate configuration of a Theta-pinch and a Z-pinch may be applicable to the concept of Theta-Z liner inertial fusion.

  7. Recent results from the first polar direct drive plastic capsule implosions on NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Mark J.

    2012-10-01

    Polar direct drive (PDD) offers a simplified platform for conducting strongly driven implosions on NIF to investigate mix, hydro-burn and ignition-relevant physics. Its successful use necessitates a firm understanding and predictive capability of its implosion characteristics including hydro performance, symmetry and yield. To assess this capability, the first two PDD implosions of deuterium filled CH capsules were recently conducted at NIF. The P2 Legendre mode symmetry seen in these implosions agreed with pre-shot predictions even though the 700kJ drive energy produced intensities that far exceeded thresholds for both Raman and Brillouin stimulated scattering. These shots were also the first to employ image backlighting driven by two laser quads. Preliminary results indicate that the yield from the uncoated 2.25 mm diameter, 42 μm thick, CH shells was reduced by about a factor of two owing to as-shot laser drive asymmetries. Similarly, a small (sim50 μm) centroid offset between the upper and lower shell hemispheres seen in the first shot appears to be indicative of the laser quad energies. Overall, the implosion trajectories agreed with pre-shot predictions of bangtime. The second shot incorporated an 80 ?m wide,10 ?m deep depression encircling the equator of the capsule. This engineered feature was imposed to test our capability to predict the effect of high-mode features on yield and mix. A predicted yield reduction factor of 3 was not observed.[4pt] In collaboration with P. A. Bradley, J. A. Cobble, P. Hakel, S. C. Hsu, N. S. Krasheninnikova, G. A. Kyrala, G. R. Magelssen, T. J. Murphy, K. A. Obrey, R. C. Shah, I. L. Tregillis and F. J. Wysocki of Los Alamos National Laboratory; M. Marinak, R. Wallace, T. Parham, M. Cowan, S. Glenn, R. Benedetti and the NIF Operations Team of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; R. S. Craxton and P. W. McKenty of the Univ. Rochester; P. Fitzsimmons and A. Nikroo of General Atomics; H. Rinderknecht, M. Rosenberg, and M. G

  8. Kinetic simulation of hydrodynamic equivalent capsule implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwan, Thomas; Le, Ari; Schmitt, Mark; Herrmann, Hans

    2016-10-01

    We have carried out simulations of direct-drive hydrodynamic equivalent capsule implosion experiments conducted on Omega laser facility at the Laboratory of Laser Energetics of the University of Rochester. The capsules had a glass shell (SiO2) 4.87 μm with an inner diameter of 1086 μm. One was filled with deuterium (D) and tritium (T) at 6.635 and 2.475 atmospheric pressure respectively. The other capsule with D, T, and He-3 at 2.475, 2.475, and 5.55 atmospheric pressure respectively. The capsules were imploded with 60 laser beams with a square pulse length of 0.6ns of total energy of 15.6 kJ. One-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic calculations with HYDRA and kinetic particle/hybrid simulations with LSP are carried out for the post-shot analysis. HYDRA outputs at 0.6ns are linked to LSP, in which the electrons are treated as a fluid while all the ion dynamics is simulated by the standard particle-in-cell technique. Additionally, simulations with the new photon package in LSP are initiated at the beginning of the implosion to include the implosion phase of the capsule. The simulation results of density, temperature, and velocity profiles of the electrons, D, T, He-3, and SiO2species are compared with HYDRA. Detail comparisons among the kinetic simulations, rad-hydro simulations, and experimental results of neutron yield, yield ratio, fusion burn histories, and shell convergence will be presented to assess plasma kinetic effects. Work performed under the auspices of the US DOE by the Los Alamos National Laboratory under Contract No. W7405-ENG-36.

  9. Load Designs For MJ Dense Plasma Foci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Link, A.; Povlius, A.; Anaya, R.; Anderson, M. G.; Angus, J. R.; Cooper, C. M.; Falabella, S.; Goerz, D.; Higginson, D.; Holod, I.; McMahon, M.; Mitrani, J.; Koh, E. S.; Pearson, A.; Podpaly, Y. A.; Prasad, R.; van Lue, D.; Watson, J.; Schmidt, A. E.

    2017-10-01

    Dense plasma focus (DPF) Z-pinches are compact pulse power driven devices with coaxial electrodes. The discharge of DPF consists of three distinct phases: first generation of a plasma sheath, plasma rail gun phase where the sheath is accelerated down the electrodes and finally an implosion phase where the plasma stagnates into a z-pinch geometry. During the z-pinch phase, DPFs can produce MeV ion beams, x-rays and neutrons. Megaampere class DPFs with deuterium fills have demonstrated neutron yields in the 1012 neutrons/shot range with pulse durations of 10-100 ns. Kinetic simulations using the code Chicago are being used to evaluate various load configurations from initial sheath formation to the final z-pinch phase for DPFs with up to 5 MA and 1 MJ coupled to the load. Results will be presented from the preliminary design simulations. LLNL-ABS-734785 This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and with support from the Computing Grand Challenge program at LLNL.

  10. Two-dimensional implosion simulations with a kinetic particle code [2D implosion simulations with a kinetic particle code

    SciTech Connect

    Sagert, Irina; Even, Wesley Paul; Strother, Terrance Timothy

    Here, we perform two-dimensional implosion simulations using a Monte Carlo kinetic particle code. The application of a kinetic transport code is motivated, in part, by the occurrence of nonequilibrium effects in inertial confinement fusion capsule implosions, which cannot be fully captured by hydrodynamic simulations. Kinetic methods, on the other hand, are able to describe both continuum and rarefied flows. We perform simple two-dimensional disk implosion simulations using one-particle species and compare the results to simulations with the hydrodynamics code rage. The impact of the particle mean free path on the implosion is also explored. In a second study, we focusmore » on the formation of fluid instabilities from induced perturbations. We find good agreement with hydrodynamic studies regarding the location of the shock and the implosion dynamics. Differences are found in the evolution of fluid instabilities, originating from the higher resolution of rage and statistical noise in the kinetic studies.« less

  11. Two-dimensional implosion simulations with a kinetic particle code [2D implosion simulations with a kinetic particle code

    DOE PAGES

    Sagert, Irina; Even, Wesley Paul; Strother, Terrance Timothy

    2017-05-17

    Here, we perform two-dimensional implosion simulations using a Monte Carlo kinetic particle code. The application of a kinetic transport code is motivated, in part, by the occurrence of nonequilibrium effects in inertial confinement fusion capsule implosions, which cannot be fully captured by hydrodynamic simulations. Kinetic methods, on the other hand, are able to describe both continuum and rarefied flows. We perform simple two-dimensional disk implosion simulations using one-particle species and compare the results to simulations with the hydrodynamics code rage. The impact of the particle mean free path on the implosion is also explored. In a second study, we focusmore » on the formation of fluid instabilities from induced perturbations. We find good agreement with hydrodynamic studies regarding the location of the shock and the implosion dynamics. Differences are found in the evolution of fluid instabilities, originating from the higher resolution of rage and statistical noise in the kinetic studies.« less

  12. Developing one-dimensional implosions for inertial confinement fusion science

    DOE PAGES

    Kline, John L.; Yi, Sunghwan A.; Simakov, Andrei Nikolaevich; ...

    2016-12-12

    Experiments on the National Ignition Facility show that multi-dimensional effects currently dominate the implosion performance. Low mode implosion symmetry and hydrodynamic instabilities seeded by capsule mounting features appear to be two key limiting factors for implosion performance. One reason these factors have a large impact on the performance of inertial confinement fusion implosions is the high convergence required to achieve high fusion gains. To tackle these problems, a predictable implosion platform is needed meaning experiments must trade-off high gain for performance. LANL has adopted three main approaches to develop a one-dimensional (1D) implosion platform where 1D means measured yield overmore » the 1D clean calculation. A high adiabat, low convergence platform is being developed using beryllium capsules enabling larger case-to-capsule ratios to improve symmetry. The second approach is liquid fuel layers using wetted foam targets. With liquid fuel layers, the implosion convergence can be controlled via the initial vapor pressure set by the target fielding temperature. The last method is double shell targets. For double shells, the smaller inner shell houses the DT fuel and the convergence of this cavity is relatively small compared to hot spot ignition. However, double shell targets have a different set of trade-off versus advantages. As a result, details for each of these approaches are described.« less

  13. Exploration of kinetic and multiple-ion-fluids effects in D3He and T3He gas-filled ICF implosions using multiple nuclear reaction histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sio, Hong; Rinderknecht, Hans; Rosenberg, Michael; Zylstra, Alex; Séguin, Fredrick; Gatu Johnson, Maria; Li, Chikang; Petrasso, Richard; Hoffman, Nelson; Kagan, Krigory; Molvig, Kim; Amendt, Peter; Bellei, Claudio; Wilks, Scott; Stoeckl, Christian; Glebov, Vladimir; Betti, Riccardo; Sangster, Thomas; Katz, Joseph

    2014-10-01

    To explore kinetic and multi-ion-fluid effects in D3He and T3He gas-filled shock-driven implosions, multiple nuclear reaction histories were measured using the upgraded Particle Temporal Diagnostic (PTD) on OMEGA. For D3He gas-filled implosions, the relative timing of the DD and D3He reaction histories were measured with 20 ps precision. For T3He gas-filled implosions (with 1-2% deuterium), the relative timing of the DT and D3He reaction histories were measured with 10 ps precision. The observed differences between the reaction histories on these two OMEGA experiments are contrasted to 1-D single-ion hydro simulations for different gas-fill pressure and gas mixture. This work is supported in part by the U.S. DOE, LLNL, LLE, and NNSA SSGF.

  14. Modeling, measuring, and mitigating instability growth in liner implosions on Z

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Kyle

    2015-11-01

    Electro-thermal instabilities result from non-uniform heating due to temperature dependence in the conductivity of a material. In this talk, we will discuss the role of electro-thermal instabilities on the dynamics of magnetically accelerated implosion systems. We present simulations that show electro-thermal instabilities form immediately after the surface material of a conductor melts and can act as a significant seed to subsequent magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instability growth. We discuss measurement results from experiments performed on Sandia National Laboratories Z accelerator to investigate signatures of electro-thermal instability growth on well-characterized initially solid aluminum or beryllium rods driven with a 20 MA, 100 ns risetime current pulse. These measurements show good agreement with electro-thermal instability simulations and exhibit larger instability growth than can be explained by MRT theory alone. Recent experiments have confirmed simulation predictions of dramatically reduced instability growth in solid metallic rods when thick dielectric coatings are used to mitigate density perturbations arising from the electro-thermal instability. These results provide further evidence that the inherent surface roughness of the target is not the dominant seed for the MRT instability, in contrast with most inertial confinement fusion approaches. These results suggest a new technique for substantially reducing the integral MRT growth in magnetically driven implosions. Indeed, recent results on the Z facility with 100 km/s Al and Be liner implosions show substantially reduced growth. These new results include axially magnetized, CH-coated beryllium liner radiographs in which the inner liner surface is observed to be remarkably straight and uniform at a radius of about 120 microns (convergence ratio ~20). Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under

  15. Update on 2-D OMEGA Capsule Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Paul

    2017-10-01

    We have an upgraded laser energy deposition package in our AMR-Eulerian radiation-hydrodynamic code called RAGE. As part of our validation effort, we ran 2-D simulations for a series of OMEGA direct drive implosion capsules that have shell thickness ranging from 7.2 to 29.3 μm and different gas fills. These simulations include the effect of surface roughness, laser spot non-uniformity, the mounting stalk, and the glue spot. We examined the sensitivity of our simulated results to mesh resolution and mix model. Our simulated results compare well to the experimental yield, ion temperature, burn width, and x-ray size data. Work performed by Los Alamos National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396 for the National Nuclear Security Administration of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  16. Ensemble simulations of inertial confinement fusion implosions

    DOE PAGES

    Nora, Ryan; Peterson, Jayson Luc; Spears, Brian Keith; ...

    2017-05-24

    The achievement of inertial confinement fusion ignition on the National Ignition Facility relies on the collection and interpretation of a limited (and expensive) set of experimental data. These data are therefore supplemented with state-of-the-art multi-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic simulations to provide a better understanding of implosion dynamics and behavior. We present a relatively large number (~4000) of systematically perturbed 2D simulations to probe our understanding of low-mode fuel and ablator asymmetries seeded by asymmetric illumination. We find that Gaussian process surrogate models are able to predict both the total neutron yield and the degradation in performance due to asymmetries. Furthermore, the surrogatesmore » are then applied to simulations containing new sources of degradation to quantify the impact of the new source.« less

  17. On the analysis of shock implosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishkin, Eli A.; Alejaldre, Carlos

    1984-06-01

    An imploding shock wave, coming from infinity, moves through an ideal gas with the adiabatic constant γ. To define a single-valued self-similar coefficient λ(γ), over the whole classical interval 1 < γ < ∞, its boundary values λ(1), λ(∞) are deduced. The conservation equations, cast in form of quadratics, exhibit their singular points P,M,M‧. At P the pressure is maximum, at M the velocity of the gas U1, minus ξ, equals the speed of sound C, at M‧ there is a linear relationship between U1, U˙1 and C. The representative curve of the compressed gas passes analytically through all of them. The relative position of P, M, M‧ leads to three solutions of the quadratic conservation equations. Representative curves of the state of the imploded gas, at various values of γ, are shown. The errors associated with the idealized models of implosion and explosion are evaluated.

  18. Increased shell entropy as an explanation for observed decreased shell areal densities in OMEGA implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Nelson; Herrmann, Hans; Kim, Yongho

    2014-10-01

    A reduced ion-kinetic (RIK) model used in hydrodynamic simulations has had some success in explaining time- and space-averaged observables characterizing the fusion fuel in hot low-density ICF capsule implosions driven by 1-ns 60-beam laser pulses at OMEGA. But observables characterizing the capsule shell, e.g., the areal density of 12C in a plastic shell, have proved harder to explain. Recently we have found that assuming the shell has higher entropy than expected in a 1D laser-driven RIK simulation allows an explanation of the observed values of 12C areal density, and its dependence on initial shell thickness in a set of DT-filled plastic capsules. If, for example, a 15- μm CH shell implodes on an adiabat two to three times higher than predicted in a typical unmodified RIK simulation, the calculated burn-averaged shell areal density decreases from ~80 mg/cm2 in the unmodified simulation to the observed value of ~25 mg/cm2. We discuss possible mechanisms that could lead to increased entropy in such implosions. Research supported by U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  19. Systematic Versus Semantic Desensitization and Implosive Therapy: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hekmat, Hamid

    1973-01-01

    In this study, both the semantic and systematic desensitization methods were found to be significantly more effective than the implosive therapy and the control treatments in the modification of phobic behavior among the college student population. (Author)

  20. X-pinch dynamics: Neck formation and implosion

    SciTech Connect

    Oreshkin, V. I.; National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Ave., Tomsk 634050; Chaikovsky, S. A.

    2014-10-15

    We propose a model that describes the neck formation and implosion in an X-pinch. The process is simulated to go in two stages. The first stage is neck formation. This stage begins with an electrical explosion of the wires forming the X-pinch, and at the end of the stage, a micropinch (neck) is formed in the region where the wires are crossed. The second stage is neck implosion. The implosion is accompanied by outflow of matter from the neck region, resulting in the formation of a “hot spot”. Analytical estimates obtained in the study under consideration indicate that these stagesmore » are approximately equal in duration. Having analyzed the neck implosion dynamics, we have verified a scaling which makes it possible to explain the observed dependences of the time of occurrence of an x-ray pulse on the X-pinch current and mass.« less

  1. Performance of High-Convergence, Layered DT Implosions on Power-Scaling Experiments at National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Smalyuk, V. A.; Atherton, L. J.; Benedetti, L. R.

    The radiation-driven, low-adiabat, cryogenic DT layered plastic capsule implosions were carried out on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to study the sensitivity of performance to peak power and drive duration. An implosion with extended drive and at reduced peak power of 350 TW achieved the highest compression with fuel areal density of ~1.3±0.1 g/cm 2, representing a significant step from previously measured ~1.0 g/cm 2 toward a goal of 1.5 g/cm 2. Moreover, for future experiments will focus on understanding and mitigating hydrodynamic instabilities and mix, and improving symmetry required to reach the threshold for thermonuclear ignition on NIF.

  2. Performance of High-Convergence, Layered DT Implosions on Power-Scaling Experiments at National Ignition Facility

    DOE PAGES

    Smalyuk, V. A.; Atherton, L. J.; Benedetti, L. R.; ...

    2013-10-19

    The radiation-driven, low-adiabat, cryogenic DT layered plastic capsule implosions were carried out on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to study the sensitivity of performance to peak power and drive duration. An implosion with extended drive and at reduced peak power of 350 TW achieved the highest compression with fuel areal density of ~1.3±0.1 g/cm 2, representing a significant step from previously measured ~1.0 g/cm 2 toward a goal of 1.5 g/cm 2. Moreover, for future experiments will focus on understanding and mitigating hydrodynamic instabilities and mix, and improving symmetry required to reach the threshold for thermonuclear ignition on NIF.

  3. Improving cryogenic deuterium–tritium implosion performance on OMEGA

    SciTech Connect

    Sangster, T. C.; Goncharov, V. N.; Betti, R.

    2013-05-15

    A flexible direct-drive target platform is used to implode cryogenic deuterium–tritium (DT) capsules on the OMEGA laser [Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. The goal of these experiments is to demonstrate ignition hydrodynamically equivalent performance where the laser drive intensity, the implosion velocity, the fuel adiabat, and the in-flight aspect ratio (IFAR) are the same as those for a 1.5-MJ target [Goncharov et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 165001 (2010)] designed to ignite on the National Ignition Facility [Hogan et al., Nucl. Fusion 41, 567 (2001)]. The results from a series of 29 cryogenic DT implosions are presented.more » The implosions were designed to span a broad region of design space to study target performance as a function of shell stability (adiabat) and implosion velocity. Ablation-front perturbation growth appears to limit target performance at high implosion velocities. Target outer-surface defects associated with contaminant gases in the DT fuel are identified as the dominant perturbation source at the ablation surface; performance degradation is confirmed by 2D hydrodynamic simulations that include these defects. A trend in the value of the Lawson criterion [Betti et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 058102 (2010)] for each of the implosions in adiabat–IFAR space suggests the existence of a stability boundary that leads to ablator mixing into the hot spot for the most ignition-equivalent designs.« less

  4. Improving cryogenic deuterium tritium implosion performance on OMEGA

    SciTech Connect

    Sangster, T. C.; Goncharov, V. N.; Betti, R.

    2013-01-01

    A flexible direct-drive target platform is used to implode cryogenic deuterium–tritium (DT) capsules on the OMEGA laser [Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. The goal of these experiments is to demonstrate ignition hydrodynamically equivalent performance where the laser drive intensity, the implosion velocity, the fuel adiabat, and the in-flight aspect ratio (IFAR) are the same as those for a 1.5-MJ target [Goncharov et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 165001 (2010)] designed to ignite on the National Ignition Facility [Hogan et al., Nucl. Fusion 41, 567 (2001)]. The results from a series of 29 cryogenic DT implosions are presented.more » The implosions were designed to span a broad region of design space to study target performance as a function of shell stability (adiabat) and implosion velocity. Ablation-front perturbation growth appears to limit target performance at high implosion velocities. Target outer-surface defects associated with contaminant gases in the DT fuel are identified as the dominant perturbation source at the ablation surface; performance degradation is confirmed by 2D hydrodynamic simulations that include these defects. A trend in the value of the Lawson criterion [Betti et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 058102 (2010)] for each of the implosions in adiabat–IFAR space suggests the existence of a stability boundary that leads to ablator mixing into the hot spot for the most ignition-equivalent designs.« less

  5. Beryllium liner implosion experiments on the Z accelerator in preparation for magnetized liner inertial fusiona)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, R. D.; Martin, M. R.; Lemke, R. W.; Greenly, J. B.; Jennings, C. A.; Rovang, D. C.; Sinars, D. B.; Cuneo, M. E.; Herrmann, M. C.; Slutz, S. A.; Nakhleh, C. W.; Ryutov, D. D.; Davis, J.-P.; Flicker, D. G.; Blue, B. E.; Tomlinson, K.; Schroen, D.; Stamm, R. M.; Smith, G. E.; Moore, J. K.; Rogers, T. J.; Robertson, G. K.; Kamm, R. J.; Smith, I. C.; Savage, M.; Stygar, W. A.; Rochau, G. A.; Jones, M.; Lopez, M. R.; Porter, J. L.; Matzen, M. K.

    2013-05-01

    Multiple experimental campaigns have been executed to study the implosions of initially solid beryllium (Be) liners (tubes) on the Z pulsed-power accelerator. The implosions were driven by current pulses that rose from 0 to 20 MA in either 100 or 200 ns (200 ns for pulse shaping experiments). These studies were conducted in support of the recently proposed Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion concept [Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)], as well as for exploring novel equation-of-state measurement techniques. The experiments used thick-walled liners that had an aspect ratio (initial outer radius divided by initial wall thickness) of either 3.2, 4, or 6. From these studies, we present three new primary results. First, we present radiographic images of imploding Be liners, where each liner contained a thin aluminum sleeve for enhancing the contrast and visibility of the liner's inner surface in the images. These images allow us to assess the stability of the liner's inner surface more accurately and more directly than was previously possible. Second, we present radiographic images taken early in the implosion (prior to any motion of the liner's inner surface) of a shockwave propagating radially inward through the liner wall. Radial mass density profiles from these shock compression experiments are contrasted with profiles from experiments where the Z accelerator's pulse shaping capabilities were used to achieve shockless ("quasi-isentropic") liner compression. Third, we present "micro-Ḃ" measurements of azimuthal magnetic field penetration into the initially vacuum-filled interior of a shocked liner. Our measurements and simulations reveal that the penetration commences shortly after the shockwave breaks out from the liner's inner surface. The field then accelerates this low-density "precursor" plasma to the axis of symmetry.

  6. Beryllium liner implosion experiments on the Z accelerator in preparation for magnetized liner inertial fusion

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, R. D.; Martin, M. R.; Lemke, R. W.

    Multiple experimental campaigns have been executed to study the implosions of initially solid beryllium (Be) liners (tubes) on the Z pulsed-power accelerator. The implosions were driven by current pulses that rose from 0 to 20 MA in either 100 or 200 ns (200 ns for pulse shaping experiments). These studies were conducted in support of the recently proposed Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion concept [Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)], as well as for exploring novel equation-of-state measurement techniques. The experiments used thick-walled liners that had an aspect ratio (initial outer radius divided by initial wall thickness) of eithermore » 3.2, 4, or 6. From these studies, we present three new primary results. First, we present radiographic images of imploding Be liners, where each liner contained a thin aluminum sleeve for enhancing the contrast and visibility of the liner's inner surface in the images. These images allow us to assess the stability of the liner's inner surface more accurately and more directly than was previously possible. Second, we present radiographic images taken early in the implosion (prior to any motion of the liner's inner surface) of a shockwave propagating radially inward through the liner wall. Radial mass density profiles from these shock compression experiments are contrasted with profiles from experiments where the Z accelerator's pulse shaping capabilities were used to achieve shockless (“quasi-isentropic”) liner compression. Third, we present “micro-B-dot ” measurements of azimuthal magnetic field penetration into the initially vacuum-filled interior of a shocked liner. Our measurements and simulations reveal that the penetration commences shortly after the shockwave breaks out from the liner's inner surface. The field then accelerates this low-density “precursor” plasma to the axis of symmetry.« less

  7. Implosion Source Development and Diego Garcia Reflections

    SciTech Connect

    Harben, P E; Boro, C

    2001-06-01

    Calibration of hydroacoustic stations for nuclear explosion monitoring is important for increasing monitoring capability and confidence from newly installed stations and from existing stations. Past work at Ascension Island has shown that ship-towed airguns can be effectively used for local calibrations such as sensor location, amplitude and phase response, and T-phase coupling in the case of T-phase stations. At regional and ocean-basin distances from a station, the calibration focus is on acoustic travel time, transmission loss, bathymetric shadowing, diffraction, and reflection as recorded at a particular station. Such station calibrations will lead to an overall network calibration that seeks tomore » maximize detection, location, and discrimination capability of events with acoustic signatures. Active-source calibration of hydroacoustic stations at regional and ocean-basin scales has not been attempted to date, but we have made significant headway addressing how such calibrations could be accomplished. We have developed an imploding sphere source that can be used instead of explosives on research and commercial vessels without restriction. The imploding sphere has been modeled using the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory hydrodynamic code CALE and shown to agree with field data. The need for boosted energy in the monitoring band (2-100 Hz) has led us to develop a 5-sphere implosion device that was tested in the Pacific Ocean earlier this year. Boosting the energy in the monitoring band can be accomplished by a combination of increasing the implosion volume (i.e. the 5-sphere device) and imploding at shallower depths. Although active source calibrations will be necessary at particular locations and for particular objectives, the newly installed Diego Garcia station in the Indian Ocean has shown that earthquakes can be used to help understand regional blockages and the locations responsible for observed hydroacoustic reflections. We have analyzed several

  8. High Foot Implosion Experiments in Rugby Hohlraums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralph, Joseph; Leidinger, J.-P.; Callahan, D.; Kaiser, P.; Morice, O.; Marion, D.; Moody, J. D.; Ross, J. S.; Amendt, P.; Kritcher, A. L.; Milovich, J. L.; Strozzi, D.; Hinkel, D.; Michel, P.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; Pak, A.; Dewald, E. L.; Divol, L.; Khan, S.; Rygg, R.; Hurricane, O.; Lawrence Livermore National Lab Team; CEA/DAM Team

    2015-11-01

    The rugby hohlraum design is aimed at providing uniform x-ray drive on the capsule while minimizing the need for crossed beam energy transfer (CBET). As part of a series of experiments at the NIF using rugby hohlraums, design improvements in dual axis shock tuning experiments produced some of the most symmetric shocks measured on implosion experiments at the NIF. Additionally, tuning of the in-flight shell and hot spot shape have demonstrated that capsules can be tuned between oblate and prolate with measured velocities of nearly 340 km/s. However, these experimental measurements were accompanied by high levels of Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) that may result from the long inner beam path length, reamplification of the inner SRS by the outers, significant (CBET) or a combination of these. All rugby shots results were achieved with lower levels of hot electrons that can preheat the DT fuel layer for increased adiabat and reduced areal density. Detailed results from these experiments and those planned throughout the summer will be presented and compared with results obtained from cylindrical hohlraums. This work performed under the auspices of U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Lab under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  9. Explosion-Induced Implosions of Cylindrical Shell Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, C. M.; Duncan, J. H.

    2010-11-01

    An experimental study of the explosion-induced implosion of cylindrical shell structures in a high-pressure water environment was performed. The shell structures are filled with air at atmospheric pressure and are placed in a large water-filled pressure vessel. The vessel is then pressurized to various levels P∞=αPc, where Pc is the natural implosion pressure of the model and α is a factor that ranges from 0.1 to 0.9. An explosive is then set off at various standoff distances, d, from the model center line, where d varies from R to 10R and R is the maximum radius of the explosion bubble. High-speed photography (27,000 fps) was used to observe the explosion and resulting shell structure implosion. High-frequency underwater blast sensors recorded dynamic pressure waves at 6 positions. The cylindrical models were made from aluminum (diameter D = 39.1 mm, wall thickness t = 0.89 mm, length L = 240 mm) and brass (D = 16.7 mm, t = 0.36 mm, L=152 mm) tubes. The pressure records are interpreted in light of the high-speed movies. It is found that the implosion is induced by two mechanisms: the shockwave generated by the explosion and the jet formed during the explosion-bubble collapse. Whether an implosion is caused by the shockwave or the jet depends on the maximum bubble diameter and the standoff distance.

  10. Three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of OMEGA implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igumenshchev, I. V.; Michel, D. T.; Shah, R. C.; Campbell, E. M.; Epstein, R.; Forrest, C. J.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Goncharov, V. N.; Knauer, J. P.; Marshall, F. J.; McCrory, R. L.; Regan, S. P.; Sangster, T. C.; Stoeckl, C.; Schmitt, A. J.; Obenschain, S.

    2017-05-01

    The effects of large-scale (with Legendre modes ≲ 10) asymmetries in OMEGA direct-drive implosions caused by laser illumination nonuniformities (beam-power imbalance and beam mispointing and mistiming), target offset, and variation in target-layer thickness were investigated using the low-noise, three-dimensional Eulerian hydrodynamic code ASTER. Simulations indicate that these asymmetries can significantly degrade the implosion performance. The most important sources of the asymmetries are the target offsets ( ˜10 to 20 μm), beam-power imbalance ( σrms˜10 %), and variations ( ˜5 %) in target-layer thickness. Large-scale asymmetries distort implosion cores, resulting in a reduced hot-spot confinement and an increased residual kinetic energy of implosion targets. The ion temperature inferred from the width of simulated neutron spectra is influenced by bulk fuel motion in the distorted hot spot and can result in up to an ˜1 -keV increase in apparent temperature. Similar temperature variations along different lines of sight are observed. Demonstrating hydrodynamic equivalence to ignition designs on OMEGA requires a reduction in large-scale target and laser-imposed nonuniformities, minimizing target offset, and employing highly efficient mid-adiabat (α = 4) implosion designs, which mitigate cross-beam energy transfer and suppress short-wavelength Rayleigh-Taylor growth.

  11. New and improved CH implosions at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkel, D. E.; Doeppner, T.; Kritcher, A. L.; Ralph, J. E.; Jarrott, L. C.; Albert, F.; Benedetti, L. R.; Field, J. E.; Goyon, C. S.; Hohenberger, M.; Izumi, N.; Milovich, J. L.; Bachmann, B.; Casey, D. T.; Yeamans, C. B.; Callahan, D. A.; Hurricane, O. A.

    2017-10-01

    Improvements to the hohlraum for CH implosions have resulted in near-record hot spot pressures, 225 Gbar. Implosion symmetry and laser energy coupling are improved by using a hohlraum that, compared to the previous high gas-fill hohlraum, is longer, larger, at lower gas fill density, and is fielded at zero wavelength separation to minimize cross-beam energy transfer. With a capsule at 90% of its original size in this hohlraum, implosion symmetry changes from oblate to prolate, at 33% cone fraction. Simulations highlight improved inner beam propagation as the cause of this symmetry change. These implosions have produced the highest yield for CH ablators at modest power and energy, i.e., 360 TW and 1.4 MJ. Upcoming experiments focus on continued improvement in shape as well as an increase in implosion velocity. Further, results and future plans on an increase in capsule size to improve margin will also be presented. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. D.O.E. by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  12. Ultra High Mode Mix in NIF NIC Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Robbie; Garbett, Warren

    2017-10-01

    This work re-examines a sub-set of the low adiabat implosions from the National Ignition Campaign in an effort to better understand potential phenomenological sources of `excess' mix observed experimentally. An extensive effort has been made to match both shock-timing and backlit radiography (Con-A) implosion data in an effort to reproduce the experimental conditions as accurately as possible. Notably a 30% reduction in ablation pressure at peak drive is required to match the experimental data. The reduced ablation pressure required to match the experimental data allows the ablator to decompress, in turn causing the DT ice-ablator interface to go Rayleigh-Taylor unstable early in the implosion acceleration phase. Post-processing the runs with various mix models indicates high-mode mix from the DT ice-ablator interface may penetrate deep into the hotspot. This work offers a potential explanation of why these low-adiabat implosions exhibited significantly higher levels of mix than expected from high-fidelity multi-dimensional simulations. Through this new understanding, a possible route forward for low-adiabat implosions on NIF is suggested.

  13. Unambiguous Evidence of Coronal Implosions during Solar Eruptions and Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juntao; Simões, P. J. A.; Fletcher, L.

    2018-05-01

    In the implosion conjecture, coronal loops contract as the result of magnetic energy release in solar eruptions and flares. However, after almost two decades, observations of this phenomenon are still rare and most previous reports are plagued by projection effects so that loop contraction could be either true implosion or just a change in loop inclination. In this paper, to demonstrate the reality of loop contractions in the global coronal dynamics, we present four events with the continuously contracting loops in an almost edge-on geometry from the perspective of SDO/AIA, which are free from the ambiguity caused by the projection effects, also supplemented by contemporary observations from STEREO for examination. In the wider context of observations, simulations and theories, we argue that the implosion conjecture is valid in interpreting these events. Furthermore, distinct properties of the events allow us to identify two physical categories of implosion. One type demonstrates a rapid contraction at the beginning of the flare impulsive phase, as magnetic free energy is removed rapidly by a filament eruption. The other type, which has no visible eruption, shows a continuous loop shrinkage during the entire flare impulsive phase, which we suggest shows the ongoing conversion of magnetic free energy in a coronal volume. Corresponding scenarios are described that can provide reasonable explanations for the observations. We also point out that implosions may be suppressed in cases when a heavily mass-loaded filament is involved, possibly serving as an alternative account for their observational rarity.

  14. Demonstration of High Performance in Layered Deuterium-Tritium Capsule Implosions in Uranium Hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Döppner, T; Callahan, D A; Hurricane, O A; Hinkel, D E; Ma, T; Park, H-S; Berzak Hopkins, L F; Casey, D T; Celliers, P; Dewald, E L; Dittrich, T R; Haan, S W; Kritcher, A L; MacPhee, A; Le Pape, S; Pak, A; Patel, P K; Springer, P T; Salmonson, J D; Tommasini, R; Benedetti, L R; Bond, E; Bradley, D K; Caggiano, J; Church, J; Dixit, S; Edgell, D; Edwards, M J; Fittinghoff, D N; Frenje, J; Gatu Johnson, M; Grim, G; Hatarik, R; Havre, M; Herrmann, H; Izumi, N; Khan, S F; Kline, J L; Knauer, J; Kyrala, G A; Landen, O L; Merrill, F E; Moody, J; Moore, A S; Nikroo, A; Ralph, J E; Remington, B A; Robey, H F; Sayre, D; Schneider, M; Streckert, H; Town, R; Turnbull, D; Volegov, P L; Wan, A; Widmann, K; Wilde, C H; Yeamans, C

    2015-07-31

    We report on the first layered deuterium-tritium (DT) capsule implosions indirectly driven by a "high-foot" laser pulse that were fielded in depleted uranium hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility. Recently, high-foot implosions have demonstrated improved resistance to ablation-front Rayleigh-Taylor instability induced mixing of ablator material into the DT hot spot [Hurricane et al., Nature (London) 506, 343 (2014)]. Uranium hohlraums provide a higher albedo and thus an increased drive equivalent to an additional 25 TW laser power at the peak of the drive compared to standard gold hohlraums leading to higher implosion velocity. Additionally, we observe an improved hot-spot shape closer to round which indicates enhanced drive from the waist. In contrast to findings in the National Ignition Campaign, now all of our highest performing experiments have been done in uranium hohlraums and achieved total yields approaching 10^{16} neutrons where more than 50% of the yield was due to additional heating of alpha particles stopping in the DT fuel.

  15. Demonstration of High Performance in Layered Deuterium-Tritium Capsule Implosions in Uranium Hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Döppner, T.; Callahan, D. A.; Hurricane, O. A.

    We report on the first layered deuterium-tritium (DT) capsule implosions indirectly driven by a “highfoot” laser pulse that were fielded in depleted uranium hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility. Recently, high-foot implosions have demonstrated improved resistance to ablation-front Rayleigh-Taylor instability induced mixing of ablator material into the DT hot spot [Hurricane et al., Nature (London) 506, 343 (2014)]. Uranium hohlraums provide a higher albedo and thus an increased drive equivalent to an additional 25 TW laser power at the peak of the drive compared to standard gold hohlraums leading to higher implosion velocity. Additionally, we observe an improved hot-spot shapemore » closer to round which indicates enhanced drive from the waist. In contrast to findings in the National Ignition Campaign, now all of our highest performing experiments have been done in uranium hohlraums and achieved total yields approaching 10 16 neutrons where more than 50% of the yield was due to additional heating of alpha particles stopping in the DT fuel.« less

  16. Demonstration of High Performance in Layered Deuterium-Tritium Capsule Implosions in Uranium Hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility

    DOE PAGES

    Döppner, T.; Callahan, D. A.; Hurricane, O. A.; ...

    2015-07-28

    We report on the first layered deuterium-tritium (DT) capsule implosions indirectly driven by a “highfoot” laser pulse that were fielded in depleted uranium hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility. Recently, high-foot implosions have demonstrated improved resistance to ablation-front Rayleigh-Taylor instability induced mixing of ablator material into the DT hot spot [Hurricane et al., Nature (London) 506, 343 (2014)]. Uranium hohlraums provide a higher albedo and thus an increased drive equivalent to an additional 25 TW laser power at the peak of the drive compared to standard gold hohlraums leading to higher implosion velocity. Additionally, we observe an improved hot-spot shapemore » closer to round which indicates enhanced drive from the waist. In contrast to findings in the National Ignition Campaign, now all of our highest performing experiments have been done in uranium hohlraums and achieved total yields approaching 10 16 neutrons where more than 50% of the yield was due to additional heating of alpha particles stopping in the DT fuel.« less

  17. Three-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Simulations of OMEGA Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igumenshchev, I. V.

    2016-10-01

    The effects of large-scale (with Legendre modes less than 30) asymmetries in OMEGA direct-drive implosions caused by laser illumination nonuniformities (beam-power imbalance and beam mispointing and mistiming) and target offset, mount, and layers nonuniformities were investigated using three-dimensional (3-D) hydrodynamic simulations. Simulations indicate that the performance degradation in cryogenic implosions is caused mainly by the target offsets ( 10 to 20 μm), beampower imbalance (σrms 10 %), and initial target asymmetry ( 5% ρRvariation), which distort implosion cores, resulting in a reduced hot-spot confinement and an increased residual kinetic energy of the stagnated target. The ion temperature inferred from the width of simulated neutron spectra are influenced by bulk fuel motion in the distorted hot spot and can result in up to 2-keV apparent temperature increase. Similar temperature variations along different lines of sight are observed. Simulated x-ray images of implosion cores in the 4- to 8-keV energy range show good agreement with experiments. Demonstrating hydrodynamic equivalence to ignition designs on OMEGA requires reducing large-scale target and laser-imposed nonuniformities, minimizing target offset, and employing high-efficient mid-adiabat (α = 4) implosion designs that mitigate cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) and suppress short-wavelength Rayleigh-Taylor growth. These simulations use a new low-noise 3-D Eulerian hydrodynamic code ASTER. Existing 3-D hydrodynamic codes for direct-drive implosions currently miss CBET and noise-free ray-trace laser deposition algorithms. ASTER overcomes these limitations using a simplified 3-D laser-deposition model, which includes CBET and is capable of simulating the effects of beam-power imbalance, beam mispointing, mistiming, and target offset. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  18. Variable convergence liquid layer implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zylstra, A. B.; Yi, S. A.; Haines, B. M.; Olson, R. E.; Leeper, R. J.; Braun, T.; Biener, J.; Kline, J. L.; Batha, S. H.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; Bhandarkar, S.; Bradley, P. A.; Crippen, J.; Farrell, M.; Fittinghoff, D.; Herrmann, H. W.; Huang, H.; Khan, S.; Kong, C.; Kozioziemski, B. J.; Kyrala, G. A.; Ma, T.; Meezan, N. B.; Merrill, F.; Nikroo, A.; Peterson, R. R.; Rice, N.; Sater, J. D.; Shah, R. C.; Stadermann, M.; Volegov, P.; Walters, C.; Wilson, D. C.

    2018-05-01

    Liquid layer implosions using the "wetted foam" technique, where the liquid fuel is wicked into a supporting foam, have been recently conducted on the National Ignition Facility for the first time [Olson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 245001 (2016)]. We report on a series of wetted foam implosions where the convergence ratio was varied between 12 and 20. Reduced nuclear performance is observed as convergence ratio increases. 2-D radiation-hydrodynamics simulations accurately capture the performance at convergence ratios (CR) ˜ 12, but we observe a significant discrepancy at CR ˜ 20. This may be due to suppressed hot-spot formation or an anomalous energy loss mechanism.

  19. Performance and Mix Measurements of Indirect Drive Cu-Doped Be Implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, D.  T.; Woods, D. T.; Smalyuk, V. A.

    2015-05-19

    The ablator couples energy between the driver and fusion fuel in inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Because of its low opacity, high solid density, and material properties, beryllium has long been considered an ideal ablator for ICF ignition experiments at the National Ignition Facility. We report here the first indirect drive Be implosions driven with shaped laser pulses and diagnosed with fusion yield at the OMEGA laser. The results show good performance with an average DD neutron yield of ~2 × 10⁹ at a convergence ratio of R₀/R ~ 10 and little impact due to the growth of hydrodynamic instabilities andmore » mix. In addition, the effect of adding an inner liner of W between the Be and DD is demonstrated.« less

  20. Effect of the axial magnetic field on a metallic gas-puff pinch implosion

    SciTech Connect

    Rousskikh, A. G.; Zhigalin, A. S.; Frolova, V.

    2016-06-15

    The effect of an axial magnetic field B{sub z} on an imploding metallic gas-puff Z-pinch was studied using 2D time-gated visible self-emission imaging. Experiments were performed on the IMRI-5 generator (450 kA, 450 ns). The ambient field B{sub z} was varied from 0.15 to 1.35 T. It was found that the initial density profile of a metallic gas-puff Z-pinch can be approximated by a power law. Time-gated images showed that the magneto-Rayleigh–Taylor instabilities were suppressed during the run-in phase both without axial magnetic field and with axial magnetic field. Helical instability structures were detected during the stagnation phase for B{sub z} < 1.1 T. For B{submore » z} = 1.35 T, the pinch plasma boundary was observed to be stable in both run-in and stagnation phases. When a magnetic field of 0.3 T was applied to the pinch, the soft x-ray energy was about twice that generated without axial magnetic field, mostly due to longer dwell time at stagnation.« less

  1. Three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of OMEGA implosions

    DOE PAGES

    Igumenshchev, I. V.; Michel, D. T.; Shah, R. C.; ...

    2017-03-30

    Here, the effects of large-scale (with Legendre modes ≲10) asymmetries in OMEGA direct-drive implosions caused by laser illumination nonuniformities (beam-power imbalance and beam mispointing and mistiming), target offset, and variation in target-layer thickness were investigated using the low-noise, three-dimensional Eulerian hydrodynamic code ASTER. Simulations indicate that these asymmetries can significantly degrade the implosion performance. The most important sources of the asymmetries are the target offsets (~10 to 20 μm), beam-power imbalance (σ rms ~ 10%), and variations (~5%) in target-layer thickness. Large-scale asymmetries distort implosion cores, resulting in a reduced hot-spot confinement and an increased residual kinetic energy of implosionmore » targets. The ion temperature inferred from the width of simulated neutron spectra is influenced by bulk fuel motion in the distorted hot spot and can result in up to an ~1 -keV increase in apparent temperature. Similar temperature variations along different lines of sight are observed. Demonstrating hydrodynamic equivalence to ignition designs on OMEGA requires a reduction in large-scale target and laser-imposed nonuniformities, minimizing target offset, and employing highly efficient mid-adiabat (α = 4) implosion designs, which mitigate cross-beam energy transfer and suppress short-wavelength Rayleigh–Taylor growth.« less

  2. Three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of OMEGA implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Igumenshchev, I. V.; Michel, D. T.; Shah, R. C.

    Here, the effects of large-scale (with Legendre modes ≲10) asymmetries in OMEGA direct-drive implosions caused by laser illumination nonuniformities (beam-power imbalance and beam mispointing and mistiming), target offset, and variation in target-layer thickness were investigated using the low-noise, three-dimensional Eulerian hydrodynamic code ASTER. Simulations indicate that these asymmetries can significantly degrade the implosion performance. The most important sources of the asymmetries are the target offsets (~10 to 20 μm), beam-power imbalance (σ rms ~ 10%), and variations (~5%) in target-layer thickness. Large-scale asymmetries distort implosion cores, resulting in a reduced hot-spot confinement and an increased residual kinetic energy of implosionmore » targets. The ion temperature inferred from the width of simulated neutron spectra is influenced by bulk fuel motion in the distorted hot spot and can result in up to an ~1 -keV increase in apparent temperature. Similar temperature variations along different lines of sight are observed. Demonstrating hydrodynamic equivalence to ignition designs on OMEGA requires a reduction in large-scale target and laser-imposed nonuniformities, minimizing target offset, and employing highly efficient mid-adiabat (α = 4) implosion designs, which mitigate cross-beam energy transfer and suppress short-wavelength Rayleigh–Taylor growth.« less

  3. Validating Hydrodynamic Growth in National Ignition Facility Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, J. Luc

    2014-10-01

    The hydrodynamic growth of capsule imperfections can threaten the success of inertial confinement fusion implosions. Therefore, it is important to design implosions that are robust to hydrodynamic instabilities. However, the numerical simulation of interacting Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov growth in these implosions is sensitive to modeling uncertainties such as radiation drive and material equations of state, the effects of which are especially apparent at high mode number (small perturbation wavelength) and high convergence ratio (small capsule radius). A series of validation experiments were conducted at the National Ignition Facility to test the ability to model hydrodynamic growth in spherically converging ignition-relevant implosions. These experiments on the Hydro-Growth Radiography platform constituted direct measurements of the growth of pre-imposed imperfections up to Legendre mode 160 and a convergence ratio of greater than four using two different laser drives: a ``low-foot'' drive used during the National Ignition Campaign and a larger adiabat ``high-foot'' drive that is modeled to be relatively more robust to ablation front hydrodynamic growth. We will discuss these experiments and how their results compare to numerical simulations and analytic theories of hydrodynamic growth, as well as their implications for the modeling of future designs. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  4. 2D Implosion Simulations with a Kinetic Particle Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagert, Irina; Even, Wesley; Strother, Terrance

    2017-10-01

    Many problems in laboratory and plasma physics are subject to flows that move between the continuum and the kinetic regime. We discuss two-dimensional (2D) implosion simulations that were performed using a Monte Carlo kinetic particle code. The application of kinetic transport theory is motivated, in part, by the occurrence of non-equilibrium effects in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsule implosions, which cannot be fully captured by hydrodynamics simulations. Kinetic methods, on the other hand, are able to describe both, continuum and rarefied flows. We perform simple 2D disk implosion simulations using one particle species and compare the results to simulations with the hydrodynamics code RAGE. The impact of the particle mean-free-path on the implosion is also explored. In a second study, we focus on the formation of fluid instabilities from induced perturbations. I.S. acknowledges support through the Director's fellowship from Los Alamos National Laboratory. This research used resources provided by the LANL Institutional Computing Program.

  5. Fuel gain exceeding unity in an inertially confined fusion implosion.

    PubMed

    Hurricane, O A; Callahan, D A; Casey, D T; Celliers, P M; Cerjan, C; Dewald, E L; Dittrich, T R; Döppner, T; Hinkel, D E; Berzak Hopkins, L F; Kline, J L; Le Pape, S; Ma, T; MacPhee, A G; Milovich, J L; Pak, A; Park, H-S; Patel, P K; Remington, B A; Salmonson, J D; Springer, P T; Tommasini, R

    2014-02-20

    Ignition is needed to make fusion energy a viable alternative energy source, but has yet to be achieved. A key step on the way to ignition is to have the energy generated through fusion reactions in an inertially confined fusion plasma exceed the amount of energy deposited into the deuterium-tritium fusion fuel and hotspot during the implosion process, resulting in a fuel gain greater than unity. Here we report the achievement of fusion fuel gains exceeding unity on the US National Ignition Facility using a 'high-foot' implosion method, which is a manipulation of the laser pulse shape in a way that reduces instability in the implosion. These experiments show an order-of-magnitude improvement in yield performance over past deuterium-tritium implosion experiments. We also see a significant contribution to the yield from α-particle self-heating and evidence for the 'bootstrapping' required to accelerate the deuterium-tritium fusion burn to eventually 'run away' and ignite.

  6. First beryllium capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, J. L.; Yi, S. A.; Simakov, A. N.

    2016-05-15

    The first indirect drive implosion experiments using Beryllium (Be) capsules at the National Ignition Facility confirm the superior ablation properties and elucidate possible Be-ablator issues such as hohlraum filling by ablator material. Since the 1990s, Be has been the preferred Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) ablator because of its higher mass ablation rate compared to that of carbon-based ablators. This enables ICF target designs with higher implosion velocities at lower radiation temperatures and improved hydrodynamic stability through greater ablative stabilization. Recent experiments to demonstrate the viability of Be ablator target designs measured the backscattered laser energy, capsule implosion velocity, core implosionmore » shape from self-emission, and in-flight capsule shape from backlit imaging. The laser backscatter is similar to that from comparable plastic (CH) targets under the same hohlraum conditions. Implosion velocity measurements from backlit streaked radiography show that laser energy coupling to the hohlraum wall is comparable to plastic ablators. The measured implosion shape indicates no significant reduction of laser energy from the inner laser cone beams reaching the hohlraum wall as compared with plastic and high-density carbon ablators. These results indicate that the high mass ablation rate for beryllium capsules does not significantly alter hohlraum energetics. In addition, these data, together with data for low fill-density hohlraum performance, indicate that laser power multipliers, required to reconcile simulations with experimental observations, are likely due to our limited understanding of the hohlraum rather than the capsule physics since similar multipliers are needed for both Be and CH capsules as seen in experiments.« less

  7. First beryllium capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    DOE PAGES

    Kline, J. L.; Yi, S. A.; Simakov, A. N.; ...

    2016-05-01

    The first indirect drive implosion experiments using Beryllium (Be) capsules at the National Ignition Facility confirm the superior ablation properties and elucidate possible Be-ablator issues such as hohlraum filling by ablator material. Since the 1990s, Be has been the preferred Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) ablator because of its higher mass ablation rate compared to that of carbon-based ablators. This enables ICF target designs with higher implosion velocities at lower radiation temperatures and improved hydrodynamic stability through greater ablative stabilization. Recent experiments to demonstrate the viability of Be ablator target designs measured the backscattered laser energy, capsule implosion velocity, core implosionmore » shape from self-emission, and in-flight capsule shape from backlit imaging. The laser backscatter is similar to that from comparable plastic (CH) targets under the same hohlraum conditions. Implosion velocity measurements from backlit streaked radiography show that laser energy coupling to the hohlraum wall is comparable to plastic ablators. The measured implosion shape indicates no significant reduction of laser energy from the inner laser cone beams reaching the hohlraum wall as compared with plastic and high-density carbon ablators. These results indicate that the high mass ablation rate for beryllium capsules does not significantly alter hohlraum energetics. In addition, these data, together with data for low fill-density hohlraum performance, indicate that laser power multipliers, required to reconcile simulations with experimental observations, are likely due to our limited understanding of the hohlraum rather than the capsule physics since similar multipliers are needed for both Be and CH capsules as seen in experiments.« less

  8. Polar-Drive--Implosion Physics on OMEGA and the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radha, P. B.

    2012-10-01

    Polar drive (PD) permits the execution of direct-drive--ignition experiments on facilities that are configured for x-ray drive such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and Laser M'egajoule. Experiments on the OMEGA laser are used to develop and validate models of PD implosions. Results from OMEGA PD shock-timing and warm implosions are presented. Experiments are simulated with the 2-D hydrodynamic code DRACO including full 3-D ray trace to model oblique beams. Excellent agreement is obtained in shock velocity and catch-up in PD geometry in warm, plastic shells. Predicted areal densities are measured in PD implosion experiments. Good agreement between simulation and experiments is obtained in the overall shape of the compressing shell when observed through x-ray backlighting. Simulated images of the hot core, including the effect of magnetic fields, are compared with experiments. Comparisons of simulated and observed scattered light and bang time in PD geometry are presented. Several techniques to increase implosion velocity are presented including beam profile variations and different ablator materials. Results from shimmed-target PD experiments will also be presented. Designs for future PD OMEGA experiments at ignition-relevant intensities will be presented. The implication of these results for NIF-scale plasmas is discussed. Experiments for the NIF in its current configuration, with indirect-drive phase plates, are proposed to study implosion energetics and shell asymmetries. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC52-08NA28302.

  9. Final Report: Radiation-magnetohydrodynamic evolution and instability of conductors driven by megagauss magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Bruno, S.; Siemon, Richard, E.

    2008-10-22

    We are pleased to report important progress in experimentally characterizing and numerically modeling the transformation into plasma of walls subjected to pulsed megagauss magnetic fields. Understanding this is important to Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) because an important limitation to the metal liner approach to MTF comes from the strong eddy current heating on the surface of the metal liner. This has intriguing non-linear aspects when the magnetic field is in the megagauss regime as needed for MTF, and may limit the magnetic field in an MTF implosion. Many faculty, students, and staff have contributed to this work, and, implicitly ormore » explicitly, to this report. Contributors include, in addition to the PIs, Andrey Esaulov, Stephan Fuelling, Irvin Lindemuth, Volodymyr Makhin, Ioana Paraschiv, Milena Angelova, Tom Awe, Tasha Goodrich, Arunkumar Prasadam, Andrew Oxner, Bruno Le Galloudec, Radu Presura, and Vladimir Ivanov. Highlights of the progress made during the grant include: • 12 articles published, and 44 conference and workshop presentations made, on a broad range of issues related to this project; • An ongoing experiment that uses the 1 MA, 100-ns Zebra z-pinch at UNR to apply 2 5 megagauss to a variety of metal surfaces, examining plasma formation and evolution; • Numerical simulation studies of the 1-MA Zebra, and potential Shiva Star and Atlas experiments that include realistic equations of state and radiation effects, using a variety of tables. • Collaboration with other groups doing simulations of this experiment at LANL, VNIIEF, SNL, and NumerEx leading to a successful international workshop at UNR in the spring of 2008.« less

  10. The One-Dimensional Cryogenic Implosion Campaign on OMEGA: Modeling, Experiments, and a Statistical Approach to Predict and Understand Direct-Drive Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betti, R.

    2017-10-01

    The 1-D campaign on OMEGA is aimed at validating a novel approach to design cryogenic implosion experiments and provide valuable data to improve the accuracy of 1-D physics models. This new design methodology is being tested first on low-convergence, high-adiabat (α 6 to 7) implosions and will subsequently be applied to implosions with increasing convergence up to the level required for a hydro-equivalent demonstration of ignition. This design procedure assumes that the hydrodynamic codes used in implosion designs lack the necessary physics and that measurements of implosion properties are imperfect. It also assumes that while the measurements may have significant systematic errors, the shot-to-shot variations are small and that cryogenic implosion data are reproducible as observed on OMEGA. One of the goals of the 1-D campaign is to find a mapping of the data to the code results and use the mapping relations to design future implosions. In the 1-D campaign, this predictive methodology was used to design eight implosions using a simple two-shock pulse design, leading to pre-shot predictions of yields within 5% and ion temperatures within 4% of the experimental values. These implosions have also produced the highest neutron yield of 1014 in OMEGA cryogenic implosion experiments with an areal density of 100 mg/cm2. Furthermore, the results from this campaign have been used to test the validity of the 1-D physics models used in the radiation-hydrodynamics codes. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DENA0001944 and LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. * In collaboration with J.P. Knauer, V. Gopalaswamy, D. Patel, K.M. Woo, K.S. Anderson, A. Bose, A.R. Christopherson, V.Yu. Glebov, F.J. Marshall, S.P. Regan, P.B. Radha, C. Stoeckl, and E.M. Campbell.

  11. Capsule physics comparison of different ablators for NIF implosion designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Daniel; Kritcher, Andrea; Yi, Austin; Zylstra, Alex; Haan, Steven; Ralph, Joseph; Weber, Christopher

    2017-10-01

    Indirect drive implosion experiments on the Naitonal Ignition Facility (NIF) have now tested three different ablator materials: glow discharge polymer (GDP) plastic, high density carbon (HDC), and beryllium. How do these different ablator choices compare in current and future implosion experiments on NIF? What are the relative advantages and disadvantages of each? This talk compares these different ablator options in capsule-only simulations of current NIF experiments and proposed future designs. The simulations compare the impact of the capsule fill tube, support tent, and interface surface roughness for each case, as well as all perturbations in combination. According to the simulations, each ablator is impacted by the various perturbation sources differently, and each material poses unique challenges in the pursuit of ignition. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  12. Variable convergence liquid layer implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    DOE PAGES

    Zylstra, A. B.; Yi, S. A.; Haines, B. M.; ...

    2018-03-19

    Liquid layer implosions using the “wetted foam” technique, where the liquid fuel is wicked into a supporting foam, have been recently conducted on the National Ignition Facility for the first time [Olson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 245001 (2016)]. In this paper, we report on a series of wetted foam implosions where the convergence ratio was varied between 12 and 20. Reduced nuclear performance is observed as convergence ratio increases. 2-D radiation-hydrodynamics simulations accurately capture the performance at convergence ratios (CR) ~ 12, but we observe a significant discrepancy at CR ~ 20. Finally, this may be due tomore » suppressed hot-spot formation or an anomalous energy loss mechanism.« less

  13. T-T Neutron Spectrum from Inertial Confinement Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacher, A. D.; Casey, D. T.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M. J.; Manuel, M.; Sinenian, N.; Zylstra, A. B.; Séguin, F. H.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu; Radha, P. B.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.; McNabb, D. P.; Amendt, P. A.; Boyd, R. N.; Caggiano, J. A.; Hatchett, S. P.; Pino, J. E.; Quaglioni, S.; Rygg, J. R.; Thompson, I. J.; Herrmann, H. W.; Kim, Y. H.

    2013-08-01

    A new technique that uses inertial confinement implosions for measuring low-energy nuclear reactions important to nuclear astrophysics is described. Simultaneous measurements of n-D and n-T elastic scattering at 14.1 MeV using deuterium-tritium gas-filled capsules provide a proof of principle for this technique. Measurements have been made of D(d,p)T (dd) and T(t,2n)4He (tt) reaction yields relative to the D(t,n)4He (dt) reaction yield for deuterium-tritium mixtures with f T / f D between 0.62 and 0.75 and for a wide range of ion temperatures to test our understanding of the implosion processes. Measurements of the shape of the neutron spectrum from the T(t,2n)4He reaction have been made for each of these target configurations.

  14. Variable convergence liquid layer implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Zylstra, A. B.; Yi, S. A.; Haines, B. M.

    Liquid layer implosions using the “wetted foam” technique, where the liquid fuel is wicked into a supporting foam, have been recently conducted on the National Ignition Facility for the first time [Olson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 245001 (2016)]. In this paper, we report on a series of wetted foam implosions where the convergence ratio was varied between 12 and 20. Reduced nuclear performance is observed as convergence ratio increases. 2-D radiation-hydrodynamics simulations accurately capture the performance at convergence ratios (CR) ~ 12, but we observe a significant discrepancy at CR ~ 20. Finally, this may be due tomore » suppressed hot-spot formation or an anomalous energy loss mechanism.« less

  15. BOW SHOCK FRAGMENTATION DRIVEN BY A THERMAL INSTABILITY IN LABORATORY ASTROPHYSICS EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Lebedev, S. V.; Pickworth, L. A.

    The role of radiative cooling during the evolution of a bow shock was studied in laboratory-astrophysics experiments that are scalable to bow shocks present in jets from young stellar objects. The laboratory bow shock is formed during the collision of two counterstreaming, supersonic plasma jets produced by an opposing pair of radial foil Z-pinches driven by the current pulse from the MAGPIE pulsed-power generator. The jets have different flow velocities in the laboratory frame, and the experiments are driven over many times the characteristic cooling timescale. The initially smooth bow shock rapidly develops small-scale nonuniformities over temporal and spatial scalesmore » that are consistent with a thermal instability triggered by strong radiative cooling in the shock. The growth of these perturbations eventually results in a global fragmentation of the bow shock front. The formation of a thermal instability is supported by analysis of the plasma cooling function calculated for the experimental conditions with the radiative packages ABAKO/RAPCAL.« less

  16. ARCADE IMPLOSION CAUSED BY A FILAMENT ERUPTION IN A FLARE

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Juntao; Simões, P. J. A.; Fletcher, L.

    Coronal implosions—the convergence motion of plasmas and entrained magnetic field in the corona due to a reduction in magnetic pressure—can help to locate and track sites of magnetic energy release or redistribution during solar flares and eruptions. We report here on the analysis of a well-observed implosion in the form of an arcade contraction associated with a filament eruption, during the C3.5 flare SOL2013-06-19T07:29. A sequence of events including the magnetic flux-rope instability and distortion, followed by a filament eruption and arcade implosion, lead us to conclude that the implosion arises from the transfer of magnetic energy from beneath the arcademore » as part of the global magnetic instability, rather than due to local magnetic energy dissipation in the flare. The observed net contraction of the imploding loops, which is found also in nonlinear force-free field extrapolations, reflects a permanent reduction of magnetic energy underneath the arcade. This event shows that, in addition to resulting in the expansion or eruption of an overlying field, flux-rope instability can also simultaneously implode an unopened field due to magnetic energy transfer. It demonstrates the “partial opening of the field” scenario, which is one of the ways in 3D to produce a magnetic eruption without violating the Aly–Sturrock hypothesis. In the framework of this observation, we also propose a unification of three main concepts for active region magnetic evolution, namely the metastable eruption model, the implosion conjecture, and the standard “CSHKP” flare model.« less

  17. Energy balance during underwater implosion of ductile metallic cylinders.

    PubMed

    Chamberlin, Ryan E; Guzas, Emily L; Ambrico, Joseph M

    2014-11-01

    Energy-based metrics are developed and applied to a numerical test case of implosion of an underwater pressure vessel. The energy metrics provide estimates of the initial energy in the system (potential energy), the energy released into the fluid as a pressure pulse, the energy absorbed by the imploding structure, and the energy absorbed by air trapped within the imploding structure. The primary test case considered is the implosion of an aluminum cylinder [diameter: 2.54 cm (1 in.), length: 27.46 cm (10.81 in.)] that collapses flat in a mode-2 shape with minimal fracture. The test case indicates that the structure absorbs the majority (92%) of the initial energy in the system. Consequently, the energy emitted as a pressure pulse into the fluid is a small fraction, approximately 5%, of the initial energy. The energy absorbed by the structure and the energy emitted into the fluid are calculated for additional simulations of underwater pressure vessel implosions. For all cases investigated, there is minimal fracture in the collapse, the structure absorbs more than 80% of the initial energy of the system, and the released pressure pulse carries away less than 6% of the initial energy.

  18. Hot spot mix in ICF implosions on the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Tammy

    2016-10-01

    In the quest to achieve ignition through the inertial confinement fusion scheme, one of the critical challenges is to drive a symmetric implosion at high velocity without hydrodynamic instabilities becoming detrimental. These instabilities, primarily at the ablation front and the fuel-ablator interface, can cause mix of the higher-Z shell into the hot spot, resulting in increased radiation loss and thus reduced temperature and neutron yield. To quantify the level of mix, we developed a model that infers the level of hot spot contamination using the ratio of the enhanced x-ray production relative to the neutron yield. Applying this methodology to the full ensemble of indirect-drive National Ignition Facility (NIF) cryogenically layered DT implosions provides insight on the sensitivity of performance to the level of ablator-hot spot mix. In particular, the improvement seen with the High Foot design can be primarily attributed to a reduction in ablation-front instability mix that enabled the implosions to be pushed to higher velocity and performance. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC.

  19. Hot spot temperature measurements in DT layered implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Pravesh; Ma, T.; Macphee, A.; Callahan, D.; Chen, H.; Cerjan, C.; Clark, D.; Edgell, D.; Hurricane, O.; Izumi, N.; Khan, S.; Jarrott, L.; Kritcher, A.; Springer, P.

    2015-11-01

    The temperature of the burning DT hot spot in an ICF implosion is a crucial parameter in understanding the thermodynamic conditions of the fuel at stagnation and and the performance of the implosion in terms of alpha-particle self-heating and energy balance. The continuum radiation spectrum emitted from the hot spot provides an accurate measure of the emissivity-weighted electron temperature. Absolute measurements of the emitted radiation are made with several independent instruments including spatially-resolved broadband imagers, and space- and time-integrated monochromatic detectors. We present estimates of the electron temperature in DT layered implosions derived from the radiation spectrum most consistent with the available measurements. The emissivity-weighted electron temperatures are compared to the neutron-averaged apparent ion temperatures inferred from neutron time-of-flight detectors. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  20. Modeling of Low Feed-Through CD Mix Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pino, Jesse; MacLaren, Steven; Greenough, Jeff; Casey, Daniel; Dittrich, Tom; Kahn, Shahab; Kyrala, George; Ma, Tammy; Salmonson, Jay; Smalyuk, Vladimir; Tipton, Robert

    2015-11-01

    The CD Mix campaign previously demonstrated the use of nuclear diagnostics to study the mix of separated reactants in plastic capsule implosions at the National Ignition Facility. However, the previous implosions suffered from large instability growth seeded from perturbations on the outside of the capsule. Recently, the separated reactants technique has been applied to two platforms designed to minimize this feed-through and isolate local mix at the gas-ablator interface: the Two Shock (TS) and Adiabat-Shaped (AS) Platforms. Additionally, the background contamination of Deuterium in the gas has been greatly reduced, allowing for simultaneous observation of TT, DT, and DD neutrons, which respectively give information about core gas performance, gas-shell atomic mix, and heating of the shell. In this talk, we describe efforts to model these implosions using high-resolution 2D ARES simulations with both a Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes method and an enhanced diffusivity model. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-674867.

  1. Mix Model Comparison of Low Feed-Through Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pino, Jesse; MacLaren, S.; Greenough, J.; Casey, D.; Dewald, E.; Dittrich, T.; Khan, S.; Ma, T.; Sacks, R.; Salmonson, J.; Smalyuk, V.; Tipton, R.; Kyrala, G.

    2016-10-01

    The CD Mix campaign previously demonstrated the use of nuclear diagnostics to study the mix of separated reactants in plastic capsule implosions at the NIF. Recently, the separated reactants technique has been applied to the Two Shock (TS) implosion platform, which is designed to minimize this feed-through and isolate local mix at the gas-ablator interface and produce core yields in good agreement with 1D clean simulations. The effects of both inner surface roughness and convergence ratio have been probed. The TT, DT, and DD neutron signals respectively give information about core gas performance, gas-shell atomic mix, and heating of the shell. In this talk, we describe efforts to model these implosions using high-resolution 2D ARES simulations. Various methods of interfacial mix will be considered, including the Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) KL method as well as and a multicomponent enhanced diffusivity model with species, thermal, and pressure gradient terms. We also give predictions of a upcoming campaign to investigate Mid-Z mixing by adding a Ge dopant to the CD layer. LLNL-ABS-697251 This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  2. Simultaneous measurement of the HT and DT fusion burn histories in inertial fusion implosions

    DOE PAGES

    Zylstra, Alex B.; Herrmann, Hans W.; Kim, Yong Ho; ...

    2017-05-23

    Measuring the thermonuclear burn history is an important way to diagnose inertial fusion implosions. Here, using the gas Cherenkov detectors at the OMEGA laser facility, we measure the HT fusion burn in a H 2+T 2 gas-fueled implosion for the first time. Then, using multiple detectors with varied Cherenkov thresholds, we demonstrate a technique for simultaneously measuring both the HT and DT burn histories from an implosion where the total reaction yields are comparable. This new technique will be used to study material mixing and kinetic phenomena in implosions.

  3. Simultaneous measurement of the HT and DT fusion burn histories in inertial fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Zylstra, Alex B.; Herrmann, Hans W.; Kim, Yong Ho

    Measuring the thermonuclear burn history is an important way to diagnose inertial fusion implosions. Here, using the gas Cherenkov detectors at the OMEGA laser facility, we measure the HT fusion burn in a H 2+T 2 gas-fueled implosion for the first time. Then, using multiple detectors with varied Cherenkov thresholds, we demonstrate a technique for simultaneously measuring both the HT and DT burn histories from an implosion where the total reaction yields are comparable. This new technique will be used to study material mixing and kinetic phenomena in implosions.

  4. Development of the CD symcap platform to study gas-shell mix in implosions at the National Ignition Facility

    DOE PAGES

    Casey, D. T.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Tipton, R. E.; ...

    2014-09-09

    Surrogate implosions play an important role at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for isolating aspects of the complex physical processes associated with fully integrated ignition experiments. The newly developed CD Symcap platform has been designed to study gas-shell mix in indirectly driven, pure T₂-gas filled CH-shell implosions equipped with 4 μm thick CD layers. This configuration provides a direct nuclear signature of mix as the DT yield (above a characterized D contamination background) is produced by D from the CD layer in the shell, mixing into the T-gas core. The CD layer can be placed at different locations within themore » CH shell to probe the depth and extent of mix. CD layers placed flush with the gas-shell interface and recessed up to 8 μm have shown that most of the mix occurs at the inner-shell surface. In addition, time-gated x-ray images of the hotspot show large brightly-radiating objects traversing through the hotspot around bang-time, which are likely chunks of CH/CD plastic. This platform is a powerful new capability at the NIF for understanding mix, one of the key performance issues for ignition experiments.« less

  5. A Numerical Model for Two-Plasmon-Decay Hot-Electron Production and Mitigation in Direct-Drive Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myatt, J. F.; Shaw, J. G.; Solodov, A. A.; Maximov, A. V.; Short, R. W.; Seka, W.; Follett, R. K.; Edgell, D. H.; Froula, D. H.; Goncharov, V. N.

    2015-11-01

    Hot-electron preheat, caused by laser-plasma instabilities, can impair the performance of inertial confinement fusion implosions. It is therefore imperative to understand processes that can generate hot electrons and to design mitigation strategies should preheat be found to be excessive at the ignition scale (laser-plasma interactions do not follow hydrodynamic scaling). For this purpose, a new 3-D model [laser-plasma simulation environment (LPSE)] has been constructed that computes hot-electron generation in direct-drive plasmas based on the assumption that two-plasmon decay is the dominant, hot-electron-producing instability. It uses an established model of TPD-driven turbulence together with a new GPU based hybrid particle method of hot-electron production. The time-dependent hot-electron power, total energy, and energy spectrum are computed and compared with data from recent OMEGA implosion experiments that have sought to mitigate TPD by the use of multilayered (mid- Z) ablators. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  6. Cryogenic tritium-hydrogen-deuterium and deuterium-tritium layer implosions with high density carbon ablators in near-vacuum hohlraums

    SciTech Connect

    Meezan, N. B., E-mail: meezan1@llnl.gov; Hopkins, L. F. Berzak; Pape, S. Le

    2015-06-15

    High Density Carbon (or diamond) is a promising ablator material for use in near-vacuum hohlraums, as its high density allows for ignition designs with laser pulse durations of <10 ns. A series of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments in 2013 on the National Ignition Facility [Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)] culminated in a deuterium-tritium (DT) layered implosion driven by a 6.8 ns, 2-shock laser pulse. This paper describes these experiments and comparisons with ICF design code simulations. Backlit radiography of a tritium-hydrogen-deuterium (THD) layered capsule demonstrated an ablator implosion velocity of 385 km/s with a slightly oblate hot spot shape.more » Other diagnostics suggested an asymmetric compressed fuel layer. A streak camera-based hot spot self-emission diagnostic (SPIDER) showed a double-peaked history of the capsule self-emission. Simulations suggest that this is a signature of low quality hot spot formation. Changes to the laser pulse and pointing for a subsequent DT implosion resulted in a higher temperature, prolate hot spot and a thermonuclear yield of 1.8 × 10{sup 15} neutrons, 40% of the 1D simulated yield.« less

  7. In-flight observations of low-mode ρR asymmetries in NIF implosions

    DOE PAGES

    Zylstra, A. B.; Frenje, J. A.; Seguin, F. H.; ...

    2015-05-01

    Charged-particle spectroscopy is used to assess implosion symmetry in ignition-scale indirect-drive implosions for the first time. Surrogate D 3He gas-filled implosions at the National Ignition Facility produce energetic protons via D+ 3He fusion that are used to measure the implosion areal density (ρR) at the shock-bang time. By using protons produced several hundred ps before the main compression bang, the implosion is diagnosed in-flight at a convergence ratio of 3-5 just prior to peak velocity. This isolates acceleration-phase asymmetry growth. For many surrogate implosions, proton spectrometers placed at the north pole and equator reveal significant asymmetries with amplitudes routinely ≳10%,more » which are interpreted as l=2 Legendre modes. With significant expected growth by stagnation, it is likely that these asymmetries would degrade the final implosion performance. X-ray self-emission images at stagnation show asymmetries that are positively correlated with the observed in-flight asymmetries and comparable in magnitude, contradicting growth models; this suggests that the hot-spot shape does not reflect the stagnated shell shape or that significant residual kinetic energy exists at stagnation. More prolate implosions are observed when the laser drive is sustained (“no-coast”), implying a significant time-dependent asymmetry in peak drive.« less

  8. In-flight observations of low-mode ρR asymmetries in NIF implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Zylstra, A. B., E-mail: zylstra@mit.edu; Frenje, J. A.; Séguin, F. H.

    2015-05-15

    Charged-particle spectroscopy is used to assess implosion symmetry in ignition-scale indirect-drive implosions for the first time. Surrogate D{sup 3}He gas-filled implosions at the National Ignition Facility produce energetic protons via D+{sup 3}He fusion that are used to measure the implosion areal density (ρR) at the shock-bang time. By using protons produced several hundred ps before the main compression bang, the implosion is diagnosed in-flight at a convergence ratio of 3–5 just prior to peak velocity. This isolates acceleration-phase asymmetry growth. For many surrogate implosions, proton spectrometers placed at the north pole and equator reveal significant asymmetries with amplitudes routinely ≳10%,more » which are interpreted as ℓ=2 Legendre modes. With significant expected growth by stagnation, it is likely that these asymmetries would degrade the final implosion performance. X-ray self-emission images at stagnation show asymmetries that are positively correlated with the observed in-flight asymmetries and comparable in magnitude, contradicting growth models; this suggests that the hot-spot shape does not reflect the stagnated shell shape or that significant residual kinetic energy exists at stagnation. More prolate implosions are observed when the laser drive is sustained (“no-coast”), implying a significant time-dependent asymmetry in peak drive.« less

  9. A Comparison of Implosive Therapy and Systematic Desensitization in the Treatment of Test Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ronald E.; Nye, S. Lee

    1973-01-01

    Both Desensitization and implosive therapy resulted in significant decreases in scores on Sarason's Test Anxiety Scale. However, the desensitization group also demonstrated a significant reduction in state anxiety assessed during simulated testing sessions and a significant increase in grade point average, while the implosive therapy group showed…

  10. ARES Modeling of High-foot Implosions (NNSA Milestone #5466)

    SciTech Connect

    Hurricane, O. A.

    ARES “capsule only” simulations demonstrated results of applying an ASC code to a suite of high-foot ICF implosion experiments. While a capability to apply an asymmetric FDS drive to the capsule-only model using add-on Python routines exists, it was not exercised here. The ARES simulation results resemble the results from HYDRA simulations documented in A. Kritcher, et al., Phys. Plasmas, 23, 052709 (2016); namely, 1D simulation and data are in reasonable agreement for the lowest velocity experiments, but diverge from each other at higher velocities.

  11. Laser-driven Mach waves for gigabar-range shock experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swift, Damian; Jenei, Amy; Coppari, Federica; Saunders, Alison; Nilsen, Joseph

    2017-06-01

    Mach reflection offers possibilities for generating planar, supported shocks at higher pressures than are practical even with laser ablation. We have studied the formation of Mach waves by algebraic solution and hydrocode simulation for drive pressures at much than reported previously, and for realistic equations of state. We predict that Mach reflection continues to occur as the drive pressure increases, and the pressure enhancement increases monotonically with drive pressure even though the ``enhancement spike'' characteristic of low-pressure Mach waves disappears. The growth angle also increases monotonically with pressure, so a higher drive pressure seems always to be an advantage. However, there are conditions where the Mach wave is perturbed by reflections. We have performed trial experiments at the Omega facility, using a laser-heated halfraum to induce a Mach wave in a polystyrene cone. Pulse length and energy limitations meant that the drive was not maintained long enough to fully support the shock, but the results indicated a Mach wave of 25-30 TPa from a drive pressure of 5-6 TPa, consistent with simulations. A similar configuration should perform well at the NIF, and a Z-pinch driven configuration may be possible. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  12. Laser-driven Mach waves for gigabar-range shock experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swift, Damian; Lazicki, Amy; Coppari, Federica; Saunders, Alison; Nilsen, Joseph

    2017-10-01

    Mach reflection offers possibilities for generating planar, supported shocks at higher pressures than are practical even with laser ablation. We have studied the formation of Mach waves by algebraic solution and hydrocode simulation for drive pressures at much than reported previously, and for realistic equations of state. We predict that Mach reflection continues to occur as the drive pressure increases, and the pressure enhancement increases monotonically with drive pressure even though the ``enhancement spike'' characteristic of low-pressure Mach waves disappears. The growth angle also increases monotonically with pressure, so a higher drive pressure seems always to be an advantage. However, there are conditions where the Mach wave is perturbed by reflections. We have performed trial experiments at the Omega facility, using a laser-heated halfraum to induce a Mach wave in a polystyrene cone. Pulse length and energy limitations meant that the drive was not maintained long enough to fully support the shock, but the results indicated a Mach wave of 25-30 TPa from a drive pressure of 5-6 TPa, consistent with simulations. A similar configuration should be tested at the NIF, and a Z-pinch driven configuration may be possible. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  13. Analysis of NIF experiments with the minimal energy implosion model

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, B., E-mail: bcheng@lanl.gov; Kwan, T. J. T.; Wang, Y. M.

    2015-08-15

    We apply a recently developed analytical model of implosion and thermonuclear burn to fusion capsule experiments performed at the National Ignition Facility that used low-foot and high-foot laser pulse formats. Our theoretical predictions are consistent with the experimental data. Our studies, together with neutron image analysis, reveal that the adiabats of the cold fuel in both low-foot and high-foot experiments are similar. That is, the cold deuterium-tritium shells in those experiments are all in a high adiabat state at the time of peak implosion velocity. The major difference between low-foot and high-foot capsule experiments is the growth of the shock-inducedmore » instabilities developed at the material interfaces which lead to fuel mixing with ablator material. Furthermore, we have compared the NIF capsules performance with the ignition criteria and analyzed the alpha particle heating in the NIF experiments. Our analysis shows that alpha heating was appreciable only in the high-foot experiments.« less

  14. Spatially resolved x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy of beryllium capsule implosions at the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, M. J.; Bishel, D. T.; Saunders, A. M.; Scott, H. A.; Kyrala, G.; Kline, J.; MacLaren, S.; Thorn, D. B.; Yi, S. A.; Zylstra, A. B.; Falcone, R. W.; Doeppner, T.

    2017-10-01

    Beryllium ablators used in indirectly driven inertial confinement fusion implosions are doped with copper to prevent preheat of the cryogenic hydrogen fuel. Here, we present analysis of spatially resolved copper K- α fluorescence spectra from the beryllium ablator layer. It has been shown that K- α fluorescence spectroscopy can be used to measure plasma conditions of partially ionized dopants in high energy density systems. In these experiments, K-shell vacancies in the copper dopant are created by the hotspot emission at stagnation, resulting in K-shell fluorescence at bang time. Spatially resolved copper K- α emission spectra are compared to atomic kinetics and radiation code simulations to infer density and temperature profiles. This work was supported by the US DOE under Grant No. DE-NA0001859, under the auspices of the US DOE by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344, and by Los Alamos National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-06NA52396.

  15. Capsule Ablator Inflight Performance Measurements Via Streaked Radiography Of ICF Implosions On The NIF*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewald, E. L.; Tommasini, R.; Mackinnon, A.; MacPhee, A.; Meezan, N.; Olson, R.; Hicks, D.; LePape, S.; Izumi, N.; Fournier, K.; Barrios, M. A.; Ross, S.; Pak, A.; Döppner, T.; Kalantar, D.; Opachich, K.; Rygg, R.; Bradley, D.; Bell, P.; Hamza, A.; Dzenitis, B.; Landen, O. L.; MacGowan, B.; LaFortune, K.; Widmayer, C.; Van Wonterghem, B.; Kilkenny, J.; Edwards, M. J.; Atherton, J.; Moses, E. I.

    2016-03-01

    Streaked 1-dimensional (slit imaging) radiography of 1.1 mm radius capsules in ignition hohlraums was recently introduced on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and gives an inflight continuous record of capsule ablator implosion velocities, shell thickness and remaining mass in the last 3-5 ns before peak implosion time. The high quality data delivers good accuracy in implosion metrics that meets our requirements for ignition and agrees with recently introduced 2-dimensional pinhole radiography. Calculations match measured trajectory across various capsule designs and laser drives when the peak laser power is reduced by 20%. Furthermore, calculations matching measured trajectories give also good agreement in ablator shell thickness and remaining mass.

  16. Simulations of fill tube effects on the implosion of high-foot NIF ignition capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittrich, T. R.; Hurricane, O. A.; Berzak-Hopkins, L. F.; Callahan, D. A.; Casey, D. T.; Clark, D.; Dewald, E. L.; Doeppner, T.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Harte, J. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Kozioziemski, B. J.; Kritcher, A. L.; Ma, T.; Nikroo, A.; Pak, A. E.; Parham, T. G.; Park, H.-S.; Patel, P. K.; Remington, B. A.; Salmonson, J. D.; Springer, P. T.; Weber, C. R.; Zimmerman, G. B.; Kline, J. L.

    2016-05-01

    Encouraging results have been obtained using a strong first shock during the implosion of carbon-based ablator ignition capsules. These “high-foot” implosion results show that capsule performance deviates from 1D expectations as laser power and energy are increased. A possible cause of this deviation is the disruption of the hot spot by jets originating in the capsule fill tube. Nominally, a 10 μm outside diameter glass (SiO2) fill tube is used in these implosions. Simulations indicate that a thin coating of Au on this glass tube may lessen the hotspot disruption. These results and other mitigation strategies will be presented.

  17. Direct-drive DT implosions with Knudsen number variations

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Yong Ho; Herrmann, Hans W.; Hoffman, Nelson M.; ...

    2016-05-26

    Direct-drive implosions of DT-filled plastic-shells have been conducted at the Omega laser facility, measuring nuclear yields while varying Knudsen numbers (i.e., the ratio of mean free path of fusing ions to the length of fuel region) by adjusting both shell thickness (e.g., 7.5, 15, 20, 30 μm) and fill pressure (e.g., 2, 5, 15 atm). In addition, the fusion reactivity reduction model showed a stronger effect on yield as the Knudsen number increases (or the shell thickness decreases). The Reduced-Ion-Kinetic (RIK) simulation which includes both fusion reactivity reduction and mix model was necessary to provide a better match between themore » observed neutron yields and those simulated.« less

  18. Optimizing implosion yields using rugby-shaped hohlraums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hye-Sook; Robey, H.; Amendt, P.; Philippe, F.; Casner, A.; Caillaud, T.; Bourgade, J.-L.; Landoas, O.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R.; Seguin, F.; Rosenberg, M.; Glebov, V. Yu.

    2009-11-01

    We present the first experimental results on optimizing capsule implosion experiments by using rugby-shaped hohlraums [1] on the Omega laser, University of Rochester. This campaign compared D2-filled capsule performance between standard cylindrical Au hohlraums and rugby-shaped hohlraums for demonstrating the energetics advantages of the rugby geometry. Not only did the rugby-shaped hohlraums show nearly 20% more x-ray drive energy over the cylindrical hohlraums, but also the high-performance design of the capsules provided nearly 20 times more DD neutrons than in any previous Omega hohlraum campaigns, thereby enabling use of neutron temporal diagnostics. Comparison with simulations on neutron burn histories, x-ray core imaging, backscattered laser light and radiation temperature are presented. [1] P. Amendt et al., Phys. Plasmas 15, 012702 (2008)

  19. Cryogenic thermonuclear fuel implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Glenzer, S. H.; Callahan, D. A.; MacKinnon, A. J.

    2012-05-15

    The first inertial confinement fusion implosion experiments with equimolar deuterium-tritium thermonuclear fuel have been performed on the National Ignition Facility. These experiments use 0.17 mg of fuel with the potential for ignition and significant fusion yield conditions. The thermonuclear fuel has been fielded as a cryogenic layer on the inside of a spherical plastic capsule that is mounted in the center of a cylindrical gold hohlraum. Heating the hohlraum with 192 laser beams for a total laser energy of 1.6 MJ produces a soft x-ray field with 300 eV temperature. The ablation pressure produced by the radiation field compresses themore » initially 2.2-mm diameter capsule by a factor of 30 to a spherical dense fuel shell that surrounds a central hot-spot plasma of 50 {mu}m diameter. While an extensive set of x-ray and neutron diagnostics has been applied to characterize hot spot formation from the x-ray emission and 14.1 MeV deuterium-tritium primary fusion neutrons, thermonuclear fuel assembly is studied by measuring the down-scattered neutrons with energies in the range of 10 to 12 MeV. X-ray and neutron imaging of the compressed core and fuel indicate a fuel thickness of (14 {+-} 3) {mu}m, which combined with magnetic recoil spectrometer measurements of the fuel areal density of (1 {+-} 0.09) g cm{sup -2} result in fuel densities approaching 600 g cm{sup -3}. The fuel surrounds a hot-spot plasma with average ion temperatures of (3.5 {+-} 0.1) keV that is measured with neutron time of flight spectra. The hot-spot plasma produces a total fusion neutron yield of 10{sup 15} that is measured with the magnetic recoil spectrometer and nuclear activation diagnostics that indicate a 14.1 MeV yield of (7.5{+-}0.1) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} which is 70% to 75% of the total fusion yield due to the high areal density. Gamma ray measurements provide the duration of nuclear activity of (170 {+-} 30) ps. These indirect-drive implosions result in the highest areal

  20. Towards an Integrated Model of the NIC Layered Implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, O S; Callahan, D A; Cerjan, C J

    A detailed simulation-based model of the June 2011 National Ignition Campaign (NIC) cryogenic DT experiments is presented. The model is based on integrated hohlraum-capsule simulations that utilize the best available models for the hohlraum wall, ablator, and DT equations of state and opacities. The calculated radiation drive was adjusted by changing the input laser power to match the experimentally measured shock speeds, shock merger times, peak implosion velocity, and bangtime. The crossbeam energy transfer model was tuned to match the measured time-dependent symmetry. Mid-mode mix was included by directly modeling the ablator and ice surface perturbations up to mode 60.more » Simulated experimental values were extracted from the simulation and compared against the experiment. The model adjustments brought much of the simulated data into closer agreement with the experiment, with the notable exception of the measured yields, which were 15-45% of the calculated yields.« less

  1. On krypton-doped capsule implosion experiments at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hui; Ma, T.; Nora, R.; Barrios, M. A.; Scott, H. A.; Schneider, M. B.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; Casey, D. T.; Hammel, B. A.; Jarrott, L. C.; Landen, O. L.; Patel, P. K.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Spears, B. K.

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents the spectroscopic aspects of using Krypton as a dopant in NIF capsule implosions through simulation studies and the first set of NIF experiments. Using a combination of 2D hohlraum and 1D capsule simulations with comprehensive spectroscopic modeling, the calculations focused on the effect of dopant concentration on the implosion, and the impact of gradients in the electron density and temperature to the Kr line features and plasma opacity. Experimental data were obtained from three NIF Kr-dopant experiments, performed with varying Kr dopant concentrations between 0.01% and 0.03%. The implosion performance, hotspot images, and detailed Kr spectral analysis are summarized relative to the predictions. Data show that fuel-dopant spectroscopy can serve as a powerful and viable diagnostic for inertial confinement fusion implosions.

  2. Beryllium implosion experiments at high case-to-capsule ratio on the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zylstra, Alex; Yi, Austin; Kline, John; Kyrala, George; Loomis, Eric; Perry, Ted; Shah, Rahul; Batha, Steve; MacLaren, Steve; Ralph, Joe; Salmonson, Jay; Masse, Laurent; Nikroo, Abbas; Stadermann, Michael; Callahan, Debbie; Hurricane, Omar; Rice, Neal; Huang, Haibo; Kong, Casey

    2017-10-01

    Using beryllium as an ablator material has several potential advantages for inertial fusion because of its low opacity and thus higher ablation rate. This could enable novel designs taking advantage of the reduced ablation-front growth rate, or operating at lower radiation temperature. To investigate the integrated performance of beryllium implosions, we conducted a tuning campaign leading into DT layered implosions using a 900um radius capsule in a 6.72mm diameter hohlraum (case-to-capsule ratio CCR=3.7); the large CCR enables direct study of the 1-D implosion performance. The tuning campaign shots demonstrate excellent control over the shock timing and implosion symmetry at this CCR. Performance data from the DT experiments will also be discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DoE by LANL under contract DE-AC52-06NA52396.

  3. A new symmetry model for hohlraum-driven capsule implosion experiments on the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, O.; Rygg, R.; Tomasini, R.; Eder, D.; Kritcher, A.; Milovich, J.; Peterson, L.; Thomas, C.; Barrios, M.; Benedetti, R.; Doeppner, T.; Ma, T.; Nagel, S.; Pak, A.; Field, J.; Izumi, N.; Glenn, S.; Town, R.; Bradley, D.

    2016-03-01

    We have developed a new model for predicting the time-dependent radiation drive asymmetry in laser-heated hohlraums. The model consists of integrated Hydra capsule-hohlraum calculations coupled to a separate model for calculating the crossbeam energy transfer between the inner and outer cones of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) indirect drive configuration. The time- dependent crossbeam transfer model parameters were adjusted in order to best match the P2 component of the shape of the inflight shell inferred from backlit radiographs of the capsule taken when the shell was at a radius of 150-250 μm. The adjusted model correctly predicts the observed inflight P2 and P4 components of the shape of the inflight shell, and also the P2 component of the shape of the hotspot inferred from x-ray self-emission images at the time of peak emission. It also correctly captures the scaling of the inflight P4 as the hohlraum length is varied. We then applied the newly benchmarked model to quantify the improved symmetry of the N130331 layered deuterium- tritium (DT) experiment in a re-optimized longer hohlraum.

  4. Implosion-driven technique to create fast shockwaves in high-density gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serge, Matthew; Loiseau, Jason; Huneault, Justin; Szirti, Daniel; Higgins, Andrew; Tanguay, Vincent

    2012-03-01

    Pressurized tubes surrounded by either one or two layers (separated by a secondary tube) of sensitized nitromethane and encased in a thick-walled tube (the tamper) were imploded. The distance between the detonation wave in the explosive and shock wave in the innermost tube were measured (the standoff). A simple model based on hoop stress and acoustic interactions between the tubing was developed and used to predict the standoff distance. At low initial pressures (on the order of 7MPa), results indicate that the secondary tube and two layers of explosive did not prove to significantly increase the standoff. However, at higher pressures (on the order of 10 MPa), standoff was noticeably greater when the secondary tube was inserted between the pressurized tube and the tamper. The measured values are in reasonable agreement with the predictions of the model.

  5. Using HT and DT gamma rays to diagnose mix in Omega capsule implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, M. J.; Herrmann, H. W.; Kim, Y. H.; McEvoy, A. M.; Zylstra, A.; Hammel, B. A.; Sepke, S. M.; Leatherland, A.; Gales, S.

    2016-05-01

    Experimental evidence [1] indicates that shell material can be driven into the core of Omega capsule implosions on the same time scale as the initial convergent shock. It has been hypothesized that shock-generated temperatures at the fuel/shell interface in thin exploding pusher capsules diffusively drives shell material into the gas core between the time of shock passage and bang time. We propose a method to temporally resolve and observe the evolution of shell material into the capsule core as a function of fuel/shell interface temperature (which can be varied by varying the capsule shell thickness). Our proposed method uses a CD plastic capsule filled with 50/50 HT gas and diagnosed using gas Cherenkov detection (GCD) to temporally resolve both the HT “clean” and DT “mix” gamma ray burn histories. Simulations using Hydra [2] for an Omega CD-lined capsule with a sub-micron layer of the inside surface of the shell pre-mixed into a fraction of the gas region produce gamma reaction history profiles that are sensitive to the depth to which this material is mixed. An experiment to observe these differences as a function of capsule shell thickness is proposed to determine if interface mixing is consistent with thermal diffusion λii∼T2/Z2ρ at the gas/shell interface. Since hydrodynamic mixing from shell perturbations, such as the mounting stalk and glue, could complicate these types of capsule-averaged temporal measurements, simulations including their effects also have been performed showing minimal perturbation of the hot spot geometry.

  6. Using HT and DT gamma rays to diagnose mix in Omega capsule implosions

    DOE PAGES

    Schmitt, M. J.; Herrmann, H. W.; Kim, Y. H.; ...

    2016-05-26

    Experimental evidence [1] indicates that shell material can be driven into the core of Omega capsule implosions on the same time scale as the initial convergent shock. It has been hypothesized that shock-generated temperatures at the fuel/shell interface in thin exploding pusher capsules diffusively drives shell material into the gas core between the time of shock passage and bang time. Here, we propose a method to temporally resolve and observe the evolution of shell material into the capsule core as a function of fuel/shell interface temperature (which can be varied by varying the capsule shell thickness). Our proposed method usesmore » a CD plastic capsule filled with 50/50 HT gas and diagnosed using gas Cherenkov detection (GCD) to temporally resolve both the HT "clean" and DT "mix" gamma ray burn histories. Simulations using Hydra [2] for an Omega CD-lined capsule with a sub-micron layer of the inside surface of the shell pre-mixed into a fraction of the gas region produce gamma reaction history profiles that are sensitive to the depth to which this material is mixed. Furthermore, we observe these differences as a function of capsule shell thickness is proposed to determine if interface mixing is consistent with thermal diffusion λ ii~T 2/Z 2ρ at the gas/shell interface. Finally, since hydrodynamic mixing from shell perturbations, such as the mounting stalk and glue, could complicate these types of capsule-averaged temporal measurements, simulations including their effects also have been performed showing minimal perturbation of the hot spot geometry.« less

  7. Using HT and DT gamma rays to diagnose mix in Omega capsule implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, M. J.; Herrmann, H. W.; Kim, Y. H.

    Experimental evidence [1] indicates that shell material can be driven into the core of Omega capsule implosions on the same time scale as the initial convergent shock. It has been hypothesized that shock-generated temperatures at the fuel/shell interface in thin exploding pusher capsules diffusively drives shell material into the gas core between the time of shock passage and bang time. Here, we propose a method to temporally resolve and observe the evolution of shell material into the capsule core as a function of fuel/shell interface temperature (which can be varied by varying the capsule shell thickness). Our proposed method usesmore » a CD plastic capsule filled with 50/50 HT gas and diagnosed using gas Cherenkov detection (GCD) to temporally resolve both the HT "clean" and DT "mix" gamma ray burn histories. Simulations using Hydra [2] for an Omega CD-lined capsule with a sub-micron layer of the inside surface of the shell pre-mixed into a fraction of the gas region produce gamma reaction history profiles that are sensitive to the depth to which this material is mixed. Furthermore, we observe these differences as a function of capsule shell thickness is proposed to determine if interface mixing is consistent with thermal diffusion λ ii~T 2/Z 2ρ at the gas/shell interface. Finally, since hydrodynamic mixing from shell perturbations, such as the mounting stalk and glue, could complicate these types of capsule-averaged temporal measurements, simulations including their effects also have been performed showing minimal perturbation of the hot spot geometry.« less

  8. Understanding Yield Anomalies in ICF Implosions via Fully Kinetic Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taitano, William

    2017-10-01

    In the quest towards ICF ignition, plasma kinetic effects are among prime candidates for explaining some significant discrepancies between experimental observations and rad-hydro simulations. To assess their importance, high-fidelity fully kinetic simulations of ICF capsule implosions are needed. Owing to the extremely multi-scale nature of the problem, kinetic codes have to overcome nontrivial numerical and algorithmic challenges, and very few options are currently available. Here, we present resolutions of some long-standing yield discrepancy conundrums using a novel, LANL-developed, 1D-2V Vlasov-Fokker-Planck code iFP. iFP possesses an unprecedented fidelity and features fully implicit time-stepping, exact mass, momentum, and energy conservation, and optimal grid adaptation in phase space, all of which are critically important for ensuring long-time numerical accuracy of the implosion simulations. Specifically, we concentrate on several anomalous yield degradation instances observed in Omega campaigns, with the so-called ``Rygg effect'', or an anomalous yield scaling with the fuel composition, being a prime example. Understanding the physical mechanisms responsible for such degradations in non-ignition-grade Omega experiments is of great interest, as such experiments are often used for platform and diagnostic development, which are then used in ignition-grade experiments on NIF. In the case of Rygg's experiments, effects of a kinetic stratification of fuel ions on the yield have been previously proposed as the anomaly explanation, studied with a kinetic code FPION, and found unimportant. We have revisited this issue with iFP and obtained excellent yield-over-clean agreement with the original Rygg results, and several subsequent experiments. This validates iFP and confirms that the kinetic fuel stratification is indeed at the root of the observed yield degradation. This work was sponsored by the Metropolis Postdoctoral Fellowship, LDRD office, Thermonuclear Burn

  9. The High-Foot Implosion Campaign on the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurricane, Omar

    2013-10-01

    The `High-Foot' platform manipulates the laser pulse-shape coming from the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser to create an indirect drive 3-shock implosion that is significantly more robust against instability growth involving the ablator and also modestly reduces implosion convergence ratio. This tactic gives up on theoretical high-gain in an inertial confinement fusion implosion in order to obtain better control of the implosion and bring experimental performance in-line with calculated performance, yet keeps the absolute capsule performance relatively high. This approach is generally consistent with the philosophy laid out in a recent international workshop on the topic of ignition science on NIF [``Workshop on the Science of Fusion Ignition on NIF,'' Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Report, LLNL-TR-570412 (2012). Op cit. V. Gocharov and O.A. Hurricane, ``Panel 3 Report: Implosion Hydrodynamics,'' LLNL-TR-562104 (2012)]. Side benefits our the High-Foot pulse-shape modification appear to be improvements in hohlraum behavior--less wall motion achieved through higher pressure He gas fill and improved inner cone laser beam propagation. Another consequence of the `High-Foot' is a higher fuel adiabat, so there is some relation to direct-drive experiments performed at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). In this talk, we will cover the various experimental and theoretical motivations for the High-Foot drive as well as cover the experimental results that have come out of the High-Foot experimental campaign. Most notably, at the time of this writing record DT layer implosion performance with record low levels of inferred mix and excellent agreement with one-dimensional implosion models without the aid of mix models. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  10. The effect of shock dynamics on compressibility of ignition-scale National Ignition Facility implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Zylstra, A. B.; Frenje, J. A.; Séguin, F. H.

    The effects of shock dynamics on compressibility of indirect-drive ignition-scale surrogate implosions, CH shells filled with D 3He gas, have been studied using charged-particle spectroscopy. Spectral measurements of D 3He protons produced at the shock-bang time probe the shock dynamics and in-flight characteristics of an implosion. The proton shock yield is found to vary by over an order of magnitude. A simple model relates the observed yield to incipient hot-spot adiabat, suggesting that implosions with rapid radiation-power increase during the main drive pulse may have a 2x higher hot-spot adiabat, potentially reducing compressibility. A self-consistent 1-D implosion model was usedmore » to infer the areal density (pR) and the shell center-of-mass radius (R cm) from the downshift of the shock-produced D 3He protons. The observed pR at shock-bang time is substantially higher for implosions, where the laser drive is on until near the compression bang time ('short-coast'), while longer-coasting implosions have lower pR. This corresponds to a much larger temporal difference between the shock- and compression-bang time in the long-coast implosions (~800 ps) than in the short-coast (~400 ps); this will be verified with a future direct bang-time diagnostic. This model-inferred differential bang time contradicts radiation-hydrodynamic simulations, which predict constant 700–800 ps differential independent of coasting time. This result is potentially explained by uncertainties in modeling late-time ablation drive on the capsule. In an ignition experiment, an earlier shock-bang time resulting in an earlier onset of shell deceleration, potentially reducing compression and, thus, fuel pR.« less

  11. The effect of shock dynamics on compressibility of ignition-scale National Ignition Facility implosions

    DOE PAGES

    Zylstra, A. B.; Frenje, J. A.; Séguin, F. H.; ...

    2014-11-03

    The effects of shock dynamics on compressibility of indirect-drive ignition-scale surrogate implosions, CH shells filled with D 3He gas, have been studied using charged-particle spectroscopy. Spectral measurements of D 3He protons produced at the shock-bang time probe the shock dynamics and in-flight characteristics of an implosion. The proton shock yield is found to vary by over an order of magnitude. A simple model relates the observed yield to incipient hot-spot adiabat, suggesting that implosions with rapid radiation-power increase during the main drive pulse may have a 2x higher hot-spot adiabat, potentially reducing compressibility. A self-consistent 1-D implosion model was usedmore » to infer the areal density (pR) and the shell center-of-mass radius (R cm) from the downshift of the shock-produced D 3He protons. The observed pR at shock-bang time is substantially higher for implosions, where the laser drive is on until near the compression bang time ('short-coast'), while longer-coasting implosions have lower pR. This corresponds to a much larger temporal difference between the shock- and compression-bang time in the long-coast implosions (~800 ps) than in the short-coast (~400 ps); this will be verified with a future direct bang-time diagnostic. This model-inferred differential bang time contradicts radiation-hydrodynamic simulations, which predict constant 700–800 ps differential independent of coasting time. This result is potentially explained by uncertainties in modeling late-time ablation drive on the capsule. In an ignition experiment, an earlier shock-bang time resulting in an earlier onset of shell deceleration, potentially reducing compression and, thus, fuel pR.« less

  12. Observation of Compressible Plasma Mix in Cylindrically Convergent Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Cris W.; Batha, Steven H.; Lanier, Nicholas E.; Magelssen, Glenn R.; Tubbs, David L.; Dunne, A. M.; Rothman, Steven R.; Youngs, David L.

    2000-10-01

    An understanding of hydrodynamic mix in convergent geometry will be of key importance in the development of a robust ignition/burn capability on NIF, LMJ and future pulsed power machines. We have made use of the OMEGA laser facility at the University of Rochester to investigate directly the mix evolution in a convergent geometry, compressible plasma regime. The experiments comprise a plastic cylindrical shell imploded by direct laser irradiation. The cylindrical shell surrounds a lower density plastic foam which provides sufficient back pressure to allow the implosion to stagnate at a sufficiently high radius to permit quantitative radiographic diagnosis of the interface evolution near turnaround. The susceptibility to mix of the shell-foam interface is varied by choosing different density material for the inner shell surface (thus varying the Atwood number). This allows the study of shock-induced Richtmyer-Meshkov growth during the coasting phase, and Rayleigh-Taylor growth during the stagnation phase. The experimental results will be described along with calculational predictions using various radiation hydrodynamics codes and turbulent mix models.

  13. Three-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Simulations of the Effects of Laser Imprint in OMEGA Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igumenshchev, I. V.; Campbell, E. M.; Goncharov, V. N.; Regan, S. P.; Shvydky, A.; Schmitt, A. J.

    2017-10-01

    Illumination of direct-drive implosion targets by the OMEGA laser introduces large-amplitude broadband modulations in the absorbed energy from the largest (target size 900- μm) to smallest (speckle size 2- μm) spatial scales. These modulations ``imprint'' perturbations into a target that are amplified because of the secular and Rayleigh-Taylor growths during acceleration and deceleration of the target. The degradation of performance of room-temperature and cryogenic OMEGA implosions caused by these perturbations were simulated in three dimensions using the code ASTER. The highest-resolution simulations resolve perturbation modes as high as l 200 . The high modes l 50to 100 dominate in the perturbation spectrum during the linear growth, while the late-time nonlinear evolution results in domination of modes with l 30to 50 . Smoothing by spectral dispersion reduces the linear-phase mode amplitudes by a factor of 4 and results in substantial improvements in implosion performance that is in good agreement with measurements. The effects of imprint on implosion performance are compared with the effects of other implosion asymmetries, such as those induced because of laser beam imbalance, mistiming and mispointing, and target offset. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  14. Effects of electron-ion temperature equilibration on inertial confinement fusion implosions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Barry; Hu, S X

    2011-07-01

    The electron-ion temperature relaxation essentially affects both the laser absorption in coronal plasmas and the hot-spot formation in inertial confinement fusion (ICF). It has recently been reexamined for plasma conditions closely relevant to ICF implosions using either classical molecular-dynamics simulations or analytical methods. To explore the electron-ion temperature equilibration effects on ICF implosion performance, we have examined two Coulomb logarithm models by implementing them into our hydrocodes, and we have carried out hydrosimulations for ICF implosions. Compared to the Lee-More model that is currently used in our standard hydrocodes, the two models predict substantial differences in laser absorption, coronal temperatures, and neutron yields for ICF implosions at the OMEGA Laser Facility [Boehly et al. Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. Such effects on the triple-picket direct-drive design at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) have also been explored. Based on the validity of the two models, we have proposed a combined model of the electron-ion temperature-relaxation rate for the overall ICF plasma conditions. The hydrosimulations using the combined model for OMEGA implosions have shown ∼6% more laser absorption, ∼6%-15% higher coronal temperatures, and ∼10% more neutron yield, when compared to the Lee-More model prediction. It is also noticed that the gain for the NIF direct-drive design can be varied by ∼10% among the different electron-ion temperature-relaxation models.

  15. Pressure signature and evaluation of hammer pulses during underwater implosion in confining environments.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sachin; Matos, Helio; Shukla, Arun; LeBlanc, James M

    2016-08-01

    The fluid structure interaction phenomenon occurring in confined implosions is investigated using high-speed three-dimensional digital image correlation (DIC) experiments. Aluminum tubular specimens are placed inside a confining cylindrical structure that is partially open to a pressurized environment. These specimens are hydrostatically loaded until they naturally implode. The implosion event is viewed, and recorded, through an acrylic window on the confining structure. The velocities captured through DIC are synchronized with the pressure histories to understand the effects of confining environment on the implosion process. Experiments show that collapse of the implodable volume inside the confining tube leads to strong oscillating water hammer waves. The study also reveals that the increasing collapse pressure leads to faster implosions. Both peak and average structural velocities increase linearly with increasing collapse pressure. The effects of the confining environment are better seen in relatively lower collapse pressure implosion experiments in which a long deceleration phase is observed following the peak velocity until wall contact initiates. Additionally, the behavior of the confining environment can be viewed and understood through classical water hammer theory. A one-degree-of-freedom theoretical model was created to predict the impulse pressure history for the particular problem studied.

  16. Higher velocity, high-foot implosions on the National Ignition Facility laser

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, D. A.; Hurricane, O. A.; Hinkel, D. E.

    By increasing the velocity in “high foot” implosions [Dittrich et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 055002 (2014); Park et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 055001 (2014); Hurricane et al., Nature 506, 343 (2014); Hurricane et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 056314 (2014)] on the National Ignition Facility laser, we have nearly doubled the neutron yield and the hotspot pressure as compared to the implosions reported upon last year. The implosion velocity has been increased using a combination of the laser (higher power and energy), the hohlraum (depleted uranium wall material with higher opacity and lower specific heat than gold hohlraums), andmore » the capsule (thinner capsules with less mass). We find that the neutron yield from these experiments scales systematically with a velocity-like parameter of the square root of the laser energy divided by the ablator mass. By connecting this parameter with the inferred implosion velocity (v), we find that for shots with primary yield >1e15 neutrons, the total yield ~ v⁹˙⁴. This increase is considerably faster than the expected dependence for implosions without alpha heating ( ~v⁵˙⁹) and is additional evidence that these experiments have significant alpha heating.« less

  17. Higher velocity, high-foot implosions on the National Ignition Facility laser

    DOE PAGES

    Callahan, D. A.; Hurricane, O. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; ...

    2015-05-15

    By increasing the velocity in “high foot” implosions [Dittrich et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 055002 (2014); Park et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 055001 (2014); Hurricane et al., Nature 506, 343 (2014); Hurricane et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 056314 (2014)] on the National Ignition Facility laser, we have nearly doubled the neutron yield and the hotspot pressure as compared to the implosions reported upon last year. The implosion velocity has been increased using a combination of the laser (higher power and energy), the hohlraum (depleted uranium wall material with higher opacity and lower specific heat than gold hohlraums), andmore » the capsule (thinner capsules with less mass). We find that the neutron yield from these experiments scales systematically with a velocity-like parameter of the square root of the laser energy divided by the ablator mass. By connecting this parameter with the inferred implosion velocity (v), we find that for shots with primary yield >1e15 neutrons, the total yield ~ v⁹˙⁴. This increase is considerably faster than the expected dependence for implosions without alpha heating ( ~v⁵˙⁹) and is additional evidence that these experiments have significant alpha heating.« less

  18. Effects of local defect growth in direct-drive cryogenic implosions on OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igumenshchev, I. V.; Goncharov, V. N.; Shmayda, W. T.; Harding, D. R.; Sangster, T. C.; Meyerhofer, D. D.

    2013-08-01

    Spherically symmetric, low-adiabat (adiabat α ≲ 3) cryogenic direct-drive-implosion experiments on the OMEGA laser [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1995)] yield less than 10% of the neutrons predicted in one-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations. Two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations suggest that this performance degradation can be explained assuming perturbations from isolated defects of submicron to tens-of-micron scale on the outer surface or inside the shell of implosion targets. These defects develop during the cryogenic filling process and typically number from several tens up to hundreds for each target covering from about 0.2% to 1% of its surface. The simulations predict that such defects can significantly perturb the implosion and result in the injection of about 1 to 2 μg of the hot ablator (carbon-deuterium) and fuel (deuterium-tritium) materials from the ablation surface into the targets. Both the hot mass injection and perturbations of the shell reduce the final shell convergence ratio and implosion performance. The injected carbon ions radiatively cool the hot spot, reducing the fuel temperature, and further reducing the neutron yield. The negative effect of local defects can be minimized by decreasing the number and size of these defects and/or using more hydrodynamically stable implosion designs with higher shell adiabat.

  19. Measurements of high-current electron beams from X pinches and wire array Z pinches.

    PubMed

    Shelkovenko, T A; Pikuz, S A; Blesener, I C; McBride, R D; Bell, K S; Hammer, D A; Agafonov, A V; Romanova, V M; Mingaleev, A R

    2008-10-01

    Some issues concerning high-current electron beam transport from the X pinch cross point to the diagnostic system and measurements of the beam current by Faraday cups are discussed. Results of computer simulation of electron beam propagation from the pinch to the Faraday cup give limits for the measured current for beams having different energy spreads. The beam is partially neutralized as it propagates from the X pinch to a diagnostic system, but within a Faraday cup diagnostic, space charge effects can be very important. Experimental results show evidence of such effects.

  20. A z-pinch photo-pumped pulsed atomic iodine laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, D. H.; Saunders, D. P.; Clark, M. C.

    1984-03-01

    A pulsed atomic iodine laser (CF3I) was designed and constructed using a coaxial xenon flash lamp as a pump source. The flash lamp was operated at low pressure to obtain pulse compression via xenon self-pinch. Electrical and optical diagnostics were performed for various xenon and CF3I pressures. Calorimeter data and burn patterns were obtained for the laser. Time-resolved spectroscopic data were taken throughout the CF3I pump band.

  1. Improvements in the EQ-10 electrodeless Z-pinch EUV source for metrology applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horne, Stephen F.; Gustafson, Deborah; Partlow, Matthew J.; Besen, Matthew M.; Smith, Donald K.; Blackborow, Paul A.

    2011-04-01

    Now that EUV lithography systems are beginning to ship into the fabs for next generation chips it is more critical that the EUV infrastructure developments are keeping pace. Energetiq Technology has been shipping the EQ-10 Electrodeless Z-pinch™ light source since 2005. The source is currently being used for metrology, mask inspection, and resist development. These applications require especially stable performance in both power and source size. Over the last 5 years Energetiq has made many source modifications which have included better thermal management as well as high pulse rate operation6. Recently we have further increased the system power handling and electrical pulse reproducibility. The impact of these modifications on source performance will be reported.

  2. Numerical simulations of Z-Pinch experiments to create supersonic differentially-rotating plasma flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocchi, M.; Ummels, B.; Chittenden, J. P.; Lebedev, S. V.

    2012-02-01

    In the context of high energy density laboratory astrophysics, we aim to produce and study a rotating plasma relevant to accretion discs physics. We devised an experimental setup based on a modified cylindrical wire array and we studied it numerically with the three-dimensional, resistive magneto-hydrodynamic code GORGON. The simulations show that a rotating plasma cylinder is formed, with typical rotation velocity ~35 km/s and Mach number ~5. In addition, the plasma ring is differentially rotating and strongly radiatively cooled. The introduction of external magnetic fields is discussed.

  3. Relaxation model for extended magnetohydrodynamics: Comparison to magnetohydrodynamics for dense Z-pinches

    DOE PAGES

    Seyler, C. E.; Martin, M. R.

    2011-01-14

    In this study, it is shown that the two-fluid model under a generalized Ohm’s law formulation and the resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) can both be described as relaxation systems. In the relaxation model, the under-resolved stiff source terms constrain the dynamics of a set of hyperbolic equations to give the correct asymptotic solution. When applied to the collisional two-fluid model, the relaxation of fast time scales associated with displacement current and finite electron mass allows for a natural transition from a system where Ohm’s law determines the current density to a system where Ohm’s law determines the electric field. This resultmore » is used to derive novel algorithms, which allow for multiscale simulation of low and high frequency extended-MHD physics. This relaxation formulation offers an efficient way to implicitly advance the Hall term and naturally simulate a plasma-vacuum interface without invoking phenomenological models. The relaxation model is implemented as an extended-MHD code, which is used to analyze pulsed power loads such as wire arrays and ablating foils. Two-dimensional simulations of pulsed power loads are compared for extended-MHD and MHD. For these simulations, it is also shown that the relaxation model properly recovers the resistive-MHD limit.« less

  4. Linear and nonlinear evolution of azimuthal clumping instabilities in a Z-pinch wire array

    DOE PAGES

    Tang, Wilkin; Strickler, T. S.; Lau, Y. Y.; ...

    2007-01-31

    This study presents an analytic theory on the linear and nonlinear evolution of the most unstable azimuthal clumping mode, known as the pi-mode, in a discrete wire array. In the pi-mode, neighboring wires of the array pair-up as a result of the mutual attraction of the wires which carry current in the same direction. The analytic solution displays two regimes, where the collective interactions of all wires dominate, versus where the interaction of the neighboring, single wire dominates. This solution was corroborated by two vastly different numerical codes which were used to simulate arrays with both high wire numbers (upmore » to 600) and low wire number (8). All solutions show that azimuthal clumping of discrete wires occurs before appreciable radial motion of the wires. Thus, absence of azimuthal clumping of wires in comparison with the wires’ radial motion may imply substantial lack of wire currents. Finally, while the present theory and simulations have ignored the plasma corona and axial variations, it is argued that their effects, and the complete account of the three-dimensional feature of the pi-mode, together with a scaling study of the wire number, may be expediently simulated by using only one single wire in an annular wedge with a reflection condition imposed on the wedge’s boundary.« less

  5. A Solvable Self-Similar Model of the Sausage Instability in a Resistive Z-Pinch

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-20

    Ithaca, NY 14853 Dr. V. Nardi Dr. John C. Riordan Stevens Institute of Technology Physics International Co. Hoboken, NJ 07803 2700 Merced Street Dr...92122 Dr. Rick B. Spielman Dr. Frank C. Young Sandia National Laboratories Naval Research Laboratory P.O. Box 5800 Code 4770.1 Albuquerque, NM 87115

  6. Spectroscopic Study of Neon Z-Pinch Plasma for Sodium-Neon Photopumping Experiments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-06

    enhancement of the 11-A radiation from the n=4 level of neon when the sodium pump was present. For the 25-GV pump power, theoretical calculations predict...when the neon plasma is photopumped. Extensive theoretical analysis has been devoted to establishing the appropriate conditions for these plasmas. 5 ,44...producing thermonuclear neutrons. 63-65 Extensive theoretical modeling of the stability of these plasmas has guided this work.66 An imploding-liner Z

  7. Theory of formation of helical structures in a perfectly conducting, premagnetized Z-pinch liner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Edmund; Velikovich, Alexander; Peterson, Kyle

    2014-10-01

    The magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) concept uses an azimuthal magnetic field to collapse a thick metallic liner containing preheated fusion fuel. A critical component of the concept is an axial magnetic field, permeating both the fuel and surrounding liner, which reduces the compression necessary to achieve fusion conditions. Recent experiments demonstrate that a liner premagnetized with a 10 T axial field develops helical structures with a pitch significantly larger than an estimate of Bz /Bθ would suggest. The cause of the helical perturbations is still not understood. In this work, we present an analytic, linear theory in which we model the liner as a perfectly conducting metal, and study how bumps and divots on its surface redirect current flow, resulting in perturbations to B as well as j × B . We show that in the presence of axial and azimuthal magnetic field, the theory predicts divots will grow and deform at an angle determined by the magnetic field. We compare theoretical results with three dimensional, resistive MHD simulations. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the National Nuclear Security Administration under DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  8. Designing cylindrical implosion experiments on NIF to study deceleration phase of Rayleigh-Taylor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazirani, N.; Kline, J. L.; Loomis, E.; Sauppe, J. P.; Palaniyappan, S.; Flippo, K.; Srinivasan, B.; Malka, E.; Bose, A.; Shvarts, D.

    2017-10-01

    The Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) hydrodynamic instability occurs when a lower density fluid pushes on a higher density fluid. This occurs in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions at each of the capsule interfaces during the initial acceleration and the deceleration as it stagnates. The RT instabilities mix capsule material into the fusion fuel degrading the Deuterium-Tritium reactivity and ultimately play a key role in limiting target performance. While significant effort has focused on understanding RT at the outer capsule surface, little work has gone into understanding the inner surface RT instability growth during the deceleration phase. Direct measurements of the RT instability are difficult to make at high convergence in a spherical implosion. Here we present the design of a cylindrical implosion system for the National Ignition Facility for studying deceleration phase RT. We will discuss the experimental design, the estimated instability growth, and our outstanding concerns.

  9. Magnetized HDC ignition capsules for yield enhancement and implosion magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, G.; Ho, D.; Perkins, J.; Logan, G.; Hawkins, S.; Rhodes, M.

    2014-10-01

    Imposing a magnetic field on capsules can turn capsules that fail, because of low 1-D margin, into igniting capsules that give yield in the MegaJoule range. The imposed magnetic field can be amplified by up to O(103) as it is being compressed by the imploding shell, e.g. if the initial field is 50 T, then the field in the hot spot of the assembled configuration can reach >104 T. (We are currently designing hardware that can provide a field in the 50 T range inside NIF hohlraums.) With this highly compressed field strength, the gyro radius of alpha particles becomes smaller than the hot spot size. Consequently, the heating of the hot spot becomes more efficient. The imposed field can also prevent hot electrons in the holhraum from reaching the capsule. We choose capsules with high-density carbon (HDC) ablators for this study. HDC capsules have good 1-D performance and also have short pulses (10 ns or less), allowing the use of low gas-filled or near-vacuum hohlraums which provide high coupling efficiency. We describe a 2-D simulation of a 3-shock HDC capsule. We will show detailed magnetohydrodynamic evolution of the implosion. HDC capsules with 2-shock pulses have low margin because of their high adiabat, and it is difficult to achieve ignition in realistic 2-D simulations. The improvement in performance for 2-shock magnetized capsules will be presented. This work was supported by LLNL Laboratory Directed Research and Development LDRD 14-ER-028 under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  10. Theoretical and simulation research of hydrodynamic instabilities in inertial-confinement fusion implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, LiFeng; Ye, WenHua; He, XianTu; Wu, JunFeng; Fan, ZhengFeng; Xue, Chuang; Guo, HongYu; Miao, WenYong; Yuan, YongTeng; Dong, JiaQin; Jia, Guo; Zhang, Jing; Li, YingJun; Liu, Jie; Wang, Min; Ding, YongKun; Zhang, WeiYan

    2017-05-01

    Inertial fusion energy (IFE) has been considered a promising, nearly inexhaustible source of sustainable carbon-free power for the world's energy future. It has long been recognized that the control of hydrodynamic instabilities is of critical importance for ignition and high-gain in the inertial-confinement fusion (ICF) hot-spot ignition scheme. In this mini-review, we summarize the progress of theoretical and simulation research of hydrodynamic instabilities in the ICF central hot-spot implosion in our group over the past decade. In order to obtain sufficient understanding of the growth of hydrodynamic instabilities in ICF, we first decompose the problem into different stages according to the implosion physics processes. The decomposed essential physics pro- cesses that are associated with ICF implosions, such as Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI), Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI), Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI), convergent geometry effects, as well as perturbation feed-through are reviewed. Analyti- cal models in planar, cylindrical, and spherical geometries have been established to study different physical aspects, including density-gradient, interface-coupling, geometry, and convergent effects. The influence of ablation in the presence of preheating on the RTI has been extensively studied by numerical simulations. The KHI considering the ablation effect has been discussed in detail for the first time. A series of single-mode ablative RTI experiments has been performed on the Shenguang-II laser facility. The theoretical and simulation research provides us the physical insights of linear and weakly nonlinear growths, and nonlinear evolutions of the hydrodynamic instabilities in ICF implosions, which has directly supported the research of ICF ignition target design. The ICF hot-spot ignition implosion design that uses several controlling features, based on our current understanding of hydrodynamic instabilities, to address shell implosion stability, has

  11. Higher Velocity High-Foot Implosions on the National Ignition Facility Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callahan, Debra

    2014-10-01

    After the end of the National Ignition Campaign on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser, we began a campaign to test capsule performance using a modified laser pulse-shape that delivers higher power early in the pulse (``high foot''). This pulse-shape trades one-dimensional performance (peak compression) for increased hydrodynamic stability. The focus of the experiments this year have been to improve performance by increasing the implosion velocity using higher laser power/energy, depleted uranium hohlraums, and thinner capsules. While the mix of ablator material into the hotspot has been low for all of these implosions, the challenge has been to keep the implosion shape under control. As the peak laser power is increased, the plasma density in the hohlraum is increased - making it more and more challenging for the inner cone beams to reach the midplane of the hohlraum and resulting in an oblate implosion. Depleted uranium hohlraums have higher albedo than Au hohlraums, which leads to additional drive and improved implosion shape. Thinner ablators increase the velocity by reducing the amount of payload; thinner ablators also put less mass into the hohlraum which results in improved inner beam propagation. These techniques have allowed us to push the capsule to higher and higher velocity. In parallel with this effort, we are exploring other hohlraums such as the rugby shaped hohlraum to allow us to push these implosions further. This talk will summarize the progress of the high foot campaign in terms of both capsule and hohlraum performance. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  12. A scheme for reducing deceleration-phase Rayleigh–Taylor growth in inertial confinement fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L. F., E-mail: wang-lifeng@iapcm.ac.cn; Ye, W. H.; Liu, Jie

    It is demonstrated that the growth of acceleration-phase instabilities in inertial confinement fusion implosions can be controlled, especially in the high-foot implosions [O. A. Hurricane et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 056314 (2014)] on the National Ignition Facility. However, the excessive growth of the deceleration-phase instabilities can still destroy the hot spot ignition. A scheme is proposed to retard the deceleration-phase Rayleigh–Taylor instability growth by shock collision near the waist of the inner shell surface. Two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic simulations confirm the improved deceleration-phase hot spot stability properties without sacrificing the fuel compression.

  13. In-flight neutron spectra as an ICF diagnostic for implosion asymmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerjan, C.; Sayre, D. B.; Sepke, S. M.

    2018-02-01

    The yield and spectral shape of the neutrons produced during in-flight reactions provide stringent constraints upon the symmetry of the fully compressed fuel conditions in Inertial Confinement Fusion implosions. Neutron production from a specific deuterium gas-filled implosion is simulated in detail and compared with the experimental neutron spectra along two lines-of-sight. An approximate reactivity formulation is applied to obtain further insight into the underlying fuel configuration. This analysis suggests that the differences observed in the observed spectra correspond to angularly dependent triton velocity distributions created by an asymmetric plasma configuration.

  14. A scheme for reducing deceleration-phase Rayleigh-Taylor growth in inertial confinement fusion implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L. F.; Ye, W. H.; Wu, J. F.; Liu, Jie; Zhang, W. Y.; He, X. T.

    2016-05-01

    It is demonstrated that the growth of acceleration-phase instabilities in inertial confinement fusion implosions can be controlled, especially in the high-foot implosions [O. A. Hurricane et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 056314 (2014)] on the National Ignition Facility. However, the excessive growth of the deceleration-phase instabilities can still destroy the hot spot ignition. A scheme is proposed to retard the deceleration-phase Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth by shock collision near the waist of the inner shell surface. Two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic simulations confirm the improved deceleration-phase hot spot stability properties without sacrificing the fuel compression.

  15. Simulation and assessment of ion kinetic effects in a direct-drive capsule implosion experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Le, Ari Yitzchak; Kwan, Thomas J. T.; Schmitt, Mark J.; ...

    2016-10-24

    The first simulations employing a kinetic treatment of both fuel and shell ions to model inertial confinement fusion experiments are presented, including results showing the importance of kinetic physics processes in altering fusion burn. A pair of direct drive capsule implosions performed at the OMEGA facility with two different gas fills of deuterium, tritium, and helium-3 are analyzed. During implosion shock convergence, highly non-Maxwellian ion velocity distributions and separations in the density and temperature amongst the ion species are observed. Finally, diffusion of fuel into the capsule shell is identified as a principal process that degrades fusion burn performance.

  16. Enhancing Understanding of Magnetized High Energy Density Plasmas from Solid Liner Implosions Using Fluid Modeling with Kinetic Closures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masti, Robert; Srinivasan, Bhuvana; King, Jacob; Stoltz, Peter; Hansen, David; Held, Eric

    2017-10-01

    Recent results from experiments and simulations of magnetically driven pulsed power liners have explored the role of early-time electrothermal instability in the evolution of the MRT (magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor) instability. Understanding the development of these instabilities can lead to potential stabilization mechanisms; thereby providing a significant role in the success of fusion concepts such as MagLIF (Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion). For MagLIF the MRT instability is the most detrimental instability toward achieving fusion energy production. Experiments of high-energy density plasmas from wire-array implosions have shown the requirement for more advanced physics modeling than that of ideal magnetohydrodynamics. The overall focus of this project is on using a multi-fluid extended-MHD model with kinetic closures for thermal conductivity, resistivity, and viscosity. The extended-MHD model has been updated to include the SESAME equation-of-state tables and numerical benchmarks with this implementation will be presented. Simulations of MRT growth and evolution for MagLIF-relevant parameters will be presented using this extended-MHD model with the SESAME equation-of-state tables. This work is supported by the Department of Energy Office of Science under Grant Number DE-SC0016515.

  17. Quantitative studies of kinetic effects in direct- and indirect-drive Inertial Confinement Fusion implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinderknecht, Hans

    2013-10-01

    A comprehensive set of experiments using shock-driven implosions has been conducted to quantitatively study kinetic effects by exploring deviations from hydrodynamic behavior in plasmas relevant to inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Two types of targets were imploded at OMEGA to create ~10 keV, ~1022 cm-3 plasmas with conditions comparable to the incipient hotspot in ignition designs: thin-glass targets filled with mixtures of D2 and 3He gas; and thin deuterated-plastic shells filled with 3He. In the thin-glass experiments, the gas pressure was varied from 1 to 25 atm to scan the ion-mean-free path in the plasma at shock burn. The observed nuclear yields and temperatures deviated more strongly from hydrodynamic predictions as the ion-mean-free path increased to the order of the plasma size. This result provides the first direct experimental evidence how kinetic effects impact yields and ion temperature. The ratio of D to 3He was also varied while maintaining the fuel mass density. As the D fraction was reduced, the DD and D3He fusion products displayed an anomalous yield reduction. Separation of the D and 3He ion species across the strong (Mach ~10) shock-front will be discussed as the likely cause of this result. Finally, thin-CD shells filled with 3He produced significantly more D3He-protons when imploded than is explained by hydrodynamic mix models. This result suggests a kinetic form of mix dominates at the strongly-shocked shell-gas interface. This work was performed in collaboration with C. Li, M. Rosenberg, A. Zylstra, H. Sio, M. Gatu Johnson, F. Séguin, J. Frenje, and R. Petrasso (MIT), V. Glebov, C. Stoeckl, J. Delettrez, and C. Sangster (LLE), J. Pino, P. Amendt, C. Bellei, and S. Wilks (LLNL), G. Kagan, N. Hoffmann and K. Molvig (LANL), and A. Nikroo (GA) and was supported in part by the NLUF, FSC/UR, U.S. DOE, LLNL and LLE.

  18. Progress in detailed modelling of low foot and high foot implosion experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, D. S.; Weber, C. R.; Eder, D. C.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Jones, O. S.; Kritcher, A. L.; Marinak, M. M.; Milovich, J. L.; Patel, P. K.; Robey, H. F.; Salmonson, J. D.; Sepke, S. M.

    2016-05-01

    Several dozen high convergence inertial confinement fusion ignition experiments have now been completed on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). These include both “low foot” experiments from the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) and more recent “high foot” experiments. At the time of the NIC, there were large discrepancies between simulated implosion performance and experimental data. In particular, simulations over predicted neutron yields by up to an order of magnitude, and some experiments showed clear evidence of mixing of ablator material deep into the hot spot that could not be explained at the time. While the agreement between data and simulation improved for high foot implosion experiments, discrepancies nevertheless remain. This paper describes the state of detailed modelling of both low foot and high foot implosions using 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D radiation hydrodynamics simulations with HYDRA. The simulations include a range of effects, in particular, the impact of the plastic membrane used to support the capsule in the hohlraum, as well as low-mode radiation asymmetries tuned to match radiography measurements. The same simulation methodology is applied to low foot NIC implosion experiments and high foot implosions, and shows a qualitatively similar level of agreement for both types of implosions. While comparison with the experimental data remains imperfect, a reasonable level of agreement is emerging and shows a growing understanding of the high-convergence implosions being performed on NIF.

  19. First Liquid Layer Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, R. E.; Leeper, R. J.; Kline, J. L.; Zylstra, A. B.; Yi, S. A.; Biener, J.; Braun, T.; Kozioziemski, B. J.; Sater, J. D.; Bradley, P. A.; Peterson, R. R.; Haines, B. M.; Yin, L.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Meezan, N. B.; Walters, C.; Biener, M. M.; Kong, C.; Crippen, J. W.; Kyrala, G. A.; Shah, R. C.; Herrmann, H. W.; Wilson, D. C.; Hamza, A. V.; Nikroo, A.; Batha, S. H.

    2016-12-01

    The first cryogenic deuterium and deuterium-tritium liquid layer implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) demonstrate D2 and DT layer inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions that can access a low-to-moderate hot-spot convergence ratio (12 30 ) DT ice layer implosions. Although high CR is desirable in an idealized 1D sense, it amplifies the deleterious effects of asymmetries. To date, these asymmetries prevented the achievement of ignition at the NIF and are the major cause of simulation-experiment disagreement. In the initial liquid layer experiments, high neutron yields were achieved with CRs of 12-17, and the hot-spot formation is well understood, demonstrated by a good agreement between the experimental data and the radiation hydrodynamic simulations. These initial experiments open a new NIF experimental capability that provides an opportunity to explore the relationship between hot-spot convergence ratio and the robustness of hot-spot formation during ICF implosions.

  20. First Liquid Layer Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions at the National Ignition Facility

    DOE PAGES

    Olson, R. E.; Leeper, R. J.; Kline, J. L.; ...

    2016-12-07

    The first cryogenic deuterium and deuterium-tritium liquid layer implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) demonstrate D 2 and DT layer Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) implosions that can access low-to-moderate hot spot convergence ratio (1230) DT ice layer implosions. Although high CR is desirable in an idealized 1D sense, it amplifies the deleterious effects of asymmetries. To date, these asymmetries prevented the achievement of ignition at the NIF and are the major cause of simulation-experiment disagreement. In the initial liquid layer experiments, high neutron yields were achieved with CR’s of 12-17, and the hot spot formation is well understood, demonstratedmore » by good agreement between the experimental data and the radiation hydrodynamic simulations. These initial experiments open a new NIF experimental capability that provides an opportunity to explore the relationship between hot-spot convergence ratio and the robustness of hot-spot formation during ICF implosions.« less

  1. Implosion Dynamics and Mix in Double-Shell ICF Capsule Designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunderson, Mark; Daughton, William; Simakov, Andrei; Wilson, Douglas; Watt, Robert; Delamater, Norman; Montgomery, David

    2015-11-01

    From an implosion dynamics perspective, double-shell ICF capsule designs have several advantages over the single-shell NIF ICF capsule point design. Double shell designs do not require precise shock sequencing, do not rely on hot spot ignition, have lower peak implosion speed requirements, and have lower convergence ratio requirements. However, there are still hurdles that must be overcome. The timing of the two main shocks in these designs is important in achieving sufficient compression of the DT fuel. Instability of the inner gold shell due to preheat from the hohlraum environment can disrupt the implosion of the inner pill. Mix, in addition to quenching burn in the DT fuel, also decreases the transfer of energy between the beryllium ablator and the inner gold shell during collision thus decreasing the implosion speed of the inner shell along with compression of the DT fuel. Herein, we will discuss practical implications of these effects on double-shell design we carry out in preparation for the NIF double-shell campaign. Work performed under the auspices of DOE by LANL under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  2. Comparison of Three Methods of Reducing Test Anxiety: Systematic Desensitization, Implosive Therapy, and Study Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornish, Richard D.; Dilley, Josiah S.

    1973-01-01

    Systematic desensitization, implosive therapy, and study counseling have all been effective in reducing test anxiety. In addition, systematic desensitization has been compared to study counseling for effectiveness. This study compares all three methods and suggests that systematic desentization is more effective than the others, and that implosive…

  3. First Liquid Layer Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions at the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Olson, R E; Leeper, R J; Kline, J L; Zylstra, A B; Yi, S A; Biener, J; Braun, T; Kozioziemski, B J; Sater, J D; Bradley, P A; Peterson, R R; Haines, B M; Yin, L; Berzak Hopkins, L F; Meezan, N B; Walters, C; Biener, M M; Kong, C; Crippen, J W; Kyrala, G A; Shah, R C; Herrmann, H W; Wilson, D C; Hamza, A V; Nikroo, A; Batha, S H

    2016-12-09

    The first cryogenic deuterium and deuterium-tritium liquid layer implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) demonstrate D_{2} and DT layer inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions that can access a low-to-moderate hot-spot convergence ratio (1230) DT ice layer implosions. Although high CR is desirable in an idealized 1D sense, it amplifies the deleterious effects of asymmetries. To date, these asymmetries prevented the achievement of ignition at the NIF and are the major cause of simulation-experiment disagreement. In the initial liquid layer experiments, high neutron yields were achieved with CRs of 12-17, and the hot-spot formation is well understood, demonstrated by a good agreement between the experimental data and the radiation hydrodynamic simulations. These initial experiments open a new NIF experimental capability that provides an opportunity to explore the relationship between hot-spot convergence ratio and the robustness of hot-spot formation during ICF implosions.

  4. Three-dimensional simulations of low foot and high foot implosion experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D. S.; Weber, C. R.; Milovich, J. L.

    In order to achieve the several hundred Gbar stagnation pressures necessary for inertial confinement fusion ignition, implosion experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [E. I. Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)] require the compression of deuterium-tritium fuel layers by a convergence ratio as high as forty. Such high convergence implosions are subject to degradation by a range of perturbations, including the growth of small-scale defects due to hydrodynamic instabilities, as well as longer scale modulations due to radiation flux asymmetries in the enclosing hohlraum. Due to the broad range of scales involved, and also the genuinely three-dimensionalmore » (3D) character of the flow, accurately modeling NIF implosions remains at the edge of current simulation capabilities. This study describes the current state of progress of 3D capsule-only simulations of NIF implosions aimed at accurately describing the performance of specific NIF experiments. Current simulations include the effects of hohlraum radiation asymmetries, capsule surface defects, the capsule support tent and fill tube, and use a grid resolution shown to be converged in companion two-dimensional simulations. The results of detailed simulations of low foot implosions from the National Ignition Campaign are contrasted against results for more recent high foot implosions. While the simulations suggest that low foot performance was dominated by ablation front instability growth, especially the defect seeded by the capsule support tent, high foot implosions appear to be dominated by hohlraum flux asymmetries, although the support tent still plays a significant role. Finally, for both implosion types, the simulations show reasonable, though not perfect, agreement with the data and suggest that a reliable predictive capability is developing to guide future implosions toward ignition.« less

  5. Three-dimensional simulations of low foot and high foot implosion experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D. S.; Weber, C. R.; Milovich, J. L.

    In order to achieve the several hundred Gbar stagnation pressures necessary for inertial confinement fusion ignition, implosion experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [E. I. Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)] require the compression of deuterium-tritium fuel layers by a convergence ratio as high as forty. Such high convergence implosions are subject to degradation by a range of perturbations, including the growth of small-scale defects due to hydrodynamic instabilities, as well as longer scale modulations due to radiation flux asymmetries in the enclosing hohlraum. Due to the broad range of scales involved, and also the genuinely three-dimensionalmore » (3D) character of the flow, accurately modeling NIF implosions remains at the edge of current simulation capabilities. This paper describes the current state of progress of 3D capsule-only simulations of NIF implosions aimed at accurately describing the performance of specific NIF experiments. Current simulations include the effects of hohlraum radiation asymmetries, capsule surface defects, the capsule support tent and fill tube, and use a grid resolution shown to be converged in companion two-dimensional simulations. The results of detailed simulations of low foot implosions from the National Ignition Campaign are contrasted against results for more recent high foot implosions. While the simulations suggest that low foot performance was dominated by ablation front instability growth, especially the defect seeded by the capsule support tent, high foot implosions appear to be dominated by hohlraum flux asymmetries, although the support tent still plays a significant role. For both implosion types, the simulations show reasonable, though not perfect, agreement with the data and suggest that a reliable predictive capability is developing to guide future implosions toward ignition.« less

  6. Three-dimensional simulations of low foot and high foot implosion experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    DOE PAGES

    Clark, D. S.; Weber, C. R.; Milovich, J. L.; ...

    2016-03-14

    In order to achieve the several hundred Gbar stagnation pressures necessary for inertial confinement fusion ignition, implosion experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [E. I. Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)] require the compression of deuterium-tritium fuel layers by a convergence ratio as high as forty. Such high convergence implosions are subject to degradation by a range of perturbations, including the growth of small-scale defects due to hydrodynamic instabilities, as well as longer scale modulations due to radiation flux asymmetries in the enclosing hohlraum. Due to the broad range of scales involved, and also the genuinely three-dimensionalmore » (3D) character of the flow, accurately modeling NIF implosions remains at the edge of current simulation capabilities. This study describes the current state of progress of 3D capsule-only simulations of NIF implosions aimed at accurately describing the performance of specific NIF experiments. Current simulations include the effects of hohlraum radiation asymmetries, capsule surface defects, the capsule support tent and fill tube, and use a grid resolution shown to be converged in companion two-dimensional simulations. The results of detailed simulations of low foot implosions from the National Ignition Campaign are contrasted against results for more recent high foot implosions. While the simulations suggest that low foot performance was dominated by ablation front instability growth, especially the defect seeded by the capsule support tent, high foot implosions appear to be dominated by hohlraum flux asymmetries, although the support tent still plays a significant role. Finally, for both implosion types, the simulations show reasonable, though not perfect, agreement with the data and suggest that a reliable predictive capability is developing to guide future implosions toward ignition.« less

  7. High-resolution, detailed simulations of low foot and high foot implosion experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    In order to achieve the several hundred Gbar stagnation pressures necessary for inertial confinement fusion ignition, implosion experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) require the compression of deuterium-tritium fuel layers by a convergence ratio as high as forty. Such high convergence implosions are subject to degradation by a range of perturbations, including the growth of small-scale defects due to hydrodynamic instabilities, as well as longer scale modulations due to radiation flux asymmetries in the enclosing hohlraum. Due to the broad range of scales involved, and also the genuinely three-dimensional (3-D) character of the flow, accurately modeling NIF implosions remains at the edge of current radiation hydrodynamics simulation capabilities. This talk describes the current state of progress of 3-D, high-resolution, capsule-only simulations of NIF implosions aimed at accurately describing the performance of specific NIF experiments. Current simulations include the effects of hohlraum radiation asymmetries, capsule surface defects, the capsule support tent and fill tube, and use a grid resolution shown to be converged in companion two-dimensional simulations. The results of detailed simulations of low foot implosions from the National Ignition Campaign are contrasted against results for more recent high foot implosions. While the simulations suggest that low foot performance was dominated by ablation front instability growth, especially the defect seeded by the capsule support tent, high foot implosions appear to be dominated by hohlraum flux asymmetries, although the support tent still plays a significant role. Most importantly, it is found that a single, standard simulation methodology appears adequate to model both implosion types and gives confidence that such a model can be used to guide future implosion designs toward ignition. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

  8. Three-dimensional modeling of direct-drive cryogenic implosions on OMEGA

    DOE PAGES

    Igumenshchev, I. V.; Goncharov, V. N.; Marshall, F. J.; ...

    2016-05-04

    The effects of large-scale (with Legendre modes ≲10) laser-imposed nonuniformities in direct-drive cryogenic implosions on the OMEGA laser system are investigated using three-dimension hydrodynamic simulations performed using a newly developed code ASTER. Sources of these nonuniformities include an illumination pattern produced by 60 OMEGA laser beams, capsule offsets (~10 to 20 μm), and imperfect pointing, energy balance, and timing of the beams (with typical σ rms ~10 μm, 10%, and 5 ps, respectively). Two implosion designs using 26-kJ triple-picket laser pulses were studied: a nominal design, in which a 880-μm-diameter capsule is illuminated by the same-diameter beams, and a “R75”more » design using a capsule of 900 μm in diameter and beams of 75% of this diameter. Simulations found that nonuniformities because of capsule offsets and beam imbalance have the largest effect on implosion performance. These nonuniformities lead to significant distortions of implosion cores resulting in an incomplete stagnation. The shape of distorted cores is well represented by neutron images, but loosely in x-rays. Simulated neutron spectra from perturbed implosions show large directional variations and up to ~ 2 keV variation of the hot spot temperature inferred from these spectra. The R75 design is more hydrodynamically efficient because of mitigation of crossed-beam energy transfer, but also suffers more from the nonuniformities. Furthermore, simulations predict a performance advantage of this design over the nominal design when the target offset and beam imbalance σ rms are reduced to less than 5 μm and 5%, respectively.« less

  9. Three-dimensional modeling of direct-drive cryogenic implosions on OMEGA

    SciTech Connect

    Igumenshchev, I. V.; Goncharov, V. N.; Marshall, F. J.

    The effects of large-scale (with Legendre modes ≲10) laser-imposed nonuniformities in direct-drive cryogenic implosions on the OMEGA laser system are investigated using three-dimension hydrodynamic simulations performed using a newly developed code ASTER. Sources of these nonuniformities include an illumination pattern produced by 60 OMEGA laser beams, capsule offsets (~10 to 20 μm), and imperfect pointing, energy balance, and timing of the beams (with typical σ rms ~10 μm, 10%, and 5 ps, respectively). Two implosion designs using 26-kJ triple-picket laser pulses were studied: a nominal design, in which a 880-μm-diameter capsule is illuminated by the same-diameter beams, and a “R75”more » design using a capsule of 900 μm in diameter and beams of 75% of this diameter. Simulations found that nonuniformities because of capsule offsets and beam imbalance have the largest effect on implosion performance. These nonuniformities lead to significant distortions of implosion cores resulting in an incomplete stagnation. The shape of distorted cores is well represented by neutron images, but loosely in x-rays. Simulated neutron spectra from perturbed implosions show large directional variations and up to ~ 2 keV variation of the hot spot temperature inferred from these spectra. The R75 design is more hydrodynamically efficient because of mitigation of crossed-beam energy transfer, but also suffers more from the nonuniformities. Furthermore, simulations predict a performance advantage of this design over the nominal design when the target offset and beam imbalance σ rms are reduced to less than 5 μm and 5%, respectively.« less

  10. Detailed implosion modeling of deuterium-tritium layered experiments on the National Ignition Facilitya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, D. S.; Hinkel, D. E.; Eder, D. C.; Jones, O. S.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Marinak, M. M.; Milovich, J. L.; Robey, H. F.; Suter, L. J.; Town, R. P. J.

    2013-05-01

    More than two dozen inertial confinement fusion ignition experiments with cryogenic deuterium-tritium layers have now been performed on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [G. H. Miller et al., Opt. Eng. 443, 2841 (2004)]. Each of these yields a wealth of data including neutron yield, neutron down-scatter fraction, burn-averaged ion temperature, x-ray image shape and size, primary and down-scattered neutron image shape and size, etc. Compared to 2-D radiation-hydrodynamics simulations modeling both the hohlraum and the capsule implosion, however, the measured capsule yield is usually lower by a factor of 5 to 10, and the ion temperature varies from simulations, while most other observables are well matched between experiment and simulation. In an effort to understand this discrepancy, we perform detailed post-shot simulations of a subset of NIF implosion experiments. Using two-dimensional HYDRA simulations [M. M. Marinak, et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 2275 (2001).] of the capsule only, these simulations represent as accurately as possible the conditions of a given experiment, including the as-shot capsule metrology, capsule surface roughness, and ice layer defects as seeds for the growth of hydrodynamic instabilities. The radiation drive used in these capsule-only simulations can be tuned to reproduce quite well the measured implosion timing, kinematics, and low-mode asymmetry. In order to simulate the experiments as accurately as possible, a limited number of fully three-dimensional implosion simulations are also being performed. Despite detailed efforts to incorporate all of the effects known and believed to be important in determining implosion performance, substantial yield discrepancies remain between experiment and simulation. Some possible alternate scenarios and effects that could resolve this discrepancy are discussed.

  11. Neutron spectrometry - An essential tool for diagnosing implosions at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Mackinnon, A J; Johnson, M G; Frenje, J A

    DT neutron yield (Y{sub n}), ion temperature (T{sub i}) and down-scatter ratio (dsr) determined from measured neutron spectra are essential metrics for diagnosing the performance of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). A suite of neutron-Time-Of-Flight (nTOF) spectrometers and a Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) have been implemented in different locations around the NIF target chamber, providing good implosion coverage and the redundancy required for reliable measurements of Yn, Ti and dsr. From the measured dsr value, an areal density ({rho}R) is determined from the relationship {rho}R{sub tot} (g/cm{sup 2}) = (20.4 {+-} 0.6) x dsr{submore » 10-12 MeV}. The proportionality constant is determined considering implosion geometry, neutron attenuation and energy range used for the dsr measurement. To ensure high accuracy in the measurements, a series of commissioning experiments using exploding pushers have been used for in situ calibration. The spectrometers are now performing to the required accuracy, as indicated by the good agreement between the different measurements over several commissioning shots. In addition, recent data obtained with the MRS and nTOFs indicate that the implosion performance of cryogenically layered DT implosions, characterized by the experimental Ignition Threshold Factor (ITFx) which is a function of dsr (or fuel {rho}R) and Y{sub n}, has improved almost two orders of magnitude since the first shot in September, 2010.« less

  12. Neutron spectrometry-An essential tool for diagnosing implosions at the National Ignition Facility (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M. Gatu; Frenje, J. A.; Casey, D. T.

    2012-10-15

    DT neutron yield (Y{sub n}), ion temperature (T{sub i}), and down-scatter ratio (dsr) determined from measured neutron spectra are essential metrics for diagnosing the performance of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). A suite of neutron-time-of-flight (nTOF) spectrometers and a magnetic recoil spectrometer (MRS) have been implemented in different locations around the NIF target chamber, providing good implosion coverage and the complementarity required for reliable measurements of Y{sub n}, T{sub i}, and dsr. From the measured dsr value, an areal density ({rho}R) is determined through the relationship {rho}R{sub tot} (g/cm{sup 2}) = (20.4 {+-} 0.6)more » Multiplication-Sign dsr{sub 10-12MeV}. The proportionality constant is determined considering implosion geometry, neutron attenuation, and energy range used for the dsr measurement. To ensure high accuracy in the measurements, a series of commissioning experiments using exploding pushers have been used for in situ calibration of the as-built spectrometers, which are now performing to the required accuracy. Recent data obtained with the MRS and nTOFs indicate that the implosion performance of cryogenically layered DT implosions, characterized by the experimental ignition threshold factor (ITFx), which is a function of dsr (or fuel {rho}R) and Y{sub n}, has improved almost two orders of magnitude since the first shot in September, 2010.« less

  13. Collisional-radiative simulations of a supersonic and radiatively cooled aluminum plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa, G.; Gil, J. M.; Rodriguez, R.; Rubiano, J. G.; Mendoza, M. A.; Martel, P.; Minguez, E.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Lebedev, S. V.; Swadling, G. F.; Burdiak, G.; Pickworth, L. A.; Skidmore, J.

    2015-12-01

    A computational investigation based on collisional-radiative simulations of a supersonic and radiatively cooled aluminum plasma jet is presented. The jet, both in vacuum and in argon ambient gas, was produced on the MAGPIE (Mega Ampere Generator for Plasma Implosion Experiments) generator and is formed by ablation of an aluminum foil driven by a 1.4 MA, 250 ns current pulse in a radial foil Z-pinch configuration. In this work, population kinetics and radiative properties simulations of the jet in different theoretical approximations were performed. In particular, local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE), non-LTE steady state (SS) and non-LTE time dependent (TD) models have been considered. This study allows us to make a convenient microscopic characterization of the aluminum plasma jet.

  14. Imaging of high-energy x-ray emission from cryogenic thermonuclear fuel implosions on the NIF.

    PubMed

    Ma, T; Izumi, N; Tommasini, R; Bradley, D K; Bell, P; Cerjan, C J; Dixit, S; Döppner, T; Jones, O; Kline, J L; Kyrala, G; Landen, O L; LePape, S; Mackinnon, A J; Park, H-S; Patel, P K; Prasad, R R; Ralph, J; Regan, S P; Smalyuk, V A; Springer, P T; Suter, L; Town, R P J; Weber, S V; Glenzer, S H

    2012-10-01

    Accurately assessing and optimizing the implosion performance of inertial confinement fusion capsules is a crucial step to achieving ignition on the NIF. We have applied differential filtering (matched Ross filter pairs) to provide broadband time-integrated absolute x-ray self-emission images of the imploded core of cryogenic layered implosions. This diagnostic measures the temperature- and density-sensitive bremsstrahlung emission and provides estimates of hot spot mass, mix mass, and pressure.

  15. Effect of the implosion and demolition of a hospital building on the concentration of fungi in the air.

    PubMed

    Barreiros, Gloria; Akiti, Tiyomi; Magalhães, Ana Cristina Gouveia; Nouér, Simone A; Nucci, Marcio

    2015-12-01

    Building renovations increase the concentration of Aspergillus conidia in the air. In 2010, one wing of the hospital building was imploded due to structural problems. To evaluate the impact of building implosion on the concentration of fungi in the air, the demolition was performed in two phases: mechanical demolition of 30 m of the building, followed by implosion of the wing. Patients at high risk for aspergillosis were placed in protected wards. Air sampling was performed during mechanical demolition, on the day of implosion and after implosion. Total and specific fungal concentrations were compared in the different areas and periods of sampling, using the anova test. The incidence of IA in the year before and after implosion was calculated. The mean concentration of Aspergillus increased during mechanical demolition and on the day of implosion. However, in the most protected areas, there was no significant difference in the concentration of fungi. The incidence of invasive aspergillosis (cases per 1000 admissions) was 0.9 in the 12 months before, 0.4 during, and 0.5 in the 12 months after mechanical demolition (P > 0.05). Continuous monitoring of the quality of air and effective infection control measures are important to minimize the impact of building demolition. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Shell stability and conditions analyzed using a new method of extracting shell areal density maps from spectrally resolved images of direct-drive inertial confinement fusion implosions

    DOE PAGES

    Johns, H. M.; Mancini, R. C.; Nagayama, T.; ...

    2016-01-25

    In warm target direct-drive inertial confinement fusion implosion experiments performed at the OMEGA laser facility, plastic micro-balloons doped with a titanium tracer layer in the shell and filled with deuterium gas were imploded using a low-adiabat shaped laser pulse. Continuum radiation emitted in the core is transmitted through the tracer layer and the resulting spectrum recorded with a gated multi-monochromatic x-ray imager (MMI). Titanium K-shell line absorption spectra observed in the data are due to transitions in L-shell titanium ions driven by the backlighting continuum. The MMI data consist of an array of spectrally resolved images of the implosion. Thesemore » 2-D space-resolved titanium spectral features constrain the plasma conditions and areal density of the titanium doped region of the shell. The MMI data were processed to obtain narrow-band images and space resolved spectra of titanium spectral features. Shell areal density maps, ρL(x,y), extracted using a new method using both narrow-band images and space resolved spectra are confirmed to be consistent within uncertainties. We report plasma conditions in the titanium-doped region of electron temperature (Te) = 400 ± 28 eV, electron number density (N e) = 8.5 × 10 24 ± 2.5 × 10 24 cm –3, and average areal density = 86 ± 7 mg/cm 2. Fourier analysis of areal density maps reveals shell modulations caused by hydrodynamic instability growth near the fuel-shell interface in the deceleration phase. We observe significant structure in modes l = 2–9, dominated by l = 2. We extract a target breakup fraction of 7.1 ± 1.5% from our Fourier analysis. Furthermore, a new method for estimating mix width is evaluated against existing literature and our target breakup fraction. We estimate a mix width of 10.5 ±1 μm.« less

  17. Spatially resolved X-ray emission measurements of the residual velocity during the stagnation phase of inertial confinement fusion implosion experiments

    DOE PAGES

    Ruby, J. J.; Pak, A.; Field, J. E.; ...

    2016-07-01

    A technique for measuring residual motion during the stagnation phase of an indirectly driven inertial confinement experiment has been implemented. Our method infers a velocity from spatially and temporally resolved images of the X-ray emission from two orthogonal lines of sight. This work investigates the accuracy of recovering spatially resolved velocities from the X-ray emission data. A detailed analytical and numerical modeling of the X-ray emission measurement shows that the accuracy of this method increases as the displacement that results from a residual velocity increase. For the typical experimental configuration, signal-to-noise ratios, and duration of X-ray emission, it is estimatedmore » that the fractional error in the inferred velocity rises above 50% as the velocity of emission falls below 24 μm/ns. Furthermore, by inputting measured parameters into this model, error estimates of the residual velocity as inferred from the X-ray emission measurements are now able to be generated for experimental data. Details of this analysis are presented for an implosion experiment conducted with an unintentional radiation flux asymmetry. The analysis shows a bright localized region of emission that moves through the larger emitting volume at a relatively higher velocity towards the location of the imposed flux deficit. Our technique allows for the possibility of spatially resolving velocity flows within the so-called central hot spot of an implosion. This information would help to refine our interpretation of the thermal temperature inferred from the neutron time of flight detectors and the effect of localized hydrodynamic instabilities during the stagnation phase. Across several experiments, along a single line of sight, the average difference in magnitude and direction of the measured residual velocity as inferred from the X-ray and neutron time of flight detectors was found to be ~13 μm/ns and ~14°, respectively.« less

  18. Spatially resolved X-ray emission measurements of the residual velocity during the stagnation phase of inertial confinement fusion implosion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ruby, J. J.; Pak, A., E-mail: pak5@llnl.gov; Field, J. E.

    2016-07-15

    A technique for measuring residual motion during the stagnation phase of an indirectly driven inertial confinement experiment has been implemented. This method infers a velocity from spatially and temporally resolved images of the X-ray emission from two orthogonal lines of sight. This work investigates the accuracy of recovering spatially resolved velocities from the X-ray emission data. A detailed analytical and numerical modeling of the X-ray emission measurement shows that the accuracy of this method increases as the displacement that results from a residual velocity increase. For the typical experimental configuration, signal-to-noise ratios, and duration of X-ray emission, it is estimatedmore » that the fractional error in the inferred velocity rises above 50% as the velocity of emission falls below 24 μm/ns. By inputting measured parameters into this model, error estimates of the residual velocity as inferred from the X-ray emission measurements are now able to be generated for experimental data. Details of this analysis are presented for an implosion experiment conducted with an unintentional radiation flux asymmetry. The analysis shows a bright localized region of emission that moves through the larger emitting volume at a relatively higher velocity towards the location of the imposed flux deficit. This technique allows for the possibility of spatially resolving velocity flows within the so-called central hot spot of an implosion. This information would help to refine our interpretation of the thermal temperature inferred from the neutron time of flight detectors and the effect of localized hydrodynamic instabilities during the stagnation phase. Across several experiments, along a single line of sight, the average difference in magnitude and direction of the measured residual velocity as inferred from the X-ray and neutron time of flight detectors was found to be ∼13 μm/ns and ∼14°, respectively.« less

  19. A compact neutron spectrometer for characterizing inertial confinement fusion implosions at OMEGA and the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zylstra, A. B.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Frenje, J. A.; Séguin, F. H.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Sio, H. W.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; McCluskey, M.; Mastrosimone, D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Forrest, C.; Stoeckl, C.; Sangster, T. C.

    2014-06-01

    A compact spectrometer for measurements of the primary deuterium-tritium neutron spectrum has been designed and implemented on the OMEGA laser facility [T. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. This instrument uses the recoil spectrometry technique, where neutrons produced in an implosion elastically scatter protons in a plastic foil, which are subsequently detected by a proton spectrometer. This diagnostic is currently capable of measuring the yield to ˜±10% accuracy, and mean neutron energy to ˜±50 keV precision. As these compact spectrometers can be readily placed at several locations around an implosion, effects of residual fuel bulk flows during burn can be measured. Future improvements to reduce the neutron energy uncertainty to ±15-20 keV are discussed, which will enable measurements of fuel velocities to an accuracy of ˜±25-40 km/s.

  20. Measurement of inflight shell areal density perturbations in NIF capsule implosions near peak velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammel, B. A.; Pickworth, L.; Smalyuk, V.; Macphee, A.; Scott, H. A.; Robey, H.; Barrios, M.; Regan, S. P.

    2015-11-01

    Quantitative measurements of shell-RhoR perturbations in capsules near peak implosion velocity (PV) are challenging. An external backlighter samples both sides of the shell, unless a re-entrant cone is used (potentially perturbing implosion). Emission from the hot core, after shock-stagnation and prior to PV, has been used as a self-backlighter, providing a means to sample one side of the capsule. Adding high-Z gas (~ 1% Ar) to the capsule fill in Symcaps (4He), has produced a continuum backlighter with significant increase in emission at photon energies ~ 8 keV over nominal fills. From images of the transmitted self-emission, above and below the K-edge of an internally doped Cu layer, we infer the growth at PV of imposed perturbations (100 nm amplitude, mode 40). Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  1. Initial Findings on Hydrodynamic Scaling Extrapolations of National Ignition Facility BigFoot Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nora, R.; Field, J. E.; Peterson, J. Luc; Spears, B.; Kruse, M.; Humbird, K.; Gaffney, J.; Springer, P. T.; Brandon, S.; Langer, S.

    2017-10-01

    We present an experimentally corroborated hydrodynamic extrapolation of several recent BigFoot implosions on the National Ignition Facility. An estimate on the value and error of the hydrodynamic scale necessary for ignition (for each individual BigFoot implosion) is found by hydrodynamically scaling a distribution of multi-dimensional HYDRA simulations whose outputs correspond to their experimental observables. The 11-parameter database of simulations, which include arbitrary drive asymmetries, dopant fractions, hydrodynamic scaling parameters, and surface perturbations due to surrogate tent and fill-tube engineering features, was computed on the TRINITY supercomputer at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This simple extrapolation is the first step in providing a rigorous calibration of our workflow to provide an accurate estimate of the efficacy of achieving ignition on the National Ignition Facility. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  2. Investigation of Electric and Self-Generated Magnetic Fields in Implosion Experiments on OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igumenshchev, I. V.; Nilson, P. M.; Goncharov, V. N.; Li, C. K.; Zylstra, A. B.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2013-10-01

    Electric and self-generated magnetic fields in direct-drive implosion experiments on the OMEGA laser were investigated using proton radiography. The experiments use plastic-shell targets with various surface defects (glue spot, wire, and stalk mount) to seed perturbations and generate localized electromagnetic fields at the ablation surface and in the plasma corona surrounding the targets. Proton radiographs show features from these perturbations and quasi-spherical multiple shell structures around the capsules at earlier times of implosions (up to ~700 ps for a 1-ns laser pulse) indicating the development of the fields. Two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of these experiments predict the growth of magnetic fields up to several MG. The simulated distributions of electromagnetic fields were used to produce proton images, which show good agreement with experimental radiographs. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  3. Using absolute x-ray spectral measurements to infer stagnation conditions in ICF implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Pravesh; Benedetti, L. R.; Cerjan, C.; Clark, D. S.; Hurricane, O. A.; Izumi, N.; Jarrott, L. C.; Khan, S.; Kritcher, A. L.; Ma, T.; Macphee, A. G.; Landen, O.; Spears, B. K.; Springer, P. T.

    2016-10-01

    Measurements of the continuum x-ray spectrum emitted from the hot-spot of an ICF implosion can be used to infer a number thermodynamic properties at stagnation including temperature, pressure, and hot-spot mix. In deuterium-tritium (DT) layered implosion experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) we field a number of x-ray diagnostics that provide spatial, temporal, and spectrally-resolved measurements of the radiated x-ray emission. We report on analysis of these measurements using a 1-D hot-spot model to infer thermodynamic properties at stagnation. We compare these to similar properties that can be derived from DT fusion neutron measurements. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  4. Onset of hydrodynamic mix in high-velocity, highly compressed inertial confinement fusion implosions.

    PubMed

    Ma, T; Patel, P K; Izumi, N; Springer, P T; Key, M H; Atherton, L J; Benedetti, L R; Bradley, D K; Callahan, D A; Celliers, P M; Cerjan, C J; Clark, D S; Dewald, E L; Dixit, S N; Döppner, T; Edgell, D H; Epstein, R; Glenn, S; Grim, G; Haan, S W; Hammel, B A; Hicks, D; Hsing, W W; Jones, O S; Khan, S F; Kilkenny, J D; Kline, J L; Kyrala, G A; Landen, O L; Le Pape, S; MacGowan, B J; Mackinnon, A J; MacPhee, A G; Meezan, N B; Moody, J D; Pak, A; Parham, T; Park, H-S; Ralph, J E; Regan, S P; Remington, B A; Robey, H F; Ross, J S; Spears, B K; Smalyuk, V; Suter, L J; Tommasini, R; Town, R P; Weber, S V; Lindl, J D; Edwards, M J; Glenzer, S H; Moses, E I

    2013-08-23

    Deuterium-tritium inertial confinement fusion implosion experiments on the National Ignition Facility have demonstrated yields ranging from 0.8 to 7×10(14), and record fuel areal densities of 0.7 to 1.3 g/cm2. These implosions use hohlraums irradiated with shaped laser pulses of 1.5-1.9 MJ energy. The laser peak power and duration at peak power were varied, as were the capsule ablator dopant concentrations and shell thicknesses. We quantify the level of hydrodynamic instability mix of the ablator into the hot spot from the measured elevated absolute x-ray emission of the hot spot. We observe that DT neutron yield and ion temperature decrease abruptly as the hot spot mix mass increases above several hundred ng. The comparison with radiation-hydrodynamic modeling indicates that low mode asymmetries and increased ablator surface perturbations may be responsible for the current performance.

  5. Instability growth seeded by ablator material inhomogeneity in indirect drive implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haan, Steven; Ali, S. J.; Baxamusa, S. H.; Celliers, P. M.; Clark, D. S.; Kritcher, A. L.; Nikroo, A.; Stadermann, M.; Biener, J.; Wallace, R.; Smalyuk, V.; Robey, H.; Weber, C. R.; Huang, H.; Reynolds, H.; Carlson, L.; Rice, N.; Kline, J. L.; Simakov, A. N.; Yi, S. A.

    2017-10-01

    NIF indirect drive ablators (CH, Be, and high density carbon HDC) show hydrodynamic irregularity beyond that expected from surface features. Characterizing these seeds and estimating their growth is important in projecting performance. The resulting modulations can be measured in x-ray backlit implosions on NIF called Hydro Growth Radiography, and on Omega with 2D velocimetry. This presentation summarizes the experiments for the three ablators, along with simulations thereof and projections of the significance for NIF. For CH, dominant seeds are photo-induced oxidation, which might be mitigated with alumina coating. For Be, perturbations result from Ar and O contamination. For HDC, perturbations are seeded by shock propagation around melt, depend on shock strength, and may constrain the adiabat of future HDC implosions. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. D.O.E. by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  6. A compact neutron spectrometer for characterizing inertial confinement fusion implosions at OMEGA and the NIF.

    PubMed

    Zylstra, A B; Gatu Johnson, M; Frenje, J A; Séguin, F H; Rinderknecht, H G; Rosenberg, M J; Sio, H W; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; McCluskey, M; Mastrosimone, D; Glebov, V Yu; Forrest, C; Stoeckl, C; Sangster, T C

    2014-06-01

    A compact spectrometer for measurements of the primary deuterium-tritium neutron spectrum has been designed and implemented on the OMEGA laser facility [T. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. This instrument uses the recoil spectrometry technique, where neutrons produced in an implosion elastically scatter protons in a plastic foil, which are subsequently detected by a proton spectrometer. This diagnostic is currently capable of measuring the yield to ~±10% accuracy, and mean neutron energy to ~±50 keV precision. As these compact spectrometers can be readily placed at several locations around an implosion, effects of residual fuel bulk flows during burn can be measured. Future improvements to reduce the neutron energy uncertainty to ±15-20 keV are discussed, which will enable measurements of fuel velocities to an accuracy of ~±25-40 km/s.

  7. Precision Neutron Time-of-Flight Detectors Provide Insight into NIF Implosion Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlossberg, David; Eckart, M. J.; Grim, G. P.; Hartouni, E. P.; Hatarik, R.; Moore, A. S.; Waltz, C. S.

    2017-10-01

    During inertial confinement fusion, higher-order moments of neutron time-of-flight (nToF) spectra can provide essential information for optimizing implosions. The nToF diagnostic suite at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) was recently upgraded to include novel, quartz Cherenkov detectors. These detectors exploit the rapid Cherenkov radiation process, in contrast with conventional scintillator decay times, to provide high temporal-precision measurements that support higher-order moment analyses. Preliminary measurements have been made on the NIF during several implosions and initial results are presented here. Measured line-of-sight asymmetries, for example in ion temperatures, will be discussed. Finally, advanced detector optimization is shown to advance accessible physics, with possibilities for energy discrimination, gamma source identification, and further reduction in quartz response times. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  8. Measurements of Reduced Hydrodynamic Instability Growth in Adiabat Shaped Implosions at the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, Daniel; Macphee, Andrew; Milovich, Jose; Smalyuk, Vladimir; Clark, Dan; Robey, Harry; Peterson, Luc; Baker, Kevin; Weber, Chris

    2015-11-01

    Hydrodynamic instabilities can cause capsule defects and other perturbations to grow and degrade implosion performance in ignition experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Radiographic measurements of ablation front perturbation growth were performed using adiabat-shaped drives which are shown to have lower ablation front growth than the low foot drive. This is partly due to faster Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) oscillations during the shock transit phase of the implosion moving the node in the growth factor spectrum to lower mode numbers reducing the peak growth amplitude. This is demonstrated experimentally by a reversal of the perturbation phase at higher mode numbers (120-160). These results show that the ablation front growth and fuel adiabat can be controlled somewhat-independently and are providing insight into new, more stable, ignition designs. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  9. Indications of Bulk-Fluid Motion in Direct-Drive Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannion, O. M.; Anderson, K. S.; Forrest, C. J.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Goncharov, V. N.; Knauer, J. P.; Radha, P. B.; Regan, S. P.; Sangster, T. C.; Stoeckl, C.

    2017-10-01

    The neutron spectrum produced by a burning plasma encodes essential information about the fusion products and serves as an important diagnostic for inertial confinement fusion experiments. At the Omega Laser Facility, neutron time-of-flight measurements are used to interpret the first and second moment of the neutron spectrum. These moments have been shown to be directly related to properties of the plasma, such as bulk fluid motion and apparent ion temperature. New measurement devices allow for unprecedented accuracy in the measurement of these moments and will provide a better understanding of the performance of direct-drive implosions. We present measurements of the first moment of the DT and D2 peaks in DT implosions and show that variations in the first moment indicate bulk fluid motion of the plasma. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  10. Time-of-Flight Measurements of Neutron Yields from Implosions at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caggaino, Joseph

    2014-10-01

    Three 20-m time-of-flight detectors measure neutron spectra from implosions of deuterium-tritium targets at the National Ignition Facility. Two prominent peaks appear in the spectra from the T(d, n) and D(d, n) reactions. The ratio of yields extracted from the peaks depend on the DT and DD reaction rates and attenuation from the compressed DT fuel, which makes the ratio a diagnostic of the hotspot thermodynamics and fuel areal density. The measured peak widths provide additional constraints on reactant temperature. Recent measurements from a high-yield campaign will be presented and compared to radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of similar implosions. This research is supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-NA0001944.

  11. Evidence for Stratification of Deuterium-Tritium Fuel in Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, D. T.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Manuel, M. J.-E.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Sinenian, N.; Séguin, F. H.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; Radha, P. B.; Delettrez, J. A.; Glebov, V. Yu; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.; McNabb, D. P.; Amendt, P. A.; Boyd, R. N.; Rygg, J. R.; Herrmann, H. W.; Kim, Y. H.; Bacher, A. D.

    2012-02-01

    Measurements of the D(d,p)T (dd) and T(t,2n)He4 (tt) reaction yields have been compared with those of the D(t,n)He4 (dt) reaction yield, using deuterium-tritium gas-filled inertial confinement fusion capsule implosions. In these experiments, carried out on the OMEGA laser, absolute spectral measurements of dd protons and tt neutrons were obtained. From these measurements, it was concluded that the dd yield is anomalously low and the tt yield is anomalously high relative to the dt yield, an observation that we conjecture to be caused by a stratification of the fuel in the implosion core. This effect may be present in ignition experiments planned on the National Ignition Facility.

  12. A compact neutron spectrometer for characterizing inertial confinement fusion implosions at OMEGA and the NIF

    DOE PAGES

    Zylstra, A. B.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Frenje, J. A.; ...

    2014-06-04

    A compact spectrometer for measurements of the primary deuterium-tritium neutron spectrum has been designed and implemented on the OMEGA laser facility. This instrument uses the recoil spectrometry technique, where neutrons produced in an implosion elastically scatter protons in a plastic foil, which are subsequently detected by a proton spectrometer. This diagnostic is capable of measuring the yield to ~±10% accuracy, and mean neutron energy to ~±50 keV precision. As these compact spectrometers can be readily placed at several locations around an implosion, effects of residual fuel bulk flows during burn can be measured. Future improvements to reduce the neutron energymore » uncertainty to ±15-20 keV are discussed, which will enable measurements of fuel velocities to an accuracy of ~±25-40 km/s.« less

  13. Evidence for stratification of deuterium-tritium fuel in inertial confinement fusion implosions.

    PubMed

    Casey, D T; Frenje, J A; Johnson, M Gatu; Manuel, M J-E; Rinderknecht, H G; Sinenian, N; Séguin, F H; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Radha, P B; Delettrez, J A; Glebov, V Yu; Meyerhofer, D D; Sangster, T C; McNabb, D P; Amendt, P A; Boyd, R N; Rygg, J R; Herrmann, H W; Kim, Y H; Bacher, A D

    2012-02-17

    Measurements of the D(d,p)T (dd) and T(t,2n)(4)He (tt) reaction yields have been compared with those of the D(t,n)(4)He (dt) reaction yield, using deuterium-tritium gas-filled inertial confinement fusion capsule implosions. In these experiments, carried out on the OMEGA laser, absolute spectral measurements of dd protons and tt neutrons were obtained. From these measurements, it was concluded that the dd yield is anomalously low and the tt yield is anomalously high relative to the dt yield, an observation that we conjecture to be caused by a stratification of the fuel in the implosion core. This effect may be present in ignition experiments planned on the National Ignition Facility.

  14. Multidimensional Analysis of Direct-Drive Plastic-Shell Implosions on OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radha, P. B.

    2004-11-01

    Direct-drive implosions of plastic shells with the OMEGA laser are used as energy-scaled warm surrogates for ignition cryogenic targets designed for use on the National Ignition Facility. Plastic targets involve varying shell thickness (15 to 33 μm), fill pressures (3 to 15 atm), and shell adiabats. The multidimensional hydrodynamics code DRACO is used to evaluate the effects of capsule-surface roughness and illumination nonuniformities on target performance. These simulations indicate that shell stability during the acceleration phase plays a critical role in determining fusion yields. For shells that are thick enough to survive the Rayleigh--Taylor growth, target yields are significantly reduced by growth of the long (ℓ < 10) and intermediate modes (20 < ℓ < 50) occurring from single-beam laser nonuniformities. The neutron production rate for these thick shells truncates relative to one-dimensional (1-D) predictions. The neutron-rate curves for the thinner shells, however, have significantly lower amplitudes and widths closer to 1-D results, indicating shell breakup during the acceleration phase. The simulation results are consistent with experimental observations. Previously, the stability of plastic-shell implosions had been correlated to a static ``mix-width'' at the boundary of the gas and plastic pusher estimated using a variety of experimental observables and an assumption of spherical symmetry. Results of these 2-D simulations provide a comprehensive understanding of warm-target implosion dynamics without assumptions of spherical symmetry and serve to answer the question of the hydrodynamic surrogacy between these plastic-shell implosions and the cryogenic ignition designs.

  15. The high velocity, high adiabat, ``Bigfoot'' campaign and tests of indirect-drive implosion scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    To achieve hotspot ignition, inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions must achieve high hotspot internal energy that is inertially confined by a dense shell of DT fuel. To accomplish this, implosions are designed to achieve high peak implosion velocity, good energy coupling between the hotspot and imploding shell, and high areal-density at stagnation. However, experiments have shown that achieving these simultaneously is extremely challenging, partly because of inherent tradeoffs between these three interrelated requirements. The Bigfoot approach is to intentionally trade off high convergence, and therefore areal-density, in favor of high implosion velocity and good coupling between the hotspot and shell. This is done by intentionally colliding the shocks in the DT ice layer. This results in a short laser pulse which improves hohlraum symmetry and predictability while the reduced compression improves hydrodynamic stability. The results of this campaign will be reviewed and include demonstrated low-mode symmetry control at two different hohlraum geometries (5.75 mm and 5.4 mm diameters) and at two different target scales (5.4 mm and 6.0 mm hohlraum diameters) spanning 300-430 TW in laser power and 0.8-1.7 MJ in laser energy. Results of the 10% scaling between these designs for the hohlraum and capsule will be presented. Hydrodynamic instability growth from engineering features like the capsule fill tube are currently thought to be a significant perturbation to the target performance and a major factor in reducing its performance compared to calculations. Evidence supporting this hypothesis as well as plans going forward will be presented. Ongoing experiments are attempting to measure the impact on target performance from increase in target scale, and the preliminary results will also be discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  16. Progress Report on Rotating Liquid Liner Implosion Experiment, 1 June to 31 December 1975.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A critical question in the use of imploding liner flux compression for controlled fusion has been the stability of the inner surface of the liner ...To study the problem experimentally, the existing NRL Imploding Liner Facility was modified to allow the implosion of rotating liquid metal liners ...Rotational stabilization of lthe inner surface of a decelerating liquid sodium-potassium liner has been demonstrated, with excellent circularity of the

  17. Enhanced direct-drive implosions with thin high-Z ablation layers.

    PubMed

    Mostovych, Andrew N; Colombant, Denis G; Karasik, Max; Knauer, James P; Schmitt, Andrew J; Weaver, James L

    2008-02-22

    New direct-drive spherical implosion experiments with deuterium filled plastic shells have demonstrated significant and absolute (2x) improvements in neutron yield when the shells are coated with a very thin layer ( approximately 200-400 A) of high-Z material such as palladium. This improvement is interpreted as resulting from increased stability of the imploding shell. These results provide for a possible path to control laser imprint and stability in laser-fusion-energy target designs.

  18. Shock timing measurements and analysis in deuterium-tritium-ice layered capsule implosions on NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robey, H. F.; Celliers, P. M.; Moody, J. D.; Sater, J.; Parham, T.; Kozioziemski, B.; Dylla-Spears, R.; Ross, J. S.; LePape, S.; Ralph, J. E.; Hohenberger, M.; Dewald, E. L.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; Kroll, J. J.; Yoxall, B. E.; Hamza, A. V.; Boehly, T. R.; Nikroo, A.; Landen, O. L.; Edwards, M. J.

    2014-02-01

    Recent advances in shock timing experiments and analysis techniques now enable shock measurements to be performed in cryogenic deuterium-tritium (DT) ice layered capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Previous measurements of shock timing in inertial confinement fusion implosions [Boehly et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 195005 (2011); Robey et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 215004 (2012)] were performed in surrogate targets, where the solid DT ice shell and central DT gas were replaced with a continuous liquid deuterium (D2) fill. These previous experiments pose two surrogacy issues: a material surrogacy due to the difference of species (D2 vs. DT) and densities of the materials used and a geometric surrogacy due to presence of an additional interface (ice/gas) previously absent in the liquid-filled targets. This report presents experimental data and a new analysis method for validating the assumptions underlying this surrogate technique. Comparison of the data with simulation shows good agreement for the timing of the first three shocks, but reveals a considerable discrepancy in the timing of the 4th shock in DT ice layered implosions. Electron preheat is examined as a potential cause of the observed discrepancy in the 4th shock timing.

  19. Capsule modeling of high foot implosion experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D. S.; Kritcher, A. L.; Milovich, J. L.

    This study summarizes the results of detailed, capsule-only simulations of a set of high foot implosion experiments conducted on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). These experiments span a range of ablator thicknesses, laser powers, and laser energies, and modeling these experiments as a set is important to assess whether the simulation model can reproduce the trends seen experimentally as the implosion parameters were varied. Two-dimensional (2D) simulations have been run including a number of effects—both nominal and off-nominal—such as hohlraum radiation asymmetries, surface roughness, the capsule support tent, and hot electron pre-heat. Selected three-dimensional simulations have also been run tomore » assess the validity of the 2D axisymmetric approximation. As a composite, these simulations represent the current state of understanding of NIF high foot implosion performance using the best and most detailed computational model available. While the most detailed simulations show approximate agreement with the experimental data, it is evident that the model remains incomplete and further refinements are needed. Nevertheless, avenues for improved performance are clearly indicated.« less

  20. High-resolution Imaging of Deuterium-Tritium Capsule Implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, Benjamin; Rygg, Ryan; Collins, Gilbert; Patel, Pravesh

    2017-10-01

    Highly-resolved 3-D simulations of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions predict a hot spot plasma that exhibits complex micron-scale structure originating from a variety of 3-D perturbations. Experimental diagnosis of these conditions requires high spatial resolution imaging techniques. X-ray penumbral imaging can improve the spatial resolution over pinhole imaging while simultaneously increasing the detected photon yield at x-ray energies where the ablator opacity becomes negligible. Here we report on the first time-integrated x-ray penumbral imaging experiments of ICF capsule implosions at the National Ignition Facility that achieved spatial resolution as high as 4 micrometer. 6 to 30 keV hot spot images from layered DT implosions will be presented from a variety of experimental ICF campaigns, revealing previously unseen detail. It will be discussed how these and future results can be used to improve our physics understanding of inertially confined fusion plasmas by enabling spatially resolved measurements of hot spot properties, such as radiation energy, temperature or derived quantities. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  1. Main drive optimization of a high-foot pulse shape in inertial confinement fusion implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L. F.; Ye, W. H.; Wu, J. F.; Liu, Jie; Zhang, W. Y.; He, X. T.

    2016-12-01

    While progress towards hot-spot ignition has been made achieving an alpha-heating dominated state in high-foot implosion experiments [Hurricane et al., Nat. Phys. 12, 800 (2016)] on the National Ignition Facility, improvements are needed to increase the fuel compression for the enhancement of the neutron yield. A strategy is proposed to improve the fuel compression through the recompression of a shock/compression wave generated by the end of the main drive portion of a high-foot pulse shape. Two methods for the peak pulse recompression, namely, the decompression-and-recompression (DR) and simple recompression schemes, are investigated and compared. Radiation hydrodynamic simulations confirm that the peak pulse recompression can clearly improve fuel compression without significantly compromising the implosion stability. In particular, when the convergent DR shock is tuned to encounter the divergent shock from the capsule center at a suitable position, not only the neutron yield but also the stability of stagnating hot-spot can be noticeably improved, compared to the conventional high-foot implosions [Hurricane et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 056314 (2014)].

  2. Impacts of Implosion Asymmetry And Hot Spot Shape On Ignition Capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Baolian; Kwan, Thomas J. T.; Wang, Yi-Ming; Yi, S. Austin; Batha, Steve

    2017-10-01

    Implosion symmetry plays a critical role in achieving high areal density and internal energy at stagnation during hot spot formation in ICF capsules. Asymmetry causes hot spot irregularity and stagnation de-synchronization that results in lower temperatures and areal densities of the hot fuel. These degradations significantly affect the alpha heating process in the DT fuel as well as on the thermonuclear performance of the capsules. In this work, we explore the physical factors determining the shape of the hot spot late in the implosion and the effects of shape on Î+/-particle transport. We extend our ignition theory [1-4] to include the hot spot shape and quantify the effects of the implosion asymmetry on both the ignition criterion and capsule performance. We validate our theory with the NIF existing experimental data Our theory shows that the ignition criterion becomes more restrictive with the deformation of the hot spot. Through comparison with the NIF data, we demonstrate that the shape effects on the capsules' performance become more explicit as the self-heating and yield of the capsules increases. The degradation of the thermonuclear burn by the hot spot shape for high yield shots to date can be as high as 20%. Our theory is in good agreement with the NIF data. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the Los Alamos National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36.

  3. Time history prediction of direct-drive implosions on the Omega facility

    DOE PAGES

    Laffite, S.; Bourgade, J. L.; Caillaud, T.; ...

    2016-01-14

    We present in this article direct-drive experiments that were carried out on the Omega facility [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. Two different pulse shapes were tested in order to vary the implosion stability of the same target whose parameters, dimensions and composition, remained the same. The direct-drive configuration on the Omega facility allows the accurate time-resolvedmeasurement of the scattered light. We show that, provided the laser coupling is well controlled, the implosion time history, assessed by the “bang-time” and the shell trajectory measurements, can be predicted. This conclusion is independent on the pulse shape. Inmore » contrast, we show that the pulse shape affects the implosion stability, assessed by comparing the target performances between prediction and measurement. For the 1-ns square pulse, the measuredneutron number is about 80% of the prediction. Lastly, for the 2-step 2-ns pulse, we test here that this ratio falls to about 20%.« less

  4. Time history prediction of direct-drive implosions on the Omega facility

    SciTech Connect

    Laffite, S.; Bourgade, J. L.; Caillaud, T.

    We present in this article direct-drive experiments that were carried out on the Omega facility [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. Two different pulse shapes were tested in order to vary the implosion stability of the same target whose parameters, dimensions and composition, remained the same. The direct-drive configuration on the Omega facility allows the accurate time-resolvedmeasurement of the scattered light. We show that, provided the laser coupling is well controlled, the implosion time history, assessed by the “bang-time” and the shell trajectory measurements, can be predicted. This conclusion is independent on the pulse shape. Inmore » contrast, we show that the pulse shape affects the implosion stability, assessed by comparing the target performances between prediction and measurement. For the 1-ns square pulse, the measuredneutron number is about 80% of the prediction. Lastly, for the 2-step 2-ns pulse, we test here that this ratio falls to about 20%.« less

  5. Time history prediction of direct-drive implosions on the Omega facility

    SciTech Connect

    Laffite, S.; Bourgade, J. L.; Caillaud, T.

    We present in this article direct-drive experiments that were carried out on the Omega facility [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. Two different pulse shapes were tested in order to vary the implosion stability of the same target whose parameters, dimensions and composition, remained the same. The direct-drive configuration on the Omega facility allows the accurate time-resolved measurement of the scattered light. We show that, provided the laser coupling is well controlled, the implosion time history, assessed by the “bang-time” and the shell trajectory measurements, can be predicted. This conclusion is independent on the pulse shape.more » In contrast, we show that the pulse shape affects the implosion stability, assessed by comparing the target performances between prediction and measurement. For the 1-ns square pulse, the measured neutron number is about 80% of the prediction. For the 2-step 2-ns pulse, we test here that this ratio falls to about 20%.« less

  6. Improved Understanding of Implosion Symmetry through New Experimental Techniques Connecting Hohlraum Dynamics with Laser Beam Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralph, Joseph; Salmonson, Jay; Dewald, Eduard; Bachmann, Benjamin; Edwards, John; Graziani, Frank; Hurricane, Omar; Landen, Otto; Ma, Tammy; Masse, Laurent; MacLaren, Stephen; Meezan, Nathan; Moody, John; Parrilla, Nicholas; Pino, Jesse; Sacks, Ryan; Tipton, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Understanding what affects implosion symmetry has been a challenge for scientists designing indirect drive inertial confinement fusion experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). New experimental techniques and data analysis have been employed aimed at improving our understanding of the relationship between hohlraum dynamics and implosion symmetry. Thin wall imaging data allows for time-resolved imaging of 10 keV Au l-band x-rays providing for the first time on the NIF, a spatially resolved measurement of laser deposition with time. In the work described here, we combine measurements from the thin wall imaging with time resolved views of the interior of the hohlraum. The measurements presented are compared to hydrodynamic simulations as well as simplified physics models. The goal of this work is to form a physical picture that better explains the relationship of the hohlraum dynamics and capsule ablator on laser beam propagation and implosion symmetry. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  7. Neutron temporal diagnostic for high-yield deuterium–tritium cryogenic implosions on OMEGA

    SciTech Connect

    Stoeckl, C.; Boni, R.; Ehrne, F.

    A next-generation neutron temporal diagnostic (NTD) capable of recording high-quality data for the highest anticipated yield cryogenic deuterium–tritium (DT) implosion experiments was recently installed at the Omega Laser Facility. A high-quality measurement of the neutron production width is required to determine the hot-spot pressure achieved in inertial confinement fusion experiments—a key metric in assessing the quality of these implosions. The design of this NTD is based on a fast-rise-time plastic scintillator, which converts the neutron kinetic energy to 350- to 450-nm-wavelength light. The light from the scintillator inside the nose-cone assembly is relayed ∼16 m to a streak camera inmore » a well-shielded location. An ∼200× reduction in neutron background was observed during the first high-yield DT cryogenic implosions compared to the current NTD installation on OMEGA. An impulse response of ∼40 ± 10 ps was measured in a dedicated experiment using hard x-rays from a planar target irradiated with a 10-ps short pulse from the OMEGA EP laser. The measured instrument response includes contributions from the scintillator rise time, optical relay, and streak camera.« less

  8. Neutron temporal diagnostic for high-yield deuterium-tritium cryogenic implosions on OMEGA

    SciTech Connect

    Stoeckl, C.; Boni, R.; Ehrne, F.

    A next-generation neutron temporal diagnostic (NTD) capable of recording high-quality data for the highest anticipated yield cryogenic DT implosion experiments was recently installed at the Omega Laser Facility. A high-quality measurement of the neutron production width is required to determine the hot-spot pressure achieved in inertial confinement fusion experiments—a key metric in assessing the quality of these implosions. The design of this NTD is based on a fast-rise-time plastic scintillator, which converts the neutron kinetic energy to 350- to 450-nm-wavelength light. The light from the scintillator inside the nose-cone assembly is relayed ~16 m to a streak camera in amore » well-shielded location. An ~200× reduction in neutron background was observed during the first high-yield DT cryogenic implosions compared to the current NTD installation on OMEGA. An impulse response of ~40±10 ps was measured in a dedicated experiment using hard x rays from a planar target irradiated with a 10-ps short pulse from the OMEGA EP laser. Furthermore, the measured instrument response includes contributions from the scintillator rise time, optical relay, and streak camera.« less

  9. First-principles equation of state of polystyrene and its effect on inertial confinement fusion implosions

    DOE PAGES

    Hu, S. X.; Collins, L. A.; Goncharov, V. N.; ...

    2015-10-14

    Obtaining an accurate equation of state (EOS) of polystyrene (CH) is crucial to reliably design inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsules using CH/CH-based ablators. Thus, with first-principles calculations, we have investigated the extended EOS of CH over a wide range of plasma conditions (ρ = 0.1 to 100 g/cm 3 and T = 1,000 to 4,000,000 K). When compared with the widely used SESAME-EOS table, the first-principles equation of state (FPEOS) of CH has shown significant differences in the low-temperature regime, in which strong coupling and electron degeneracy play an essential role in determining plasma properties. Hydrodynamic simulations of cryogenic targetmore » implosions on OMEGA using the FPEOS table of CH have predicted ~5% reduction in implosion velocity and ~30% decrease in neutron yield in comparison with the usual SESAME simulations. This is attributed to the ~10% lower mass ablation rate of CH predicted by FPEOS. Simulations using CH-FPEOS show better agreement with measurements of Hugoniot temperature and scattered lights from ICF implosions.« less

  10. Simulating Coronal Loop Implosion and Compressible Wave Modes in a Flare Hit Active Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Aveek; Vaidya, Bhargav; Hazra, Soumitra; Bhattacharyya, Jishnu

    2017-12-01

    There is considerable observational evidence of implosion of magnetic loop systems inside solar coronal active regions following high-energy events like solar flares. In this work, we propose that such collapse can be modeled in three dimensions quite accurately within the framework of ideal magnetohydrodynamics. We furthermore argue that the dynamics of loop implosion is only sensitive to the transmitted disturbance of one or more of the system variables, e.g., velocity generated at the event site. This indicates that to understand loop implosion, it is sensible to leave the event site out of the simulated active region. Toward our goal, a velocity pulse is introduced to model the transmitted disturbance generated at the event site. Magnetic field lines inside our simulated active region are traced in real time, and it is demonstrated that the subsequent dynamics of the simulated loops closely resemble observed imploding loops. Our work highlights the role of plasma β in regards to the rigidity of the loop systems and how that might affect the imploding loops’ dynamics. Compressible magnetohydrodynamic modes such as kink and sausage are also shown to be generated during such processes, in accordance with observations.

  11. Three-dimensional simulations of National Ignition Facility implosions: Insight into experimental observablesa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spears, Brian K.; Munro, David H.; Sepke, Scott; Caggiano, Joseph; Clark, Daniel; Hatarik, Robert; Kritcher, Andrea; Sayre, Daniel; Yeamans, Charles; Knauer, James; Hilsabeck, Terry; Kilkenny, Joe

    2015-05-01

    We simulate in 3D both the hydrodynamics and, simultaneously, the X-ray and neutron diagnostic signatures of National Ignition Facility (NIF) implosions. We apply asymmetric radiation drive to study the impact of low mode asymmetry on diagnostic observables. We examine X-ray and neutron images as well as neutron spectra for these perturbed implosions. The X-ray images show hot spot evolution on small length scales and short time scales, reflecting the incomplete stagnation seen in the simulation. The neutron images show surprising differences from the X-ray images. The neutron spectra provide additional measures of implosion asymmetry. Flow in the hot spot alters the neutron spectral peak, namely, the peak location and width. The changes in the width lead to a variation in the apparent temperature with viewing angle that signals underlying hot spot asymmetry. We compare our new expectations based on the simulated data with NIF data. We find that some recent cryogenic layered experiments show appreciable temperature anisotropy indicating residual flow in the hot spot. We also find some trends in the data that do not reflect our simulation and theoretical understanding.

  12. Techniques for Enhancing Implosion Performance on High-Foot Ignition Capsules on NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittrich, T. R.; Hurricane, O.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Callahan, D. A.; Clark, D.; Haan, S. W.; Hinkel, D. E.; Ma, T.; Nikroo, A.; Pak, A. E.; Park, H. S.; Salmonson, J. D.; Weber, C. R.

    2016-10-01

    Two options that have the potential to improve implosion performance in the High-Foot series of ignition capsules on NIF will be presented. The first option explores changing the shape of the x-ray drive to include a 4th and even a 5th shock in the implosion. According to simulations, these extra shocks improve the configuration of the assembled fuel and lead to improved confinement and performance. A ``ramp compression'' between the foot of the drive and the main pulse is also investigated. The second option studies the effect of increasing the Si dopant in a thin-shell capsule. NIF shot N150211 produced relatively high fusion yield (7.6E15 neutrons) but may have suffered from shell burn through. Increasing the Si dopant may delay this burn through yet preserve high implosion velocity. This work was performed under the auspices of the Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  13. Gas-filled Rugby hohlraum energetics and implosions experiments on OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casner, Alexis; Philippe, F.; Tassin, V.; Seytor, P.; Monteil, M. C.; Villette, B.; Reverdin, C.

    2010-11-01

    Recent experiments [1,2] have validated the x-ray drive enhancement provided by rugby-shaped hohlraums over cylinders in the indirect drive (ID) approach to inertial confinement fusion (ICF). This class of hohlraum is the baseline design for the Laser Mégajoule program, is also applicable to the National Ignition Facility and could therefore benefit ID Inertial Fusion Energy studies. We have carried out a serie of energetics and implosions experiments with OMEGA ``scale 1'' rugby hohlraums [1,2]. For empty hohlraums these experiments provide complementary measurements of backscattered light along 42 cone, as well as detailed drive history. In the case of gas-filled rugby hohlraums we have also study implosion performance (symmetry, yield, bangtime, hotspot spectra...) using a high contrast shaped pulse leading to a different implosion regime and for a range of capsule convergence ratios. These results will be compared with FCI2 hydrocodes calculations and future experimental campaigns will be suggested. [4pt] [1] F. Philippe et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 035004 (2010). [0pt] [2] H. Robey et al., Phys. Plasnas 17, 056313 (2010).

  14. Neutron temporal diagnostic for high-yield deuterium-tritium cryogenic implosions on OMEGA

    DOE PAGES

    Stoeckl, C.; Boni, R.; Ehrne, F.; ...

    2016-05-10

    A next-generation neutron temporal diagnostic (NTD) capable of recording high-quality data for the highest anticipated yield cryogenic DT implosion experiments was recently installed at the Omega Laser Facility. A high-quality measurement of the neutron production width is required to determine the hot-spot pressure achieved in inertial confinement fusion experiments—a key metric in assessing the quality of these implosions. The design of this NTD is based on a fast-rise-time plastic scintillator, which converts the neutron kinetic energy to 350- to 450-nm-wavelength light. The light from the scintillator inside the nose-cone assembly is relayed ~16 m to a streak camera in amore » well-shielded location. An ~200× reduction in neutron background was observed during the first high-yield DT cryogenic implosions compared to the current NTD installation on OMEGA. An impulse response of ~40±10 ps was measured in a dedicated experiment using hard x rays from a planar target irradiated with a 10-ps short pulse from the OMEGA EP laser. Furthermore, the measured instrument response includes contributions from the scintillator rise time, optical relay, and streak camera.« less

  15. Comparison of high-density carbon implosions in unlined uranium versus gold hohlraums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewald, Eduard; Meezan, Nathan; Tommasini, Riccardo; Khan, Shahab; MacKinnon, Andrew; Berzak Hopkins, Laura; Divol, Laurent; Lepape, Sebastien; Moore, Alastair; Schneider, Marilyn; Pak, Arthur; Nikroo, Abbas; Landen, Otto

    2016-10-01

    In Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) implosions, laser energy is converted to x-ray radiation in hohlraums with High-Z walls. At radiation temperatures near 300 eV relevant for ICF experiments, the radiative losses in heating the wall are lower for U than for Au hohlraums. Furthermore, the intensity of the ``M-band'' x-rays with photon energies h ν >1.8 keV is lower for uranium, allowing for reduced capsule dopant concentrations employed to minimize inner ablator preheat and hence keep favorable fuel/ablator interface Atwood numbers. This in turn improves the ablator rocket efficiency and reduces the risk of polluting the hot-spot with emissive dopant material. The first uranium vacuum hohlraum experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) with undoped high-density carbon (HDC, or diamond) capsules have demonstrated 30% lower ``M-band'' intensity relative to Au, resulting in lower inflight ablator thickness due to reduced preheat. In addition, fusion neutron yields are 2x higher in U than in Au hohlraums for D2-gas filled capsule implosions at ICF relevant velocities of 380 +/-20 km/s. These results have led the NIF ICF implosions to routinely employ U hohlraums. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  16. Hydro-scaling of DT implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Pravesh; Spears, Brian; Clark, Dan

    2017-10-01

    Recent implosion experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) exceed 50 kJ in fusion yield and exhibit yield amplifications of >2.5-3x due to alpha-particle self-heating of the hot-spot. Two methods to increase the yield are (i) to improve the implosion quality, or stagnation pressure, at fixed target scale (by increasing implosion velocity, reducing 3D effects, etc.), and (ii) to hydrodynamically scale the capsule and absorbed energy. In the latter case the stagnation pressure remains constant, but the yield-in the absence of alpha-heating-increases as Y S 4 . 5 , where the capsule radius is increased by S, and the absorbed energy by S3 . With alpha-heating the increase with scale is considerably stronger. We present projections in the performance of current DT experiments, and the extrapolations to ignition, based on applying hydro-scaling theory and accounting for the effect of alpha-heating. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  17. Capsule modeling of high foot implosion experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    DOE PAGES

    Clark, D. S.; Kritcher, A. L.; Milovich, J. L.; ...

    2017-03-21

    This study summarizes the results of detailed, capsule-only simulations of a set of high foot implosion experiments conducted on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). These experiments span a range of ablator thicknesses, laser powers, and laser energies, and modeling these experiments as a set is important to assess whether the simulation model can reproduce the trends seen experimentally as the implosion parameters were varied. Two-dimensional (2D) simulations have been run including a number of effects—both nominal and off-nominal—such as hohlraum radiation asymmetries, surface roughness, the capsule support tent, and hot electron pre-heat. Selected three-dimensional simulations have also been run tomore » assess the validity of the 2D axisymmetric approximation. As a composite, these simulations represent the current state of understanding of NIF high foot implosion performance using the best and most detailed computational model available. While the most detailed simulations show approximate agreement with the experimental data, it is evident that the model remains incomplete and further refinements are needed. Nevertheless, avenues for improved performance are clearly indicated.« less

  18. Shock timing measurements and analysis in deuterium-tritium-ice layered capsule implosions on NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Robey, H. F.; Celliers, P. M.; Moody, J. D.

    2014-02-15

    Recent advances in shock timing experiments and analysis techniques now enable shock measurements to be performed in cryogenic deuterium-tritium (DT) ice layered capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Previous measurements of shock timing in inertial confinement fusion implosions [Boehly et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 195005 (2011); Robey et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 215004 (2012)] were performed in surrogate targets, where the solid DT ice shell and central DT gas were replaced with a continuous liquid deuterium (D2) fill. These previous experiments pose two surrogacy issues: a material surrogacy due to the difference of species (D2 vs.more » DT) and densities of the materials used and a geometric surrogacy due to presence of an additional interface (ice/gas) previously absent in the liquid-filled targets. This report presents experimental data and a new analysis method for validating the assumptions underlying this surrogate technique. Comparison of the data with simulation shows good agreement for the timing of the first three shocks, but reveals a considerable discrepancy in the timing of the 4th shock in DT ice layered implosions. Electron preheat is examined as a potential cause of the observed discrepancy in the 4th shock timing.« less

  19. First-principles equation of state of polystyrene and its effect on inertial confinement fusion implosions.

    PubMed

    Hu, S X; Collins, L A; Goncharov, V N; Kress, J D; McCrory, R L; Skupsky, S

    2015-10-01

    Obtaining an accurate equation of state (EOS) of polystyrene (CH) is crucial to reliably design inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsules using CH/CH-based ablators. With first-principles calculations, we have investigated the extended EOS of CH over a wide range of plasma conditions (ρ=0.1to100g/cm(3) and T=1000 to 4,000,000 K). When compared with the widely used SESAME-EOS table, the first-principles equation of state (FPEOS) of CH has shown significant differences in the low-temperature regime, in which strong coupling and electron degeneracy play an essential role in determining plasma properties. Hydrodynamic simulations of cryogenic target implosions on OMEGA using the FPEOS table of CH have predicted ∼30% decrease in neutron yield in comparison with the usual SESAME simulations. This is attributed to the ∼5% reduction in implosion velocity that is caused by the ∼10% lower mass ablation rate of CH predicted by FPEOS. Simulations using CH-FPEOS show better agreement with measurements of Hugoniot temperature and scattered light from ICF implosions.

  20. Analysis of time-resolved argon line spectra from OMEGA direct-drive implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Florido, R.; Nagayama, T.; Mancini, R. C.

    2008-10-15

    We discuss the observation and data analysis of argon K-shell line spectra from argon-doped deuterium-filled OMEGA direct-drive implosion cores based on data recorded with two streaked crystal spectrometers. The targets were 870 {mu}m in diameter, 27 {mu}m wall thickness plastic shells filled with 20 atm of deuterium gas, and a tracer amount of argon for diagnostic purposes. The argon K-shell line spectrum is primarily emitted at the collapse of the implosion and its analysis provides a spectroscopic diagnostic of the core implosion conditions. The observed spectra includes the He{alpha}, Ly{alpha}, He{beta}, He{gamma}, Ly{beta}, and Ly{gamma} line emissions and their associatedmore » He- and Li-like satellites thus covering a broad photon energy range from 3100 to 4200 eV with a spectral resolution power of approximately 500. The data analysis relies on detailed atomic and spectral models that take into account nonequilibrium collisional-radiative atomic kinetics, Stark-broadened line shapes, and radiation transport calculations.« less

  1. A simple method to prevent hard X-ray-induced preheating effects inside the cone tip in indirect-drive fast ignition implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Dongxiao; Shan, Lianqiang; Zhou, Weimin

    During fast-ignition implosions, preheating of inside the cone tip caused by hard X-rays can strongly affect the generation and transport of hot electrons in the cone. Although indirect-drive implosions have a higher implosion symmetry, they cause stronger preheating effects than direct-drive implosions. To control the preheating of the cone tip, we propose the use of indirect-drive fast-ignition targets with thicker tips. Experiments carried out at the ShenGuang-III prototype laser facility confirmed that thicker tips are effective for controlling preheating. Moreover, these results were consistent with those of 1D radiation hydrodynamic simulations.

  2. The LICPA-driven collider—a novel efficient tool for the production of ultra-high pressures in condensed media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badziak, J.; Krousky, E.; Kucharik, M.; Liska, R.

    2016-03-01

    Generation of strong shock waves for the production of Mbar or Gbar pressures is a topic of high relevance for contemporary research in various domains, including inertial confinement fusion, laboratory astrophysics, planetology and material science. The pressures in the multi-Mbar range can be produced by the shocks generated using chemical explosions, light-gas guns, Z-pinch machines or lasers. Higher pressures, in the sub-Gbar or Gbar range are attainable only with nuclear explosions or laser-based methods. Unfortunately, due to the low efficiency of energy conversion from a laser to the shock (below a few percent), multi-kJ, multi-beam lasers are needed to produce such pressures with these methods. Here, we propose and investigate a novel scheme for generating high-pressure shocks which is much more efficient than the laser-based schemes known so far. In the proposed scheme, the shock is generated in a dense target by the impact of a fast projectile driven by the laser-induced cavity pressure acceleration (LICPA) mechanism. Using two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations and the measurements performed at the kilojoule PALS laser facility it is shown that in the LICPA-driven collider the laser-to-shock energy conversion efficiency can reach a very high value ~ 15-20 % and, as a result, the shock pressure ~ 0.5-1 Gbar can be produced using lasers of energy <= 0.5 kJ. On the other hand, the pressures in the multi-Mbar range could be produced in this collider with low-energy (~ 10 J) lasers available on the market. It would open up the possibility of conducting research in high energy-density science also in small, university-class laboratories.

  3. X-ray continuum as a measure of pressure and fuel–shell mix in compressed isobaric hydrogen implosion cores

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, R.; Goncharov, V. N.; Marshall, F. J.

    Pressure, by definition, characterizes the conditions within an isobaric implosion core at peak compression [Gus'kov et al., Nucl. Fusion 16, 957 (1976); Betti et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 5257 (2001)] and is a key parameter in quantifying its near-ignition performance [Lawson, Proc. Phys. Soc. London, B 70, 6 (1957); Betti et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 058102 (2010); Goncharov et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 056315 (2014); and Glenzer et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 056318 (2012)]. At high spectral energy, where the x-ray emission from an imploded hydrogen core is optically thin, the emissivity profile can be inferred from the spatially resolvedmore » core emission. This emissivity, which can be modeled accurately under hot-core conditions, is dependent almost entirely on the pressure when measured within a restricted spectral range matched to the temperature range anticipated for the emitting volume. In this way, the hot core pressure at the time of peak emission can be inferred from the measured free-free emissivity profile. The pressure and temperature dependences of the x-ray emissivity and the neutron-production rate explain a simple scaling of the total filtered x-ray emission as a constant power of the total neutron yield for implosions of targets of similar design over a broad range of shell implosion isentropes. This scaling behavior has been seen in implosion simulations and is confirmed by measurements of high-isentrope implosions [Sangster et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 056317 (2013)] on the OMEGA laser system [Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. Attributing the excess emission from less-stable, low-isentrope implosions, above the level expected from this neutron-yield scaling, to the higher emissivity of shell carbon mixed into the implosion's central hot spot, the hot-spot “fuel–shell” mix mass can be inferred.« less

  4. Approximate models for the ion-kinetic regime in inertial-confinement-fusion capsule implosions

    DOE PAGES

    Hoffman, Nelson M.; Zimmerman, George B.; Molvig, Kim; ...

    2015-05-19

    “Reduced” (i.e., simplified or approximate) ion-kinetic (RIK) models in radiation-hydrodynamic simulations permit a useful description of inertial-confinement-fusion (ICF) implosions where kinetic deviations from hydrodynamic behavior are important. For implosions in or near the kinetic regime (i.e., when ion mean free paths are comparable to the capsule size), simulations using a RIK model give a detailed picture of the time- and space-dependent structure of imploding capsules, allow an assessment of the relative importance of various kinetic processes during the implosion, enable explanations of past and current observations, and permit predictions of the results of future experiments. The RIK simulation method describedmore » here uses moment-based reduced kinetic models for transport of mass, momentum, and energy by long-mean-free-path ions, a model for the decrease of fusion reactivity owing to the associated modification of the ion distribution function, and a model of hydrodynamic turbulent mixing. Transport models are based on local gradient-diffusion approximations for the transport of moments of the ion distribution functions, with coefficients to impose flux limiting or account for transport modification. After calibration against a reference set of ICF implosions spanning the hydrodynamic-to-kinetic transition, the method has useful, quantifiable predictive ability over a broad range of capsule parameter space. Calibrated RIK simulations show that an important contributor to ion species separation in ICF capsule implosions is the preferential flux of longer-mean-free-path species out of the fuel and into the shell, leaving the fuel relatively enriched in species with shorter mean free paths. Also, the transport of ion thermal energy is enhanced in the kinetic regime, causing the fuel region to have a more uniform, lower ion temperature, extending over a larger volume, than implied by clean simulations. Furthermore, we expect that the success of

  5. Increase in the energy density of the pinch plasma in 3D implosion of quasi-spherical wire arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, V. V., E-mail: alexvv@triniti.ru; Gasilov, V. A.; Grabovski, E. V.

    Results are presented from experimental studies of the characteristics of the soft X-ray (SXR) source formed in the implosion of quasi-spherical arrays made of tungsten wires and metalized kapron fibers. The experiments were carried out at the Angara-5-1 facility at currents of up to 3 MA. Analysis of the spatial distribution of hard X-ray emission with photon energies above 20 keV in the pinch images taken during the implosion of quasi-spherical tungsten wire arrays (QTWAs) showed that a compact quasi-spherical plasma object symmetric with respect to the array axis formed in the central region of the array. Using a diffractionmore » grazing incidence spectrograph, spectra of SXR emission with wavelengths of 20–400 Å from the central, axial, and peripheral regions of the emission source were measured with spatial resolutions along the array radius and height in the implosion of QTWAs. It is shown that the emission spectra of the SXR sources formed under the implosion of quasi-spherical and cylindrical tungsten wire arrays at currents of up to 3 MA have a maximum in the wavelength range of 50–150 Å. It is found that, during the implosion of a QTWA with a profiled linear mass, a redistribution of energy in the emission spectrum takes place, which indicates that, during 3D implosion, the energy of longitudinal motion of the array material additionally contributes to the radiation energy. It is also found that, at close masses of the arrays and close values of the current in the range of 2.4{sup −3} MA, the average energy density in the emission source formed during the implosion of a quasi-spherical wire array is larger by a factor of 7 than in the source formed during the implosion of a cylindrical wire array. The experimental data were compared with results of 3D simulations of plasma dynamics and radiation generation during the implosion of quasi-spherical wire arrays with a profiled mass by using the MARPLE-3D radiative magnetohydrodynamic code

  6. Mixing with applications to inertial-confinement-fusion implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, V.; Lim, H.; Melvin, J.; Glimm, J.; Cheng, B.; Sharp, D. H.

    2017-01-01

    Approximate one-dimensional (1D) as well as 2D and 3D simulations are playing an important supporting role in the design and analysis of future experiments at National Ignition Facility. This paper is mainly concerned with 1D simulations, used extensively in design and optimization. We couple a 1D buoyancy-drag mix model for the mixing zone edges with a 1D inertial confinement fusion simulation code. This analysis predicts that National Ignition Campaign (NIC) designs are located close to a performance cliff, so modeling errors, design features (fill tube and tent) and additional, unmodeled instabilities could lead to significant levels of mix. The performance cliff we identify is associated with multimode plastic ablator (CH) mix into the hot-spot deuterium and tritium (DT). The buoyancy-drag mix model is mode number independent and selects implicitly a range of maximum growth modes. Our main conclusion is that single effect instabilities are predicted not to lead to hot-spot mix, while combined mode mixing effects are predicted to affect hot-spot thermodynamics and possibly hot-spot mix. Combined with the stagnation Rayleigh-Taylor instability, we find the potential for mix effects in combination with the ice-to-gas DT boundary, numerical effects of Eulerian species CH concentration diffusion, and ablation-driven instabilities. With the help of a convenient package of plasma transport parameters developed here, we give an approximate determination of these quantities in the regime relevant to the NIC experiments, while ruling out a variety of mix possibilities. Plasma transport parameters affect the 1D buoyancy-drag mix model primarily through its phenomenological drag coefficient as well as the 1D hydro model to which the buoyancy-drag equation is coupled.

  7. Mixing with applications to inertial-confinement-fusion implosions.

    PubMed

    Rana, V; Lim, H; Melvin, J; Glimm, J; Cheng, B; Sharp, D H

    2017-01-01

    Approximate one-dimensional (1D) as well as 2D and 3D simulations are playing an important supporting role in the design and analysis of future experiments at National Ignition Facility. This paper is mainly concerned with 1D simulations, used extensively in design and optimization. We couple a 1D buoyancy-drag mix model for the mixing zone edges with a 1D inertial confinement fusion simulation code. This analysis predicts that National Ignition Campaign (NIC) designs are located close to a performance cliff, so modeling errors, design features (fill tube and tent) and additional, unmodeled instabilities could lead to significant levels of mix. The performance cliff we identify is associated with multimode plastic ablator (CH) mix into the hot-spot deuterium and tritium (DT). The buoyancy-drag mix model is mode number independent and selects implicitly a range of maximum growth modes. Our main conclusion is that single effect instabilities are predicted not to lead to hot-spot mix, while combined mode mixing effects are predicted to affect hot-spot thermodynamics and possibly hot-spot mix. Combined with the stagnation Rayleigh-Taylor instability, we find the potential for mix effects in combination with the ice-to-gas DT boundary, numerical effects of Eulerian species CH concentration diffusion, and ablation-driven instabilities. With the help of a convenient package of plasma transport parameters developed here, we give an approximate determination of these quantities in the regime relevant to the NIC experiments, while ruling out a variety of mix possibilities. Plasma transport parameters affect the 1D buoyancy-drag mix model primarily through its phenomenological drag coefficient as well as the 1D hydro model to which the buoyancy-drag equation is coupled.

  8. Hydrodynamic stability and Ti-tracer distribution in low-adiabat OMEGA direct-drive implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Tirtha R.

    We discuss the hydrodynamic stability of low-adiabat OMEGA direct-drive implosions based on results obtained from simultaneous emission and absorption spectroscopy of a titanium tracer added to the target. The targets were deuterium filled, warm plastic shells of varying thicknesses and filling gas pressures with a submicron Ti-doped tracer layer initially located on the inner surface of the shell. The spectral features from the titanium tracer are observed during the deceleration and stagnation phases of the implosion, and recorded with a time integrated spectrometer (XRS1), streaked crystal spectrometer (SSCA) and three gated, multi-monochromatic X-ray imager (MMI) instruments fielded along quasi-orthogonal lines-of-sight. The time-integrated, streaked and gated data show simultaneous emission and absorption spectral features associated with titanium K-shell line transitions but only the MMI data provides spatially resolved information. The arrays of gated spectrally resolved images recorded with MMI were processed to obtain spatially resolved spectra characteristic of annular contour regions on the image. A multi-zone spectroscopic analysis of the annular spatially resolved spectra permits the extraction of plasma conditions in the core as well as the spatial distribution of tracer atoms. In turn, the titanium atom distribution provides direct evidence of tracer penetration into the core and thus of the hydrodynamic stability of the shell. The observations, timing and analysis indicate that during fuel burning the titanium atoms have migrated deep into the core and thus shell material mixing is likely to impact the rate of nuclear fusion reactions, i.e. burning rate, and the neutron yield of the implosion. We have found that the Ti atom number density decreases towards the center in early deceleration phase, but later in time the trend is just opposite, i.e., it increases towards the center of the implosion core. This is in part a consequence of the convergent

  9. The role of hot spot mix in the low-foot and high-foot implosions on the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, T.; Patel, P. K.; Izumi, N.; Springer, P. T.; Key, M. H.; Atherton, L. J.; Barrios, M. A.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bionta, R.; Bond, E.; Bradley, D. K.; Caggiano, J.; Callahan, D. A.; Casey, D. T.; Celliers, P. M.; Cerjan, C. J.; Church, J. A.; Clark, D. S.; Dewald, E. L.; Dittrich, T. R.; Dixit, S. N.; Döppner, T.; Dylla-Spears, R.; Edgell, D. H.; Epstein, R.; Field, J.; Fittinghoff, D. N.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Glenn, S.; Glenzer, S. H.; Grim, G.; Guler, N.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Hatarik, R.; Herrmann, H. W.; Hicks, D.; Hinkel, D. E.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Hsing, W. W.; Hurricane, O. A.; Jones, O. S.; Kauffman, R.; Khan, S. F.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Kline, J. L.; Kozioziemski, B.; Kritcher, A.; Kyrala, G. A.; Landen, O. L.; Lindl, J. D.; Le Pape, S.; MacGowan, B. J.; Mackinnon, A. J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Meezan, N. B.; Merrill, F. E.; Moody, J. D.; Moses, E. I.; Nagel, S. R.; Nikroo, A.; Pak, A.; Parham, T.; Park, H.-S.; Ralph, J. E.; Regan, S. P.; Remington, B. A.; Robey, H. F.; Rosen, M. D.; Rygg, J. R.; Ross, J. S.; Salmonson, J. D.; Sater, J.; Sayre, D.; Schneider, M. B.; Shaughnessy, D.; Sio, H.; Spears, B. K.; Smalyuk, V.; Suter, L. J.; Tommasini, R.; Town, R. P. J.; Volegov, P. L.; Wan, A.; Weber, S. V.; Widmann, K.; Wilde, C. H.; Yeamans, C.; Edwards, M. J.

    2017-05-01

    Hydrodynamic mix of the ablator into the DT fuel layer and hot spot can be a critical performance limitation in inertial confinement fusion implosions. This mix results in increased radiation loss, cooling of the hot spot, and reduced neutron yield. To quantify the level of mix, we have developed a simple model that infers the level of contamination using the ratio of the measured x-ray emission to the neutron yield. The principal source for the performance limitation of the "low-foot" class of implosions appears to have been mix. Lower convergence "high-foot" implosions are found to be less susceptible to mix, allowing velocities of >380 km/s to be achieved.

  10. Technique for fabrication of ultrathin foils in cylindrical geometry for liner-plasma implosion experiments with sub-megaampere currents

    DOE PAGES

    Yager-Elorriaga, D. A.; Steiner, A. M.; Patel, S. G.; ...

    2015-11-19

    In this study, we describe a technique for fabricating ultrathin foils in cylindrical geometry for liner-plasma implosion experiments using sub-MA currents. Liners are formed by wrapping a 400 nm, rectangular strip of aluminum foil around a dumbbell-shaped support structure with a non-conducting center rod, so that the liner dimensions are 1 cm in height, 6.55 mm in diameter, and 400 nm in thickness. The liner-plasmas are imploded by discharging ~600 kA with ~200 ns rise time using a 1 MA linear transformer driver, and the resulting implosions are imaged four times per shot using laser-shadowgraphy at 532 nm. As amore » result, this technique enables the study of plasma implosion physics, including the magneto Rayleigh-Taylor, sausage, and kink instabilities on initially solid, imploding metallic liners with university-scale pulsed power machines.« less

  11. Technique for fabrication of ultrathin foils in cylindrical geometry for liner-plasma implosion experiments with sub-megaampere currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yager-Elorriaga, D. A.; Steiner, A. M.; Patel, S. G.; Jordan, N. M.; Lau, Y. Y.; Gilgenbach, R. M.

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we describe a technique for fabricating ultrathin foils in cylindrical geometry for liner-plasma implosion experiments using sub-MA currents. Liners are formed by wrapping a 400 nm, rectangular strip of aluminum foil around a dumbbell-shaped support structure with a non-conducting center rod, so that the liner dimensions are 1 cm in height, 6.55 mm in diameter, and 400 nm in thickness. The liner-plasmas are imploded by discharging ˜600 kA with ˜200 ns rise time using a 1 MA linear transformer driver, and the resulting implosions are imaged four times per shot using laser-shadowgraphy at 532 nm. This technique enables the study of plasma implosion physics, including the magneto Rayleigh-Taylor, sausage, and kink instabilities on initially solid, imploding metallic liners with university-scale pulsed power machines.

  12. Measuring spatial distributions of nuclear burn in ICF implosions at OMEGA and the NIF using proton emission imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seguin, Fredrick; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Zylstra, A.; Sio, H.; Frenje, J.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R.; Rosenberg, M.; Marshall, F. J.; Sangster, T. C.; McKenty, P.; Craxton, S.; Rygg, J. R.; Le Pape, S.; Smalyuk, V.; Amendt, P. A.; Wilks, S. C.; MacKinnon, A.; Hoffman, N. M.

    2015-11-01

    Fusion reactions in ICF implosions of D3He-filled capsules produce 14.7-MeV D3He protons and 3-MeV DD protons. Spatial distributions of the D3He and DD reactions are studied with a penumbral imaging camera that utilizes a CR-39-based imaging detector to detect the protons. Up to three orthogonal cameras have been used simultaneously at OMEGA to study the 3-D structure of asymmetric implosions, and two orthogonal cameras have now been used to study an exploding-pusher implosion at the NIF. Recent data from OMEGA and from the NIF will be shown. This work was supported in part by NLUF, US DOE, and LLE.

  13. The role of hot spot mix in the low-foot and high-foot implosions on the NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, T.; Patel, P. K.; Izumi, N.

    Hydrodynamic mix of the ablator into the DT fuel layer and hot spot can be a critical performance limitation in inertial confinement fusion implosions. This mix results in increased radiation loss, cooling of the hot spot, and reduced neutron yield. To quantify the level of mix, we have developed a simple model that infers the level of contamination using the ratio of the measured x-ray emission to the neutron yield. The principal source for the performance limitation of the “low-foot” class of implosions appears to have been mix. As a result, lower convergence “high-foot” implosions are found to be lessmore » susceptible to mix, allowing velocities of >380 km/s to be achieved.« less

  14. The role of hot spot mix in the low-foot and high-foot implosions on the NIF

    DOE PAGES

    Ma, T.; Patel, P. K.; Izumi, N.; ...

    2017-05-18

    Hydrodynamic mix of the ablator into the DT fuel layer and hot spot can be a critical performance limitation in inertial confinement fusion implosions. This mix results in increased radiation loss, cooling of the hot spot, and reduced neutron yield. To quantify the level of mix, we have developed a simple model that infers the level of contamination using the ratio of the measured x-ray emission to the neutron yield. The principal source for the performance limitation of the “low-foot” class of implosions appears to have been mix. As a result, lower convergence “high-foot” implosions are found to be lessmore » susceptible to mix, allowing velocities of >380 km/s to be achieved.« less

  15. Technique for fabrication of ultrathin foils in cylindrical geometry for liner-plasma implosion experiments with sub-megaampere currents

    SciTech Connect

    Yager-Elorriaga, D. A.; Steiner, A. M.; Patel, S. G.

    In this study, we describe a technique for fabricating ultrathin foils in cylindrical geometry for liner-plasma implosion experiments using sub-MA currents. Liners are formed by wrapping a 400 nm, rectangular strip of aluminum foil around a dumbbell-shaped support structure with a non-conducting center rod, so that the liner dimensions are 1 cm in height, 6.55 mm in diameter, and 400 nm in thickness. The liner-plasmas are imploded by discharging ~600 kA with ~200 ns rise time using a 1 MA linear transformer driver, and the resulting implosions are imaged four times per shot using laser-shadowgraphy at 532 nm. As amore » result, this technique enables the study of plasma implosion physics, including the magneto Rayleigh-Taylor, sausage, and kink instabilities on initially solid, imploding metallic liners with university-scale pulsed power machines.« less

  16. First Argon Gas Puff Experiments With 500 ns Implosion Time On Sphinx Driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucchini, F.; Calamy, H.; Lassalle, F.; Loyen, A.; Maury, P.; Grunenwald, J.; Georges, A.; Morell, A.; Bedoch, J.-P.; Ritter, S.; Combes, P.; Smaniotto, O.; Lample, R.; Coleman, P. L.; Krishnan, M.

    2009-01-01

    Experiments have been performed at the SPHINX driver to study potential of an Argon Gas Puff load designed by AASC. We present here the gas Puff hardware and results of the last shot series. The Argon Gas Puff load used is injected thanks to a 20 cm diameter nozzle. The nozzle has two annuli and a central jet. The pressure and gas type in each of the nozzle plena can be independently adjusted to tailor the initial gaz density distribution. This latter is selected as to obtain an increasing radial density from outer shell towards the pinch axis in order to mitigate the RT instabilities and to increase radiating mass on axis. A flashboard unit produces a high intensity UV source to pre-ionize the Argon gas. Typical dimensions of the load are 200 mm in diameter and 40 mm height. Pressures are adjusted to obtain an implosion time around 550 ns with a peak current of 3.5 MA. With the goal of improving k-shell yield a mass scan of the central jet was performed and implosion time, mainly given by outer and middle plena settings, was kept constant. Tests were also done to reduce the implosion time for two configurations of the central jet. Strong zippering of the radiation production was observed mainly due to the divergence of the central jet over the 40 mm of the load height. Due to that feature k-shell radiation is mainly obtained near cathode. Therefore tests were done to mitigate this effect first by adjusting local pressure of middle and central jet and second by shortening the pinch length. At the end of this series, best shot gave 5 kJ of Ar k-shell yield. PCD detectors showed that k-shell x-ray power was 670 GW with a FWHM of less than 10 ns.

  17. Three-dimensional modeling of the neutron spectrum to infer plasma conditions in cryogenic inertial confinement fusion implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weilacher, F.; Radha, P. B.; Forrest, C.

    2018-04-01

    Neutron-based diagnostics are typically used to infer compressed core conditions such as areal density and ion temperature in deuterium-tritium (D-T) inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions. Asymmetries in the observed neutron-related quantities are important to understanding failure modes in these implosions. Neutrons from fusion reactions and their subsequent interactions including elastic scattering and neutron-induced deuteron breakup reactions are tracked to create spectra. It is shown that background subtraction is important for inferring areal density from backscattered neutrons and is less important for the forward-scattered neutrons. A three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation of a cryogenic implosion on the OMEGA Laser System [Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] using the hydrodynamic code HYDRA [Marinak et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 2275 (2001)] is post-processed using the tracking code IRIS3D. It is shown that different parts of the neutron spectrum from the view can be mapped into different regions of the implosion, enabling an inference of an areal-density map. It is also shown that the average areal-density and an areal-density map of the compressed target can be reconstructed with a finite number of detectors placed around the target chamber. Ion temperatures are inferred from the width of the D-D and D-T fusion neutron spectra. Backgrounds can significantly alter the inferred ion temperatures from the D-D reaction, whereas they insignificantly influence the inferred D-T ion temperatures for the areal densities typical of OMEGA implosions. Asymmetries resulting in fluid flow in the core are shown to influence the absolute inferred ion temperatures from both reactions, although relative inferred values continue to reflect the underlying asymmetry pattern. The work presented here is part of the wide range of the first set of studies performed with IRIS3D. This code will continue to be used for post-processing detailed hydrodynamic simulations

  18. X-ray continuum as a measure of pressure and fuel–shell mix in compressed isobaric hydrogen implosion cores

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, R.; Goncharov, V. N.; Marshall, F. J.

    Pressure, by definition, characterizes the conditions within an isobaric implosion core at peak compression [Gus’kov et al., Nucl. Fusion 16, 957 (1976); Betti et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 5257 (2001)] and is a key parameter in quantifying its near-ignition performance [Lawson, Proc. Phys. Soc. London, B 70, 6 (1957); Betti et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 058102 (2010); Goncharov et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 056315 (2014); and Glenzer et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 056318 (2012)]. At high spectral energy, where the x-ray emission from an imploded hydrogen core is optically thin, the emissivity profile can be inferred from the spatially resolvedmore » core emission. This emissivity, which can be modeled accurately under hot-core conditions, is dependent almost entirely on the pressure when measured within a restricted spectral range matched to the temperature range anticipated for the emitting volume. In this way, the hot core pressure at the time of peak emission can be inferred from the measured free-free emissivity profile. The pressure and temperature dependences of the x-ray emissivity and the neutron-production rate explain a simple scaling of the total filtered x-ray emission as a constant power of the total neutron yield for implosions of targets of similar design over a broad range of shell implosion isentropes. This scaling behavior has been seen in implosion simulations and is confirmed by measurements of high-isentrope implosions [Sangster et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 056317 (2013)] on the OMEGA laser system [Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. Attributing the excess emission from less-stable, low-isentrope implosions, above the level expected from this neutron-yield scaling, to the higher emissivity of shell carbon mixed into the implosion’s central hot spot, the hot-spot “fuel–shell” mix mass can be inferred.« less

  19. Charged-particle spectroscopy for diagnosing shock ρR and strength in NIF implosions.

    PubMed

    Zylstra, A B; Frenje, J A; Séguin, F H; Rosenberg, M J; Rinderknecht, H G; Johnson, M Gatu; Casey, D T; Sinenian, N; Manuel, M J-E; Waugh, C J; Sio, H W; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Friedrich, S; Knittel, K; Bionta, R; McKernan, M; Callahan, D; Collins, G W; Dewald, E; Döppner, T; Edwards, M J; Glenzer, S; Hicks, D G; Landen, O L; London, R; Mackinnon, A; Meezan, N; Prasad, R R; Ralph, J; Richardson, M; Rygg, J R; Sepke, S; Weber, S; Zacharias, R; Moses, E; Kilkenny, J; Nikroo, A; Sangster, T C; Glebov, V; Stoeckl, C; Olson, R; Leeper, R J; Kline, J; Kyrala, G; Wilson, D

    2012-10-01

    The compact Wedge Range Filter (WRF) proton spectrometer was developed for OMEGA and transferred to the National Ignition Facility (NIF) as a National Ignition Campaign diagnostic. The WRF measures the spectrum of protons from D-(3)He reactions in tuning-campaign implosions containing D and (3)He gas; in this work we report on the first proton spectroscopy measurement on the NIF using WRFs. The energy downshift of the 14.7-MeV proton is directly related to the total ρR through the plasma stopping power. Additionally, the shock proton yield is measured, which is a metric of the final merged shock strength.

  20. Analysis of fusion neutron spectral widths in high-foot implosions at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grim, Gary; Caggiano, Joseph; Callahan, Debra; Casey, Daniel; Cerjan, Charles; Clark, Daniel; Tilo, Doeppner; Eckart, Mark; Field, John; Frenje, Lars; Gatu-Johnson, Maria; Hartouni, Edward; Hatarik, Robert; Hurricane, Omar; Kilkenny, Joseph; Knauer, James; Ma, Tammy; Mannion, Owen; Munro, David; Park, Hye-Sook; Sayre, Daniel; Spears, Brian; Yeamans, Charles

    2015-11-01

    We present the latest results of thermal temperature analyses of cryogenically layered deuterium-tritium implosions at the NIF using data from the ``High Foot'' campaign. Data from new analysis methods and interpreted in the context of new theoretical developments will be reported. These data will include DD and DT apparent ion temperatures, their uniformity with direction, inferred plasma thermal temperature, as well as the magnitude of non-thermal contributions to the spectral widths. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  1. Impact of Inner Surface Perturbations on the Stability of Cylindrical Liner Implosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weis, Matthew; Peterson, Kyle; Hess, Mark; Lau, Y. Y.; Zhang, Peng; Gilgenbach, Ronald

    2015-11-01

    This paper studies the effects of initial perturbations on the inner liner surface (ILS) of an imploding cylindrical liner. In MagLIF, nonuniform preheat of the fuel could provide an additional source of spatial nonuniformity on the ILS. A blast wave generated by the laser preheat might trigger the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RM) on the ILS which then serves as another seed to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RT) during the stagnation (deceleration) phase of the implosion. Another scenario is that the shock initiated from the outer liner surface, during current rise, propagates inward and is reflected at the ILS. This reflected shock would carry the initial ILS perturbations which then serve as an additional seed for the magneto-RT (MRT) during the acceleration phase of the implosion. These potentially dangerous interactions are analyzed using the 2D HYDRA code. The effects of axial magnetic fields, of the initial surface roughness spectrum, and of gas fill or water fill (to examine deceleration phase RT) are studied. M. R. Weis was supported by the Sandia National Laboratories. This work was also supported by DoE Grant DE-SC0012328.

  2. Capsule implosion optimization during the indirect-drive National Ignition Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landen, O. L.; Edwards, J.; Haan, S. W.; Robey, H. F.; Milovich, J.; Spears, B. K.; Weber, S. V.; Clark, D. S.; Lindl, J. D.; MacGowan, B. J.; Moses, E. I.; Atherton, J.; Amendt, P. A.; Boehly, T. R.; Bradley, D. K.; Braun, D. G.; Callahan, D. A.; Celliers, P. M.; Collins, G. W.; Dewald, E. L.; Divol, L.; Frenje, J. A.; Glenzer, S. H.; Hamza, A.; Hammel, B. A.; Hicks, D. G.; Hoffman, N.; Izumi, N.; Jones, O. S.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Kirkwood, R. K.; Kline, J. L.; Kyrala, G. A.; Marinak, M. M.; Meezan, N.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Michel, P.; Munro, D. H.; Olson, R. E.; Nikroo, A.; Regan, S. P.; Suter, L. J.; Thomas, C. A.; Wilson, D. C.

    2011-05-01

    Capsule performance optimization campaigns will be conducted at the National Ignition Facility [G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Nucl. Fusion 44, 228 (2004)] to substantially increase the probability of ignition. The campaigns will experimentally correct for residual uncertainties in the implosion and hohlraum physics used in our radiation-hydrodynamic computational models using a variety of ignition capsule surrogates before proceeding to cryogenic-layered implosions and ignition experiments. The quantitative goals and technique options and down selections for the tuning campaigns are first explained. The computationally derived sensitivities to key laser and target parameters are compared to simple analytic models to gain further insight into the physics of the tuning techniques. The results of the validation of the tuning techniques at the OMEGA facility [J. M. Soures et al., Phys. Plasmas 3, 2108 (1996)] under scaled hohlraum and capsule conditions relevant to the ignition design are shown to meet the required sensitivity and accuracy. A roll-up of all expected random and systematic uncertainties in setting the key ignition laser and target parameters due to residual measurement, calibration, cross-coupling, surrogacy, and scale-up errors has been derived that meets the required budget. Finally, we show how the tuning precision will be improved after a number of shots and iterations to meet an acceptable level of residual uncertainty.

  3. Capsule implosion optimization during the indirect-drive National Ignition Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Landen, O. L.; Edwards, J.; Haan, S. W.

    2011-05-15

    Capsule performance optimization campaigns will be conducted at the National Ignition Facility [G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Nucl. Fusion 44, 228 (2004)] to substantially increase the probability of ignition. The campaigns will experimentally correct for residual uncertainties in the implosion and hohlraum physics used in our radiation-hydrodynamic computational models using a variety of ignition capsule surrogates before proceeding to cryogenic-layered implosions and ignition experiments. The quantitative goals and technique options and down selections for the tuning campaigns are first explained. The computationally derived sensitivities to key laser and target parameters are compared to simple analyticmore » models to gain further insight into the physics of the tuning techniques. The results of the validation of the tuning techniques at the OMEGA facility [J. M. Soures et al., Phys. Plasmas 3, 2108 (1996)] under scaled hohlraum and capsule conditions relevant to the ignition design are shown to meet the required sensitivity and accuracy. A roll-up of all expected random and systematic uncertainties in setting the key ignition laser and target parameters due to residual measurement, calibration, cross-coupling, surrogacy, and scale-up errors has been derived that meets the required budget. Finally, we show how the tuning precision will be improved after a number of shots and iterations to meet an acceptable level of residual uncertainty.« less

  4. Measurement of the shell decompression in direct-drive inertial-confinement-fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Michel, D. T.; Hu, S. X.; Davis, A. K.

    Measurement of the effect of adiabat (α) on the shell thickness were performed in direct-drive implosions. When reducing the adiabat of the shell from α = 6 to α = 4:5, the shell thickness was measured to decrease from 75 μm to 60 μm, but when decreasing the adiabat further (α = 1:8), the shell thickness was measured to increase to 75 μm. The measured shell thickness, shell trajectories, neutron bang time, and neutron yield were reproduced by two dimensional simulations that include laser imprint, nonlocal thermal transport, cross-beam energy transfer, and first-principles equation-of-state models. The minimum core size wasmore » measured to decrease from 40 μm to 30 μm, consistent with the reduction of the adiabat from α = 6 to α = 1:8. Simulations that neglected imprint reproduced the measured core size of the entire adiabat scan, but signi cantly underestimate the shell thickness for adiabat below ~3. These results show that the decompression of the shell measured for low-adiabat implosions was a result of laser imprint.« less

  5. Understanding Laser-Imprint Effects on Plastic-Target Implosions on OMEGA with New Physics Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, S. X.; Michel, D. T.; Davis, A. K.; Betti, R.; Radha, P. B.; Campbell, E. M.; Froula, D. H.; Stoeckl, C.

    2016-10-01

    Using the state-of-the-art physics models (nonlocal thermal transport, cross-beam energy transfer, and first-principles equation of state) recently implemented in our two-dimensional hydrocode DRACO, we have performed a systematic study of laser-imprint effects on plastic-target implosions on OMEGA by both simulations and experiments. Through varying the laser picket intensity, the imploding shells were set at different adiabats ranging from α = 2 to α = 6 . As the shell adiabat α decreases, we observed: (1) the measured shell thickness at the hot spot emission becomes larger than the uniform prediction; (2) the hot-spot core emits and neutron burn starts earlier than the corresponding 1-D prediction; and (3) the measured neutron yields are significantly reduced from their 1-D designs. Most of these experimental observations are well reproduced by our DRACO simulations with laser imprints. These studies clearly identify that laser imprint is the major cause for target performance degradation of OMEGA implosions of α <= 3 . Mitigating laser imprints must be an essential effort to improve low- α target performance in direct-drive inertial confinement fusion ignition attempts. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  6. Plasma viscosity with mass transport in spherical inertial confinement fusion implosion simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Vold, E. L.; Molvig, K.; Joglekar, A. S.

    2015-11-15

    The effects of viscosity and small-scale atomic-level mixing on plasmas in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) currently represent challenges in ICF research. Many current ICF hydrodynamic codes ignore the effects of viscosity though recent research indicates viscosity and mixing by classical transport processes may have a substantial impact on implosion dynamics. We have implemented a Lagrangian hydrodynamic code in one-dimensional spherical geometry with plasma viscosity and mass transport and including a three temperature model for ions, electrons, and radiation treated in a gray radiation diffusion approximation. The code is used to study ICF implosion differences with and without plasma viscosity andmore » to determine the impacts of viscosity on temperature histories and neutron yield. It was found that plasma viscosity has substantial impacts on ICF shock dynamics characterized by shock burn timing, maximum burn temperatures, convergence ratio, and time history of neutron production rates. Plasma viscosity reduces the need for artificial viscosity to maintain numerical stability in the Lagrangian formulation and also modifies the flux-limiting needed for electron thermal conduction.« less

  7. Mitigation of cross-beam energy transfer in symmetric <