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Sample records for z-score waist circumference

  1. Orgasm and women's waist circumference.

    PubMed

    Costa, Rui Miguel; Brody, Stuart

    2014-11-01

    Given that adiposity is related to poorer female sexual function, among many other health problems, the present study aimed at testing the hypothesis that larger waist circumference, an index of subcutaneous and abdominal fat mass, is associated with lack of specifically vaginal orgasm. Study design One hundred and twenty Portuguese women of reproductive age had their waist measured and reported their past month frequency of penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI), vaginal orgasm, orgasm from clitoral masturbation during PVI, non-coital partnered sex (in the absence of same-day PVI), non-coital partnered sex orgasm (regardless of same-day PVI), masturbation, and masturbation orgasm. In both simple and partial correlations (controlling for age, social desirability responding, relationship status, and cohabitation status), larger waist circumference was associated with lack of any vaginal orgasm and with having masturbated in the past month. In a multiple regression, larger waist circumference was independently predicted by lesser frequency of vaginal orgasm, greater frequency of masturbation, and older age. Abdominal fat mass appears to be adversely associated with lesser capacity for vaginal orgasm, but not for orgasms from other sexual activities. Results are discussed in the context of vaginal orgasm being relatively more contingent on situations of increased fitness in both partners. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Measuring Waist Circumference in Disabled Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waninge, A.; Ligthart, K. A. M.; Kramer, J.; Hoeve, S.; van der Schans, C. P.; Haisma, H. H.

    2010-01-01

    To date, it is unknown whether waist circumference can be measured validly and reliably when a subject is in a supine position. This issue is relevant when international standards for healthy participants are applied to persons with severe intellectual, sensory, and motor disabilities. Thus, the aims of our study were (1) to determine the validity…

  3. Predicting waist circumference from body mass index.

    PubMed

    Bozeman, Samuel R; Hoaglin, David C; Burton, Tanya M; Pashos, Chris L; Ben-Joseph, Rami H; Hollenbeak, Christopher S

    2012-08-03

    Being overweight or obese increases risk for cardiometabolic disorders. Although both body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) measure the level of overweight and obesity, WC may be more important because of its closer relationship to total body fat. Because WC is typically not assessed in clinical practice, this study sought to develop and verify a model to predict WC from BMI and demographic data, and to use the predicted WC to assess cardiometabolic risk. Data were obtained from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC). We developed linear regression models for men and women using NHANES data, fitting waist circumference as a function of BMI. For validation, those regressions were applied to ARIC data, assigning a predicted WC to each individual. We used the predicted WC to assess abdominal obesity and cardiometabolic risk. The model correctly classified 88.4% of NHANES subjects with respect to abdominal obesity. Median differences between actual and predicted WC were -0.07 cm for men and 0.11 cm for women. In ARIC, the model closely estimated the observed WC (median difference: -0.34 cm for men, +3.94 cm for women), correctly classifying 86.1% of ARIC subjects with respect to abdominal obesity and 91.5% to 99.5% as to cardiometabolic risk.The model is generalizable to Caucasian and African-American adult populations because it was constructed from data on a large, population-based sample of men and women in the United States, and then validated in a population with a larger representation of African-Americans. The model accurately estimates WC and identifies cardiometabolic risk. It should be useful for health care practitioners and public health officials who wish to identify individuals and populations at risk for cardiometabolic disease when WC data are unavailable.

  4. Waist circumference as a mediator of biological maturation effect on the motor coordination in children.

    PubMed

    Luz, Leonardo G O; Seabra, André; Padez, Cristina; Duarte, João P; Rebelo-Gonçalves, Ricardo; Valente-Dos-Santos, João; Luz, Tatiana D D; Carmo, Bruno C M; Coelho-E-Silva, Manuel

    2016-09-01

    The present study aimed to: 1) examine the association of biological maturation effect on children's performance at a motor coordination battery and 2) to assess whether the association between biological maturation and scores obtained in motor coordination tests is mediated by some anthropometric measurement. The convenience sample consisted of 73 male children aged 8 years old. Anthropometric data considered the height, body mass, sitting height, waist circumference, body mass index, fat mass and fat-free mass estimates. Biological maturation was assessed by the percentage of the predicted mature stature. Motor coordination was tested by the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder. A partial correlation between anthropometric measurements, z-score of maturation and the motor coordination tests were performed, controlling for chronological age. Finally, causal mediation analysis was performed. Height, body mass, waist circumference and fat mass showed a slight to moderate inverse correlation with motor coordination. Biological maturation was significantly associated with the balance test with backward walking (r=-0.34). Total mediation of the waist circumference was identified in the association between biological maturation and balance test with backward walking (77%). We identified an association between biological maturation and KTK test performance in male children and also verified that there is mediation of waist circumference. It is recommended that studies be carried out with female individuals and at other age ranges. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Cardiometabolic risk assessments by body mass index z-score or waist-to-height ratio in a multiethnic sample of sixth-graders

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Convention defines pediatric adiposity by the body mass index z-score (BMIz) referenced to normative growth charts. Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) does not depend on sex-and-age references. In the HEALTHY Study enrollment sample, we compared BMIz with WHtR for ability to identify adverse cardiometabol...

  6. Body mass index, waist circumference, and arterial hypertension in students.

    PubMed

    Guilherme, Flávio Ricardo; Molena-Fernandes, Carlos Alexandre; Guilherme, Vânia Renata; Fávero, Maria Teresa Martins; dos Reis, Eliane Josefa Barbosa; Rinaldi, Wilson

    2015-01-01

    to investigate what is the best anthropometric predictor of arterial hypertension among private school students. this was a cross-sectional study with 286 students between the ages of 10 and 14 from two private schools in the city of Paranavaí, Paraná, Brazil. The following variables were analyzed: body mass index, waist circumference and blood pressure. Statistical analysis was conducted with Pearson's partial correlation test and multivariate logistic regression, with p<0.05. both anthropometric indicators displayed weak correlation with systolic and diastolic levels, with coefficients (r) ranging from 0.27 to 0.36 (p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that the only anthropometric indicator associated with arterial hypertension was waist circumference (OR= 2.3; 95% CI: 1.1-4.5), regardless of age or gender. this age group, waist circumference appeared to be a better predictor for arterial hypertension than body mass index.

  7. Waist circumference, waist/height ratio, and neck circumference as parameters of central obesity assessment in children☆

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Elma Izze da Silva; Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira da Rocha; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To analyze studies that assessed the anthropometric parameters waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHR) and neck circumference (NC) as indicators of central obesity in children. Data sources: We searched PubMed and SciELO databases using the combined descriptors: "Waist circumference", "Waist-to-height ratio", "Neck circumference", "Children" and "Abdominal fat" in Portuguese, English and Spanish. Inclusion criteria were original articles with information about the WC, WHR and NC in the assessment of central obesity in children. We excluded review articles, short communications, letters and editorials. Data synthesis: 1,525 abstracts were obtained in the search, and 68 articles were selected for analysis. Of these, 49 articles were included in the review. The WC was the parameter more used in studies, followed by the WHR. Regarding NC, there are few studies in children. The predictive ability of WC and WHR to indicate central adiposity in children was controversial. The cutoff points suggested for the parameters varied among studies, and some differences may be related to ethnicity and lack of standardization of anatomical site used for measurement. Conclusions: More studies are needed to evaluate these parameters for determination of central obesity children. Scientific literature about NC is especially scarce, mainly in the pediatric population. There is a need to standardize site measures and establish comparable cutoff points between different populations. PMID:25479861

  8. Longitudinal associations between BMI, waist circumference, and cardiometabolic risk in US youth: monitoring implications.

    PubMed

    Jago, R; Mendoza, J A; Chen, T; Baranowski, T

    2013-03-01

    This study examined whether change in body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC) is associated with change in cardiometabolic risk factors and differences between cardiovascular disease specific and diabetes specific risk factors among adolescents. We also sought to examine any differences by gender or baseline body mass status. The article is a longitudinal analysis of pre- and post-data collected in the HEALTHY trial. Participants were 4,603 ethnically diverse adolescents who provided complete data at 6th and 8th grade assessments. The main outcome measures were percent change in the following cardiometabolic risk factors: fasting triglycerides, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and glucose as well as a clustered metabolic risk score. Main exposures were change in BMI or WC z-score. Models were run stratified by gender; secondary models were additionally stratified by baseline BMI group (normal, overweight, or obese). Analysis showed that when cardiometabolic risk factors were treated as continuous variables, there was strong evidence (P < 0.001) that change in BMI z-score was associated with change in the majority of the cardiovascular risk factors, except fasting glucose and the combined risk factor score for both boys and girls. There was some evidence that change in WC z-score was associated with some cardiovascular risk factors, but change in WC z-score was consistently associated with changes in fasting glucose. In conclusion, routine monitoring of BMI should be continued by health professionals, but additional information on disease risk may be provided by assessing WC. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  9. Lower waist circumference in mildly-stunted adolescents is associated with elevated insulin concentration.

    PubMed

    Clemente, Ana Paula Grotti; Santos, Carla Danusa da Luz; Martins, Vinicius J B; Albuquerque, Maria Paula; Fachim, Mariana B; Sawaya, Ana Lydia

    2014-01-01

    Augmented waist circumference (WC) is associated with non-communicable diseases and could represent a valuable marker in screening for metabolic dysfunctions in subjects with insufficient linear growth. The objective of the present study was to determine whether biochemical and hemodynamic parameters and waist circumference vary between mildly-stunted and non-stunted adolescents from impoverished communities of São Paulo, Brazil. The cross-sectional study involved 206 subjects, aged between 9 and 19 years and living in impoverished areas of São Paulo, Brazil. The sample population was divided according to height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) into stunted (-1 > HAZ ≥ -2) and non-stunted (HAZ ≥ -1) groups, and was sub-divided according to gender. Logistic regression analysis was employed to compare individuals with elevated (> 75th percentile) insulin concentrations. The receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to determine WC cut-off points that could be used to identify stunted and non-stunted individuals with elevated insulin concentrations. WC cut-off points of 58.25cm and 67.2cm allowed for correct classification of 90.7% of stunted and 88.7% of non-stunted individuals in the studied population. While the sensitivity of the model was high for stunted and non-stunted subjects (98.8% and 97.2%, respectively), the specificity was modest (57.1% and 41.2%, respectively). The results presented herein suggest that an increase in plasma insulin is one of the primary metabolic modifications in stunted individuals, and that this alteration could be identified at a lower WC cut-off point than in non-stunted counterparts. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Waist circumference percentile curves for Malaysian children and adolescents aged 6.0-16.9 years.

    PubMed

    Poh, Bee Koon; Jannah, Ahmad Nurul; Chong, Lai Khuen; Ruzita, Abd Talib; Ismail, Mohd Noor; McCarthy, David

    2011-08-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing rapidly and abdominal obesity especially is known to be a risk factor for metabolic syndrome and other non-communicable diseases. Waist circumference percentile curves are useful tools which can help to identify abdominal obesity among the childhood and adolescent populations. To develop age- and sex-specific waist circumference (WC) percentile curves for multi-ethnic Malaysian children and adolescents aged 6.0-16.9 years. Subjects and methods. A total of 16,203 participants comprising 8,093 boys and 8,110 girls recruited from all regions of Malaysia were involved in this study. Height, weight, WC were measured and BMI calculated. Smoothed WC percentile curves and values for the 3rd, 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, 95th and 97th percentiles were constructed using the LMS Method. WC was found to increase with age in both sexes, but boys had higher WC values at every age and percentile. Z-scores generated using the UK reference data shows that Chinese children had the highest WC compared to Malays, Indians and other ethnicities. Comparisons with other studies indicate that at the 50th percentile, Malaysian curves did not differ from the UK, Hong Kong and Turkish curves, but at the 90th percentile, Malaysian curves were higher compared with other countries, starting at 10 years of age. The 90th percentile was adopted as the cut-off point to indicate abdominal obesity in Malaysian children and adolescents. These curves represent the first WC percentiles reported for Malaysian children, and they can serve as a reference for future studies.

  11. Accuracy of self-reported height, weight and waist circumference in a Japanese sample.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, N; Hosono, A; Shibata, K; Tsujimura, S; Oka, K; Fujita, H; Kamiya, M; Kondo, F; Wakabayashi, R; Yamada, T; Suzuki, S

    2017-12-01

    Inconsistent results have been found in prior studies investigating the accuracy of self-reported waist circumference, and no study has investigated the validity of self-reported waist circumference among Japanese individuals. This study used the diagnostic standard of metabolic syndrome to assess the accuracy of individual's self-reported height, weight and waist circumference in a Japanese sample. Study participants included 7,443 Japanese men and women aged 35-79 years. They participated in a cohort study's baseline survey between 2007 and 2011. Participants' height, weight and waist circumference were measured, and their body mass index was calculated. Self-reported values were collected through a questionnaire before the examination. Strong correlations between measured and self-reported values for height, weight and body mass index were detected. The correlation was lowest for waist circumference (men, 0.87; women, 0.73). Men significantly overestimated their waist circumference (mean difference, 0.8 cm), whereas women significantly underestimated theirs (mean difference, 5.1 cm). The sensitivity of self-reported waist circumference using the cut-off value of metabolic syndrome was 0.83 for men and 0.57 for women. Due to systematic and random errors, the accuracy of self-reported waist circumference was low. Therefore, waist circumference should be measured without relying on self-reported values, particularly in the case of women.

  12. Prediction of Mortality with A Body Shape Index in Young Asians: Comparison with Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference.

    PubMed

    Lee, Da-Young; Lee, Mi-Yeon; Sung, Ki-Chul

    2018-06-01

    This paper investigated the impact of A Body Shape Index (ABSI) on the risk of all-cause mortality compared with the impact of waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI). This paper reviewed data of 213,569 Korean adults who participated in health checkups between 2002 and 2012 at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital in Seoul, Korea. A multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis was performed on the BMI, WC, and ABSI z score continuous variables as well as quintiles. During 1,168,668.7 person-years, 1,107 deaths occurred. As continuous variables, a significant positive relationship with the risk of all-cause death was found only in ABSI z scores after adjustment for age, sex, current smoking, alcohol consumption, regular exercise, presence of diabetes or hypertension, and history of cardiovascular diseases. In Cox analysis of quintiles, quintile 5 of the ABSI z score showed significantly increased hazard ratios (HRs) for mortality risk (HR [95% CI] was 1.32 [1.05-1.66]), whereas the risk for all-cause mortality, on the other hand, decreased in quintiles 3 through 5 of BMI and WC compared with their first quintiles after adjusting for several confounders. This study showed that the predictive value of ABSI for mortality risk was strong for a sample of young Asian participants and that its usefulness was better than BMI or WC. © 2018 The Obesity Society.

  13. Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and the Clustering of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Early Childhood.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Laura N; Lebovic, Gerald; Hamilton, Jill; Hanley, Anthony J; McCrindle, Brian W; Maguire, Jonathon L; Parkin, Patricia C; Birken, Catherine S

    2016-03-01

    Obesity has its origins in early childhood; however, there is limited evidence of the association between anthropometric indicators and cardiometabolic risk factors in young children. Our aim was to evaluate the associations between body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in relation to cardiometabolic risk factors and to explore the clustering of these factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted in children aged 1-5 years through TARGet Kids! (n = 2917). Logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between BMI and WC z-scores and individual traditional and possible non-traditional cardiometabolic risk factors. The underlying clustering of these measures was evaluated using principal components analysis (PCA). Child obesity (BMI z-score >2) was associated with high (>90th percentile) leptin [odds ratio (OR) 8.15, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.56, 14.58] and insulin (OR = 1.76; 95% CI 1.05, 2.94). WC z-score >1 was associated with high insulin (OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.11, 2.28), leptin (OR 5.48, 95% CI 3.48, 8.63) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D < 75 nmol/L (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.08, 1.79). BMI and WC were not associated with other traditional cardiometabolic risk factors, including non-High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and glucose. Among children 3-5 years (n = 1035) the PCA of traditional risk factors identified three components: adiposity/blood pressure, metabolic, and lipids. The inclusion of non-traditional risk factors identified four additional components but contributed minimally to the total variation explained. Anthropometric indicators are associated with selected cardiometabolic risk factors in early childhood, although the clustering of risk factors suggests that adiposity is only one distinct component of cardiometabolic risk. The measurement of other risk factors beyond BMI and WC may be important in defining cardiometabolic risk in early childhood. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Waist circumference as a marker for screening nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in obese adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Clemente, Ana Paula Grotti; Dal Molin, Bárbara; de Carvalho-Ferreira, Joana Pereira; Campos, Raquel Munhoz da Silveira; Ganen, Aline de Piano; Tock, Lian; de Mello, Marco Túlio; Dâmaso, Ana Raimunda

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To assess the relationship between the degree of waist circumference (WC) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in obese adolescents of both genders, analyzed according to quartiles of WC. Methods: Cross-sectional study that involved 247 obese adolescents aged 12–19 years. Mean values of the nutritional parameters and serum analyses were compared with the groups using the independent t-test. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship of the parameters studied. Chi-square test for trend was used to determine the relationship between the prevalence of the NAFLD and WC quartile by gender. Results: NAFLD were presented in 60% of the study participants. Obese adolescents in the 3rd and 4th quartiles of WC presented higher prevalence of NAFLD when compared with that in the 1st quartile in both genders. The NAFLD patients had significantly higher values for body weight, BMI (body mass index), BAZ-score (BMI-for-age z-scores), total fat (% and kg), WC, visceral fat, insulin, insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, when compared with non-NAFLD obese adolescents. Conclusions: In conclusion, the results presented here suggest that an increase in WC can reliably predict the risk of NAFLD in obese adolescents. This is a low cost and easy-to-use tool that can help in screening in adolescents. PMID:26830602

  15. Does waist circumference uncorrelated with BMI add valuable information?

    PubMed

    Ngueta, Gerard; Laouan-Sidi, Elhadji A; Lucas, Michel

    2014-09-01

    Estimation of relative contribution of Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) on health outcomes requires a regression model that includes both obesity metrics. But, multicollinearity could yield biased estimates. To address the multicollinearity issue between BMI and WC, we used the residual model approach. The standard WC (Y-axis) was regressed on the BMI (X-axis) to obtain residual WC. Data from two adult population surveys (Nunavik Inuit and James Bay Cree) were analysed to evaluate relative effect of BMI and WC on four cardiometabolic risk factors: insulin, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure and high-density lipoprotein levels. In multivariate models, standard WC and BMI were significantly associated with cardiometabolic outcomes. Residual WC was not linked with any outcomes. The BMI effect was weakened by including standard WC in the model, but its effect remained unchanged if residual WC was considered. The strong correlation between standard WC and BMI does not allow assessment of their relative contributions to health in the same model without a risk of making erroneous estimations. By contrast with BMI, fat distribution (residual WC) does not add valuable information to a model that already contains overall adiposity (BMI) in Inuit and Cree. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Waist circumference, body mass index, and employment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kinge, Jonas Minet

    2017-07-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is an imperfect measure of body fat. Recent studies provide evidence in favor of replacing BMI with waist circumference (WC). Hence, I investigated whether or not the association between fat mass and employment status vary by anthropometric measures. I used 15 rounds of the Health Survey for England (1998-2013), which has measures of employment status in addition to measured height, weight, and WC. WC and BMI were entered as continuous variables and obesity as binary variables defined using both WC and BMI. I used multivariate models controlling for a set of covariates. The association of WC with employment was of greater magnitude than the association between BMI and employment. I reran the analysis using conventional instrumental variables methods. The IV models showed significant impacts of obesity on employment; however, they were not more pronounced when WC was used to measure obesity, compared to BMI. This means that, in the IV models, the impact of fat mass on employment did not depend on the measure of fat mass.

  17. Abdominal Obesity Indicators: Waist Circumference or Waist-to-hip Ratio in Malaysian Adults Population.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Norfazilah; Adam, Samia Ibrahim Mohamed; Nawi, Azmawati Mohammed; Hassan, Mohd Rohaizat; Ghazi, Hasanain Faisal

    2016-01-01

    Waist circumference (WC) is an accurate and simple measure of abdominal obesity as compared to waist-hip ratio (WHR). The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between body mass index (BMI) with WC and WHR and suggest cutoff points for WC among Rural Malaysian adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 669 respondents from three villages in Tanjung Karang, located in the district of Kuala Selangor. Data collection was carried out by guided questionnaires and anthropometric measures. The prevalence of abdominal obesity for BMI was almost similar for both gender across Caucasian and Asian BMI cutoff points. Based on Caucasian cutoff points, the prevalence of abdominal obesity for WC was 23.8% (male) and 66.4% (female) while for WHR was 6.2% (male) and 54.2% (female). Asian cutoff points gave higher prevalence of abdominal obesity compared to that of WC among male respondents and WHR for both genders. WC showed strong and positive correlation with BMI compared to WHR (in male WC r = 0.78, WHR r = 0.24 and in female WC r = 0.72, WHR r = 0.19; P < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis suggested WC cutoff points of 92.5 cm in men and 85.5 cm in women is the optimal number for detection of abdominal obesity. WC is the best indicator as compared with WHR for abdominal obesity for Malaysian adults.

  18. Evaluation of Internet-Based Interventions on Waist Circumference Reduction: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Niu, Jingjing

    2015-07-21

    Internet-based interventions are more cost-effective than conventional interventions and can provide immediate, easy-to-access, and individually tailored support for behavior change. Waist circumference is a strong predictor of an increased risk for a host of diseases, such as hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, independent of body mass index. To date, no study has examined the effect of Internet-based lifestyle interventions on waist circumference change. This study aimed to systematically review the effect of Internet-based interventions on waist circumference change among adults. This meta-analysis reviewed randomized controlled trials (N=31 trials and 8442 participants) that used the Internet as a main intervention approach and reported changes in waist circumference. Internet-based interventions showed a significant reduction in waist circumference (mean change -2.99 cm, 95% CI -3.68 to -2.30, I(2)=93.3%) and significantly better effects on waist circumference loss (mean loss 2.38 cm, 95% CI 1.61-3.25, I(2)=97.2%) than minimal interventions such as information-only groups. Meta-regression results showed that baseline waist circumference, gender, and the presence of social support in the intervention were significantly associated with waist circumference reduction. Internet-based interventions have a significant and promising effect on waist circumference change. Incorporating social support into an Internet-based intervention appears to be useful in reducing waist circumference. Considerable heterogeneity exists among the effects of Internet-based interventions. The design of an intervention may have a significant impact on the effectiveness of the intervention.

  19. Waist circumference and insulin resistance: a cross-sectional study of Japanese men

    PubMed Central

    Tabata, Shinji; Yoshimitsu, Shinichiro; Hamachi, Tadamichi; Abe, Hiroshi; Ohnaka, Keizo; Kono, Suminori

    2009-01-01

    Background Visceral obesity is positively related to insulin resistance. The nature of the relationship between waist circumference and insulin resistance has not been known in Japanese populations. This study examined the relationship between waist circumference and insulin resistance and evaluated the optimal cutoff point for waist circumference in relation to insulin resistance in middle-aged Japanese men. Methods Study subjects included 4800 Japanese men aged 39 to 60 years. Insulin resistance was evaluated by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The relationship of waist circumference with HOMA-IR was assessed by use of adjusted means of HOMA-IR and odds ratios of elevated HOMA-IR defined as the highest quintile (≥2.00). Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis using Youden index and the area under curve (AUC) was employed to determine optimal cutoffs of waist circumference in relation to HOMA-IR. Results Adjusted geometric means of HOMA-IR and prevalence odds of elevated HOMA-IR were progressively higher with increasing levels of waist circumference. In the ROC curve analysis, the highest value of Youden index was obtained for a cutoff point of 85 cm in waist circumference across different values of HOMA-IR. Multiple logistic regression analysis also indicated that the AUC was consistently the largest for a waist circumference of 85 cm. Conclusion Waist circumference is linearly related to insulin resistance, and 85 cm in waist circumference is an optimal cutoff in predicting insulin resistance in middle-aged Japanese men. PMID:19138424

  20. Cardiometabolic risk assessments by body mass index z-score or waist-to-height ratio in a multiethnic sample of sixth-graders.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Henry S; El ghormli, Laure; Jago, Russell; Foster, Gary D; McMurray, Robert G; Buse, John B; Stadler, Diane D; Treviño, Roberto P; Baranowski, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Convention defines pediatric adiposity by the body mass index z-score (BMIz) referenced to normative growth charts. Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) does not depend on sex-and-age references. In the HEALTHY Study enrollment sample, we compared BMIz with WHtR for ability to identify adverse cardiometabolic risk. Among 5,482 sixth-grade students from 42 middle schools, we estimated explanatory variations (R (2)) and standardized beta coefficients of BMIz or WHtR for cardiometabolic risk factors: insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), lipids, blood pressures, and glucose. For each risk outcome variable, we prepared adjusted regression models for four subpopulations stratified by sex and high versus lower fatness. For HOMA-IR, R (2) attributed to BMIz or WHtR was 19%-28% among high-fatness and 8%-13% among lower-fatness students. R (2) for lipid variables was 4%-9% among high-fatness and 2%-7% among lower-fatness students. In the lower-fatness subpopulations, the standardized coefficients for total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol and triglycerides tended to be weaker for BMIz (0.13-0.20) than for WHtR (0.17-0.28). Among high-fatness students, BMIz and WHtR correlated with blood pressures for Hispanics and whites, but not black boys (systolic) or girls (systolic and diastolic). In 11-12 year olds, assessments by WHtR can provide cardiometabolic risk estimates similar to conventional BMIz without requiring reference to a normative growth chart.

  1. Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Waist Circumference and Alanine Aminotransferase in Youth

    PubMed Central

    Trilk, Jennifer L.; Ortaglia, Andrew; Blair, Steven N.; Bottai, Matteo; Church, Timothy S.; Pate, Russell R.

    2012-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered the liver component of the metabolic syndrome and is strongly associated with cardiometabolic diseases. In adults, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is inversely associated with alanine aminotransferase (ALT), a blood biomarker for NAFLD. However, information regarding these associations is scarce for youth. Purpose To examine associations between CRF, waist circumference (WC) and ALT in youth. Methods Data were obtained from youth (n=2844, 12-19 years) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2004. CRF was dichotomized into youth FITNESSGRAM® categories of “low” and “adequate” CRF. Logistic and quantile regression were used for a comprehensive analysis of associations, and variables with previously-reported associations with ALT were a priori included in the models. Results Results from logistic regression suggested that youth with low CRF had 1.5 times the odds of having an ALT>30 than youth with adequate CRF, although the association was not statistically significant (P=0.09). However, quantile regression demonstrated that youth with low CRF had statistically significantly higher ALT (+1.04, +1.05, and +2.57 U/L) at the upper end of the ALT distribution (80th, 85th, and 90th percentiles, respectively) than youth with adequate CRF. For every 1-cm increase in WC, the odds of having an ALT>30 increased by 1.06 (P<0.001), and the strength of this association increased across the ALT distribution. Conclusions Future studies should examine whether interventions to improve CRF can decrease hepatic fat and liver enzyme concentrations in youth with ALT ≥80th percentile or in youth diagnosed with NAFLD. PMID:23190589

  2. Comparison of midupper arm circumference and weight-for-height z score for assessing acute malnutrition in Bangladeshi children aged 6-60 mo: an analytical study.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Iqbal; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Arifeen, Shams El; Billah, Sk Masum; Faruque, Asg; Islam, M Munirul; Jackson, Alan A

    2017-11-01

    Background : In clinical settings, wasting in childhood has primarily been assessed with the use of a weight-for-height z score (WHZ), and in community settings, it has been assessed via the midupper arm circumference (MUAC) with a cutoff <115 mm for severe wasting and <115-125 mm for moderate wasting. Our recent experience indicates that many wasted children were not identified when these cutoffs for MUAC were used. Objective: We determined the cutoffs for MUAC to detect wasting in Bangladeshi children aged 6-60 mo. Design: A secondary analysis was carried out on data from 27,767 children aged 6-59 mo. This analysis comprised 1 ) 9131 children across Bangladesh and 2 ) 18,636 children enrolled in a surveillance study in the Dhaka Hospital of icddr,b during 1996-2014. The area under the receiver operating curve was used to indicate the most appropriate choice for cutoffs that related MUAC with WHZ. Results: The mean ± SD age for the entire group was 21 ± 14 mo, WHZ was -1.18 ± 1.23, height-for-age z score was -1.63 ± 1.39, MUAC was 136 ± 14 mm, and 45% of subjects were girls. MUAC correlated with the WHZ ( r : 0.618, P < 0.001). Age-stratified analyses revealed that, for ages 6-24 mo, MUAC cutoffs were <120 mm for a WHZ <-3 and <125 mm for a WHZ <-2 with a sensitivity of 72.9% and 63.2%, respectively, and a specificity of 84.7% and 85.3%, respectively; for ages 25-36 mo, MUAC cutoffs were <125 mm for a WHZ <-3 and <135 mm for a WHZ <-2 with a sensitivity of 55.0% and 71.7%, respectively, and a specificity of 92.8% and 78.7% respectively; and for ages 37-60 mo, MUAC cutoffs were <135 mm for a WHZ <-3 and <140 mm for a WHZ <-2 with a sensitivity of 71.4% and 70.4%, respectively, and a specificity of 84.6% and 80.3%, respectively. Conclusion: The respective cutoffs for MUAC to better capture the vulnerability and risk of severe (WHZ <-3) and moderate (WHZ <-2) wasting would be <120 and <125 mm for ages 6-24 mo, <125 and <135 mm for ages 25-36 mo, and <135 and

  3. Midupper arm circumference and weight-for-length z scores have different associations with body composition: evidence from a cohort of Ethiopian infants.

    PubMed

    Grijalva-Eternod, Carlos S; Wells, Jonathan C K; Girma, Tsinuel; Kæstel, Pernille; Admassu, Bitiya; Friis, Henrik; Andersen, Gregers S

    2015-09-01

    A midupper arm circumference (MUAC) <115 mm and weight-for-height z score (WHZ) or weight-for-length z score (WLZ) less than -3, all of which are recommended to identify severe wasting in children, often identify different children. The reasons behind this poor agreement are not well understood. We investigated the association between these 2 anthropometric indexes and body composition to help understand why they identify different children as wasted. We analyzed weight, length, MUAC, fat-mass (FM), and fat-free mass (FFM) data from 2470 measurements from 595 healthy Ethiopian infants obtained at birth and at 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, and 6 mo of age. We derived WLZs by using 2006 WHO growth standards. We derived length-adjusted FM and FFM values as unexplained residuals after regressing each FM and FFM against length. We used a correlation analysis to assess associations between length, FFM, and FM (adjusted and nonadjusted for length) and the MUAC and WLZ and a multivariable regression analysis to assess the independent variability of length and length-adjusted FM and FFM with either the MUAC or the WLZ as the outcome. At all ages, length showed consistently strong positive correlations with the MUAC but not with the WLZ. Adjustment for length reduced observed correlation coefficients of FM and FFM with the MUAC but increased those for the WLZ. At all ages, both length-adjusted FM and FFM showed an independent association with the WLZ and MUAC with higher regression coefficients for the WLZ. Conversely, length showed greater regression coefficients for the MUAC. At all ages, the MUAC was shown to be more influenced than was the WLZ by the FM variability relative to the FFM variability. The MUAC and WLZ have different associations with body composition, and length influences these associations differently. Our results suggest that the WLZ is a good marker of tissue masses independent of length. The MUAC acts more as a composite index of poor growth indexing jointly

  4. Neck circumference as a useful marker of obesity: a comparison with body mass index and waist circumference.

    PubMed

    Hingorjo, Mozaffer Rahim; Qureshi, Masood Anwar; Mehdi, Asghar

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of neck circumference as an index of excess weight and obesity in young adults while identifying its appropriate cutoff points. The study comprised 41 male and 109 female students, aged 18-20 years. Anthropometric markers of obesity were measured, including body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and compared with neck circumference of the same subjects. Overweight and obesity levels were defined by BMI > or = 23.0 and > or = 25.0 respectively. Overall 29.2% males and 25.6% females were found overweight/obese. The mean body mass index was 21.7 kg/m2 in males and 21.0 kg/m2 in females. The mean waist and neck circumferences were higher in males (80.6 cm, and 35.5 cm) than females (78.1 cm, and 31.5 cm). Neck circumference had a strong positive correlation (p<0.001) with other relevant indicators in all subjects, except the waist-to-hip ratio which was applicable on males only. At BMI of 23.0 and 25.0, males had neck circumference 35.7cm and 37.5cm, while females had it at of 32.2cm and 33.5cm respectively. Neck circumference is a potentially useful initial screening tool for overweight/obesity. A neck circumference > or = 35.5 cm in men and > or = 32 cm in women should be considered the cutoff point for overweight/obesity.

  5. Body mass index and waist circumference are not good surrogate indicators of adiposity in psychogeriatric patients.

    PubMed

    Camina Martín, M Alicia; De Mateo Silleras, Beatriz; Miján De La Torre, Alberto; Barrera Ortega, Sara; Domínguez Rodríguez, Luis; Redondo Del Río, M Paz

    2016-01-01

    to assess the utility of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) as surrogate indicators of adiposity with respect to the total body fat estimated with bioimpedance analysis in psychogeriatric patients. Anthropometric and hand-to-foot bioimpedance measurements were performed according to standard procedures in a sample of 128 psychogeriatric patients (87 males, 41 females). WC cutoffs proposed by the International Diabetes Federation were used to define abdominal obesity. Z-scores of fat and fat-free mass indices (Z-FMI and Z-FFMI) were calculated. Males with WC values below the cutoff were normal weight, and showed normal levels of FM and low FFM (Z-FFMI below 1.5 SD). Males with WC values above the cutoff were overweight, showed high levels of FM (Z-FMI: 1.34 SD) and a slight depletion of FFM (Z-FFMI: -0.59 SD). In females with WC values below the cutoff, BMI was close to 20 kg/m(2) and both FM and FFM were depleted (Z-FMI: -0.7 SD; Z-FFMI: -1.76 SD). In females with WC above the cutoff, the average BMI was 25.6 kg/m(2) , Z-FMI was 0.48 SD, and Z-FFMI was -0.56 SD. Our results indicate that it is necessary to establish age and sex-specific BMI and WC cutoffs, and also highlight the importance of focusing on body composition analysis to ensure an accurate nutritional diagnosis in older-adults and in psychogeriatric patients. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Strength and cardiometabolic risk in young adults: The mediator role of aerobic fitness and waist circumference.

    PubMed

    Díez-Fernández, A; Martínez-Vizcaíno, V; Torres-Costoso, A; Cañete García-Prieto, J; Franquelo-Morales, P; Sánchez-López, M

    2018-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the mediation role of cardiorespiratory fitness and waist circumference in the association between muscular strength and cardiometabolic risk. A cross-sectional study involved first-year college students (n = 370) from a Spanish public university was performed. We measured weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure, biochemical variables, maximum handgrip strength assessment, and cardiorespiratory fitness. We calculated handgrip dynamometry/weight and a previously validated cardiometabolic risk index. Analysis of covariance models was conducted to test differences in cardiometabolic risk values across muscular strength, cardiorespiratory fitness, and waist circumference categories, controlling for confounders. Hayes' PROCESS macro was used for the multiple mediation analysis. The relationship between muscular strength and cardiometabolic risk did not remain significant (c' = 1.76 [1.4]; P > .05) in a multiple serial bootstrapped mediation model including cardiorespiratory fitness and waist circumference as mediators when controlling for age and sex. According to the indirect effect, the significant paths in the model mediating this relationship between muscular strength and cardiometabolic risk index were as follows: muscular strength → waist circumference → cardiometabolic risk index (-4.899; 95% CI: -6.690; -3.450) and muscular strength → cardiorespiratory fitness → waist circumference → cardiometabolic risk index (-0.720; 95% CI: -1.316; -0.360). Both cardiorespiratory fitness and waist circumference mediate the association between muscular strength and cardiometabolic risk in young adults. Thus, our results place cardiorespiratory fitness and waist circumference as the main targets of physical activity programmes aimed at preventing cardiometabolic diseases. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Body mass index, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, and glucose intolerance in Chinese and Europid adults in Newcastle, UK.

    PubMed Central

    Unwin, N; Harland, J; White, M; Bhopal, R; Winocour, P; Stephenson, P; Watson, W; Turner, C; Alberti, K G

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of glucose intolerance (impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes), and its relationship to body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio in Chinese and Europid adults. DESIGN: This was a cross sectional study. SETTING: Newcastle upon Tyne. SUBJECTS: These comprised Chinese and Europid men and women, aged 25-64 years, and resident in Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Two hour post load plasma glucose concentration, BMI, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio. METHODS: Population based samples of Chinese and European adults were recruited. Each subject had a standard WHO oral glucose tolerance test. RESULTS: Complete data were available for 375 Chinese and 610 Europid subjects. The age adjusted prevalences of glucose intolerance in Chinese and Europid men were 13.0% (p = 0.04). Mean BMIs were lower in Chinese men (23.8 v 26.1) and women (23.5 v 26.1) than in the Europids (p values < 0.001), as were waist circumferences (men, 83.3 cm v 90.8, p < 0.001; women, 77.3 cm v 79.2, p < 0.05). Mean waist-hip ratios were lower in Chinese men (0.90 v 0.91, p = 0.02) but higher in Chinese women (0.84 v 0.78, p < 0.001) compared with Europids. In both Chinese and Europid adults, higher BMI, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio were associated with glucose intolerance. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of glucose intolerance in Chinese men and women, despite lower BMIs, is similar to or higher than that in local Europid men and women and intermediate between levels found in China and those in Mauritius. It is suggested that an increase in mean BMI to the levels in the Europid population will be associated with a substantial increase in glucose intolerance in Chinese people. PMID:9196645

  8. Physical Activity, Television Viewing Time, and 12-Year Changes in Waist Circumference

    PubMed Central

    SHIBATA, AI; OKA, KOICHIRO; SUGIYAMA, TAKEMI; SALMON, JO; DUNSTAN, DAVID W.; OWEN, NEVILLE

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose Both moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior can be associated with adult adiposity. Much of the relevant evidence is from cross-sectional studies or from prospective studies with relevant exposure measures at a single time point before weight gain or incident obesity. This study examined whether changes in MVPA and television (TV) viewing time are associated with subsequent changes in waist circumference, using data from three separate observation points in a large population-based prospective study of Australian adults. Methods Data were obtained from the Australian Diabetes, Obesity, and Lifestyle study collected in 1999–2000 (baseline), 2004–2005 (wave 2), and 2011–2012 (wave 3). The study sample consisted of adults age 25 to 74 yr at baseline who also attended site measurement at three time points (n = 3261). Multilevel linear regression analysis examined associations of initial 5-yr changes in MVPA and TV viewing time (from baseline to wave 2) with 12-yr change in waist circumference (from baseline to wave 3), adjusting for well-known confounders. Results As categorical predictors, increases in MVPA significantly attenuated increases in waist circumference (P for trend < 0.001). TV viewing time change was not significantly associated with changes in waist circumference (P for trend = 0.06). Combined categories of MVPA and TV viewing time changes were predictive of waist circumference increases; compared with those who increased MVPA and reduced TV viewing time, those who reduced MVPA and increased TV viewing time had a 2-cm greater increase in waist circumference (P = 0.001). Conclusion Decreasing MVPA emerged as a significant predictor of increases in waist circumference. Increasing TV viewing time was also influential, but its impact was much weaker than MVPA. PMID:26501231

  9. Comparison of an increased waist circumference with a positive hydrogen breath test as a clinical predictor of lactose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Zapata-Castilleja, Carlos A; Montes-Tapia, Fernando F; Treviño-Garza, Consuelo; Martínez-Cobos, María C; García-Cantú, Jesús; Arenas-Fabbri, Vincenzo; de la O-Escamilla, Norma; de la O-Cavazos, Manuel

    2017-04-01

    Lactose intolerance is a common disease in pediatrics, and its wrong diagnosis will lead to morbidity. The primary objective of this study was to assess the usefulness of an increased waist circumference during the hydrogen breath test as a predictor of lactose intolerance. The secondary objective was to analyze the impact of body mass index, waist circumference measurement, and age on the abdominal distension of patients with lactose intolerance. A total of 138 subjects aged 3 to 15 years were included. They underwent serial measurements of the waist circumference and hydrogen levels in the breath every 30 minutes over 3 hours during the hydrogen breath test. Out of the entire sample, 35 (25.4%) patients had lactose intolerance. An increase of 0.85 cm in waist circumference compared to the baseline waist circumference results in a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 85% to predict lactose intolerance (odds ratio: 42.14, 95% confidence interval: 13.08-135.75, p ≤ 0.001). The body mass index and waist circumference measurement did not affect abdominal distension (p= not significant); however, age modified the time of distension. A 0.85 cm increase in waist circumference compared to the baseline waist circumference during the hydrogen breath test is a useful parameter for the diagnosis of lactose intolerance in pediatrics. Variations in relation to body mass index and waist circumference did not affect the usefulness of an increased waist circumference, unlike age.

  10. Socioeconomic deprivation and waist circumference in men and women: The Scottish MONICA surveys 1989--1995.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ruoling; Tunstall-Pedoe, Hugh

    2005-01-01

    Socioeconomic deprivation and waist circumference were measured in three Scottish MONICA cross-sectional surveys of 2233 men and 2516 women aged 25-64 years in 1989-1995. Means of waist circumference, waist/hip ratio (WHR) and body mass index (BMI) increased with level of deprivation (measured by the Carstairs index) more significantly in women than in men, and more significantly in non-smokers than in current-smokers. Their obesity cases defined by conventional cut-points showed similar patterns of relation to deprivation. There appeared to be more obviously consistent and significant increases in the prevalence of large waist circumference with deprivation for both sexes than in the prevalence of WHR and BMI above the 90th centile. Also there was a more significant trend of increase in waist circumference over time than there was in WHR and BMI for both sexes. Residual case-control analysis, controlling for height, showed a 'dose-response' relationship between deprivation and waist circumference. Compared to the most affluent (the first tertile of the Carstairs score), odds ratio for men in the middle group (the second tertile) adjusted for age, survey year and smoking status was 1.37 (95%CI 1.10-1.70) and in the most deprived (the third tertile) 1.46 (1.17-1.82); and for women 1.22 (0.99-1.50) and 1.81 (1.47-2.23). The study suggests that large waist circumference, increasingly prevalent, is directly related to socioeconomic deprivation, and greater attention should be paid to increasing girth in the socially deprived.

  11. Dietary fiber and subsequent changes in body weight and waist circumference in European men and women.

    PubMed

    Du, Huaidong; van der A, Daphne L; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Forouhi, Nita G; Wareham, Nicolas J; Halkjaer, Jytte; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Boeing, Heiner; Buijsse, Brian; Masala, Giovanna; Palli, Dominique; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Saris, Wim H M; Feskens, Edith J M

    2010-02-01

    Dietary fiber may play a role in obesity prevention. Until now, the role that fiber from different sources plays in weight change had rarely been studied. Our aim was to investigate the association of total dietary fiber, cereal fiber, and fruit and vegetable fiber with changes in weight and waist circumference. We conducted a prospective cohort study with 89,432 European participants, aged 20-78 y, who were free of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes at baseline and who were followed for an average of 6.5 y. Dietary information was collected by using validated country-specific food-frequency questionnaires. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed in each center studied, and estimates were combined by using random-effects meta-analyses. Adjustments were made for follow-up duration, other dietary variables, and baseline anthropometric, demographic, and lifestyle factors. Total fiber was inversely associated with subsequent weight and waist circumference change. For a 10-g/d higher total fiber intake, the pooled estimate was -39 g/y (95% CI: -71, -7 g/y) for weight change and -0.08 cm/y (95% CI: -0.11, -0.05 cm/y) for waist circumference change. A 10-g/d higher fiber intake from cereals was associated with -77 g/y (95% CI: -127, -26 g/y) weight change and -0.10 cm/y (95% CI: -0.18, -0.02 cm/y) waist circumference change. Fruit and vegetable fiber was not associated with weight change but had a similar association with waist circumference change when compared with intake of total dietary fiber and cereal fiber. Our finding may support a beneficial role of higher intake of dietary fiber, especially cereal fiber, in prevention of body-weight and waist circumference gain.

  12. The relationships of waist and mid-thigh circumference with performance of college golfers

    PubMed Central

    Son, Seungbum; Han, Kunho; So, Wi-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Our aim was to evaluate the relationships between waist and mid-thigh circumference, used as proxy measures of trunk and lower limb strengths, respectively, and selected parameters of driver and putting performance in Korean college golfers. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were 103 college golfers (81 male, 20 to 27 years old). Measurements of body composition, waist and mid-thigh circumference, and grip strength, as well as assessment of golf performance, including driver distance, driver swing speed, putting accuracy, and putting consistency, were performed at the golf performance laboratory at Konkuk University in Chungju-si, Republic of Korea. Average round score was obtained from 10 rounds of golf completed during the study period. The relationships between strength measures and golf performance were evaluated by partial correlation analysis, with adjustment for age, golf experience, and body mass index. [Results] Waist circumference did not correlate with any of the performance variables in both males and females. Mid-thigh circumference correlated with putting consistency (r = 0.364) in males and with putting consistency (r = 0.490) and accuracy (r = 0.547) in females. No other significant correlations between waist and mid-thigh circumference and golf performance were identified. [Conclusion] Lower limb strength may be an important component of putting performance. Further studies are needed to fully characterize the contributions of trunk strength to performance. PMID:27134346

  13. Reference values of waist circumference and waist/hip ratio in children and adolescents of Mérida, Venezuela: comparison with international references.

    PubMed

    Mederico, Maracelly; Paoli, Mariela; Zerpa, Yajaira; Briceño, Yajaira; Gómez-Pérez, Roald; Martínez, José Luis; Camacho, Nolis; Cichetti, Rosanna; Molina, Zarela; Mora, Yolanda; Valeri, Lenin

    2013-05-01

    To collect regional reference values of waist circumference (WC), and waist/hip ratio (WHR) in children and adolescents from Merida, Venezuela, and to compare them to international references. A total of 919 students aged 9-17 years from public and private educational establishments were assessed. Weight, height, WC, and WHR were measured. Outliers (± 3 SD Z-Score) were excluded from the data collected. Percentile distribution of the tested variables was done by age and sex. Fifty-one percent of subjects were female, and 52.7% were from public institutions. WC (p=0.001) and WHR (p=0.0001) were statistically higher in boys. With advancing age, WC increased in both sexes, while WHR showed the opposite behavior (p=0.0001 for both). The 90th percentile (pc) for WC ranged from 69.7 and 83.6 cm in girls and from 69.2 and 86.7 cm in boys. The 90th pc values of WHR ranged from 0.79 and 0.91 in girls and from 0.86 and 0.93 in boys. Overall, our WC and WHR values were lower than North American values and similar to those of some Latin American references. Percentile reference charts for WC and WHR specific for age and sex, obtained from a representative sample of children and adolescents from Mérida, Venezuela, are provided. They may be used regionally, both for individual assessment and to implement prevention policies. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Waist circumference distribution in Colombian schoolchildren and adolescents: The FUPRECOL Study.

    PubMed

    Caicedo-Álvarez, Juan Carlos; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2016-01-01

    This study was intended to establish the percentile distribution of waist circumference in schoolchildren from Bogota, Colombia, participating in the FUPRECOL Study. A cross-sectional study conducted in 3,005 children and 2,916 adolescents aged 9 to 17.9 years. Height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, and self-assessed sexual maturity status were recorded. Percentiles (3(rd), 10(th), 25(th), 50(th), 75(th), 90(th), and 97(th)) and smoothed sex- and age-specific curves were calculated, and the waist circumference values found were compared to international references from other ethnic populations. Fifty-seven percent of the overall population (n=5,921) were females (mean age, 12.7±2.3 years). In most age groups, waist circumference was greater in boys as compared to girls. The increase between the 50(th) and 97(th) percentiles by age was 15.7cm in boys aged 9 to 9.9 years and 16.0cm in girls aged 11-11.9 years. Comparison of our study results, by age group and sex, to international references showed that our 50(th) percentile was lower than reported in Peru and the UK except for studies in India, Venezuela (Merida), US, and Spain was higher. Age- and sex-specific percentiles of waist circumference obtained from children and adolescents from Bogota, Colombia, are reported. They may be used as a reference both for nutritional assessment and for predicting cardiovascular risks at early ages. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Acculturation and changes in body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio among Filipino Americans with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Serafica, Reimund; Angosta, Alona D

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this research study was to examine whether level of acculturation is a predictor of body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio in Filipino Americans with hypertension in the United States. The Filipino Americans (N = 108) were recruited from a primary care clinic in the United States. Two instruments were used to collect and operationalize the variables, specifically: (1) Socioeconomic/Demographic Questionnaire and (2) A Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans. Descriptive statistics and partial least squares were used to calculate the results. The partial least square path model identified acculturation as a predictor of body mass index, wait circumference, and waist-hip ratio among Filipino Americans. The positive path coefficient (β = 0.384) was statistically significant (t = 5.92, P < .001). Health care providers need to stress the importance of the degree of acculturation when developing culturally appropriate lifestyle and health promotion interventions among immigrant patients with hypertension. Copyright © 2016 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Yogurt consumption is associated with longitudinal changes of body weight and waist circumference: the framingham study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Yogurt, as a low-fat, nutrient-dense dairy product, may be beneficial in preventing weight gain. We aimed to examine the longitudinal association between yogurt consumption and annualized change in weight and waist circumference (WC) among adults. We included 3,285 adults (11,169 observations) parti...

  17. Longitudinal associations between BMI, waist circumference, and cardiometabolic risk in US youth: Monitoring implications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study examined whether change in body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC)is associated with change in cardiometabolic risk factors and differences between cardiovascular disease specific and diabetes specific risk factors among adolescents. We also sought to examine any differences by ...

  18. Waist Circumference, Pedometer Placement, and Step-Counting Accuracy in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Mark G.; Hannon, James C.; Eisenman, Patricia A.; Ransdell, Lynda B.; Pett, Marjorie; Williams, Daniel P.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether differences in waist circumference (WC) and pedometer placement (anterior vs. midaxillary vs. posterior) affect the agreement between pedometer and observed steps during treadmill and self-paced walking. Participants included 19 pairs of youth (9-15 years old) who were matched for sex, race, and height and stratified by…

  19. Perceived weight discrimination and changes in weight, waist circumference, and weight status.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Sarah E; Beeken, Rebecca J; Wardle, Jane

    2014-12-01

    To examine associations between perceived weight discrimination and changes in weight, waist circumference, and weight status. Data were from 2944 men and women aged ≥50 years participating in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Experiences of weight discrimination were reported in 2010-2011 and weight and waist circumference were objectively measured in 2008-2009 and 2012-2013. ANCOVAs were used to test associations between perceived weight discrimination and changes in weight and waist circumference. Logistic regression was used to test associations with changes in weight status. All analyses adjusted for baseline BMI, age, sex, and wealth. Perceived weight discrimination was associated with relative increases in weight (+1.66 kg, P < 0.001) and waist circumference (+1.12 cm, P = 0.046). There was also a significant association with odds of becoming obese over the follow-up period (OR = 6.67, 95% CI 1.85-24.04) but odds of remaining obese did not differ according to experiences of weight discrimination (OR = 1.09, 95% CI 0.46-2.59). Our results indicate that rather than encouraging people to lose weight, weight discrimination promotes weight gain and the onset of obesity. Implementing effective interventions to combat weight stigma and discrimination at the population level could reduce the burden of obesity. © 2014 The Authors Obesity published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Obesity Society (TOS).

  20. Waist Circumference and Objectively Measured Sedentary Behavior in Rural School Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machado-Rodrigues, Aristides M.; Coelho e Silva, Manuel J.; Ribeiro, Luís P.; Fernandes, Romulo; Mota, Jorge; Malina, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research on relationships between lifestyle behaviors and adiposity in school youth is potentially important for identifying subgroups at risk. This study evaluates the associations between waist circumference (WC) and objective measures of sedentary behavior (SB) in a sample of rural school adolescents. Methods: The sample included…

  1. Accuracy and adequacy of waist circumference cut-off points currently recommended in Brazilian adults.

    PubMed

    Vianna, Carolina Avila; da Silva Linhares, Rogério; Bielemann, Renata Moraes; Machado, Eduardo Coelho; González-Chica, David Alejandro; Matijasevich, Alicia Manitto; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; da Silva Dos Santos, Iná

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the adequacy and accuracy of cut-off values currently recommended by the WHO for assessment of cardiovascular risk in southern Brazil. Population-based study aimed at determining the predictive ability of waist circumference for cardiovascular risk based on the use of previous medical diagnosis for hypertension, diabetes mellitus and/or dyslipidaemia. Descriptive analysis was used for the adequacy of current cut-off values of waist circumference, receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed and the most accurate criteria according to the Youden index and points of optimal sensitivity and specificity were identified. Pelotas, southern Brazil. Individuals (n 2112) aged ≥20 years living in the city were selected by multistage sampling, since these individuals did not report the presence of previous myocardial infarction, angina pectoris or stroke. The cut-off values currently recommended by WHO were more appropriate in men than women, with overestimation of cardiovascular risk in women. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve showed moderate predictive ability of waist circumference in men (0.74, 95% CI 0.71, 0.76) and women (0.75, 95% CI 0.73, 0.77). The method of optimal sensitivity and specificity showed better performance in assessing the accuracy, identifying the values of 95 cm in men and 87 cm in women as the best cut-off values of waist circumference to assess cardiovascular risk. The cut-off values currently recommended for waist circumference are not suitable for women. Longitudinal studies should be conducted to evaluate the consistency of the findings.

  2. Differential associations of job control components with both waist circumference and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Bean, Christopher G; Winefield, Helen R; Sargent, Charli; Hutchinson, Amanda D

    2015-10-01

    The Job Demand-Control-Support (JDCS) model is commonly used to investigate associations between psychosocial work factors and employee health, yet research considering obesity using the JDCS model remains inconclusive. This study investigates which parts of the JDCS model are associated with measures of obesity and provides a comparison between waist circumference (higher values imply central obesity) and body mass index (BMI, higher values imply overall obesity). Contrary to common practice, in this study the JDCS components are not reduced into composite or global scores. In light of emerging evidence that the two components of job control (skill discretion and decision authority) could have differential associations with related health outcomes, components of the JDCS model were analysed at the subscale level. A cross-sectional design with a South Australian cohort (N = 450) combined computer-assisted telephone interview data and clinic-measured height, weight and waist circumference. After controlling for sex, age, household income, work hours and job nature (blue vs. white-collar), the two components of job control were the only parts of the JDCS model to hold significant associations with measures of obesity. Notably, the associations between skill discretion and waist circumference (b = -.502, p = .001), and skill discretion and BMI (b = -.163, p = .005) were negative. Conversely, the association between decision authority and waist circumference (b = .282, p = .022) was positive. These findings are significant since skill discretion and decision authority are typically combined into a composite measure of job control or decision latitude. Our findings suggest skill discretion and decision authority should be treated separately since combining these theoretically distinct components may conceal their differential associations with measures of obesity, masking their individual importance. Psychosocial work factors displayed stronger associations and

  3. Validity of self-measured waist and hip circumferences: results from a community study in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Reidpath, Daniel D; Cheah, Julius Chee-Ho; Lam, Fui-Ching; Yasin, Shahjahan; Soyiri, Ireneous; Allotey, Pascale

    2013-10-05

    Measures of central adiposity are better predictors of adverse health events than BMI. Nonetheless, BMI is more widely used in health research. One reason for this may be the limited research supporting the self-measurement of waist and hip circumference. The lack of validity studies is particularly acute in Asia. The main objective was to establish the validity of self-measurement of waist and hip circumference in a community setting and the correlation of those measures with BMI, blood pressure, and blood glucose levels. A community based, cross-sectional survey. A "healthy living expo" at a shopping mall in a rural town on peninsular Malaysia One hundred and thirty six (136) individuals volunteered to participate in the study, 125 of whom met the inclusion criteria. The ethnic distribution of the participants was 80% Chinese, 17% Malay and 3% Indian. Most participants were female (60%), with participants' ages ranging from 18 to 78 years (mean, 47.2). Self and assisted measurements of waist and hip were taken. Blood pressure, non-fasting blood glucose, height, and weight were also measured. Bland Altman plots and Lin's concordance coefficient were used to measure agreement between self and assisted measures. Pearson's correlation was used to examine the association of self and assisted measures with blood pressure, blood glucose, and BMI. There was a downwards bias in self measured waist (-0.81 cm) and hip (-1 cm) circumferences compared with assisted measures. The concordance for the self and assisted measures of waist, hip and the ratio of the two were, respectively, .96, .93 , and .84. The correlation between measures of central adiposity and BMI, blood pressure and blood glucose were similar for self and assisted measures. The results provide additional support for the use of self-measurement of waist and hip circumference studies of central adiposity, but is limited by the specificity of the setting.

  4. Sitting Time and Waist Circumference Are Associated With Glycemia in U.K. South Asians

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Jason M.R.; Bhopal, Raj; Douglas, Anne; Wallia, Sunita; Bhopal, Ruby; Sheikh, Aziz; Forbes, John F.; McKnight, John; Sattar, Naveed; Murray, Gordon; Lean, Michael E.J.; Wild, Sarah H.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the independent contributions of waist circumference, physical activity, and sedentary behavior on glycemia in South Asians living in Scotland. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Participants were 1,228 (523 men and 705 women) adults of Indian or Pakistani origin screened for the Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity in South Asians (PODOSA) trial. All undertook an oral glucose tolerance test, had physical activity and sitting time assessed by International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and had waist circumference measured. RESULTS Mean ± SD age and waist circumference were 49.8 ± 10.1 years and 99.2 ± 10.2 cm, respectively. One hundred ninety-one participants had impaired fasting glycemia or impaired glucose tolerance, and 97 had possible type 2 diabetes. In multivariate regression analysis, age (0.012 mmol ⋅ L−1 ⋅ year−1 [95% CI 0.006–0.017]) and waist circumference (0.018 mmol ⋅ L−1 ⋅ cm−1 [0.012–0.024]) were significantly independently associated with fasting glucose concentration, and age (0.032 mmol ⋅ L−1 ⋅ year−1 [0.016–0.049]), waist (0.057 mmol ⋅ L−1 ⋅ cm−1 [0.040–0.074]), and sitting time (0.097 mmol ⋅ L−1 ⋅ h−1 ⋅ day−1 [0.036–0.158]) were significantly independently associated with 2-h glucose concentration. Vigorous activity time had a borderline significant association with 2-h glucose concentration (−0.819 mmol ⋅ L−1 ⋅ h−1 ⋅ day−1 [−1.672 to 0.034]) in the multivariate model. CONCLUSIONS These data highlight an important relationship between sitting time and 2-h glucose levels in U.K. South Asians, independent of physical activity and waist circumference. Although the data are cross-sectional and thus do not permit firm conclusions about causality to be drawn, the results suggest that further study investigating the effects of sitting time on glycemia and other aspects of metabolic risk in South Asian populations is warranted. PMID:21464463

  5. Fruit and vegetable intake, body mass index and waist circumference among young female students in Isfahan.

    PubMed

    Ghalaeh, Reihaneh Seyed; Gholi, Zahra; Bank, Sahar Saraf; Azadbakht, Leila

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is growing rapidly in our country. Nutrition is an important issue of obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the association between fruit and vegetable intake with the waist circumference and the body mass index (BMI) among young female university students. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 236 healthy female university students aged between 18 and 30 years old, who were selected randomly from the students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran. A previously validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess the entire dietary component intake. Physical activity was assessed by daily recording of the physical activities. The prevalence of obesity, central adiposity and overweight was 1.7, 0.9 and 8.1%, respectively. The mean value of BMI and the waist circumference was 21.54 kg/m(2) and 70.37 cm, respectively. There was an inverse correlation between the fruit and vegetable intake and body weight (r = -0.1, P = 0.03) as well as BMI (r = -0.1, P = 0.04) and also there was an inverse correlation between the fruit intake and body weight (r = -0.1, P = 0.01) and BMI (r = -0.1, P = 0.01). There was no significant correlation between fruit and vegetable as well as fruit or vegetable separately with the waist circumference. There were significant correlations between fruit and also fruit and vegetable and body weight and BMI among female university students. There was no significant correlation between fruit and vegetable as well as fruit or vegetable separately with waist circumference.

  6. Fruit and vegetable intake, body mass index and waist circumference among young female students in Isfahan

    PubMed Central

    Ghalaeh, Reihaneh Seyed; Gholi, Zahra; Bank, Sahar Saraf; Azadbakht, Leila

    2012-01-01

    Background: Obesity is growing rapidly in our country. Nutrition is an important issue of obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the association between fruit and vegetable intake with the waist circumference and the body mass index (BMI) among young female university students. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 236 healthy female university students aged between 18 and 30 years old, who were selected randomly from the students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran. A previously validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess the entire dietary component intake. Physical activity was assessed by daily recording of the physical activities. Findings: The prevalence of obesity, central adiposity and overweight was 1.7, 0.9 and 8.1%, respectively. The mean value of BMI and the waist circumference was 21.54 kg/m2 and 70.37 cm, respectively. There was an inverse correlation between the fruit and vegetable intake and body weight (r = -0.1, P = 0.03) as well as BMI (r = -0.1, P = 0.04) and also there was an inverse correlation between the fruit intake and body weight (r = -0.1, P = 0.01) and BMI (r = -0.1, P = 0.01). There was no significant correlation between fruit and vegetable as well as fruit or vegetable separately with the waist circumference. Conclusion: There were significant correlations between fruit and also fruit and vegetable and body weight and BMI among female university students. There was no significant correlation between fruit and vegetable as well as fruit or vegetable separately with waist circumference. PMID:23555132

  7. Assessing factors related to waist circumference and obesity: application of a latent variable model.

    PubMed

    Dalvand, Sahar; Koohpayehzadeh, Jalil; Karimlou, Masoud; Asgari, Fereshteh; Rafei, Ali; Seifi, Behjat; Niksima, Seyed Hassan; Bakhshi, Enayatollah

    2015-01-01

    Because the use of BMI (Body Mass Index) alone as a measure of adiposity has been criticized, in the present study our aim was to fit a latent variable model to simultaneously examine the factors that affect waist circumference (continuous outcome) and obesity (binary outcome) among Iranian adults. Data included 18,990 Iranian individuals aged 20-65 years that are derived from the third National Survey of Noncommunicable Diseases Risk Factors in Iran. Using latent variable model, we estimated the relation of two correlated responses (waist circumference and obesity) with independent variables including age, gender, PR (Place of Residence), PA (physical activity), smoking status, SBP (Systolic Blood Pressure), DBP (Diastolic Blood Pressure), CHOL (cholesterol), FBG (Fasting Blood Glucose), diabetes, and FHD (family history of diabetes). All variables were related to both obesity and waist circumference (WC). Older age, female sex, being an urban resident, physical inactivity, nonsmoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia, diabetes, and having family history of diabetes were significant risk factors that increased WC and obesity. Findings from this study of Iranian adult settings offer more insights into factors associated with high WC and high prevalence of obesity in this population.

  8. Contribution of birth weight and adult waist circumference to cardiovascular disease risk in a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jingyan; Qiu, Miaoyan; Li, Yanyun; Zhang, Xuan'e; Wang, Haiyan; Sun, Siming; Sharp, Nora Sebeca; Tong, Wenxin; Zeng, Hailuan; Zheng, Sheng; Song, Xiaomin; Wang, Weiqing; Ning, Guang

    2017-08-29

    To determine the association of birth weight (BW) and waist circumference (WC) on cardiovascular disease (CVD). The longitudinal cohort study consisted of 745 participants who were able to provide their birth weight information and were followed from 2002 to 2014. During the follow-up, 83 events of CVD were confirmed. After adjusting for confounding factors, subjects with birth weight <2500 g were at a significantly increased CVD risk when compared to subjects with birth weight between 2500-3999 g (OR 2·47, 95%CI, 1·07-5·71). When high waist circumference (HWC), a measurement of adult obesity, was incorporated into stratifying factors according to presence or absence of low birth weight (LBW, birth weight <2500 g), adjusted CVD risk was significantly elevated in -LBW/+ HWC group (OR 1·94, 95%CI, 1·10-3·43) and marginally significantly increased in +LBW/-HWC group (OR 2·94, 95%CI, 1·00-8·64). CVD risk was highest in subjects with LBW and HWC (+LBW/+HWC), OR 4·74 (95%CI, 1·48-15·21). Higher waist circumference in adulthood is an especially strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease among those small at birth. In this cohort, birth size and adiposity in adulthood interact to predict events of cardiovascular disease.

  9. Genetic association with lipids in Filipinos: waist circumference modifies an APOA5 effect on triglyceride levels.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ying; Marvelle, Amanda F; Li, Jin; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Feranil, Alan B; Kuzawa, Christopher W; Li, Yun; Adair, Linda S; Mohlke, Karen L

    2013-11-01

    Blood levels of lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides (TGs) are highly heritable and are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Approximately 100 lipid-associated loci have been identified in populations of European ancestry. We performed a genome-wide association study of lipid traits in 1,782 Filipino women from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, and tested for evidence of interactions with waist circumference. We conducted additional association and interaction analyses in 1,719 of their young adult offspring. Genome-wide significant associations (P < 5 × 10⁻⁸) were detected at APOE for low density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol, and at APOA5 for TGs. Suggestive associations (P < 10⁻⁶) were detected at GCKR for TGs, and at CETP and TOM1 for high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Our data also supported the existence of allelic heterogeneity at APOA5, CETP, LIPC, and APOE. The secondary signal (Gly185Cys) at APOA5 exhibited a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-by-waist circumference interaction affecting TGs (Pinteraction = 1.6 × 10⁻⁴), manifested by stronger SNP effects as waist circumference increased. These findings provide the first evidence that central obesity may accentuate the effect of the TG-increasing allele of the APOA5 signal, emphasizing that CVD risk could be reduced by central obesity control.

  10. Body mass index, waist circumference and waist-to-hip-ratio in the prediction of obesity in Turkish teenagers.

    PubMed

    Kavak, Vatan; Pilmane, Mara; Kazoka, Dzintra

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the usefulness of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) in screening for obesity in teenagers by using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC). To select the sample set in this cross-sectional study, a stratified random sampling approach was utilized. Weight, height, WC, hip circumference and body fat percentage (BFP) were measured in 1118 children of both genders (597 boys and 521 girls), aged from 10 to 15 years old. Percentiles of BMI and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-United States (CDC-US)-growth chart for boys and girls aged from 10 to 15 years old were presented. ROC analyses were then used to evaluate the performances of three anthropometric indices; BMI, WC and WHR had strong positive correlations with BFP (r = 0.49-0.77) in both girls and boys within indicated age group. The area under the curves (AUCs) were high in both girls and boys for BMI, 0.795 and 0.893, respectively, and WC, 0.767 and 0.853, respectively, and were a little lower, 0.747 and 0.783, respectively, for WHR. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the prevalence of being overweight and obese among teenagers of both sexes in our data set does not differ from CDC-US-growth chart. In addition, BMI and WC are two important predictors for teenagers to become overweight and obese, while WHR is less useful for this purpose.

  11. Impulsivity is associated with blood pressure and waist circumference among adolescents with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Naiberg, Melanie R; Newton, Dwight F; Collins, Jordan E; Bowie, Christopher R; Goldstein, Benjamin I

    2016-12-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) and impulsivity are common in bipolar disorder (BD), and CVRFs are also linked with impulsivity through a number of mechanisms, both behavioral and biological. This study examines the association between CVRFs and impulsivity in adolescents with BD. Subjects were 34 adolescents with BD and 35 healthy control (HC) adolescents. CVRFs were based on International Diabetes Federation metabolic syndrome criteria (triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, waist circumference, blood pressure (BP) and glucose). Impulsivity was measured using the computerized Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT). Analyses controlled for age, IQ, lifetime attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and current antipsychotic use. Adolescents with BD had higher diastolic BP (73.36 ± 9.57 mmHg vs. 67.91 ± 8.74 mmHg, U = 401.0, p = 0.03), higher triglycerides (1.13 ± 0.60 mmol/L vs. 0.78 ± 0.38 mmol/L, U = 373.5, p = 0.008), and were more likely to meet high-risk criteria for waist circumference (17.6% vs. 2.9%, p = 0.04) vs. HC. Within the BD group, CGT sub-scores were correlated with CVRFs. For example, overall proportion bet was positively correlated with systolic (r = 0.387, p = 0.026) and diastolic (ρ = 0.404, p = 0.020) BP. Quality of decision-making was negatively correlated with systolic BP (ρ = -0.401, p = 0.021) and waist circumference (ρ = -0.534, p = 0.003). Significant interactions were observed, such that BD diagnosis moderates the relationship between both waist circumference and BP with CGT sub-scores. BP and waist circumference are associated with impulsivity in BD adolescents, but not in HC adolescents. Future studies are warranted to determine temporality and to evaluate whether optimizing CVRFs improves impulsivity among BD adolescents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Waist:height ratio, waist circumference and metabolic syndrome abnormalities in Colombian schooled adolescents: a multivariate analysis considering located adiposity.

    PubMed

    Agredo-Zúñiga, Ricardo Antonio; Aguilar-de Plata, Cecilia; Suárez-Ortegón, Milton Fabian

    2015-09-14

    Very few large studies in Latin America have evaluated the association between waist:height ratio (W-HtR) and cardiometabolic risk in children and adolescents. Further, multivariable analyses verifying the independence of located subcutaneous fat have not been conducted so far. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations of W-HtR and waist circumference (WC) with metabolic syndrome abnormalities and high LDL-cholesterol levels in schooled adolescents before and after adjusting for trunk skinfolds and BMI. The sample consisted of 831 boys and 841 girls aged 10-17 years. Biochemical, blood pressure and anthropometrical variables were measured. Age- and sex-specific quartiles of W-HtR and WC were used in Poisson regression models to evaluate the associations. High WC values (highest quartile v. quartiles 1-3) were associated with high TAG levels in both sexes (prevalence ratio, boys: 2·57 (95 % CI 1·91, 3·44); girls: 1·92 (95 % CI 1·49, 2·47); P0·05). High W-HtR (highest quartile v. quartiles 1-3) was only independently associated with high TAG in female adolescents (1·99 (95 % CI 1·55, 2·56); P<0·05). In conclusion, WC showed better association with cardiometabolic risk than W-HtR in the children of this study. This observation does not support W-HtR as a relevant adiposity marker for cardiovascular and metabolic risk in adolescence.

  13. Genome-wide association studies in East Asians identify new loci for waist-hip ratio and waist circumference

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Wanqing; Kato, Norihiro; Hwang, Joo-Yeon; Guo, Xingyi; Tabara, Yasuharu; Li, Huaixing; Dorajoo, Rajkumar; Yang, Xiaobo; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Li, Shengxu; Wu, Ying; Wu, Tangchun; Kim, Soriul; Guo, Xiuqing; Liang, Jun; Shungin, Dmitry; Adair, Linda S.; Akiyama, Koichi; Allison, Matthew; Cai, Qiuyin; Chang, Li-Ching; Chen, Chien-Hsiun; Chen, Yuan-Tsong; Cho, Yoon Shin; Choi, Bo Youl; Gao, Yutang; Go, Min Jin; Gu, Dongfeng; Han, Bok-Ghee; He, Meian; Hixson, James E.; Hu, Yanling; Huang, Tao; Isono, Masato; Jung, Keum Ji; Kang, Daehee; Kim, Young Jin; Kita, Yoshikuni; Lee, Juyoung; Lee, Nanette R.; Lee, Jeannette; Wang, Yiqin; Liu, Jian-Jun; Long, Jirong; Moon, Sanghoon; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Nakatochi, Masahiro; Ohnaka, Keizo; Rao, Dabeeru; Shi, Jiajun; Sull, Jae Woong; Tan, Aihua; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Wu, Chen; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Yamamoto, Ken; Yao, Jie; Ye, Xingwang; Yokota, Mitsuhiro; Zhang, Xiaomin; Zheng, Yan; Qi, Lu; Rotter, Jerome I.; Jee, Sun Ha; Lin, Dongxin; Mohlke, Karen L.; He, Jiang; Mo, Zengnan; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Tai, E. Shyong; Lin, Xu; Miki, Tetsuro; Kim, Bong-Jo; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2016-01-01

    Sixty genetic loci associated with abdominal obesity, measured by waist circumference (WC) and waist-hip ratio (WHR), have been previously identified, primarily from studies conducted in European-ancestry populations. We conducted a meta-analysis of associations of abdominal obesity with approximately 2.5 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among 53,052 (for WC) and 48,312 (for WHR) individuals of Asian descent, and replicated 33 selected SNPs among 3,762 to 17,110 additional individuals. We identified four novel loci near the EFEMP1, ADAMTSL3 , CNPY2, and GNAS genes that were associated with WC after adjustment for body mass index (BMI); two loci near the NID2 and HLA-DRB5 genes associated with WHR after adjustment for BMI, and three loci near the CEP120, TSC22D2, and SLC22A2 genes associated with WC without adjustment for BMI. Functional enrichment analyses revealed enrichment of corticotropin-releasing hormone signaling, GNRH signaling, and/or CDK5 signaling pathways for those newly-identified loci. Our study provides additional insight on genetic contribution to abdominal obesity. PMID:26785701

  14. Waist circumference is a potential indicator of metabolic syndrome in Singaporean Chinese.

    PubMed

    Nurjono, Milawaty; Lee, Jimmy

    2013-05-01

    Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Studies proposed that waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) are good indicators of MetS. In this study, we examined and compared the predictive utility of clinical measures such as WC, blood pressure and BMI and determined the cutoff points in which these measures are most reliable in identifying MetS in Singaporean Chinese. Two hundred and forty-four subjects aged between 21 and 50 years of Chinese ethnicity were recruited into the study. Sociodemographic, height, weight and blood pressure information were obtained. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG) and glucose levels were evaluated. Presence of MetS was examined according to American Heart Association (AHA)/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) guidelines. Predictive utility of BP, WC and BMI was examined using receiver operating curve and discriminant indices were determined accordingly. Forty-one (16.8%) subjects were identified to have MetS. Our analysis revealed that waist circumference was most accurate in identifying MetS (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.83 to 0.93, P <0.001) followed by BMI (AUC = 0.84, 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.91, P = 0.035), systolic BP (AUC = 0.83, 95% CI, 0.76 to 0.90, P = 0.036) and diastolic BP (AUC = 0.80, 95% CI, 0.71 to 0.88, P = 0.042). Waist circumference cut-off values of >92.5 cm in males and >86.5 cm in females were found to be most sensitive and specific in discriminating MetS. Our finding has immediate and significant clinical implications as WC can be easily obtained. However, as the study included only Singaporean Chinese, findings cannot be generalised for other ethnic groups.

  15. Sleep Duration and Waist Circumference in Adults: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sperry, Susan D.; Scully, Iiona D.; Gramzow, Richard H.; Jorgensen, Randall S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous research has demonstrated a relation between insufficient sleep and overall obesity. Waist circumference (WC), a measure of central adiposity, has been demonstrated to improve prediction of health risk. However, recent research on the relation of insufficient sleep duration to WC in adults has yielded inconsistent findings. Objectives: To assess the magnitude and the consistency of the relation of insufficient sleep and WC Methods: A systematic search of Internet and research databases using Google Scholar, Medline, PubMed, and PsycINFO through July 2013 was conducted. All articles in English with adult human subjects that included measurements of WC and sleep duration were reviewed. A random effects meta-analysis and regression analyses were performed. Heterogeneity and publication bias were checked. Results are expressed as Pearson correlations (r; 95% confidence interval). Results: Of 1,376 articles, 30 met inclusion criteria and 21 studies (22 samples for a total of 56,259 participants) provided sufficient data for meta-analysis. Results showed a significant negative relation between sleep duration and WC (r = −0.10, P < 0.0001) with significant heterogeneity related to sleep comparison method. Potential moderators of the relation between sleep duration and WC were not significant. Funnel plots showed no indication of publication bias. In addition, a fail-safe N calculation indicated that 418 studies with null effects would be necessary to bring the overall mean effect size to a trivial value of r = −0.005. Conclusions: Internationally, cross-sectional studies demonstrate a significant negative relation between sleep duration and waist circumference, indicating shorter sleep durations covary with central adiposity. Future research should include prospective studies. Citation: Sperry SD, Scully ID, Gramzow RH, Jorgensen RS. Sleep duration and waist circumference in adults: a meta-analysis. SLEEP 2015;38(8):1269–1276. PMID:25581918

  16. Adiponectin and waist circumference as predictors of insulin-resistance in women.

    PubMed

    Bonneau, Graciela A; Pedrozo, Williams R; Berg, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    The initial disturbance of insulin resistance seems to focus on adipose tissue is a dynamic organ involved in many physiological and metabolic processes. Expresses and secretes a variety of active peptides, adipocytokines. To evaluate the prevalence of insulin-resistance in an healthy urban middle age population and to explore the role of adiponectin, inflammatory biomarkers (hs-CRP) and traditional cardiovascular risk factors as predictors of the insulin-resistance state. We studied of 176 participants (117 women and 59 men, 25-74 years), individuals with diabetes, hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism, infectious disease, renal, or hepatic neoplasms and pregnant women were excluded. We evaluated glucose, insulin, adiponectin and hs-CRP. We found that 17.2% of individuals presented insulin-resistance. Correlation was found between waist circumference, body mass index, blood pressure and HOMA index (p<0.01). Adiponectin was associated with the insulin-resistance (p<0.001) but not hs-CRP. Adiponectin (β=0.385, p=0.004) and waist circumference (β=0.116, p=0.02) were predictors of IR only in women, meanwhile none of the analyzed biomarkers predicted insulin-resistance in men. Besides, postmenopausal women presented higher adiponectin levels than premenopausal 7.63 (4.46-9.58) vs 5.50 (3.83-7.40) μg/ml, p=0.01. Adiponectin and waist circumference are important predictors of insulin-resistance even in healthy non-diabetic women, they may open a new opportunity to improve current risk estimation. Copyright © 2013 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Associations of body mass index and waist circumference with: energy intake and percentage energy from macronutrients, in a cohort of australian children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background It is evident from previous research that the role of dietary composition in relation to the development of childhood obesity remains inconclusive. Several studies investigating the relationship between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and/or skin fold measurements with energy intake have suggested that the macronutrient composition of the diet (protein, carbohydrate, fat) may play an important contributing role to obesity in childhood as it does in adults. This study investigated the possible relationship between BMI and WC with energy intake and percentage energy intake from macronutrients in Australian children and adolescents. Methods Height, weight and WC measurements, along with 24 h food and drink records (FDR) intake data were collected from 2460 boys and girls aged 5-17 years living in the state of Queensland, Australia. Results Statistically significant, yet weak correlations between BMI z-score and WC with total energy intake were observed in grades 1, 5 and 10, with only 55% of subjects having a physiologically plausible 24 hr FDR. Using Pearson correlations to examine the relationship between BMI and WC with energy intake and percentage macronutrient intake, no significant correlations were observed between BMI z-score or WC and percentage energy intake from protein, carbohydrate or fat. One way ANOVAs showed that although those with a higher BMI z-score or WC consumed significantly more energy than their lean counterparts. Conclusion No evidence of an association between percentage macronutrient intake and BMI or WC was found. Evidently, more robust longitudinal studies are needed to elucidate the relationship linking obesity and dietary intake. PMID:21615883

  18. Comparisons of percentage body fat, body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-stature ratio in adults.

    PubMed

    Flegal, Katherine M; Shepherd, John A; Looker, Anne C; Graubard, Barry I; Borrud, Lori G; Ogden, Cynthia L; Harris, Tamara B; Everhart, James E; Schenker, Nathaniel

    2009-02-01

    Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and the waist-stature ratio (WSR) are considered to be possible proxies for adiposity. The objective was to investigate the relations between BMI, WC, WSR, and percentage body fat (measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) in adults in a large nationally representative US population sample from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). BMI, WC, and WSR were compared with percentage body fat in a sample of 12,901 adults. WC, WSR, and BMI were significantly more correlated with each other than with percentage body fat (P < 0.0001 for all sex-age groups). Percentage body fat tended to be significantly more correlated with WC than with BMI in men but significantly more correlated with BMI than with WC in women (P < 0.0001 except in the oldest age group). WSR tended to be slightly more correlated with percentage body fat than was WC. Percentile values of BMI, WC, and WSR are shown that correspond to percentiles of percentage body fat increments of 5 percentage points. More than 90% of the sample could be categorized to within one category of percentage body fat by each measure. BMI, WC, and WSR perform similarly as indicators of body fatness and are more closely related to each other than with percentage body fat. These variables may be an inaccurate measure of percentage body fat for an individual, but they correspond fairly well overall with percentage body fat within sex-age groups and distinguish categories of percentage body fat.

  19. Waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio in carpal tunnel syndrome: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Mondelli, Mauro; Aretini, Alessandro; Ginanneschi, Federica; Greco, Giuseppe; Mattioli, Stefano

    2014-03-15

    The association between carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and high body mass index (BMI) and some hand measures is well known. No study has been specifically focused on waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip-ratio (WHR). The aim of this prospective case-control study is to evaluate the association between CTS and WC, WHR and other body and hand anthropometric measures. We consecutively enrolled one "idiopathic" CTS case for two controls in 3 outpatient electromyography labs. The main anthropometric measures were BMI, WC, WHR, wrist ratio (WR) and hand ratio (HR). We performed univariate and multivariate analyses. Female cases and controls were 250 and 474 and male cases and controls were 120 and 273, respectively. At univariate analysis there were differences in many anthropometric measures between cases and controls. At multivariate logistic regression analyses high BMI, WC and WHR and abnormal HR and WR were independent risk factors for CTS. Crossing two categories between BMI, WC and WHR, the overweight subjects, especially females, were at risk only if they had very high WC or high WHR. The risk increased if they were obese. High WC/WHR doubles the risk of CTS, the risk further increased if overweight/obese subjects have also very high WC or high WHR. The obese subjects were always at risk regardless of WC and WHR values. Metabolic causes of this association with CTS were hypothesised. BMI is not the only and most powerful body predictor of "idiopathic" CTS, but also WHR and WC should be considered. These measures may not be interchangeable and it may be desirable to consider the utility of their joint use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Waist Circumference, Waist-to-Height Ratio and Body Mass Index of Thai Children: Secular Changes and Updated Reference Standards.

    PubMed

    Rerksuppaphol, Sanguansak; Rerksuppaphol, Lakkana

    2014-11-01

    The prevalence of obesity in pediatric age group has been increasing globally. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) are commonly used to define obesity. The cut-off references for these parameters vary between racial and ethnic groups. We aimed to measure the secular changes and update the reference standards for these three parameters for Thai children in this study. We completed a cross-sectional survey of 3,885 school children 6.0-12.99 y of age in Ongkharak district of central Thailand during May to June 2013. Weight, height and WC were recorded by trained staff using sensitive and calibrated instruments. BMI and WHtR were calculated by standard formulae. The summary estimates were described by gender and whole year age groups. Age and gender specific smoothened percentile curves were created by using least mean squares method. The data was compared with that from a 2008 cohort from the same area. Age and gender specific percentile data and curves of WC, WHtR and BMI have been provided for Thai children. BMI and WC increased but WHtR changed relatively little with age in both genders. In comparison to 2008, WC and WHtR have increased consistently across all age groups and both genders. The 75th percentile for WHtR corresponded closely to 0.50 in both genders which has been the suggested cut-off. Since 2008, there have been significant increase in WC and WHtR across all age groups and in both genders in Thai children. These indicate increasing prevalence of central obesity and upcoming cardio-metabolic health problems. This needs to be tackled urgently by creating awareness and promotion of healthy diets and physical activities in school children. WC and WHtR should be routinely measured in paediatric examination for early diagnosis of central obesity.

  1. Time spent in sedentary posture is associated with waist circumference and cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Tigbe, W W; Granat, M H; Sattar, N; Lean, M E J

    2017-05-01

    The relationship between metabolic risk and time spent sitting, standing and stepping has not been well established. The present study aimed to determine associations of objectively measured time spent siting, standing and stepping, with coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. A cross-sectional study of healthy non-smoking Glasgow postal workers, n=111 (55 office workers, 5 women, and 56 walking/delivery workers, 10 women), who wore activPAL physical activity monitors for 7 days. Cardiovascular risks were assessed by metabolic syndrome categorisation and 10-year PROCAM (prospective cardiovascular Munster) risk. Mean (s.d.) age was 40 (8) years, body mass index 26.9 (3.9) kg m -2 and waist circumference 95.4 (11.9) cm. Mean (s.d.) high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL cholesterol) 1.33 (0.31), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 3.11 (0.87), triglycerides 1.23 (0.64) mmol l -1 and 10-year PROCAM risk 1.8 (1.7)%. The participants spent mean (s.d.) 9.1 (1.8) h per day sedentary, 7.6 (1.2) h per day sleeping, 3.9 (1.1) h per day standing and 3.3 (0.9) h per day stepping, accumulating 14 708 (4984) steps per day in 61 (25) sit-to-stand transitions per day. In univariate regressions-adjusting for age, sex, family history of CHD, shift worked, job type and socioeconomic status-waist circumference (P=0.005), fasting triglycerides (P=0.002), HDL cholesterol (P=0.001) and PROCAM risk (P=0.047) were detrimentally associated with sedentary time. These associations remained significant after further adjustment for sleep, standing and stepping in stepwise regression models. However, after further adjustment for waist circumference, the associations were not significant. Compared with those without the metabolic syndrome, participants with the metabolic syndrome were significantly less active-fewer steps, shorter stepping duration and longer time sitting. Those with no metabolic syndrome features walked >15 000 steps per day or spent >7 h per day upright

  2. Intake of brown rice lees reduces waist circumference and improves metabolic parameters in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Ho; Kim, Eun Kyoung; Lee, Min-Seok; Lee, Hye-Kyoung; Hwang, Won Sun; Choe, Sun Jung; Kim, Tae-Young; Han, Seung Jin; Kim, Hae Jin; Kim, Dae Jung; Lee, Kwan-Woo

    2011-02-01

    Intake of whole grains has been associated with lower risks of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Brown rice is unrefined whole grain and is produced by removing the outermost layers containing the germ and bran, which are rich in nutrients including dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals, and other unmeasured dietary constituents. The lees of brown rice (LB) are by-products of its fermentation in the process of manufacturing takju, a Korean turbid rice wine. In this study, we hypothesized that intake of LB would reduce waist circumference, a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetic patients. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was scheduled for 12 weeks. Thirty subjects were randomly assigned to receive a supplement prepared from the LB or from a mixed-grain dietary product (MG). Body weight, waist circumference, body composition, lipid profiles, and other laboratory parameters were measured. The LB group showed greater reduction in waist circumference (LB: 87.9 ± 8.8 to 85.1 ± 9.0 cm; MG: 86.9 ± 8.8 to 86.0 ± 9.3 cm; P = .032). In addition, the consumption of LB resulted in a significantly greater decrease in the level of aspartate transaminase (LB: 25.4 ± 8.5 to 21.0 ± 5.1 IU/mL; MG: 22.5 ± 5.3 to 22.4 ± 5.7 IU/mL; P = .044) and alanine transaminase (LB: 28.6 ± 11.3 to 21.9 ± 8.2 IU/mL; MG: 24.4 ± 7.5 to 24.5 ± 9.9 IU/mL; P = .038). Consumption of the LB was associated with a decreased waist circumference in type 2 diabetic patients. Further study is required to evaluate the metabolic effect of the extract of the LB in type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Correlation study on waist circumference-triglyceride (WT) index and coronary artery scores in patients with coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Yang, R-F; Liu, X-Y; Lin, Z; Zhang, G

    2015-01-01

    Coronary disease is analyzed through common lipid profiles, but these analyses fail to account for residual risk due to abdominal weight and elevated TG levels. We aimed to investigate the relationship between the waist circumference × triglyceride index (WT index) and the Coronary Artery Score (CAS) in patients with coronary heart disease. 346 patients in our Cardiology Department were recruited from September 2007 to August 2011 and divided into two groups according to whether the patients presented with metabolic syndrome. We performed coronary angiography using the standard Judkins method. The severity of coronary artery stenosis and the CAS were calculated and analyzed with a computerized quantitative analysis system. The signs index, which includes the body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-hip-ratio, and waist-height-ratio, the blood glucose and blood lipid index of all the patients were collected and used to calculate the WT index (waist circumference x triglyceride index. We performed a correlative analysis with age, gender, body mass index, blood glucose and blood lipid, blood pressure and other risk indicators of all patients as the dependent variables and the CAS as the independent variable. We show that the CAS is positively correlated to the WT index. Several lipid profiles and waist circumference were significantly associated with the CAS. The WT index is correlated to the CAS and is a good predictor for the development of coronary artery disease; it can be applied in the clinic for early intervention in populations at risk for coronary heart disease.

  4. Waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and waist-to-height ratio reference percentiles for abdominal obesity among Greek adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bacopoulou, Flora; Efthymiou, Vasiliki; Landis, Georgios; Rentoumis, Anastasios; Chrousos, George P

    2015-05-04

    Indices predictive of adolescent central obesity include waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). Such reference data are lacking for Greek adolescents. The aim of this study was to develop age- and gender-specific WC, WHR and WHtR smoothed reference percentiles for abdominal obesity among Greek adolescents aged 12-17 years, to investigate possible obesity cut-offs of WHR and WHtR and to compare WC percentiles to other adolescent populations. A representative sample of 1610 high school adolescents (42.2% boys, 57.8% girls; mean age ± sd 14.4 ± 1.72 years) participated in this cross-sectional study in Attica, Greece, in 2013. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), WC, hip circumference (HC), WHR and WHtR were measured and percentiles were calculated using the LMS method. The relation between WHR, WHtR and general obesity, as defined by the International Obesity Task Force, was investigated with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The discriminating power of WHR and WHtR was expressed as area under the curve (AUC). Greek adolescents' WC measurements at the 50th and 90th percentile were compared with their counterparts' smoothed percentiles from Norway, Turkey, Poland, South India, Germany and Kuwait. Boys had significantly higher mean in all measures than girls, except for BMI where there was no statistical difference in terms of gender. BMI, WC and HC showed an increasing trend with age. WC leveled off in both genders at the age of 17 years. WHR and WHtR showed a continuous decrease with advancing age. WHtR was a better predictor for general obesity in both boys and girls (AUC 95% CI 0.945-0.992) than the WHR (AUC 95% CI 0.758-0.870); the WHtR cut-off of 0.5 had sensitivity 91% and specificity 95% for both genders and all age groups combined. International comparisons showed that Greek adolescents had relatively high levels of abdominal obesity in early-middle adolescence but this did not persist at

  5. The Association of Waist Circumference with Walking Difficulty Among Adults with or at Risk of Knee Osteoarthritis: The Osteoarthritis Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Simone V.; Hicks, Gregory E.; Zhang, Yuqing; Niu, Jingbo; Apovian, Caroline M.; White, Daniel K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Excess weight is a known risk factor for functional limitation and common in adults with knee osteoarthritis (OA). We asked to what extent high waist circumference was linked with developing difficulty with walking speed and distance over 4 years in adults with or at risk of knee OA. Method Using data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative, we employed WHO categories for Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist circumference (small/medium and large). Difficulty with speed was defined by slow gait: < 1.2 m/s during a 20-meter walk, and difficulty with distance was defined by an inability to walk 400 meters. We calculated risk ratios (RR) to examine the likelihood of developing difficulty with distance and speed using obesity and waist circumference as predictors with RRs adjusted for potential confounders (i.e., age, sex, race, education, physical activity, and OA status). Results Participants with obesity and large waists were 2.2 times more likely to have difficulty with speed at 4 years compared to healthy weight and small/medium waisted participants (Adjusted RR 2.2 [95% Confidence interval (CI) 1.6, 3.1], P < .0001). Participants with obesity and a large waist circumference had 2.4 times the risk of developing the inability to walk 400 meters compared with those with a healthy BMI and small/medium waist circumference (Adjusted RR 0.9 [95% CI 1.6, 3.7], P < .0001). Conclusions Waist circumference may be a main risk factor for developing difficulty with speed in adults with or at risk of knee OA. PMID:27492464

  6. The association of waist circumference with walking difficulty among adults with or at risk of knee osteoarthritis: the Osteoarthritis Initiative.

    PubMed

    Gill, S V; Hicks, G E; Zhang, Y; Niu, J; Apovian, C M; White, D K

    2017-01-01

    Excess weight is a known risk factor for functional limitation and common in adults with knee osteoarthritis (OA). We asked to what extent high waist circumference was linked with developing difficulty with walking speed and distance over 4 years in adults with or at risk of knee OA. Using data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI), we employed World Health Organization (WHO) categories for Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist circumference (small/medium and large). Difficulty with speed was defined by slow gait: <1.2 m/s during a 20-m walk, and difficulty with distance was defined by an inability to walk 400 m. We calculated risk ratios (RR) to examine the likelihood of developing difficulty with distance and speed using obesity and waist circumference as predictors with RRs adjusted for potential confounders (i.e., age, sex, race, education, physical activity, and OA status). Participants with obesity and large waists were 2.2 times more likely to have difficulty with speed at 4 years compared to healthy weight and small/medium waisted participants (Adjusted RR 2.2 [95% Confidence interval (CI) 1.6, 3.1], P < .0001). Participants with obesity and a large waist circumference had 2.4 times the risk of developing the inability to walk 400 m compared with those with a healthy BMI and small/medium waist circumference (Adjusted RR 0.9 [95% CI 1.6, 3.7], P < .0001). Waist circumference may be a main risk factor for developing difficulty with speed in adults with or at risk of knee OA. Copyright © 2016 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. First reference curves of waist and hip circumferences in an Asian population of youths: CASPIAN study.

    PubMed

    Kelishadi, Roya; Gouya, Mohammad Mehdi; Ardalan, Gelayol; Hosseini, Mohsen; Motaghian, Molouk; Delavari, Alireza; Majdzadeh, Reza; Heidarzadeh, Abtin; Mahmoud-Arabi, Minou Sadat; Riazi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2007-06-01

    The Objective of the present study is to develop the first age- and gender-specific reference curves for waist and hip circumferences in an Asian population of youths. This cross-sectional population survey was conducted in 2003-04 on a nationally representative sample of 21111 school-students living in urban (84.6%) and rural (15.4%) areas of 23 provinces in Iran. After anthropometric measurements, smoothed reference curves for waist and hip circumference (WC, HiC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were developed by the LMS method. In both genders, WC and HiC percentile values increased with age. For girls, the 50th to 95th percentile curves for WC had a sharp increase between 8 and 13 years and 11-15 years, respectively, and began to plateau after this age, whereas for boys, these curves had a persistent and less sharp increase with age, until the age of 18 years. The WHR curves of girls decreased with age until 15 years and began to plateau thereafter, whereas for boys the 25th to 95th curves had a plateau pattern. Comparison of the current reference curves with the British ones showed that in boys, the 5th and 50th percentile curves were similar in both studies, but the 95th percentile curve of our study was higher than the British curves. For girls, the 5th percentile curves of both studies were similar, but the 50th and 95th percentile curves of our study were higher than the British ones. These curves represent the first childhood WC, HiC and WHR reference curves obtained in Asia. These curves can provide baseline data for analysis of time trends, as well as for international comparisons.

  8. Independent effects of age-related changes in waist circumference and BMI z scores in predicting cardiovascular disease risk factors in a prospective cohort of adolescent females

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional data indicate that central adiposity is associated with cardiovascular disease risk, independent of total adiposity. The use of longitudinal data to investigate the relation between changes in fat distribution and the emergence of risk factors is limited. OBJECTIVE: We ...

  9. Healthy Buddies[TM] Reduces Body Mass Index Z-Score and Waist Circumference in Aboriginal Children Living in Remote Coastal Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronsley, Rebecca; Lee, Andrew S.; Kuzeljevic, Boris; Panagiotopoulos, Constadina

    2013-01-01

    Background: Aboriginal children are at increased risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Healthy Buddies [TM]-First Nations (HB) is a curriculum-based, peer-led program promoting healthy eating, physical activity, and self-esteem. Methods: Although originally designed as a pilot pre-/post-analysis of 3 remote Aboriginal schools that requested and…

  10. Changes in Sugar-Sweetened Soda Consumption, Weight, and Waist Circumference: 2-Year Cohort of Mexican Women

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Dalia; Middaugh, Nicole; Rice, Megan S.; Laden, Francine; López-Ridaura, Ruy; Rosner, Bernard; Willett, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate 2-year changes in soda consumption, weight, and waist circumference. Methods. We followed 11 218 women from the Mexican Teachers’ Cohort from 2006 to 2008. Dietary data were collected using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Weight was self-reported, and waist circumference was self-measured. We used linear regression to evaluate changes in sugar-sweetened and sugar-free soda consumption in relation to changes in weight and waist circumference, adjusting for lifestyle and other dietary factors. Results. Compared with no change, a decrease in sugar-sweetened soda consumption by more than 1 serving per week was associated with less weight gain (−0.4 kg; 95% confidence interval [CI] = −0.6, −0.2). Conversely, relative to no change, an increase in sugar-sweetened soda by more than 1 serving per week was associated with a 0.3-kilogram (95% CI = 0.2, 0.5) increase in weight. An increase of 1 serving per day of sugar-sweetened soda was associated with a 1.0 kg (95% CI = 0.7, 1.2; P < .001) increase in weight. The results for waist circumference were similar. Conclusions. Moderate changes in consumption of sugar-sweetened soda over a 2-year period were associated with corresponding changes in weight and waist circumference among Mexican women. PMID:28933937

  11. Markers of adiposity in HIV/AIDS patients: Agreement between waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, waist-to-height ratio and body mass index

    PubMed Central

    Ngu, Roland Cheofor; Kadia, Benjamin Momo; Tianyi, Frank-Leonel; Choukem, Simeon Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Background Waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) are all independent predictors of cardio-metabolic risk and therefore important in HIV/AIDS patients on antiretroviral therapy at risk of increased visceral adiposity. This study aimed to assess the extent of agreement between these parameters and the body mass index (BMI), as anthropometric parameters and in classifying cardio-metabolic risk in HIV/AIDS patients. Methods A secondary analysis of data from a cross-sectional study involving 200 HIV/AIDS patients was done. Anthropometric parameters were measured from participants using standard guidelines and central obesity defined according to recommended criteria. Increased cardio-metabolic risk was defined according to the standard cut-off values for all four parameters. Data were analyzed using STATA version 14.1. Results The prevalence of WC-defined central obesity, WHR-defined central obesity and WHtR > 0.50 were 33.5%, 44.5% and 36.5%, respectively. The prevalence of BMI-defined overweight and obesity was 40.5%. After adjusting for gender and HAART status, there was a significant linear association and correlation between WC and BMI (regression equation: WC (cm) = 37.184 + 1.756 BMI (Kg/m2) + 0.825 Male + 1.002 HAART, (p < 0.001, r = 0.65)), and between WHtR and BMI (regression equation: WHtR = 0.223 + 0.011 BMI (Kg/m2)– 0.0153 Male + 0.003 HAART, (p < 0.001, r = 0.65)), but not between WHR and BMI (p = 0.097, r = 0.13). There was no agreement between the WC, WHtR and BMI, and minimal agreement between the WHR and BMI, in identifying patients with an increased cardio-metabolic risk. Conclusion Despite the observed linear association and correlation between these anthropometric parameters, the routine use of WC, WHR and WHtR as better predictors of cardio-metabolic risk should be encouraged in these patients, due to their minimal agreement with BMI in identifying HIV/AIDS patients with increased cardio

  12. Should waist circumference be used to identify metabolic disorders than BMI in South Korea?

    PubMed

    Lee, S-K

    2010-11-01

    Although indicators of central obesity have been suggested as a better alternative to body mass index (BMI), yet mixed results exist. This study examined whether waist circumference (WC) was better in identifying metabolic disorders than BMI at two time points. This study used nationally representative 1998 and 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data sets. Odds ratios from logistic regressions and area under the curves (AUC) were calculated. BMI and WC showed similar level of odds ratios (1.1-1.6) to diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and having two or three metabolic syndrome criteria. The AUC comparison, however, indicated that, in only women, WC was a better discriminator for diabetes, hypertension and having two or three metabolic syndrome criteria. No meaningful differences were found between 1998 and 2005. Prospective studies to weigh practical and clinical relevance are needed to assert the use of WC over BMI in clinical and public health settings.

  13. Sleep Duration and Waist Circumference in Adults: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Sperry, Susan D; Scully, Iiona D; Gramzow, Richard H; Jorgensen, Randall S

    2015-08-01

    Previous research has demonstrated a relation between insufficient sleep and overall obesity. Waist circumference (WC), a measure of central adiposity, has been demonstrated to improve prediction of health risk. However, recent research on the relation of insufficient sleep duration to WC in adults has yielded inconsistent findings. To assess the magnitude and the consistency of the relation of insufficient sleep and WC. A systematic search of Internet and research databases using Google Scholar, Medline, PubMed, and PsycINFO through July 2013 was conducted. All articles in English with adult human subjects that included measurements of WC and sleep duration were reviewed. A random effects meta-analysis and regression analyses were performed. Heterogeneity and publication bias were checked. Results are expressed as Pearson correlations (r; 95% confidence interval). Of 1,376 articles, 30 met inclusion criteria and 21 studies (22 samples for a total of 56,259 participants) provided sufficient data for meta-analysis. Results showed a significant negative relation between sleep duration and WC (r = -0.10, P < 0.0001) with significant heterogeneity related to sleep comparison method. Potential moderators of the relation between sleep duration and WC were not significant. Funnel plots showed no indication of publication bias. In addition, a fail-safe N calculation indicated that 418 studies with null effects would be necessary to bring the overall mean effect size to a trivial value of r = -0.005. Internationally, cross-sectional studies demonstrate a significant negative relation between sleep duration and waist circumference, indicating shorter sleep durations covary with central adiposity. Future research should include prospective studies. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  14. Carbonated beverages consumption among New Zealand youth and associations with BMI and waist circumference.

    PubMed

    Sundborn, G; Utter, J; Teevale, T; Metcalf, P; Jackson, R

    2014-03-01

    The primary aim of this study was to describe the carbonated beverage (soft drink) consumption patterns of New Zealand (NZ) youth and to investigate the influence that home availability of soft drinks had on their consumption. A secondary aim was to determine if there was an association between soft drink consumption and body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference. Data from Youth '07, a nationally representative survey of the health and well-being of NZ youth, including 8,697 NZ students aged 13 to 17 years, were analysed. The relevant data was available for 8697 students of whom 4633 identified as NZ European. 1621 Māori, 1.098 Asian, 834 Pacific, and 504 Other. Twenty nine percent (29%) were categorised as high consumers of soft drinks (>4 times a week), 45.4% were moderate consumers (1-3 times a week), and 25.6% were low consumers (had not consumed soft drinks in the past week). Male gender, Pacific ethnicity, and high deprivation were all significantly associated with being in the high consumer group. Fifty eight percent (58%) of children who reported that soft drinks were 'usually' available at home were in the high consumption group, compared to 15.1% of children who reported that these drinks were never available at home. After adjusting for possible confounders, waist circumference was significantly associated with soft drink consumption (p<0.05), however, BMI was not. Mean soft drink consumption for boys was 3.5 times per week and was 2.0 for girls. This study provides detailed information on soft drink consumption patterns of NZ youth and highlights factors associated with high consumption. Moderating the availability of soft drinks in the home is likely to significantly reduce their consumption among NZ youth.

  15. Appropriate body mass index and waist circumference cutoffs for categorization of overweight and central adiposity among Uighur adults in Xinjiang.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shuo; Yu, Zi-Xiang; Ma, Yi-Tong; Liu, Fen; Yang, Yi-Ning; Ma, Xiang; Fu, Zhen-Yan; Li, Xiao-Mei; Xie, Xiang; Chen, You; Chen, Bangdang; He, Chun-Hui

    2013-01-01

    The current overweight and central adiposity guidelines based on Western populations were not consistent with many studied based on the Asian populations. Uighur people live in Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region which is located in the center of Asia. Their overweight and central cutoffs were largely unknown. We aimed to identify cutoffs for body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) and waist circumference (WC; in cm) for categorization of overweight and central adiposity among Uighur adults in Xinjiang. 4767 Uighur participants were selected from the Cardiovascular Risk Survey (CRS) which was carried out from October 2007 to March 2010. The age of the participants were from 35 to 101 years old with the mean age of 50.09 years. Anthropometric data, blood pressure, serum concentration of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and fasting glucose were documented. The prevalence, sensitivity, specificity and distance on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of each BMI and waist circumference values were calculated. The prevalence of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia were higher with higher BMI for both men and women. The prevalence of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia were higher with higher waist circumference for both men and women. In women, the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia was noticed to increase as the waist circumference increased. The shortest distance in the receiver operating characteristic curves for hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, or ≥ 2 of these risk factors suggested a BMI cutoff of 26 and a waist circumference cutoff of 90 cm for both men and women. Higher cutoffs for BMI and waist circumference are needed in the identification of Uighur patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease.

  16. Appropriate Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference Cutoffs for Categorization of Overweight and Central Adiposity among Uighur Adults in Xinjiang

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yi-Tong; Liu, Fen; Yang, Yi-Ning; Ma, Xiang; Fu, Zhen-Yan; Li, Xiao-Mei; Xie, Xiang; Chen, You; Chen, Bangdang; He, Chun-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Objective The current overweight and central adiposity guidelines based on Western populations were not consistent with many studied based on the Asian populations. Uighur people live in Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region which is located in the center of Asia. Their overweight and central cutoffs were largely unknown. We aimed to identify cutoffs for body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) and waist circumference (WC; in cm) for categorization of overweight and central adiposity among Uighur adults in Xinjiang. Methods 4767 Uighur participants were selected from the Cardiovascular Risk Survey (CRS) which was carried out from October 2007 to March 2010. The age of the participants were from 35 to 101 years old with the mean age of 50.09 years. Anthropometric data, blood pressure, serum concentration of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and fasting glucose were documented. The prevalence, sensitivity, specificity and distance on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of each BMI and waist circumference values were calculated. Results The prevalence of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia were higher with higher BMI for both men and women. The prevalence of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia were higher with higher waist circumference for both men and women. In women, the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia was noticed to increase as the waist circumference increased. The shortest distance in the receiver operating characteristic curves for hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, or ≥ 2 of these risk factors suggested a BMI cutoff of 26 and a waist circumference cutoff of 90 cm for both men and women. Conclusions Higher cutoffs for BMI and waist circumference are needed in the identification of Uighur patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease. PMID:24244645

  17. Residential proximity to urban centres, local-area walkability and change in waist circumference among Australian adults.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Takemi; Niyonsenga, Theo; Howard, Natasha J; Coffee, Neil T; Paquet, Catherine; Taylor, Anne W; Daniel, Mark

    2016-12-01

    Consistent associations have been observed between macro-level urban sprawl and overweight/obesity, but whether residential proximity to urban centres predicts adiposity change over time has not been established. Further, studies of local-area walkability and overweight/obesity have generated mixed results. This study examined 4-year change in adults' waist circumference in relation to proximity to city centre, proximity to closest suburban centre, and local-area walkability. Data were from adult participants (n=2080) of a cohort study on chronic conditions and health risk factors in Adelaide, Australia. Baseline data were collected in 2000-03 with a follow-up in 2005-06. Multilevel regression models examined in 2015 the independent and joint associations of the three environmental measures with change in waist circumference, accounting for socio-demographic covariates. On average, waist circumference rose by 1.8cm over approximately 4years. Greater distance to city centre was associated with a greater increase in waist circumference. Participants living in distal areas (20km or further from city centre) had a greater increase in waist circumference (mean increase: 2.4cm) compared to those in proximal areas (9km or less, mean increase: 1.2cm). Counterintuitively, living in the vicinity of a suburban centre was associated with a greater increase in adiposity. Local-area walkability was not significantly associated with the outcome. Residential proximity to city centre appears to be protective against excessive increases in waist circumference. Controlled development and targeted interventions in the urban fringe may be needed to tackle obesity. Additional research needs to assess behaviours that mediate relationships between sprawl and obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Waist circumference in 6-12-year-old children: The Health Oriented Pedagogical Project (HOPP).

    PubMed

    Fredriksen, Per Morten; Skår, Angelica; Mamen, Asgeir

    2018-05-01

    With overweight and obesity increasing worldwide, it has become ever more important to monitor the development and distribution of adiposity in children. This study investigated how the measurements of waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) in children 6-12 years old relate to earlier studies. In 2015, 2271 children (boys, n = 1150) were measured for height, weight, and WC. Parental education level was used as a measure of socioeconomic status. A significant increase in WC with age was revealed for both sexes ( p < .0001). Boys at 10 and 12 years had a larger WC than girls; otherwise no difference between sexes was found. The WHtR decreased with age for girls ( p < .0001); 14% of the sample displayed a WHtR ≥ 0.50. Comparison with earlier studies showed a higher WC and WHtR despite no change in weight and body mass index. WC and WHtR are recommended as tools for identifying central obesity in children. The results indicate increased WC in 6-12-year-old children compared with earlier findings.

  19. Association of TMEM18 variants with BMI and waist circumference in children and correlation of mRNA expression in the PFC with body weight in rats.

    PubMed

    Rask-Andersen, Mathias; Jacobsson, Josefin A; Moschonis, George; Chavan, Rohit A; Sikder, Md Abu Noman; Allzén, Elin; Alsiö, Johan; Chrousos, George P; Manios, Yannis; Fredriksson, Robert; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2012-02-01

    Genome-wide association studies have shown a strong association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the near vicinity of the TMEM18 gene. The effects of the TMEM18-associated variants are more readily observed in children. TMEM18 encodes a 3TM protein, which locates to the nuclear membrane. The functional context of TMEM18 and the effects of its associated variants are as of yet undetermined. To further explore the effects of near-TMEM18 variants, we have genotyped two TMEM18-associated SNPs, rs6548238 and rs4854344, in a cohort of 2352 Greek children (Healthy Growth Study). Included in this study are data on anthropomorphic traits body weight, BMI z-score and waist circumference. Also included are dietary energy and macronutrient intake as measured via 24-h recall interviews. Major alleles of rs6548238 and rs4854344 were significantly associated with an increased risk of obesity (odds ratio = 1.489 (1.161-1.910) and 1.494 (1.165-1.917), respectively), and positively correlated to body weight (P = 0.017, P = 0.010) and waist circumference (P = 0.003, P = 0.003). An association to energy and macronutrient intake was not observed in this cohort. We also correlated food intake and body weight in a food choice model in rats to Tmem18 expression in central regions involved in feeding behavior. We observed a strong positive correlation between TMEM18 expression and body weight in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) (r = 0.5694, P = 0.0003) indicating a potential role for TMEM18 in higher functions related to feeding involving the PFC.

  20. Longitudinal association between dairy consumption and changes of body weight and waist circumference: the Framingham Heart Study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dairy foods are nutrient dense and may be protective against long-term weight gain. We aimed to examine the longitudinal association between dairy consumption and annualized changes in weight and waist circumference (WC) in adults. Members of the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort who participa...

  1. Obesity classification in military personnel: A comparison of body fat, waist circumference, and body mass index measurements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate obesity classifications from body fat percentage (BF%), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). A total of 451 overweight/obese active duty military personnel completed all three assessments. Most were obese (men, 81%; women, 98%) using National...

  2. Association of Kidney Function and Waist Circumference with Uric Acid Levels in South Africans.

    PubMed

    Madala, Nomandla Daphne; Dubula, Thozama; Assounga, Alain Guy Honoré; Naicker, Saraladevi

    2017-12-01

    Recent evidence that hyperuricemia is associated with incident chronic kidney disease (CKD) provides a potential therapeutic target for CKD that has not been explored in Africans. With hyperuricemia and gout increasing globally, we sought to determine their prevalence in South Africans with varying kidney function levels. This was a cross-sectional study of ambulatory adult patients presenting at a General Internal Medicine Outpatients Clinic between September 2012 and March 2014. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data collected were analyzed using STATA11. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were determined using multivariable logistic regression with bootstrapping. There were 225/261 (86.2%) black/Africans, 31/261 (11.9%) Indian South Africans, 3/261 (1.1%) Caucasians, and 2/261 (<1%) mixed ancestry South Africans. Mean age was 51.3 ± 14.5 years. Median (interquartile range) estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 71 (38) mL/min/1.73 m 2 and 39.8% (104/261) of patients had CKD. Hyperuricemia prevalence was 43.7% (114/261) and increased from 16.7% in patients with eGFR ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m 2 to 74.2% with eGFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m 2 (P < 0.001). Gout prevalence was 5.4% (14/261), with equal distribution across eGFR categories (0.814). Factors independently associated with hyperuricemia were eGFR <90 [ORs 3.24 (1.15-9.14), 7.28 (2.26-23.49), and 7.88 (1.95-31.82) for eGFR 60-89.9, 30-60, and <30, respectively], albuminuria [2.32 (1.11-4.85)], and waist circumference [1.04 (1.01-1.06) per 1 cm increase]. In univariate and multivariable analysis, gout was positively associated with male gender and cardiovascular disease, while it was negatively associated with African ancestry, but none of these factors remained significant after bootstrapping; ORs 6.65 (0.64-69.24), 4.14 (0.61-28.07), and 0.18 (0.01-2.21), respectively. Hyperuricemia prevalence was high, with CKD and waist circumference being the strongest predictors. Gout was

  3. The importance of waist circumference in the definition of metabolic syndrome: prospective analyses of mortality in men.

    PubMed

    Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Janssen, Ian; Ross, Robert; Church, Timothy S; Blair, Steven N

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the predictive ability of the National Cholesterol Education Panel (NCEP), revised NCEP (NCEP-R), and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) metabolic syndrome criteria for mortality risk, and to examine the effects of waist circumference on mortality within the context of these criteria. The sample included 20,789 white, non-Hispanic men 20-83 years of age from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. The main outcome measures were all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality over 11.4 years of follow-up. The proportions of men with the metabolic syndrome were 19.7, 27, and 30% at baseline, respectively, according to NCEP, NCEP-R, and IDF criteria. A total of 632 deaths (213 CVD) occurred. The relative risks (RRs) and 95% CIs of all-cause mortality were 1.36 (1.14-1.62), 1.31 (1.11-1.54), and 1.26 (1.07-1.49) for the NCEP, NCEP-R, and IDF definitions, respectively. The corresponding RRs for CVD mortality were 1.79 (1.35-2.37), 1.67 (1.27-2.19), and 1.67 (1.27-2.20). Additionally, there was a significant trend for a higher risk of CVD mortality across waist circumference categories (<94, 94-102, and >102 cm) among men with at least two additional metabolic syndrome risk factors (P = 0.01). The prediction of mortality with IDF and NCEP metabolic syndrome criteria was comparable in men. Waist circumference is a valuable component of metabolic syndrome; however, the IDF requirement of an elevated waist circumference warrants caution given that a large proportion of men with normal waist circumference have multiple risk factors and an increased risk of mortality.

  4. Waist Circumference Adjusted for Body Mass Index and Intra-Abdominal Fat Mass

    PubMed Central

    Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Ängquist, Lars; Kotronen, Anna; Borra, Ronald; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele; Iozzo, Patricia; Parkkola, Riitta; Nuutila, Pirjo; Ross, Robert; Allison, David B.; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Overvad, Kim; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre

    2012-01-01

    Background The association between waist circumference (WC) and mortality is particularly strong and direct when adjusted for body mass index (BMI). One conceivable explanation for this association is that WC adjusted for BMI is a better predictor of the presumably most harmful intra-abdominal fat mass (IAFM) than WC alone. We studied the prediction of abdominal subcutaneous fat mass (ASFM) and IAFM by WC alone and by addition of BMI as an explanatory factor. Methodology/Principal Findings WC, BMI and magnetic resonance imaging data from 742 men and women who participated in clinical studies in Canada and Finland were pooled. Total adjusted squared multiple correlation coefficients (R2) of ASFM and IAFM were calculated from multiple linear regression models with WC and BMI as explanatory variables. Mean BMI and WC of the participants in the pooled sample were 30 kg/m2 and 102 cm, respectively. WC explained 29% of the variance in ASFM and 51% of the variance in IAFM. Addition of BMI to WC added 28% to the variance explained in ASFM, but only 1% to the variance explained in IAFM. Results in subgroups stratified by study center, sex, age, obesity level and type 2 diabetes status were not systematically different. Conclusion/Significance The prediction of IAFM by WC is not improved by addition of BMI. PMID:22384179

  5. PLASMA DIHYDROCERAMIDE SPECIES ASSOCIATE WITH WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE IN MEXICAN AMERICAN FAMILIES

    PubMed Central

    Mamtani, Manju; Meikle, Peter J.; Kulkarni, Hemant; Weir, Jacquelyn M.; Barlow, Christopher K.; Jowett, Jeremy B.; Bellis, Claire; Dyer, Thomas D.; Almasy, Laura; Mahaney, Michael C.; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Comuzzie, Anthony G.; Blangero, John; Curran, Joanne E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Waist circumference (WC), the clinical marker of central obesity, is gaining popularity as a screening tool for type 2 diabetes (T2D). While there is epidemiologic evidence favoring the WC-T2D association, its biological substantiation is generally weak. Our objective was to determine the independent association of plasma lipid repertoire with WC. Design and methods We used samples and data from the San Antonio Family Heart Study of 1208 Mexican Americans from 42 extended families. We determined association of plasma lipidomic profiles with the cross-sectionally assessed WC. Plasma lipidomic profiling entailed liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. Statistical analyses included multivariable polygenic regression models and bivariate trait analyses using the SOLAR software. Results After adjusting for age and sex interactions, body mass index, homeostasis model of assessment – insulin resistance, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoproteins and use of lipid lowering drugs, dihydroceramides as a class were associated with WC. Dihydroceramide species 18:0, 20:0, 22:0 and 24:1 were significantly associated and genetically correlated with WC. Two sphingomyelin species (31:1 and 41:1) were also associated with WC. Conclusions Plasma dihydroceramide levels independently associate with WC. Thus, high resolution plasma lipidomic studies can provide further credence to the biological underpinnings of the association of WC with T2D. PMID:23929697

  6. [Effects of a lower body weight or waist circumference on cardiovascular risk].

    PubMed

    Labraña, Ana María; Durán, Eliana; Martínez, María Adela; Leiva, Ana María; Garrido-Méndez, Alex; Díaz, Ximena; Salas, Carlos; Celis-Morales, Carlos

    2017-05-01

    Overall and central obesity are important risk factors for cardiovascular disease. To investigate the association of body weight, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) with cardiovascular risk factors in Chile. We included 5,157 participants from the National Health Survey 2009-2010. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, metabolic syndrome and dyslipidemia (high total cholesterol and triglyceride levels and low HDL-cholesterol) were defined using international recommendations. BMI and WC were measured using standardized protocols. A five percent lower body weight, BMI and WC were associated with a significant reduction in cardiovascular risk factors. For each 5% reduction in body weight, the risk for hypertension decreased by 8 and 9% in women and men respectively. Similar risk reductions were observed for diabetes (9 and 11% respectively), metabolic syndrome (23 and 30% respectively), low HDL cholesterol (13 and 13% respectively), high triglyceride levels (16 and 18% respectively) and total cholesterol (8 and 10% respectively). Similar findings were observed for BMI and WC. Lower body weight, BMI or WC are associated with important reductions in cardiovascular risk factors. A 5% reduction in these adiposity markers could be a perfectly feasible goal for lifestyle interventions.

  7. Waist Circumferences of Chilean Students: Comparison of the CDC-2012 Standard and Proposed Percentile Curves

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Campos, Rossana; Lee Andruske, Cinthya; Hespanhol, Jefferson; Sulla Torres, Jose; Arruda, Miguel; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of waist circumference (WC) is considered to be an important means to control overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. The objectives of the study were to (a) compare the WC measurements of Chilean students with the international CDC-2012 standard and other international standards, and (b) propose a specific measurement value for the WC of Chilean students based on age and sex. A total of 3892 students (6 to 18 years old) were assessed. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and WC were measured. WC was compared with the CDC-2012 international standard. Percentiles were constructed based on the LMS method. Chilean males had a greater WC during infancy. Subsequently, in late adolescence, males showed values lower than those of the international standards. Chilean females demonstrated values similar to the standards until the age of 12. Subsequently, females showed lower values. The 85th and 95th percentiles were adopted as cutoff points for evaluating overweight and obesity based on age and sex. The WC of Chilean students differs from the CDC-2012 curves. The regional norms proposed are a means to identify children and adolescents with a high risk of suffering from overweight and obesity disorders. PMID:26184250

  8. Optimal waist circumference cutoff value for defining the metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal Latin American women.

    PubMed

    Blümel, Juan E; Legorreta, Deborah; Chedraui, Peter; Ayala, Felix; Bencosme, Ascanio; Danckers, Luis; Lange, Diego; Espinoza, Maria T; Gomez, Gustavo; Grandia, Elena; Izaguirre, Humberto; Manriquez, Valentin; Martino, Mabel; Navarro, Daysi; Ojeda, Eliana; Onatra, William; Pozzo, Estela; Prada, Mariela; Royer, Monique; Saavedra, Javier M; Sayegh, Fabiana; Tserotas, Konstantinos; Vallejo, Maria S; Zuñiga, Cristina

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine an optimal waist circumference (WC) cutoff value for defining the metabolic syndrome (METS) in postmenopausal Latin American women. A total of 3,965 postmenopausal women (age, 45-64 y), with self-reported good health, attending routine consultation at 12 gynecological centers in major Latin American cities were included in this cross-sectional study. Modified guidelines of the US National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III were used to assess METS risk factors. Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis was used to obtain an optimal WC cutoff value best predicting at least two other METS components. Optimal cutoff values were calculated by plotting the true-positive rate (sensitivity) against the false-positive rate (1 - specificity). In addition, total accuracy, distance to receiver operator characteristic curve, and the Youden Index were calculated. Of the participants, 51.6% (n = 2,047) were identified as having two or more nonadipose METS risk components (excluding a positive WC component). These women were older, had more years since menopause onset, used hormone therapy less frequently, and had higher body mass indices than women with fewer metabolic risk factors. The optimal WC cutoff value best predicting at least two other METS components was determined to be 88 cm, equal to that defined by the Adult Treatment Panel III. A WC cutoff value of 88 cm is optimal for defining METS in this postmenopausal Latin American series.

  9. Obesity prevalence in Norwegian adults assessed by body mass index, waist circumference and fat mass percentage.

    PubMed

    Kjaer, I G H; Kolle, E; Hansen, B H; Anderssen, S A; Torstveit, M K

    2015-08-01

    The prevalence of obesity presents serious public health challenges worldwide and is most commonly estimated by the categorization of body mass index (BMI). The purpose of this study was (i) to describe the sensitivity of BMI, waist circumference (WC) and fat mass percentage in the classification of overweight and obesity and (ii) to describe the prevalence of overweight and obesity using different measurement methods in a national sample of Norwegians. A total of 904 Norwegians (20-85 years) were randomly enrolled. Body weight, height, WC and skinfold thickness were measured; BMI and fat mass percentage (FP(skf) ) were calculated. The sensitivity and specificity varied from 77.0% to 86.9% and from 60.6% to 82.3%, respectively. Area under the curve was 0.837 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.801-0.872) for the ability of BMI to predict obesity by FP(skf) and 0.811 (95% CI: 0.770-0.852) for WC. A total of 12.7% (male: 12.1%, female: 13.4%) were obese based on BMI classifications, 29.1% (male: 36.5%, female: 20.0%) of the sample were obese based on FP(skf) and 24.3% of men and 37.8% of women were abdominally obese by WC. The agreement between selected measuring methods was fair to good, although the variation in obesity prevalence rates between the different assessments methods varied markedly. © 2015 World Obesity.

  10. Built environment change and change in BMI and waist circumference: Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Jana A; Moore, Kari A; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh; Brines, Shannon J; Zagorski, Melissa A; Rodriguez, Daniel A; Diez Roux, Ana V

    2014-11-01

    To examine longitudinal associations of the neighborhood built environment with objectively measured body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in a geographically and racial/ethnically diverse group of adults. This study used data from 5,506 adult participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, aged 45-84 years in 2000 (baseline). BMI and WC were assessed at baseline and four follow-up visits (median follow-up 9.1 years). Time-varying built environment measures (population density, land-use, destinations, bus access, and street characteristics) were created using Geographic Information Systems. Principal components analysis was used to derive composite scores for three built environment factors. Fixed-effects models, tightly controlling for all time-invariant characteristics, estimated associations between change in the built environment, and change in BMI and WC. Increases in the intensity of development (higher density of walking destinations and population density, and lower percent residential) were associated with less pronounced increases or decreases over time in BMI and WC. Changes in connected retail centers (higher percent retail, higher street connectivity) and public transportation (distance to bus) were not associated with changes in BMI or WC. Longitudinal changes in the built environment, particularly increased density, are associated with decreases in BMI and WC. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  11. Waist Circumference and Objectively Measured Sedentary Behavior in Rural School Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Machado-Rodrigues, Aristides M; Coelho E Silva, Manuel J; Ribeiro, Luís P; Fernandes, Romulo; Mota, Jorge; Malina, Robert M

    2016-01-01

    Research on relationships between lifestyle behaviors and adiposity in school youth is potentially important for identifying subgroups at risk. This study evaluates the associations between waist circumference (WC) and objective measures of sedentary behavior (SB) in a sample of rural school adolescents. The sample included 254 students (114 boys, 140 girls), 13-16 years of age, from rural regions of the Portuguese midlands. Height, weight, and WC were measured. Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) was assessed with the 20-m shuttle-run test. An uniaxial GT1M accelerometer was used to obtain 5 consecutive days of physically activity (PA) and SB. Multiple linear regression was used to test associations between WC and SB, adjusted for several potential confounders (age, sex, PA, CRF, parental education). SB was not significantly associated with the WC, neither in the unadjusted model nor after adjustment for all potential confounders. In the final model, the unique significant predictor of the WC was cardiorespiratory fitness (β = -0.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], -1.02 to -0.62). WC was not independently associated with SB time in rural school adolescents. Future research is claimed among rural adolescents in different geographic contexts to try to clarify recent findings of less studied communities. © 2015, American School Health Association.

  12. Sensitivity and specificity of waist circumference as a single screening tool for identification of overweight and obesity among Malaysian adults.

    PubMed

    Kee, C C; Jamaiyah, H; Geeta, A; Ali, Z Ahmad; Safiza, M N Noor; Suzana, S; Khor, G L; Rahmah, R; Jamalludin, A R; Sumarni, M G; Lim, K H; Faudzi, Y Ahmad; Amal, N M

    2011-12-01

    Generalised obesity and central obesity are risk factors for Type II diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. Waist circumference (WC) has been suggested as a single screening tool for identification of overweight or obese subjects in lieu of the body mass index (BMI) for weight management in public health program. Currently, the recommended waist circumference cut-off points of > or = 94cm for men and > or =80cm for women (waist action level 1) and > or = 102cm for men and > or = 88cm for women (waist action level 2) used for identification of overweight and obesity are based on studies in Caucasian populations. The objective of this study was to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the recommended waist action levels, and to determine optimal WC cut-off points for identification of overweight or obesity with central fat distribution based on BMI for Malaysian adults. Data from 32,773 subjects (14,982 men and 17,791 women) aged 18 and above who participated in the Third National Health Morbidity Survey in 2006 were analysed. Sensitivity and specificity of WC at waist action level 1 were 48.3% and 97.5% for men; and 84.2% and 80.6% for women when compared to the cut-off points based on BMI > or = 25kg/m2. At waist action level 2, sensitivity and specificity were 52.4% and 98.0% for men, and 79.2% and 85.4% for women when compared with the cut-off points based on BMI (> or = 30 kg/m2). Receiver operating characteristic analyses showed that the appropriatescreening cut-off points for WC to identify subjects with overweight (> or = 25kg/m2) was 86.0cm (sensitivity=83.6%, specificity=82.5%) for men, and 79.1cm (sensitivity=85.0%, specificity=79.5%) for women. Waist circumference cut-off points to identify obese subjects (BMI > or = 30 kg/m2) was 93.2cm (sensitivity=86.5%, specificity=85.7%) for men and 85.2cm (sensitivity=77.9%, specificity=78.0%) for women. Our findings demonstrated that the current recommended waist circumference cut-off points have low

  13. The discriminative ability of waist circumference, body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio in identifying metabolic syndrome: Variations by age, sex and race.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Kee C; Ghazali, Sumarni M; Hock, Lim K; Subenthiran, Soobitha; Huey, Teh C; Kuay, Lim K; Mustapha, Feisul I; Yusoff, Ahmad F; Mustafa, Amal N

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have suggested that there is variation in the capabilities of BMI, WC and WHR in predicting cardiometabolic risk and that it might be confounded by gender, ethnicity and age group. The objective of this study is to examine the discriminative abilities of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-hip ratio (WHR) to predict two or more non-adipose components of the metabolic syndrome (high blood pressure, hypertriglyceridemia, low high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and high fasting plasma glucose) among the adult Malaysian population by gender, age group and ethnicity. Data from 2572 respondents (1044 men and 1528 women) aged 25-64 years who participated in the Non Communicable Disease Surveillance 2005/2006, a population-based cross sectional study, were analysed. Participants' socio-demographic details, anthropometric indices (BMI, WC and WHR), blood pressure, fasting lipid profile and fasting glucose level were assessed. Receiver operating characteristics curves analysis was used to evaluate the ability of each anthropometric index to discriminate MetS cases from non-MetS cases based on the area under the curve. Overall, WC had better discriminative ability than WHR for women but did not perform significantly better than BMI in both sexes, whereas BMI was better than WHR in women only. Waist circumference was a better discriminator of MetS compared to WHR in Malay men and women. Waist circumference and BMI performed better than WHR in Chinese women, men aged 25-34 years and women aged 35-44 years. The discriminative ability of BMI and WC is better than WHR for predicting two or more non-adipose components of MetS. Therefore, either BMI or WC measurements are recommended in screening for metabolic syndrome in routine clinical practice in the effort to combat cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2015 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Macronutrients Association with Change in Waist and Hip Circumference Over 9 Years.

    PubMed

    Lofley, Amy C; Root, Martin M

    2017-01-01

    The calorie distribution of macronutrients affects individuals' health. Quantity and source of macronutrients may play major roles in waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC). This study's purpose is to investigate the association between the quantity and source of macronutrients and the change in WC and HC over 9 years. Participants (N = 11,343) were from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Community Study. Those diagnosed with cancer or a decrease in WC or HC of 15 cm or more over 9 years were excluded. Change scores were created for anthropometrics between clinic visits over 9 years. Macronutrient intakes were assessed by a food frequency questionnaire at visit 1 and presented as a percentage of energy intake. Linear regressions were performed with quartiles of dietary components on change scores for WC and HC with controlling cofactors. Gender subgroup analysis was performed. A larger increase in WC was associated with higher intakes of total carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and fructose (p for trend < 0.005). A smaller increase in WC was associated with higher intakes of sucrose, total protein, animal protein, and alcohol (p for trend < 0.02). A larger increase in HC was associated with higher intakes of total carbohydrate, sucrose, fructose, animal protein, and vegetable fat (p for trend < 0.05). A smaller increase in HC was associated with higher intakes of animal fat, total fat, and total protein (p for trend < 0.05). In males, changes in WC and HC were associated with fructose, sucrose, total fat, and total protein. In females, changes in WC and HC were associated with dietary fiber, fructose, alcohol, animal protein, total protein, animal fat, and vegetable fat. Macronutrient source and quantity play a significant role in individuals' adiposity and effects on WC and HC. Overall, an increase in WC and HC was seen over the 11 years. The source and quantity of the macronutrients play a significant role in WC and HC. Further research needs to be conducted

  15. Waist circumference: a better index of fat location than WHR for predicting lipid profile in overweight/obese Iranian women.

    PubMed

    Shahraki, T; Shahraki, M; Roudbari, M

    2009-01-01

    We carried out a clinical cross-sectional study on 728 overweight and obese women aged 20-60 years during July 2005-May 2006 in Sistan and Baluchestan, Islamic Republic of Iran. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) showed significant correlation with total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. After adjustment for age and BMI, this was also true for WC with TC and TG. There was no such correlation between waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and lipid profile. Hence, WC was a better anthropometric index of fat location than WHR to estimate lipid profile in overweight and obese adult women.

  16. Hypertriglyceridemia and Waist Circumference Predict Cardiovascular Risk among HIV Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Janiszewski, Peter M.; Ross, Robert; Despres, Jean-Pierre; Lemieux, Isabelle; Orlando, Gabriella; Carli, Federica; Bagni, Pietro; Menozzi, Marianna; Zona, Stefano; Guaraldi, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Background Although half of HIV-infected patients develop lipodystrophy and metabolic complications, there exists no simple clinical screening tool to discern the high from the low-risk HIV-infected patient. Thus, we evaluated the associations between waist circumference (WC) combined with triglyceride (TG) levels and the severity of lipodystrophy and cardiovascular risk among HIV-infected men and women. Methods 1481 HIV-infected men and 841 HIV-infected women were recruited between 2005 and 2009 at the metabolic clinic of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia in Italy. Within each gender, patients were categorized into 4 groups according to WC and TG levels. Total and regional fat and fat-free mass were assessed by duel-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and abdominal subcutaneous AT (SAT) were quantified by computed tomography. Various cardiovascular risk factors were assessed in clinic after an overnight fast. Results The high TG/high WC men had the most VAT (208.0±94.4 cm2), as well as the highest prevalence of metabolic syndrome (42.2%) and type-2 diabetes (16.2%), and the highest Framingham risk score (10.3±6.5) in comparison to other groups (p<0.05 for all). High TG/high WC women also had elevated VAT (150.0±97.9 cm2) and a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (53.3%), hypertension (30.5%) and type-2 diabetes (12.0%), and Framingham risk score(2.9±2.8) by comparison to low TG/low WC women (p<0.05 for all). Conclusions A simple tool combining WC and TG levels can discriminate high- from low-risk HIV-infected patients. PMID:21966404

  17. Regional body volumes, BMI, waist circumference, and percentage fat in severely obese adults.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jack; Gallagher, Dympna; Thornton, John C; Yu, Wen; Weil, Rich; Kovac, Betty; Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier

    2007-11-01

    This study presents total body volume (TBV) and regional body volume, and their relationships with widely used body composition indices [BMI, waist circumference (WC), and percentage body fat (% fat)] in severely obese adults (BMI >or=35 kg/m(2)). We measured TBV, trunk volume (TV), arm volume (AV), leg volume (LV), and WC and estimated % fat in 32 severely obese persons with BMI 36 to 62 kg/m(2) (23 women; age, 19 to 65 years; weight, 91 to 182 kg) and in 58 persons with BMI <35 kg/m(2) (28 women; age, 18 to 83 years; weight, 48 to 102 kg) using a newly validated 3-day photonic image scanner (3DPS, Model C9036-02, Hamamatsu Co., Japan) and calculated TV/TBV, AV/TBV, and LV/TBV. Men had significantly larger TBV and higher TV/TBV and AV/TBV, but significantly lower LV/TBV than women, independently of BMI. TV/TBV increased while AV/TBV and LV/TBV decreased with increasing BMI, WC, and % fat, and the rate of increase in TV/TBV per % fat was significantly greater in severely obese individuals than in individuals with BMI <35 kg/m(2). The relationships for TBV with % fat were much lower than with BMI or WC. Body volume gains were mainly in the trunk region in adults, irrespective of sex or BMI. For a given BMI, WC, or % fat, men had a significantly larger TV than women. The implication is that men could have higher health risks due to having higher trunk body weight as a proportion of total body weight compared with severely obese or less severely obese women.

  18. Weight training, aerobic physical activities, and long-term waist circumference change in men.

    PubMed

    Mekary, Rania A; Grøntved, Anders; Despres, Jean-Pierre; De Moura, Leandro Pereira; Asgarzadeh, Morteza; Willett, Walter C; Rimm, Eric B; Giovannucci, Edward; Hu, Frank B

    2015-02-01

    Findings on weight training and waist circumference (WC) change are controversial. This study examined prospectively whether weight training, moderate to vigorous aerobic activity (MVAA), and replacement of one activity for another were associated with favorable changes in WC and body weight (BW). Physical activity, WC, and BW were reported in 1996 and 2008 in a cohort of 10,500 healthy U.S. men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Multiple linear regression models (partition/substitution) to assess these associations were used. After adjusting for potential confounders, a significant inverse dose-response relationship between weight training and WC change (P-trend <0.001) was observed. Less age-associated WC increase was seen with a 20-min/day activity increase; this benefit was significantly stronger for weight training (-0.67 cm, 95% CI -0.93, -0.41) than for MVAA (-0.33 cm, 95% CI -0.40, -0.27), other activities (-0.16 cm, 95% CI -0.28, -0.03), or TV watching (0.08 cm, 95% CI 0.05, 0.12). Substituting 20 min/day of weight training for any other discretionary activity had the strongest inverse association with WC change. MVAA had the strongest inverse association with BW change (-0.23 kg, 95% CI -0.29, -0.17). Among various activities, weight training had the strongest association with less WC increase. Studies on frequency/volume of weight training and WC change are warranted. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  19. Changes in Adult BMI and Waist Circumference Are Associated with Increased Risk of Advanced Colorectal Neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Gathirua-Mwangi, Wambui G; Monahan, Patrick; Song, Yiqing; Zollinger, Terrell W; Champion, Victoria L; Stump, Timothy E; Imperiale, Thomas F

    2017-11-01

    Waist circumference (WC) is a stronger predictor of colon cancer (CRC) risk than body mass index (BMI). However, how well change in either WC or BMI predicts risk of advanced colorectal neoplasia (AN) is unclear. To determine the relationship between change in BMI and WC from early adulthood to later age and the risk of AN and which change measure is a stronger predictor. In 4500 adults, ages 50-80, with no previous neoplasia and undergoing screening colonoscopy, BMI and WC at age 21 and at time of screening were reported. Changes in BMI and WC were defined using universal risk cutoffs. Known CRC risk factors were controlled in the logistic models. Overall, model statistics showed WC change (omnibus test χ 2  = 10.15, 2 DF, p value = 0.006) was a statistically stronger predictor of AN than BMI change (omnibus test χ 2  = 5.66, 5 DF, p value = 0.34). Independent of BMI change, participants who increased WC (OR 1.44; 95% CI 1.05-1.96) or maintained a high-risk WC (OR 2.50; 95% CI 1.38-4.53) at age 21 and at screening had an increased risk of AN compared to those with a low-risk WC. Study participants who were obese at age 21 and at screening had an increased risk of AN (OR 1.87; 95% CI 1.08-3.23) compared to those who maintained a healthy BMI. Maintaining an overweight BMI or increasing BMI was not associated with AN. Maintaining an unhealthy BMI and WC throughout adult life may increase risk of AN. WC change may be a better predictor of AN than BMI change.

  20. Discrimination of health risk by combined body mass index and waist circumference.

    PubMed

    Ardern, Christopher I; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Janssen, Ian; Ross, Robert

    2003-01-01

    NIH Clinical Guidelines (1998) recommend the measurement of waist circumference (WC, centimeters) within body mass index (BMI, kilograms per square meter) categories as a screening tool for increased health risk. The Canada Heart Health Surveys (1986 through 1992) were used to describe the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Canada and to test the use of the NIH guidelines for predicting metabolic risk factors. The sample included 7981 participants ages 20 to 74 years who had complete data for WC, BMI, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglycerides, diabetic status, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures. National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III risk categories were used to identify the metabolic syndrome and associated risk factors. Logistic regression was used to test the hypothesis that WC improves the prediction of the metabolic syndrome, within overweight (25 to 29.9 kg/m(2)) and obese I (30 to 34.9 kg/m(2)) BMI categories. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 17.0% in men and 13.2% in women. The odds ratios (OR) for the prediction of the metabolic syndrome were elevated in overweight [OR, 1.85; 95% confidence interval (95%CI), 1.02 to 3.35] and obese (OR, 2.35; 95%CI, 1.25 to 4.42) women with a high WC compared with overweight and obese women with a low WC, respectively. On the other hand, WC was not predictive of the metabolic syndrome or component risk factors in men, within BMI categories. In women already at increased health risk because of an elevated BMI, the additional measurement of WC may help identify cardiovascular risk.

  1. Deriving an optimal threshold of waist circumference for detecting cardiometabolic risk in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Ekoru, K; Murphy, G A V; Young, E H; Delisle, H; Jerome, C S; Assah, F; Longo-Mbenza, B; Nzambi, J P D; On'Kin, J B K; Buntix, F; Muyer, M C; Christensen, D L; Wesseh, C S; Sabir, A; Okafor, C; Gezawa, I D; Puepet, F; Enang, O; Raimi, T; Ohwovoriole, E; Oladapo, O O; Bovet, P; Mollentze, W; Unwin, N; Gray, W K; Walker, R; Agoudavi, K; Siziya, S; Chifamba, J; Njelekela, M; Fourie, C M; Kruger, S; Schutte, A E; Walsh, C; Gareta, D; Kamali, A; Seeley, J; Norris, S A; Crowther, N J; Pillay, D; Kaleebu, P; Motala, A A; Sandhu, M S

    2017-10-03

    Waist circumference (WC) thresholds derived from western populations continue to be used in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) despite increasing evidence of ethnic variation in the association between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease and availability of data from African populations. We aimed to derive a SSA-specific optimal WC cut-point for identifying individuals at increased cardiometabolic risk. We used individual level cross-sectional data on 24 181 participants aged ⩾15 years from 17 studies conducted between 1990 and 2014 in eight countries in SSA. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to derive optimal WC cut-points for detecting the presence of at least two components of metabolic syndrome (MS), excluding WC. The optimal WC cut-point was 81.2 cm (95% CI 78.5-83.8 cm) and 81.0 cm (95% CI 79.2-82.8 cm) for men and women, respectively, with comparable accuracy in men and women. Sensitivity was higher in women (64%, 95% CI 63-65) than in men (53%, 95% CI 51-55), and increased with the prevalence of obesity. Having WC above the derived cut-point was associated with a twofold probability of having at least two components of MS (age-adjusted odds ratio 2.6, 95% CI 2.4-2.9, for men and 2.2, 95% CI 2.0-2.3, for women). The optimal WC cut-point for identifying men at increased cardiometabolic risk is lower (⩾81.2 cm) than current guidelines (⩾94.0 cm) recommend, and similar to that in women in SSA. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these cut-points based on cardiometabolic outcomes.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 31 October 2017; doi:10.1038/ijo.2017.240.

  2. Waist circumference, body mass index, and disability among older adults in Latin American and the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Sanggon; Kuo, Yong-Fang; Markides, Kyriakos S; Al Snih, Soham

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To examine the association between waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) on disability among older adults from Latin America and the Caribbean. Methods Cross-sectional, multicenter city study of 5,786 subjects aged 65 years and older from the Health, Well-Being and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean Study (SABE) (1999-2000). Sociodemographic variables, smoking status, medical conditions, BMI, WC, and activities of daily living (ADL) were obtained. Results Prevalence of high WC (>88 cm) in women ranged from 48.5% (Havana) to 72.7% (Mexico City), while among men (>102 cm) it ranged from 12.5% (Bridgetown) to 32.5% (Santiago). The associations between WC and ADL disability were “J” shaped, with higher risks of ADL disability observed above 110 cm for women in Bridgetown, Santiago, Havana, and Montevideo. The association in Sao Paulo is plateau with higher risk above 100 cm, and the association in Mexico City is closer to linear. Among men the associations were “U” (Bridgetown, Sao Paulo, and Havana), “J” shaped (Montevideo), plateau (Santiago), and closer to linear in Mexico City (Figure 3). When WC and BMI were analyzed together, we found that participants from Sao Paolo, Santiago, Havana, and Montevideo in the overweight or obese category with high WC were significantly more likely to report ADL disability after adjusting for all covariates. Conclusion The findings of this study suggests that both general and abdominal adiposity are associated with disability and support the use of WC in addition to BMI to assess risk of disability in older adults. PMID:22564360

  3. Urinary Phthalate Metabolites Are Associated with Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in Chinese School Children

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hexing; Zhou, Ying; Tang, Chuanxi; He, Yanhong; Wu, Jingui; Chen, Yue; Jiang, Qingwu

    2013-01-01

    Background Lab studies have suggested that ubiquitous phthalate exposures are related to obesity, but relevant epidemiological studies are scarce, especially for children. Objective To investigate the association of phthalate exposures with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in Chinese school children. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in three primary and three middle schools randomly selected from Changning District of Shanghai City of China in 2011–2012. According to the physical examination data in October, 2011, 124 normal weight, 53 overweight, and 82 obese students 8–15 years of age were randomly chosen from these schools on the basis of BMI-based age- and sex-specific criterion. First morning urine was collected in January, 2012, and fourteen urine phthalate metabolites (free plus conjugated) were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Multiple linear regression was used to explore the associations between naturally log-transformed urine phthalate metabolites and BMI or WC. Results The urine specific gravity-corrected concentrations of nine urine phthalate metabolites and five molar sums were positively associated with BMI or WC in Chinese school children after adjustment for age and sex. However, when other urine phthalate metabolites were included in the models together with age and sex as covariables, most of these significant associations disappeared except for mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and monoethyl phthalate (MEP). Additionally, some associations showed sex- or age-specific differences. Conclusions Some phthalate exposures were associated with BMI or WC in Chinese school children. Given the cross-sectional nature of this study and lack of some important obesity-related covariables, further studies are needed to confirm the associations. PMID:23437242

  4. Study of conicity index, body mass index and waist circumference as predictors of coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Caitano Fontela, Paula; Winkelmann, Eliane Roseli; Nazario Viecili, Paulo Ricardo

    2017-05-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. This study was designed to assess whether the conicity index (CI), body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) can be used as predictors of coronary artery disease (CAD) and mortality in a middle-aged population of the north-western region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. This was a retrospective, longitudinal cohort study, based on the medical records of patients seen in a cardiology institution in a rural area of Rio Grande do Sul. The sample consisted of 2396 individuals. The primary endpoint was diagnosis of CAD, with mortality as the secondary endpoint. CI, BMI and WC were assessed using logistic regression, Cox regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The study showed that none of the anthropometric measures could be considered independent factors for either a diagnosis of CAD or mortality. Female gender was associated with a significantly lower risk of CAD (odds ratio [OR]: 0.31; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.22-0.44), as was absence of diabetes (OR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.33-0.82), while there was a significantly higher risk of mortality associated with the presence of CAD (OR: 3.56; 95% CI: 2.00-6.32) and alcohol consumption (OR: 3.55; 95% CI: 1.60-7.90). These anthropometric measures were not independent predictive factors for CAD diagnosis or mortality in a population in southern Brazil. Our results support the conclusion that determination of CI, BMI and WC alone is insufficient to assess the risk of CAD and mortality in the general population. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Weight training, aerobic physical activities, and long-term waist circumference change in men

    PubMed Central

    Mekary, Rania A.; Grøntved, Anders; Despres, Jean-Pierre; De Moura, Leandro Pereira; Asgarzadeh, Morteza; Willett, Walter C.; Rimm, Eric B.; Giovannucci, Edward; Hu, Frank B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Findings on weight training and waist circumference (WC) change are controversial. This study examined prospectively whether weight training, moderate-to-vigorous aerobic activity (MVAA), and replacement of one activity for another were associated with favorable changes in WC and body weight (BW). Methods Physical activity, WC, and BW were reported in 1996 and 2008 in a cohort of 10,500 healthy U.S. men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. We used multiple linear regression models (partition/substitution) to assess these associations. Results After adjusting for potential confounders, we observed a significant inverse dose-response relationship between weight training and WC change (P-trend<0.001). Less age-associated WC increase was seen with a 20 min/day activity increase; this benefit was significantly stronger for weight training (-0.67cm, 95%CI -0.93, -0.41) than for MVAA (-0.33cm, 95%CI -0.40, -0.27), other activities (-0.16cm, 95%CI -0.28, -0.03), or TV watching (0.08cm, 95%CI 0.05, 0.12). Substituting 20 min/day of weight training for any other discretionary activity had the strongest inverse association with WC change. MVAA had the strongest inverse association with BW change (-0.23kg, 95%CI -0.29, -0.17). Conclusions Among various activities, weight training had the strongest association with less WC increase. Studies on frequency /volume of weight training and WC change are warranted. PMID:25530447

  6. Food consumption, physical activity and socio-economic status related to BMI, waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Sandra; Santos, Rute; Moreira, Carla; Santos, Paula Clara; Mota, Jorge; Moreira, Pedro

    2014-08-01

    To examine the association between obesity and food group intakes, physical activity and socio-economic status in adolescents. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2008. Cole's cut-off points were used to categorize BMI. Abdominal obesity was defined by a waist circumference at or above the 90th percentile, as well as a waist-to-height ratio at or above 0·500. Diet was evaluated using an FFQ, and the food group consumption was categorized using sex-specific tertiles of each food group amount. Physical activity was assessed via a self-report questionnaire. Socio-economic status was assessed referring to parental education and employment status. Data were analysed separately for girls and boys and the associations among food consumption, physical activity, socio-economic status and BMI, waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio were evaluated using logistic regression analysis, adjusting the results for potential confounders. Public schools in the Azorean Archipelago, Portugal. Adolescents (n 1209) aged 15-18 years. After adjustment, in boys, higher intake of ready-to-eat cereals was a negative predictor while vegetables were a positive predictor of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity. Active boys had lower odds of abdominal obesity compared with inactive boys. Boys whose mother showed a low education level had higher odds of abdominal obesity compared with boys whose mother presented a high education level. Concerning girls, higher intake of sweets and pastries was a negative predictor of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity. Girls in tertile 2 of milk intake had lower odds of abdominal obesity than those in tertile 1. Girls whose father had no relationship with employment displayed higher odds of abdominal obesity compared with girls whose father had high employment status. We have found that different measures of obesity have distinct associations with food group intakes, physical activity and socio-economic status.

  7. Waist-to-Hip Ratio is Related to Body Fat Content and Distribution Regardless of the Waist Circumference Measurement Protocol in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Patients.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Nuno M; Santa-Clara, Helena; Melo, Xavier; Cortez-Pinto, Helena; Silva-Nunes, José; Sardinha, Luís B

    2016-08-01

    Central accumulation and distribution of body fat (BF) is an important cardiometabolic risk factor. Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), commonly elevated in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients, has been endorsed as a risk related marker of central BF content and distribution, but no standardized waist circumference measurement protocol (WCmp) has been proposed. We aimed to investigate whether using different WCmp affects the strength of association between WHR and BF content and distribution in NAFLD patients. BF was assessed with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 28 NAFLD patients (19 males, 51 ± 13 years, and 9 females, 47 ± 13 years). Waist circumference (WC) was measured using four different WCmp (WC1: minimal waist; WC2: iliac crest; WC3: mid-distance between iliac crest and lowest rib; WC4: at the umbilicus) and WHR was calculated accordingly (WHR1, WHR2, WHR3 and WHR4, respectively). High WHR was found in up to 84.6% of subjects, depending on the WHR considered. With the exception of WHR1, all WHR correlated well with abdominal BF (r = .47 for WHR1; r = .59 for WHR2 and WHR3; r = .58 for WHR4) and BF distribution (r = .45 for WHR1; r = .56 for WHR2 and WHR3; r = .51 for WHR4), controlling for age, sex and body mass index (BMI). WHR2 and WHR3 diagnosed exactly the same prevalence of high WHR (76.9%). The present study confirms the strong relation between WHR and central BF, regardless of WCmp used, in NAFLD patients. WHR2 and WHR3 seemed preferable for use in clinical practice, interchangeably, for the diagnosis of high WHR in NAFLD patients.

  8. Long-term aircraft noise exposure and body mass index, waist circumference, and type 2 diabetes: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Charlotta; Hilding, Agneta; Pyko, Andrei; Bluhm, Gösta; Pershagen, Göran; Östenson, Claes-Göran

    2014-07-01

    Long-term aircraft noise exposure may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, but no study has investigated chronic effects on the metabolic system. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of long-term aircraft noise exposure on body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, we explored the modifying effects of sleep disturbance. This prospective cohort study of residents of Stockholm County, Sweden, followed 5,156 participants with normal baseline oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) for up to 10 years. Exposure to aircraft noise was estimated based on residential history. Information on outcomes and confounders was obtained from baseline and follow-up surveys and examinations, and participants who developed prediabetes or type 2 diabetes were identified by self-reported physician diagnosis or OGTT at follow-up. Adjusted associations were assessed by linear, logistic, and random-effects models. The mean (± SD) increases in BMI and waist circumference during follow-up were 1.09 ± 1.97 kg/m2 and 4.39 ± 6.39 cm, respectively. The cumulative incidence of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes was 8% and 3%, respectively. Based on an ordinal noise variable, a 5-dB(A) increase in aircraft noise was associated with a greater increase in waist circumference of 1.51 cm (95% CI: 1.13, 1.89), fully adjusted. This association appeared particularly strong among those who did not change their home address during the study period, which may be a result of lower exposure misclassification. However, no clear associations were found for BMI or type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, sleep disturbances did not appear to modify the associations with aircraft noise. Long-term aircraft noise exposure may be linked to metabolic outcomes, in particular increased waist circumference.

  9. Associations between waist circumference, metabolic risk and executive function in adolescents: A cross-sectional mediation analysis.

    PubMed

    Bugge, Anna; Möller, Sören; Westfall, Daniel R; Tarp, Jakob; Gejl, Anne K; Wedderkopp, Niels; Hillman, Charles H

    2018-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the associations between waist circumference, metabolic risk factors, and executive function in adolescents. The study was cross-sectional and included 558 adolescents (mean age 14.2 years). Anthropometrics and systolic blood pressure (sysBP) were measured and fasting blood samples were analyzed for metabolic risk factors. A metabolic risk factor cluster score (MetS-cluster score) was computed from the sum of standardized sysBP, triglycerides (TG), inverse high-density lipid cholesterol (HDLc) and insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment). Cognitive control was measured with a modified flanker task. Regression analyses indicated that after controlling for demographic variables, HDLc exhibited a negative and TG a positive association with flanker reaction time (RT). Waist circumference did not demonstrate a statistically significant total association with the cognitive outcomes. In structural equation modeling, waist circumference displayed an indirect positive association with incongruent RT through a higher MetS-cluster score and through lower HDLc. The only statistically significant direct association between waist circumference and the cognitive outcomes was for incongruent RT in the model including HDLc as mediator. These findings are consonant with the previous literature reporting an adverse association between certain metabolic risk factors and cognitive control. Accordingly, these results suggest specificity between metabolic risk factors and cognitive control outcomes. Further, results of the present study, although cross-sectional, provide new evidence that specific metabolic risk factors may mediate an indirect association between adiposity and cognitive control in adolescents, even though a direct association between these variables was not observed. However, taking the cross-sectional study design into consideration, these results should be interpreted with caution and future longitudinal or

  10. Changes in Individual Weight Status Based on Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in Hong Kong Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Lai Ming; Wang, Man Ping; Ho, Sai Yin; Lam, Tai Hing

    2015-01-01

    Background Weight change predicted diseases and mortality. We investigate 3-year changes in individual body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in Hong Kong Chinese adults. Methods In the Population Health Survey, 7084 adults in 2003 (baseline) were followed up in 2006. Longitudinal anthropometric data were available in 2941 (41.5%) for BMI and 2956 for waist circumference. Weight status and central obesity were based on objectively measured BMI and waist circumference using Asian standards. Results Mean BMI (SD) increased from 22.8 (3.62) to 23.1 (3.95) (p<0.001) with 1.3 percentage point increase in prevalence of overweight and obesity (from 44.3% to 45.6%). One in 5 (22.0%) normal or underweight baseline respondents became overweight or obese and a similar proportion (24.8%) of overweight and obese respondents became normal or underweight. Prevalence of central obesity increased from 28.3% to 32.4% (p<0.001) with a non-significantly greater increase in women (30.0% to 38.1%) than men (23.0% to 26.1%) (p=0.63). A higher proportion of centrally obese respondents returned to normal (29.4%) than normal respondents developing central obesity (17.4%). Conclusions This is one of the few studies in Chinese, which found dynamic longitudinal changes (increase/stable/decrease) in individual weight status and waist circumference. Future studies with better follow-up and investigating the causes of such changes are warranted. PMID:25775476

  11. BMI and waist circumference are associated with impaired glucose metabolism and type 2 diabetes in normal weight Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Li, Shengxu; Xiao, Jianzhong; Ji, Linong; Weng, Jianping; Jia, Weiping; Lu, Juming; Zhou, Zhiguang; Guo, Xiaohui; Liu, Jie; Shan, Zhongyan; Zhu, Dalong; Chen, Li; Zhao, Zhigang; Tian, Haoming; Ji, Qiuhe; Ge, Jiapu; Li, Qiang; Lin, Lixiang; Yang, Zhaojun; He, Jiang; Yang, Wenying

    2014-01-01

    To examine the associations of BMI and waist circumference with glucose metabolism and (pre)diabetes among adults with BMI < 25 kg/m². We conducted a cross-sectional study in a nationally representative sample (10,098 men and 17,454 women) of Chinese adults aged ≥ 20 years with BMI < 25 kg/m². Glucose levels after at least 10 hours of overnight fasting, at 30 minutes and at 120 minutes after a standard 75-g oral glucose load were measured. Associations of BMI and waist circumference with outcomes were examined by general linear models for continuous outcomes and by logistic regression models for dichotomous outcomes. Among those with BMI < 25 kg/m², 18.8% of men and 17.1% of women had abnormal glucose metabolism, including 4.9% of men and 3.8% of women with undiagnosed type 2 diabetes. For each SD increase in BMI (2.1 kg/m²) and waist circumference (8.3 cm), fasting glucose levels increased by 0.128 and 0.170 mmol/L in men, and by 0.112 and 0.167 mmol/L in women, respectively; the corresponding increases for 2-hour post-load glucose levels were 0.121 and 0.217 mmol/L in men, and 0.241 and 0.362 mmol/L in women. When simultaneously included in the same model, these associations with waist circumference were stronger than with BMI. Obesity measures are associated with abnormal glucose metabolism and diabetes, with central obesity playing a more prominent role than general obesity in Chinese population with BMI < 25 kg/m². Chinese diabetes prevention and treatment programs should incorporate targeting of normal weight adults with central obesity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Secular and race/ethnic trends in glycemic outcomes by BMI in US adults: The role of waist circumference.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Sandra S; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth; Popkin, Barry M

    2017-07-01

    For the same body mass index (BMI) level, waist circumference (WC) is higher in more recent years. How this impacts diabetes and prediabetes prevalence in the United States and for different race/ethnic groups is unknown. We examined prevalence differences in diabetes and prediabetes by BMI over time, investigated whether estimates were attenuated after adjusting for waist circumference, and evaluated implications of these patterns on race/ethnic disparities in glycemic outcomes. Data came from 12 614 participants aged 20 to 74 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1988-1994 and 2007-2012). We estimated prevalence differences in diabetes and prediabetes by BMI over time in multivariable models. Relevant interactions evaluated race/ethnic differences. Among normal, overweight, and class I obese individuals, there were no significant differences in diabetes prevalence over time. However, among individuals with class II/III obesity, diabetes prevalence rose 7.6 percentage points in 2007-2012 vs 1988-1994. This estimate was partly attenuated after adjustment for mean waist circumference but not mean BMI. For prediabetes, prevalence was 10 to 13 percentage points higher over time at lower BMI values, with minimal attenuation after adjustment for WC. All patterns held within race/ethnic groups. Diabetes disparities among blacks and Mexican Americans relative to whites remained in both periods, regardless of BMI, and persisted after adjustment for WC. Diabetes prevalence rose over time among individuals with class II/III obesity and may be partly due to increasing waist circumference. Anthropometric measures did not appear to account for temporal increases in prediabetes, nor did they attenuate race/ethnic disparities in diabetes. Reasons underlying these trends require further investigation. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Changes in body weight and waist circumference affect incident hypercholesterolemia during 7 years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Williams, Paul T

    2008-09-01

    To assess whether changes in total and regional adiposity affect the odds for becoming hypercholesterolemic. Changes in BMI and waist circumference were compared to self-reported physician-diagnosed hypercholesterolemia in 24,397 men and 10,023 women followed prospectively in the National Runners' Health Study. Incident hypercholesterolemia were reported by 3,054 men and 519 women during (mean +/- s.d.) 7.8 +/- 1.8 and 7.5 +/- 2.0 years of follow-up, respectively. Despite being active, men's BMI increased by 1.15 +/- 1.71 kg/m2 and women's BMI increased by 0.96 +/- 1.89 kg/m2. The odds for developing hypercholesterolemia increased significantly in association with gains in BMI and waist circumferences in both sexes. A gain in BMI > or = 2.4 kg/m2 significantly (P < 0.0001) increased the odds for hypercholesterolemia by 94% in men and 129% in women compared to those whose BMI declined (40 and 76%, respectively, adjusted for average of the baseline and follow-up BMI, P < 0.0001). A gain of > or = 6 cm in waist circumference increased men's odds for hypercholesterolemia by 74% (P < 0.0001) and women's odds by 70% (P < 0.0001) relative to those whose circumference declined (odds increased 40% at P < 0.0001 and 49% at P < 0.01, respectively adjusted for average circumference). BMI and waist circumference at the end of follow-up were significantly associated (P < 0.0001) with the log odds for hypercholesterolemia in both men (e.g., coefficient +/- s.e.: 0.115 +/- 0.011 per kg/m2) and women (e.g., 0.119 +/- 0.019 per kg/m2) when adjusted for baseline values, whereas baseline BMI and circumferences were unrelated to the log odds when adjusted for follow-up values. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that weight gain acutely increases the risk for hypercholesterolemia.

  14. Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in Relation to Lung Cancer Risk in the Women's Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mimi; Hunt, Julie R.; Chlebowski, Rowan T.; Rohan, Thomas E.

    2008-01-01

    Investigators in several epidemiologic studies have observed an inverse association between body mass index (BMI) and lung cancer risk, while others have not. The authors used data from the Women's Health Initiative to study the association of anthropometric factors with lung cancer risk. Over 8 years of follow-up (1998–2006), 1,365 incident lung cancer cases were ascertained among 161,809 women. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios adjusted for covariates. Baseline BMI was inversely associated with lung cancer in current smokers (highest quintile vs. lowest: hazard ratio (HR) = 0.62, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.42, 0.92). When BMI and waist circumference were mutually adjusted, BMI was inversely associated with lung cancer risk in both current smokers and former smokers (HR = 0.40 (95% CI: 0.22, 0.72) and HR = 0.61 (95% CI: 0.40, 0.94), respectively), and waist circumference was positively associated with risk (HR = 1.56 (95% CI: 0.91, 2.69) and HR = 1.50 (95% CI: 0.98, 2.31), respectively). In never smokers, height showed a borderline positive association with lung cancer. These findings suggest that in smokers, BMI is inversely associated with lung cancer risk and that waist circumference is positively associated with risk. PMID:18483121

  15. Genetic association with lipids in Filipinos: waist circumference modifies an APOA5 effect on triglyceride levels[S

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ying; Marvelle, Amanda F.; Li, Jin; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C.; Feranil, Alan B.; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; Li, Yun; Adair, Linda S.; Mohlke, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    Blood levels of lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides (TGs) are highly heritable and are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Approximately 100 lipid-associated loci have been identified in populations of European ancestry. We performed a genome-wide association study of lipid traits in 1,782 Filipino women from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, and tested for evidence of interactions with waist circumference. We conducted additional association and interaction analyses in 1,719 of their young adult offspring. Genome-wide significant associations (P < 5 × 10−8) were detected at APOE for low density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol, and at APOA5 for TGs. Suggestive associations (P < 10−6) were detected at GCKR for TGs, and at CETP and TOM1 for high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Our data also supported the existence of allelic heterogeneity at APOA5, CETP, LIPC, and APOE. The secondary signal (Gly185Cys) at APOA5 exhibited a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-by-waist circumference interaction affecting TGs (Pinteraction = 1.6 × 10−4), manifested by stronger SNP effects as waist circumference increased. These findings provide the first evidence that central obesity may accentuate the effect of the TG-increasing allele of the APOA5 signal, emphasizing that CVD risk could be reduced by central obesity control. PMID:24023260

  16. Gender-related personality traits, self-efficacy, and social support: how do they relate to women's waist circumference change?

    PubMed

    Hankonen, Nelli; Konttinen, Hanna; Absetz, Pilvikki

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated whether gender-role related traits agency and communion contribute to successful health behavior change, in an interplay with domain-specific psychosocial factors, namely, agency, mediated by health-related self-efficacy, and communion, moderated by social support. Data from women (N = 282) participating in the GOAL Lifestyle Implementation Trial were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Agency and increase in self-efficacy both independently predicted waist circumference reduction in the 1-year follow-up. Individuals high in communion succeeded in waist reduction only if they received social support. Initial self-efficacy increase predicted 3-year waist reduction. Gender-role orientation, together with social environment, influences behavior change intervention outcomes. © The Author(s) 2013.

  17. Long-Term Aircraft Noise Exposure and Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Hilding, Agneta; Pyko, Andrei; Bluhm, Gösta; Pershagen, Göran; Östenson, Claes-Göran

    2014-01-01

    Background: Long-term aircraft noise exposure may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, but no study has investigated chronic effects on the metabolic system. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate effects of long-term aircraft noise exposure on body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, we explored the modifying effects of sleep disturbance. Methods: This prospective cohort study of residents of Stockholm County, Sweden, followed 5,156 participants with normal baseline oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) for up to 10 years. Exposure to aircraft noise was estimated based on residential history. Information on outcomes and confounders was obtained from baseline and follow-up surveys and examinations, and participants who developed prediabetes or type 2 diabetes were identified by self-reported physician diagnosis or OGTT at follow-up. Adjusted associations were assessed by linear, logistic, and random-effects models. Results: The mean (± SD) increases in BMI and waist circumference during follow-up were 1.09 ± 1.97 kg/m2 and 4.39 ± 6.39 cm, respectively. The cumulative incidence of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes was 8% and 3%, respectively. Based on an ordinal noise variable, a 5-dB(A) increase in aircraft noise was associated with a greater increase in waist circumference of 1.51 cm (95% CI: 1.13, 1.89), fully adjusted. This association appeared particularly strong among those who did not change their home address during the study period, which may be a result of lower exposure misclassification. However, no clear associations were found for BMI or type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, sleep disturbances did not appear to modify the associations with aircraft noise. Conclusions: Long-term aircraft noise exposure may be linked to metabolic outcomes, in particular increased waist circumference. Citation: Eriksson C, Hilding A, Pyko A, Bluhm G, Pershagen G, Östenson CG. 2014. Long-term aircraft noise exposure and

  18. Fatty liver index vs waist circumference for predicting non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Motamed, Nima; Sohrabi, Masoudreza; Ajdarkosh, Hossein; Hemmasi, Gholamreza; Maadi, Mansooreh; Sayeedian, Fatemeh Sima; Pirzad, Reza; Abedi, Khadijeh; Aghapour, Sivil; Fallahnezhad, Mojtaba; Zamani, Farhad

    2016-03-14

    To determine the discriminatory performance of fatty liver index (FLI) for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The data of 5052 subjects aged over 18 years were analyzed. FLI was calculated from body mass index, waist circumference (WC), triglyceride, and gamma glutamyl transferase data. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the association between FLI and NAFLD. The discriminatory performance of FLI in the diagnosis of NAFLD was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic analysis. Area under the curves (AUCs) and related confidence intervals were estimated. Optimal cutoff points of FLI in the diagnosis of NAFLD were determined based on the maximum values of Youden's index. The mean age of men and women in the study population were 44.8 ± 16.8 and 43.78 ± 15.43, respectively (P = 0.0216). The prevalence of NAFLD was 40.1% in men and 44.2% in women (P < 0.0017). FLI was strongly associated with NAFLD, so that even a one unit increase in FLI increased the chance of developing NAFLD by 5.8% (OR = 1.058, 95%CI: 1.054-1.063, P < 0.0001). Although FLI showed good performance in the diagnosis of NAFLD (AUC = 0.8656 (95%CI: 0.8548-0.8764), there was no significant difference with regards to WC (AUC = 0.8533, 95%CI: 0.8419-0.8646). The performance of FLI was not significantly different between men (AUC = 0.8648, 95%CI: 0.8505-0.8791) and women (AUC = 0.8682, 95%CI: 0.8513-0.8851). The highest performance with regards to age was related to the 18-39 age group (AUC = 0.8930, 95%CI: 0.8766-0.9093). The optimal cutoff points of FLI were 46.9 in men (sensitivity = 0.8242, specificity = 0.7687, Youden's index = 0.5929) and 53.8 in women (sensitivity = 0.8233, specificity = 0.7655, Youden's index = 0.5888). Although FLI had acceptable discriminatory power in the diagnosis of NAFLD, WC was a simpler and more accessible index with a similar performance.

  19. Waist circumference cut-off points for identification of abdominal obesity among the tunisian adult population.

    PubMed

    Bouguerra, R; Alberti, H; Smida, H; Salem, L B; Rayana, C B; El Atti, J; Achour, A; Gaigi, S; Slama, C B; Zouari, B; Alberti, K G M M

    2007-11-01

    Waist circumference (WC) is a convenient measure of abdominal adipose tissue. It itself is a cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes-risk factor and is strongly linked to other CVD risk factors. There are, however, ethnic differences in the relationship of WC to the other risk factors. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal cut-off points of WC and body mass index (BMI) at which cardiovascular risk factors can be identified with maximum sensitivity and specificity in a representative sample of the Tunisian adult population and to investigate any correlation between WC and BMI. We used a sample of the Tunisian National Nutrition Survey, a cross-sectional population-based survey, conducted in 1996 on a large nationally representative sample, which included 3435 adults (1244 men and 2191 women) of 20 years or older. WC, BMI, blood pressure and fasting blood measurements (plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides) were recorded. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to identify optimal cut-off values of WC and BMI to identify with maximum sensitivity and specificity the detection of high blood pressure, hyperglycaemia, high blood cholesterol and hypertriglyceridaemia. ROC curve analysis suggested WC cut-off points of 85 cm in men and 85 cm in women for the optimum detection of high blood pressure, diabetes and dyslipidaemia. The optimum BMI cut-off points for predicting cardiovascular risk factors were 24 kg/m(2) in men and 27 kg/m(2) in women. The cut-off points recommended for the Caucasian population differ from those appropriate for the Tunisian population. The data show a continuous increase in odds ratios of each cardiovascular risk factor, with increasing level of WC and BMI. WC exceeding 85 cm in men and 79 cm in women correctly identified subjects with a BMI of >/=25 kg/m(2), sensitivity of >90% and specificity of >83%. Based on the ROC analysis, we suggest a WC of 85 cm for both men and women as appropriate cut

  20. Association of waist circumference with outcomes in an acute general surgical unit.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Thomas; Gosal, Preet; Seal, Alexa; McGirr, Joe; Williams, Nicholas

    2017-06-01

    Obesity prevalence is increasing in Australia, particularly in non-metropolitan areas. The effect of obesity on acute surgical outcomes is not known. We aimed to record waist circumference (WC) (surrogate for obesity) amongst acute surgical unit (ASU) patients in a New South Wales regional hospital, and compare outcome measures (length of stay (LOS), unplanned return to theatre, readmission rates, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mortality). Retrospective cohort study of 4 months of consecutive ASU admissions, excluding age <16, pregnancy, out-of-area transfer and incomplete data. Patients were classified according to World Health Organization WC definitions as high-risk or non-high-risk (increased-risk and no-risk). Of 695 admissions, 512 met the inclusion criteria (47.1% female, average age 52.8 years (SD 22.3)), with 85.1% (P < 0.001) of females and 69.4% (P = 0.166) of males having an increased- or high-risk WC. This compares to rates amongst inner regional populations of 71.0% (female) and 66.4% (male). LOS was longer for high-risk patients (5.0 days versus 3.7 days, P = 0.002). However, the mean age of high-risk patients was greater (56.6 years versus 46.9 years, P = 0.001) and LOS was longer for those aged ≥60 (P < 0.001). After controlling for age, high-risk WC was not associated with any outcome measure, except amongst ICU admissions, where high-risk patients stayed longer (15.5 days versus 6.8 days, P < 0.001). Increased- and high-risk WC was overrepresented amongst female ASU patients. High-risk WC was associated with a significantly greater LOS in patients admitted to ICU. High-risk WC was not associated with other outcomes independent of age. WC is useful for quantifying obesity in the inpatient setting. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  1. The metabolic syndrome in black hypertensive women--waist circumference more strongly related than body mass index.

    PubMed

    Rheeder, P; Stolk, R P; Veenhouwer, J F; Grobbee, D E

    2002-08-01

    To examine the association between measures of obesity and features of the metabolic syndrome in treated black female hypertensive subjects. Cross-sectional study. An urban primary health care centre in Mamelodi, Pretoria. Women with hypertension and without known diabetes mellitus or secondary causes of hypertension. In total 124 women participated, with a mean age of 56.9 years (standard deviation (SD) 11.0) and mean body mass index (BMI) of 34.1 kg/m2 (SD 8.1). Blood pressure, glucose, insulin and lipid levels. Waist circumference and waist-hip ratio were more strongly associated with insulin, uric acid, glucose and triglycerides than was BMI. Statistically significant associations were found between waist circumference and low high-density lipoprotein HDL cholesterol (standardised regression coefficient -0.006, standard error of the mean (SEM) 0.002), log triglycerides (0.007, SEM 0.003), uric acid (0.002, SEM 0.001) and log insulin (0.012, SEM 0.003). BMI was only significantly associated with uric acid (0.002, SEM 0.002) and log insulin (0.009, SEM 0.004). In a group of black hypertensive women measures of central obesity were more strongly associated with components of the metabolic syndrome than BMI.

  2. Dietary patterns and physical activity in people with schizophrenia and increased waist circumference.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Ane Storch; Speyer, Helene; Nørgaard, Hans Christian Brix; Karlsen, Mette; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Krogh, Jesper; Mors, Ole; Nordentoft, Merete; Toft, Ulla

    2018-03-16

    People with severe mental disorders die 10-25years earlier than people in the Western background population, mainly due to lifestyle related diseases, with cardiovascular disease (CVD) being the most frequent cause of death. Major contributors to this excess morbidity and mortality are unhealthy lifestyle factors including tobacco smoking, unhealthy eating habits and lower levels of physical activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the dietary habits and levels of physical activity in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and overweight and to compare the results with the current recommendations and with results from the general Danish population. We interviewed a sample of 428 people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and increased waist circumference enrolled in the CHANGE trial using a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and a 24h recall interview, a Physical Activity Scale (PAS), scale for assessment of positive and negative symptoms (SAPS and SANS, respectively), Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). We compared with information on dietary intake and physical activity in the general Danish population from the Danish National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity in 2011-2013 (DANSDA). The CHANGE participants reported a very low energy intake and their distribution of nutrients (i.e. fat, protein and carbohydrates) harmonized with the recommendations from the Danish Health Authorities, and were similar to the latest report on the dietary habits in the Danish general population. However, the intake of saturated fat, sugar and alcohol exceed the recommended amounts and the corresponding intake in the general population. The intake of fiber, vegetables and fruit and fish were insufficient and also less than in the general population. The overall estimated quality of the dietary habits was poor, only 10.7% of the participants had healthy dietary patterns, and the quality was

  3. Is waist circumference a better predictor of diabetes than body mass index or waist-to-height ratio in Iranian adults?

    PubMed

    Hajian-Tilaki, Karimollah; Heidari, Bezad

    2015-01-01

    Several measures of adiposity have been used for predicting diabetes. The results of studies regarding superiority of waist circumference (WC) to body mass index (BMI) are inconsistent. This study designed to compare the ability of different anthropometric measures in predicting diabetes and to determine their optimal cut-off values. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,000 representative sample among adults aged 20-80 years in Babol, the Northern Iran. The demographic data were collected in a household survey, and the anthropometric measures of weight, height, waist, and hip circumference were measured with a standard method. Fasting blood sugar (FBS) ≥126 mg/dl was considered as diabetes. receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to estimate the predictive ability of different anthropometric indexes and their optimal cut-off values for high FBS. The overall prevalence rate of diabetes was 14.0% (14.4% in men vs. 13.5% in women, P = 0.65). The prevalence rate was significantly higher in older age (>60 years), low educated and obese (P = 0.001). The mean of BMI, WC, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were significantly higher among diabetic in both sexes (P = 0.001). Among men, WC (area under the ROC curve [AUC] =0.64) and WHtR (AUC = 0.63) have slightly higher accuracy index compared with BMI (AUC = 0.62) or WHR (AUC = 0.60). In contrast, among women, WHtR (AUC = 0.69) and WC (AUC = 0.68) yielded slightly better predictive than BMI (AUC = 0.67). The optimal cut-off values obtained for BMI and WHtR were similar between two sexes (BMI = 24.95 kg/m(2) for men and BMI = 25.2 kg/m(2) for women, WHtR = 0.51 for both sexes) whereas the optimal cut-off value for WC was higher in men than women (98.5 cm men vs. 89.5 cm women). Overall WC and WHtR exhibited a slightly better discriminate performance than BMI for diabetes in both sexes, particularly in women.

  4. Social relationships and longitudinal changes in body mass index and waist circumference: the coronary artery risk development in young adults study.

    PubMed

    Kershaw, Kiarri N; Hankinson, Arlene L; Liu, Kiang; Reis, Jared P; Lewis, Cora E; Loria, Catherine M; Carnethon, Mercedes R

    2014-03-01

    Few studies have examined longitudinal associations between close social relationships and weight change. Using data from 3,074 participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study who were examined in 2000, 2005, and 2010 (at ages 33-45 years in 2000), we estimated separate logistic regression random-effects models to assess whether patterns of exposure to supportive and negative relationships were associated with 10% or greater increases in body mass index (BMI) (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) and waist circumference. Linear regression random-effects modeling was used to examine associations of social relationships with mean changes in BMI and waist circumference. Participants with persistently high supportive relationships were significantly less likely to increase their BMI values and waist circumference by 10% or greater compared with those with persistently low supportive relationships after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, baseline BMI/waist circumference, depressive symptoms, and health behaviors. Persistently high negative relationships were associated with higher likelihood of 10% or greater increases in waist circumference (odds ratio = 1.62, 95% confidence interval: 1.15, 2.29) and marginally higher BMI increases (odds ratio = 1.50, 95% confidence interval: 1.00, 2.24) compared with participants with persistently low negative relationships. Increasingly negative relationships were associated with increases in waist circumference only. These findings suggest that supportive relationships may minimize weight gain, and that adverse relationships may contribute to weight gain, particularly via central fat accumulation.

  5. Social Relationships and Longitudinal Changes in Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study

    PubMed Central

    Kershaw, Kiarri N.; Hankinson, Arlene L.; Liu, Kiang; Reis, Jared P.; Lewis, Cora E.; Loria, Catherine M.; Carnethon, Mercedes R.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined longitudinal associations between close social relationships and weight change. Using data from 3,074 participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study who were examined in 2000, 2005, and 2010 (at ages 33–45 years in 2000), we estimated separate logistic regression random-effects models to assess whether patterns of exposure to supportive and negative relationships were associated with 10% or greater increases in body mass index (BMI) (weight (kg)/height (m)2) and waist circumference. Linear regression random-effects modeling was used to examine associations of social relationships with mean changes in BMI and waist circumference. Participants with persistently high supportive relationships were significantly less likely to increase their BMI values and waist circumference by 10% or greater compared with those with persistently low supportive relationships after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, baseline BMI/waist circumference, depressive symptoms, and health behaviors. Persistently high negative relationships were associated with higher likelihood of 10% or greater increases in waist circumference (odds ratio = 1.62, 95% confidence interval: 1.15, 2.29) and marginally higher BMI increases (odds ratio = 1.50, 95% confidence interval: 1.00, 2.24) compared with participants with persistently low negative relationships. Increasingly negative relationships were associated with increases in waist circumference only. These findings suggest that supportive relationships may minimize weight gain, and that adverse relationships may contribute to weight gain, particularly via central fat accumulation. PMID:24389018

  6. In women with PCOS, waist circumference is a better surrogate of glucose and lipid metabolism than disease status per se.

    PubMed

    Pazderska, Agnieszka; Kyaw Tun, Tommy; Phelan, Niamh; McGowan, Anne; Sherlock, Mark; Behan, LucyAnn; Boran, Gerard; Gibney, James

    2018-04-01

    Cardiometabolic abnormalities are recognized in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, over-emphasis on PCOS as a risk factor potentially results in over-investigation and treatment of some women with and under-recognition of cardiometabolic risk in obese women without PCOS. Our objective was to explore the association between waist circumference (WC) and indices of glucose and lipid metabolism in women with and without PCOS. (i) An exploratory cross-sectional study investigating association of potential cardiometabolic risk markers (PCOS status, anthropometric measures, hsCRP, HOMA-IR, SHBG, testosterone) with indices of glucose (frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test) and lipid metabolism (postprandial studies and lipoprotein particle size) in 61 women with (n = 29) and without (n = 32) PCOS; (ii) a cross-sectional study in 103 PCOS women and 102 BMI-matched controls to explore if between-group differences in indices of lipid and glucose metabolism persist after adjusting for WC. NIH criteria were used for PCOS diagnosis. Study 1: Univariate correlations and stepwise regression modelling identified waist circumference (WC), as a better surrogate than PCOS status, independently predicting multiple variables of glucose and lipid metabolism. Study 2: Fasting insulin and triglyceride, hsCRP and insulin resistance (according to HOMA-IR and SiM [Avignon index]) were greater, while fasting HDL was lower in women with PCOS compared to BMI-matched women without PCOS. None of these differences persisted when a subset of 80 women with PCOS was compared with 80 women without PCOS, pair-matched for WC. Some cardiometabolic abnormalities in PCOS are related to central obesity, and following adjustment for WC does not differ from normal subjects. Waist circumference measurement has potential to take precedence over PCOS status as part of the assessment of cardiometabolic risk in reproductive-age women. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Determination of the Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Points in a Rural South African Community

    PubMed Central

    Motala, Ayesha A.; Esterhuizen, Tonya; Pirie, Fraser J.; Omar, Mahomed A.K.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and to define optimal ethnic-specific waist-circumference cutoff points in a rural South African black community. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a cross-sectional survey conducted by random-cluster sampling of adults aged >15 years. Participants had demographic, anthropometric, and biochemical measurements taken, including a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the 2009 Joint Interim Statement (JIS) definition. RESULTS Of 947 subjects (758 women) studied, the age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 22.1%, with a higher prevalence in women (25.0%) than in men (10.5%). Peak prevalence was in the oldest age-group (≥65 years) in women (44.2%) and in the 45- to 54-year age-group in men (25.0%). The optimal waist circumference cutoff point to predict the presence of at least two other components of the metabolic syndrome was 86 cm for men and 92 cm for women. The crude prevalence of metabolic syndrome was higher with the JIS definition (26.5%) than with the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) (23.3%) or the modified Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel (ATPIII) (18.5%) criteria; there was very good agreement with the IDF definition (κ = 0.90 [95% CI 0.87–0.94]) and good concordance with ATPIII criteria (0.77 [0.72–0.82]). CONCLUSIONS There is a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome, especially in women, suggesting that this community, unlike other rural communities in Africa, already has entered the epidemic of metabolic syndrome. Waist circumference cutoff points differ from those currently recommended for Africans. PMID:21330644

  8. A school-based intervention improved dietary intake outcomes and reduced waist circumference in adolescents: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Avilés, Angélica; Verstraeten, Roosmarijn; Huybregts, Lieven; Andrade, Susana; Van Camp, John; Donoso, Silvana; Ramírez, Patricia Liliana; Lachat, Carl; Maes, Lea; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2017-12-11

    In Ecuador, adolescents' food intake does not comply with guidelines for a healthy diet. Together with abdominal obesity adolescent's inadequate diets are risk factors for non-communicable diseases. We report the effectiveness of a school-based intervention on the dietary intake and waist circumference among Ecuadorian adolescents. A pair-matched cluster randomized controlled trial including 1430 adolescents (12-14 years old) was conducted. The program aimed at improving the nutritional value of dietary intake, physical activity (primary outcomes), body mass index, waist circumference and blood pressure (secondary outcomes). This paper reports: (i) the effect on fruit and vegetable intake, added sugar intake, unhealthy snacking (consumption of unhealthy food items that are not in line with the dietary guidelines eaten during snack time; i.e. table sugar, sweets, salty snacks, fast food, soft drinks and packaged food), breakfast intake and waist circumference; and, (ii) dose and reach of the intervention. Dietary outcomes were estimated by means of two 24-h recall at baseline, after the first 17-months (stage one) and after the last 11-months (stage two) of implementation. Dose and reach were evaluated using field notes and attendance forms. Educational toolkits and healthy eating workshops with parents and food kiosks staff in the schools were implemented in two different stages. The overall effect was assessed using linear mixed models and regression spline mixed effect models were applied to evaluate the effect after each stage. Data from 1046 adolescents in 20 schools were analyzed. Participants from the intervention group consumed lower quantities of unhealthy snacks (-23.32 g; 95% CI: -45.25,-1.37) and less added sugar (-5.66 g; 95% CI: -9.63,-1.65) at the end of the trial. Daily fruit and vegetable intake decreased in both the intervention and control groups compared to baseline, albeit this decrease was 23.88 g (95% CI: 7.36, 40.40) lower in the

  9. Height, waist circumference, body mass index, and body somatotype across the life course and risk of glioma.

    PubMed

    Cote, David J; Downer, Mary K; Smith, Timothy R; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A; Egan, Kathleen M; Stampfer, Meir J

    2018-06-26

    Recent studies have suggested height as a risk factor for glioma, but less is known regarding body mass index (BMI) or other anthropomorphic measures. We evaluated the association between body habitus and risk of glioma. We evaluated the association of measures of height, BMI, waist circumference, and somatotypes with risk of glioma in two prospective cohorts, the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. We documented 508 incident cases of glioma (321 glioblastoma [GBM]). In both cohorts, we found no significant association between adult BMI or waist circumference and risk of glioma, with pooled HR for BMI of 1.08 (95% CI 0.85-1.38 comparing ≥ 30 to < 25 kg/m 2 ) and for waist circumference of 1.05 (95% CI 0.80-1.37 highest vs. lowest quintile). Higher young adult BMI (at age 18 in NHS and 21 in HPFS) was associated with modestly increased risk of glioma in the pooled cohorts (pooled HR 1.35, 95% CI 1.06-1.72 comparing ≥ 25 kg/m 2 vs. less; HR 1.34 for women and 1.37 for men). Analysis of body somatotypes suggested reduced risk of glioma among women with heavier body types at all ages this measure was assessed (HRs ranging from 0.52 to 0.65 comparing highest tertile to lowest tertile), but no significant association among men. Height was associated with increased risk of glioma among women (HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.04-1.14 per inch), but not significantly among men. Within the 8 years prior to diagnosis, cases had no material weight loss compared to non-cases. All results were similar when limited to GBM. Adult BMI and waist circumference were not associated with glioma. Higher BMI at age 21 for men and at age 18 for women was modestly associated with risk in the pooled cohort. Based on body somatotypes, however, women with heavier body types during childhood and young adulthood may be at lower risk of glioma, although this association was not observed later in life with measurements of BMI. Greater height was associated with

  10. Comparison of body mass index, waist circumference, and waist to height ratio in the prediction of hypertension and diabetes mellitus: Filipino-American women cardiovascular study.

    PubMed

    Battie, Cynthia A; Borja-Hart, Nancy; Ancheta, Irma B; Flores, Rene; Rao, Goutham; Palaniappan, Latha

    2016-12-01

    The relative ability of three obesity indices to predict hypertension (HTN) and diabetes (DM) and the validity of using Asian-specific thresholds of these indices were examined in Filipino-American women (FAW). Filipino-American women ( n  = 382), 40-65 years of age were screened for hypertension (HTN) and diabetes (DM) in four major US cities. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist circumference to height ratio (WHtR) were measured. ROC analyses determined that the three obesity measurements were similar in predicting HTN and DM (AUC: 0.6-0.7). The universal WC threshold of ≥ 35 in. missed 13% of the hypertensive patients and 12% of the diabetic patients. The Asian WC threshold of ≥ 31.5 in. increased detection of HTN and DM but with a high rate of false positives. The traditional BMI ≥ 25 kg/m 2 threshold missed 35% of those with hypertension and 24% of those with diabetes. The Asian BMI threshold improved detection but resulted in a high rate of false positives. The suggested WHtR cut-off of ≥ 0.5 missed only 1% of those with HTN and 0% of those with DM. The three obesity measurements had similar but modest ability to predict HTN and DM in FAW. Using Asian-specific thresholds increased accuracy but with a high rate of false positives. Whether FAW, especially at older ages, should be encouraged to reach these lower thresholds needs further investigation because of the high false positive rates.

  11. The Independent Associations between Walk Score® and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status, Waist Circumference, Waist-To-Hip Ratio and Body Mass Index Among Urban Adults.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Gavin R; Blackstaffe, Anita; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Csizmadi, Ilona; Sandalack, Beverly; Uribe, Francisco Alaniz; Rayes, Afrah; Friedenreich, Christine; Potestio, Melissa L

    2018-06-11

    Background : Environmental and policy factors can influence weight status via facilitating or discouraging physical activity and healthy diet. Despite mixed evidence, some findings suggest that the neighborhood built environment, including “walkability”, is associated with overweight and obesity. Most of these findings have measured body mass index (BMI), yet other weight status measures including waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip (W-H) ratio are also predictive of health outcomes, independent of BMI. Our study aim was to estimate the associations between walkability, measured using Walk Score ® , and each of WC, W-H ratio, and BMI among urban Canadian adults. Methods : In 2014, n = 851 adults recruited from 12 structurally and socioeconomic diverse neighborhoods (Calgary, Alberta, Canada) provided complete data on a physical activity, health and demographic questionnaire and self-reported anthropometric measures (i.e., height and weight, WC and hip circumference). Anthropometric data were used to estimate WC, W-H ratio, and BMI which were categorized into low and high risk in relation to their potential adverse effect on health. WC and BMI were also combined to provide a proxy measure of both overall and abdominal adiposity. Multivariable logistic regression models estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between each weight status outcome and Walk Score ® . Results : A one-unit increase in Walk Score ® was associated with lower odds of being high-risk based on WC (OR = 0.99; 95%CI 0.97⁻0.99). Notably, those residing in socioeconomically disadvantage neighborhoods had significantly higher odds of being high risk based on WC, BMI, and WC-BMI combined compared with advantaged neighborhoods. Conclusions : Interventions that promote healthy weight through the design of neighborhoods that support and enhance the effect of physical activity and diet-related interventions could have a significant

  12. Is Waist-to-Height Ratio a Better Obesity Risk-Factor Indicator for Puerto Rican Children than is BMI or Waist Circumference?

    PubMed

    Rivera-Soto, Winna T; Rodríguez-Figueroa, Linnette

    2016-03-01

    Puerto Rican children could have a higher prevalence of obesity, compared to US children or even to US Hispanic children. Obese youths are more likely to have risk factors for cardiovascular conditions, such as hypertension. Although BMI provides a simple, convenient measurement of obesity, it does not measure body fat distribution, associated with mortality and morbidity. Waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) have been suggested to estimate obesity health risks. This study aimed to explore the association of a single blood pressure reading with 3 different obesity indicators (WC, BMI, and WHtR). A representative sample of students (first to sixth grade) from public and private schools in Puerto Rico was selected. The sample size consisted of 249 students, representing a 63% response rate. According to the sex-specific BMIs, approximately 38.1% of the children were obese or overweight. The prevalence of obesity was slightly higher when determined using WHtR but lower when using WC as the overweight indicator. The prevalence of high blood pressure among students was 12.5%; an additional 11.3% of the students were classified as possible prehypertensive. Regardless of the weight indicator used, overweight children were shown to have a higher risk of pre-hypertension/hypertension (as defined by a single BP measure) than were non-overweight children. The odds for high blood pressure were almost 3 times higher using WHtR. Logistic regression showed a stronger relationship between WHtR and the risk of pre-hypertension/hypertension than that between the former and either BMI or WC. This study suggests the possibility of higher prevalence of high blood pressure in obese Puerto Rican children. The waist-to height ratio could be the best indicator to measure obesity and potential hypertension in Puerto Rican children.

  13. Waist circumference shows the highest predictive value for metabolic syndrome, and waist-to-hip ratio for its components, in Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Perona, Javier S; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline; Rueda-Medina, Blanca; Correa-Rodríguez, María; González-Jiménez, Emilio

    2017-09-01

    Both waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) have been proposed as predictors of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adolescents, but no consensus has been reached to date. This study hypothesizes that WC provides a greater predictive value for MetS in Spanish adolescents than WHR. A cross-sectional study was performed on 1001 adolescents (13.2 ± 1.2 years) randomly recruited from schools in southeast Spain. Anthropometric measures were correlated with the components of MetS (triglycerides, glucose, blood pressure, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) as well as inflammation markers (interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha , C-reactive protein, and ceruloplasmin). Receiver-operator curves were created to determine the predictive value of these variables for MetS. Boys had higher values of all anthropometric parameters compared with girls, but the prevalence of MetS was significantly higher in girls. WHR was the only parameter that correlated significantly with all biochemical and inflammatory variables in boys. In girls, WHR, body mass index, waist-to-height ratio, WC, and body fat percentage correlated only with plasma insulin levels, systolic and diastolic pressures, and ceruloplasmin. In both groups, all anthropometric measures were able to predict MetS (area under the curve > 0.94). In particular, WC was able to predict MetS with area under the curve = 1.00. However, WHR was able to predict a higher number of components of MetS. WHR was the anthropometric index that showed the highest predictive value for MetS components, whereas WC was the one that best predicted the MetS among the population of adolescents studied. These findings justify the need to incorporate WHR and WC determinations into daily clinical practice to predict the MetS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Physical Fitness Is Longitudinally Associated With Academic Performance During Childhood and Adolescence, and Waist Circumference Mediated the Relationship.

    PubMed

    Lima, Rodrigo Antunes; Larsen, Lisbeth Runge; Bugge, Anna; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2018-03-10

    The current investigation aimed to investigate the longitudinal association between physical fitness and academic performance over 3 years in adolescents. A secondary aim was to determine to what extent waist circumference mediated the association between physical fitness and academic performance. For the current study, 1020 students from first grade [mean age: 7.87 (0.34) y] to fifth grade [mean age: 11.87 (0.37) y] were monitored annually for 3 years (2010-2013). Physical fitness was assessed using the Andersen test, 5 × 5-m shuttle run, jump height, and grip strength tests and by constructing a composite score combining all 4 fitness tests. Academic performance was assessed by national standardized tests in Danish language and math. Generalized structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the relationships between these variables. The Andersen test (standardized β = 0.15 SD), shuttle run (β = -0.18 SD), jump height (β = 0.10 SD), and the fitness composite score (β = 0.23 SD) were positively associated with academic performance over 3 years. In addition, waist circumference partially mediated the association between physical fitness and academic performance. Thus, physical fitness abilities should be stimulated during childhood and early adolescence because of their positive association with academic performance.

  15. Gender variations in waist circumference levels between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australian populations: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Adegbija, Odewumi Oluwarotimi; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2014-01-01

    To compare gender-specific waist circumference (WC) levels of Aboriginal Australians with non-Aboriginal Australians. A systematic search on Medline, PubMed, EMBASE and Google Scholar databases was conducted to identify papers that reported gender-specific waist circumference (WC) estimates of participants from the age of 15 years and above among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. Means and their 95% confidence intervals of gender differences in WC, height and weight were recorded or calculated where they were not provided. Gender-specific WC, height and weight mean estimates were pooled and the I(2) statistic was used to test heterogeneity among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. Of 17 selected cross-sectional studies, 9 focused on Aboriginal and 8 on non-Aboriginal Australians. Seven studies reported significantly higher WC estimates among indigenous females than males. On the other hand, non-indigenous males had significantly higher WC levels than females. Males had greater height and weight estimates than females in both groups. Although indigenous women were shorter and had lower weight estimates, they had greater WC levels than indigenous men. This is the first systematic review to assess the gender-specific differences between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. The findings of this review warrant more efforts to understand and reduce the high prevalence of central obesity and related chronic diseases among Aboriginal women. Copyright © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence of abdominal obesity in Spanish children and adolescents. Do we need waist circumference measurements in pediatric practice?

    PubMed

    Schröder, Helmut; Ribas, Lourdes; Koebnick, Corinna; Funtikova, Anna; Gomez, Santiago F; Fíto, Montserat; Perez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2014-01-01

    Evidence indicates that central adiposity has increased to a higher degree than general adiposity in children and adolescents in recent decades. However, waist circumference is not a routine measurement in clinical practice. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of abdominal obesity based on waist circumferences (WC) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) in Spanish children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years. Further, the prevalence of abdominal obesity (AO) among normal and overweight individuals was analyzed. Data were obtained from a study conducted from 1998 to 2000 in a representative national sample of 1521 children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years (50.0% female) in Spain. WC and WHtR measurements were obtained in addition to BMI. AO was defined as WHtR ≥0.50 (WHtR-AO), sex and age specific WC≥90(th) percentile (WC-AO1), and sex and age specific WC cut-off values associated with high trunk fat measured by by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (WC-AO2). IOTF- based overweight and obsity prevalence was 21.5% and 6.6% in children and 17.4% and 5.2% in adolescents, respectively. Abdominal obesity (AO) was defined as WHtR≥0.50 (WHtR-AO), sex- and age-specific WC≥90th percentile (WC-AO1), and sex- and age-specific WC cut-off values associated with high trunk fat measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (WC-AO2). The respective prevalence of WHtR-AO, WC-AO1, and WC-AO2 was 21.3% (24.6% boys; 17.9% girls), 9.4% (9.1% boys; 9.7% girls), and 26.8% (30.6% boys;22.9% girls) in children and 14.3% (20.0% boys; 8.7% girls), 9.6% (9.8% boys; 9.5% girls), and 21.1% (28.8% boys; 13.7% girls) in adolescents. The prevalence of AO in Spanish children and adolescents is of concern. The high proportion of AO observed in young patients who are normal weight or overweight indicates a need to include waist circumference measurements in routine clinical practice.

  17. Prevalence of Abdominal Obesity in Spanish Children and Adolescents. Do We Need Waist Circumference Measurements in Pediatric Practice?

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Helmut; Ribas, Lourdes; Koebnick, Corinna; Funtikova, Anna; Gomez, Santiago F.; Fíto, Montserat; Perez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence indicates that central adiposity has increased to a higher degree than general adiposity in children and adolescents in recent decades. However, waist circumference is not a routine measurement in clinical practice. Objective This study aimed to determine the prevalence of abdominal obesity based on waist circumferences (WC) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) in Spanish children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years. Further, the prevalence of abdominal obesity (AO) among normal and overweight individuals was analyzed. Design Data were obtained from a study conducted from 1998 to 2000 in a representative national sample of 1521 children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years (50.0% female) in Spain. WC and WHtR measurements were obtained in addition to BMI. AO was defined as WHtR ≥0.50 (WHtR-AO), sex and age specific WC≥90th percentile (WC-AO1), and sex and age specific WC cut-off values associated with high trunk fat measured by by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (WC-AO2). Results IOTF- based overweight and obsity prevalence was 21.5% and 6.6% in children and 17.4% and 5.2% in adolescents, respectively. Abdominal obesity (AO) was defined as WHtR≥0.50 (WHtR-AO), sex- and age-specific WC≥90th percentile (WC-AO1), and sex- and age-specific WC cut-off values associated with high trunk fat measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (WC-AO2). The respective prevalence of WHtR-AO, WC-AO1, and WC-AO2 was 21.3% (24.6% boys; 17.9% girls), 9.4% (9.1% boys; 9.7% girls), and 26.8% (30.6% boys;22.9% girls) in children and 14.3% (20.0% boys; 8.7% girls), 9.6% (9.8% boys; 9.5% girls), and 21.1% (28.8% boys; 13.7% girls) in adolescents. Conclusion The prevalence of AO in Spanish children and adolescents is of concern. The high proportion of AO observed in young patients who are normal weight or overweight indicates a need to include waist circumference measurements in routine clinical practice. PMID:24475305

  18. Waist circumference, body mass index, serum uric acid, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels are important risk factors for abnormal liver function tests in the Taiwanese population.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Meng-Hsuan; Lin, Wen-Yi; Chien, Hsu-Han; Chien, Li-Ho; Huang, Chao-Kuan; Yang, Jeng-Fu; Chang, Ning-Chia; Huang, Chung-Feng; Wang, Chao-Ling; Chuang, Wan-Long; Yu, Ming-Lung; Dai, Chia-Yen; Ho, Chi-Kung

    2012-09-01

    Several studies have found that metabolic syndrome and uric acid level are related to abnormal liver function test results. The aim of this study was to explore the associations of risk factors [including blood pressure, blood sugar, total cholesterol, triglyceride, uric acid, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) measurements] with abnormal liver function in the Taiwanese population.In total, 11,411 Taiwanese adults were enrolled in this study. Blood pressure was assessed according to the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure criteria, fasting blood sugar level according to the Bureau of Health Promotion, Department of Health, R.O.C., criteria, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels according to the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, BMI according to the Asia-Pacific criteria, and waist circumference according to the Revised Diagnostic Criteria of Metabolic Syndrome in Taiwan. The prevalence of a past history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus was 17.7% and 6.5%, respectively, and the rates of abnormal measurements of blood pressure, BMI, waist circumference, fasting blood sugar, triglyceride, total cholesterol, uric acid (male/female), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were 76.2%, 67.6%, 40.0%, 28.6%, 30.6%, 57.3%, 37.9%/21.9%, 14.6% and 21.3%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that waist circumference, BMI, serum uric acid, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels were related to abnormal AST and ALT (p<0.05), but the odds ratio for waist circumference was larger than that for BMI. In conclusion, waist circumference, BMI, serum uric acid, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels are important risk factors for abnormal AST and ALT readings in Taiwanese adults. Waist circumference might be a better indicator of risk of abnormal liver function than BMI. Copyright © 2012

  19. Body mass index, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio cut-off points for categorisation of obesity among Omani Arabs.

    PubMed

    Al-Lawati, Jawad A; Jousilahti, Pekka

    2008-01-01

    There are no data on optimal cut-off points to classify obesity among Omani Arabs. The existing cut-off points were obtained from studies of European populations. To determine gender-specific optimal cut-off points for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) associated with elevated prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among Omani Arabs. A community-based cross-sectional study. The survey was conducted in the city of Nizwa in Oman in 2001. The study contained a probabilistic random sample of 1421 adults aged > or =20 years. Prevalent CVD risk was defined as the presence of at least two of the following three risk factors: hyperglycaemia, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. Logistic regression and receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were used to determine optimal cut-off points for BMI, WC and WHR in relation to the area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity and specificity. Over 87% of Omanis had at least one CVD risk factor (38% had hyperglycaemia, 19% hypertension and 34.5% had high total cholesterol). All three indices including BMI (AUC = 0.766), WC (AUC = 0.772) and WHR (AUC = 0.767) predicted prevalent CVD risk factors equally well. The optimal cut-off points for men and women respectively were 23.2 and 26.8 kg m-2 for BMI, 80.0 and 84.5 cm for WC, and 0.91 and 0.91 for WHR. To identify Omani subjects of Arab ethnicity at high risk of CVD, cut-off points lower than currently recommended for BMI, WC and WHR are needed for men while higher cut-off points are suggested for women.

  20. Diagnostic performance of Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference and the Waist-to-Height Ratio for identifying cardiometabolic risk in Scottish pre-adolescents.

    PubMed

    Buchan, Duncan S; McLellan, Gillian; Donnelly, Samantha; Arthur, Rosie

    2017-06-01

    Limited studies have examined the diagnostic performance of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) or waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) for identifying cardiometabolic risk (increased clustered glucose, triglycerides, mean arterial pressure and inv-HDL-cholesterol) in pre-adolescent youth. To compare the utility of BMI, WC and WHtR as predictors of cardiometabolic risk (CMR) in Scottish pre-adolescent children. A cross-sectional analysis of 223 Scottish children (55.2% boys, mean age =8.4 years) was undertaken. BMI, WC and WHtR were used as exposure variables within multivariate logistic regression analysis and ROC analysis to examine the utility of these anthropometrical indices in identifying those at cardiometabolic risk. Individuals with an elevated WHtR, WC and BMI were 3.51 (95% CI = 1.71-7.23; p < .001); 2.34 (95% CI = 1.35-4.06; p = .002) and 2.59 (95% CI = 1.42-4.73; p = .002) times more likely to be at cardiometabolic risk, respectively. The areas under the curves [AUC] to identify children with cardiometabolic risk were significant and similar among anthropometric indices (AUC's = 0.60-0.65). When stratified by BMI, both WC and WHtR demonstrated a fair-to-good ability for identifying those at cardiometabolic risk (AUC = 0.75-0.81). Findings suggest that the combination of BMI with either WC or WHtR may provide an added benefit in the assessment of cardiometabolic risk amongst pre-adolescents.

  1. Waist-to-hip ratio is better at predicting subclinical atherosclerosis than body mass index and waist circumference in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Hwang, Soon Young; Hong, Ho Cheol; Ryu, Ja Young; Seo, Ji A; Kim, Sin Gon; Kim, Nan Hee; Choi, Dong Seop; Baik, Sei Hyun; Choi, Kyung Mook; Yoo, Hye Jin

    2015-03-01

    Body fat distribution becomes more central after menopause. Although some studies have identified the superiority of various anthropometric indices to assess general health outcomes, very limited studies have compared the efficacy of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) to predict subclinical atherosclerosis according to menopausal status. In total, 442 participants (209 premenopausal women and 233 postmenopausal women) were prospectively enrolled from the Health Promotion Center of Korea University Guro Hospital. We examined subclinical atherosclerosis using carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). In premenopausal women, all anthropometric parameters such as BMI, WC and WHR were positively correlated with baPWV and CIMT values, whereas in postmenopausal women, only WHR was positively correlated with baPWV values (0.27, P<0.01), and WC and WHR were positively correlated with CIMT (0.15, P<0.05 and 0.21, P<0.01, respectively). By receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses, WHR was superior to the other anthropometric indices to predict carotid atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women. Furthermore, the normal weight (BMI<23kg/m(2)) with higher WHR group had a significantly thicker CIMT when compared to the normal weight with lower WHR group (0.76mm vs. 0.68mm, P<0.01) and even the overweight subjects with BMI≥23kg/m(2) (0.76mm vs. 0.70mm, P<0.01) in postmenopausal women. The present study shows that WHR has the best potential for predicting subclinical atherosclerosis compared to BMI and WC in postmenopausal women. NCT01594710. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Relationship of Violence and Traumatic Stress to Changes in Weight and Waist Circumference: Longitudinal Analyses from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN)

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Lorena; Qi, Lihong; Rasor, Marianne; Gold, Ellen B; Clark, Cari; Bromberger, Joyce

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the associations of violence and traumatic stress with changes in weight and waist circumference, hypothesizing that violence in midlife would be associated with increases or decreases in weight and waist circumference. Methods The longitudinal cohort of the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN) comprised the study sample, which included an ethnically/racially and socially diverse group of 2870 women between the ages of 42 and 52 years at baseline. Women were followed annually for 10 years and assessments included weight and waist circumference measures and data on violence, health outcomes and confounders. Results At baseline, 8.6% Caucasian, 10.8% African American, 9.2% Chinese and 5.0% Japanese women reported violence and traumatic stress. Reporting violence and traumatic stress during follow-up was significantly associated with weight gain (OR=2.39, 95% CI= 1.28, 4.47), weight loss (OR=3.54, 95% CI=1.73, 7.22), and gain (OR=2.44, 95% CI =1.37, 4.37) or loss (OR=2.66, 95% CI=1.23, 5.77) in waist circumference, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, and smoking. Conclusion Violence and traumatic stress against midlife women was associated with gains or losses in weight and waist circumference. PMID:24212978

  3. The relationship of violence and traumatic stress to changes in weight and waist circumference: longitudinal analyses from the study of women's health across the nation.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Lorena; Qi, Lihong; Rasor, Marianne; Clark, Cari Jo; Bromberger, Joyce; Gold, Ellen B

    2014-05-01

    This article investigates the associations of violence and traumatic stress with changes in weight and waist circumference, hypothesizing that violence in midlife would be associated with increases or decreases in weight and waist circumference. The longitudinal cohort of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation comprised the study sample, which included an ethnically/racially and socially diverse group of 2,870 women between the ages of 42 and 52 years at baseline. Women were followed annually for 10 years, and assessments included weight and waist circumference measures and data on violence, health outcomes, and confounders. At baseline, 8.6% Caucasian, 10.8% African American, 9.2% Chinese, and 5.0% Japanese women reported violence and traumatic stress. Reporting violence and traumatic stress during follow-up was significantly associated with weight gain (odds ratio [OR] = 2.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.28-4.47]), weight loss (OR = 3.54, 95% CI = [1.73-7.22]), and gain (OR = 2.44, 95% CI = [1.37-4.37]) or loss (OR = 2.66, 95% CI = [1.23-5.77]) in waist circumference, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, and smoking. Violence and traumatic stress against midlife women were associated with gains or losses in weight and waist circumference.

  4. Longitudinal Analysis of Changes in Weight and Waist Circumference in Relation to Incident Vasomotor Symptoms: the Study of Women’ Health Across the Nation (SWAN)

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Ellen B.; Crawford, Sybil L.; Shelton, Janie F.; Tepper, Ping G.; Crandall, Carolyn J.; Greendale, Gail A.; Matthews, Karen A.; Thurston, Rebecca C.; Avis, Nancy E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Greater body mass index (BMI) and body fat are associated with vasomotor symptoms (VMS). Thus, weight loss may prevent VMS. We analyzed whether concurrent BMI or waist circumference and/or changes in weight or waist circumference predicted incident VMS and whether these relations differed by menopause stage or race/ethnicity. Methods Data from 10 follow-up visits for 1546 participants in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation who reported no VMS at baseline were modeled for time to first symptomatic visit in relation to concurrent BMI and waist circumference and change in weight and waist circumference during early and late menopause using discrete survival analyses, adjusting for covariates. Results Greater concurrent BMI and waist circumference were significantly related to greater any and frequent (≥6 days in the last two weeks) incident VMS in early menopause and lower VMS risk in late menopause. Percentage weight change since baseline and since the prior visit were unrelated to incident any VMS in either menopause stage. Percentage weight change since baseline had a significant shallow U-shaped association with incident frequent VMS in early menopause (p=0.02), a shallow inverse U-shape in late menopause (p=0.02), and a significant interaction with menopause stage (p=0.004) but not with race/ethnicity. Recent weight change was unassociated with incident VMS in either menopause stage. Results were similar for waist change. Conclusions Concurrent BMI and waist circumference were positively related to incident VMS in early menopause and negatively related in late menopause. Maintaining healthy weight in early menopause may help prevent VMS. PMID:27749738

  5. Longitudinal analysis of changes in weight and waist circumference in relation to incident vasomotor symptoms: the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN).

    PubMed

    Gold, Ellen B; Crawford, Sybil L; Shelton, Janie F; Tepper, Ping G; Crandall, Carolyn J; Greendale, Gail A; Matthews, Karen A; Thurston, Rebecca C; Avis, Nancy E

    2017-01-01

    Greater body mass index (BMI) and body fat are associated with vasomotor symptoms (VMS). Thus, weight loss may prevent VMS. We analyzed whether concurrent BMI or waist circumference and/or changes in weight or waist circumference predicted incident VMS and whether these relations differed by menopause stage or race/ethnicity. Data from 10 follow-up visits for 1,546 participants in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation who reported no VMS at baseline were modeled for time to first symptomatic visit in relation to concurrent BMI and waist circumference and change in weight and waist circumference during early and late menopause using discrete survival analyses, adjusting for covariates. Greater concurrent BMI and waist circumference were significantly related to greater any and frequent (≥6 d in the last 2 wk) incident VMS in early menopause and lower VMS risk in late menopause. Percentage weight change since baseline and since the prior visit was unrelated to incident any VMS in either menopause stage. Percentage weight change since baseline had a significant shallow U-shaped association with incident frequent VMS in early menopause (P = 0.02), a shallow inverse U-shape in late menopause (P = 0.02), and a significant interaction with menopause stage (P = 0.004) but not with race/ethnicity. Recent weight change was unassociated with incident VMS in either menopause stage. Results were similar for waist change. Concurrent BMI and waist circumference were positively related to incident VMS in early menopause and negatively related in late menopause. Maintaining healthy weight in early menopause may help prevent VMS.

  6. The relationships between height and arm span, mid-upper arm and waist circumferences and sum of four skinfolds in Ellisras rural children aged 8-18 years.

    PubMed

    Monyeki, Kotsedi Daniel; Sekhotha, Michael Matome

    2016-05-01

    Height is required for the assessment of growth and nutritional status, as well as for predictions and standardization of physiological parameters. To determine whether arm span, mid-upper arm and waist circumferences and sum of four skinfolds can be used to predict height, the relationships between these anthropometric variables were assessed among Ellisras rural children aged 8-18 years. The following parameters were measured according to the International Society for the Advancement of Kinathropometry: height, arm span, mid-upper arm circumference, waist circumference and four skinfolds (suprailiac, subscapular, triceps and biceps). Associations between the variables were assessed using Pearson correlation coefficients and linear regression models. Ellisras Longitudinal Study (ELS), Limpopo Province, South Africa. Boys (n 911) and girls (n 858) aged 8-18 years. Mean height was higher than arm span, with differences ranging from 4 cm to 11·5 cm between boys and girls. The correlation between height and arm span was high (ranging from 0·74 to 0·91) with P<0·001. The correlation between height and mid-upper arm circumference, waist circumference and sum of four skinfolds was low (ranging from 0·15 to 0·47) with P<0·00 among girls in the 15-18 years age group. Arm span was found to be a good predictor of height. The sum of four skinfolds was significantly associated with height in the older age groups for girls, while waist circumference showed a negative significant association in the same groups.

  7. Associations Among Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and Health Indicators in American Indian and Alaska Native Adults

    PubMed Central

    Slattery, Martha L.; Ferucci, Elizabeth D.; Murtaugh, Maureen A.; Edwards, Sandra; Ma, Khe-Ni; Etzel, Ruth A.; Tom-Orme, Lillian; Lanier, Anne P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Little is known about obesity-related health issues among American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) populations. Approach A large cohort of AIAN people was assembled to evaluate factors associated with health. Setting The study was conducted in Alaska and on the Navajo Nation. Participants A total of 11,293 AIAN people were included. Methods We present data for body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and waist circumference (cm) to evaluate obesity-related health factors. Results Overall, 32.4% of the population were overweight (BMI 25–29.9 kg/m2), 47.1% were obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2), and 21.4% were very obese (BMI, ≥ 35 kg/m2). A waist circumference greater than 102 cm for men and greater than 88 cm for women was observed for 41.7% of men and 78.3% of women. Obese people were more likely to perceive their health as fair/poor than nonobese participants (prevalence ratio [PR]), 1.91; 95% CI, 1.71–2.14). Participants younger than 30 years were three times more likely to perceive their health as being fair or poor when their BMI results were 35 or greater compared with those whose BMI results were less than 25 kg/m2. A larger BMI was associated with having multiple medical conditions, fewer hours of vigorous activity, and more hours of television watching. Conclusions Given the high rates of obesity in AIAN populations and the association of obesity with other health conditions, it is important to reduce obesity among AIAN people. PMID:20232606

  8. Concentric and eccentric exercise, glycemic responses to a postexercise meal, and inflammation in women with high versus low waist circumference.

    PubMed

    Miles, Mary P; Horrigan, Laura C; Jay, Sara E; Brown, Karen M; Porter, Jay W; Steward, Andrea N

    2016-12-01

    Carbohydrate ingestion and level of concentric versus eccentric muscle activity may alter exercise-induced health benefits for individuals who have high waist circumference as a metabolic risk factor. The purpose of this study was to determine whether metabolic and inflammation responses to an exercise recovery meal differ between women with lower (Lo-WC, <80 cm) compared with higher (Hi-WC) waist circumference when the exercise is primarily concentric (uphill walking; UPHILL) versus primarily eccentric (downhill walking; DOWNHILL). Recreationally active women (age, 18-39 years; body mass index, 19-35.4 m·kg -2 ; Lo-WC, n = 13; Hi-WC, n = 10) completed UPHILL, DOWNHILL, and resting (CONTROL) conditions followed 30 min later by a mixed meal tolerance test (MMTT) with carbohydrates to protein ratio of 4:1, and blood glucose, insulin, and inflammation markers were compared across conditions. Compared with Lo-WC, the Hi-WC group had higher (p < 0.05) (i) insulin during the MMTT in CONTROL (mean ± SE; 48.5 ± 8.2 vs 22.9 ± 2.8 pmol·L -1 ), (ii) baseline (0.7 ± 0.4 vs 2.0 ± 1.7 pg·mL -1 ) interleukin-6 (IL-6), and (iii) IL-6 responses 8 h after UPHILL and CONTROL. Both groups had (i) increases in IL-6 at 0 h after UPHILL and at 8 h after DOWNHILL, and (ii) lower glycemic responses in UPHILL. Women with Hi-WC had higher IL-6 at rest and delayed increases in IL-6 after a high-carbohydrate meal in all conditions. This is consistent with an inflammation response to the meal and or uphill walking exercise. However, both concentrically and eccentrically biased exercises offered benefits to insulin responses to a high carbohydrate meal for Hi-WC.

  9. Food Composition of the Diet in Relation to Changes in Waist Circumference Adjusted for Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Romaguera, Dora; Ängquist, Lars; Du, Huaidong; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Forouhi, Nita G.; Halkjær, Jytte; Feskens, Edith J. M.; van der A, Daphne L.; Masala, Giovanna; Steffen, Annika; Palli, Domenico; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Boeing, Heiner; Riboli, Elio; Sørensen, Thorkild I.

    2011-01-01

    Background Dietary factors such as low energy density and low glycemic index were associated with a lower gain in abdominal adiposity. A better understanding of which food groups/items contribute to these associations is necessary. Objective To ascertain the association of food groups/items consumption on prospective annual changes in “waist circumference for a given BMI” (WCBMI), a proxy for abdominal adiposity. Design We analyzed data from 48,631 men and women from 5 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Anthropometric measurements were obtained at baseline and after a median follow-up time of 5.5 years. WCBMI was defined as the residuals of waist circumference regressed on BMI, and annual change in WCBMI (ΔWCBMI, cm/y) was defined as the difference between residuals at follow-up and baseline, divided by follow-up time. The association between food groups/items and ΔWCBMI was modelled using centre-specific adjusted linear regression, and random-effects meta-analyses to obtain pooled estimates. Results Higher fruit and dairy products consumption was associated with a lower gain in WCBMI whereas the consumption of white bread, processed meat, margarine, and soft drinks was positively associated with ΔWCBMI. When these six food groups/items were analyzed in combination using a summary score, those in the highest quartile of the score – indicating a more favourable dietary pattern –showed a ΔWCBMI of −0.11 (95% CI −0.09 to −0.14) cm/y compared to those in the lowest quartile. Conclusion A dietary pattern high in fruit and dairy and low in white bread, processed meat, margarine, and soft drinks may help to prevent abdominal fat accumulation. PMID:21858094

  10. Optimal waist circumference cut-off values for predicting cardiovascular risk factors in a multi-ethnic Malaysian population.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Kee C; Ghazali, Sumarni M; Hock, Lim K; Yusoff, Ahmad F; Selvarajah, Sharmini; Haniff, Jamaiyah; Zainuddin, Ahmad Ali; Ying, Chan Y; Lin, Khor G; Rahman, Jamalludin A; Shahar, Suzana; Mustafa, Amal N

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have proposed the lower waist circumference (WC) cutoffs be used for defining abdominal obesity in Asian populations. To determine the optimal cut-offs of waist circumference (WC) in predicting cardiovascular (CV) risk factors in the multi-ethnic Malaysian population. We analysed data from 32,703 respondents (14,980 men and 17,723 women) aged 18 years and above who participated in the Third National Health and Morbidity Survey in 2006. Gender-specific logistic regression analyses were used to examine associations between WC and three CV risk factors (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia). The Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were used to determine the cut-off values of WC with optimum sensitivity and specificity for detecting these CV risk factors. The odds ratio for having diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia, or at least one of these risks, increased significantly as the WC cut-off point increased. Optimal WC cut-off values for predicting the presence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and at least one of the three CV risk factors varied from 81.4 to 85.5 cm for men and 79.8 to 80.7 cm for women. Our findings indicate that WC cut-offs of 81 cm for men and 80 cm for women are appropriate for defining abdominal obesity and for recommendation to undergo cardiovascular risk screening and weight management in the Malaysian adult population. © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity . Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Intake of water from foods, but not water from beverages, is related to lower body mass index and waist circumference in free-living humans [corrected].

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2008-10-01

    Experimental trials using test meals suggest that water promotes satiety and decreases subsequent intake, thus possibly working to prevent obesity, when it is consumed as an integral component of a food, but not when consumed alone or alongside a food. We examined the associations of intake of water from beverages and intake of water from foods with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in free-living humans consuming self-selected diets. This observational cross-sectional study included 1136 female Japanese dietetic students 18-22 y of age. Dietary intake was assessed with a validated, self-administered, comprehensive, diet-history questionnaire. BMI was calculated using measured body height and weight. Waist circumference was measured at the level of the umbilicus. Means +/- standard deviations of BMI, waist circumference, intake of water from beverages, and intake of water from foods were 21.3 +/- 2.7 kg/m(2), 72.9 +/- 7.1 cm, 569 +/- 318 g/1000 kcal, and 476 +/- 110 g/1000 kcal, respectively. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, intake of water from beverages was not associated with BMI (P for trend = 0.25) or waist circumference (P for trend = 0.43). Conversely, intake of water from foods showed independent and negative associations with BMI (P for trend = 0.030) and waist circumference (P for trend = 0.0003). Intake of water from foods, but not water from beverages, was independently associated with lower BMI and waist circumference in free-living humans consuming self-selected diets.

  12. Waist-to-height ratio, waist circumference and BMI as indicators of percentage fat mass and cardiometabolic risk factors in children aged 3-7 years.

    PubMed

    Sijtsma, Anna; Bocca, Gianni; L'abée, Carianne; Liem, Eryn T; Sauer, Pieter J J; Corpeleijn, Eva

    2014-04-01

    To assess whether waist-to-height-ratio (WHtR) is a better estimate of body fat percentage (BF%) and a better indicator of cardiometabolic risk factors than BMI or waist circumference (WC) in young children. WHtR, WC and BMI were measured by trained staff according to standardized procedures. (2)H2O and (2)H2(18)O isotope dilution were used to assess BF% in 61 children (3-7 years) from the general population, and bioelectrical impedance (Horlick equation) was used to assess BF% in 75 overweight/obese children (3-5 years). Cardiometabolic risk factors, including diastolic and systolic blood pressure, HOMA2-IR, leptin, adiponectin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, TNFα and IL-6 were determined in the overweight/obese children. In the children from the general population, after adjustments for age and gender, BMI had the highest explained variance for BF% compared to WC and WHtR (R(2) = 0.32, 0.31 and 0.23, respectively). In the overweight/obese children, BMI and WC had a higher explained variance for BF% compared to WHtR (R(2) = 0.68, 0.70 and 0.50, respectively). In the overweight/obese children, WHtR, WC and BMI were all significantly positively correlated with systolic blood pressure (r = 0.23, 0.30, 0.36, respectively), HOMA2-IR (r = 0.53, 0.62, 0.63, respectively), leptin (r = 0.70, 0.77, 0.78, respectively) and triglycerides (r = 0.33, 0.36, 0.24, respectively), but not consistently with other parameters. In young children, WHtR is not superior to WC or BMI in estimating BF%, nor is WHtR better correlated with cardiometabolic risk factors than WC or BMI in overweight/obese children. These data do not support the use of WHtR in young children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  13. Using LMS tables to determine waist circumference and waist-to-height ratios in Colombian children and adolescents: the FUPRECOL study.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Moreno-Jiménez, Javier; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Martínez-Torres, Javier; González-Ruiz, Katherine; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline; Lobelo, Felipe; Garcia-Hermoso, Antonio

    2017-07-11

    Waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) are often used as indices predictive of central obesity. The aims of this study were: 1) to obtain smoothed centile charts and LMS tables for WC and WHtR among Colombian children and adolescents; 2) to evaluate the utility of these parameters as predictors of overweight and obesity. A cross-sectional study was conducted of a sample population of 7954 healthy Colombian schoolchildren [3460 boys and 4494 girls, mean age 12.8 (±2.3) years]. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), WC and WHtR were measured, and percentiles were calculated using the LMS method (Box-Cox, median and coefficient of variation). Appropriate cut-off points of WC and WHtR for overweight and obesity, according to International Obesity Task Force definitions, were selected using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The discriminating power of WC and WHtR is expressed as area under the curve (AUC). Reference values for WC and WHtR are presented. Mean WC increased and WHtR decreased with age for both genders. A moderate positive correlation was observed between WC and BMI (r = 0.756, P < 0.01) and between WHtR and BMI (r = 0.604, P < 0.01). ROC analysis revealed strong discrimination power in the identification of overweight and obesity for both measures in our sample population. Overall, WHtR was a slightly better predictor of overweight/obesity (AUC 95% CI 0.868-0.916) than WC (AUC 95% CI 0.862-0.904). This paper presents the first sex and age-specific WC and WHtR percentiles for Colombian children and adolescents aged 9.0-17.9 years. The LMS tables obtained, based on Colombian reference data, can be used as quantitative tools for the study of obesity and its comorbidities.

  14. [Distribution of waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio by categories of body mass index in patients attended in endocrinology and nutrition units].

    PubMed

    López De La Torre, Martín; Bellido Guerrero, Diego; Vidal Cortada, Josep; Soto González, Alfonso; García Malpartida, Katherinne; Hernandez-Mijares, Antonio

    2010-12-01

    Waist circumference (WC) and the waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) are anthropometric measures widely used in clinical practice to evaluate visceral fat and the consequent cardiovascular risk. However, risk thresholds should be standardized according to body mass index (BMI). To determine the distribution of WC and WHtR according to the BMI cut-points currently used to describe overweight and obesity. WC, WHtR and BMI were measured in 3521 adult patients (>18 years) attended in Endocrinology and Nutrition units. A total of 20.8% (734 patients) were diabetic. Obesity was found in 82.1% of diabetic patients and in 75% of non-diabetic patients. The WC thresholds proposed by the National Institute of Health (102 cm in men, 88 cm in women), Bray (100 cm in men, 90 cm in women) and the International Diabetes Federation (94 cm in men, 80 cm in women) were exceeded by 92.9%, 94.8% and 98.4% of obese men, 96.8%, 95.5% and 99.7% of obese women, 79.1%, 83.1% and 90% of diabetic men and 95.5%, 81.5% and 97.4% of diabetic women, respectively. Thresholds adapted to the degree of obesity (90, 100, 110 and 125 cm in men and 80, 90, 105 and 115cm in women for normal BMI, overweight, obesity I and obesity greater than I) were exceeded by 58.4% of obese men, 54.2% of obese women, 57.5% of diabetic men and 60.7% of diabetic women. WC was higher in men, and BMI and the WHtR were higher in women. The WC of diabetic women equalled that of men, and WC, WHtR and BMI were higher in diabetic than in non-diabetic women (p<0.001). WC (p<0.005), WHtR (p<0.001) and BMI (p<0.5) were also higher in diabetic than in non-diabetic men. WC and WHtR thresholds by BMI discriminated diabetic and obese patients better than single thresholds, and can be represented graphically by the distribution of percentile ranks of WC and WHtR by BMI.ik. Copyright © 2009 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Higher Household Income and the Availability of Electronic Devices and Transport at Home Are Associated with Higher Waist Circumference in Colombian Children: The ACFIES Study

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Arbeláez, Diego; Camacho, Paul A.; Cohen, Daniel D.; Rincón-Romero, Katherine; Alvarado-Jurado, Laura; Pinzón, Sandra; Duperly, John; López-Jaramillo, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    Background: The current “epidemic” of childhood obesity is described as being driven by modern lifestyles with associated socioeconomic and environmental changes that modify dietary habits, discourage physical activity and encourage sedentary behaviors. Objective: To evaluate the association between household income and the availability of electronic devices and transport at home, and the values of waist circumference (WC), as an indicator of abdominal obesity, in children and adolescents from Bucaramanga, Colombia. Methods: Cross-sectional study of public elementary and high school population, of low-middle socioeconomic status. Results: A total of 668 schoolchildren were recruited. After adjusting for potential confounders, significant positive associations between waist circumference and higher household income (p = 0.011), and waist circumference and the availability of electronic devices and transport at home (p = 0.026) were found. Conclusions: In low-middle socioeconomic status schoolchildren in a developing country, those from relatively more affluent families had greater waist circumference, an association that is opposite to that observed in developed countries. This finding could be related to higher income family’s ability to purchase electronic devices and motorized transport which discourage physical activity and for their children to buy desirable and more costly western fast food. PMID:24514426

  16. Food Stamp Participation is Associated with Fewer Meals Away From Home, yet Higher Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in a Nationally Representative Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jilcott, Stephanie B.; Liu, Haiyong; DuBose, Katrina D.; Chen, Susan; Kranz, Sibylle

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between Food Stamp (FS) participation, meals away from home (MAFH), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Nationally representative. Participants: Data from low-income, FS-eligible individuals (N = 945) ages 20-65 years, responding to the 2005-2006 National…

  17. Associations of Self-Reported and Actigraphy-Assessed Sleep Characteristics with Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in Adults: Moderation by Gender

    PubMed Central

    Mezick, Elizabeth J.; Wing, Rena R.; McCaffery, Jeanne M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Self-reported sleep duration has been linked to body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in previous work; however, data regarding whether these associations are stronger in men or women have been mixed, and few studies have measured sleep objectively. We investigated self-reported and actigraphy-assessed sleep characteristics in relation to BMI and waist circumference, and examined the extent to which these associations differ by gender. Design Archived, cross-sectional data from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) Biomarkers Study, collected in 2004–2006, were used. Participants included 1248 adults (43% male) who reported their habitual sleep duration, and a subset of participants (n = 441, 40% male) who underwent seven nights of wrist actigraphy. Results Self-reported total sleep time, actigraphy-assessed total sleep time, and actigraphy-assessed sleep efficiency were inversely associated with BMI in the full sample of both men and women. Gender moderated associations between actigraphy assessments of sleep and anthropometric variables, however, such that total sleep time and sleep efficiency were related to BMI and waist circumference in women only. Associations between sleep and waist circumference were independent of BMI. Conclusions Sleep duration and sleep continuity are associated with body weight and distribution of body fat, but these associations are stronger, or only present, in women. PMID:24239499

  18. Cumulative Risk Exposure and Waist Circumference in Preschool-Aged Children: the Mediating Role of Television and Moderating Role of Sex.

    PubMed

    Grummon, Anna H; Vaughn, Amber; Jones, Deborah J; Ward, Dianne S

    2017-08-01

    Children exposed to multiple stressors are more likely to be overweight, but little is known about the mechanisms explaining this association. This cross-sectional study examined whether children exposed to multiple stressors had higher waist circumference, and whether this association was mediated through children's television time. Participants were 319 parent-child dyads. Children were 2-5 years old and had at least one overweight parent (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m 2 ). Data were collected at baseline of a larger childhood obesity prevention study and included information on psychosocial stressors (e.g., parenting stress), demographic stressors (e.g., low income), children's television time, and children's waist circumference. Two cumulative risk scores were created by summing stressors in each domain (demographic and psychosocial). Mediation and moderated mediation analyses were conducted. Indirect effects of both cumulative risk scores on waist circumference through television time were not significant; however, moderated mediation analyses found significant moderation by gender. The indirect effects of both risk scores on waist circumference through television time were significant and positive for girls, but near-zero for boys. Reducing television time should be explored as a strategy for buffering against the negative health effects of exposure to multiple stressors among girls. Longitudinal and intervention research is needed to confirm these results and to identify mediating factors between cumulative risk and body weight among boys.

  19. Waist circumference is superior to weight and BMI in predicting sexual symptoms, voiding symptoms and psychosomatic symptoms in men with hypogonadism and erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Yassin, A A; Nettleship, J E; Salman, M; Almehmadi, Y

    2017-05-01

    Waist circumference is considered a useful predictor of obesity-associated cardiovascular risk, but its use as an indicator of sexual health status and quality of life (QoL) in hypogonadal men is unknown. We investigated whether three measurements of obesity, weight, body mass index and waist circumference, correlate with the International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5), the Aging Males' Symptoms (AMS) and the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaires. A total of 261 patients were enrolled in a prospective study on hypogonadism treatment with intramuscular long-acting testosterone undecanoate. Patients with total testosterone ≤3.5 ng ml -1 were enrolled, and baseline demographic data were recorded. Patient's response to IIEF, IPSS and AMS standardised questionnaires was recorded to evaluate health-related QoL. The mean length of treatment and follow-up was 4.7 years (max 6 years). ANOVA regression analysis showed that waist circumference was significantly inversely proportional to IIEF-5 and directly proportional to AMS and IPSS. Weight was inversely proportional to IIEF and directly proportional to IPSS but not associated with AMS. BMI had no proportionality to measurements of sexual function and quality of life. These results suggest that among weight, BMI and waist circumference, the latter is the best predictor of health-related QoL in men with hypogonadism. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. LMS tables for waist circumference and waist–height ratio in Colombian adults: analysis of nationwide data 2010

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Vélez, R; Correa-Bautista, J E; Martínez-Torres, J; Méneses-Echavez, J F; González-Ruiz, K; González-Jiménez, E; Schmidt-RioValle, J; Lobelo, F

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Indices predictive of central obesity include waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). These data are lacking for Colombian adults. This study aims at establishing smoothed centile charts and LMS tables for WC and WHtR; appropriate cutoffs were selected using receiver-operating characteristic analysis based on data from the representative sample. Subjects/Methods: We used data from the cross-sectional, national representative nutrition survey (ENSIN, 2010). A total of 83 220 participants (aged 20–64) were enroled. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), WC and WHtR were measured and percentiles calculated using the LMS method (L (curve Box-Cox), M (curve median), and S (curve coefficient of variation)). Receiver operating characteristics curve analyses were used to evaluate the optimal cutoff point of WC and WHtR for overweight and obesity based on WHO definitions. Results: Reference values for WC and WHtR are presented. Mean WC and WHtR increased with age for both genders. We found a strong positive correlation between WC and BMI (r=0.847, P< 0.01) and WHtR and BMI (r=0.878, P<0.01). In obese men, the cutoff point value is 96.6 cm for the WC. In women, the cutoff point value is 91.0 cm for the WC. Receiver operating characteristic curve for WHtR was also obtained and the cutoff point value of 0.579 in men, and in women the cutoff point value was 0.587. A high sensitivity and specificity were obtained. Conclusions: This study presents first reference values of WC and WHtR for Colombians aged 20–64. Through LMS tables for adults, we hope to provide quantitative tools to study obesity and its complications. PMID:27026425

  1. The association of fasting blood glucose (FBG) and waist circumference in northern adults in Iran: a population based study.

    PubMed

    Veghari, Gholamreza; Sedaghat, Mehdi; Joshaghani, Hamidreza; Banihashem, Samieh; Moharloei, Pooneh; Angizeh, Abdolhamid; Tazik, Ebrahim; Moghaddami, Abbas; Hajian-Tilaki, Karimollah; Zahedpasha, Yedolla

    2014-01-06

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG) level and Waist Circumference (WC) in men and women among 25-65 years old people in the north of Iran. This was a cross-sectional and analytical research gender that carried out on the 1797 subjects (941 males and 856 females) between 25-65 years old using multistage cluster sampling technique. FBG was measured in the morning after a 12-hour fast and was determined by using laboratory kits (enzymatic methods) and spectrophotometry technique. Central obesity was defined based on World Health Organization criteria: waist circumference ≥102 cm and ≥88 cm in men and women, respectively. The SPSS.16 software was used for statistical analysis. As whole, the mean of FBG in women (98.3 ± 40.1 mg/dl) was higher than in men (94.6 ± 32.2 mg/dl). Also, the mean of WC in men 4.5 cm was lower than in women. In men, the mean of FBG statistically differs between normal and central obese subjects both in 35-45 year-age group (P = 0.001) and in 45-55 year-age group (P = 0.042). As whole, in men, the FBG level increased up 2.82 mg/dl in each 10 cm of WC with the highest rate in 35-45 year-age group. In totally, in women, the FBG level increased up 3.48 mg/dl in each 10 cm of WC and in 25-35 year-age group and it was higher than in other age groups. In men, the regression coefficients were constant with age increasing while in women it was decreased. Constant trend in men and decreasing trend in women with age was shown between FBG and WC. The cut-off point of WC for detecting of diabetes obtained 89 cm and 107 cm in men and women, respectively. The positive correlation was seen between WC and FBG level and it was declined with age in women. Cut-off point for detecting of diabetes in men was less than in women. WC is useable as a predictor of type 2 diabetes mellitus risk among adults in the north of Iran.

  2. Waist circumference is a better predictor of risk for frailty than BMI in the community-dwelling elderly in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Liao, Qiuju; Zheng, Zheng; Xiu, Shuangling; Chan, Piu

    2018-03-27

    Obesity is found to be associated with frailty. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are the commonly used measures for obesity, the former is more closely related to general obesity and body weight; the latter can more accurately reflect abdominal obesity and is more closely associated with metabolic disorders. In this study, we intend to study the relationship between frailty, BMI and WC among older people. Data were derived from the Beijing Longitudinal Study on Aging II Cohort, which included 6320 people 65 years or older from three urban districts in Beijing. A Frailty Index derived from 33 items was developed according to Rockwood's cumulative deficits method. A Frailty Index ≥ 0.25 was used as the cut-off criteria. BMI was classified as underweight, normal, overweight, or obese (< 18.5, 18.5-< 24.0, 24.0-27.9, ≥ 28.0 kg/m 2 , respectively). High WC was defined as WC ≥ 85 cm in men and ≥ 80 cm in women. People with a larger BMI (≥ 28.0 kg/m 2 , 22.6%) or a larger WC (18.5%) were more likely to be frail. People with normal BMI and overweight people do not suffer from higher prevalence for frailty. In comparison with individuals with normal BMI (18.5-< 24.0 kg/m 2 ) and normal WC (< 85 cm in men, <80 cm in women), the risk of frailty was higher among individuals who have normal BMI and large WC (odds ratio 1.68; 95% CI 1.33-2.12), have overweight and large WC (odds ratio 1.58; 95% CI 1.23-1.96), or have obesity and large WC (odds ratio 2.28; 95% CI 1.79-2.89). In people with normal WC, only those who are underweight have a higher risk for frailty (odds ratio 1.65, 95% CI 1.08-2.52). In comparison with BMI, the relation of WC with the risk for frailty was much closer. Abdominal obesity is more closely associated with incidence of frailty than general obesity in the elderly. Older adults with large waist circumference are more likely to be frail. Frailty in the elderly might be more closely related to metabolic

  3. Urinary Triclosan Concentrations Are Inversely Associated with Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in the US General Population: Experience in NHANES 2003-2010

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shengxu; Zhao, Jinying; Wang, Guangdi; Zhu, Yun; Rabito, Felicia; Krousel-Wood, Marie; Chen, Wei; Whelton, Paul K

    2015-01-01

    Background Humans are extensively exposed to triclosan, an antibacterial and antifungal agent. Triclosan’s effects on human health, however, have not been carefully investigated. Objective To examine whether triclosan exposure is associated with obesity traits. Methods This study included 2,898 children (6-19 years old) and 5,066 adults (20 years or older) who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 2003-2010 and had a detectable level of urinary triclosan. Multiple linear regression models were used to examine the association between urinary triclosan and both body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. Results Each standard deviation increase in urinary triclosan was associated with a 0.34 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.05, 0.64) kg/m2 lower level of BMI (p=0.02) and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.09, 1.74) cm smaller waist circumference (p=0.03) in boys, and a 0.62 (95% CI: 0.31, 0.94) kg/m2 lower level of BMI (p=0.0002) and 1.32 (95% CI: 0.54, 2.09) cm smaller waist circumference in girls (P=0.001); a 0.42 (95% CI: 0.06, 0.77) kg/m2 lower level of BMI (P=0.02) and 1.35 (95% CI: 0.48, 2.22) cm smaller waist circumference (P=0.003) in men, and a 0.71 (95% CI: 0.34, 1.07) kg/m2 lower level of BMI (P=0.0002) and 1.68 (95% CI: 0.86, 2.50) cm smaller waist circumference (P=0.0001) in women. In both children and adults, there was a consistent trend for lower levels of BMI and smaller waist circumference with increasing levels of urinary triclosan, from the lowest to the highest quartile of urinary triclosan (P≤0.001 in all cases). Conclusion Triclosan exposure is inversely associated with BMI and waist circumference. The biological mechanisms linking triclosan exposure to obesity await further investigation. PMID:25823951

  4. Optimal cut-off levels to define obesity: body mass index and waist circumference, and their relationship to cardiovascular disease, dyslipidaemia, hypertension and diabetes in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Zaher, Zaki Morad Mohd; Zambari, Robayaah; Pheng, Chan Siew; Muruga, Vadivale; Ng, Bernard; Appannah, Geeta; Onn, Lim Teck

    2009-01-01

    Many studies in Asia have demonstrated that Asian populations may require lower cut-off levels for body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference to define obesity and abdominal obesity respectively, compared to western populations. Optimal cut-off levels for body mass index and waist circumference were determined to assess the relationship between the two anthropometric- and cardiovascular indices. Receiver operating characteristics analysis was used to determine the optimal cut-off levels. The study sample included 1833 subjects (mean age of 44+/-14 years) from 93 primary care clinics in Malaysia. Eight hundred and seventy two of the subjects were men and 960 were women. The optimal body mass index cut-off values predicting dyslipidaemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or at least one cardiovascular risk factor varied from 23.5 to 25.5 kg/m2 in men and 24.9 to 27.4 kg/m2 in women. As for waist circumference, the optimal cut-off values varied from 83 to 92 cm in men and from 83 to 88 cm in women. The optimal cut-off values from our study showed that body mass index of 23.5 kg/m2 in men and 24.9 kg/m2 in women and waist circumference of 83 cm in men and women may be more suitable for defining the criteria for overweight or obesity among adults in Malaysia. Waist circumference may be a better indicator for the prediction of obesity-related cardiovascular risk factors in men and women compared to BMI. Further investigation using a bigger sample size in Asia needs to be done to confirm our findings.

  5. The influence of area-level education on body mass index, waist circumference and obesity according to gender.

    PubMed

    Boing, Antonio Fernando; Subramanian, S V

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the association between area-level education and body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and obesity controlling for individual demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. A cross-sectional population-based study was carried out with 1720 adults aged 20-59 in southern Brazil. We used multilevel modeling techniques to test whether area-level education was associated with BMI, WC and obesity regardless of individual-level characteristics. We observed a significant between-groups variance for both BMI and WC. Among women, area-level education explained 27.6 and 30.0% of the between-groups variance of BMI and WC, respectively. In the fully adjusted model, the WC was 4.67 cm higher (p < 0.05) and the BMI was 1.12 kg/m(2) higher (p < 0.05) in the women residents of low education neighborhoods compared to the residents of high education areas. In the same group, the chance of central obesity and general obesity was, respectively, 2.05 (IC95% 1.19-3.52) and 1.85 (IC95% 1.04-3.29) times higher. The findings suggest that neighborhood characteristics play an important role in the distribution of obesity and must be addressed by policy makers.

  6. Predictive utility of blood pressure, waist circumference and body mass index for metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Nurjono, Milawaty; Lee, Jimmy

    2013-05-01

    This study aims to examine and compare the predictive utility of blood pressure (BP), waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI), and to determine optimal cut-off values in prediction of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in patients with chronic schizophrenia. About 100 patients with chronic schizophrenia were recruited. BMI and BP were measured and laboratory tests to evaluate patients' high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose levels were performed. Presence of MetS was examined according to AHA/NHLBI guidelines. Predictive utility of BP, WC and BMI was examined using receiver operating curve and discriminant indices were determined accordingly. Forty-six (46%) patients were identified to have MetS. BMI of ≥23 kg m(-2) was most accurate (AUC = 0.83, P < 0.001), with sensitivity of 93.5%, specificity of 48.1%, positive predictive value of 60.6% and negative predictive value of 92.9% in identifying MetS. This finding has immediate and significant clinical implications in the local population with schizophrenia. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Obesity classification in military personnel: a comparison of body fat, waist circumference, and body mass index measurements.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Katie M; Jitnarin, Nattinee; Suminski, Richard R; Berkel, LaVerne; Hunter, Christine M; Alvarez, Lisa; Brundige, Antionette R; Peterson, Alan L; Foreyt, John P; Haddock, C Keith; Poston, Walker S C

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate obesity classifications from body fat percentage (BF%), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). A total of 451 overweight/obese active duty military personnel completed all three assessments. Most were obese (men, 81%; women, 98%) using National Institutes of Health (NIH) BF% standards (men, >25%; women, >30%). Using the higher World Health Organization (WHO) BF >35% standard, 86% of women were obese. BMI (55.5% and 51.4%) and WC (21.4% and 31.9%) obesity rates were substantially lower for men and women, respectively (p < 0.05). BMI/WC were accurate discriminators for BF% obesity (theta for all comparisons >0.75, p < 0.001). Optimal cutoff points were lower than NIH/WHO standards; WC = 100 cm and BMI = 29 maximized sensitivity and specificity for men, and WC = 79 cm and BMI = 25.5 (NIH) or WC = 83 cm and BMI = 26 (WHO) maximized sensitivity and specificity for women. Both WC and BMI measures had high rates of false negatives compared to BF%. However, at a population level, WC/BMI are useful obesity measures, demonstrating fair-to-high discriminatory power.

  8. The relationship of waist circumference and body mass index to grey matter volume in community dwelling adults with mild obesity.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Y K; Sasaki, H; Takao, H; Yoshikawa, T; Hayashi, N; Mori, H; Kunimatsu, A; Aoki, S; Ohtomo, K

    2018-02-01

    Previous work has shown that high body mass index (BMI) is associated with low grey matter volume. However, evidence on the relationship between waist circumference (WC) and brain volume is relatively scarce. Moreover, the influence of mild obesity (as indexed by WC and BMI) on brain volume remains unclear. This study explored the relationships between WC and BMI and grey matter volume in a large sample of Japanese adults. The participants were 792 community-dwelling adults (523 men and 269 women). Brain magnetic resonance images were collected, and the correlation between WC or BMI and global grey matter volume were analysed. The relationships between WC or BMI and regional grey matter volume were also investigated using voxel-based morphometry. Global grey matter volume was not correlated with WC or BMI. Voxel-based morphometry analysis revealed significant negative correlations between both WC and BMI and regional grey matter volume. The areas correlated with each index were more widespread in men than in women. In women, the total area of the regions significantly correlated with WC was slightly greater than that of the regions significantly correlated with BMI. Results show that both WC and BMI were inversely related to regional grey matter volume, even in Japanese adults with somewhat mild obesity. Especially in populations with less obesity, such as the female participants in current study, WC may be more sensitive than BMI as a marker of grey matter volume differences associated with obesity.

  9. Twelve-year weight change, waist circumference change and incident obesity: the Australian diabetes, obesity and lifestyle study.

    PubMed

    Tanamas, Stephanie K; Shaw, Jonathan E; Backholer, Kathryn; Magliano, Dianna J; Peeters, Anna

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to describe the changes in weight and waist circumference (WC), examine the incidence of obesity as defined by body mass index (BMI) and WC, and describe the changes in the prevalence of obesity over 12 years. In 1999/2000, 11,247 adults aged ≥25 years were recruited from 42 randomly selected areas across Australia. In total, 44.6% of eligible participants completed follow-up in 2011/12. Height, weight, and WC were measured at both surveys. People who were 25-34 years of age at baseline gained an average of 6.7 kg weight and 6.6 cm WC, whereas those aged ≥75 years lost an average of 4.5 kg and gained an average of 0.8 cm. Women had a greater increase in WC than men, but did not differ in terms of weight gain. The 12-year incidence of obesity was 15.0% when defined by BMI and 31.8% when defined by WC. According to BMI and WC combined, the percentage of the cohort that was normal weight decreased from 33 to 21% and the percentage that was obese increased from 32 to 49% between baseline and 2012. In addition to BMI, assessment of WC should be incorporated more frequently when assessing population trends of obesity and the burden of disease associated with excess adiposity. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  10. Centile Curves and Reference Values for Height, Body Mass, Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference of Peruvian Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante, Alcibíades; Freitas, Duarte; Pan, Huiqi; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Maia, José

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to provide height, body mass, BMI and waist circumference (WC) growth centile charts for school-children, aged 4–17 years, from central Peru, and to compare Peruvian data with North-American and Argentinean references. The sample consisted of 8753 children and adolescents (4130 boys and 4623 girls) aged 4 to 17 years, from four Peruvian cities: Barranco, La Merced, San Ramón and Junín. Height, body mass and WC were measured according to standardized techniques. Centile curves for height, body mass, BMI and WC were obtained separately for boys and girls using the LMS method. Student t-tests were used to compare mean values. Overall boys have higher median heights than girls, and the 50th percentile for body mass increases curvilinearly from 4 years of age onwards. In boys, the BMI and WC 50th percentiles increase linearly and in girls, the increase presents a curvilinear pattern. Peruvian children are shorter, lighter and have higher BMI than their counterparts in the U.S. and Argentina; in contrast, age and sex-specific WC values are lower. Height, body mass and WC of Peruvian children increased with age and variability was higher at older ages. The growth patterns for height, body mass, BMI and WC among Peruvian children were similar to those observed in North-American and Argentinean peers. PMID:25761169

  11. Changes in Waist Circumference among German Adults over Time – Compiling Results of Seven Prospective Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Haftenberger, Marjolein; Mensink, Gert B.M.; Vogt, Susanne; Thorand, Barbara; Peters, Annette; Herzog, Beatrice; Hartwig, Saskia; Greiser, Karin Halina; Ittermann, Till; Schipf, Sabine; Völzke, Henry; Merz, Benedikt; Nöthlings, Ute; Koch, Manja; Neamat-Allah, Jasmine; Katzke, Verena; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Bachlechner, Ursula; Scheidt-Nave, Christa; Schienkiewitz, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Aim This study aims to quantify longitudinal changes in waist circumference (WC) among adults aged 45–64 years in Germany. Methods Data of 15,444 men and 17,207 women from one nationwide and six regional prospective German cohort studies were analyzed. The sex-specific mean change in WC per year of follow-up was assessed for each study separately. Findings from the cohort-by-cohort analysis were combined by applying meta-analytic methods. Progression to central obesity (WC ≥ 102 cm in men and ≥ 88 cm in women) within a standardized period of 10 years was described for each study. Results The estimated mean change in WC per year of follow-up for all cohorts combined was 0.53 (95s% confidence interval 0.29–0.76) cm/year for men and 0.63 (0.48–0.77) cm/year for women, but varied between the included studies. Within 10 years, about 20s% of individuals with low WC (<94 cm in men; <80 cm in women) and about 50s% of individuals with intermediate WC (94–102 cm in men; 80–88 cm in women) progressed to central obesity. Conclusion The increase in mean WC with aging along with a profound increase of central adiposity is obviously and may have several adverse health effects. Obesity prevention programs should also focus on abdominal obesity. PMID:27701174

  12. Heavier smoking may lead to a relative increase in waist circumference: evidence for a causal relationship from a Mendelian randomisation meta-analysis. The CARTA consortium.

    PubMed

    Morris, Richard W; Taylor, Amy E; Fluharty, Meg E; Bjørngaard, Johan H; Åsvold, Bjørn Olav; Elvestad Gabrielsen, Maiken; Campbell, Archie; Marioni, Riccardo; Kumari, Meena; Korhonen, Tellervo; Männistö, Satu; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Kaakinen, Marika; Cavadino, Alana; Postmus, Iris; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Skaaby, Tea; Ahluwalia, Tarun Veer Singh; Treur, Jorien L; Willemsen, Gonneke; Dale, Caroline; Wannamethee, S Goya; Lahti, Jari; Palotie, Aarno; Räikkönen, Katri; McConnachie, Alex; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Wong, Andrew; Dalgård, Christine; Paternoster, Lavinia; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Tyrrell, Jessica; Horwood, John; Fergusson, David M; Kennedy, Martin A; Nohr, Ellen A; Christiansen, Lene; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Kuh, Diana; Watt, Graham; Eriksson, Johan G; Whincup, Peter H; Vink, Jacqueline M; Boomsma, Dorret I; Davey Smith, George; Lawlor, Debbie; Linneberg, Allan; Ford, Ian; Jukema, J Wouter; Power, Chris; Hyppönen, Elina; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Preisig, Martin; Borodulin, Katja; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kivimaki, Mika; Smith, Blair H; Hayward, Caroline; Romundstad, Pål R; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Munafò, Marcus R; Sattar, Naveed

    2015-08-11

    To investigate, using a Mendelian randomisation approach, whether heavier smoking is associated with a range of regional adiposity phenotypes, in particular those related to abdominal adiposity. Mendelian randomisation meta-analyses using a genetic variant (rs16969968/rs1051730 in the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene region) as a proxy for smoking heaviness, of the associations of smoking heaviness with a range of adiposity phenotypes. 148,731 current, former and never-smokers of European ancestry aged ≥ 16 years from 29 studies in the consortium for Causal Analysis Research in Tobacco and Alcohol (CARTA). Waist and hip circumferences, and waist-hip ratio. The data included up to 66,809 never-smokers, 43,009 former smokers and 38,913 current daily cigarette smokers. Among current smokers, for each extra minor allele, the geometric mean was lower for waist circumference by -0.40% (95% CI -0.57% to -0.22%), with effects on hip circumference, waist-hip ratio and body mass index (BMI) being -0.31% (95% CI -0.42% to -0.19), -0.08% (-0.19% to 0.03%) and -0.74% (-0.96% to -0.51%), respectively. In contrast, among never-smokers, these effects were higher by 0.23% (0.09% to 0.36%), 0.17% (0.08% to 0.26%), 0.07% (-0.01% to 0.15%) and 0.35% (0.18% to 0.52%), respectively. When adjusting the three central adiposity measures for BMI, the effects among current smokers changed direction and were higher by 0.14% (0.05% to 0.22%) for waist circumference, 0.02% (-0.05% to 0.08%) for hip circumference and 0.10% (0.02% to 0.19%) for waist-hip ratio, for each extra minor allele. For a given BMI, a gene variant associated with increased cigarette consumption was associated with increased waist circumference. Smoking in an effort to control weight may lead to accumulation of central adiposity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Heavier smoking may lead to a relative increase in waist circumference: evidence for a causal relationship from a Mendelian randomisation meta-analysis. The CARTA consortium

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Richard W; Taylor, Amy E; Fluharty, Meg E; Bjørngaard, Johan H; Åsvold, Bjørn Olav; Elvestad Gabrielsen, Maiken; Campbell, Archie; Marioni, Riccardo; Kumari, Meena; Korhonen, Tellervo; Männistö, Satu; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Kaakinen, Marika; Cavadino, Alana; Postmus, Iris; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Skaaby, Tea; Ahluwalia, Tarun Veer Singh; Treur, Jorien L; Willemsen, Gonneke; Dale, Caroline; Wannamethee, S Goya; Lahti, Jari; Palotie, Aarno; Räikkönen, Katri; McConnachie, Alex; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Wong, Andrew; Dalgård, Christine; Paternoster, Lavinia; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Tyrrell, Jessica; Horwood, John; Fergusson, David M; Kennedy, Martin A; Nohr, Ellen A; Christiansen, Lene; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Kuh, Diana; Watt, Graham; Eriksson, Johan G; Whincup, Peter H; Vink, Jacqueline M; Boomsma, Dorret I; Davey Smith, George; Lawlor, Debbie; Linneberg, Allan; Ford, Ian; Jukema, J Wouter; Power, Chris; Hyppönen, Elina; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Preisig, Martin; Borodulin, Katja; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kivimaki, Mika; Smith, Blair H; Hayward, Caroline; Romundstad, Pål R; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Munafò, Marcus R; Sattar, Naveed

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate, using a Mendelian randomisation approach, whether heavier smoking is associated with a range of regional adiposity phenotypes, in particular those related to abdominal adiposity. Design Mendelian randomisation meta-analyses using a genetic variant (rs16969968/rs1051730 in the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene region) as a proxy for smoking heaviness, of the associations of smoking heaviness with a range of adiposity phenotypes. Participants 148 731 current, former and never-smokers of European ancestry aged ≥16 years from 29 studies in the consortium for Causal Analysis Research in Tobacco and Alcohol (CARTA). Primary outcome measures Waist and hip circumferences, and waist-hip ratio. Results The data included up to 66 809 never-smokers, 43 009 former smokers and 38 913 current daily cigarette smokers. Among current smokers, for each extra minor allele, the geometric mean was lower for waist circumference by −0.40% (95% CI −0.57% to −0.22%), with effects on hip circumference, waist-hip ratio and body mass index (BMI) being −0.31% (95% CI −0.42% to −0.19), −0.08% (−0.19% to 0.03%) and −0.74% (−0.96% to −0.51%), respectively. In contrast, among never-smokers, these effects were higher by 0.23% (0.09% to 0.36%), 0.17% (0.08% to 0.26%), 0.07% (−0.01% to 0.15%) and 0.35% (0.18% to 0.52%), respectively. When adjusting the three central adiposity measures for BMI, the effects among current smokers changed direction and were higher by 0.14% (0.05% to 0.22%) for waist circumference, 0.02% (−0.05% to 0.08%) for hip circumference and 0.10% (0.02% to 0.19%) for waist-hip ratio, for each extra minor allele. Conclusions For a given BMI, a gene variant associated with increased cigarette consumption was associated with increased waist circumference. Smoking in an effort to control weight may lead to accumulation of central adiposity. PMID:26264275

  14. The association of dementia with upper arm and waist circumference in seven low- and middle-income countries: the 10/66 cross-sectional surveys.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Clare L; Albanese, Emiliano; Stewart, Robert

    2012-08-01

    Weight loss in dementia contributes to morbidity and mortality but the distribution of anthropometric change and its consistency between populations are less clear. Our aim was to investigate and compare the associations of dementia with waist and upper arm circumference in elders from seven low- and middle-income nations. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted of 15,022 residents aged 65 years and older in Cuba, Mexico, Venezuela, Peru, Dominican Republic, China, and India. Dementia was assessed using a cross-culturally validated algorithm, and anthropometric measurements were taken. Associations with dementia and dementia severity (clinical dementia rating scale) were investigated in linear regression models, with fixed-effects meta-analyses used to investigate between-country heterogeneity. Dementia and increased dementia severity were both associated with smaller arm and waist circumferences with little evidence of confounding by sociodemographic and health status. Associations between dementia/clinical dementia rating and arm circumference were homogeneous between countries (Higgins I(2) 0% and 7%, respectively), whereas those with waist circumference were more heterogeneous (Higgins I(2) 67% and 62%, respectively). Although cross-sectional, our findings are consistent with prospective observations of weight loss in dementia and suggest loss of both muscle and fat-the former being consistent across different settings and the latter being more context dependent.

  15. Sex-specific associations between body mass index, waist circumference and the risk of Barrett's oesophagus: a pooled analysis from the international BEACON consortium.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Ai; Cook, Michael Blaise; Shaheen, Nicholas J; Vaughan, Thomas L; Whiteman, David C; Murray, Liam; Corley, Douglas A

    2013-12-01

    Barrett's oesophagus is a precursor lesion of oesophageal adenocarcinoma, a cancer that, in the USA, has increased in incidence over 600% during the past 40 years. Barrett's oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma are much more common among men than among women; this finding is unexplained and most earlier studies lacked sufficient numbers of women to evaluate sex-specific risk factors. We leveraged the power of an international consortium to assess sex-specific relationships between body mass index (BMI), abdominal circumference and Barrett's oesophagus. Four case-control studies provided a total of 1102 cases (316 women, 786 men) and 1400 population controls (436 women, 964 men) for analysis. Study-specific estimates, generated using individual participant data, were combined using random effects meta-analysis. Waist circumference was significantly associated with Barrett's oesophagus, even after adjustment for BMI; persons in the highest versus the lowest quartiles of waist circumference had approximately 125% and 275% increases in the odds of Barrett's oesophagus among men and women, respectively (OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.08 to 4.65, I(2)=57; OR 3.75, 95% CI 1.47 to 9.56, I(2)=0). In contrast, there was no evidence of a significant association between BMI and the risk of Barrett's oesophagus, with or without adjustment for waist circumference. Waist circumference, independent of BMI, was found to be a risk factor for Barrett's oesophagus among both men and women. Future studies examining the biological mechanisms of this association will extend our knowledge regarding the pathogenesis of Barrett's oesophagus.

  16. Excess gains in weight and waist circumference associated with childbearing: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study (CARDIA)

    PubMed Central

    Gunderson, EP; Murtaugh, MA; Lewis, CE; Quesenberry, CP; West, DS; Sidney, S

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the association of childbearing with weight and waist circumference (WC) changes, we compared women with and without pregnancies or births during follow-up. STUDY DESIGN A multicenter, longitudinal observational study over 10 years. Comparison groups defined by the number of pregnancies and births during follow-up: P0 (0 pregnancies; nongravid), P1 (1+ miscarriages or abortions; ‘short’ pregnancies), B1 (1 birth), and B2 (2+ births). Mean changes in weight and WC for P1, B1 and B2 groups vs P0 were examined separately by race (black and white), baseline parity (nulliparous and parous) and baseline weight status (normal weight; BMI <25 kg/m2 and overweight; BMI ≥25 kg/m2). SUBJECTS A population-based sample of 2070 women aged 18–30 y at baseline (1053 black subjects and 1017 white subjects) from Birmingham, Alabama, Chicago, Illinois, Minneapolis, Minnesota, and Oakland, California were examined five times between 1985–1986 and 1995–1996. MEASURMENTS Weight and WC measurements were obtained using standardized protocol at baseline and examinations at years 2, 5, 7 and 10. Sociodemographic, reproductive, and behavioral attributes were assessed at baseline and follow-up examinations. RESULTS Gains in weight and WC associated with pregnancy and childbearing varied by race (P<0.001), baseline parity (P<0.05) and overweight status (P<0.001). Among overweight nulliparas, excess gains in weight (black subjects: 3–5 kg, white subjects: 5–6 kg) and WC (black subjects: 3–4 cm, white subjects: 5–6 cm) were associated with ‘short’ pregnancies and one or more birth(s) during follow-up compared to no pregnancies (P<0.01 and 0.001). Among normal weight nulliparas, excess gains in weight (about 1 kg) and WC (2–3 cm) were associated with follow-up birth(s) (P<0.05). Among women parous at baseline, no excess weight gains were found, but excess WC gains (2–4 cm) were associated with follow-up births. CONCLUSION Substantial excess weight

  17. Association of physical activity with body mass index, waist circumference and incidence of obesity in older adults.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas Fuentes, Gabriela; Bawaked, Rowaedh Ahmed; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; Corella, Dolores; Subirana Cachinero, Isaac; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Estruch, Ramón; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Ros, Emilio; Lapetra Peralta, José; Fiol, Miguel; Rekondo, Javier; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Tur Marí, Josep Antoni; Pinto Sala, Xavier; Babio, Nancy; Ortega, Carolina; Martínez, José Alfredo; Schröder, Helmut

    2018-03-15

    There is limited, and inconsistent, data on the prospective association between physical activity and surrogate markers of adiposity in older adults. We aim to determine the prospective association of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and the incidence of obesity. This prospective analysis included 7144 individuals with a mean age of 67 ± 6.2 years, from the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) study. BMI and WC were measured and LTPA was recorded using the Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire. Exposure and outcome variables were calculated as cumulative average of repeated measurements. Total LTPA was inversely associated (P < 0.001) with BMI and WC. The difference in BMI and WC between extreme quintiles of LTPA (Q1-Q5) was 2.1 kg/m2 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.68; 2.49, P < 0.001) and 4.8 cm (CI 2.28; 7.25, P < 0.001), respectively. Low-intensity LTPA was inversely associated with BMI but not with WC, while moderate/vigorous LTPA showed an inverse relationship with BMI and WC. The hazard of general and abdominal obesity incidence decreased across quintiles of total and moderate/vigorous LTPA (P < 0.001 for both), whereas low-intensity LTPA was inversely associated with the incidence of general obesity (P < 0.001). LTPA was inversely associated with BMI, WC and incidence of general and abdominal obesity. The finding that low-intensity LTPA was inversely related to BMI and the incidence of obesity is of particular importance because this level of physical activity could be a feasible option for many older adults.

  18. Waist circumference and the metabolic syndrome predict the development of elevated albuminuria in non-diabetic subjects: the DESIR Study.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Fabrice; Marre, Michel; Halimi, Jean-Michel; Stengel, Bénédicte; Lange, Céline; Laville, Martine; Tichet, Jean; Balkau, Beverley

    2006-06-01

    Metabolic determinants of microalbuminuria remain poorly understood in non-diabetic individuals and particularly in women. We investigated in both sexes whether an elevated waist circumference (WC) or the presence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) predict the development of elevated albuminuria at 6 years. We studied 2738 subjects from the DESIR cohort without microalbuminuria or diabetes at baseline and who were followed up for 6 years. At 6 years, 254 individuals [9.3%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 8.2-10.4%] had developed elevated albuminuria (> or = 20 mg/l), which was significantly and positively associated with WC and blood pressure, but not with fasting glucose, lipids or body mass index in either sex. In both sexes, subjects with a high WC or with MetS at baseline were more likely to develop elevated albuminuria at 6 years compared with those with a normal WC or absence of MetS. In multivariate logistic analysis, WC as a continuous variable or a WC of 94 cm or greater for men and a WC greater than 88 cm for women were predictive of the development of elevated albuminuria, after adjusting for age, hypertension, the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, fibrinogen and glycaemia. MetS was a risk factor for elevated albuminuria in men (odds ratio 1.87; 95% CI 1.25-2.81), with differences according to the MetS definition. Abdominal adiposity is related to the development of elevated albuminuria in both sexes, suggesting that the measurement of WC may improve the identification of non-diabetic individuals at risk of developing microalbuminuria and emphasizing the interest of screening for albuminuria among those with MetS.

  19. Diurnal Salivary Cortisol is Associated With Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Champaneri, Shivam; Xu, Xiaoqiang; Carnethon, Mercedes R.; Bertoni, Alain G.; Seeman, Teresa; DeSantis, Amy S.; Roux, Ana Diez; Shrager, Sandi; Golden, Sherita Hill

    2012-01-01

    Neuroendocrine abnormalities, such as activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, are associated with obesity; however, few large-scale population-based studies have examined HPA axis and markers of obesity. We examined the cross-sectional association of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and diurnal salivary cortisol curve with obesity. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) Stress Study includes 1,002 White, Hispanic, and Black men and women (mean age 65±9.8 years) who collected up to 18 salivary cortisol samples over 3 days. Cortisol profiles were modeled using regression spline models that incorporated random parameters for subject-specific effects. Cortisol curve measures included awakening cortisol, CAR (awakening to 30 minutes post-awakening), early decline (30 minutes to 2 hours post-awakening), late decline (2 hours post-awakening to bedtime), and the corresponding areas under the curve (AUC). Body-mass-index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were used to estimate adiposity. For the entire cohort, both BMI and WC were negatively correlated with awakening cortisol (p<0.05), AUC during awakening rise and early decline and positively correlated to the early decline slope (p<0.05) after adjustments for age, race/ethnicity, gender, diabetes status, socioeconomic status, beta blockers, steroids, hormone replacement therapy and smoking status. No heterogeneities of effects were observed by gender, age, and race/ethnicity. Higher BMI and WC are associated with neuroendocrine dysregulation, which is present in a large population sample, and only partially explained by other covariates. PMID:23404865

  20. Skipping breakfast and 5‐year changes in body mass index and waist circumference in Japanese men and women

    PubMed Central

    Yoshita, K.; Nakamura, K.; Miura, K.; Takamura, T.; Nagasawa, S.Y.; Morikawa, Y.; Kido, T.; Naruse, Y.; Nogawa, K.; Suwazono, Y.; Sasaki, S.; Ishizaki, M.; Nakagawa, H.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Objective This study investigated the relationship between frequency of skipping breakfast and annual changes in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Methods The participants were 4,430 factory employees. BMI and WC were measured repeatedly at annual medical examinations over a 5‐year period. The association between frequency of skipping breakfast at the baseline examination and annual changes in anthropometric indices was evaluated using the generalized estimating equation method. Results The mean (standard deviation) BMI was 23.3 (3.0) kg m−2 for men and 21.9 (3.6) kg m−2 for women; and the mean WC was 82.6 (8.7) cm for men and 77.8 (9.8) cm for women. During the follow‐up period, mean BMI increased by 0.2 kg m−2 for men and women, and mean WC increased by 1.1 cm for men and 1.0 cm for women. The annual change in the BMI of men who skipped breakfast four to six times per week was 0.061 kg m−2 higher, and that of those who skipped breakfast seven times per week was 0.046 kg m−2 higher, compared with those who did not skip breakfast. Annual changes in the WC of male participants who skipped breakfast seven times per week was 0.248 cm higher than that of those who did not skip breakfast. Skipping breakfast was not associated with changes in BMI or WC in women. Conclusions Skipping breakfast was closely associated with annual changes in BMI and WC among men, and eating breakfast more than four times per week may prevent the excessive body weight gain associated with skipping breakfast. PMID:28702211

  1. Body mass index, waist circumference, type 2 diabetes mellitus and risk of liver cancer for U.S. adults

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Peter T.; Newton, Christina C.; Freedman, Neal D.; Koshiol, Jill; Alavanja, Michael C.; Beane Freeman, Laura E.; Buring, Julie E.; Chan, Andrew T.; Chong, Dawn Q.; Datta, Mridul; Gaudet, Mia M.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giovannucci, Edward; Graubard, Barry; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; King, Lindsey; Lee, I-Min; Linet, Martha; Palmer, Julie; Petrick, Jessica L.; Poynter, Jenny N.; Purdue, Mark; Robien, Kim; Rosenberg, Lynn; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant; Schairer, Catherine; Sesso, Howard D.; Sigurdson, Alice; Stevens, Victoria L.; Wactowski-Wende, Jean; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Renehan, Andrew G.; McGlynn, Katherine A.

    2016-01-01

    Incidence rates for liver cancer have increased threefold since the mid-1970s in the United States in parallel with increasing trends for obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We conducted an analysis of baseline body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and T2DM with risk of liver cancer. The Liver Cancer Pooling Project maintains harmonized data from 1.57 million adults enrolled in 14 U.S.-based prospective studies. Cox regression estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for age, sex, study center, alcohol, smoking, race, and BMI (for WC and T2DM). Stratified analyses assessed whether the BMI-liver cancer associations differed by hepatitis sera-positivity in nested analyses for a subset of cases (n=220) and controls (n=547). After enrollment, 2,162 incident liver cancer diagnoses were identified. BMI, per 5 kg/m2, was associated with higher risks of liver cancer, more so for men (HR: 1.38; 95% CI: 1.30 to 1.46) than women (HR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.17 to 1.35; p-interaction: 0.02). WC, per 5 cm, was associated with higher risks of liver cancer, approximately equally by sex (overall, HR: 1.08; 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.13). T2DM was associated with higher risk of liver cancer (HR: 2.61; 95% CI: 2.34 to 2.91). In stratified analyses, there was a null association between BMI and liver cancer risk for participants who were sera-positive for hepatitis. This study suggests that high BMI, high WC, and T2DM are associated with higher risks of liver cancer and that the association may differ by status of viral hepatitis infection. PMID:27742674

  2. Physical activity reduces the influence of genetic effects on BMI and waist circumference: a study in young adult twins.

    PubMed

    Mustelin, L; Silventoinen, K; Pietiläinen, K; Rissanen, A; Kaprio, J

    2009-01-01

    Both obesity and exercise behavior are influenced by genetic and environmental factors. However, whether obesity and physical inactivity share the same genetic vs environmental etiology has rarely been studied. We therefore analyzed these complex relationships, and also examined whether physical activity modifies the degree of genetic influence on body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). The FinnTwin16 Study is a population-based, longitudinal study of five consecutive birth cohorts (1975-1979) of Finnish twins. Data on height, weight, WC and physical activity of 4343 subjects at the average age of 25 (range, 22-27 years) years were obtained by a questionnaire and self-measurement of WC. Quantitative genetic analyses based on linear structural equations were carried out by the Mx statistical package. The modifying effect of physical activity on genetic and environmental influences was analyzed using gene-environment interaction models. The overall heritability estimates were 79% in males and 78% in females for BMI, 56 and 71% for WC and 55 and 54% for physical activity, respectively. There was an inverse relationship between physical activity and WC in males (r = -0.12) and females (r=-0.18), and between physical activity and BMI in females (r = -0.12). Physical activity significantly modified the heritability of BMI and WC, with a high level of physical activity decreasing the additive genetic component in BMI and WC. Physically active subjects were leaner than sedentary ones, and physical activity reduced the influence of genetic factors to develop high BMI and WC. This suggests that the individuals at greatest genetic risk for obesity would benefit the most from physical activity.

  3. Changes in Waist Circumference and the Incidence of Acute Myocardial Infarction in Middle-Aged Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Stegger, Jakob Gerhard; Halkjaer, Jytte; Tjønneland, Anne; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Overvad, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Background Waist circumference (WC) measured at one point in time is positively associated with the risk of acute myocardial infarction (MI), but the association with changes in WC (DWC) is not clear. We investigated the association between DWC and the risk of MI in middle-aged men and women, and evaluated the influence from concurrent changes in BMI (DBMI). Methodology/Principal Findings Data on 38,593 participants from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study was analysed. Anthropometry was assessed in 1993–97 and 1999–02. Information on fatal and non-fatal MI was obtained from National Registers. Cases were validated by review of the medical records. Hazard ratios (HR) were calculated from Cox proportional hazard models with individuals considered at risk from 1999–02 until December 30 2009. During 8.4 years of follow-up, 1,041 incident cases of MI occurred. WC was positively associated with the risk of MI, but weakly after adjustment for BMI. DWC was not associated with the risk of MI (HR per 5 cm change  = 1.01 (0.95, 1.09) with adjustment for covariates, baseline WC, BMI and DBMI). Associations with DWC were not notably different in sub-groups stratified according to baseline WC or DBMI, or when individuals with MI occurring within the first years of follow-up were excluded. Conclusions/Significance WC was positively associated with the risk of MI in middle-aged men and women, but changes in WC were not. These findings suggest that a reduction in WC may be an insufficient target for prevention of MI in middle-aged men and women. PMID:22046380

  4. Sport disciplines, types of sports, and waist circumference in young adulthood - a population-based twin study.

    PubMed

    Rottensteiner, Mirva; Mäkelä, Sara; Bogl, Leonie H; Törmäkangas, Timo; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kujala, Urho M

    2017-10-01

    The benefits of physical activity (PA) in preventing abdominal obesity are well recognized, but the role of different sport disciplines remains open. We aimed, therefore, to investigate how participation in different sport disciplines, and the number and types of sports engaged in are associated with waist circumference (WC) in young adulthood. This population-based cohort study comprised 4027 Finnish twin individuals (1874 men), with a mean age of 34 y (32-37), who answered a survey, including self-measured WC. We extracted the number and identified the types (aerobic, power, and mixed) of the different sport disciplines respondents reported participating in. The number of sport disciplines participated in was inversely associated with WC, the linear decrease averaging 1.38 cm (95% CI 1.10-1.65) per each additional sport discipline. The result persisted after adjustment for the main covariates, such as volume of PA and diet quality. Among dizygotic twin pairs discordant for sports participation (0-2 vs. 5 or more disciplines), the mean within-pair difference in WC was 4.8 cm (95% CI 0.4-9.1) for men and 11.2 cm (95% CI 4.4-18.0) for women; among discordant monozygotic pairs, no differences were observed. In men, all three types of sports were individually associated with smaller WC, while in women, only mixed and power sports showed this association. Participation in several sport disciplines and sport types was associated with smaller WC among young adults in their mid-30s. Shared genetic background may explain some of the associations.

  5. Longitudinal study of the socio-demographic determinants of changes in body weight and waist circumference in a multi-ethnic Asian population.

    PubMed

    Ong, S K; Fong, C W; Ma, S; Lee, J; Heng, D; Deurenberg-Yap, M; Low, Y-L; Tan, M; Lim, W-Y; Tai, E S

    2009-11-01

    To examine the changes in weight and waist circumference of adult Singaporeans between 1998 and 2005-2007, and the associations of these changes with demographic and socio-economic factors. A prospective study, which followed up participants aged 18-69 years from the 1998 National Health Survey. Analysis was performed on data from 2483 individuals (53% of original sample) who returned for follow-up in 2005-2007. Body weight and waist circumference were measured both at baseline and follow-up. Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with being overweight and obese at baseline. Linear regression was used to examine changes in weight and waist circumference over time. The variables examined were age, gender, ethnicity, marital status, educational level, housing and employment status, smoking, alcohol consumption and sports activities. Mean weight for the population increased over the follow-up period by 1.48 kg (s.d.=4.95) and mean waist circumference increased by 3.32 cm (s.d.=7.92). Cross-sectionally, those who were overweight or obese were more likely to be Malays or Indians, married, homemakers and have lower educational level. Prospectively, individuals who gained the most weight were younger, more likely to be ethnic minority groups and have the lowest body mass index (BMI) at baseline. They also appeared to be of higher socio-economic status (SES) based on housing type. These associations were statistically significant even after adjusting for other variables. Obesity prevention should start early in the younger age. Preventive programs need to reach out to Malay and Indian ethnic groups and those with higher SES. These findings should be used in designing messaging of preventive strategies.

  6. Combined Impact of Lifestyle Factors on Prospective Change in Body Weight and Waist Circumference in Participants of the EPIC-PANACEA Study

    PubMed Central

    May, Anne M.; Romaguera, Dora; Travier, Noémie; Ekelund, Ulf; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Steffen, Annika; Boeing, Heiner; Halkjaer, Jytte; Tjonneland, Anne; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Overvad, Kim; Dartois, Laureen; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Quirós, J. Ramón; Agudo, Antonio; Gonzalez, Carlos; Sánchez, María-José; Amiano, Pilar; Huerta, Jose-Maria; Ardanaz, Eva; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Crowe, Francesca L.; Naska, Androniki; Orfanos, Philippos; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Verschuren, Monique; Drake, Isabel; Sonestedt, Emily; Braaten, Tonje; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Slimani, Nadia; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Peeters, Petra H. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background The evidence that individual dietary and lifestyle factors influence a person’s weight and waist circumference is well established; however their combined impact is less well documented. Therefore, we investigated the combined effect of physical activity, nutrition and smoking status on prospective gain in body weight and waist circumference. Methods We used data of the prospective EPIC-PANACEA study. Between 1992 and 2000, 325,537 participants (94,445 men and 231,092 women, aged between 25–70) were recruited from nine European countries. Participants were categorised into two groups (positive or negative health behaviours) for each of the following being physically active, adherent to a healthy (Mediterranean not including alcohol) diet, and never-smoking for a total score ranging from zero to three. Anthropometric measures were taken at baseline and were mainly self-reported after a medium follow-up time of 5 years. Results Mixed-effects linear regression models adjusted for age, educational level, alcohol consumption, baseline body mass index and follow-up time showed that men and women who reported to be physically active, never-smoking and adherent to the Mediterranean diet gained over a 5-year period 537 (95% CI −706, −368) and 200 (−478, −87) gram less weight and 0.95 (−1.27, −0.639) and 0.99 (−1.29, −0.69) cm less waist circumference, respectively, compared to participants with zero healthy behaviours. Conclusion The combination of positive health behaviours was associated with significantly lower weight and waist circumference gain. PMID:23226361

  7. Dietary n-6 PUFA, carbohydrate:protein ratio and change in body weight and waist circumference: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Marianne U; Madsen, Lise; Dethlefsen, Claus; Due, Karen M; Halkjær, Jytte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Kristiansen, Karsten; Overvad, Kim

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the association between the intake of n-6 PUFA and subsequent change in body weight and waist circumference at different levels of the carbohydrate:protein ratio. Follow-up study with anthropometric measurements at recruitment and on average 5·3 years later. Dietary intake was determined at recruitment by using an FFQ that was designed for the study and validated. We applied linear regression models with 5-year change in weight or waist circumference as outcome and including a two-way interaction term between n-6 PUFA and carbohydrate intakes, lower-order terms, protein intake, long-chain n-3 PUFA intake and other potential confounders. Due to adjustment for intake of protein, levels of carbohydrate indirectly reflect levels of the carbohydrate:protein ratio. Diet, Cancer and Health follow-up study, Denmark. Women and men (n 29 152) aged 55 years. For a high intake of n-6 PUFA (6·9 % of energy) v. a low intake of n-6 PUFA (3·4 % of energy), the difference in 5-year weight change was -189·7 g (95 % CI -636·8, 257·4 g) at a low carbohydrate:protein ratio and -86·7 g (95 % CI -502·9, 329·6 g) at a high carbohydrate:protein ratio; the differences in 5-year waist circumference change were 0·26 cm (95 % CI -0·47, 0·98 cm) and -0·52 cm (95 % CI -1·19, 0·15 cm), respectively. Inclusion of the dietary glycaemic index did not change the results. No consistent associations between the intake of n-6 PUFA and change in body weight or waist circumference at different levels of the carbohydrate:protein ratio were observed.

  8. [Association between waist circumference and the prevalence/control of hypertension by gender and different body mass index classification in an urban elderly population].

    PubMed

    Wu, Lei; He, Yao; Jiang, Bin; Liu, Miao; Yang, Shanshan; Zeng, Jing; Wang, Yiyan; Wang, Jianhua; Zhang, Di

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between waist circumference and the prevalence/control of hypertension in an urban elderly population. From September 2009 to June 2010, a population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Wanshoulu area of Beijing, China. A total of 2 035 elderly (828 male, 1 207 females) participants aged ≥60 years from a community were included in this study for data analysis. We found that the increased waist circumference could significantly increase the risk of prevalence and poor control of hypertension, with the adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) as 1.04 (1.01-1.08) and 0.96 (0.92-1.00) , respectively. Among those identified pure central obesity females (64.7%) , the prevalence of hypertension was significantly higher than those females with normal body mass index (BMI) or with normal waist circumference (52.2%). The adjusted odds ratio (95%CI) between the above said groups appeared as 1.58 (1.07-2.32). The control rate of hypertension among females (32.9%) with pure central obesity, was lower than that of the females with normal BMI and waist circumference (43.5%) , with an adjusted odds ratio (95%CI) as 0.62 (0.37-1.04, P=0.071). There appeared significant association between people with pure central obesity and the increased risk of prevalence or with poor control of hypertension. More attention should be paid to both the prevalence and control of hypertension programs among females with pure central obesity.

  9. Changes in waist circumference and body mass index in the US CARDIA cohort: fixed-effects associations with self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Timothy J; Berkman, Lisa F; Kawachi, Ichiro; Jacobs, David R; Seeman, Teresa E; Kiefe, Catarina I; Gortmaker, Steven L

    2013-03-01

    Prior studies examining the association between self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination and obesity have had mixed results and primarily been cross-sectional. This study tests the hypothesis that an increase in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination predicts gains in waist circumference and body mass index in Black and White women and men over eight years. In race/ethnicity- and gender-stratified models, this study examined whether change in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination predicts changes in waist circumference and body mass index over time using a fixed-effects regression approach in SAS statistical software, providing control for both measured and unmeasured time-invariant covariates. Between 1992-93 and 2000-01, self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination decreased among 843 Black women (75% to 73%), 601 Black men (80% to 77%), 893 White women (30% to 23%) and 856 White men (28% to 23%). In fixed-effects regression models, controlling for all time-invariant covariates, social desirability bias, and changes in education and parity (women only) over time, an increase in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination over time was significantly associated with an increase in waist circumference (β=1.09, 95% CI: 0.00-2.19, p=0.05) and an increase in body mass index (β=0.67, 95% CI: 0.19-1.16, p=0.007) among Black women. No associations were observed among Black men and White women and men. These findings suggest that an increase in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination may be associated with increases in waist circumference and body mass index among Black women over time.

  10. No meaningful association of neighborhood food store availability with dietary intake, body mass index, or waist circumference in young Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2010-08-01

    The affordability of food is considered as an important factor influencing people's diet and hence health status. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to test the hypothesis that neighborhood food store availability is associated with some aspects of dietary intake and thus possibly with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in young Japanese women. Subjects were 989 female Japanese dietetic students 18 to 22 years of age. Neighborhood food store availability was defined as the number of food stores within a 0.5-mile (0.8-km) radius of residence (meat stores, fish stores, fruit and vegetable stores, confectionery stores/bakeries, rice stores, convenience stores, and supermarkets/grocery stores). Dietary intake was estimated using a validated, comprehensive self-administered diet history questionnaire. No association was seen between any measure of neighborhood food store availability and dietary intake, except for a positive association between confectionery and bread availability (based on confectionery stores/bakeries, convenience stores, and supermarkets/grocery stores) and intake of these items (P for trend = .02). Further, no association was seen for BMI or waist circumference, except for an inverse relationship between availability of convenience stores and BMI and a positive relationship between store availability for meat (meat stores and supermarkets/grocery stores) and fish (fish stores and supermarkets/grocery stores) and waist circumference. In conclusion, this study of young Japanese women found no meaningful association between neighborhood food store availability and dietary intake, BMI, or waist circumference, with the exception of a positive relationship between availability and intake for confectionery and bread. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Current Waist Circumference Cut Point Used for the Diagnosis of Metabolic Syndrome in Sub-Saharan African Women Is Not Appropriate

    PubMed Central

    Crowther, Nigel J.; Norris, Shane A.

    2012-01-01

    The waist circumference cut point for diagnosing the metabolic syndrome in sub-Saharan African subjects is based on that obtained from studies in European populations. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of obesity and related metabolic disorders in an urban population of African females, a group at high risk for such diseases, and to determine the appropriate waist cut point for diagnosing the metabolic syndrome. Anthropometry and fasting lipid, glucose and insulin levels were measured in a cohort of 1251 African females participating in the Birth to Twenty cohort study in Soweto, Johannesburg. The waist circumference cut points for diagnosing metabolic syndrome (as defined using the new harmonised guidelines), insulin resistance, dysglycaemia, hypertension and dyslipidaemia were obtained using receiver operator characteristic curve analysis. The prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome were 50.1%, 14.3% and 42.1%, respectively. The appropriate waist cut point for diagnosing metabolic syndrome was found to be 91.5 cm and was similar to the cuts points obtained for detecting increased risk of insulin resistance (89.0 cm), dysglycaemia (88.4 cm), hypertension (90.1 cm), hypo-high density lipoproteinaemia (87.6 cm) and hyper-low density lipoproteinaemia (90.5 cm). The present data demonstrates that urban, African females have a high prevalence of obesity and related disorders and the waist cut point currently recommended for the diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome (80.0 cm) in this population should be increased to 91.5 cm. This latter finding demonstrates a clear ethnic difference in the relationship between abdominal adiposity and metabolic disease risk. The similar waist cut points identified for the detection of the individual components of the metabolic syndrome and related cardiovascular risk factors demonstrates that the risk for different metabolic diseases increases at the same level of abdominal adiposity suggesting a

  12. BMI and waist circumference cut-offs for corresponding levels of insulin sensitivity in a Middle Eastern immigrant versus a native Swedish population - the MEDIM population based study.

    PubMed

    Bennet, Louise; Stenkula, Karin; Cushman, Samuel W; Brismar, Kerstin

    2016-12-09

    The aim of this study was to identify corresponding body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference cut-offs for equivalent levels of insulin sensitivity in a Middle Eastern immigrant population compared with native Swedes. Citizens of Malmö, Sweden aged 30 to 75 years, who were born in Iraq or Sweden, were in 2010-2012 invited to participate in a health examination including anthropometrics, oral glucose tolerance test, fasting samples and interviews concerning sociodemographic factors and lifestyle behaviours. In total, 1176 individuals born in Iraq and 688 born in Sweden, without previously diagnosed type 2 diabetes, participated in the study. In normal weight participants (BMI < 25 kg/m 2 ), 21.2% of Iraqis vs 9.3% of Swedes were insulin resistant. Corresponding figures in participants without abdominal obesity (waist circumference, men < 94 cm, women < 80 cm) were 28.2% of Iraqis vs 9.4% of Swedes. The age-adjusted insulin sensitivity index (ISI) for obese Swedes (BMI 30 kg/m 2 ) corresponded in Iraqi men with BMI of 28.5 kg/m 2 , and in Iraqi women with BMI of 27.5 kg/m 2 . The ISI level in abdominally obese Swedes corresponded with waist circumference cut-offs of 84.0 cm and 71.0 cm in Iraqi men and women, respectively. In men only, larger waist circumference (P interaction  = 0.026) presented a stronger association with impaired ISI in Iraqis as compared to Swedes. Our data shows that the impact of BMI and waist circumference on ISI is ethnic- and gender-specific, indicating a disturbed fat metabolism in Iraqi males in particular. Our data suggests that 10 cm lower cut-off values for abdominal obesity, than is currently recommended by major organisations, should be considered when estimating diabetes risk in Middle Eastern populations.

  13. Increased waist circumference is independently associated with hypothyroidism in Mexican Americans: replicative evidence from two large, population-based studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mexican Americans are at an increased risk of both thyroid dysfunction and metabolic syndrome (MS). Thus it is conceivable that some components of the MS may be associated with the risk of thyroid dysfunction in these individuals. Our objective was to investigate and replicate the potential association of MS traits with thyroid dysfunction in Mexican Americans. Methods We conducted association testing for 18 MS traits in two large studies on Mexican Americans – the San Antonio Family Heart Study (SAFHS) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–10. A total of 907 participants from 42 families in SAFHS and 1633 unrelated participants from NHANES 2007–10 were included in this study. The outcome measures were prevalence of clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism and thyroid function index (TFI) – a measure of thyroid function. For the SAFHS, we used polygenic regression analyses with multiple covariates to test associations in setting of family studies. For the NHANES 2007–10, we corrected for the survey design variables as needed for association analyses in survey data. In both datasets, we corrected for age, sex and their linear and quadratic interactions. Results TFI was an accurate indicator of clinical thyroid status (area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve to detect clinical hypothyroidism, 0.98) in both SAFHS and NHANES 2007–10. Of the 18 MS traits, waist circumference (WC) showed the most consistent association with TFI in both studies independently of age, sex and body mass index (BMI). In the SAFHS and NHANES 2007–10 datasets, each standard deviation increase in WC was associated with 0.13 (p < 0.001) and 0.11 (p < 0.001) unit increase in the TFI, respectively. In a series of polygenic and linear regression models, central obesity (defined as WC ≥ 102 cm in men and ≥88 cm in women) was associated with clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism independent of age, sex, BMI and

  14. Obesity as defined by waist circumference but not body mass index is associated with higher renal mass complexity.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Laura A; Thomas, Lewis J; Li, Peng; Buchta, Claire M; Boi, Shannon K; Orlandella, Rachael M; Brown, James A; Nepple, Kenneth G; Norian, Lyse A

    2017-11-01

    Obesity, typically defined as a body mass index (BMI)≥30kg/m 2 , is an established risk factor for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) but is paradoxically linked to less advanced disease at diagnosis and improved outcomes. However, BMI has inherent flaws, and alternate obesity-defining metrics that emphasize abdominal fat are available. We investigated 3 obesity-defining metrics, to better examine the associations of abdominal fat vs. generalized obesity with renal tumor stage, grade, or R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry score. In a prospective cohort of 99 subjects with renal masses undergoing resection and no evidence of metastatic disease, obesity was assessed using 3 metrics: body mass index (BMI), radiographic waist circumference (WC), and retrorenal fat (RRF) pad distance. R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry scores were calculated based on preoperative CT or MRI. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify associations between obesity metrics and nephrometry score, tumor grade, and tumor stage. In the 99 subjects, surgery was partial nephrectomy in 51 and radical nephrectomy in 48. Pathology showed benign masses in 11 and RCC in 88 (of which 20 had stage T3 disease). WC was positively correlated with nephrometry score, even after controlling for age, sex, race, and diabetes status (P = 0.02), whereas BMI and RRF were not (P = 0.13, and P = 0.57, respectively). WC in stage T2/T3 subjects was higher than in subjects with benign masses (P = 0.03). In contrast, subjects with Fuhrman grade 1 and 2 tumors had higher BMI (P<0.01) and WC (P = 0.04) than subjects with grade 3 and 4 tumors. Our data suggest that obesity measured by WC, but not BMI or RRF, is associated with increased renal mass complexity. Tumor Fuhrman grade exhibited a different trend, with both high WC and BMI associated with lower-grade tumors. Our findings indicate that WC and BMI are not interchangeable obesity metrics. Further evaluation of RCC-specific outcomes using WC vs. BMI is warranted to better

  15. Sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption correlates with BMI, waist circumference, and poor dietary choices in school children.

    PubMed

    Collison, Kate S; Zaidi, Marya Z; Subhani, Shazia N; Al-Rubeaan, Khalid; Shoukri, Mohammed; Al-Mohanna, Futwan A

    2010-05-09

    The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing globally. Frequently coexisting with under-nutrition in developing countries, obesity is a major contributor to chronic disease, and will become a serious healthcare burden especially in countries with a larger percentage of youthful population. 35% of the population of Saudi Arabia are under the age of 16, and adult dietary preferences are often established during early childhood years. Our objective was to examine the dietary habits in relation to body-mass-index (BMI) and waist circumference (W_C), together with exercise and sleep patterns in a cohort of male and female Saudi school children, in order to ascertain whether dietary patterns are associated with obesity phenotypes in this population. 5033 boys and 4400 girls aged 10 to 19 years old participated in a designed Food Frequency Questionnaire. BMI and W_C measurements were obtained and correlated with dietary intake. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was 12.2% and 27.0% respectively, with boys having higher obesity rates than girls (P

  16. Increased waist circumference is independently associated with hypothyroidism in Mexican Americans: replicative evidence from two large, population-based studies.

    PubMed

    Mamtani, Manju; Kulkarni, Hemant; Dyer, Thomas D; Almasy, Laura; Mahaney, Michael C; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Comuzzie, Anthony G; Samollow, Paul B; Blangero, John; Curran, Joanne E

    2014-06-10

    Mexican Americans are at an increased risk of both thyroid dysfunction and metabolic syndrome (MS). Thus it is conceivable that some components of the MS may be associated with the risk of thyroid dysfunction in these individuals. Our objective was to investigate and replicate the potential association of MS traits with thyroid dysfunction in Mexican Americans. We conducted association testing for 18 MS traits in two large studies on Mexican Americans - the San Antonio Family Heart Study (SAFHS) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-10. A total of 907 participants from 42 families in SAFHS and 1633 unrelated participants from NHANES 2007-10 were included in this study. The outcome measures were prevalence of clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism and thyroid function index (TFI) - a measure of thyroid function. For the SAFHS, we used polygenic regression analyses with multiple covariates to test associations in setting of family studies. For the NHANES 2007-10, we corrected for the survey design variables as needed for association analyses in survey data. In both datasets, we corrected for age, sex and their linear and quadratic interactions. TFI was an accurate indicator of clinical thyroid status (area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve to detect clinical hypothyroidism, 0.98) in both SAFHS and NHANES 2007-10. Of the 18 MS traits, waist circumference (WC) showed the most consistent association with TFI in both studies independently of age, sex and body mass index (BMI). In the SAFHS and NHANES 2007-10 datasets, each standard deviation increase in WC was associated with 0.13 (p < 0.001) and 0.11 (p < 0.001) unit increase in the TFI, respectively. In a series of polygenic and linear regression models, central obesity (defined as WC ≥ 102 cm in men and ≥88 cm in women) was associated with clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism independent of age, sex, BMI and type 2 diabetes in both datasets

  17. Participant characteristics associated with greater reductions in waist circumference during a four-month, pedometer-based, workplace health program.

    PubMed

    Freak-Poli, Rosanne L A; Wolfe, Rory; Walls, Helen; Backholer, Kathryn; Peeters, Anna

    2011-10-25

    Workplace health programs have demonstrated improvements in a number of risk factors for chronic disease. However, there has been little investigation of participant characteristics that may be associated with change in risk factors during such programs. The aim of this paper is to identify participant characteristics associated with improved waist circumference (WC) following participation in a four-month, pedometer-based, physical activity, workplace health program. 762 adults employed in primarily sedentary occupations and voluntarily enrolled in a four-month workplace program aimed at increasing physical activity were recruited from ten Australian worksites in 2008. Seventy-nine percent returned at the end of the health program. Data included demographic, behavioural, anthropometric and biomedical measurements. WC change (before versus after) was assessed by multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses. Seven groupings of potential associated variables from baseline were sequentially added to build progressively larger regression models. Greater improvement in WC during the program was associated with having completed tertiary education, consuming two or less standard alcoholic beverages in one occasion in the twelve months prior to baseline, undertaking less baseline weekend sitting time and lower baseline total cholesterol. A greater WC at baseline was strongly associated with a greater improvement in WC. A sub-analysis in participants with a 'high-risk' baseline WC revealed that younger age, enrolling for reasons other than appearance, undertaking less weekend sitting time at baseline, eating two or more pieces of fruit per day at baseline, higher baseline physical functioning and lower baseline body mass index were associated with greater odds of moving to 'low risk' WC at the end of the program. While employees with 'high-risk' WC at baseline experienced the greatest improvements in WC, the other variables associated with greater WC improvement

  18. Upper-normal waist circumference is a risk marker for metabolic syndrome in normal-weight subjects.

    PubMed

    Okada, R; Yasuda, Y; Tsushita, K; Wakai, K; Hamajima, N; Matsuo, S

    2016-01-01

    To elucidate implication of upper-normal waist circumference (WC), we examined whether the normal range of WC still represents a risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) or non-adipose MetS components among normal-weight subjects. A total of 173,510 persons (100,386 men and 73,124 women) with normal WC (<90/80 cm in men/women) and body mass index (BMI) of 18.5-24.9 were included. Subjects were categorized as having low, moderate, and upper-normal WC for those with WC < 80, 80-84, and 85-89 cm in men and <70, 70-74, and 75-79 cm in women, respectively. The prevalence of all the non-adipose MetS components (e.g. prediabetes and borderline dyslipidemia) was significantly higher in subjects with upper-normal WC on comparison with those with low WC. Overall, the prevalence of MetS (having three or more of four non-adipose MetS components) gradually increased with increasing WC (12%, 21%, and 27% in men and 11%, 14%, and 19% in women for low, moderate, and upper-normal WC, respectively). Moreover, the risk of having a greater number of MetS components increased in subjects with upper-normal WC compared with those with low WC (odds ratios for the number of one, two, three, and four MetS components: 1.29, 1.81, 2.53, and 2.47 in men and 1.16, 1.55, 1.49, and 2.20 in women, respectively). Upper-normal WC represents a risk for acquiring a greater number of MetS components and the early stage of MetS components (prediabetes and borderline dyslipidemia), after adjusting for BMI, in a large general population with normal WC and BMI. Copyright © 2015 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Frequency of soup intake is inversely associated with body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio, but not with other metabolic risk factors in Japanese men.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Motonaka; Ohta, Masanori; Okufuji, Tatsuya; Takigami, Chieko; Eguchi, Masafumi; Hayabuchi, Hitomi; Ikeda, Masaharu

    2011-01-01

    Several previous studies have shown that the intake of soup negatively correlates with the body mass index (BMI), serum cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels, and blood pressure, suggesting that soup intake reduces metabolic risk. However, the correlation between soup intake and various metabolic risk factors has not been well-established. Especially, it has not been investigated in Asian countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of the frequency of soup intake and metabolic risk factors such as BMI, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, serum cholesterol, serum triacylglycerol, blood glucose, and glycated hemoglobin. A cross-sectional study of 103 Japanese men aged 24 to 75 years was conducted. The intake of soup and other food was investigated by semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires. The correlation between the frequency of soup intake and metabolic risk factors was analyzed by multiple regression analysis with a linear model. The median value of frequency of soup intake was 7.0 times per week. After adjusting for confounding factors such as age, energy intake, energy from alcohol intake, current smoking, and estimated energy expenditure, the frequency of soup intake was found to have a significant inverse association with BMI (P=0.040), waist circumference (P=0.024), and waist-to-hip ratio (P=0.001). However, no significant associations with other metabolic risk factors were found. Frequency of soup intake is negatively correlated with obesity-related physical parameters in Japanese men. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Changes in prevalence of obesity and high waist circumference over four years across European regions: the European male ageing study (EMAS).

    PubMed

    Han, Thang S; Correa, Elon; Lean, Michael E J; Lee, David M; O'Neill, Terrence W; Bartfai, György; Forti, Gianni; Giwercman, Aleksander; Kula, Krzysztof; Pendleton, Neil; Punab, Margus; Rutter, Martin K; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T; Wu, Frederick C W; Casanueva, Felipe F

    2017-02-01

    Diversity in lifestyles and socioeconomic status among European populations, and recent socio-political and economic changes in transitional countries, may affect changes in adiposity. We aimed to determine whether change in the prevalence of obesity varies between the socio-politically transitional North-East European (Łódź, Poland; Szeged, Hungary; Tartu, Estonia), and the non-transitional Mediterranean (Santiago de Compostela, Spain; Florence, Italy) and North-West European (Leuven, Belgium; Malmö, Sweden; Manchester, UK) cities. This prospective observational cohort survey was performed between 2003 and 2005 at baseline and followed up between 2008 and 2010 of 3369 community-dwelling men aged 40-79 years. Main outcome measures in the present paper included waist circumference, body mass index and mid-upper arm muscle area. Baseline prevalence of waist circumference ≥ 102 cm and body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m 2 , respectively, were 39.0, 29.5 % in North-East European cities, 32.4, 21.9 % in Mediterranean cities, and 30.0, 20.1 % in North-West European cities. After median 4.3 years, men living in cities from transitional countries had mean gains in waist circumference (1.1 cm) and body mass index (0.2 kg/m 2 ), which were greater than men in cities from non-transitional countries (P = 0.005). North-East European cities had greater gains in waist circumference (1.5 cm) than in Mediterranean cities (P < 0.001). Over 4.3 years, the prevalence of waist circumference ≥ 102 cm had increased by 13.1 % in North-East European cities, 5.8 % in the Mediterranean cities, 10.0 % in North-West European cities. Odds ratios (95 % confidence intervals), adjusted for lifestyle factors, for developing waist circumference ≥ 102 cm, compared with men from Mediterranean cities, were 2.3 (1.5-3.5) in North-East European cities and 1.6 (1.1-2.4) in North-West European cities, and 1.6 (1.2-2.1) in men living in cities from

  1. Associations of Neighborhood Crime and Safety and With Changes in Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M; Moore, Kari; Allen, Norrina; Block, Richard; Evenson, Kelly R; Mujahid, Mahasin; Diez Roux, Ana V

    2017-08-01

    Using data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), we evaluated associations of neighborhood crime and safety with changes in adiposity (body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference). MESA is a longitudinal study of cardiovascular disease among adults aged 45-84 years at baseline in 2000-2002, from 6 US sites, with follow-up for MESA participants until 2012. Data for this study were limited to Chicago, Illinois, participants in the MESA Neighborhood Ancillary Study, for whom police-recorded crime data were available, and who had complete baseline data (n = 673). We estimated associations of individual-level safety, aggregated neighborhood-level safety, and police-recorded crime with baseline levels and trajectories of BMI and waist circumference over time using linear mixed modeling with random effects. We also estimated how changes in these factors related to changes in BMI and waist circumference using econometric fixed-effects models. At baseline, greater individual-level safety was associated with more adiposity. Increasing individual- and neighborhood-level safety over time were associated with decreasing BMI over the 10-year period, with a more pronounced effect observed in women for individual-level safety and men for neighborhood-level safety. Police-recorded crime was not associated with adiposity. Neighborhood-level safety likely influences adiposity change and subsequent cardiovascular risk in multiethnic populations. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  2. Impact of body mass index and waist circumference on the long-term risk of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and cardiac organ damage.

    PubMed

    Bombelli, Michele; Facchetti, Rita; Sega, Roberto; Carugo, Stefano; Fodri, Danilo; Brambilla, Gianmaria; Giannattasio, Cristina; Grassi, Guido; Mancia, Giuseppe

    2011-12-01

    Obesity is associated with a higher risk of developing diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HT), and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). The present study assessed in the general population the impact of body weight and visceral obesity on the development of alterations in glucose metabolism and cardiac structure, as well as of elevation in blood pressure. In 1412 subjects randomly selected and representative of the general population of Monza, we assessed twice (in 1990/1991 and 2000/2001) body mass index (BMI); waist circumference; office, home, and 24-hour ambulatory (24-hour) blood pressure, fasting glycemia, and left ventricular mass (echocardiography). New-onset high-risk conditions were DM; impaired fasting glucose; office, home, and 24-hour HT; and LVH. The incidence of new-onset DM; impaired fasting glucose; office, home, and 24-hour HT; and LVH increased progressively from the quintile with the lowest to the quintile with the highest BMI values. Adjusting for confounders, the risk of developing new-onset DM; impaired fasting glucose; office, home, and 24-hour HT; and LVH increased significantly for an increase of 1 kg/m(2) of BMI and 1 cm of waist circumference (respectively, 8.4% [P<0.01], 9.5% [P<0.0001], 4.2% [P<0.0001], 3.9% [P<0.001], 2.5% [P<0.05], and 5.1% [P<0.001] for BMI and 3.2% [P<0.001], 3.5% [P<0.0001], 1.8% [P<0.0001], 1.5% [P<0.0001], 1.4% [P<0.001], and 2.6% [P<0.0001]). These data provide evidence that an increase in BMI and waist circumference is associated with a linearly increased adjusted risk of developing conditions with high cardiovascular risk, such as DM, impaired fasting glucose, in- and out-of-office HT, and LVH.

  3. Secular trends for skinfolds differ from those for BMI and waist circumference among adults examined in NHANES from 1988-1994 through 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Freedman, David S; Zemel, Babette S; Ogden, Cynthia L

    2017-01-01

    Although the prevalence of a body mass index [BMI (in kg/m 2 )] ≥30 has tripled among US adults since the 1960s, BMI is only moderately correlated with body fatness. Because skinfolds can more accurately estimate body fatness than can BMI, it is possible that skinfolds could be useful in monitoring secular trends in body fatness. We examined whether there were similar secular trends for skinfolds (triceps and subscapular), BMI, and waist circumference between US adults. This study was an analysis of 45,754 adults who participated in the NHANES from 1988-1994 through 2009-2010. Approximately 19% of the subjects were missing ≥1 skinfold-thickness measurement. These missing values were imputed from other characteristics. Trends in mean levels and in the prevalence of high levels of the 4 body size measures were fairly similar between men, with mean levels increasing by ≥5% from 1988-1994 through 2009-2010. Slightly larger increases were seen in women for BMI and waist circumference (7-8%), but trends in skinfolds were markedly different. The mean triceps skinfold, for example, increased by 2 mm through 2003-2004, but subsequently decreased so that the mean in 2009-2010 did not differ from that in 1988-1994. Compared with obese women in 1988-1994, the mean BMI of obese women in 2009-2010 was 1 higher, but mean levels of both skinfolds were 5-10% lower. Although there were fairly similar trends in levels of BMI, waist circumference, and skinfold thicknesses in men in the United States from 1988-1994 through 2009-2010, there were substantial differences in women. Our results indicate that it is unlikely that skinfold thicknesses could be used to monitor trends in obesity. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Effect of a high-fat Mediterranean diet on bodyweight and waist circumference: a prespecified secondary outcomes analysis of the PREDIMED randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Estruch, Ramon; Martínez-González, Miguel Angel; Corella, Dolores; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Fitó, Montserrat; Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Fiol, Miquel; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Arós, Fernando; Lapetra, José; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Pintó, Xavier; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Sorlí, José V; Muñoz, Miguel A; Basora-Gallisá, Josep; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa María; Serra-Mir, Mercè; Ros, Emilio

    2016-08-01

    Because of the high density of fat, high-fat diets are perceived as likely to lead to increased bodyweight, hence health-care providers are reluctant to recommend them to overweight or obese individuals. We assessed the long-term effects of ad libitum, high-fat, high-vegetable-fat Mediterranean diets on bodyweight and waist circumference in older people at risk of cardiovascular disease, most of whom were overweight or obese. PREDIMED was a 5 year parallel-group, multicentre, randomised, controlled clinical trial done in primary care centres affiliated to 11 hospitals in Spain. 7447 asymptomatic men (aged 55-80 years) and women (aged 60-80 years) who had type 2 diabetes or three or more cardiovascular risk factors were randomly assigned (1:1:1) with a computer-generated number sequence to one of three interventions: Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil (n=2543); Mediterranean diet supplemented with nuts (n=2454); or a control diet (advice to reduce dietary fat; n=2450). Energy restriction was not advised, nor was physical activity promoted. In this analysis of the trial, we measured bodyweight and waist circumference at baseline and yearly for 5 years in the intention-to-treat population. The PREDIMED trial is registered with ISRCTN.com, number ISRCTN35739639. After a median 4·8 years (IQR 2·8-5·8) of follow-up, participants in all three groups had marginally reduced bodyweight and increased waist circumference. The adjusted difference in 5 year changes in bodyweight in the Mediterranean diet with olive oil group was -0·43 kg (95% CI -0·86 to -0·01; p=0·044) and in the nut group was -0·08 kg (-0·50 to 0·35; p=0·730), compared with the control group. The adjusted difference in 5 year changes in waist circumference was -0·55 cm (-1·16 to -0·06; p=0·048) in the Mediterranean diet with olive oil group and -0·94 cm (-1·60 to -0·27; p=0·006) in the nut group, compared with the control group. A long-term intervention with an

  5. Dietary intake and adipose tissue content of long-chain n-3 PUFAs and subsequent 5-y change in body weight and waist circumference.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Marianne U; Madsen, Lise; Skjøth, Flemming; Berentzen, Tina L; Halkjær, Jytte; Tjønneland, Anne; Schmidt, Erik B; Sørensen, Thorkild Ia; Kristiansen, Karsten; Overvad, Kim

    2017-05-01

    Background: Adding long-chain n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to a rodent diet reduces fat mass and prevents the development of obesity, but evidence of a similar effect in humans is rather limited. Objectives: We investigated the associations between dietary intake and adipose tissue content of long-chain n-3 PUFAs and subsequent 5-y change in body weight and waist circumference in humans. Effect modification by the carbohydrate:protein ratio and glycemic index was also investigated. Design: A total of 29,152 participants included in the Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort were followed. Dietary intake was assessed with the use of a validated 192-item semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Adipose tissue content of fatty acids was determined by gas chromatography in a random sample of the cohort ( n = 1660). Anthropometric measurements were taken at baseline and 5 y later. Associations were investigated with the use of a linear regression model. Results: For high (1.22 g/d) compared with low (0.28 g/d) total n-3 PUFA intake, the difference in 5-y weight change was 147.6 g (95% CI: -42.3, 337.5 g); P -trend = 0.088. No associations between the individual n-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid were observed. Intake of n-3 PUFAs was not associated with a 5-y change in waist circumference. For high (0.16%) compared with low (0.06%) adipose tissue content of EPA, the difference in 5-y weight change was -649.6 g (95% CI: -1254.2, -44.9 g); P -trend = 0.027. No associations between total n-3 PUFA, docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid and 5-y weight change were observed. Adipose tissue content of n-3 PUFAs was not associated with 5-y change in waist circumference. No effect modification by carbohydrate:protein ratio or glycemic index was found. Conclusion: Dietary intake and adipose tissue content of long-chain n-3 PUFAs were neither consistently nor appreciably associated with change in body weight

  6. An FTO variant is associated with Type 2 diabetes in South Asian populations after accounting for body mass index and waist circumference

    PubMed Central

    Rees, S. D.; Islam, M.; Hydrie, M. Z. I.; Chaudhary, B.; Bellary, S.; Hashmi, S.; O’Hare, J. P.; Kumar, S.; Sanghera, D. K.; Chaturvedi, N.; Barnett, A. H.; Shera, A. S.; Weedon, M. N.; Basit, A.; Frayling, T. M.; Kelly, M. A.; Jafar, T. H.

    2011-01-01

    Aims A common variant, rs9939609, in the FTO (fat mass and obesity) gene is associated with adiposity in Europeans, explaining its relationship with diabetes. However, data are inconsistent in South Asians. Our aim was to investigate the association of the FTO rs9939609 variant with obesity, obesity-related traits and Type 2 diabetes in South Asian individuals, and to use meta-analyses to attempt to clarify to what extent BMI influences the association of FTO variants with diabetes in South Asians. Methods We analysed rs9939609 in two studies of Pakistani individuals: 1666 adults aged ≥ 40 years from the Karachi population-based Control of Blood Pressure and Risk Attenuation (COBRA) study and 2745 individuals of Punjabi ancestry who were part of a Type 2 diabetes case–control study (UK Asian Diabetes Study/Diabetes Genetics in Pakistan; UKADS/DGP). The main outcomes were BMI, waist circumference and diabetes. Regression analyses were performed to determine associations between FTO alleles and outcomes. Summary estimates were combined in a meta-analysis of 8091 South Asian individuals (3919 patients with Type 2 diabetes and 4172 control subjects), including those from two previous studies. Results In the 4411 Pakistani individuals from this study, the age-, sex- and diabetes-adjusted association of FTO variant rs9939609 with BMI was 0.45 (95% CI 0.24–0.67) kg/m2 per A-allele (P = 3.0× 10−5) and with waist circumference was 0.88 (95% CI 0.36–1.41) cm per A-allele (P = 0.001). The A-allele (30% frequency) was also significantly associated with Type 2 diabetes [per A-allele odds ratio (95% CI) 1.18 (1.07–1.30); P = 0.0009]. A meta-analysis of four South Asian studies with 8091 subjects showed that the FTO A-allele predisposes to Type 2 diabetes [1.22 (95% CI 1.14–1.31); P = 1.07× 10−8] even after adjusting for BMI [1.18 (95% CI 1.10–1.27); P = 1.02× 10−5] or waist circumference [1.18 (95% CI 1.10–1.27); P = 3.97× 10−5]. Conclusions The

  7. Interactions between genetic variants associated with adiposity traits and soft drinks in relation to longitudinal changes in body weight and waist circumference.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Nanna J; Ängquist, Lars; Larsen, Sofus C; Linneberg, Allan; Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Toft, Ulla; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Overvad, Kim; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Sørensen, Thorkild Ia; Heitmann, Berit L

    2016-09-01

    Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with obesity, and this association may be modified by a genetic predisposition to obesity. We examined the interactions between a molecular genetic predisposition to various aspects of obesity and the consumption of soft drinks, which are a major part of sugar-sweetened beverages, in relation to changes in adiposity measures. A total of 4765 individuals were included in the study. On the basis of 50 obesity-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms that are associated with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), or the waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHRBMI), the following 4 genetic predisposition scores (GRSs) were constructed: a complete genetic predisposition score including all 50 single nucleotide polymorphisms (GRSComplete), a genetic predisposition score including BMI-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (GRSBMI), a genetic predisposition score including waist circumference-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (GRSWC), and a genetic predisposition score including the waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (GRSWHR). Associations between soft drink intake and the annual change (Δ) in body weight (BW), WC, or waist circumference adjusted for BMI (WCBMI) and possible interactions with the GRSs were examined with the use of linear regression analyses and meta-analyses. For each soft drink serving per day, soft drink consumption was significantly associated with a higher ΔBW of 0.07 kg/y (95% CI: 0.01, 0.13 kg/y; P = 0.020) but not with the ΔWC or ΔWCBMI In analyses of the ΔBW, we showed an interaction only with the GRSWC (per risk allele for each soft drink serving per day: -0.06 kg/y; 95% CI: -0.10, -0.02 kg/y; P = 0.006). In analyses of the ΔWC, we showed interactions only with the GRSBMI and GRSComplete [per risk allele for each soft drink serving per day: 0.05 cm/y (95% CI: 0.02, 0.09 cm/y; P = 0.001) and 0.05 cm/y (95% CI: 0.02, 0.07 cm

  8. Cutoff points of waist circumference and trunk and visceral fat for identifying children with elevated inflammation markers and adipokines: The Healthy Growth Study.

    PubMed

    Karatzi, Kalliopi; Moschonis, George; Polychronopoulou, Maria Christina; Chrousos, George P; Lionis, Christos; Manios, Yannis

    2016-10-01

    Excessive fat storage is accompanied by several comorbidities in children and early identification of elevated abdominal fat may be extremely valuable in early prevention of cardiometabolic risk. The aim of the present study was to establish cutoff points for waist circumference trunk and visceral fat, thus identifying increased likelihood of elevated inflammatory markers and adipokines in children. A representative sample of schoolchildren (aged 9-13 y) participated in a cross-sectional epidemiologic study conducted in Greece. Anthropometric and physical examination data, biochemical indices, and socioeconomic information (collected from parents) were assessed for all children. Central adiposity markers (trunk and visceral fat) were collected with bioelectrical impedance analysis for 999 children. Specific cutoff values of abdominal adiposity indices indicating increased likelihood of elevated levels of C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and leptin and decreased levels of adiponectin were calculated by sex. These cutoff values were; 67.5 cm for boys and 69.5 cm for girls for waist circumference, 17.75% for boys and 22.65% for girls for trunk fat mass percentage, and 3.95 for boys and 2.55 for girls for visceral fat rating. To our knowledge, this is the first study to establish simple cutoff points for abdominal adiposity indices identifying children at high risk for elevated inflammatory markers and decreased adipokine levels. Future studies are essential to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Waist circumference cut-off in relation to body mass index and percentage of body fat in adult women from Merida, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Datta Banik, Sudip; Dickinson, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Waist circumference (WC) as an index of central obesity is related to body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat (PBF). Waist circumference data were analyzed to identify a WC cut-off for adult women with respect to BMI-based obesity (≥ 30 kg/m²) and PBF. The sample was 138 women aged 22 to 41 years with Maya ancestry (based on surnames) in Merida, Yucatan, measured during 2011 - 2013. Anthropometric parameters included height, body weight (BW), and BMI. The PBF was estimated by bioelectrical impedance. Estimated cut-offs per centimeter WC (80 - 99 cm) were predicted by BMI for obesity (≥ 30 kg m⁻²; binomial: Yes = 1, No = 0) and PBF (continuous variable) using binary logistic regression analyses. Mean age was 32 years, mean BMI was 29 kg m(-2) and mean WC was 89 cm. The sample exhibited high PBF (44 %), and high rates of overweight (44%) and obesity (40%). The threshold WC (≥ 93 cm) had high sensitivity (80%), specificity (82%), Youden Index value (0.62), and correct classification rate (82%). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 88 %. The WC ≥ 93 cm cut-off had corresponding values for mean BMI (34 kg m⁻²) and PBF (47%). The optimal WC cut-off at 93 cm significantly identified central obesity for BMI ≥ 30 kg m⁻² and PBF for this sample.

  10. Association of Hypertension, Body Mass Index, and Waist Circumference with Fluoride Intake; Water Drinking in Residents of Fluoride Endemic Areas, Iran.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Mahmood; Yaseri, Mehdi; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Hooshmand, Elham; Jalilzadeh, Mohsen; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Mohammadi, Ali Akbar

    2018-03-14

    Hypertension is becoming a global epidemic for both rural and urban populations; it is a major public health challenge in Iran. Fluoride can be a risk factor for hypertension. Cross-sectional analysis was conducted in two study areas to assess the relation of fluoride with blood pressure prevalence, BMI, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) among different age groups in both sexes. The mean value of fluoride concentration in the drinking water from the four study villages varied from 0.68 to 10.30 mg/L. The overall prevalence of HTN and prehypertension in all subjects was 40.7%. The prevalence of isolated systolic hypertension, isolated diastolic hypertension, systolic-diastolic hypertension, and prehypertension in the total sample population was 1.15, 0.28, 9.53, and 29.76%, respectively. The odd ratio of hypertension in residents who drank water with high fluoride levels was higher than that in residents who drank water with lower level of fluoride (OR 2.3, 1.03-5.14). Logistic regression results showed that age (P < 0.001), sex (P = 0.018), BMI (P = 0.015), and the fluoride level in drinking water (P = 0.041) had a significant relationship with increased blood pressure. There were no statistically significant correlations between fluoride and BMI, hip circumference, and waist to hip ratio (WHR). The findings of this study are important for health care personnel and policymakers.

  11. Physical activity and sedentary leisure time and their associations with BMI, waist circumference, and percentage body fat in 0.5 million adults: the China Kadoorie Biobank study.

    PubMed

    Du, Huaidong; Bennett, Derrick; Li, Liming; Whitlock, Gary; Guo, Yu; Collins, Rory; Chen, Junshi; Bian, Zheng; Hong, Lai-San; Feng, Shixian; Chen, Xiaofang; Chen, Lingli; Zhou, Renxian; Mao, Enke; Peto, Richard; Chen, Zhengming

    2013-03-01

    Few large studies in China have investigated total physical activity and sedentary leisure time and their associations with adiposity. We investigated determinants of physical activity and sedentary leisure time and their associations with adiposity in China. A total of 466,605 generally healthy participants (age: 30-79 y, 60% female) in the China Kadoorie Biobank were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Self-reported information on a range of activities was collected by interviewer-administered questionnaire. Physical activity was calculated as metabolic equivalent task hours per day (MET-h/d) spent on work, transportation, housework, and nonsedentary recreation. Sedentary leisure time was quantified as hours per day. Adiposity measures included BMI, waist circumference, and percentage body fat (by bioimpedance analysis). Associations were estimated by linear and logistic regression. The mean physical activity was 22 MET-h/d, and the mean sedentary leisure time was 3.0 h/d. For each sex, physical activity was about one-third lower among professionals/administrators than among factory workers, with intermediate levels for other occupational categories. A 1-SD (14 MET-h/d) greater physical activity was associated with a 0.15-unit (95% CI: 0.14, 0.16) lower BMI (in kg/m(2)), a 0.58-cm (95% CI: 0.55, 0.61) smaller waist circumference, and 0.48 (95% CI: 0.45, 0.50) percentage points less body fat. In contrast, a 1-SD (1.5 h/d) greater sedentary leisure time was associated with a 0.19-unit higher BMI (95% CI: 0.18, 0.20), a 0.57-cm larger waist circumference (95% CI: 0.54, 0.59), and 0.44 (95% CI: 0.42, 0.46) percentage points more body fat. For any given physical activity level, greater sedentary leisure time was associated with a greater prevalence of increased BMI, as was lower physical activity for any given sedentary leisure time. In adult Chinese, physical activity varies substantially by occupation, and lack of physical activity and excess sedentary

  12. Appropriate body mass index and waist circumference cutoffs for middle and older age group in Thailand: data of 19,621 participants from Thai epidemiologic stroke (TES) study.

    PubMed

    Samsen, Maiyadhaj; Hanchaiphiboolkul, Suchat; Puthkhao, Pimchanok; Tantirittisak, Tasanee; Towanabut, Somchai

    2012-09-01

    To determine the appropriate body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) cutoff point for identification of at least one cardiovascular risk factor (hypertension, dyslipidemia, and type 2 diabetes) in Thailand, and to compare the discrimination ability of BMI with that of WC for discrimination of at least one cardiovascular risk factor. Baseline health survey data of participants of Thai Epidemiologic Stroke (TES) Study, who were free from stroke, enrolled from five geographic regions around the country, were studied as cross-sectional analysis. Receiver operating characteristics curve (ROC) analysis was performed to determine the appropriate cutoff points of BMI and WC in identifying those with presence of at least one cardiovascular risk factors. The BMI or WC value with the shortest distance on the ROC curve was considered to be appropriate cutoffs. Comparing the ability of BMI in discrimination of at least one cardiovascular risk factor with that of WC was performed by comparing ROC area under curve (AUC). Among 19,621 (6,608 men and 13,013 women) participants with age range of 45 to 80 years, the average age was 59.8 years for men and 58.5 years for women. The appropriate cutoff point of BMI was 23 kg/m2 in men and 24 kg/m2 in women. The cutoffs of WC were 80 cm and 78 cm in men and women, respectively. In both gender, waist circumference (WC) (AUC in men = 0.684; 95% CI, 0.672-0.695, AUC in women = 0.673; 95% CI, 0.665-0.681) was significantly (p < 0.001) better than BMI (AUC in men = 0.667; 95% CI, 0.656-0.679, AUC in women = 0.636; 95% CI, 0.628-0.644) in discrimination of at least one cardiovascular risk factor. In Thai adults aged 45 to 80 years, the cutoff points of BMI should be 23 kg/m2 in men and 24 kg/m2 in women. For WC, 80 cm and 78 cm should be considered to be appropriate cutoffs for men and women, respectively. Waist circumference (WC) as a simple obesity index should be advocated for public health screening.

  13. Associations of middle-aged mother's but not father's body mass index with 18-year-old son's waist circumferences, birth weight, and serum hepatic enzyme levels.

    PubMed

    Kazumi, Tsutomu; Kawaguchi, Akira; Yoshino, Gen

    2005-04-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been reported to contribute to insulin resistance (IR) in the elderly and type 2 diabetes. To test this hypothesis, we examined relations of insulin resistance in young men to their mother's body mass index (BMI) and compared with those to their father's BMI, because as a rule, mitochondrial DNA is exclusively maternally inherited and because mitochondria are fundamental in mediating effects on energy dissipation. We measured heights, weights, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), and biochemical variables in sera from 193 male college students aged 18 to 20 years after an overnight fast. Birth weight was available from 184 students. Self-reported heights and weights of their parents were obtained from 148 students. Insulin resistance and insulin secretion were estimated using homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR and HOMA-beta, respectively). Mother's BMI was associated with their son's birth weight (r=0.23, P=.008), BMI (r=0.37, P<.0001), waist circumference (r=0.42, P<.0001), fasting insulin (r=0.19, P=.02), and HOMA-IR (r=0.18, P=.03) but not with fasting glucose, HOMA-beta , and systolic and diastolic BP. In addition, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] were inversely associated with mother's BMI (r=-0.21, P=.01 and r=-0.17, P=.03, respectively). Furthermore, there were significant associations with aspartate (r=0.20, P=.01) and alanine (r=0.28, P=.0008) aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (r=0.30, P=.0003), all of which are associated with mitochondrial function. In contrast, none of those variables were associated with father's BMI, except for Lp(a), which showed a significant and inverse association (r=-0.17, P=.05). After adjustment for sons' BMI, waist circumference and 3 hepatic enzymes were associated with mother's BMI, whereas Lp(a) was associated with both mother's and father's BMI. In multiple regression analysis for HOMA-IR as a dependent variable

  14. Mediterranean diet supplemented with nuts reduces waist circumference and shifts lipoprotein subfractions to a less atherogenic pattern in subjects at high cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Damasceno, Nagila R T; Sala-Vila, Aleix; Cofán, Montserrat; Pérez-Heras, Ana M; Fitó, Montserrat; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Martínez-González, Miguel-Ángel; Corella, Dolores; Arós, Fernando; Estruch, Ramon; Ros, Emilio

    2013-10-01

    The PREDIMED trial showed that Mediterranean diets supplemented with either extra-virgin olive oil or nuts reduced incident cardiovascular events compared to a control diet. Consumption of both supplemental foods has been associated with reduced LDL-cholesterol, but it is unknown whether they can shift lipoprotein subfractions to a less atherogenic pattern. We investigated changes in adiposity and lipoprotein subfractions after consumption of the PREDIMED diets. In a PREDIMED sub-cohort (n = 169), lipoprotein subclasses (particle concentrations and size) were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy at baseline and after intervention for 1 year. Participants allocated to the Mediterranean diet supplemented with nuts showed significant reductions from baseline of waist circumference (mean [95% CI]; -5 cm [-7; -3]) and concentrations of medium-small (-27 nmol/l [-46; -8]) and very small LDL (-111 nmol/l [-180; -42]); decreased LDL particle number (a nuclear magnetic resonance-specific measurement) (-98 nmol/l [-184; -11]); and an increase of large LDL concentrations (54 nmol/l [18; 90]), with a net increase (0.2 nmol/l [0.1; 0.4]) of LDL size. The Mediterranean diets with olive oil and nuts increased large HDL concentrations (0.6 μM [0.0; 1.1] and 1.0 μM [0.4; 1.5], respectively). Compared to the other two intervention groups, participants in the nut-enriched diet showed significantly reduced waist circumference (p ≤ 0.006, both) and increased LDL size (p < 0.05, both). Lipoprotein subfractions are shifted to a less atherogenic pattern by consumption of Mediterranean diets enriched with nuts. The results contribute mechanistic evidence for the reduction of cardiovascular events observed in the PREDIMED trial. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [VARIATION ON SOMATOTYPE AND WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE IN A SAMPLE OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS BETWEEN YEARS 2012 AND 2014 IN THE TEMUCO, CHILE].

    PubMed

    Carrasco Alarcón, Vanessa; Martínez Salazar, Cristian; Álvarez Lepín, Cristian; Jorquera Aguilera, Carlos; Aguilar Farías, Nicolás

    2015-07-01

    Objetive: to determine variation on somatotype and waist circumference (WC) in university students during a three-year follow-up. a total sample of 36 first-year university students was recruited in 2012. Heath-Carter anthropometric somatotype and waist circumference were assessed in 2012 and 2014. male students showed mesomorph component (3.7-5.3-1.8) as dominant in 2012, while in 2014 endomorph and mesomorph components were equal (4.1-4.5-1.6). The somatotype in female students was dominated by endomorphic component in 2012 (5.4-4.6-1.7) and 2014 (5.3-3.2-1.6). Among somatotypes, for both, male and female students, only endomorphy showed statistically significant differences during the follow-up (p = 0,00). The endo-mesomorphic somatotype was dominant in men with 61.9% in 2012 and 38.1% in 2014. Women showed a higher percentage for meso-endomorphic somatotype with 60% in 2012 and 80% in 2014. In men, WC between 2014 and 2014 showed a statistically significant increment of 4.8% (p = 0,00). In women WC increased by 13.3% but no statistically difference was observed (p = 0,10). this study showed somatotypic change with tendency in increased endomorphy in both men and women. Despite WC values were similar to the national mean, cases with cardiometabolic risk increased during the follow-up period based on this measurement. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  16. Intake of total, animal and plant protein and subsequent changes in weight or waist circumference in European men and women: the Diogenes project.

    PubMed

    Halkjær, J; Olsen, A; Overvad, K; Jakobsen, M U; Boeing, H; Buijsse, B; Palli, D; Tognon, G; Du, H; van der A, D L; Forouhi, N G; Wareham, N J; Feskens, E J M; Sørensen, T I A; Tjønneland, A

    2011-08-01

    As protein is considered to increase thermogenesis and satiety more than other macronutrients, it may have beneficial effects on prevention of weight gain and weight maintenance. The objective of this study is to assess the association between the amount and type of dietary protein, and subsequent changes in weight and waist circumference (WC). 89,432 men and women from five countries participating in European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) were followed for a mean of 6.5 years. Associations between the intake of protein or subgroups of protein (from animal and plant sources) and changes in weight (g per year) or WC (cm per year) were investigated using gender and centre-specific multiple regression analyses. Adjustments were made for other baseline dietary factors, baseline anthropometrics, demographic and lifestyle factors and follow-up time. We used random effect meta-analyses to obtain pooled estimates across centres. Higher intake of total protein, and protein from animal sources was associated with subsequent weight gain for both genders, strongest among women, and the association was mainly attributable to protein from red and processed meat and poultry rather than from fish and dairy sources. There was no overall association between intake of plant protein and subsequent changes in weight. No clear overall associations between intakes of total protein or any of the subgroups and changes in WC were present. The associations showed some heterogeneity between centres, but pooling of estimates was still considered justified. A high intake of protein was not found associated with lower weight or waist gain in this observational study. In contrast, protein from food items of animal origin, especially meat and poultry, seemed to be positively associated with long-term weight gain. There were no clear associations for waist changes.

  17. Dietary ascorbic acid and subsequent change in body weight and waist circumference: associations may depend on genetic predisposition to obesity - a prospective study of three independent cohorts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cross-sectional data suggests that a low level of plasma ascorbic acid positively associates with both Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Circumference (WC). This leads to questions about a possible relationship between dietary intake of ascorbic acid and subsequent changes in anthropometry, and whether such associations may depend on genetic predisposition to obesity. Hence, we examined whether dietary ascorbic acid, possibly in interaction with the genetic predisposition to a high BMI, WC or waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHR), associates with subsequent annual changes in weight (∆BW) and waist circumference (∆WC). Methods A total of 7,569 participants’ from MONICA, the Diet Cancer and Health study and the INTER99 study were included in the study. We combined 50 obesity associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in four genetic scores: a score of all SNPs and a score for each of the traits (BMI, WC and WHR) with which the SNPs associate. Linear regression was used to examine the association between ascorbic acid intake and ΔBW or ΔWC. SNP-score × ascorbic acid interactions were examined by adding product terms to the models. Results We found no significant associations between dietary ascorbic acid and ∆BW or ∆WC. Regarding SNP-score × ascorbic acid interactions, each additional risk allele of the 14 WHR associated SNPs associated with a ∆WC of 0.039 cm/year (P = 0.02, 95% CI: 0.005 to 0.073) per 100 mg/day higher ascorbic acid intake. However, the association to ∆WC only remained borderline significant after adjustment for ∆BW. Conclusion In general, our study does not support an association between dietary ascorbic acid and ∆BW or ∆WC, but a diet with a high content of ascorbic acid may be weakly associated to higher WC gain among people who are genetically predisposed to a high WHR. However, given the quite limited association any public health relevance is questionable. PMID:24886192

  18. Respiratory Muscle Strength, Sound Pressure Level, and Vocal Acoustic Parameters and Waist Circumference of Children With Different Nutritional Status.

    PubMed

    Pascotini, Fernanda dos Santos; Ribeiro, Vanessa Veis; Christmann, Mara Keli; Tomasi, Lidia Lis; Dellazzana, Amanda Alves; Haeffner, Leris Salete Bonfanti; Cielo, Carla Aparecida

    2016-01-01

    Relate respiratory muscle strength (RMS), sound pressure (SP) level, and vocal acoustic parameters to the abdominal circumference (AC) and nutritional status of children. This is a cross-sectional study. Eighty-two school children aged between 8 and 10 years, grouped by nutritional states (eutrophic, overweight, or obese) and AC percentile (≤25, 25-75, and ≥75), were included in the study. Evaluations of maximal inspiratory pressure (IPmax) and maximal expiratory pressure (EPmax) were conducted using the manometer and SP and acoustic parameters through the Multi-Dimensional Voice Program Advanced (KayPENTAX, Montvale, New Jersey). There were significant differences (P < 0.05) in the EPmax of children with AC between the 25th and 75th percentiles (72.4) and those less than or equal to the 25th percentile (61.9) and in the SP of those greater than or equal to the 75th percentile (73.4) and less than or equal to the 25th percentile (66.6). The IPmax, EPmax, SP levels, and acoustic variables were not different in relation to the nutritional states of the children. There was a strong and positive correlation between the coefficient of amplitude perturbations (shimmer), the harmonics-to-noise ratio and the variation of the fundamental frequency, respectively, 0.79 and 0.71. RMS and acoustic voice characteristics in children do not appear to be influenced by nutritional states, and respiratory pressure does not interfere with acoustic voice characteristics. However, localized fat, represented by the AC, alters the EPmax and the SP, each of which increases as the AC increases. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Gender-assortative waist circumference in mother-daughter and father-son pairs, and its implications. An 11-year longitudinal study in children (EarlyBird 59).

    PubMed

    Mostazir, M; Jeffery, A; Voss, L; Wilkin, T

    2014-06-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is reportedly gender assortative (mother-daughter, father-son) in contemporary children. We investigated the corresponding transmission of waist circumference (WC) and its implications. We measured parental WC at baseline and WC, height, weight and para-umbilical skin-fold (USF) annually in their offspring from 5 to 15 years (n = 223 trios). Parents were deemed normal metabolic risk (NR) or high risk (HR) according to World Health Organization (WHO) cut-points for WC (mothers 80 cm, fathers 94 cm). The residual from WC adjusted for BMI (WC|BMI ) was used as a surrogate for excess intra-abdominal fat, and its association with insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR) was sought. WC and USF were both gender assortative, while WC|BMI was not. WC was greater by 1.62 cm (P < 0.05, confidence interval [CI]: 0.09-3.16) and USF by 0.37 cm (P < 0.01, CI: 0.19-0.56) among the daughters (but not the sons) of HR compared with those of NR mothers, and by 1.32 cm (P < 0.05, CI: 0.09-2.55) and 0.18 cm (P < 0.05, CI: 0.04-0.32), respectively in the corresponding father-son (but not father-daughter) pairings. No such differences could be demonstrated for WC|BMI . A standard deviation score 1(SDS) change in WC|BMI , independent of BMI, was associated with a 7.14% change in IR in girls (P < 0.01, CI: 1.76-12.80) and 8.02% in boys (P < 0.001, CI: 2.93-13.36), but there was no relationship between IR and USF. The relationship of offspring WC to metabolic health and to parental size is complex. Subcutaneous abdominal fat is gender assortative but harmless, while intra-abdominal fat (its surrogate in this analysis) is unrelated to parental waist circumference, but metabolically harmful. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  20. The predictive ability of triglycerides and waist (hypertriglyceridemic waist) in assessing metabolic triad change in obese children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hobkirk, James P; King, Roderick F; Gately, Paul; Pemberton, Philip; Smith, Alexander; Barth, Julian H; Harman, Nicola; Davies, Ian; Carroll, Sean

    2013-10-01

    The metabolic triad [fasting insulin, apolipoprotein B, and low-density lipoporotein (LDL) peak particle density] is characteristic of increased intra-abdominal adipose tissue and insulin resistance and can be predicted by the simple and adoptable screening tool, the hypertriglyceridemic waist. The associations between hypertriglyceridemic waist components [fasting triglycerides (TG) and waist circumference cut-points derived from a child-specific metabolic syndrome definition] with the metabolic triad were examined in obese youth before and after weight loss. A continuous metabolic triad score (MTS) was calculated as a cumulative and standardized residual score of fasting insulin, apolipoprotein B, and LDL peak particle density (z-scores of the metabolic triad variables regressed onto age and sex). The predictive ability of TG and waist in assessing metabolic triad change was undertaken in 75 clinically obese boys and girls, aged 8-18, body mass index (BMI) 34.2±6.4 kg/m(2) before and after weight loss. Fasting TG concentrations (r(2)=0.216, P<0.0001) and waist circumference (r(2)=0.049, P=0.019) were both significant independent predictors of the cumulative MTS, together accounting for 26.5% of its total variance. All cardiometabolic risk factors [except a reduction in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)] were favorably modified following weight loss. Fasting TG change was the only significant predictor of the MTS change (r(2)=0.177, P<0.0001). Waist circumference was not a significant predictor of MTS change. The reduction in fasting TG concentration (but not waist circumference) was the only significant predictor of MTS change. Fasting TG may be the most important metabolic syndrome component to best characterize the metabolic heterogeneity in obese cohorts and the changes in metabolic risk in clinically obese youth.

  1. Body Mass, Total Body Fat Percentage, and Visceral Fat Level Predict Insulin Resistance Better Than Waist Circumference and Body Mass Index in Healthy Young Male Adults in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Kurniawan, Liong Boy; Bahrun, Uleng; Hatta, Mochammad; Arif, Mansyur

    2018-05-01

    The incidence of obesity which leads to insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic disorder is increasing in developing countries, including Indonesia. Male adults have a higher risk of abdominal obesity than females. This is associated with cardiometabolic disorders. Several anthropometric measurements have been proposed to predict IR. The aim of this study was to investigate whether body mass, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), body fat percentage (BF) or visceral fat level (VF) could become a better predictor of IR in healthy young male adults. A total of 140 healthy young male adults ranging from 18⁻25 years were recruited in the study. Insulin resistance was measured by calculating their Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR). Subjects with a HOMA-IR value ≥75th percentile, with cut off 3.75, were defined as IR. Anthropometric measurements including body weight, BMI, and WC were performed, whereas BF and VC were measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). IR had a strong correlation with body weight, BMI, WC, BF, and VF. In the area under the curve of body mass, BF and VF were slightly greater than WC and BMI. Anthropometric measurements correlated strongly with IR but body weight, BF, VF had a stronger correlation than WC and BMI in healthy young male adults.

  2. Secular trends in the association between nativity/length of US residence with body mass index and waist circumference among Mexican-Americans, 1988–2008

    PubMed Central

    Diez Roux, Ana V.; Aiello, Allison E.; Schulz, Amy J.; Abraido-Lanza, Ana F.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We investigated whether associations between nativity/length of US residence and body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) varied over the past two decades. Methods Mexican-Americans aged 20–64 years from the National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES) III (1988–1994), and NHANES (1999–2008). Sex-stratified multivariable linear regression models further adjusted for age, education, and NHANES period. Results We found no evidence of secular variation in the nativity/length of US residence gradient for men or women. Foreign-born Mexican-Americans, irrespective of residence length, had lower mean BMI and WC than their US-born counterparts. However among women, education modified secular trends in nativity differentials: notably, in less-educated women, nativity gradients widened over time due to alarming increases in BMI among the US-born and little increase in the foreign-born. Conclusions Associations between nativity/length of US residence and BMI/WC did not vary over this 20-year period, but we noted important modifications by education in women. Understanding these trends is important for identifying vulnerable subpopulations among Mexican-Americans and for the development of effective health promotion strategies in this fast-growing segment of the population. PMID:23052250

  3. Dietary Flavonoid Intake Is Inversely Associated with Cardiovascular Disease Risk as Assessed by Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference among Adults in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson Enns, Cecilia; Goldman, Joseph D.; Moshfegh, Alanna J.

    2017-01-01

    Although flavonoids may confer anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant benefits, no research has examined if flavonoid intake is related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk defined by anthropometric measures in the USA population. This study sought to determine whether flavonoid intake is associated with combined body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) measures indicative of high, very high, or extremely high (“high+”) risk for CVD, using one day of 24-h recall data from adult (≥20 years) participants in What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010. Individuals were divided into categories of intake of total flavonoids and each flavonoid class, and adjusted estimates of the percentages at high+ CVD risk (based on BMI and WC, as per National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute guidelines) were calculated. Inverse linear trends were found in percentages of adults at high+ CVD risk by intake of total flavonoids, anthocyanidins, flavan-3-ols, and flavanones (p < 0.01). For individuals in the highest (versus the lowest) intake category of anthocyanidins, flavan-3-ols, and flavanones, relative risk and confidence intervals (RR and CI, respectively) were 0.86 (99% CI: 0.79, 0.93), 0.88 (99% CI: 0.79, 0.98), and 0.89 (99% CI: 0.80, 0.98), respectively. Research is needed to determine whether the inverse relationships found in this study are applicable to CVD endpoints at the population level. PMID:28767062

  4. Dietary Flavonoid Intake Is Inversely Associated with Cardiovascular Disease Risk as Assessed by Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference among Adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Rhonda S; Wilkinson Enns, Cecilia; Goldman, Joseph D; Moshfegh, Alanna J

    2017-08-02

    Although flavonoids may confer anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant benefits, no research has examined if flavonoid intake is related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk defined by anthropometric measures in the USA population. This study sought to determine whether flavonoid intake is associated with combined body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) measures indicative of high, very high, or extremely high ("high+") risk for CVD, using one day of 24-h recall data from adult (≥20 years) participants in What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010. Individuals were divided into categories of intake of total flavonoids and each flavonoid class, and adjusted estimates of the percentages at high+ CVD risk (based on BMI and WC, as per National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute guidelines) were calculated. Inverse linear trends were found in percentages of adults at high+ CVD risk by intake of total flavonoids, anthocyanidins, flavan-3-ols, and flavanones ( p < 0.01). For individuals in the highest (versus the lowest) intake category of anthocyanidins, flavan-3-ols, and flavanones, relative risk and confidence intervals (RR and CI, respectively) were 0.86 (99% CI: 0.79, 0.93), 0.88 (99% CI: 0.79, 0.98), and 0.89 (99% CI: 0.80, 0.98), respectively. Research is needed to determine whether the inverse relationships found in this study are applicable to CVD endpoints at the population level.

  5. Change in waist circumference with longer time in the United States among Hispanic and Chinese immigrants: the modifying role of the neighborhood built environment.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Sandra S; Osypuk, Theresa L; Kandula, Namratha R; Gallo, Linda C; Lê-Scherban, Félice; Shrager, Sandi; Diez Roux, Ana V

    2015-10-01

    We examined whether living in neighborhoods supportive of healthier diets and more active lifestyles may buffer immigrants against the unhealthy weight gain that is purported to occur with longer length of US residence. Neighborhood data referring to a 1-mile buffer around participants' baseline home addresses were linked to longitudinal data from 877 Hispanic and 684 Chinese immigrants aged 45 to 84 years in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. We used ethnicity-stratified linear mixed models to examine whether food and activity-based neighborhood measures (healthy food stores, walkability, and recreational facilities) were associated with change in waist circumference (WC) over a 9-year follow-up. Among Hispanics, living in neighborhoods with more resources for healthy food and recreational activity was related to lower baseline WC. However, there was no association with change in WC over time. Among Chinese, living in more walkable neighborhoods was associated with lower baseline WC and with slower increases in WC over time, especially among the most recent immigrant arrivals. Where immigrants reside may have implications for health patterns that emerge with longer time in the United States. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of vitamin D supplementation on 25-hydroxyvitamin D, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and other cardiovascular disease risk markers in subjects with elevated waist circumference.

    PubMed

    Maki, Kevin C; Rubin, Martyn R; Wong, Les G; McManus, Jamie F; Jensen, Christopher D; Lawless, Andrea

    2011-06-01

    The objective of the present trial was to assess the effects of vitamin D supplementation on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in subjects with high waist circumference. Subjects were randomly assigned a daily multivitamin and mineral (MVM) supplement or a MVM supplement plus vitamin D 1,200 IU/day (MVM+D) for 8 weeks. There was a significant difference in mean change for 25(OH)D between the MVM and MVM+D treatment groups ( - 1.2 ± 2.5 nmol/l vs. 11.7 ± 3.0 nmol/l, respectively; P = 0.003). Vitamin D 1,200 IU/day did not increase 25(OH)D to a desirable level ( ≥ 75 nmol/l) in 61% of participants. There were no significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk markers. Thus, vitamin D supplementation with 1,200 IU/day was insufficient to achieve desirable serum 25(OH)D in most participants and did not affect cardiovascular disease risk markers.

  7. Change in waist circumference with longer time in the US among Hispanic and Chinese immigrants: the modifying role of the neighborhood built environment

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Sandra S.; Osypuk, Theresa L.; Kandula, Namratha R.; Gallo, Linda C.; Lê- Scherban, Félice; Shrager, Sandi; Roux, Ana V. Diez

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We examined whether living in neighborhoods supportive of healthier diets and more active lifestyles may buffer immigrants against the unhealthy weight gain that is purported to occur with longer length of US residence. Methods Neighborhood data referring to a 1-mile buffer around participants’ baseline home addresses were linked to longitudinal data from 877 Hispanic and 684 Chinese immigrants aged 45-84 years in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. We used ethnicity-stratified linear mixed models to examine whether food and activity-based neighborhood measures (healthy food stores, walkability, and recreational facilities) were associated with change in waist circumference (WC) over a 9-year follow-up. Results Among Hispanics, living in neighborhoods with more resources for healthy food and recreational activity was related to lower baseline WC. However, there was no association with change in WC over time. Among Chinese, living in more walkable neighborhoods was associated with lower baseline WC and with slower increases in WC over time, especially among the most recent immigrant arrivals. Conclusions Where immigrants reside may have implications for health patterns that emerge with longer time in the US. PMID:26296266

  8. C-reactive protein, waist circumference, and family history of heart attack are independent predictors of body iron stores in apparently healthy premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Ortegón, M F; Arbeláez, A; Mosquera, M; Méndez, F; Aguilar-de Plata, C

    2012-08-01

    Ferritin levels have been associated with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prediction of ferritin levels by variables related to cardiometabolic disease risk in a multivariate analysis. For this aim, 123 healthy women (72 premenopausal and 51 posmenopausal) were recruited. Data were collected through procedures of anthropometric measurements, questionnaires for personal/familial antecedents, and dietary intake (24-h recall), and biochemical determinations (ferritin, C reactive protein (CRP), glucose, insulin, and lipid profile) in blood serum samples obtained. Multiple linear regression analysis was used and variables with no normal distribution were log-transformed for this analysis. In premenopausal women, a model to explain log-ferritin levels was found with log-CRP levels, heart attack familial history, and waist circumference as independent predictors. Ferritin behaves as other cardiovascular markers in terms of prediction of its levels by documented predictors of cardiometabolic disease and related disorders. This is the first report of a relationship between heart attack familial history and ferritin levels. Further research is required to evaluate the mechanism to explain the relationship of central body fat and heart attack familial history with body iron stores values.

  9. Nurse-assessed metabolic monitoring: a file audit of risk factor prevalence and impact of an intervention to enhance measurement of waist circumference.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Simon; Nijjar, Sukh; Watkins, Andrew; Garwood, Natasha; Sherrington, Catherine; Tiedemann, Anne

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to: (i) document the prevalence of risk factors for non-communicable diseases among mental health consumers (inpatients) with various diagnoses; and (ii) audit the frequency of waist circumference (WC) documentation before and after an intervention that involved a single nurse-education session, and change in assessment-form design. The study was undertaken in a private psychiatric hospital in Sydney, Australia. Twenty-five nurses participated in the educational intervention. File audits were performed prior to intervention delivery (n = 60), and 3 months' (n = 60), and 9 months' (n = 60) post-intervention. Files were randomly selected, and demographic (age, diagnosis) and risk factor (WC, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, blood pressure) data were extracted. WC was higher in this cohort compared to published general population means, and only 19% of patients had a BMI within the healthy range. In total, 37% of patients smoked, while 31% were hypertensive. At baseline, none of the audited files reported WC, which increased to 35 of the 60 (58%) files audited at the 3-month follow up. At the 9-month follow up, 25 of the 60 (42%) files audited reported a WC. In the 120 post-intervention files audited, only two patients refused measurement. These results illustrate the poor physical health of inpatients, and suggest that nurse-assessed metabolic monitoring can be enhanced with minimal training. © 2014 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  10. A COCONUT EXTRA VIRGIN OIL-RICH DIET INCREASES HDL CHOLESTEROL AND DECREASES WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE AND BODY MASS IN CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE PATIENTS.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Diuli A; Moreira, Annie S B; de Oliveira, Glaucia M M; Raggio Luiz, Ronir; Rosa, Glorimar

    2015-11-01

    saturated fat restriction has been recommended for coronary arterial disease, but the role of coconut oil (Cocos nucifera L.) extra virgin, lauric acid source in the management of lipid profile remains unclear. to evaluate the effect of nutritional treatment associated with the consumption of extra virgin coconut oil in anthropometric parameters and lipid profile. we conducted a longitudinal study of 116 adults of both sexes presenting CAD. Patients were followed in two stages: the first stage (basal-3 months), intensive nutritional treatment. In the second stage (3-6 months), the subjects were divided into two groups: diet group associated with extra virgin coconut oil consumption (GDOC) and diet group (DG). Held monthly anthropometric measurements: body mass, waist circumference (WC), neck circumference (PP), body mass index (BMI). Gauged to collected blood pressure and blood samples were fasted for 12 hours, for total cholesterol analysis and fractions apoproteins (Apo A-1 and B), glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), insulin (I). Comparing the averages at the beginning and end of the study employing the paired Student t-independent. And set the diastolic blood pressure by BMI using ANOVA. Analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical package, being significant p < 0.05. the mean age of the population was 62.4 ± 7.7 years, 63.2% male, 70% elderly, 77.6% infarcted, 52.6% with angina, hypertension and dyslipidemia 100%. In the first stage the nutritional treatment reduced body weight, WC, BMI and PP and insulin concentrations, HbA1C, HOMA-IR and QUICK, without changing the other parameters. In the second stage of the study, it was observed that the GDOC maintained the reduction of body mass, BMI, WC, with a significant difference between groups for DC (-2.1 ± 2,7 cm; p < 0.01). In addition, there was an increase in HDL-C concentrations, Apo A, with significant difference in GD, only for HDL-C (3.1 ± 7.4 mg/dL; p = 0.02). it was observed that the

  11. Body mass index and waist circumference are better predictors of insulin resistance than total body fat percentage in middle-aged and elderly Taiwanese.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yiu-Hua; Tsao, Yu-Chung; Tzeng, I-Shiang; Chuang, Hai-Hua; Li, Wen-Cheng; Tung, Tao-Hsin; Chen, Jau-Yuan

    2017-09-01

    The incidence of diabetes mellitus is rising worldwide, and prediabetic screening for insulin resistance (IR) has become ever more essential. This study aimed to investigate whether body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), or body fat percentage (BF%) could be a better predictor of IR in a middle-aged and elderly population. In this cross-sectional, community-based study, 394 individuals (97 with IR and 297 without IR) were enrolled in the analysis. IR was measured by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR), and subjects with HOMA-IR value ≧75th percentile were defined as being IR. Associations between IR and BMI, WC and BF% were evaluated by t test, chi square, Pearson correlation, logistic regression, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. A total of 394 community-dwelling, middle-aged, and elderly persons were enrolled; 138 (35%) were male, and 256 were female (65%). The mean age was 64.41 ± 8.46 years. A significant association was identified between BMI, WC, BF%, and IR, with Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.437 (P < .001), 0.412 (P < .001), and 0.361 (P < .001), respectively. Multivariate logistic regression revealed BMI (OR = 1.31; 95% CI = 1.20-1.42), WC (OR = 1.13; 95% CI = 1.08-1.17), and BF% (OR = 1.17; 95% CI = 1.11-1.23) to be independent predictors of IR. The area under curves of BMI and WC, 0.749 and 0.745 respectively, are greater than that of BF% 0.687. BMI and WC were more strongly associated with IR than was BF%. Excess body weight and body fat distribution were more important than total body fat in predicting IR.

  12. Structural vascular disease in Africans: Performance of ethnic-specific waist circumference cut points using logistic regression and neural network analyses: The SABPA study.

    PubMed

    Botha, J; de Ridder, J H; Potgieter, J C; Steyn, H S; Malan, L

    2013-10-01

    A recently proposed model for waist circumference cut points (RPWC), driven by increased blood pressure, was demonstrated in an African population. We therefore aimed to validate the RPWC by comparing the RPWC and the Joint Statement Consensus (JSC) models via Logistic Regression (LR) and Neural Networks (NN) analyses. Urban African gender groups (N=171) were stratified according to the JSC and RPWC cut point models. Ultrasound carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), blood pressure (BP) and fasting bloods (glucose, high density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglycerides) were obtained in a well-controlled setting. The RPWC male model (LR ROC AUC: 0.71, NN ROC AUC: 0.71) was practically equal to the JSC model (LR ROC AUC: 0.71, NN ROC AUC: 0.69) to predict structural vascular -disease. Similarly, the female RPWC model (LR ROC AUC: 0.84, NN ROC AUC: 0.82) and JSC model (LR ROC AUC: 0.82, NN ROC AUC: 0.81) equally predicted CIMT as surrogate marker for structural vascular disease. Odds ratios supported validity where prediction of CIMT revealed -clinical -significance, well over 1, for both the JSC and RPWC models in African males and females (OR 3.75-13.98). In conclusion, the proposed RPWC model was substantially validated utilizing linear and non-linear analyses. We therefore propose ethnic-specific WC cut points (African males, ≥90 cm; -females, ≥98 cm) to predict a surrogate marker for structural vascular disease. © J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. A composite score combining waist circumference and body mass index more accurately predicts body fat percentage in 6- to 13-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Aeberli, I; Gut-Knabenhans, M; Kusche-Ammann, R S; Molinari, L; Zimmermann, M B

    2013-02-01

    Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are widely used to predict % body fat (BF) and classify degrees of pediatric adiposity. However, both measures have limitations. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a combination of WC and BMI would more accurately predict %BF than either alone. In a nationally representative sample of 2,303 6- to 13-year-old Swiss children, weight, height, and WC were measured, and %BF was determined from multiple skinfold thicknesses. Regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to evaluate the combination of WC and BMI in predicting %BF against WC or BMI alone. An optimized composite score (CS) was generated. A quadratic polynomial combination of WC and BMI led to a better prediction of %BF (r (2) = 0.68) compared with the two measures alone (r (2) = 0.58-0.62). The areas under the ROC curve for the CS [0.6 * WC-SDS + 0.4 * BMI-SDS] ranged from 0.962 ± 0.0053 (overweight girls) to 0.982 ± 0.0046 (obese boys) and were somewhat greater than the AUCs for either BMI or WC alone. At a given specificity, the sensitivity of the prediction of overweight and obesity based on the CS was higher than that based on either WC or BMI alone, although the improvement was small. Both BMI and WC are good predictors of %BF in primary school children. However, a composite score incorporating both measures increased sensitivity at a constant specificity as compared to the individual measures. It may therefore be a useful tool for clinical and epidemiological studies of pediatric adiposity.

  14. Increase in body mass index and waist circumference is associated with high blood pressure in children and adolescents in Mexico city.

    PubMed

    Flores-Huerta, Samuel; Klünder-Klünder, Miguel; Reyes de la Cruz, Lorenzo; Santos, José Ignacio

    2009-04-01

    Currently, obesity has become a worldwide health problem affecting even children and yet little is known about its role as a determinant of high blood pressure in this age group. The aim of this epidemiological study was to determine the relationship between the increment of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in children and teenagers. The study was performed in Mexico City schools. Overweight was established if BMI ranged from >or=85(th) to <95(th) percentiles and obesity if BMI was >or=95(th) percentile. WC was classified in two categories, one ranging between the 75(th) and 89.9(th) percentiles and >90(th) percentile. Blood pressure was measured four times during one visit by the auscultatory method. High blood pressure was defined if the levels were >or=90(th) percentile according to the guidelines of the 2004 North American Task Force. Ages of the study population ranged from 5-8 (n = 474), 9-12 (n = 643) and 13-17 (n = 912) years, respectively. The levels of blood pressure and prevalence of high blood pressure were higher in overweight and obese children and adolescents. In both genders, the prevalence of SBP and DBP increased directly correlated with increments in age, BMI and WC, although prevalence and odd ratios of high blood pressure were higher in individuals with increased WC in comparison to BMI. Increases in WC and BMI are parameters directly associated with high blood pressure in children and adolescents.

  15. Mediterranean and Nordic diet scores and long-term changes in body weight and waist circumference: results from a large cohort study.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingjun; Roswall, Nina; Ström, Peter; Sandin, Sven; Adami, Hans-Olov; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2015-12-28

    Dietary patterns, which represent a broader picture of food and nutrient consumption, have gained increasing interest over the last decades. In a cohort design, we followed 27 544 women aged 29-49 years from baseline in 1991-1992. We collected data from an FFQ at baseline and body weight (BW) and waist circumference (WC) data both at baseline and at follow-up in 2003. We calculated the Mediterranean diet score (MDS, ranging from 0 to 9) and the Nordic diet score (NDS, ranging from 0 to 6). We used linear regression to examine the association between MDS and NDS (exposures) with subsequent BW change (ΔBW) and WC change (ΔWC) (outcomes) both continuously and categorically. Higher adherence to the MDS or NDS was not associated with ΔBW. The multivariable population average increment in BW was 0·03 kg (95 % CI -0·03, 0·09) per 1-point increase in MDS and 0·04 kg (95 % CI -0·02, 0·10) per 1-point increase in NDS. In addition, higher adherence to the MDS was not associated with ΔWC, with the multivariable population average increment per 1-point increase in MDS being 0·05 cm (95 % CI -0·03, 0·13). Higher adherence to the NDS was not significantly associated with gain in WC when adjusted for concurrent ΔBW. In conclusion, a higher adherence to the MDS or NDS was not associated with changes in average BW or WC in the present cohort followed for 12 years.

  16. The importance of waist circumference and body mass index in cross-sectional relationships with risk of cardiovascular disease in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Tran, Nga Thi Thu; Blizzard, Christopher Leigh; Luong, Khue Ngoc; Truong, Ngoc Le Van; Tran, Bao Quoc; Otahal, Petr; Nelson, Mark; Magnussen, Costan; Gall, Seana; Bui, Tan Van; Srikanth, Velandai; Au, Thuy Bich; Ha, Son Thai; Phung, Hai Ngoc; Tran, Mai Hoang; Callisaya, Michele

    2018-01-01

    Waist circumference (WC) is an indicator of intra-abdominal adipose tissue, high levels of which confer an increased risk of cardiometabolic disease. Population data on WC should be more informative than data on body mass index (BMI), which is a general indicator of body size. This study aimed to evaluate the importance of WC relative to BMI in cross-sectional relationships with blood pressure (BP), glucose, and total cholesterol (TC) in the adult population of Vietnam. The data were collected in a population-based survey conducted during 2009-10 using the "WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance of risk factors for non-communicable disease" (STEPS) methodology. The survey participants (n = 14 706 aged 25 to 64 years) were selected by multi-stage stratified cluster sampling from eight provinces representative of the eight geographical regions of Vietnam. All measurements were performed in accordance with the STEPS protocols. All analyses were performed using complex survey methods. The measurements of WC and BMI were highly correlated (men r = 0.80, women r = 0.77). For men, the strongest and predominant associations with BP, glucose, and TC were for WC or an index based on WC. For women, this was true for glucose but BMI was more important for BP and TC. WC or an index based on WC provided better discrimination than BMI of hypertension and elevated glucose, and of raised TC for men. Information on four new anthropometric indices did not improve model fit or subject discrimination. For BP/hypertension, glucose/elevated glucose, and TC/raised TC, WC was more informative than BMI for Vietnamese men, but both WC and BMI were important for Vietnamese women. Both WC and BMI need to be assessed for estimation of CVD risk in Vietnam.

  17. Sleep Duration, Sleep Quality, Body Mass Index, and Waist Circumference among Young Adults from 24 Low- and Middle-Income and Two High-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2017-01-01

    Obesity and its comorbidities have emerged as a leading public health concern. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and sleep patterns, including duration and disturbances. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey and anthropometric measurements were conducted with undergraduate university students that were randomly recruited in 26 universities in 24 low- and middle-income and two high-income countries. The sample included 18,211 (42.1% male and 57.9% female, mean age 21.0 in male and 20.7 years in female students) undergraduate university students. The overall BMI was a mean of 22.5 kg/m2 for men and 22.0 kg/m2 for women, and the mean WC was 78.4 cm for men and 73.8 cm for women. More than 39% of the students reported short sleep duration (≤6 h/day) and over 30% reported moderate to extreme sleep problems. In a linear multivariable regression, adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, short sleep duration was positively associated with BMI in both men and women, and was positively associated with WC among women but not among men. Sleep quality or problems among men were not associated with BMI, while among women mild sleep problems were inversely associated with BMI, and poor sleep quality or problems were positively associated with WC both among men and women. The study confirmed an association between short sleep duration and increased BMI and, among women, increased WC, and an association between poor sleep quality and increased WC but not BMI. Further, differences in the association between sleep characteristics and BMI and WC were found by region and country income. PMID:28587107

  18. Sleep Duration, Sleep Quality, Body Mass Index, and Waist Circumference among Young Adults from 24 Low- and Middle-Income and Two High-Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2017-05-26

    Obesity and its comorbidities have emerged as a leading public health concern. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and sleep patterns, including duration and disturbances. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey and anthropometric measurements were conducted with undergraduate university students that were randomly recruited in 26 universities in 24 low- and middle-income and two high-income countries. The sample included 18,211 (42.1% male and 57.9% female, mean age 21.0 in male and 20.7 years in female students) undergraduate university students. The overall BMI was a mean of 22.5 kg/m² for men and 22.0 kg/m² for women, and the mean WC was 78.4 cm for men and 73.8 cm for women. More than 39% of the students reported short sleep duration (≤6 h/day) and over 30% reported moderate to extreme sleep problems. In a linear multivariable regression, adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, short sleep duration was positively associated with BMI in both men and women, and was positively associated with WC among women but not among men. Sleep quality or problems among men were not associated with BMI, while among women mild sleep problems were inversely associated with BMI, and poor sleep quality or problems were positively associated with WC both among men and women. The study confirmed an association between short sleep duration and increased BMI and, among women, increased WC, and an association between poor sleep quality and increased WC but not BMI. Further, differences in the association between sleep characteristics and BMI and WC were found by region and country income.

  19. Trajectories of body mass index and waist circumference in four Peruvian settings at different level of urbanisation: the CRONICAS Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M; Gilman, Robert H; Checkley, William; Smeeth, Liam; Casas, Juan P

    2018-01-01

    Background Studies have reported the incidence/risk of becoming obese, but few have described the trajectories of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) over time, especially in low/middle-income countries. We assessed the trajectories of BMI and WC according to sex in four sites in Peru. Methods Data from the population-based CRONICAS Cohort Study were analysed. We fitted a population-averaged model by using generalised estimating equations. The outcomes of interest, with three data points over time, were BMI and WC. The exposure variable was the factorial interaction between time and study site. Results At baseline mean age was 55.7 years (SD: 12.7) and 51.6% were women. Mean follow-up time was 2.5 years (SD: 0.4). Over time and across sites, BMI and WC increased linearly. The less urbanised sites showed a faster increase than more urbanised sites, and this was also observed after sex stratification. Overall, the fastest increase was found for WC compared with BMI. Compared with Lima, the fastest increase in WC was in rural Puno (coefficient=0.73, P<0.001), followed by urban Puno (coefficient=0.59, P=0.001) and Tumbes (coefficient=0.22, P=0.088). Conclusions There was a linear increase in BMI and WC across study sites, with the greatest increase in less urbanised areas. The ongoing urbanisation process, common to Peru and other low/middle-income countries, is accompanied by different trajectories of increasing obesity-related markers. PMID:29472520

  20. Trajectories of body mass index and waist circumference in four Peruvian settings at different level of urbanisation: the CRONICAS Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M; Miranda, J Jaime; Gilman, Robert H; Checkley, William; Smeeth, Liam; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio

    2018-05-01

    Studies have reported the incidence/risk of becoming obese, but few have described the trajectories of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) over time, especially in low/middle-income countries. We assessed the trajectories of BMI and WC according to sex in four sites in Peru. Data from the population-based CRONICAS Cohort Study were analysed. We fitted a population-averaged model by using generalised estimating equations. The outcomes of interest, with three data points over time, were BMI and WC. The exposure variable was the factorial interaction between time and study site. At baseline mean age was 55.7 years (SD: 12.7) and 51.6% were women. Mean follow-up time was 2.5 years (SD: 0.4). Over time and across sites, BMI and WC increased linearly. The less urbanised sites showed a faster increase than more urbanised sites, and this was also observed after sex stratification. Overall, the fastest increase was found for WC compared with BMI. Compared with Lima, the fastest increase in WC was in rural Puno (coefficient=0.73, P<0.001), followed by urban Puno (coefficient=0.59, P=0.001) and Tumbes (coefficient=0.22, P=0.088). There was a linear increase in BMI and WC across study sites, with the greatest increase in less urbanised areas. The ongoing urbanisation process, common to Peru and other low/middle-income countries, is accompanied by different trajectories of increasing obesity-related markers. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Changes in body weight are significantly associated with changes in fasting plasma glucose and HDL cholesterol in Japanese men without abdominal obesity (waist circumference < 85 cm).

    PubMed

    Oda, Eiji; Kawai, Ryu

    2011-06-01

    The aims are to examine whether changes in body weight (dBW) are associated with changes in cardiovascular risk factors in Japanese men without abdominal obesity (waist circumference (WC) < 85 cm) and which anthropometric index, dBW or changes in WC (dWC), is more strongly associated with changes in cardiovascular risk factors in men without abdominal obesity. It is a retrospective study in 692 Japanese men without abdominal obesity who took annual health screening tests consecutively over one year. Standardized linear regression coefficients (SRCs) of dBW and dWC were calculated for changes in systolic blood pressure (dSBP), diastolic blood pressure (dDBP), fasting plasma glucose (dFPG), triglycerides (dTG), HDL cholesterol (dHDL), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (dCRP). The SRCs of dBW for dFPG and dHDL were significant in all men and in men with each risk factor corresponding to the component of metabolic syndrome (MetS). The SRCs of dWC for dTG and dCRP were significant in all men but not in men with each risk factor corresponding to the MetS component. In conclusions, dBW were significantly associated with dFPG and dHDL in Japanese men without abdominal obesity. Therefore, abdominal obesity should not be considered as a necessary component of MetS in Japanese men. dBW may be more useful than dWC as a marker of changes in cardiovascular risk factors in lifestyle intervention programs.

  2. A descriptive study of facial acanthosis nigricans and its association with body mass index, waist circumference and insulin resistance using HOMA2 IR.

    PubMed

    Verma, Shyam; Vasani, Resham; Joshi, Rajiv; Phiske, Meghana; Punjabi, Pritesh; Toprani, Tushar

    2016-01-01

    The term facial acanthosis nigricans (FAN) lacks definition of precise clinical and histopathological features. We present a descriptive study of patients with FAN to define pigmentary patterns and estimate the prevalence of obesity and insulin resistance in these cases. It is a prospective study that included all patients with classical AN of the neck and/or other areas with facial acanthosis nigricans described as brown-to-black macular pigmentation with blurred ill-defined margins, found on the zygomatic and malar areas. The body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) of the included patients were used as parameters of obesity. Homeostatic Model of Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA2 IR) was used as a parameter to evaluate insulin resistance. Histopathological features of the 6 skin biopsies that were possible were reviewed. Among the 102 included individuals, the patterns of facial pigmentation seen in addition to the classic pattern involving zygomatic and malar areas were a hyperpigmented band on the forehead in 59.80%, periorbital darkening in 17.64%, perioral darkening in 12.74%, and generalized darkening in 9.8% of cases. 85.29% of the males and 100% of the females were found to be obese. Varying degrees of insulin resistance was noted in 82.34% of the individuals. Six biopsies available for evaluation showed changes such as mild epidermal hyperplasia with prominent basal melanin, however, without the typical papillomatosis seen in AN of the flexures. We document an increased prevalence of obesity and insulin resistance in patients presenting with FAN and its presentations in addition to the classical description. We propose that FAN can be considered a cutaneous marker of insulin resistance and that HOMA2 IR can serve as a parameter of insulin resistance in such cases.

  3. Waist Circumference Is the Best Anthropometric Predictor for Insulin Resistance in Nondiabetic Patients with Schizophrenia Treated with Clozapine But Not Olanzapine

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, David C.; Fan, Xiaoduo; Sharma, Bikash; Copeland, Paul M.; Borba, Christina P.C.; Freudenreich, Oliver; Cather, Corey; Evins, A. Eden; Goff, Donald C.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate which anthropometric measure (human body measurement) best predicts insulin resistance measured by the insulin sensitivity index (SI) and the homeostasis model of assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in nondiabetic patients with schizophrenia patients treated with clozapine or olanzapine. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of nondiabetic subjects with schizophrenia being treated with olanzapine or clozapine using a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test, nutritional assessment, and anthropometric measures to assess the relationship between anthropometric measures and insulin resistance. Results No difference was found between the groups treated with clozapine and olanzapine in age, gender, race, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), lipid levels, HOMA-IR, or SI. The disposition index (SI × the acute insulin response to glucose), which measures how the body compensates for insulin resistance to maintain a normal glucose level, was significantly lower in the group treated with clozapine than in the group treated with olanzapine (1067 ± 1390 vs. 2521 ± 2805; p = 0.013), suggesting that the subjects treated with clozapine had a reduced compensatory response to IR compared with the subjects treated with olanzapine. In the clozapine group, both higher WC and BMI were significantly associated with elevated HOMA-IR and lower SI; however, WC was a stronger correlate of IR than BMI, as measured by SI (−0.50 vs. −0.40). In the olanzapine group, neither WC nor BMI was significantly associated with any measure of glucose metabolism. Conclusions In this study, WC was the single best anthropometric surrogate for predicting IR in patients treated with clozapine but not olanzapine. The results suggest that WC may be a valuable screening tool for predicting IR in patients with schizophrenia being treated with clozapine who are at relatively higher risk of developing the metabolic syndrome, type 2

  4. Waist Circumference as a Marker of Obesity Is More Predictive of Coronary Artery Calcification than Body Mass Index in Apparently Healthy Korean Adults: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    PubMed

    Park, Jongsin; Lee, Eun Seo; Lee, Da Young; Kim, Jihyun; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol Young; Lee, Won Young; Oh, Ki Won; Park, Sung Woo; Rhee, Eun Jung

    2016-12-01

    We aimed to assess the risk for coronary artery calcification (CAC) according to groups subdivided by body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in apparently healthy Korean adults. Thirty-three thousand four hundred and thirty-two participants (mean age, 42 years) in a health screening program were divided into three groups according to BMI: <23 kg/m² (normal), 23 to 25 kg/m² (overweight), and >25 kg/m² (obese). In addition, the participants were divided into two groups according to WC. Coronary artery calcium score (CACS) was measured with multi-detector computed tomography in all participants. Presence of CAC was defined as CACS >0. When logistic regression analysis was performed with the presence of CAC as the dependent variable, the risk for CAC increased as BMI increased after adjusting for confounding variables (1.102 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.000 to 1.216]; 1.284 [95% CI, 1.169 to 1.410]; in the overweight and obese groups vs. the normal weight group). When the participants were divided into six groups according to BMI and WC, the subjects with BMI and WC in the obese range showed the highest risk for CAC (1.321 [95% CI, 1.194 to 1.461]) and those with BMI in the overweight range and WC in the obese range showed the second highest risk for CAC (1.235 [95% CI, 1.194 to 1.461]). Participants with obesity defined by both BMI and WC showed the highest risk for CAC. Those with BMIs in the overweight range but with WC in the obese range showed the second highest risk for CAC, suggesting that WC as a marker of obesity is more predictive of CAC than BMI.

  5. A descriptive study of facial acanthosis nigricans and its association with body mass index, waist circumference and insulin resistance using HOMA2 IR

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Shyam; Vasani, Resham; Joshi, Rajiv; Phiske, Meghana; Punjabi, Pritesh; Toprani, Tushar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The term facial acanthosis nigricans (FAN) lacks definition of precise clinical and histopathological features. We present a descriptive study of patients with FAN to define pigmentary patterns and estimate the prevalence of obesity and insulin resistance in these cases. Materials and Methods: It is a prospective study that included all patients with classical AN of the neck and/or other areas with facial acanthosis nigricans described as brown-to-black macular pigmentation with blurred ill-defined margins, found on the zygomatic and malar areas. The body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) of the included patients were used as parameters of obesity. Homeostatic Model of Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA2 IR) was used as a parameter to evaluate insulin resistance. Histopathological features of the 6 skin biopsies that were possible were reviewed. Results: Among the 102 included individuals, the patterns of facial pigmentation seen in addition to the classic pattern involving zygomatic and malar areas were a hyperpigmented band on the forehead in 59.80%, periorbital darkening in 17.64%, perioral darkening in 12.74%, and generalized darkening in 9.8% of cases. 85.29% of the males and 100% of the females were found to be obese. Varying degrees of insulin resistance was noted in 82.34% of the individuals. Six biopsies available for evaluation showed changes such as mild epidermal hyperplasia with prominent basal melanin, however, without the typical papillomatosis seen in AN of the flexures. Conclusion: We document an increased prevalence of obesity and insulin resistance in patients presenting with FAN and its presentations in addition to the classical description. We propose that FAN can be considered a cutaneous marker of insulin resistance and that HOMA2 IR can serve as a parameter of insulin resistance in such cases. PMID:27990384

  6. Comparison of Lipid Accumulation Product Index with Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference as a Predictor of Metabolic Syndrome in Indian Population.

    PubMed

    Ray, Lopamudra; Ravichandran, Kandasamy; Nanda, Sunil Kumar

    2018-06-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS), which confers a high risk for cardiovascular diseases, needs early diagnosis and treatment to reduce morbidity and mortality. Lipid accumulation product index has been reported to be an inexpensive marker of visceral fat and metabolic syndrome. This study aimed to evaluate lipid accumulation product index as a marker for metabolic syndrome in the Indian population where the prevalence of the condition is steadily increasing. A hospital-based, case-control study was conducted with 72 diagnosed cases of metabolic syndrome and 79 control subjects. In all the participants, body mass index (BMI) and lipid accumulation product index were calculated. The difference between cases and controls in BMI, waist circumference (WC), and lipid accumulation product index was assessed by Mann-Whitney U test/unpaired t-test. Associations of BMI, WC, and lipid accumulation product index with metabolic syndrome were compared by multiple logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic analysis. BMI, WC, and lipid accumulation product index were significantly higher in metabolic syndrome (P < 0.05). Although all were independently associated with metabolic syndrome, lipid accumulation product index had the highest prediction accuracy. The parameter also had a high area under curve of 0.901 (95% confidence interval 0.85-0.95) and a high sensitivity (76.4%), specificity (91.1%), positive predictive value (88.7%), and negative predictive value (80.9%) for detection of metabolic syndrome. In the Indian population, lipid accumulation product index is a better predictor of metabolic syndrome compared to BMI and WC and should be incorporated in laboratory reports as early, accurate, and inexpensive indicator of metabolic syndrome.

  7. Daily Physical Activity Assessed by a Triaxial Accelerometer Is Beneficially Associated with Waist Circumference, Serum Triglycerides, and Insulin Resistance in Japanese Patients with Prediabetes or Untreated Early Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hamasaki, Hidetaka; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Moriyama, Sumie; Yoshikawa, Reo; Katsuyama, Hisayuki; Sako, Akahito; Mishima, Shuichi; Kakei, Masafumi; Ezaki, Osamu; Yanai, Hidekatsu

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the association between daily physical activity and metabolic risk factors in Japanese adults with prediabetes or untreated early type 2 diabetes (T2D). Daily physical activity level was measured using a triaxial accelerometer. We assessed correlations between physical activity level and waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting levels of plasma glucose, serum triglycerides, and insulin and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). A total of 80 patients were studied. After adjustment for age and body mass index, in all subjects, physical activity level was negatively associated with waist circumference (β = -0.124, P = 0.018) and fasting serum triglycerides (β = -0.239, P = 0.035), insulin (β = -0.224, P = 0.022). In men, physical activity level was negatively associated with systolic blood pressure (β = -0.351, P = 0.044), fasting plasma glucose (β = -0.369, P = 0.025) and insulin (β = -0.362, P = 0.012), and HOMA-IR (β = -0.371, P = 0.011). No significant associations were found between physical activity level and metabolic risk factors in women. Objectively measured daily physical activity is beneficially associated with waist circumference, serum triglycerides, and insulin resistance in individuals with prediabetes or untreated early T2D. (This trial is registered with UMIN000015774.).

  8. Using the LMS method to calculate z-scores for the Fenton preterm infant growth chart.

    PubMed

    Fenton, T R; Sauve, R S

    2007-12-01

    The use of exact percentiles and z-scores permit optimal assessment of infants' growth. In addition, z-scores allow the precise description of size outside of the 3rd and 97th percentiles of a growth reference. To calculate percentiles and z-scores, health professionals require the LMS parameters (Lambda for the skew, Mu for the median, and Sigma for the generalized coefficient of variation; Cole, 1990). The objective of this study was to calculate the LMS parameters for the Fenton preterm growth chart (2003). Secondary data analysis of the Fenton preterm growth chart data. The Cole methods were used to produce the LMS parameters and to smooth the L parameter. New percentiles were generated from the smooth LMS parameters, which were then compared with the original growth chart percentiles. The maximum differences between the original percentile curves and the percentile curves generated from the LMS parameters were: for weight; a difference of 66 g (2.9%) at 32 weeks along the 90th percentile; for head circumference; some differences of 0.3 cm (0.6-1.0%); and for length; a difference of 0.5 cm (1.6%) at 22 weeks on the 97th percentile. The percentile curves generated from the smoothed LMS parameters for the Fenton growth chart are similar to the original curves. These LMS parameters for the Fenton preterm growth chart facilitate the calculation of z-scores, which will permit the more precise assessment of growth of infants who are born preterm.

  9. Definition of new cut‐offs of BMI and waist circumference based on body composition and insulin resistance: differences between children, adolescents and adults

    PubMed Central

    Hübers, M.; Pourhassan, M.; Braun, W.; Geisler, C.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Objective This study aims to determine associations between anthropometric traits, regional fat depots and insulin resistance in children, adolescents and adults to define new cut‐offs of body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC). Design Cross‐sectional data were assessed in 433 children, adolescents and adults (aged: 6–60 years, BMI: 23.6 [21.0–27.7] kg m−2). Total adipose tissue (TAT), regional subcutaneous adipose tissue (SATtotal, SATtrunk) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) were determined by whole‐body magnetic resonance imaging, fat mass by air‐displacement plethysmography. Insulin resistance was evaluated by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA‐IR). Bivariate as well as partial correlations and regression analyses were used. Cut‐off values of BMI and WC related to regional fat depots and HOMA‐IR were analysed by receiver operating characteristics curve. Results In adults, TAT, SATtotal and SATtrunk increased linearly with increasing BMI and WC, whereas they followed a cubic function in children and adolescents with a steep increase at BMI and WC ≥1 standard deviation score and VAT at WC ≥2 standard deviation score. Sex differences were apparent in adults with women having higher masses of TAT and SAT and men having higher VAT. Using established BMI or WC cut‐offs, correspondent masses of TAT, SATtotal, SATtrunk and VAT increased from childhood to adulthood. In all age groups, there were positive associations between BMI, WC, SATtrunk, VAT and HOMA‐IR. When compared with normative cut‐offs of BMI or WC, HOMA‐IR‐derived cut‐offs of regional fat depots were lower in all age groups. Conclusions Associations between BMI, WC and regional fat depots varied between children, adolescents, young and older adults. When compared with BMI‐derived and WC‐derived values, an insulin resistance‐derived cut‐off corresponded to lower masses of regional fat depots. Thus, established BMI and WC

  10. Evaluation of mobile phone and Internet intervention on waist circumference and blood pressure in post-menopausal women with abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    Park, Min-Jeong; Kim, Hee-Seung

    2012-06-01

    The present study evaluated whether an intervention using a short message service (SMS) by personal cellular phone and Internet would reduce cardiovascular risk factors in post-menopausal women with abdominal obesity over 12 weeks. This is a quasi-experimental design with pre and post tests. Participants were recruited from the gynecology outpatient and family medicine departments of a tertiary care hospital located in an urban city of South Korea. Only 67 subjects completed the entire study, 34 in the intervention group and 33 controls. The goal of intervention was to reduce waist circumference (WC), body weight (BW) and blood pressure (BP) levels. Before the intervention, demographic variables, WC, BW, BP, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and serum lipids were measured as pre-test data. The WC, BW, BP, FPG and serum lipids were measured again 12 weeks later. Patients in the intervention group were requested to record their WC, BW, BP, type and amount of diet and exercise in a weekly web-based diary through the Internet or by cellular phone. The researchers sent weekly recommendations on diet and exercise as an intervention to each patient, by both cellular phone and Internet. The intervention was applied for 12 weeks. WC and BW significantly decreased by 3.0 cm and 2.0 kg, respectively, at 12 weeks compared with the baseline in the intervention group. However, the mean changes in the control group significantly increased by 0.9 cm and 0.7 kg. Systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) significantly decreased by 6.5 and 4.6 mmHg in the intervention group, respectively. The mean changes in the control group were not significant in either SBP or DBP. A significant mean decrease in total cholesterol (TC) was observed for the intervention group by 12.9 mg/dl, while the control group showed a significant mean increase by 1.5mg/dl. Low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) for the intervention group showed a significant mean decrease 11.3mg/dl. The mean change in the

  11. Diet soda intake is associated with long-term increases in waist circumference in a biethnic cohort of older adults: the San Antonio Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Sharon P G; Williams, Ken; Hazuda, Helen P

    2015-04-01

    To examine the relationship between diet soda (DS) intake (DSI) and long-term waist circumference (WC) change (ΔWC) in the biethnic San Antonio Longitudinal Study of Aging (SALSA). Prospective cohort study. San Antonio, Texas, neighborhoods. SALSA examined 749 Mexican-American and European-American individuals aged 65 and older at baseline (baseline, 1992-96); 474 (79.1%) survivors completed follow-up 1 (FU1, 2000-01), 413 (73.4%) completed FU2 (2001-03), and 375 (71.0%) completed FU3 (2003-04). Participants completed a mean of 2.64 follow-up intervals, for 9.4 total follow-up years. DSI, WC, height, and weight were measured at outset and at the conclusion of each interval: baseline, FU1, FU2, and FU3. Adjusted for initial WC, demographic characteristics, physical activity, diabetes mellitus, and smoking, mean interval ΔWC of DS users (2.11 cm, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.45-2.76 cm) was almost triple that of nonusers (0.77 cm, 95% CI = 0.29-1.23 cm) (P < .001). Adjusted interval ΔWCs were 0.77 cm (95% CI = 0.29-1.23 cm) for nonusers, 1.76 cm (95% CI = 0.96-2.57 cm) for occasional users, and 3.04 cm (95% CI = 1.82-4.26 cm) for daily users (P = .002 for trend). This translates to ΔWCs of 0.80 inches for nonusers, 1.83 inches for occasional users, and 3.16 for daily users over the total SALSA follow-up. In subanalyses stratified for selected covariates, ΔWC point estimates were consistently higher in DS users. In a striking dose-response relationship, increasing DSI was associated with escalating abdominal obesity, a potential pathway for cardiometabolic risk in this aging population. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  12. Central overweight and obesity in Polish schoolchildren aged 7-18 years: secular changes of waist circumference between 1966 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Suder, Agnieszka; Gomula, Aleksandra; Koziel, Slawomir

    2017-07-01

    We investigated secular trends of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in Polish schoolchildren examined through a period of almost 50 years. Data on height, weight and WC came from four cross-sectional surveys conducted in Poland between 1966 and 2012, covering 34,005 boys and 34,008 girls. Raw data of BMI and WC were standardized for age classes. Statistical analyses included the Kruskal-Willis test and Pearson Chi-square test. BMI and WC increased during the studied period; however, the growth was higher for WC (increase by 0.56 and 0.44 SD scores for BMI and 1.05 and 0.77 SD scores for WC in boys and girls, respectively). In boys, secular changes in BMI and WC were similar across childhood, early and late adolescence, while in girls they differed, indicating change in the type of adipose tissue distribution to a more central one in late adolescent girls. During 46 years, there was a tendency to a greater increase of the fraction of individuals with central obesity than the overall one. Since abdominal fat deposit is more connected with higher health risks than subcutaneous fat pattern, probably the number of metabolic complications in Polish children and adolescents will intensify in the future. What is Known: • BMI has significant limitations related to fat distribution, while WC is a measure of central adiposity. • Greater central fat deposition increases the risk of many diseases; therefore, WC may serve as a diagnostic measure for detecting central obesity in children at risk. What is New: • In girls, changes in BMI and WC indicate change in adipose tissue distribution to a more central one in late adolescence girls. • Both general and abdominal obesity in Polish children increased significantly from 1966 to 2012, with the tendency to a greater increase of the fraction of individuals with central obesity than the overall one, implying the number of metabolic complications in Polish children and adolescents may intensify in the future.

  13. Optimal scaling of weight and waist circumference to height for maximal association with DXA-measured total body fat mass by sex, age and race/ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Heo, M; Kabat, G C; Gallagher, D; Heymsfield, S B; Rohan, T E

    2013-08-01

    Body mass index (BMI; weight (Wt)/height (Ht) (in kg m(-2)) and waist circumference (WC) are widely used as proxy anthropometric measures for total adiposity. Little is known about what scaling power of 'x' in both Wt(kg)/Ht(m)(x) and WC(m)/Ht(m)(x) is maximally associated with measured total body fat mass (TBFM). Establishing values for x would provide the information needed to create optimum anthropometric surrogate measures of adiposity. To estimate the value of 'x' that renders Wt/Ht(x) and WC/Ht(x) maximally associated with DXA-measured TBFM. Participants of the NHANES 1999-2004 surveys, stratified by sex (men, women), race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, Mexican-Americans), and age(18-29, 30-49, 50-84 years). We apply a grid search by increasing x from 0.0-3.0 by increments of 0.1 to the simple regression models, TBFM=b0+b1*(Wt/Ht(x)) and TBFM=b0+b1*(WC/Ht(x)) to obtain an estimate of x that results in the greatest R(2), taking into account complex survey design features and multiply imputed data. R(2)'s for BMI are 0.86 for men (N=6544) and 0.92 for women (N=6362). The optimal powers x for weight are 1.0 (R(2)=0.90) for men and 0.8 (R(2)=0.96) for women. The optimal power x for WC is 0, that is, no scaling of WC to height, for men (R(2)=0.90) or women (R(2)=0.82). The optimal powers for weight across nine combinations of race/ethnicity and age groups for each sex vary slightly (x=0.8-1.3) whereas the optimal scaling powers for WC are all 0 for both sexes except for non-Hispanic black men aged 18-29y (x=0.1). Although the weight-for-height indices with optimal powers are not independent of height, they yield more accurate TBFM estimates than BMI. In reference to TBFM, Wt/Ht and Wt/Ht(0.8) are the optimal weight-for-height indices for men and women, respectively, whereas WC alone, without Ht adjustment, is the optimal WC-for-height index for both sexes. Thus, BMI, an index independent of height, may be less useful when predicting TBFM.

  14. Waist circumference values equivalent to body mass index points for predicting absolute cardiovascular disease risks among adults in an Aboriginal community: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Adegbija, Odewumi; Hoy, Wendy E; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2015-11-13

    There have been suggestions that currently recommended waist circumference (WC) cut-off points for Australians of European origin may not be applicable to Aboriginal people who have different body habitus profiles. We aimed to generate equivalent WC values that correspond to body mass index (BMI) points for identifying absolute cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks. Prospective cohort study. An Aboriginal community in Australia's Northern Territory. From 1992 to 1998, 920 adults without CVD, with age, WC and BMI measurements were followed-up for up to 20 years. Incident CVD, coronary artery disease (CAD) and heart failure (HF) events during the follow-up period ascertained from hospitalisation data. We generated WC values with 10-year absolute risks equivalent for the development of CVD as BMI values (20-34 kg/m(2)) using the Weibull accelerated time-failure model. There were 211 incident cases of CVD over 13,669 person-years of follow-up. At the average age of 35 years, WC values with absolute CVD, CAD and HF risks equivalent to BMI of 25 kg/m(2) were 91.5, 91.8 and 91.7 cm, respectively, for males, and corresponding WC values were 92.5, 92.7 and 93 cm for females. WC values with equal absolute CVD, CAD and HF risks to BMI of 30 kg/m(2) were 101.7, 103.1 and 102.6 cm, respectively, for males, and corresponding values were 99.2, 101.6 and 101.5 cm for females. Association between WC and CVD did not depend on gender (p=0.54). WC ranging from 91 to 93 cm was equivalent to BMI 25 kg/m(2) for overweight, and 99 to 103 cm was equivalent to BMI of 30 kg/m(2) for obesity in terms of predicting 10-year absolute CVD risk. Replicating the absolute risk method in other Aboriginal communities will further validate the WC values generated for future development of WC cut-off points for Aboriginal people. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. A randomized intervention trial of 24-wk dairy consumption on waist circumference, blood pressure, and fasting blood sugar and lipids in Japanese men with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shiro; Uenishi, Kazuhiro; Ishida, Hiromi; Takami, Yasuhiro; Hosoi, Takayuki; Kadowaki, Takashi; Orimo, Hajime; Ohashi, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    Dairy foods are postulated to have beneficial effects on blood pressure, body fat, serum lipids, and the incidence of type 2 diabetes. To evaluate the effects of the consumption of milk and dairy products, we performed a randomized dietary intervention trial for 24 wk in Japanese men, aged 20 to 60 y, with 2 or more components of the metabolic syndrome ( UMIN000006353). Subjects were randomized to a control group (n=98) that received dietary intervention focused on weight control supervised by registered dietitians, and a dairy-consumption group (n=102) that received both dietary intervention and regular home dairy delivery of 400 g/d for 24 wk. Co-primary endpoints included waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting blood sugar (FBS), and serum lipids. The dietary intervention decreased energy intake from 2,150 to 1,850 kcal/d in both groups (p<0.01). Mean rates of compliance with the dairy-consumption intervention were over 90%, resulting in increased calcium intake in the dairy-consumption group from 329 to 667 mg/d (p<0.01). Co-primary endpoints improved in both groups, but the degree of improvement was smaller in the dairy-consumption group (one-sided p=0.99). Subgroup analyses specified in the study protocol identified weight and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) as significant effect modifiers. Differences in changes in systolic blood pressure compared with the control group were 28.0 mmHg (95% CI, 214.0 to 21.9, interaction; p<0.01) in the normal weight group and 25.8 mmHg (211.4 to 20.2, interaction; p=0.02) in the moderate-to-high LTPA group, indicating lower systolic blood pressure in the dairy-consumption group among participants in these subgroups. In conclusion, although effects on the co-primary endpoints of dairy consumption were not shown, dairy consumption lowered systolic blood pressure in the subgroups with normal weight and moderate-to-high LTPA and lowered FBS in the subgroup with normal weight.

  16. Energy density of meals and snacks in the British diet in relation to overall diet quality, BMI and waist circumference: findings from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2016-10-01

    This cross-sectional study examined how energy density (ED) in meals and snacks is associated with overall diet quality, BMI and waist circumference (WC). On the basis of the data from 7-d weighed dietary record, all eating occasions were divided into meals or snacks based on time (meals: 06.00-10.00, 12.00-15.00 and 18.00-21.00 hours; snacks: others) or contribution to energy intake (EI) (meals: ≥15; snacks: <15%) in 1451 British adults aged 19-64 years. Irrespective of the definition of meals and snacks, both meal ED and snack ED (kJ/g; calculated on the basis of solid food only) were inversely associated with overall diet quality assessed by the healthy diet indicator (regression coefficient (β)=-0·29 to -0·21 and -0·07 to -0·04, respectively) and Mediterranean diet score (β=-0·43 to -0·30 and -0·13 to -0·06, respectively) in both sexes (P≤0·002), although the associations were stronger for meal ED. After adjustment for potential confounders, in both men and women, meal ED based on EI contribution showed positive associations with BMI (β=0·34; 95% CI 0·06, 0·62 and β=0·31; 95% CI 0·01, 0·61, respectively) and WC (β=0·96; 95% CI 0·27, 1·66 and β=0·67; 95% CI 0·04, 1·30, respectively). In addition, meal ED based on time was positively associated with WC in men (β=0·59; 95% CI 0·07, 1·10) and snack ED based on time was positively associated with BMI in women (β=0·15; 95% CI 0·04, 0·27). In analyses in which only acceptable EI reporters were included, similar results were obtained. In conclusion, the findings suggest stronger associations of meal ED with overall diet quality, BMI and WC compared with snack ED.

  17. Population distribution of the sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) from a representative sample of US adults: comparison of SAD, waist circumference and body mass index for identifying dysglycemia.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Henry S; Gu, Qiuping; Bullard, Kai McKeever; Freedman, David S; Ahluwalia, Namanjeet; Ogden, Cynthia L

    2014-01-01

    The sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) measured in supine position is an alternative adiposity indicator that estimates the quantity of dysfunctional adipose tissue in the visceral depot. However, supine SAD's distribution and its association with health risk at the population level are unknown. Here we describe standardized measurements of SAD, provide the first, national estimates of the SAD distribution among US adults, and test associations of SAD and other adiposity indicators with prevalent dysglycemia. In the 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, supine SAD was measured ("abdominal height") between arms of a sliding-beam caliper at the level of the iliac crests. From 4817 non-pregnant adults (age ≥ 20; response rate 88%) we used sample weights to estimate SAD's population distribution by sex and age groups. SAD's population mean was 22.5 cm [95% confidence interval 22.2-22.8]; median was 21.9 cm [21.6-22.4]. The mean and median values of SAD were greater for men than women. For the subpopulation without diagnosed diabetes, we compared the abilities of SAD, waist circumference (WC), and body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) to identify prevalent dysglycemia (HbA1c ≥ 5.7%). For age-adjusted, logistic-regression models in which sex-specific quartiles of SAD were considered simultaneously with quartiles of either WC or BMI, only SAD quartiles 3 (p<0.05 vs quartile 1) and 4 (p<0.001 vs quartile 1) remained associated with increased dysglycemia. Based on continuous adiposity indicators, analyses of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) indicated that the dysglycemia model fit for SAD (age-adjusted) was 0.734 for men (greater than the AUC for WC, p<0.001) and 0.764 for women (greater than the AUC for WC or BMI, p<0.001). Measured inexpensively by bedside caliper, SAD was associated with dysglycemia independently of WC or BMI. Standardized SAD measurements may enhance assessment of dysfunctional adiposity.

  18. Body mass index and waist circumference predict health-related quality of life, but not satisfaction with life, in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lucy; Crawford, John D; Reppermund, Simone; Trollor, Julian; Campbell, Lesley; Baune, Bernhard T; Sachdev, Perminder; Brodaty, Henry; Samaras, Katherine; Smith, Evelyn

    2018-06-07

    While obesity has been linked with lower quality of life in the general adult population, the prospective effects of present obesity on future quality of life amongst the elderly is unclear. This article investigates the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between obesity and aspects of quality of life in community-dwelling older Australians. A 2-year longitudinal sample of community dwellers aged 70-90 years at baseline, derived from the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study (MAS), was chosen for the study. Of the 1037 participants in the original MAS sample, a baseline (Wave 1) sample of 926 and a 2-year follow-up (Wave 2) sample of 751 subjects were retained for these analyses. Adiposity was measured using body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Quality of life was measured using the Assessment of Quality of Life (6 dimensions) questionnaire (AQoL-6D) as well as the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). Linear regression and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were used to examine linear and non-linear relationships between BMI and WC and measures of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and satisfaction with life, adjusting for age, sex, education, asthma, osteoporosis, depression, hearing and visual impairment, mild cognitive impairment, physical activity, and general health. Where a non-linear relationship was found, established BMI or WC categories were used in ANCOVA. Greater adiposity was associated with lower HRQoL but not life satisfaction. Regression modelling in cross-sectional analyses showed that higher BMI and greater WC were associated with lower scores for independent living, relationships, and pain (i.e. worse pain) on the AQoL-6D. In planned contrasts within a series of univariate analyses, obese participants scored lower in independent living and relationships, compared to normal weight and overweight participants. Longitudinal analyses found that higher baseline BMI and WC were associated with lower independent living scores at

  19. Adiponectin, in contrast to leptin, is not associated with body mass index, waist circumference and HOMA-IR in subjects of a west-African population.

    PubMed

    Awede, Bonaventure; Adovoekpe, Diane; Adehan, Grace; MacFarlane, Niall G; Azonbakin, Simon; Dossou, Emmanuel; Amoussou-Guenou, Marcellin; Djrolo, François

    2018-06-01

    Factors associated with plasma levels of adiponectin and leptin were studied in adult subjects without diabetes from Cotonou in Benin (West-Africa). Seventy (70) men and 45 women were included in the study. Anthropometric variables were measured and a venous blood sample was drawn from each subject, after an overnight fasting period, for measurement of plasma glucose, insulin, leptin, and adiponectin levels. HOMA-IR was determined to assess insulin resistance. Adiponectin and leptin levels were higher in women than in men (with adiponectin 18.48 ± 12.77 vs.7.8 ± 10.39 μg/mL, P < 0.0001, and leptin 30.77 ± 19.16 vs. 8.66 ± 8.24 ng/mL, P < 0.0001). Fasting insulin level and HOMA-IR were also higher in the females. Hyperleptinemia was observed in 66,96% of subjects and hypoadiponectinemia was present in 44.35% of subjects. In both men and women, leptin correlated with age (r = 0.2; P = 0.02), BMI (r = 0.572; P < 0.0001), waist circumference (r = 0.534; P < 0.0001), fasting insulin (r = 0.461; P < 0.001), and HOMA-IR (r = 0.430; P < 0.0001). No significant correlation was observed for adiponectin levels with these variables. Only in women, adiponectin was inversely correlated with fasting glucose (r = -0.423; P < 0.004). These data confirm previous descriptions of leptin but suggest that variations in factors determining serum adiponectin levels observed between ethnicities could also been seen between populations from the same ethnicity. © 2018 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  20. Comparison of Body Mass Index (BMI), Body Adiposity Index (BAI), Waist Circumference (WC), Waist-To-Hip Ratio (WHR) and Waist-To-Height Ratio (WHtR) as predictors of cardiovascular disease risk factors in an adult population in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Lam, Benjamin Chih Chiang; Koh, Gerald Choon Huat; Chen, Cynthia; Wong, Michael Tack Keong; Fallows, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    Excess adiposity is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. Amongst the various measures of adiposity, the best one to help predict these risk factors remains contentious. A novel index of adiposity, the Body Adiposity Index (BAI) was proposed in 2011, and has not been extensively studied in all populations. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to compare the relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI), Waist Circumference (WC), Waist-to-Hip Ratio (WHR), Waist-to-Height Ratio (WHtR), Body Adiposity Index (BAI) and CVD risk factors in the local adult population. This is a cross sectional study involving 1,891 subjects (Chinese 59.1% Malay 22.2%, Indian 18.7%), aged 21-74 years, based on an employee health screening (2012) undertaken at a hospital in Singapore. Anthropometric indices and CVD risk factor variables were measured, and Spearman correlation, Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves and multiple logistic regressions were used. BAI consistently had the lower correlation, area under ROC and odd ratio values when compared with BMI, WC and WHtR, although differences were often small with overlapping 95% confidence intervals. After adjusting for BMI, BAI did not further increase the odds of CVD risk factors, unlike WC and WHtR (for all except hypertension and low high density lipoprotein cholesterol). When subjects with the various CVD risk factors were grouped according to established cut-offs, a BMI of ≥23.0 kg/m2 and/or WHtR ≥0.5 identified the highest proportion for all the CVD risk factors in both genders, even higher than a combination of BMI and WC. BAI may function as a measure of overall adiposity but it is unlikely to be better than BMI. A combination of BMI and WHtR could have the best clinical utility in identifying patients with CVD risk factors in an adult population in Singapore.

  1. F227. PSYCHOLOGICAL TRAUMA OCCURRING DURING ADOLESCENCE IS ASSOCIATED WITH AN INCREASED RISK OF GREATER WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE IN EARLY PSYCHOSIS PATIENTS INDEPENDENTLY OF MEDICATION

    PubMed Central

    Alameda, Luis; Levier, Axel; Golay, Philippe; Gholam-Rezaee, Mehdi; Vandenberghe, Frederik; Delacretaz, Aurélie; Glatard, Anaïs; Dubath, Céline; Do, Kim Q; Eap, Chin B; Conus, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background The high prevalence of obesity in patients suffering from psychosis is a major concern as it dramatically increases the mortality rates of such patients in the long term. The mechanisms by which these patients develop overweight are poorly understood. It has been suggested that exposure to Childhood Trauma (CT) may play a role in the risk for obesity; however, whether this is the case for Early Psychosis (EP) patients and independently of the impact of medication has yet to be investigated. In addition, it is unknown whether the age at the time of exposure to CT can modulate the link between CT and obesity in EP patients. Methods 136 EP patients aged 18–35 were recruited from the Treatment and Early Intervention in Psychosis Program (TIPP-Lausanne). Body Mass Index (BMI), Weight Gain (WG) and Waist Circumference (WC) were measured and monitored prospectively after psychotropic prescription during a follow-up period of 1 year (patients were assessed at baseline, after 1, 2, 3, 6 months and 1 year of antipsychotic treatment). Patients were classified into Early-Trauma if they had faced at least one experience of abuse (physical, sexual, or emotional) or neglect (physical or emotional) before age 12, and Late-Trauma if the exposure had occurred between ages 12 and 16. Linear Mixed effect models with a random intercept were used to investigate the impact of Trauma (early or late) on the metabolic parameters longitudinally, Marko Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method was used to adjust these models with sufficiently large number of MCMC iterations. Models were adjusted for age, socioeconomic status, baseline BMI, medication intake prior to the first assessment and during the treatment phase, and by the diagnosis of depression. Results Patients were more likely to have a diagnosis of Schizophrenia (61%; N=83), they had a mean age of 26 at the time of first assessment, and exposure to 1 or more forms of traumatic experiences before 16 years of age was

  2. The mutual effect of pre-pregnancy body mass index, waist circumference and gestational weight gain on obesity-related adverse pregnancy outcomes: A birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiao; Yan, Yan; Xiang, Shiting; Zeng, Guangyu; Liu, Shiping; Sha, Tingting; He, Qiong; Li, Hongyan; Tan, Shan; Chen, Cheng; Li, Ling; Yan, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to examine the mutual effect of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and gestational weight gain (GWG) on obesity-related adverse pregnancy outcomes. Methods This birth cohort study was conducted in three Streets in Changsha, China, including a total of 976 mother-child pairs. All data was collected within 15 days after deliveries from a self-administered questionnaire, maternal health manual and perinatal health care information system. Multivariate logistic regression models were conducted to estimate the effects of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, WC and GWG on obesity-related adverse pregnancy outcomes including gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), primary cesarean section (P-CS), large for gestational age (LGA) and composite outcome (one or more adverse pregnancy outcomes) Results After controlling for all confounders, both maternal pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity and central adiposity contributed to increased risks of GDM [ORs 95% CIs = 2.19 (1.02–4.76) and 2.26 (1.11–4.60), respectively], P-CS [ORs 95% CIs = 1.66 (1.05–2.65) and 1.71 (1.11–2.63), respectively], LGA [ORs 95% CIs = 1.93 (1.07–3.50) and 2.14 (1.21–3.75), respectively] and composite outcome [ORs 95% CIs = 1.82 (1.15–2.87) and 1.98 (1.30–3.01), respectively] compared with mothers with normal pre-pregnancy weight and normal WC. Excessive GWG was found to be associated with an increased risk of LGA [OR 95% CI = 1.74 (1.05–2.89)], but was not significantly related to higher risks of GDM, P-CS and composite outcome [ORs 95% CIs = 0.90 (0.47–1.72), 1.08 (0.77–1.52), and 1.30 (0.94–1.79), respectively]. In terms of the joint effect of maternal pregestational BMI and WC on obesity-related composite outcome, mothers with both pre-pregnancy overweight and central adiposity had the highest risk of composite outcome [OR 95% CI = 3.96 (2.40–6.54)], compared with mothers without pre-pregnancy overweight or central adiposity

  3. [Waist circumference reference values in Beijing versus the national values in detecting cardiovascular risk factors in 7-18 years old children].

    PubMed

    Meng, Ling-hui; Luo, Na; Cheng, Hong; Hou, Dong-qing; Zhao, Xiao-yuan; Mi, Jie

    2011-08-01

    To compare the optimal references of waist circumference (WC) between Beijing and China in detecting cardiovascular risk factors in school-age children. Percentile curves for WC were drawn by sex using LMS method based on 21 787 children and adolescents aged 7 - 18 from Beijing Child and Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome Study. The 75(th) and the 90(th) percentiles by age and by gender of WC percentile curves were chosen as the optimal WC reference for 3 - 18 years old children and adolescents in Beijing. The sensitivities (Se) and specificities (Sp) were compared between Beijing and China WC references based on the evaluation of cardiovascular risk factors including hypertension, dyslipidemia, impaired fasting glucose and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in the test population being composed of 4927 school children aged 7 - 18 years. The predictive values for those cardiovascular risk factors were compared between the two optimal thresholds through comparison of the odds ratio (OR) in regression analysis. The optimal reference for Beijing children and adolescents aged 3 - 18 years ranged from 51.8 to 78.2 cm for the 75(th) percentile in boys and 50.8 to 72.1 cm in girls, and the 90(th) percentile increased from 54.0 to 86.0 cm in boys and 53.3 to 77.3 cm in girls. The Ses of Beijing and China WC references in detecting hypertension were 0.74 and 0.82 in boys and 0.68 and 0.73 in girls; the Ses were 0.69 and 0.80 in detecting low-high density lipoprotein in boys and 0.64 and 0.71 in girls; and they were 0.98 and 1.00 in boys and both were 0.93 in girls for NAFLD. The Sps of Beijing and China WC references in screening hypertension were 0.62 and 0.53 in boys and 0.68 and 0.63 in girls, respectively. In predicting low-high density lipoprotein, the Sps were 0.59 and 0.50 in boys and 0.66 and 0.61 in girls, the Sps were 0.60 and 0.50 in boys and 0.56 and 0.51 in girls for predicting NAFLD. After adjustment for age and gender, ORs and their 95% credibility

  4. Feasibility of body roundness index for identifying a clustering of cardiometabolic abnormalities compared to BMI, waist circumference and other anthropometric indices: the China Health and Nutrition Survey, 2008 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Simiao; Zhang, Xiuzhi; Xu, Yang; Dong, Huimin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are commonly used anthropometric measures for predicting cardiovascular diseases risk factors, but it is uncertain which specific measure might be the most appropriate predictor of a cluster of cardiometabolic abnormalities (CMA) in Chinese adults. A body shape index (ABSI) and body roundness index (BRI) have been recently developed as alternative anthropometric indices that may better reflect health status. The main aims of this study were to investigate the predictive capacity of ABSI and BRI in identifying various CMA compared to BMI, WC, waist-to-hip ratio (WHpR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and to determine whether there exists a best single predictor of all CMA. We used data from the 2009 wave of the China Health and Nutrition Survey, and the final analysis included 8126 adults aged 18 to 85 years with available fasting blood samples and anthropometric measurements. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were conducted to assess the best anthropometric indices to predict the risk of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, hyperuricemia, and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Logistic regression models were fit to evaluate the OR of each CMA according to anthropometric indices. In women, the ROC analysis showed that BRI and WHtR had the best predictive capability in identifying all of CMA (area under the curves [AUCs] ranged from 0.658 to 0.721). In men, BRI and WHtR were better predictor of hypertension, diabetes, and at least 1 CMA (AUC: 0.668, 0.708, and 0.698, respectively), whereas BMI and WC were more sensitive predictor of dyslipidemia, hyperuricemia, and MetS. Furthermore, the ABSI showed the lowest AUCs for each CMA. According to the multivariate logistic regression analysis, BRI and WHtR were superior in discriminating hyperuricemia and at least 1 CMA while BMI performed better in predicting hypertension, diabetes, and MetS in women. In men, WC and BRI were the 2 best predictor of

  5. Feasibility of body roundness index for identifying a clustering of cardiometabolic abnormalities compared to BMI, waist circumference and other anthropometric indices: the China Health and Nutrition Survey, 2008 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Tian, Simiao; Zhang, Xiuzhi; Xu, Yang; Dong, Huimin

    2016-08-01

    The body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are commonly used anthropometric measures for predicting cardiovascular diseases risk factors, but it is uncertain which specific measure might be the most appropriate predictor of a cluster of cardiometabolic abnormalities (CMA) in Chinese adults. A body shape index (ABSI) and body roundness index (BRI) have been recently developed as alternative anthropometric indices that may better reflect health status. The main aims of this study were to investigate the predictive capacity of ABSI and BRI in identifying various CMA compared to BMI, WC, waist-to-hip ratio (WHpR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and to determine whether there exists a best single predictor of all CMA.We used data from the 2009 wave of the China Health and Nutrition Survey, and the final analysis included 8126 adults aged 18 to 85 years with available fasting blood samples and anthropometric measurements. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were conducted to assess the best anthropometric indices to predict the risk of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, hyperuricemia, and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Logistic regression models were fit to evaluate the OR of each CMA according to anthropometric indices.In women, the ROC analysis showed that BRI and WHtR had the best predictive capability in identifying all of CMA (area under the curves [AUCs] ranged from 0.658 to 0.721). In men, BRI and WHtR were better predictor of hypertension, diabetes, and at least 1 CMA (AUC: 0.668, 0.708, and 0.698, respectively), whereas BMI and WC were more sensitive predictor of dyslipidemia, hyperuricemia, and MetS. Furthermore, the ABSI showed the lowest AUCs for each CMA. According to the multivariate logistic regression analysis, BRI and WHtR were superior in discriminating hyperuricemia and at least 1 CMA while BMI performed better in predicting hypertension, diabetes, and MetS in women. In men, WC and BRI were the 2 best predictor of all CMA

  6. Z-Score-Based Modularity for Community Detection in Networks

    PubMed Central

    Miyauchi, Atsushi; Kawase, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Identifying community structure in networks is an issue of particular interest in network science. The modularity introduced by Newman and Girvan is the most popular quality function for community detection in networks. In this study, we identify a problem in the concept of modularity and suggest a solution to overcome this problem. Specifically, we obtain a new quality function for community detection. We refer to the function as Z-modularity because it measures the Z-score of a given partition with respect to the fraction of the number of edges within communities. Our theoretical analysis shows that Z-modularity mitigates the resolution limit of the original modularity in certain cases. Computational experiments using both artificial networks and well-known real-world networks demonstrate the validity and reliability of the proposed quality function. PMID:26808270

  7. Application of receiver operating characteristic curve in the assessment of the value of body mass index, waist circumference and percentage of body fat in the Diagnosis of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in childbearing women.

    PubMed

    Dou, Pan; Ju, Huiyan; Shang, Jing; Li, Xueying; Xue, Qing; Xu, Yang; Guo, Xiaohui

    2016-08-24

    There are various parameters to analyze obesity, however, no standard reference to predict, screen or diagnose PCOS with various obesity parameters has been established, and the accuracy of these parameters still needs to be studied.This study was to use the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to explore the different values of three obesity parameters, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and percentage of body fat (PBF) in the diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in Chinese childbearing women. Three hundred patients who were diagnosed with PCOS at Center of Reproductive Medicine and Genetics of Peking University First Hospital were enrolled in this study, and 110 healthy age-matched women were enrolled as controls. The characteristics of BMI, WC and PBF in PCOS patients were analyzed. Compared with the control group, all the three obesity parameters were significantly increased in PCOS group. In terms of ROC area under the curve, WC > PBF > BMI, and they were all significantly different from those of the control. At a cut-off point of 80.5 cm, WC has a sensitivity of 73.6 % and a specificity of 85 % in diagnosis of PCOS; At a cut-off point of 29 %, PBF has a sensitivity of 88.2 % and a specificity of 57.7 % in diagnosis of PCOS; and at a cut-off point of 26.6 kg/m(2), BMI has a sensitivity of 54.5 % and a specificity of 98 % in diagnosis of PCOS. WC, BMI and PBF are valuable in screening and diagnosis of PCOS in Chinese childbearing women. PBF can be used to screen PCOS as it has a better sensitivity, while BMI can be used in the diagnosis of PCOS as it has a better specificity.

  8. International Day for the Evaluation of Abdominal Obesity (IDEA): a study of waist circumference, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes mellitus in 168,000 primary care patients in 63 countries

    PubMed Central

    Balkau, Beverley; Deanfield, John E.; Després, Jean-Pierre; Bassan, Jean-Pierre; Fox, Keith A.A.; Smith, Sidney C.; Barter, Philip; Tan, Chee E.; Van Gaal, Luc; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Massien, Christine; Haffner, Steven M.

    2007-01-01

    Background Abdominal adiposity is a growing clinical and public health problem. It is not known whether it is similarly associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes in different regions around the world, and thus whether measuring waist circumference (WC) in addition to body mass index (BMI) is useful in primary care practice. Methods and Results Randomly chosen primary care physicians (PCPs) in 63 countries recruited consecutive patients aged 18 to 80 years, on two pre-specified half-days. WC and BMI were measured and the presence of CVD and diabetes recorded. Of the patients consulting the PCPs, 97% agreed to participate in this study. Overall, 24% of 69,409 men and 27% of 98,750 women were obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2). A further 40% and 30% of men and women, respectively, were overweight (BMI 25 to 30 kg/m2). In men and women, respectively, increased WC (>102/88cm, men/women) was recorded in 29% and 48%, CVD in 16% and 13%, and diabetes in 13% and 11%. There was a statistically significant graded increase in the frequency of CVD and diabetes with both BMI and WC, with a stronger relationship for WC than for BMI across regions, for both genders. This relationship between WC, CVD and particularly diabetes was seen even in lean patients (BMI <25 kg/m2). Conclusions Among men and women consulting PCPs, BMI and particularly WC were both strongly linked to CVD and especially to diabetes. Strategies to address this global problem are required to prevent an epidemic of these major causes of morbidity and mortality. PMID:17965405

  9. Body mass index and waist circumference in early adulthood are associated with thoracolumbar spine shape at age 60-64: The Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, Anastasia V; Muthuri, Stella G; Cooper, Rachel; Saunders, Fiona R; Gregory, Jennifer S; Barr, Rebecca J; Martin, Kathryn R; Adams, Judith E; Kuh, Diana; Hardy, Rebecca J; Aspden, Richard M

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated associations between measures of adiposity from age 36 and spine shape at 60-64 years. Thoracolumbar spine shape was characterised using statistical shape modelling on lateral dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry images of the spine from 1529 participants of the MRC National Survey of Health and Development, acquired at age 60-64. Associations of spine shape modes with: 1) contemporaneous measures of total and central adiposity (body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC)) and body composition (android:gynoid fat mass ratio and lean and fat mass indices, calculated as whole body (excluding the head) lean or fat mass (kg) divided by height2 (m)2); 2) changes in total and central adiposity between age 36 and 60-64 and 3) age at onset of overweight, were tested using linear regression models. Four modes described 79% of the total variance in spine shape. In men, greater lean mass index was associated with a larger lordosis whereas greater fat mass index was associated with straighter spines. Greater current BMI was associated with a more uneven curvature in men and with larger anterior-posterior (a-p) vertebral diameters in both sexes. Greater WC and fat mass index were also associated with a-p diameter in both sexes. There was no clear evidence that gains in BMI and WC during earlier stages of adulthood were associated with spine shape but younger onset of overweight was associated with a more uneven spine and greater a-p diameter. In conclusion, sagittal spine shapes had different associations with total and central adiposity; earlier onset of overweight and prior measures of WC were particularly important.

  10. Triglyceride glucose-waist circumference, a novel and effective predictor of diabetes in first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes patients: cross-sectional and prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shuang; Shi, Sheng; Ren, Xingxing; Han, Tingting; Li, Yangxue; Chen, Yawen; Liu, Wei; Hou, Peter C; Hu, Yaomin

    2016-09-07

    Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), visceral adiposity index (VAI), triglyceride glucose index (TyG), TyG-BMI, and TyG-WC have been reported as markers of insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, little is known about the associations between the aforementioned markers and the risk of prediabetes and diabetes in first-degree relatives (FDRs) of T2DM patients. 1544 FDRs of T2DM patients (635 men and 909 women) were enrolled in the initial cross-sectional study and all of them finished corresponding examinations. Logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were used to compare and identify the associations of the six parameters (BMI, WC, VAI, TyG, TyG-BMI and TyG-WC) with the prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes. Subsequently, 452 of them were followed-up for an average of 5 years. Cox proportional hazard regression model was applied to confirm the predictive value of the optimal marker. Among the indices, TyG-WC was more strongly associated with the prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes. Compared with participants in the lowest quartile of TyG-WC, the adjusted odds ratio and 95 % CIs for prediabetes and diabetes was 11.19 (7.62-16.42) for those in the top quartile of TyG-WC. Moreover, the largest AUC was also observed in TyG-WC (0.765, 95 % CIs 0.741-0.789, P < 0.001). The robust predictive value of TyG-WC was further confirmed in the follow-up study (HR: 7.13, 95 % CIs 3.41-14.90, P < 0.001). TyG-WC is a novel and clinically effective marker for early identifying the risks of prediabetes and diabetes in FDRs of T2DM patients.

  11. Does cocoa/dark chocolate supplementation have favorable effect on body weight, body mass index and waist circumference? A systematic review, meta-analysis and dose-response of randomized clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Kord-Varkaneh, Hamed; Ghaedi, Ehsan; Nazary-Vanani, Ali; Mohammadi, Hamed; Shab-Bidar, Sakineh

    2018-03-19

    Cocoa and dark chocolate (DC) have been reported to be effective for health promotion; however the exact effect of cocoa/DC on anthropometric measures have not been yet defined. A comprehensive search to identify randomized clinical trials investigating the impact of cocoa/DC on body weight, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) was performed up to December 2017. A meta-analysis of eligible studies was performed using random effects model to estimate pooled effect size. Fractional polynominal modeling was used to explore dose-response relationships. A total of 35 RCTs investigated the effects of cocoa/DC on weight, BMI and WC were included. Meta-analysis did not suggest any significant effect of cocoa/DC supplementation on body weight (-0.108 kg, 95% CI -0.262, 0.046 P = 0.168), BMI (-0.014 kg/m 2 95% CI -0.105, 0.077, P: 0.759,) and WC (0.025 cm 95% CI -0.083, 0.129, P = 0.640). Subgroup analysis revealed that that weight and BMI were reduced with cocoa/DC supplementation ≥ 30 g chocolate per day in trials between 4-8 weeks. Cocoa/DC consumption resulted in WC reduction in non-linear fashion (r = 0.042, P-nonlinearity = 0.008). Cocoa/DC supplementation does not reduce anthropometric measures significantly. However subgroup analysis regarding dose (≥ 30 g/day) and duration (between 4 to 8 weeks) revealed significant reduction of body weight and BMI.

  12. Head circumference

    MedlinePlus

    ... a child's head circumference. Normal ranges for a child's sex and age (weeks, months), based on values that experts have obtained for normal growth rates of infants' and children's heads. Measurement of the head circumference is an ...

  13. Associations of Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference with 3-Year All-Cause Mortality Among the Oldest Old: Evidence from a Chinese Community-Based Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yue-Bin; Liu, Simin; Yin, Zhao-Xue; Gao, Xiang; Kraus, Virginia Byers; Mao, Chen; Yuan, Jin-Qiu; Zhang, Juan; Luo, Jie-Si; Chen, Hua-Shuai; Zeng, Yi; Shi, Xiao-Ming

    2018-05-25

    Current international and national guidelines for body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) have been recommended to all adults. However, whether recommendations applied to the oldest old (aged 80+) is poorly known. The study objective was to investigate the relation of BMI and WC with 3-year all-cause mortality among the oldest old. A total of 4361 Chinese oldest old (mean age 91.8) participated in this community-based prospective cohort study. BMI and WC were measured at baseline in 2011 and were used as continuous variables and as categorized variables by recommendations or by tertiles. Adjusted, sex-stratified Cox models with penalized splines and Cox models were constructed to explore the association. Greater BMI and WC were linearly associated with lower mortality risk in both genders. The mortality risk was the lowest in overweight or obese participants (BMI ≥ 24.0) and was lower in participants with abdominal obesity. Compared to the upper tertile, those in the middle and lower tertile of BMI had a higher risk of mortality for men [hazard ratio (HR): 1.23 (1.02-1.48) and 1.53 (1.28-1.82)] and for women [HR: 1.21 (1.03-1.41) and 1.35 (1.15-1.58)]; it was also found in participants in the middle and lower tertile of WC for men [HR: 1.21 (1.01-1.46) and 1.41 (1.18-1.69)] and for women [HR: 1.35 (1.15-1.58) and 1.55 (1.32-1.81)] (all the P values for trend <.001). These findings were robust in further sensitivity analyses or when using propensity score matching, in subgroup analyses, or in octogenarians, nonagenarians, and centenarians. In Chinese oldest old, both higher BMI and higher WC predict better survival in both genders. The finding suggests optimal BMI and WC may be sensitive to age, thus, the current recommendations for the oldest old may need to be revisited. Copyright © 2018 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. All rights reserved.

  14. Diet soda intake is associated with long-term increases in waist circumference in a bi-ethnic cohort of older adults: The San Antonio Longitudinal Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Sharon PG; Williams, Ken; Hazuda, Helen P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Diet soda (DS) intake (DSI) has been associated with increased cardiometabolic risk, but its specific impact in older adults has not been addressed. Because central obesity increases cardiovascular risk, we examined the relationship between DSI and long-term waist circumference (WC) change (ΔWC) in the bi-ethnic San Antonio Longitudinal Study of Aging (SALSA). DESIGN Prospective cohort study. SETTING San Antonio, Texas, neighborhoods PARTICIPANTS SALSA examined 749 Mexican-American and European-American individuals ≥ 65 years old at baseline (BL: 1992-1996); 79.1% of survivors completed follow-up 1 (FU1) (2000-2001, n=474); 73.4%, FU2 (2001-2003, n=413); and 71.0%, FU3 (2003-2004, n=375). Participants completed a mean of 2.64 follow-up intervals, for 9.41 total follow-up years. MEASUREMENTS DSI, WC, height and weight were measured at outset and conclusion of each interval: BL-FU1, FU1-FU2, and FU2-FU3. RESULTS Adjusted for initial WC, demographics, physical activity, diabetes, and smoking, mean interval ΔWC (95% confidence interval) for all DS users was almost triple that among non-users: 2.11 (1.45-2.76) vs. 0.77 (0.29-1.23) cm, respectively (p < 0.001). For non-, occasional, and daily DS users, adjusted interval ΔWCs were 0.77 (0.29-1.23), 1.76 (0.96-2.57), and 3.04 (1.82-4.26) cm, respectively (p=0.002 for trend). This translates to ΔWCs of 0.80, 1.83, and 3.16 inches, respectively, for these groups, over the total SALSA follow-up. In sub-analyses stratified separately by key covariates, ΔWC point estimates were consistently higher among DS users. CONCLUSION In a striking dose-response relationship, increasing diet soda intake was associated with escalating abdominal obesity, a potential pathway for heightened cardiometabolic risk in this aging population. PMID:25780952

  15. Relationship of body mass index to percent body fat and waist circumference among schoolchildren in Japan--the influence of gender and obesity: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Hirotaka; Shirasawa, Takako; Nishimura, Rimei; Morimoto, Aya; Shimada, Naoki; Ohtsu, Tadahiro; Kujirai, Emiko; Hoshino, Hiromi; Tajima, Naoko; Kokaze, Akatsuki

    2010-08-18

    Although the correlation coefficient between body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat (%BF) or waist circumference (WC) has been reported, studies conducted among population-based schoolchildren to date have been limited in Japan, where %BF and WC are not usually measured in annual health examinations at elementary schools or junior high schools. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship of BMI to %BF and WC and to examine the influence of gender and obesity on these relationships among Japanese schoolchildren. Subjects included 3,750 schoolchildren from the fourth and seventh grade in Ina-town, Saitama Prefecture, Japan between 2004 and 2008. Information about subject's age, sex, height, weight, %BF, and WC was collected from annual physical examinations. %BF was measured with a bipedal biometrical impedance analysis device. Obesity was defined by the following two criteria: the obese definition of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the definition of obesity for Japanese children. Pearson's correlation coefficients between BMI and %BF or WC were calculated separately for sex. Among fourth graders, the correlation coefficients between BMI and %BF were 0.74 for boys and 0.97 for girls, whereas those between BMI and WC were 0.94 for boys and 0.90 for girls. Similar results were observed in the analysis of seventh graders. The correlation coefficient between BMI and %BF varied by physique (obese or non-obese), with weaker correlations among the obese regardless of the definition of obesity; most correlation coefficients among obese boys were less than 0.5, whereas most correlations among obese girls were more than 0.7. On the other hand, the correlation coefficients between BMI and WC were more than 0.8 among boys and almost all coefficients were more than 0.7 among girls, regardless of physique. BMI was positively correlated with %BF and WC among Japanese schoolchildren. The correlations could be influenced by obesity as well

  16. Relationship of body mass index to percent body fat and waist circumference among schoolchildren in Japan - the influence of gender and obesity: a population-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Although the correlation coefficient between body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat (%BF) or waist circumference (WC) has been reported, studies conducted among population-based schoolchildren to date have been limited in Japan, where %BF and WC are not usually measured in annual health examinations at elementary schools or junior high schools. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship of BMI to %BF and WC and to examine the influence of gender and obesity on these relationships among Japanese schoolchildren. Methods Subjects included 3,750 schoolchildren from the fourth and seventh grade in Ina-town, Saitama Prefecture, Japan between 2004 and 2008. Information about subject's age, sex, height, weight, %BF, and WC was collected from annual physical examinations. %BF was measured with a bipedal biometrical impedance analysis device. Obesity was defined by the following two criteria: the obese definition of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the definition of obesity for Japanese children. Pearson's correlation coefficients between BMI and %BF or WC were calculated separately for sex. Results Among fourth graders, the correlation coefficients between BMI and %BF were 0.74 for boys and 0.97 for girls, whereas those between BMI and WC were 0.94 for boys and 0.90 for girls. Similar results were observed in the analysis of seventh graders. The correlation coefficient between BMI and %BF varied by physique (obese or non-obese), with weaker correlations among the obese regardless of the definition of obesity; most correlation coefficients among obese boys were less than 0.5, whereas most correlations among obese girls were more than 0.7. On the other hand, the correlation coefficients between BMI and WC were more than 0.8 among boys and almost all coefficients were more than 0.7 among girls, regardless of physique. Conclusions BMI was positively correlated with %BF and WC among Japanese schoolchildren. The correlations

  17. Usefulness of the Waist Circumference-to-Height Ratio in Screening for Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome among Korean Children and Adolescents: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2010-2014.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dong-Hyun; Hur, Yang-Im; Kang, Jae-Heon; Kim, Kyoungwoo; Cho, Young Gyu; Hong, Soo-Min; Cho, Eun Byul

    2017-03-10

    The aims of this study were to assess the diagnostic value of the weight-to-height ratio (WHtR) for the detection of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) in Korean children and adolescents, and to determine the advantages of WHtR as a population-based screening tool in comparison with other obesity indicators, such as body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from 3057 children and adolescents (1625 boys, 1332 girls) aged 10-19 years who were included in the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2010-2012) up to the second year of the sixth KNHANES (2013-2014). Receiver operation characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to determine the optimal cutoff value and accuracy of WHtR for predicting individual obesity indicators or more than two non-WC components of MS. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) is a measure of the diagnostic power of a test. A perfect test will have an AUC of 1.0, and an AUC equal to 0.5 means that the test performs no better than chance. The optimal WHtR cutoff for the evaluation of general obesity and central obesity was 0.50 in boys and 0.47-0.48 in girls, and the AUC was 0.9. Regarding the assessment of each MS risk factor, the optimal WHtR cutoff was 0.43-0.50 in boys and 0.43-0.49 in girls, and these cutoffs were statistically significant only for the detection of high triglyceride and low High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. When a pairwise comparison of the AUCs was conducted between WHtR and BMI/WC percentiles to quantify the differences in power for MS screening, the WHtR AUC values (boys, 0.691; girls, 0.684) were higher than those of other indices; however, these differences were not statistically significant (boys, p = 0.467; girls, p = 0.51). The WHtR cutoff value was 0.44 (sensitivity, 67.7%; specificity, 64.6%) for boys and 0.43 (sensitivity, 66.4%; specificity, 66.9%) for girls. There was no significant difference between

  18. Optimal cut-off points for waist circumference in the definition of metabolic syndrome in Brazilian adults: baseline analyses of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Cardinal, Thiane Ristow; Vigo, Alvaro; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim; da Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Schmidt, Maria Inês

    2018-01-01

    Waist circumference (WC) has been incorporated in the definition of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) but the exact WC cut-off points across populations are not clear. The Joint Interim Statement (JIS) suggested possible cut-offs to different populations and ethnic groups. However, the adequacy of these cut-offs to Brazilian adults has been scarcely investigated. The objective of the study is to evaluate possible WC thresholds to be used in the definition of MetS using data from the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), a multicenter cohort study of civil servants (35-74 years old) of six Brazilian cities. We analyzed baseline data from 14,893 participants (6772 men and 8121 women). A MetS was defined according to the JIS criteria, but excluding WC and thus requiring 2 of the 4 remaining elements. We used restricted cubic spline regression to graph the relationship between WC and MetS. We identified optimal cut-off points which maximized joint sensitivity and specificity (Youden's index) from Receiver Operator Characteristic Curves. We also estimated the C-statistics using logistic regression. We found no apparent threshold for WC in restricted cubic spline plots. Optimal cut-off for men was 92 cm (2 cm lower than that recommended by JIS for Caucasian/Europids or Sub-Saharan African men), but 2 cm higher than that recommended for ethnic Central and South American. For women, optimal cut-off was 86, 6 cm higher than that recommended for Caucasian/Europids and ethnic Central and South American. Optimal cut-offs did not very across age groups and most common race/color categories (except for Asian men, 87 cm). Sex-specific cut-offs for WC recommended by JIS differ from optimal cut-offs we found for adult men and women of Brazil´s most common ethnic groups.

  19. Neck Circumference, a Novel Indicator for Hyperuricemia

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jiajia; Cui, Jia; Yang, Xinghua; Wang, Anping; Mu, Yiming; Dong, Liguang; Wang, Shuyu; Gaisano, Herbert; Dou, Jingtao; He, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Waist circumference has been correlated with the risk of hyperuricemia. Whether neck circumference is also associated with hyperuricemia has not been assessed. This study aimed to investigate whether neck circumference is associated with hyperuricemia. Methods: This study population from Beijing is part of the larger China-wide Risk Evaluation of Cancers in Chinese Diabetic Individuals: a lONgitudinal (REACTION) study. For this Beijing sub-center cross-sectional study, a total of 8971 subjects were recruited. Gender-specific multivariable-adjusted regression analyses were conducted to analyze the association of neck circumference and waist circumference with hyperuricemia and the association of neck circumference with serum uric acid levels in the non-hyperuricemia population. Results: After adjusting for confounding variables, regression analyses showed that neck circumference was positively associated with hyperuricemia [OR, 2.61 (1.86–3.67) for males and 3.27 (2.53–4.22) for females] in both genders; further, neck circumference was also positively associated with serum uric acid levels in non-hyperuricemia subjects [b, 2.58 (1.76–3.39) for males and 4.27 (3.70–4.84) for females] in both genders. Additionally, we demonstrated that neck circumference was similar to waist circumference in terms of the strength of association (OR, 3.03 for waist circumference vs. 2.61 for neck circumference in males, and 3.50 vs. 3.27 for females) with hyperuricemia and the ability to predict hyperuricemia (AUC, 0.63 for waist circumference vs. 0.61 for neck circumference in males, and 0.66 vs. 0.66 in females). Conclusion: Neck circumference is positively and independently associated with hyperuricemia in both genders and is also associated with serum uric acid levels in the non-hyperuricemia population. PMID:29238304

  20. A comparative research on obesity hypertension by the comparisons and associations between waist circumference, body mass index with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and the clinical laboratory data between four special Chinese adult groups.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ou; Leng, Jian-Hang; Yang, Fen-Fang; Yang, Hai-Ming; Zhang, Hu; Li, Zeng-Fang; Zhang, Xing-Yu; Yuan, Cheng-Da; Li, Jia-Jia; Pan, Qi; Liu, Wei; Ren, Yan-Jun; Liu, Bing; Liu, Qing-Min; Cao, Cheng-Jian

    2018-01-01

    The obesity-hypertension pathogenesis is complex. From the phenotype to molecular mechanism, there is a long way to clarify the mechanism. To explore the association between obesity and hypertension, we correlate the phenotypes such as the waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SB), and diastolic blood pressure (DB) with the clinical laboratory data between four specific Chinese adult physical examination groups (newly diagnosed untreated just-obesity group, newly diagnosed untreated obesity-hypertension group, newly diagnosed untreated just-hypertension group, and normal healthy group), and the results may show something. To explore the mechanisms from obesity to hypertension by analyzing the correlations and differences between WC, BMI, SB, DB, and other clinical laboratory data indices in four specific Chinese adult physical examination groups. This cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2012 to July 2014, and 153 adult subjects, 34 women and 119 men, from 21 to 69 years, were taken from four characteristic Chinese adult physical examination groups (newly diagnosed untreated just-obesity group, newly diagnosed untreated obesity-hypertension group, newly diagnosed untreated just-hypertension group, and normal healthy group). The study was approved by the ethics committee of Hangzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention. WC, BMI, SB, DB, and other clinical laboratory data were collected and analyzed by SPSS. Serum levels of albumin (ALB),alanine aminotransferase (ALT), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), uric acid (Ua), and TC/HDLC (odds ratio) were statistically significantly different between the four groups. WC statistically significantly positively correlated with BMI, ALT, Ua, and serum levels of glucose (GLU), and TC/HDLC, and negatively with ALB, HDLC, and serum levels of conjugated bilirubin (CB). BMI

  1. Waist-to-height: cutoff matters in predicting metabolic syndrome in Mexican children.

    PubMed

    Elizondo-Montemayor, Leticia; Serrano-González, Mónica; Ugalde-Casas, Patricia A; Bustamante-Careaga, Humberto; Cuello-García, Carlos

    2011-06-01

    Body-mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and, recently, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) have been proposed as clinical indexes to identify children at cardiometabolic risk. The aim was to identify the usefulness of WHtR cutoffs, WC, and BMI as predictors of metabolic syndrome in Mexican children, according to BMI z-scores, and the severity of obesity to cardiometabolic risk factors and metabolic syndrome. This was a cross-sectional study of 214 overweight/obese and 47 normal-weight Mexican children 6-12 years old. Children were divided in groups according to BMI z-scores. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements were determined. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves and areas under the curves were calculated to compare the abilities of the anthropometric measurements to predict metabolic syndrome. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 23.3%, ranging from 11.0% in the overweight group to 73.9% in the severely obese one. Children with metabolic syndrome had significantly higher WHtR, WC, BMI, percentage of body fat, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). A WHtR cutoff point of 0.59 from the ROC curve was identified as strong predictor of metabolic syndrome in our population, whereas a cutoff of 0.5 showed very poor specificity (22.7%). WC predicted metabolic syndrome as well. Cutoff values for WHtR make a difference in predicting metabolic syndrome. A cutoff of 0.59 for WHtR strongly predicted metabolic syndrome; it might be a simpler to use screening tools and counters for short people. Further studies are required to determine the cutoff points for an accurate prediction, because there are few in children and none in Mexico.

  2. Z-Score Demystified: A Critical Analysis of the Sri Lankan University Admission Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnapala, Yajni; Silva, Karishma

    2011-01-01

    In the year 2001, the University Grants Commission of Sri Lanka successfully appealed to change the method of determining the cut-off scores for university admissions from raw scores to standardized z-scores. This standardization allegedly eliminated the discrepancy caused due to the assumption of equal difficulty levels across all subjects. This…

  3. Diagnostic accuracy of FEV1/forced vital capacity ratio z scores in asthmatic patients.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Allison; Drummond, M Bradley; Wei, Christine; Irvin, Charles; Kaminsky, David; McCormack, Meredith; Wise, Robert

    2015-09-01

    The FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio is used as a criterion for airflow obstruction; however, the test characteristics of spirometry in the diagnosis of asthma are not well established. The accuracy of a test depends on the pretest probability of disease. We wanted to estimate the FEV1/FVC ratio z score threshold with optimal accuracy for the diagnosis of asthma for different pretest probabilities. Asthmatic patients enrolled in 4 trials from the Asthma Clinical Research Centers were included in this analysis. Measured and predicted FEV1/FVC ratios were obtained, with calculation of z scores for each participant. Across a range of asthma prevalences and z score thresholds, the overall diagnostic accuracy was calculated. One thousand six hundred eight participants were included (mean age, 39 years; 71% female; 61% white). The mean FEV1 percent predicted value was 83% (SD, 15%). In a symptomatic population with 50% pretest probability of asthma, optimal accuracy (68%) is achieved with a z score threshold of -1.0 (16th percentile), corresponding to a 6 percentage point reduction from the predicted ratio. However, in a screening population with a 5% pretest probability of asthma, the optimum z score is -2.0 (second percentile), corresponding to a 12 percentage point reduction from the predicted ratio. These findings were not altered by markers of disease control. Reduction of the FEV1/FVC ratio can support the diagnosis of asthma; however, the ratio is neither sensitive nor specific enough for diagnostic accuracy. When interpreting spirometric results, consideration of the pretest probability is an important consideration in the diagnosis of asthma based on airflow limitation. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Validation of the Six Sigma Z-score for the quality assessment of clinical laboratory timeliness.

    PubMed

    Ialongo, Cristiano; Bernardini, Sergio

    2018-03-28

    The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine has introduced in recent times the turnaround time (TAT) as mandatory quality indicator for the postanalytical phase. Classic TAT indicators, namely, average, median, 90th percentile and proportion of acceptable test (PAT), are in use since almost 40 years and to date represent the mainstay for gauging the laboratory timeliness. In this study, we investigated the performance of the Six Sigma Z-score, which was previously introduced as a device for the quantitative assessment of timeliness. A numerical simulation was obtained modeling the actual TAT data set using the log-logistic probability density function. Five thousand replicates for each size of the artificial TAT random sample (n=20, 50, 250 and 1000) were generated, and different laboratory conditions were simulated manipulating the PDF in order to generate more or less variable data. The Z-score and the classic TAT indicators were assessed for precision (%CV), robustness toward right-tailing (precision at different sample variability), sensitivity and specificity. Z-score showed sensitivity and specificity comparable to PAT (≈80% with n≥250), but superior precision that ranged within 20% by moderately small sized samples (n≥50); furthermore, Z-score was less affected by the value of the cutoff used for setting the acceptable TAT, as well as by the sample variability that reflected into the magnitude of right-tailing. The Z-score was a valid indicator of laboratory timeliness and a suitable device to improve as well as to maintain the achieved quality level.

  5. Identification of Outliers in Grace Data for Indo-Gangetic Plain Using Various Methods (Z-Score, Modified Z-score and Adjusted Boxplot) and Its Removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, S.

    2015-12-01

    Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data are widely used for the hydrological studies for large scale basins (≥100,000 sq km). GRACE data (Stokes Coefficients or Equivalent Water Height) used for hydrological studies are not direct observations but result from high level processing of raw data from the GRACE mission. Different partner agencies like CSR, GFZ and JPL implement their own methodology and their processing methods are independent from each other. The primary source of errors in GRACE data are due to measurement and modeling errors and the processing strategy of these agencies. Because of different processing methods, the final data from all the partner agencies are inconsistent with each other at some epoch. GRACE data provide spatio-temporal variations in Earth's gravity which is mainly attributed to the seasonal fluctuations in water level on Earth surfaces and subsurface. During the quantification of error/uncertainties, several high positive and negative peaks were observed which do not correspond to any hydrological processes but may emanate from a combination of primary error sources, or some other geophysical processes (e.g. Earthquakes, landslide, etc.) resulting in redistribution of earth's mass. Such peaks can be considered as outliers for hydrological studies. In this work, an algorithm has been designed to extract outliers from the GRACE data for Indo-Gangetic plain, which considers the seasonal variations and the trend in data. Different outlier detection methods have been used such as Z-score, modified Z-score and adjusted boxplot. For verification, assimilated hydrological (GLDAS) and hydro-meteorological data are used as the reference. The results have shown that the consistency amongst all data sets improved significantly after the removal of outliers.

  6. The effect of prenatal maternal cigarette smoking on children's BMI z-score with SGA as a mediator.

    PubMed

    Salahuddin, Meliha; Pérez, Adriana; Ranjit, Nalini; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Kelder, Steven H

    2018-02-21

    The goal of this study was to assess the effect of prenatal maternal cigarette smoking on children's BMI z-score trajectories, and to evaluate whether small-for-gestational-age (SGA) acts as a potential mediator between prenatal maternal cigarette smoking and child's BMI z-score at 4 years of age. Group-based trajectory modeling (GBTM) methods were employed to describe and classify developmental BMI z-score trajectories (the outcome of interest) in children from 9 months to 4 years of age (n = 5221) in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) study (2001-2005). Further analysis examined whether the identified BMI z-score trajectories varied with the exposure, prenatal maternal cigarette smoking. Mediation analyses were utilized to examine whether being SGA (binary measure) acted as a potential mediator in the relationship between prenatal maternal cigarette smoking and BMI z-score among 4-year-old children. Using GBTM, two BMI z-score trajectory groups were identified: normal BMI z-score (57.8%); and high BMI z-score (42.2%). Children of mothers who smoked cigarettes during pregnancy were 2.1 times (RR 95% CI: 1.1-4.0, P value = 0.023) more at risk of being in the high BMI z-score trajectory group. Prenatal cigarette smoking was positively related to SGA at birth, but SGA was inversely related to BMI z-score at 4 years. The direct effect (0.19, 95% CI: 0.18, 0.19; P value < 0.001) of maternal cigarette smoking status during pregnancy on BMI z-score among 4-year-old children was stronger and in the opposite direction of the indirect effect (-0.04, 95% CI: -0.04, -0.04; P value < 0.001) mediated through SGA. In this study, prenatal maternal cigarette smoking was positively associated with the high BMI z-score group, as well with SGA. The effects of prenatal smoking on BMI z-score at 4 years appears to act through pathways other than SGA.

  7. Normative Bone Mineral Density Z-Scores for Canadians Aged 16 to 24 Years: The Canadian Multicenter Osteoporosis Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wei; Langsetmo, Lisa; Berger, Claudie; Adachi, Jonathan D.; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Ioannidis, George; Webber, Colin; Atkinson, Stephanie A.; Olszynski, Wojciech P.; Brown, Jacques P.; Hanley, David A.; Josse, Robert; Kreiger, Nancy; Prior, Jerilynn; Kaiser, Stephanie; Kirkland, Susan; Goltzman, David; Davison, Kenneth Shawn

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to develop bone mineral density (BMD) reference norms and BMD Z-scores at various skeletal sites, to determine whether prior fracture and/or asthma were related to BMD, and to assess possible geographic variation of BMD among Canadian youth aged 16–24 yr. Z-Scores were defined as the number of standard deviations from the mean BMD of a healthy population of the same age, race, and sex. Z-Scores were calculated using the reference sample defined as Canadian Caucasian participants without asthma or prior fracture. Reference standards were created for lumbar spine (L1–L4), femoral neck, total hip, and greater trochanter, by each year of age (16–24 yr), and by sex. The Z-score norms were developed for groups noted earlier. Mean Z-scores between the asthma or fracture subgroups compared with the mean Z-scores in the reference sample were not different. There were minor differences in mean BMD across different Canadian geographic regions. This study provides age, sex, and skeletal site-specific Caucasian reference norms and formulae for the calculation of BMD Z-scores for Canadian youth aged 16–24 yr. This information will be valuable to help to identify individuals with clinically meaningful low BMD. PMID:20554232

  8. On the optimal z-score threshold for SISCOM analysis to localize the ictal onset zone.

    PubMed

    De Coster, Liesbeth; Van Laere, Koen; Cleeren, Evy; Baete, Kristof; Dupont, Patrick; Van Paesschen, Wim; Goffin, Karolien E

    2018-04-17

    In epilepsy patients, SISCOM or subtraction ictal single photon emission computed tomography co-registered to magnetic resonance imaging has become a routinely used, non-invasive technique to localize the ictal onset zone (IOZ). Thresholding of clusters with a predefined number of standard deviations from normality (z-score) is generally accepted to localize the IOZ. In this study, we aimed to assess the robustness of this parameter in a group of patients with well-characterized drug-resistant epilepsy in whom the exact location of the IOZ was known after successful epilepsy surgery. Eighty patients underwent preoperative SISCOM and were seizure free in a postoperative period of minimum 1 year. SISCOMs with z-threshold 2 and 1.5 were analyzed by two experienced readers separately, blinded from the clinical ground truth data. Their reported location of the IOZ was compared with the operative resection zone. Furthermore, confidence scores of the SISCOM IOZ were compared for the two thresholds. Visual reporting with a z-score threshold of 1.5 and 2 showed no statistically significant difference in localizing correspondence with the ground truth (70 vs. 72% respectively, p = 0.17). Interrater agreement was moderate (κ = 0.65) at the threshold of 1.5, but high (κ = 0.84) at a threshold of 2, where also reviewers were significantly more confident (p < 0.01). SISCOM is a clinically useful, routinely used modality in the preoperative work-up in many epilepsy surgery centers. We found no significant differences in localizing value of the IOZ using a threshold of 1.5 or 2, but interrater agreement and reader confidence were higher using a z-score threshold of 2.

  9. Evidential Value That Exercise Improves BMI z-Score in Overweight and Obese Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, George A.; Kelley, Kristi S.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Given the cardiovascular disease (CVD) related importance of understanding the true effects of exercise on adiposity in overweight and obese children and adolescents, this study examined whether there is evidential value to rule out excessive and inappropriate reporting of statistically significant results, a major problem in the published literature, with respect to exercise-induced improvements in BMI z-score among overweight and obese children and adolescents. Methods. Using data from a previous meta-analysis of 10 published studies that included 835 overweight and obese children and adolescents, a novel, recently developed approach (p-curve) was used to test for evidential value and rule out selective reporting of findings. Chi-squared tests (χ 2) were used to test for statistical significance with alpha (p) values <0.05 considered statistically significant. Results. Six of 10 findings (60%) were statistically significant. Statistically significant right-skew to rule out selective reporting was found (χ 2 = 38.8, p = 0.0001). Conversely, studies neither lacked evidential value (χ 2 = 6.8, p = 0.87) nor lacked evidential value and were intensely p-hacked (χ 2 = 4.3, p = 0.98). Conclusion. Evidential value results confirm that exercise reduces BMI z-score in overweight and obese children and adolescents, an important therapeutic strategy for treating and preventing CVD. PMID:26509145

  10. Evidential Value That Exercise Improves BMI z-Score in Overweight and Obese Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kelley, George A; Kelley, Kristi S

    2015-01-01

    Background. Given the cardiovascular disease (CVD) related importance of understanding the true effects of exercise on adiposity in overweight and obese children and adolescents, this study examined whether there is evidential value to rule out excessive and inappropriate reporting of statistically significant results, a major problem in the published literature, with respect to exercise-induced improvements in BMI z-score among overweight and obese children and adolescents. Methods. Using data from a previous meta-analysis of 10 published studies that included 835 overweight and obese children and adolescents, a novel, recently developed approach (p-curve) was used to test for evidential value and rule out selective reporting of findings. Chi-squared tests (χ (2)) were used to test for statistical significance with alpha (p) values <0.05 considered statistically significant. Results. Six of 10 findings (60%) were statistically significant. Statistically significant right-skew to rule out selective reporting was found (χ (2) = 38.8, p = 0.0001). Conversely, studies neither lacked evidential value (χ (2) = 6.8, p = 0.87) nor lacked evidential value and were intensely p-hacked (χ (2) = 4.3, p = 0.98). Conclusion. Evidential value results confirm that exercise reduces BMI z-score in overweight and obese children and adolescents, an important therapeutic strategy for treating and preventing CVD.

  11. Classification of Airflow Limitation Based on z-Score Underestimates Mortality in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Tejero, Elena; Prats, Eva; Casitas, Raquel; Galera, Raúl; Pardo, Paloma; Gavilán, Adelaida; Martínez-Cerón, Elisabet; Cubillos-Zapata, Carolina; Del Peso, Luis; García-Río, Francisco

    2017-08-01

    Global Lung Function Initiative recommends reporting lung function measures as z-score, and a classification of airflow limitation (AL) based on this parameter has recently been proposed. To evaluate the prognostic capacity of the AL classifications based on z-score or percentage predicted of FEV 1 in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A cohort of 2,614 patients with COPD recruited outside the hospital setting was examined after a mean (± SD) of 57 ± 13 months of follow-up, totaling 10,322 person-years. All-cause mortality was analyzed, evaluating the predictive capacity of several AL staging systems. Based on Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines, 461 patients (17.6%) had mild, 1,452 (55.5%) moderate, 590 (22.6%) severe, and 111 (4.2%) very severe AL. According to z-score classification, 66.3% of patients remained with the same severity, whereas 23.7% worsened and 10.0% improved. Unlike other staging systems, patients with severe AL according to z-score had higher mortality than those with very severe AL (increase of risk by 5.2 and 3.9 times compared with mild AL, respectively). The predictive capacity for 5-year survival was slightly higher for FEV 1 expressed as percentage of predicted than as z-score (area under the curve: 0.714-0.760 vs. 0.649-0.708, respectively). A severity-dependent relationship between AL grades by z-score and mortality was only detected in patients younger than age 60 years. In patients with COPD, the AL classification based on z-score predicts worse mortality than those based on percentage of predicted. It is possible that the z-score underestimates AL severity in patients older than 60 years of age with severe functional impairment.

  12. [Impact to Z-score Mapping of Hyperacute Stroke Images by Computed Tomography in Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shota; Sakaguchi, Kenta; Hosono, Makoto; Ishii, Kazunari; Murakami, Takamichi; Ichikawa, Katsuhiro

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a hybrid-type iterative reconstruction method on Z-score mapping of hyperacute stroke in unenhanced computed tomography (CT) images. We used a hybrid-type iterative reconstruction [adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR)] implemented in a CT system (Optima CT660 Pro advance, GE Healthcare). With 15 normal brain cases, we reconstructed CT images with a filtered back projection (FBP) and ASiR with a blending factor of 100% (ASiR100%). Two standardized normal brain data were created from normal databases of FBP images (FBP-NDB) and ASiR100% images (ASiR-NDB), and standard deviation (SD) values in basal ganglia were measured. The Z-score mapping was performed for 12 hyperacute stroke cases by using FBP-NDB and ASiR-NDB, and compared Z-score value on hyperacute stroke area and normal area between FBP-NDB and ASiR-NDB. By using ASiR-NDB, the SD value of standardized brain was decreased by 16%. The Z-score value of ASiR-NDB on hyperacute stroke area was significantly higher than FBP-NDB (p<0.05). Therefore, the use of images reconstructed with ASiR100% for Z-score mapping had potential to improve the accuracy of Z-score mapping.

  13. Eating frequency is inversely associated with BMI, waist circumference and the proportion of body fat in Korean adults when diet quality is high, but not when it is low: analysis of the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV).

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunmi; Yang, Jeong Hee; Park, Gyeong-Hun

    2018-04-01

    The role of eating frequency (EF) in obesity development has been debated, and few studies have investigated Asian populations. Diet quality might affect the association between EF and obesity. Therefore, we investigated the association between EF and obesity indicators in a representative sample of Korean adults with consideration to diet quality. This cross-sectional study used data of 6951 participants aged 19-93 years (male 49·8 %, female 50·2 %) from the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. EF was assessed using a questionnaire, and diet quality was defined as mean adequacy ratio (MAR). To explore the association between EF and obesity indicators, we used multiple linear regression analyses with and without interaction terms between diet quality and EF. EF was inversely associated with each obesity indicator, including body fat percentage (BF%), BMI and waist circumference (WC), showing a significant linear trend (P<0·001 for BF%, WC and BMI). In addition, the association between EF and each obesity indicator was significantly altered according to diet quality (P value of the interaction term EF×diet quality=0·008 in the regression model for BF%, <0·001 for BMI and 0·043 for WC). In the stratified analyses according to diet quality, EF had a significant inverse association with BF%, WC and BMI in the high diet quality groups, but not in the low diet quality groups. This study suggests that EF is inversely associated with the obesity indicators when diet quality is high, but not when it is low in Korean adults.

  14. Increased head circumference

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003305.htm Increased head circumference To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Increased head circumference is when the measured distance around the widest ...

  15. Head circumference (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Head circumference is a measurement of the circumference of the child's head at its largest area, above the eyebrows and ears and around the back of the head. During routine check-ups, the distance is ...

  16. Percentiles of waist-hip ratio and the relationship with blood pressure among children and adolescents in Shandong, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Xiu; Wang, Shu-Rong; Zhou, Jing-Yang; Zhao, Jin-Shan; Chu, Zun-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Anthropometric indices such as waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and waist-hip ratio (WHR) have been recognized as useful alternatives to visceral fat measurement in epidemiological studies. WHR has been used extensively in adults. However, there are very few published data for WHR among children and adolescents. The present study examined the distribution of WHR and the relationship with blood pressure (BP) among children and adolescents in Shandong, PR China. Data for this study were obtained from a large cross-sectional survey of schoolchildren carried out in 2010. A total of 38,822 students (19,456 boys and 19,366 girls) aged 7-17 years participated in this study. WC, Hip circumference (HC), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of all subjects were measured; WHR was calculated as WC divided by HC. Abdominal obesity was defined by previously published WHR references based on Chinese children and adolescents living in Beijing. All subjects were divided into two groups (group 1 with WHR <85th; group 2 with WHR ≥85th) according to the percentiles of WHR and comparisons of the SBP and DBP between the two groups were made. The WHR levels in Shandong boys and girls were lower than those from German and Pakistani. The overall prevalence of abdominal obesity was 9.53% (95% CI = 9.12-9.95%) for boys and 9.82% (95% CI = 9.40-10.24%) for girls, no statistical differences between the two genders were observed (p > 0.05). In both boys and girls, the Z-scores of SBP and DBP were all significantly lower in group 1 than in group 2 (p < 0.01), indicating that children and adolescents with high WHR tended to have higher BP values. WHR is useful in identifying children and adolescents at risk of developing high BP. These findings, together with the known tracking of BP from adolescence into adulthood, highlight the importance of preventing overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in order to prevent the development of

  17. Gains in income during early childhood are associated with decreases in BMI z scores among children in the United States.

    PubMed

    Oddo, Vanessa M; Jones-Smith, Jessica C

    2015-06-01

    Evidence suggests that changes in family income are an important determinant of children's body mass index (BMI). However, few studies have leveraged longitudinal data to investigate the association of changes in family income on changes in BMI z score. This study aimed to assess whether gains in family income are associated with changes in BMI z score among children in the United States by using the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey Birth Cohort (ECLS-B). We used longitudinal data from the ECLS-B to assess whether gains in family income, assessed by using the poverty to income ratio (PIR), were associated with changes in BMI z score among children aged 2-6 y. Child anthropometric characteristics and family income were assessed at 2-y, 4-y, 5-y, and 6-y visits. Sex-stratified, individual fixed-effects linear regression models compared children with themselves over time to control for time-invariant measured and unmeasured confounding factors. Models also controlled for time-varying confounders, including number of siblings, household structure (2 parents, one parent, or unrelated guardian), age, and age squared. Children (n = ~9200) had a mean ± SE change in BMI z score of 0.12 ± 0.022, and family income increased by ~$3361 ± $536 during the 4-y period of observation (2003-2007). The association between increased PIR and change in BMI z score varied by sex but not by race-ethnicity. Among girls, an increase in PIR was associated with a statistically significant decrease in BMI z score (βPIR = -0.022; 95% CI: -0.042, -0.0016). There was a statistically significant association between PIR and BMI z score among preterm boys (βPIR + β PIRXpreterm = -0.067; 95% CI: -0.12, -0.018), but the relation was not statistically significant among boys born at term (βPIR = -0.0049; 95% CI: -0.024, 0.014). By comparing children with themselves over time, we overcome many barriers that typically impede causal inference in observational studies. In

  18. Predicting Coronary Artery Aneurysms in Kawasaki Disease at a North American Center: An Assessment of Baseline z Scores.

    PubMed

    Son, Mary Beth F; Gauvreau, Kimberlee; Kim, Susan; Tang, Alexander; Dedeoglu, Fatma; Fulton, David R; Lo, Mindy S; Baker, Annette L; Sundel, Robert P; Newburger, Jane W

    2017-05-31

    Accurate risk prediction of coronary artery aneurysms (CAAs) in North American children with Kawasaki disease remains a clinical challenge. We sought to determine the predictive utility of baseline coronary dimensions adjusted for body surface area ( z scores) for future CAAs in Kawasaki disease and explored the extent to which addition of established Japanese risk scores to baseline coronary artery z scores improved discrimination for CAA development. We explored the relationships of CAA with baseline z scores; with Kobayashi, Sano, Egami, and Harada risk scores; and with the combination of baseline z scores and risk scores. We defined CAA as a maximum z score (zMax) ≥2.5 of the left anterior descending or right coronary artery at 4 to 8 weeks of illness. Of 261 patients, 77 patients (29%) had a baseline zMax ≥2.0. CAAs occurred in 15 patients (6%). CAAs were strongly associated with baseline zMax ≥2.0 versus <2.0 (12 [16%] versus 3 [2%], respectively, P <0.001). Baseline zMax ≥2.0 had a C statistic of 0.77, good sensitivity (80%), and excellent negative predictive value (98%). None of the risk scores alone had adequate discrimination. When high-risk status per the Japanese risk scores was added to models containing baseline zMax ≥2.0, none were significantly better than baseline zMax ≥2.0 alone. In a North American center, baseline zMax ≥2.0 in children with Kawasaki disease demonstrated high predictive utility for later development of CAA. Future studies should validate the utility of our findings. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  19. Evaluation of cortical bone mass, thickness and density by z-scores in osteopenic conditions and in relation to menopause and estrogen treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Meema, S.; Meema, H.E.

    1982-08-01

    Z-scores express, differences from normals in standard deviation units, and are particularly useful for comparison of changes where normal values are age- and sex-dependent. We determined z-scores for bone mineral mass, cortical thickness, and bone mineral density in the radius in various conditions and diseases in both sexes. In the males, z-scores were calculated for age, but in the females z-scores for menopausal status (years postmenopausal exclusive of years on estrogen treatment) were found to be more appropriate. With few exceptions, changes in a disease were of a similar order in both sexes. For bone minerals mass few mean z-scoresmore » were significantly increased, but diseases with significantly decreased mean z-scores were numerous. The usefulness of z-scores in diagnosis and study of metabolic bone disease is discussed.« less

  20. Relation between milk-fat percentage, vitamin D, and BMI z score in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Vanderhout, Shelley M; Birken, Catherine S; Parkin, Patricia C; Lebovic, Gerald; Chen, Yang; O'Connor, Deborah L; Maguire, Jonathon L

    2016-12-01

    Fortified cow milk is a material contributor of vitamin D and dietary fat in children. Recommendations for children >2 y of age advise reduced milk-fat consumption to reduce childhood obesity, yet the relation between lower milk fat, vitamin D stores, and body mass index (BMI) is unclear. The primary objective was to explore the association between milk-fat percentage and both BMI z score (zBMI) and venous 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]; the secondary objective was to assess whether milk volume consumed modified this relation. This was a cross-sectional analysis. Healthy urban children aged 12-72 mo were recruited from 9 primary health care practices within The Applied Research Group for Kids (TARGet Kids!) research group in Toronto, Canada. We used adjusted bivariate linear regression to examine the relation between milk-fat percentage and child 25(OH)D and zBMI concurrently. Effect modification by milk volume consumed on the evaluated relations was explored with the use of an interaction term in the statistical model. Among the 2745 included children there was a positive association between milk-fat percentage and 25(OH)D (P = 0.006) and a negative association between milk-fat percentage and zBMI (P < 0.0001). Participants who drank whole milk had a 5.4-nmol/L (95% CI: 4.32, 6.54) higher median 25(OH)D concentration and a 0.72 lower (95% CI: 0.68, 0.76) zBMI score than children who drank 1% milk. Milk volume consumed modified the effect of milk-fat percentage on 25(OH)D (P = 0.003) but not on zBMI (P = 0.77). Whole milk consumption among healthy young children was associated with higher vitamin D stores and lower BMI. Longitudinal and interventional studies are needed to confirm these findings. TARGet Kids! was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01869530. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. At-home and away-from-home dietary patterns and BMI z-scores in Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Diana Barbosa; Bezerra, Ilana Nogueira; Pereira, Rosangela Alves; Sichieri, Rosely

    2018-01-01

    Away-from-home food intake has been associated with high rates of overweight among children and adolescents. However, there are no studies comparing at-home and away-from-home eating patterns among adolescents. The objective of this paper was to identify at-home and away-from-home dietary patterns among adolescents in Brazil, and to evaluate the relationship between these patterns and body mass index (BMI) z-scores. Data from the Brazilian National Dietary Survey 2008-2009 were analyzed in this cross-sectional study. Dietary intake was assessed by completion of written food records on two non-consecutive days. Five thousand two hundred sixty-six adolescents 10-19 years of age living in urban areas of Brazil were included in the analysis. Thirty-two food groups were examined by factor analysis, stratified by at-home and away-from-home eating. The associations between the food patterns and BMI z-scores were ascertained using linear regression analysis. In general, mean at-home food intake was greater than away-from-home food intake, but the ratio of away-from-home/at-home was greater than 30% for baked and deep-fried snacks, soft drinks, sandwiches, pizza, and desserts, and was lower than 10% for rice and beans. Three main similar dietary patterns were identified both at-home and away-from-home: the "Traditional pattern", the "Bread and Butter pattern" and the "Western pattern"; however, away-from-home patterns encompassed more overall food items. Only the at-home "Western pattern" was positively associated with BMI z-scores (β = 0.0006; p < 0.001). Our results indicate that unhealthy dietary pattern consumed at home is associated to BMI z-score, while away-from-home food consumption is not associated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The limitations of transforming very high body mass indexes into z-scores among 8.7 million 2- to 4-year-old children

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To examine the associations among several body mass index (BMI) metrics (z-scores, percent of the 95th percentile (%BMIp95) and BMI minus 95th percentile as calculated in the growth charts from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). It is known that the widely used BMI z-scores (BMIz)...

  3. Head Circumference Charts for Turkish Children Aged Five to Eighteen Years.

    PubMed

    Kara, Bülent; Etiler, Nilay; Aydoğan Uncuoğlu, Ayşen; Maraş Genç, Hülya; Ulak Gümüşlü, Esen; Gökçay, Gülbin; Furman, Andrezej

    2016-03-01

    Most head circumference growth references are useful during the first years of life, but they are also useful for older children when screening for developmental, neurological, and genetic disorders. We aimed to develop head circumference growth reference charts for age, height, and waist circumference for Turkish children aged 5-18 years. Head circumference, height, and waist circumference measurements were obtained from 5079 students aged 5-18 years from İzmit, Kocaeli Province, Turkey. The LMS method was used to construct reference centile curves. Head circumference measurements were strongly correlated with height (r=0.74), weight (r=0.76), and waist circumference (r=0.68). The mean head circumference values for boys were larger than those for girls at all ages. Compared with data from the United States, the World Health Organization, and other studies from Turkey, our data showed a decrease in head circumference at all ages for both sexes. Local growth charts can be used to evaluate head circumference growth in older Turkish children and adolescents.

  4. Head Circumference Charts for Turkish Children Aged Five to Eighteen Years

    PubMed Central

    KARA, Bülent; ETİLER, Nilay; AYDOĞAN UNCUOĞLU, Ayşen; MARAŞ GENÇ, Hülya; ULAK GÜMÜŞLÜ, Esen; GÖKÇAY, Gülbin; FURMAN, Andrezej

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Most head circumference growth references are useful during the first years of life, but they are also useful for older children when screening for developmental, neurological, and genetic disorders. We aimed to develop head circumference growth reference charts for age, height, and waist circumference for Turkish children aged 5–18 years. Methods Head circumference, height, and waist circumference measurements were obtained from 5079 students aged 5–18 years from İzmit, Kocaeli Province, Turkey. The LMS method was used to construct reference centile curves. Results Head circumference measurements were strongly correlated with height (r=0.74), weight (r=0.76), and waist circumference (r=0.68). The mean head circumference values for boys were larger than those for girls at all ages. Compared with data from the United States, the World Health Organization, and other studies from Turkey, our data showed a decrease in head circumference at all ages for both sexes. Conclusion Local growth charts can be used to evaluate head circumference growth in older Turkish children and adolescents. PMID:28360767

  5. [Z scores for growth and development, physical fitness, and the relationship between them in 362 preschool children in Yantai City, China].

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhu-Mei; Zhou, Jun-Hua; Wang, Ai-Hua; Wang, Ai-Li

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the Z scores for growth and development, physical fitness, and the relationship between them in preschool children in Yantai City, China, and to provide scientific evidence for health care in children. A total of 362 children aged 3 to 4 years, whose data were recorded in the National Physical Fitness Survey in Yantai in 2010, were included in the study. Z scores for weight-for-age, height-for-age and body mass index-for-age were calculated. The relationship between Z scores and physical fitness was determined by Pearson's correlation analysis. The mean Z scores were all positive numbers. The prevalence rates of underweight and growth retardation were very low, but that of obesity was relatively high (up to 16.5% in 4-year-old boys). There were differences in physical fitness between children of different ages and between boys and girls (P<0.05). The Z scores showed correlation with some physical fitness indices (P<0.05), but they were not closely correlated as the value of r was not more than 0.30. Z scores for growth and development remain at relatively high levels in preschool children in Yantai. The physical fitness is associated with age and gender in these children. There are weak correlations between Z scores and some physical fitness indices. Effective measures should be taken to adjust dietary habits and promote exercise for children, thus preventing obesity and improving physical fitness.

  6. Correlation of body mass index Z-scores with glucose and lipid profiles among overweight and obese children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nogueira-de-Almeida, Carlos Alberto; Mello, Elza Daniel de

    To evaluate the prevalence of abnormalities in plasma lipid and glucose profiles among overweight and obese children and adolescents, and to assess the presence of a correlation between body mass index Z-scores and indicators of comorbidities related to both profiles. This was a multicenter cross-sectional study conducted at two outpatient clinics. The study included all 417 comers for the first visit from 2008 to 2012, aged between 7 and 18 years, with BMI above the Z-score +1. Anthropometry and blood sampling were obtained. The prevalence of dyslipidemias, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance were evaluated, together with the correlations of these variables with the increase of Z-BMI. Dyslipidemia was observed in 43.4% of the boys and 66.1% of the girls, with no difference between genders. High glucose levels were detected in 6.2% of the individuals. Insulin resistance was present in 32.3% and 41.7% of the cases, with no statistical significance between boys and girls. Correlations between the Z-BMI were noted for triglycerides in the entire group and among girls; for HDL-c, only among girls; for glucose, a correlation was observed for the entire group, but not when stratified by gender. The indicators of insulin resistance were all correlated with Z-BMI, even when corrected for age. Overweight and obesity give origin to a high prevalence of dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. BMI Z-scores showed a weak positive correlation with glucose and triglyceride, and negative with HDL-c. In turn, the strongest positive correlation was found with insulin resistance indicators. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Regression equations for calculation of z scores for echocardiographic measurements of right heart structures in healthy Han Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Yu-Qi; Chen, Shu-Bao; Huang, Guo-Ying; Zhang, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Zhi-Fang; Wu, Lan-Ping; Hong, Wen-Jing; Shen, Rong; Liu, Yi-Qing; Zhu, Jun-Xue

    2017-06-01

    Clinical decision making in children with congenital and acquired heart disease relies on measurements of cardiac structures using two-dimensional echocardiography. We aimed to establish z-score regression equations for right heart structures in healthy Chinese Han children. Two-dimensional and M-mode echocardiography was performed in 515 patients. We measured the dimensions of the pulmonary valve annulus (PVA), main pulmonary artery (MPA), left pulmonary artery (LPA), right pulmonary artery (RPA), right ventricular outflow tract at end-diastole (RVOTd) and at end-systole (RVOTs), tricuspid valve annulus (TVA), right ventricular inflow tract at end-diastole (RVIDd) and at end-systole (RVIDs), and right atrium (RA). Regression analyses were conducted to relate the measurements of right heart structures to 4body surface area (BSA). Right ventricular outflow-tract fractional shortening (RVOTFS) was also calculated. Several models were used, and the best model was chosen to establish a z-score calculator. PVA, MPA, LPA, RPA, RVOTd, RVOTs, TVA, RVIDd, RVIDs, and RA (R 2  = 0.786, 0.705, 0.728, 0.701, 0.706, 0.824, 0.804, 0.663, 0.626, and 0.793, respectively) had a cubic polynomial relationship with BSA; specifically, measurement (M) = β0 + β1 × BSA + β2 × BSA 2  + β3 × BSA. 3 RVOTFS (0.28 ± 0.02) fell within a narrow range (0.12-0.51). Our results provide reference values for z scores and regression equations for right heart structures in Han Chinese children. These data may help interpreting the routine clinical measurement of right heart structures in children with congenital or acquired heart disease. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 45:293-303, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Integrated Behavioral Z-Scoring Increases the Sensitivity and Reliability of Behavioral Phenotyping in mice: Relevance to Emotionality and Sex

    PubMed Central

    Guilloux, Jean-Philippe; Seney, Marianne; Edgar, Nicole; Sibille, Etienne

    2011-01-01

    Defining anxiety- and depressive-like states in mice (“emotionality”) is best characterized by the use of complementary tests, leading sometimes to puzzling discrepancies and lack of correlation between similar paradigms. To address this issue, we hypothesized that integrating measures along the same behavioral dimensions in different tests would reduce the intrinsic variability of single tests and provide a robust characterization of the underlying “emotionality” of individual mouse, similarly as mood and related syndromes are defined in humans through various related symptoms over time. We describe the use of simple mathematical and integrative tools to help phenotype animals across related behavioral tests (syndrome diagnosis) and experiments (meta-analysis). We applied z-normalization across complementary measures of emotionality in different behavioral tests after unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) or prolonged corticosterone exposure - two approaches to induce anxious-/depressive-like states in mice. Combining z-normalized test values, lowered the variance of emotionality measurement, enhanced the reliability of behavioral phenotyping, and increased analytical opportunities. Comparing integrated emotionality scores across studies revealed a robust sexual dimorphism in the vulnerability to develop high emotionality, manifested as higher UCMS-induced emotionality z-scores, but lower corticosterone-induced scores in females compared to males. Interestingly, the distribution of individual z-scores revealed a pattern of increased baseline emotionality in female mice, reminiscent of what is observed in humans. Together, we show that the z-scoring method yields robust measures of emotionality across complementary tests for individual mice and experimental groups, hence facilitating the comparison across studies and refining the translational applicability of these models. PMID:21277897

  9. Integrated behavioral z-scoring increases the sensitivity and reliability of behavioral phenotyping in mice: relevance to emotionality and sex.

    PubMed

    Guilloux, Jean-Philippe; Seney, Marianne; Edgar, Nicole; Sibille, Etienne

    2011-04-15

    Defining anxiety- and depressive-like states in mice (emotionality) is best characterized by the use of complementary tests, leading sometimes to puzzling discrepancies and lack of correlation between similar paradigms. To address this issue, we hypothesized that integrating measures along the same behavioral dimensions in different tests would reduce the intrinsic variability of single tests and provide a robust characterization of the underlying "emotionality" of individual mouse, similarly as mood and related syndromes are defined in humans through various related symptoms over time. We describe the use of simple mathematical and integrative tools to help phenotype animals across related behavioral tests (syndrome diagnosis) and experiments (meta-analysis). We applied z-normalization across complementary measures of emotionality in different behavioral tests after unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) or prolonged corticosterone exposure - two approaches to induce anxious-/depressive-like states in mice. Combining z-normalized test values, lowered the variance of emotionality measurement, enhanced the reliability of behavioral phenotyping, and increased analytical opportunities. Comparing integrated emotionality scores across studies revealed a robust sexual dimorphism in the vulnerability to develop high emotionality, manifested as higher UCMS-induced emotionality z-scores, but lower corticosterone-induced scores in females compared to males. Interestingly, the distribution of individual z-scores revealed a pattern of increased baseline emotionality in female mice, reminiscent of what is observed in humans. Together, we show that the z-scoring method yields robust measures of emotionality across complementary tests for individual mice and experimental groups, hence facilitating the comparison across studies and refining the translational applicability of these models. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The choice of normative pediatric reference database changes spine bone mineral density Z-scores but not the relationship between bone mineral density and prevalent vertebral fractures.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jinhui; Siminoski, Kerry; Alos, Nathalie; Halton, Jacqueline; Ho, Josephine; Lentle, Brian; Matzinger, MaryAnn; Shenouda, Nazih; Atkinson, Stephanie; Barr, Ronald; Cabral, David A; Couch, Robert; Cummings, Elizabeth A; Fernandez, Conrad V; Grant, Ronald M; Rodd, Celia; Sbrocchi, Anne Marie; Scharke, Maya; Rauch, Frank; Ward, Leanne M

    2015-03-01

    Our objectives were to assess the magnitude of the disparity in lumbar spine bone mineral density (LSBMD) Z-scores generated by different reference databases and to evaluate whether the relationship between LSBMD Z-scores and vertebral fractures (VF) varies by choice of database. Children with leukemia underwent LSBMD by cross-calibrated dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, with Z-scores generated according to Hologic and Lunar databases. VF were assessed by the Genant method on spine radiographs. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between fractures and LSBMD Z-scores. Net reclassification improvement and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve were calculated to assess the predictive accuracy of LSBMD Z-scores for VF. For the 186 children from 0 to 18 years of age, 6 different age ranges were studied. The Z-scores generated for the 0 to 18 group were highly correlated (r ≥ 0.90), but the proportion of children with LSBMD Z-scores ≤-2.0 among those with VF varied substantially (from 38-66%). Odds ratios (OR) for the association between LSBMD Z-score and VF were similar regardless of database (OR = 1.92, 95% confidence interval 1.44, 2.56 to OR = 2.70, 95% confidence interval 1.70, 4.28). Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve and net reclassification improvement ranged from 0.71 to 0.75 and -0.15 to 0.07, respectively. Although the use of a LSBMD Z-score threshold as part of the definition of osteoporosis in a child with VF does not appear valid, the study of relationships between BMD and VF is valid regardless of the BMD database that is used.

  11. Beneficial effects of zinc supplementation on head circumference of Nepalese infants and toddlers: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Surkan, P J; Shankar, M; Katz, J; Siegel, E H; Leclerq, S C; Khatry, S K; Stoltzfus, R J; Tielsch, J M

    2012-07-01

    To assess the effects of micronutrient supplementation on head circumference of rural Nepali infants and children. We used a randomized controlled trial to assess the effects of micronutrient supplementation on head circumference in 569 rural Nepali infants and children aged 4-17 months. Children were randomized to: (1) zinc, (2) iron-folic acid, (3) zinc plus iron-folic acid or (4) a placebo group. Data on head circumference were collected during five visits at ∼3 month intervals over the course of a year. We calculated change in head circumference in treatment groups receiving zinc and iron comparing the first and fifth visits as well as used generalized estimating equations (GEE) to take advantage of data from all points in time. Models were adjusted for covariates unbalanced in the randomization and for baseline head circumference. Estimating differences in head circumference between baseline and visit 5, children in the zinc treatment group showed smaller decreases in head circumference z-score compared with placebo (adjusted β=0.13, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.03 to 0.23). Using GEE, zinc treatment was associated with 0.11 (95% CI: 0.05 to 0.17) decrease in the rate of decline in head circumference z-score across visits as compared with placebo. Iron-folic acid supplementation was not associated with head circumference z-scores when comparing visits 1 with 5 or including data across all visits in adjusted models. Our results suggest that zinc supplementation confers a beneficial effect on the rate of head growth in Nepali infants.

  12. Neck Circumference Positively Related with Central Obesity and Overweight in Turkish University Students: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Özkaya, İsmail; Tunçkale, Aydın

    2016-06-01

    According to the World Health Organization, central obesity is increasing alarmingly worldwide. Neck circumference is a relatively new method of differentiating between normal and abnormal fat distribution. The aim of this study is to determine the association between neck circumference and central obesity in young Turkish male and female university students. A community of university students based cross-sectional study was conducted on 319 males and 838 females and investigated the association between neck circumference and other anthropometric variables by gender. In male subjects, the neck circumference revealed a positive correlation with the body mass index (r=0.684, p<0.01), waist circumference (r=0.686, p<0.01) and waist/hip ratio (r=0.534, p<0.01). Similarly, in female subjects neck circumference revealed a positive correlation with the body mass index (r=0.482, p<0.01), waist circumference (r=0.479, p<0.01) and waist/hip ratio (r=0.246, p<0.01). Our study has demonstrated that the positive correlation between neck circumference, which is a simple and fast anthropometric measurement, and visceral obesity, is also applicable to university students. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2015.

  13. An improved procedure for integrated behavioral z-scoring illustrated with modified Hole Board behavior of male inbred laboratory mice.

    PubMed

    Labots, M Maaike; Laarakker, M C Marijke; Schetters, D Dustin; Arndt, S S Saskia; van Lith, H A Hein

    2018-01-01

    Guilloux et al. introduced: integrated behavioral z-scoring, a method for behavioral phenotyping of mice. Using this method multiple ethological variables can be combined to show an overall description of a certain behavioral dimension or motivational system. However, a problem may occur when the control group used for the calculation has a standard deviation of zero or when no control group is present to act as a reference group. In order to solve these problems, an improved procedure is suggested: taking the pooled data as reference. For this purpose a behavioral study with male mice from three inbred strains was carried out. The integrated behavioral z-scoring methodology was applied, thereby taking five different reference group options. The outcome regarding statistical significance and practical importance was compared. Significant effects and effect sizes were influenced by the choice of the reference group. In some cases it was impossible to use a certain population and condition, because one or more behavioral variables in question had a standard deviation of zero. Based on the improved method, male mice from the three inbred strains differed regarding activity and anxiety. Taking the method described by Guilloux et al. as basis, the present procedure improved the generalizability to all types of experimental designs in animal behavioral research. To solve the aforementioned problems and to avoid getting the diagnosis of data manipulation, the pooled data (combining the data from all experimental groups in a study) as reference option is recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A weight-gain-for-gestational-age z score chart for the assessment of maternal weight gain in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Platt, Robert W; Abrams, Barbara; Himes, Katherine P; Simhan, Hyagriv N; Bodnar, Lisa M

    2013-05-01

    To establish the unbiased relation between maternal weight gain in pregnancy and perinatal health, a classification for maternal weight gain is needed that is uncorrelated with gestational age. The goal of this study was to create a weight-gain-for-gestational-age percentile and z score chart to describe the mean, SD, and selected percentiles of maternal weight gain throughout pregnancy in a contemporary cohort of US women. The study population was drawn from normal-weight women with uncomplicated, singleton pregnancies who delivered at the Magee-Womens Hospital in Pittsburgh, PA, 1998-2008. Analyses were based on a randomly selected subset of 648 women for whom serial prenatal weight measurements were available through medical chart record abstraction (6727 weight measurements). The pattern of maternal weight gain throughout gestation was estimated by using a random-effects regression model. The estimates were used to create a chart with the smoothed means, percentiles, and SDs of gestational weight gain for each week of pregnancy. This chart allows researchers to express total weight gain as an age-standardized z score, which can be used in epidemiologic analyses to study the association between pregnancy weight gain and adverse or physiologic pregnancy outcomes independent of gestational age.

  15. Midupper Arm Circumference Outperforms Weight-Based Measures of Nutritional Status in Children with Diarrhea12

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Payal; Nasrin, Sabiha; Hawes, Meagan; Glavis-Bloom, Justin; Alam, Nur H; Hossain, M Iqbal; Levine, Adam C

    2015-01-01

    Background: Undernutrition contributes to 45% of all deaths in children <5 y of age worldwide, with a large proportion of those deaths caused by diarrhea. However, no validated tools exist for assessing undernutrition in children with diarrhea and possible dehydration. Objective: This study assessed the validity of different measures of undernutrition in children with diarrhea. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted at an urban hospital in Bangladesh. Children <60 mo of age presenting to the hospital rehydration unit with acute diarrhea were eligible for enrollment. Study staff randomly selected 1196 children for screening, of which 1025 were eligible, 850 were enrolled, and 721 had complete data for analysis. Anthropometric measurements, including weight-for-age z score (WAZ), weight-for-length z score (WLZ), midupper arm circumference (MUAC), and midupper arm circumference z score (MUACZ), were calculated pre- and posthydration in all patients. Measurements were evaluated for their ability to correctly identify undernutrition in children with varying degrees of dehydration. Results: Of the 721 patients with full data for analysis, the median percent dehydration was 4%. Of the 4 measures evaluated, MUAC and MUACZ demonstrated 92–94% agreement pre- and posthydration compared with 69–76% for WAZ and WLZ. Although each 1% change in hydration status was found to change weight-for-age by 0.0895 z scores and weight-for-length by 0.1304 z scores, MUAC and MUACZ were not significantly affected by dehydration status. Weight-based measures misclassified 12% of children with severe underweight and 14% with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) compared with only 1–2% for MUAC and MUACZ. Conclusions: MUAC and MUACZ were the most accurate predictors of undernutrition in children with diarrhea. WAZ and WLZ were significantly affected by dehydration status, leading to the misdiagnosis of many patients on arrival with severe underweight and SAM. This trial was

  16. Midupper Arm Circumference Outperforms Weight-Based Measures of Nutritional Status in Children with Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Modi, Payal; Nasrin, Sabiha; Hawes, Meagan; Glavis-Bloom, Justin; Alam, Nur H; Hossain, M Iqbal; Levine, Adam C

    2015-07-01

    Undernutrition contributes to 45% of all deaths in children <5 y of age worldwide, with a large proportion of those deaths caused by diarrhea. However, no validated tools exist for assessing undernutrition in children with diarrhea and possible dehydration. This study assessed the validity of different measures of undernutrition in children with diarrhea. A prospective cohort study was conducted at an urban hospital in Bangladesh. Children <60 mo of age presenting to the hospital rehydration unit with acute diarrhea were eligible for enrollment. Study staff randomly selected 1196 children for screening, of which 1025 were eligible, 850 were enrolled, and 721 had complete data for analysis. Anthropometric measurements, including weight-for-age z score (WAZ), weight-for-length z score (WLZ), midupper arm circumference (MUAC), and midupper arm circumference z score (MUACZ), were calculated pre- and posthydration in all patients. Measurements were evaluated for their ability to correctly identify undernutrition in children with varying degrees of dehydration. Of the 721 patients with full data for analysis, the median percent dehydration was 4%. Of the 4 measures evaluated, MUAC and MUACZ demonstrated 92-94% agreement pre- and posthydration compared with 69-76% for WAZ and WLZ. Although each 1% change in hydration status was found to change weight-for-age by 0.0895 z scores and weight-for-length by 0.1304 z scores, MUAC and MUACZ were not significantly affected by dehydration status. Weight-based measures misclassified 12% of children with severe underweight and 14% with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) compared with only 1-2% for MUAC and MUACZ. MUAC and MUACZ were the most accurate predictors of undernutrition in children with diarrhea. WAZ and WLZ were significantly affected by dehydration status, leading to the misdiagnosis of many patients on arrival with severe underweight and SAM. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02007733. © 2015 American

  17. Differences in BMI z-Scores between Offspring of Smoking and Nonsmoking Mothers: A Longitudinal Study of German Children from Birth through 14 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Fenske, Nora; Müller, Manfred J.; Plachta-Danielzik, Sandra; Keil, Thomas; Grabenhenrich, Linus; von Kries, Rüdiger

    2014-01-01

    Background: Children of mothers who smoked during pregnancy have a lower birth weight but have a higher chance to become overweight during childhood. Objectives: We followed children longitudinally to assess the age when higher body mass index (BMI) z-scores became evident in the children of mothers who smoked during pregnancy, and to evaluate the trajectory of changes until adolescence. Methods: We pooled data from two German cohort studies that included repeated anthropometric measurements until 14 years of age and information on smoking during pregnancy and other risk factors for overweight. We used longitudinal quantile regression to estimate age- and sex-specific associations between maternal smoking and the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th quantiles of the BMI z-score distribution in study participants from birth through 14 years of age, adjusted for potential confounders. We used additive mixed models to estimate associations with mean BMI z-scores. Results: Mean and median (50th quantile) BMI z-scores at birth were smaller in the children of mothers who smoked during pregnancy compared with children of nonsmoking mothers, but BMI z-scores were significantly associated with maternal smoking beginning at the age of 4–5 years, and differences increased over time. For example, the difference in the median BMI z-score between the daughters of smokers versus nonsmokers was 0.12 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.21) at 5 years, and 0.30 (95% CI: 0.08, 0.39) at 14 years of age. For lower BMI z-score quantiles, the association with smoking was more pronounced in girls, whereas in boys the association was more pronounced for higher BMI z-score quantiles. Conclusions: A clear difference in BMI z-score (mean and median) between children of smoking and nonsmoking mothers emerged at 4–5 years of age. The shape and size of age-specific effect estimates for maternal smoking during pregnancy varied by age and sex across the BMI z-score distribution. Citation: Riedel C, Fenske N, M

  18. Variation in dietary intake and physical activity pattern as predictors of change in body mass index (BMI) Z-score among Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Enes, Carla C; Slater, Betzabeth

    2013-06-01

    To assess whether changes in dietary intake and physical activity pattern are associated with the annual body mass index (BMI) z-score change among adolescents. The study was conducted in public schools in the city of Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil, with a probabilistic sample of 431 adolescents participating in wave I (2004) (hereafter, baseline) and 299 in wave II (2005) (hereafter, follow-up). BMI, usual food intake, physical activity, screen time, sexual maturation and demographic variables were assessed twice. The association between annual change in food intake, physical activity, screen time, and annual BMI z-score changes were assessed by multiple regression. The study showed a positive variation in BMI z-score over one-year. Among variables related to physical activity pattern only playing videogame and using computer increased over the year. The intake of fruits and vegetables and sugar-sweetened beverages increased over one year, while the others variables showed a reduction. An increased consumption of fatty foods (β = 0.04, p = 0.04) and sweetened natural fruit juices (β = 0.05, p = 0.03) was positively associated with the rise in BMI z-score. Unhealthy dietary habits can predict the BMI z-score gain more than the physical activity pattern. The intake of fatty foods and sweetened fruit juices is associated with the BMI z-score over one year.

  19. An SPSS implementation of the nonrecursive outlier deletion procedure with shifting z score criterion (Van Selst & Jolicoeur, 1994).

    PubMed

    Thompson, Glenn L

    2006-05-01

    Sophisticated univariate outlier screening procedures are not yet available in widely used statistical packages such as SPSS. However, SPSS can accept user-supplied programs for executing these procedures. Failing this, researchers tend to rely on simplistic alternatives that can distort data because they do not adjust to cell-specific characteristics. Despite their popularity, these simple procedures may be especially ill suited for some applications (e.g., data from reaction time experiments). A user friendly SPSS Production Facility implementation of the shifting z score criterion procedure (Van Selst & Jolicoeur, 1994) is presented in an attempt to make it easier to use. In addition to outlier screening, optional syntax modules can be added that will perform tedious database management tasks (e.g., restructuring or computing means).

  20. Regression equations for calculation of z scores for echocardiographic measurements of left heart structures in healthy Han Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shan-Shan; Hong, Wen-Jing; Zhang, Yu-Qi; Chen, Shu-Bao; Huang, Guo-Ying; Zhang, Hong-Yan; Chen, Li-Jun; Wu, Lan-Ping; Shen, Rong; Liu, Yi-Qing; Zhu, Jun-Xue

    2018-06-01

    Clinical decision making in children with heart disease relies on detailed measurements of cardiac structures using two-dimensional and M-mode echocardiography. However, no echocardiographic reference values are available for the Chinese children. We aimed to establish z-score regression equations for left heart structures in a population-based cohort of healthy Chinese Han children. Echocardiography was performed in 545 children with a normal heart. The dimensions of the aortic valve annulus (AVA), aortic sinuses of Valsalva (ASV), sinotubular junction (STJ), ascending aorta (AAO), left atrium (LA), mitral valve annulus (MVA), interventricular septal end-diastolic thickness (IVSd), interventricular septal end-systolic thickness (IVSs), left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVIDd), left ventricular end-systolic diameter (LVIDs), left ventricular posterior wall end-diastolic thickness (LVPWd), left ventricular posterior wall end-systolic thickness (LVPWs) were measured. Regression analyses were conducted to relate the measurements of left heart structures to body surface area (BSA). Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and left ventricular fractional shortening (LVFS) were calculated. Several models were used, and the adjusted R2 values were compared for each model. AVA, ASV, STJ, AAO, LA, MVA, IVSd, IVSs, LVIDd, LVIDs, LVPWd, and LVPWs had a cubic relationship with BSA. LVEF and LVFS fell within a narrow range. Our results provide reference values for z scores and regression equations for left heart structures in Han Chinese children. These data may help make a quick and accurate judgment of the routine clinical measurement of left heart structures in children with heart disease. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Fetal and Postnatal Head Circumference Growth: Synergetic Factors for Neurodevelopmental Outcome at 2 Years of Age for Preterm Infants.

    PubMed

    Sicard, Mélanie; Nusinovici, Simon; Hanf, Matthieu; Muller, Jean-Baptiste; Guellec, Isabelle; Ancel, Pierre-Yves; Gascoin, Géraldine; Rozé, Jean-Christophe; Flamant, Cyril

    2017-01-01

    Preterm infants present higher risk of non-optimal neurodevelopmental outcome. Fetal and postnatal growth, in particular head circumference (HC), is associated with neurodevelopmental outcome. We aimed to calculate the relationship between HC at birth, HC delta Z-score (between birth and hospital discharge), and non-optimal neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years of corrected age in preterm infants. Surviving infants born ≤34 weeks of gestation were included in the analysis. The relationship between the risk of being non-optimal at 2 years and both HC at birth and HC growth was assessed. The 2 Z-scores were considered first independently and then simultaneously to investigate their effect on the risk of non-optimality using a generalized additive model. A total of 4,046 infants with both HC measures at birth and hospital discharge were included. Infants with small HC at birth (Z-score <-2 SD), or presenting suboptimal HC growth (dZ-score <-2 SD), are at higher risk of non-optimal neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years (respectively OR 1.7 [95% CI 1.4-2] and OR 1.4 [95% CI 1.2-1.8]). Interestingly, patients cumulating small HC Z-score at birth (-2 SD) and presenting catch-down growth (HC dZ-score [-2 SD]) have a significantly increased risk for neurocognitive impairment (OR >2) while adjusting for gestational age, twin status, sex, and socioeconomic information. HC at birth and HC dZ-score between birth and hospital discharge are synergistically associated to neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years of corrected age, in a population-based prospective cohort of preterm infants born ≤34 weeks of gestation. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. The Interplay among BMI z-Score, Peer Victmization, and Self-Concept in Outpatient Children and Adolescents with Overweight or Obesity.

    PubMed

    Bacchini, Dario; Licenziati, Maria Rosaria; Affuso, Gaetana; Garrasi, Alessandra; Corciulo, Nicola; Driul, Daniela; Tanas, Rita; Fiumani, Perla Maria; Di Pietro, Elena; Pesce, Sabino; Crinò, Antonino; Maltoni, Giulio; Iughetti, Lorenzo; Sartorio, Alessandro; Deiana, Manuela; Lombardi, Francesca; Valerio, Giuliana

    2017-06-01

    Research has provided evidence that obesity is associated with peer victimization and low levels of self-concept. No study has examined the relationship between BMI z-score, self-concept in multiple domains, and peer victimization. The aim of the research was to investigate the interplay between BMI z-score, self-concept in multiple domains (physical, athletic, social), and peer victimization, testing direct, mediated, and moderated associations. Eighty hundred fifteen outpatient children and adolescents were consecutively recruited in 14 hospitals distributed over the Italian country. The sample consisted of 419 males and 396 females; mean age 10.91 ± 1.97 years (range 6-14 years) and mean BMI z-score 1.85 ± 0.74 (range -0.97 ± 3.27). Peer victimization and self-concept were assessed with a revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire and with the Self-Perception Profile for Children. A structural equation model approach was used to determine the associations among variables, testing two competing models. In both models, path analysis revealed that BMI z-score was directly associated with peer victimization and self-concept in multiple domains. In the first model, peer victimization mediated the relationship between BMI-score and self-concept, whereas in the alternative model, self-concept mediated the relationship between BMI z-score and peer victimization. Interaction analyses revealed that social competence moderated the relationship between BMI z-score and peer victimization and that peer victimization moderated the relationship between BMI z-score and physical appearance. Higher levels of BMI z-score are a risk factor for peer victimization and poor self-concept. When high levels of BMI z-score are associated with a negative self-concept, the risk of victimization increases. Preventive and supportive interventions are needed to avoid negative consequences on quality of life in children and adolescents with obesity.

  3. Fetal head circumference growth in children with specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Zubrick, Stephen R; Blair, Eve; Newnham, John P; Hickey, Martha

    2012-01-01

    To characterise fetal brain growth in children with specific language impairment (SLI). A nested case-control study. Perth, Western Australia. Thirty children meeting criteria for SLI at age 10 years were individually matched with a typically developing comparison child on sex, non-verbal ability, fetal gestational age, maternal age at conception, smoking and alcohol intake during pregnancy. Occipitofrontal head circumference (HC) was measured using ultrasonography at approximately 18 weeks gestation. Femur length provided a measure of fetal length. Occipitofrontal HC was measured at birth and at the 1-year postnatal follow-up using a precise paper tape measure, while crown-heel length acted as an index of body length at both time points. Raw data were transformed to z-scores using reference norms. The SLI group had a significantly smaller mean HC than the typically developing comparison children at birth, but there was no group difference at 18 weeks gestation or at the 1-year postnatal follow-up. Individual analyses found that 12 SLI children had an HC z-score less than -1 at birth, with three of these cases meeting criteria for microcephaly. There was no group difference in the indices of overall body size at any time point. Children with SLI are more likely to have a small HC at birth but not at 18 weeks gestation or infancy, suggesting growth asynchrony in brain development during the second half of pregnancy.

  4. Relationship of Echocardiographic Z Scores Adjusted for Body Surface Area to Age, Sex, Race, and Ethnicity: The Pediatric Heart Network Normal Echocardiogram Database.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Leo; Colan, Steven; Stylianou, Mario; Granger, Suzanne; Trachtenberg, Felicia; Frommelt, Peter; Pearson, Gail; Camarda, Joseph; Cnota, James; Cohen, Meryl; Dragulescu, Andreea; Frommelt, Michele; Garuba, Olukayode; Johnson, Tiffanie; Lai, Wyman; Mahgerefteh, Joseph; Pignatelli, Ricardo; Prakash, Ashwin; Sachdeva, Ritu; Soriano, Brian; Soslow, Jonathan; Spurney, Christopher; Srivastava, Shubhika; Taylor, Carolyn; Thankavel, Poonam; van der Velde, Mary; Minich, LuAnn

    2017-11-01

    Published nomograms of pediatric echocardiographic measurements are limited by insufficient sample size to assess the effects of age, sex, race, and ethnicity. Variable methodologies have resulted in a wide range of Z scores for a single measurement. This multicenter study sought to determine Z scores for common measurements adjusted for body surface area (BSA) and stratified by age, sex, race, and ethnicity. Data collected from healthy nonobese children ≤18 years of age at 19 centers with a normal echocardiogram included age, sex, race, ethnicity, height, weight, echocardiographic images, and measurements performed at the Core Laboratory. Z score models involved indexed parameters (X/BSA α ) that were normally distributed without residual dependence on BSA. The models were tested for the effects of age, sex, race, and ethnicity. Raw measurements from models with and without these effects were compared, and <5% difference was considered clinically insignificant because interobserver variability for echocardiographic measurements are reported as ≥5% difference. Of the 3566 subjects, 90% had measurable images. Appropriate BSA transformations (BSA α ) were selected for each measurement. Multivariable regression revealed statistically significant effects by age, sex, race, and ethnicity for all outcomes, but all effects were clinically insignificant based on comparisons of models with and without the effects, resulting in Z scores independent of age, sex, race, and ethnicity for each measurement. Echocardiographic Z scores based on BSA were derived from a large, diverse, and healthy North American population. Age, sex, race, and ethnicity have small effects on the Z scores that are statistically significant but not clinically important. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Uninvolved Maternal Feeding Style Moderates the Association of Emotional Overeating to Preschoolers' Body Mass Index z-Scores.

    PubMed

    Hankey, Maren; Williams, Natalie A; Dev, Dipti

    2016-09-01

    To examine the relation between preschoolers' eating behaviors and body mass index (BMI) z-scores (BMIz) and the moderating role of permissive parent feeding styles in these associations. Cross-sectional study involving mothers' report of food-related parenting styles and child eating behaviors. Small city in southern Mississippi. Mother-preschooler dyads (n = 104). Child body BMIz. Moderated multiple regression. An uninvolved feeding style moderated the relationship between emotional eating and BMIz such that children with higher emotional overeating scores had higher a BMIz in the presence of an uninvolved feeding style (B = 2.16; P = .01). An uninvolved feeding style may be a risk factor for higher BMIz in preschoolers who tend to overeat to cope with negative emotions. For other children in this population, self-regulatory aspects of eating may be more important than mothers' feeding style in the maintenance of healthy weight. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Outcomes of fetuses with small head circumference on second-trimester ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Deloison, Benjamin; Chalouhi, Gihad E; Bernard, Jean-Pierre; Ville, Yves; Salomon, Laurent J

    2012-09-01

    We examined the outcomes of pregnancies in which the fetal head circumference (HC) was below the 5(th) centile at the routine second-trimester scan. We retrospectively analysed outcomes of 18,377 women according to HC Z scores at second-trimester ultrasound examination between 2001 and 2008. We collected all major malformations, intrauterine deaths and other abnormal outcomes. Six hundred seventy-four fetuses (3.7%) had an HC below the 5(th) centile. Twenty-one major malformations were noted, consisting mainly of neurological abnormalities (3.1%). There were seven intra uterine fetal death (1.3%). Of all the fetuses, 26% were lost to follow-up. Outcome and neurological development was normal in 467 cases, based on neonatal examination and/or parent or general practitioner reports. Major abnormalities were noted in respectively 26.2%, 3.0% and 1.1% of fetuses with Z scores < -2.5, -2.5 to -2.0, and -2 to -1.645, compared with 0.3% of fetuses with normal HC (p < 10(-4)). A head circumference below the 5(th) centile at second-trimester scan is associated with various abnormalities, especially neurological disorders. The outcome was worse when the HC was smaller. An HC Z score below -2.5 was strongly associated with neurological and chromosomal abnormalities. Conversely, an HC Z score below -1.645 but above -2, excluding cases with prenatally diagnosed malformations, seems to be reassuring for favorable neonatal outcome. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Relationship between neck circumference, insulin resistance and arterial stiffness in overweight and obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Fantin, Francesco; Comellato, Gabriele; Rossi, Andrea P; Grison, Elisa; Zoico, Elena; Mazzali, Gloria; Zamboni, Mauro

    2017-09-01

    Background Only a few studies have investigated the relationship between neck circumference and cardiometabolic risk. The aim of this study was to assess the relationships between neck circumference, waist circumference, metabolic variables and arterial stiffness in a group of overweight and obese subjects evaluating a possible independent role of neck circumference in determining arterial stiffness. Methods and results We studied 95 subjects (53 women) with an age range of 20-77 years and body mass index range from 25.69 to 47.04 kg/m 2 . In each subject we evaluated body mass index, waist, hip and neck circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, insulin, fasting glucose, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides. Arterial stiffness was assessed by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWVcf) and carotid-radial pulse wave velocity (PWVcr). Both PWVcf and PWVcr were higher in subjects with high values of neck circumference compared with subjects with normal values of neck circumference. Subjects with high values of neck circumference and abdominal obesity presented higher values of mean arterial pressure, PWVcr and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index and lower values of high-density lipoprotein than subjects with only abdominal obesity. Two models of stepwise multiple regression were performed in order to evaluate the combined effect of independent variables on arterial stiffness. In the first model PWVcf was considered a dependent variable, and age, gender, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, waist circumference, neck circumference, HOMA index and the use of anti-hypertensive medications were considered independent variables. Age, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides and waist circumference were significant predictors of PWVcf, explaining 65% of its variance. In the second model, in which PWVcr was considered a dependent variable, neck circumference

  8. Effects of head circumference and metabolic syndrome on cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang Soo; Eom, Jin-Sup; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Oh, Byoung Hoon; Hong, Chang Hyung

    2010-01-01

    Brain volume progressively decreases with an increase in atrophy, and the brain becomes more susceptible to degenerative brain diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Metabolic syndrome has also been associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline in the elderly. In this study, we aimed to examine the effects of head circumference and metabolic syndrome on cognitive decline. This study was part of a longitudinal study conducted on Koreans aged 60 years or older. We analyzed a final sample of 596 Korean participants with complete baseline and 2-year follow-up data. The cognitive function of the subjects was assessed using the Korean version of the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Head circumference was measured from the glabella to the occipital protuberance using a measuring tape. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the NCEP-ATP III standards. Central obesity was assessed on the basis of waist-circumference values, in accordance with the World Health Organization Western Pacific Region report on Asians. We used a longitudinal factorial design in which the MMSE score was the dependent variable, and head circumference and metabolic syndrome were considered as factors. After adjusting the results for age, gender, education, height, weight, baseline MMSE, and number of follow-up years, we observed that smaller head circumference and the presence of metabolic syndrome were independently associated with rapid cognitive decline. All these findings suggest that smaller head circumference and the presence of metabolic syndrome have additive effects on cognitive decline. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Anthropometric analysis of waist-to-hip ratio in Asian women.

    PubMed

    Hong, Young Jun; Park, Heung Sik; Lee, Eun Sang; Suh, Young Ju

    2009-03-01

    The universally accepted attractive female figure has a waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) of 0.7 or 0.68 (WHR of the Venus de Milo). Using WHR and other parameters, the authors attempted to investigate chronologic changes in perceptions of the attractive female figure in Korean society, differences between Asian and Western societies in this respect, and changes in attractiveness with respect to body mass index (BMI) and age in the general female Korean population. The authors analyzed the anthropometric measurements of 227 Miss Korea winners between 1971 and 2007, 60 candidates of the 2007 Miss Korea contest, 36 candidates of the 2007 Miss France contest, and 1785 normal women in the general population. In the Miss Korea winners' group, the WHR tended toward 0.7. The WHR of the 2007 Miss Korea candidates was statistically smaller than the WHR of the 2007 Miss France candidates. The WHR of normal women was statistically larger than WHR of the 2000s Miss Korea winners. In all age groups of normal women, subjects with a low BMI were not significantly different from the 2000s Miss Koreas in terms of waist circumference, but they had a relatively larger hip circumference. Moreover, subjects with a normal BMI had waist circumferences that were similar to those of the 2000s Miss Koreas but relatively larger hip circumferences, and subjects with high BMI had larger waist and hip circumferences than the 2000s Miss Koreas. The perceived attractive female figure in Asia has moved toward the universally accepted ideal WHR. However, there were still some differences between Asian and Western societies in the concept of ideal body figure. Also, a significant difference in body contour was observed between normal women and the ideal figure. This is because hip volume decreases and waist volume increases with age, although waist and hip volumes increase with BMI.

  10. Height-for-age z scores increase despite increasing height deficits among children in 5 developing countries.

    PubMed

    Lundeen, Elizabeth A; Stein, Aryeh D; Adair, Linda S; Behrman, Jere R; Bhargava, Santosh K; Dearden, Kirk A; Gigante, Denise; Norris, Shane A; Richter, Linda M; Fall, Caroline H D; Martorell, Reynaldo; Sachdev, Harshpal Singh; Victora, Cesar G

    2014-09-01

    Growth failure remains a persistent challenge in many countries, and understanding child growth patterns is critical to the development of appropriate interventions and their evaluation. The interpretation of changes in mean height-for-age z scores (HAZs) over time to define catch-up growth has been a subject of debate. Most studies of child growth have been cross-sectional or have focused on children through age 5 y. The aim was to characterize patterns of linear growth among individuals followed from birth into adulthood. We compared HAZs and difference in height (cm) from the WHO reference median at birth, 12 mo, 24 mo, mid-childhood, and adulthood for 5287 individuals from birth cohorts in Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa. Mean HAZs were <0 at birth in the 3 cohorts with data and ranged from -0.6 (Brazil) to -2.9 (Guatemala) at age 24 mo. Between 24 mo and mid-childhood, HAZ values increased by 0.3-0.5 in South Africa, Guatemala, and the Philippines and were unchanged in Brazil and India. Between mid-childhood and adulthood, mean HAZs increased in all cohorts but remained <0 in adulthood [mean range: -0.3 (Brazil) to -1.8 (Guatemala and Philippines)]. However, from 24 mo to adulthood, height differences from the reference median became greater. From age 2 y to adulthood, mean HAZs increased, even though height deficits relative to the reference median also increased. These 2 metrics may result in different interpretations of the potential for and the impact of catch-up growth in height. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Height-for-age z scores increase despite increasing height deficits among children in 5 developing countries123

    PubMed Central

    Lundeen, Elizabeth A; Stein, Aryeh D; Adair, Linda S; Behrman, Jere R; Bhargava, Santosh K; Dearden, Kirk A; Gigante, Denise; Norris, Shane A; Richter, Linda M; Fall, Caroline HD; Martorell, Reynaldo; Sachdev, Harshpal Singh; Victora, Cesar G

    2014-01-01

    Background: Growth failure remains a persistent challenge in many countries, and understanding child growth patterns is critical to the development of appropriate interventions and their evaluation. The interpretation of changes in mean height-for-age z scores (HAZs) over time to define catch-up growth has been a subject of debate. Most studies of child growth have been cross-sectional or have focused on children through age 5 y. Objective: The aim was to characterize patterns of linear growth among individuals followed from birth into adulthood. Design: We compared HAZs and difference in height (cm) from the WHO reference median at birth, 12 mo, 24 mo, mid-childhood, and adulthood for 5287 individuals from birth cohorts in Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa. Results: Mean HAZs were <0 at birth in the 3 cohorts with data and ranged from −0.6 (Brazil) to −2.9 (Guatemala) at age 24 mo. Between 24 mo and mid-childhood, HAZ values increased by 0.3–0.5 in South Africa, Guatemala, and the Philippines and were unchanged in Brazil and India. Between mid-childhood and adulthood, mean HAZs increased in all cohorts but remained <0 in adulthood [mean range: −0.3 (Brazil) to −1.8 (Guatemala and Philippines)]. However, from 24 mo to adulthood, height differences from the reference median became greater. Conclusions: From age 2 y to adulthood, mean HAZs increased, even though height deficits relative to the reference median also increased. These 2 metrics may result in different interpretations of the potential for and the impact of catch-up growth in height. PMID:25008854

  12. Osteoprotegerin in pregnant adolescents differs by race and is related to infant birth weight z-score

    PubMed Central

    Essley, B.; McNanley, T.; Cooper, B.; McIntyre, A.; Witter, F.; Harris, Z.; O’Brien, K.

    2014-01-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is involved in the regulation of bone turnover, but little is known about this protein during pregnancy or among neonates. We undertook a prospective longitudinal study to identify relationships between OPG, markers of bone turnover and birth outcomes in 155 pregnant adolescents (13–18 years) and their newborns. Maternal blood samples were collected at mid-gestation and at delivery. Cord blood was obtained at delivery. Serum OPG, estradiol and markers of bone formation (osteocalcin) and resorption (N-telopeptide) were assessed in all samples. Placental OPG expression was assessed in placental tissue obtained at delivery. Bone markers and OPG increased significantly from mid-gestation (26.0 ± 3.4 weeks) to delivery (39.3 ± 2.6 weeks). Neonatal OPG was significantly lower, but bone turnover markers were significantly higher than maternal values at mid-gestation and at parturition (P < 0.001). African-American adolescents had higher concentrations of OPG than Caucasian adolescents at mid-gestation (P = 0.01) and delivery (P = 0.04). Gestational age and estradiol were also predictors of maternal OPG at mid-gestation and delivery. OPG concentrations in cord blood were correlated with maternal OPG concentrations and were negatively associated with infant birth weight z-score (P = 0.02) and ponderal index (P = 0.02). In conclusion, maternal OPG concentrations increased across gestation and were significantly higher than neonatal OPG concentrations. Maternal and neonatal OPG concentrations were not associated with markers of bone turnover or placental OPG expression, but neonatal OPG was inversely associated with neonatal anthropometric measures. Additional research is needed to identify roles of OPG during pregnancy. PMID:25141264

  13. Increasing body mass index z-score is continuously associated with complications of overweight in children, even in the healthy weight range.

    PubMed

    Bell, Lana M; Byrne, Sue; Thompson, Alisha; Ratnam, Nirubasini; Blair, Eve; Bulsara, Max; Jones, Timothy W; Davis, Elizabeth A

    2007-02-01

    Overweight/obesity in children is increasing. Incidence data for medical complications use arbitrary cutoff values for categories of overweight and obesity. Continuous relationships are seldom reported. The objective of this study is to report relationships of child body mass index (BMI) z-score as a continuous variable with the medical complications of overweight. This study is a part of the larger, prospective cohort Growth and Development Study. Children were recruited from the community through randomly selected primary schools. Overweight children seeking treatment were recruited through tertiary centers. Children aged 6-13 yr were community-recruited normal weight (n = 73), community-recruited overweight (n = 53), and overweight treatment-seeking (n = 51). Medical history, family history, and symptoms of complications of overweight were collected by interview, and physical examination was performed. Investigations included oral glucose tolerance tests, fasting lipids, and liver function tests. Adjusted regression was used to model each complication of obesity with age- and sex-specific child BMI z-scores entered as a continuous dependent variable. Adjusted logistic regression showed the proportion of children with musculoskeletal pain, obstructive sleep apnea symptoms, headaches, depression, anxiety, bullying, and acanthosis nigricans increased with child BMI z-score. Adjusted linear regression showed BMI z-score was significantly related to systolic and diastolic blood pressure, insulin during oral glucose tolerance test, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, and alanine aminotransferase. Child's BMI z-score is independently related to complications of overweight and obesity in a linear or curvilinear fashion. Children's risks of most complications increase across the entire range of BMI values and are not defined by thresholds.

  14. Impact of Age at Diagnosis and Hypothalamic Involvement on Body Mass Index Z-Score Change in Pediatric Brain Tumor Survivors.

    PubMed

    Strobel, Katie; Simpson, Pippa; Donohoue, Patricia A; Firat, Selim; Jogal, Sachin

    2016-01-01

    Obesity risk is increased for pediatric central nervous system tumor survivors. Hypothalamic involvement (HI) by tumor or treatment increases the risk. In healthy children, body mass index (BMI) normally declines until adiposity rebound (AR). We hypothesized that HI and diagnosis before AR would lead to increased BMI at follow-up. A chart review of 114 brain tumor survivors diagnosed between 2001-2011 at the Children's Hospital of Wisconsin extracted tumor location, treatment and BMI z-scores at diagnosis and 2-year follow-up. Children were categorized based on age at diagnosis relative to AR and presence/absence of HI. Children diagnosed pre-AR and post-AR with HI had higher BMI z-scores at 2-year follow-up (pre-AR: 1.6, post-AR: 1.3) than at diagnosis (0.5, 0.6). All groups without HI showed no increase in BMI z-score from diagnosis to 2-year follow-up (pre-AR: 0.7-0.6, during AR: 0.7-0.8, post-AR: 0.7-0.8). The pre-AR and during-AR cohorts with HI had a higher BMI z-score at 2-year follow-up relative to those without HI, while the post-AR group did not. Except for the post-AR group, patients with HI have increased BMI at 2 years after diagnosis compared to those without HI. Diagnosis pre-AR is associated with greater follow-up BMI z-score. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. A New Z Score Curve of the Coronary Arterial Internal Diameter Using the Lambda-Mu-Sigma Method in a Pediatric Population.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Tohru; Fuse, Shigeto; Sakamoto, Naoko; Mikami, Masashi; Ogawa, Shunichi; Hamaoka, Kenji; Arakaki, Yoshio; Nakamura, Tsuneyuki; Nagasawa, Hiroyuki; Kato, Taichi; Jibiki, Toshiaki; Iwashima, Satoru; Yamakawa, Masaru; Ohkubo, Takashi; Shimoyama, Shinya; Aso, Kentaro; Sato, Seiichi; Saji, Tsutomu

    2016-08-01

    Several coronary artery Z score models have been developed. However, a Z score model derived by the lambda-mu-sigma (LMS) method has not been established. Echocardiographic measurements of the proximal right coronary artery, left main coronary artery, proximal left anterior descending coronary artery, and proximal left circumflex artery were prospectively collected in 3,851 healthy children ≤18 years of age and divided into developmental and validation data sets. In the developmental data set, smooth curves were fitted for each coronary artery using linear, logarithmic, square-root, and LMS methods for both sexes. The relative goodness of fit of these models was compared using the Bayesian information criterion. The best-fitting model was tested for reproducibility using the validation data set. The goodness of fit of the selected model was visually compared with that of the previously reported regression models using a Q-Q plot. Because the internal diameter of each coronary artery was not similar between sexes, sex-specific Z score models were developed. The LMS model with body surface area as the independent variable showed the best goodness of fit; therefore, the internal diameter of each coronary artery was transformed into a sex-specific Z score on the basis of body surface area using the LMS method. In the validation data set, a Q-Q plot of each model indicated that the distribution of Z scores in the LMS models was closer to the normal distribution compared with previously reported regression models. Finally, the final models for each coronary artery in both sexes were developed using the developmental and validation data sets. A Microsoft Excel-based Z score calculator was also created, which is freely available online (http://raise.umin.jp/zsp/calculator/). Novel LMS models with which to estimate the sex-specific Z score of each internal coronary artery diameter were generated and validated using a large pediatric population. Copyright © 2016

  16. Wrist circumference as a novel predictor of hypertension and cardiovascular disease: results of a decade follow up in a West Asian cohort.

    PubMed

    Mohebi, Reza; Mohebi, Ahmad; Sheikholeslami, Farhad; Azizi, Fereidoun; Hadaegh, Farzad

    2014-11-01

    No study has yet evaluated the effect of wrist circumference on risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in an adult population. The present study included 3642 women, aged ≥30 years, free of CVD at baseline, who had undergone health examinations between January 1999 and 2001 and were followed up until March 2010. Cox proportional hazard regression was performed to assess the hazard ratios (HRs) of wrist circumference for CVD and hypertension events. During 10 years of follow-up, 284 cases of first CVD and 615 cases of incident hypertension occurred. In a model adjusted for conventional CVD risk factors, the HR of 1 cm increase in wrist circumference was 1.15 (1.06-1.25) for hypertension and was marginally significant for CVD (HR, 1.12 [1.00-1.25]; P-value 0.052). After considering body mass index and waist circumference in the model, we found significant interaction between waist circumference and wrist circumference in risk prediction of hypertension and CVD (P < .001). In non-centrally obese women (waist circumference <95 cm), in multivariable model plus body mass index and waist circumference, increase in wrist circumference was independently associated with both hypertension (HR, 1.17 [1.02-1.35]) and CVD (HR, 1.29 [1.03-1.61]). However, among centrally obese women (waist circumference ≥95 cm), wrist circumference increase could not predict either hypertension (HR, 0.97 [0.84-1.18]) or CVD events (HR, 0.90 [0.75-1.07]). Wrist circumference as a novel anthropometric measure was an independent predictor for incident hypertension and CVD events among non-centrally obese women. Copyright © 2014 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A configuration space of homologous proteins conserving mutual information and allowing a phylogeny inference based on pair-wise Z-score probabilities.

    PubMed

    Bastien, Olivier; Ortet, Philippe; Roy, Sylvaine; Maréchal, Eric

    2005-03-10

    Popular methods to reconstruct molecular phylogenies are based on multiple sequence alignments, in which addition or removal of data may change the resulting tree topology. We have sought a representation of homologous proteins that would conserve the information of pair-wise sequence alignments, respect probabilistic properties of Z-scores (Monte Carlo methods applied to pair-wise comparisons) and be the basis for a novel method of consistent and stable phylogenetic reconstruction. We have built up a spatial representation of protein sequences using concepts from particle physics (configuration space) and respecting a frame of constraints deduced from pair-wise alignment score properties in information theory. The obtained configuration space of homologous proteins (CSHP) allows the representation of real and shuffled sequences, and thereupon an expression of the TULIP theorem for Z-score probabilities. Based on the CSHP, we propose a phylogeny reconstruction using Z-scores. Deduced trees, called TULIP trees, are consistent with multiple-alignment based trees. Furthermore, the TULIP tree reconstruction method provides a solution for some previously reported incongruent results, such as the apicomplexan enolase phylogeny. The CSHP is a unified model that conserves mutual information between proteins in the way physical models conserve energy. Applications include the reconstruction of evolutionary consistent and robust trees, the topology of which is based on a spatial representation that is not reordered after addition or removal of sequences. The CSHP and its assigned phylogenetic topology, provide a powerful and easily updated representation for massive pair-wise genome comparisons based on Z-score computations.

  18. The association between physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep, and body mass index z-scores in different settings among toddlers and preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Kuzik, Nicholas; Carson, Valerie

    2016-07-20

    Physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep are all movement behaviors that range on a continuum from no or low movement, to high movement. Consistent associations between movement behaviors and adiposity indicators have been observed in school-age children. However, limited information exists in younger children. Since approximately 50 % of Canadian children ≤5 years of age attend non-parental care, movement behaviors within and outside of the child care setting are important to consider. Therefore, this study examined the association between movement behaviors (physical activity, sedentary behavior and sleep) inside and outside of child care, with body mass index (BMI) z-scores, among a sample of toddlers and preschoolers. Children aged 19-60 months (n = 100) from eight participating child care centers throughout Alberta, Canada participated. Movement behaviors inside child care were accelerometer-derived (light physical activity, moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sedentary time, and time spent in sedentary bouts lasting 1-4, 5-9, 10-14 and ≥15 min) and questionnaire-derived (daytime sleep). Movement behaviors outside of child care were questionnaire-derived (MVPA, screen and non-screen sedentary behavior, and nighttime sleep). Demographic information (child age, child sex, and parental education) was also questionnaire-derived. Height and weight were measured, and age- and sex-specific BMI z-scores were calculated using World Health Organization growth standards. The association between movement behaviors and BMI z-scores were examined using linear regression models. Hours/day of sedentary bouts lasting 1-4 min (β =-0.8, 95 % CI:-1.5,-0.1) and nighttime sleep (β = 0.2, 95 % CI: 0.1, 0.4) were associated with BMI z-scores. However, after adjusting for demographics variables, sedentary bouts lasting 1-4 min (β =-0.7; 95 % CI:-1.5, 0.0) became borderline non-significant, while nighttime sleep (β = 0.2, 95 % CI: 0

  19. Is It Time to Change Our Reference Curve for Femur Length? Using the Z-Score to Select the Best Chart in a Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Huixia; Wei, Yumei; Su, Rina; Wang, Chen; Meng, Wenying; Wang, Yongqing; Shang, Lixin; Cai, Zhenyu; Ji, Liping; Wang, Yunfeng; Sun, Ying; Liu, Jiaxiu; Wei, Li; Sun, Yufeng; Zhang, Xueying; Luo, Tianxia; Chen, Haixia; Yu, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    Objective To use Z-scores to compare different charts of femur length (FL) applied to our population with the aim of identifying the most appropriate chart. Methods A retrospective study was conducted in Beijing. Fifteen hospitals in Beijing were chosen as clusters using a systemic cluster sampling method, in which 15,194 pregnant women delivered from June 20th to November 30th, 2013. The measurements of FL in the second and third trimester were recorded, as well as the last measurement obtained before delivery. Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, we identified FL measurements from 19996 ultrasounds from 7194 patients between 11 and 42 weeks gestation. The FL data were then transformed into Z-scores that were calculated using three series of reference equations obtained from three reports: Leung TN, Pang MW et al (2008); Chitty LS, Altman DG et al (1994); and Papageorghiou AT et al (2014). Each Z-score distribution was presented as the mean and standard deviation (SD). Skewness and kurtosis and were compared with the standard normal distribution using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The histogram of their distributions was superimposed on the non-skewed standard normal curve (mean = 0, SD = 1) to provide a direct visual impression. Finally, the sensitivity and specificity of each reference chart for identifying fetuses <5th or >95th percentile (based on the observed distribution of Z-scores) were calculated. The Youden index was also listed. A scatter diagram with the 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile curves calculated from and superimposed on each reference chart was presented to provide a visual impression. Results The three Z-score distribution curves appeared to be normal, but none of them matched the expected standard normal distribution. In our study, the Papageorghiou reference curve provided the best results, with a sensitivity of 100% for identifying fetuses with measurements < 5th and > 95th percentile, and specificities of 99.9% and 81

  20. Differences in body mass index z-scores and weight status in a Dutch pediatric psychiatric population with and without use of second-generation antipsychotics.

    PubMed

    de Hoogd, Sjoerd; Overbeek, Wieske A; Heerdink, Eibert R; Correll, Christoph U; de Graeff, Elisabeth R; Staal, Wouter G

    2012-04-01

    Weight gain and metabolic adverse effects of second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) have become a major concern, particularly in youth. However, the specific contribution of SGAs versus other medications or the underlying illness is unclear. In a chart review study of psychiatric outpatients aged ≤ 18 years treated with SGAs and psychiatric controls without lifetime SGA, use body mass index (BMI) z-scores between patients and controls were compared in the entire sample, patients without co-medications, diagnostic subgroups, and age subgroups. In patients with follow-up data, weight z-score change was calculated. Altogether, 592 Caucasian patients aged 4-18 (mean: 10.0) years with a psychiatric diagnosis were included. BMI z-scores in 96 youth treated with SGAs for 9.0 ± 6.1 months were significantly higher than in 496 patients without lifetime SGA use (0.81 ± 1.1 vs. 0.05 ± 1.2; p<0.0001). BMI z-score differences remained significant in all age groups <16 years old. In sub-analyses, results remained the same after eliminating patients on any co-medication (0.82 ± 1.2 vs. 0.23 ± 1.2; p<0.0001) and in patients with (0.75 ± 1.2 vs. 0.17 ± 1.1, p<0.0001) or without autism spectrum disorders (1.1 ± 1.0 vs. -0.02 ± 1.2, p<0.0001). Significantly more SGA-treated youth were obese (27.1% vs. 9.5%, odds ratio [OR]: 3.55, 95% confidence interval [CI]:2.07-6.08) or overweight (21.9% vs. 8.3%, OR: 3.11, 95%CI: 1.75-5.52). In 24 patients (92.3% antipsychotic-naïve) with 6.6 months follow-up, weight z-score increased significantly from -0.17 ± 1.5 to 0.25 ± 1.4 (p<0.0001) with 12.5% transitioning to overweight or obese status. These data show robust and significant differences in sex- and age-adjusted body weight and weight status in young pediatric Caucasian samples with and without use of SGAs independent of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) (American Psychiatric Association 2000 ) diagnosis and

  1. Independent association of hip circumference with metabolic profile in different ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Snijder, Marieke B; Zimmet, Paul Z; Visser, Marjolein; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Seidell, Jacob C; Shaw, Jonathan E

    2004-09-01

    In whites, a larger hip circumference has been shown to be associated with a better metabolic profile, after adjustment for BMI and waist circumference. Our aim was to investigate this association in a variety of ethnic groups, some highly susceptible to type 2 diabetes. We measured weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting and 2-hour postload glucose, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in 1020 Melanesians, 767 Micronesians, 3697 Indians, and 2710 Creoles from Pacific and Indian Ocean islands. Leptin and body fat percentage were determined in Indian and Creole Mauritians only. In all ethnic groups, larger hip circumference was associated with lower glucose and triglyceride levels in both sexes and higher high-density lipoprotein levels in women only, after adjustment for waist circumference, BMI, and age. Adjustment for height or leptin did not materially change the results. In conclusion, we confirmed the protective association of relatively larger hips in four nonwhite ethnic groups. Leptin does not seem to play a mediating role in this association.

  2. Slimmer women's waist is associated with better erectile function in men independent of age.

    PubMed

    Brody, Stuart; Weiss, Petr

    2013-10-01

    Previous research has indicated that men generally rate slimmer women as more sexually attractive, consistent with the increased morbidity risks associated with even mild abdominal adiposity. To assess the association of women's waist size with a more tangible measure of perceived sexual attractiveness (as well as reward value for both sexes), we examined the association of women's age and waist circumference with an index of men's erectile function (IIEF-5 scores), frequency of penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI), and sexual satisfaction in a representative sample of Czechs (699 men and 715 women) aged 35-65 years. Multivariate analyses indicated that better erectile function scores were independently associated with younger age of self and partner and women's slimmer waist. PVI frequency was independently associated with women's younger age and women's slimmer waist. Sexual satisfaction was independently associated with men's younger age and slimmer waist for both sexes. Better erectile function, greater PVI frequency, and greater sexual satisfaction were associated with women's slimmer waist, independently of both sexes' ages. Possible reasons for the waist effects were discussed, including women's abdominal body fat decreasing their own desire through neurohormonal mechanisms and decreasing their partner's desire through evolutionarily-related decreased sexual attractiveness.

  3. Exercise and BMI z-score in Overweight and Obese Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials.

    PubMed

    Kelley, George A; Kelley, Kristi S; Pate, Russell R

    2017-05-01

    Examine the effects of selected types of exercise (aerobic, strength training, both) on BMI z-score in overweight and obese children and adolescents. Randomized exercise intervention trials ≥ 4 weeks were included. Studies were retrieved by searching six electronic databases, cross-referencing and expert review. Dual selection and abstraction occurred. Risk of bias and confidence in cumulative evidence were assessed. Network meta-analysis was performed using multivariate random-effects meta-regression models while surface under the cumulative ranking curves were used to calculate a hierarchy of exercise treatments. The number needed to treat (NNT) and percentile improvement (U 3 ) were also calculated. Thirty-four studies representing 2,239 participants were included. Median exercise occurred 3 times per week, 50 minutes per session over a 12-week period. Statistically significant reductions in BMI z-score were found for aerobic exercise and combined aerobic and strength exercise, but not strength training alone (M±SD, 95% CI: aerobic, -0.10, -0.15 to -0.05; aerobic and strength, -0.11, -0.19 to -0.03; strength, 0.04, -0.07 to 0.15). Combined aerobic and strength training was ranked best, followed by aerobic exercise and strength training. The NNT was 2 for both aerobic exercise and combined aerobic exercise and strength training. Percentile improvements were 28.8% for aerobic exercise and 31.5% for combined aerobic exercise and strength training. Confidence in effect estimates was ranked as low for aerobic exercise and very low for combined aerobic and strength training as well as strength training. Aerobic exercise and combined aerobic exercise and strength training are associated with reductions in BMI z-score. © 2016 Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Exercise and BMI z-score in Overweight and Obese Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials

    PubMed Central

    George, Kelley; Kristi, Kelley; Russell, Pate

    2017-01-01

    Aim Examine the effects of selected types of exercise (aerobic, strength training, both) on BMI z-score in overweight and obese children and adolescents. Methods Randomized exercise intervention trials ≥ 4 weeks were included. Studies were retrieved by searching six electronic databases, cross-referencing and expert review. Dual selection and abstraction occurred. Risk of bias and confidence in cumulative evidence were assessed. Network meta-analysis was performed using multivariate random-effects meta-regression models while surface under the cumulative ranking curves were used to calculate a hierarchy of exercise treatments. The number needed to treat (NNT) and percentile improvement (U3) were also calculated. Results Thirty-four studies representing 2,239 participants were included. Median exercise occurred 3 times per week, 50 minutes per session over a 12-week period. Statistically significant reductions in BMI z-score were found for aerobic exercise and combined aerobic and strength exercise, but not strength training alone (M±SD, 95% CI: aerobic, -0.10, -0.15 to -0.05; aerobic and strength, -0.11, -0.19, -0.03; strength, 0.04, -0.07 to 0.15). Combined aerobic and strength training was ranked best, followed by aerobic exercise and strength training. The NNT was 2 for both aerobic exercise and combined aerobic exercise and strength training. Percentile improvements were 28.8% for aerobic exercise and 31.5% for combined aerobic exercise and strength training. Confidence in effect estimates was ranked as low for aerobic exercise and very low for combined aerobic and strength training as well as strength training. Conclusions Aerobic exercise and combined aerobic exercise and strength training are associated with reductions in BMI z-score. PMID:27792271

  5. Mid-upper arm circumference is associated with biochemically determined nutritional status indicators among adolescent girls in Central Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Kulathinal, Sangita; Freese, Riitta; Korkalo, Liisa; Ismael, Carina; Mutanen, Marja

    2016-08-01

    Biochemically determined nutritional status measurements in low-income countries are often too expensive. Therefore, we hypothesized that some anthropometrical or functional measurements (handgrip) could reflect nutritional status measured by specific biochemical indicators. We did a population-based study from 1 urban area and 2 rural districts in Zambézia Province of Mozambique. The participants (n=386) were non-pregnant adolescent girls between 15 and 18 years of age. 96% had a normal BMI-for-age score. Weight and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) were highly correlated (r>0.8) with each other and with total body muscle mass, body mass index (BMI), and with waist circumference, as well as with skinfolds (r>0.6). Upper and total arm lengths were correlated (r>0.7) with height and with each other, and right and left handgrip were correlated only with each other, as were triceps and subscapular skinfolds (r>0.7). Serum albumin correlated negatively with waist circumference (P<.001) and positively with MUAC (P=.007). Stepwise regressions showed that waist circumference, MUAC, weight, and handgrip were important nutritional status indicators in the models using hemoglobin, serum albumin, ferritin, zinc, and plasma retinol concentrations as dependent variables. MUAC could be a valuable anthropometric marker of the overall nutritional status of adolescent girls in low-income countries. When nutrition transition proceeds, waist circumference together with MUAC could form tools for the prediction of worsening of nutritional status. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The hypertriglyceridemic-waist phenotype and the risk of coronary artery disease: results from the EPIC-Norfolk Prospective Population Study

    PubMed Central

    Arsenault, Benoit J.; Lemieux, Isabelle; Després, Jean-Pierre; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Kastelein, John J.P.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs

    2010-01-01

    Background Screening for increased waist circumference and hypertriglyceridemia (the hypertriglyceridemic-waist phenotype) has been proposed as an inexpensive approach to identify patients with excess intra-abdominal adiposity and associated metabolic abnormalities. We examined the relationship between the hypertriglyceridemic-waist phenotype to the risk of coronary artery disease in apparently healthy individuals. Methods A total of 21 787 participants aged 45–79 years were followed for a mean of 9.8 (standard deviation 1.7) years. Coronary artery disease developed in 2109 of them during follow-up. The hypertriglyceridemic-waist phenotype was defined as a waist circumference of 90 cm or more and a triglyceride level of 2.0 mmol/L or more in men, and a waist circumference of 85 cm or more and a triglyceride level of 1.5 mmol/L or more in women. Results Compared with participants who had a waist circumference and triglyceride level below the threshold, those with the hypertriglyceridemic-waist phenotype had higher blood pressure indices, higher levels of apolipoprotein B and C-reactive protein, lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I, and smaller low-density lipoprotein particles. Among men, those with the hypertriglyceridemic-waist phenotype had an unadjusted hazard ratio for future coronary artery disease of 2.40 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.02–2.87) compared with men who did not have the phenotype. Women with the phenotype had an unadjusted hazard ratio of 3.84 (95% CI 3.20–4.62) compared with women who did not have the phenotype. Interpretation Among participants from a European cohort representative of a contemporary Western population, the hypertriglyceridemic-waist phenotype was associated with a deteriorated cardiometabolic risk profile and an increased risk for coronary artery disease. PMID:20643837

  7. The Air Force Fitness Test: Creating New Fitness Assessment Charts Using Waist to Height Ratios

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-23

    concurrence with their schedule, and the memo gave more direction to physical training leaders (PTLs). The memorandum provided training expectations for...van Leer, Seidell, and Lean (1995) concluded an increased cardiovascular disease risk is positively associated with waist circumference (Han, van...Air Force Institute of Technology Air University Air Education and Training Command In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of

  8. Anthropometric adjustments are helpful in the interpretation of BMD and BMC Z-scores of pediatric patients with Prader-Willi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hangartner, T N; Short, D F; Eldar-Geva, T; Hirsch, H J; Tiomkin, M; Zimran, A; Gross-Tsur, V

    2016-12-01

    Anthropometric adjustments of bone measurements are necessary in Prader-Willi syndrome patients to correctly assess the bone status of these patients. This enables physicians to get a more accurate diagnosis of normal versus abnormal bone, allow for early and effective intervention, and achieve better therapeutic results. Bone mineral density (BMD) is decreased in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). Because of largely abnormal body height and weight, traditional BMD Z-scores may not provide accurate information in this patient group. The goal of the study was to assess a cohort of individuals with PWS and characterize the development of low bone density based on two adjustment models applied to a dataset of BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements. Fifty-four individuals, aged 5-20 years with genetically confirmed PWS, underwent DXA scans of spine and hip. Thirty-one of them also underwent total body scans. Standard Z-scores were calculated for BMD and BMC of spine and total hip based on race, sex, and age for all patients, as well as of whole body and whole-body less head for those patients with total-body scans. Additional Z-scores were generated based on anthropometric adjustments using weight, height, and percentage body fat and a second model using only weight and height in addition to race, sex, and age. As many PWS patients have abnormal anthropometrics, addition of explanatory variables weight, height, and fat resulted in different bone classifications for many patients. Thus, 25-70 % of overweight patients, previously diagnosed as normal, were subsequently diagnosed as below normal, and 40-60 % of patients with below-normal body height changed from below normal to normal depending on bone parameter. This is the first study to include anthropometric adjustments into the interpretation of BMD and BMC in children and adolescents with PWS. This enables physicians to get a more accurate diagnosis of

  9. Exercise and BMI z-score in overweight and obese children and adolescents: protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomised trials.

    PubMed

    Kelley, George A; Kelley, Kristi S

    2016-04-15

    While overweight and obesity in children and adolescents is a major global health problem, the effects of exercise on overweight and obesity in children and adolescents are not well established despite numerous studies on this topic. The purpose of this study is to use the network meta-analytic approach to determine the effects of exercise (aerobic, strength training or both) on body mass index (BMI) z-score in overweight and obese children and adolescents. Randomised exercise intervention trials >4 weeks, published in any language between 1 January 1990 and 31 September 2015, and which include direct and/or indirect evidence, will be included. Studies will be retrieved by searching 6 electronic databases, cross-referencing and expert review. Dual abstraction of data will occur. The primary outcome will be changes in BMI z-score while the secondary outcome will be changes in body weight in kilograms (kg). Risk of bias will be assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias assessment instrument while confidence in the cumulative evidence will be assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) instrument for network meta-analysis. Network meta-analysis will be performed using multivariate random-effects meta-regression models. The surface under the cumulative ranking curve will be used to provide a hierarchy of exercise treatments (aerobic, strength training or both). The results of this study will be presented at a professional conference and published in a peer-reviewed journal. CRD42015026377. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for diagnosis and fracture risk assessment; WHO-criteria, T- and Z-score, and reference databases.

    PubMed

    Dimai, Hans P

    2017-11-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a two-dimensional imaging technology developed to assess bone mineral density (BMD) of the entire human skeleton and also specifically of skeletal sites known to be most vulnerable to fracture. In order to simplify interpretation of BMD measurement results and allow comparability among different DXA-devices, the T-score concept was introduced. This concept involves an individual's BMD which is then compared with the mean value of a young healthy reference population, with the difference expressed as a standard deviation (SD). Since the early nineties of the past century, the diagnostic categories "normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis", as recommended by a WHO working Group, are based on this concept. Thus, DXA is still the globally accepted "gold-standard" method for the noninvasive diagnosis of osteoporosis. Another score obtained from DXA measurement, termed Z-score, describes the number of SDs by which the BMD in an individual differs from the mean value expected for age and sex. Although not intended for diagnosis of osteoporosis in adults, it nevertheless provides information about an individual's fracture risk compared to peers. DXA measurement can either be used as a "stand-alone" means in the assessment of an individual's fracture risk, or incorporated into one of the available fracture risk assessment tools such as FRAX® or Garvan, thus improving the predictive power of such tools. The issue which reference databases should be used by DXA-device manufacturers for T-score reference standards has been recently addressed by an expert group, who recommended use National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III) databases for the hip reference standard but own databases for the lumbar spine. Furthermore, in men it is recommended use female reference databases for calculation of the T-score and use male reference databases for calculation of Z-score. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Head circumferences of children born to HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers in Zimbabwe during the preantiretroviral therapy era

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Ceri; Chasekwa, Bernard; Ntozini, Robert; Humphrey, Jean H.; Prendergast, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the head growth of children according to maternal and child HIV infection status. Design: Longitudinal analysis of head circumference data from 13 647 children followed from birth in the ZVITAMBO trial, undertaken in Harare, Zimbabwe, between 1997 and 2001, prior to availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) or cotrimoxazole prophylaxis. Methods: Head circumference was measured at birth, then at regular intervals through 24 months of age. Mean head circumference-for-age Z-scores (HCZ) and prevalence of microcephaly (HCZ < −2) were compared between HIV-unexposed children, HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children and children infected with HIV in utero (IU), intrapartum (IP) and postnatally (PN). Results: Children infected with HIV in utero had head growth restriction at birth. Head circumference Z-scores remained low throughout follow-up in IP children, whereas they progressively declined in IU children. During the second year of life, HCZ in the PN group declined, reaching a similar mean as IP-infected children by 21 months of age. Microcephaly was more common among IU and IP children than HIV-uninfected children through 24 months. HEU children had significantly lower head circumferences than HIV-unexposed children through 12 months. Conclusion: HIV-infected children had lower head circumferences and more microcephaly than HIV-uninfected children. Timing of HIV acquisition; influenced HCZ, with those infected before birth having particularly poor head growth. HEU children had poorer head growth until 12 months of age. Correlations between head growth and neurodevelopment in the context of maternal/infant HIV infection, and further studies from the current ART era, will help determine the predictive value of routine head circumference measurement. PMID:27428746

  12. Crab Waist Collision at DAFNE

    SciTech Connect

    Milardi, C.; Alesini, D.; Biagini, M.E.

    DAFNE is an accelerator complex consisting of a double ring lepton collider working at the c.m. energy of the {Phi}-resonance (1.02 GeV) and an injection system. In its original configuration the collider consisted of two independent rings, each {approx}97 m long, sharing two 10 m long interaction regions (IR1 and IR2) where the KLOE and FINUDA or DEAR detectors were respectively installed. A full energy injection system, including an S-band linac, 180 m long transfer lines and an accumulator/damping ring, provides fast and high efficiency electron positron injection also in topping-up mode during collisions. Recently the DAFNE collider has beenmore » upgraded in order to implement a new collision scheme based on large Piwinski angle and cancellation of the synchro-betatron resonances by means of electromagnetic sextupoles (Crab-Waist compensation). The novel approach has proved to be effective in improving beam-beam interaction and collider luminosity.« less

  13. Neck circumference might predict gestational diabetes mellitus in Han Chinese women: A nested case-control study.

    PubMed

    He, Fang; He, Hua; Liu, Wenqi; Lin, Junyu; Chen, Bingjun; Lin, Yucong; Zhao, Yitao; Tao, Wen; Xia, Xuefeng

    2017-03-01

    A large neck circumference might be an indicator of metabolic syndrome and its components, and for certain patients is more practical as an index than waist circumference. The demarcation value for neck circumference that suggests metabolic syndrome appears to vary by ethnic group. Gestational diabetes mellitus is considered a component of metabolic syndrome in pregnant women. We investigated whether neck circumference in Han Chinese women is associated with gestational diabetes mellitus in early pregnancy, and determined a predictive demarcation value. A nested case-control study was carried out with 255 women aged 18-35 years. Gestational diabetes mellitus was diagnosed according to the criteria of the American Diabetes Association through a 2-h, 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Of the total population, 41 (16%) women developed gestational diabetes mellitus by 24-28 weeks of gestation. Neck circumference at gestational week 16 positively correlated with pre-pregnancy waist circumference, bodyweight and body mass index, and maternal age (P = 0.029) and hemoglobin A1c at gestational week 24 (P ≤ 0.001). By binary logistic regression, neck circumference was an independent predictor of gestational diabetes mellitus (odds ratio 1.840, 95% confidence interval 1.040-3.254; P = 0.036). According to the receiver operating characteristic curve, for predicting gestational diabetes mellitus the optimal demarcation for neck circumference at gestational week 16 was 35.15 cm. Neck circumference is a viable tool to screen for gestational diabetes mellitus. In this population of pregnant Han Chinese women, a neck circumference of ≥35.15 cm was a predictor of gestational diabetes mellitus. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Cutoffs and cardiovascular risk factors associated with neck circumference among community-dwelling elderly adults: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Hélio José; Sampaio, Ricardo Aurélio Carvalho; Gonçalvez, Ivan de Oliveira; Aguiar, Samuel da Silva; Palmeira, Rafael; Oliveira, José Fernando de; Asano, Ricardo Yukio; Sampaio, Priscila Yukari Sewo; Uchida, Marco Carlos

    2016-01-01

    In elderly people, measurement of several anthropometric parameters may present complications. Although neck circumference measurements seem to avoid these issues, the cutoffs and cardiovascular risk factors associated with this parameter among elderly people remain unknown. This study was developed to identify the cutoff values and cardiovascular risk factors associated with neck circumference measurements among elderly people. Cross-sectional study conducted in two community centers for elderly people. 435 elderly adults (371 women and 64 men) were recruited. These volunteers underwent morphological evaluations (body mass index and waist, hip, and neck circumferences) and hemodynamic evaluations (blood pressure values and heart rate). Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to determine the predictive validity of cutoff values for neck circumference, for identifying overweight/obesity. Multivariate analysis was used to identify cardiovascular risk factors associated with large neck circumference. Cutoff values for neck circumference (men = 40.5 cm and women = 35.7 cm), for detection of obese older adults according to body mass index, were identified. After a second analysis, large neck circumference was shown to be associated with elevated body mass index in men; and elevated body mass index, blood pressure values, prevalence of type 2 diabetes and hypertension in women. The data indicate that neck circumference can be used as a screening tool to identify overweight/obesity in older people. Moreover, large neck circumference values may be associated with cardiovascular risk factors.

  15. Finger-Circumference-Measuring Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, Suy

    1995-01-01

    Easy-to-use device quickly measures circumference of finger (including thumb) on human hand. Includes polytetrafluoroethylene band 1/8 in. wide, bent into loop and attached to tab that slides on scale graduated in millimeters. Sliding tab preloaded with constant-force tension spring, which pulls tab toward closure of loop. Designed to facilitate measurements at various points along fingers to obtain data for studies of volumetric changes of fingers in microgravity. Also used in normal Earth gravity studies of growth and in assessment of diseases like arthritis.

  16. Reference centile curves for wrist circumference for Indian children aged 3-18 years.

    PubMed

    Khadilkar, Vaman; Chiplonkar, Shashi; Ekbote, Veena; Kajale, Neha; Mandlik, Rubina; Khadilkar, Anuradha

    2018-01-26

    Childhood obesity and its consequences have reached alarming proportions worldwide and in India. Wrist circumference is emerging as an easily measurable reproducible parameter for screening children at risk of obesity-related morbidities such as hypertension and insulin resistance. The objectives of this study were: (1) to compute age and gender-specific wrist circumference percentiles for 3-18-year-old apparently healthy Indian children and adolescents; (2) to assess the relationship of wrist circumference with measures of obesity and adiposity such as body mass index (BMI), fat percentage and blood pressure (BP) and (3) to suggest age and gender-specific cut-offs for wrist circumference percentile for the risk of hypertension in Indian children and adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study on samples of 10,199 3-18-year-old children (5703 boys) from randomly selected schools from five major cities in India. Height, weight, waist and wrist circumference and BP were recorded. Body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Wrist circumference percentiles were computed using the LMS method. The average wrist circumference of boys and girls was 10.4 cm and 10.0 cm at 3 years and increased to 15.1 cm and 13.9 cm, respectively, at 18 years. Compared to their Caucasian counterparts, Indian children's wrists were smaller. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis derived the 70th percentile of wrist circumference as the cut-off for identifying the risk of hypertension. Contemporary cross-sectional reference percentile curves for wrist circumference for 3-18-year-old Indian children are presented. The 70th percentile of the current study is proposed as the cut-off to screen children for cardiometabolic risk factors such as hypertension.

  17. Feeding Practices and Infant Growth: Quantifying the Effects of Breastfeeding Termination and Complementary Food Introduction on BMI z-Score Growth Velocity through Growth Curve Models.

    PubMed

    Horodynski, Mildred A; Pierce, Steven J; Reyes-Gastelum, David; Olson, Beth; Shattuck, Mackenzie

    2017-12-01

    Infant feeding practices are a focus of early obesity prevention. We tested whether infant growth velocity increased after breastfeeding termination and complementary food introduction. Our secondary analysis included a sample of 547 mother-infant dyads from a longitudinal randomized controlled trial conducted in Michigan and Colorado. Infant anthropometrics at birth, baseline, and 6- and 12-month follow-up were standardized to BMI-for-age z-score (ZBMI) according to World Health Organization (WHO) growth charts. We used growth curve models with time-varying predictors to quantify effects of breastfeeding termination and timing of complementary food introduction on growth velocity. Median breastfeeding duration was 2.0 months [confidence interval (CI) = 2.0-2.5]; median introduction of complementary foods occurred at 3.0 months (CI = 2.8-3.2). Breastfed infants not yet introduced to complementary foods had an average ZBMI growth velocity of 0.050 (CI = -0.013 to 0.113) z-score units per month [zpm], not significantly faster than WHO growth trajectory (p = 0.118) defined as 0 zpm. Breastfeeding termination had negligible effect on ZBMI growth velocity (γ 11  = 0.001, CI = -0.027 to 0.030, p = 0.927). Introduction of complementary foods increased ZBMI growth velocity relative to an average child in the sample, but not significantly (γ 12  = 0.033, CI = -0.034 to 0.100, p = 0.334). Growth velocities for infants receiving complementary foods both before and after breastfeeding termination were significantly faster than the WHO growth trajectory (0.083 zpm, CI = 0.052-0.114, and 0.084 zpm, CI = 0.064-0.105, respectively, p's < 0.001). Average postcomplementary food introduction growth velocity was significantly higher than WHO growth trajectory, but did not differ from the sample's initial average trajectory. Growth curve models can accurately estimate effects of feeding practices on infant growth to direct

  18. Height for age z score and cognitive function are associated with Academic performance among school children aged 8-11 years old.

    PubMed

    Haile, Demewoz; Nigatu, Dabere; Gashaw, Ketema; Demelash, Habtamu

    2016-01-01

    Academic achievement of school age children can be affected by several factors such as nutritional status, demographics, and socioeconomic factors. Though evidence about the magnitude of malnutrition is well established in Ethiopia, there is a paucity of evidence about the association of nutritional status with academic performance among the nation's school age children. Hence, this study aimed to determine how nutritional status and cognitive function are associated with academic performance of school children in Goba town, South East Ethiopia. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among 131 school age students from primary schools in Goba town enrolled during the 2013/2014 academic year. The nutritional status of students was assessed by anthropometric measurement, while the cognitive assessment was measured by the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (KABC-II) and Ravens colored progressive matrices (Raven's CPM) tests. The academic performance of the school children was measured by collecting the preceding semester academic result from the school record. Descriptive statistics, bivariate and multivariable linear regression were used in the statistical analysis. This study found a statistically significant positive association between all cognitive test scores and average academic performance except for number recall (p = 0.12) and hand movements (p = 0.08). The correlation between all cognitive test scores and mathematics score was found positive and statistically significant (p < 0.05). In the multivariable linear regression model, better wealth index was significantly associated with higher mathematics score (ß = 0.63; 95 % CI: 0.12-0.74). Similarly a unit change in height for age z score resulted in 2.11 unit change in mathematics score (ß = 2.11; 95 % CI: 0.002-4.21). A single unit change of wealth index resulted 0.53 unit changes in average score of all academic subjects among school age children (ß = 0

  19. Waist-to-height ratio is as reliable as biochemical markers to discriminate pediatric insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Alvim, Rafael de Oliveira; Zaniqueli, Divanei; Neves, Felipe Silva; Pani, Virgilia Oliveira; Martins, Caroline Resende; Peçanha, Marcos Alves de Souza; Barbosa, Míriam Carmo Rodrigues; Faria, Eliane Rodrigues de; Mill, José Geraldo

    2018-05-07

    Given the importance of incorporating simple and low-cost tools into the pediatric clinical setting to provide screening for insulin resistance, the present study sought to investigate whether waist-to-height ratio is comparable to biochemical markers for the discrimination of insulin resistance in children and adolescents. This cross-sectional study involved students from nine public schools. In total, 296 children and adolescents of both sexes, aged 8-14 years, composed the sample. Waist-to-height ratio, triglycerides/glucose index, and triglycerides-to-HDL-C ratio were determined according to standard protocols. Insulin resistance was defined as homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance with cut-off point ≥3.16. Age, body mass index, frequency of overweight, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, insulin, glucose, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance, triglycerides, triglycerides/glucose index, and triglycerides-to-HDL-C were higher among insulin-resistant boys and girls. Moderate correlation of all indicators (waist-to-height ratio, triglycerides/glucose index, and triglycerides-to-HDL-C ratio) with homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance was observed for both sexes. The areas under the receiver operational characteristic curves were similar between waist-to-height ratio and biochemical markers. The indicators provided similar discriminatory power for insulin resistance. However, taking into account the cost-benefit ratio, the authors suggest that waist-to-height ratio may be a useful tool to provide screening for insulin resistance in pediatric populations. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Association of the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype and type 2 diabetes mellitus among adults in China.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yongcheng; Zhang, Ming; Zhao, Jingzhi; Wang, Chongjian; Luo, Xinping; Zhang, Jiatong; Zhu, Tian; Li, Xi; Yin, Lei; Pang, Chao; Feng, Tianping; Wang, Bingyuan; Zhang, Lu; Li, Linlin; Yang, Xiangyu; Zhang, Hongyan; Hu, Dongsheng

    2016-09-01

    To clarify the association of the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype and type 2 diabetes mellitus among adults in China. In the present case-control study, we included 1,685 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 7,141 normal glucose-tolerant controls from the Henan Province of China in 2011. Elevated waist circumference (GW) was defined as ≥90 cm for men and ≥80 cm for women. Hypertriglyceridemia (HT) was defined as >1.7 m mol/L triglycerides (TG) level. The association of hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype and type 2 diabetes mellitus was investigated by sex, body mass index, physical activity, and family history of diabetes. Cases and controls differed in age, waist circumference (WC), weight, TG level, fasting glucose, body mass index, smoking status, diabetic family history, physical activity and hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype (P < 0.05), but not alcohol drinking (P = 0.63). In the overall sample, as compared with the phenotype of normal TG level and normal WC (NTNW), normal TG level/enlarged WC (NTGW), elevated TG level/normal WC (HTNW) and elevated TG level/enlarged WC (HTGW) were associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (odds ratio 4.14, 2.42 and 6.23, respectively). Only HTGW was consistently associated with risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, with or without adjustment. The strongest relationship between HTGW and type 2 diabetes mellitus was for subjects with body mass index <24.0 kg/m(2) (odds ratio 6.54, 95% confidence interval 4.22-10.14) after adjustment for cofounding variables. HTGW was stably and significantly associated with risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adult Chinese. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. Development of a fuzzy-stochastic programming with Green Z-score criterion method for planning water resources systems with a trading mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zeng, X T; Huang, G H; Li, Y P; Zhang, J L; Cai, Y P; Liu, Z P; Liu, L R

    2016-12-01

    This study developed a fuzzy-stochastic programming with Green Z-score criterion (FSGZ) method for water resources allocation and water quality management with a trading-mechanism (WAQT) under uncertainties. FSGZ can handle uncertainties expressed as probability distributions, and it can also quantify objective/subjective fuzziness in the decision-making process. Risk-averse attitudes and robustness coefficient are joined to express the relationship between the expected target and outcome under various risk preferences of decision makers and systemic robustness. The developed method is applied to a real-world case of WAQT in the Kaidu-Kongque River Basin in northwest China, where an effective mechanism (e.g., market trading) to simultaneously confront severely diminished water availability and degraded water quality is required. Results of water transaction amounts, water allocation patterns, pollution mitigation schemes, and system benefits under various scenarios are analyzed, which indicate that a trading-mechanism is a more sustainable method to manage water-environment crisis in the study region. Additionally, consideration of anthropogenic (e.g., a risk-averse attitude) and systemic factors (e.g., the robustness coefficient) can support the generation of a robust plan associated with risk control for WAQT when uncertainty is present. These findings assist local policy and decision makers to gain insights into water-environment capacity planning to balance the basin's social and economic growth with protecting the region's ecosystems.

  2. Hypertriglyceridemic waist-to-height ratio phenotype: association with atherogenic lipid profile in Han adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chun-ming; Liu, Xiao-li; Yin, Fu-Zai; Gao, Guo-qin; Wang, Rui; Lu, Qiang

    2015-09-01

    Hypertriglyceridemic waist (HW) phenotype was associated with an atherogenic lipid profile in adolescents. But unlike adults, the cutoffs of waist circumference are age- and gender-specific standards and are less feasible for non-professional use. The present study tested the hypothesis that simple variables, such as waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and serum triacylglycerol (TG) concentrations, could be used as screening tools for the identification of adolescents characterized by atherogenic lipid profile. In 2006, anthropometric and biochemical measurements were assessed in a cross-sectional population-based study of 3136 Han adolescents, aged 13-17 years. The hypertriglyceridemic waist-to-height ratio (HWHtR) phenotype was defined as serum TG concentrations ≥1.47 mmol/L and WHtR ≥0.48 for boys and ≥0.46 for girls. Hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol ≥5.18 mmol/L), high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C ≥3.37 mmol/L), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C <1.03 mmol/L), and high non-HDL-C (≥3.76 mmol/L) were considered as atherogenic lipid profiles. After control for age and sex, adolescents with the HWHtR phenotype were more likely to have hypercholesterolemia (odds ratio (OR) = 7.8, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 3.5-17.3, P < 0.001), high LDL-C (OR = 9.4, 95 % CI = 2.8-31.2, P < 0.001), low HDL-C (OR = 10.8, 95 % CI = 6.9-17.0, P < 0.001), and high non-HDL-C (OR = 22.9, 95 % CI = 10.0-52.2, P < 0.001) than those adolescents with normal WHtR and normal serum TG concentrations. The present study demonstrates that HWHtR phenotype is a simple marker for identifying adolescents with atherogenic lipid profile. Compared with HW phenotype, HWHtR phenotype is a non-age-dependent index with higher applicability to screen for cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents. • The hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype is represented by the simultaneous presence of elevated serum triacylglycerol

  3. BMI z-scores are a poor indicator of adiposity among 2- to 19-year-olds with very high BMIs, NHANES 1999-2000 to 2013-2014

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) growth charts are widely used, BMI-for-age z-Scores (BMIz) are known to be uninformative above the 97th percentile. This study compared the relations of BMIz and other BMI metrics (%BMIp95, percent of 95th percentile, and BMI minus 95th ...

  4. Abnormal cortical sources of resting state electroencephalographic rhythms in single treatment-naïve HIV individuals: A statistical z-score index.

    PubMed

    Babiloni, Claudio; Pennica, Alfredo; Del Percio, Claudio; Noce, Giuseppe; Cordone, Susanna; Muratori, Chiara; Ferracuti, Stefano; Donato, Nicole; Di Campli, Francesco; Gianserra, Laura; Teti, Elisabetta; Aceti, Antonio; Soricelli, Andrea; Viscione, Magdalena; Limatola, Cristina; Andreoni, Massimo; Onorati, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    This study tested a simple statistical procedure to recognize single treatment-naïve HIV individuals having abnormal cortical sources of resting state delta (<4 Hz) and alpha (8-13 Hz) electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms with reference to a control group of sex-, age-, and education-matched healthy individuals. Compared to the HIV individuals with a statistically normal EEG marker, those with abnormal values were expected to show worse cognitive status. Resting state eyes-closed EEG data were recorded in 82 treatment-naïve HIV (39.8 ys.±1.2 standard error mean, SE) and 59 age-matched cognitively healthy subjects (39 ys.±2.2 SE). Low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) estimated delta and alpha sources in frontal, central, temporal, parietal, and occipital cortical regions. Ratio of the activity of parietal delta and high-frequency alpha sources (EEG marker) showed the maximum difference between the healthy and the treatment-naïve HIV group. Z-score of the EEG marker was statistically abnormal in 47.6% of treatment-naïve HIV individuals with reference to the healthy group (p<0.05). Compared to the HIV individuals with a statistically normal EEG marker, those with abnormal values exhibited lower mini mental state evaluation (MMSE) score, higher CD4 count, and lower viral load (p<0.05). This statistical procedure permitted for the first time to identify single treatment-naïve HIV individuals having abnormal EEG activity. This procedure might enrich the detection and monitoring of effects of HIV on brain function in single treatment-naïve HIV individuals. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A child feeding index is superior to WHO IYCF indicators in explaining length-for-age Z-scores of young children in rural Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Reinbott, Anika; Kuchenbecker, Judith; Herrmann, Johannes; Jordan, Irmgard; Muehlhoff, Ellen; Kevanna, Ou; Krawinkel, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adequate young child feeding practices are influenced by a multitude of factors which affect growth and development. A combination of indicators is needed to explain the role of complementary feeding practices in growth retardation. Methods: A cross-sectional nutrition baseline survey was conducted in rural Cambodia in September 2012. Villages in pre-selected communes were randomly selected using stunting as a primary indicator. Data were collected from 803 randomly selected households with children aged 6–23 months, based on a standardised questionnaire and on length/height and weight measurements of mother and child. WHO Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) indicators [minimum dietary diversity (MDD), minimum meal frequency (MMF), minimum acceptable diet (MAD)] and a child feeding index (CFI) were created. The latter consisted of five components: breastfeeding, use of bottle, dietary diversity, food frequency and meal frequency which were adjusted for three age groups: 6–8, 9–11 and 12–23 months. The highest possible score was 10. Associations between length-for-age Z-scores (LAZ) and WHO indicators or CFI were explored. Results: Mean (SD) LAZ was −1.25 (1.14) (n  =  801). Mean (range) CFI was 6.7 (1–10) (n  =  797). Mean CFI was highest in the 9–11-months age group (7.93) and lowest for those aged 12–23 months (5.96). None of the WHO IYCF indicators was associated with LAZ, whereas CFI showed significant association with LAZ (P < 0.01). The association between higher CFI scores and LAZ became weaker as age increased. Conclusion: The results highlight the need to include a wide range of information in the analysis in order to understand the association between appropriate infant feeding practices and child growth. PMID:25226288

  6. Comparison between CDC and WHO BMI z-score and their relation with metabolic risk markers in Northern Portuguese obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Henrique; Catarino, Cristina; Mendonça, Denisa; Oliveira, Pedro; Alves, Ana Inês; Medeiros, Ana Filipa; Pereira, Petronila Rocha; Rêgo, Carla; Mansilha, Helena Ferreira; Aires, Luísa; Mota, Jorge; Quintanilha, Alexandre; Santos-Silva, Alice; Belo, Luís

    2015-01-01

    Growth-curves are an important tool for evaluating the anthropometric development in pediatrics. The different growth-curves available are based in different populations, what leads to different cut-offs. Pediatric obesity tracks into adulthood and is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The accurate assessment of a child nutritional status using growth-curves can indicate individuals that are either obese or in risk of becoming obese, allowing an early intervention. Moreover, the association between the data obtained from growth-curves with specific metabolic risk factors further highlights the importance of these charts. This study aimed to evaluate the associations between body mass index z-score (BMIzsc), determined using the growth-curves from the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and from the World Health Organization (WHO), with cardiovascular risk factors, represented here by metabolic syndrome (MS) and insulin resistance (IR) related parameters. The study involved 246 obese adolescents (10-18 years, 122 females). MS was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation. IR was considered for HOMA-IR greater than 2.5. No difference between both BMIzsc in identifying MS was noticeable by a ROC analysis. For both indexes the area-under-the-curve increased for older groups, particularly for males. CDC-BMIzsc was the best predictor of MS by logistic regression when all population was considered, however MS was better predicted by WHO-BMIzsc for females and by CDC-BMIzsc for males. Younger girls and older boys were in increased risk for MS. Similar results were obtained for IR. A significant difference between the two BMIzsc regarding their association with MS and IR was not clear, being these associations weaker in younger individuals.

  7. Investigation into longitudinal dietary behaviours and household socio-economic indicators and their association with BMI Z-score and fat mass in South African adolescents: the Birth to Twenty (Bt20) cohort.

    PubMed

    Feeley, Alison B; Musenge, Eustasius; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A

    2013-04-01

    The present study aimed to assess the relationship between dietary habits, change in socio-economic status and BMI Z-score and fat mass in a cohort of South African adolescents. In the longitudinal study, data were collected at ages 13, 15 and 17 years on a birth cohort who have been followed since 1990. Black participants with complete dietary habits data (breakfast consumption during the week and at weekends, snacking while watching television, eating main meal with family, lunchbox use, number of tuck shop purchases, fast-food consumption, confectionery consumption and sweetened beverage consumption) at all three ages and body composition data at age 17 years were included in the analyses. Generalized estimating equations were used to test the associations between individual longitudinal dietary habits and obesity (denoted by BMI Z-score and fat mass) with adjustments for change in socio-economic status between birth and age 12 years. Birth to Twenty (Bt20) study, Soweto-Johannesburg, South Africa. Adolescents (n 1298; 49·7 % male). In males, the multivariable analyses showed that soft drink consumption was positively associated with both BMI Z-score and fat mass (P < 0·05). Furthermore, these relationships remained the same after adjustment for socio-economic indicators (P < 0·05). No associations were found in females. Longitudinal soft drink consumption was associated with increased BMI Z-score and fat mass in males only. Fridge ownership at birth (a proxy for greater household disposable income in this cohort) was shown to be associated with both BMI Z-score and fat mass.

  8. Which index best correlates with body fat mass: BAI, BMI, waist or WHR?

    PubMed

    Suchanek, Pavel; Kralova Lesna, Ivana; Mengerova, Olga; Mrazkova, Jolana; Lanska, Vera; Stavek, Petr

    2012-01-01

    The body mass index (BMI) has been the most commonly applied clinical measure to characterise body composition in individuals. However, the BMI has been criticised as being an inaccurate measure of body fatness. Recently, a new index reflecting body composition, the Body Adiposity Index (BAI) was proposed. The BAI was calculated using the equation BAI=((hip circumference)/ ((height)1.5) - 18). The aim of this study was to compare estimates of body fat content, i.e., body adiposity index (BAI), BMI, waist-hip ratio (WHR) and waist and hip circumferences, with respect to their ability to predict the percentage of body fat (PBF). To select an optimal surrogate for adiposity, we examined the correlation between body adiposity percentage as measured by BIA and several variables, including BAI, BMI and WHR. Correlations ranged from a high of 0.78 for BMI, 0.67 for BAI and 0.66 for waist circumference to a low value of 0.39 for the WHR index. The correlation between PBF and BAI (R=0.67, R2=0.45, p<0.001) and the correlation between PBF and BMI (R=0.78, R2=0.60, p<0.001) were of similar magnitude. Based on our results and those of other studies, we can say that the BAI index is not a universally valid index that could be used in the place of the BMI index in a Caucasian population; indeed, it would not accurately reflect body fat mass and thus could lead to an increased risk of obesity. Further, WHR index is not a suitable for an estimation of body fat.

  9. Head Circumference and Height in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Lainhart, Janet E.; Bigler, Erin D.; Bocian, Maureen; Coon, Hilary; Dinh, Elena; Dawson, Geraldine; Deutsch, Curtis K.; Dunn, Michelle; Estes, Annette; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Folstein, Susan; Hepburn, Susan; Hyman, Susan; McMahon, William; Minshew, Nancy; Munson, Jeff; Osann, Kathy; Ozonoff, Sally; Rodier, Patricia; Rogers, Sally; Sigman, Marian; Spence, M. Anne; Stodgell, Christopher J.; Volkmar, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Data from 10 sites of the NICHD/NIDCD Collaborative Programs of Excellence in Autism were combined to study the distribution of head circumference and relationship to demographic and clinical variables. Three hundred thirty-eight probands with autism-spectrum disorder (ASD) including 208 probands with autism were studied along with 147 parents, 149 siblings, and typically developing controls. ASDs were diagnosed, and head circumference and clinical variables measured in a standardized manner across all sites. All subjects with autism met ADI-R, ADOS-G, DSM-IV, and ICD-10 criteria. The results show the distribution of standardized head circumference in autism is normal in shape, and the mean, variance, and rate of macrocephaly but not microcephaly are increased. Head circumference tends to be large relative to height in autism. No site, gender, age, SES, verbal, or non-verbal IQ effects were present in the autism sample. In addition to autism itself, standardized height and average parental head circumference were the most important factors predicting head circumference in individuals with autism. Mean standardized head circumference and rates of macrocephaly were similar in probands with autism and their parents. Increased head circumference was associated with a higher (more severe) ADI-R social algorithm score. Macrocephaly is associated with delayed onset of language. Although mean head circumference and rates of macrocephaly are increased in autism, a high degree of variability is present, underscoring the complex clinical heterogeneity of the disorder. The wide distribution of head circumference in autism has major implications for genetic, neuroimaging, and other neurobiological research. PMID:17022081

  10. Consomic mouse strain selection based on effect size measurement, statistical significance testing and integrated behavioral z-scoring: focus on anxiety-related behavior and locomotion.

    PubMed

    Labots, M; Laarakker, M C; Ohl, F; van Lith, H A

    2016-06-29

    Selecting chromosome substitution strains (CSSs, also called consomic strains/lines) used in the search for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) consistently requires the identification of the respective phenotypic trait of interest and is simply based on a significant difference between a consomic and host strain. However, statistical significance as represented by P values does not necessarily predicate practical importance. We therefore propose a method that pays attention to both the statistical significance and the actual size of the observed effect. The present paper extends on this approach and describes in more detail the use of effect size measures (Cohen's d, partial eta squared - η p (2) ) together with the P value as statistical selection parameters for the chromosomal assignment of QTLs influencing anxiety-related behavior and locomotion in laboratory mice. The effect size measures were based on integrated behavioral z-scoring and were calculated in three experiments: (A) a complete consomic male mouse panel with A/J as the donor strain and C57BL/6J as the host strain. This panel, including host and donor strains, was analyzed in the modified Hole Board (mHB). The consomic line with chromosome 19 from A/J (CSS-19A) was selected since it showed increased anxiety-related behavior, but similar locomotion compared to its host. (B) Following experiment A, female CSS-19A mice were compared with their C57BL/6J counterparts; however no significant differences and effect sizes close to zero were found. (C) A different consomic mouse strain (CSS-19PWD), with chromosome 19 from PWD/PhJ transferred on the genetic background of C57BL/6J, was compared with its host strain. Here, in contrast with CSS-19A, there was a decreased overall anxiety in CSS-19PWD compared to C57BL/6J males, but not locomotion. This new method shows an improved way to identify CSSs for QTL analysis for anxiety-related behavior using a combination of statistical significance testing and effect

  11. Neck circumference as a new anthropometric indicator for prediction of insulin resistance and components of metabolic syndrome in adolescents: Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Cleliani de Cassia; Zambon, Mariana Porto; Vasques, Ana Carolina J.; Rodrigues, Ana Maria de B.; Camilo, Daniella Fernandes; Antonio, Maria Ângela R. de G. M.; Cassani, Roberta Soares L.; Geloneze, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation between neck circumference and insulin resistance and components of metabolic syndrome in adolescents with different adiposity levels and pubertal stages, as well as to determine the usefulness of neck circumference to predict insulin resistance in adolescents. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 388 adolescents of both genders from ten to 19 years old. The adolescents underwent anthropometric and body composition assessment, including neck and waist circumferences, and biochemical evaluation. The pubertal stage was obtained by self-assessment, and the blood pressure, by auscultation. Insulin resistance was evaluated by the Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance. The correlation between two variables was evaluated by partial correlation coefficient adjusted for the percentage of body fat and pubertal stage. The performance of neck circumference to identify insulin resistance was tested by Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve. RESULTS: After the adjustment for percentage body fat and pubertal stage, neck circumference correlated with waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides and markers of insulin resistance in both genders. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the neck circumference is a useful tool for the detection of insulin resistance and changes in the indicators of metabolic syndrome in adolescents. The easiness of application and low cost of this measure may allow its use in Public Health services. PMID:25119754

  12. Comparison of the fixed ratio and the Z-score of FEV1/FVC in the elderly population: a long-term mortality analysis from the Third National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Oh, Dong Kyu; Baek, Seunghee; Lee, Sei Won; Lee, Jae Seung; Lee, Sang-Do; Oh, Yeon-Mok

    2018-01-01

    Despite the ongoing intense debate on the definition of airflow limitation by spirometry in the elderly population, there have only been few studies comparing the fixed ratio and the Z -score of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 )/forced vital capacity (FVC) in terms of long-term mortalities. In this study, we aimed to identify the proper method for accurately defining the airflow limitation in terms of long-term mortality prediction in the elderly population. Data were collected from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in the US. Non-Hispanic Caucasians aged 65-80 years were included. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of both methods were plotted and compared for 10-year all-cause, respiratory, and COPD mortalities. Of 1,331 subjects, the mean age was 71.7 years and 805 (60.5%) were males. For the 10-year all-cause mortality, the area under the curve (AUC) of the fixed ratio was significantly greater than that of the Z -score of FEV 1 /FVC, but both showed poor prediction performance (0.633 vs 0.616, p <0.001). For the 10-year respiratory and COPD mortalities, both the fixed ratio and the Z -score of FEV 1 /FVC showed comparable prediction performance with greater AUCs (0.784 vs 0.778, p =0.160, and 0.896 vs 0.896, p =0.971, respectively). Interestingly, the conventional cutoff of 0.7 in the fixed ratio was consistently higher than the optimal for the 10-year all-cause, respiratory, and COPD mortalities (0.70 vs 0.69, 0.62, and 0.61, respectively), whereas that of -1.64 in the Z -score of FEV 1 /FVC was consistently lower than the optimal cutoff (-1.64 vs -1.31, -1.47, and -1.41, respectively). In the elderly population, both the fixed ratio and the Z -score of FEV 1 /FVC showed comparable prediction performance for the 10-year respiratory and COPD mortalities. However, the conventional cutoff of neither 0.70 in the fixed ratio nor -1.64 in the Z -score of FEV 1 /FVC was optimal for predicting the long

  13. Growth Asymmetry, Head Circumference, and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Infants with Single Ventricles.

    PubMed

    Miller, Thomas A; Zak, Victor; Shrader, Peter; Ravishankar, Chitra; Pemberton, Victoria L; Newburger, Jane W; Shillingford, Amanda J; Dagincourt, Nicholas; Cnota, James F; Lambert, Linda M; Sananes, Renee; Richmond, Marc E; Hsu, Daphne T; Miller, Stephen G; Zyblewski, Sinai C; Williams, Richard V

    2016-01-01

    To assess the variability in asymmetric growth and its association with neurodevelopment in infants with single ventricle (SV). We analyzed weight-for-age z-score minus head circumference-for-age z-score (HCAZ), relative head growth (cm/kg), along with individual growth variables in subjects prospectively enrolled in the Infant Single Ventricle Trial. Associations between growth indices and scores on the Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI) and Mental Developmental Index (MDI) of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II (BSID-II) at 14 months were assessed. Of the 230 subjects enrolled in the Infant Single Ventricle trial, complete growth data and BSID-II scores were available in 168 (73%). Across the cohort, indices of asymmetric growth varied widely at enrollment and before superior cavopulmonary connection (SCPC) surgery. BSID-II scores were not associated with these asymmetry indices. In bivariate analyses, greater pre-SCPC HCAZ correlated with higher MDI (r = 0.21; P = .006) and PDI (r = 0.38; P < .001) and a greater HCAZ increase from enrollment to pre-SCPC with higher PDI (r = 0.15; P = .049). In multivariable modeling, pre-SCPC HCAZ was an independent predictor of PDI (P = .03), but not MDI. In infants with SV, growth asymmetry was not associated with neurodevelopment at 14 months, but pre-SCPC HCAZ was associated with PDI. Asymmetric growth, important in other high-risk infants, is not a brain-sparing adaptation in infants with SV. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00113087. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Concordance between a head circumference growth function and intellectual disability in relation with the cause of microcephaly].

    PubMed

    Coronado, R; Macaya Ruíz, A; Giraldo Arjonilla, J; Roig-Quilis, M

    2015-08-01

    Our aim was to investigate the correlations between patterns of head growth and intellectual disability among distinct aetiological presentations of microcephaly. 3,269 head circumference (HC) charts of patients from a tertiary neuropediatric unit were reviewed and 136 microcephalic participants selected. Using the Z-scores of registered HC measurements we defined the variables: HC Minimum, HC Drop and HC Catch-up. We classified patients according to the presence or absence of intellectual disability (IQ below 71) and according to the cause of microcephaly (idiopathic, familial, syndromic, symptomatic and mixed). Using Discriminant Analysis a C-function was defined as C=HC Minimum + HC Drop with a cut-off level of C=-4.32 Z-score. In our sample 95% of patients scoring below this level, severe microcephaly, were classified in the disabled group while the overall concordance was 66%. In the symptomatic-mixed group the concordance between HC function and outcome reached 82% in contrast to only 54% in the idiopathic-syndromic group (P-value=0.0002). We defined a HC growth function which discriminates intellectual disability of microcephalic patients better than isolated HC measurements, especially for those with secondary and mixed aetiologies. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. White Matter Damage in 4,725 Term-Born Infants Is Determined by Head Circumference at Birth: The Missing Link

    PubMed Central

    Holmer, Bert

    2018-01-01

    Background White matter damage (WMD) is a prime risk factor for cerebral palsy, in part occurring unexplained. Though primarily a problem of preterm infants, there is growing evidence that in large newborns cephalopelvic disproportion and prolonged labor are involved. Objective To explore both incidence of and morphometric risk factors for WMD in term-born infants. Study Design We related growth variables and risk factors of term-born infants to WMD (61/4,725) using odds ratios of z-score bands. Results The key result is the novel observation that head circumference is a prime and unique index for WMD in term-born neonates over the whole range of centiles (U-shaped; WMD (%) = 3.1168–0.12797∗HC (centile) + 0.0014741∗HC2; p < 0.0001). This suggests different mechanisms for WMD in the lowest and highest z-score band. In the latter, cephalic pressure gradients and prolonged labor with preserved neonatal vitality prevail, whereas in the previous one, acute and chronic oxygen deprivation with reduced vitality predominate. Conclusions The fact that seemingly healthy term-born neonates are not screened by head imaging, in spite of both large head circumference and prolonged labor, is considered to be the missing link between the insult that escapes diagnosis and the development of unexplained developmental delay and cerebral palsy in childhood. PMID:29681945

  16. White Matter Damage in 4,725 Term-Born Infants Is Determined by Head Circumference at Birth: The Missing Link.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Arne; Holmer, Bert

    2018-01-01

    White matter damage (WMD) is a prime risk factor for cerebral palsy, in part occurring unexplained. Though primarily a problem of preterm infants, there is growing evidence that in large newborns cephalopelvic disproportion and prolonged labor are involved. To explore both incidence of and morphometric risk factors for WMD in term-born infants. We related growth variables and risk factors of term-born infants to WMD (61/4,725) using odds ratios of z -score bands. The key result is the novel observation that head circumference is a prime and unique index for WMD in term-born neonates over the whole range of centiles (U-shaped; WMD (%) = 3.1168-0.12797 ∗ HC (centile) + 0.0014741 ∗ HC 2 ; p < 0.0001). This suggests different mechanisms for WMD in the lowest and highest z -score band. In the latter, cephalic pressure gradients and prolonged labor with preserved neonatal vitality prevail, whereas in the previous one, acute and chronic oxygen deprivation with reduced vitality predominate. The fact that seemingly healthy term-born neonates are not screened by head imaging, in spite of both large head circumference and prolonged labor, is considered to be the missing link between the insult that escapes diagnosis and the development of unexplained developmental delay and cerebral palsy in childhood.

  17. Penile length and circumference: an Indian study.

    PubMed

    Promodu, K; Shanmughadas, K V; Bhat, S; Nair, K R

    2007-01-01

    Apprehension about the normal size of penis is a major concern for men. Aim of the present investigation is to estimate the penile length and circumference of Indian males and to compare the results with the data from other countries. Results will help in counseling the patients worried about the penile size and seeking penis enlargement surgery. Penile length in flaccid and stretched conditions and circumference were measured in a group of 301 physically normal men. Erected length and circumference were measured for 93 subjects. Mean flaccid length was found to be 8.21 cm, mean stretched length 10.88 cm and circumference 9.14 cm. Mean erected length was found to be 13.01 cm and erected circumference was 11.46 cm. Penile dimensions are found to be correlated with anthropometric parameters. Insight into the normative data of penile size of Indian males obtained. There are significant differences in the mean penile length and circumference of Indian sample compared to the data reported from other countries. Study need to be continued with a large sample to establish a normative data applicable to the general population.

  18. The effect of PCSK1 variants on waist, waist-hip ratio and glucose metabolism is modified by sex and glucose tolerance status.

    PubMed

    Gjesing, Anette P; Vestmar, Marie A; Jørgensen, Torben; Heni, Martin; Holst, Jens J; Witte, Daniel R; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effects of the G-allele of rs6232 and the C-allele of rs6235 within PCSK1 on measures of body fat and glucose homeostasis in Danish individuals and to assess interactions of genotypes with age, sex and glucose tolerance status. Data were included in meta-analyses of additional Europeans. Rs6232 and rs6235 were genotyped in 6,164 Danes from the Inter99 study of middle-aged people. Results from these analyses were combined with previously published studies in meta-analyses of a total of 27,786 individuals. The impact of the variants was also investigated in a subset of 62 glucose-tolerant men during a meal challenge including measures of serum incretins. In men we found an effect on body composition in sex-stratified analyses where the rs6235 C-allele conferred an increased waist circumference of 0.8 cm per allele (0.2-1.5, p = 0.008) and increased waist-to-hip ratio of 0.004 (0.0005-0.008, p = 0.027). In the meta-analyses where men and women were combined, the rs6232 G-allele associated with increased waist-to-hip ratio (p = 0.02) and the rs6235 C-allele associated with increased waist circumference (p = 0.01). Furthermore, the rs6235 C-allele was associated nominally with a 0.6% (0.1-1%, p = 0.01) reduction in fasting glucose, it interacted with glucose tolerance status for traits related to glucose metabolism and analysis among individuals having abnormal glucose tolerance revealed a 5% (-0.7-9%, p = 0.02) elevated level of acute insulin response for this variant. Finally, we found that the rs6232 G-allele associated with higher levels of GLP-1, GLP-2 and glucagon and that the rs6235 C-allele associated with higher levels of GIP and glucagon during a meal-test. PCSK1 rs6232 G-allele and rs6235 C-allele have an effect on body composition which may be modified by sex, whereas the effect of rs6235 C-allele on fasting and stimulated circulating plasma glucose and hormone levels may be influenced by glucose tolerance

  19. The Effect of PCSK1 Variants on Waist, Waist-Hip Ratio and Glucose Metabolism Is Modified by Sex and Glucose Tolerance Status

    PubMed Central

    Gjesing, Anette P.; Vestmar, Marie A.; Jørgensen, Torben; Heni, Martin; Holst, Jens J.; Witte, Daniel R.; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf

    2011-01-01

    Background We aimed to evaluate the effects of the G-allele of rs6232 and the C-allele of rs6235 within PCSK1 on measures of body fat and glucose homeostasis in Danish individuals and to assess interactions of genotypes with age, sex and glucose tolerance status. Data were included in meta-analyses of additional Europeans. Methodology/Principal Findings Rs6232 and rs6235 were genotyped in 6,164 Danes from the Inter99 study of middle-aged people. Results from these analyses were combined with previously published studies in meta-analyses of a total of 27,786 individuals. The impact of the variants was also investigated in a subset of 62 glucose-tolerant men during a meal challenge including measures of serum incretins. In men we found an effect on body composition in sex-stratified analyses where the rs6235 C-allele conferred an increased waist circumference of 0.8 cm per allele (0.2–1.5, p = 0.008) and increased waist-to-hip ratio of 0.004 (0.0005–0.008, p = 0.027). In the meta-analyses where men and women were combined, the rs6232 G-allele associated with increased waist-to-hip ratio (p = 0.02) and the rs6235 C-allele associated with increased waist circumference (p = 0.01). Furthermore, the rs6235 C-allele was associated nominally with a 0.6% (0.1–1%, p = 0.01) reduction in fasting glucose, it interacted with glucose tolerance status for traits related to glucose metabolism and analysis among individuals having abnormal glucose tolerance revealed a 5% (−0.7–9%, p = 0.02) elevated level of acute insulin response for this variant. Finally, we found that the rs6232 G-allele associated with higher levels of GLP-1, GLP-2 and glucagon and that the rs6235 C-allele associated with higher levels of GIP and glucagon during a meal-test. Conclusions/Significance PCSK1 rs6232 G-allele and rs6235 C-allele have an effect on body composition which may be modified by sex, whereas the effect of rs6235 C-allele on fasting and stimulated circulating

  20. Fever in pregnancy and offspring head circumference.

    PubMed

    Dreier, Julie Werenberg; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Uldall, Peter Vilhelm; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie

    2018-02-01

    To examine whether maternal fever during pregnancy is associated with reduced head circumference and risk of microcephaly at birth. A prospective study of 86,980 live-born singletons within the Danish National Birth Cohort was carried out. Self-reported maternal fever exposure was ascertained in two interviews during pregnancy and information on head circumference at birth was extracted from the Danish Medical Birth Registry. Fever in pregnancy was reported by 27% of the mothers, and we identified 3370 cases of microcephaly (head circumference less than or equal to third percentile for sex and gestational age) and 1140 cases of severe microcephaly (head circumference less than or equal to first percentile for sex and gestational age). In this study, maternal fever exposure was not associated with reduced head circumference (adjusted β = 0.03, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.01-0.05), increased risk of microcephaly (odds ratio: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.88-1.03) nor severe microcephaly (odds ratio: 1.01, 95% CI: 0.88-1.15) in the offspring. These findings were consistent for increasing numbers of fever episodes, for increasing fever severity, and for exposure in both early pregnancy and midpregnancy. In this most comprehensive study to date, we found no indication that maternal fever in pregnancy is associated with small head size in the offspring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Correlation of Waist-to-hip Ratio (WHR) and Oxidative Stress in Patients of Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI).

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Anwar Hasan; Gulati, Rajiv; Tauheed, Nazia; Pervez, Anjum

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is associated with increased oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation is thought to play a crucial role in the generation of atherosclerotic lesions of Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI). The case-control study contained 120 subjects divided in two groups, 60 patients with AMI and equal number of age- and sex-matched healthy subjects as controls. Ratio of Waist Circumference (WC) to Hip Circumference (HC) (waist-to-hip ratio) of all the subjects was recorded. Antioxidant status of the individuals was determined by measuring the serum levels of Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD). Estimation of Malondialdehyde (MDA), a marker of lipid peroxidation was used as a surrogate marker of free radical activity. WHR was found to be significantly higher in patients of AMI as compared to controls. MDA levels were significantly high and antioxidants molecules GPx and SOD were significantly decreased in AMI patients as compared with control (p<0.001). WHR correlated positively to serum level of MDA and inversely to the serum level of antioxidant enzymes. High Waist-to-hip ratio is associated with high concentrations of malondialdehyde level and low concentration of antioxidant's enzyme. This results in increased oxidative stress, a major causative factor of AMI.

  2. [Prediction equations for fat percentage from body circumferences in prepubescent children].

    PubMed

    Gómez Campos, Rossana; De Marco, Ademir; de Arruda, Miguel; Martínez Salazar, Cristian; Margarita Salazar, Ciria; Valgas, Carmen; Fuentes, José Damián; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of body composition through direct and indirect methods allows the study of the various components of the human body, becoming the central hub for assessing nutritional status. The objective of the study was to develop equations for predicting body fat% from circumferential body arm, waist and calf and propose percentiles to diagnose the nutritional status of school children of both sexes aged 4-10 years. We selected intentionally (non-probabilistic) 515 children, 261 children and 254 being girls belonging to Program interaction and development of children and adolescents from the State University of Campinas (Sao Paulo, Brazil). Anthropometric variables were evaluated for weight, height, triceps and subscapular skinfolds and body circumferences of arm, waist and calf, and the% fat determined by the equation proposed by Boileau, Lohman and Slaughter (1985). Through regression method 2 were generated equations to predict the percentage of fat from the body circumferences, the equations 1 and 2 were validated by cross validation method. The equations showed high predictive values ranging with a R² = 64-69%. In cross validation between the criterion and the regression equation proposed no significant difference (p > 0.05) and there was a high level of agreement to a 95% CI. It is concluded that the proposals are validated and shown as an alternative to assess the percentage of fat in school children of both sexes aged 4-10 years in the region of Campinas, SP (Brazil). Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  3. Adding anthropometric measures of regional adiposity to BMI improves prediction of cardiometabolic, inflammatory and adipokines profiles in youths: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Samouda, Hanen; de Beaufort, Carine; Stranges, Saverio; Guinhouya, Benjamin C; Gilson, Georges; Hirsch, Marco; Jacobs, Julien; Leite, Sonia; Vaillant, Michel; Dadoun, Frédéric

    2015-10-24

    Paediatric research analysing the relationship between the easy-to-use anthropometric measures for adiposity and cardiometabolic risk factors remains highly controversial in youth. Several studies suggest that only body mass index (BMI), a measure of relative weight, constitutes an accurate predictor, whereas others highlight the potential role of waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist circumference (Waist C), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). In this study, we examined the effectiveness of adding anthropometric measures of body fat distribution (Waist C Z Score, WHR Z Score and/or WHtR) to BMI Z Score to predict cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight and obese youth. We also examined the consistency of these associations with the "total fat mass + trunk/legs fat mass" and/or the "total fat mass + trunk fat mass" combinations, as assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), the gold standard measurement of body composition. Anthropometric and DXA measurements of total and regional adiposity, as well as a comprehensive assessment of cardiometabolic, inflammatory and adipokines profiles were performed in 203 overweight and obese 7-17 year-old youths from the Paediatrics Clinic, Centre Hospitalier de Luxembourg. Adding only one anthropometric surrogate of regional fat to BMI Z Score improved the prediction of insulin resistance (WHR Z Score, R(2): 45.9%. Waist C Z Score, R(2): 45.5%), HDL-cholesterol (WHR Z Score, R(2): 9.6%. Waist C Z Score, R(2): 10.8%. WHtR, R(2): 6.5%), triglycerides (WHR Z Score, R(2): 11.7%. Waist C Z Score, R(2): 12.2%), adiponectin (WHR Z Score, R(2): 14.3%. Waist C Z Score, R(2): 17.7%), CRP (WHR Z Score, R(2): 18.2%. WHtR, R(2): 23.3%), systolic (WHtR, R(2): 22.4%), diastolic blood pressure (WHtR, R(2): 20%) and fibrinogen (WHtR, R(2): 21.8%). Moreover, WHR Z Score, Waist C Z Score and/or WHtR showed an independent significant contribution according to these models. These results were in line with the DXA findings. Adding

  4. Efficacy of mid-upper arm circumference in identification, follow-up and discharge of malnourished children during nutrition rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Mogendi, Joseph Birundu; De Steur, Hans; Gellynck, Xavier; Saeed, Hibbah Araba; Makokha, Anselimo

    2015-06-01

    Although it is crucial to identify those children likely to be treated in an appropriate nutrition rehabilitation programme and discharge them at the appropriate time, there is no golden standard for such identification. The current study examined the appropriateness of using Mid-Upper Arm Circumference for the identification, follow-up and discharge of malnourished children. We also assessed its discrepancy with the Weight-for-Height based diagnosis, the rate of recovery, and the discharge criteria of the children during nutrition rehabilitation. The study present findings from 156 children (aged 6-59 months) attending a supplementary feeding programme at Makadara and Jericho Health Centres, Eastern District of Nairobi, Kenya. Records of age, weight, height and mid-upper arm circumference were selected at three stages of nutrition rehabilitation: admission, follow-up and discharge. The values obtained were then used to calculate z-scores as defined by WHO Anthro while estimating different diagnostic indices. Mid-upper arm circumference single cut-off (< 12.5 cm) was found to exhibit high values of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio at both admission and discharge. Besides, children recorded higher rate of recovery at 86 days, an average increment of 0.98 cm at the rate of 0.14mm/day, and a weight gain of 13.49gm/day, albeit higher in female than their male counterparts. Nevertheless, children admitted on basis of low MUAC had a significantly higher MUAC gain than WH at 0.19mm/day and 0.13mm/day respectively. Mid-upper arm circumference can be an appropriate tool for identifying malnourished children for admission to nutrition rehabilitation programs. Our results confirm the appropriateness of this tool for monitoring recovery trends and discharging the children thereafter. In principle the tool has potential to minimize nutrition rehabilitation costs, particularly in

  5. Muscle function-dependent sarcopenia and cut-off values of possible predictors in community-dwelling Turkish elderly: calf circumference, midarm muscle circumference and walking speed.

    PubMed

    Akın, S; Mucuk, S; Öztürk, A; Mazıcıoğlu, M; Göçer, Ş; Arguvanlı, S; Şafak, E D

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of muscle strength-based sarcopenia and to determine possible predictors. This is a cross-sectional population-based study in the community-dwelling Turkish elderly. Anthropometric measurements, namely body height, weight, triceps skin fold (TSF), mid upper arm circumference (MUAC), waist circumference (WC) and calf circumference (CC), were noted. The midarm muscle circumference (MAMC) was calculated by using MUAC and TSF measurement. Sarcopenia was assessed, adjusted for body mass index (BMI) and gender, according to muscle strength. Physical performance was determined by 4 m walking speed (WS; m/s). The receiver operating curve analysis was performed to determine cut-offs of CC, MAMC and 4 m WS. A total of 879 elderly subjects, 50.1% of whom were female, were recruited. The mean handgrip strength (HGS) and s.d. was 24.2 (8.8) kg [17.9 (4.8) female, 30.6 (7.1) male]. The muscle function-dependent sarcopenia was 63.4% (female 73.5%, male 53.2%). The muscle mass-dependent sarcopenia for CC (<31 cm) and MAMC(<21.1 cm in males, <19.9 cm in females) was 6.7% and 7.3%, respectively. The prevalence of low 4 m WS (≤ 0.8 m/s) was 81.8% (91.3% in females and 72.3% in males, respectively). We compared MAMC, CC and 4 m WS and found that AUC for 4 m WS was the best predictor of sarcopenia. An adequate muscle mass may not mean a reliable muscle function. Muscle function may describe sarcopenia better compared with muscle mass. The CC, MAMC and 4 m WS cut-offs may be used to assess sarcopenia in certain age groups.

  6. Appropriate neck circumference cut-off points for metabolic syndrome in Turkish patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ozkaya, Ismail; Yardimci, Bulent; Tunckale, Aydin

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the association between neck circumference (NC), overweight, and metabolic syndrome (MS) in Turkish patients with type 2 diabetes. A total of 264 diabetic patients (mean age: 52.9±8.1 years) were recruited from two centers in Istanbul to perform anthropometric measurements, including waist and hip circumference, NC, and body mass index. Blood pressure, fasting glucose, and lipid profile (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels) were determined. NC correlated with waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, and triglycerides in men, whereas NC only correlated with waist circumference in women. Additionally, NC was shown to negatively correlate with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in both men and women. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the area under the curve for NC and overweight was 0.95 for both men and women (P<0.001). Moreover, a NC of 38cm for men and 37cm for women was the best cut-off point for determining overweight. The area under the curve for NC and MS was 0.87 for men and 0.83 for women (P<0.001). A NC of 39cm for men and 37cm for women was the best cut-off point to determine participants with MS. Our findings suggest a positive correlation of NC with MetS in Turkish patients with type 2 diabetes, and could be a useful and accurate tool to identify MS. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Design of a thermal waist-pad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kursun Bahadir, S.; Sahin, U. K.; Acikgoz Tufan, H.

    2017-10-01

    The objective of the current study is designing a thermal waist-pad for people who have backaches with a sandwich-like multi-layered structure. Two model is developed; one is three-layered and second is five-layered with waterproof woven outer layer fabric, Thermolite® knitted fabric (for five-layered structures), wool knitted, polyester nonwoven fabric, polypropylene nonwoven fabric and viscose nonwoven fabric for mid-layer. 10 different structures are designed and produced. All samples are tested for thermal comfort properties of waist-pad. Multi-layer structures were tested, and according to their thermal performance and thermal comfort criteria, all results are evaluated for identifying the best product. These three factors are examined by analysis of thermal conductivity, thermal resistance, thermal absorptivity, relative water vapour/air permeability, water absorption. Highest thermal resistance test result, 150,42 mK/Wm2, is achieved in five-layered sandwich structure with waterproof fabric, Thermolite® fabric, wool based knitted fabric, Thermolite® fabric and waterproof fabric, respectively. Thermal conductivity result of this structure is 46,2 mW/mK, which is one of the lowest results among the alternative structures. Structures with Thermolite® fabric show higher thermal comfort when compared to others.

  8. Estimating Earth's Circumference with an App

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Linda; Dennis, Emily

    2016-01-01

    More than 2,200 years ago, Eratosthenes, who was a Greek astronomer, geographer, and mathematician, used a simple proportion involving the distance between two ancient cities and measures of shadows cast in those cities during a summer solstice to estimate the circumference of Earth (Nicastro 2008, 25-28). Today, middle school students can use…

  9. Efficacy of Antenatal Corticosteroid Treatment on Neurodevelopmental Outcome according to Head Circumference at Birth.

    PubMed

    Basset, Helene; Nusinovici, Simon; Huetz, Noémie; Sentilhes, Loic; Berlie, Isabelle; Flamant, Cyril; Roze, Jean-Christophe; Gascoin, Geraldine

    2018-01-01

    There are concerns about the efficacy of antenatal corticosteroid treatment (ACT) in the growth-restricted fetus. To evaluate the effect of ACT on neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years of corrected age according to the z score of birth head circumference (ZS HC) in a large prospective cohort of preterm infants. This study was conducted as a population-based, prospective, multicenter study, including 4,965 infants born between 24 and 33 weeks' gestation and whose status regarding ACT and the measurement of head circumference at birth were available. They were evaluated at 2 years of corrected age to assess neurological outcome. Three approaches were considered to estimate the effect of ACT on neurodevelopment: (i) logistic regression with adjustment on propensity score, (ii) weighted logistic regression using the inverse probability of treatment weighting method, and (iii) 1:1 matching of gestational age, ZS HC, and propensity score between treated and nontreated infants. ACT was documented in 60% of infants. Three groups of infants were considered according to their ZS HC: between -3 and -1 standard deviation (SD), -1 and +1 SD, and +1 and +3 SD, respectively. ACT was associated with a significant improvement of neurodevelopmental outcome only for infants with an ZS HC of between +1 and +3 SD (adjusted OR 1.72; 95% CI 1.06-2.79). Moreover, ORs estimated in the -3 to -1 and +1 to +3 categories were significantly different. We found beneficial effects of ACT on neurodevelopmental outcomes at 2 years of corrected age only in preterm infants with a ZS HC >1 SD. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Effect of Breastfeeding on Head Circumference of Children from Impoverished Communities

    PubMed Central

    Xavier Júnior, Antonio Fernando Silva; de Assunção, Monica Lopes; dos Santos, Ewerton Amorim; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective This study investigated the effect of exclusive breastfeeding on head circumference (HC) among children living in impoverished communities. Subjects and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among children 12–60 months old from the 39 quilombos located in the State of Alagoas, Brazil. HC deficit was defined by a z-score of less than −2 from the median (based on the 2006 World Health Organization growth standards). Prevalence ratio and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were estimated using Poisson regression with robust adjustment of the variance, and estimates were adjusted for possible confounders (anthropometric, socioeconomic, demographic, and health-related variables). Results We evaluated 725 children (365 boys and 360 girls). The prevalence of HC deficit was 13.3% among those children who were exclusively breastfed for less than 30 days, 10.6% among those exclusively breastfed for 30–119 days, and 5.8% among those who were exclusively breastfed for 120 days or more. Even after controlling for possible confounding variables, exclusive breastfeeding for ≥4 months decreased the risk of HC deficit (prevalence ratio, 0.48; 95% CI 0.24, 0.99). Conclusions Exclusive breastfeeding for ≥4 months was associated with a larger HC in children exposed to great social vulnerability in impoverished communities. PMID:23414229

  11. Birth month associations with height, head circumference, and limb lengths among Peruvian children.

    PubMed

    Pomeroy, Emma; Wells, Jonathan C K; Stanojevic, Sanja; Miranda, J Jaime; Cole, Tim J; Stock, Jay T

    2014-05-01

    Associations between season of birth and body size, morbidity, and mortality have been widely documented, but it is unclear whether different parts of the body are differentially sensitive, and if such effects persist through childhood. This may be relevant to understanding the relationship between early life environment and body size and proportions. We investigated associations between birth month and anthropometry among rural highland (n = 162) and urban lowland (n = 184) Peruvian children aged 6 months to 8 years. Stature; head-trunk height; total limb, ulna, tibia, hand, and foot lengths; head circumference; and limb measurements relative to head-trunk height were converted to internal age-sex-specific z scores. Lowland and highland datasets were then analyzed separately for birth month trends using cosinor analysis, as urban conditions likely provide a more consistent environment compared with anticipated seasonal variation in the rural highlands. Among highland children birth month associations were significant most strongly for tibia length, followed by total lower limb length and stature, with a peak among November births. Results were not significant for other measurements or among lowland children. The results suggest a prenatal or early postnatal environmental effect on growth that is more marked in limb lengths than trunk length or head size, and persists across the age range studied. We suggest that the results may reflect seasonal variation in maternal nutrition in the rural highlands, but other hypotheses such as variation in maternal vitamin D levels cannot be excluded. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Head circumference in young children with autism: the impact of different head circumference charts.

    PubMed

    Morhardt, Duncan R; Barrow, William; Jaworski, Margie; Accardo, Pasquale J

    2014-03-01

    The hypothesis that the presence of macrocephaly might vary with the specific growth chart used was tested by using the Nellahus, CDC, and recent Rollins et al revision head circumference charts to plot the head circumferences of 253 children with neurodevelopmental disorders and with ages between 12 to 36 months; of these children, 59 had a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. The CDC and Rollins et al head circumference charts identified more cases of macrocephaly and fewer cases of microcephaly than did the older Nellhaus chart but did not significantly differ in their identification of macrocephaly in children with autism.

  13. Persistence or Change in Leisure-Time Physical Activity Habits and Waist Gain During Early Adulthood: A Twin-Study

    PubMed Central

    Rottensteiner, Mirva; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kujala, Urho M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship between persistence or change in leisure-time physical activity habits and waist gain among young adults. Design and Methods Population-based cohort study among 3383 Finnish twin individuals (1578 men) from five birth cohorts (1975–1979), who answered questionnaires at mean ages of 24.4 y (SD 0.9) and 33.9 y (SD 1.2), with reported self-measured waist circumference. Persistence or change in leisure-time physical activity habits was defined based on thirds of activity metabolic equivalent h/day during follow-up (mean 9.5 y; SD 0.7). Results Decreased activity was linked to greater waist gain compared to increased activity (3.6 cm, P<0.001 for men; 3.1 cm, P<0.001 for women). Among same-sex activity discordant twin pairs, twins who decreased activity gained an average 2.8 cm (95%CI 0.4 to 5.1, P=0.009) more waist than their co-twins who increased activity (n=85 pairs); among MZ twin pairs (n=43), the difference was 4.2 cm (95%CI 1.2 to 7.2, P=0.008). Conclusions Among young adults, an increase in leisure-time physical activity or staying active during a decade of follow-up was associated with less waist gain, but any decrease in activity level, regardless baseline activity, led to waist gain that was similar to that associated with being persistently inactive. PMID:24839266

  14. Comparison of anthropometric indices (body mass index, waist circumference, waist to hip ratio and waist to height ratio) in predicting risk of type II diabetes in the population of Yazd, Iran.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, Masoud; Khajeh, Mohammad

    2018-04-13

    The purpose of this study was to determine the best anthropometric index and calculate the cut-off point for each anthropometric index in predicting the risk of type II diabetes in the population of Yazd city in Iran. The present analytical cross-sectional study was performed using the data from Yazd Health Study (YaHS) with a sample size of 9293. All required data including anthropometric indices BMI, WC, WHR, and WHtR were extracted from the YAHS questionnaire. The ROC curve was employed to compare the predictive power of each anthropometric index in the risk of developing the type II diabetes. WHtR in both genders had better predictive power for the risk of type II diabetes (AUC = 0.692 for males and AUC = 0.708 for females), and BMI showed a weaker predictive power (AUC = 0.603 for males and AUC = 0.632 for females), WC and WHR also revealed similar predictive power in the risk of type II diabetes. The cut-off point of BMI for predicting the risk of diabetes was almost identical in both genders (26.2 in males and 25.9 in females), the cut-off point of WC (91 cm), and WHtR (0.56) in males was lower than in the females (96 cm for WC and 0.605 for WHtR). The cut-off point of WHR in males (0.939) was higher than in females (0.892). The WHtR showed the best predictor of diabetes risk compared to other indices, and the BMI was the weakest predictor of the risk for diabetes. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Neck Circumference as a Predictor of Adiposity among Healthy and Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Nayera E.; Atef, Abeer; El-Masry, Sahar A.; Ibrahim, Amany; Shady, Mones M. Abu; Al-Tohamy, Muhammad; Kamel, Iman H.; Elashry, Galal Ismail Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity, particularly in the upper part of body, is a major health problem. Because body mass index (BMI) does not adequately describe regional adiposity, other indices of body fatness are being explored. OBJECTIVES: To determine if neck circumference is a valid measure of adiposity (fat distribution) among group of Egyptian children. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This is a cross sectional study, included 50 obese subjects, aged 7 - 12 years recruited from Endocrine, obesity and Metabolism Pediatric Unit at Children Hospital, Cairo University and 50 healthy children, age and sex matched. All children were subjected to blood pressure assessment (systolic SBP and diastolic DBP), and anthropometric assessment (body weight, height, neck circumference (NC), waist (WC) and hip (HC) circumferences, and skin fold thicknesses at three sites: biceps, triceps and sub scapular. BMI [weight (kg)/height (m2)] was calculated. RESULTS: In healthy females, significant associations were detected between NC and SBP, DBP and all anthropometric measurements. However, in healthy males NC was not significantly associated with BMI, SBP and DBP. In the obese group; both sexes; insignificant association was found between NC and SBP, DBP, BMI and skinfold thickness. CONCLUSION: NC is related to fat distribution among normal healthy female children. However, this relation disappears with increasing adiposity. The results do not support the use of NC as a useful screening tool for childhood obesity. PMID:27275287

  16. Weight loss and waist reduction is associated with improvement in gastroesophageal disease reflux symptoms: A longitudinal study of 15 295 subjects undergoing health checkups.

    PubMed

    Park, S-K; Lee, T; Yang, H-J; Park, J H; Sohn, C I; Ryu, S; Park, D I

    2017-05-01

    General obesity and abdominal obesity is an established risk factor of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). However, the influence of weight or waist change on improvement of GERD is unclear. Our aim was to investigate if weight loss or waist reduction improves GERD symptoms and esophagitis. A retrospective longitudinal study of 15 295 subjects who underwent gastroscopy for a health checkup and reported GERD symptoms between 2011 and 2013, and repeated a checkup until 2014 was conducted. The improvement of GERD symptoms and esophagitis according to weight loss (≥-2, -0.5 to -2 kg/m 2 in body mass index [BMI]), waist reduction (≥-5, -0.1 to -0.5 cm) and baseline BMI/waist circumference (WC) categories was assessed using logistic regression. Weight loss or waist reduction was associated with improvement in GERD symptoms only in subjects with general or abdominal obesity. Among subjects with general obesity (BMI ≥25 kg/m 2 ) and decreased ≥2 kg/m 2 in BMI, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) of improvement in GERD symptoms was 2.34 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.70-2.83). Among subjects with abdominal obesity (WC ≥90 cm) and decreased ≥5 cm in WC, the corresponding OR was 2.16 (95% CI 1.56-2.90). There was no association between weight loss or waist reduction and improvement in esophagitis. Weight loss or waist reduction was associated with improvement in GERD symptoms only in subjects with general or abdominal obesity. Weight loss or waist reduction will be an important treatment option in obese patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. "Is there an Association Between Self-Reported Sleep Duration, Body Mass Index and Waist-Hip Ratio in Young Adults? A Cross-Sectional Pilot Study".

    PubMed

    Kamath, M Ganesh; Prakash, Jay; Dash, Sambit; Chowdhury, Sudipta; Ahmed, Zuhilmi Bin; Yusof, Muhammad Zaim Zharif Bin Mohd

    2014-09-01

    Sleep is vital for mental and physical health of an individual. Duration of sleep influences the metabolism and regulates body weight. To assess the cross-sectional association of sleep duration with body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio in Malaysian students. Eighty-nine Malaysian students of both genders, and with a mean (standard deviation) age of 21.2 (0.9) years were included. Institutional Ethics Committee clearance was obtained prior to the start of study. The subjects were interviewed regarding the average hours of sleep/day, their self-reported sleep duration was categorized as < 6hour/day (short sleep duration), 6-7hour/day and > 7hour/day. Their height (in meters), weight (in kilograms), waist and hip circumference (in centimetre) were measured. BMI and waist-hip ratio were calculated using appropriate formulas and expressed as mean (standard deviation). The duration of sleep was compared with BMI and waist-hip ratio using one way ANOVA. No statistical significance was observed when sleep duration was associated with BMI (p=0.65) and waist-hip ratio (p=0.95). Duration of sleep did not affect BMI and waist hip ratio in the Malaysian students in our study. The age and healthy lifestyle of the subjects in this study may have been a reason for no significant influence of short sleep duration on the BMI and waist-hip ratio. No association was found between sleep duration with BMI and waist hip ratio in the Malaysian students.

  18. Efficacy of Transcerebellar Diameter/Abdominal Circumference Versus Head Circumference/Abdominal Circumference in Predicting Asymmetric Intrauterine Growth Retardation

    PubMed Central

    Bhimarao; Bhat, Venkataramana; Gowda, Puttanna VN

    2015-01-01

    Background The high incidence of IUGR and its low recognition lead to increasing perinatal morbidity and mortality for which prediction of IUGR with timely management decisions is of paramount importance. Many studies have compared the efficacy of several gestational age independent parameters and found that TCD/AC is a better predictor of asymmetric IUGR. Aim To compare the accuracy of transcerebellar diameter/abdominal circumference with head circumference/abdominal circumference in predicting asymmetric intrauterine growth retardation after 20 weeks of gestation. Materials and Methods The prospective study was conducted over a period of one year on 50 clinically suspected IUGR pregnancies who were evaluated with 3.5 MHz frequency ultrasound scanner by a single sonologist. BPD, HC, AC and FL along with TCD were measured for assessing the sonological gestational age. Two morphometric ratios- TCD/AC and HC/AC were calculated. Estimated fetal weight was calculated for all these pregnancies and its percentile was determined. Statistical Methods The TCD/AC and HC/AC ratios were correlated with advancing gestational age to know if these were related to GA. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and diagnostic accuracy (DA) for TCD/AC and HC/AC ratios in evaluating IUGR fetuses were calculated. Results In the present study, linear relation of TCD and HC in IUGR fetuses with gestation was noted. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV & DA were 88%, 93.5%, 77.1%, 96.3% & 92.4% respectively for TCD/AC ratio versus 84%, 92%, 72.4%, 95.8% & 90.4% respectively for HC/AC ratio in predicting IUGR. Conclusion Both ratios were gestational age independent and can be used in detecting IUGR with good diagnostic accuracy. However, TCD/AC ratio had a better diagnostic validity and accuracy compared to HC/AC ratio in predicting asymmetric IUGR. PMID:26557588

  19. Hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype in primary health care: comparison of two cutoff points

    PubMed Central

    Braz, Marina Augusta Dias; Vieira, Jallyne Nunes; Gomes, Flayane Oliveira; da Silva, Priscilla Rafaella; Santos, Ohanna Thays de Medeiros; da Rocha, Ilanna Marques Gomes; de Sousa, Iasmin Matias; Fayh, Ana Paula Trussardi

    2017-01-01

    Objective We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemic waist (HTGW) phenotype among users of primary health care using two different cutoff points used in the liter