General optical discrete z transform: design and application.
Ngo, Nam Quoc
2016-12-20
This paper presents a generalization of the discrete z transform algorithm. It is shown that the GOD-ZT algorithm is a generalization of several important conventional discrete transforms. Based on the GOD-ZT algorithm, a tunable general optical discrete z transform (GOD-ZT) processor is synthesized using the silica-based finite impulse response transversal filter. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the method, the design and simulation of a tunable optical discrete Fourier transform (ODFT) processor as a special case of the synthesized GOD-ZT processor is presented. It is also shown that the ODFT processor can function as a real-time optical spectrum analyzer. The tunable ODFT has an important potential application as a tunable optical demultiplexer at the receiver end of an optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing transmission system.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Savoye, Philippe
2009-01-01
In recent years, I started covering difference equations and z transform methods in my introductory differential equations course. This allowed my students to extend the "classical" methods for (ordinary differential equation) ODE's to discrete time problems arising in many applications.
Optical chirp z-transform processor with a simplified architecture.
Ngo, Nam Quoc
2014-12-29
Using a simplified chirp z-transform (CZT) algorithm based on the discrete-time convolution method, this paper presents the synthesis of a simplified architecture of a reconfigurable optical chirp z-transform (OCZT) processor based on the silica-based planar lightwave circuit (PLC) technology. In the simplified architecture of the reconfigurable OCZT, the required number of optical components is small and there are no waveguide crossings which make fabrication easy. The design of a novel type of optical discrete Fourier transform (ODFT) processor as a special case of the synthesized OCZT is then presented to demonstrate its effectiveness. The designed ODFT can be potentially used as an optical demultiplexer at the receiver of an optical fiber orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission system.
Pair correlation functions for identifying spatial correlation in discrete domains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gavagnin, Enrico; Owen, Jennifer P.; Yates, Christian A.
2018-06-01
Identifying and quantifying spatial correlation are important aspects of studying the collective behavior of multiagent systems. Pair correlation functions (PCFs) are powerful statistical tools that can provide qualitative and quantitative information about correlation between pairs of agents. Despite the numerous PCFs defined for off-lattice domains, only a few recent studies have considered a PCF for discrete domains. Our work extends the study of spatial correlation in discrete domains by defining a new set of PCFs using two natural and intuitive definitions of distance for a square lattice: the taxicab and uniform metric. We show how these PCFs improve upon previous attempts and compare between the quantitative data acquired. We also extend our definitions of the PCF to other types of regular tessellation that have not been studied before, including hexagonal, triangular, and cuboidal. Finally, we provide a comprehensive PCF for any tessellation and metric, allowing investigation of spatial correlation in irregular lattices for which recognizing correlation is less intuitive.
Spectral analysis using the CCD Chirp Z-transform
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eversole, W. L.; Mayer, D. J.; Bosshart, P. W.; Dewit, M.; Howes, C. R.; Buss, D. D.
1978-01-01
The charge coupled device (CCD) Chirp Z transformation (CZT) spectral analysis techniques were reviewed and results on state-of-the-art CCD CZT technology are presented. The CZT algorithm was examined and the advantages of CCD implementation are discussed. The sliding CZT which is useful in many spectral analysis applications is described, and the performance limitations of the CZT are studied.
Frequency-dependent FDTD methods using Z transforms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sullivan, Dennis M.
1992-01-01
While the frequency-dependent finite-difference time-domain, or (FD)2TD, method can correctly calculate EM propagation through media whose dielectric properties are frequency-dependent, more elaborate applications lead to greater (FD)2TD complexity. Z-transform theory is presently used to develop the mathematical bases of the (FD)2TD method, simultaneously obtaining a clearer formulation and allowing researchers to draw on the existing literature of systems analysis and signal-processing.
Supersymmetric Casimir energy and SL(3,Z) transformations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brünner, Frederic; Regalado, Diego; Spiridonov, Vyacheslav P.
2017-07-01
We provide a recipe to extract the supersymmetric Casimir energy of theories defined on primary Hopf surfaces directly from the superconformal index. It involves an SL(3,Z) transformation acting on the complex structure moduli of the background geometry. In particular, the known relation between Casimir energy, index and partition function emerges naturally from this framework, allowing rewriting of the latter as a modified elliptic hypergeometric integral. We show this explicitly for N=1 SQCD and N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory for all classical gauge groups, and conjecture that it holds more generally. We also use our method to derive an expression for the Casimir energy of the nonlagrangian N=2 SCFT with E6 flavour symmetry. Furthermore, we predict an expression for Casimir energy of the N=1 SP(2N) theory with SU(8) × U(1) flavour symmetry that is part of a multiple duality network, and for the doubled N=1 theory with enhanced E7 flavour symmetry.
Fair and Square Computation of Inverse "Z"-Transforms of Rational Functions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moreira, M. V.; Basilio, J. C.
2012-01-01
All methods presented in textbooks for computing inverse "Z"-transforms of rational functions have some limitation: 1) the direct division method does not, in general, provide enough information to derive an analytical expression for the time-domain sequence "x"("k") whose "Z"-transform is "X"("z"); 2) computation using the inversion integral…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hewes, C. R.; Bosshart, P. W.; Eversole, W. L.; Dewit, M.; Buss, D. D.
1976-01-01
Two CCD techniques were discussed for performing an N-point sampled data correlation between an input signal and an electronically programmable reference function. The design and experimental performance of an implementation of the direct time correlator utilizing two analog CCDs and MOS multipliers on a single IC were evaluated. The performance of a CCD implementation of the chirp z transform was described, and the design of a new CCD integrated circuit for performing correlation by multiplication in the frequency domain was presented. This chip provides a discrete Fourier transform (DFT) or inverse DFT, multipliers, and complete support circuitry for the CCD CZT. The two correlation techniques are compared.
Laplace and Z Transform Solutions of Differential and Difference Equations With the HP-41C.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Harden, Richard C.; Simons, Fred O., Jr.
1983-01-01
A previously developed program for the HP-41C programmable calculator is extended to handle models of differential and difference equations with multiple eigenvalues. How to obtain difference equation solutions via the Z transform is described. (MNS)
[Analysis of scatterer microstructure feature based on Chirp-Z transform cepstrum].
Guo, Jianzhong; Lin, Shuyu
2007-12-01
The fundamental research field of medical ultrasound has been the characterization of tissue scatterers. The signal processing method is widely used in this research field. A new method of Chirp-Z Transform Cepstrum for mean spacing estimation of tissue scatterers using ultrasonic scattered signals has been developed. By using this method together with conventional AR cepstrum method, we processed the backscattered signals of mimic tissue and pig liver in vitro. The results illustrated that the Chirp-Z Transform Cepstrum method is effective for signal analysis of ultrasonic scattering and characterization of tissue scatterers, and it can improve the resolution for mean spacing estimation of tissue scatterers.
Zheng, Hai-ming; Li, Guang-jie; Wu, Hao
2015-06-01
Differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) is a commonly used atmospheric pollution monitoring method. Denoising of monitoring spectral data will improve the inversion accuracy. Fourier transform filtering method is effectively capable of filtering out the noise in the spectral data. But the algorithm itself can introduce errors. In this paper, a chirp-z transform method is put forward. By means of the local thinning of Fourier transform spectrum, it can retain the denoising effect of Fourier transform and compensate the error of the algorithm, which will further improve the inversion accuracy. The paper study on the concentration retrieving of SO2 and NO2. The results show that simple division causes bigger error and is not very stable. Chirp-z transform is proved to be more accurate than Fourier transform. Results of the frequency spectrum analysis show that Fourier transform cannot solve the distortion and weakening problems of characteristic absorption spectrum. Chirp-z transform shows ability in fine refactoring of specific frequency spectrum.
Adaptive Microwave Staring Correlated Imaging for Targets Appearing in Discrete Clusters.
Tian, Chao; Jiang, Zheng; Chen, Weidong; Wang, Dongjin
2017-10-21
Microwave staring correlated imaging (MSCI) can achieve ultra-high resolution in real aperture staring radar imaging using the correlated imaging process (CIP) under all-weather and all-day circumstances. The CIP must combine the received echo signal with the temporal-spatial stochastic radiation field. However, a precondition of the CIP is that the continuous imaging region must be discretized to a fine grid, and the measurement matrix should be accurately computed, which makes the imaging process highly complex when the MSCI system observes a wide area. This paper proposes an adaptive imaging approach for the targets in discrete clusters to reduce the complexity of the CIP. The approach is divided into two main stages. First, as discrete clustered targets are distributed in different range strips in the imaging region, the transmitters of the MSCI emit narrow-pulse waveforms to separate the echoes of the targets in different strips in the time domain; using spectral entropy, a modified method robust against noise is put forward to detect the echoes of the discrete clustered targets, based on which the strips with targets can be adaptively located. Second, in a strip with targets, the matched filter reconstruction algorithm is used to locate the regions with targets, and only the regions of interest are discretized to a fine grid; sparse recovery is used, and the band exclusion is used to maintain the non-correlation of the dictionary. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate that the proposed approach can accurately and adaptively locate the regions with targets and obtain high-quality reconstructed images.
Stochastic dynamics of time correlation in complex systems with discrete time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yulmetyev, Renat; Hänggi, Peter; Gafarov, Fail
2000-11-01
In this paper we present the concept of description of random processes in complex systems with discrete time. It involves the description of kinetics of discrete processes by means of the chain of finite-difference non-Markov equations for time correlation functions (TCFs). We have introduced the dynamic (time dependent) information Shannon entropy Si(t) where i=0,1,2,3,..., as an information measure of stochastic dynamics of time correlation (i=0) and time memory (i=1,2,3,...). The set of functions Si(t) constitute the quantitative measure of time correlation disorder (i=0) and time memory disorder (i=1,2,3,...) in complex system. The theory developed started from the careful analysis of time correlation involving dynamics of vectors set of various chaotic states. We examine two stochastic processes involving the creation and annihilation of time correlation (or time memory) in details. We carry out the analysis of vectors' dynamics employing finite-difference equations for random variables and the evolution operator describing their natural motion. The existence of TCF results in the construction of the set of projection operators by the usage of scalar product operation. Harnessing the infinite set of orthogonal dynamic random variables on a basis of Gram-Shmidt orthogonalization procedure tends to creation of infinite chain of finite-difference non-Markov kinetic equations for discrete TCFs and memory functions (MFs). The solution of the equations above thereof brings to the recurrence relations between the TCF and MF of senior and junior orders. This offers new opportunities for detecting the frequency spectra of power of entropy function Si(t) for time correlation (i=0) and time memory (i=1,2,3,...). The results obtained offer considerable scope for attack on stochastic dynamics of discrete random processes in a complex systems. Application of this technique on the analysis of stochastic dynamics of RR intervals from human ECG's shows convincing evidence for
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naine, Tarun Bharath; Gundawar, Manoj Kumar
2017-09-01
We demonstrate a very powerful correlation between the discrete probability of distances of neighboring cells and thermal wave propagation rate, for a system of cells spread on a one-dimensional chain. A gamma distribution is employed to model the distances of neighboring cells. In the absence of an analytical solution and the differences in ignition times of adjacent reaction cells following non-Markovian statistics, invariably the solution for thermal wave propagation rate for a one-dimensional system with randomly distributed cells is obtained by numerical simulations. However, such simulations which are based on Monte-Carlo methods require several iterations of calculations for different realizations of distribution of adjacent cells. For several one-dimensional systems, differing in the value of shaping parameter of the gamma distribution, we show that the average reaction front propagation rates obtained by a discrete probability between two limits, shows excellent agreement with those obtained numerically. With the upper limit at 1.3, the lower limit depends on the non-dimensional ignition temperature. Additionally, this approach also facilitates the prediction of burning limits of heterogeneous thermal mixtures. The proposed method completely eliminates the need for laborious, time intensive numerical calculations where the thermal wave propagation rates can now be calculated based only on macroscopic entity of discrete probability.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Žukovič, Milan; Hristopulos, Dionissios T.
2009-02-01
A current problem of practical significance is how to analyze large, spatially distributed, environmental data sets. The problem is more challenging for variables that follow non-Gaussian distributions. We show by means of numerical simulations that the spatial correlations between variables can be captured by interactions between 'spins'. The spins represent multilevel discretizations of environmental variables with respect to a number of pre-defined thresholds. The spatial dependence between the 'spins' is imposed by means of short-range interactions. We present two approaches, inspired by the Ising and Potts models, that generate conditional simulations of spatially distributed variables from samples with missing data. Currently, the sampling and simulation points are assumed to be at the nodes of a regular grid. The conditional simulations of the 'spin system' are forced to respect locally the sample values and the system statistics globally. The second constraint is enforced by minimizing a cost function representing the deviation between normalized correlation energies of the simulated and the sample distributions. In the approach based on the Nc-state Potts model, each point is assigned to one of Nc classes. The interactions involve all the points simultaneously. In the Ising model approach, a sequential simulation scheme is used: the discretization at each simulation level is binomial (i.e., ± 1). Information propagates from lower to higher levels as the simulation proceeds. We compare the two approaches in terms of their ability to reproduce the target statistics (e.g., the histogram and the variogram of the sample distribution), to predict data at unsampled locations, as well as in terms of their computational complexity. The comparison is based on a non-Gaussian data set (derived from a digital elevation model of the Walker Lake area, Nevada, USA). We discuss the impact of relevant simulation parameters, such as the domain size, the number of
Use of the z-transform to investigate nanopulse penetration of biological matter.
Su, S; Dai, Weizhong; Haynie, Donald T; Simicevic, N
2005-07-01
Short duration, fast rise time electromagnetic ultra-wideband (UWB) pulses ("nanopulses") are generated by numerous electronic devices. Many new technologies involving nanopulses are under development and expected to become widely available soon. Study of nanopulse bioeffects therefore is needed to ensure human safety and to probe the useful range of nanopulses in possible biomedical and biotechnological applications. In this article, we present a new approximation of the Cole-Cole expression for the frequency dependence of the dielectric properties of tissues. The approximation is based on a z-transformation of the electric displacement and a second-order Taylor approximation of the Cole-Cole expression. The approach has been applied to investigating the penetration of nanopulses into biological matter as a function of the dielectric properties of tissue and pulse width. Solutions to Maxwell's equations are calculated using the finite difference time domain method (FDTD). Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Kumfor, Fiona; Irish, Muireann; Hodges, John R.; Piguet, Olivier
2013-01-01
Patients with frontotemporal dementia have pervasive changes in emotion recognition and social cognition, yet the neural changes underlying these emotion processing deficits remain unclear. The multimodal system model of emotion proposes that basic emotions are dependent on distinct brain regions, which undergo significant pathological changes in frontotemporal dementia. As such, this syndrome may provide important insight into the impact of neural network degeneration upon the innate ability to recognise emotions. This study used voxel-based morphometry to identify discrete neural correlates involved in the recognition of basic emotions (anger, disgust, fear, sadness, surprise and happiness) in frontotemporal dementia. Forty frontotemporal dementia patients (18 behavioural-variant, 11 semantic dementia, 11 progressive nonfluent aphasia) and 27 healthy controls were tested on two facial emotion recognition tasks: The Ekman 60 and Ekman Caricatures. Although each frontotemporal dementia group showed impaired recognition of negative emotions, distinct associations between emotion-specific task performance and changes in grey matter intensity emerged. Fear recognition was associated with the right amygdala; disgust recognition with the left insula; anger recognition with the left middle and superior temporal gyrus; and sadness recognition with the left subcallosal cingulate, indicating that discrete neural substrates are necessary for emotion recognition in frontotemporal dementia. The erosion of emotion-specific neural networks in neurodegenerative disorders may produce distinct profiles of performance that are relevant to understanding the neurobiological basis of emotion processing. PMID:23805313
A discrete Fourier-encoded, diagonal-free experiment to simplify homonuclear 2D NMR correlations.
Huang, Zebin; Guan, Quanshuai; Chen, Zhong; Frydman, Lucio; Lin, Yulan
2017-07-21
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has long served as an irreplaceable, versatile tool in physics, chemistry, biology, and materials sciences, owing to its ability to study molecular structure and dynamics in detail. In particular, the connectivity of chemical sites within molecules, and thereby molecular structure, becomes visible by multi-dimensional NMR. Homonuclear correlation experiments are a powerful tool for identifying coupled spins. Generally, diagonal peaks in these correlation spectra display the strongest intensities and do not offer any new information beyond the standard one-dimensional spectrum, whereas weaker, symmetrically placed cross peaks contain most of the coupling information. The cross peaks near the diagonal are often affected by the tails of strong diagonal peaks or even obscured entirely by the diagonal. In this paper, we demonstrate a homonuclear encoding approach based on imparting a discrete phase modulation of the targeted cross peaks and combine it with a site-selective sculpting scheme, capable of simplifying the patterns arising in these 2D correlation spectra. The theoretical principles of the new methods are laid out, and experimental observations are rationalized on the basis of theoretical analyses. The ensuing techniques provide a new way to retrieve 2D coupling information within homonuclear spin systems, with enhanced sensitivity, speed, and clarity.
A discrete Fourier-encoded, diagonal-free experiment to simplify homonuclear 2D NMR correlations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Zebin; Guan, Quanshuai; Chen, Zhong; Frydman, Lucio; Lin, Yulan
2017-07-01
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has long served as an irreplaceable, versatile tool in physics, chemistry, biology, and materials sciences, owing to its ability to study molecular structure and dynamics in detail. In particular, the connectivity of chemical sites within molecules, and thereby molecular structure, becomes visible by multi-dimensional NMR. Homonuclear correlation experiments are a powerful tool for identifying coupled spins. Generally, diagonal peaks in these correlation spectra display the strongest intensities and do not offer any new information beyond the standard one-dimensional spectrum, whereas weaker, symmetrically placed cross peaks contain most of the coupling information. The cross peaks near the diagonal are often affected by the tails of strong diagonal peaks or even obscured entirely by the diagonal. In this paper, we demonstrate a homonuclear encoding approach based on imparting a discrete phase modulation of the targeted cross peaks and combine it with a site-selective sculpting scheme, capable of simplifying the patterns arising in these 2D correlation spectra. The theoretical principles of the new methods are laid out, and experimental observations are rationalized on the basis of theoretical analyses. The ensuing techniques provide a new way to retrieve 2D coupling information within homonuclear spin systems, with enhanced sensitivity, speed, and clarity.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.
2015-01-01
A latent variable modeling procedure that can be used to evaluate intraclass correlation coefficients in two-level settings with discrete response variables is discussed. The approach is readily applied when the purpose is to furnish confidence intervals at prespecified confidence levels for these coefficients in setups with binary or ordinal…
2012-02-01
using z-transform methods. The determinant of the resulting global system matrix in the z-space |Am| is a palindromic polynomial with real...resulting global system matrix in the z-space |Am| is a palindromic polynomial with real coefficients. The zeros of the palindromic polynomial are distinct...Goupillaud-type multilayered media. In addition, the present treatment uses a global matrix method that is attributed to Knopoff [16], rather than the
Yuan, Zhongshang; Liu, Hong; Zhang, Xiaoshuai; Li, Fangyu; Zhao, Jinghua; Zhang, Furen; Xue, Fuzhong
2013-01-01
Currently, the genetic variants identified by genome wide association study (GWAS) generally only account for a small proportion of the total heritability for complex disease. One crucial reason is the underutilization of gene-gene joint effects commonly encountered in GWAS, which includes their main effects and co-association. However, gene-gene co-association is often customarily put into the framework of gene-gene interaction vaguely. From the causal graph perspective, we elucidate in detail the concept and rationality of gene-gene co-association as well as its relationship with traditional gene-gene interaction, and propose two Fisher r-to-z transformation-based simple statistics to detect it. Three series of simulations further highlight that gene-gene co-association refers to the extent to which the joint effects of two genes differs from the main effects, not only due to the traditional interaction under the nearly independent condition but the correlation between two genes. The proposed statistics are more powerful than logistic regression under various situations, cannot be affected by linkage disequilibrium and can have acceptable false positive rate as long as strictly following the reasonable GWAS data analysis roadmap. Furthermore, an application to gene pathway analysis associated with leprosy confirms in practice that our proposed gene-gene co-association concepts as well as the correspondingly proposed statistics are strongly in line with reality. PMID:23923021
Pendar, Hodjat; Socha, John J.
2015-01-01
Flow-through respirometry systems provide accurate measurement of gas exchange over long periods of time. However, these systems have limitations in tracking rapid changes. When an animal infuses a metabolic gas into the respirometry chamber in a short burst, diffusion and airflow in the chamber gradually alter the original signal before it arrives at the gas analyzer. For single or multiple bursts, the recorded signal is smeared or mixed, which may result in dramatically altered recordings compared to the emitted signal. Recovering the original metabolic signal is a difficult task because of the inherent ill conditioning problem. Here, we present two new methods to recover the fast dynamics of metabolic patterns from recorded data. We first re-derive the equations of the well-known Z-transform method (ZT method) to show the source of imprecision in this method. Then, we develop a new model of analysis for respirometry systems based on the experimentally determined impulse response, which is the response of the system to a very short unit input. As a result, we present a major modification of the ZT method (dubbed the ‘EZT method’) by using a new model for the impulse response, enhancing its precision to recover the true metabolic signals. The second method, the generalized Z-transform (GZT) method, was then developed by generalizing the EZT method; it can be applied to any flow-through respirometry system with any arbitrary impulse response. Experiments verified that the accuracy of recovering the true metabolic signals is significantly improved by the new methods. These new methods can be used more broadly for input estimation in variety of physiological systems. PMID:26466361
The spectra and periodograms of anti-correlated discrete fractional Gaussian noise.
Raymond, G M; Percival, D B; Bassingthwaighte, J B
2003-05-01
Discrete fractional Gaussian noise (dFGN) has been proposed as a model for interpreting a wide variety of physiological data. The form of actual spectra of dFGN for frequencies near zero varies as f(1-2H), where 0 < H < 1 is the Hurst coefficient; however, this form for the spectra need not be a good approximation at other frequencies. When H approaches zero, dFGN spectra exhibit the 1 - 2H power-law behavior only over a range of low frequencies that is vanishingly small. When dealing with a time series of finite length drawn from a dFGN process with unknown H, practitioners must deal with estimated spectra in lieu of actual spectra. The most basic spectral estimator is the periodogram. The expected value of the periodogram for dFGN with small H also exhibits non-power-law behavior. At the lowest Fourier frequencies associated with a time series of N values sampled from a dFGN process, the expected value of the periodogram for H approaching zero varies as f(0) rather than f(1-2H). For finite N and small H, the expected value of the periodogram can in fact exhibit a local power-law behavior with a spectral exponent of 1 - 2H at only two distinct frequencies.
Yang, Wei; Chen, Jie; Zeng, Hong Cheng; Wang, Peng Bo; Liu, Wei
2016-01-01
Based on the terrain observation by progressive scans (TOPS) mode, an efficient full-aperture image formation algorithm for focusing wide-swath spaceborne TOPS data is proposed. First, to overcome the Doppler frequency spectrum aliasing caused by azimuth antenna steering, the range-independent derotation operation is adopted, and the signal properties after derotation are derived in detail. Then, the azimuth deramp operation is performed to resolve image folding in azimuth. The traditional dermap function will introduce a time shift, resulting in appearance of ghost targets and azimuth resolution reduction at the scene edge, especially in the wide-swath coverage case. To avoid this, a novel solution is provided using a modified range-dependent deramp function combined with the chirp-z transform. Moreover, range scaling and azimuth scaling are performed to provide the same azimuth and range sampling interval for all sub-swaths, instead of the interpolation operation for the sub-swath image mosaic. Simulation results are provided to validate the proposed algorithm. PMID:27941706
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frampton, A.; Hyman, J.; Zou, L.
2017-12-01
Analysing flow and transport in sparsely fractured media is important for understanding how crystalline bedrock environments function as barriers to transport of contaminants, with important applications towards subsurface repositories for storage of spent nuclear fuel. Crystalline bedrocks are particularly favourable due to their geological stability, low advective flow and strong hydrogeochemical retention properties, which can delay transport of radionuclides, allowing decay to limit release to the biosphere. There are however many challenges involved in quantifying and modelling subsurface flow and transport in fractured media, largely due to geological complexity and heterogeneity, where the interplay between advective and dispersive flow strongly impacts both inert and reactive transport. A key to modelling transport in a Lagrangian framework involves quantifying pathway travel times and the hydrodynamic control of retention, and both these quantities strongly depend on heterogeneity of the fracture network at different scales. In this contribution, we present recent analysis of flow and transport considering fracture networks with single-fracture heterogeneity described by different multivariate normal distributions. A coherent triad of fields with identical correlation length and variance are created but which greatly differ in structure, corresponding to textures with well-connected low, medium and high permeability structures. Through numerical modelling of multiple scales in a stochastic setting we quantify the relative impact of texture type and correlation length against network topological measures, and identify key thresholds for cases where flow dispersion is controlled by single-fracture heterogeneity versus network-scale heterogeneity. This is achieved by using a recently developed novel numerical discrete fracture network model. Furthermore, we highlight enhanced flow channelling for cases where correlation structure continues across
Adesso, Gerardo; CNR-INFM Coherentia , Naples; Grup d'Informacio Quantica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra
2007-08-15
Quantum mechanics imposes 'monogamy' constraints on the sharing of entanglement. We show that, despite these limitations, entanglement can be fully 'promiscuous', i.e., simultaneously present in unlimited two-body and many-body forms in states living in an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space. Monogamy just bounds the divergence rate of the various entanglement contributions. This is demonstrated in simple families of N-mode (N{>=}4) Gaussian states of light fields or atomic ensembles, which therefore enable infinitely more freedom in the distribution of information, as opposed to systems of individual qubits. Such a finding is of importance for the quantification, understanding, and potential exploitation of shared quantummore » correlations in continuous variable systems. We discuss how promiscuity gradually arises when considering simple families of discrete variable states, with increasing Hilbert space dimension towards the continuous variable limit. Such models are somehow analogous to Gaussian states with asymptotically diverging, but finite, squeezing. In this respect, we find that non-Gaussian states (which in general are more entangled than Gaussian states) exhibit also the interesting feature that their entanglement is more shareable: in the non-Gaussian multipartite arena, unlimited promiscuity can be already achieved among three entangled parties, while this is impossible for Gaussian, even infinitely squeezed states.« less
Stamatikos, Michael; Band, David L.; JCA/UMBC, Baltimore, MD 21250
2006-05-19
We describe the theoretical modeling and analysis techniques associated with a preliminary search for correlated neutrino emission from GRB980703a, which triggered the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE GRB trigger 6891), using archived data from the Antarctic Muon and Neutrino Detector Array (AMANDA-B10). Under the assumption of associated hadronic acceleration, the expected observed neutrino energy flux is directly derived, based upon confronting the fireball phenomenology with the discrete set of observed electromagnetic parameters of GRB980703a, gleaned from ground-based and satellite observations, for four models, corrected for oscillations. Models 1 and 2, based upon spectral analysis featuring a prompt photon energymore » fit to the Band function, utilize an observed spectroscopic redshift, for isotropic and anisotropic emission geometry, respectively. Model 3 is based upon averaged burst parameters, assuming isotropic emission. Model 4 based upon a Band fit, features an estimated redshift from the lag-luminosity relation, with isotropic emission. Consistent with our AMANDA-II analysis of GRB030329, which resulted in a flux upper limit of {approx} 0.150GeV /cm2/s for model 1, we find differences in excess of an order of magnitude in the response of AMANDA-B10, among the various models for GRB980703a. Implications for future searches in the era of Swift and IceCube are discussed.« less
Persistence of non-Markovian Gaussian stationary processes in discrete time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nyberg, Markus; Lizana, Ludvig
2018-04-01
The persistence of a stochastic variable is the probability that it does not cross a given level during a fixed time interval. Although persistence is a simple concept to understand, it is in general hard to calculate. Here we consider zero mean Gaussian stationary processes in discrete time n . Few results are known for the persistence P0(n ) in discrete time, except the large time behavior which is characterized by the nontrivial constant θ through P0(n ) ˜θn . Using a modified version of the independent interval approximation (IIA) that we developed before, we are able to calculate P0(n ) analytically in z -transform space in terms of the autocorrelation function A (n ) . If A (n )→0 as n →∞ , we extract θ numerically, while if A (n )=0 , for finite n >N , we find θ exactly (within the IIA). We apply our results to three special cases: the nearest-neighbor-correlated "first order moving average process", where A (n )=0 for n >1 , the double exponential-correlated "second order autoregressive process", where A (n ) =c1λ1n+c2λ2n , and power-law-correlated variables, where A (n ) ˜n-μ . Apart from the power-law case when μ <5 , we find excellent agreement with simulations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Houbolt, John C; Kordes, Eldon E
1954-01-01
An analysis is made of the structural response to gusts of an airplane having the degrees of freedom of vertical motion and wing bending flexibility and basic parameters are established. A convenient and accurate numerical solution of the response equations is developed for the case of discrete-gust encounter, an exact solution is made for the simpler case of continuous-sinusoidal-gust encounter, and the procedure is outlined for treating the more realistic condition of continuous random atmospheric turbulence, based on the methods of generalized harmonic analysis. Correlation studies between flight and calculated results are then given to evaluate the influence of wing bending flexibility on the structural response to gusts of two twin-engine transports and one four-engine bomber. It is shown that calculated results obtained by means of a discrete-gust approach reveal the general nature of the flexibility effects and lead to qualitative correlation with flight results. In contrast, calculations by means of the continuous-turbulence approach show good quantitative correlation with flight results and indicate a much greater degree of resolution of the flexibility effects.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hyman, J.; Aldrich, G. A.; Viswanathan, H. S.; Makedonska, N.; Karra, S.
2016-12-01
We characterize how different fracture size-transmissivity relationships influence flow and transport simulations through sparse three-dimensional discrete fracture networks. Although it is generally accepted that there is a positive correlation between a fracture's size and its transmissivity/aperture, the functional form of that relationship remains a matter of debate. Relationships that assume perfect correlation, semi-correlation, and non-correlation between the two have been proposed. To study the impact that adopting one of these relationships has on transport properties, we generate multiple sparse fracture networks composed of circular fractures whose radii follow a truncated power law distribution. The distribution of transmissivities are selected so that the mean transmissivity of the fracture networks are the same and the distributions of aperture and transmissivity in models that include a stochastic term are also the same.We observe that adopting a correlation between a fracture size and its transmissivity leads to earlier breakthrough times and higher effective permeability when compared to networks where no correlation is used. While fracture network geometry plays the principal role in determining where transport occurs within the network, the relationship between size and transmissivity controls the flow speed. These observations indicate DFN modelers should be aware that breakthrough times and effective permeabilities can be strongly influenced by such a relationship in addition to fracture and network statistics.
On the time-weighted quadratic sum of linear discrete systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jury, E. I.; Gutman, S.
1975-01-01
A method is proposed for obtaining the time-weighted quadratic sum for linear discrete systems. The formula of the weighted quadratic sum is obtained from matrix z-transform formulation. In addition, it is shown that this quadratic sum can be derived in a recursive form for several useful weighted functions. The discussion presented parallels that of MacFarlane (1963) for weighted quadratic integral for linear continuous systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hyman, J. D.; Aldrich, G.; Viswanathan, H.; Makedonska, N.; Karra, S.
2016-08-01
We characterize how different fracture size-transmissivity relationships influence flow and transport simulations through sparse three-dimensional discrete fracture networks. Although it is generally accepted that there is a positive correlation between a fracture's size and its transmissivity/aperture, the functional form of that relationship remains a matter of debate. Relationships that assume perfect correlation, semicorrelation, and noncorrelation between the two have been proposed. To study the impact that adopting one of these relationships has on transport properties, we generate multiple sparse fracture networks composed of circular fractures whose radii follow a truncated power law distribution. The distribution of transmissivities are selected so that the mean transmissivity of the fracture networks are the same and the distributions of aperture and transmissivity in models that include a stochastic term are also the same. We observe that adopting a correlation between a fracture size and its transmissivity leads to earlier breakthrough times and higher effective permeability when compared to networks where no correlation is used. While fracture network geometry plays the principal role in determining where transport occurs within the network, the relationship between size and transmissivity controls the flow speed. These observations indicate DFN modelers should be aware that breakthrough times and effective permeabilities can be strongly influenced by such a relationship in addition to fracture and network statistics.
Hyman, Jeffrey De'Haven; Aldrich, Garrett Allen; Viswanathan, Hari S.; ...
2016-08-01
We characterize how different fracture size-transmissivity relationships influence flow and transport simulations through sparse three-dimensional discrete fracture networks. Although it is generally accepted that there is a positive correlation between a fracture's size and its transmissivity/aperture, the functional form of that relationship remains a matter of debate. Relationships that assume perfect correlation, semicorrelation, and noncorrelation between the two have been proposed. To study the impact that adopting one of these relationships has on transport properties, we generate multiple sparse fracture networks composed of circular fractures whose radii follow a truncated power law distribution. The distribution of transmissivities are selected somore » that the mean transmissivity of the fracture networks are the same and the distributions of aperture and transmissivity in models that include a stochastic term are also the same. We observe that adopting a correlation between a fracture size and its transmissivity leads to earlier breakthrough times and higher effective permeability when compared to networks where no correlation is used. While fracture network geometry plays the principal role in determining where transport occurs within the network, the relationship between size and transmissivity controls the flow speed. Lastly, these observations indicate DFN modelers should be aware that breakthrough times and effective permeabilities can be strongly influenced by such a relationship in addition to fracture and network statistics.« less
Hyman, Jeffrey De'Haven; Aldrich, Garrett Allen; Viswanathan, Hari S.
We characterize how different fracture size-transmissivity relationships influence flow and transport simulations through sparse three-dimensional discrete fracture networks. Although it is generally accepted that there is a positive correlation between a fracture's size and its transmissivity/aperture, the functional form of that relationship remains a matter of debate. Relationships that assume perfect correlation, semicorrelation, and noncorrelation between the two have been proposed. To study the impact that adopting one of these relationships has on transport properties, we generate multiple sparse fracture networks composed of circular fractures whose radii follow a truncated power law distribution. The distribution of transmissivities are selected somore » that the mean transmissivity of the fracture networks are the same and the distributions of aperture and transmissivity in models that include a stochastic term are also the same. We observe that adopting a correlation between a fracture size and its transmissivity leads to earlier breakthrough times and higher effective permeability when compared to networks where no correlation is used. While fracture network geometry plays the principal role in determining where transport occurs within the network, the relationship between size and transmissivity controls the flow speed. Lastly, these observations indicate DFN modelers should be aware that breakthrough times and effective permeabilities can be strongly influenced by such a relationship in addition to fracture and network statistics.« less
Kanev, Jacob; Koutsou, Achilleas; Christodoulou, Chris; Obermayer, Klaus
2016-10-01
In this letter, we propose a definition of the operational mode of a neuron, that is, whether a neuron integrates over its input or detects coincidences. We complete the range of possible operational modes by a new mode we call gap detection, which means that a neuron responds to gaps in its stimulus. We propose a measure consisting of two scalar values, both ranging from -1 to +1: the neural drive, which indicates whether its stimulus excites the neuron, serves as background noise, or inhibits it; the neural mode, which indicates whether the neuron's response is the result of integration over its input, of coincidence detection, or of gap detection; with all three modes possible for all neural drive values. This is a pure spike-based measure and can be applied to measure the influence of either all or subset of a neuron's stimulus. We derive the measure by decomposing the reverse correlation, test it in several artificial and biological settings, and compare it to other measures, finding little or no correlation between them. We relate the results of the measure to neural parameters and investigate the effect of time delay during spike generation. Our results suggest that a neuron can use several different modes simultaneously on different subsets of its stimulus to enable it to respond to its stimulus in a complex manner.
Konstantinou, Nikos; Constantinidou, Fofi; Kanai, Ryota
2017-02-01
Working memory is responsible for keeping information in mind when it is no longer in view, linking perception with higher cognitive functions. Despite such crucial role, short-term maintenance of visual information is severely limited. Research suggests that capacity limits in visual short-term memory (VSTM) are correlated with sustained activity in distinct brain areas. Here, we investigated whether variability in the structure of the brain is reflected in individual differences of behavioral capacity estimates for spatial and object VSTM. Behavioral capacity estimates were calculated separately for spatial and object information using a novel adaptive staircase procedure and were found to be unrelated, supporting domain-specific VSTM capacity limits. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analyses revealed dissociable neuroanatomical correlates of spatial versus object VSTM. Interindividual variability in spatial VSTM was reflected in the gray matter density of the inferior parietal lobule. In contrast, object VSTM was reflected in the gray matter density of the left insula. These dissociable findings highlight the importance of considering domain-specific estimates of VSTM capacity and point to the crucial brain regions that limit VSTM capacity for different types of visual information. Hum Brain Mapp 38:767-778, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holohan, E. P.; Walter, T. R.; Schöpfer, M. P. J.; Walsh, J. J.; Orr, T.; Poland, M.
2012-04-01
In March 2011, a spectacular fissure eruption on Kilauea was associated with a major collapse event in the highly-active Puu Oo crater. Time-lapse cameras maintained by the Hawaii Volcano Observatory captured views of the crater in the moments before, during, and after the collapse. The 2011 event hence represents a unique opportunity to characterize the surface deformation related to the onset of a pit crater collapse and to understand what factors influence it. To do so, we used two approaches. First, we analyzed the available series of camera images by means of digital image correlation techniques. This enabled us to gain a semi-quantitative (pixel-unit) description of the surface displacements and the structural development of the collapsing crater floor. Secondly, we ran a series of 'true-scale' numerical pit-crater collapse simulations based on the two-dimensional Distinct Element Method (2D-DEM). This enabled us to gain insights into what geometric and mechanical factors could have controlled the observed surface displacement pattern and structural development. Our analysis of the time-lapse images reveals that the crater floor initially gently sagged, and then rapidly collapsed in association with the appearance of a large ring-like fault scarp. The observed structural development and surface displacement patterns of the March 2011 Puu Oo collapse are best reproduced in DEM models with a relatively shallow magma reservoir that is vertically elongated, and with a crater floor rock mass that is reasonably strong. In combining digital image correlation with DEM modeling, our study highlights the future potential of these relatively new techniques for understanding physical processes at active volcanoes.
2012-01-01
Background A discrete choice experiment (DCE) is a preference survey which asks participants to make a choice among product portfolios comparing the key product characteristics by performing several choice tasks. Analyzing DCE data needs to account for within-participant correlation because choices from the same participant are likely to be similar. In this study, we empirically compared some commonly-used statistical methods for analyzing DCE data while accounting for within-participant correlation based on a survey of patient preference for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening tests conducted in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada in 2002. Methods A two-stage DCE design was used to investigate the impact of six attributes on participants' preferences for CRC screening test and willingness to undertake the test. We compared six models for clustered binary outcomes (logistic and probit regressions using cluster-robust standard error (SE), random-effects and generalized estimating equation approaches) and three models for clustered nominal outcomes (multinomial logistic and probit regressions with cluster-robust SE and random-effects multinomial logistic model). We also fitted a bivariate probit model with cluster-robust SE treating the choices from two stages as two correlated binary outcomes. The rank of relative importance between attributes and the estimates of β coefficient within attributes were used to assess the model robustness. Results In total 468 participants with each completing 10 choices were analyzed. Similar results were reported for the rank of relative importance and β coefficients across models for stage-one data on evaluating participants' preferences for the test. The six attributes ranked from high to low as follows: cost, specificity, process, sensitivity, preparation and pain. However, the results differed across models for stage-two data on evaluating participants' willingness to undertake the tests. Little within-patient correlation (ICC ≈ 0) was
Rights, Jason D; Sterba, Sonya K
2016-11-01
Multilevel data structures are common in the social sciences. Often, such nested data are analysed with multilevel models (MLMs) in which heterogeneity between clusters is modelled by continuously distributed random intercepts and/or slopes. Alternatively, the non-parametric multilevel regression mixture model (NPMM) can accommodate the same nested data structures through discrete latent class variation. The purpose of this article is to delineate analytic relationships between NPMM and MLM parameters that are useful for understanding the indirect interpretation of the NPMM as a non-parametric approximation of the MLM, with relaxed distributional assumptions. We define how seven standard and non-standard MLM specifications can be indirectly approximated by particular NPMM specifications. We provide formulas showing how the NPMM can serve as an approximation of the MLM in terms of intraclass correlation, random coefficient means and (co)variances, heteroscedasticity of residuals at level 1, and heteroscedasticity of residuals at level 2. Further, we discuss how these relationships can be useful in practice. The specific relationships are illustrated with simulated graphical demonstrations, and direct and indirect interpretations of NPMM classes are contrasted. We provide an R function to aid in implementing and visualizing an indirect interpretation of NPMM classes. An empirical example is presented and future directions are discussed. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.
Gallienne, Jacqueline; Gregg, Caroline; LeBlanc, Evan; Yaakob, Norazlin; Wu, Di; Davies, Kate; Rawlings, Norman; Pierson, Roger; Deardon, Rob; Bartlewski, Pawel
2012-05-01
Associations between physical characteristics and functionality of corpora lutea (CL) have previously been reported in monovulatory species, albeit several studies in cattle and humans have refuted the existence of temporal relationships between CL size, echotexture and serum progesterone (P(4)) concentrations. The main objective of the present study was to examine whether or not there were correlations between ultrasonographic image attributes of CL and systemic concentrations of P(4) during the discrete stages of the luteal phase in two breeds of sheep differing in ovulation rates (non-prolific Western White Face [WWF] ewes and prolific Finn [F] sheep). Transrectal ovarian ultrasonography utilized a 7.5-MHz linear-array transducer connected to a portable scanner (Aloka SSD-500) and the images were analyzed using commercially available image analytical software (Image ProPlus(®)) validated for the present application in sheep. The correlations were assessed using the Pearson's Product Moment (PPM) analysis and also, to increase the accuracy of statistical tests, the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), with the number of CL as a co-factor. In WWF ewes, serum concentrations of P(4) correlated significantly with the total luteal area (TLA) during the CL growth phase (days 3-6; day 0 = ovulation) and functional luteolysis (days 12-15), and with numerical pixel values (NPVs--pixel intensity) during luteolysis; the results obtained by using two different statistical methods were generally similar. In prolific F ewes, serum P(4) concentrations were directly correlated with TLA during CL growth (days 3-6; ANCOVA), functional luteolysis (days 13-14; PPM), and structural CL regression (days 11-14; PPM and ANCOVA), and with NPVs during functional luteolysis (PPM and ANCOVA). We concluded that systemic P(4) concentrations could only be accurately predicted from the changes in luteal area during CL growth and regression, and from NPVs during luteolysis, in both prolific and non
Combining Correlation Matrices: Simulation Analysis of Improved Fixed-Effects Methods
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hafdahl, Adam R.
2007-01-01
The originally proposed multivariate meta-analysis approach for correlation matrices--analyze Pearson correlations, with each study's observed correlations replacing their population counterparts in its conditional-covariance matrix--performs poorly. Two refinements are considered: Analyze Fisher Z-transformed correlations, and substitute better…
Margolin, L. G.; Hunter, A.
2017-10-18
Here, we consider the dependence of velocity probability distribution functions on the finite size of a thermodynamic system. We are motivated by applications to computational fluid dynamics, hence discrete thermodynamics. We then begin by describing a coarsening process that represents geometric renormalization. Then, based only on the requirements of conservation, we demonstrate that the pervasive assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium is not form invariant. We develop a perturbative correction that restores form invariance to second-order in a small parameter associated with macroscopic gradients. Finally, we interpret the corrections in terms of unresolved kinetic energy and discuss the implications of ourmore » results both in theory and as applied to numerical simulation.« less
Margolin, L. G.; Hunter, A.
Here, we consider the dependence of velocity probability distribution functions on the finite size of a thermodynamic system. We are motivated by applications to computational fluid dynamics, hence discrete thermodynamics. We then begin by describing a coarsening process that represents geometric renormalization. Then, based only on the requirements of conservation, we demonstrate that the pervasive assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium is not form invariant. We develop a perturbative correction that restores form invariance to second-order in a small parameter associated with macroscopic gradients. Finally, we interpret the corrections in terms of unresolved kinetic energy and discuss the implications of ourmore » results both in theory and as applied to numerical simulation.« less
Hints of correlation between broad-line and radio variations for 3C 120
Liu, H. T.; Bai, J. M.; Li, S. K.
2014-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the correlation between broad-line and radio variations for the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 120. By the z-transformed discrete correlation function method and the model-independent flux randomization/random subset selection (FR/RSS) Monte Carlo method, we find that broad Hβ line variations lead the 15 GHz variations. The FR/RSS method shows that the Hβ line variations lead the radio variations by a factor of τ{sub ob} = 0.34 ± 0.01 yr. This time lag can be used to locate the position of the emitting region of radio outbursts in the jet, on the order of ∼5 lt-yr frommore » the central engine. This distance is much larger than the size of the broad-line region. The large separation of the radio outburst emitting region from the broad-line region will observably influence the gamma-ray emission in 3C 120.« less
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ghezzi, Patrick M.
2007-01-01
The advantages of emphasizing discrete trials "teaching" over discrete trials "training" are presented first, followed by a discussion of discrete trials as a method of teaching that emerged historically--and as a matter of necessity for difficult learners such as those with autism--from discrete trials as a method for laboratory research. The…
Tail shortening by discrete hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiefer, J.; Visscher, P. B.
1982-02-01
A discrete formulation of hydrodynamics was recently introduced, whose most important feature is that it is exactly renormalizable. Previous numerical work has found that it provides a more efficient and rapidly convergent method for calculating transport coefficients than the usual Green-Kubo method. The latter's convergence difficulties are due to the well-known "long-time tail" of the time correlation function which must be integrated over time. The purpose of the present paper is to present additional evidence that these difficulties are really absent in the discrete equation of motion approach. The "memory" terms in the equation of motion are calculated accurately, and shown to decay much more rapidly with time than the equilibrium time correlations do.
Principles of Discrete Time Mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaroszkiewicz, George
2014-04-01
1. Introduction; 2. The physics of discreteness; 3. The road to calculus; 4. Temporal discretization; 5. Discrete time dynamics architecture; 6. Some models; 7. Classical cellular automata; 8. The action sum; 9. Worked examples; 10. Lee's approach to discrete time mechanics; 11. Elliptic billiards; 12. The construction of system functions; 13. The classical discrete time oscillator; 14. Type 2 temporal discretization; 15. Intermission; 16. Discrete time quantum mechanics; 17. The quantized discrete time oscillator; 18. Path integrals; 19. Quantum encoding; 20. Discrete time classical field equations; 21. The discrete time Schrodinger equation; 22. The discrete time Klein-Gordon equation; 23. The discrete time Dirac equation; 24. Discrete time Maxwell's equations; 25. The discrete time Skyrme model; 26. Discrete time quantum field theory; 27. Interacting discrete time scalar fields; 28. Space, time and gravitation; 29. Causality and observation; 30. Concluding remarks; Appendix A. Coherent states; Appendix B. The time-dependent oscillator; Appendix C. Quaternions; Appendix D. Quantum registers; References; Index.
Discrete transparent boundary conditions for the mixed KDV-BBM equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Besse, Christophe; Noble, Pascal; Sanchez, David
2017-09-01
In this paper, we consider artificial boundary conditions for the linearized mixed Korteweg-de Vries (KDV) and Benjamin-Bona-Mahoney (BBM) equation which models water waves in the small amplitude, large wavelength regime. Continuous (respectively discrete) artificial boundary conditions involve non local operators in time which in turn requires to compute time convolutions and invert the Laplace transform of an analytic function (respectively the Z-transform of an holomorphic function). In this paper, we propose a new, stable and fairly general strategy to carry out this crucial step in the design of transparent boundary conditions. For large time simulations, we also introduce a methodology based on the asymptotic expansion of coefficients involved in exact direct transparent boundary conditions. We illustrate the accuracy of our methods for Gaussian and wave packets initial data.
Discrete Mathematics Re "Tooled."
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Grassl, Richard M.; Mingus, Tabitha T. Y.
1999-01-01
Indicates the importance of teaching discrete mathematics. Describes how the use of technology can enhance the teaching and learning of discrete mathematics. Explorations using Excel, Derive, and the TI-92 proved how preservice and inservice teachers experienced a new dimension in problem solving and discovery. (ASK)
Discrete Roughness Transition for Hypersonic Flight Vehicles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berry, Scott A.; Horvath, Thomas J.
2007-01-01
The importance of discrete roughness and the correlations developed to predict the onset of boundary layer transition on hypersonic flight vehicles are discussed. The paper is organized by hypersonic vehicle applications characterized in a general sense by the boundary layer: slender with hypersonic conditions at the edge of the boundary layer, moderately blunt with supersonic, and blunt with subsonic. This paper is intended to be a review of recent discrete roughness transition work completed at NASA Langley Research Center in support of agency flight test programs. First, a review is provided of discrete roughness wind tunnel data and the resulting correlations that were developed. Then, results obtained from flight vehicles, in particular the recently flown Hyper-X and Shuttle missions, are discussed and compared to the ground-based correlations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Peters, James V.
2004-01-01
Using the methods of finite difference equations the discrete analogue of the parabolic and catenary cable are analysed. The fibonacci numbers and the golden ratio arise in the treatment of the catenary.
Adaptive Discrete Hypergraph Matching.
Yan, Junchi; Li, Changsheng; Li, Yin; Cao, Guitao
2018-02-01
This paper addresses the problem of hypergraph matching using higher-order affinity information. We propose a solver that iteratively updates the solution in the discrete domain by linear assignment approximation. The proposed method is guaranteed to converge to a stationary discrete solution and avoids the annealing procedure and ad-hoc post binarization step that are required in several previous methods. Specifically, we start with a simple iterative discrete gradient assignment solver. This solver can be trapped in an -circle sequence under moderate conditions, where is the order of the graph matching problem. We then devise an adaptive relaxation mechanism to jump out this degenerating case and show that the resulting new path will converge to a fixed solution in the discrete domain. The proposed method is tested on both synthetic and real-world benchmarks. The experimental results corroborate the efficacy of our method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Li
1999-09-01
According to a general definition of discrete curves, surfaces, and manifolds (Li Chen, 'Generalized discrete object tracking algorithms and implementations, ' In Melter, Wu, and Latecki ed, Vision Geometry VI, SPIE Vol. 3168, pp 184 - 195, 1997.). This paper focuses on the Jordan curve theorem in 2D discrete spaces. The Jordan curve theorem says that a (simply) closed curve separates a simply connected surface into two components. Based on the definition of discrete surfaces, we give three reasonable definitions of simply connected spaces. Theoretically, these three definition shall be equivalent. We have proved the Jordan curve theorem under the third definition of simply connected spaces. The Jordan theorem shows the relationship among an object, its boundary, and its outside area. In continuous space, the boundary of an mD manifold is an (m - 1)D manifold. The similar result does apply to regular discrete manifolds. The concept of a new regular nD-cell is developed based on the regular surface point in 2D, and well-composed objects in 2D and 3D given by Latecki (L. Latecki, '3D well-composed pictures,' In Melter, Wu, and Latecki ed, Vision Geometry IV, SPIE Vol 2573, pp 196 - 203, 1995.).
Exarchakis, Georgios; Lücke, Jörg
2017-11-01
Sparse coding algorithms with continuous latent variables have been the subject of a large number of studies. However, discrete latent spaces for sparse coding have been largely ignored. In this work, we study sparse coding with latents described by discrete instead of continuous prior distributions. We consider the general case in which the latents (while being sparse) can take on any value of a finite set of possible values and in which we learn the prior probability of any value from data. This approach can be applied to any data generated by discrete causes, and it can be applied as an approximation of continuous causes. As the prior probabilities are learned, the approach then allows for estimating the prior shape without assuming specific functional forms. To efficiently train the parameters of our probabilistic generative model, we apply a truncated expectation-maximization approach (expectation truncation) that we modify to work with a general discrete prior. We evaluate the performance of the algorithm by applying it to a variety of tasks: (1) we use artificial data to verify that the algorithm can recover the generating parameters from a random initialization, (2) use image patches of natural images and discuss the role of the prior for the extraction of image components, (3) use extracellular recordings of neurons to present a novel method of analysis for spiking neurons that includes an intuitive discretization strategy, and (4) apply the algorithm on the task of encoding audio waveforms of human speech. The diverse set of numerical experiments presented in this letter suggests that discrete sparse coding algorithms can scale efficiently to work with realistic data sets and provide novel statistical quantities to describe the structure of the data.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sharp, Karen Tobey
This paper cites information received from a number of sources, e.g., mathematics teachers in two-year colleges, publishers, and convention speakers, about the nature of discrete mathematics and about what topics a course in this subject should contain. Note is taken of the book edited by Ralston and Young which discusses the future of college…
Beta oscillations define discrete perceptual cycles in the somatosensory domain.
Baumgarten, Thomas J; Schnitzler, Alfons; Lange, Joachim
2015-09-29
Whether seeing a movie, listening to a song, or feeling a breeze on the skin, we coherently experience these stimuli as continuous, seamless percepts. However, there are rare perceptual phenomena that argue against continuous perception but, instead, suggest discrete processing of sensory input. Empirical evidence supporting such a discrete mechanism, however, remains scarce and comes entirely from the visual domain. Here, we demonstrate compelling evidence for discrete perceptual sampling in the somatosensory domain. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and a tactile temporal discrimination task in humans, we find that oscillatory alpha- and low beta-band (8-20 Hz) cycles in primary somatosensory cortex represent neurophysiological correlates of discrete perceptual cycles. Our results agree with several theoretical concepts of discrete perceptual sampling and empirical evidence of perceptual cycles in the visual domain. Critically, these results show that discrete perceptual cycles are not domain-specific, and thus restricted to the visual domain, but extend to the somatosensory domain.
A priori discretization error metrics for distributed hydrologic modeling applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Hongli; Tolson, Bryan A.; Craig, James R.; Shafii, Mahyar
2016-12-01
candidate discretization schemes validate the strong correlation between the proposed discretization error metrics and hydrologic simulation responses. Discretization decision-making results show that the common and convenient approach of making uniform discretization decisions across the watershed performs worse than the proposed non-uniform discretization approach in terms of preserving spatial heterogeneity under the same computational cost.
Discrete Semiconductor Device Reliability
1988-03-25
array or alphanumeric display. "--" indicates unknown diode count. Voc Open circuit voltage for photovoltaic modules . indicates unknown. Isc Short... circuit current for photovoltaic modules . "--" indicates unknown. Number Tested Quantity of parts under the described test or field conditions for that...information pertaining to electronic systems and parts used therein. The present scope includes integrated circuits , hybrids, discrete semiconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wuensche, Andrew
DDLab is interactive graphics software for creating, visualizing, and analyzing many aspects of Cellular Automata, Random Boolean Networks, and Discrete Dynamical Networks in general and studying their behavior, both from the time-series perspective — space-time patterns, and from the state-space perspective — attractor basins. DDLab is relevant to research, applications, and education in the fields of complexity, self-organization, emergent phenomena, chaos, collision-based computing, neural networks, content addressable memory, genetic regulatory networks, dynamical encryption, generative art and music, and the study of the abstract mathematical/physical/dynamical phenomena in their own right.
Integrable discrete PT symmetric model.
Ablowitz, Mark J; Musslimani, Ziad H
2014-09-01
An exactly solvable discrete PT invariant nonlinear Schrödinger-like model is introduced. It is an integrable Hamiltonian system that exhibits a nontrivial nonlinear PT symmetry. A discrete one-soliton solution is constructed using a left-right Riemann-Hilbert formulation. It is shown that this pure soliton exhibits unique features such as power oscillations and singularity formation. The proposed model can be viewed as a discretization of a recently obtained integrable nonlocal nonlinear Schrödinger equation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noyes, H. Pierre; Starson, Scott
1991-03-01
Discrete physics, because it replaces time evolution generated by the energy operator with a global bit-string generator (program universe) and replaces fields with the relativistic Wheeler-Feynman action at a distance, allows the consistent formulation of the concept of signed gravitational charge for massive particles. The resulting prediction made by this version of the theory is that free anti-particles near the surface of the earth will fall up with the same acceleration that the corresponding particles fall down. So far as we can see, no current experimental information is in conflict with this prediction of our theory. The experiment crusis will be one of the anti-proton or anti-hydrogen experiments at CERN. Our prediction should be much easier to test than the small effects which those experiments are currently designed to detect or bound.
Noyes, H.P.; Starson, S.
1991-03-01
Discrete physics, because it replaces time evolution generated by the energy operator with a global bit-string generator (program universe) and replaces fields'' with the relativistic Wheeler-Feynman action at a distance,'' allows the consistent formulation of the concept of signed gravitational charge for massive particles. The resulting prediction made by this version of the theory is that free anti-particles near the surface of the earth will fall'' up with the same acceleration that the corresponding particles fall down. So far as we can see, no current experimental information is in conflict with this prediction of our theory. The experiment crusis willmore » be one of the anti-proton or anti-hydrogen experiments at CERN. Our prediction should be much easier to test than the small effects which those experiments are currently designed to detect or bound. 23 refs.« less
Immigration and Prosecutorial Discretion
Apollonio, Dorie; Lochner, Todd; Heddens, Myriah
2015-01-01
Immigration has become an increasingly salient national issue in the US, and the Department of Justice recently increased federal efforts to prosecute immigration offenses. This shift, however, relies on the cooperation of US attorneys and their assistants. Traditionally federal prosecutors have enjoyed enormous discretion and have been responsive to local concerns. To consider how the centralized goal of immigration enforcement may have influenced federal prosecutors in regional offices, we review their prosecution of immigration offenses in California using over a decade's worth of data. Our findings suggest that although centralizing forces influence immigration prosecutions, individual US attorneys' offices retain distinct characteristics. Local factors influence federal prosecutors' behavior in different ways depending on the office. Contrary to expectations, unemployment rates did not affect prosecutors' willingness to pursue immigration offenses, nor did local popular opinion about illegal immigration. PMID:26146530
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alpers, Andreas; Gritzmann, Peter
2018-03-01
We consider the problem of reconstructing the paths of a set of points over time, where, at each of a finite set of moments in time the current positions of points in space are only accessible through some small number of their x-rays. This particular particle tracking problem, with applications, e.g. in plasma physics, is the basic problem in dynamic discrete tomography. We introduce and analyze various different algorithmic models. In particular, we determine the computational complexity of the problem (and various of its relatives) and derive algorithms that can be used in practice. As a byproduct we provide new results on constrained variants of min-cost flow and matching problems.
Beyond Discrete Vacuum Spacetimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McDonald, Jonathan; Miller, Warner
2008-04-01
In applications to pre-geometric models of quantum gravity, one expects matter to play an important role in the geometry of the spacetime. Such models often posit that the matter fields play a crucial role in the determination of the spacetime geometry. However, it is not well understood at a fundamental level how one couples matter into the Regge geometry. In order to better understand the nature of such theories that rely on Regge Calculus, we must first gain a better understanding of the role of matter in a lattice spacetime. We investigate consistent methods of incorporating matter into spacetime, and particularly focus on the role of spinors in Regge Calculus. Since spinors are fundamental to fermionic fields, this investigation is crucial in understanding fermionic coupling to discrete spacetime. Our focus is primarily on the geometric interpretation of the fields on the lattice geometry with a goal on understanding the dynamic coupling between the fields and the geometry.
Discrete bisoliton fiber laser
Liu, X. M.; Han, X. X.; Yao, X. K.
2016-01-01
Dissipative solitons, which result from the intricate balance between dispersion and nonlinearity as well as gain and loss, are of the fundamental scientific interest and numerous important applications. Here, we report a fiber laser that generates bisoliton – two consecutive dissipative solitons that preserve a fixed separation between them. Deviations from this separation result in its restoration. It is also found that these bisolitons have multiple discrete equilibrium distances with the quantized separations, as is confirmed by the theoretical analysis and the experimental observations. The main feature of our laser is the anomalous dispersion that is increased by an order of magnitude in comparison to previous studies. Then the spectral filtering effect plays a significant role in pulse-shaping. The proposed laser has the potential applications in optical communications and high-resolution optics for coding and transmission of information in higher-level modulation formats. PMID:27767075
Nonintegrable Schrodinger discrete breathers.
Gómez-Gardeñes, J; Floría, L M; Peyrard, M; Bishop, A R
2004-12-01
In an extensive numerical investigation of nonintegrable translational motion of discrete breathers in nonlinear Schrödinger lattices, we have used a regularized Newton algorithm to continue these solutions from the limit of the integrable Ablowitz-Ladik lattice. These solutions are shown to be a superposition of a localized moving core and an excited extended state (background) to which the localized moving pulse is spatially asymptotic. The background is a linear combination of small amplitude nonlinear resonant plane waves and it plays an essential role in the energy balance governing the translational motion of the localized core. Perturbative collective variable theory predictions are critically analyzed in the light of the numerical results.
Discrete Mathematics and Its Applications
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oxley, Alan
2010-01-01
The article gives ideas that lecturers of undergraduate Discrete Mathematics courses can use in order to make the subject more interesting for students and encourage them to undertake further studies in the subject. It is possible to teach Discrete Mathematics with little or no reference to computing. However, students are more likely to be…
Discrete Mathematics and Curriculum Reform.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kenney, Margaret J.
1996-01-01
Defines discrete mathematics as the mathematics necessary to effect reasoned decision making in finite situations and explains how its use supports the current view of mathematics education. Discrete mathematics can be used by curriculum developers to improve the curriculum for students of all ages and abilities. (SLD)
Applying Multivariate Discrete Distributions to Genetically Informative Count Data.
Kirkpatrick, Robert M; Neale, Michael C
2016-03-01
We present a novel method of conducting biometric analysis of twin data when the phenotypes are integer-valued counts, which often show an L-shaped distribution. Monte Carlo simulation is used to compare five likelihood-based approaches to modeling: our multivariate discrete method, when its distributional assumptions are correct, when they are incorrect, and three other methods in common use. With data simulated from a skewed discrete distribution, recovery of twin correlations and proportions of additive genetic and common environment variance was generally poor for the Normal, Lognormal and Ordinal models, but good for the two discrete models. Sex-separate applications to substance-use data from twins in the Minnesota Twin Family Study showed superior performance of two discrete models. The new methods are implemented using R and OpenMx and are freely available.
Linking entanglement and discrete anomaly
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hung, Ling-Yan; Wu, Yong-Shi; Zhou, Yang
2018-05-01
In 3 d Chern-Simons theory, there is a discrete one-form symmetry, whose symmetry group is isomorphic to the center of the gauge group. We study the `t Hooft anomaly associated to this discrete one-form symmetry in theories with generic gauge groups, A, B, C, D-types. We propose to detect the discrete anomaly by computing the Hopf state entanglement in the subspace spanned by the symmetry generators and develop a systematical way based on the truncated modular S matrix. We check our proposal for many examples.
Perfect discretization of path integrals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steinhaus, Sebastian
2012-05-01
In order to obtain a well-defined path integral one often employs discretizations. In the case of General Relativity these generically break diffeomorphism symmetry, which has severe consequences since these symmetries determine the dynamics of the corresponding system. In this article we consider the path integral of reparametrization invariant systems as a toy example and present an improvement procedure for the discretized propagator. Fixed points and convergence of the procedure are discussed. Furthermore we show that a reparametrization invariant path integral implies discretization independence and acts as a projector onto physical states.
Segmentation of discrete vector fields.
Li, Hongyu; Chen, Wenbin; Shen, I-Fan
2006-01-01
In this paper, we propose an approach for 2D discrete vector field segmentation based on the Green function and normalized cut. The method is inspired by discrete Hodge Decomposition such that a discrete vector field can be broken down into three simpler components, namely, curl-free, divergence-free, and harmonic components. We show that the Green Function Method (GFM) can be used to approximate the curl-free and the divergence-free components to achieve our goal of the vector field segmentation. The final segmentation curves that represent the boundaries of the influence region of singularities are obtained from the optimal vector field segmentations. These curves are composed of piecewise smooth contours or streamlines. Our method is applicable to both linear and nonlinear discrete vector fields. Experiments show that the segmentations obtained using our approach essentially agree with human perceptual judgement.
Algebraic perturbation theory for dense liquids with discrete potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adib, Artur B.
2007-06-01
A simple theory for the leading-order correction g1(r) to the structure of a hard-sphere liquid with discrete (e.g., square-well) potential perturbations is proposed. The theory makes use of a general approximation that effectively eliminates four-particle correlations from g1(r) with good accuracy at high densities. For the particular case of discrete perturbations, the remaining three-particle correlations can be modeled with a simple volume-exclusion argument, resulting in an algebraic and surprisingly accurate expression for g1(r) . The structure of a discrete “core-softened” model for liquids with anomalous thermodynamic properties is reproduced as an application.
Observation of a discrete time crystal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, J.; Hess, P. W.; Kyprianidis, A.; Becker, P.; Lee, A.; Smith, J.; Pagano, G.; Potirniche, I.-D.; Potter, A. C.; Vishwanath, A.; Yao, N. Y.; Monroe, C.
2017-03-01
Spontaneous symmetry breaking is a fundamental concept in many areas of physics, including cosmology, particle physics and condensed matter. An example is the breaking of spatial translational symmetry, which underlies the formation of crystals and the phase transition from liquid to solid. Using the analogy of crystals in space, the breaking of translational symmetry in time and the emergence of a ‘time crystal’ was recently proposed, but was later shown to be forbidden in thermal equilibrium. However, non-equilibrium Floquet systems, which are subject to a periodic drive, can exhibit persistent time correlations at an emergent subharmonic frequency. This new phase of matter has been dubbed a ‘discrete time crystal’. Here we present the experimental observation of a discrete time crystal, in an interacting spin chain of trapped atomic ions. We apply a periodic Hamiltonian to the system under many-body localization conditions, and observe a subharmonic temporal response that is robust to external perturbations. The observation of such a time crystal opens the door to the study of systems with long-range spatio-temporal correlations and novel phases of matter that emerge under intrinsically non-equilibrium conditions.
Observation of a discrete time crystal.
Zhang, J; Hess, P W; Kyprianidis, A; Becker, P; Lee, A; Smith, J; Pagano, G; Potirniche, I-D; Potter, A C; Vishwanath, A; Yao, N Y; Monroe, C
2017-03-08
Spontaneous symmetry breaking is a fundamental concept in many areas of physics, including cosmology, particle physics and condensed matter. An example is the breaking of spatial translational symmetry, which underlies the formation of crystals and the phase transition from liquid to solid. Using the analogy of crystals in space, the breaking of translational symmetry in time and the emergence of a 'time crystal' was recently proposed, but was later shown to be forbidden in thermal equilibrium. However, non-equilibrium Floquet systems, which are subject to a periodic drive, can exhibit persistent time correlations at an emergent subharmonic frequency. This new phase of matter has been dubbed a 'discrete time crystal'. Here we present the experimental observation of a discrete time crystal, in an interacting spin chain of trapped atomic ions. We apply a periodic Hamiltonian to the system under many-body localization conditions, and observe a subharmonic temporal response that is robust to external perturbations. The observation of such a time crystal opens the door to the study of systems with long-range spatio-temporal correlations and novel phases of matter that emerge under intrinsically non-equilibrium conditions.
Wang, Hong-Qiang; Tsai, Chung-Jui
2013-01-01
With the rapid increase of omics data, correlation analysis has become an indispensable tool for inferring meaningful associations from a large number of observations. Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) and its variants are widely used for such purposes. However, it remains challenging to test whether an observed association is reliable both statistically and biologically. We present here a new method, CorSig, for statistical inference of correlation significance. CorSig is based on a biology-informed null hypothesis, i.e., testing whether the true PCC (ρ) between two variables is statistically larger than a user-specified PCC cutoff (τ), as opposed to the simple null hypothesis of ρ = 0 in existing methods, i.e., testing whether an association can be declared without a threshold. CorSig incorporates Fisher's Z transformation of the observed PCC (r), which facilitates use of standard techniques for p-value computation and multiple testing corrections. We compared CorSig against two methods: one uses a minimum PCC cutoff while the other (Zhu's procedure) controls correlation strength and statistical significance in two discrete steps. CorSig consistently outperformed these methods in various simulation data scenarios by balancing between false positives and false negatives. When tested on real-world Populus microarray data, CorSig effectively identified co-expressed genes in the flavonoid pathway, and discriminated between closely related gene family members for their differential association with flavonoid and lignin pathways. The p-values obtained by CorSig can be used as a stand-alone parameter for stratification of co-expressed genes according to their correlation strength in lieu of an arbitrary cutoff. CorSig requires one single tunable parameter, and can be readily extended to other correlation measures. Thus, CorSig should be useful for a wide range of applications, particularly for network analysis of high-dimensional genomic data. A web server for
Distributed Relaxation for Conservative Discretizations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Diskin, Boris; Thomas, James L.
2001-01-01
A multigrid method is defined as having textbook multigrid efficiency (TME) if the solutions to the governing system of equations are attained in a computational work that is a small (less than 10) multiple of the operation count in one target-grid residual evaluation. The way to achieve this efficiency is the distributed relaxation approach. TME solvers employing distributed relaxation have already been demonstrated for nonconservative formulations of high-Reynolds-number viscous incompressible and subsonic compressible flow regimes. The purpose of this paper is to provide foundations for applications of distributed relaxation to conservative discretizations. A direct correspondence between the primitive variable interpolations for calculating fluxes in conservative finite-volume discretizations and stencils of the discretized derivatives in the nonconservative formulation has been established. Based on this correspondence, one can arrive at a conservative discretization which is very efficiently solved with a nonconservative relaxation scheme and this is demonstrated for conservative discretization of the quasi one-dimensional Euler equations. Formulations for both staggered and collocated grid arrangements are considered and extensions of the general procedure to multiple dimensions are discussed.
Integrable structure in discrete shell membrane theory
Schief, W. K.
2014-01-01
We present natural discrete analogues of two integrable classes of shell membranes. By construction, these discrete shell membranes are in equilibrium with respect to suitably chosen internal stresses and external forces. The integrability of the underlying equilibrium equations is proved by relating the geometry of the discrete shell membranes to discrete O surface theory. We establish connections with generalized barycentric coordinates and nine-point centres and identify a discrete version of the classical Gauss equation of surface theory. PMID:24808755
Integrable structure in discrete shell membrane theory.
Schief, W K
2014-05-08
We present natural discrete analogues of two integrable classes of shell membranes. By construction, these discrete shell membranes are in equilibrium with respect to suitably chosen internal stresses and external forces. The integrability of the underlying equilibrium equations is proved by relating the geometry of the discrete shell membranes to discrete O surface theory. We establish connections with generalized barycentric coordinates and nine-point centres and identify a discrete version of the classical Gauss equation of surface theory.
Geometry of discrete quantum computing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hanson, Andrew J.; Ortiz, Gerardo; Sabry, Amr; Tai, Yu-Tsung
2013-05-01
Conventional quantum computing entails a geometry based on the description of an n-qubit state using 2n infinite precision complex numbers denoting a vector in a Hilbert space. Such numbers are in general uncomputable using any real-world resources, and, if we have the idea of physical law as some kind of computational algorithm of the universe, we would be compelled to alter our descriptions of physics to be consistent with computable numbers. Our purpose here is to examine the geometric implications of using finite fields Fp and finite complexified fields \\mathbf {F}_{p^2} (based on primes p congruent to 3 (mod4)) as the basis for computations in a theory of discrete quantum computing, which would therefore become a computable theory. Because the states of a discrete n-qubit system are in principle enumerable, we are able to determine the proportions of entangled and unentangled states. In particular, we extend the Hopf fibration that defines the irreducible state space of conventional continuous n-qubit theories (which is the complex projective space \\mathbf {CP}^{2^{n}-1}) to an analogous discrete geometry in which the Hopf circle for any n is found to be a discrete set of p + 1 points. The tally of unit-length n-qubit states is given, and reduced via the generalized Hopf fibration to \\mathbf {DCP}^{2^{n}-1}, the discrete analogue of the complex projective space, which has p^{2^{n}-1} (p-1)\\,\\prod _{k=1}^{n-1} ( p^{2^{k}}+1) irreducible states. Using a measure of entanglement, the purity, we explore the entanglement features of discrete quantum states and find that the n-qubit states based on the complexified field \\mathbf {F}_{p^2} have pn(p - 1)n unentangled states (the product of the tally for a single qubit) with purity 1, and they have pn + 1(p - 1)(p + 1)n - 1 maximally entangled states with purity zero.
Discrete cloud structure on Neptune
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hammel, H. B.
1989-01-01
Recent CCD imaging data for the discrete cloud structure of Neptune shows that while cloud features at CH4-band wavelengths are manifest in the southern hemisphere, they have not been encountered in the northern hemisphere since 1986. A literature search has shown the reflected CH4-band light from the planet to have come from a single discrete feature at least twice in the last 10 years. Disk-integrated photometry derived from the imaging has demonstrated that a bright cloud feature was responsible for the observed 8900 A diurnal variation in 1986 and 1987.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Williams, H. Thomas
2015-12-01
>[DiVencenzo1995] DiVencenzo
Reduced discretization error in HZETRN
Slaba, Tony C., E-mail: Tony.C.Slaba@nasa.gov; Blattnig, Steve R., E-mail: Steve.R.Blattnig@nasa.gov; Tweed, John, E-mail: jtweed@odu.edu
2013-02-01
The deterministic particle transport code HZETRN is an efficient analysis tool for studying the effects of space radiation on humans, electronics, and shielding materials. In a previous work, numerical methods in the code were reviewed, and new methods were developed that further improved efficiency and reduced overall discretization error. It was also shown that the remaining discretization error could be attributed to low energy light ions (A < 4) with residual ranges smaller than the physical step-size taken by the code. Accurately resolving the spectrum of low energy light particles is important in assessing risk associated with astronaut radiation exposure.more » In this work, modifications to the light particle transport formalism are presented that accurately resolve the spectrum of low energy light ion target fragments. The modified formalism is shown to significantly reduce overall discretization error and allows a physical approximation to be removed. For typical step-sizes and energy grids used in HZETRN, discretization errors for the revised light particle transport algorithms are shown to be less than 4% for aluminum and water shielding thicknesses as large as 100 g/cm{sup 2} exposed to both solar particle event and galactic cosmic ray environments.« less
Discrete Roughness Effects on Shuttle Orbiter at Mach 6
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berry, Scott A.; Hamilton, H. Harris, II
2002-01-01
Discrete roughness boundary layer transition results on a Shuttle Orbiter model in the NASA Langley Research Center 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel have been reanalyzed with new boundary layer calculations to provide consistency for comparison to other published results. The experimental results were previously obtained utilizing the phosphor thermography system to monitor the status of the boundary layer via global heat transfer images of the Orbiter windward surface. The size and location of discrete roughness elements were systematically varied along the centerline of the 0.0075-scale model at an angle of attack of 40 deg and the boundary layer response recorded. Various correlative approaches were attempted, with the roughness transition correlations based on edge properties providing the most reliable results. When a consistent computational method is used to compute edge conditions, transition datasets for different configurations at several angles of attack have been shown to collapse to a well-behaved correlation.
Wakamiya, Eiji; Okumura, Tomohito; Nakanishi, Makoto; Takeshita, Takashi; Mizuta, Mekumi; Kurimoto, Naoko; Tamai, Hiroshi
2011-06-01
To clarify whether rapid naming ability itself is a main underpinning factor of rapid automatized naming tests (RAN) and how deep an influence the discrete decoding process has on reading, we performed discrete naming tasks and discrete hiragana reading tasks as well as sequential naming tasks and sequential hiragana reading tasks with 38 Japanese schoolchildren with reading difficulty. There were high correlations between both discrete and sequential hiragana reading and sentence reading, suggesting that some mechanism which automatizes hiragana reading makes sentence reading fluent. In object and color tasks, there were moderate correlations between sentence reading and sequential naming, and between sequential naming and discrete naming. But no correlation was found between reading tasks and discrete naming tasks. The influence of rapid naming ability of objects and colors upon reading seemed relatively small, and multi-item processing may work in relation to these. In contrast, in the digit naming task there was moderate correlation between sentence reading and discrete naming, while no correlation was seen between sequential naming and discrete naming. There was moderate correlation between reading tasks and sequential digit naming tasks. Digit rapid naming ability has more direct effect on reading while its effect on RAN is relatively limited. The ratio of how rapid naming ability influences RAN and reading seems to vary according to kind of the stimuli used. An assumption about components in RAN which influence reading is discussed in the context of both sequential processing and discrete naming speed. Copyright © 2010 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Galaxy Redshifts from Discrete Optimization of Correlation Functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Benjamin C. G.; Budavári, Tamás; Basu, Amitabh; Rahman, Mubdi
2016-12-01
We propose a new method of constraining the redshifts of individual extragalactic sources based on celestial coordinates and their ensemble statistics. Techniques from integer linear programming (ILP) are utilized to optimize simultaneously for the angular two-point cross- and autocorrelation functions. Our novel formalism introduced here not only transforms the otherwise hopelessly expensive, brute-force combinatorial search into a linear system with integer constraints but also is readily implementable in off-the-shelf solvers. We adopt Gurobi, a commercial optimization solver, and use Python to build the cost function dynamically. The preliminary results on simulated data show potential for future applications to sky surveys by complementing and enhancing photometric redshift estimators. Our approach is the first application of ILP to astronomical analysis.
Efficient genetic algorithms using discretization scheduling.
McLay, Laura A; Goldberg, David E
2005-01-01
In many applications of genetic algorithms, there is a tradeoff between speed and accuracy in fitness evaluations when evaluations use numerical methods with varying discretization. In these types of applications, the cost and accuracy vary from discretization errors when implicit or explicit quadrature is used to estimate the function evaluations. This paper examines discretization scheduling, or how to vary the discretization within the genetic algorithm in order to use the least amount of computation time for a solution of a desired quality. The effectiveness of discretization scheduling can be determined by comparing its computation time to the computation time of a GA using a constant discretization. There are three ingredients for the discretization scheduling: population sizing, estimated time for each function evaluation and predicted convergence time analysis. Idealized one- and two-dimensional experiments and an inverse groundwater application illustrate the computational savings to be achieved from using discretization scheduling.
Random discrete linear canonical transform.
Wei, Deyun; Wang, Ruikui; Li, Yuan-Min
2016-12-01
Linear canonical transforms (LCTs) are a family of integral transforms with wide applications in optical, acoustical, electromagnetic, and other wave propagation problems. In this paper, we propose the random discrete linear canonical transform (RDLCT) by randomizing the kernel transform matrix of the discrete linear canonical transform (DLCT). The RDLCT inherits excellent mathematical properties from the DLCT along with some fantastic features of its own. It has a greater degree of randomness because of the randomization in terms of both eigenvectors and eigenvalues. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the RDLCT has an important feature that the magnitude and phase of its output are both random. As an important application of the RDLCT, it can be used for image encryption. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed encryption method is a security-enhanced image encryption scheme.
Dark Energy from Discrete Spacetime
Trout, Aaron D.
2013-01-01
Dark energy accounts for most of the matter-energy content of our universe, yet current theories of its origin rely on radical physical assumptions such as the holographic principle or controversial anthropic arguments. We give a better motivated explanation for dark energy, claiming that it arises from a small negative scalar-curvature present even in empty spacetime. The vacuum has this curvature because spacetime is fundamentally discrete and there are more ways for a discrete geometry to have negative curvature than positive. We explicitly compute this effect using a variant of the well known dynamical-triangulations (DT) model for quantum gravity. Our model predicts a time-varying non-zero cosmological constant with a current value, in natural units, in agreement with observation. This calculation is made possible by a novel characterization of the possible DT action values combined with numerical evidence concerning their degeneracies. PMID:24312502
Dark energy from discrete spacetime.
Trout, Aaron D
2013-01-01
Dark energy accounts for most of the matter-energy content of our universe, yet current theories of its origin rely on radical physical assumptions such as the holographic principle or controversial anthropic arguments. We give a better motivated explanation for dark energy, claiming that it arises from a small negative scalar-curvature present even in empty spacetime. The vacuum has this curvature because spacetime is fundamentally discrete and there are more ways for a discrete geometry to have negative curvature than positive. We explicitly compute this effect using a variant of the well known dynamical-triangulations (DT) model for quantum gravity. Our model predicts a time-varying non-zero cosmological constant with a current value, [Formula: see text] in natural units, in agreement with observation. This calculation is made possible by a novel characterization of the possible DT action values combined with numerical evidence concerning their degeneracies.
Observability of discretized partial differential equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cohn, Stephen E.; Dee, Dick P.
1988-01-01
It is shown that complete observability of the discrete model used to assimilate data from a linear partial differential equation (PDE) system is necessary and sufficient for asymptotic stability of the data assimilation process. The observability theory for discrete systems is reviewed and applied to obtain simple observability tests for discretized constant-coefficient PDEs. Examples are used to show how numerical dispersion can result in discrete dynamics with multiple eigenvalues, thereby detracting from observability.
Improved Discrete Approximation of Laplacian of Gaussian
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shuler, Robert L., Jr.
2004-01-01
An improved method of computing a discrete approximation of the Laplacian of a Gaussian convolution of an image has been devised. The primary advantage of the method is that without substantially degrading the accuracy of the end result, it reduces the amount of information that must be processed and thus reduces the amount of circuitry needed to perform the Laplacian-of- Gaussian (LOG) operation. Some background information is necessary to place the method in context. The method is intended for application to the LOG part of a process of real-time digital filtering of digitized video data that represent brightnesses in pixels in a square array. The particular filtering process of interest is one that converts pixel brightnesses to binary form, thereby reducing the amount of information that must be performed in subsequent correlation processing (e.g., correlations between images in a stereoscopic pair for determining distances or correlations between successive frames of the same image for detecting motions). The Laplacian is often included in the filtering process because it emphasizes edges and textures, while the Gaussian is often included because it smooths out noise that might not be consistent between left and right images or between successive frames of the same image.
Discrete fractional solutions of a Legendre equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yılmazer, Resat
2018-01-01
One of the most popular research interests of science and engineering is the fractional calculus theory in recent times. Discrete fractional calculus has also an important position in fractional calculus. In this work, we acquire new discrete fractional solutions of the homogeneous and non homogeneous Legendre differential equation by using discrete fractional nabla operator.
Rocco, Paolo; Cilurzo, Francesco; Minghetti, Paola; Vistoli, Giulio; Pedretti, Alessandro
2017-10-01
The data presented in this article are related to the article titled "Molecular Dynamics as a tool for in silico screening of skin permeability" (Rocco et al., 2017) [1]. Knowledge of the confidence interval and maximum theoretical value of the correlation coefficient r can prove useful to estimate the reliability of developed predictive models, in particular when there is great variability in compiled experimental datasets. In this Data in Brief article, data from purposely designed numerical simulations are presented to show how much the maximum r value is worsened by increasing the data uncertainty. The corresponding confidence interval of r is determined by using the Fisher r → Z transform.
Space-Time Discrete KPZ Equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cannizzaro, G.; Matetski, K.
2018-03-01
We study a general family of space-time discretizations of the KPZ equation and show that they converge to its solution. The approach we follow makes use of basic elements of the theory of regularity structures (Hairer in Invent Math 198(2):269-504, 2014) as well as its discrete counterpart (Hairer and Matetski in Discretizations of rough stochastic PDEs, 2015. arXiv:1511.06937). Since the discretization is in both space and time and we allow non-standard discretization for the product, the methods mentioned above have to be suitably modified in order to accommodate the structure of the models under study.
Multifractal analysis of time series generated by discrete Ito equations
Telesca, Luciano; Czechowski, Zbigniew; Lovallo, Michele
2015-06-15
In this study, we show that discrete Ito equations with short-tail Gaussian marginal distribution function generate multifractal time series. The multifractality is due to the nonlinear correlations, which are hidden in Markov processes and are generated by the interrelation between the drift and the multiplicative stochastic forces in the Ito equation. A link between the range of the generalized Hurst exponents and the mean of the squares of all averaged net forces is suggested.
Ant algorithms for discrete optimization.
Dorigo, M; Di Caro, G; Gambardella, L M
1999-01-01
This article presents an overview of recent work on ant algorithms, that is, algorithms for discrete optimization that took inspiration from the observation of ant colonies' foraging behavior, and introduces the ant colony optimization (ACO) metaheuristic. In the first part of the article the basic biological findings on real ants are reviewed and their artificial counterparts as well as the ACO metaheuristic are defined. In the second part of the article a number of applications of ACO algorithms to combinatorial optimization and routing in communications networks are described. We conclude with a discussion of related work and of some of the most important aspects of the ACO metaheuristic.
Feng, Dai; Svetnik, Vladimir; Coimbra, Alexandre; Baumgartner, Richard
2014-01-01
The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) with fixed raters or, equivalently, the concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) for continuous outcomes is a widely accepted aggregate index of agreement in settings with small number of raters. Quantifying the precision of the CCC by constructing its confidence interval (CI) is important in early drug development applications, in particular in qualification of biomarker platforms. In recent years, there have been several new methods proposed for construction of CIs for the CCC, but their comprehensive comparison has not been attempted. The methods consisted of the delta method and jackknifing with and without Fisher's Z-transformation, respectively, and Bayesian methods with vague priors. In this study, we carried out a simulation study, with data simulated from multivariate normal as well as heavier tailed distribution (t-distribution with 5 degrees of freedom), to compare the state-of-the-art methods for assigning CI to the CCC. When the data are normally distributed, the jackknifing with Fisher's Z-transformation (JZ) tended to provide superior coverage and the difference between it and the closest competitor, the Bayesian method with the Jeffreys prior was in general minimal. For the nonnormal data, the jackknife methods, especially the JZ method, provided the coverage probabilities closest to the nominal in contrast to the others which yielded overly liberal coverage. Approaches based upon the delta method and Bayesian method with conjugate prior generally provided slightly narrower intervals and larger lower bounds than others, though this was offset by their poor coverage. Finally, we illustrated the utility of the CIs for the CCC in an example of a wake after sleep onset (WASO) biomarker, which is frequently used in clinical sleep studies of drugs for treatment of insomnia.
A Discretization Algorithm for Meteorological Data and its Parallelization Based on Hadoop
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Chao; Jin, Wen; Yu, Yuting; Qiu, Taorong; Bai, Xiaoming; Zou, Shuilong
2017-10-01
In view of the large amount of meteorological observation data, the property is more and the attribute values are continuous values, the correlation between the elements is the need for the application of meteorological data, this paper is devoted to solving the problem of how to better discretize large meteorological data to more effectively dig out the hidden knowledge in meteorological data and research on the improvement of discretization algorithm for large scale data, in order to achieve data in the large meteorological data discretization for the follow-up to better provide knowledge to provide protection, a discretization algorithm based on information entropy and inconsistency of meteorological attributes is proposed and the algorithm is parallelized under Hadoop platform. Finally, the comparison test validates the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for discretization in the area of meteorological large data.
3-D discrete analytical ridgelet transform.
Helbert, David; Carré, Philippe; Andres, Eric
2006-12-01
In this paper, we propose an implementation of the 3-D Ridgelet transform: the 3-D discrete analytical Ridgelet transform (3-D DART). This transform uses the Fourier strategy for the computation of the associated 3-D discrete Radon transform. The innovative step is the definition of a discrete 3-D transform with the discrete analytical geometry theory by the construction of 3-D discrete analytical lines in the Fourier domain. We propose two types of 3-D discrete lines: 3-D discrete radial lines going through the origin defined from their orthogonal projections and 3-D planes covered with 2-D discrete line segments. These discrete analytical lines have a parameter called arithmetical thickness, allowing us to define a 3-D DART adapted to a specific application. Indeed, the 3-D DART representation is not orthogonal, It is associated with a flexible redundancy factor. The 3-D DART has a very simple forward/inverse algorithm that provides an exact reconstruction without any iterative method. In order to illustrate the potentiality of this new discrete transform, we apply the 3-D DART and its extension to the Local-DART (with smooth windowing) to the denoising of 3-D image and color video. These experimental results show that the simple thresholding of the 3-D DART coefficients is efficient.
Fermion systems in discrete space-time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Finster, Felix
2007-05-01
Fermion systems in discrete space-time are introduced as a model for physics on the Planck scale. We set up a variational principle which describes a non-local interaction of all fermions. This variational principle is symmetric under permutations of the discrete space-time points. We explain how for minimizers of the variational principle, the fermions spontaneously break this permutation symmetry and induce on space-time a discrete causal structure.
Scalar discrete nonlinear multipoint boundary value problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodriguez, Jesus; Taylor, Padraic
2007-06-01
In this paper we provide sufficient conditions for the existence of solutions to scalar discrete nonlinear multipoint boundary value problems. By allowing more general boundary conditions and by imposing less restrictions on the nonlinearities, we obtain results that extend previous work in the area of discrete boundary value problems [Debra L. Etheridge, Jesus Rodriguez, Periodic solutions of nonlinear discrete-time systems, Appl. Anal. 62 (1996) 119-137; Debra L. Etheridge, Jesus Rodriguez, Scalar discrete nonlinear two-point boundary value problems, J. Difference Equ. Appl. 4 (1998) 127-144].
Multigrid methods for isogeometric discretization
Gahalaut, K.P.S.; Kraus, J.K.; Tomar, S.K.
2013-01-01
We present (geometric) multigrid methods for isogeometric discretization of scalar second order elliptic problems. The smoothing property of the relaxation method, and the approximation property of the intergrid transfer operators are analyzed. These properties, when used in the framework of classical multigrid theory, imply uniform convergence of two-grid and multigrid methods. Supporting numerical results are provided for the smoothing property, the approximation property, convergence factor and iterations count for V-, W- and F-cycles, and the linear dependence of V-cycle convergence on the smoothing steps. For two dimensions, numerical results include the problems with variable coefficients, simple multi-patch geometry, a quarter annulus, and the dependence of convergence behavior on refinement levels ℓ, whereas for three dimensions, only the constant coefficient problem in a unit cube is considered. The numerical results are complete up to polynomial order p=4, and for C0 and Cp-1 smoothness. PMID:24511168
Discrete modelling of drapery systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thoeni, Klaus; Giacomini, Anna
2016-04-01
Drapery systems are an efficient and cost-effective measure in preventing and controlling rockfall hazards on rock slopes. The simplest form consists of a row of ground anchors along the top of the slope connected to a horizontal support cable from which a wire mesh is suspended down the face of the slope. Such systems are generally referred to as simple or unsecured draperies (Badger and Duffy 2012). Variations such as secured draperies, where a pattern of ground anchors is incorporated within the field of the mesh, and hybrid systems, where the upper part of an unsecured drapery is elevated to intercept rockfalls originating upslope of the installation, are becoming more and more popular. This work presents a discrete element framework for simulation of unsecured drapery systems and its variations. The numerical model is based on the classical discrete element method (DEM) and implemented into the open-source framework YADE (Šmilauer et al., 2010). The model takes all relevant interactions between block, drapery and slope into account (Thoeni et al., 2014) and was calibrated and validated based on full-scale experiments (Giacomini et al., 2012).The block is modelled as a rigid clump made of spherical particles which allows any shape to be approximated. The drapery is represented by a set of spherical particle with remote interactions. The behaviour of the remote interactions is governed by the constitutive behaviour of the wire and generally corresponds to a piecewise linear stress-strain relation (Thoeni et al., 2013). The same concept is used to model wire ropes. The rock slope is represented by rigid triangular elements where material properties (e.g., normal coefficient of restitution, friction angle) are assigned to each triangle. The capabilities of the developed model to simulate drapery systems and estimate the residual hazard involved with such systems is shown. References Badger, T.C., Duffy, J.D. (2012) Drapery systems. In: Turner, A.K., Schuster R
Structure of random discrete spacetime
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brightwell, Graham; Gregory, Ruth
1991-01-01
The usual picture of spacetime consists of a continuous manifold, together with a metric of Lorentzian signature which imposes a causal structure on the spacetime. A model, first suggested by Bombelli et al., is considered in which spacetime consists of a discrete set of points taken at random from a manifold, with only the causal structure on this set remaining. This structure constitutes a partially ordered set (or poset). Working from the poset alone, it is shown how to construct a metric on the space which closely approximates the metric on the original spacetime manifold, how to define the effective dimension of the spacetime, and how such quantities may depend on the scale of measurement. Possible desirable features of the model are discussed.
Symbolic discrete event system specification
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zeigler, Bernard P.; Chi, Sungdo
1992-01-01
Extending discrete event modeling formalisms to facilitate greater symbol manipulation capabilities is important to further their use in intelligent control and design of high autonomy systems. An extension to the DEVS formalism that facilitates symbolic expression of event times by extending the time base from the real numbers to the field of linear polynomials over the reals is defined. A simulation algorithm is developed to generate the branching trajectories resulting from the underlying nondeterminism. To efficiently manage symbolic constraints, a consistency checking algorithm for linear polynomial constraints based on feasibility checking algorithms borrowed from linear programming has been developed. The extended formalism offers a convenient means to conduct multiple, simultaneous explorations of model behaviors. Examples of application are given with concentration on fault model analysis.
Judgement of discrete and continuous quantity in adults: number counts!
Nys, Julie; Content, Alain
2012-01-01
Three experiments involving a Stroop-like paradigm were conducted. In Experiment 1, adults received a number comparison task in which large sets of dots, orthogonally varying along a discrete dimension (number of dots) and a continuous dimension (cumulative area), were presented. Incongruent trials were processed more slowly and with less accuracy than congruent trials, suggesting that continuous dimensions such as cumulative area are automatically processed and integrated during a discrete quantity judgement task. Experiment 2, in which adults were asked to perform area comparison on the same stimuli, revealed the reciprocal interference from number on the continuous quantity judgements. Experiment 3, in which participants received both the number and area comparison tasks, confirmed the results of Experiments 1 and 2. Contrasting with earlier statements, the results support the view that number acts as a more salient cue than continuous dimensions in adults. Furthermore, the individual predisposition to automatically access approximate number representations was found to correlate significantly with adults' exact arithmetical skills.
Discrete time-crystalline order in black diamond
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Hengyun; Choi, Soonwon; Choi, Joonhee; Landig, Renate; Kucsko, Georg; Isoya, Junichi; Jelezko, Fedor; Onoda, Shinobu; Sumiya, Hitoshi; Khemani, Vedika; von Keyserlingk, Curt; Yao, Norman; Demler, Eugene; Lukin, Mikhail D.
2017-04-01
The interplay of periodic driving, disorder, and strong interactions has recently been predicted to result in exotic ``time-crystalline'' phases, which spontaneously break the discrete time-translation symmetry of the underlying drive. Here, we report the experimental observation of such discrete time-crystalline order in a driven, disordered ensemble of 106 dipolar spin impurities in diamond at room-temperature. We observe long-lived temporal correlations at integer multiples of the fundamental driving period, experimentally identify the phase boundary and find that the temporal order is protected by strong interactions; this order is remarkably stable against perturbations, even in the presence of slow thermalization. Our work opens the door to exploring dynamical phases of matter and controlling interacting, disordered many-body systems.
Statistics of primordial density perturbations from discrete seed masses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Scherrer, Robert J.; Bertschinger, Edmund
1991-01-01
The statistics of density perturbations for general distributions of seed masses with arbitrary matter accretion is examined. Formal expressions for the power spectrum, the N-point correlation functions, and the density distribution function are derived. These results are applied to the case of uncorrelated seed masses, and power spectra are derived for accretion of both hot and cold dark matter plus baryons. The reduced moments (cumulants) of the density distribution are computed and used to obtain a series expansion for the density distribution function. Analytic results are obtained for the density distribution function in the case of a distribution of seed masses with a spherical top-hat accretion pattern. More generally, the formalism makes it possible to give a complete characterization of the statistical properties of any random field generated from a discrete linear superposition of kernels. In particular, the results can be applied to density fields derived by smoothing a discrete set of points with a window function.
A discrete structure of the brain waves.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dabaghian, Yuri; Perotti, Luca; oscillons in biological rhythms Collaboration; physics of biological rhythms Team
A physiological interpretation of the biological rhythms, e.g., of the local field potentials (LFP) depends on the mathematical approaches used for the analysis. Most existing mathematical methods are based on decomposing the signal into a set of ``primitives,'' e.g., sinusoidal harmonics, and correlating them with different cognitive and behavioral phenomena. A common feature of all these methods is that the decomposition semantics is presumed from the onset, and the goal of the subsequent analysis reduces merely to identifying the combination that best reproduces the original signal. We propose a fundamentally new method in which the decomposition components are discovered empirically, and demonstrate that it is more flexible and more sensitive to the signal's structure than the standard Fourier method. Applying this method to the rodent LFP signals reveals a fundamentally new structure of these ``brain waves.'' In particular, our results suggest that the LFP oscillations consist of a superposition of a small, discrete set of frequency modulated oscillatory processes, which we call ``oscillons''. Since these structures are discovered empirically, we hypothesize that they may capture the signal's actual physical structure, i.e., the pattern of synchronous activity in neuronal ensembles. Proving this hypothesis will help to advance our principal understanding of the neuronal synchronization mechanisms and reveal new structure within the LFPs and other biological oscillations. NSF 1422438 Grant, Houston Bioinformatics Endowment Fund.
Discretization vs. Rounding Error in Euler's Method
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Borges, Carlos F.
2011-01-01
Euler's method for solving initial value problems is an excellent vehicle for observing the relationship between discretization error and rounding error in numerical computation. Reductions in stepsize, in order to decrease discretization error, necessarily increase the number of steps and so introduce additional rounding error. The problem is…
Teachers' Professional Discretion and the Curricula
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Boote, David N.
2006-01-01
At the heart of many current debates about curriculum and curriculum policy is an inadequately conceptualized and articulated notion of teachers' professional discretion. This paper begins to detail a normative and descriptive theory of the social and individual conditions required for the development of professional discretion. A better…
Current Density and Continuity in Discretized Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Boykin, Timothy B.; Luisier, Mathieu; Klimeck, Gerhard
2010-01-01
Discrete approaches have long been used in numerical modelling of physical systems in both research and teaching. Discrete versions of the Schrodinger equation employing either one or several basis functions per mesh point are often used by senior undergraduates and beginning graduate students in computational physics projects. In studying…
Conservative discretization of the Landau collision integral
Hirvijoki, E.; Adams, M. F.
2017-03-28
Here we describe a density, momentum-, and energy-conserving discretization of the nonlinear Landau collision integral. The method is suitable for both the finite-element and discontinuous Galerkin methods and does not require structured meshes. The conservation laws for the discretization are proven algebraically and demonstrated numerically for an axially symmetric nonlinear relaxation problem using a finite-element implementation.
Traveling waves in discretized Balitsky Kovchegov evolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marquet, C.; Peschanski, R.; Soyez, G.; Bialas, A.
2006-02-01
We study the asymptotic solutions of a version of the Balitsky-Kovchegov evolution with discrete steps in rapidity. We derive a closed iterative equation in momentum space. We show that it possesses traveling-wave solutions and extract their properties. We find no evidence for chaotic behaviour due to discretization.
Center for Efficient Exascale Discretizations Software Suite
Kolev, Tzanio; Dobrev, Veselin; Tomov, Vladimir
The CEED Software suite is a collection of generally applicable software tools focusing on the following computational motives: PDE discretizations on unstructured meshes, high-order finite element and spectral element methods and unstructured adaptive mesh refinement. All of this software is being developed as part of CEED, a co-design Center for Efficient Exascale Discretizations, within DOE's Exascale Computing Project (ECP) program.
Methods for discrete solitons in nonlinear lattices.
Ablowitz, Mark J; Musslimani, Ziad H; Biondini, Gino
2002-02-01
A method to find discrete solitons in nonlinear lattices is introduced. Using nonlinear optical waveguide arrays as a prototype application, both stationary and traveling-wave solitons are investigated. In the limit of small wave velocity, a fully discrete perturbative analysis yields formulas for the mode shapes and velocity.
Active control of turbomachine discrete tones
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fleeter, Sanford
1994-01-01
This paper was directed at active control of discrete frequency noise generated by subsonic blade rows through cancellation of the blade row interaction generated propagating acoustic waves. First discrete frequency noise generated by a rotor and stator in a duct was analyzed to determine the propagating acoustic pressure waves. Then a mathematical model was developed to analyze and predict the active control of discrete frequency noise generated by subsonic blade rows through cancellation of the propagating acoustic waves, accomplished by utilizing oscillating airfoil surfaces to generate additional control propagating pressure waves. These control waves interact with the propagating acoustic waves, thereby, in principle, canceling the acoustic waves and thus, the far field discrete frequency tones. This model was then applied to a fan exit guide vane to investigate active airfoil surface techniques for control of the propagating acoustic waves, and thus the far field discrete frequency tones, generated by blade row interactions.
Active control of turbomachine discrete tones
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fleeter, Sanford
This paper was directed at active control of discrete frequency noise generated by subsonic blade rows through cancellation of the blade row interaction generated propagating acoustic waves. First discrete frequency noise generated by a rotor and stator in a duct was analyzed to determine the propagating acoustic pressure waves. Then a mathematical model was developed to analyze and predict the active control of discrete frequency noise generated by subsonic blade rows through cancellation of the propagating acoustic waves, accomplished by utilizing oscillating airfoil surfaces to generate additional control propagating pressure waves. These control waves interact with the propagating acoustic waves, thereby, in principle, canceling the acoustic waves and thus, the far field discrete frequency tones. This model was then applied to a fan exit guide vane to investigate active airfoil surface techniques for control of the propagating acoustic waves, and thus the far field discrete frequency tones, generated by blade row interactions.
Discrete breathers in graphane: Effect of temperature
Baimova, J. A., E-mail: julia.a.baimova@gmail.com; Murzaev, R. T.; Lobzenko, I. P.
The discrete breathers in graphane in thermodynamic equilibrium in the temperature range 50–600 K are studied by molecular dynamics simulation. A discrete breather is a hydrogen atom vibrating along the normal to a sheet of graphane at a high amplitude. As was found earlier, the lifetime of a discrete breather at zero temperature corresponds to several tens of thousands of vibrations. The effect of temperature on the decay time of discrete breathers and the probability of their detachment from a sheet of graphane are studied in this work. It is shown that closely spaced breathers can exchange energy with eachmore » other at zero temperature. The data obtained suggest that thermally activated discrete breathers can be involved in the dehydrogenation of graphane, which is important for hydrogen energetics.« less
Discrete Dislocation Modeling of Fatigue
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Needleman, Alan
2004-03-01
In joint work with V.S. Deshpande of Cambridge University and E. Van der Giessen of the University of Groningen a framework has been developed for the analysis of crack growth under cyclic loading conditions where plastic flow arises from the motion of large numbers of discrete dislocations and the fracture properties are embedded in a cohesive surface constitutive relation. The material model is independent of the presence of a crack and the only distinction between an analysis of monotonic crack growth and fatigue crack growth is that in fatigue the remote loading is specified to be an oscillating function of time. Thus, a basic question is: within this framework, do cracks grow at a lower driving force under cyclic loading than under monotonic loading, and if so, what features of fatigue crack growth emerge? Fatigue does emerge from the calculations as a consequence of the evolution of internal stresses associated with the irreversibility of the dislocation motion. A fatigue threshold, Paris law behavior, striations and the accelerated growth of short cracks are outcomes of the simulations. Also, scaling predictions obtained for the fatigue threshold and the fatigue crack growth rate are discussed.
Compatible Spatial Discretizations for Partial Differential Equations
Arnold, Douglas, N, ed.
From May 11--15, 2004, the Institute for Mathematics and its Applications held a hot topics workshop on Compatible Spatial Discretizations for Partial Differential Equations. The numerical solution of partial differential equations (PDE) is a fundamental task in science and engineering. The goal of the workshop was to bring together a spectrum of scientists at the forefront of the research in the numerical solution of PDEs to discuss compatible spatial discretizations. We define compatible spatial discretizations as those that inherit or mimic fundamental properties of the PDE such as topology, conservation, symmetries, and positivity structures and maximum principles. A wide varietymore » of discretization methods applied across a wide range of scientific and engineering applications have been designed to or found to inherit or mimic intrinsic spatial structure and reproduce fundamental properties of the solution of the continuous PDE model at the finite dimensional level. A profusion of such methods and concepts relevant to understanding them have been developed and explored: mixed finite element methods, mimetic finite differences, support operator methods, control volume methods, discrete differential forms, Whitney forms, conservative differencing, discrete Hodge operators, discrete Helmholtz decomposition, finite integration techniques, staggered grid and dual grid methods, etc. This workshop seeks to foster communication among the diverse groups of researchers designing, applying, and studying such methods as well as researchers involved in practical solution of large scale problems that may benefit from advancements in such discretizations; to help elucidate the relations between the different methods and concepts; and to generally advance our understanding in the area of compatible spatial discretization methods for PDE. Particular points of emphasis included: + Identification of intrinsic properties of PDE models that are critical for the fidelity of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nelson, D. J.
2007-09-01
In the basic correlation process a sequence of time-lag-indexed correlation coefficients are computed as the inner or dot product of segments of two signals. The time-lag(s) for which the magnitude of the correlation coefficient sequence is maximized is the estimated relative time delay of the two signals. For discrete sampled signals, the delay estimated in this manner is quantized with the same relative accuracy as the clock used in sampling the signals. In addition, the correlation coefficients are real if the input signals are real. There have been many methods proposed to estimate signal delay to more accuracy than the sample interval of the digitizer clock, with some success. These methods include interpolation of the correlation coefficients, estimation of the signal delay from the group delay function, and beam forming techniques, such as the MUSIC algorithm. For spectral estimation, techniques based on phase differentiation have been popular, but these techniques have apparently not been applied to the correlation problem . We propose a phase based delay estimation method (PBDEM) based on the phase of the correlation function that provides a significant improvement of the accuracy of time delay estimation. In the process, the standard correlation function is first calculated. A time lag error function is then calculated from the correlation phase and is used to interpolate the correlation function. The signal delay is shown to be accurately estimated as the zero crossing of the correlation phase near the index of the peak correlation magnitude. This process is nearly as fast as the conventional correlation function on which it is based. For real valued signals, a simple modification is provided, which results in the same correlation accuracy as is obtained for complex valued signals.
Retention capacity of correlated surfaces.
Schrenk, K J; Araújo, N A M; Ziff, R M; Herrmann, H J
2014-06-01
We extend the water retention model [C. L. Knecht et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 045703 (2012)] to correlated random surfaces. We find that the retention capacity of discrete random landscapes is strongly affected by spatial correlations among the heights. This phenomenon is related to the emergence of power-law scaling in the lake volume distribution. We also solve the uncorrelated case exactly for a small lattice and present bounds on the retention of uncorrelated landscapes.
Perfect discretization of reparametrization invariant path integrals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bahr, Benjamin; Dittrich, Bianca; Steinhaus, Sebastian
2011-05-01
To obtain a well-defined path integral one often employs discretizations. In the case of gravity and reparametrization-invariant systems, the latter of which we consider here as a toy example, discretizations generically break diffeomorphism and reparametrization symmetry, respectively. This has severe implications, as these symmetries determine the dynamics of the corresponding system. Indeed we will show that a discretized path integral with reparametrization-invariance is necessarily also discretization independent and therefore uniquely determined by the corresponding continuum quantum mechanical propagator. We use this insight to develop an iterative method for constructing such a discretized path integral, akin to a Wilsonian RG flow. This allows us to address the problem of discretization ambiguities and of an anomaly-free path integral measure for such systems. The latter is needed to obtain a path integral, that can act as a projector onto the physical states, satisfying the quantum constraints. We will comment on implications for discrete quantum gravity models, such as spin foams.
Stochastic Kuramoto oscillators with discrete phase states.
Jörg, David J
2017-09-01
We present a generalization of the Kuramoto phase oscillator model in which phases advance in discrete phase increments through Poisson processes, rendering both intrinsic oscillations and coupling inherently stochastic. We study the effects of phase discretization on the synchronization and precision properties of the coupled system both analytically and numerically. Remarkably, many key observables such as the steady-state synchrony and the quality of oscillations show distinct extrema while converging to the classical Kuramoto model in the limit of a continuous phase. The phase-discretized model provides a general framework for coupled oscillations in a Markov chain setting.
Stochastic Kuramoto oscillators with discrete phase states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jörg, David J.
2017-09-01
We present a generalization of the Kuramoto phase oscillator model in which phases advance in discrete phase increments through Poisson processes, rendering both intrinsic oscillations and coupling inherently stochastic. We study the effects of phase discretization on the synchronization and precision properties of the coupled system both analytically and numerically. Remarkably, many key observables such as the steady-state synchrony and the quality of oscillations show distinct extrema while converging to the classical Kuramoto model in the limit of a continuous phase. The phase-discretized model provides a general framework for coupled oscillations in a Markov chain setting.
Motion of Discrete Interfaces Through Mushy Layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braides, Andrea; Solci, Margherita
2016-08-01
We study the geometric motion of sets in the plane derived from the homogenization of discrete ferromagnetic energies with weak inclusions. We show that the discrete sets are composed by a `bulky' part and an external `mushy region' composed only of weak inclusions. The relevant motion is that of the bulky part, which asymptotically obeys to a motion by crystalline mean curvature with a forcing term, due to the energetic contribution of the mushy layers, and pinning effects, due to discreteness. From an analytical standpoint, it is interesting to note that the presence of the mushy layers implies only a weak and not strong convergence of the discrete motions, so that the convergence of the energies does not commute with the evolution. From a mechanical standpoint it is interesting to note the geometrical similarity of some phenomena in the cooling of binary melts.
Effective Hamiltonian for travelling discrete breathers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
MacKay, Robert S.; Sepulchre, Jacques-Alexandre
2002-05-01
Hamiltonian chains of oscillators in general probably do not sustain exact travelling discrete breathers. However solutions which look like moving discrete breathers for some time are not difficult to observe in numerics. In this paper we propose an abstract framework for the description of approximate travelling discrete breathers in Hamiltonian chains of oscillators. The method is based on the construction of an effective Hamiltonian enabling one to describe the dynamics of the translation degree of freedom of moving breathers. Error estimate on the approximate dynamics is also studied. The concept of the Peierls-Nabarro barrier can be made clear in this framework. We illustrate the method with two simple examples, namely the Salerno model which interpolates between the Ablowitz-Ladik lattice and the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger system, and the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam chain.
Running Parallel Discrete Event Simulators on Sierra
Barnes, P. D.; Jefferson, D. R.
2015-12-03
In this proposal we consider porting the ROSS/Charm++ simulator and the discrete event models that run under its control so that they run on the Sierra architecture and make efficient use of the Volta GPUs.
Comparing the Discrete and Continuous Logistic Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gordon, Sheldon P.
2008-01-01
The solutions of the discrete logistic growth model based on a difference equation and the continuous logistic growth model based on a differential equation are compared and contrasted. The investigation is conducted using a dynamic interactive spreadsheet. (Contains 5 figures.)
A discrete control model of PLANT
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mitchell, C. M.
1985-01-01
A model of the PLANT system using the discrete control modeling techniques developed by Miller is described. Discrete control models attempt to represent in a mathematical form how a human operator might decompose a complex system into simpler parts and how the control actions and system configuration are coordinated so that acceptable overall system performance is achieved. Basic questions include knowledge representation, information flow, and decision making in complex systems. The structure of the model is a general hierarchical/heterarchical scheme which structurally accounts for coordination and dynamic focus of attention. Mathematically, the discrete control model is defined in terms of a network of finite state systems. Specifically, the discrete control model accounts for how specific control actions are selected from information about the controlled system, the environment, and the context of the situation. The objective is to provide a plausible and empirically testable accounting and, if possible, explanation of control behavior.
The discrete-time compensated Kalman filter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, W. H.; Athans, M.
1978-01-01
A suboptimal dynamic compensator to be used in conjunction with the ordinary discrete time Kalman filter was derived. The resultant compensated Kalman Filter has the property that steady state bias estimation errors, resulting from modelling errors, were eliminated.
Reducing Neuronal Networks to Discrete Dynamics
Terman, David; Ahn, Sungwoo; Wang, Xueying; Just, Winfried
2008-01-01
We consider a general class of purely inhibitory and excitatory-inhibitory neuronal networks, with a general class of network architectures, and characterize the complex firing patterns that emerge. Our strategy for studying these networks is to first reduce them to a discrete model. In the discrete model, each neuron is represented as a finite number of states and there are rules for how a neuron transitions from one state to another. In this paper, we rigorously demonstrate that the continuous neuronal model can be reduced to the discrete model if the intrinsic and synaptic properties of the cells are chosen appropriately. In a companion paper [1], we analyze the discrete model. PMID:18443649
Eigenforms, Discrete Processes and Quantum Processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kauffman, Louis H.
2012-05-01
This essay is a discussion of the concept of eigenform, due to Heinz von Foerster, and its relationship with discrete physics and quantum mechanics. We interpret the square root of minus one as a simple oscillatory process - a clock, and as an eigenform. By taking a generalization of this identification of i as a clock and eigenform, we show how quantum mechanics emerges from discrete physics.
Terminal Dynamics Approach to Discrete Event Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zak, Michail; Meyers, Ronald
1995-01-01
This paper presents and discusses a mathematical formalism for simulation of discrete event dynamic (DED)-a special type of 'man-made' systems to serve specific purposes of information processing. The main objective of this work is to demonstrate that the mathematical formalism for DED can be based upon a terminal model of Newtonian dynamics which allows one to relax Lipschitz conditions at some discrete points.!.
Discrete Tchebycheff orthonormal polynomials and applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lear, W. M.
1980-01-01
Discrete Tchebycheff orthonormal polynomials offer a convenient way to make least squares polynomial fits of uniformly spaced discrete data. Computer programs to do so are simple and fast, and appear to be less affected by computer roundoff error, for the higher order fits, than conventional least squares programs. They are useful for any application of polynomial least squares fits: approximation of mathematical functions, noise analysis of radar data, and real time smoothing of noisy data, to name a few.
Discrete retardance second harmonic generation ellipsometry.
Dehen, Christopher J; Everly, R Michael; Plocinik, Ryan M; Hedderich, Hartmut G; Simpson, Garth J
2007-01-01
A new instrument was constructed to perform discrete retardance nonlinear optical ellipsometry (DR-NOE). The focus of the design was to perform second harmonic generation NOE while maximizing sample and application flexibility and minimizing data acquisition time. The discrete retardance configuration results in relatively simple computational algorithms for performing nonlinear optical ellipsometric analysis. NOE analysis of a disperse red 19 monolayer yielded results that were consistent with previously reported values for the same surface system, but with significantly reduced acquisition times.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohamed, Mamdouh S.; Hirani, Anil N.; Samtaney, Ravi
2016-05-01
A conservative discretization of incompressible Navier-Stokes equations is developed based on discrete exterior calculus (DEC). A distinguishing feature of our method is the use of an algebraic discretization of the interior product operator and a combinatorial discretization of the wedge product. The governing equations are first rewritten using the exterior calculus notation, replacing vector calculus differential operators by the exterior derivative, Hodge star and wedge product operators. The discretization is then carried out by substituting with the corresponding discrete operators based on the DEC framework. Numerical experiments for flows over surfaces reveal a second order accuracy for the developed scheme when using structured-triangular meshes, and first order accuracy for otherwise unstructured meshes. By construction, the method is conservative in that both mass and vorticity are conserved up to machine precision. The relative error in kinetic energy for inviscid flow test cases converges in a second order fashion with both the mesh size and the time step.
Discrete differential geometry: The nonplanar quadrilateral mesh
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Twining, Carole J.; Marsland, Stephen
2012-06-01
We consider the problem of constructing a discrete differential geometry defined on nonplanar quadrilateral meshes. Physical models on discrete nonflat spaces are of inherent interest, as well as being used in applications such as computation for electromagnetism, fluid mechanics, and image analysis. However, the majority of analysis has focused on triangulated meshes. We consider two approaches: discretizing the tensor calculus, and a discrete mesh version of differential forms. While these two approaches are equivalent in the continuum, we show that this is not true in the discrete case. Nevertheless, we show that it is possible to construct mesh versions of the Levi-Civita connection (and hence the tensorial covariant derivative and the associated covariant exterior derivative), the torsion, and the curvature. We show how discrete analogs of the usual vector integral theorems are constructed in such a way that the appropriate conservation laws hold exactly on the mesh, rather than only as approximations to the continuum limit. We demonstrate the success of our method by constructing a mesh version of classical electromagnetism and discuss how our formalism could be used to deal with other physical models, such as fluids.
Discrete Calculus as a Bridge between Scales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Degiuli, Eric; McElwaine, Jim
2012-02-01
Understanding how continuum descriptions of disordered media emerge from the microscopic scale is a fundamental challenge in condensed matter physics. In many systems, it is necessary to coarse-grain balance equations at the microscopic scale to obtain macroscopic equations. We report development of an exact, discrete calculus, which allows identification of discrete microscopic equations with their continuum equivalent [1]. This allows the application of powerful techniques of calculus, such as the Helmholtz decomposition, the Divergence Theorem, and Stokes' Theorem. We illustrate our results with granular materials. In particular, we show how Newton's laws for a single grain reproduce their continuum equivalent in the calculus. This allows introduction of a discrete Airy stress function, exactly as in the continuum. As an application of the formalism, we show how these results give the natural mean-field variation of discrete quantities, in agreement with numerical simulations. The discrete calculus thus acts as a bridge between discrete microscale quantities and continuous macroscale quantities. [4pt] [1] E. DeGiuli & J. McElwaine, PRE 2011. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevE.84.041310
Comparison of correlated correlations.
Cohen, A
1989-12-01
We consider a problem where kappa highly correlated variables are available, each being a candidate for predicting a dependent variable. Only one of the kappa variables can be chosen as a predictor and the question is whether there are significant differences in the quality of the predictors. We review several tests derived previously and propose a method based on the bootstrap. The motivating medical problem was to predict 24 hour proteinuria by protein-creatinine ratio measured at either 08:00, 12:00 or 16:00. The tests which we discuss are illustrated by this example and compared using a small Monte Carlo study.
Seleson, Pablo; Du, Qiang; Parks, Michael L.
2016-08-16
The peridynamic theory of solid mechanics is a nonlocal reformulation of the classical continuum mechanics theory. At the continuum level, it has been demonstrated that classical (local) elasticity is a special case of peridynamics. Such a connection between these theories has not been extensively explored at the discrete level. This paper investigates the consistency between nearest-neighbor discretizations of linear elastic peridynamic models and finite difference discretizations of the Navier–Cauchy equation of classical elasticity. While nearest-neighbor discretizations in peridynamics have been numerically observed to present grid-dependent crack paths or spurious microcracks, this paper focuses on a different, analytical aspect of suchmore » discretizations. We demonstrate that, even in the absence of cracks, such discretizations may be problematic unless a proper selection of weights is used. Specifically, we demonstrate that using the standard meshfree approach in peridynamics, nearest-neighbor discretizations do not reduce, in general, to discretizations of corresponding classical models. We study nodal-based quadratures for the discretization of peridynamic models, and we derive quadrature weights that result in consistency between nearest-neighbor discretizations of peridynamic models and discretized classical models. The quadrature weights that lead to such consistency are, however, model-/discretization-dependent. We motivate the choice of those quadrature weights through a quadratic approximation of displacement fields. The stability of nearest-neighbor peridynamic schemes is demonstrated through a Fourier mode analysis. Finally, an approach based on a normalization of peridynamic constitutive constants at the discrete level is explored. This approach results in the desired consistency for one-dimensional models, but does not work in higher dimensions. The results of the work presented in this paper suggest that even though nearest
PREFACE: 4th Symposium on Prospects in the Physics of Discrete Symmetries (DISCRETE2014)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Di Domenico, Antonio; Mavromatos, Nick E.; Mitsou, Vasiliki A.; Skliros, Dimitri P.
2015-07-01
The DISCRETE 2014: Fourth Symposium in the Physics of Discrete Symmetries took place at King's College London, Strand Campus, London WC2R 2LS, from Tuesday, December 2 2014 till Saturday, December 6 2014. This is the fourth Edition of the DISCRETE conference series, which is a biannual event, having been held previously in Valencia (Discrete'08), Rome (Discrete2010) and Lisbon (Discrete2012). The topics covered at the DISCRETE series of conferences are: T, C, P, CP symmetries; accidental symmetries (B, L conservation); CPT symmetry, decoherence and entangled states, Lorentz symmetry breaking (phenomenology and current bounds); neutrino mass and mixing; implications for cosmology and astroparticle physics, dark matter searches; experimental prospects at LHC, new facilities. In DISCRETE 2014 we have also introduced two new topics: cosmological aspects of non-commutative space-times as well as PT symmetric Hamiltonians (non-Hermitian but with real eigenvalues), a topic that has wide applications in particle physics and beyond. The conference was opened by the King's College London Vice Principal on Research and Innovation, Mr Chris Mottershead, followed by a welcome address by the Chair of DISCRETE 2014 (Professor Nick E. Mavromatos). After these introductory talks, the scientific programme of the DISCRETE 2014 symposium started. Following the tradition of DISCRETE series of conferences, the talks (138 in total) were divided into plenary-review talks (25), invited research talks (50) and shorter presentations (63) — selected by the conveners of each session in consultation with the organisers — from the submitted abstracts. We have been fortunate to have very high-quality, thought stimulating and interesting talks at all levels, which, together with the discussions among the participants, made the conference quite enjoyable. There were 152 registered participants for the event.
Interfacial properties in a discrete model for tumor growth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moglia, Belén; Guisoni, Nara; Albano, Ezequiel V.
2013-03-01
We propose and study, by means of Monte Carlo numerical simulations, a minimal discrete model for avascular tumor growth, which can also be applied for the description of cell cultures in vitro. The interface of the tumor is self-affine and its width can be characterized by the following exponents: (i) the growth exponent β=0.32(2) that governs the early time regime, (ii) the roughness exponent α=0.49(2) related to the fluctuations in the stationary regime, and (iii) the dynamic exponent z=α/β≃1.49(2), which measures the propagation of correlations in the direction parallel to the interface, e.g., ξ∝t1/z, where ξ is the parallel correlation length. Therefore, the interface belongs to the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang universality class, in agreement with recent experiments of cell cultures in vitro. Furthermore, density profiles of the growing cells are rationalized in terms of traveling waves that are solutions of the Fisher-Kolmogorov equation. In this way, we achieved excellent agreement between the simulation results of the discrete model and the continuous description of the growth front of the culture or tumor.
What Discrete and Serial Rapid Automatized Naming Can Reveal about Reading
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
de Jong, Peter F.
2011-01-01
Serial rapid automized naming (RAN) has been often found to correlate more strongly with reading than discrete RAN. This study aimed to demonstrate that the strength of the RAN-reading fluency relationship is dependent on the format of both RAN and the reading task if the reading task consists of sight words. Seventy-one first-grade, 74…
Discrete stochastic analogs of Erlang epidemic models.
Getz, Wayne M; Dougherty, Eric R
2018-12-01
Erlang differential equation models of epidemic processes provide more realistic disease-class transition dynamics from susceptible (S) to exposed (E) to infectious (I) and removed (R) categories than the ubiquitous SEIR model. The latter is itself is at one end of the spectrum of Erlang SE[Formula: see text]I[Formula: see text]R models with [Formula: see text] concatenated E compartments and [Formula: see text] concatenated I compartments. Discrete-time models, however, are computationally much simpler to simulate and fit to epidemic outbreak data than continuous-time differential equations, and are also much more readily extended to include demographic and other types of stochasticity. Here we formulate discrete-time deterministic analogs of the Erlang models, and their stochastic extension, based on a time-to-go distributional principle. Depending on which distributions are used (e.g. discretized Erlang, Gamma, Beta, or Uniform distributions), we demonstrate that our formulation represents both a discretization of Erlang epidemic models and generalizations thereof. We consider the challenges of fitting SE[Formula: see text]I[Formula: see text]R models and our discrete-time analog to data (the recent outbreak of Ebola in Liberia). We demonstrate that the latter performs much better than the former; although confining fits to strict SEIR formulations reduces the numerical challenges, but sacrifices best-fit likelihood scores by at least 7%.
Discrete breathers for a discrete nonlinear Schrödinger ring coupled to a central site.
Jason, Peter; Johansson, Magnus
2016-01-01
We examine the existence and properties of certain discrete breathers for a discrete nonlinear Schrödinger model where all but one site are placed in a ring and coupled to the additional central site. The discrete breathers we focus on are stationary solutions mainly localized on one or a few of the ring sites and possibly also the central site. By numerical methods, we trace out and study the continuous families the discrete breathers belong to. Our main result is the discovery of a split bifurcation at a critical value of the coupling between neighboring ring sites. Below this critical value, families form closed loops in a certain parameter space, implying that discrete breathers with and without central-site occupation belong to the same family. Above the split bifurcation the families split up into several separate ones, which bifurcate with solutions with constant ring amplitudes. For symmetry reasons, the families have different properties below the split bifurcation for even and odd numbers of sites. It is also determined under which conditions the discrete breathers are linearly stable. The dynamics of some simpler initial conditions that approximate the discrete breathers are also studied and the parameter regimes where the dynamics remain localized close to the initially excited ring site are related to the linear stability of the exact discrete breathers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rosenstein, Joseph G., Ed.; Franzblau, Deborah S., Ed.; Roberts, Fred S., Ed.
This book is a collection of articles by experienced educators and explains why and how discrete mathematics should be taught in K-12 classrooms. It includes evidence for "why" and practical guidance for "how" and also discusses how discrete mathematics can be used as a vehicle for achieving the broader goals of the major…
Comparative analysis of two discretizations of Ricci curvature for complex networks.
Samal, Areejit; Sreejith, R P; Gu, Jiao; Liu, Shiping; Saucan, Emil; Jost, Jürgen
2018-06-05
We have performed an empirical comparison of two distinct notions of discrete Ricci curvature for graphs or networks, namely, the Forman-Ricci curvature and Ollivier-Ricci curvature. Importantly, these two discretizations of the Ricci curvature were developed based on different properties of the classical smooth notion, and thus, the two notions shed light on different aspects of network structure and behavior. Nevertheless, our extensive computational analysis in a wide range of both model and real-world networks shows that the two discretizations of Ricci curvature are highly correlated in many networks. Moreover, we show that if one considers the augmented Forman-Ricci curvature which also accounts for the two-dimensional simplicial complexes arising in graphs, the observed correlation between the two discretizations is even higher, especially, in real networks. Besides the potential theoretical implications of these observations, the close relationship between the two discretizations has practical implications whereby Forman-Ricci curvature can be employed in place of Ollivier-Ricci curvature for faster computation in larger real-world networks whenever coarse analysis suffices.
Percolation analysis for cosmic web with discrete points
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Jiajun; Cheng, Dalong; Chu, Ming-Chung
2016-03-01
Percolation analysis has long been used to quantify the connectivity of the cosmic web. Unlike most of the previous works using density field on grids, we have studied percolation analysis based on discrete points. Using a Friends-of-Friends (FoF) algorithm, we generate the S-bb relation, between the fractional mass of the largest connected group (S) and the FoF linking length (bb). We propose a new model, the Probability Cloud Cluster Expansion Theory (PCCET) to relate the S-bb relation with correlation functions. We show that the S-bb relation reflects a combination of all orders of correlation functions. We have studied the S-bb relation with simulation and find that the S-bb relation is robust against redshift distortion and incompleteness in observation. From the Bolshoi simulation, with Halo Abundance Matching (HAM), we have generated a mock galaxy catalogue. Good matching of the projected two-point correlation function with observation is confirmed. However, comparing the mock catalogue with the latest galaxy catalogue from SDSS DR12, we have found significant differences in their S-bb relations. This indicates that the mock catalogue cannot accurately recover higher order correlation functions than the two-point correlation function, which reveals the limit of HAM method.
Discrete photon statistics from continuous microwave measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Virally, Stéphane; Simoneau, Jean Olivier; Lupien, Christian; Reulet, Bertrand
2016-04-01
Photocount statistics are an important tool for the characterization of electromagnetic fields, especially for fields with an irrelevant phase. In the microwave domain, continuous rather than discrete measurements are the norm. Using a different approach, we recover discrete photon statistics from the cumulants of a continuous distribution of field quadrature measurements. The use of cumulants allows the separation between the signal of interest and experimental noise. Using a parametric amplifier as the first stage of the amplification chain, we extract useful data from up to the sixth cumulant of the continuous distribution of a coherent field, hence recovering up to the third moment of the discrete statistics associated with a signal with much less than one average photon.
Direct Discrete Method for Neutronic Calculations
Vosoughi, Naser; Akbar Salehi, Ali; Shahriari, Majid
The objective of this paper is to introduce a new direct method for neutronic calculations. This method which is named Direct Discrete Method, is simpler than the neutron Transport equation and also more compatible with physical meaning of problems. This method is based on physic of problem and with meshing of the desired geometry, writing the balance equation for each mesh intervals and with notice to the conjunction between these mesh intervals, produce the final discrete equations series without production of neutron transport differential equation and mandatory passing from differential equation bridge. We have produced neutron discrete equations for amore » cylindrical shape with two boundary conditions in one group energy. The correction of the results from this method are tested with MCNP-4B code execution. (authors)« less
An algebra of discrete event processes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heymann, Michael; Meyer, George
1991-01-01
This report deals with an algebraic framework for modeling and control of discrete event processes. The report consists of two parts. The first part is introductory, and consists of a tutorial survey of the theory of concurrency in the spirit of Hoare's CSP, and an examination of the suitability of such an algebraic framework for dealing with various aspects of discrete event control. To this end a new concurrency operator is introduced and it is shown how the resulting framework can be applied. It is further shown that a suitable theory that deals with the new concurrency operator must be developed. In the second part of the report the formal algebra of discrete event control is developed. At the present time the second part of the report is still an incomplete and occasionally tentative working paper.
Fixed interval smoothing with discrete measurements.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bierman, G. J.
1972-01-01
Smoothing equations for a linear continuous dynamic system with linear discrete measurements, derived from the discrete results of Rauch, Tung, and Striebel (1965), (R-T-S), are used to extend, through recursive updating, the previously published results of Bryson and Frazier (1963), (B-F), and yield a modified Bryson and Frazier, (M-B-F), algorithm. A comparison of the (M-B-F) and (R-T-S) algorithms leads to the conclusion that the former is to be preferred because it entails less computation, less storage, and less instability. It is felt that the presented (M-B-F) smoothing algorithm is a practical mechanization and should be of value in smoothing discretely observed dynamic linear systems.
Gap discrete breathers in strained boron nitride
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barani, Elham; Korznikova, Elena A.; Chetverikov, Alexander P.; Zhou, Kun; Dmitriev, Sergey V.
2017-11-01
Linear and nonlinear dynamics of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) lattice is studied by means of molecular dynamics simulations with the use of the Tersoff interatomic potentials. It is found that sufficiently large homogeneous elastic strain along zigzag direction opens a wide gap in the phonon spectrum. Extended vibrational mode with boron and nitrogen sublattices vibrating in-plane as a whole in strained h-BN has frequency within the phonon gap. This fact suggests that a nonlinear spatially localized vibrational mode with frequencies in the phonon gap, called discrete breather (also often termed as intrinsic localized mode), can be excited. Properties of the gap discrete breathers in strained h-BN are contrasted with that for analogous vibrational mode found earlier in strained graphene. It is found that h-BN modeled with the Tersoff potentials does not support transverse discrete breathers.
Discrete Time Crystals: Rigidity, Criticality, and Realizations.
Yao, N Y; Potter, A C; Potirniche, I-D; Vishwanath, A
2017-01-20
Despite being forbidden in equilibrium, spontaneous breaking of time translation symmetry can occur in periodically driven, Floquet systems with discrete time-translation symmetry. The period of the resulting discrete time crystal is quantized to an integer multiple of the drive period, arising from a combination of collective synchronization and many body localization. Here, we consider a simple model for a one-dimensional discrete time crystal which explicitly reveals the rigidity of the emergent oscillations as the drive is varied. We numerically map out its phase diagram and compute the properties of the dynamical phase transition where the time crystal melts into a trivial Floquet insulator. Moreover, we demonstrate that the model can be realized with current experimental technologies and propose a blueprint based upon a one dimensional chain of trapped ions. Using experimental parameters (featuring long-range interactions), we identify the phase boundaries of the ion-time-crystal and propose a measurable signature of the symmetry breaking phase transition.
Discrete-time Markovian stochastic Petri nets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ciardo, Gianfranco
1995-01-01
We revisit and extend the original definition of discrete-time stochastic Petri nets, by allowing the firing times to have a 'defective discrete phase distribution'. We show that this formalism still corresponds to an underlying discrete-time Markov chain. The structure of the state for this process describes both the marking of the Petri net and the phase of the firing time for each transition, resulting in a large state space. We then modify the well-known power method to perform a transient analysis even when the state space is infinite, subject to the condition that only a finite number of states can be reached in a finite amount of time. Since the memory requirements might still be excessive, we suggest a bounding technique based on truncation.
The ultimatum game: Discrete vs. continuous offers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dishon-Berkovits, Miriam; Berkovits, Richard
2014-09-01
In many experimental setups in social-sciences, psychology and economy the subjects are requested to accept or dispense monetary compensation which is usually given in discrete units. Using computer and mathematical modeling we show that in the framework of studying the dynamics of acceptance of proposals in the ultimatum game, the long time dynamics of acceptance of offers in the game are completely different for discrete vs. continuous offers. For discrete values the dynamics follow an exponential behavior. However, for continuous offers the dynamics are described by a power-law. This is shown using an agent based computer simulation as well as by utilizing an analytical solution of a mean-field equation describing the model. These findings have implications to the design and interpretation of socio-economical experiments beyond the ultimatum game.
Uncertainty relation for the discrete Fourier transform.
Massar, Serge; Spindel, Philippe
2008-05-16
We derive an uncertainty relation for two unitary operators which obey a commutation relation of the form UV=e(i phi) VU. Its most important application is to constrain how much a quantum state can be localized simultaneously in two mutually unbiased bases related by a discrete fourier transform. It provides an uncertainty relation which smoothly interpolates between the well-known cases of the Pauli operators in two dimensions and the continuous variables position and momentum. This work also provides an uncertainty relation for modular variables, and could find applications in signal processing. In the finite dimensional case the minimum uncertainty states, discrete analogues of coherent and squeezed states, are minimum energy solutions of Harper's equation, a discrete version of the harmonic oscillator equation.
Designing perturbative metamaterials from discrete models.
Matlack, Kathryn H; Serra-Garcia, Marc; Palermo, Antonio; Huber, Sebastian D; Daraio, Chiara
2018-04-01
Identifying material geometries that lead to metamaterials with desired functionalities presents a challenge for the field. Discrete, or reduced-order, models provide a concise description of complex phenomena, such as negative refraction, or topological surface states; therefore, the combination of geometric building blocks to replicate discrete models presenting the desired features represents a promising approach. However, there is no reliable way to solve such an inverse problem. Here, we introduce 'perturbative metamaterials', a class of metamaterials consisting of weakly interacting unit cells. The weak interaction allows us to associate each element of the discrete model with individual geometric features of the metamaterial, thereby enabling a systematic design process. We demonstrate our approach by designing two-dimensional elastic metamaterials that realize Veselago lenses, zero-dispersion bands and topological surface phonons. While our selected examples are within the mechanical domain, the same design principle can be applied to acoustic, thermal and photonic metamaterials composed of weakly interacting unit cells.
The discrete regime of flame propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Francois-David; Goroshin, Samuel; Higgins, Andrew
The propagation of laminar dust flames in iron dust clouds was studied in a low-gravity envi-ronment on-board a parabolic flight aircraft. The elimination of buoyancy-induced convection and particle settling permitted measurements of fundamental combustion parameters such as the burning velocity and the flame quenching distance over a wide range of particle sizes and in different gaseous mixtures. The discrete regime of flame propagation was observed by substitut-ing nitrogen present in air with xenon, an inert gas with a significantly lower heat conductivity. Flame propagation in the discrete regime is controlled by the heat transfer between neighbor-ing particles, rather than by the particle burning rate used by traditional continuum models of heterogeneous flames. The propagation mechanism of discrete flames depends on the spa-tial distribution of particles, and thus such flames are strongly influenced by local fluctuations in the fuel concentration. Constant pressure laminar dust flames were observed inside 70 cm long, 5 cm diameter Pyrex tubes. Equally-spaced plate assemblies forming rectangular chan-nels were placed inside each tube to determine the quenching distance defined as the minimum channel width through which a flame can successfully propagate. High-speed video cameras were used to measure the flame speed and a fiber optic spectrometer was used to measure the flame temperature. Experimental results were compared with predictions obtained from a numerical model of a three-dimensional flame developed to capture both the discrete nature and the random distribution of particles in the flame. Though good qualitative agreement was obtained between model predictions and experimental observations, residual g-jitters and the short reduced-gravity periods prevented further investigations of propagation limits in the dis-crete regime. The full exploration of the discrete flame phenomenon would require high-quality, long duration reduced gravity environment
Cortical Neural Computation by Discrete Results Hypothesis
Castejon, Carlos; Nuñez, Angel
2016-01-01
One of the most challenging problems we face in neuroscience is to understand how the cortex performs computations. There is increasing evidence that the power of the cortical processing is produced by populations of neurons forming dynamic neuronal ensembles. Theoretical proposals and multineuronal experimental studies have revealed that ensembles of neurons can form emergent functional units. However, how these ensembles are implicated in cortical computations is still a mystery. Although cell ensembles have been associated with brain rhythms, the functional interaction remains largely unclear. It is still unknown how spatially distributed neuronal activity can be temporally integrated to contribute to cortical computations. A theoretical explanation integrating spatial and temporal aspects of cortical processing is still lacking. In this Hypothesis and Theory article, we propose a new functional theoretical framework to explain the computational roles of these ensembles in cortical processing. We suggest that complex neural computations underlying cortical processing could be temporally discrete and that sensory information would need to be quantized to be computed by the cerebral cortex. Accordingly, we propose that cortical processing is produced by the computation of discrete spatio-temporal functional units that we have called “Discrete Results” (Discrete Results Hypothesis). This hypothesis represents a novel functional mechanism by which information processing is computed in the cortex. Furthermore, we propose that precise dynamic sequences of “Discrete Results” is the mechanism used by the cortex to extract, code, memorize and transmit neural information. The novel “Discrete Results” concept has the ability to match the spatial and temporal aspects of cortical processing. We discuss the possible neural underpinnings of these functional computational units and describe the empirical evidence supporting our hypothesis. We propose that fast
Cortical Neural Computation by Discrete Results Hypothesis.
Castejon, Carlos; Nuñez, Angel
2016-01-01
One of the most challenging problems we face in neuroscience is to understand how the cortex performs computations. There is increasing evidence that the power of the cortical processing is produced by populations of neurons forming dynamic neuronal ensembles. Theoretical proposals and multineuronal experimental studies have revealed that ensembles of neurons can form emergent functional units. However, how these ensembles are implicated in cortical computations is still a mystery. Although cell ensembles have been associated with brain rhythms, the functional interaction remains largely unclear. It is still unknown how spatially distributed neuronal activity can be temporally integrated to contribute to cortical computations. A theoretical explanation integrating spatial and temporal aspects of cortical processing is still lacking. In this Hypothesis and Theory article, we propose a new functional theoretical framework to explain the computational roles of these ensembles in cortical processing. We suggest that complex neural computations underlying cortical processing could be temporally discrete and that sensory information would need to be quantized to be computed by the cerebral cortex. Accordingly, we propose that cortical processing is produced by the computation of discrete spatio-temporal functional units that we have called "Discrete Results" (Discrete Results Hypothesis). This hypothesis represents a novel functional mechanism by which information processing is computed in the cortex. Furthermore, we propose that precise dynamic sequences of "Discrete Results" is the mechanism used by the cortex to extract, code, memorize and transmit neural information. The novel "Discrete Results" concept has the ability to match the spatial and temporal aspects of cortical processing. We discuss the possible neural underpinnings of these functional computational units and describe the empirical evidence supporting our hypothesis. We propose that fast-spiking (FS
Reliability of hybrid microcircuit discrete components
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Allen, R. V.
1972-01-01
Data accumulated during 4 years of research and evaluation of ceramic chip capacitors, ceramic carrier mounted active devices, beam-lead transistors, and chip resistors are presented. Life and temperature coefficient test data, and optical and scanning electron microscope photographs of device failures are presented and the failure modes are described. Particular interest is given to discrete component qualification, power burn-in, and procedures for testing and screening discrete components. Burn-in requirements and test data will be given in support of 100 percent burn-in policy on all NASA flight programs.
Synchronization Of Parallel Discrete Event Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Steinman, Jeffrey S.
1992-01-01
Adaptive, parallel, discrete-event-simulation-synchronization algorithm, Breathing Time Buckets, developed in Synchronous Parallel Environment for Emulation and Discrete Event Simulation (SPEEDES) operating system. Algorithm allows parallel simulations to process events optimistically in fluctuating time cycles that naturally adapt while simulation in progress. Combines best of optimistic and conservative synchronization strategies while avoiding major disadvantages. Algorithm processes events optimistically in time cycles adapting while simulation in progress. Well suited for modeling communication networks, for large-scale war games, for simulated flights of aircraft, for simulations of computer equipment, for mathematical modeling, for interactive engineering simulations, and for depictions of flows of information.
Hybrid Discrete-Continuous Markov Decision Processes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Feng, Zhengzhu; Dearden, Richard; Meuleau, Nicholas; Washington, Rich
2003-01-01
This paper proposes a Markov decision process (MDP) model that features both discrete and continuous state variables. We extend previous work by Boyan and Littman on the mono-dimensional time-dependent MDP to multiple dimensions. We present the principle of lazy discretization, and piecewise constant and linear approximations of the model. Having to deal with several continuous dimensions raises several new problems that require new solutions. In the (piecewise) linear case, we use techniques from partially- observable MDPs (POMDPS) to represent value functions as sets of linear functions attached to different partitions of the state space.
Nimphius, Sophia; McGuigan, Michael R; Suchomel, Timothy J; Newton, Robert U
2016-06-01
This study assessed reliability of discrete ground reaction force (GRF) variables over multiple pitching trials, investigated the relationships between discrete GRF variables and pitch velocity (PV) and assessed the variability of the "force signature" or continuous force-time curve during the pitching motion of windmill softball pitchers. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for all discrete variables was high (0.86-0.99) while the coefficient of variance (CV) was low (1.4-5.2%). Two discrete variables were significantly correlated to PV; second vertical peak force (r(5)=0.81, p=0.03) and time between peak forces (r(5)=-0.79; p=0.03). High ICCs and low CVs support the reliability of discrete GRF and PV variables over multiple trials and significant correlations indicate there is a relationship between the ability to produce force and the timing of this force production with PV. The mean of all pitchers' curve-average standard deviation of their continuous force-time curves demonstrated low variability (CV=4.4%) indicating a repeatable and identifiable "force signature" pattern during this motion. As such, the continuous force-time curve in addition to discrete GRF variables should be examined in future research as a potential method to monitor or explain changes in pitching performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kilometric radiation power flux dependence on area of discrete aurora
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saflekos, N. A.; Burch, J. L.; Gurnett, D. A.; Anderson, R. R.; Sheehan, R. E.
1989-01-01
Kilometer wavelength radiation, measured from distant positions over the North Pole and over the Earth's equator, was compared to the area of discrete aurora imaged by several low-altitude spacecraft. Through correlative studies of auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) with about two thousand auroral images, a stereoscopic view of the average auroral acceleration region was obtained. A major result is that the total AKR power increases as the area of the discrete auroral oval increases. The implications are that the regions of parallel potentials or the auroral plasma cavities, in which AKR is generated, must possess the following attributes: (1) they are shallow in altitude and their radial position depends on wavelength, (2) they thread flux tubes of small cross section, (3) the generation mechanism in them reaches a saturation limit rapidly, and (4) their distribution over the discrete auroral oval is nearly uniform. The above statistical results are true for large samples collected over a long period of time (about six months). In the short term, AKR frequently exhibits temporal variations with scales as short as three minutes (the resolution of the averaged data used). These fluctuations are explainable by rapid quenchings as well as fast starts of the electron cyclotron maser mechanism. There were times when AKR was present at substantial power levels while optical emissions were below instrument thresholds. A recent theoretical result may account for this set of observations by predicting that suprathermal electrons, of energies as low as several hundred eV, can generate second harmonic AKR. The indirect observations of second harmonic AKR require that these electrons have mirror points high above the atmosphere so as to minimize auroral light emissions. The results provide evidence supporting the electron cyclotron maser mechanism.
Discrete Analysis of Damage and Shear Banding in Argillaceous Rocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dinç, Özge; Scholtès, Luc
2018-05-01
A discrete approach is proposed to study damage and failure processes taking place in argillaceous rocks which present a transversely isotropic behavior. More precisely, a dedicated discrete element method is utilized to provide a micromechanical description of the mechanisms involved. The purpose of the study is twofold: (1) presenting a three-dimensional discrete element model able to simulate the anisotropic macro-mechanical behavior of the Callovo-Oxfordian claystone as a particular case of argillaceous rocks; (2) studying how progressive failure develops in such material. Material anisotropy is explicitly taken into account in the numerical model through the introduction of weakness planes distributed at the interparticle scale following predefined orientation and intensity. Simulations of compression tests under plane-strain and triaxial conditions are performed to clarify the development of damage and the appearance of shear bands through micromechanical analyses. The overall mechanical behavior and shear banding patterns predicted by the numerical model are in good agreement with respect to experimental observations. Both tensile and shear microcracks emerging from the modeling also present characteristics compatible with microstructural observations. The numerical results confirm that the global failure of argillaceous rocks is well correlated with the mechanisms taking place at the local scale. Specifically, strain localization is shown to directly result from shear microcracking developing with a preferential orientation distribution related to the orientation of the shear band. In addition, localization events presenting characteristics similar to shear bands are observed from the early stages of the loading and might thus be considered as precursors of strain localization.
Applied Behavior Analysis: Beyond Discrete Trial Teaching
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Steege, Mark W.; Mace, F. Charles; Perry, Lora; Longenecker, Harold
2007-01-01
We discuss the problem of autism-specific special education programs representing themselves as Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) programs when the only ABA intervention employed is Discrete Trial Teaching (DTT), and often for limited portions of the school day. Although DTT has many advantages to recommend its use, it is not well suited to teach…
Fast mix table construction for material discretization
Johnson, S. R.
2013-07-01
An effective hybrid Monte Carlo-deterministic implementation typically requires the approximation of a continuous geometry description with a discretized piecewise-constant material field. The inherent geometry discretization error can be reduced somewhat by using material mixing, where multiple materials inside a discrete mesh voxel are homogenized. Material mixing requires the construction of a 'mix table,' which stores the volume fractions in every mixture so that multiple voxels with similar compositions can reference the same mixture. Mix table construction is a potentially expensive serial operation for large problems with many materials and voxels. We formulate an efficient algorithm to construct a sparse mixmore » table in O(number of voxels x log number of mixtures) time. The new algorithm is implemented in ADVANTG and used to discretize continuous geometries onto a structured Cartesian grid. When applied to an end-of-life MCNP model of the High Flux Isotope Reactor with 270 distinct materials, the new method improves the material mixing time by a factor of 100 compared to a naive mix table implementation. (authors)« less
Fast Mix Table Construction for Material Discretization
Johnson, Seth R
2013-01-01
An effective hybrid Monte Carlo--deterministic implementation typically requires the approximation of a continuous geometry description with a discretized piecewise-constant material field. The inherent geometry discretization error can be reduced somewhat by using material mixing, where multiple materials inside a discrete mesh voxel are homogenized. Material mixing requires the construction of a ``mix table,'' which stores the volume fractions in every mixture so that multiple voxels with similar compositions can reference the same mixture. Mix table construction is a potentially expensive serial operation for large problems with many materials and voxels. We formulate an efficient algorithm to construct a sparse mix table inmore » $$O(\\text{number of voxels}\\times \\log \\text{number of mixtures})$$ time. The new algorithm is implemented in ADVANTG and used to discretize continuous geometries onto a structured Cartesian grid. When applied to an end-of-life MCNP model of the High Flux Isotope Reactor with 270 distinct materials, the new method improves the material mixing time by a factor of 100 compared to a naive mix table implementation.« less
5 CFR 572.102 - Agency discretion.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES; NEW APPOINTEES AND INTERVIEWS § 572.102 Agency discretion. Payment of travel expenses... and transportation or interview expenses in filling any position, the agency should consider such factors as availability of funds as well as the desirability of conducting interviews for a particular job...
Discrete Resource Allocation in Visual Working Memory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Barton, Brian; Ester, Edward F.; Awh, Edward
2009-01-01
Are resources in visual working memory allocated in a continuous or a discrete fashion? On one hand, flexible resource models suggest that capacity is determined by a central resource pool that can be flexibly divided such that items of greater complexity receive a larger share of resources. On the other hand, if capacity in working memory is…
Stable discrete representation of relativistically drifting plasmas
Kirchen, M.; Lehe, R.; Godfrey, B. B.; ...
2016-10-10
Representing the electrodynamics of relativistically drifting particle ensembles in discrete, co-propagating Galilean coordinates enables the derivation of a Particle-In-Cell algorithm that is intrinsically free of the numerical Cherenkov instability for plasmas flowing at a uniform velocity. Application of the method is shown by modeling plasma accelerators in a Lorentz-transformed optimal frame of reference.
Attractors for discrete periodic dynamical systems
John E. Franke; James F. Selgrade
2003-01-01
A mathematical framework is introduced to study attractors of discrete, nonautonomous dynamical systems which depend periodically on time. A structure theorem for such attractors is established which says that the attractor of a time-periodic dynamical system is the unin of attractors of appropriate autonomous maps. If the nonautonomous system is a perturbation of an...
Discrete Event Simulation of Distributed Team Communication
2012-03-22
performs, and auditory information that is provided through multiple audio devices with speech response. This paper extends previous discrete event workload...2008, pg. 1) notes that “Architecture modeling furnishes abstrac- tions for use in managing complexities, allowing engineers to visualise the proposed
Discrete wavelength-locked external cavity laser
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pilgrim, Jeffrey S. (Inventor); Silver, Joel A. (Inventor)
2005-01-01
An external cavity laser (and method of generating laser light) comprising: a laser light source; means for collimating light output by the laser light source; a diffraction grating receiving collimated light; a cavity feedback mirror reflecting light received from the diffraction grating back to the diffraction grating; and means for reliably tuning the external cavity laser to discrete wavelengths.
Hybrid discrete-time neural networks.
Cao, Hongjun; Ibarz, Borja
2010-11-13
Hybrid dynamical systems combine evolution equations with state transitions. When the evolution equations are discrete-time (also called map-based), the result is a hybrid discrete-time system. A class of biological neural network models that has recently received some attention falls within this category: map-based neuron models connected by means of fast threshold modulation (FTM). FTM is a connection scheme that aims to mimic the switching dynamics of a neuron subject to synaptic inputs. The dynamic equations of the neuron adopt different forms according to the state (either firing or not firing) and type (excitatory or inhibitory) of their presynaptic neighbours. Therefore, the mathematical model of one such network is a combination of discrete-time evolution equations with transitions between states, constituting a hybrid discrete-time (map-based) neural network. In this paper, we review previous work within the context of these models, exemplifying useful techniques to analyse them. Typical map-based neuron models are low-dimensional and amenable to phase-plane analysis. In bursting models, fast-slow decomposition can be used to reduce dimensionality further, so that the dynamics of a pair of connected neurons can be easily understood. We also discuss a model that includes electrical synapses in addition to chemical synapses with FTM. Furthermore, we describe how master stability functions can predict the stability of synchronized states in these networks. The main results are extended to larger map-based neural networks.
Web-Based Implementation of Discrete Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Love, Tanzy; Keinert, Fritz; Shelley, Mack
2006-01-01
The Department of Mathematics at Iowa State University teaches a freshman-level Discrete Mathematics course with total enrollment of about 1,800 students per year. The traditional format includes large lectures, with about 150 students each, taught by faculty and temporary instructors in two class sessions per week and recitation sections, with…
Discrete Mathematics Course Supported by CAS MATHEMATICA
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ivanov, O. A.; Ivanova, V. V.; Saltan, A. A.
2017-01-01
In this paper, we discuss examples of assignments for a course in discrete mathematics for undergraduate students majoring in business informatics. We consider several problems with computer-based solutions and discuss general strategies for using computers in teaching mathematics and its applications. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of our…
Electrolytic plating apparatus for discrete microsized particles
Mayer, Anton
1976-11-30
Method and apparatus are disclosed for electrolytically producing very uniform coatings of a desired material on discrete microsized particles. Agglomeration or bridging of the particles during the deposition process is prevented by imparting a sufficiently random motion to the particles that they are not in contact with a powered cathode for a time sufficient for such to occur.
Discrete Events as Units of Perceived Time
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Liverence, Brandon M.; Scholl, Brian J.
2012-01-01
In visual images, we perceive both space (as a continuous visual medium) and objects (that inhabit space). Similarly, in dynamic visual experience, we perceive both continuous time and discrete events. What is the relationship between these units of experience? The most intuitive answer may be similar to the spatial case: time is perceived as an…
Electroless plating apparatus for discrete microsized particles
Mayer, Anton
1978-01-01
Method and apparatus are disclosed for producing very uniform coatings of a desired material on discrete microsized particles by electroless techniques. Agglomeration or bridging of the particles during the deposition process is prevented by imparting a sufficiently random motion to the particles that they are not in contact with each other for a time sufficient for such to occur.
Discrete Gust Model for Launch Vehicle Assessments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leahy, Frank B.
2008-01-01
Analysis of spacecraft vehicle responses to atmospheric wind gusts during flight is important in the establishment of vehicle design structural requirements and operational capability. Typically, wind gust models can be either a spectral type determined by a random process having a wide range of wavelengths, or a discrete type having a single gust of predetermined magnitude and shape. Classical discrete models used by NASA during the Apollo and Space Shuttle Programs included a 9 m/sec quasi-square-wave gust with variable wavelength from 60 to 300 m. A later study derived discrete gust from a military specification (MIL-SPEC) document that used a "1-cosine" shape. The MIL-SPEC document contains a curve of non-dimensional gust magnitude as a function of non-dimensional gust half-wavelength based on the Dryden spectral model, but fails to list the equation necessary to reproduce the curve. Therefore, previous studies could only estimate a value of gust magnitude from the curve, or attempt to fit a function to it. This paper presents the development of the MIL-SPEC curve, and provides the necessary information to calculate discrete gust magnitudes as a function of both gust half-wavelength and the desired probability level of exceeding a specified gust magnitude.
Discrete Mathematics and the Secondary Mathematics Curriculum.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dossey, John
Discrete mathematics, the mathematics of decision making for finite settings, is a topic of great interest in mathematics education at all levels. Attention is being focused on resolving the diversity of opinion concerning the exact nature of the subject, what content the curriculum should contain, who should study that material, and how that…
On stability of discrete composite systems.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grujic, L. T.; Siljak, D. D.
1973-01-01
Conditions are developed under which exponential stability of a composite discrete system is implied by exponential stability of its subsystems and the nature of their interactions. Stability of the system is determined by testing positive definiteness property of a real symmetric matrix the dimension of which is equal to the number of subsystems.
Analysis hierarchical model for discrete event systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ciortea, E. M.
2015-11-01
The This paper presents the hierarchical model based on discrete event network for robotic systems. Based on the hierarchical approach, Petri network is analysed as a network of the highest conceptual level and the lowest level of local control. For modelling and control of complex robotic systems using extended Petri nets. Such a system is structured, controlled and analysed in this paper by using Visual Object Net ++ package that is relatively simple and easy to use, and the results are shown as representations easy to interpret. The hierarchical structure of the robotic system is implemented on computers analysed using specialized programs. Implementation of hierarchical model discrete event systems, as a real-time operating system on a computer network connected via a serial bus is possible, where each computer is dedicated to local and Petri model of a subsystem global robotic system. Since Petri models are simplified to apply general computers, analysis, modelling, complex manufacturing systems control can be achieved using Petri nets. Discrete event systems is a pragmatic tool for modelling industrial systems. For system modelling using Petri nets because we have our system where discrete event. To highlight the auxiliary time Petri model using transport stream divided into hierarchical levels and sections are analysed successively. Proposed robotic system simulation using timed Petri, offers the opportunity to view the robotic time. Application of goods or robotic and transmission times obtained by measuring spot is obtained graphics showing the average time for transport activity, using the parameters sets of finished products. individually.
A Note on Discrete Mathematics and Calculus.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
O'Reilly, Thomas J.
1987-01-01
Much of the current literature on the topic of discrete mathematics and calculus during the first two years of an undergraduate mathematics curriculum is cited. A relationship between the recursive integration formulas and recursively defined polynomials is described. A Pascal program is included. (Author/RH)
Stable discrete representation of relativistically drifting plasmas
Kirchen, M.; Lehe, R.; Godfrey, B. B.
Representing the electrodynamics of relativistically drifting particle ensembles in discrete, co-propagating Galilean coordinates enables the derivation of a Particle-In-Cell algorithm that is intrinsically free of the numerical Cherenkov instability for plasmas flowing at a uniform velocity. Application of the method is shown by modeling plasma accelerators in a Lorentz-transformed optimal frame of reference.
Geometric Representations for Discrete Fourier Transforms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cambell, C. W.
1986-01-01
Simple geometric representations show symmetry and periodicity of discrete Fourier transforms (DFT's). Help in visualizing requirements for storing and manipulating transform value in computations. Representations useful in any number of dimensions, but particularly in one-, two-, and three-dimensional cases often encountered in practice.
Infant differential behavioral responding to discrete emotions.
Walle, Eric A; Reschke, Peter J; Camras, Linda A; Campos, Joseph J
2017-10-01
Emotional communication regulates the behaviors of social partners. Research on individuals' responding to others' emotions typically compares responses to a single negative emotion compared with responses to a neutral or positive emotion. Furthermore, coding of such responses routinely measure surface level features of the behavior (e.g., approach vs. avoidance) rather than its underlying function (e.g., the goal of the approach or avoidant behavior). This investigation examined infants' responding to others' emotional displays across 5 discrete emotions: joy, sadness, fear, anger, and disgust. Specifically, 16-, 19-, and 24-month-old infants observed an adult communicate a discrete emotion toward a stimulus during a naturalistic interaction. Infants' responses were coded to capture the function of their behaviors (e.g., exploration, prosocial behavior, and security seeking). The results revealed a number of instances indicating that infants use different functional behaviors in response to discrete emotions. Differences in behaviors across emotions were clearest in the 24-month-old infants, though younger infants also demonstrated some differential use of behaviors in response to discrete emotions. This is the first comprehensive study to identify differences in how infants respond with goal-directed behaviors to discrete emotions. Additionally, the inclusion of a function-based coding scheme and interpersonal paradigms may be informative for future emotion research with children and adults. Possible developmental accounts for the observed behaviors and the benefits of coding techniques emphasizing the function of social behavior over their form are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
A difference tracking algorithm based on discrete sine transform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, HaoPeng; Yao, Yong; Lei, HeBing; Wu, HaoKun
2018-04-01
Target tracking is an important field of computer vision. The template matching tracking algorithm based on squared difference matching (SSD) and standard correlation coefficient (NCC) matching is very sensitive to the gray change of image. When the brightness or gray change, the tracking algorithm will be affected by high-frequency information. Tracking accuracy is reduced, resulting in loss of tracking target. In this paper, a differential tracking algorithm based on discrete sine transform is proposed to reduce the influence of image gray or brightness change. The algorithm that combines the discrete sine transform and the difference algorithm maps the target image into a image digital sequence. The Kalman filter predicts the target position. Using the Hamming distance determines the degree of similarity between the target and the template. The window closest to the template is determined the target to be tracked. The target to be tracked updates the template. Based on the above achieve target tracking. The algorithm is tested in this paper. Compared with SSD and NCC template matching algorithms, the algorithm tracks target stably when image gray or brightness change. And the tracking speed can meet the read-time requirement.
Lench, Heather C; Flores, Sarah A; Bench, Shane W
2011-09-01
Our purpose in the present meta-analysis was to examine the extent to which discrete emotions elicit changes in cognition, judgment, experience, behavior, and physiology; whether these changes are correlated as would be expected if emotions organize responses across these systems; and which factors moderate the magnitude of these effects. Studies (687; 4,946 effects, 49,473 participants) were included that elicited the discrete emotions of happiness, sadness, anger, and anxiety as independent variables with adults. Consistent with discrete emotion theory, there were (a) moderate differences among discrete emotions; (b) differences among discrete negative emotions; and (c) correlated changes in behavior, experience, and physiology (cognition and judgment were mostly not correlated with other changes). Valence, valence-arousal, and approach-avoidance models of emotion were not as clearly supported. There was evidence that these factors are likely important components of emotion but that they could not fully account for the pattern of results. Most emotion elicitations were effective, although the efficacy varied with the emotions being compared. Picture presentations were overall the most effective elicitor of discrete emotions. Stronger effects of emotion elicitations were associated with happiness versus negative emotions, self-reported experience, a greater proportion of women (for elicitations of happiness and sadness), omission of a cover story, and participants alone versus in groups. Conclusions are limited by the inclusion of only some discrete emotions, exclusion of studies that did not elicit discrete emotions, few available effect sizes for some contrasts and moderators, and the methodological rigor of included studies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).
Percolation analysis for cosmic web with discrete points
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Jiajun; Cheng, Dalong; Chu, Ming-Chung
2018-01-01
Percolation analysis has long been used to quantify the connectivity of the cosmic web. Most of the previous work is based on density fields on grids. By smoothing into fields, we lose information about galaxy properties like shape or luminosity. The lack of mathematical modeling also limits our understanding for the percolation analysis. To overcome these difficulties, we have studied percolation analysis based on discrete points. Using a friends-of-friends (FoF) algorithm, we generate the S -b b relation, between the fractional mass of the largest connected group (S ) and the FoF linking length (b b ). We propose a new model, the probability cloud cluster expansion theory to relate the S -b b relation with correlation functions. We show that the S -b b relation reflects a combination of all orders of correlation functions. Using N-body simulation, we find that the S -b b relation is robust against redshift distortion and incompleteness in observation. From the Bolshoi simulation, with halo abundance matching (HAM), we have generated a mock galaxy catalog. Good matching of the projected two-point correlation function with observation is confirmed. However, comparing the mock catalog with the latest galaxy catalog from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release (DR)12, we have found significant differences in their S -b b relations. This indicates that the mock galaxy catalog cannot accurately retain higher-order correlation functions than the two-point correlation function, which reveals the limit of the HAM method. As a new measurement, the S -b b relation is applicable to a wide range of data types, fast to compute, and robust against redshift distortion and incompleteness and contains information of all orders of correlation functions.
Stochastic effects in a discretized kinetic model of economic exchange
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertotti, M. L.; Chattopadhyay, A. K.; Modanese, G.
2017-04-01
Linear stochastic models and discretized kinetic theory are two complementary analytical techniques used for the investigation of complex systems of economic interactions. The former employ Langevin equations, with an emphasis on stock trade; the latter is based on systems of ordinary differential equations and is better suited for the description of binary interactions, taxation and welfare redistribution. We propose a new framework which establishes a connection between the two approaches by introducing random fluctuations into the kinetic model based on Langevin and Fokker-Planck formalisms. Numerical simulations of the resulting model indicate positive correlations between the Gini index and the total wealth, that suggest a growing inequality with increasing income. Further analysis shows, in the presence of a conserved total wealth, a simultaneous decrease in inequality as social mobility increases, in conformity with economic data.
Recurrence plots of discrete-time Gaussian stochastic processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramdani, Sofiane; Bouchara, Frédéric; Lagarde, Julien; Lesne, Annick
2016-09-01
We investigate the statistical properties of recurrence plots (RPs) of data generated by discrete-time stationary Gaussian random processes. We analytically derive the theoretical values of the probabilities of occurrence of recurrence points and consecutive recurrence points forming diagonals in the RP, with an embedding dimension equal to 1. These results allow us to obtain theoretical values of three measures: (i) the recurrence rate (REC) (ii) the percent determinism (DET) and (iii) RP-based estimation of the ε-entropy κ(ε) in the sense of correlation entropy. We apply these results to two Gaussian processes, namely first order autoregressive processes and fractional Gaussian noise. For these processes, we simulate a number of realizations and compare the RP-based estimations of the three selected measures to their theoretical values. These comparisons provide useful information on the quality of the estimations, such as the minimum required data length and threshold radius used to construct the RP.
Discrete element modeling of shock-induced particle jetting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xue, Kun; Cui, Haoran
2018-05-01
The dispersal of particle shell or ring by divergent impulsive loads takes the form of coherent particle jets with the dimensions several orders larger than that of constituent grain. Particle-scale simulations based on the discrete element method have been carried out to reveal the evolution of jets in semi-two-dimensional rings before they burst out of the external surface. We identify two key events which substantially change the resulted jetting pattern, specifically, the annihilation of incipient jets and the tip-slipping of jets, which become active in different phases of jet evolution. Parametric investigations have been done to assess the correlations between the jetting pattern and a variety of structural parameters. Overpressure, the internal and outer diameters of ring as well as the packing density are found to have effects on the jet evolution with different relative importance.
Efficient Cache use for Stencil Operations on Structured Discretization Grids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frumkin, Michael; VanderWijngaart, Rob F.
2001-01-01
We derive tight bounds on the cache misses for evaluation of explicit stencil operators on structured grids. Our lower bound is based on the isoperimetrical property of the discrete octahedron. Our upper bound is based on a good surface to volume ratio of a parallelepiped spanned by a reduced basis of the interference lattice of a grid. Measurements show that our algorithm typically reduces the number of cache misses by a factor of three, relative to a compiler optimized code. We show that stencil calculations on grids whose interference lattice have a short vector feature abnormally high numbers of cache misses. We call such grids unfavorable and suggest to avoid these in computations by appropriate padding. By direct measurements on a MIPS R10000 processor we show a good correlation between abnormally high numbers of cache misses and unfavorable three-dimensional grids.
Is Discrete Mathematics the New Math of the Eighties?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hart, Eric W.
1985-01-01
Considered are what discrete mathematics includes, some parallels and differences between new math and discrete mathematics (listed in a table), and lessons to be learned. A list of references is included. (MNS)
Discretization provides a conceptually simple tool to build expression networks.
Vass, J Keith; Higham, Desmond J; Mudaliar, Manikhandan A V; Mao, Xuerong; Crowther, Daniel J
2011-04-18
Biomarker identification, using network methods, depends on finding regular co-expression patterns; the overall connectivity is of greater importance than any single relationship. A second requirement is a simple algorithm for ranking patients on how relevant a gene-set is. For both of these requirements discretized data helps to first identify gene cliques, and then to stratify patients.We explore a biologically intuitive discretization technique which codes genes as up- or down-regulated, with values close to the mean set as unchanged; this allows a richer description of relationships between genes than can be achieved by positive and negative correlation. We find a close agreement between our results and the template gene-interactions used to build synthetic microarray-like data by SynTReN, which synthesizes "microarray" data using known relationships which are successfully identified by our method.We are able to split positive co-regulation into up-together and down-together and negative co-regulation is considered as directed up-down relationships. In some cases these exist in only one direction, with real data, but not with the synthetic data. We illustrate our approach using two studies on white blood cells and derived immortalized cell lines and compare the approach with standard correlation-based computations. No attempt is made to distinguish possible causal links as the search for biomarkers would be crippled by losing highly significant co-expression relationships. This contrasts with approaches like ARACNE and IRIS.The method is illustrated with an analysis of gene-expression for energy metabolism pathways. For each discovered relationship we are able to identify the samples on which this is based in the discretized sample-gene matrix, along with a simplified view of the patterns of gene expression; this helps to dissect the gene-sample relevant to a research topic--identifying sets of co-regulated and anti-regulated genes and the samples or patients
Multiple Autonomous Discrete Event Controllers for Constellations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Esposito, Timothy C.
2003-01-01
The Multiple Autonomous Discrete Event Controllers for Constellations (MADECC) project is an effort within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center's (NASA/GSFC) Information Systems Division to develop autonomous positioning and attitude control for constellation satellites. It will be accomplished using traditional control theory and advanced coordination algorithms developed by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL). This capability will be demonstrated in the discrete event control test-bed located at JHU/APL. This project will be modeled for the Leonardo constellation mission, but is intended to be adaptable to any constellation mission. To develop a common software architecture. the controllers will only model very high-level responses. For instance, after determining that a maneuver must be made. the MADECC system will output B (Delta)V (velocity change) value. Lower level systems must then decide which thrusters to fire and for how long to achieve that (Delta)V.
Special relativity in a discrete quantum universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bisio, Alessandro; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo
2016-10-01
The hypothesis of a discrete fabric of the universe, the "Planck scale," is always on stage since it solves mathematical and conceptual problems in the infinitely small. However, it clashes with special relativity, which is designed for the continuum. Here, we show how the clash can be overcome within a discrete quantum theory where the evolution of fields is described by a quantum cellular automaton. The reconciliation is achieved by defining the change of observer as a change of representation of the dynamics, without any reference to space-time. We use the relativity principle, i.e., the invariance of dynamics under change of inertial observer, to identify a change of inertial frame with a symmetry of the dynamics. We consider the full group of such symmetries, and recover the usual Lorentz group in the relativistic regime of low energies, while at the Planck scale the covariance is nonlinearly distorted.
Discrete shaped strain sensors for intelligent structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Andersson, Mark S.; Crawley, Edward F.
1992-01-01
Design of discrete, highly distributed sensor systems for intelligent structures has been studied. Data obtained indicate that discrete strain-averaging sensors satisfy the functional requirements for distributed sensing of intelligent structures. Bartlett and Gauss-Hanning sensors, in particular, provide good wavenumber characteristics while meeting the functional requirements. They are characterized by good rolloff rates and positive Fourier transforms for all wavenumbers. For the numerical integration schemes, Simpson's rule is considered to be very simple to implement and consistently provides accurate results for five sensors or more. It is shown that a sensor system that satisfies the functional requirements can be applied to a structure that supports mode shapes with purely sinusoidal curvature.
Nonlinear Control and Discrete Event Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Meyer, George; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)
1995-01-01
As the operation of large systems becomes ever more dependent on extensive automation, the need for an effective solution to the problem of design and validation of the underlying software becomes more critical. Large systems possesses much detailed structure, typically hierarchical, and they are hybrid. Information processing at the top of the hierarchy is by means of formal logic and sentences; on the bottom it is by means of simple scalar differential equations and functions of time; and in the middle it is by an interacting mix of nonlinear multi-axis differential equations and automata, and functions of time and discrete events. The lecture will address the overall problem as it relates to flight vehicle management, describe the middle level, and offer a design approach that is based on Differential Geometry and Discrete Event Dynamic Systems Theory.
Hydraulically controlled discrete sampling from open boreholes
Harte, Philip T.
2013-01-01
Groundwater sampling from open boreholes in fractured-rock aquifers is particularly challenging because of mixing and dilution of fluid within the borehole from multiple fractures. This note presents an alternative to traditional sampling in open boreholes with packer assemblies. The alternative system called ZONFLO (zonal flow) is based on hydraulic control of borehole flow conditions. Fluid from discrete fractures zones are hydraulically isolated allowing for the collection of representative samples. In rough-faced open boreholes and formations with less competent rock, hydraulic containment may offer an attractive alternative to physical containment with packers. Preliminary test results indicate a discrete zone can be effectively hydraulically isolated from other zones within a borehole for the purpose of groundwater sampling using this new method.
Lyapunov Stability of Fuzzy Discrete Event Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Fuchun; Qiu, Daowen
Fuzzy discrete event systems (FDESs) as a generalization of (crisp) discrete event systems (DESs) may better deal with the problems of fuzziness, impreciseness, and subjectivity. Qiu, Cao and Ying, Liu and Qiu interestingly developed the theory of FDESs. As a continuation of Qiu's work, this paper is to deal with the Lyapunov stability of FDESs, some main results of crisp DESs are generalized. We formalize the notions of the reachability of fuzzy states defined on a metric space. A linear algorithm of computing the r-reachable fuzzy state set is presented. Then we introduce the definitions of stability and asymptotical stability in the sense of Lyapunov to guarantee the convergence of the behaviors of fuzzy automaton to the desired fuzzy states when system engages in some illegal behaviors which can be tolerated. In particular, we present a necessary and sufficient condition for stability and another for asymptotical stability of FDESs.
Remarks on a New Possible Discretization Scheme for Gauge Theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Magnot, Jean-Pierre
2018-03-01
We propose here a new discretization method for a class of continuum gauge theories which action functionals are polynomials of the curvature. Based on the notion of holonomy, this discretization procedure appears gauge-invariant for discretized analogs of Yang-Mills theories, and hence gauge-fixing is fully rigorous for these discretized action functionals. Heuristic parts are forwarded to the quantization procedure via Feynman integrals and the meaning of the heuristic infinite dimensional Lebesgue integral is questioned.
Remarks on a New Possible Discretization Scheme for Gauge Theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Magnot, Jean-Pierre
2018-07-01
We propose here a new discretization method for a class of continuum gauge theories which action functionals are polynomials of the curvature. Based on the notion of holonomy, this discretization procedure appears gauge-invariant for discretized analogs of Yang-Mills theories, and hence gauge-fixing is fully rigorous for these discretized action functionals. Heuristic parts are forwarded to the quantization procedure via Feynman integrals and the meaning of the heuristic infinite dimensional Lebesgue integral is questioned.
Discrete Conformal Approximation of Complex Earthquake Maps
2005-08-01
Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188), Washington, DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY...ing when my dreams were not yours. Thank you for teaching me that books are my friends (though I may have taken that a little too much to heart), and...61 4.2 Hyperbolic Projections ....... ...................... 63 4.3 Discrete Shearing Maps ............................. 64
Discrete sequence prediction and its applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Laird, Philip
1992-01-01
Learning from experience to predict sequences of discrete symbols is a fundamental problem in machine learning with many applications. We apply sequence prediction using a simple and practical sequence-prediction algorithm, called TDAG. The TDAG algorithm is first tested by comparing its performance with some common data compression algorithms. Then it is adapted to the detailed requirements of dynamic program optimization, with excellent results.
Discrete and continuum modelling of soil cutting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coetzee, C. J.
2014-12-01
Both continuum and discrete methods are used to investigate the soil cutting process. The Discrete Element Method ( dem) is used for the discrete modelling and the Material-Point Method ( mpm) is used for continuum modelling. M pmis a so-called particle method or meshless finite element method. Standard finite element methods have difficulty in modelling the entire cutting process due to large displacements and deformation of the mesh. The use of meshless methods overcomes this problem. M pm can model large deformations, frictional contact at the soil-tool interface, and dynamic effects (inertia forces). In granular materials the discreteness of the system is often important and rotational degrees of freedom are active, which might require enhanced theoretical approaches like polar continua. In polar continuum theories, the material points are considered to possess orientations. A material point has three degrees-of-freedom for rigid rotations, in addition to the three classic translational degrees-of-freedom. The Cosserat continuum is the most transparent and straightforward extension of the nonpolar (classic) continuum. Two-dimensional dem and mpm (polar and nonpolar) simulations of the cutting problem are compared to experiments. The drag force and flow patterns are compared using cohesionless corn grains as material. The corn macro (continuum) and micro ( dem) properties were obtained from shear and oedometer tests. Results show that the dilatancy angle plays a significant role in the flow of material but has less of an influence on the draft force. Nonpolar mpm is the most accurate in predicting blade forces, blade-soil interface stresses and the position and orientation of shear bands. Polar mpm fails in predicting the orientation of the shear band, but is less sensitive to mesh size and mesh orientation compared to nonpolar mpm. dem simulations show less material dilation than observed during experiments.
Program For Parallel Discrete-Event Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Beckman, Brian C.; Blume, Leo R.; Geiselman, John S.; Presley, Matthew T.; Wedel, John J., Jr.; Bellenot, Steven F.; Diloreto, Michael; Hontalas, Philip J.; Reiher, Peter L.; Weiland, Frederick P.
1991-01-01
User does not have to add any special logic to aid in synchronization. Time Warp Operating System (TWOS) computer program is special-purpose operating system designed to support parallel discrete-event simulation. Complete implementation of Time Warp mechanism. Supports only simulations and other computations designed for virtual time. Time Warp Simulator (TWSIM) subdirectory contains sequential simulation engine interface-compatible with TWOS. TWOS and TWSIM written in, and support simulations in, C programming language.
Discrete mathematics course supported by CAS MATHEMATICA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivanov, O. A.; Ivanova, V. V.; Saltan, A. A.
2017-08-01
In this paper, we discuss examples of assignments for a course in discrete mathematics for undergraduate students majoring in business informatics. We consider several problems with computer-based solutions and discuss general strategies for using computers in teaching mathematics and its applications. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of our approach, we conducted an anonymous survey. The results of the survey provide evidence that our approach contributes to high outcomes and aligns with the course aims and objectives.
Defense Strategies for Asymmetric Networked Systems with Discrete Components
Rao, Nageswara S. V.; Ma, Chris Y. T.; Hausken, Kjell; He, Fei; Yau, David K. Y.
2018-01-01
We consider infrastructures consisting of a network of systems, each composed of discrete components. The network provides the vital connectivity between the systems and hence plays a critical, asymmetric role in the infrastructure operations. The individual components of the systems can be attacked by cyber and physical means and can be appropriately reinforced to withstand these attacks. We formulate the problem of ensuring the infrastructure performance as a game between an attacker and a provider, who choose the numbers of the components of the systems and network to attack and reinforce, respectively. The costs and benefits of attacks and reinforcements are characterized using the sum-form, product-form and composite utility functions, each composed of a survival probability term and a component cost term. We present a two-level characterization of the correlations within the infrastructure: (i) the aggregate failure correlation function specifies the infrastructure failure probability given the failure of an individual system or network, and (ii) the survival probabilities of the systems and network satisfy first-order differential conditions that capture the component-level correlations using multiplier functions. We derive Nash equilibrium conditions that provide expressions for individual system survival probabilities and also the expected infrastructure capacity specified by the total number of operational components. We apply these results to derive and analyze defense strategies for distributed cloud computing infrastructures using cyber-physical models. PMID:29751588
Defense Strategies for Asymmetric Networked Systems with Discrete Components.
Rao, Nageswara S V; Ma, Chris Y T; Hausken, Kjell; He, Fei; Yau, David K Y; Zhuang, Jun
2018-05-03
We consider infrastructures consisting of a network of systems, each composed of discrete components. The network provides the vital connectivity between the systems and hence plays a critical, asymmetric role in the infrastructure operations. The individual components of the systems can be attacked by cyber and physical means and can be appropriately reinforced to withstand these attacks. We formulate the problem of ensuring the infrastructure performance as a game between an attacker and a provider, who choose the numbers of the components of the systems and network to attack and reinforce, respectively. The costs and benefits of attacks and reinforcements are characterized using the sum-form, product-form and composite utility functions, each composed of a survival probability term and a component cost term. We present a two-level characterization of the correlations within the infrastructure: (i) the aggregate failure correlation function specifies the infrastructure failure probability given the failure of an individual system or network, and (ii) the survival probabilities of the systems and network satisfy first-order differential conditions that capture the component-level correlations using multiplier functions. We derive Nash equilibrium conditions that provide expressions for individual system survival probabilities and also the expected infrastructure capacity specified by the total number of operational components. We apply these results to derive and analyze defense strategies for distributed cloud computing infrastructures using cyber-physical models.
New formulation of the discrete element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rojek, Jerzy; Zubelewicz, Aleksander; Madan, Nikhil; Nosewicz, Szymon
2018-01-01
A new original formulation of the discrete element method based on the soft contact approach is presented in this work. The standard DEM has heen enhanced by the introduction of the additional (global) deformation mode caused by the stresses in the particles induced by the contact forces. Uniform stresses and strains are assumed for each particle. The stresses are calculated from the contact forces. The strains are obtained using an inverse constitutive relationship. The strains allow us to obtain deformed particle shapes. The deformed shapes (ellipses) are taken into account in contact detection and evaluation of the contact forces. A simple example of a uniaxial compression of a rectangular specimen, discreti.zed with equal sized particles is simulated to verify the DDEM algorithm. The numerical example shows that a particle deformation changes the particle interaction and the distribution of forces in the discrete element assembly. A quantitative study of micro-macro elastic properties proves the enhanced capabilities of the DDEM as compared to standard DEM.
Discrete Deterministic and Stochastic Petri Nets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zijal, Robert; Ciardo, Gianfranco
1996-01-01
Petri nets augmented with timing specifications gained a wide acceptance in the area of performance and reliability evaluation of complex systems exhibiting concurrency, synchronization, and conflicts. The state space of time-extended Petri nets is mapped onto its basic underlying stochastic process, which can be shown to be Markovian under the assumption of exponentially distributed firing times. The integration of exponentially and non-exponentially distributed timing is still one of the major problems for the analysis and was first attacked for continuous time Petri nets at the cost of structural or analytical restrictions. We propose a discrete deterministic and stochastic Petri net (DDSPN) formalism with no imposed structural or analytical restrictions where transitions can fire either in zero time or according to arbitrary firing times that can be represented as the time to absorption in a finite absorbing discrete time Markov chain (DTMC). Exponentially distributed firing times are then approximated arbitrarily well by geometric distributions. Deterministic firing times are a special case of the geometric distribution. The underlying stochastic process of a DDSPN is then also a DTMC, from which the transient and stationary solution can be obtained by standard techniques. A comprehensive algorithm and some state space reduction techniques for the analysis of DDSPNs are presented comprising the automatic detection of conflicts and confusions, which removes a major obstacle for the analysis of discrete time models.
Generalized Detectability for Discrete Event Systems
Shu, Shaolong; Lin, Feng
2011-01-01
In our previous work, we investigated detectability of discrete event systems, which is defined as the ability to determine the current and subsequent states of a system based on observation. For different applications, we defined four types of detectabilities: (weak) detectability, strong detectability, (weak) periodic detectability, and strong periodic detectability. In this paper, we extend our results in three aspects. (1) We extend detectability from deterministic systems to nondeterministic systems. Such a generalization is necessary because there are many systems that need to be modeled as nondeterministic discrete event systems. (2) We develop polynomial algorithms to check strong detectability. The previous algorithms are based on observer whose construction is of exponential complexity, while the new algorithms are based on a new automaton called detector. (3) We extend detectability to D-detectability. While detectability requires determining the exact state of a system, D-detectability relaxes this requirement by asking only to distinguish certain pairs of states. With these extensions, the theory on detectability of discrete event systems becomes more applicable in solving many practical problems. PMID:21691432
Single-crossover recombination in discrete time.
von Wangenheim, Ute; Baake, Ellen; Baake, Michael
2010-05-01
Modelling the process of recombination leads to a large coupled nonlinear dynamical system. Here, we consider a particular case of recombination in discrete time, allowing only for single crossovers. While the analogous dynamics in continuous time admits a closed solution (Baake and Baake in Can J Math 55:3-41, 2003), this no longer works for discrete time. A more general model (i.e. without the restriction to single crossovers) has been studied before (Bennett in Ann Hum Genet 18:311-317, 1954; Dawson in Theor Popul Biol 58:1-20, 2000; Linear Algebra Appl 348:115-137, 2002) and was solved algorithmically by means of Haldane linearisation. Using the special formalism introduced by Baake and Baake (Can J Math 55:3-41, 2003), we obtain further insight into the single-crossover dynamics and the particular difficulties that arise in discrete time. We then transform the equations to a solvable system in a two-step procedure: linearisation followed by diagonalisation. Still, the coefficients of the second step must be determined in a recursive manner, but once this is done for a given system, they allow for an explicit solution valid for all times.
Discrete Inverse and State Estimation Problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wunsch, Carl
2006-06-01
The problems of making inferences about the natural world from noisy observations and imperfect theories occur in almost all scientific disciplines. This book addresses these problems using examples taken from geophysical fluid dynamics. It focuses on discrete formulations, both static and time-varying, known variously as inverse, state estimation or data assimilation problems. Starting with fundamental algebraic and statistical ideas, the book guides the reader through a range of inference tools including the singular value decomposition, Gauss-Markov and minimum variance estimates, Kalman filters and related smoothers, and adjoint (Lagrange multiplier) methods. The final chapters discuss a variety of practical applications to geophysical flow problems. Discrete Inverse and State Estimation Problems is an ideal introduction to the topic for graduate students and researchers in oceanography, meteorology, climate dynamics, and geophysical fluid dynamics. It is also accessible to a wider scientific audience; the only prerequisite is an understanding of linear algebra. Provides a comprehensive introduction to discrete methods of inference from incomplete information Based upon 25 years of practical experience using real data and models Develops sequential and whole-domain analysis methods from simple least-squares Contains many examples and problems, and web-based support through MIT opencourseware
Discrete dynamic modeling of cellular signaling networks.
Albert, Réka; Wang, Rui-Sheng
2009-01-01
Understanding signal transduction in cellular systems is a central issue in systems biology. Numerous experiments from different laboratories generate an abundance of individual components and causal interactions mediating environmental and developmental signals. However, for many signal transduction systems there is insufficient information on the overall structure and the molecular mechanisms involved in the signaling network. Moreover, lack of kinetic and temporal information makes it difficult to construct quantitative models of signal transduction pathways. Discrete dynamic modeling, combined with network analysis, provides an effective way to integrate fragmentary knowledge of regulatory interactions into a predictive mathematical model which is able to describe the time evolution of the system without the requirement for kinetic parameters. This chapter introduces the fundamental concepts of discrete dynamic modeling, particularly focusing on Boolean dynamic models. We describe this method step-by-step in the context of cellular signaling networks. Several variants of Boolean dynamic models including threshold Boolean networks and piecewise linear systems are also covered, followed by two examples of successful application of discrete dynamic modeling in cell biology.
Police investigations: discretion denied yet undeniably exercised
Belur, J.; Tilley, N.; Osrin, D.; Daruwalla, N.; Kumar, M.; Tiwari, V.
2014-01-01
Police investigations involve determining whether a crime has been committed, and if so what type of crime, who has committed it and whether there is the evidence to charge the perpetrators. Drawing on fieldwork in Delhi and Mumbai, this paper explores how police investigations unfolded in the specific context of women’s deaths by burning in India. In particular, it focuses on the use of discretion despite its denial by those exercising it. In India, there are distinctive statutes relating to women’s suspicious deaths, reflecting the widespread expectation that the bride’s family will pay a dowry to the groom’s family and the tensions to which this may on occasion give rise in the early years of a marriage. Often, there are conflicting claims influencing how the woman’s death is classified. These in turn affect police investigation. The nature and direction of police discretion in investigating women’s deaths by burning reflect in part the unique nature of the legislation and the particular sensitivities in relation to these types of death. They also highlight processes that are liable to be at work in any crime investigation. It was found that police officers exercised unacknowledged discretion at seven specific points in the investigative process, with potentially significant consequences for the achievement of just outcomes: first response, recording the victim’s ‘dying declaration’, inquest, registering of the ‘First Information Report’, collecting evidence, arrest and framing of the charges. PMID:26376482
Meshes optimized for discrete exterior calculus (DEC).
Mousley, Sarah C.; Deakin, Michael; Knupp, Patrick
We study the optimization of an energy function used by the meshing community to measure and improve mesh quality. This energy is non-traditional because it is dependent on both the primal triangulation and its dual Voronoi (power) diagram. The energy is a measure of the mesh's quality for usage in Discrete Exterior Calculus (DEC), a method for numerically solving PDEs. In DEC, the PDE domain is triangulated and this mesh is used to obtain discrete approximations of the continuous operators in the PDE. The energy of a mesh gives an upper bound on the error of the discrete diagonal approximationmore » of the Hodge star operator. In practice, one begins with an initial mesh and then makes adjustments to produce a mesh of lower energy. However, we have discovered several shortcomings in directly optimizing this energy, e.g. its non-convexity, and we show that the search for an optimized mesh may lead to mesh inversion (malformed triangles). We propose a new energy function to address some of these issues.« less
USMC Inventory Control Using Optimization Modeling and Discrete Event Simulation
2016-09-01
release. Distribution is unlimited. USMC INVENTORY CONTROL USING OPTIMIZATION MODELING AND DISCRETE EVENT SIMULATION by Timothy A. Curling...USING OPTIMIZATION MODELING AND DISCRETE EVENT SIMULATION 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Timothy A. Curling 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S...optimization and discrete -event simulation. This construct can potentially provide an effective means in improving order management decisions. However
Ways to improve your correlation functions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hamilton, A. J. S.
1993-01-01
This paper describes a number of ways to improve on the standard method for measuring the two-point correlation function of large scale structure in the Universe. Issues addressed are: (1) the problem of the mean density, and how to solve it; (2) how to estimate the uncertainty in a measured correlation function; (3) minimum variance pair weighting; (4) unbiased estimation of the selection function when magnitudes are discrete; and (5) analytic computation of angular integrals in background pair counts.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cotariu, Steven S.
1991-12-01
Pattern recognition may supplement or replace certain navigational aids on spacecraft in docking or landing activities. The need to correctly identify terrain features remains critical in preparation of autonomous planetary landing. One technique that may solve this problem is optical correlation. Correlation has been successfully demonstrated under ideal conditions; however, noise significantly affects the ability of the correlator to accurately identify input signals. Optical correlation in the presence of noise must be successfully demonstrated before this technology can be incorporated into system design. An optical correlator is designed and constructed using a modified 2f configuration. Liquid crystal televisions (LCTV) are used as the spatial light modulators (SLM) for both the input and filter devices. The filter LCTV is characterized and an operating curve is developed. Determination of this operating curve is critical for reduction of input noise. Correlation of live input with a programmable filter is demonstrated.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cotariu, Steven S.
1991-01-01
Pattern recognition may supplement or replace certain navigational aids on spacecraft in docking or landing activities. The need to correctly identify terrain features remains critical in preparation of autonomous planetary landing. One technique that may solve this problem is optical correlation. Correlation has been successfully demonstrated under ideal conditions; however, noise significantly affects the ability of the correlator to accurately identify input signals. Optical correlation in the presence of noise must be successfully demonstrated before this technology can be incorporated into system design. An optical correlator is designed and constructed using a modified 2f configuration. Liquid crystal televisions (LCTV) are used as the spatial light modulators (SLM) for both the input and filter devices. The filter LCTV is characterized and an operating curve is developed. Determination of this operating curve is critical for reduction of input noise. Correlation of live input with a programmable filter is demonstrated.
Discrete ellipsoidal statistical BGK model and Burnett equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yu-Dong; Xu, Ai-Guo; Zhang, Guang-Cai; Chen, Zhi-Hua; Wang, Pei
2018-06-01
A new discrete Boltzmann model, the discrete ellipsoidal statistical Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (ESBGK) model, is proposed to simulate nonequilibrium compressible flows. Compared with the original discrete BGK model, the discrete ES-BGK has a flexible Prandtl number. For the discrete ES-BGK model in the Burnett level, two kinds of discrete velocity model are introduced and the relations between nonequilibrium quantities and the viscous stress and heat flux in the Burnett level are established. The model is verified via four benchmark tests. In addition, a new idea is introduced to recover the actual distribution function through the macroscopic quantities and their space derivatives. The recovery scheme works not only for discrete Boltzmann simulation but also for hydrodynamic ones, for example, those based on the Navier-Stokes or the Burnett equations.
Discretization of Continuous Time Discrete Scale Invariant Processes: Estimation and Spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rezakhah, Saeid; Maleki, Yasaman
2016-07-01
Imposing some flexible sampling scheme we provide some discretization of continuous time discrete scale invariant (DSI) processes which is a subsidiary discrete time DSI process. Then by introducing some simple random measure we provide a second continuous time DSI process which provides a proper approximation of the first one. This enables us to provide a bilateral relation between covariance functions of the subsidiary process and the new continuous time processes. The time varying spectral representation of such continuous time DSI process is characterized, and its spectrum is estimated. Also, a new method for estimation time dependent Hurst parameter of such processes is provided which gives a more accurate estimation. The performance of this estimation method is studied via simulation. Finally this method is applied to the real data of S & P500 and Dow Jones indices for some special periods.
Efficient discretization in finite difference method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rozos, Evangelos; Koussis, Antonis; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris
2015-04-01
Finite difference method (FDM) is a plausible and simple method for solving partial differential equations. The standard practice is to use an orthogonal discretization to form algebraic approximate formulations of the derivatives of the unknown function and a grid, much like raster maps, to represent the properties of the function domain. For example, for the solution of the groundwater flow equation, a raster map is required for the characterization of the discretization cells (flow cell, no-flow cell, boundary cell, etc.), and two raster maps are required for the hydraulic conductivity and the storage coefficient. Unfortunately, this simple approach to describe the topology comes along with the known disadvantages of the FDM (rough representation of the geometry of the boundaries, wasted computational resources in the unavoidable expansion of the grid refinement in all cells of the same column and row, etc.). To overcome these disadvantages, Hunt has suggested an alternative approach to describe the topology, the use of an array of neighbours. This limits the need for discretization nodes only for the representation of the boundary conditions and the flow domain. Furthermore, the geometry of the boundaries is described more accurately using a vector representation. Most importantly, graded meshes can be employed, which are capable of restricting grid refinement only in the areas of interest (e.g. regions where hydraulic head varies rapidly, locations of pumping wells, etc.). In this study, we test the Hunt approach against MODFLOW, a well established finite difference model, and the Finite Volume Method with Simplified Integration (FVMSI). The results of this comparison are examined and critically discussed.
Construction of Discrete Time Shadow Price
Rogala, Tomasz, E-mail: rogalatp@gmail.com; Stettner, Lukasz, E-mail: stettner@impan.pl
2015-12-15
In the paper expected utility from consumption over finite time horizon for discrete time markets with bid and ask prices and strictly concave utility function is considered. The notion of weak shadow price, i.e. an illiquid price, depending on the portfolio, under which the model without bid and ask price is equivalent to the model with bid and ask price is introduced. Existence and the form of weak shadow price is shown. Using weak shadow price usual (called in the paper strong) shadow price is then constructed.
Angular Distributions of Discrete Mesoscale Mapping Functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kroszczyński, Krzysztof
2015-08-01
The paper presents the results of analyses of numerical experiments concerning GPS signal propagation delays in the atmosphere and the discrete mapping functions defined on their basis. The delays were determined using data from the mesoscale non-hydrostatic weather model operated in the Centre of Applied Geomatics, Military University of Technology. A special attention was paid to investigating angular characteristics of GPS slant delays for low angles of elevation. The investigation proved that the temporal and spatial variability of the slant delays depends to a large extent on current weather conditions.
Discrete time modelization of human pilot behavior
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cavalli, D.; Soulatges, D.
1975-01-01
This modelization starts from the following hypotheses: pilot's behavior is a time discrete process, he can perform only one task at a time and his operating mode depends on the considered flight subphase. Pilot's behavior was observed using an electro oculometer and a simulator cockpit. A FORTRAN program has been elaborated using two strategies. The first one is a Markovian process in which the successive instrument readings are governed by a matrix of conditional probabilities. In the second one, strategy is an heuristic process and the concepts of mental load and performance are described. The results of the two aspects have been compared with simulation data.
Asynchronous discrete control of continuous processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaliski, M. E.; Johnson, T. L.
1984-07-01
The research during this second contract year continued to deal with the development of sound theoretical models for asynchronous systems. Two criteria served to shape the research pursued: the first, that the developed models extend and generalize previously developed research for synchronous discrete control; the second, that the models explicitly address the question of how to incorporate system transition times into themselves. The following sections of this report concisely delineate this year's work. Our original proposal for this research identified four general tasks of investigation: (1.1) Analysis of Qualitative Properties of Asynchronous Hybrid Systems; (1.2) Acceptance and Control for Asynchronous Hybrid Systems.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hall, David M.; Boboltz, David
2013-01-01
This report summarizes the activities of the Washington Correlator for 2012. The Washington Correlator provides up to 80 hours of attended processing per week plus up to 40 hours of unattended operation, primarily supporting Earth Orientation and astrometric observations. In 2012, the major programs supported include the IVS-R4, IVS-INT, APSG, and CRF observing sessions.
A Discrete Probability Function Method for the Equation of Radiative Transfer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sivathanu, Y. R.; Gore, J. P.
1993-01-01
A discrete probability function (DPF) method for the equation of radiative transfer is derived. The DPF is defined as the integral of the probability density function (PDF) over a discrete interval. The derivation allows the evaluation of the PDF of intensities leaving desired radiation paths including turbulence-radiation interactions without the use of computer intensive stochastic methods. The DPF method has a distinct advantage over conventional PDF methods since the creation of a partial differential equation from the equation of transfer is avoided. Further, convergence of all moments of intensity is guaranteed at the basic level of simulation unlike the stochastic method where the number of realizations for convergence of higher order moments increases rapidly. The DPF method is described for a representative path with approximately integral-length scale-sized spatial discretization. The results show good agreement with measurements in a propylene/air flame except for the effects of intermittency resulting from highly correlated realizations. The method can be extended to the treatment of spatial correlations as described in the Appendix. However, information regarding spatial correlations in turbulent flames is needed prior to the execution of this extension.
Discrete Pathophysiology is Uncommon in Patients with Nonspecific Arm Pain.
Kortlever, Joost T P; Janssen, Stein J; Molleman, Jeroen; Hageman, Michiel G J S; Ring, David
2016-06-01
Nonspecific symptoms are common in all areas of medicine. Patients and caregivers can be frustrated when an illness cannot be reduced to a discrete pathophysiological process that corresponds with the symptoms. We therefore asked the following questions: 1) Which demographic factors and psychological comorbidities are associated with change from an initial diagnosis of nonspecific arm pain to eventual identification of discrete pathophysiology that corresponds with symptoms? 2) What is the percentage of patients eventually diagnosed with discrete pathophysiology, what are those pathologies, and do they account for the symptoms? We evaluated 634 patients with an isolated diagnosis of nonspecific upper extremity pain to see if discrete pathophysiology was diagnosed on subsequent visits to the same hand surgeon, a different hand surgeon, or any physician within our health system for the same pain. There were too few patients with discrete pathophysiology at follow-up to address the primary study question. Definite discrete pathophysiology that corresponded with the symptoms was identified in subsequent evaluations by the index surgeon in one patient (0.16% of all patients) and cured with surgery (nodular fasciitis). Subsequent doctors identified possible discrete pathophysiology in one patient and speculative pathophysiology in four patients and the index surgeon identified possible discrete pathophysiology in four patients, but the five discrete diagnoses accounted for only a fraction of the symptoms. Nonspecific diagnoses are not harmful. Prospective randomized research is merited to determine if nonspecific, descriptive diagnoses are better for patients than specific diagnoses that imply pathophysiology in the absence of discrete verifiable pathophysiology.
Discrete quantum spectrum of black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lochan, Kinjalk; Chakraborty, Sumanta
2016-04-01
The quantum genesis of Hawking radiation is a long-standing puzzle in black hole physics. Semi-classically one can argue that the spectrum of radiation emitted by a black hole look very much sparse unlike what is expected from a thermal object. It was demonstrated through a simple quantum model that a quantum black hole will retain a discrete profile, at least in the weak energy regime. However, it was suggested that this discreteness might be an artifact of the simplicity of eigen-spectrum of the model considered. Different quantum theories can, in principle, give rise to different complicated spectra and make the radiation from black hole dense enough in transition lines, to make them look continuous in profile. We show that such a hope from a geometry-quantized black hole is not realized as long as large enough black holes are dubbed with a classical mass area relation in any gravity theory ranging from GR, Lanczos-Lovelock to f(R) gravity. We show that the smallest frequency of emission from black hole in any quantum description, is bounded from below, to be of the order of its inverse mass. That leaves the emission with only two possibilities. It can either be non-thermal, or it can be thermal only with the temperature being much larger than 1/M.
Discrete elements for 3D microfluidics.
Bhargava, Krisna C; Thompson, Bryant; Malmstadt, Noah
2014-10-21
Microfluidic systems are rapidly becoming commonplace tools for high-precision materials synthesis, biochemical sample preparation, and biophysical analysis. Typically, microfluidic systems are constructed in monolithic form by means of microfabrication and, increasingly, by additive techniques. These methods restrict the design and assembly of truly complex systems by placing unnecessary emphasis on complete functional integration of operational elements in a planar environment. Here, we present a solution based on discrete elements that liberates designers to build large-scale microfluidic systems in three dimensions that are modular, diverse, and predictable by simple network analysis techniques. We develop a sample library of standardized components and connectors manufactured using stereolithography. We predict and validate the flow characteristics of these individual components to design and construct a tunable concentration gradient generator with a scalable number of parallel outputs. We show that these systems are rapidly reconfigurable by constructing three variations of a device for generating monodisperse microdroplets in two distinct size regimes and in a high-throughput mode by simple replacement of emulsifier subcircuits. Finally, we demonstrate the capability for active process monitoring by constructing an optical sensing element for detecting water droplets in a fluorocarbon stream and quantifying their size and frequency. By moving away from large-scale integration toward standardized discrete elements, we demonstrate the potential to reduce the practice of designing and assembling complex 3D microfluidic circuits to a methodology comparable to that found in the electronics industry.
Observation of a Discrete Time Crystal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kyprianidis, A.; Zhang, J.; Hess, P.; Becker, P.; Lee, A.; Smith, J.; Pagano, G.; Potter, A.; Vishwanath, A.; Potirniche, I.-D.; Yao, N.; Monroe, C.
2017-04-01
Spontaneous symmetry breaking is a key concept in the understanding of many physical phenomena, such as the formation of spatial crystals and the phase transition from paramagnetism to magnetic order. While the breaking of time translation symmetry is forbidden in equilibrium systems, it is possible for non-equilibrium Floquet driven systems to break a discrete time translation symmetry, and we present clear signatures of the formation of such a discrete time crystal. We apply a time periodic Hamiltonian to a chain of interacting spins under many-body localization conditions and observe the system's sub-harmonic response at twice that period. This spontaneous doubling of the periodicity is robust to external perturbations. We represent the spins with a linear chain of trapped 171Yb+ ions in an rf Paul trap, generate spin-spin interactions through spin-dependent optical dipole forces, and measure each spin using state-dependent fluorescence. This work is supported by the ARO Atomic Physics Program, the AFOSR MURI on Quantum Measurement and Verification, and the NSF Physics Frontier Center at JQI.
Discrete distributed strain sensing of intelligent structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, Mark S.; Crawley, Edward F.
1992-01-01
Techniques are developed for the design of discrete highly distributed sensor systems for use in intelligent structures. First the functional requirements for such a system are presented. Discrete spatially averaging strain sensors are then identified as satisfying the functional requirements. A variety of spatial weightings for spatially averaging sensors are examined, and their wave number characteristics are determined. Preferable spatial weightings are identified. Several numerical integration rules used to integrate such sensors in order to determine the global deflection of the structure are discussed. A numerical simulation is conducted using point and rectangular sensors mounted on a cantilevered beam under static loading. Gage factor and sensor position uncertainties are incorporated to assess the absolute error and standard deviation of the error in the estimated tip displacement found by numerically integrating the sensor outputs. An experiment is carried out using a statically loaded cantilevered beam with five point sensors. It is found that in most cases the actual experimental error is within one standard deviation of the absolute error as found in the numerical simulation.
Emotional aging: a discrete emotions perspective.
Kunzmann, Ute; Kappes, Cathleen; Wrosch, Carsten
2014-01-01
Perhaps the most important single finding in the field of emotional aging has been that the overall quality of affective experience steadily improves during adulthood and can be maintained into old age. Recent lifespan developmental theories have provided motivation- and experience-based explanations for this phenomenon. These theories suggest that, as individuals grow older, they become increasingly motivated and able to regulate their emotions, which could result in reduced negativity and enhanced positivity. The objective of this paper is to expand existing theories and empirical research on emotional aging by presenting a discrete emotions perspective. To illustrate the usefulness of this approach, we focus on a discussion of the literature examining age differences in anger and sadness. These two negative emotions have typically been subsumed under the singular concept of negative affect. From a discrete emotions perspective, however, they are highly distinct and show multidirectional age differences. We propose that such contrasting age differences in specific negative emotions have important implications for our understanding of long-term patterns of affective well-being across the adult lifespan.
A Discrete Model for Color Naming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Menegaz, G.; Le Troter, A.; Sequeira, J.; Boi, J. M.
2006-12-01
The ability to associate labels to colors is very natural for human beings. Though, this apparently simple task hides very complex and still unsolved problems, spreading over many different disciplines ranging from neurophysiology to psychology and imaging. In this paper, we propose a discrete model for computational color categorization and naming. Starting from the 424 color specimens of the OSA-UCS set, we propose a fuzzy partitioning of the color space. Each of the 11 basic color categories identified by Berlin and Kay is modeled as a fuzzy set whose membership function is implicitly defined by fitting the model to the results of an ad hoc psychophysical experiment (Experiment 1). Each OSA-UCS sample is represented by a feature vector whose components are the memberships to the different categories. The discrete model consists of a three-dimensional Delaunay triangulation of the CIELAB color space which associates each OSA-UCS sample to a vertex of a 3D tetrahedron. Linear interpolation is used to estimate the membership values of any other point in the color space. Model validation is performed both directly, through the comparison of the predicted membership values to the subjective counterparts, as evaluated via another psychophysical test (Experiment 2), and indirectly, through the investigation of its exploitability for image segmentation. The model has proved to be successful in both cases, providing an estimation of the membership values in good agreement with the subjective measures as well as a semantically meaningful color-based segmentation map.
Discretization analysis of bifurcation based nonlinear amplifiers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feldkord, Sven; Reit, Marco; Mathis, Wolfgang
2017-09-01
Recently, for modeling biological amplification processes, nonlinear amplifiers based on the supercritical Andronov-Hopf bifurcation have been widely analyzed analytically. For technical realizations, digital systems have become the most relevant systems in signal processing applications. The underlying continuous-time systems are transferred to the discrete-time domain using numerical integration methods. Within this contribution, effects on the qualitative behavior of the Andronov-Hopf bifurcation based systems concerning numerical integration methods are analyzed. It is shown exemplarily that explicit Runge-Kutta methods transform the truncated normalform equation of the Andronov-Hopf bifurcation into the normalform equation of the Neimark-Sacker bifurcation. Dependent on the order of the integration method, higher order terms are added during this transformation.A rescaled normalform equation of the Neimark-Sacker bifurcation is introduced that allows a parametric design of a discrete-time system which corresponds to the rescaled Andronov-Hopf system. This system approximates the characteristics of the rescaled Hopf-type amplifier for a large range of parameters. The natural frequency and the peak amplitude are preserved for every set of parameters. The Neimark-Sacker bifurcation based systems avoid large computational effort that would be caused by applying higher order integration methods to the continuous-time normalform equations.
Dynamical Localization for Discrete Anderson Dirac Operators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prado, Roberto A.; de Oliveira, César R.; Carvalho, Silas L.
2017-04-01
We establish dynamical localization for random Dirac operators on the d-dimensional lattice, with d\\in { 1, 2, 3} , in the three usual regimes: large disorder, band edge and 1D. These operators are discrete versions of the continuous Dirac operators and consist in the sum of a discrete free Dirac operator with a random potential. The potential is a diagonal matrix formed by different scalar potentials, which are sequences of independent and identically distributed random variables according to an absolutely continuous probability measure with bounded density and of compact support. We prove the exponential decay of fractional moments of the Green function for such models in each of the above regimes, i.e., (j) throughout the spectrum at larger disorder, (jj) for energies near the band edges at arbitrary disorder and (jjj) in dimension one, for all energies in the spectrum and arbitrary disorder. Dynamical localization in theses regimes follows from the fractional moments method. The result in the one-dimensional regime contrast with one that was previously obtained for 1D Dirac model with Bernoulli potential.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sur, Chiranjib; Shukla, Anupam
2018-03-01
Bacteria Foraging Optimisation Algorithm is a collective behaviour-based meta-heuristics searching depending on the social influence of the bacteria co-agents in the search space of the problem. The algorithm faces tremendous hindrance in terms of its application for discrete problems and graph-based problems due to biased mathematical modelling and dynamic structure of the algorithm. This had been the key factor to revive and introduce the discrete form called Discrete Bacteria Foraging Optimisation (DBFO) Algorithm for discrete problems which exceeds the number of continuous domain problems represented by mathematical and numerical equations in real life. In this work, we have mainly simulated a graph-based road multi-objective optimisation problem and have discussed the prospect of its utilisation in other similar optimisation problems and graph-based problems. The various solution representations that can be handled by this DBFO has also been discussed. The implications and dynamics of the various parameters used in the DBFO are illustrated from the point view of the problems and has been a combination of both exploration and exploitation. The result of DBFO has been compared with Ant Colony Optimisation and Intelligent Water Drops Algorithms. Important features of DBFO are that the bacteria agents do not depend on the local heuristic information but estimates new exploration schemes depending upon the previous experience and covered path analysis. This makes the algorithm better in combination generation for graph-based problems and combination generation for NP hard problems.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mishchenko, Michael I.; Dlugach, Janna M.; Yurkin, Maxim A.; Bi, Lei; Cairns, Brian; Liu, Li; Panetta, R. Lee; Travis, Larry D.; Yang, Ping; Zakharova, Nadezhda T.
2016-01-01
A discrete random medium is an object in the form of a finite volume of a vacuum or a homogeneous material medium filled with quasi-randomly and quasi-uniformly distributed discrete macroscopic impurities called small particles. Such objects are ubiquitous in natural and artificial environments. They are often characterized by analyzing theoretically the results of laboratory, in situ, or remote-sensing measurements of the scattering of light and other electromagnetic radiation. Electromagnetic scattering and absorption by particles can also affect the energy budget of a discrete random medium and hence various ambient physical and chemical processes. In either case electromagnetic scattering must be modeled in terms of appropriate optical observables, i.e., quadratic or bilinear forms in the field that quantify the reading of a relevant optical instrument or the electromagnetic energy budget. It is generally believed that time-harmonic Maxwell's equations can accurately describe elastic electromagnetic scattering by macroscopic particulate media that change in time much more slowly than the incident electromagnetic field. However, direct solutions of these equations for discrete random media had been impracticable until quite recently. This has led to a widespread use of various phenomenological approaches in situations when their very applicability can be questioned. Recently, however, a new branch of physical optics has emerged wherein electromagnetic scattering by discrete and discretely heterogeneous random media is modeled directly by using analytical or numerically exact computer solutions of the Maxwell equations. Therefore, the main objective of this Report is to formulate the general theoretical framework of electromagnetic scattering by discrete random media rooted in the Maxwell- Lorentz electromagnetics and discuss its immediate analytical and numerical consequences. Starting from the microscopic Maxwell-Lorentz equations, we trace the development of
Mishchenko, Michael I; Dlugach, Janna M; Yurkin, Maxim A; Bi, Lei; Cairns, Brian; Liu, Li; Panetta, R Lee; Travis, Larry D; Yang, Ping; Zakharova, Nadezhda T
2016-05-16
A discrete random medium is an object in the form of a finite volume of a vacuum or a homogeneous material medium filled with quasi-randomly and quasi-uniformly distributed discrete macroscopic impurities called small particles. Such objects are ubiquitous in natural and artificial environments. They are often characterized by analyzing theoretically the results of laboratory, in situ , or remote-sensing measurements of the scattering of light and other electromagnetic radiation. Electromagnetic scattering and absorption by particles can also affect the energy budget of a discrete random medium and hence various ambient physical and chemical processes. In either case electromagnetic scattering must be modeled in terms of appropriate optical observables, i.e., quadratic or bilinear forms in the field that quantify the reading of a relevant optical instrument or the electromagnetic energy budget. It is generally believed that time-harmonic Maxwell's equations can accurately describe elastic electromagnetic scattering by macroscopic particulate media that change in time much more slowly than the incident electromagnetic field. However, direct solutions of these equations for discrete random media had been impracticable until quite recently. This has led to a widespread use of various phenomenological approaches in situations when their very applicability can be questioned. Recently, however, a new branch of physical optics has emerged wherein electromagnetic scattering by discrete and discretely heterogeneous random media is modeled directly by using analytical or numerically exact computer solutions of the Maxwell equations. Therefore, the main objective of this Report is to formulate the general theoretical framework of electromagnetic scattering by discrete random media rooted in the Maxwell-Lorentz electromagnetics and discuss its immediate analytical and numerical consequences. Starting from the microscopic Maxwell-Lorentz equations, we trace the development of
Mishchenko, Michael I.; Dlugach, Janna M.; Yurkin, Maxim A.; Bi, Lei; Cairns, Brian; Liu, Li; Panetta, R. Lee; Travis, Larry D.; Yang, Ping; Zakharova, Nadezhda T.
2018-01-01
A discrete random medium is an object in the form of a finite volume of a vacuum or a homogeneous material medium filled with quasi-randomly and quasi-uniformly distributed discrete macroscopic impurities called small particles. Such objects are ubiquitous in natural and artificial environments. They are often characterized by analyzing theoretically the results of laboratory, in situ, or remote-sensing measurements of the scattering of light and other electromagnetic radiation. Electromagnetic scattering and absorption by particles can also affect the energy budget of a discrete random medium and hence various ambient physical and chemical processes. In either case electromagnetic scattering must be modeled in terms of appropriate optical observables, i.e., quadratic or bilinear forms in the field that quantify the reading of a relevant optical instrument or the electromagnetic energy budget. It is generally believed that time-harmonic Maxwell’s equations can accurately describe elastic electromagnetic scattering by macroscopic particulate media that change in time much more slowly than the incident electromagnetic field. However, direct solutions of these equations for discrete random media had been impracticable until quite recently. This has led to a widespread use of various phenomenological approaches in situations when their very applicability can be questioned. Recently, however, a new branch of physical optics has emerged wherein electromagnetic scattering by discrete and discretely heterogeneous random media is modeled directly by using analytical or numerically exact computer solutions of the Maxwell equations. Therefore, the main objective of this Report is to formulate the general theoretical framework of electromagnetic scattering by discrete random media rooted in the Maxwell–Lorentz electromagnetics and discuss its immediate analytical and numerical consequences. Starting from the microscopic Maxwell–Lorentz equations, we trace the development
Seok, Junhee; Seon Kang, Yeong
2015-01-01
Mutual information, a general measure of the relatedness between two random variables, has been actively used in the analysis of biomedical data. The mutual information between two discrete variables is conventionally calculated by their joint probabilities estimated from the frequency of observed samples in each combination of variable categories. However, this conventional approach is no longer efficient for discrete variables with many categories, which can be easily found in large-scale biomedical data such as diagnosis codes, drug compounds, and genotypes. Here, we propose a method to provide stable estimations for the mutual information between discrete variables with many categories. Simulation studies showed that the proposed method reduced the estimation errors by 45 folds and improved the correlation coefficients with true values by 99 folds, compared with the conventional calculation of mutual information. The proposed method was also demonstrated through a case study for diagnostic data in electronic health records. This method is expected to be useful in the analysis of various biomedical data with discrete variables. PMID:26046461
K. R. Sherrill; M. A. Lefsky; J. B. Bradford; M. G. Ryan
2008-01-01
This study evaluates the relative ability of simple light detection and ranging (lidar) indices (i.e., mean and maximum heights) and statistically derived canonical correlation analysis (CCA) variables attained from discrete-return lidar to estimate forest structure and forest biomass variables for three temperate subalpine forest sites. Both lidar and CCA explanatory...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lench, Heather C.; Flores, Sarah A.; Bench, Shane W.
2011-01-01
Our purpose in the present meta-analysis was to examine the extent to which discrete emotions elicit changes in cognition, judgment, experience, behavior, and physiology; whether these changes are correlated as would be expected if emotions organize responses across these systems; and which factors moderate the magnitude of these effects. Studies…
K.R. Sherrill; M.A. Lefsky; J.B. Bradford; M.G. Ryan
2008-01-01
This study evaluates the relative ability of simple light detection and ranging (lidar) indices (i.e., mean and maximum heights) and statistically derived canonical correlation analysis (CCA) variables attained from discrete-return lidar to estimate forest structure and forest biomass variables for three temperate subalpine forest sites. Both lidar and CCA explanatory...
Haslinger, Robert; Pipa, Gordon; Brown, Emery
2010-01-01
One approach for understanding the encoding of information by spike trains is to fit statistical models and then test their goodness of fit. The time rescaling theorem provides a goodness of fit test consistent with the point process nature of spike trains. The interspike intervals (ISIs) are rescaled (as a function of the model’s spike probability) to be independent and exponentially distributed if the model is accurate. A Kolmogorov Smirnov (KS) test between the rescaled ISIs and the exponential distribution is then used to check goodness of fit. This rescaling relies upon assumptions of continuously defined time and instantaneous events. However spikes have finite width and statistical models of spike trains almost always discretize time into bins. Here we demonstrate that finite temporal resolution of discrete time models prevents their rescaled ISIs from being exponentially distributed. Poor goodness of fit may be erroneously indicated even if the model is exactly correct. We present two adaptations of the time rescaling theorem to discrete time models. In the first we propose that instead of assuming the rescaled times to be exponential, the reference distribution be estimated through direct simulation by the fitted model. In the second, we prove a discrete time version of the time rescaling theorem which analytically corrects for the effects of finite resolution. This allows us to define a rescaled time which is exponentially distributed, even at arbitrary temporal discretizations. We demonstrate the efficacy of both techniques by fitting Generalized Linear Models (GLMs) to both simulated spike trains and spike trains recorded experimentally in monkey V1 cortex. Both techniques give nearly identical results, reducing the false positive rate of the KS test and greatly increasing the reliability of model evaluation based upon the time rescaling theorem. PMID:20608868
Haslinger, Robert; Pipa, Gordon; Brown, Emery
2010-10-01
One approach for understanding the encoding of information by spike trains is to fit statistical models and then test their goodness of fit. The time-rescaling theorem provides a goodness-of-fit test consistent with the point process nature of spike trains. The interspike intervals (ISIs) are rescaled (as a function of the model's spike probability) to be independent and exponentially distributed if the model is accurate. A Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test between the rescaled ISIs and the exponential distribution is then used to check goodness of fit. This rescaling relies on assumptions of continuously defined time and instantaneous events. However, spikes have finite width, and statistical models of spike trains almost always discretize time into bins. Here we demonstrate that finite temporal resolution of discrete time models prevents their rescaled ISIs from being exponentially distributed. Poor goodness of fit may be erroneously indicated even if the model is exactly correct. We present two adaptations of the time-rescaling theorem to discrete time models. In the first we propose that instead of assuming the rescaled times to be exponential, the reference distribution be estimated through direct simulation by the fitted model. In the second, we prove a discrete time version of the time-rescaling theorem that analytically corrects for the effects of finite resolution. This allows us to define a rescaled time that is exponentially distributed, even at arbitrary temporal discretizations. We demonstrate the efficacy of both techniques by fitting generalized linear models to both simulated spike trains and spike trains recorded experimentally in monkey V1 cortex. Both techniques give nearly identical results, reducing the false-positive rate of the KS test and greatly increasing the reliability of model evaluation based on the time-rescaling theorem.
Deng, Shengming; Wu, Zhifang; Wu, Yiwei; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jihui; Dai, Na
2017-01-01
The objective of this meta-analysis is to explore the correlation between the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) on diffusion-weighted MR and the standard uptake value (SUV) of 18F-FDG on PET/CT in patients with cancer. Databases such as PubMed (MEDLINE included), EMBASE, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Review were searched for relevant original articles that explored the correlation between SUV and ADC in English. After applying Fisher's r-to-z transformation, correlation coefficient (r) values were extracted from each study and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses based on tumor type were performed to investigate the potential heterogeneity. Forty-nine studies were eligible for the meta-analysis, comprising 1927 patients. Pooled r for all studies was −0.35 (95% CI: −0.42–0.28) and exhibited a notable heterogeneity (I2 = 78.4%; P < 0.01). In terms of the cancer type subgroup analysis, combined correlation coefficients of ADC/SUV range from −0.12 (lymphoma, n = 5) to −0.59 (pancreatic cancer, n = 2). We concluded that there is an average negative correlation between ADC and SUV in patients with cancer. Higher correlations were found in the brain tumor, cervix carcinoma, and pancreas cancer. However, a larger, prospective study is warranted to validate these findings in different cancer types. PMID:29097924
Deng, Shengming; Wu, Zhifang; Wu, Yiwei; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jihui; Dai, Na; Zhang, Bin; Yan, Jianhua
2017-01-01
The objective of this meta-analysis is to explore the correlation between the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) on diffusion-weighted MR and the standard uptake value (SUV) of 18 F-FDG on PET/CT in patients with cancer. Databases such as PubMed (MEDLINE included), EMBASE, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Review were searched for relevant original articles that explored the correlation between SUV and ADC in English. After applying Fisher's r -to- z transformation, correlation coefficient ( r ) values were extracted from each study and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses based on tumor type were performed to investigate the potential heterogeneity. Forty-nine studies were eligible for the meta-analysis, comprising 1927 patients. Pooled r for all studies was -0.35 (95% CI: -0.42-0.28) and exhibited a notable heterogeneity ( I 2 = 78.4%; P < 0.01). In terms of the cancer type subgroup analysis, combined correlation coefficients of ADC/SUV range from -0.12 (lymphoma, n = 5) to -0.59 (pancreatic cancer, n = 2). We concluded that there is an average negative correlation between ADC and SUV in patients with cancer. Higher correlations were found in the brain tumor, cervix carcinoma, and pancreas cancer. However, a larger, prospective study is warranted to validate these findings in different cancer types.
Search Parameter Optimization for Discrete, Bayesian, and Continuous Search Algorithms
2017-09-01
NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS SEARCH PARAMETER OPTIMIZATION FOR DISCRETE , BAYESIAN, AND CONTINUOUS SEARCH ALGORITHMS by...to 09-22-2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SEARCH PARAMETER OPTIMIZATION FOR DISCRETE , BAYESIAN, AND CON- TINUOUS SEARCH ALGORITHMS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...simple search and rescue acts to prosecuting aerial/surface/submersible targets on mission. This research looks at varying the known discrete and
Network Science Research Laboratory (NSRL) Discrete Event Toolkit
2016-01-01
ARL-TR-7579 ● JAN 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Network Science Research Laboratory (NSRL) Discrete Event Toolkit by...Laboratory (NSRL) Discrete Event Toolkit by Theron Trout and Andrew J Toth Computational and Information Sciences Directorate, ARL...Research Laboratory (NSRL) Discrete Event Toolkit 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Theron Trout
A Discrete Scatterer Technique for Evaluating Electromagnetic Scattering from Trees
2016-09-01
ARL-TR-7799 ● SEP 2016 US Army Research Laboratory A Discrete Scatterer Technique for Evaluating Electromagnetic Scattering from...longer needed. Do not return it to the originator. ARL-TR-7799 ● SEP 2016 US Army Research Laboratory A Discrete Scatterer Technique...DD-MM-YYYY) September 2016 2. REPORT TYPE Technical Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 2015–2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Discrete Scatterer
Reflectionless Discrete Schrödinger Operators are Spectrally Atypical
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
VandenBoom, Tom
2017-12-01
We prove that, if an isospectral torus contains a discrete Schrödinger operator with nonconstant potential, the shift dynamics on that torus cannot be minimal. Consequently, we specify a generic sense in which finite unions of nondegenerate closed intervals having capacity one are not the spectrum of any reflectionless discrete Schrödinger operator. We also show that the only reflectionless discrete Schrödinger operators having zero, one, or two spectral gaps are periodic.
Mapping of uncertainty relations between continuous and discrete time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiuchiú, Davide; Pigolotti, Simone
2018-03-01
Lower bounds on fluctuations of thermodynamic currents depend on the nature of time, discrete or continuous. To understand the physical reason, we compare current fluctuations in discrete-time Markov chains and continuous-time master equations. We prove that current fluctuations in the master equations are always more likely, due to random timings of transitions. This comparison leads to a mapping of the moments of a current between discrete and continuous time. We exploit this mapping to obtain uncertainty bounds. Our results reduce the quests for uncertainty bounds in discrete and continuous time to a single problem.
An integrable semi-discrete Degasperis-Procesi equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Bao-Feng; Maruno, Ken-ichi; Ohta, Yasuhiro
2017-06-01
Based on our previous work on the Degasperis-Procesi equation (Feng et al J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 46 045205) and the integrable semi-discrete analogue of its short wave limit (Feng et al J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 48 135203), we derive an integrable semi-discrete Degasperis-Procesi equation by Hirota’s bilinear method. Furthermore, N-soliton solution to the semi-discrete Degasperis-Procesi equation is constructed. It is shown that both the proposed semi-discrete Degasperis-Procesi equation, and its N-soliton solution converge to ones of the original Degasperis-Procesi equation in the continuum limit.
Mapping of uncertainty relations between continuous and discrete time.
Chiuchiù, Davide; Pigolotti, Simone
2018-03-01
Lower bounds on fluctuations of thermodynamic currents depend on the nature of time, discrete or continuous. To understand the physical reason, we compare current fluctuations in discrete-time Markov chains and continuous-time master equations. We prove that current fluctuations in the master equations are always more likely, due to random timings of transitions. This comparison leads to a mapping of the moments of a current between discrete and continuous time. We exploit this mapping to obtain uncertainty bounds. Our results reduce the quests for uncertainty bounds in discrete and continuous time to a single problem.
Spacetime can be neither discrete nor continuous
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corda, Christian
2018-04-01
We show that our recent Bohr-like approach to black hole (BH) quantum physics implies that spacetime quantization could be energy-dependent. Thus, in a certain sense, spacetime can be neither discrete nor continuous. Our approach also permits to show that the “volume quantum” of the Schwarzschild spacetime increases with increasing energy during BH evaporation and arrives at a maximum value when the Planck scale is reached and the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) prevents the total BH evaporation. Remarkably, this result does not depend on the BH original mass. The interesting consequence is that the behavior of BH evaporation should be the same for all Schwarzschild BHs when the Planck scale is approached.
Zonostrophic instability driven by discrete particle noise
St-Onge, D. A.; Krommes, J. A.
2017-04-01
The consequences of discrete particle noise for a system possessing a possibly unstable collective mode are discussed. It is argued that a zonostrophic instability (of homogeneous turbulence to the formation of zonal flows) occurs just below the threshold for linear instability. The scenario provides a new interpretation of the random forcing that is ubiquitously invoked in stochastic models such as the second-order cumulant expansion or stochastic structural instability theory; neither intrinsic turbulence nor coupling to extrinsic turbulence is required. A representative calculation of the zonostrophic neutral curve is made for a simple two-field model of toroidal ion-temperature-gradient-driven modes. To themore » extent that the damping of zonal flows is controlled by the ion-ion collision rate, the point of zonostrophic instability is independent of that rate. Published by AIP Publishing.« less
Surface Design Based on Discrete Conformal Transformations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duque, Carlos; Santangelo, Christian; Vouga, Etienne
Conformal transformations are angle-preserving maps from one domain to another. Although angles are preserved, the lengths between arbitrary points are not generally conserved. As a consequence there is always a given amount of distortion associated to any conformal map. Different uses of such transformations can be found in various fields, but have been used by us to program non-uniformly swellable gel sheets to buckle into prescribed three dimensional shapes. In this work we apply circle packings as a kind of discrete conformal map in order to find conformal maps from the sphere to the plane that can be used as nearly uniform swelling patterns to program non-Euclidean sheets to buckle into spheres. We explore the possibility of tuning the area distortion to fit the experimental range of minimum and maximum swelling by modifying the boundary of the planar domain through the introduction of different cutting schemes.
Spatial effects in discrete generation population models.
Carrillo, C; Fife, P
2005-02-01
A framework is developed for constructing a large class of discrete generation, continuous space models of evolving single species populations and finding their bifurcating patterned spatial distributions. Our models involve, in separate stages, the spatial redistribution (through movement laws) and local regulation of the population; and the fundamental properties of these events in a homogeneous environment are found. Emphasis is placed on the interaction of migrating individuals with the existing population through conspecific attraction (or repulsion), as well as on random dispersion. The nature of the competition of these two effects in a linearized scenario is clarified. The bifurcation of stationary spatially patterned population distributions is studied, with special attention given to the role played by that competition.
Discrete Fourier transforms of nonuniformly spaced data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Swan, P. R.
1982-01-01
Time series or spatial series of measurements taken with nonuniform spacings have failed to yield fully to analysis using the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). This is due to the fact that the formal DFT is the convolution of the transform of the signal with the transform of the nonuniform spacings. Two original methods are presented for deconvolving such transforms for signals containing significant noise. The first method solves a set of linear equations relating the observed data to values defined at uniform grid points, and then obtains the desired transform as the DFT of the uniform interpolates. The second method solves a set of linear equations relating the real and imaginary components of the formal DFT directly to those of the desired transform. The results of numerical experiments with noisy data are presented in order to demonstrate the capabilities and limitations of the methods.
Optimal estimation for discrete time jump processes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vaca, M. V.; Tretter, S. A.
1977-01-01
Optimum estimates of nonobservable random variables or random processes which influence the rate functions of a discrete time jump process (DTJP) are obtained. The approach is based on the a posteriori probability of a nonobservable event expressed in terms of the a priori probability of that event and of the sample function probability of the DTJP. A general representation for optimum estimates and recursive equations for minimum mean squared error (MMSE) estimates are obtained. MMSE estimates are nonlinear functions of the observations. The problem of estimating the rate of a DTJP when the rate is a random variable with a probability density function of the form cx super K (l-x) super m and show that the MMSE estimates are linear in this case. This class of density functions explains why there are insignificant differences between optimum unconstrained and linear MMSE estimates in a variety of problems.
Optimal estimation for discrete time jump processes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vaca, M. V.; Tretter, S. A.
1978-01-01
Optimum estimates of nonobservable random variables or random processes which influence the rate functions of a discrete time jump process (DTJP) are derived. The approach used is based on the a posteriori probability of a nonobservable event expressed in terms of the a priori probability of that event and of the sample function probability of the DTJP. Thus a general representation is obtained for optimum estimates, and recursive equations are derived for minimum mean-squared error (MMSE) estimates. In general, MMSE estimates are nonlinear functions of the observations. The problem is considered of estimating the rate of a DTJP when the rate is a random variable with a beta probability density function and the jump amplitudes are binomially distributed. It is shown that the MMSE estimates are linear. The class of beta density functions is rather rich and explains why there are insignificant differences between optimum unconstrained and linear MMSE estimates in a variety of problems.
A discrete decentralized variable structure robotic controller
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tumeh, Zuheir S.
1989-01-01
A decentralized trajectory controller for robotic manipulators is designed and tested using a multiprocessor architecture and a PUMA 560 robot arm. The controller is made up of a nominal model-based component and a correction component based on a variable structure suction control approach. The second control component is designed using bounds on the difference between the used and actual values of the model parameters. Since the continuous manipulator system is digitally controlled along a trajectory, a discretized equivalent model of the manipulator is used to derive the controller. The motivation for decentralized control is that the derived algorithms can be executed in parallel using a distributed, relatively inexpensive, architecture where each joint is assigned a microprocessor. Nonlinear interaction and coupling between joints is treated as a disturbance torque that is estimated and compensated for.
Zonostrophic instability driven by discrete particle noise
St-Onge, D. A.; Krommes, J. A.
The consequences of discrete particle noise for a system possessing a possibly unstable collective mode are discussed. It is argued that a zonostrophic instability (of homogeneous turbulence to the formation of zonal flows) occurs just below the threshold for linear instability. The scenario provides a new interpretation of the random forcing that is ubiquitously invoked in stochastic models such as the second-order cumulant expansion or stochastic structural instability theory; neither intrinsic turbulence nor coupling to extrinsic turbulence is required. A representative calculation of the zonostrophic neutral curve is made for a simple two-field model of toroidal ion-temperature-gradient-driven modes. To themore » extent that the damping of zonal flows is controlled by the ion-ion collision rate, the point of zonostrophic instability is independent of that rate. Published by AIP Publishing.« less
The structure of random discrete spacetime
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brightwell, Graham; Gregory, Ruth
1990-01-01
The usual picture of spacetime consists of a continuous manifold, together with a metric of Lorentzian signature which imposes a causal structure on the spacetime. A model, first suggested by Bombelli et al., is considered in which spacetime consists of a discrete set of points taken at random from a manifold, with only the causal structure on this set remaining. This structure constitutes a partially ordered set (or poset). Working from the poset alone, it is shown how to construct a metric on the space which closely approximates the metric on the original spacetime manifold, how to define the effective dimension of the spacetime, and how such quantities may depend on the scale of measurement. Possible desirable features of the model are discussed.
R parity violation from discrete R symmetries
Chen, Mu-Chun; Ratz, Michael; Takhistov, Volodymyr
2014-12-15
We consider supersymmetric extensions of the standard model in which the usual R or matter parity gets replaced by another R or non–R discrete symmetry that explains the observed longevity of the nucleon and solves the µ problem of MSSM. In order to identify suitable symmetries, we develop a novel method of deriving the maximal Z (R) N symmetry that satisfies a given set of constraints. We identify R parity violating (RPV) and conserving models that are consistent with precision gauge unification and also comment on their compatibility with a unified gauge symmetry such as the Pati–Salam group. Finally, wemore » provide a counter– example to the statement found in the recent literature that the lepton number violating RPV scenarios must have µ term and the bilinear κ L Hu operator of comparable magnitude.« less
Coherent virtual absorption for discretized light
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Longhi, S.
2018-05-01
Coherent virtual absorption (CVA) is a recently-introduced phenomenon for which exponentially growing waves incident onto a conservative optical medium are neither reflected nor transmitted, at least transiently. CVA has been associated to complex zeros of the scattering matrix and can be regarded as the time reversal of the decay process of a quasi-mode sustained by the optical medium. Here we consider CVA for discretized light transport in coupled resonator optical waveguides or waveguide arrays and show that a distinct kind of CVA, which is not related to complex zero excitation of quasi-modes, can be observed. This result suggests that scattering matrix analysis can not fully capture CVA phenomena.
Asynchronous discrete event schemes for PDEs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stone, D.; Geiger, S.; Lord, G. J.
2017-08-01
A new class of asynchronous discrete-event simulation schemes for advection-diffusion-reaction equations is introduced, based on the principle of allowing quanta of mass to pass through faces of a (regular, structured) Cartesian finite volume grid. The timescales of these events are linked to the flux on the face. The resulting schemes are self-adaptive, and local in both time and space. Experiments are performed on realistic physical systems related to porous media flow applications, including a large 3D advection diffusion equation and advection diffusion reaction systems. The results are compared to highly accurate reference solutions where the temporal evolution is computed with exponential integrator schemes using the same finite volume discretisation. This allows a reliable estimation of the solution error. Our results indicate a first order convergence of the error as a control parameter is decreased, and we outline a framework for analysis.
Parallel discrete event simulation using shared memory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reed, Daniel A.; Malony, Allen D.; Mccredie, Bradley D.
1988-01-01
With traditional event-list techniques, evaluating a detailed discrete-event simulation-model can often require hours or even days of computation time. By eliminating the event list and maintaining only sufficient synchronization to ensure causality, parallel simulation can potentially provide speedups that are linear in the numbers of processors. A set of shared-memory experiments, using the Chandy-Misra distributed-simulation algorithm, to simulate networks of queues is presented. Parameters of the study include queueing network topology and routing probabilities, number of processors, and assignment of network nodes to processors. These experiments show that Chandy-Misra distributed simulation is a questionable alternative to sequential-simulation of most queueing network models.
Covalent Polymers Containing Discrete Heterocyclic Anion Receptors
Rambo, Brett M.; Silver, Eric S.; Bielawski, Christopher W.; Sessler, Jonathan L.
2010-01-01
This chapter covers recent advances in the development of polymeric materials containing discrete heterocyclic anion receptors, and focuses on advances in anion binding and chemosensor chemistry. The development of polymers specific for anionic species is a relatively new and flourishing area of materials chemistry. The incorporation of heterocyclic receptors capable of complexing anions through non-covalent interactions (e.g., hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions) provides a route to not only sensitive but also selective polymer materials. Furthermore, these systems have been utilized in the development of polymers capable of extracting anionic species from aqueous environments. These latter materials may lead to advances in water purification and treatment of diseases resulting from surplus ions. PMID:20871791
Cosmology of biased discrete symmetry breaking
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gelmini, Graciela B.; Gleiser, Marcelo; Kolb, Edward W.
1988-01-01
The cosmological consequences of spontaneous breaking of an approximate discrete symmetry are studied. The breaking leads to formation of proto-domains of false and true vacuum separated by domain walls of thickness determined by the mass scale of the model. The cosmological evolution of the walls is extremely sensitive to the magnitude of the biasing; several scenarios are possible, depending on the interplay between the surface tension on the walls and the volume pressure from the biasing. Walls may disappear almost immediately after they form, or may live long enough to dominate the energy density of the Universe and cause power-law inflation. Limits are obtained on the biasing that characterizes each possible scenario.
Uncovering underlying processes of semantic priming by correlating item-level effects.
Heyman, Tom; Hutchison, Keith A; Storms, Gert
2016-04-01
The current study examines the underlying processes of semantic priming using the largest priming database available (i.e., Semantic Priming Project, Hutchison et al. Behavior Research Methods, 45(4), 1099-1114, 2013). Specifically, it compares priming effects in two tasks: lexical decision and pronunciation. Task similarities were assessed at two different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) (i.e., 200 and 1,200 ms) and for both primary and other associates. To evaluate how consistent priming is across these two tasks, item-level priming effects obtained in each task were correlated for each condition separately. The results revealed significant correlations at the short SOA for both primary and other associates. The correlations at the long SOA were significantly smaller and only reached significance when z-transformed response times were used. Furthermore, this pattern remained essentially the same when only asymmetric forward associates (e.g., panda-bear) were considered, suggesting that the cross-task stability at the short SOA was not merely caused by retrospective processes such as semantic matching. Instead, these findings provide evidence for a rapidly operating, item-based, relational characteristic such as spreading activation.
What is integrability of discrete variational systems?
Boll, Raphael; Petrera, Matteo; Suris, Yuri B.
2014-01-01
We propose a notion of a pluri-Lagrangian problem, which should be understood as an analogue of multi-dimensional consistency for variational systems. This is a development along the line of research of discrete integrable Lagrangian systems initiated in 2009 by Lobb and Nijhoff, however, having its more remote roots in the theory of pluriharmonic functions, in the Z-invariant models of statistical mechanics and their quasiclassical limit, as well as in the theory of variational symmetries going back to Noether. A d-dimensional pluri-Lagrangian problem can be described as follows: given a d-form on an m-dimensional space (called multi-time, m>d), whose coefficients depend on a sought-after function x of m independent variables (called field), find those fields x which deliver critical points to the action functionals for any d-dimensional manifold Σ in the multi-time. We derive the main building blocks of the multi-time Euler–Lagrange equations for a discrete pluri-Lagrangian problem with d=2, the so-called corner equations, and discuss the notion of consistency of the system of corner equations. We analyse the system of corner equations for a special class of three-point two-forms, corresponding to integrable quad-equations of the ABS list. This allows us to close a conceptual gap of the work by Lobb and Nijhoff by showing that the corresponding two-forms are closed not only on solutions of (non-variational) quad-equations, but also on general solutions of the corresponding corner equations. We also find an example of a pluri-Lagrangian system not coming from a multi-dimensionally consistent system of quad-equations. PMID:24511254
What is integrability of discrete variational systems?
Boll, Raphael; Petrera, Matteo; Suris, Yuri B
2014-02-08
We propose a notion of a pluri-Lagrangian problem, which should be understood as an analogue of multi-dimensional consistency for variational systems. This is a development along the line of research of discrete integrable Lagrangian systems initiated in 2009 by Lobb and Nijhoff, however, having its more remote roots in the theory of pluriharmonic functions, in the Z -invariant models of statistical mechanics and their quasiclassical limit, as well as in the theory of variational symmetries going back to Noether. A d -dimensional pluri-Lagrangian problem can be described as follows: given a d -form [Formula: see text] on an m -dimensional space (called multi-time, m > d ), whose coefficients depend on a sought-after function x of m independent variables (called field), find those fields x which deliver critical points to the action functionals [Formula: see text] for any d -dimensional manifold Σ in the multi-time. We derive the main building blocks of the multi-time Euler-Lagrange equations for a discrete pluri-Lagrangian problem with d =2, the so-called corner equations, and discuss the notion of consistency of the system of corner equations. We analyse the system of corner equations for a special class of three-point two-forms, corresponding to integrable quad-equations of the ABS list. This allows us to close a conceptual gap of the work by Lobb and Nijhoff by showing that the corresponding two-forms are closed not only on solutions of (non-variational) quad-equations, but also on general solutions of the corresponding corner equations. We also find an example of a pluri-Lagrangian system not coming from a multi-dimensionally consistent system of quad-equations.
Discrete diffusion Lyman α radiative transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Aaron; Tsang, Benny T.-H.; Bromm, Volker; Milosavljević, Miloš
2018-06-01
Due to its accuracy and generality, Monte Carlo radiative transfer (MCRT) has emerged as the prevalent method for Lyα radiative transfer in arbitrary geometries. The standard MCRT encounters a significant efficiency barrier in the high optical depth, diffusion regime. Multiple acceleration schemes have been developed to improve the efficiency of MCRT but the noise from photon packet discretization remains a challenge. The discrete diffusion Monte Carlo (DDMC) scheme has been successfully applied in state-of-the-art radiation hydrodynamics (RHD) simulations. Still, the established framework is not optimal for resonant line transfer. Inspired by the DDMC paradigm, we present a novel extension to resonant DDMC (rDDMC) in which diffusion in space and frequency are treated on equal footing. We explore the robustness of our new method and demonstrate a level of performance that justifies incorporating the method into existing Lyα codes. We present computational speedups of ˜102-106 relative to contemporary MCRT implementations with schemes that skip scattering in the core of the line profile. This is because the rDDMC runtime scales with the spatial and frequency resolution rather than the number of scatterings—the latter is typically ∝τ0 for static media, or ∝(aτ0)2/3 with core-skipping. We anticipate new frontiers in which on-the-fly Lyα radiative transfer calculations are feasible in 3D RHD. More generally, rDDMC is transferable to any computationally demanding problem amenable to a Fokker-Planck approximation of frequency redistribution.
A priori discretization quality metrics for distributed hydrologic modeling applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Hongli; Tolson, Bryan; Craig, James; Shafii, Mahyar; Basu, Nandita
2016-04-01
In distributed hydrologic modelling, a watershed is treated as a set of small homogeneous units that address the spatial heterogeneity of the watershed being simulated. The ability of models to reproduce observed spatial patterns firstly depends on the spatial discretization, which is the process of defining homogeneous units in the form of grid cells, subwatersheds, or hydrologic response units etc. It is common for hydrologic modelling studies to simply adopt a nominal or default discretization strategy without formally assessing alternative discretization levels. This approach lacks formal justifications and is thus problematic. More formalized discretization strategies are either a priori or a posteriori with respect to building and running a hydrologic simulation model. A posteriori approaches tend to be ad-hoc and compare model calibration and/or validation performance under various watershed discretizations. The construction and calibration of multiple versions of a distributed model can become a seriously limiting computational burden. Current a priori approaches are more formalized and compare overall heterogeneity statistics of dominant variables between candidate discretization schemes and input data or reference zones. While a priori approaches are efficient and do not require running a hydrologic model, they do not fully investigate the internal spatial pattern changes of variables of interest. Furthermore, the existing a priori approaches focus on landscape and soil data and do not assess impacts of discretization on stream channel definition even though its significance has been noted by numerous studies. The primary goals of this study are to (1) introduce new a priori discretization quality metrics considering the spatial pattern changes of model input data; (2) introduce a two-step discretization decision-making approach to compress extreme errors and meet user-specified discretization expectations through non-uniform discretization threshold
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horstmann, Jan Tobias; Le Garrec, Thomas; Mincu, Daniel-Ciprian; Lévêque, Emmanuel
2017-11-01
Despite the efficiency and low dissipation of the stream-collide scheme of the discrete-velocity Boltzmann equation, which is nowadays implemented in many lattice Boltzmann solvers, a major drawback exists over alternative discretization schemes, i.e. finite-volume or finite-difference, that is the limitation to Cartesian uniform grids. In this paper, an algorithm is presented that combines the positive features of each scheme in a hybrid lattice Boltzmann method. In particular, the node-based streaming of the distribution functions is coupled with a second-order finite-volume discretization of the advection term of the Boltzmann equation under the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook approximation. The algorithm is established on a multi-domain configuration, with the individual schemes being solved on separate sub-domains and connected by an overlapping interface of at least 2 grid cells. A critical parameter in the coupling is the CFL number equal to unity, which is imposed by the stream-collide algorithm. Nevertheless, a semi-implicit treatment of the collision term in the finite-volume formulation allows us to obtain a stable solution for this condition. The algorithm is validated in the scope of three different test cases on a 2D periodic mesh. It is shown that the accuracy of the combined discretization schemes agrees with the order of each separate scheme involved. The overall numerical error of the hybrid algorithm in the macroscopic quantities is contained between the error of the two individual algorithms. Finally, we demonstrate how such a coupling can be used to adapt to anisotropic flows with some gradual mesh refinement in the FV domain.
Burnett, T. L.; McDonald, S. A.; Gholinia, A.; Geurts, R.; Janus, M.; Slater, T.; Haigh, S. J.; Ornek, C.; Almuaili, F.; Engelberg, D. L.; Thompson, G. E.; Withers, P. J.
2014-01-01
Increasingly researchers are looking to bring together perspectives across multiple scales, or to combine insights from different techniques, for the same region of interest. To this end, correlative microscopy has already yielded substantial new insights in two dimensions (2D). Here we develop correlative tomography where the correlative task is somewhat more challenging because the volume of interest is typically hidden beneath the sample surface. We have threaded together x-ray computed tomography, serial section FIB-SEM tomography, electron backscatter diffraction and finally TEM elemental analysis all for the same 3D region. This has allowed observation of the competition between pitting corrosion and intergranular corrosion at multiple scales revealing the structural hierarchy, crystallography and chemistry of veiled corrosion pits in stainless steel. With automated correlative workflows and co-visualization of the multi-scale or multi-modal datasets the technique promises to provide insights across biological, geological and materials science that are impossible using either individual or multiple uncorrelated techniques. PMID:24736640
Observation of discrete time-crystalline order in a disordered dipolar many-body system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Soonwon; Choi, Joonhee; Landig, Renate; Kucsko, Georg; Zhou, Hengyun; Isoya, Junichi; Jelezko, Fedor; Onoda, Shinobu; Sumiya, Hitoshi; Khemani, Vedika; von Keyserlingk, Curt; Yao, Norman; Demler, Eugene; Lukin, Mikhail
2017-04-01
The interplay of periodic driving, disorder, and strong interactions has recently been predicted to result in exotic ``time crystalline'' phases, which spontaneously break the discrete time translation symmetry of the underlying drive. Here, we report the experimental observation of such discrete time crystalline order in a driven, disordered ensemble of dipolar spin impurities in diamond at room temperature. We observe long lived temporal correlations at integer multiples of the fundamental driving period, experimentally identify the phase boundary and find that the temporal order is protected by strong interactions; this order is remarkably stable against perturbations, even in the presence of slow thermalization. We provide a theoretical description of approximate Floquet eigenstates of the system based on product state ansatz and predict the phase boundary, which is in qualitative agreement with our observations. Our work opens the door to exploring dynamical phases of matter and controlling interacting, disordered many body systems. NSF, CUA, NSSEFF, ARO MURI, Moore Foundation.
Ho, B T; Tsai, M J; Wei, J; Ma, M; Saipetch, P
1996-01-01
A new method of video compression for angiographic images has been developed to achieve high compression ratio (~20:1) while eliminating block artifacts which leads to loss of diagnostic accuracy. This method adopts motion picture experts group's (MPEGs) motion compensated prediction to takes advantage of frame to frame correlation. However, in contrast to MPEG, the error images arising from mismatches in the motion estimation are encoded by discrete wavelet transform (DWT) rather than block discrete cosine transform (DCT). Furthermore, the authors developed a classification scheme which label each block in an image as intra, error, or background type and encode it accordingly. This hybrid coding can significantly improve the compression efficiency in certain eases. This method can be generalized for any dynamic image sequences applications sensitive to block artifacts.
Universal discrete Fourier optics RF photonic integrated circuit architecture.
Hall, Trevor J; Hasan, Mehedi
2016-04-04
This paper describes a coherent electro-optic circuit architecture that generates a frequency comb consisting of N spatially separated orders using a generalised Mach-Zenhder interferometer (MZI) with its N × 1 combiner replaced by an optical N × N Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). Advantage may be taken of the tight optical path-length control, component and circuit symmetries and emerging trimming algorithms offered by photonic integration in any platform that offers linear electro-optic phase modulation such as LiNbO_{3,} silicon, III-V or hybrid technology. The circuit architecture subsumes all MZI-based RF photonic circuit architectures in the prior art given an appropriate choice of output port(s) and dimension N although the principal application envisaged is phase correlated subcarrier generation for all optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing. A transfer matrix approach is used to model the operation of the architecture. The predictions of the model are validated by simulations performed using an industry standard software tool. Implementation is found to be practical.
Scalar potential model (SPM) of redshift and discrete redshift
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hodge, John
2005-11-01
On the galactic scale the universe is inhomogeneous and redshift z is occasionally less than zero. Several differences among galaxy types suggest that spiral galaxies are Sources and that early type galaxies are Sinks of a scalar potential field (SPF). The morphology-radius and intragalactic medium cluster observations support a cell structure of galaxies. The SPF causes the mass expected by Newtonian mechanics to measure less in Source galaxies and more in Sink galaxies. The cell structure allows the universe to be bounded and flat without collapsing. An equation is derived relating z of particle photons and the distance D to galaxies. The calculated z has a correlation coefficient of 0.88 with the measured z for a sample of 32 spiral galaxies with a Cepheid based D. The equation is consistent with z <0 observations of close galaxies. At low cosmological distances, the equation reduces to z ~ KD, where K is a constant, positive value. The model qualitatively suggests the discrete variations in z, which was reported by W. G. Tifft, 1997, ApJ 485, 465 and others, are consistent with the SPM. Full text: http://web.infoave.net/ scjh.
Loop series for discrete statistical models on graphs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chertkov, Michael; Chernyak, Vladimir Y.
2006-06-01
In this paper we present the derivation details, logic, and motivation for the three loop calculus introduced in Chertkov and Chernyak (2006 Phys. Rev. E 73 065102(R)). Generating functions for each of the three interrelated discrete statistical models are expressed in terms of a finite series. The first term in the series corresponds to the Bethe-Peierls belief-propagation (BP) contribution; the other terms are labelled by loops on the factor graph. All loop contributions are simple rational functions of spin correlation functions calculated within the BP approach. We discuss two alternative derivations of the loop series. One approach implements a set of local auxiliary integrations over continuous fields with the BP contribution corresponding to an integrand saddle-point value. The integrals are replaced by sums in the complementary approach, briefly explained in Chertkov and Chernyak (2006 Phys. Rev. E 73 065102(R)). Local gauge symmetry transformations that clarify an important invariant feature of the BP solution are revealed in both approaches. The individual terms change under the gauge transformation while the partition function remains invariant. The requirement for all individual terms to be nonzero only for closed loops in the factor graph (as opposed to paths with loose ends) is equivalent to fixing the first term in the series to be exactly equal to the BP contribution. Further applications of the loop calculus to problems in statistical physics, computer and information sciences are discussed.
Discretized kinetic theory on scale-free networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertotti, Maria Letizia; Modanese, Giovanni
2016-10-01
The network of interpersonal connections is one of the possible heterogeneous factors which affect the income distribution emerging from micro-to-macro economic models. In this paper we equip our model discussed in [1, 2] with a network structure. The model is based on a system of n differential equations of the kinetic discretized-Boltzmann kind. The network structure is incorporated in a probabilistic way, through the introduction of a link density P(α) and of correlation coefficients P(β|α), which give the conditioned probability that an individual with α links is connected to one with β links. We study the properties of the equations and give analytical results concerning the existence, normalization and positivity of the solutions. For a fixed network with P(α) = c/α q , we investigate numerically the dependence of the detailed and marginal equilibrium distributions on the initial conditions and on the exponent q. Our results are compatible with those obtained from the Bouchaud-Mezard model and from agent-based simulations, and provide additional information about the dependence of the individual income on the level of connectivity.
Leveraging Hierarchical Population Structure in Discrete Association Studies
Carlson, Jonathan; Kadie, Carl; Mallal, Simon; Heckerman, David
2007-01-01
Population structure can confound the identification of correlations in biological data. Such confounding has been recognized in multiple biological disciplines, resulting in a disparate collection of proposed solutions. We examine several methods that correct for confounding on discrete data with hierarchical population structure and identify two distinct confounding processes, which we call coevolution and conditional influence. We describe these processes in terms of generative models and show that these generative models can be used to correct for the confounding effects. Finally, we apply the models to three applications: identification of escape mutations in HIV-1 in response to specific HLA-mediated immune pressure, prediction of coevolving residues in an HIV-1 peptide, and a search for genotypes that are associated with bacterial resistance traits in Arabidopsis thaliana. We show that coevolution is a better description of confounding in some applications and conditional influence is better in others. That is, we show that no single method is best for addressing all forms of confounding. Analysis tools based on these models are available on the internet as both web based applications and downloadable source code at http://atom.research.microsoft.com/bio/phylod.aspx. PMID:17611623
Discrete sensors distribution for accurate plantar pressure analyses.
Claverie, Laetitia; Ille, Anne; Moretto, Pierre
2016-12-01
The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of discrete sensors under the footprint for accurate plantar pressure analyses. For this purpose, two different sensor layouts have been tested and compared, to determine which was the most accurate to monitor plantar pressure with wireless devices in research and/or clinical practice. Ten healthy volunteers participated in the study (age range: 23-58 years). The barycenter of pressures (BoP) determined from the plantar pressure system (W-inshoe®) was compared to the center of pressures (CoP) determined from a force platform (AMTI) in the medial-lateral (ML) and anterior-posterior (AP) directions. Then, the vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) obtained from both W-inshoe® and force platform was compared for both layouts for each subject. The BoP and vGRF determined from the plantar pressure system data showed good correlation (SCC) with those determined from the force platform data, notably for the second sensor organization (ML SCC= 0.95; AP SCC=0.99; vGRF SCC=0.91). The study demonstrates that an adjusted placement of removable sensors is key to accurate plantar pressure analyses. These results are promising for a plantar pressure recording outside clinical or laboratory settings, for long time monitoring, real time feedback or for whatever activity requiring a low-cost system. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
On multiple orthogonal polynomials for discrete Meixner measures
Sorokin, Vladimir N
2010-12-07
The paper examines two examples of multiple orthogonal polynomials generalizing orthogonal polynomials of a discrete variable, meaning thereby the Meixner polynomials. One example is bound up with a discrete Nikishin system, and the other leads to essentially new effects. The limit distribution of the zeros of polynomials is obtained in terms of logarithmic equilibrium potentials and in terms of algebraic curves. Bibliography: 9 titles.
CDM: Teaching Discrete Mathematics to Computer Science Majors
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sutner, Klaus
2005-01-01
CDM, for computational discrete mathematics, is a course that attempts to teach a number of topics in discrete mathematics to computer science majors. The course abandons the classical definition-theorem-proof model, and instead relies heavily on computation as a source of motivation and also for experimentation and illustration. The emphasis on…
Non-Lipschitz Dynamics Approach to Discrete Event Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zak, M.; Meyers, R.
1995-01-01
This paper presents and discusses a mathematical formalism for simulation of discrete event dynamics (DED) - a special type of 'man- made' system designed to aid specific areas of information processing. A main objective is to demonstrate that the mathematical formalism for DED can be based upon the terminal model of Newtonian dynamics which allows one to relax Lipschitz conditions at some discrete points.
Finite Mathematics and Discrete Mathematics: Is There a Difference?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnson, Marvin L.
Discrete mathematics and finite mathematics differ in a number of ways. First, finite mathematics has a longer history and is therefore more stable in terms of course content. Finite mathematics courses emphasize certain particular mathematical tools which are useful in solving the problems of business and the social sciences. Discrete mathematics…
Geometric interpretations of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Campbell, C. W.
1984-01-01
One, two, and three dimensional Discrete Fourier Transforms (DFT) and geometric interpretations of their periodicities are presented. These operators are examined for their relationship with the two sided, continuous Fourier transform. Discrete or continuous transforms of real functions have certain symmetry properties. The symmetries are examined for the one, two, and three dimensional cases. Extension to higher dimension is straight forward.
Transfer of dipolar gas through the discrete localized mode.
Bai, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Ai-Xia; Xue, Ju-Kui
2013-12-01
By considering the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger model with dipole-dipole interactions for dipolar condensate, the existence, the types, the stability, and the dynamics of the localized modes in a nonlinear lattice are discussed. It is found that the contact interaction and the dipole-dipole interactions play important roles in determining the existence, the type, and the stability of the localized modes. Because of the coupled effects of the contact interaction and the dipole-dipole interactions, rich localized modes and their stability nature can exist: when the contact interaction is larger and the dipole-dipole interactions is smaller, a discrete bright breather occurs. In this case, while the on-site interaction can stabilize the discrete breather, the dipole-dipole interactions will destabilize the discrete breather; when both the contact interaction and the dipole-dipole interactions are larger, a discrete kink appears. In this case, both the on-site interaction and the dipole-dipole interactions can stabilize the discrete kink, but the discrete kink is more unstable than the ordinary discrete breather. The predicted results provide a deep insight into the dynamics of blocking, filtering, and transfer of the norm in nonlinear lattices for dipolar condensates.
A discrete-space urban model with environmental amenities
Liaila Tajibaeva; Robert G. Haight; Stephen Polasky
2008-01-01
This paper analyzes the effects of providing environmental amenities associated with open space in a discrete-space urban model and characterizes optimal provision of open space across a metropolitan area. The discrete-space model assumes distinct neighborhoods in which developable land is homogeneous within a neighborhood but heterogeneous across neighborhoods. Open...
Wheat mill stream properties for discrete element method modeling
USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database
A discrete phase approach based on individual wheat kernel characteristics is needed to overcome the limitations of previous statistical models and accurately predict the milling behavior of wheat. As a first step to develop a discrete element method (DEM) model for the wheat milling process, this s...
Multiscale Path Metrics for the Analysis of Discrete Geometric Structures
2017-11-30
Report: Multiscale Path Metrics for the Analysis of Discrete Geometric Structures The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those...Analysis of Discrete Geometric Structures Report Term: 0-Other Email: tomasi@cs.duke.edu Distribution Statement: 1-Approved for public release
How Bob Barker Would (Probably) Teach Discrete Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Urness, Timothy
2010-01-01
This article proposes a discrete mathematics course in which games from "The Price Is Right" are used to engage students in a deeper, practical study of discrete mathematics. The games themselves are not the focus of the course; rather, the mathematical principles of the games give motivation for the concepts being taught. The game examples are…
Sample Design for Discrete Choice Analysis of Travel Behavior
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1978-07-01
Discrete choice models represent the choices of individuals among alternatives such as modes of travel, auto types and destinations. This paper presents a review of the state-of-the-art in designing samples for discrete choice analysis of traveller b...
Controllability of discrete bilinear systems with bounded control.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tarn, T. J.; Elliott, D. L.; Goka, T.
1973-01-01
The subject of this paper is the controllability of time-invariant discrete-time bilinear systems. Bilinear systems are classified into two categories; homogeneous and inhomogeneous. Sufficient conditions which ensure the global controllability of discrete-time bilinear systems are obtained by localized analysis in control variables.
Discretion in Student Discipline: Insight into Elementary Principals' Decision Making
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Findlay, Nora M.
2015-01-01
Little research exists that examines the exercise of discretion by principals in their disciplinary decision making. This study sought to understand the application of values by principals as they engage in student disciplinary decision making within legally fixed parameters of their administrative discretion. This qualitative methodology used…
Discrete structures in continuum descriptions of defective crystals
2016-01-01
I discuss various mathematical constructions that combine together to provide a natural setting for discrete and continuum geometric models of defective crystals. In particular, I provide a quite general list of ‘plastic strain variables’, which quantifies inelastic behaviour, and exhibit rigorous connections between discrete and continuous mathematical structures associated with crystalline materials that have a correspondingly general constitutive specification. PMID:27002070
31 CFR 101.8 - Discretion of the Secretary.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discretion of the Secretary. 101.8... Secretary. The Secretary of the Treasury retains complete discretion to deny any claim of any petitioner when the Secretary believes it is not in the best interest of the Government to return the bullion to...
31 CFR 101.8 - Discretion of the Secretary.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discretion of the Secretary. 101.8 Section 101.8 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MITIGATION OF FORFEITURE OF COUNTERFEIT GOLD COINS § 101.8 Discretion of the...
Discrete Latent Markov Models for Normally Distributed Response Data
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schmittmann, Verena D.; Dolan, Conor V.; van der Maas, Han L. J.; Neale, Michael C.
2005-01-01
Van de Pol and Langeheine (1990) presented a general framework for Markov modeling of repeatedly measured discrete data. We discuss analogical single indicator models for normally distributed responses. In contrast to discrete models, which have been studied extensively, analogical continuous response models have hardly been considered. These…
Discrete Photodetection and Susskind-Glogower Phase Operators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ben-Aryeh, Y.
1996-01-01
State reduction processes in different types of photodetection experiments are described by using different kinds of ladder operators. A special model of discrete photodetection is developed by the use of superoperators which are based on the Susskind-Glogower raising and lower operators. The possibility to realize experimentally the discrete photodetection scheme in a micromaser is discussed.
Teach Children with Autism with the Discrete-Trial Approach.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Din, Feng S.; McLaughlin, Donna
This paper discusses the outcomes of a study that investigated whether applying the discrete-trial approach is effective in teaching children with autism to learn functional and pre-academic skills. Participants were four young children with autism (ages 3-4) attending a preschool special education program of an urban public school. Discrete-trial…
Generation Algorithm of Discrete Line in Multi-Dimensional Grids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Du, L.; Ben, J.; Li, Y.; Wang, R.
2017-09-01
Discrete Global Grids System (DGGS) is a kind of digital multi-resolution earth reference model, in terms of structure, it is conducive to the geographical spatial big data integration and mining. Vector is one of the important types of spatial data, only by discretization, can it be applied in grids system to make process and analysis. Based on the some constraint conditions, this paper put forward a strict definition of discrete lines, building a mathematic model of the discrete lines by base vectors combination method. Transforming mesh discrete lines issue in n-dimensional grids into the issue of optimal deviated path in n-minus-one dimension using hyperplane, which, therefore realizing dimension reduction process in the expression of mesh discrete lines. On this basis, we designed a simple and efficient algorithm for dimension reduction and generation of the discrete lines. The experimental results show that our algorithm not only can be applied in the two-dimensional rectangular grid, also can be applied in the two-dimensional hexagonal grid and the three-dimensional cubic grid. Meanwhile, when our algorithm is applied in two-dimensional rectangular grid, it can get a discrete line which is more similar to the line in the Euclidean space.
Discrete Mathematics across the Curriculum, K-12. 1991 Yearbook.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kenney, Margaret J., Ed.; Hirsch, Christian R., Ed.
This yearbook provides the mathematics education community with specific perceptions about discrete mathematics concerning its importance, its composition at various grade levels, and ideas about how to teach it. Many practical suggestions with respect to the implementation of a discrete mathematics school program are included. A unifying thread…
Interpreting Significant Discrete-Time Periods in Survival Analysis.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schumacker, Randall E.; Denson, Kathleen B.
Discrete-time survival analysis is a new method for educational researchers to employ when looking at the timing of certain educational events. Previous continuous-time methods do not allow for the flexibility inherent in a discrete-time method. Because both time-invariant and time-varying predictor variables can now be used, the interaction of…
Setting up virgin stress conditions in discrete element models
Rojek, J.; Karlis, G.F.; Malinowski, L.J.; Beer, G.
2013-01-01
In the present work, a methodology for setting up virgin stress conditions in discrete element models is proposed. The developed algorithm is applicable to discrete or coupled discrete/continuum modeling of underground excavation employing the discrete element method (DEM). Since the DEM works with contact forces rather than stresses there is a need for the conversion of pre-excavation stresses to contact forces for the DEM model. Different possibilities of setting up virgin stress conditions in the DEM model are reviewed and critically assessed. Finally, a new method to obtain a discrete element model with contact forces equivalent to given macroscopic virgin stresses is proposed. The test examples presented show that good results may be obtained regardless of the shape of the DEM domain. PMID:27087731
Generalized Reduction Formula for Discrete Wigner Functions of Multiqubit Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Srinivasan, K.; Raghavan, G.
2018-03-01
Density matrices and Discrete Wigner Functions are equally valid representations of multiqubit quantum states. For density matrices, the partial trace operation is used to obtain the quantum state of subsystems, but an analogous prescription is not available for discrete Wigner Functions. Further, the discrete Wigner function corresponding to a density matrix is not unique but depends on the choice of the quantum net used for its reconstruction. In the present work, we derive a reduction formula for discrete Wigner functions of a general multiqubit state which works for arbitrary quantum nets. These results would be useful for the analysis and classification of entangled states and the study of decoherence purely in a discrete phase space setting and also in applications to quantum computing.
Setting up virgin stress conditions in discrete element models.
Rojek, J; Karlis, G F; Malinowski, L J; Beer, G
2013-03-01
In the present work, a methodology for setting up virgin stress conditions in discrete element models is proposed. The developed algorithm is applicable to discrete or coupled discrete/continuum modeling of underground excavation employing the discrete element method (DEM). Since the DEM works with contact forces rather than stresses there is a need for the conversion of pre-excavation stresses to contact forces for the DEM model. Different possibilities of setting up virgin stress conditions in the DEM model are reviewed and critically assessed. Finally, a new method to obtain a discrete element model with contact forces equivalent to given macroscopic virgin stresses is proposed. The test examples presented show that good results may be obtained regardless of the shape of the DEM domain.
Discretizing singular point sources in hyperbolic wave propagation problems
Petersson, N. Anders; O'Reilly, Ossian; Sjogreen, Bjorn; ...
2016-06-01
Here, we develop high order accurate source discretizations for hyperbolic wave propagation problems in first order formulation that are discretized by finite difference schemes. By studying the Fourier series expansions of the source discretization and the finite difference operator, we derive sufficient conditions for achieving design accuracy in the numerical solution. Only half of the conditions in Fourier space can be satisfied through moment conditions on the source discretization, and we develop smoothness conditions for satisfying the remaining accuracy conditions. The resulting source discretization has compact support in physical space, and is spread over as many grid points as themore » number of moment and smoothness conditions. In numerical experiments we demonstrate high order of accuracy in the numerical solution of the 1-D advection equation (both in the interior and near a boundary), the 3-D elastic wave equation, and the 3-D linearized Euler equations.« less
Discrete cosine and sine transforms generalized to honeycomb lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hrivnák, Jiří; Motlochová, Lenka
2018-06-01
The discrete cosine and sine transforms are generalized to a triangular fragment of the honeycomb lattice. The honeycomb point sets are constructed by subtracting the root lattice from the weight lattice points of the crystallographic root system A2. The two-variable orbit functions of the Weyl group of A2, discretized simultaneously on the weight and root lattices, induce a novel parametric family of extended Weyl orbit functions. The periodicity and von Neumann and Dirichlet boundary properties of the extended Weyl orbit functions are detailed. Three types of discrete complex Fourier-Weyl transforms and real-valued Hartley-Weyl transforms are described. Unitary transform matrices and interpolating behavior of the discrete transforms are exemplified. Consequences of the developed discrete transforms for transversal eigenvibrations of the mechanical graphene model are discussed.
A Two-Timescale Discretization Scheme for Collocation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Desai, Prasun; Conway, Bruce A.
2004-01-01
The development of a two-timescale discretization scheme for collocation is presented. This scheme allows a larger discretization to be utilized for smoothly varying state variables and a second finer discretization to be utilized for state variables having higher frequency dynamics. As such. the discretization scheme can be tailored to the dynamics of the particular state variables. In so doing. the size of the overall Nonlinear Programming (NLP) problem can be reduced significantly. Two two-timescale discretization architecture schemes are described. Comparison of results between the two-timescale method and conventional collocation show very good agreement. Differences of less than 0.5 percent are observed. Consequently. a significant reduction (by two-thirds) in the number of NLP parameters and iterations required for convergence can be achieved without sacrificing solution accuracy.
Discrete Element Modelling of Floating Debris
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahaffey, Samantha; Liang, Qiuhua; Parkin, Geoff; Large, Andy; Rouainia, Mohamed
2016-04-01
Flash flooding is characterised by high velocity flows which impact vulnerable catchments with little warning time and as such, result in complex flow dynamics which are difficult to replicate through modelling. The impacts of flash flooding can be made yet more severe by the transport of both natural and anthropogenic debris, ranging from tree trunks to vehicles, wheelie bins and even storage containers, the effects of which have been clearly evident during recent UK flooding. This cargo of debris can have wide reaching effects and result in actual flood impacts which diverge from those predicted. A build-up of debris may lead to partial channel blockage and potential flow rerouting through urban centres. Build-up at bridges and river structures also leads to increased hydraulic loading which may result in damage and possible structural failure. Predicting the impacts of debris transport; however, is difficult as conventional hydrodynamic modelling schemes do not intrinsically include floating debris within their calculations. Subsequently a new tool has been developed using an emerging approach, which incorporates debris transport through the coupling of two existing modelling techniques. A 1D hydrodynamic modelling scheme has here been coupled with a 2D discrete element scheme to form a new modelling tool which predicts the motion and flow-interaction of floating debris. Hydraulic forces arising from flow around the object are applied to instigate its motion. Likewise, an equivalent opposing force is applied to fluid cells, enabling backwater effects to be simulated. Shock capturing capabilities make the tool applicable to predicting the complex flow dynamics associated with flash flooding. The modelling scheme has been applied to experimental case studies where cylindrical wooden dowels are transported by a dam-break wave. These case studies enable validation of the tool's shock capturing capabilities and the coupling technique applied between the two numerical
Mapping Understory Trees Using Airborne Discrete-Return LIDAR Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korpela, I.; Hovi, A.; Morsdorf, F.
2011-09-01
Understory trees in multi-layer stands are often ignored in forest inventories. Information about them would benefit silviculture, wood procurement and biodiversity management. Cost-efficient inventory methods for the assessment of the presence, density, species- and size-distributions are called for. LiDAR remote sensing is a promising addition to field work. Unlike in passive image data, in which the signals from multiple layers mix, the 3D position of each hot-spot reflection is known in LiDAR data. The overstory however prevents from obtaining a wall-to-wall sample of understory, and measurements are subject to transmission losses. Discriminating between the crowns of dominant and suppressed trees can also be challenging. We examined the potential of LiDAR for the mapping of the understory trees in Scots pine stands (62°N, 24°E), using carefully georeferenced reference data and several LiDAR data sets. We present results that highlight differences in echo-triggering between sensors that affect the near-ground height data. A conceptual model for the transmission losses in the overstory was created and formulated into simple compensation models that reduced the intensity variation in second- and third return data. The task is highly ill-posed in discrete-return LiDAR data, and our models employed the geometry of the overstory as well as the intensity of previous returns. We showed that even first-return data in the understory is subject to losses in the overstory that did not trigger an echo. Even with compensation of the losses, the intensity data was deemed of low value in species discrimination. Area-based LiDAR height metrics that were derived from the data belonging to the crown volume of the understory showed reasonable correlation with the density and mean height of the understory trees. Assessment of the species seems out of reach in discrete-return LiDAR data, which is a drastic drawback.
Stabilizing a graphene platform toward discrete components
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mzali, Sana; Montanaro, Alberto; Xavier, Stéphane; Servet, Bernard; Mazellier, Jean-Paul; Bezencenet, Odile; Legagneux, Pierre; Piquemal-Banci, Maëlis; Galceran, Regina; Dlubak, Bruno; Seneor, Pierre; Martin, Marie-Blandine; Hofmann, Stephan; Robertson, John; Cojocaru, Costel-Sorin; Centeno, Alba; Zurutuza, Amaia
2016-12-01
We report on statistical analysis and consistency of electrical performances of devices based on a large scale passivated graphene platform. More than 500 graphene field effect transistors (GFETs) based on graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition and transferred on 4 in. SiO2/Si substrates were fabricated and tested. We characterized the potential of a two-step encapsulation process including an Al2O3 protection layer to avoid graphene contamination during the lithographic process followed by a final Al2O3 passivation layer subsequent to the GFET fabrication. Devices were investigated for occurrence and reproducibility of conductance minimum related to the Dirac point. While no conductance minimum was observed in unpassivated devices, 75% of the passivated transistors exhibited a clear conductance minimum and low hysteresis. The maximum of the device number distribution corresponds to a residual doping below 5 × 1011 cm-2 (0.023 V/nm). This yield shows that GFETs integrating low-doped graphene and exhibiting small hysteresis in the transfer characteristics can be envisaged for discrete components, with even further potential for low power driven electronics.
Discrete range clustering using Monte Carlo methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chatterji, G. B.; Sridhar, B.
1993-01-01
For automatic obstacle avoidance guidance during rotorcraft low altitude flight, a reliable model of the nearby environment is needed. Such a model may be constructed by applying surface fitting techniques to the dense range map obtained by active sensing using radars. However, for covertness, passive sensing techniques using electro-optic sensors are desirable. As opposed to the dense range map obtained via active sensing, passive sensing algorithms produce reliable range at sparse locations, and therefore, surface fitting techniques to fill the gaps in the range measurement are not directly applicable. Both for automatic guidance and as a display for aiding the pilot, these discrete ranges need to be grouped into sets which correspond to objects in the nearby environment. The focus of this paper is on using Monte Carlo methods for clustering range points into meaningful groups. One of the aims of the paper is to explore whether simulated annealing methods offer significant advantage over the basic Monte Carlo method for this class of problems. We compare three different approaches and present application results of these algorithms to a laboratory image sequence and a helicopter flight sequence.
Discrete-time modelling of musical instruments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Välimäki, Vesa; Pakarinen, Jyri; Erkut, Cumhur; Karjalainen, Matti
2006-01-01
This article describes physical modelling techniques that can be used for simulating musical instruments. The methods are closely related to digital signal processing. They discretize the system with respect to time, because the aim is to run the simulation using a computer. The physics-based modelling methods can be classified as mass-spring, modal, wave digital, finite difference, digital waveguide and source-filter models. We present the basic theory and a discussion on possible extensions for each modelling technique. For some methods, a simple model example is chosen from the existing literature demonstrating a typical use of the method. For instance, in the case of the digital waveguide modelling technique a vibrating string model is discussed, and in the case of the wave digital filter technique we present a classical piano hammer model. We tackle some nonlinear and time-varying models and include new results on the digital waveguide modelling of a nonlinear string. Current trends and future directions in physical modelling of musical instruments are discussed.
Dimensional flow in discrete quantum geometries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calcagni, Gianluca; Oriti, Daniele; Thürigen, Johannes
2015-04-01
In various theories of quantum gravity, one observes a change in the spectral dimension from the topological spatial dimension d at large length scales to some smaller value at small, Planckian scales. While the origin of such a flow is well understood in continuum approaches, in theories built on discrete structures a firm control of the underlying mechanism is still missing. We shed some light on the issue by presenting a particular class of quantum geometries with a flow in the spectral dimension, given by superpositions of states defined on regular complexes. For particular superposition coefficients parametrized by a real number 0 <α
Reconfigurable microfluidic device with discretized sidewall
Oono, Masahiro; Yamaguchi, Keisuke; Rasyid, Amirul; Takano, Atsushi; Tanaka, Masato
2017-01-01
Various microfluidic features, such as traps, have been used to manipulate flows, cells, and other particles within microfluidic systems. However, these features often become undesirable in subsequent steps requiring different fluidic configurations. To meet the changing needs of various microfluidic configurations, we developed a reconfigurable microfluidic channel with movable sidewalls using mechanically discretized sidewalls of laterally aligned rectangular pins. The user can deform the channel sidewall at any time after fabrication by sliding the pins. We confirmed that the flow resistance of the straight microchannel could be reversibly adjusted in the range of 101–105 Pa s/μl by manually displacing one of the pins comprising the microchannel sidewall. The reconfigurable microchannel also made it possible to manipulate flows and cells by creating a segmented patterned culture of COS-7 cells and a coculture of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human lung fibroblasts (hLFs) inside the microchannel. The reconfigurable microfluidic device successfully maintained a culture of COS-7 cells in a log phase throughout the entire period of 216 h. Furthermore, we performed a migration assay of cocultured HUVEC and hLF spheroids within one microchannel and observed their migration toward each other. PMID:28503247
Coherence number as a discrete quantum resource
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chin, Seungbeom
2017-10-01
We introduce a discrete coherence monotone named the coherence number, which is a generalization of the coherence rank to mixed states. After defining the coherence number in a manner similar to that of the Schmidt number in entanglement theory, we present a necessary and sufficient condition of the coherence number for a coherent state to be converted to an entangled state of nonzero k concurrence (a member of the generalized concurrence family with 2 ≤k ≤d ). As an application of the coherence number to a practical quantum system, Grover's search algorithm of N items is considered. We show that the coherence number remains N and falls abruptly when the success probability of a searching process becomes maximal. This phenomenon motivates us to analyze the depletion pattern of Cc(N ) (the last member of the generalized coherence concurrence, nonzero when the coherence number is N ), which turns out to be an optimal resource for the process since it is completely consumed to finish the searching task. The generalization of the original Grover algorithm with arbitrary (mixed) initial states is also discussed, which reveals the boundary condition for the coherence to be monotonically decreasing under the process.
Structure of an energetic narrow discrete arc
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcfadden, J. P.; Carlson, C. W.; Boehm, M. H.
1990-01-01
Particle distributions, waves, dc electric fields, and magnetic fields were measured by two sounding rockets at altitudes of 950 and 430 km through an energetic (greater than 5 keV) narrow (about 10 km) stable discrete arc. Although the payloads' magnetic footprints were separated by only 50 km, differences in the arc's structure were observed including the spatial width, peak energy, and characteristic spectra. The energetic electron precipitation included both slowly varying isotropic fluxes that formed an inverted-V energy-time signature and rapidly varying field-aligned fluxes at or below the isotropic spectral peak. The isotropic precipitation had a flux discontinuity inside the arc indicating the arc was present on a boundary between two different magnetospheric plasmas. Dispersive and nondispersive bursts of field-aligned electrons were measured throughout the arc, appearing over broad energy ranges or as monoenergetic beams. Dispersive bursts gave variable source distances less than 8000 km. Plateauing of some of the most intense bursts suggests that waves stabilized these electrons. During the lower altitude arc crossing, the field-aligned component formed a separate inverted-V energy-time signature whose peak energy was half the isotropic peak energy.
Simulating Electrophoresis with Discrete Charge and Drag
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mowitz, Aaron J.; Witten, Thomas A.
A charged asymmetric rigid cluster of colloidal particles in saline solution can respond in exotic ways to an electric field: it may spin or move transversely. These distinctive motions arise from the drag force of the neutralizing countercharge surrounding the cluster. Because of this drag, calculating the motion of arbitrary asymmetric objects with nonuniform charge is impractical by conventional methods. Here we present a new method of simulating electrophoresis, in which we replace the continuous object and the surrounding countercharge with discrete point-draggers, called Stokeslets. The balance of forces imposes a linear, self-consistent relation among the drag and Coulomb forces on the Stokeslets, which allows us to easily determine the object's motion via matrix inversion. By explicitly enforcing charge+countercharge neutrality, the simulation recovers the distinctive features of electrophoretic motion to few-percent accuracy using as few as 1000 Stokeslets. In particular, for uniformly charged objects, we observe the characteristic Smoluchowski independence of mobility on object size and shape. We then discuss electrophoretic motion of asymmetric objects, where our simulation method is particularly advantageous. This work is supported by a Grant from the US-Israel Binational Science Foundation.
Discrete Haar transform and protein structure.
Morosetti, S
1997-12-01
The discrete Haar transform of the sequence of the backbone dihedral angles (phi and psi) was performed over a set of X-ray protein structures of high resolution from the Brookhaven Protein Data Bank. Afterwards, the new dihedral angles were calculated by the inverse transform, using a growing number of Haar functions, from the lower to the higher degree. New structures were obtained using these dihedral angles, with standard values for bond lengths and angles, and with omega = 0 degree. The reconstructed structures were compared with the experimental ones, and analyzed by visual inspection and statistical analysis. When half of the Haar coefficients were used, all the reconstructed structures were not yet collapsed to a tertiary folding, but they showed yet realized most of the secondary motifs. These results indicate a substantial separation of structural information in the space of Haar transform, with the secondary structural information mainly present in the Haar coefficients of lower degrees, and the tertiary one present in the higher degree coefficients. Because of this separation, the representation of the folded structures in the space of Haar transform seems a promising candidate to encompass the problem of premature convergence in genetic algorithms.
Fast Fourier transform discrete dislocation dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Graham, J. T.; Rollett, A. D.; LeSar, R.
2016-12-01
Discrete dislocation dynamics simulations have been generally limited to modeling systems described by isotropic elasticity. Effects of anisotropy on dislocation interactions, which can be quite large, have generally been ignored because of the computational expense involved when including anisotropic elasticity. We present a different formalism of dislocation dynamics in which the dislocations are represented by the deformation tensor, which is a direct measure of the slip in the lattice caused by the dislocations and can be considered as an eigenstrain. The stresses arising from the dislocations are calculated with a fast Fourier transform (FFT) method, from which the forces are determined and the equations of motion are solved. Use of the FFTs means that the stress field is only available at the grid points, which requires some adjustments/regularizations to be made to the representation of the dislocations and the calculation of the force on individual segments, as is discussed hereinafter. A notable advantage of this approach is that there is no computational penalty for including anisotropic elasticity. We review the method and apply it in a simple dislocation dynamics calculation.
Discrete element modeling of microstructure of nacre
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chandler, Mei Qiang; Cheng, Jing-Ru C.
2018-04-01
The microstructure of nacre consists of polygon-shaped aragonite mineral tablets bonded by very thin layers of organic materials and is organized in a brick-mortar morphology. In this research, the discrete element method was utilized to model this structure. The aragonite mineral tablets were modeled with three-dimensional polygon particles generated by the Voronoi tessellation method to represent the Voronoi-like patterns of mineral tablets assembly observed in experiments. The organic matrix was modeled with a group of spring elements. The constitutive relations of the spring elements were inspired from the experimental results of organic molecules from the literature. The mineral bridges were modeled with simple elastic bonds with the parameters based on experimental data from the literature. The bulk stress-strain responses from the models agreed well with experimental results. The model results show that the mineral bridges play important roles in providing the stiffness and yield strength for the nacre, while the organic matrix in providing the ductility for the nacre. This work demonstrated the suitability of particle methods for modeling microstructures of nacre.
Discrete stochastic charging of aggregate grains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matthews, Lorin S.; Shotorban, Babak; Hyde, Truell W.
2018-05-01
Dust particles immersed in a plasma environment become charged through the collection of electrons and ions at random times, causing the dust charge to fluctuate about an equilibrium value. Small grains (with radii less than 1 μm) or grains in a tenuous plasma environment are sensitive to single additions of electrons or ions. Here we present a numerical model that allows examination of discrete stochastic charge fluctuations on the surface of aggregate grains and determines the effect of these fluctuations on the dynamics of grain aggregation. We show that the mean and standard deviation of charge on aggregate grains follow the same trends as those predicted for spheres having an equivalent radius, though aggregates exhibit larger variations from the predicted values. In some plasma environments, these charge fluctuations occur on timescales which are relevant for dynamics of aggregate growth. Coupled dynamics and charging models show that charge fluctuations tend to produce aggregates which are much more linear or filamentary than aggregates formed in an environment where the charge is stationary.
Calibration of discrete element model parameters: soybeans
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghodki, Bhupendra M.; Patel, Manish; Namdeo, Rohit; Carpenter, Gopal
2018-05-01
Discrete element method (DEM) simulations are broadly used to get an insight of flow characteristics of granular materials in complex particulate systems. DEM input parameters for a model are the critical prerequisite for an efficient simulation. Thus, the present investigation aims to determine DEM input parameters for Hertz-Mindlin model using soybeans as a granular material. To achieve this aim, widely acceptable calibration approach was used having standard box-type apparatus. Further, qualitative and quantitative findings such as particle profile, height of kernels retaining the acrylic wall, and angle of repose of experiments and numerical simulations were compared to get the parameters. The calibrated set of DEM input parameters includes the following (a) material properties: particle geometric mean diameter (6.24 mm); spherical shape; particle density (1220 kg m^{-3} ), and (b) interaction parameters such as particle-particle: coefficient of restitution (0.17); coefficient of static friction (0.26); coefficient of rolling friction (0.08), and particle-wall: coefficient of restitution (0.35); coefficient of static friction (0.30); coefficient of rolling friction (0.08). The results may adequately be used to simulate particle scale mechanics (grain commingling, flow/motion, forces, etc) of soybeans in post-harvest machinery and devices.
Stadthagen-González, Hans; Ferré, Pilar; Pérez-Sánchez, Miguel A; Imbault, Constance; Hinojosa, José Antonio
2017-09-18
The discrete emotion theory proposes that affective experiences can be reduced to a limited set of universal "basic" emotions, most commonly identified as happiness, sadness, anger, fear, and disgust. Here we present norms for 10,491 Spanish words for those five discrete emotions collected from a total of 2,010 native speakers, making it the largest set of norms for discrete emotions in any language to date. When used in conjunction with the norms from Hinojosa, Martínez-García et al. (Behavior Research Methods, 48, 272-284, 2016) and Ferré, Guasch, Martínez-García, Fraga, & Hinojosa (Behavior Research Methods, 49, 1082-1094, 2017), researchers now have access to ratings of discrete emotions for 13,633 Spanish words. Our norms show a high degree of inter-rater reliability and correlate highly with those from Ferré et al. (2017). Our exploration of the relationship between the five discrete emotions and relevant lexical and emotional variables confirmed findings of previous studies conducted with smaller datasets. The availability of such large set of norms will greatly facilitate the study of emotion, language and related fields. The norms are available as supplementary materials to this article.
Initial Data of Digital Correlation ECE with a Giga Hertz Sampling Digitizer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsuchiya, Hayato; Inagaki, Shigeru; Tokuzawa, Tokihiko; Nagayama, Yoshio
2015-03-01
The proposed Digital Correlation ECE (DCECE) technique is applied in Large Helical Device. DCECE is realized by the use of the Giga Hertz Sampling Digitizer. The waveform of intermediate frequency band of ECE, whose frequency is several giga hertz, can be discretized and saved directly. The discretized IF data can be used for the analysis of correlation ECE with arbitrary parameter of spatial resolution and temporal resolution. In this paper, the characteristic of DCECE and initial Data in LHD is introduced.
Sinclair, Michael B [Albuquerque, NM; Pfeifer, Kent B [Los Lunas, NM; Flemming, Jeb H [Albuquerque, NM; Jones, Gary D [Tijeras, NM; Tigges, Chris P [Albuquerque, NM
2010-04-13
A correlation spectrometer can detect a large number of gaseous compounds, or chemical species, with a species-specific mask wheel. In this mode, the spectrometer is optimized for the direct measurement of individual target compounds. Additionally, the spectrometer can measure the transmission spectrum from a given sample of gas. In this mode, infrared light is passed through a gas sample and the infrared transmission signature of the gasses present is recorded and measured using Hadamard encoding techniques. The spectrometer can detect the transmission or emission spectra in any system where multiple species are present in a generally known volume.
Discretization of 3d gravity in different polarizations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dupuis, Maïté; Freidel, Laurent; Girelli, Florian
2017-10-01
We study the discretization of three-dimensional gravity with Λ =0 following the loop quantum gravity framework. In the process, we realize that different choices of polarization are possible. This allows us to introduce a new discretization based on the triad as opposed to the connection as in the standard loop quantum gravity framework. We also identify the classical nontrivial symmetries of discrete gravity, namely the Drinfeld double, given in terms of momentum maps. Another choice of polarization is given by the Chern-Simons formulation of gravity. Our framework also provides a new discretization scheme of Chern-Simons, which keeps track of the link between the continuum variables and the discrete ones. We show how the Poisson bracket we recover between the Chern-Simons holonomies allows us to recover the Goldman bracket. There is also a transparent link between the discrete Chern-Simons formulation and the discretization of gravity based on the connection (loop gravity) or triad variables (dual loop gravity).
Fast and Accurate Learning When Making Discrete Numerical Estimates.
Sanborn, Adam N; Beierholm, Ulrik R
2016-04-01
Many everyday estimation tasks have an inherently discrete nature, whether the task is counting objects (e.g., a number of paint buckets) or estimating discretized continuous variables (e.g., the number of paint buckets needed to paint a room). While Bayesian inference is often used for modeling estimates made along continuous scales, discrete numerical estimates have not received as much attention, despite their common everyday occurrence. Using two tasks, a numerosity task and an area estimation task, we invoke Bayesian decision theory to characterize how people learn discrete numerical distributions and make numerical estimates. Across three experiments with novel stimulus distributions we found that participants fell between two common decision functions for converting their uncertain representation into a response: drawing a sample from their posterior distribution and taking the maximum of their posterior distribution. While this was consistent with the decision function found in previous work using continuous estimation tasks, surprisingly the prior distributions learned by participants in our experiments were much more adaptive: When making continuous estimates, participants have required thousands of trials to learn bimodal priors, but in our tasks participants learned discrete bimodal and even discrete quadrimodal priors within a few hundred trials. This makes discrete numerical estimation tasks good testbeds for investigating how people learn and make estimates.
Galerkin v. discrete-optimal projection in nonlinear model reduction
Carlberg, Kevin Thomas; Barone, Matthew Franklin; Antil, Harbir
Discrete-optimal model-reduction techniques such as the Gauss{Newton with Approximated Tensors (GNAT) method have shown promise, as they have generated stable, accurate solutions for large-scale turbulent, compressible ow problems where standard Galerkin techniques have failed. However, there has been limited comparative analysis of the two approaches. This is due in part to difficulties arising from the fact that Galerkin techniques perform projection at the time-continuous level, while discrete-optimal techniques do so at the time-discrete level. This work provides a detailed theoretical and experimental comparison of the two techniques for two common classes of time integrators: linear multistep schemes and Runge{Kutta schemes.more » We present a number of new ndings, including conditions under which the discrete-optimal ROM has a time-continuous representation, conditions under which the two techniques are equivalent, and time-discrete error bounds for the two approaches. Perhaps most surprisingly, we demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that decreasing the time step does not necessarily decrease the error for the discrete-optimal ROM; instead, the time step should be `matched' to the spectral content of the reduced basis. In numerical experiments carried out on a turbulent compressible- ow problem with over one million unknowns, we show that increasing the time step to an intermediate value decreases both the error and the simulation time of the discrete-optimal reduced-order model by an order of magnitude.« less
Fast and Accurate Learning When Making Discrete Numerical Estimates
Sanborn, Adam N.; Beierholm, Ulrik R.
2016-01-01
Many everyday estimation tasks have an inherently discrete nature, whether the task is counting objects (e.g., a number of paint buckets) or estimating discretized continuous variables (e.g., the number of paint buckets needed to paint a room). While Bayesian inference is often used for modeling estimates made along continuous scales, discrete numerical estimates have not received as much attention, despite their common everyday occurrence. Using two tasks, a numerosity task and an area estimation task, we invoke Bayesian decision theory to characterize how people learn discrete numerical distributions and make numerical estimates. Across three experiments with novel stimulus distributions we found that participants fell between two common decision functions for converting their uncertain representation into a response: drawing a sample from their posterior distribution and taking the maximum of their posterior distribution. While this was consistent with the decision function found in previous work using continuous estimation tasks, surprisingly the prior distributions learned by participants in our experiments were much more adaptive: When making continuous estimates, participants have required thousands of trials to learn bimodal priors, but in our tasks participants learned discrete bimodal and even discrete quadrimodal priors within a few hundred trials. This makes discrete numerical estimation tasks good testbeds for investigating how people learn and make estimates. PMID:27070155
Discrete Element Modeling of Triboelectrically Charged Particles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hogue, Michael D.; Calle, Carlos I.; Weitzman, Peter S.; Curry, David R.
2008-01-01
Tribocharging of particles is common in many processes including fine powder handling and mixing, printer toner transport and dust extraction. In a lunar environment with its high vacuum and lack of water, electrostatic forces are an important factor to consider when designing and operating equipment. Dust mitigation and management is critical to safe and predictable performance of people and equipment. The extreme nature of lunar conditions makes it difficult and costly to carry out experiments on earth which are necessary to better understand how particles gather and transfer charge between each other and with equipment surfaces. DEM (Discrete Element Modeling) provides an excellent virtual laboratory for studying tribocharging of particles as well as for design of devices for dust mitigation and for other purposes related to handling and processing of lunar regolith. Theoretical and experimental work has been performed pursuant to incorporating screened Coulombic electrostatic forces into EDEM, a commercial DEM software package. The DEM software is used to model the trajectories of large numbers of particles for industrial particulate handling and processing applications and can be coupled with other solvers and numerical models to calculate particle interaction with surrounding media and force fields. While simple Coulombic force between two particles is well understood, its operation in an ensemble of particles is more complex. When the tribocharging of particles and surfaces due to frictional contact is also considered, it is necessary to consider longer range of interaction of particles in response to electrostatic charging. The standard DEM algorithm accounts for particle mechanical properties and inertia as a function of particle shape and mass. If fluid drag is neglected, then particle dynamics are governed by contact between particles, between particles and equipment surfaces and gravity forces. Consideration of particle charge and any tribocharging and
Transverse discrete breathers in unstrained graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barani, Elham; Lobzenko, Ivan P.; Korznikova, Elena A.; Soboleva, Elvira G.; Dmitriev, Sergey V.; Zhou, Kun; Marjaneh, Aliakbar Moradi
2017-02-01
Discrete breathers (DB) are spatially localized vibrational modes of large amplitude in defect-free nonlinear lattices. The search for DBs in graphene is of high importance, taking into account that this one atom thick layer of carbon is promising for a number of applications. There exist several reports on successful excitation of DBs in graphene, based on molecular dynamics and ab initio simulations. In a recent work by Hizhnyakov with co-authors the possibility to excite a DB with atoms oscillating normal to the graphene sheet has been reported. In the present study we use a systematic approach for finding initial conditions to excite transverse DBs in graphene. The approach is based on the analysis of the frequency-amplitude dependence for a delocalized, short-wavelength vibrational mode. This mode is a symmetry-dictated exact solution to the dynamic equations of the atomic motion, regardless the mode amplitude and regardless the type of interatomic potentials used in the simulations. It is demonstrated that if the AIREBO potential is used, the mode frequency increases with the amplitude bifurcating from the upper edge of the phonon spectrum for out-of-plane phonons. Then a bell-shaped function is superimposed on this delocalized mode to obtain a spatially localized vibrational mode, i.e., a DB. Placing the center of the bell-shaped function at different positions with respect to the lattice sites, three different DBs are found. Typically, the degree of spatial localization of DBs increases with the DB amplitude, but the transverse DBs in graphene reported here demonstrate the opposite trend. The results are compared to those obtained with the use of the Savin interatomic potential and no transverse DBs are found in this case. The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of the nonlinear dynamics of graphene and they call for the ab initio simulations to verify which of the two potentials used in this study is more precise.
Microrobotics surveillance: discrete and continuous starbot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mayyas, M.; Lee, W. H.; Stephanou, Harry
2011-05-01
This paper focuses on robotic technologies and operational capabilities of multiscale robots that demonstrate a unique class of Microsystems with the ability to navigate diverse terrains and environments. We introduce two classes of robots which combine multiple locomotion modalities including centimeter scale Discrete and Continuous robots which are referred here by D-Starbot and C-Starbot, respectively. The first generation of the robots were obtained to allow rapid shape reconfiguration and flipping recovery to accomplish tasks such as lowering and raising to dexterously go over and under obstacles, deform to roll over hostile location as well as squeezing through opening smaller than its sizes. The D-Starbot is based on novel mechanisms that allow shape reconfiguration to accomplish tasks such as lowering and raising to go over and under obstacles as well as squeezing through small voids. The CStarbot is a new class of foldable robots that is generally designed to provide a high degree of manufacturability. It consists of flexible structures that are built out of composite laminates with embedded microsystems. The design concept of C-Starbot are suitable for robots that could emulate and combine multiple locomotion modalities such as walking, running, crawling, gliding, clinging, climbing, flipping and jumping. The first generation of C-Starbot has centimeter scale structure consisting of flexible flaps, each being coupled with muscle-like mechanism. Untethered D-Starbot designs are prototyped and tested for multifunctional locomotion capabilities in indoor and outdoor environments. We present foldable mechanism and initial prototypes of C-Starbot capable of hopping and squeezing at different environments. The kinematic performance of flexible robots is thoroughly presented using the large elastic deflection of a single arm which is actuated by pulling force acting at variable angles and under payload and friction forces.
EVALUATING DISABILITY OVER DISCRETE PERIODS OF TIME
Gill, Thomas M.; Gahbauer, Evelyne A.
2009-01-01
Background To advance the field of disability assessment, additional developmental work is needed. The objective of this study was to determine the potential value of participant recall when evaluating disability over discrete periods of time. Methods We studied 491 residents of greater New Haven, Connecticut who were aged 76 years or older. Participants completed a comprehensive assessment that included several new questions on disability in four essential activities of daily living (bathing, dressing, transferring, and walking). Participants were also assessed for disability in the same activities during monthly telephone interviews before and after the comprehensive assessment. Chronic disability was defined as a new disability that was present for at least three consecutive months. Results We found that up to half of the incident disability episodes, which would otherwise have been missed, can be ascertained if participants are asked to recall whether they have had disability “at any time” since the prior assessment; that these disability episodes, which are ascertained by participant recall, confer high risk for the subsequent development of chronic disability, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 2.5 (95% confidence interval: 1.1, 5.8); and that participant recall for the absence of disability becomes increasingly inaccurate as the duration of the assessment interval increases, with 2.2%, 6.0%, 6.9% and 9.1% of participants having inaccurate recall at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively. Conclusions Our results demonstrate both the promise and limitations of participant recall and suggest that additional strategies are needed to more completely and accurately ascertain the occurrence of disability among older persons. PMID:18559633
LAN attack detection using Discrete Event Systems.
Hubballi, Neminath; Biswas, Santosh; Roopa, S; Ratti, Ritesh; Nandi, Sukumar
2011-01-01
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is used for determining the link layer or Medium Access Control (MAC) address of a network host, given its Internet Layer (IP) or Network Layer address. ARP is a stateless protocol and any IP-MAC pairing sent by a host is accepted without verification. This weakness in the ARP may be exploited by malicious hosts in a Local Area Network (LAN) by spoofing IP-MAC pairs. Several schemes have been proposed in the literature to circumvent these attacks; however, these techniques either make IP-MAC pairing static, modify the existing ARP, patch operating systems of all the hosts etc. In this paper we propose a Discrete Event System (DES) approach for Intrusion Detection System (IDS) for LAN specific attacks which do not require any extra constraint like static IP-MAC, changing the ARP etc. A DES model is built for the LAN under both a normal and compromised (i.e., spoofed request/response) situation based on the sequences of ARP related packets. Sequences of ARP events in normal and spoofed scenarios are similar thereby rendering the same DES models for both the cases. To create different ARP events under normal and spoofed conditions the proposed technique uses active ARP probing. However, this probing adds extra ARP traffic in the LAN. Following that a DES detector is built to determine from observed ARP related events, whether the LAN is operating under a normal or compromised situation. The scheme also minimizes extra ARP traffic by probing the source IP-MAC pair of only those ARP packets which are yet to be determined as genuine/spoofed by the detector. Also, spoofed IP-MAC pairs determined by the detector are stored in tables to detect other LAN attacks triggered by spoofing namely, man-in-the-middle (MiTM), denial of service etc. The scheme is successfully validated in a test bed. Copyright © 2010 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Discrete-time model reduction in limited frequency ranges
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Horta, Lucas G.; Juang, Jer-Nan; Longman, Richard W.
1991-01-01
A mathematical formulation for model reduction of discrete time systems such that the reduced order model represents the system in a particular frequency range is discussed. The algorithm transforms the full order system into balanced coordinates using frequency weighted discrete controllability and observability grammians. In this form a criterion is derived to guide truncation of states based on their contribution to the frequency range of interest. Minimization of the criterion is accomplished without need for numerical optimization. Balancing requires the computation of discrete frequency weighted grammians. Close form solutions for the computation of frequency weighted grammians are developed. Numerical examples are discussed to demonstrate the algorithm.
Variable selection in discrete survival models including heterogeneity.
Groll, Andreas; Tutz, Gerhard
2017-04-01
Several variable selection procedures are available for continuous time-to-event data. However, if time is measured in a discrete way and therefore many ties occur models for continuous time are inadequate. We propose penalized likelihood methods that perform efficient variable selection in discrete survival modeling with explicit modeling of the heterogeneity in the population. The method is based on a combination of ridge and lasso type penalties that are tailored to the case of discrete survival. The performance is studied in simulation studies and an application to the birth of the first child.
Energy Criterion for the Spectral Stability of Discrete Breathers.
Kevrekidis, Panayotis G; Cuevas-Maraver, Jesús; Pelinovsky, Dmitry E
2016-08-26
Discrete breathers are ubiquitous structures in nonlinear anharmonic models ranging from the prototypical example of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam model to Klein-Gordon nonlinear lattices, among many others. We propose a general criterion for the emergence of instabilities of discrete breathers analogous to the well-established Vakhitov-Kolokolov criterion for solitary waves. The criterion involves the change of monotonicity of the discrete breather's energy as a function of the breather frequency. Our analysis suggests and numerical results corroborate that breathers with increasing (decreasing) energy-frequency dependence are generically unstable in soft (hard) nonlinear potentials.
Wavelet transforms with discrete-time continuous-dilation wavelets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Wei; Rao, Raghuveer M.
1999-03-01
Wavelet constructions and transforms have been confined principally to the continuous-time domain. Even the discrete wavelet transform implemented through multirate filter banks is based on continuous-time wavelet functions that provide orthogonal or biorthogonal decompositions. This paper provides a novel wavelet transform construction based on the definition of discrete-time wavelets that can undergo continuous parameter dilations. The result is a transformation that has the advantage of discrete-time or digital implementation while circumventing the problem of inadequate scaling resolution seen with conventional dyadic or M-channel constructions. Examples of constructing such wavelets are presented.
Discretization chaos - Feedback control and transition to chaos
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grantham, Walter J.; Athalye, Amit M.
1990-01-01
Problems in the design of feedback controllers for chaotic dynamical systems are considered theoretically, focusing on two cases where chaos arises only when a nonchaotic continuous-time system is discretized into a simpler discrete-time systems (exponential discretization and pseudo-Euler integration applied to Lotka-Volterra competition and prey-predator systems). Numerical simulation results are presented in extensive graphs and discussed in detail. It is concluded that care must be taken in applying standard dynamical-systems methods to control systems that may be discontinuous or nondifferentiable.
Exactly and quasi-exactly solvable 'discrete' quantum mechanics.
Sasaki, Ryu
2011-03-28
A brief introduction to discrete quantum mechanics is given together with the main results on various exactly solvable systems. Namely, the intertwining relations, shape invariance, Heisenberg operator solutions, annihilation/creation operators and dynamical symmetry algebras, including the q-oscillator algebra and the Askey-Wilson algebra. A simple recipe to construct exactly and quasi-exactly solvable (QES) Hamiltonians in one-dimensional 'discrete' quantum mechanics is presented. It reproduces all the known Hamiltonians whose eigenfunctions consist of the Askey scheme of hypergeometric orthogonal polynomials of a continuous or a discrete variable. Several new exactly and QES Hamiltonians are constructed. The sinusoidal coordinate plays an essential role.
Implementing the Standards. Teaching Discrete Mathematics in Grades 7-12.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hart, Eric W.; And Others
1990-01-01
Discrete mathematics are defined briefly. A course in discrete mathematics for high school students and teaching discrete mathematics in grades 7 and 8 including finite differences, recursion, and graph theory are discussed. (CW)
Complex-valued time-series correlation increases sensitivity in FMRI analysis.
Kociuba, Mary C; Rowe, Daniel B
2016-07-01
To develop a linear matrix representation of correlation between complex-valued (CV) time-series in the temporal Fourier frequency domain, and demonstrate its increased sensitivity over correlation between magnitude-only (MO) time-series in functional MRI (fMRI) analysis. The standard in fMRI is to discard the phase before the statistical analysis of the data, despite evidence of task related change in the phase time-series. With a real-valued isomorphism representation of Fourier reconstruction, correlation is computed in the temporal frequency domain with CV time-series data, rather than with the standard of MO data. A MATLAB simulation compares the Fisher-z transform of MO and CV correlations for varying degrees of task related magnitude and phase amplitude change in the time-series. The increased sensitivity of the complex-valued Fourier representation of correlation is also demonstrated with experimental human data. Since the correlation description in the temporal frequency domain is represented as a summation of second order temporal frequencies, the correlation is easily divided into experimentally relevant frequency bands for each voxel's temporal frequency spectrum. The MO and CV correlations for the experimental human data are analyzed for four voxels of interest (VOIs) to show the framework with high and low contrast-to-noise ratios in the motor cortex and the supplementary motor cortex. The simulation demonstrates the increased strength of CV correlations over MO correlations for low magnitude contrast-to-noise time-series. In the experimental human data, the MO correlation maps are noisier than the CV maps, and it is more difficult to distinguish the motor cortex in the MO correlation maps after spatial processing. Including both magnitude and phase in the spatial correlation computations more accurately defines the correlated left and right motor cortices. Sensitivity in correlation analysis is important to preserve the signal of interest in f
Diffuse versus discrete venting at the Tour Eiffel vent site, Lucky Strike hydrothermal field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mittelstaedt, E. L.; Escartin, J.; Gracias, N.; Olive, J. L.; Barreyre, T.; Davaille, A. B.; Cannat, M.
2010-12-01
Two styles of fluid flow at the seafloor are widely recognized: (1) localized outflows of high temperature (>300°C) fluids, often black or grey color in color (“black smokers”) and (2) diffuse, lower temperature (<100°C), fluids typically transparent and which escape through fractures, porous rock, and sediment. The partitioning of heat flux between these two types of hydrothermal venting is debated and estimates of the proportion of heat carried by diffuse flow at ridge axes range from 20% to 90% of the total axial heat flux. Here, we attempt to improve estimates of this partitioning by carefully characterizing the heat fluxes carried by diffuse and discrete flows at a single vent site, Tour Eiffel in the Lucky Strike hydrothermal field along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Fluid temperature and video data were acquired during the recent Bathyluck’09 cruise to the Lucky Strike hydrothermal field (September, 2009) by Victor aboard “Pourquoi Pas?” (IFREMER, France). Temperature measurements were made of fluid exiting discrete vents, of diffuse effluents immediately above the seafloor, and of vertical temperature gradients within discrete hydrothermal plumes. Video data allow us to calculate the fluid velocity field associated with these outflows: for diffuse fluids, Diffuse Flow Velocimetry tracks the displacement of refractive index anomalies through time; for individual hydrothermal plumes, Particle Image Velocimetry tracks eddies by cross-correlation of pixels intensities between subsequent images. Diffuse fluids exhibit temperatures of 8-60°C and fluid velocities of ~1-10 cm s-1. Discrete outflows at 204-300°C have velocities of ~1-2 m s-1. Combined fluid flow velocities, temperature measurements, and full image mosaics of the actively venting areas are used to estimate heat flux of both individual discrete vents and diffuse outflow. The total integrated heat flux and the partitioning between diffuse and discrete venting at Tour Eiffel, and its
Modelling discrete choice variables in assessment of teaching staff work satisfaction.
Mieilă, Mihai; Popescu, Constanţa; Tudorache, Ana-Maria; Toplicianu, Valerică
2015-01-01
Levels of self-reported job satisfaction and motivation were measured by survey in a sample of 286 teachers. Using the discrete choice framework, the paper tries to assess the relevance of the considered indicators (demographic, social, motivational) in overall teaching work satisfaction. The findings provide evidence that job satisfaction is correlated significantly with level of university degree held by the teacher, type of secondary school where the teacher is enrolled, revenues, and salary-tasks adequacy. This is important for the Romanian economy, since the education system is expected to provide future human resources with enhanced skills and abilities.
Modelling Discrete Choice Variables in Assessment of Teaching Staff Work Satisfaction
2015-01-01
Levels of self-reported job satisfaction and motivation were measured by survey in a sample of 286 teachers. Using the discrete choice framework, the paper tries to assess the relevance of the considered indicators (demographic, social, motivational) in overall teaching work satisfaction. The findings provide evidence that job satisfaction is correlated significantly with level of university degree held by the teacher, type of secondary school where the teacher is enrolled, revenues, and salary-tasks adequacy. This is important for the Romanian economy, since the education system is expected to provide future human resources with enhanced skills and abilities. PMID:25849295
A discrete mathematical model for the aggregation of β-Amyloid.
Dayeh, Maher A; Livadiotis, George; Elaydi, Saber
2018-01-01
Dementia associated with the Alzheimer's disease is thought to be correlated with the conversion of the β - Amyloid (Aβ) peptides from soluble monomers to aggregated oligomers and insoluble fibrils. We present a discrete-time mathematical model for the aggregation of Aβ monomers into oligomers using concepts from chemical kinetics and population dynamics. Conditions for the stability and instability of the equilibria of the model are established. A formula for the number of monomers that is required for producing oligomers is also given. This may provide compound designers a mechanism to inhibit the Aβ aggregation.
Analysis of Discrete-Source Damage Progression in a Tensile Stiffened Composite Panel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, John T.; Lotts, Christine G.; Sleight, David W.
1999-01-01
This paper demonstrates the progressive failure analysis capability in NASA Langley s COMET-AR finite element analysis code on a large-scale built-up composite structure. A large-scale five stringer composite panel with a 7-in. long discrete source damage was analyzed from initial loading to final failure including the geometric and material nonlinearities. Predictions using different mesh sizes, different saw cut modeling approaches, and different failure criteria were performed and assessed. All failure predictions have a reasonably good correlation with the test result.
Time correlations between low and high energy gamma rays from discrete sources
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ellsworth, R. W.
1995-01-01
Activities covered the following areas: (1) continuing analysis of the Cygnus Experiment data on the shadowing of cosmic rays by the moon and sun, which led to a direct confirmation of the angular resolution of the CYGNUS EAS array; and (2) development of analysis methods for the daily search overlapping with EGRET targets. To date, no steady emission of ultrahigh energy (UHE) gamma rays from any source has been detected by the Cygnus Experiment, but some evidence for sporadic emission had been found. Upper limits on steady fluxes from 49 sources in the northern hemisphere have been published. In addition, a daily search of 51 possible sources over the interval April 1986 to June 1992 found no evidence for emission. From these source lists, four candidates were selected for comparison with EGRET data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Guoqing; Bu, Tong; Zako, Tamotsu; Watanabe-Tamaki, Ryoko; Tanaka, Takuo; Maeda, Mizuo
2017-09-01
Due to the potential of gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-based trace analysis, the discrimination of small AuNP clusters with different assembling stoichiometry is a subject of fundamental and technological importance. Here we prepare oligomerized AuNPs with controlled stoichiometry through DNA-directed assembly, and demonstrate that AuNP monomers, dimers and trimers can be clearly distinguished using dark field microscopy (DFM). The scattering intensity for of AuNP structures with stoichiometry ranging from 1 to 3 agrees well with our theoretical calculations. This study demonstrates the potential of utilizing the DFM approach in ultra-sensitive detection as well as the use of DNA-directed assembly for plasmonic nano-architectures.
PREFACE: DISCRETE 2012 - Third Symposium on Prospects in the Physics of Discrete Symmetries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Branco, G. C.; Emmanuel-Costa, D.; González Felipe, R.; Joaquim, F. R.; Lavoura, L.; Palomares-Ruiz, S.; Rebelo, M. N.; Romão, J. C.; Silva, J. P.
2013-07-01
The Third Symposium on Prospects in the Physics of Discrete Symmetries (DISCRETE 2012) was held at Instituto Superior Técnico, Portugal, from 3-7 December 2012 and was organised by Centro de Física Teórica de Partículas (CFTP) of Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa. This is the sequel to the Symposia that was successfully organised in Valéncia in 2008 and in Rome in 2010. The topics covered included: T, C, P, CP symmetries CPT symmetry, decoherence, Lorentz symmetry breaking Discrete symmetries and models of flavour mixing Baryogenesis, leptogenesis Neutrino physics Electroweak symmetry breaking and physics beyond the Standard Model Accidental symmetries (B, L conservation) Experimental prospects at LHC Dark matter searches Super flavour factories, and other new experimental facilities The Symposium was organised in plenary sessions with a total of 24 invited talks, and parallel sessions with a total of 70 talks, including both invited and selected contributions from the submitted abstracts. The speakers of the plenary sessions were: Ignatios Antoniadis, Abdelhak Djouadi, Rabindra Mohapatra, André Rubbia, Alexei Yu Smirnov, José Bernabéu, Marco Cirelli, Apostolos Pilaftsis, Antonio Di Domenico, Robertus Potting, João Varela, Frank Rathmann, Michele Gallinaro, Dumitru Ghilencea, Neville Harnew, John Walsh, Patrícia Conde Muíño, Juan Aguilar-Saavedra, Nick Mavromatos, Ulrich Nierste, Ferruccio Feruglio, Vasiliki Mitsou, Masanori Yamauchi, and Marcello Giorgi. The Symposium was attended by about 140 participants. Among the social events, there was a social dinner in the historical Associação Comercial de Lisboa, which included a musical performance of 'Fado', the traditional music from Lisbon. The next symposium of the series will be organised by King's College, London University, UK, from 1-5 December 2014. Guest Editors G C Branco, D Emmanuel-Costa, R González Felipe, F R Joaquim, L Lavoura, S Palomares-Ruiz, M N Rebelo, J C
Properties of wavelet discretization of Black-Scholes equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Finěk, Václav
2017-07-01
Using wavelet methods, the continuous problem is transformed into a well-conditioned discrete problem. And once a non-symmetric problem is given, squaring yields a symmetric positive definite formulation. However squaring usually makes the condition number of discrete problems substantially worse. This note is concerned with a wavelet based numerical solution of the Black-Scholes equation for pricing European options. We show here that in wavelet coordinates a symmetric part of the discretized equation dominates over an unsymmetric part in the standard economic environment with low interest rates. It provides some justification for using a fractional step method with implicit treatment of the symmetric part of the weak form of the Black-Scholes operator and with explicit treatment of its unsymmetric part. Then a well-conditioned discrete problem is obtained.
Discrete-to-continuous transition in quantum phase estimation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rządkowski, Wojciech; Demkowicz-Dobrzański, Rafał
2017-09-01
We analyze the problem of quantum phase estimation in which the set of allowed phases forms a discrete N -element subset of the whole [0 ,2 π ] interval, φn=2 π n /N , n =0 ,⋯,N -1 , and study the discrete-to-continuous transition N →∞ for various cost functions as well as the mutual information. We also analyze the relation between the problems of phase discrimination and estimation by considering a step cost function of a given width σ around the true estimated value. We show that in general a direct application of the theory of covariant measurements for a discrete subgroup of the U(1 ) group leads to suboptimal strategies due to an implicit requirement of estimating only the phases that appear in the prior distribution. We develop the theory of subcovariant measurements to remedy this situation and demonstrate truly optimal estimation strategies when performing a transition from discrete to continuous phase estimation.
31 CFR 101.8 - Discretion of the Secretary.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... FORFEITURE OF COUNTERFEIT GOLD COINS § 101.8 Discretion of the Secretary. The Secretary of the Treasury... not convinced that the petitoner was an innocent purchaser or holder without knowledge that the gold...
Homoclinic snaking in the discrete Swift-Hohenberg equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kusdiantara, R.; Susanto, H.
2017-12-01
We consider the discrete Swift-Hohenberg equation with cubic and quintic nonlinearity, obtained from discretizing the spatial derivatives of the Swift-Hohenberg equation using central finite differences. We investigate the discretization effect on the bifurcation behavior, where we identify three regions of the coupling parameter, i.e., strong, weak, and intermediate coupling. Within the regions, the discrete Swift-Hohenberg equation behaves either similarly or differently from the continuum limit. In the intermediate coupling region, multiple Maxwell points can occur for the periodic solutions and may cause irregular snaking and isolas. Numerical continuation is used to obtain and analyze localized and periodic solutions for each case. Theoretical analysis for the snaking and stability of the corresponding solutions is provided in the weak coupling region.
Modulation and coding for a compatible Discrete Address Beacon System.
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1972-02-01
One of several possible candidate configurations for the Discrete Address System is described. The configuration presented is compatible with the Air Traffic Control Radar Beacon System, and it provides for gradual transition from one system to the o...
Implementation of quantum and classical discrete fractional Fourier transforms.
Weimann, Steffen; Perez-Leija, Armando; Lebugle, Maxime; Keil, Robert; Tichy, Malte; Gräfe, Markus; Heilmann, René; Nolte, Stefan; Moya-Cessa, Hector; Weihs, Gregor; Christodoulides, Demetrios N; Szameit, Alexander
2016-03-23
Fourier transforms, integer and fractional, are ubiquitous mathematical tools in basic and applied science. Certainly, since the ordinary Fourier transform is merely a particular case of a continuous set of fractional Fourier domains, every property and application of the ordinary Fourier transform becomes a special case of the fractional Fourier transform. Despite the great practical importance of the discrete Fourier transform, implementation of fractional orders of the corresponding discrete operation has been elusive. Here we report classical and quantum optical realizations of the discrete fractional Fourier transform. In the context of classical optics, we implement discrete fractional Fourier transforms of exemplary wave functions and experimentally demonstrate the shift theorem. Moreover, we apply this approach in the quantum realm to Fourier transform separable and path-entangled biphoton wave functions. The proposed approach is versatile and could find applications in various fields where Fourier transforms are essential tools.
Implementation of quantum and classical discrete fractional Fourier transforms
Weimann, Steffen; Perez-Leija, Armando; Lebugle, Maxime; Keil, Robert; Tichy, Malte; Gräfe, Markus; Heilmann, René; Nolte, Stefan; Moya-Cessa, Hector; Weihs, Gregor; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.; Szameit, Alexander
2016-01-01
Fourier transforms, integer and fractional, are ubiquitous mathematical tools in basic and applied science. Certainly, since the ordinary Fourier transform is merely a particular case of a continuous set of fractional Fourier domains, every property and application of the ordinary Fourier transform becomes a special case of the fractional Fourier transform. Despite the great practical importance of the discrete Fourier transform, implementation of fractional orders of the corresponding discrete operation has been elusive. Here we report classical and quantum optical realizations of the discrete fractional Fourier transform. In the context of classical optics, we implement discrete fractional Fourier transforms of exemplary wave functions and experimentally demonstrate the shift theorem. Moreover, we apply this approach in the quantum realm to Fourier transform separable and path-entangled biphoton wave functions. The proposed approach is versatile and could find applications in various fields where Fourier transforms are essential tools. PMID:27006089
Non-Gaussian bias: insights from discrete density peaks
Desjacques, Vincent; Riotto, Antonio; Gong, Jinn-Ouk, E-mail: Vincent.Desjacques@unige.ch, E-mail: jinn-ouk.gong@apctp.org, E-mail: Antonio.Riotto@unige.ch
2013-09-01
Corrections induced by primordial non-Gaussianity to the linear halo bias can be computed from a peak-background split or the widespread local bias model. However, numerical simulations clearly support the prediction of the former, in which the non-Gaussian amplitude is proportional to the linear halo bias. To understand better the reasons behind the failure of standard Lagrangian local bias, in which the halo overdensity is a function of the local mass overdensity only, we explore the effect of a primordial bispectrum on the 2-point correlation of discrete density peaks. We show that the effective local bias expansion to peak clustering vastlymore » simplifies the calculation. We generalize this approach to excursion set peaks and demonstrate that the resulting non-Gaussian amplitude, which is a weighted sum of quadratic bias factors, precisely agrees with the peak-background split expectation, which is a logarithmic derivative of the halo mass function with respect to the normalisation amplitude. We point out that statistics of thresholded regions can be computed using the same formalism. Our results suggest that halo clustering statistics can be modelled consistently (in the sense that the Gaussian and non-Gaussian bias factors agree with peak-background split expectations) from a Lagrangian bias relation only if the latter is specified as a set of constraints imposed on the linear density field. This is clearly not the case of standard Lagrangian local bias. Therefore, one is led to consider additional variables beyond the local mass overdensity.« less
What Do Patients Want from Otolaryngologists? A Discrete Choice Experiment.
Naunheim, Matthew R; Rathi, Vinay K; Naunheim, Margaret L; Alkire, Blake C; Lam, Allen C; Song, Phillip C; Shrime, Mark G
2017-10-01
Objectives Patient preferences are crucial for the delivery of patient-centered care. Discrete choice experiments (DCEs) are an emerging quantitative methodology used for understanding these preferences. In this study, we employed DCE techniques to understand the preferences of patients presenting for an ear, nose, and throat clinic visit. Study Design DCE. Setting Decision science laboratory. Methods A DCE survey of 5 attributes-wait time, physician experience, physician personality, utilization of visit time, and cost/copayment-was constructed with structured qualitative interviews with patients. The DCE was administered to participants from the general population, who chose among hypothetical scenarios that varied across these attributes. A conditional logit model was used to determine relative attribute importance, with a separate logit model for determining subject effects. Results A total of 161 participants were included. Cost/copayment had the greatest impact on decision making (importance, 32.2%), followed by wait time and physician experience (26.5% and 24.7%, respectively). Physician personality mattered least (4.7%), although all attributes were significantly correlated to decision making. Participants preferred doctors who spent more time performing physical examination than listening or explaining. Participants were willing to pay $52 extra to avoid a 4-week delay in appointment time; $87 extra for a physician with 10 years of experience (vs 0 years); and $9 extra for a caring, friendly, and compassionate doctor (vs formal, efficient, and business-like). Conclusion DCEs allow for powerful economic analyses that may help physicians understand patient preferences. Our model showed that cost is an important factor to patients and that patients are willing to pay extra for timely appointments, experience, and thorough physical examination.
Minimax Estimation of Functionals of Discrete Distributions
Jiao, Jiantao; Venkat, Kartik; Han, Yanjun; Weissman, Tsachy
2017-01-01
We propose a general methodology for the construction and analysis of essentially minimax estimators for a wide class of functionals of finite dimensional parameters, and elaborate on the case of discrete distributions, where the support size S is unknown and may be comparable with or even much larger than the number of observations n. We treat the respective regions where the functional is nonsmooth and smooth separately. In the nonsmooth regime, we apply an unbiased estimator for the best polynomial approximation of the functional whereas, in the smooth regime, we apply a bias-corrected version of the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE). We illustrate the merit of this approach by thoroughly analyzing the performance of the resulting schemes for estimating two important information measures: 1) the entropy H(P)=∑i=1S−pilnpi and 2) Fα(P)=∑i=1Spiα, α > 0. We obtain the minimax L2 rates for estimating these functionals. In particular, we demonstrate that our estimator achieves the optimal sample complexity n ≍ S/ln S for entropy estimation. We also demonstrate that the sample complexity for estimating Fα(P), 0 < α < 1, is n ≍ S1/α/ln S, which can be achieved by our estimator but not the MLE. For 1 < α < 3/2, we show the minimax L2 rate for estimating Fα(P) is (n ln n)−2(α−1) for infinite support size, while the maximum L2 rate for the MLE is n−2(α−1). For all the above cases, the behavior of the minimax rate-optimal estimators with n samples is essentially that of the MLE (plug-in rule) with n ln n samples, which we term “effective sample size enlargement.” We highlight the practical advantages of our schemes for the estimation of entropy and mutual information. We compare our performance with various existing approaches, and demonstrate that our approach reduces running time and boosts the accuracy. Moreover, we show that the minimax rate-optimal mutual information estimator yielded by our framework leads to significant performance
Discrete element modelling of bedload transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loyer, A.; Frey, P.
2011-12-01
Discrete element modelling (DEM) has been widely used in solid mechanics and in granular physics. In this type of modelling, each individual particle is taken into account and intergranular interactions are modelled with simple laws (e.g. Coulomb friction). Gravity and contact forces permit to solve the dynamical behaviour of the system. DEM is interesting to model configurations and access to parameters not directly available in laboratory experimentation, hence the term "numerical experimentations" sometimes used to describe DEM. DEM was used to model bedload transport experiments performed at the particle scale with spherical glass beads in a steep and narrow flume. Bedload is the larger material that is transported on the bed on stream channels. It has a great geomorphic impact. Physical processes ruling bedload transport and more generally coarse-particle/fluid systems are poorly known, arguably because granular interactions have been somewhat neglected. An existing DEM code (PFC3D) already computing granular interactions was used. We implemented basic hydrodynamic forces to model the fluid interactions (buoyancy, drag, lift). The idea was to use the minimum number of ingredients to match the experimental results. Experiments were performed with one-size and two-size mixtures of coarse spherical glass beads entrained by a shallow turbulent and supercritical water flow down a steep channel with a mobile bed. The particle diameters were 4 and 6mm, the channel width 6.5mm (about the same width as the coarser particles) and the channel inclination was typically 10%. The water flow rate and the particle rate were kept constant at the upstream entrance and adjusted to obtain bedload transport equilibrium. Flows were filmed from the side by a high-speed camera. Using image processing algorithms made it possible to determine the position, velocity and trajectory of both smaller and coarser particles. Modelled and experimental particle velocity and concentration depth
Discrete structures in continuum descriptions of defective crystals.
Parry, G P
2016-04-28
I discuss various mathematical constructions that combine together to provide a natural setting for discrete and continuum geometric models of defective crystals. In particular, I provide a quite general list of 'plastic strain variables', which quantifies inelastic behaviour, and exhibit rigorous connections between discrete and continuous mathematical structures associated with crystalline materials that have a correspondingly general constitutive specification. © 2016 The Author(s).
Traveling waves in the discrete fast buffered bistable system.
Tsai, Je-Chiang; Sneyd, James
2007-11-01
We study the existence and uniqueness of traveling wave solutions of the discrete buffered bistable equation. Buffered excitable systems are used to model, among other things, the propagation of waves of increased calcium concentration, and discrete models are often used to describe the propagation of such waves across multiple cells. We derive necessary conditions for the existence of waves, and, under some restrictive technical assumptions, we derive sufficient conditions. When the wave exists it is unique and stable.
Discrete Vector Solitons in Kerr Nonlinear Waveguide Arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meier, Joachim; Hudock, Jared; Christodoulides, Demetrios; Stegeman, George; Silberberg, Y.; Morandotti, R.; Aitchison, J. S.
2003-10-01
We report the first experimental observation of discrete vector solitons in AlGaAs nonlinear waveguide arrays. These self-trapped states are possible through the coexistence of two orthogonally polarized fields and are stable in spite of the presence of four-wave mixing effects. We demonstrate that at sufficiently high power levels the two polarizations lock into a highly localized vector discrete soliton that would have been otherwise impossible in the absence of either one of these two components.
A separable two-dimensional discrete Hartley transform
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Watson, A. B.; Poirson, A.
1985-01-01
Bracewell has proposed the Discrete Hartley Transform (DHT) as a substitute for the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), particularly as a means of convolution. Here, it is shown that the most natural extension of the DHT to two dimensions fails to be separate in the two dimensions, and is therefore inefficient. An alternative separable form is considered, corresponding convolution theorem is derived. That the DHT is unlikely to provide faster convolution than the DFT is also discussed.
PREFACE: DISCRETE '08: Symposium on Prospects in the Physics of Discrete Symmetries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernabéu, José; Botella, Francisco J.; Mavromatos, Nick E.; Mitsou, Vasiliki A.
2009-07-01
The Symposium DISCRETE'08 on Prospects in the Physics of Discrete Symmetries was held at the Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC) in Valencia, Spain from 11 to 16 December 2008. IFIC is a joint centre of the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) and the Universitat de València (UVEG). The aim of the Symposium was to bring together experts on the field of Discrete Symmetries in order to discuss its prospects on the eve of the LHC era. The general state of the art for CP, T and CPT symmetries was reviewed and their interplay with Baryogenesis, Early Cosmology, Quantum Gravity, String Theory and the Dark Sector of the Universe was emphasised. Connections with physics beyond the Standard Model, in particular Supersymmetry, were investigated. Experimental implications in current and proposed facilities received particular attention. The scientific programme consisted of 24 invited Plenary Talks and 93 contributions selected among the submitted papers. Young researchers, in particular, were encouraged to submit an abstract. The Special Lecture on ''CERN and the Future of Particle Physics'', given by the CERN Director General Rolf-Dieter Heuer to close the Symposium, was of particular relevance. On the last day of the Symposium, an open meeting took place between Professor Heuer and the Spanish community of particle physics. The Symposium covered recent developments on the subject of Discrete Symmetries in the following topics: Quantum Vacuum Entanglement, Symmetrisation Principle CPT in Quantum Gravity and String Theory, Decoherence, Lorentz Violation Ultra-high-energy Messengers Time Reversal CP violation in the SM and beyond Neutrino Mass, Mixing and CP Baryogenesis, Leptogenesis Family Symmetries Supersymmetry and other searches Experimental Prospects: LHC, Super-B Factories, DAΦNE-2, Neutrino Beams The excellence of most of the presentations during the Symposium was pointed out by many participants. The broad spectrum of topics under the
On discrete control of nonlinear systems with applications to robotics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eslami, Mansour
1989-01-01
Much progress has been reported in the areas of modeling and control of nonlinear dynamic systems in a continuous-time framework. From implementation point of view, however, it is essential to study these nonlinear systems directly in a discrete setting that is amenable for interfacing with digital computers. But to develop discrete models and discrete controllers for a nonlinear system such as robot is a nontrivial task. Robot is also inherently a variable-inertia dynamic system involving additional complications. Not only the computer-oriented models of these systems must satisfy the usual requirements for such models, but these must also be compatible with the inherent capabilities of computers and must preserve the fundamental physical characteristics of continuous-time systems such as the conservation of energy and/or momentum. Preliminary issues regarding discrete systems in general and discrete models of a typical industrial robot that is developed with full consideration of the principle of conservation of energy are presented. Some research on the pertinent tactile information processing is reviewed. Finally, system control methods and how to integrate these issues in order to complete the task of discrete control of a robot manipulator are also reviewed.
Comparing performance in discrete and continuous comparison tasks.
Leibovich, Tali; Henik, Avishai
2014-05-01
The approximate number system (ANS) theory suggests that all magnitudes, discrete (i.e., number of items) or continuous (i.e., size, density, etc.), are processed by a shared system and comply with Weber's law. The current study reexamined this notion by comparing performance in discrete (comparing numerosities of dot arrays) and continuous (comparisons of area of squares) tasks. We found that: (a) threshold of discrimination was higher for continuous than for discrete comparisons; (b) while performance in the discrete task complied with Weber's law, performance in the continuous task violated it; and (c) performance in the discrete task was influenced by continuous properties (e.g., dot density, dot cumulative area) of the dot array that were not predictive of numerosities or task relevant. Therefore, we propose that the magnitude processing system (MPS) is actually divided into separate (yet interactive) systems for discrete and continuous magnitude processing. Further subdivisions are discussed. We argue that cooperation between these systems results in a holistic comparison of magnitudes, one that takes into account continuous properties in addition to numerosities. Considering the MPS as two systems opens the door to new and important questions that shed light on both normal and impaired development of the numerical system.
Discrete Biogeography Based Optimization for Feature Selection in Molecular Signatures.
Liu, Bo; Tian, Meihong; Zhang, Chunhua; Li, Xiangtao
2015-04-01
Biomarker discovery from high-dimensional data is a complex task in the development of efficient cancer diagnoses and classification. However, these data are usually redundant and noisy, and only a subset of them present distinct profiles for different classes of samples. Thus, selecting high discriminative genes from gene expression data has become increasingly interesting in the field of bioinformatics. In this paper, a discrete biogeography based optimization is proposed to select the good subset of informative gene relevant to the classification. In the proposed algorithm, firstly, the fisher-markov selector is used to choose fixed number of gene data. Secondly, to make biogeography based optimization suitable for the feature selection problem; discrete migration model and discrete mutation model are proposed to balance the exploration and exploitation ability. Then, discrete biogeography based optimization, as we called DBBO, is proposed by integrating discrete migration model and discrete mutation model. Finally, the DBBO method is used for feature selection, and three classifiers are used as the classifier with the 10 fold cross-validation method. In order to show the effective and efficiency of the algorithm, the proposed algorithm is tested on four breast cancer dataset benchmarks. Comparison with genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization, differential evolution algorithm and hybrid biogeography based optimization, experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is better or at least comparable with previous method from literature when considering the quality of the solutions obtained. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Graph-cut based discrete-valued image reconstruction.
Tuysuzoglu, Ahmet; Karl, W Clem; Stojanovic, Ivana; Castañòn, David; Ünlü, M Selim
2015-05-01
Efficient graph-cut methods have been used with great success for labeling and denoising problems occurring in computer vision. Unfortunately, the presence of linear image mappings has prevented the use of these techniques in most discrete-amplitude image reconstruction problems. In this paper, we develop a graph-cut based framework for the direct solution of discrete amplitude linear image reconstruction problems cast as regularized energy function minimizations. We first analyze the structure of discrete linear inverse problem cost functions to show that the obstacle to the application of graph-cut methods to their solution is the variable mixing caused by the presence of the linear sensing operator. We then propose to use a surrogate energy functional that overcomes the challenges imposed by the sensing operator yet can be utilized efficiently in existing graph-cut frameworks. We use this surrogate energy functional to devise a monotonic iterative algorithm for the solution of discrete valued inverse problems. We first provide experiments using local convolutional operators and show the robustness of the proposed technique to noise and stability to changes in regularization parameter. Then we focus on nonlocal, tomographic examples where we consider limited-angle data problems. We compare our technique with state-of-the-art discrete and continuous image reconstruction techniques. Experiments show that the proposed method outperforms state-of-the-art techniques in challenging scenarios involving discrete valued unknowns.
Variational discretization of the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of simple systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gay-Balmaz, François; Yoshimura, Hiroaki
2018-04-01
In this paper, we develop variational integrators for the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of simple closed systems. These integrators are obtained by a discretization of the Lagrangian variational formulation of nonequilibrium thermodynamics developed in (Gay-Balmaz and Yoshimura 2017a J. Geom. Phys. part I 111 169–93 Gay-Balmaz and Yoshimura 2017b J. Geom. Phys. part II 111 194–212) and thus extend the variational integrators of Lagrangian mechanics, to include irreversible processes. In the continuous setting, we derive the structure preserving property of the flow of such systems. This property is an extension of the symplectic property of the flow of the Euler–Lagrange equations. In the discrete setting, we show that the discrete flow solution of our numerical scheme verifies a discrete version of this property. We also present the regularity conditions which ensure the existence of the discrete flow. We finally illustrate our discrete variational schemes with the implementation of an example of a simple and closed system.
Robust inference in discrete hazard models for randomized clinical trials.
Nguyen, Vinh Q; Gillen, Daniel L
2012-10-01
Time-to-event data in which failures are only assessed at discrete time points are common in many clinical trials. Examples include oncology studies where events are observed through periodic screenings such as radiographic scans. When the survival endpoint is acknowledged to be discrete, common methods for the analysis of observed failure times include the discrete hazard models (e.g., the discrete-time proportional hazards and the continuation ratio model) and the proportional odds model. In this manuscript, we consider estimation of a marginal treatment effect in discrete hazard models where the constant treatment effect assumption is violated. We demonstrate that the estimator resulting from these discrete hazard models is consistent for a parameter that depends on the underlying censoring distribution. An estimator that removes the dependence on the censoring mechanism is proposed and its asymptotic distribution is derived. Basing inference on the proposed estimator allows for statistical inference that is scientifically meaningful and reproducible. Simulation is used to assess the performance of the presented methodology in finite samples.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zlatić, V.
2008-05-01
In the first part of these lecture notes we introduce the phenomenological equations for describing the heat and charge transport in thermoelectric samples. We discuss the solution obtained for various boundary conditions that are appropriate for the homogeneous and inhomogeneous thermoelectrics. In the second part we develop the formalism for a linear-response many-body description of the transport properties of correlated electrons. By properly determining the local heat-current operator we show that the Jonson-Mahan theorem applies to the Hamiltonians that are commonly used for the intermetallic compounds with Cerium, Europium and Ytterbium ions, so the various thermal-transport coefficient integrands are related by powers of frequency. We illustrate how to use this formalism by calculating the thermoelectric properties of the periodic Anderson model and, then, show that these results explain the experimental data on heavy fermions and valence fluctuators. Finally, we calculate the thermoelectric properties of the Falicov-Kimball model and use the results to explain the anomalous features of the intermetallic compounds in which one observes the valence-change transition.
Discrete sonic jets used as boundary-layer trips at Mach numbers of 6 and 8.5
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stone, D. R.; Cary, A. M., Jr.
1972-01-01
The effect of discrete three-dimensional sonic jets used to promote transition on a sharp-leading-edge flat plate at Mach numbers of 6 and 8.5 and unit Reynolds numbers as high as 2.5 x 100,000 per cm in the Langley 20-inch hypersonic tunnels is discussed. An examination of the downstream flow-field distortions associated with the discrete jets for the Mach 8.5 flow was also conducted. Jet trips are found to produce lengths of turbulent flow comparable to those obtained for spherical-roughness-element trips while significantly reducing the downstream flow distortions. A Reynolds number based upon secondary jet penetration into a supersonic main flow is used to correlate jet-trip effectiveness just as a Reynolds number based upon roughness height is used to correlate spherical-trip effectiveness. Measured heat-transfer data are in agreement with the predictions.
Zhao, Hai-Qiong; Yu, Guo-Fu
2017-04-01
In this paper, a spatial discrete complex modified Korteweg-de Vries equation is investigated. The Lax pair, conservation laws, Darboux transformations, and breather and rational wave solutions to the semi-discrete system are presented. The distinguished feature of the model is that the discrete rational solution can possess new W-shape rational periodic-solitary waves that were not reported before. In addition, the first-order rogue waves reach peak amplitudes which are at least three times of the background amplitude, whereas their continuous counterparts are exactly three times the constant background. Finally, the integrability of the discrete system, including Lax pair, conservation laws, Darboux transformations, and explicit solutions, yields the counterparts of the continuous system in the continuum limit.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salmasi, Mahbod; Potter, Michael
2018-07-01
Maxwell's equations are discretized on a Face-Centered Cubic (FCC) lattice instead of a simple cubic as an alternative to the standard Yee method for improvements in numerical dispersion characteristics and grid isotropy of the method. Explicit update equations and numerical dispersion expressions, and the stability criteria are derived. Also, several tools available to the standard Yee method such as PEC/PMC boundary conditions, absorbing boundary conditions, and scattered field formulation are extended to this method as well. A comparison between the FCC and the Yee formulations is made, showing that the FCC method exhibits better dispersion compared to its Yee counterpart. Simulations are provided to demonstrate both the accuracy and grid isotropy improvement of the method.
Discrete choice experiments of pharmacy services: a systematic review.
Vass, Caroline; Gray, Ewan; Payne, Katherine
2016-06-01
Background Two previous systematic reviews have summarised the application of discrete choice experiments to value preferences for pharmacy services. These reviews identified a total of twelve studies and described how discrete choice experiments have been used to value pharmacy services but did not describe or discuss the application of methods used in the design or analysis. Aims (1) To update the most recent systematic review and critically appraise current discrete choice experiments of pharmacy services in line with published reporting criteria and; (2) To provide an overview of key methodological developments in the design and analysis of discrete choice experiments. Methods The review used a comprehensive strategy to identify eligible studies (published between 1990 and 2015) by searching electronic databases for key terms related to discrete choice and best-worst scaling (BWS) experiments. All healthcare choice experiments were then hand-searched for key terms relating to pharmacy. Data were extracted using a published checklist. Results A total of 17 discrete choice experiments eliciting preferences for pharmacy services were identified for inclusion in the review. No BWS studies were identified. The studies elicited preferences from a variety of populations (pharmacists, patients, students) for a range of pharmacy services. Most studies were from a United Kingdom setting, although examples from Europe, Australia and North America were also identified. Discrete choice experiments for pharmacy services tended to include more attributes than non-pharmacy choice experiments. Few studies reported the use of qualitative research methods in the design and interpretation of the experiments (n = 9) or use of new methods of analysis to identify and quantify preference and scale heterogeneity (n = 4). No studies reported the use of Bayesian methods in their experimental design. Conclusion Incorporating more sophisticated methods in the design of pharmacy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karimi-Fard, M.; Durlofsky, L. J.
2016-10-01
A comprehensive framework for modeling flow in porous media containing thin, discrete features, which could be high-permeability fractures or low-permeability deformation bands, is presented. The key steps of the methodology are mesh generation, fine-grid discretization, upscaling, and coarse-grid discretization. Our specialized gridding technique combines a set of intersecting triangulated surfaces by constructing approximate intersections using existing edges. This procedure creates a conforming mesh of all surfaces, which defines the internal boundaries for the volumetric mesh. The flow equations are discretized on this conforming fine mesh using an optimized two-point flux finite-volume approximation. The resulting discrete model is represented by a list of control-volumes with associated positions and pore-volumes, and a list of cell-to-cell connections with associated transmissibilities. Coarse models are then constructed by the aggregation of fine-grid cells, and the transmissibilities between adjacent coarse cells are obtained using flow-based upscaling procedures. Through appropriate computation of fracture-matrix transmissibilities, a dual-continuum representation is obtained on the coarse scale in regions with connected fracture networks. The fine and coarse discrete models generated within the framework are compatible with any connectivity-based simulator. The applicability of the methodology is illustrated for several two- and three-dimensional examples. In particular, we consider gas production from naturally fractured low-permeability formations, and transport through complex fracture networks. In all cases, highly accurate solutions are obtained with significant model reduction.
Numerical Method for Darcy Flow Derived Using Discrete Exterior Calculus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirani, A. N.; Nakshatrala, K. B.; Chaudhry, J. H.
2015-05-01
We derive a numerical method for Darcy flow, and also for Poisson's equation in mixed (first order) form, based on discrete exterior calculus (DEC). Exterior calculus is a generalization of vector calculus to smooth manifolds and DEC is one of its discretizations on simplicial complexes such as triangle and tetrahedral meshes. DEC is a coordinate invariant discretization, in that it does not depend on the embedding of the simplices or the whole mesh. We start by rewriting the governing equations of Darcy flow using the language of exterior calculus. This yields a formulation in terms of flux differential form and pressure. The numerical method is then derived by using the framework provided by DEC for discretizing differential forms and operators that act on forms. We also develop a discretization for a spatially dependent Hodge star that varies with the permeability of the medium. This also allows us to address discontinuous permeability. The matrix representation for our discrete non-homogeneous Hodge star is diagonal, with positive diagonal entries. The resulting linear system of equations for flux and pressure are saddle type, with a diagonal matrix as the top left block. The performance of the proposed numerical method is illustrated on many standard test problems. These include patch tests in two and three dimensions, comparison with analytically known solutions in two dimensions, layered medium with alternating permeability values, and a test with a change in permeability along the flow direction. We also show numerical evidence of convergence of the flux and the pressure. A convergence experiment is included for Darcy flow on a surface. A short introduction to the relevant parts of smooth and discrete exterior calculus is included in this article. We also include a discussion of the boundary condition in terms of exterior calculus.
Observation of discrete time-crystalline order in a disordered dipolar many-body system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Soonwon; Choi, Joonhee; Landig, Renate; Kucsko, Georg; Zhou, Hengyun; Isoya, Junichi; Jelezko, Fedor; Onoda, Shinobu; Sumiya, Hitoshi; Khemani, Vedika; von Keyserlingk, Curt; Yao, Norman Y.; Demler, Eugene; Lukin, Mikhail D.
2017-03-01
Understanding quantum dynamics away from equilibrium is an outstanding challenge in the modern physical sciences. Out-of-equilibrium systems can display a rich variety of phenomena, including self-organized synchronization and dynamical phase transitions. More recently, advances in the controlled manipulation of isolated many-body systems have enabled detailed studies of non-equilibrium phases in strongly interacting quantum matter; for example, the interplay between periodic driving, disorder and strong interactions has been predicted to result in exotic ‘time-crystalline’ phases, in which a system exhibits temporal correlations at integer multiples of the fundamental driving period, breaking the discrete time-translational symmetry of the underlying drive. Here we report the experimental observation of such discrete time-crystalline order in a driven, disordered ensemble of about one million dipolar spin impurities in diamond at room temperature. We observe long-lived temporal correlations, experimentally identify the phase boundary and find that the temporal order is protected by strong interactions. This order is remarkably stable to perturbations, even in the presence of slow thermalization. Our work opens the door to exploring dynamical phases of matter and controlling interacting, disordered many-body systems.
Self-reported psychological demands, skill discretion and decision authority at work: A twin study.
Theorell, Töres; De Manzano, Örjan; Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Pedersen, Nancy L; Ullén, Fredrik
2016-06-01
To examine the contribution of genetic factors to self-reported psychological demands (PD), skill discretion (SD) and decision authority (DA) and the possible importance of such influence on the association between these work variables and depressive symptoms. 11,543 participants aged 27-54 in the Swedish Twin Registry participated in a web survey. First of all, in multiple regressions, phenotypic associations between each one of the three work environment variables and depressive symptoms were analysed. Secondly, by means of classical twin analysis, the genetic contribution to PD, SD and DA was assessed. After this, cross-twin cross-trait correlations were computed between PD, SD and DA, on the one hand, and depressive symptom score, on the other hand. The genetic contribution to self-reported PD, DS and DA ranged from 18% for decision authority to 30% for skill discretion. Cross-twin cross-trait correlations were very weak (r values < .1) and non-significant for dizygotic twins, and we lacked power to analyse the genetic architecture of the phenotypic associations using bivariate twin modelling. However, substantial genetic contribution to these associations seems unlikely. CONCLUSIONS GENETIC CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE SELF-REPORTED WORK ENVIRONMENT SCORES WERE 18-30%. © 2016 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.
Natural convection in symmetrically heated vertical parallel plates with discrete heat sources
Manca, O.; Nardini, S.; Naso, V.
Laminar air natural convection in a symmetrically heated vertical channel with uniform flush-mounted discrete heat sources has been experimentally investigated. The effects of heated strips location and of their number are pointed out in terms of the maximum wall temperatures. A flow visualization in the entrance region of the channel was carried out and air temperatures and velocities in two cross sections have been measured. Dimensionless local heat transfer coefficients have been evaluated and monomial correlations among relevant parameters have bee derived in the local Rayleigh number range 10--10{sup 6}. Channel Nusselt number has been correlated in a polynomial formmore » in terms of channel Rayleigh number.« less
Ion association at discretely-charged dielectric interfaces: Giant charge inversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhi-Yong; Wu, Jianzhong
2017-07-01
Giant charge reversal has been identified for the first time by Monte Carlo simulation for a discretely charged surface in contact with a trivalent electrolyte solution. It takes place regardless of the surface charge density under study and the monovalent salt. In stark contrast to earlier predictions based on the 2-dimensional Wigner crystal model to describe strong correlation of counterions at the macroion surface, we find that giant charge reversal reflects an intricate interplay of ionic volume effects, electrostatic correlations, surface charge heterogeneity, and the dielectric response of the confined fluids. While the novel phenomenon is yet to be confirmed with experiment, the simulation results appear in excellent agreement with a wide range of existing observations in the subregime of charge inversion. Our findings may have far-reaching implications to understanding complex electrochemical phenomena entailing ionic fluids under dielectric confinements.
Harrison, Luke B; Larsson, Hans C E
2015-03-01
Likelihood-based methods are commonplace in phylogenetic systematics. Although much effort has been directed toward likelihood-based models for molecular data, comparatively less work has addressed models for discrete morphological character (DMC) data. Among-character rate variation (ACRV) may confound phylogenetic analysis, but there have been few analyses of the magnitude and distribution of rate heterogeneity among DMCs. Using 76 data sets covering a range of plants, invertebrate, and vertebrate animals, we used a modified version of MrBayes to test equal, gamma-distributed and lognormally distributed models of ACRV, integrating across phylogenetic uncertainty using Bayesian model selection. We found that in approximately 80% of data sets, unequal-rates models outperformed equal-rates models, especially among larger data sets. Moreover, although most data sets were equivocal, more data sets favored the lognormal rate distribution relative to the gamma rate distribution, lending some support for more complex character correlations than in molecular data. Parsimony estimation of the underlying rate distributions in several data sets suggests that the lognormal distribution is preferred when there are many slowly evolving characters and fewer quickly evolving characters. The commonly adopted four rate category discrete approximation used for molecular data was found to be sufficient to approximate a gamma rate distribution with discrete characters. However, among the two data sets tested that favored a lognormal rate distribution, the continuous distribution was better approximated with at least eight discrete rate categories. Although the effect of rate model on the estimation of topology was difficult to assess across all data sets, it appeared relatively minor between the unequal-rates models for the one data set examined carefully. As in molecular analyses, we argue that researchers should test and adopt the most appropriate model of rate variation for the
Compensatory neurofuzzy model for discrete data classification in biomedical
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ceylan, Rahime
2015-03-01
Biomedical data is separated to two main sections: signals and discrete data. So, studies in this area are about biomedical signal classification or biomedical discrete data classification. There are artificial intelligence models which are relevant to classification of ECG, EMG or EEG signals. In same way, in literature, many models exist for classification of discrete data taken as value of samples which can be results of blood analysis or biopsy in medical process. Each algorithm could not achieve high accuracy rate on classification of signal and discrete data. In this study, compensatory neurofuzzy network model is presented for classification of discrete data in biomedical pattern recognition area. The compensatory neurofuzzy network has a hybrid and binary classifier. In this system, the parameters of fuzzy systems are updated by backpropagation algorithm. The realized classifier model is conducted to two benchmark datasets (Wisconsin Breast Cancer dataset and Pima Indian Diabetes dataset). Experimental studies show that compensatory neurofuzzy network model achieved 96.11% accuracy rate in classification of breast cancer dataset and 69.08% accuracy rate was obtained in experiments made on diabetes dataset with only 10 iterations.
Weight-lattice discretization of Weyl-orbit functions
Hrivnák, Jiří, E-mail: jiri.hrivnak@fjfi.cvut.cz, E-mail: walton@uleth.ca; Walton, Mark A., E-mail: jiri.hrivnak@fjfi.cvut.cz, E-mail: walton@uleth.ca
Weyl-orbit functions have been defined for each simple Lie algebra, and permit Fourier-like analysis on the fundamental region of the corresponding affine Weyl group. They have also been discretized, using a refinement of the coweight lattice, so that digitized data on the fundamental region can be Fourier-analyzed. The discretized orbit function has arguments that are redundant if related by the affine Weyl group, while its labels, the Weyl-orbit representatives, invoke the dual affine Weyl group. Here we discretize the orbit functions in a novel way, by using the weight lattice. A cleaner theory results with symmetry between the arguments andmore » labels of the discretized orbit functions. Orthogonality of the new discretized orbit functions is proved, and leads to the construction of unitary, symmetric matrices with Weyl-orbit-valued elements. For one type of orbit function, the matrix coincides with the Kac-Peterson modular S matrix, important for Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten conformal field theory.« less
Discrete-continuous variable structural synthesis using dual methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schmit, L. A.; Fleury, C.
1980-01-01
Approximation concepts and dual methods are extended to solve structural synthesis problems involving a mix of discrete and continuous sizing type of design variables. Pure discrete and pure continuous variable problems can be handled as special cases. The basic mathematical programming statement of the structural synthesis problem is converted into a sequence of explicit approximate primal problems of separable form. These problems are solved by constructing continuous explicit dual functions, which are maximized subject to simple nonnegativity constraints on the dual variables. A newly devised gradient projection type of algorithm called DUAL 1, which includes special features for handling dual function gradient discontinuities that arise from the discrete primal variables, is used to find the solution of each dual problem. Computational implementation is accomplished by incorporating the DUAL 1 algorithm into the ACCESS 3 program as a new optimizer option. The power of the method set forth is demonstrated by presenting numerical results for several example problems, including a pure discrete variable treatment of a metallic swept wing and a mixed discrete-continuous variable solution for a thin delta wing with fiber composite skins.
A new discrete dipole kernel for quantitative susceptibility mapping.
Milovic, Carlos; Acosta-Cabronero, Julio; Pinto, José Miguel; Mattern, Hendrik; Andia, Marcelo; Uribe, Sergio; Tejos, Cristian
2018-09-01
Most approaches for quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) are based on a forward model approximation that employs a continuous Fourier transform operator to solve a differential equation system. Such formulation, however, is prone to high-frequency aliasing. The aim of this study was to reduce such errors using an alternative dipole kernel formulation based on the discrete Fourier transform and discrete operators. The impact of such an approach on forward model calculation and susceptibility inversion was evaluated in contrast to the continuous formulation both with synthetic phantoms and in vivo MRI data. The discrete kernel demonstrated systematically better fits to analytic field solutions, and showed less over-oscillations and aliasing artifacts while preserving low- and medium-frequency responses relative to those obtained with the continuous kernel. In the context of QSM estimation, the use of the proposed discrete kernel resulted in error reduction and increased sharpness. This proof-of-concept study demonstrated that discretizing the dipole kernel is advantageous for QSM. The impact on small or narrow structures such as the venous vasculature might by particularly relevant to high-resolution QSM applications with ultra-high field MRI - a topic for future investigations. The proposed dipole kernel has a straightforward implementation to existing QSM routines. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Discretization-dependent model for weakly connected excitable media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arroyo, Pedro André; Alonso, Sergio; Weber dos Santos, Rodrigo
2018-03-01
Pattern formation has been widely observed in extended chemical and biological processes. Although the biochemical systems are highly heterogeneous, homogenized continuum approaches formed by partial differential equations have been employed frequently. Such approaches are usually justified by the difference of scales between the heterogeneities and the characteristic spatial size of the patterns. Under different conditions, for example, under weak coupling, discrete models are more adequate. However, discrete models may be less manageable, for instance, in terms of numerical implementation and mesh generation, than the associated continuum models. Here we study a model to approach discreteness which permits the computer implementation on general unstructured meshes. The model is cast as a partial differential equation but with a parameter that depends not only on heterogeneities sizes, as in the case of quasicontinuum models, but also on the discretization mesh. Therefore, we refer to it as a discretization-dependent model. We validate the approach in a generic excitable media that simulates three different phenomena: the propagation of action membrane potential in cardiac tissue, in myelinated axons of neurons, and concentration waves in chemical microemulsions.
On the Importance of the Dynamics of Discretizations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sweby, Peter K.; Yee, H. C.; Rai, ManMohan (Technical Monitor)
1995-01-01
It has been realized recently that the discrete maps resulting from numerical discretizations of differential equations can possess asymptotic dynamical behavior quite different from that of the original systems. This is the case not only for systems of Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) but in a more complicated manner for Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) used to model complex physics. The impact of the modified dynamics may be mild and even not observed for some numerical methods. For other classes of discretizations the impact may be pronounced, but not always obvious depending on the nonlinear model equations, the time steps, the grid spacings and the initial conditions. Non-convergence or convergence to periodic solutions might be easily recognizable but convergence to incorrect but plausible solutions may not be so obvious - even for discretized parameters within the linearized stability constraint. Based on our past four years of research, we will illustrate some of the pathology of the dynamics of discretizations, its possible impact and the usage of these schemes for model nonlinear ODEs, convection-diffusion equations and grid adaptations.
Discrete Variational Approach for Modeling Laser-Plasma Interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reyes, J. Paxon; Shadwick, B. A.
2014-10-01
The traditional approach for fluid models of laser-plasma interactions begins by approximating fields and derivatives on a grid in space and time, leading to difference equations that are manipulated to create a time-advance algorithm. In contrast, by introducing the spatial discretization at the level of the action, the resulting Euler-Lagrange equations have particular differencing approximations that will exactly satisfy discrete versions of the relevant conservation laws. For example, applying a spatial discretization in the Lagrangian density leads to continuous-time, discrete-space equations and exact energy conservation regardless of the spatial grid resolution. We compare the results of two discrete variational methods using the variational principles from Chen and Sudan and Brizard. Since the fluid system conserves energy and momentum, the relative errors in these conserved quantities are well-motivated physically as figures of merit for a particular method. This work was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-SC0008382 and by the National Science Foundation under Contract No. PHY-1104683.
Discrete Space-Time: History and Recent Developments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crouse, David
2017-01-01
Discussed in this work is the long history and debate of whether space and time are discrete or continuous. Starting from Zeno of Elea and progressing to Heisenberg and others, the issues with discrete space are discussed, including: Lorentz contraction (time dilation) of the ostensibly smallest spatial (temporal) interval, maintaining isotropy, violations of causality, and conservation of energy and momentum. It is shown that there are solutions to all these issues, such that discrete space is a viable model, yet the solution require strict non-absolute space (i.e., Mach's principle) and a re-analysis of the concept of measurement and the foundations of special relativity. In developing these solutions, the long forgotten but important debate between Albert Einstein and Henri Bergson concerning time will be discussed. Also discussed is the resolution to the Weyl tile argument against discrete space; however, the solution involves a modified version of the typical distance formula. One example effect of discrete space is then discussed, namely how it necessarily imposes order upon Wheeler's quantum foam, changing the foam into a gravity crystal and yielding crystalline properties of bandgaps, Brilluoin zones and negative inertial mass for astronomical bodies.
Distinct timing mechanisms produce discrete and continuous movements.
Huys, Raoul; Studenka, Breanna E; Rheaume, Nicole L; Zelaznik, Howard N; Jirsa, Viktor K
2008-04-25
The differentiation of discrete and continuous movement is one of the pillars of motor behavior classification. Discrete movements have a definite beginning and end, whereas continuous movements do not have such discriminable end points. In the past decade there has been vigorous debate whether this classification implies different control processes. This debate up until the present has been empirically based. Here, we present an unambiguous non-empirical classification based on theorems in dynamical system theory that sets discrete and continuous movements apart. Through computational simulations of representative modes of each class and topological analysis of the flow in state space, we show that distinct control mechanisms underwrite discrete and fast rhythmic movements. In particular, we demonstrate that discrete movements require a time keeper while fast rhythmic movements do not. We validate our computational findings experimentally using a behavioral paradigm in which human participants performed finger flexion-extension movements at various movement paces and under different instructions. Our results demonstrate that the human motor system employs different timing control mechanisms (presumably via differential recruitment of neural subsystems) to accomplish varying behavioral functions such as speed constraints.
Weight-lattice discretization of Weyl-orbit functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hrivnák, Jiří; Walton, Mark A.
2016-08-01
Weyl-orbit functions have been defined for each simple Lie algebra, and permit Fourier-like analysis on the fundamental region of the corresponding affine Weyl group. They have also been discretized, using a refinement of the coweight lattice, so that digitized data on the fundamental region can be Fourier-analyzed. The discretized orbit function has arguments that are redundant if related by the affine Weyl group, while its labels, the Weyl-orbit representatives, invoke the dual affine Weyl group. Here we discretize the orbit functions in a novel way, by using the weight lattice. A cleaner theory results with symmetry between the arguments and labels of the discretized orbit functions. Orthogonality of the new discretized orbit functions is proved, and leads to the construction of unitary, symmetric matrices with Weyl-orbit-valued elements. For one type of orbit function, the matrix coincides with the Kac-Peterson modular S matrix, important for Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten conformal field theory.
Bell-Curve Genetic Algorithm for Mixed Continuous and Discrete Optimization Problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kincaid, Rex K.; Griffith, Michelle; Sykes, Ruth; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw
2002-01-01
In this manuscript we have examined an extension of BCB that encompasses a mix of continuous and quasi-discrete, as well as truly-discrete applications. FVe began by testing two refinements to the discrete version of BCB. The testing of midpoint versus fitness (Tables 1 and 2) proved inconclusive. The testing of discrete normal tails versus standard mutation showed was conclusive and demonstrated that the discrete normal tails are better. Next, we implemented these refinements in a combined continuous and discrete BCB and compared the performance of two discrete distance on the hub problem. Here we found when "order does matter" it pays to take it into account.
Self-assembled fibre optoelectronics with discrete translational symmetry
Rein, Michael; Levy, Etgar; Gumennik, Alexander; Abouraddy, Ayman F.; Joannopoulos, John; Fink, Yoel
2016-01-01
Fibres with electronic and photonic properties are essential building blocks for functional fabrics with system level attributes. The scalability of thermal fibre drawing approach offers access to large device quantities, while constraining the devices to be translational symmetric. Lifting this symmetry to create discrete devices in fibres will increase their utility. Here, we draw, from a macroscopic preform, fibres that have three parallel internal non-contacting continuous domains; a semiconducting glass between two conductors. We then heat the fibre and generate a capillary fluid instability, resulting in the selective transformation of the cylindrical semiconducting domain into discrete spheres while keeping the conductive domains unchanged. The cylindrical-to-spherical expansion bridges the continuous conducting domains to create ∼104 self-assembled, electrically contacted and entirely packaged discrete spherical devices per metre of fibre. The photodetection and Mie resonance dependent response are measured by illuminating the fibre while connecting its ends to an electrical readout. PMID:27698454
A Summary of Some Discrete-Event System Control Problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rudie, Karen
A summary of the area of control of discrete-event systems is given. In this research area, automata and formal language theory is used as a tool to model physical problems that arise in technological and industrial systems. The key ingredients to discrete-event control problems are a process that can be modeled by an automaton, events in that process that cannot be disabled or prevented from occurring, and a controlling agent that manipulates the events that can be disabled to guarantee that the process under control either generates all the strings in some prescribed language or as many strings as possible in some prescribed language. When multiple controlling agents act on a process, decentralized control problems arise. In decentralized discrete-event systems, it is presumed that the agents effecting control cannot each see all event occurrences. Partial observation leads to some problems that cannot be solved in polynomial time and some others that are not even decidable.
Optimization of Operations Resources via Discrete Event Simulation Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Joshi, B.; Morris, D.; White, N.; Unal, R.
1996-01-01
The resource levels required for operation and support of reusable launch vehicles are typically defined through discrete event simulation modeling. Minimizing these resources constitutes an optimization problem involving discrete variables and simulation. Conventional approaches to solve such optimization problems involving integer valued decision variables are the pattern search and statistical methods. However, in a simulation environment that is characterized by search spaces of unknown topology and stochastic measures, these optimization approaches often prove inadequate. In this paper, we have explored the applicability of genetic algorithms to the simulation domain. Genetic algorithms provide a robust search strategy that does not require continuity and differentiability of the problem domain. The genetic algorithm successfully minimized the operation and support activities for a space vehicle, through a discrete event simulation model. The practical issues associated with simulation optimization, such as stochastic variables and constraints, were also taken into consideration.
Partition-based discrete-time quantum walks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konno, Norio; Portugal, Renato; Sato, Iwao; Segawa, Etsuo
2018-04-01
We introduce a family of discrete-time quantum walks, called two-partition model, based on two equivalence-class partitions of the computational basis, which establish the notion of local dynamics. This family encompasses most versions of unitary discrete-time quantum walks driven by two local operators studied in literature, such as the coined model, Szegedy's model, and the 2-tessellable staggered model. We also analyze the connection of those models with the two-step coined model, which is driven by the square of the evolution operator of the standard discrete-time coined walk. We prove formally that the two-step coined model, an extension of Szegedy model for multigraphs, and the two-tessellable staggered model are unitarily equivalent. Then, selecting one specific model among those families is a matter of taste not generality.
Stability analysis of the Euler discretization for SIR epidemic model
Suryanto, Agus
2014-06-19
In this paper we consider a discrete SIR epidemic model obtained by the Euler method. For that discrete model, existence of disease free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium is established. Sufficient conditions on the local asymptotical stability of both disease free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium are also derived. It is found that the local asymptotical stability of the existing equilibrium is achieved only for a small time step size h. If h is further increased and passes the critical value, then both equilibriums will lose their stability. Our numerical simulations show that a complex dynamical behavior such as bifurcation or chaosmore » phenomenon will appear for relatively large h. Both analytical and numerical results show that the discrete SIR model has a richer dynamical behavior than its continuous counterpart.« less
Multigrid and Krylov Subspace Methods for the Discrete Stokes Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Elman, Howard C.
1996-01-01
Discretization of the Stokes equations produces a symmetric indefinite system of linear equations. For stable discretizations, a variety of numerical methods have been proposed that have rates of convergence independent of the mesh size used in the discretization. In this paper, we compare the performance of four such methods: variants of the Uzawa, preconditioned conjugate gradient, preconditioned conjugate residual, and multigrid methods, for solving several two-dimensional model problems. The results indicate that where it is applicable, multigrid with smoothing based on incomplete factorization is more efficient than the other methods, but typically by no more than a factor of two. The conjugate residual method has the advantage of being both independent of iteration parameters and widely applicable.
Phase-locked loops. [analog, hybrid, discrete and digital systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gupta, S. C.
1974-01-01
The basic analysis and design procedures are described for the realization of analog phase-locked loops (APLL), hybrid phase-locked loops (HPLL), discrete phase-locked loops, and digital phase-locked loops (DPLL). Basic configurations are diagrammed, and performance curves are given. A discrete communications model is derived and developed. The use of the APLL as an optimum angle demodulator and the Kalman-Bucy approach to APLL design are discussed. The literature in the area of phase-locked loops is reviewed, and an extensive bibliography is given. Although the design of APLLs is fairly well documented, work on discrete, hybrid, and digital PLLs is scattered, and more will have to be done in the future to pinpoint the formal design of DPLLs.
Theory and operational rules for the discrete Hankel transform.
Baddour, Natalie; Chouinard, Ugo
2015-04-01
Previous definitions of a discrete Hankel transform (DHT) have focused on methods to approximate the continuous Hankel integral transform. In this paper, we propose and evaluate the theory of a DHT that is shown to arise from a discretization scheme based on the theory of Fourier-Bessel expansions. The proposed transform also possesses requisite orthogonality properties which lead to invertibility of the transform. The standard set of shift, modulation, multiplication, and convolution rules are derived. In addition to the theory of the actual manipulated quantities which stand in their own right, this DHT can be used to approximate the continuous forward and inverse Hankel transform in the same manner that the discrete Fourier transform is known to be able to approximate the continuous Fourier transform.
Applications of algebraic topology to compatible spatial discretizations.
Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston; Hyman, James M.
We provide a common framework for compatible discretizations using algebraic topology to guide our analysis. The main concept is the natural inner product on cochains, which induces a combinatorial Hodge theory. The framework comprises of mutually consistent operations of differentiation and integration, has a discrete Stokes theorem, and preserves the invariants of the DeRham cohomology groups. The latter allows for an elementary calculation of the kernel of the discrete Laplacian. Our framework provides an abstraction that includes examples of compatible finite element, finite volume and finite difference methods. We describe how these methods result from the choice of a reconstructionmore » operator and when they are equivalent.« less
Discrete post-processing of total cloud cover ensemble forecasts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hemri, Stephan; Haiden, Thomas; Pappenberger, Florian
2017-04-01
This contribution presents an approach to post-process ensemble forecasts for the discrete and bounded weather variable of total cloud cover. Two methods for discrete statistical post-processing of ensemble predictions are tested. The first approach is based on multinomial logistic regression, the second involves a proportional odds logistic regression model. Applying them to total cloud cover raw ensemble forecasts from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts improves forecast skill significantly. Based on station-wise post-processing of raw ensemble total cloud cover forecasts for a global set of 3330 stations over the period from 2007 to early 2014, the more parsimonious proportional odds logistic regression model proved to slightly outperform the multinomial logistic regression model. Reference Hemri, S., Haiden, T., & Pappenberger, F. (2016). Discrete post-processing of total cloud cover ensemble forecasts. Monthly Weather Review 144, 2565-2577.
Discreteness-induced concentration inversion in mesoscopic chemical systems.
Ramaswamy, Rajesh; González-Segredo, Nélido; Sbalzarini, Ivo F; Grima, Ramon
2012-04-10
Molecular discreteness is apparent in small-volume chemical systems, such as biological cells, leading to stochastic kinetics. Here we present a theoretical framework to understand the effects of discreteness on the steady state of a monostable chemical reaction network. We consider independent realizations of the same chemical system in compartments of different volumes. Rate equations ignore molecular discreteness and predict the same average steady-state concentrations in all compartments. However, our theory predicts that the average steady state of the system varies with volume: if a species is more abundant than another for large volumes, then the reverse occurs for volumes below a critical value, leading to a concentration inversion effect. The addition of extrinsic noise increases the size of the critical volume. We theoretically predict the critical volumes and verify, by exact stochastic simulations, that rate equations are qualitatively incorrect in sub-critical volumes.
Hybrid discrete/continuum algorithms for stochastic reaction networks
Safta, Cosmin; Sargsyan, Khachik; Debusschere, Bert; ...
2014-10-22
Direct solutions of the Chemical Master Equation (CME) governing Stochastic Reaction Networks (SRNs) are generally prohibitively expensive due to excessive numbers of possible discrete states in such systems. To enhance computational efficiency we develop a hybrid approach where the evolution of states with low molecule counts is treated with the discrete CME model while that of states with large molecule counts is modeled by the continuum Fokker-Planck equation. The Fokker-Planck equation is discretized using a 2nd order finite volume approach with appropriate treatment of flux components to avoid negative probability values. The numerical construction at the interface between the discretemore » and continuum regions implements the transfer of probability reaction by reaction according to the stoichiometry of the system. As a result, the performance of this novel hybrid approach is explored for a two-species circadian model with computational efficiency gains of about one order of magnitude.« less
Rigidity, Criticality and Prethermalization of Discrete Time Crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, Norman
2017-04-01
Despite being forbidden in equilibrium, spontaneous breaking of time translation symmetry can occur in periodically driven, Floquet systems with discrete time-translation symmetry. The period of the resulting discrete time crystal (DTC) is quantized to an integer multiple of the drive period, arising from a combination of collective synchronization and many body localization. In this talk, I will describe a simple model for a one dimensional discrete time crystal which explicitly reveals the rigidity of the emergent oscillations as the drive is varied. I will analyze the properties of the dynamical phase transition where the time crystal melts into a trivial Floquet insulator. Effects of long-range interactions and pre-thermalization will be considered in the context of recent DTC realizations in trapped ions and solid-state spins.
Discrete-continuous duality of protein structure space.
Sadreyev, Ruslan I; Kim, Bong-Hyun; Grishin, Nick V
2009-06-01
Recently, the nature of protein structure space has been widely discussed in the literature. The traditional discrete view of protein universe as a set of separate folds has been criticized in the light of growing evidence that almost any arrangement of secondary structures is possible and the whole protein space can be traversed through a path of similar structures. Here we argue that the discrete and continuous descriptions are not mutually exclusive, but complementary: the space is largely discrete in evolutionary sense, but continuous geometrically when purely structural similarities are quantified. Evolutionary connections are mainly confined to separate structural prototypes corresponding to folds as islands of structural stability, with few remaining traceable links between the islands. However, for a geometric similarity measure, it is usually possible to find a reasonable cutoff that yields paths connecting any two structures through intermediates.
Self-assembled fibre optoelectronics with discrete translational symmetry.
Rein, Michael; Levy, Etgar; Gumennik, Alexander; Abouraddy, Ayman F; Joannopoulos, John; Fink, Yoel
2016-10-04
Fibres with electronic and photonic properties are essential building blocks for functional fabrics with system level attributes. The scalability of thermal fibre drawing approach offers access to large device quantities, while constraining the devices to be translational symmetric. Lifting this symmetry to create discrete devices in fibres will increase their utility. Here, we draw, from a macroscopic preform, fibres that have three parallel internal non-contacting continuous domains; a semiconducting glass between two conductors. We then heat the fibre and generate a capillary fluid instability, resulting in the selective transformation of the cylindrical semiconducting domain into discrete spheres while keeping the conductive domains unchanged. The cylindrical-to-spherical expansion bridges the continuous conducting domains to create ∼10 4 self-assembled, electrically contacted and entirely packaged discrete spherical devices per metre of fibre. The photodetection and Mie resonance dependent response are measured by illuminating the fibre while connecting its ends to an electrical readout.
Convergence of Spectral Discretizations of the Vlasov--Poisson System
Manzini, G.; Funaro, D.; Delzanno, G. L.
2017-09-26
Here we prove the convergence of a spectral discretization of the Vlasov-Poisson system. The velocity term of the Vlasov equation is discretized using either Hermite functions on the infinite domain or Legendre polynomials on a bounded domain. The spatial term of the Vlasov and Poisson equations is discretized using periodic Fourier expansions. Boundary conditions are treated in weak form through a penalty type term that can be applied also in the Hermite case. As a matter of fact, stability properties of the approximated scheme descend from this added term. The convergence analysis is carried out in detail for the 1D-1Vmore » case, but results can be generalized to multidimensional domains, obtained as Cartesian product, in both space and velocity. The error estimates show the spectral convergence under suitable regularity assumptions on the exact solution.« less
A space-time discretization procedure for wave propagation problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davis, Sanford
1989-01-01
Higher order compact algorithms are developed for the numerical simulation of wave propagation by using the concept of a discrete dispersion relation. The dispersion relation is the imprint of any linear operator in space-time. The discrete dispersion relation is derived from the continuous dispersion relation by examining the process by which locally plane waves propagate through a chosen grid. The exponential structure of the discrete dispersion relation suggests an efficient splitting of convective and diffusive terms for dissipative waves. Fourth- and eighth-order convection schemes are examined that involve only three or five spatial grid points. These algorithms are subject to the same restrictions that govern the use of dispersion relations in the constructions of asymptotic expansions to nonlinear evolution equations. A new eighth-order scheme is developed that is exact for Courant numbers of 1, 2, 3, and 4. Examples are given of a pulse and step wave with a small amount of physical diffusion.
Dissipative discrete breathers: periodic, quasiperiodic, chaotic, and mobile.
Martínez, P J; Meister, M; Floría, L M; Falo, F
2003-06-01
The properties of discrete breathers in dissipative one-dimensional lattices of nonlinear oscillators subject to periodic driving forces are reviewed. We focus on oscillobreathers in the Frenkel-Kontorova chain and rotobreathers in a ladder of Josephson junctions. Both types of exponentially localized solutions are easily obtained numerically using adiabatic continuation from the anticontinuous limit. Linear stability (Floquet) analysis allows the characterization of different types of bifurcations experienced by periodic discrete breathers. Some of these bifurcations produce nonperiodic localized solutions, namely, quasiperiodic and chaotic discrete breathers, which are generally impossible as exact solutions in Hamiltonian systems. Within a certain range of parameters, propagating breathers occur as attractors of the dissipative dynamics. General features of these excitations are discussed and the Peierls-Nabarro barrier is addressed. Numerical scattering experiments with mobile breathers reveal the existence of two-breather bound states and allow a first glimpse at the intricate phenomenology of these special multibreather configurations. (c) 2003 American Institute of Physics.
Dmitriev, S V; Kevrekidis, P G; Yoshikawa, N; Frantzeskakis, D J
2006-10-01
We propose a generalization of the discrete Klein-Gordon models free of the Peierls-Nabarro barrier derived in Spreight [Nonlinearity 12, 1373 (1999)] and Barashenkov [Phys. Rev. E 72, 035602(R) (2005)], such that they support not only kinks but a one-parameter set of exact static solutions. These solutions can be obtained iteratively from a two-point nonlinear map whose role is played by the discretized first integral of the static Klein-Gordon field, as suggested by Dmitriev [J. Phys. A 38, 7617 (2005)]. We then discuss some discrete phi4 models free of the Peierls-Nabarro barrier and identify for them the full space of available static solutions, including those derived recently by Cooper [Phys. Rev. E 72, 036605 (2005)] but not limited to them. These findings are also relevant to standing wave solutions of discrete nonlinear Schrödinger models. We also study stability of the obtained solutions. As an interesting aside, we derive the list of solutions to the continuum phi4 equation that fill the entire two-dimensional space of parameters obtained as the continuum limit of the corresponding space of the discrete models.
Performance on perceptual word identification is mediated by discrete states.
Swagman, April R; Province, Jordan M; Rouder, Jeffrey N
2015-02-01
We contrast predictions from discrete-state models of all-or-none information loss with signal-detection models of graded strength for the identification of briefly flashed English words. Previous assessments have focused on whether ROC curves are straight or not, which is a test of a discrete-state model where detection leads to the highest confidence response with certainty. We along with many others argue this certainty assumption is too constraining, and, consequently, the straight-line ROC test is too stringent. Instead, we assess a core property of discrete-state models, conditional independence, where the pattern of responses depends only on which state is entered. The conditional independence property implies that confidence ratings are a mixture of detect and guess state responses, and that stimulus strength factors, the duration of the flashed word in this report, affect only the probability of entering a state and not responses conditional on a state. To assess this mixture property, 50 participants saw words presented briefly on a computer screen at three variable flash durations followed by either a two-alternative confidence ratings task or a yes-no confidence ratings task. Comparable discrete-state and signal-detection models were fit to the data for each participant and task. The discrete-state models outperformed the signal detection models for 90 % of participants in the two-alternative task and for 68 % of participants in the yes-no task. We conclude discrete-state models are viable for predicting performance across stimulus conditions in a perceptual word identification task.
Discrete Element Modeling of Impact Damage on Thermal Barrier Coatings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Minor, Peter Michel
Natural gas turbines have become an increasingly important part of the energy landscape in the United States, currently accounting for 19% of all electricity production. Efforts to increase thermal efficiency in gas turbines has led to the adoption of highly porous ceramic thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), which are susceptible to erosion and foreign object impact damage. Despite significant investment to improve the design of TBCs, few numerical tools exist which are capable of both accurately capturing the specific failure mechanisms inherent to TBCs and iterating design parameters without the requirement for coupled experimental data. To overcome these limitations, a discrete element model (DEM) was created to simulate the microstructure of a TBC using a large-scale assembly of bonded particles. Acting as Lagrangian nodes, the particles can be combined to create accurate representations of TBC geometry and porosity. The inclusion of collision-driven particle dynamics and bonds derived from displacement-dependent force functions endow the microstructure model with the ability to deform and reproduce damage in a highly physical manner. Typical TBC damage mechanisms such as compaction, fracture and spallation occur automatically, without having to tune the model based on experimental observation. Therefore, the first order performance of novel TBC designs and materials can be determined numerically, greatly decreasing the cost of development. To verify the utility and effectiveness of the proposed damage model framework, a nanoindentation materials test simulation was developed to serve as a test case. By varying model parameters, such as the porosity of the TBC and maximum applied indenter force, nanoindentation data from more than one hundred distinct permutations was gathered and analyzed. This data was used to calculate the elastic modulus (E) and hardness (H) of the simulated microstructure, which could then be compared to known experimental material property
Informant discrepancy defines discrete, clinically useful autism spectrum disorder subgroups.
Lerner, Matthew D; De Los Reyes, Andres; Drabick, Deborah A G; Gerber, Alan H; Gadow, Kenneth D
2017-07-01
Discrepancy between informants (parents and teachers) in severity ratings of core symptoms commonly arise when assessing autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Whether such discrepancy yields unique information about the ASD phenotype and its clinical correlates has not been examined. We examined whether degree of discrepancy between parent and teacher ASD symptom ratings defines discrete, clinically meaningful subgroups of youth with ASD using an efficient, cost-effective procedure. Children with ASD (N = 283; 82% boys; M age = 10.5 years) were drawn from a specialty ASD clinic. Parents and teachers provided ratings of the three core DSM-IV-TR domains of ASD symptoms (communication, social, and perseverative behavior) with the Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory-4R (CASI-4R). External validators included child psychotropic medication status, frequency of ASD-relevant school-based services, and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS-2). Four distinct subgroups emerged that ranged from large between-informant discrepancy (informant-specific) to relative lack of discrepancy (i.e. informant agreement; cross-situational): Moderate Parent/Low Teacher or Low Parent/Moderate Teacher Severity (Discrepancy), and Moderate or High Symptom Severity (Agreement). Subgroups were highly distinct (mean probability of group assignment = 94%). Relative to Discrepancy subgroups, Agreement subgroups were more likely to receive psychotropic medication, school-based special education services, and an ADOS-2 diagnosis. These differential associations would not have been identified based solely on CASI-4R scores from one informant. The degree of parent-teacher discrepancy about ASD symptom severity appears to provide more clinically useful information than reliance on a specific symptom domain or informant, and thus yields an innovative, cost-effective approach to assessing functional impairment. This conclusion stands in contrast to existing symptom clustering approaches in
Hierarchical Discrete Event Supervisory Control of Aircraft Propulsion Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yasar, Murat; Tolani, Devendra; Ray, Asok; Shah, Neerav; Litt, Jonathan S.
2004-01-01
This paper presents a hierarchical application of Discrete Event Supervisory (DES) control theory for intelligent decision and control of a twin-engine aircraft propulsion system. A dual layer hierarchical DES controller is designed to supervise and coordinate the operation of two engines of the propulsion system. The two engines are individually controlled to achieve enhanced performance and reliability, necessary for fulfilling the mission objectives. Each engine is operated under a continuously varying control system that maintains the specified performance and a local discrete-event supervisor for condition monitoring and life extending control. A global upper level DES controller is designed for load balancing and overall health management of the propulsion system.
Casting Metal Nanowires Within Discrete Self-Assembled Peptide Nanotubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reches, Meital; Gazit, Ehud
2003-04-01
Tubular nanostructures are suggested to have a wide range of applications in nanotechnology. We report our observation of the self-assembly of a very short peptide, the Alzheimer's β-amyloid diphenylalanine structural motif, into discrete and stiff nanotubes. Reduction of ionic silver within the nanotubes, followed by enzymatic degradation of the peptide backbone, resulted in the production of discrete nanowires with a long persistence length. The same dipeptide building block, made of D-phenylalanine, resulted in the production of enzymatically stable nanotubes.
Necessary and sufficient conditions for discrete wavelet frames in CN
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deepshikha; Vashisht, Lalit K.
2017-07-01
We present necessary and sufficient conditions with explicit frame bounds for a discrete wavelet system of the form {DaTk ϕ } a ∈ U(N) , k ∈IN to be a frame for the unitary space CN. It is shown that the canonical dual of a discrete wavelet frame for CN has the same structure. This is not true (well known) for canonical dual of a wavelet frame for L2(R) . Several numerical examples are given to illustrate the results.
Mathematical construction and perturbation analysis of Zernike discrete orthogonal points.
Shi, Zhenguang; Sui, Yongxin; Liu, Zhenyu; Peng, Ji; Yang, Huaijiang
2012-06-20
Zernike functions are orthogonal within the unit circle, but they are not over the discrete points such as CCD arrays or finite element grids. This will result in reconstruction errors for loss of orthogonality. By using roots of Legendre polynomials, a set of points within the unit circle can be constructed so that Zernike functions over the set are discretely orthogonal. Besides that, the location tolerances of the points are studied by perturbation analysis, and the requirements of the positioning precision are not very strict. Computer simulations show that this approach provides a very accurate wavefront reconstruction with the proposed sampling set.
Microfabricated, flowthrough porous apparatus for discrete detection of binding reactions
Beattie, Kenneth L.
1998-01-01
An improved microfabricated apparatus for conducting a multiplicity of individual and simultaneous binding reactions is described. The apparatus comprises a substrate on which are located discrete and isolated sites for binding reactions. The apparatus is characterized by discrete and isolated regions that extend through said substrate and terminate on a second surface thereof such that when a test sample is allowed to the substrate, it is capable of penetrating through each such region during the course of said binding reaction. The apparatus is especially useful for sequencing by hybridization of DNA molecules.
Discrete linear canonical transforms based on dilated Hermite functions.
Pei, Soo-Chang; Lai, Yun-Chiu
2011-08-01
Linear canonical transform (LCT) is very useful and powerful in signal processing and optics. In this paper, discrete LCT (DLCT) is proposed to approximate LCT by utilizing the discrete dilated Hermite functions. The Wigner distribution function is also used to investigate DLCT performances in the time-frequency domain. Compared with the existing digital computation of LCT, our proposed DLCT possess additivity and reversibility properties with no oversampling involved. In addition, the length of input/output signals will not be changed before and after the DLCT transformations, which is consistent with the time-frequency area-preserving nature of LCT; meanwhile, the proposed DLCT has very good approximation of continuous LCT.
An improved switching converter model using discrete and average techniques
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shortt, D. J.; Lee, F. C.
1982-01-01
The nonlinear modeling and analysis of dc-dc converters has been done by averaging and discrete-sampling techniques. The averaging technique is simple, but inaccurate as the modulation frequencies approach the theoretical limit of one-half the switching frequency. The discrete technique is accurate even at high frequencies, but is very complex and cumbersome. An improved model is developed by combining the aforementioned techniques. This new model is easy to implement in circuit and state variable forms and is accurate to the theoretical limit.
Complex discrete dynamics from simple continuous population models.
Gamarra, Javier G P; Solé, Ricard V
2002-05-01
Nonoverlapping generations have been classically modelled as difference equations in order to account for the discrete nature of reproductive events. However, other events such as resource consumption or mortality are continuous and take place in the within-generation time. We have realistically assumed a hybrid ODE bidimensional model of resources and consumers with discrete events for reproduction. Numerical and analytical approaches showed that the resulting dynamics resembles a Ricker map, including the doubling route to chaos. Stochastic simulations with a handling-time parameter for indirect competition of juveniles may affect the qualitative behaviour of the model.
Discrete Morse flow for Ricci flow and porous medium equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Li; Witt, Ingo
2018-06-01
In this paper, we study the discrete Morse flow for the Ricci flow on the American football, which is the 2-sphere with the north and south poles removed and equipped with a metric g0 of constant scalar curvature, and for the porous medium equation on a bounded regular domain in the plane. We show that under suitable assumptions on the initial metric g(0) one has a weak approximate discrete Morse flow for the approximated Ricci flow and porous medium equation on any time interval.
Computation of Symmetric Discrete Cosine Transform Using Bakhvalov's Algorithm
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aburdene, Maurice F.; Strojny, Brian C.; Dorband, John E.
2005-01-01
A number of algorithms for recursive computation of the discrete cosine transform (DCT) have been developed recently. This paper presents a new method for computing the discrete cosine transform and its inverse using Bakhvalov's algorithm, a method developed for evaluation of a polynomial at a point. In this paper, we will focus on both the application of the algorithm to the computation of the DCT-I and its complexity. In addition, Bakhvalov s algorithm is compared with Clenshaw s algorithm for the computation of the DCT.
New discretization and solution techniques for incompressible viscous flow problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gunzburger, M. D.; Nicolaides, R. A.; Liu, C. H.
1983-01-01
Several topics arising in the finite element solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are considered. Specifically, the question of choosing finite element velocity/pressure spaces is addressed, particularly from the viewpoint of achieving stable discretizations leading to convergent pressure approximations. The role of artificial viscosity in viscous flow calculations is studied, emphasizing work by several researchers for the anisotropic case. The last section treats the problem of solving the nonlinear systems of equations which arise from the discretization. Time marching methods and classical iterative techniques, as well as some modifications are mentioned.
New discretization and solution techniques for incompressible viscous flow problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gunzburger, M. D.; Nicolaides, R. A.; Liu, C. H.
1983-01-01
This paper considers several topics arising in the finite element solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Specifically, the question of choosing finite element velocity/pressure spaces is addressed, particularly from the viewpoint of achieving stable discretizations leading to convergent pressure approximations. Following this, the role of artificial viscosity in viscous flow calculations is studied, emphasizing recent work by several researchers for the anisotropic case. The last section treats the problem of solving the nonlinear systems of equations which arise from the discretization. Time marching methods and classical iterative techniques, as well as some recent modifications are mentioned.
Discrete disorder models for many-body localization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Janarek, Jakub; Delande, Dominique; Zakrzewski, Jakub
2018-04-01
Using exact diagonalization technique, we investigate the many-body localization phenomenon in the 1D Heisenberg chain comparing several disorder models. In particular we consider a family of discrete distributions of disorder strengths and compare the results with the standard uniform distribution. Both statistical properties of energy levels and the long time nonergodic behavior are discussed. The results for different discrete distributions are essentially identical to those obtained for the continuous distribution, provided the disorder strength is rescaled by the standard deviation of the random distribution. Only for the binary distribution significant deviations are observed.
Duan, Jin-Long; Zhang, Xue-Lei
2012-10-01
Taking Zhengzhou City, the capital of Henan Province in Central China, as the study area, and by using the theories and methodologies of diversity, a discreteness evaluation on the regional surface water, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and land surface temperature (LST) distribution was conducted in a 2 km x 2 km grid scale. Both the NDVI and the LST were divided into 4 levels, their spatial distribution diversity indices were calculated, and their connections were explored. The results showed that it was of operability and practical significance to use the theories and methodologies of diversity in the discreteness evaluation of the spatial distribution of regional thermal environment. There was a higher overlap of location between the distributions of surface water and the lowest temperature region, and the high vegetation coverage was often accompanied by low land surface temperature. In 1988-2009, the discreteness of the surface water distribution in the City had an obvious decreasing trend. The discreteness of the surface water distribution had a close correlation with the discreteness of the temperature region distribution, while the discreteness of the NDVI classification distribution had a more complicated correlation with the discreteness of the temperature region distribution. Therefore, more environmental factors were needed to be included for a better evaluation.
Coarse-grained hydrodynamics from correlation functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palmer, Bruce
2018-02-01
This paper will describe a formalism for using correlation functions between different grid cells as the basis for determining coarse-grained hydrodynamic equations for modeling the behavior of mesoscopic fluid systems. Configurations from a molecular dynamics simulation or other atomistic simulation are projected onto basis functions representing grid cells in a continuum hydrodynamic simulation. Equilibrium correlation functions between different grid cells are evaluated from the molecular simulation and used to determine the evolution operator for the coarse-grained hydrodynamic system. The formalism is demonstrated on a discrete particle simulation of diffusion with a spatially dependent diffusion coefficient. Correlation functions are calculated from the particle simulation and the spatially varying diffusion coefficient is recovered using a fitting procedure.
Preserved re-experience of discrete emotions: Amnesia and executive function.
Stanciu, Marian Andrei; Rafal, Robert D; Turnbull, Oliver H
2018-02-07
Amnesic patients can re-experience emotions elicited by forgotten events, suggesting that brain systems for episodic and emotional memory are independent. However, the range of such emotional memories remains under-investigated (most studies employing just positive-negative emotion dyads), and executive function may also play a role in the re-experience of emotions. This is the first investigation of the intensity of the emotional re-experience of a range of discrete emotions (anger, fear, sadness, and happiness) for a group of amnesic patients. Twenty Korsakoff syndrome (KS) patients and 20 neurologically normal controls listened to four novel emotional vignettes selectively eliciting the four basic emotions. Emotional experience was measured using pen-and-paper Visual Analogue Mood Scales and episodic memory using verbal recollections. After 30 min, the recollection of stories was severely impaired for the patient group, but the emotional re-experience was no different from that of controls. Notably, there was no relationship between episodic recall and the intensity of the four emotions, such that even profoundly amnesic patients reported moderate levels of the target emotion. Exploratory analyses revealed negative correlations between the intensity of basic emotions and executive functions (e.g., cognitive flexibility and response inhibition) for controls but not patients. The results suggest that discrete emotions can be re-experienced independently of episodic memory, and that the re-experience of certain discrete emotions appears to be dampened by executive control. KS patients with absent or mild cognitive symptoms should benefit from emotion-regulation interventions aimed at reducing the recognized affective burden associated with their episodic memory deficit. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.
Branny, Artur; Kumar, Santosh; Gerardot, Brian D., E-mail: b.d.gerardot@hw.ac.uk
Transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers such as MoSe{sub 2}, MoS{sub 2}, and WSe{sub 2} are direct bandgap semiconductors with original optoelectronic and spin-valley properties. Here we report on spectrally sharp, spatially localized emission in monolayer MoSe{sub 2}. We find this quantum dot-like emission in samples exfoliated onto gold substrates and also suspended flakes. Spatial mapping shows a correlation between the location of emitters and the existence of wrinkles (strained regions) in the flake. We tune the emission properties in magnetic and electric fields applied perpendicular to the monolayer plane. We extract an exciton g-factor of the discrete emitters close to −4,more » as for 2D excitons in this material. In a charge tunable sample, we record discrete jumps on the meV scale as charges are added to the emitter when changing the applied voltage.« less
Univariate and Bivariate Loglinear Models for Discrete Test Score Distributions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Holland, Paul W.; Thayer, Dorothy T.
2000-01-01
Applied the theory of exponential families of distributions to the problem of fitting the univariate histograms and discrete bivariate frequency distributions that often arise in the analysis of test scores. Considers efficient computation of the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters using Newton's Method and computationally efficient…
Discrete and broadband electron acceleration in Jupiter's powerful aurora.
Mauk, B H; Haggerty, D K; Paranicas, C; Clark, G; Kollmann, P; Rymer, A M; Bolton, S J; Levin, S M; Adriani, A; Allegrini, F; Bagenal, F; Bonfond, B; Connerney, J E P; Gladstone, G R; Kurth, W S; McComas, D J; Valek, P
2017-09-06
The most intense auroral emissions from Earth's polar regions, called discrete for their sharply defined spatial configurations, are generated by a process involving coherent acceleration of electrons by slowly evolving, powerful electric fields directed along the magnetic field lines that connect Earth's space environment to its polar regions. In contrast, Earth's less intense auroras are generally caused by wave scattering of magnetically trapped populations of hot electrons (in the case of diffuse aurora) or by the turbulent or stochastic downward acceleration of electrons along magnetic field lines by waves during transitory periods (in the case of broadband or Alfvénic aurora). Jupiter's relatively steady main aurora has a power density that is so much larger than Earth's that it has been taken for granted that it must be generated primarily by the discrete auroral process. However, preliminary in situ measurements of Jupiter's auroral regions yielded no evidence of such a process. Here we report observations of distinct, high-energy, downward, discrete electron acceleration in Jupiter's auroral polar regions. We also infer upward magnetic-field-aligned electric potentials of up to 400 kiloelectronvolts, an order of magnitude larger than the largest potentials observed at Earth. Despite the magnitude of these upward electric potentials and the expectations from observations at Earth, the downward energy flux from discrete acceleration is less at Jupiter than that caused by broadband or stochastic processes, with broadband and stochastic characteristics that are substantially different from those at Earth.
Exploring Discretization Error in Simulation-Based Aerodynamic Databases
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aftosmis, Michael J.; Nemec, Marian
2010-01-01
This work examines the level of discretization error in simulation-based aerodynamic databases and introduces strategies for error control. Simulations are performed using a parallel, multi-level Euler solver on embedded-boundary Cartesian meshes. Discretization errors in user-selected outputs are estimated using the method of adjoint-weighted residuals and we use adaptive mesh refinement to reduce these errors to specified tolerances. Using this framework, we examine the behavior of discretization error throughout a token database computed for a NACA 0012 airfoil consisting of 120 cases. We compare the cost and accuracy of two approaches for aerodynamic database generation. In the first approach, mesh adaptation is used to compute all cases in the database to a prescribed level of accuracy. The second approach conducts all simulations using the same computational mesh without adaptation. We quantitatively assess the error landscape and computational costs in both databases. This investigation highlights sensitivities of the database under a variety of conditions. The presence of transonic shocks or the stiffness in the governing equations near the incompressible limit are shown to dramatically increase discretization error requiring additional mesh resolution to control. Results show that such pathologies lead to error levels that vary by over factor of 40 when using a fixed mesh throughout the database. Alternatively, controlling this sensitivity through mesh adaptation leads to mesh sizes which span two orders of magnitude. We propose strategies to minimize simulation cost in sensitive regions and discuss the role of error-estimation in database quality.
Bound states of moving potential wells in discrete wave mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Longhi, S.
2017-10-01
Discrete wave mechanics describes the evolution of classical or matter waves on a lattice, which is governed by a discretized version of the Schrödinger equation. While for a vanishing lattice spacing wave evolution of the continuous Schrödinger equation is retrieved, spatial discretization and lattice effects can deeply modify wave dynamics. Here we discuss implications of breakdown of exact Galilean invariance of the discrete Schrödinger equation on the bound states sustained by a smooth potential well which is uniformly moving on the lattice with a drift velocity v. While in the continuous limit the number of bound states does not depend on the drift velocity v, as one expects from the covariance of ordinary Schrödinger equation for a Galilean boost, lattice effects can lead to a larger number of bound states for the moving potential well as compared to the potential well at rest. Moreover, for a moving potential bound states on a lattice become rather generally quasi-bound (resonance) states.
Discrete virus infection model of hepatitis B virus.
Zhang, Pengfei; Min, Lequan; Pian, Jianwei
2015-01-01
In 1996 Nowak and his colleagues proposed a differential equation virus infection model, which has been widely applied in the study for the dynamics of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Biological dynamics may be described more practically by discrete events rather than continuous ones. Using discrete systems to describe biological dynamics should be reasonable. Based on one revised Nowak et al's virus infection model, this study introduces a discrete virus infection model (DVIM). Two equilibriums of this model, E1 and E2, represents infection free and infection persistent, respectively. Similar to the case of the basic virus infection model, this study deduces a basic virus reproductive number R0 independing on the number of total cells of an infected target organ. A proposed theorem proves that if the basic virus reproductive number R0<1 then the virus free equilibrium E1 is locally stable. The DVIM is more reasonable than an abstract discrete susceptible-infected-recovered model (SIRS) whose basic virus reproductive number R0 is relevant to the number of total cells of the infected target organ. As an application, this study models the clinic HBV DNA data of a patient who was accepted via anti-HBV infection therapy with drug lamivudine. The results show that the numerical simulation is good in agreement with the clinic data.
Modeling discrete and rhythmic movements through motor primitives: a review.
Degallier, Sarah; Ijspeert, Auke
2010-10-01
Rhythmic and discrete movements are frequently considered separately in motor control, probably because different techniques are commonly used to study and model them. Yet the increasing interest in finding a comprehensive model for movement generation requires bridging the different perspectives arising from the study of those two types of movements. In this article, we consider discrete and rhythmic movements within the framework of motor primitives, i.e., of modular generation of movements. In this way we hope to gain an insight into the functional relationships between discrete and rhythmic movements and thus into a suitable representation for both of them. Within this framework we can define four possible categories of modeling for discrete and rhythmic movements depending on the required command signals and on the spinal processes involved in the generation of the movements. These categories are first discussed in terms of biological concepts such as force fields and central pattern generators and then illustrated by several mathematical models based on dynamical system theory. A discussion on the plausibility of theses models concludes the work.
Using a Card Trick to Teach Discrete Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Simonson, Shai; Holm, Tara S.
2003-01-01
We present a card trick that can be used to review or teach a variety of topics in discrete mathematics. We address many subjects, including permutations, combinations, functions, graphs, depth first search, the pigeonhole principle, greedy algorithms, and concepts from number theory. Moreover, the trick motivates the use of computers in…
Geometric Structure-Preserving Discretization Schemes for Nonlinear Elasticity
2015-08-13
conditions. 15. SUBJECT TERMS geometric theory for nonlinear elasticity, discrete exterior calculus 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION...associated Laplacian. We use the general theory for approximation of Hilbert complexes and the finite element exterior calculus and introduce some stable mixed
Bayesian estimation of the discrete coefficient of determination.
Chen, Ting; Braga-Neto, Ulisses M
2016-12-01
The discrete coefficient of determination (CoD) measures the nonlinear interaction between discrete predictor and target variables and has had far-reaching applications in Genomic Signal Processing. Previous work has addressed the inference of the discrete CoD using classical parametric and nonparametric approaches. In this paper, we introduce a Bayesian framework for the inference of the discrete CoD. We derive analytically the optimal minimum mean-square error (MMSE) CoD estimator, as well as a CoD estimator based on the Optimal Bayesian Predictor (OBP). For the latter estimator, exact expressions for its bias, variance, and root-mean-square (RMS) are given. The accuracy of both Bayesian CoD estimators with non-informative and informative priors, under fixed or random parameters, is studied via analytical and numerical approaches. We also demonstrate the application of the proposed Bayesian approach in the inference of gene regulatory networks, using gene-expression data from a previously published study on metastatic melanoma.
A Progressive Approach to Discrete Trial Teaching: Some Current Guidelines
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Leaf, Justin B.; Cihon, Joseph H.; Leaf, Ronald; McEachin, John; Taubman, Mitchell
2016-01-01
Discrete trial teaching (DTT) is one of the cornerstones of applied behavior analysis (ABA) based interventions. Conventionally, DTT is commonly implemented within a prescribed, fixed manner in which the therapist is governed by a strict set of rules. In contrast to conventional DTT, a progressive approach to DTT allows the therapist to remain…
Thermal modelling using discrete vasculature for thermal therapy: a review
Kok, H.P.; Gellermann, J.; van den Berg, C.A.T.; Stauffer, P.R.; Hand, J.W.; Crezee, J.
2013-01-01
Reliable temperature information during clinical hyperthermia and thermal ablation is essential for adequate treatment control, but conventional temperature measurements do not provide 3D temperature information. Treatment planning is a very useful tool to improve treatment quality and substantial progress has been made over the last decade. Thermal modelling is a very important and challenging aspect of hyperthermia treatment planning. Various thermal models have been developed for this purpose, with varying complexity. Since blood perfusion is such an important factor in thermal redistribution of energy in in vivo tissue, thermal simulations are most accurately performed by modelling discrete vasculature. This review describes the progress in thermal modelling with discrete vasculature for the purpose of hyperthermia treatment planning and thermal ablation. There has been significant progress in thermal modelling with discrete vasculature. Recent developments have made real-time simulations possible, which can provide feedback during treatment for improved therapy. Future clinical application of thermal modelling with discrete vasculature in hyperthermia treatment planning is expected to further improve treatment quality. PMID:23738700
Teaching Discrete Mathematics Entirely from Primary Historical Sources
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Barnett, Janet Heine; Bezhanishvili, Guram; Lodder, Jerry; Pengelley, David
2016-01-01
We describe teaching an introductory discrete mathematics course entirely from student projects based on primary historical sources. We present case studies of four projects that cover the content of a one-semester course, and mention various other courses that we have taught with primary source projects.
Discrete Emotion Effects on Lexical Decision Response Times
Briesemeister, Benny B.; Kuchinke, Lars; Jacobs, Arthur M.
2011-01-01
Our knowledge about affective processes, especially concerning effects on cognitive demands like word processing, is increasing steadily. Several studies consistently document valence and arousal effects, and although there is some debate on possible interactions and different notions of valence, broad agreement on a two dimensional model of affective space has been achieved. Alternative models like the discrete emotion theory have received little interest in word recognition research so far. Using backward elimination and multiple regression analyses, we show that five discrete emotions (i.e., happiness, disgust, fear, anger and sadness) explain as much variance as two published dimensional models assuming continuous or categorical valence, with the variables happiness, disgust and fear significantly contributing to this account. Moreover, these effects even persist in an experiment with discrete emotion conditions when the stimuli are controlled for emotional valence and arousal levels. We interpret this result as evidence for discrete emotion effects in visual word recognition that cannot be explained by the two dimensional affective space account. PMID:21887307
Reconstruction of flux coordinates from discretized magnetic field maps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Predebon, I.; Momo, B.; Suzuki, Y.; Auriemma, F.
2018-04-01
We provide a simple method to build a straight field-line coordinate system from discretized (Poincaré) magnetic field maps. The method is suitable for any plasma domain with nested flux surfaces, including magnetic islands. Illustrative examples are shown for tokamak, heliotron, and reversed-field-pinch plasmas with m = 1 islands.
Will Discrete Mathematics Surpass Calculus in Importance? and Responses .
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ralston, Anthony; And Others
1984-01-01
Ralston proposes that the decrease in the importance of calculus in the world of mathematics is accelerating and the world of applied mathematics is changing rapidly. He briefly presents arguments for discrete mathematics. Then follow reactions from McLane, Wagner, Hilton, Woodriff, Kleitman, and Lax, and a response by Ralston. (MNS)
Regions of absolute ultimate boundedness for discrete-time systems.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Siljak, D. D.; Weissenberger, S.
1972-01-01
This paper considers discrete-time systems of the Lur'e-Postnikov class where the linear part is not asymptotically stable and the nonlinear characteristic satisfies only partially the usual sector condition. Estimates of the resulting finite regions of absolute ultimate boundedness are calculated by means of a quadratic Liapunov function.
Singular perturbation and time scale approaches in discrete control systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Naidu, D. S.; Price, D. B.
1988-01-01
After considering a singularly perturbed discrete control system, a singular perturbation approach is used to obtain outer and correction subsystems. A time scale approach is then applied via block diagonalization transformations to decouple the system into slow and fast subsystems. To a zeroth-order approximation, the singular perturbation and time-scale approaches are found to yield equivalent results.
Constructing Contracts: Making Discrete Mathematics Relevant to Beginning Programmers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gegg-Harrison, Timothy S.
2005-01-01
Although computer scientists understand the importance of discrete mathematics to the foundations of their field, computer science (CS) students do not always see the relevance. Thus, it is important to find a way to show students its relevance. The concept of program correctness is generally taught as an activity independent of the programming…
A COMPARISON OF INTERCELL METRICS ON DISCRETE GLOBAL GRID SYSTEMS
A discrete global grid system (DGGS) is a spatial data model that aids in global research by serving as a framework for environmental modeling, monitoring and sampling across the earth at multiple spatial scales. Topological and geometric criteria have been proposed to evaluate a...
Structural Equations and Path Analysis for Discrete Data.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Winship, Christopher; Mare, Robert D.
1983-01-01
Presented is an approach to causal models in which some or all variables are discretely measured, showing that path analytic methods permit quantification of causal relationships among variables with the same flexibility and power of interpretation as is feasible in models including only continuous variables. Examples are provided. (Author/IS)
Dynamical quantum phase transitions in discrete time crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kosior, Arkadiusz; Sacha, Krzysztof
2018-05-01
Discrete time crystals are related to nonequilibrium dynamics of periodically driven quantum many-body systems where the discrete time-translation symmetry of the Hamiltonian is spontaneously broken into another discrete symmetry. Recently, the concept of phase transitions has been extended to nonequilibrium dynamics of time-independent systems induced by a quantum quench, i.e., a sudden change of some parameter of the Hamiltonian. There, the return probability of a system to the ground state reveals singularities in time which are dubbed dynamical quantum phase transitions. We show that the quantum quench in a discrete time crystal leads to dynamical quantum phase transitions where the return probability of a periodically driven system to a Floquet eigenstate before the quench reveals singularities in time. It indicates that dynamical quantum phase transitions are not restricted to time-independent systems and can be also observed in systems that are periodically driven. We discuss how the phenomenon can be observed in ultracold atomic gases.
Stable cycling in discrete-time genetic models.
Hastings, A
1981-11-01
Examples of stable cycling are discussed for two-locus, two-allele, deterministic, discrete-time models with constant fitnesses. The cases that cycle were found by using numerical techniques to search for stable Hopf bifurcations. One consequence of the results is that apparent cases of directional selection may be due to stable cycling.
Analyzing neuronal networks using discrete-time dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahn, Sungwoo; Smith, Brian H.; Borisyuk, Alla; Terman, David
2010-05-01
We develop mathematical techniques for analyzing detailed Hodgkin-Huxley like models for excitatory-inhibitory neuronal networks. Our strategy for studying a given network is to first reduce it to a discrete-time dynamical system. The discrete model is considerably easier to analyze, both mathematically and computationally, and parameters in the discrete model correspond directly to parameters in the original system of differential equations. While these networks arise in many important applications, a primary focus of this paper is to better understand mechanisms that underlie temporally dynamic responses in early processing of olfactory sensory information. The models presented here exhibit several properties that have been described for olfactory codes in an insect’s Antennal Lobe. These include transient patterns of synchronization and decorrelation of sensory inputs. By reducing the model to a discrete system, we are able to systematically study how properties of the dynamics, including the complex structure of the transients and attractors, depend on factors related to connectivity and the intrinsic and synaptic properties of cells within the network.
Homologous ligands accommodated by discrete conformations of a buried cavity
Merski, Matthew; Fischer, Marcus; Balius, Trent E.; Eidam, Oliv; Shoichet, Brian K.
2015-01-01
Conformational change in protein–ligand complexes is widely modeled, but the protein accommodation expected on binding a congeneric series of ligands has received less attention. Given their use in medicinal chemistry, there are surprisingly few substantial series of congeneric ligand complexes in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Here we determine the structures of eight alkyl benzenes, in single-methylene increases from benzene to n-hexylbenzene, bound to an enclosed cavity in T4 lysozyme. The volume of the apo cavity suffices to accommodate benzene but, even with toluene, larger cavity conformations become observable in the electron density, and over the series two other major conformations are observed. These involve discrete changes in main-chain conformation, expanding the site; few continuous changes in the site are observed. In most structures, two discrete protein conformations are observed simultaneously, and energetic considerations suggest that these conformations are low in energy relative to the ground state. An analysis of 121 lysozyme cavity structures in the PDB finds that these three conformations dominate the previously determined structures, largely modeled in a single conformation. An investigation of the few congeneric series in the PDB suggests that discrete changes are common adaptations to a series of growing ligands. The discrete, but relatively few, conformational states observed here, and their energetic accessibility, may have implications for anticipating protein conformational change in ligand design. PMID:25847998
Homologous ligands accommodated by discrete conformations of a buried cavity.
Merski, Matthew; Fischer, Marcus; Balius, Trent E; Eidam, Oliv; Shoichet, Brian K
2015-04-21
Conformational change in protein-ligand complexes is widely modeled, but the protein accommodation expected on binding a congeneric series of ligands has received less attention. Given their use in medicinal chemistry, there are surprisingly few substantial series of congeneric ligand complexes in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Here we determine the structures of eight alkyl benzenes, in single-methylene increases from benzene to n-hexylbenzene, bound to an enclosed cavity in T4 lysozyme. The volume of the apo cavity suffices to accommodate benzene but, even with toluene, larger cavity conformations become observable in the electron density, and over the series two other major conformations are observed. These involve discrete changes in main-chain conformation, expanding the site; few continuous changes in the site are observed. In most structures, two discrete protein conformations are observed simultaneously, and energetic considerations suggest that these conformations are low in energy relative to the ground state. An analysis of 121 lysozyme cavity structures in the PDB finds that these three conformations dominate the previously determined structures, largely modeled in a single conformation. An investigation of the few congeneric series in the PDB suggests that discrete changes are common adaptations to a series of growing ligands. The discrete, but relatively few, conformational states observed here, and their energetic accessibility, may have implications for anticipating protein conformational change in ligand design.
Discrete Optimization of Electronic Hyperpolarizabilities in a Chemical Subspace
2009-05-01
molecular design. Methods for optimization in discrete spaces have been studied extensively and recently reviewed ( 5). Optimization methods include...integer programming, as in branch-and-bound techniques (including dead-end elimination [ 6]), simulated annealing ( 7), and genetic algorithms ( 8...These algorithms have found renewed interest and application in molecular and materials design (9- 12) . Recently, new approaches have been
Relation of Parallel Discrete Event Simulation algorithms with physical models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shchur, L. N.; Shchur, L. V.
2015-09-01
We extend concept of local simulation times in parallel discrete event simulation (PDES) in order to take into account architecture of the current hardware and software in high-performance computing. We shortly review previous research on the mapping of PDES on physical problems, and emphasise how physical results may help to predict parallel algorithms behaviour.
3D imaging of nanomaterials by discrete tomography.
Batenburg, K J; Bals, S; Sijbers, J; Kübel, C; Midgley, P A; Hernandez, J C; Kaiser, U; Encina, E R; Coronado, E A; Van Tendeloo, G
2009-05-01
The field of discrete tomography focuses on the reconstruction of samples that consist of only a few different materials. Ideally, a three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of such a sample should contain only one grey level for each of the compositions in the sample. By exploiting this property in the reconstruction algorithm, either the quality of the reconstruction can be improved significantly, or the number of required projection images can be reduced. The discrete reconstruction typically contains fewer artifacts and does not have to be segmented, as it already contains one grey level for each composition. Recently, a new algorithm, called discrete algebraic reconstruction technique (DART), has been proposed that can be used effectively on experimental electron tomography datasets. In this paper, we propose discrete tomography as a general reconstruction method for electron tomography in materials science. We describe the basic principles of DART and show that it can be applied successfully to three different types of samples, consisting of embedded ErSi(2) nanocrystals, a carbon nanotube grown from a catalyst particle and a single gold nanoparticle, respectively.
Discrete subvalvular aortic stenosis in the Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.
Shirani, J; Natarajan, K; Varga, P; Vitullo, D A
1993-07-01
Various congenital cardiac malformations have been described in patients with Beckwith-Wiedemann (BW) syndrome, including reversible obstructive subaortic stenosis in one patient. We herein present a case of a 2.5-year-old black boy with BW syndrome and discrete subvalvular aortic stenosis of the membraneous type. Such association of these two entities has previously not been documented.
Discrete emotion effects on lexical decision response times.
Briesemeister, Benny B; Kuchinke, Lars; Jacobs, Arthur M
2011-01-01
Our knowledge about affective processes, especially concerning effects on cognitive demands like word processing, is increasing steadily. Several studies consistently document valence and arousal effects, and although there is some debate on possible interactions and different notions of valence, broad agreement on a two dimensional model of affective space has been achieved. Alternative models like the discrete emotion theory have received little interest in word recognition research so far. Using backward elimination and multiple regression analyses, we show that five discrete emotions (i.e., happiness, disgust, fear, anger and sadness) explain as much variance as two published dimensional models assuming continuous or categorical valence, with the variables happiness, disgust and fear significantly contributing to this account. Moreover, these effects even persist in an experiment with discrete emotion conditions when the stimuli are controlled for emotional valence and arousal levels. We interpret this result as evidence for discrete emotion effects in visual word recognition that cannot be explained by the two dimensional affective space account.
Discipline, Discrimination, Disproportionality and Discretion. A Legal Memorandum.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Goldsmith, Arthur H.
The dilemma of disciplinary discretion is that on the one hand it avoids discrimination by allowing individualized treatment, but on the other hand it invites discrimination by leaving it up to the adiministrator to determine what discipline shall be imposed for what offense. The law imposes very few and easily met restraints. To ensure that…
Hierarchical Discrete Event Supervisory Control of Aircraft Propulsion Systems
2004-11-01
Systems Murat Yasar, Devendra Tolani, and Asok Ray The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania Neerav Shah Glenn Research Center...Hierarchical Discrete Event Supervisory Control of Aircraft Propulsion Systems Murat Yasar, Devendra Tolani, and Asok Ray The Pennsylvania State University...Systems Murat Yasar, Devendra Tolani, and Asok Ray The Pennsylvania State University University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 Neerav Shah National
Parameter redundancy in discrete state-space and integrated models.
Cole, Diana J; McCrea, Rachel S
2016-09-01
Discrete state-space models are used in ecology to describe the dynamics of wild animal populations, with parameters, such as the probability of survival, being of ecological interest. For a particular parametrization of a model it is not always clear which parameters can be estimated. This inability to estimate all parameters is known as parameter redundancy or a model is described as nonidentifiable. In this paper we develop methods that can be used to detect parameter redundancy in discrete state-space models. An exhaustive summary is a combination of parameters that fully specify a model. To use general methods for detecting parameter redundancy a suitable exhaustive summary is required. This paper proposes two methods for the derivation of an exhaustive summary for discrete state-space models using discrete analogues of methods for continuous state-space models. We also demonstrate that combining multiple data sets, through the use of an integrated population model, may result in a model in which all parameters are estimable, even though models fitted to the separate data sets may be parameter redundant. © 2016 The Author. Biometrical Journal published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
A new iterative scheme for solving the discrete Smoluchowski equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Alastair J.; Wells, Clive G.; Kraft, Markus
2018-01-01
This paper introduces a new iterative scheme for solving the discrete Smoluchowski equation and explores the numerical convergence properties of the method for a range of kernels admitting analytical solutions, in addition to some more physically realistic kernels typically used in kinetics applications. The solver is extended to spatially dependent problems with non-uniform velocities and its performance investigated in detail.
An Application of Discrete Mathematics to Coding Theory.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Donohoe, L. Joyce
1992-01-01
Presents a public-key cryptosystem application to introduce students to several topics in discrete mathematics. A computer algorithms using recursive methods is presented to solve a problem in which one person wants to send a coded message to a second person while keeping the message secret from a third person. (MDH)
System for Automatic Generation of Examination Papers in Discrete Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fridenfalk, Mikael
2013-01-01
A system was developed for automatic generation of problems and solutions for examinations in a university distance course in discrete mathematics and tested in a pilot experiment involving 200 students. Considering the success of such systems in the past, particularly including automatic assessment, it should not take long before such systems are…
Physical Education & Outdoor Education: Complementary but Discrete Disciplines
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Martin, Peter; McCullagh, John
2011-01-01
The Australian Council for Health, Physical Education and Recreation (ACHPER) includes Outdoor Education (OE) as a component of Physical Education (PE). Yet Outdoor Education is clearly thought of by many as a discrete discipline separate from Physical Education. Outdoor Education has a body of knowledge that differs from that of Physical…
Discrete RNA libraries from pseudo-torsional space
Humphris-Narayanan, Elisabeth
2012-01-01
The discovery that RNA molecules can fold into complex structures and carry out diverse cellular roles has led to interest in developing tools for modeling RNA tertiary structure. While significant progress has been made in establishing that the RNA backbone is rotameric, few libraries of discrete conformations specifically for use in RNA modeling have been validated. Here, we present six libraries of discrete RNA conformations based on a simplified pseudo-torsional notation of the RNA backbone, comparable to phi and psi in the protein backbone. We evaluate the ability of each library to represent single nucleotide backbone conformations and we show how individual library fragments can be assembled into dinucleotides that are consistent with established RNA backbone descriptors spanning from sugar to sugar. We then use each library to build all-atom models of 20 test folds and we show how the composition of a fragment library can limit model quality. Despite the limitations inherent in using discretized libraries, we find that several hundred discrete fragments can rebuild RNA folds up to 174 nucleotides in length with atomic-level accuracy (<1.5Å RMSD). We anticipate the libraries presented here could easily be incorporated into RNA structural modeling, analysis, or refinement tools. PMID:22425640
Discrete Element Method (DEM) Simulations using PFC3D
Matt Evans
Contains input scripts, background information, reduced data, and results associated with the discrete element method (DEM) simulations of interface shear tests, plate anchor pullout tests, and torpedo anchor installation and pullout tests, using the software PFC3D (v4.0).
An Advanced Simulation Framework for Parallel Discrete-Event Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Li, P. P.; Tyrrell, R. Yeung D.; Adhami, N.; Li, T.; Henry, H.
1994-01-01
Discrete-event simulation (DEVS) users have long been faced with a three-way trade-off of balancing execution time, model fidelity, and number of objects simulated. Because of the limits of computer processing power the analyst is often forced to settle for less than desired performances in one or more of these areas.
Discrete elliptic solitons in two-dimensional waveguide arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Fangwei; Dong, Liangwei; Wang, Jiandong; Cai, Tian; Li, Yong-Ping
2005-04-01
The fundamental properties of discrete elliptic solitons (DESs) in the two-dimensional waveguide arrays were studied. The DESs show nontrivial spatial structures in their parameters space due to the introduction of the new freedom of ellipticity, and their stability is closely linked to their propagation directions in the transverse plane.
Quantum trilogy: discrete Toda, Y-system and chaos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamazaki, Masahito
2018-02-01
We discuss a discretization of the quantum Toda field theory associated with a semisimple finite-dimensional Lie algebra or a tamely-laced infinite-dimensional Kac-Moody algebra G, generalizing the previous construction of discrete quantum Liouville theory for the case G = A 1. The model is defined on a discrete two-dimensional lattice, whose spatial direction is of length L. In addition we also find a ‘discretized extra dimension’ whose width is given by the rank r of G, which decompactifies in the large r limit. For the case of G = A N or AN-1(1) , we find a symmetry exchanging L and N under appropriate spatial boundary conditions. The dynamical time evolution rule of the model is quantizations of the so-called Y-system, and the theory can be well described by the quantum cluster algebra. We discuss possible implications for recent discussions of quantum chaos, and comment on the relation with the quantum higher Teichmüller theory of type A N .
Evidence for discrete landmark use by pigeons during homing.
Mora, Cordula V; Ross, Jeremy D; Gorsevski, Peter V; Chowdhury, Budhaditya; Bingman, Verner P
2012-10-01
Considerable efforts have been made to investigate how homing pigeons (Columba livia f. domestica) are able to return to their loft from distant, unfamiliar sites while the mechanisms underlying navigation in familiar territory have received less attention. With the recent advent of global positioning system (GPS) data loggers small enough to be carried by pigeons, the role of visual environmental features in guiding navigation over familiar areas is beginning to be understood, yet, surprisingly, we still know very little about whether homing pigeons can rely on discrete, visual landmarks to guide navigation. To assess a possible role of discrete, visual landmarks in navigation, homing pigeons were first trained to home from a site with four wind turbines as salient landmarks as well as from a control site without any distinctive, discrete landmark features. The GPS-recorded flight paths of the pigeons on the last training release were straighter and more similar among birds from the turbine site compared with those from the control site. The pigeons were then released from both sites following a clock-shift manipulation. Vanishing bearings from the turbine site continued to be homeward oriented as 13 of 14 pigeons returned home. By contrast, at the control site the vanishing bearings were deflected in the expected clock-shift direction and only 5 of 13 pigeons returned home. Taken together, our results offer the first strong evidence that discrete, visual landmarks are one source of spatial information homing pigeons can utilize to navigate when flying over a familiar area.
Phase computations and phase models for discrete molecular oscillators.
Suvak, Onder; Demir, Alper
2012-06-11
Biochemical oscillators perform crucial functions in cells, e.g., they set up circadian clocks. The dynamical behavior of oscillators is best described and analyzed in terms of the scalar quantity, phase. A rigorous and useful definition for phase is based on the so-called isochrons of oscillators. Phase computation techniques for continuous oscillators that are based on isochrons have been used for characterizing the behavior of various types of oscillators under the influence of perturbations such as noise. In this article, we extend the applicability of these phase computation methods to biochemical oscillators as discrete molecular systems, upon the information obtained from a continuous-state approximation of such oscillators. In particular, we describe techniques for computing the instantaneous phase of discrete, molecular oscillators for stochastic simulation algorithm generated sample paths. We comment on the accuracies and derive certain measures for assessing the feasibilities of the proposed phase computation methods. Phase computation experiments on the sample paths of well-known biological oscillators validate our analyses. The impact of noise that arises from the discrete and random nature of the mechanisms that make up molecular oscillators can be characterized based on the phase computation techniques proposed in this article. The concept of isochrons is the natural choice upon which the phase notion of oscillators can be founded. The isochron-theoretic phase computation methods that we propose can be applied to discrete molecular oscillators of any dimension, provided that the oscillatory behavior observed in discrete-state does not vanish in a continuous-state approximation. Analysis of the full versatility of phase noise phenomena in molecular oscillators will be possible if a proper phase model theory is developed, without resorting to such approximations.
Hydra effects in discrete-time models of stable communities.
Cortez, Michael H
2016-12-21
A species exhibits a hydra effect when, counter-intuitively, increased mortality of the species causes an increase in its abundance. Hydra effects have been studied in many continuous time (differential equation) multispecies models, but only rarely have hydra effects been observed in or studied with discrete time (difference equation) multispecies models. In addition most discrete time theory focuses on single-species models. Thus, it is unclear what unifying characteristics determine when hydra effects arise in discrete time models. Here, using discrete time multispecies models (where total abundance is the single variable describing each population), I show that a species exhibits a hydra effect in a stable system only when fixing that species' density at its equilibrium density destabilizes the system. This general characteristic is referred to as subsystem instability. I apply this result to two-species models and identify specific mechanisms that cause hydra effects in stable communities, e.g., in host--parasitoid models, host Allee effects and saturating parasitoid functional responses can cause parasitoid hydra effects. I discuss how the general characteristic can be used to identify mechanisms causing hydra effects in communities with three or more species. I also show that the condition for hydra effects at stable equilibria implies the system is reactive (i.e., density perturbations can grow before ultimately declining). This study extends previous work on conditions for hydra effects in single-species models by identifying necessary conditions for stable systems and sufficient conditions for cyclic systems. In total, these results show that hydra effects can arise in many more communities than previously appreciated and that hydra effects were present, but unrecognized, in previously studied discrete time models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.