Science.gov

Sample records for zak merle sande

  1. Registration of "Merl" Wheat.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ‘Merl’ (Reg. No. CV- , PI 658598) soft red winter (SRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)developed and tested as VA03W-412 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station was released in March 2009. Merl was derived from the three-way cross ‘Roane’ / Pioneer Brand ‘2643’ // ‘38158’ (PI 619052). Merl is a...

  2. A Response to Merle Borrowman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noah, Harold J.

    1975-01-01

    Author criticized Merle Borrowman's paper (AA 521 907) as two separate papers, the one identifying comparative education as a "swamp" field, the other positively describing the field in terms of "the distribution of cross cultural studies (inclining) one to perceive the world differently and indeed more fruitfully." (Author/RK)

  3. Structure of the Human Protein Kinase ZAK in Complex with Vemurafenib

    PubMed Central

    Mathea, Sebastian; Abdul Azeez, Kamal R.; Salah, Eidarus; Tallant, Cynthia; Wolfreys, Finn; Konietzny, Rebecca; Fischer, Roman; Lou, Hua Jane; Brennan, Paul E.; Schnapp, Gisela; Pautsch, Alexander; Kessler, Benedikt M.; Turk, Benjamin E.; Knapp, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    The mixed lineage kinase ZAK is a key regulator of the MAPK pathway mediating cell survival and inflammatory response. ZAK is targeted by several clinically approved kinase inhibitors, and inhibition of ZAK has been reported to protect from doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy. On the other hand, unintended targeting of ZAK has been linked to severe adverse effects such as the development of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Therefore, both specific inhibitors of ZAK, as well as anticancer drugs lacking off-target activity against ZAK, may provide therapeutic benefit. Here we report the first crystal structure of ZAK in complex with the B-RAF inhibitor vemurafenib. The co-crystal structure displayed a number of ZAK-specific features including a highly distorted P loop conformation enabling rational inhibitor design. Positional scanning peptide library analysis revealed a unique substrate specificity of the ZAK kinase including unprecedented preferences for histidine residues at positions −1 and +2 relative to the phosphoacceptor site. In addition, we screened a library of clinical kinase inhibitors identifying several inhibitors that potently inhibit ZAK, demonstrating that this kinase is commonly mistargeted by currently used anticancer drugs. PMID:26999302

  4. Antitumorigenic Effects of ZAKβ, an Alternative Splicing Isoform of ZAK.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-Sun; Lin, Yuh-Yih; Wang, Tsu-Shing; Liu, Jer-Yuh; Lin, Wei-Wen; Yang, Jaw-Ji

    2018-02-28

    Sterile alpha motif (SAM)- and leucine-zipper-containing kinase (ZAK) plays a role in the regulation of cell cycle progression and oncogenic transformation. The ZAK gene generates two transcript variants, ZAKα and ZAKβ, through alternative splicing. In this study, we identified that ZAKα proteins were upregulated in tumor tissues, whereas ZAKβ proteins were mostly expressed in corresponding normal tissues. The ectopically expressed ZAKβ proteins in cancer cells inhibited cancer cell proliferation as well as anchorage-independent growth. The ZAKβ:ZAKα protein ratio played a role in the regulation of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling pathway, whereas high ZAKβ protein levels led to the activation of cAMP response element binding protein 1 (CREB1) and exerted antitumor properties. Overexpression of ZAKβ or CREB1 cDNAs in cancer cells inhibited anchorage-independent growth and also reduced the levels of cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox2) and β-catenin proteins. Cancer cells treated with doxorubicin (Doxo) resulted in the switching from the expression of ZAKα to ZAKβ and also inhibited cancer cell growth in soft agar, demonstrating that pharmacological drugs could be used to manipulate endogenous reprogramming splicing events and resulting in the activation of endogenous antitumorigenic properties. We showed that the two ZAK transcript variants, ZAKα and ZAKβ, had opposite biological functions in the regulation of tumor cell proliferation in that ZAKβ had powerful antitumor properties and that ZAKα could promote tumor growth.

  5. Robert Merle d’Aubigné, 1900–1989

    PubMed Central

    Biau, David J.

    2008-01-01

    This biographical sketch of R. Merle d’Aubigné corresponds to the historic text, The Classic: Functional Results of Hip Arthroplasty with Acrylic Prosthesis, available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-008-0572-1. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11999-008-0571-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:18941853

  6. Overview of environmental and hydrogeologic conditions at the Merle K. "Mudhole" Smith Airport near Cordova, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorava, J.M.; Sokup, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    Air service to Cordova, Alaska and the surrounding region is provided by the Merle K. "Mudhole" Smith Airport, 21 kilometers east of the townsite. The Federal Aviation Administration owns or operates support facilities at the airport and wishes to consider the environmental setting and hydro- geologic conditions when evaluating options for remediation of potential contamination at these facilities. The airport is within the Copper River Delta wetlands area and the Chugach National Forest. Silts, sands, and gravels of fluvial origin underlie the airport. Potential flooding may be caused by outbursts of glacier-dammed lakes, glacier icemelt, snowmelt runoff, or precipitation. Surface spills and disposal of hazardous materials in conjunction with precipitation or flooding may adversely affect the quality of ground water. Drinking water at the airport is currently supplied by wells. Alternative drinking-water sources include local rivers and streams, transporting city water from Cordova, or undiscovered aquifers. Each alternative source, however, would likely cost significantly more to develop than using the existing shallow aquifer supply.

  7. Registration of Zak ERA8 soft white spring wheat germplasm with enhanced response to ABA and increased seed dormancy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ZakERA8 is a unique mutant line selected from mutagenized soft white spring 'Zak' that has increased seed dormancy as a result of enhanced responsiveness to the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) during germination. This germplasm was developed by USDA-ARS, Pullman, WA in collaboration with Washingt...

  8. Detection of Zak phases and topological invariants in a chiral quantum walk of twisted photons

    PubMed Central

    Cardano, Filippo; D’Errico, Alessio; Dauphin, Alexandre; Maffei, Maria; Piccirillo, Bruno; de Lisio, Corrado; De Filippis, Giulio; Cataudella, Vittorio; Santamato, Enrico; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Lewenstein, Maciej; Massignan, Pietro

    2017-01-01

    Topological insulators are fascinating states of matter exhibiting protected edge states and robust quantized features in their bulk. Here we propose and validate experimentally a method to detect topological properties in the bulk of one-dimensional chiral systems. We first introduce the mean chiral displacement, an observable that rapidly approaches a value proportional to the Zak phase during the free evolution of the system. Then we measure the Zak phase in a photonic quantum walk of twisted photons, by observing the mean chiral displacement in its bulk. Next, we measure the Zak phase in an alternative, inequivalent timeframe and combine the two windings to characterize the full phase diagram of this Floquet system. Finally, we prove the robustness of the measure by introducing dynamical disorder in the system. This detection method is extremely general and readily applicable to all present one-dimensional platforms simulating static or Floquet chiral systems. PMID:28569741

  9. Detection of Zak phases and topological invariants in a chiral quantum walk of twisted photons.

    PubMed

    Cardano, Filippo; D'Errico, Alessio; Dauphin, Alexandre; Maffei, Maria; Piccirillo, Bruno; de Lisio, Corrado; De Filippis, Giulio; Cataudella, Vittorio; Santamato, Enrico; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Lewenstein, Maciej; Massignan, Pietro

    2017-06-01

    Topological insulators are fascinating states of matter exhibiting protected edge states and robust quantized features in their bulk. Here we propose and validate experimentally a method to detect topological properties in the bulk of one-dimensional chiral systems. We first introduce the mean chiral displacement, an observable that rapidly approaches a value proportional to the Zak phase during the free evolution of the system. Then we measure the Zak phase in a photonic quantum walk of twisted photons, by observing the mean chiral displacement in its bulk. Next, we measure the Zak phase in an alternative, inequivalent timeframe and combine the two windings to characterize the full phase diagram of this Floquet system. Finally, we prove the robustness of the measure by introducing dynamical disorder in the system. This detection method is extremely general and readily applicable to all present one-dimensional platforms simulating static or Floquet chiral systems.

  10. ERβ targets ZAK and attenuates cellular hypertrophy via SUMO-1 modification in H9c2 cells.

    PubMed

    Pai, Peiying; Shibu, Marthandam Asokan; Chang, Ruey-Lin; Yang, Jaw-Ji; Su, Chia-Chi; Lai, Chao-Hung; Liao, Hung-En; Viswanadha, Vijaya Padma; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2018-06-22

    Aberrant expression of leucine zipper- and sterile ɑ motif-containing kinase (ZAK) observed in pathological human myocardial tissue is associated with the progression and elevation of hypertrophy. Our previous reports have correlated high levels of estrogen (E2) and abundant estrogen receptor (ER) α with a low incidence of pathological cardiac-hypertrophy and heart failure in the premenopause female population. However, the effect of elevated ERβ expression is not well known yet. Therefore, in this study, we have analyzed the cardioprotective effects and mechanisms of E2 and/or ERβ against ZAK overexpression-induced cellular hypertrophy. We have used transient transfection to overexpress ERβ into the ZAK tet-on H9c2 cells that harbor the doxycycline-inducible ZAK plasmid. The results show that ZAK overexpression in H9c2 cells resulted in hypertrophic effects, which was correlated with the upregulation of p-JNK and p-p38 MAPKs and their downstream transcription factors c-Jun and GATA-4. However, ERβ and E2 with ERβ overexpressions totally suppressed the effects of ZAK overexpression and inhibited the levels of p-JNK, p-p38, c-Jun, and GATA-4 effectively. Our results further reveal that ERβ directly binds with ZAK under normal conditions; however, ZAK overexpression reduced the association of ZAK-ERβ. Interestingly, increase in ERβ and E2 along with ERβ overexpression both enhanced the binding strengths of ERβ and ZAK and reduced the ZAK protein level. ERβ overexpression also suppressed the E3 ligase-casitas B-lineage lymphoma (CBL) and attenuated CBL-phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) protein association to prevent PI3K protein degradation. Moreover, ERβ and/or E2 blocked ZAK nuclear translocation via the inhibition of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)-1 modification. Taken together, our results further suggest that ERβ overexpression strongly suppresses ZAK-induced cellular hypertrophy and myocardial damage. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Zak phase and band inversion in dimerized one-dimensional locally resonant metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Weiwei; Ding, Ya-qiong; Ren, Jie; Sun, Yong; Li, Yunhui; Jiang, Haitao; Chen, Hong

    2018-05-01

    The Zak phase, which refers to Berry's phase picked up by a particle moving across the Brillouin zone, characterizes the topological properties of Bloch bands in a one-dimensional periodic system. Here the Zak phase in dimerized one-dimensional locally resonant metamaterials is investigated. It is found that there are some singular points in the bulk band across which the Bloch states contribute π to the Zak phase, whereas in the rest of the band the contribution is nearly zero. These singular points associated with zero reflection are caused by two different mechanisms: the dimerization-independent antiresonance of each branch and the dimerization-dependent destructive interference in multiple backscattering. The structure undergoes a topological phase-transition point in the band structure where the band inverts, and the Zak phase, which is determined by the numbers of singular points in the bulk band, changes following a shift in dimerization parameter. Finally, the interface state between two dimerized metamaterial structures with different topological properties in the first band gap is demonstrated experimentally. The quasi-one-dimensional configuration of the system allows one to explore topology-inspired new methods and applications on the subwavelength scale.

  12. The Multiplicative Zak Transform, Dimension Reduction, and Wavelet Analysis of LIDAR Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    systems is likely to fail. Auslander, Eichmann , Gertner, and Tolimieri defined a multiplicative Zak transform [1], mimicking the construction of the Gabor...L. Auslander, G. Eichmann , I. Gertner and R. Tolimieri, “Time-Frequency Analysis and Synthesis of Non-Stationary Signals,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. In

  13. Hot isostatically pressed manufacture of high strength MERL 76 disk and seal shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eng, R. D.; Evans, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of using MERL 76, an advanced high strength direct hot isostatic pressed powder metallurgy superalloy, as a full scale component in a high technology, long life, commercial turbine engine were demonstrated. The component was a JT9D first stage turbine disk. The JT9D disk rim temperature capability was increased by at least 22 C and the weight of JT9D high pressure turbine rotating components was reduced by at least 35 pounds by replacement of forged Superwaspaloy components with hot isostatic pressed (HIP) MERL 76 components. The process control plan and acceptance criteria for manufacture of MERL 76 HIP consolidated components were generated. Disk components were manufactured for spin/burst rig test, experimental engine tests, and design data generation, which established lower design properties including tensile, stress-rupture, 0.2% creep and notched (Kt = 2.5) low cycle fatigue properties, Sonntag, fatigue crack propagation, and low cycle fatigue crack threshold data. Direct HIP MERL 76, when compared to conventionally forged Superwaspaloy, is demonstrated to be superior in mechanical properties, increased rim temperature capability, reduced component weight, and reduced material cost by at least 30% based on 1980 costs.

  14. Hot isostatically pressed manufacture of high strength MERL 76 disk and seal shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    The performance of a HIP MERL 76 disk installed in an experimental engine and exposed to realistic operating conditions in a 150 hour, 1500 cycle endurance test is examined. Post test analysis, based on visual, fluorescence penetrant and dimensional inspection, indicates that the disk performs satisfactorily.

  15. Zak phase induced multiband waveguide by two-dimensional photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuting; Xu, Tao; Xu, Yun Fei; Hang, Zhi Hong

    2017-08-15

    Interface states in photonic crystals provide efficient approaches to control the flow of light. Photonic Zak phase determines the bulk band properties of photonic crystals, and, by assembling two photonic crystals with different bulk band properties together, deterministic interface states can be realized. By translating each unit cell of a photonic crystal by half the lattice constant, another photonic crystal with identical common gaps but a different Zak phase at each photonic band can be created. By assembling these two photonic crystals together, multiband waveguide can thus be easily created and then experimentally characterized. Our experimental results have good agreement with numerical simulations, and the propagation properties of these measured interface states indicate that this new type of interface state will be a good candidate for future applications of optical communications.

  16. Pharmacological Inhibition of the Protein Kinase MRK/ZAK Radiosensitizes Medulloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Markowitz, Daniel; Powell, Caitlin; Tran, Nhan L; Berens, Michael E; Ryken, Timothy C; Vanan, Magimairajan; Rosen, Lisa; He, Mingzu; Sun, Shan; Symons, Marc; Al-Abed, Yousef; Ruggieri, Rosamaria

    2016-08-01

    Medulloblastoma is a cerebellar tumor and the most common pediatric brain malignancy. Radiotherapy is part of the standard care for this tumor, but its effectiveness is accompanied by significant neurocognitive sequelae due to the deleterious effects of radiation on the developing brain. We have previously shown that the protein kinase MRK/ZAK protects tumor cells from radiation-induced cell death by regulating cell-cycle arrest after ionizing radiation. Here, we show that siRNA-mediated MRK depletion sensitizes medulloblastoma primary cells to radiation. We have, therefore, designed and tested a specific small molecule inhibitor of MRK, M443, which binds to MRK in an irreversible fashion and inhibits its activity. We found that M443 strongly radiosensitizes UW228 medulloblastoma cells as well as UI226 patient-derived primary cells, whereas it does not affect the response to radiation of normal brain cells. M443 also inhibits radiation-induced activation of both p38 and Chk2, two proteins that act downstream of MRK and are involved in DNA damage-induced cell-cycle arrest. Importantly, in an animal model of medulloblastoma that employs orthotopic implantation of primary patient-derived UI226 cells in nude mice, M443 in combination with radiation achieved a synergistic increase in survival. We hypothesize that combining radiotherapy with M443 will allow us to lower the radiation dose while maintaining therapeutic efficacy, thereby minimizing radiation-induced side effects. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(8); 1799-808. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Industrial sand and gravel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolley, T.P.

    2011-01-01

    Domestic production of industrial sand and gravel in 2010 was about 26.5 Mt (29.2 million st), a 6-percent increased from 2009. Certain end uses of industrial sand and gravel, such as sand for container glass, golf course sand, recreational sand, specialty glass and water filtration, showed increased demand in 2010.

  18. Summary Report for the Environmental Protection Agency MERL/FRMAC Mission Alignment Exercise held at the Environmental Protection Agency Facility on June 24-26 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Mark B.; Shanks, Sonoya Toyoko; Fournier, Sean Donovan

    From June 24th thru June 26th 2014, members of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC), FRMAC Fly Away Laboratory, and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) participated in a joint nuclear incident emergency response/round robin exercise at the EPA facility in Las Vegas, Nevada. The purpose of this exercise was to strengthen the interoperability relationship between the FRMAC Fly Away Laboratory (FAL) and the EPA Mobile Environmental Radiation Laboratory (MERL) stationed in Las Vegas, Nevada. The exercise was designed to allow for immediate delivery of pre-staged, spiked samples to the EPA MERL and the FAL for sample preparation andmore » radiological analysis. Upon completion of laboratory analysis, data was reviewed and submitted back to the FRMAC via an electronic data deliverable (EDD). In order to conduct a laboratory inter-comparison study, samples were then traded between the two laboratories and re-counted. As part of the exercise, an evaluation was conducted to identify gaps and potential areas for improvements for FRMAC, FAL and EPA operations. Additionally, noteworthy practices and potential future areas of interoperability opportunities between the FRMAC, FAL and EPA were acknowledged. The exercise also provided a unique opportunity for FRMAC personnel to observe EPA sample receipt and sample preparation processes and to gain familiarity with the MERL laboratory instrumentation and radiation detection capabilities. The areas for potential improvements and interoperability from this exercise will be critical for developing a more efficient, integrated response for future interactions between the FRMAC and EPA MERL assets.« less

  19. Industrial sand and gravel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolley, T.P.

    2012-01-01

    Domestic production of industrial sand and gravel in 2011 was about 30 Mt (33 million st), increasing slightly compared with 2010. Some important end uses for industrial sand and gravel include abrasives, filtration, foundry, glassmaking, hydraulic fracturing sand (frac sand) and silicon metal applications.

  20. Industrial sand and gravel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolley, T.P.

    2013-01-01

    Domestic production of industrial sand and gravel in 2012 was about 49.5 Mt (55 million st), increasing 13 percent compared with that of 2011. Some important end uses for industrial sand and gravel include abrasives, filtration, foundry, glassmaking, hydraulic fracturing sand (frac sand) and silicon metal applications.

  1. Environmental magnetism and effective radium concentration: the case study of the painted cave of Pech Merle, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isambert, Aude; Girault, Frédéric; Perrier, Frédéric; Bouquerel, Hélène; Bourges, François

    2017-04-01

    Painted caves, showing testimony of prehistoric art, are nowadays subject to intense attention to understand the conditions of stability and avoid degradation. The preservation of cultural sequences and archaeological artefacts represents especially a crucial issue in the case of caves opened to visitors. For this purpose, a better knowledge of these preserved environments that imprint paleoenvironmental conditions at the time of deposition is needed. In this context, different environmental parameters of the Pech Merle cave, in France, are currently actively monitored including temperature, hygrometry, and gas measurements such as CO2 and radon-222 (decay product of radium-226). This temporal monitoring needs to be complemented by a detailed characterisation of the site, including petrophysical and mineralogical properties. To better constrain the environmental and paleoenvironmental context, more than 100 samples including soils, sediments, rocks and speleothems were collected inside and outside the cave area. We report here magnetic properties of powdered samples (low-field susceptibility, hysteresis parameters, and saturation magnetization) coupled with effective radium concentration (ECRa) measurements. We observe that magnetic susceptibility, which ranges over 5 orders of magnitude from calcareous rocks to topsoils and argillaceous filling deposits, correlates well with ECRa values. This correlation, previously observed (Girault et al., 2016) in very different geological contexts, could be interpreted as a common concentration of sources, also indicating a signature of natural samples to the contrary of anthropic environments disturbed by human activities, in which case the association is blurred. This study demonstrates the general interest of combining two different parameters - here low-field magnetic susceptibility and effective radium concentration determined using non-destructive techniques in the field and in the laboratory - to physically characterize

  2. Summary Report for the Environmental Protection Agency MERL/FRMAC/RAP Mission Alignment Exercise held at the Savannah River Site on June 9-13 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Mark B.; Shanks, Sonoya Toyoko; Fournier, Sean Donovan

    From June 9th thru June 13th 2014, members of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Energy Radiological Assistance Program (DOE RAP) Region-3 participated in a joint nuclear incident emergency response exercise at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. The purpose of this exercise was to strengthen the interoperability relationship between the FRMAC, RAP, and the EPA Mobile Environmental Radiation Laboratory (MERL) stationed in Montgomery, Alabama. The exercise was designed to allowed members of the DOE RAP Region-3 team to collect soil, water, vegetation and air samplesmore » from SRS and submit them through an established FRMAC hotline. Once received and processed through the hotline, FRMAC delivered the samples to the EPA MERL for sample preparation and laboratory radiological analysis. Upon completion of laboratory analysis, data was reviewed and submitted back to FRMAC via an electronic data deliverable (EDD). As part of the exercise, an evaluation was conducted to identify gaps and potential improvements in each step of the processes. Additionally, noteworthy practices and potential future areas of interoperability between FRMAC and EPA were acknowledged. The exercise also provided a unique opportunity for FRMAC personnel to observe EPA sample receipt and sample preparation processes and to gain familiarity with the MERL laboratory instrumentation and radiation detection capabilities. The observations and lessons-learned from this exercise will be critical for developing a more efficient, integrated response for future interactions between the FRMAC and EPA assets.« less

  3. Evaluation of sand fills.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1973-11-01

    A popular construction technique in south Louisiana for many years has been the use of river sand to establish foundations for highways. The abundance of river sand and the need for it in excavation backfill operations across Louisiana's marshlands h...

  4. Sand Filter Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    Approved for public release: distribution unlimited TDS-NAVFAC-EXWC-PW-1604 Aug 2016 Sand Filter Technology This report summarizes the...findings from a demonstration of sand filter technology to determine whether the technology will save energy with a simple payback within the...EXWC) performed the evaluation at the Naval Air Station Lemoore, CA. The two year evaluation period began with one year of sand filter operation

  5. Industrial sand and gravel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolley, T.P.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, domestic production of industrial sand and gravel was about 31 Mt, a 5% increase from 2004. This increase was bouyed by robust construction and petroleum sectors of the US economy. Based on estimated world production figures, the United States was the world's leading producer and consumer of industrial sand and gravel. In the short term, local shortages of industrial sand and gravel will continue to increase.

  6. China Dust and Sand

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... article title:  Dust and Sand Sweep Over Northeast China     View Larger Image ... these views of the dust and sand that swept over northeast China on March 10, 2004. Information on the height of the dust and an ...

  7. Industrial sand and gravel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolley, T.P.

    2010-01-01

    Domestic production of industrial sand and gravel in 2009 was about 27 Mt (30 million st), declining by 10 percent compared with 2008. Certain end uses of industrial sand and gravel, such as foundry and glassmaking sand, may have declined by a factor greater than 10 percent in 2009. U.S. apparent consumption was 24.7 Mt (27.2 million st) in 2009, down by 10 percent from the previous year, and imports declined to 83 kt (91,000 st).

  8. Southern Sand Dunes

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-01-15

    At first glance, this NASA Mars Odyssey image showing impact craters and linear ridges and troughs is typical of the southern highlands. However, upon closer examination migrating sand dunes are observed within the troughs.

  9. Sand Volcano Following Earthquake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Sand boil or sand volcano measuring 2 m (6.6 ft.) in length erupted in median of Interstate Highway 80 west of the Bay Bridge toll plaza when ground shaking transformed loose water-saturated deposit of subsurface sand into a sand-water slurry (liquefaction) in the October 17, 1989, Loma Prieta earthquake. Vented sand contains marine-shell fragments. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (Credit: J.C. Tinsley, U.S. Geological Survey)

  10. The Armadillo Repeat Gene ZAK IXIK Promotes Arabidopsis Early Embryo and Endosperm Development through a Distinctive Gametophytic Maternal Effect[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Quy A.; Baroux, Celia; Guthörl, Daniela; Mozerov, Peter; Collinge, Margaret A.; Sundaresan, Venkatesan; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2012-01-01

    The proper balance of parental genomic contributions to the fertilized embryo and endosperm is essential for their normal growth and development. The characterization of many gametophytic maternal effect (GME) mutants affecting seed development indicates that there are certain classes of genes with a predominant maternal contribution. We present a detailed analysis of the GME mutant zak ixik (zix), which displays delayed and arrested growth at the earliest stages of embryo and endosperm development. ZIX encodes an Armadillo repeat (Arm) protein highly conserved across eukaryotes. Expression studies revealed that ZIX manifests a GME through preferential maternal expression in the early embryo and endosperm. This parent-of-origin–dependent expression is regulated by neither the histone and DNA methylation nor the DNA demethylation pathways known to regulate some other GME mutants. The ZIX protein is localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus of cells in reproductive tissues and actively dividing root zones. The maternal ZIX allele is required for the maternal expression of MINISEED3. Collectively, our results reveal a reproductive function of plant Arm proteins in promoting early seed growth, which is achieved through a distinct GME of ZIX that involves mechanisms for maternal allele-specific expression that are independent of the well-established pathways. PMID:23064319

  11. Ocean Sand, Bahamas

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-20

    NASA image acquired January 17, 2001 Though the above image may resemble a new age painting straight out of an art gallery in Venice Beach, California, it is in fact a satellite image of the sands and seaweed in the Bahamas. The image was taken by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) instrument aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. Tides and ocean currents in the Bahamas sculpted the sand and seaweed beds into these multicolored, fluted patterns in much the same way that winds sculpted the vast sand dunes in the Sahara Desert. Image courtesy Serge Andrefouet, University of South Florida Instrument: Landsat 7 - ETM+ Credit: NASA/GSFC/Landsat NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook

  12. Asbestos in play sand

    SciTech Connect

    Langer, A.M.; Nolan, R.P.

    1987-04-02

    A letter in the New England Journal of Medicine (Oct. 2 issue) stated that a carbonate sand marketed in New Jersey was contaminated with 2 to 4 percent tremolite asbestos. The authors were called on by one of the federal agencies to repeat the analysis of this sand, specifically for its asbestos content. The sand was pulverized and immersed in oils with known refractive indexes, and the predominant amphibole was characterized by polarized light microscopy. The optical characteristics were noted, and the indexes of refraction were measured and found to be consistent with tremolite. On the basis of optical characterization,more » the authors concluded that all the tremolite visualized with light microscopy consisted of large, single cleavage fragments and was not asbestiform. They used the technique of x-ray diffraction, as did the author of the original report, which showed the presence of an amphibole mineral (probably tremolite) in the carbonate sand. The technique was not used, and cannot be used, to distinguish between the tremolite habits (asbestiform or nonasbestiform). An acid-insoluble residue, recovered from the carbonate sand, was examined by analytic electron microscopy. The tremolite grains were observed to consist of single untwinned, crystalline fragments. Few defects were noted. Selected area electron diffraction nets were indicative of fragments lying near or at the common amphibole cleavage plane. These characteristics are consistent with cleavage fragments and not asbestos. Aspect ratios reflected short particles (less than 5.1). On the basis of their examination of the carbonate play sand, they conclude that it did not contain tremolite asbestos.« less

  13. Ganges Chasma Sand Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

    Today's sand sheet is located in the Ganges Chasma portion of Valles Marineris. As with yesterday's image, note that the dune forms are seen only at the margin and that the interior of the sand sheet at this resolution appears to completely lack dune forms.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6.4, Longitude 310.7 East (49.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  14. Sand Dunes with Frost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    9 May 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a suite of frost-covered sand dunes in the north polar region of Mars in early spring, 2004. The dunes indicate wind transport of sand from left to right (west to east). These landforms are located near 78.1oN, 220.8oW. This picture is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across.

  15. Sand Pine Symposium Proceedings

    Treesearch

    USDA Forest Service Southern Forest Experiment Station

    1973-01-01

    Sand pine, a species well suited to the excessively drained soils common to several million acres in the Southeast, was the subject of this well-attended 3-day meeting. Papers presented included a review of the literature plus results of current research related to this species. Subjects covered ranged from seeds and seedlings to final harvest and conversion...

  16. Speleothems and Sand Castles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hance, Trevor; Befus, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The idea of building sand castles evokes images of lazy summer days at the beach, listening to waves crash, enjoying salty breezes, and just unplugging for a while to let our inner child explore the wonderful natural toys beneath our feet. The idea of exploring caves might evoke feelings and images of claustrophobia or pioneers and Native…

  17. Northern Sand Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

    This VIS image was taken at 82 degrees North latitude during Northern spring. The image is completely dominated by dunes. In sand seas, it is very common for a single type of dune to occur, and for a single predominate wind to control the alignment of the dunes.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 82.2, Longitude 152.5 East (207.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  18. Sand Waves in Tidal Channels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    sincerely thank Steven Borgeld, from Humboldt State University, for providing the grain size data for the Humboldt Entrance Channel. iv SAND...Wave Characteristics at Moriches Inlet... 182 APPENDIX VII – Sediment Data , Humboldt Entrance Channel, CA ........................... 186 References...waves may be limited by wave action, sand supply, and dredging activity. Bathymetric data collected at Humboldt Inlet, California, show sand waves

  19. PROCESSING OF MONAZITE SAND

    DOEpatents

    Calkins, G.D.; Bohlmann, E.G.

    1957-12-01

    A process for the recovery of thorium, uranium, and rare earths from monazite sands is presented. The sands are first digested and dissolved in concentrated NaOH, and the solution is then diluted causing precipitation of uranium, thorium and rare earth hydroxides. The precipitate is collected and dissolved in HCl, and the pH of this solution is adjusted to about 6, precipitating the hydroxides of thorium and uranium but leaving the rare earths in solution. The rare earths are then separated from the solution by precipitation at a still higher pH. The thorium and uranium containing precipitate is redissolved in HNO/sub 3/ and the two elements are separated by extraction into tributyl phosphate and back extraction with a weakly acidic solution to remove the thorium.

  20. Sand consolidation method

    SciTech Connect

    Young, B.M.

    1965-10-05

    This is a new and improved sand consolidation method wherein an in-situ curing of a resinous fluid is undertaken. This method does not require that the resinous fluids be catalyzed at the surface of the well or well bore as is the case in previous methods. This method consists of, first, pumping an acid-curable consolidating fluid into the unconsolidated sand or earth formation and, secondly, pumping an oil overflush solution containing a halogenated organic or other organic acid or delayed acid-producing chemical. A small quantity of diesel oilspacer may be used between the plastic catalyst solution. The overflush functions tomore » remove permeability, and its acid or acid producing component promotes subsequent hardening of the remaining film of consolidating fluid. Trichloroacetic acid and benzotrichloride are satisfactory to add to the overflush solution for curing the resins. (17 claims)« less

  1. Booming Sand Dunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vriend, Nathalie

    "Booming" sand dunes are able to produce low-frequency sound that resembles a pure note from a music instrument. The sound has a dominant audible frequency (70-105 Hz) and several higher harmonics and may be heard from far distances away. A natural or induced avalanche from a slip face of the booming dune triggers the emission that may last for several minutes. There are various references in travel literature to the phenomenon, but to date no scientific explanation covered all field observations. This thesis introduces a new physical model that describes the phenomenon of booming dunes. The waveguide model explains the selection of the booming frequency and the amplification of the sound in terms of constructive interference in a confined geometry. The frequency of the booming is a direct function of the dimensions and velocities in the waveguide. The higher harmonics are related to the higher modes of propagation in the waveguide. The experimental validation includes quantitative field research at the booming dunes of the Mojave Desert and Death Valley National Park. Microphone and geophone recordings of the acoustic and seismic emission show a variation of booming frequency in space and time. The analysis of the sensor data quantifies wave propagation characteristics such as speed, dispersion, and nonlinear effects and allows the distinction between the source mechanism of the booming and the booming itself. The migration of sand dunes results from a complicated interplay between dune building, wind regime, and precipitation. The morphological and morphodynamical characteristics of two field locations are analyzed with various geophysical techniques. Ground-penetrating radar images the subsurface structure of the dunes and reveal a natural, internal layering that is directly related to the history of dune migration. The seismic velocity increases abruptly with depth and gradually increases with downhill position due to compaction. Sand sampling shows local

  2. Sand dollar sites orogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amos, Dee

    2013-04-01

    The determinology of the humble sand dollars habitat changing from inception to the drastic evolution of the zone to that of present day. Into the cauldron along the southern Californian 'ring of fire' lithosphere are evidence of geosynclinals areas, metasedimentary rock formations and hydrothermal activity. The explanation begins with 'Theia' and the Moon's formation, battles with cometary impacts, glacial ages, epochs with evolutionary bottlenecks and plate tectonics. Fully illustrated the lecture includes localised diagrams and figures with actual subject photographic examples of plutonic, granitic, jade and peridodite. Finally, the origins of the materials used in the lecture are revealed for prosecution by future students and the enjoyment of interested parties in general.

  3. Compressive behavior of fine sand.

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Bradley E.; Kabir, Md. E.; Song, Bo

    2010-04-01

    The compressive mechanical response of fine sand is experimentally investigated. The strain rate, initial density, stress state, and moisture level are systematically varied. A Kolsky bar was modified to obtain uniaxial and triaxial compressive response at high strain rates. A controlled loading pulse allows the specimen to acquire stress equilibrium and constant strain-rates. The results show that the compressive response of the fine sand is not sensitive to strain rate under the loading conditions in this study, but significantly dependent on the moisture content, initial density and lateral confinement. Partially saturated sand is more compliant than dry sand. Similar trendsmore » were reported in the quasi-static regime for experiments conducted at comparable specimen conditions. The sand becomes stiffer as initial density and/or confinement pressure increases. The sand particle size become smaller after hydrostatic pressure and further smaller after dynamic axial loading.« less

  4. Windblown Sand in Ganges Chasma

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-04-25

    Dark, windblown sand covers intricate sedimentary rock layers in this image captured by NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) from Ganges Chasma, a canyon in the Valles Marineris system. These features are at once familiar and unusual to those familiar with Earth's beaches and deserts. Most sand dunes on Earth are made of silica-rich sand, giving them a light color; these Martian dunes owe their dark color to the iron and magnesium-rich sand found in the region. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21600

  5. Monitoring Sand Sheets and Dunes

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-12

    NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) captured this crater featuring sand dunes and sand sheets on its floor. What are sand sheets? Snow fall on Earth is a good example of sand sheets: when it snows, the ground gets blanketed with up to a few meters of snow. The snow mantles the ground and "mimics" the underlying topography. Sand sheets likewise mantle the ground as a relatively thin deposit. This kind of environment has been monitored by HiRISE since 2007 to look for movement in the ripples covering the dunes and sheets. This is how scientists who study wind-blown sand can track the amount of sand moving through the area and possibly where the sand came from. Using the present environment is crucial to understanding the past: sand dunes, sheets, and ripples sometimes become preserved as sandstone and contain clues as to how they were deposited The map is projected here at a scale of 25 centimeters (9.8 inches) per pixel. [The original image scale is 25 centimeters (9.8 inches) per pixel (with 1 x 1 binning); objects on the order of 75 centimeters (29.5 inches) across are resolved.] North is up. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21757

  6. River of Sand

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-21

    A dominant driver of surface processes on Mars today is aeolian (wind) activity. In many cases, sediment from this activity is trapped in low-lying areas, such as craters. Aeolian features in the form of dunes and ripples can occur in many places on Mars depending upon regional wind regimes. The Cerberus Fossae are a series of discontinuous fissures along dusty plains in the southeastern region of Elysium Planitia. This rift zone is thought to be the result of combined volcano-tectonic processes. Dark sediment has accumulated in areas along the floor of these fissures as well as inactive ripple-like aeolian bedforms known as "transverse aeolian ridges" (TAR). Viewed through HiRISE infrared color, the basaltic sand lining the fissures' floor stands out as deep blue against the light-toned dust covering the region. This, along with the linearity of the fissures and the wave-like appearance of the TAR, give the viewer an impression of a river cutting through the Martian plains. However, this river of sand does not appear to be flowing. Analyses of annual monitoring images of this region have not detected aeolian activity in the form of ripple migration thus far. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21063

  7. Science Learning in the Sand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sexton, Ursula

    1997-01-01

    Presents activities that allow students to think about the Earth in a contextual manner and become familiar with constructive and destructive processes as they relate to sand - its origins, cyclical processes, and yielding of new products. Explores the bigger idea with a developmentally appropriate study of water, rocks, sand, physical phenomena,…

  8. Sand and Dust on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, Ronald; Haberle, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    Mars is a planet of high scientific interest. Various studies are currently being made that involve vehicles that have landed on Mars. Because Mars is known to experience frequent wind storms, mission planners and engineers require knowledge of the physical and chemical properties of Martian windblown sand and dust, and the processes involved in the origin and evolution of sand and dust storms.

  9. Sand and Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 7 November 2003

    This image shows a relatively small crater (35 km across) in the heavily cratered terrain of the southern highlands. At the midlatitudes, this area is known both for its water-formed gullies and its sand dunes. This crater shows spectacular examples of both. In fact, the gullies running down the northern edge of the crater made it to the cover of Science magazine on June 30, 2000. The large dark spot in the floor of the crater is sand that has accumulated into one large dune with a single curvilinear crest.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -54.9, Longitude 17.5 East (342.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  10. Early Childhood: Discovery through Sand Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Margaret

    1982-01-01

    Suggestions are given for using sand play to teach science related vocabulary and concepts to preschool and primary age children by using dry sand, wet sand, different sizes and shapes of spoons and containers, sieves, and funnels. (DC)

  11. MERL REPORT OF PROGRESS, 1978

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Municipal Environmental Research Laboratory is EPA's research component for the development of technology, systems and processes to combat environmental pollutants that trouble our communities and municipalities. The report discusses the development and demonstration of cost-...

  12. [Sanitation of the health service centre in Warsaw (Samodzielny Zespół Publicznych Zakładów Lecznictwa Otwartego Warszawa-Mokotów). Financial and economic analysis].

    PubMed

    Buczak-Stec, Elzbieta

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the financial and economic analysis, conducted in March 2010, was to identify all significant factors that had a positive influence on the restructuring process in the health service centre (Samodzielny Zespół Publicznych Zakładów Lecznictwa Otwartego Warszawa--Mokotów) in Warsaw. Within the framework of the analysis, financial data form time period 1999-2009 were analyzed. Also the managing director and financial director were interviewed. Taking into consideration research results it can be stated that not a single factor but a collection of the purposeful efforts influenced the improvement of the health service centre condition. Apart from received public help, the most significant factors include: rational restructuring process, managing of personnel development, professionally managed financial department, cooperation between departments, good internal communication and use of modern management techniques.

  13. Saltation of Non-Spherical Sand Particles

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhengshi; Ren, Shan; Huang, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Saltation is an important geological process and the primary source of atmospheric mineral dust aerosols. Unfortunately, no studies to date have been able to precisely reproduce the saltation process because of the simplified theoretical models used. For example, sand particles in most of the existing wind sand movement models are considered to be spherical, the effects of the sand shape on the structure of the wind sand flow are rarely studied, and the effect of mid-air collision is usually neglected. In fact, sand grains are rarely round in natural environments. In this paper, we first analyzed the drag coefficients, drag forces, and starting friction wind speeds of sand grains with different shapes in the saltation process, then established a sand saltation model that considers the coupling effect between wind and the sand grains, the effect of the mid-air collision of sand grains, and the effect of the sand grain shape. Based on this model, the saltation process and sand transport rate of non-spherical sand particles were simulated. The results show that the sand shape has a significant impact on the saltation process; for the same wind speed, the sand transport rates varied for different shapes of sand grains by as much as several-fold. Therefore, sand shape is one of the important factors affecting wind-sand movement. PMID:25170614

  14. Studies of Phlebotomine Sand Flies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A laboratory colony of the sand fly, Lutzomyia anthophora, was established in Gainesville, Florida. Identification keys to the American species of...Sycorax, Warileya and Brumptomyia are given. Also keys to several groups of the large genus Lutzomyia are provided.

  15. METHOD OF PROCESSING MONAZITE SAND

    DOEpatents

    Calkins, G.D.

    1957-10-29

    A method is given for the pretreatment of monazite sand with sodium hydroxide. When momazite sand is reacted with sodium hydroxide, the thorium, uranium, and rare earths are converted to water-insoluble hydrous oxides; but in the case of uranium, the precipitate compound may at least partly consist of a slightly soluble uranate. According to the patent, monazite sand is treated with an excess of aqueous sodium hydroxide solution, and the insoluble compounds of thorium, uranium, and the rare earths are separated from the aqueous solution. This solution is then concentrated causing sodium phosphate to crystallize out. The crystals are removed from the remaining solution, and the solution is recycled for reaction with a mew supply of momazite sand.

  16. Microbial strengthening of loose sand.

    PubMed

    Banagan, B L; Wertheim, B M; Roth, M J S; Caslake, L F

    2010-08-01

    To test whether the addition of Flavobacterium johnsoniae could increase the strength of saturated Ottawa 30 sand. A box model was built that simulates groundwater-like flow through a main sand compartment. Strength tests were performed at seven locations and at two depths, 10.8 and 20.3 cm below the top of the tank, using a vane shear device before and after the addition of bacteria. After the addition of Fl. johnsoniae, sand samples were obtained from multiple sampling ports on the vertical sides of the box model. The presence of a bacterial biofilm was confirmed by staining these sand samples with SYTO-9 and Alexa Fluor 633 and viewing with a confocal microscope. The average shear strength increases after the addition of Fl. johnsoniae were 15.2-87.5%, depending on the experimental conditions. Flavobacterium johnsoniae caused a statistically significant increase in the strength of saturated Ottawa 30 sand. Biofilm-forming bacteria can increase the shear strength of saturated sand. The addition of biofilm-forming bacteria to a building site may be an alternate method to mitigate the effects of liquefaction.

  17. Sand Sources Near Athabasca Valles

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-10-29

    This image captured by NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter shows a small channel cutting into young volcanic lavas in a region where massive catastrophic flooding took place in the relatively recent past. The Athabasca Valles region includes a vast lava flow, thought to be the youngest on Mars, with even younger outflow channels that were carved by running water. The source of the water is believed to be the Cerberus Fossae valleys to the north, which may have penetrated to an over-pressurized aquifer in the subsurface. Nowadays, erosion by gravity, wind, and frost gradually wears down the rims of the outflow channels. In this scene, we see dark materials along the channel rim that were probably exposed by this erosion. The dark materials are less red than the surrounding surface and so they appear blue in this enhanced color picture. Viewed close up, the dark materials show ripples that suggest they are made up of mobile sand. It is possible that this sand originated elsewhere and simply collected where we see it today, but the fact that sand is not found elsewhere in the scene suggest to us that it is eroding out of the volcanic layers at the retreating rim of the channel. Sand sources are important because mobile sand grains have only a limited lifetime, wearing down and chipping apart each time they impact the surface. Erosion of the volcanic materials in this region may provide sands to replace those that are destroyed. Few such sand sources have so far been identified on Mars. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18889

  18. Disturbance of the inclined inserting-type sand fence to wind-sand flow fields and its sand control characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jian-jun; Lei, Jia-qiang; Li, Sheng-yu; Wang, Hai-feng

    2016-06-01

    The inclined inserting-type sand fence is a novel sand retaining wall adopted along the Lanxin High-Speed Railway II in Xinjiang for controlling and blocking sand movement. To verify the effectiveness of the new fence structure for sand prevention, a wind tunnel test was used for flow field test simulation of the sand fence. The results indicate that the inclined inserting-type sand fence was able to deflect the flow of the sand and was able to easily form an upward slant acceleration zone on the leeward side of the sand fence. As shown by the percentage change in sand collection rates on the windward side and the leeward side of the sand fence, the sand flux per unit area at 4 m height in the slant upward direction increased on the leeward side of the inclined inserting-type sand fence. By comparing the flow fields, this site is an acceleration zone, which also reaffirms the correspondence of wind-sand flow fields with the spatial distribution characteristic of the wind-carried sand motion. The field sand collection data indicates that under the effects of the inclined inserting-type sand fence, the sandy air currents passing in front and behind the sand fence not only changed in quality, but the grain composition and particle size also significantly changed, suggesting that the inclined inserting-type sand fence has a sorting and filtering effect on the sandy air currents that passed through. The fence retained coarse particulates on the windward side and fine particulates within the shade of the wind on the leeward side.

  19. Windblown Sand in West Candor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    23 December 2003

    West Candor Chasma, a part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system, is known for its layered sedimentary rock outcrops. It is less known for dark fields of windblown sand, but that is what occurs in the north-central part of the chasm. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image, obtained in December 2003, shows the interplay of dark, wind-blown sand with buttes and mesas of layered rock in west Candor Chasma. Dark streamers of sand point toward the east/southeast (right/lower right), indicating that dominant winds blow from the west. This picture is located near 5.2oS, 75.7oW, and covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  20. Sands at Gusev Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrol, Nathalie A.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth; Knoll, Andrew H.; Farmer, Jack; Arvidson, Raymond; Grin, Edmond; Li, Ronxing; Fenton, Lori; Cohen, Barbara; Bell, James F.; Aileen Yingst, R.

    2014-05-01

    Processes, environments, and the energy associated with the transport and deposition of sand at Gusev Crater are characterized at the microscopic scale through the comparison of statistical moments for particle size and shape distributions. Bivariate and factor analyses define distinct textural groups at 51 sites along the traverse completed by the Spirit rover as it crossed the plains and went into the Columbia Hills. Fine-to-medium sand is ubiquitous in ripples and wind drifts. Most distributions show excess fine material, consistent with a predominance of wind erosion over the last 3.8 billion years. Negative skewness at West Valley is explained by the removal of fine sand during active erosion, or alternatively, by excess accumulation of coarse sand from a local source. The coarse to very coarse sand particles of ripple armors in the basaltic plains have a unique combination of size and shape. Their distribution display significant changes in their statistical moments within the ~400 m that separate the Columbia Memorial Station from Bonneville Crater. Results are consistent with aeolian and/or impact deposition, while the elongated and rounded shape of the grains forming the ripples, as well as their direction of origin, could point to Ma'adim Vallis as a possible source. For smaller particles on the traverse, our findings confirm that aeolian processes have dominated over impact and other processes to produce sands with the observed size and shape patterns across a spectrum of geologic (e.g., ripples and plains soils) and aerographic settings (e.g., wind shadows).

  1. Sands at Gusev Crater, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cabrol, Nathalie A.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Farmer, Jack D.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Grin, E.A.; Li, Ron; Fenton, Lori; Cohen, B.; Bell, J.F.; Yingst, R. Aileen

    2014-01-01

    Processes, environments, and the energy associated with the transport and deposition of sand at Gusev Crater are characterized at the microscopic scale through the comparison of statistical moments for particle size and shape distributions. Bivariate and factor analyses define distinct textural groups at 51 sites along the traverse completed by the Spirit rover as it crossed the plains and went into the Columbia Hills. Fine-to-medium sand is ubiquitous in ripples and wind drifts. Most distributions show excess fine material, consistent with a predominance of wind erosion over the last 3.8 billion years. Negative skewness at West Valley is explained by the removal of fine sand during active erosion, or alternatively, by excess accumulation of coarse sand from a local source. The coarse to very coarse sand particles of ripple armors in the basaltic plains have a unique combination of size and shape. Their distribution display significant changes in their statistical moments within the ~400 m that separate the Columbia Memorial Station from Bonneville Crater. Results are consistent with aeolian and/or impact deposition, while the elongated and rounded shape of the grains forming the ripples, as well as their direction of origin, could point to Ma'adim Vallis as a possible source. For smaller particles on the traverse, our findings confirm that aeolian processes have dominated over impact and other processes to produce sands with the observed size and shape patterns across a spectrum of geologic (e.g., ripples and plains soils) and aerographic settings (e.g., wind shadows).

  2. About White Sands Missile Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Information on the White Sands Missile Range is given in viewgraph form. Navy programs, test sites, rocket programs, research rockets' booster capacity, current boost capabilities, ordnance and payload assembly areas, commercial space launch history and agreements, and lead times are among the topics covered.

  3. Geology on a Sand Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Jacqueline

    2004-01-01

    Earth science teachers know how frustrating it can be to spend hundreds of dollars on three-dimensional (3-D) models of Earth's geologic features, to use the models for only a few class periods. To avoid emptying an already limited science budget, the author states that teachers can use a simple alternative to the expensive 3-D models--sand. She…

  4. Studies of Phlebotomine Sand Flies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-31

    wellcomei, a proven vector of leishmaniasis elsewhere in Brazil, was found by the Principal Investigator and colleagues in rainforest north of the Amazon ...and Sycoracinae). Technical Bull. 806. Agr. Exp. Stat., Univ. of Fla. 166 p. 15. Arias, J. and D.G. Young. 1980. Sand flies of the central Amazon of

  5. Behavior of plastic sand confinement grids

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1986-01-01

    The concept of improving the load carrying ability of unbound aggregates, particularly sand, by lateral confinement has been investigated for some time. Extensive full-scale testing of the trafficability of confined beach sand pavement layers has bee...

  6. Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael

    2010-03-09

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may have one or more karsted zones. Methods may include providing heat from one or more heaters to one or more karsted zones of the tar sands formation to mobilize fluids in the formation. At least some of the mobilized fluids may be produced from the formation.

  7. METHOD OF PROCESSING MONAZITE SAND

    DOEpatents

    Welt, M.A.; Smutz, M.

    1958-08-26

    A process is described for recovering thorium, uranium, and rare earth values from monazite sand. The monazite sand is first digested with sulfuric acid and the resulting "monazite sulfate" solution is adjusted to a pH of between 0.4 and 3.0, and oxalate anions are added causing precipitation of the thorium and the rare earths as the oxalates. The oxalate precipitate is separated from the uranium containing supernatant solution, and is dried and calcined to the oxides. The thorium and rare earth oxides are then dissolved in nitric acid and the solution is contacted with tribntyl phosphate whereby an organic extract phase containing the cerium and thorium values is obtained, together with an aqueous raffinate containing the other rare earth values. The organic phase is then separated from the aqueous raffinate and the cerium and thorium are back extracted with an aqueous medium.

  8. Studies of Phlebotomine Sand Flies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-30

    CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAQE(W,. Date St.4- 20 ain subgenera of Lutzomyia were reviewed; a large work on the phlebotomines of Colombia , representing... Lutzomyia cirrita n. sp. from Colombia with a new synonym in the genus (Diptera: Psychodidae). Fla. Ent. 57:321-325. 8. Young, D.G. and D.J. Lewis. 1977...Report) * III. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES III. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse side if necesary and Identify by block number) Sand Fly Phlebotomus Lutzomyia

  9. The White Sands Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an overview of the White Sands Test Facility's role in ensuring the safety and reliability of materials and hardware slated for launch aboard the Space Shuttle. Engine firings, orbital flights debris impact tests, and propulsion tests are featured as well as illustrating how they provide flight safety testing for the Johnson Space Center, other NASA centers, and various government agencies. It also contains a historical perspective and highlights of major programs that have been participated in as part of NASA.

  10. Tyler sands play entices operators

    SciTech Connect

    Stremel, K.

    Encouraging seismic data and recent discoveries are causing a renewed interest in an intensive exploration effort in central Montana's Tyler play. With new subsurface information obtained from recent seismic surveys, geologists are reviewing the elusive Tyler sands from a different perspective. Several operators are competing for lease positions through farmouts and joint ventures and increased drilling activity is expected to begin within the next year.

  11. Sand Sheet on Crater Floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

    As with yesterday's image, this dune field is located inside a crater, in this case an unnamed crater at 26 degrees North latitude. In this VIS image the dunes are coalescing into a sand sheet, note the lack of dune forms to the north of the small hills. The presence of ridges and hills in the area is affecting the dune shapes.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 26.4, Longitude 62.7 East (297.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology

  12. Evaluation of Durability Parameters of Concrete with Manufacture Sand and River Sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangoju, Bhaskar; Ramesh, G.; Bharatkumar, B. H.; Ramanjaneyulu, K.

    2017-09-01

    Most of the states in our country have banned sand quarrying from the river beds, causing a scarcity of natural river sand for the construction sector. Manufacture sand (M-sand) is one of the alternate solutions to replace the river sand (R-sand) in concrete. The main aim of the present study is to evaluate the durability parameters of concrete with M-sand when compared to that of concrete with R-sand. Corrosion of reinforcement is one of the main deteriorating mechanisms of reinforced concrete due to the ingress of chloride ions or carbon-di-oxide. For comparative evaluation of durability parameters, accelerated tests such as Rapid Chloride Permeability Test, Rapid Chloride Migration Test and accelerated carbonation test were carried out on specimens of R-sand and M-sand. All tests were carried out after 90 days of casting. Test results reveal that the durability parameters of the concrete with M-sand in chloride induced environment is relatively better than that of concrete with R-sand and hence is recommended to use M-sand as a replacement to R-sand.

  13. [Environmental toxicity of waste foundry sand].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Wang, Yu-Jue; Wang, Jin-Lin; Huang, Tian-You; Xiong, Ying

    2013-03-01

    The metal leaching characteristics and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of five different types of waste foundry sands were analyzed with the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and head space-gas chromatography (HS-GC). Microtox and soil dehydrogenase activity (DHA) tests were then used to evaluate the bio-effects of these waste sands. The results showed that due to the different metals poured and casting materials used to make the sand molds, there was significant difference among the five waste foundry sands in the compositions and concentrations of metal and organic pollutants. The concentrations of Fe in the leachates of iron and steel casting waste foundry sand exceeded the maximal allowable concentrations specified in the National Standard of Drinking Water Quality, whereas the As concentration in the leachate of aluminum casting waste foundry sand exceeded the standard. The five waste foundry sands had quite different compositions and levels of VOCs, which resulted in different levels of inhibition effects on the luminescent bacteria (30% and 95%). Additionally, the soil DHA tests suggested that metal pollutants in waste foundry sands may inhibit the soil microbial activity, whereas organics in the sands may slightly promote the microbial activity. The results of this study indicated that the waste foundry sands may pose considerable threat to the environment when improperly disposed.

  14. Rover Track in Sand Sheet Near Martian Sand Dune

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-12-10

    The rippled surface of the first Martian sand dune ever studied up close fills this view of "High Dune" from the Mast Camera (Mastcam) on NASA's Curiosity rover. This site is part of the "Bagnold Dunes" field along the northwestern flank of Mount Sharp. The dunes are active, migrating up to about one yard or meter per year. The component images of this mosaic view were taken on Nov. 27, 2015, during the 1,176th Martian day, or sol, of Curiosity's work on Mars. The scene is presented with a color adjustment that approximates white balancing, to resemble how the sand would appear under daytime lighting conditions on Earth. The annotated version includes superimposed scale bars of 30 centimeters (1 foot) in the foreground and 100 centimeters (3.3 feet) in the middle distance. Malin Space Science Systems, San Diego, built and operates Curiosity's Mastcam. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, built the rover and manages the project for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20169

  15. Studies of Phlebotomine Sand Flies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    20, It different from Report) IS. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 9’. KEY WOFDS (Continue an teers*e aide it necessa y mid identify by block number) Lutzomyia ...illustrations and a description of a new species. Other new Lutzomyia sand flies were discovered in Mexico and Ecuador. A species group of Lutzomyia ...egg structure of some Lutzomyia D IN J OBSOLETE Continued-- / ’DD , j. 1473 EtnT oN OFNvS = LT Unclaggi;fi;R~d y - SECURITY CLASSIFICA rIOm OF THIS

  16. Broadband Scattering from Sand and Sand/Mud Sediments with Extensive Environmental Characterization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Broadband Scattering from Sand and Sand/ Mud Sediments...TERM GOALS To model the effects of volume heterogeneities, both discrete and continuous, in scattering from sand and mud sediments. A better...IMP2 has been used extensively during TREX13 and BayEx14 to measure the porosity in both sand and mud sediments. Analysis of this recent data inspired a

  17. Coupled changes in sand grain size and sand transport driven by changes in the upstream supply of sand in the Colorado River: relative importance of changes in bed-sand grain size and bed-sand area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Topping, D.J.; Rubin, D.M.; Melis, T.S.

    2007-01-01

    Sand transport in the Colorado River in Marble and Grand canyons was naturally limited by the upstream supply of sand. Prior to the 1963 closure of Glen Canyon Dam, the river exhibited the following four effects of sand supply limitation: (1) hysteresis in sediment concentration, (2) hysteresis in sediment grain size coupled to the hysteresis in sediment concentration, (3) production of inversely graded flood deposits, and (4) development or modification of a lag between the time of a flood peak and the time of either maximum or minimum (depending on reach geometry) bed elevation. Construction and operation of the dam has enhanced the degree to which the first two of these four effects are evident, and has not affected the degree to which the last two effects of sand supply limitation are evident in the Colorado River in Marble and Grand canyons. The first three of the effects involve coupled changes in suspended-sand concentration and grain size that are controlled by changes in the upstream supply of sand. During tributary floods, sand on the bed of the Colorado River fines; this causes the suspended sand to fine and the suspended-sand concentration to increase, even when the discharge of water remains constant. Subsequently, the bed is winnowed of finer sand, the suspended sand coarsens, and the suspended-sand concentration decreases independently of discharge. Also associated with these changes in sand supply are changes in the fraction of the bed that is covered by sand. Thus, suspended-sand concentration in the Colorado River is likely regulated by both changes in the bed-sand grain size and changes in the bed-sand area. A physically based flow and suspended-sediment transport model is developed, tested, and applied to data from the Colorado River to evaluate the relative importance of changes in the bed-sand grain size and changes in the bed-sand area in regulating suspended-sand concentration. Although the model was developed using approximations for steady

  18. Fecal indicators in sand, sand contact, and risk of enteric illness among beach-goers

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Beach sand can harbor fecal indicator organisms and pathogens, but enteric illness risk associated with sand contact remains unclear. METHODS: In 2007, visitors at 2 recreational marine beaches were asked on the day of their visit about sand contact. Ten to 12 days...

  19. Sand dune tracking from satellite laser altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabboor, Mohammed

    Substantial problems arise from sand movement in arid and semi-arid countries. Sand poses a threat to infrastructure, agricultural and urban areas. These issues are caused by the encroachment of sand on roads and railway tracks, farmland, towns and villages, and airports, to name a few. Sand movement highly depends on geomorphology including vegetation cover, shape and height of the terrain, and grain size of the sand. However, wind direction and speed are the most important factors that affect efficient sand movement. The direction of the movement depends on the main direction of the wind, but it has been shown that a minimum wind speed is required, e.g. wind gusts, to initiate sand transport. This fact prevents a simple calculation of sand transport from conventional wind data as wind records rarely contain sub-minute intervals masking out any wind gusts. An alternative of predicting sand transport is the direct observation of sand advance by in situ measurements or via satellite. Until recently, satellite imagery was the only means to compare dune shape and position for predicting dune migration over several years. In 2003, the NASA laser altimetry mission ICESat became operational and monitors elevations over all surface types including sand dunes with an accuracy of about 10-20 cm. In this study, ICESat observations from repeat tracks (tracks overlapping eachother within 50 m) are used to derive sand dune advance and direction. The method employs a correlation of the elevation profiles over several dunes and was sucessfully validated with synthetic data. The accuracy of this method is 5 meters of dune advance. One of the most active areas exhibiting sand and dune movement is the area of the Arabian Peninsula. Approximately one-third of the Arabian Peninsula is covered by sand dunes. Different wind regimes (Shamal, Kaus) cause sand dune movement in the selected study area in the eastern part of the Arabian Peninsula between 20-25 degrees North and 45-55 degrees

  20. Submarine sand ridges and sand waves in the eastern part of the China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ziyin; Li, Shoujun; Shang, Jihong; Zhou, Jieqiong; Zhao, Dineng; Liang, Yuyang

    2016-04-01

    Integrated with multi-beam and single-beam echo sounding data, as well as historical bathymetric data, submarine bathymetric maps of the eastern part of the China Sea, including the Bohai Sea, Huanghai Sea, and East China Sea, are constructed to systematically study submarine sand ridges and sand waves in the eastern part of the China Sea, combined with high-resolution seismic, sub-bottom profile and borehole data. Submarine sand ridges are extraordinarily developed in the eastern part of the China Sea, and 7 sand ridge areas can be divided from north to south, that is, the Laotieshan Channel sand ridge area in the Bohai Sea, the Korea Bay sand ridge area in the southern Huanghai Sea, the sand ridge area in the eastern Huanghai islands and the Huanghai Troughs, the Jianggang sand ridge area in the western Huanghai Sea, the sand ridge area in the East China Sea shelf, and the sand ridge and sand wave area in the Taiwan Strait and Taiwan Banks. The distribution area of the sand ridges and sand waves covers more than 450,000 km2, wherein ~10,000 km2 in the Bohai Bay, ~200,000 km2 in the Huanghai Sea, ~200,000 km2 in the East China Sea shelf, and ~40,000 km2 in the Taiwan Strait and Taiwan Banks, respectively. The great mass of sand ridges are distributed within water depth of 5-160 m, with a total length of over 160 km and a main width of 5-10 km. The inner structure of the sand ridges presents features of high-angle inclined beddings, with main lithology of sands, sand-mud alternations partly visible, and a small number of mud cores. Dating results indicate that the sand ridges in the eastern part of the China Sea are mainly developed in the Holocene. Sea-level variation dominates the sand ridge evolution in the eastern part of the China Sea since the LGM, and the sand ridges developed in the area of < 60m water depth are appeared in bad activity, meanwhile sand ridges with good activity are still developed in large scale.

  1. White Sands, Carrizozo Lava Beds, NM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A truly remarkable view of White Sands and the nearby Carrizozo Lava Beds in southeast NM (33.5N, 106.5W). White Sands, site of the WW II atomic bomb development and testing facility and later post war nuclear weapons testing that can still be seen in the cleared circular patterns on the ground.

  2. Nonlinear dynamics of Aeolian sand ripples.

    PubMed

    Prigozhin, L

    1999-07-01

    We study the initial instability of flat sand surface and further nonlinear dynamics of wind ripples. The proposed continuous model of ripple formation allowed us to simulate the development of a typical asymmetric ripple shape and the evolution of a sand ripple pattern. We suggest that this evolution occurs via ripple merger preceded by several soliton-like interaction of ripples.

  3. Design of dry sand soil stratified sampler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Erkang; Chen, Wei; Feng, Xiao; Liao, Hongbo; Liang, Xiaodong

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a design of a stratified sampler for dry sand soil, which can be used for stratified sampling of loose sand under certain conditions. Our group designed the mechanical structure of a portable, single - person, dry sandy soil stratified sampler. We have set up a mathematical model for the sampler. It lays the foundation for further development of design research.

  4. Sand transportation and reverse patterns over leeward face of sand dune

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hong; Dun, Hongchao; Tong, Ding; Huang, Ning

    2017-04-01

    Sand saltation has complex interactions with turbulent flow and dune form. Most models of wind-blown sand consider ideal circumstances such as steady wind velocity and a flat surface, and the bulk of data on wind flow and sand transport over an individual dune has focused mostly on the influence of dune shape or inter-dune space on the wind flow, neglecting the effect of morphology on sand saltation, particularly airflow and sand transportation over the leeward slope. Wind flow structures over the leeward slope of sand dunes have a fundamental influence on the organization of sand dunes. In order to understand sand dune dynamics, lee face airflow and sediment transportation should be paid more attention. Previous field observations could not measure turbulent flow structure well because of the limited observation points and the influence of experiment structure on wind field. In addition, the reverse sand particles over leeward face could not be collected by sand trap in field. Numerous field observations could not measure turbulent flow structure because of the limited observation points and the influence of experimental structures on the wind field. In addition, the reverse transport of sand particles over leeward face could not be collected by sand traps in field. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the turbulent flow structure and sand transport pattern over the leeward slope. A numerical model of sand saltation over slope terrain is constructed, which also considers the coupling effects between air flow and sand particles. The large eddy simulation method is used to model turbulent flow. Sand transport is simulated by tracking the trajectory of each sand particle. The results show that terrain significantly alters the turbulent air flow structure and wind-blown sand movement, especially over the leeward slope. Here, mass flux increases initially and then decreases with height in the reversed flow region in the direction of wind flow, and the mass flux

  5. Murzuk Sand Sea, Sahara Desert, Libya, Africa

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-01-19

    STS054-152-189 (13-19 Jan. 1993) --- This near-vertical color photograph shows the very diverse landscape that is part of the great Sahara Desert of north Africa. Specifically, the vast expanse of sand dunes, located in the extreme southwestern corner of Libya, is known as the Murzuk Sand Sea. Close inspection of this photograph shows the agricultural village of Murzuk as evidenced by the numerous center pivot irrigation patterns at the edge of the Murzuk Sand Sea. The very rugged, dissected terrain to the west of this sand sea is the eastern tip of the Tassili N'ajjer Mountains and the Tadrart Plateau that are in neighboring Algeria. Several smaller areas of sand dunes are interspersed between the major areas of rock outcrops. The photograph was taken with a Linhof camera.

  6. Earth-like sand fluxes on Mars.

    PubMed

    Bridges, N T; Ayoub, F; Avouac, J-P; Leprince, S; Lucas, A; Mattson, S

    2012-05-09

    Strong and sustained winds on Mars have been considered rare, on the basis of surface meteorology measurements and global circulation models, raising the question of whether the abundant dunes and evidence for wind erosion seen on the planet are a current process. Recent studies showed sand activity, but could not determine whether entire dunes were moving--implying large sand fluxes--or whether more localized and surficial changes had occurred. Here we present measurements of the migration rate of sand ripples and dune lee fronts at the Nili Patera dune field. We show that the dunes are near steady state, with their entire volumes composed of mobile sand. The dunes have unexpectedly high sand fluxes, similar, for example, to those in Victoria Valley, Antarctica, implying that rates of landscape modification on Mars and Earth are similar.

  7. Altitude of the top of the Sparta Sand and Memphis Sand in three areas of Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pugh, Aaron L.; Westerfield, Paul W.; Gonthier, Gerard; Poynter, David T.

    1998-01-01

    The Sparta Sand and Memphis Sand form the second most productive aquifer in Arkansas. The Sparta Sand and Memphis Sand range in thick- ness from 0 to 900 feet, consisting of fine- to medium-grained sands interbedded with layers of silt, clay, shale, and minor amounts of lignite. Within the three areas of interest, the top surface of the Sparta Sand and Memphis Sand dips regionally east and southeast towards the axis of the Mississippi Embayment syncline and Desha Basin. Local variations in the top surface may be attributed to a combination of continued development of structural features, differential compaction, localized faulting, and erosion of the surface prior to subsequent inundation and deposition of younger sediments.

  8. Investigation of re-use options for used traction sand.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-06-01

    The Colorado Department of Transportation (CDOT) uses approximately 24,000 tons of traction sand annually, : especially in mountain locations. Once traction sand is applied, street sweepers reclaim approximately 50% of the : sand, which is either sto...

  9. Global sand trade is paving the way for a tragedy of the sand commons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, A.; Brandt, J.; Lear, K.; Liu, J.

    2016-12-01

    In the first 40 years of the 21st century, planet Earth is highly likely to experience more urban land expansion than in all of history, an increase in transportation infrastructure by more than a third, and a great variety of land reclamation projects. While scientists are beginning to quantify the deep imprint of human infrastructure on biodiversity at large scales, its off-site impacts and linkages to sand mining and trade have been largely ignored. Sand is the most widely used building material in the world. With an ever-increasing demand for this resource, sand is being extracted at rates that far exceed its replenishment, and is becoming increasingly scarce. This has already led to conflicts around the world and will likely lead to a "tragedy of the sand commons" if sustainable sand mining and trade cannot be achieved. We investigate the environmental and socioeconomic interactions over large distances (telecouplings) of infrastructure development and sand mining and trade across diverse systems through transdisciplinary research and the recently proposed telecoupling framework. Our research is generating a thorough understanding of the telecouplings driven by an increasing demand for sand. In particular, we address three main research questions: 1) Where are the conflicts related to sand mining occurring?; 2) What are the major "sending" and "receiving" systems of sand?; and 3) What are the main components (e.g. causes, effects, agents, etc.) of telecoupled systems involving sand mining and trade? Our results highlight the role of global sand trade as a driver of environmental degradation that threatens the integrity of natural systems and their capacity to deliver key ecosystem services. In addition, infrastructure development and sand mining and trade have important implications for other sustainability challenges such as over-fishing and global warming. This knowledge will help to identify opportunities and tools to better promote a more sustainable use

  10. Critical state of sand matrix soils.

    PubMed

    Marto, Aminaton; Tan, Choy Soon; Makhtar, Ahmad Mahir; Kung Leong, Tiong

    2014-01-01

    The Critical State Soil Mechanic (CSSM) is a globally recognised framework while the critical states for sand and clay are both well established. Nevertheless, the development of the critical state of sand matrix soils is lacking. This paper discusses the development of critical state lines and corresponding critical state parameters for the investigated material, sand matrix soils using sand-kaolin mixtures. The output of this paper can be used as an interpretation framework for the research on liquefaction susceptibility of sand matrix soils in the future. The strain controlled triaxial test apparatus was used to provide the monotonic loading onto the reconstituted soil specimens. All tested soils were subjected to isotropic consolidation and sheared under undrained condition until critical state was ascertain. Based on the results of 32 test specimens, the critical state lines for eight different sand matrix soils were developed together with the corresponding values of critical state parameters, M, λ, and Γ. The range of the value of M, λ, and Γ is 0.803-0.998, 0.144-0.248, and 1.727-2.279, respectively. These values are comparable to the critical state parameters of river sand and kaolin clay. However, the relationship between fines percentages and these critical state parameters is too scattered to be correlated.

  11. Critical State of Sand Matrix Soils

    PubMed Central

    Marto, Aminaton; Tan, Choy Soon; Makhtar, Ahmad Mahir; Kung Leong, Tiong

    2014-01-01

    The Critical State Soil Mechanic (CSSM) is a globally recognised framework while the critical states for sand and clay are both well established. Nevertheless, the development of the critical state of sand matrix soils is lacking. This paper discusses the development of critical state lines and corresponding critical state parameters for the investigated material, sand matrix soils using sand-kaolin mixtures. The output of this paper can be used as an interpretation framework for the research on liquefaction susceptibility of sand matrix soils in the future. The strain controlled triaxial test apparatus was used to provide the monotonic loading onto the reconstituted soil specimens. All tested soils were subjected to isotropic consolidation and sheared under undrained condition until critical state was ascertain. Based on the results of 32 test specimens, the critical state lines for eight different sand matrix soils were developed together with the corresponding values of critical state parameters, M, λ, and Γ. The range of the value of M, λ, and Γ is 0.803–0.998, 0.144–0.248, and 1.727–2.279, respectively. These values are comparable to the critical state parameters of river sand and kaolin clay. However, the relationship between fines percentages and these critical state parameters is too scattered to be correlated. PMID:24757417

  12. Invasive plants on disturbed Korean sand dunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kee Dae

    2005-01-01

    The sand dunes in coastal regions of South Korea are important ecosystems because of their small size, the rare species found in this habitat, and the beautiful landscapes they create. This study investigated the current vegetative status of sand dunes on three representative coasts of the Korean peninsula, and on the coasts of Cheju Island, and assessed the conditions caused by invasive plants. The relationships between the degree of invasion and 14 environmental variables were studied. Plots of sand dunes along line transects perpendicular to the coastal lines were established to estimate vegetative species coverage. TWINSPAN (Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis), CCA (Canonical Correspondence Analysis), and DCCA (Detrended Canonical Correspondence Analysis) were performed to classify communities on sand dunes and assess species composition variation. Carex kobomugi, Elymus mollis, and Vitex rotundifolia were found to be the dominant species plotted on the east, the west, and the peripheral coasts of Cheju Island, respectively. Vegetation on the south coast was totally extinct. The 19 communities, including representative C. kobomugi, C. kobomugi- Ixeris repens, C. kobomugi- Oenothera biennis, E. mollis, Lolium multiflorum- Calystegia soldanella, and V. rotundifolia- C. kobomugi, were all classified according to TWINSPAN. Oenothera biennis and L. multiflorum were exotics observed within these native communities. CCA showed that invasive native and exotic species distribution was segregated significantly, according to disturbance level, exotic species number, gravel, sand and silt contents, as well as vegetation size. It further revealed that human disturbance can strongly favor the settlement of invasive and exotic species. Restoration options to reduce exotic plants in the South Korean sand dune areas were found to be the introduction of native plant species from one sand dune into other sand dune areas, prohibition of building and the introduction of exotic

  13. Fecal indicators in sand, sand contact, and risk of enteric illness among beachgoers

    PubMed Central

    Heaney, Christopher D.; Sams, Elizabeth; Dufour, Alfred P.; Brenner, Kristen P.; Haugland, Richard A.; Chern, Eunice; Wing, Steve; Marshall, Stephen; Love, David C.; Serre, Marc; Noble, Rachel; Wade, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Beach sand can harbor fecal indicator organisms and pathogens, but enteric illness risk associated with sand contact remains unclear. Methods In 2007, visitors at two recreational marine beaches were asked on the day of their visit about sand contact. Ten to 12 days later, participants answered questions about health symptoms since the visit. F+ coliphage, Enterococcus, Bacteroidales, fecal Bacteroides, and Clostridium spp. in wet sand were measured using culture and molecular methods. Results We analyzed 144 wet sand samples and completed 4,999 interviews. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) were computed, comparing those in the highest tertile of fecal indicator exposure with those who reported no sand contact. Among those digging in sand compared with those not digging in sand, a molecular measure of Enterococcus spp. (calibrator cell equivalents/g) in sand was positively associated with gastrointestinal (GI) illness (aOR = 2.0 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2–3.2]) and diarrhea (2.4 [1.4–4.2]). Among those buried in sand, point estimates were greater for GI illness (3.3 [1.3–7.9]) and diarrhea (4.9 [1.8–13]). Positive associations were also observed for culture-based Enterococcus (colony-forming units/g) with GI illness (aOR digging = 1.7 [1.1–2.7]) and diarrhea (2.1 [1.3–3.4]). Associations were not found among non-swimmers with sand exposure. Conclusions We observed a positive relationship between sand contact activities and enteric illness as a function of concentrations of fecal microbial pollution in beach sand. PMID:22157306

  14. White Sands, Carrizozo Lava Beds, NM

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1982-03-30

    STS003-10-613 (22-30 March 1982) --- A truly remarkable view of White Sands and the nearby Carrizozo Lava Beds in southeast NM (33.5N, 106.5W). White Sands, site of the WW II atomic bomb development and testing facility and later post war nuclear weapons testing that can still be seen in the cleared circular patterns on the ground. Space shuttle Columbia (STS-3), this mission, landed at the White Sands alternate landing site because of bad weather at Edwards AFB, CA. Photo credit: NASA

  15. Watching Faults Grow in Sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    Accretionary sandbox experiments provide a rich environment for investigating the processes of fault development. These experiments engage students because 1) they enable direct observation of fault growth, which is impossible in the crust (type 1 physical model), 2) they are not only representational but can also be manipulated (type 2 physical model), 3) they can be used to test hypotheses (type 3 physical model) and 4) they resemble experiments performed by structural geology researchers around the world. The structural geology courses at UMass Amherst utilize a series of accretionary sandboxes experiments where students first watch a video of an experiment and then perform a group experiment. The experiments motivate discussions of what conditions they would change and what outcomes they would expect from these changes; hypothesis development. These discussions inevitably lead to calculations of the scaling relationships between model and crustal fault growth and provide insight into the crustal processes represented within the dry sand. Sketching of the experiments has been shown to be a very effective assessment method as the students reveal which features they are analyzing. Another approach used at UMass is to set up a forensic experiment. The experiment is set up with spatially varying basal friction before the meeting and students must figure out what the basal conditions are through the experiment. This experiment leads to discussions of equilibrium and force balance within the accretionary wedge. Displacement fields can be captured throughout the experiment using inexpensive digital image correlation techniques to foster quantitative analysis of the experiments.

  16. A study of global sand seas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, Edwin D.

    1979-01-01

    The birth of the idea that led to this publication on "Global Sand Seas" dates back to the late 1920's. At that time I was engaged in a study of the Coconino Sandstone of Arizona's Grand Canyon. Considerable controversy existed then as to whether this sandstone was a subaqueous deposit or was composed of wind-formed dunes. It became apparent that definitive literature was sparse or lacking on types of dunes, global distribution of these types, the mechanics of their development, the precise nature of their internal structure of cross-stratificiation, and the relation of wind systems to these sand forms. Especially lacking were data on criteria that could confidently be used in the recognition of ancient dunes. The common denominator in this publication is eolian sand bodies. Although the book is concerned primarily with desert sand seas, the subject matter is not restricted to deserts; it includes many references to deposits of coastal sand and to sand bodies in humid climates. Nor does the book deal exclusively with dunes, which, according to most definitions, involve mounds or hills. Many references are made to sand sheets, sand stringers, and other types of sand deposits that have no prominent topographic expression. All sand bodies accumulated by the action of wind are discussed. Chapters A-J of this publication are primarily topical. Chapters cover the grain texture, the color, and the structure of modern dunes and other eolian sands. Special treatment is given to the relation of wind data to dune interpretation, the evolution of form in current-deposited sand bodies as determined from experimental studies, and the discriminant analysis technique for differentiating between coastal and inland desert sands. This topical part of the publication also includes an analysis of criteria used in ancient deposits to interpret their eolian genesis and a consideration of economic application of the principles described, including a discussion of potentials and problems

  17. Sand Island WWTP, Honolulu, HI: HI0020117

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Authorization to Discharge under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System and Zone of Mixing for the City and County of Honolulu Department of Environmental Services Sand Island Wastewater Treatment PlantNPDES Permit No. HI0020117

  18. Migrating and Static Sand Ripples on Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-28

    This observation from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter is of one many that highlights new discoveries; one of these is that many sand dunes and ripples are moving, some at rates of several meters per year.

  19. Modeling surficial sand and gravel deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bliss, J.D.; Page, N.J.

    1994-01-01

    Mineral-deposit models are an integral part of quantitative mineral-resource assessment. As the focus of mineral-deposit modeling has moved from metals to industrial minerals, procedure has been modified and may be sufficient to model surficial sand and gravel deposits. Sand and gravel models are needed to assess resource-supply analyses for planning future development and renewal of infrastructure. Successful modeling of sand and gravel deposits must address (1) deposit volumes and geometries, (2) sizes of fragments within the deposits, (3) physical characteristics of the material, and (4) chemical composition and chemical reactivity of the material. Several models of sand and gravel volumes and geometries have been prepared and suggest the following: Sand and gravel deposits in alluvial fans have a median volume of 35 million m3. Deposits in all other geologic settings have a median volume of 5.4 million m3, a median area of 120 ha, and a median thickness of 4 m. The area of a sand and gravel deposit can be predicted from volume using a regression model (log [area (ha)] =1.47+0.79 log [volume (million m3)]). In similar fashion, the volume of a sand and gravel deposit can be predicted from area using the regression (log [volume (million m3)]=-1.45+1.07 log [area (ha)]). Classifying deposits by fragment size can be done using models of the percentage of sand, gravel, and silt within deposits. A classification scheme based on fragment size is sufficiently general to be applied anywhere. ?? 1994 Oxford University Press.

  20. Supercritical solvent extraction of oil sand bitumen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imanbayev, Ye. I.; Ongarbayev, Ye. K.; Tileuberdi, Ye.; Mansurov, Z. A.; Golovko, A. K.; Rudyk, S.

    2017-08-01

    The supercritical solvent extraction of bitumen from oil sand studied with organic solvents. The experiments were performed in autoclave reactor at temperature above 255 °C and pressure 29 atm with stirring for 6 h. The reaction resulted in the formation of coke products with mineral part of oil sands. The remaining products separated into SARA fractions. The properties of the obtained products were studied. The supercritical solvent extraction significantly upgraded extracted natural bitumen.

  1. White Sands, Carrizozo Lava Beds, NM

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-06-22

    SL2-04-288 (22 June 1973) --- A truly remarkable view of White Sands and the nearby Carrizozo Lava Beds in southeast New Mexico (33.5N, 106.5W). White Sands, site of the WW II atomic bomb development and testing facility and later post war nuclear weapons testing that can still be seen in the cleared circular patterns on the ground. Photo credit: NASA

  2. The Moving Sands of Lobo Vallis

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-04-02

    NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter shows bright ripples line the topography in this region, formed within a past climate. Dark dunes and sand streaks (composed of basaltic sand) have moved and filled lower areas, pushed by more recent winds from the top towards the bottom of this image. Lobo Vallis is named for a river on the Ivory Coast. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA22346

  3. Bioprocess for treating coproduced oily sands

    SciTech Connect

    Munnecke, D.M.; Ireland, J.

    1996-12-31

    The production of oil from certain oil fields creates significant amounts of oily sand which in many regulatory jurisdictions is regulated as a hazardous material, thus disposal costs can be significant. Environmental BioTechnologies, Inc. (San Carlos, CA) has developed a physical/biological treatment process that is able to economically treat these coproduced sands and produce a product that contains less than 2,000 ppm total petroleum hydrocarbons.

  4. Treating tar sands formations with dolomite

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael

    2010-06-08

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may include dolomite and hydrocarbons. Methods may include providing heat at less than the decomposition temperature of dolomite from one or more heaters to at least a portion of the formation. At least some of the hydrocarbon fluids are mobilized in the formation. At least some of the hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  5. Layers, Landslides, and Sand Dunes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 27 October 2003

    This image shows the northern rim of one of the Valles Marineris canyons. Careful inspection shows many interesting features here. Note that the spurs and gullies in the canyon wall disappear some distance below the top of the canyon wall, indicating the presence of some smooth material here that weathers differently from the underlying rocks. On the floor of the canyon, there are remains from a landslide that came hurtling down the canyon wall between two spurs. Riding over the topography of the canyon floor are many large sand dunes, migrating generally from the lower right to upper left.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -14.1, Longitude 306.7 East (53.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  6. Sand Sea in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The theme for the weeks of 1/17 and 1/24 is the north polar region of Mars as seen in false color THEMIS images. Ice/frost will typically appear as bright blue in color; dust mantled ice will appear in tones of red/orange.

    This image is of part of the northern sand sea. The small dunes in the image are bluer than the ice/dust filled central crater.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 73.7, Longitude 323 East (37 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  7. 76 FR 78168 - Importation of Chinese Sand Pears From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 [Docket No. APHIS-2011-0007] RIN 0579-AD42 Importation of Chinese Sand... Chinese sand pears (Pyrus pyrifolia) from China into the United States. As a condition of entry, sand... of fruit, safeguarding, labeling, and importation in commercial consignments. Sand pears from areas...

  8. Provenance and recycling of Arabian desert sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzanti, Eduardo; Vermeesch, Pieter; Andò, Sergio; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Valagussa, Manuel; Allen, Kate; Kadi, Khalid; Al-Juboury, Ali

    2013-04-01

    This study seeks to determine the ultimate origin of aeolian sand in Arabian deserts by high-resolution petrographic and heavy-mineral techniques combined with zircon U-Pb geochronology. Point-counting is used here as the sole method by which unbiased volume percentages of heavy minerals can be obtained. A comprehensive analysis of river and wadi sands from the Red Sea to the Bitlis-Zagros orogen allowed us to characterize all potential sediment sources, and thus to quantitatively constrain provenance of Arabian dune fields. Two main types of aeolian sand can be distinguished. Quartzose sands with very poor heavy-mineral suites including zircon occupy most of the region comprising the Great Nafud and Rub' al-Khali Sand Seas, and are largely recycled from thick Lower Palaeozoic quartzarenites with very minor first-cycle contributions from Precambrian basement, Mesozoic carbonate rocks, or Neogene basalts. Instead, carbonaticlastic sands with richer lithic and heavy-mineral populations characterize coastal dunes bordering the Arabian Gulf from the Jafurah Sand Sea of Saudi Arabia to the United Arab Emirates. The similarity with detritus carried by the axial Tigris-Euphrates system and by transverse rivers draining carbonate rocks of the Zagros indicates that Arabian coastal dunes largely consist of far-travelled sand, deposited on the exposed floor of the Gulf during Pleistocene lowstands and blown inland by dominant Shamal northerly winds. A dataset of detrital zircon U-Pb ages measured on twelve dune samples and two Lower Palaeozoic sandstones yielded fourteen identical age spectra. The age distributions all show a major Neoproterozoic peak corresponding to the Pan-African magmatic and tectonic events by which the Arabian Shield was assembled, with minor late Palaeoproterozoic and Neoarchean peaks. A similar U-Pb signature characterizes also Jafurah dune sands, suggesting that zircons are dominantly derived from interior Arabia, possibly deflated from the Wadi al

  9. Provenance and recycling of Arabian desert sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzanti, Eduardo; Vermeesch, Pieter; Andò, Sergio; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Valagussa, Manuel; Allen, Kate; Kadi, Khalid A.; Al-Juboury, Ali I. A.

    2013-05-01

    This study seeks to determine the ultimate origin of aeolian sand in Arabian deserts by high-resolution petrographic and heavy-mineral techniques combined with zircon U-Pb geochronology. Point-counting is used here as the sole method by which unbiased volume percentages of heavy minerals can be obtained. A comprehensive analysis of river and wadi sands from the Red Sea to the Bitlis-Zagros orogen allowed us to characterize all potential sediment sources, and thus to quantitatively constrain provenance of Arabian dune fields. Two main types of aeolian sand can be distinguished. Quartzose sands with very poor heavy-mineral suites including zircon occupy most of the region comprising the Great Nafud and Rub' al-Khali Sand Seas, and are largely recycled from thick Lower Palaeozoic quartzarenites with very minor first-cycle contributions from Precambrian basement, Mesozoic carbonate rocks, or Neogene basalts. Instead, carbonaticlastic sands with richer lithic and heavy-mineral populations characterize coastal dunes bordering the Arabian Gulf from the Jafurah Sand Sea of Saudi Arabia to the United Arab Emirates. The similarity with detritus carried by the axial Tigris-Euphrates system and by transverse rivers draining carbonate rocks of the Zagros indicates that Arabian coastal dunes largely consist of far-travelled sand, deposited on the exposed floor of the Gulf during Pleistocene lowstands and blown inland by dominant Shamal northerly winds. A dataset of detrital zircon U-Pb ages measured on twelve dune samples and two Lower Palaeozoic sandstones yielded fourteen identical age spectra. The age distributions all show a major Neoproterozoic peak corresponding to the Pan-African magmatic and tectonic events by which the Arabian Shield was assembled, with minor late Palaeoproterozoic and Neoarchean peaks. A similar U-Pb signature characterizes also Jafurah dune sands, suggesting that zircons are dominantly derived from interior Arabia, possibly deflated from the Wadi al

  10. Sand pulses and sand patches on the Colorado River in Grand Canyon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grams, Paul E.; Buscombe, Daniel; Topping, David; Mueller, Erich R.

    2017-01-01

    Alluvial sandbars occur in lateral recirculation zones (eddies) along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park (Schmidt, 1990). Resource managers periodically release controlled floods from the upstream Glen Canyon Dam to rebuild these bars (Grams et al., 2015), which erode during fluctuating dam releases, and by hillslope runoff and wind deflation (Hazel et al., 2010). Because the dam blocks upstream sediment, episodic floods from tributaries provide the only supply to replace eroded sand; and much of this sand originates from a single tributary (Topping et al., 2000). Here, we present new evidence for the downstream translation of the sand component of these sediment inputs as discontinuous sand pulses. Improved understanding of the behaviour of these sand pulses may be used to adjust the timing, magnitude, and duration of controlled floods to maximize potential for deposition on sandbars in different segments of the 450 km-long Grand Canyon.

  11. A Improved Seabed Surface Sand Sampling Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, X.

    2017-12-01

    In marine geology research it is necessary to obtain a suf fcient quantity of seabed surface samples, while also en- suring that the samples are in their original state. Currently,there are a number of seabed surface sampling devices available, but we fnd it is very diffcult to obtain sand samples using these devices, particularly when dealing with fne sand. Machine-controlled seabed surface sampling devices are also available, but generally unable to dive into deeper regions of water. To obtain larger quantities of seabed surface sand samples in their original states, many researchers have tried to improve upon sampling devices,but these efforts have generally produced ambiguous results, in our opinion.To resolve this issue, we have designed an improved andhighly effective seabed surface sand sampling device that incorporates the strengths of a variety of sampling devices. It is capable of diving into deepwater to obtain fne sand samples and is also suited for use in streams, rivers, lakes and seas with varying levels of depth (up to 100 m). This device can be used for geological mapping, underwater prospecting, geological engineering and ecological, environmental studies in both marine and terrestrial waters.

  12. Leishmania, microbiota and sand fly immunity.

    PubMed

    Telleria, Erich Loza; Martins-da-Silva, Andrea; Tempone, Antonio Jorge; Traub-Csekö, Yara Maria

    2018-06-20

    In this review, we explore the state-of-the-art of sand fly relationships with microbiota, viruses and Leishmania, with particular emphasis on the vector immune responses. Insect-borne diseases are a major public health problem in the world. Phlebotomine sand flies are proven vectors of several aetiological agents including viruses, bacteria and the trypanosomatid Leishmania, which are responsible for diseases such as viral encephalitis, bartonellosis and leishmaniasis, respectively. All metazoans in nature coexist intimately with a community of commensal microorganisms known as microbiota. The microbiota has a fundamental role in the induction, maturation and function of the host immune system, which can modulate host protection from pathogens and infectious diseases. We briefly review viruses of public health importance present in sand flies and revisit studies done on bacterial and fungal gut contents of these vectors. We bring this information into the context of sand fly development and immune responses. We highlight the immunity mechanisms that the insect utilizes to survive the potential threats involved in these interactions and discuss the recently discovered complex interactions among microbiota, sand fly, Leishmania and virus. Additionally, some of the alternative control strategies that could benefit from the current knowledge are considered.

  13. Sand filter clogging by septic tank effluent.

    PubMed

    Spychała, M; Błazejewski, R

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise conditions and factors affecting fine sand clogging by septic tank effluent on the basis of physical modelling. The physical model consisted of 12 sand columns dosed with sewage from one household (5 persons), preliminary treated in a septic tank. Hydraulic loadings of the sand filters were equal to 82 mm/d. The mean discharge from sand columns, measured as the effluent volume collected during 10 minutes, decreased significantly over the experiment period from 34 cm3/min in August 2000 to 20 cm3/min in August 2001 at the same temperature of about 20 degrees C. First the columns clogged almost completely after 480 days in December 2001, however six columns had remained unclogged till the end of the experiment (March 2002). The temperature had a significant impact on hydraulic conductivity. A vertical distribution of accumulated mass and biomass was investigated in partly clogged sand. Microscopic survey of the clogging layer showed a presence of live micro-organisms, residuals of dead micro-organisms, particularly pieces of small animal armour and many fibres. These particles accelerated the accumulation of solids in the upper clogging layer. The study indicated that temperature impact on the filter hydraulic conductivity was more significant for biological activity, than for sewage viscosity.

  14. New fracturing technique for Dean sand

    SciTech Connect

    Pugh, T.D.; McDaniel, B.W.; Seglem, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    A new hydraulic fracturing technique is being applied to stimulate the Dean sand of the Spraberry trend area. Results show improvement in production, effective fracture length and lower treatment costs. Production history of several wells was reviewed, and results of this study were used to select certain design parameters. These were rate, type fluid, sand size, etc. New computer programs were used to correlate this data for selected volumes. The theory and application of the new technique is discussed, and a description of the Dean sand is presented in detail. Production results using the new method are compared with themore » wells' response to conventional treatments and considerations are presented for applications for other formations.« less

  15. New fracturing technique for Dean sand

    SciTech Connect

    Pugh, T.D.; McDaniel, B.W.; Seglem, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    A new hydraulic fracturing technique is being applied to stimulate the Dean sand of the Spraberry trend area. Results show improvment in production, effective fracture length and lower treatment costs. Production history of several wells was reviewed, and results of this study were used to select certain design parameters. These were rate, type fluid, sand size, etc. New computer programs were used to correlate this data for selected volumes. The theory and application of the new technique is discussed, and a description of the Dean sand is presented in detail. Production results using the new method are compared with themore » wells' response to conventional treatments and considerations are presented for applications for other formations.« less

  16. Analytical mesoscale modeling of aeolian sand transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lämmel, Marc; Kroy, Klaus

    2017-11-01

    The mesoscale structure of aeolian sand transport determines a variety of natural phenomena studied in planetary and Earth science. We analyze it theoretically beyond the mean-field level, based on the grain-scale transport kinetics and splash statistics. A coarse-grained analytical model is proposed and verified by numerical simulations resolving individual grain trajectories. The predicted height-resolved sand flux and other important characteristics of the aeolian transport layer agree remarkably well with a comprehensive compilation of field and wind-tunnel data, suggesting that the model robustly captures the essential mesoscale physics. By comparing the predicted saturation length with field data for the minimum sand-dune size, we elucidate the importance of intermittent turbulent wind fluctuations for field measurements and reconcile conflicting previous models for this most enigmatic emergent aeolian scale.

  17. Planet-wide sand motion on mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bridges, N.T.; Bourke, M.C.; Geissler, P.E.; Banks, M.E.; Colon, C.; Diniega, S.; Golombek, M.P.; Hansen, C.J.; Mattson, S.; McEwen, A.S.; Mellon, M.T.; Stantzos, N.; Thomson, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Prior to Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter data, images of Mars showed no direct evidence for dune and ripple motion. This was consistent with climate models and lander measurements indicating that winds of sufficient intensity to mobilize sand were rare in the low-density atmosphere. We show that many sand ripples and dunes across Mars exhibit movement of as much as a few meters per year, demonstrating that Martian sand migrates under current conditions in diverse areas of the planet. Most motion is probably driven by wind gusts that are not resolved in global circulation models. A past climate with a thicker atmosphere is only required to move large ripples that contain coarse grains. ?? 2012 Geological Society of America.

  18. Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations

    DOEpatents

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Beer, Gary Lee; Zhang, Etuan

    2012-06-05

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include heating a portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the portion. The heat may be controlled to increase the permeability of at least part of the portion to create an injection zone in the portion with an average permeability sufficient to allow injection of a fluid through the injection zone. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid may be provided into the injection zone. At least some hydrocarbons including mobilized hydrocarbons are produced from the portion.

  19. Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations

    DOEpatents

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Beer, Gary Lee; Zhang, Etuan

    2010-06-08

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include heating a portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the portion. The heat may be controlled to increase the permeability of at least part of the portion to create an injection zone in the portion with an average permeability sufficient to allow injection of a fluid through the injection zone. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid may be provided into the injection zone. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from the portion.

  20. Threshold for sand mobility on Mars calibrated from seasonal variations of sand flux.

    PubMed

    Ayoub, F; Avouac, J-P; Newman, C E; Richardson, M I; Lucas, A; Leprince, S; Bridges, N T

    2014-09-30

    Coupling between surface winds and saltation is a fundamental factor governing geological activity and climate on Mars. Saltation of sand is crucial for both erosion of the surface and dust lifting into the atmosphere. Wind tunnel experiments along with measurements from surface meteorology stations and modelling of wind speeds suggest that winds should only rarely move sand on Mars. However, evidence for currently active dune migration has recently accumulated. Crucially, the frequency of sand-moving events and the implied threshold wind stresses for saltation have remained unknown. Here we present detailed measurements of Nili Patera dune field based on High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment images, demonstrating that sand motion occurs daily throughout much of the year and that the resulting sand flux is strongly seasonal. Analysis of the seasonal sand flux variation suggests an effective threshold for sand motion for application to large-scale model wind fields (1-100 km scale) of τ(s)=0.01±0.0015 N m(-2).

  1. Use of local sands on Eastern Shore.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1979-01-01

    In August 1977, after field installations on Rte. 617 had been in service for 16 years, a performance survey was made. At that time, the road was scheduled for resurfacing. The results showed that the Eastern Shore sands could provide durable, econom...

  2. Sand Dune Field in Richardson Crater

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-13

    This image from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter is a view of the sand dune field in Richardson Crater covered with seasonal frost. The frost is a combination of frozen carbon dioxide and some water ice that covers the dunes in the winter and spring.

  3. George Sand: A Life of Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, Dee Ann

    1970-01-01

    This discussion on George Sand illustrates the dilemma of the woman who is curious and aggressive in a social milieu which is not ready to accept her in that light. The world in which she lived could not permit a realization of the ideal vision she held. (Author/CJ)

  4. Windblown Sand from the Rocknest Drift

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-03

    NASA Mars rover Curiosity acquired close-up views of sands in the Rocknest wind drift to document the nature of the material that the rover scooped, sieved and delivered to the CheMin and SAM instruments in October and November 2012.

  5. Test sections containing natural and manufactured sands.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the materials, mix properties, and early pavement cross sections of two mixes placed on Route 50, Fairfax County, in August 1988. The difference in the two mixes was that one contained a natural and the other a manufactured sand...

  6. EXPRESSING SUPPLY LIMITATION IN SAND SALTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Saltation-driven sandblasting is the most effective producer of windblown dust. Modeling of wind-blown dust emissions requires an efficient parameterization of sand flux in the saltating mode. According to the theory of P. R. Owen the horizontal mass flux of saltating uniform p...

  7. Building Whales in Sand and Mind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Carolyn

    1980-01-01

    Describes two-week summer workshops on evolution, adaptation, and behavior of whales, conducted for children by Cold Spring Harbor Whaling Museum (New York), and culminating in creation of life-size sand sculptures of whales. Provides selected list of periodicals, teaching materials, identification guides, records, and societies devoted to whales…

  8. Microbial Characterization of Qatari Barchan Sand Dunes

    PubMed Central

    Chatziefthimiou, Aspassia D.; Nguyen, Hanh; Richer, Renee; Louge, Michel; Sultan, Ali A.; Schloss, Patrick; Hay, Anthony G.

    2016-01-01

    This study represents the first characterization of sand microbiota in migrating barchan sand dunes. Bacterial communities were studied through direct counts and cultivation, as well as 16S rRNA gene and metagenomic sequence analysis to gain an understanding of microbial abundance, diversity, and potential metabolic capabilities. Direct on-grain cell counts gave an average of 5.3 ± 0.4 x 105 cells g-1 of sand. Cultured isolates (N = 64) selected for 16S rRNA gene sequencing belonged to the phyla Actinobacteria (58%), Firmicutes (27%) and Proteobacteria (15%). Deep-sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons from 18 dunes demonstrated a high relative abundance of Proteobacteria, particularly enteric bacteria, and a dune-specific-pattern of bacterial community composition that correlated with dune size. Shotgun metagenome sequences of two representative dunes were analyzed and found to have similar relative bacterial abundance, though the relative abundances of eukaryotic, viral and enterobacterial sequences were greater in sand from the dune closer to a camel-pen. Functional analysis revealed patterns similar to those observed in desert soils; however, the increased relative abundance of genes encoding sporulation and dormancy are consistent with the dune microbiome being well-adapted to the exceptionally hyper-arid Qatari desert. PMID:27655399

  9. Dark grains of sand: a geological storytelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallo Maresca, Magda

    2017-04-01

    In the secondary Italian school the Earth science learning begins at first year, in synergy with other natural science subjects such as Astronomy, Chemistry and Biology. Italian teachers have to focus on the landscape geomorphological aspects and often Earth processes are difficult to display since they are related to certain phenomena happened during the past and often far from the involved country. In order to better understand the environment surrounding us, very simple and poor materials, like sands, allow the teachers to create attractive lab experiences. According to the IBSE (Inquiry Based Science Education) approach, a learning unit has been implemented starting from a walking along the light carbonate beaches of the Adriatic sea: a smart look to the sands ("engage step"), stroke the students fantasy pushing them to explore some strange black grains on the sands. Dirty sands? Or rock landscape, soil degradation and Ofanto river and coastal processes (erosion, transportation and deposition)? This was the teaching challenge. Due to the youngest age, a third level, guided inquiry, was adopted so the teacher is the "guide of inquiry" encouraging the students using the research question ("Why is the sand dark?", "Do all sands look the same?", "Where does it come from?") and driving the students around their investigation plans ("How can I measure grain size?"). A procedure to answer the above questions and validate the results and explanations has been implemented to allow the students to be proactive in their study. During the learning activities will be the students to ask for field trip to elaborate their new knowledge, verify and visualize the speculated processes. The teaching skills allow to address several geosciences domains such as mineralogy, petrology, regional geology and geodynamics as well as other scientific disciplines such as mathematics (more specifically statistics), forensic science and even life sciences (the presence of bioclasts might

  10. The provenance of Taklamakan desert sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rittner, Martin; Vermeesch, Pieter; Carter, Andrew; Bird, Anna; Stevens, Thomas; Garzanti, Eduardo; Andò, Sergio; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Dutt, Ripul; Xu, Zhiwei; Lu, Huayu

    2016-03-01

    Sand migration in the vast Taklamakan desert within the Tarim Basin (Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous region, PR China) is governed by two competing transport agents: wind and water, which work in diametrically opposed directions. Net aeolian transport is from northeast to south, while fluvial transport occurs from the south to the north and then west to east at the northern rim, due to a gradual northward slope of the underlying topography. We here present the first comprehensive provenance study of Taklamakan desert sand with the aim to characterise the interplay of these two transport mechanisms and their roles in the formation of the sand sea, and to consider the potential of the Tarim Basin as a contributing source to the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP). Our dataset comprises 39 aeolian and fluvial samples, which were characterised by detrital-zircon U-Pb geochronology, heavy-mineral, and bulk-petrography analyses. Although the inter-sample differences of all three datasets are subtle, a multivariate statistical analysis using multidimensional scaling (MDS) clearly shows that Tarim desert sand is most similar in composition to rivers draining the Kunlun Shan (south) and the Pamirs (west), and is distinctly different from sediment sources in the Tian Shan (north). A small set of samples from the Junggar Basin (north of the Tian Shan) yields different detrital compositions and age spectra than anywhere in the Tarim Basin, indicating that aeolian sediment exchange between the two basins is minimal. Although river transport dominates delivery of sand into the Tarim Basin, wind remobilises and reworks the sediment in the central sand sea. Characteristic signatures of main rivers can be traced from entrance into the basin to the terminus of the Tarim River, and those crossing the desert from the south to north can seasonally bypass sediment through the sand sea. Smaller ephemeral rivers from the Kunlun Shan end in the desert and discharge their sediment there. Both river run

  11. Characteristics of SCC with Fly Ash and Manufactured Sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praveen Kumar, K.; Radhakrishna

    2016-09-01

    Self compacting concrete (SCC) of M40 grade was designed. The binder in SCC consists of OPC and fly ash in the ratio of 65:35. River sand was replaced by manufactured sand (M-sand) at replacement levels of 20,40,60,80 and 100%. An attempt was made to evaluate the workability and strength characteristics of self compacting concrete with river sand and manufactured sand as fine aggregates. For each replacement level, constant workability was maintained by varying the dosage of superplasticizer. T50 flow time, V Funnel time, V-funnel T5 time as well as compressive, split tensile and flexural strength of SCC were found at each replacement level of M-sand. They were compared to SCC with river sand. Results indicate favourable use of M-sand in preparation of Self Compacting Concrete.

  12. Testing and evaluation of recovered traction sanding material.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-04-01

    The Montana Department of Transportation (MDT) is searching for a solution to the accumulation of traction sand that is applied to Montana highways every winter. An analysis of reuse and recycle options for salvaged traction sand was conducted using ...

  13. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF SAND HOUSE, TANK AND CAR SHELTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF SAND HOUSE, TANK AND CAR SHELTER LOOKING NORTHWEST. MINE CARS IN FOREGROUND. - Eureka No. 40, Sand House & Tank, East of State Route 56, North of Little Paint Creek, Scalp Level, Cambria County, PA

  14. Mineral resource of the month: industrial sand and gravel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolley, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    With many diverse uses, industrial sand and gravel, also known as silica sand, is one of the most important nonmetallic minerals in the world. Industrial sand and gravel is a mining industry term used for sands that have a very high percentage of silicon dioxide, or greater than 95 percent quartz. Deposits of industrial sand and gravel can be found virtually everywhere on Earth, but are less widespread than deposits of common construction sand and gravel. Industrial sand and gravel is distinctive in grain size, hardness, inertness and resistance to high temperature and chemical action. Beverage containers, fiberglass insulation, fiber-optic cables and light bulbs are just some of today’s many products produced from industrial sand and gravel.

  15. BLAISDELL SLOW SAND FILTER WASHING MACHINE. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLAISDELL SLOW SAND FILTER WASHING MACHINE. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Yuma Main Street Water Treatment Plant, Blaisdell Slow Sand Filter Washing Machine, Jones Street at foot of Main Street, Yuma, Yuma County, AZ

  16. High temperature thermal energy storage in moving sand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. H.; Awaya, H. I.

    1978-01-01

    Several high-temperature (to 500 C) heat-storage systems using sand as the storage medium are described. The advantages of sand as a storage medium include low cost for sand, widespread availability, non-toxicity, non-degradation characteristics, easy containment, and safety. The systems considered include: stationary sand with closely spaced tubes throughout the volume, the use of a fluidized bed, use of conveyor belt transporter, and the use of a blower rapid transport system. For a stationary sand bed, very close spacing of heat transfer tubes throughout the volume is required, manifesting as high power related system cost. The suggestion of moving sand past or around pipes is intended to reduce the power related costs at the penalty of added system complexity. Preliminary system cost estimates are offered. These rough calculations indicate that mobile sand heat storage systems cost less than the stationary sand approach.

  17. Incipient Motion of Sand and Oil Agglomerates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, T. R.; Dalyander, S.; Jenkins, R. L., III; Penko, A.; Long, J.; Frank, D. P.; Braithwaite, E. F., III; Calantoni, J.

    2016-12-01

    Weathered oil mixed with sediment in the surf zone in the northern Gulf of Mexico after the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, forming large mats of sand and oil. Wave action fragmented the mats into sand and oil agglomerates (SOAs) with diameters of about 1 to 10 cm. These SOAs were transported by waves and currents along the Gulf Coast, and have been observed on beaches for years following the spill. SOAs are composed of 70%-95% sand by mass, with an approximate density of 2107 kg/m³. To measure the incipient motion of SOAs, experiments using artificial SOAs were conducted in the Small-Oscillatory Flow Tunnel at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory under a range of hydrodynamic forcing. Spherical and ellipsoidal SOAs ranging in size from 0.5 to 10 cm were deployed on a fixed flat bed, a fixed rippled bed, and a movable sand bed. In the case of the movable sand bed, SOAs were placed both proud and partially buried. Motion was tracked with high-definition video and with inertial measurement units embedded in some of the SOAs. Shear stress and horizontal pressure gradients, estimated from velocity measurements made with a Nortek Vectrino Profiler, were compared with observed mobility to assess formulations for incipient motion. For SOAs smaller than 1 cm in diameter, incipient motion of spherical and ellipsoidal SOAs was consistent with predicted critical stress values. The measured shear stress at incipient motion of larger, spherical SOAs was lower than predicted, indicating an increased dependence on the horizontal pressure gradient. In contrast, the measured shear stress required to move ellipsoidal SOAs was higher than predicted, even compared to values modified for larger particles in mixed-grain riverine environments. The laboratory observations will be used to improve the prediction of incipient motion, transport, and seafloor interaction of SOAs.

  18. 22. INTERIOR VIEW WITH INTERIOR VIEW OF MOLDING SANDS CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. INTERIOR VIEW WITH INTERIOR VIEW OF MOLDING SANDS CONTROL AND TEST LAB FOR UNIT NO. 2 GREY IRON DISAMATIC. SAND CASTING TECHNICIAN, ROY BATES, TESTS THE WEIGHT OF THE SAND, DRYS IT, AND WEIGHT IT AGAINST STANDARDS TO CALCULATE THE CORRECT MOISTURE NEEDED FOR DIFFERENT MOLDS. THE SAND MIX VARY WITH THE SIZE AND COMPOSITION OF THE CASTING. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  19. Experimental investigation of cephapirin adsorption to quartz filter sands and dune sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Jonathan W.; O'Meara, Theresa A.; Seymour, Michael D.

    2008-08-01

    Batch experiments were performed to investigate cephapirin (a widely used veterinary antibiotic) adsorption on various size sands of low total organic carbon content (0.08-0.36 wt%). In the aqueous concentration range investigated (11-112 μmol/L cephapirin), adsorption to nearly pure quartz filter sands (0.50-3.35 mm diameter) is low. Isotherms are S-shaped and most display a region of minimum adsorption, where decreased adsorption occurs with increasing solution concentration, followed by increased adsorption at higher concentrations. Cephapirin adsorption to quartz-rich, feldspar-bearing dune sands (0.06-0.35 mm diameter), and the smallest quartz filter sand investigated (0.43-0.50 mm), can be described by linear sorption isotherms over the range of concentrations investigated. Distribution coefficients ( K d) range from 0.94 to 3.45 L/kg. No systematic relationship exists between grain size and amount of adsorption for any of the sands investigated. Cephapirin adsorption is positively correlated to the feldspar ratio (K-feldspar/(albite + Ca-plagioclase). Feldspar-ratio normalization of distribution coefficients was more effective than organic carbon normalization at reducing variability of K d values in the dune sands investigated.

  20. Acetylcholinesterase mutations and organophosphate resistance in sand flies and mosquitoes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Leishmaniasis is an insect-borne disease caused by several protozoan species in the genus Leishmania, which are vectored by sand fly species in the genera Phlebotomus or Lutzomyia, depending on the sand fly species geographic range. Sand fly bites and leishmaniasis significantly impacted U.S. milita...

  1. Well completion process for formations with unconsolidated sands

    DOEpatents

    Davies, David K.; Mondragon, III, Julius J.; Hara, Philip Scott

    2003-04-29

    A method for consolidating sand around a well, involving injecting hot water or steam through well casing perforations in to create a cement-like area around the perforation of sufficient rigidity to prevent sand from flowing into and obstructing the well. The cement area has several wormholes that provide fluid passageways between the well and the formation, while still inhibiting sand inflow.

  2. Sand dollar: a weight belt for the juvenile.

    PubMed

    Chia, F S

    1973-07-06

    Juvenile sand dollars (Dendraster excentricus) selectively ingest heavy sand grains from the substrate and store them in an intestinal diverticulum which may function as a weight belt, assisting the young animal to remain in the shifting sandy environment. The sand disappears from the diverticulum when the animal reaches the length of 30 millimeters.

  3. Sand sagebrush response to fall and spring prescribed burns

    Treesearch

    Lance T. Vermeire; Robert B. Mitchell; Samuel D. Fuhlendorf

    2001-01-01

    Sand sagebrush (Artemisia filifolia) is a dominant shrub on sandy soils throughout the Great Plains and Southwest. Sand sagebrush is reported to reduce wind erosion and provides valuable forage and cover to numerous wildlife species. However, the fire ecology of sand sagebrush is not well understood. Our objectives were to evaluate fire-induced mortality, occurrence of...

  4. Full scale load testing of sand-jacks.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2006-06-01

    A sand-jack is a sand filled container used as a component of cast-in-place bridge false-work. The sand filler facilitates the removal of the false-work by allowing slow and controlled lowering of the bracing that has become wedged beneath the new br...

  5. Supercritical-Fluid Extraction of Oil From Tar Sands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L. E.

    1982-01-01

    New supercritical solvent mixtures have been laboratory-tested for extraction of oil from tar sands. Mixture is circulated through sand at high pressure and at a temperature above critical point, dissolving organic matter into the compressed gas. Extract is recovered from sand residues. Low-temperature super-critical solvents reduce energy consumption and waste-disposal problems.

  6. Yield of a Choctawhatchee Sand Pine Plantation at Age 28

    Treesearch

    Russell M. Burns; R.H. Brendemuehl

    1969-01-01

    A little-known tree, Choctawhatchee sand pine (Pinus clausa [Chapm.] Vasey), seems well adapted to the infertile, droughty soils common to the sandhills of Florida which now produce little value. Published yield data based on plantation-grown Choctawhatchee sand pine are not available. One 28-year-old plantation of this race of sand pine, growing...

  7. Load capacity, failure mode and design criteria investigation of sand jacks : full scale load testing of sand jacks.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-12-01

    A sand-jack is a sand filled container used as a component of cast-in-place bridge false-work. The sand filler facilitates the removal of the false-work by allowing slow and controlled lowering of the bracing that has become wedged beneath the new br...

  8. The physics of wind-blown sand and dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kok, Jasper F.; Parteli, Eric J. R.; Michaels, Timothy I.; Karam, Diana Bou

    2012-10-01

    The transport of sand and dust by wind is a potent erosional force, creates sand dunes and ripples, and loads the atmosphere with suspended dust aerosols. This paper presents an extensive review of the physics of wind-blown sand and dust on Earth and Mars. Specifically, we review the physics of aeolian saltation, the formation and development of sand dunes and ripples, the physics of dust aerosol emission, the weather phenomena that trigger dust storms, and the lifting of dust by dust devils and other small-scale vortices. We also discuss the physics of wind-blown sand and dune formation on Venus and Titan.

  9. The physics of wind-blown sand and dust.

    PubMed

    Kok, Jasper F; Parteli, Eric J R; Michaels, Timothy I; Karam, Diana Bou

    2012-10-01

    The transport of sand and dust by wind is a potent erosional force, creates sand dunes and ripples, and loads the atmosphere with suspended dust aerosols. This paper presents an extensive review of the physics of wind-blown sand and dust on Earth and Mars. Specifically, we review the physics of aeolian saltation, the formation and development of sand dunes and ripples, the physics of dust aerosol emission, the weather phenomena that trigger dust storms, and the lifting of dust by dust devils and other small-scale vortices. We also discuss the physics of wind-blown sand and dune formation on Venus and Titan.

  10. Post-liquefaction reconsolidation of sand

    PubMed Central

    Madabhushi, G. S. P.

    2016-01-01

    Loosely packed sand that is saturated with water can liquefy during an earthquake, potentially causing significant damage. Once the shaking is over, the excess pore water pressures that developed during the earthquake gradually dissipate, while the surface of the soil settles, in a process called post-liquefaction reconsolidation. When examining reconsolidation, the soil is typically divided in liquefied and solidified parts, which are modelled separately. The aim of this paper is to show that this fragmentation is not necessary. By assuming that the hydraulic conductivity and the one-dimensional stiffness of liquefied sand have real, positive values, the equation of consolidation can be numerically solved throughout a reconsolidating layer. Predictions made in this manner show good agreement with geotechnical centrifuge experiments. It is shown that the variation of one-dimensional stiffness with effective stress and void ratio is the most crucial parameter in accurately capturing reconsolidation. PMID:27118898

  11. Sand dune effects on seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arran, M.; Vriend, N. M.; Muyzert, E. J.

    2017-12-01

    Ground roll is a significant source of noise in land seismic data, with cross-line scattered ground roll particularly difficult to suppress. This noise arises from surface heterogeneities lateral to the receiver spread, and in desert regions sand dunes are a major contributor. However, the nature of this noise is poorly understood, preventing the design of more effective data acquisition or processing techniques. Here, we present numerical simulations demonstrating that sand dunes can act as resonators, scattering a seismic signal over an extensive period of time. We introduce a mathematical framework that quantitatively describes the properties of noise scattered by a barchan dune, and we discuss the relevance of heterogeneities within the dune. Having identified regions in time, space, and frequency space at which noise will be more significant, we propose the possibility of reducing dune-scattered noise through careful survey design and data processing.

  12. Three dimensional fabric evolution of sheared sand

    SciTech Connect

    Hasan, Alsidqi; Alshibli, Khalid

    2012-10-24

    Granular particles undergo translation and rolling when they are sheared. This paper presents a three-dimensional (3D) experimental assessment of fabric evolution of sheared sand at the particle level. F-75 Ottawa sand specimen was tested under an axisymmetric triaxial loading condition. It measured 9.5 mm in diameter and 20 mm in height. The quantitative evaluation was conducted by analyzing 3D high-resolution x-ray synchrotron micro-tomography images of the specimen at eight axial strain levels. The analyses included visualization of particle translation and rotation, and quantification of fabric orientation as shearing continued. Representative individual particles were successfully tracked and visualized to assess themore » mode of interaction between them. This paper discusses fabric evolution and compares the evolution of particles within and outside the shear band as shearing continues. Changes in particle orientation distributions are presented using fabric histograms and fabric tensor.« less

  13. Post-liquefaction reconsolidation of sand.

    PubMed

    Adamidis, O; Madabhushi, G S P

    2016-02-01

    Loosely packed sand that is saturated with water can liquefy during an earthquake, potentially causing significant damage. Once the shaking is over, the excess pore water pressures that developed during the earthquake gradually dissipate, while the surface of the soil settles, in a process called post-liquefaction reconsolidation. When examining reconsolidation, the soil is typically divided in liquefied and solidified parts, which are modelled separately. The aim of this paper is to show that this fragmentation is not necessary. By assuming that the hydraulic conductivity and the one-dimensional stiffness of liquefied sand have real, positive values, the equation of consolidation can be numerically solved throughout a reconsolidating layer. Predictions made in this manner show good agreement with geotechnical centrifuge experiments. It is shown that the variation of one-dimensional stiffness with effective stress and void ratio is the most crucial parameter in accurately capturing reconsolidation.

  14. Guide to preparing SAND reports. Revised

    SciTech Connect

    Locke, T.K.

    1996-04-01

    This guide contains basic information needed to produce a SAND report. Its guidelines reflect DOE regulation and Sandia policy. The guide includes basic writing instructions in an annotated sample report; guidance for organization, format, and layout of reports produced by line organizations; and information about conference papers, journal articles, and brochures. The appendixes contain sections on Sandia`s preferred usage, equations, references, copyrights and permissions, and publishing terms.

  15. Transport processes in intertidal sand flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Christy

    2010-05-01

    Methane rich sulfate depleted seeps are observed along the low water line of the intertidal sand flat Janssand in the Wadden Sea. It is unclear where in the flat the methane is formed, and how it is transported to the edge of the sand flat where the sulfidic water seeps out. Methane and sulfate distributions in pore water were determined along transects from low water line toward the central area of the sand flat. The resulting profiles showed a zone of methane-rich and sulfate-depleted pore water below 2 m sediment depth. Methane production and sulfate reduction are monitored over time for surface sediments collected from the upper flat and seeping area. Both activities were at 22 C twice as high as at 15 C. The rates in sediments from the central area were higher than in sediments from the methane seeps. Methanogenesis occurred in the presence of sulfate, and was not significantly accelerated when sulfate was depleted. The observations show a rapid anaerobic degradation of organic matter in the Janssand. The methane rich pore water is obviously transported with a unidirectional flow from the central area of the intertidal sand flat toward the low water line. This pore water flow is driven by the pressure head caused by elevation of the pore water relative to the sea surface at low tide (Billerbeck et al. 2006a). The high methane concentration at the low water line accumulates due to a continuous outflow of pore water at the seepage site that prevents penetration of electron acceptors such as oxygen and sulfate to reoxidize the reduced products of anaerobic degradation (de Beer et al. 2006). It is, however, not clear why no methane accumulates or sulfate is depleted in the upper 2 m of the flats.

  16. Aspects of tar sands development in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Adewusi, V.A.

    1992-07-01

    Development of Nigerian massive reserves of crude bitumen and associated heavy oil is imminent in view of the impacts that the huge importation of these materials and their products have on the nation's economy, coupled with the depleting reserves of Nigeria and highlights the appropriate production technology options and their environmental implications. The utilization potentials of these resources are also enumerated, as well as the government's role in achieving accelerated, long-term tar sands development in the country.

  17. Fusion of arkosic sand by intrusive andesite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bailey, Roy A.

    1954-01-01

    An andesite dike in the Valles Mountains of northern New Mexico has intruded and partly fused arkosic sediments for a distance of 50 feet from its contacts. The dike is semi-circular in form, has a maximum width of about 100 feet, and is about 500 feet long. Small associated arcuate dikes are arranged in spiral fashion around the main dike, suggesting that they were intruded along shear fractures similar to those described by Burbank (1941). The fused rocks surrounding the andesite dike are of three general types: 1) partly fused arkosic sand, 2) fused clay, and 3) hybrid rocks. The fused arkosic sand consists of relict detrital grains of quartz, orthoclose, and plagioclase, imbedded in colorless glass containing microlites of tridymite, cordierite, and magnetite. The relict quartz grains are corroded and embayed by glass; the orthoclase is sanidinized and partly fused; and the plagioclase is inverted to the high temperature form and is partly fused. The fused clay, which was originally a mixture of montmorillonite and hydromica, consists primarily of cordierite but also contains needle-like crystals of sillimanite (?) or mullite (?). The hybrid rocks originated in part by intermixing of fused arkosic sediments and andesitic liquid and in part by diffusion of mafic constituents through the fused sediments. They are rich in cordierite and magnetite and also contain hypersthene, augite, and plagioclase. The composition of pigeonite in the andesite indicates that the temperature of the andesite at the time of intrusion probably did not exceed 1200?C. Samples of arkosic sand were fused in the presence of water in a Morey bomb at 1050?C. Stability relations of certain minerals in the fused sand suggest that fusion may have taken place at a lower temperature, however, and the fluxing action of volatiles from the andesite are thought to have made this possible.

  18. Toxoplasmosis in sand fox (Vulpes rueppelli).

    PubMed

    Pas, An; Dubey, J P

    2008-08-01

    Fatal toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a sand fox (Vulpes rueppelli) from United Arab Emirates. Toxoplasma gondii-like tachyzoites were found associated with necrosis in the intestine, spleen, liver, pancreas, lungs, mesenteric lymph nodes, and heart. Tachyzoites reacted positively with T. gondii-specific polyclonal antibodies. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 8 captive V. rueppelli assayed by the modified direct agglutination test in titers of 1:800 or higher.

  19. Galveston Island, Texas, Sand Management Strategies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    should be a component of any final design strategy. Not only is construction of a dry berm along the eastern end of the seawall a high priority, but it...they erode sand from the upper part of the beach (the part that is normally dry : the dune, the berm and the foreshore slope) and deposit it within...beach in Dade County: Its impact on the community. Papers Presented at Annual Conferences on Beach Preservation, (1984 and 1985), 114–121

  20. Mineralogy of Eolian Sands at Gale Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Achilles, C. N.; Vaniman, D. T.; Blake, D. F.; Bristow, T. F.; Rampe, E. B.; Ming, D. W.; Chipera, S. J.; Morris, R. V.; Morrison, S. M.; Downs, R. T.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity has been exploring outcrop and regolith in Gale crater since August 6, 2012. During this exploration, the mission has collected 10 samples for mineralogical analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD), using the CheMin instrument. The CheMin (Chemistry and Mineralogy) instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity uses a CCD detector and a Co-anode tube source to acquire both mineralogy (from the pat-tern of Co diffraction) and chemical information (from energies of fluoresced X-rays). A detailed description of CheMin is provided in [1]. As part of the rover checkout after landing, the first sample selected for analysis was an eolian sand deposit (the Rocknest "sand shadow"). This sample was selected in part to characterize unconsolidated eolian regolith, but primarily to prove performance of the scoop collection system on the rover. The focus of the mission after Rocknest was on the consolidated sediments of Gale crater, so all of the nine subsequent samples were collected by drilling into bedrock com-posed of lithified sedimentary materials, including mudstone and sandstone. No scoop samples have been collected since Rocknest, but at the time this abstract was written the mission stands poised to use the scoop again, to collect active dune sands from the Bagnold dune field. Several abstracts at this conference outline the Bagnold dune campaign and summarize preliminary results from analyses on approach to the Namib dune sampling site. In this abstract we review the mineralogy of Rocknest, contrast that with the mineralogy of local sediments, and anticipate what will be learned by XRD analysis of Bagnold dune sands.

  1. Comparison of SAND-II and FERRET

    SciTech Connect

    Wootan, D.W.; Schmittroth, F.

    1981-01-01

    A comparison was made of the advantages and disadvantages of two codes, SAND-II and FERRET, for determining the neutron flux spectrum and uncertainty from experimental dosimeter measurements as anticipated in the FFTF Reactor Characterization Program. This comparison involved an examination of the methodology and the operational performance of each code. The merits of each code were identified with respect to theoretical basis, directness of method, solution uniqueness, subjective influences, and sensitivity to various input parameters.

  2. Three-Dimensional Dynamic Loading of Sand

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    strength yield strength of 40 MPa. In addition the inclusion of grain-on-grain stiction (friction) plays a major role in the compaction of sand at low...strains Figure 5 Stress-strain behavior for various grain and strength configurations When compared to experimental stre ss-strain data, both...of Materials, DYMAT 2009 Brussels Belgium, pg 1545–1551 [xi] Crawford, D.A. 2005. Using mesoscale modeling to investigate the role of material

  3. Analysis of wind-blown sand movement over transverse dunes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hong; Huang, Ning; Zhu, Yuanjian

    2014-12-01

    Wind-blown sand movement often occurs in a very complicated desert environment where sand dunes and ripples are the basic forms. However, most current studies on the theoretic and numerical models of wind-blown sand movement only consider ideal conditions such as steady wind velocity, flat sand surface, etc. In fact, the windward slope gradient plays a great role in the lift-off and sand particle saltation. In this paper, we propose a numerical model for the coupling effect between wind flow and saltating sand particles to simulate wind-blown sand movement over the slope surface and use the SIMPLE algorithm to calculate wind flow and simulate sands transport by tracking sand particle trajectories. We furthermore compare the result of numerical simulation with wind tunnel experiments. These results prove that sand particles have obvious effect on wind flow, especially that over the leeward slope. This study is a preliminary study on windblown sand movement in a complex terrain, and is of significance in the control of dust storms and land desertification.

  4. Analysis of Wind-blown Sand Movement over Transverse Dunes

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hong; Huang, Ning; Zhu, Yuanjian

    2014-01-01

    Wind-blown sand movement often occurs in a very complicated desert environment where sand dunes and ripples are the basic forms. However, most current studies on the theoretic and numerical models of wind-blown sand movement only consider ideal conditions such as steady wind velocity, flat sand surface, etc. In fact, the windward slope gradient plays a great role in the lift-off and sand particle saltation. In this paper, we propose a numerical model for the coupling effect between wind flow and saltating sand particles to simulate wind-blown sand movement over the slope surface and use the SIMPLE algorithm to calculate wind flow and simulate sands transport by tracking sand particle trajectories. We furthermore compare the result of numerical simulation with wind tunnel experiments. These results prove that sand particles have obvious effect on wind flow, especially that over the leeward slope. This study is a preliminary study on windblown sand movement in a complex terrain, and is of significance in the control of dust storms and land desertification. PMID:25434372

  5. Sand-wave movement on Little Georges Bank

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twichell, David C.

    1983-01-01

    A 1-x-1.5-km area on Little Georges Bank (centered at 41?08?N., 68?04?W.) was mapped three times during a ten-month period by sidescan sonar and echo-sounding techniques to assess the morphology and mobility of sand waves on Georges Bank. Sand-wave amplitudes in the survey area ranged from 1-11 m although most were 5-7 m. Wavelengths were not constant as the crests were sinuous and in places, even bifurcated. The sand waves are asymmetrical with their steepest sides facing northwest; however, gradients of their steep sides mostly are 4?-10? which is well below the angle of repose for sand in water. Sand waves tended to have greater relief and a sharper asymmetry during the survey in September than during those in June or April. During the survey period the sand waves moved but the direction and rate of motion was variable. Even along an individual sand wave some parts moved as much as 60 m between surveys while other parts apparently remained stationary. The sand waves were asymmetrical, but movement was not consistently in the direction that the steep sides faced. Along the same sand wave, parts moved to the northwest while other parts moved to the southeast. Despite the complex pattern of sand motion, the mean displacement of the sand waves was below the resolution of the survey technique; to resolve it, a longer survey is needed.

  6. Recycled sand in lime-based mortars.

    PubMed

    Stefanidou, M; Anastasiou, E; Georgiadis Filikas, K

    2014-12-01

    The increasing awareness of the society about safe guarding heritage buildings and at the same time protecting the environment promotes strategies of combining principles of restoration with environmentally friendly materials and techniques. Along these lines, an experimental program was carried out in order to investigate the possibility of producing repair, lime-based mortars used in historic buildings incorporating secondary materials. The alternative material tested was recycled fine aggregates originating from mixed construction and demolition waste. Extensive tests on the raw materials have been performed and mortar mixtures were produced using different binding systems with natural, standard and recycled sand in order to compare their mechanical, physical and microstructure properties. The study reveals the improved behavior of lime mortars, even at early ages, due to the reaction of lime with the Al and Si constituents of the fine recycled sand. The role of the recycled sand was more beneficial in lime mortars rather than the lime-pozzolan or lime-pozzolan-cement mortars as a decrease in their performance was recorded in the latter cases due to the mortars' structure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Provenance of aeolian sands in the Hetao Plain, northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xingchen; Cai, Maotang; Ye, Peisheng; Ye, Mengni; Li, Chenglu; Wu, Hang; Lu, Jing; Wang, Tao; Zhao, Zhirong; Luzhou, Yangfan; Liu, Chao

    2018-06-01

    Patches of aeolian sand are distributed throughout the Hetao Plain, which pose threats to farming and agriculture. Identification of the provenance of the aeolian sands may help with efforts to alleviate ecological stress in Inner Mongolia and in the paleoenvironmental interpretation of sandy sequences. This study uses geochemical data to determine the provenance of aeolian sands from the Hetao Plain. Provenance discrimination diagrams revealed that the aeolian sands were mainly derived from mixed source felsic granites and granodiorites, which have undergone weak sedimentary recycling. The chemical index of alteration and A-CN-K data indicated that the aeolian sediments were transported over a short distance. Comparison of trace element and rare earth element (REE) ratios of the aeolian sands with rock samples from potential source areas has revealed that aeolian sand deposits in the Hetao Plain were mainly derived from Sertengshan and Yellow River sediments. The Langshan and Ordos Plateau may represent additional sand sources for the Hetao Plain.

  8. Use of sand wave habitats by silver hake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Auster, P.J.; Lindholm, J.; Schaub, S.; Funnell, G.; Kaufman, L.S.; Valentine, P.C.

    2003-01-01

    Silver hake Merluccius bilinearis are common members of fish communities in sand wave habitats on Georges Bank and on Stellwagen Bank in the Gulf of Maine. Observations of fish size v. sand wave period showed that silver hake are not randomly distributed within sand wave landscapes. Regression analyses showed a significant positive relationship between sand wave period and fish length. Correlation coefficients, however, were low, suggesting other interactions with sand wave morphology, the range of current velocities, and available prey may also influence their distribution. Direct contact with sand wave habitats varied over diel periods, with more fish resting on the seafloor during daytime than at night. Social foraging, in the form of polarized groups of fish swimming in linear formations during crepuscular and daytime periods, was also observed. Sand wave habitats may provide shelter from current flows and mediate fish-prey interactions. ?? 2003 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  9. Case history of Yakin Field: its development and sand control

    SciTech Connect

    Sawolo, N.; Krueger, R.F.; Maly, G.P.

    1982-01-01

    This study deals with the development of the Yakin Field in E. Kalimantan, Indonesia, with emphasis on the sand control methods used. Implementation of an effective sand control program insured the successful development of this field. Gravel packed wells had substantially lower production decline rates than the initial completions without gravel packs. Control of sand production also has been demonstrated by the lack of sand problems during the 4-1/2 yr since the sand control program was initiated. During this time there have been no failures of submersible pumps that were associated with sand production. The successful sand control program wasmore » achieved by a well coordinated and cooperative effort of drilling, reservoir engineering, production research, and service company personnel.« less

  10. Blending foundry sands with soil: Effect on dehydrogenase activity.

    PubMed

    Dungan, Robert S; Kukier, Urzsula; Lee, Brad

    2006-03-15

    Each year U.S. foundries landfill several million tons of sand that can no longer be used to make metalcasting molds and cores. A possible use for these materials is as an ingredient in manufactured soils; however, potentially harmful metals and resin binders (used to make cores) may adversely impact the soil microbial community. In this study, the dehydrogenase activity (DHA) of soil amended with molding sand (clay-coated sand known as "green sand") or core sands at 10%, 30%, and 50% (dry wt.) was determined. The green sands were obtained from iron, aluminum, and brass foundries; the core sands were made with phenol-formaldehyde or furfuryl alcohol based resins. Overall, incremental additions of these sands resulted in a decrease in the DHA which lasted throughout the 12-week experimental period. A brass green sand, which contained high concentrations of Cu, Pb, and Zn, severely impacted the DHA. By week 12 no DHA was detected in the 30% and 50% treatments. In contrast, the DHA in soil amended with an aluminum green sand was 2.1 times higher (all blending ratios), on average, at week 4 and 1.4 times greater (30% and 50% treatments only) than the controls by week 12. In core sand-amended soil, the DHA results were similar to soils amended with aluminum and iron green sands. Increased activity in some treatments may be a result of the soil microorganisms utilizing the core resins as a carbon source. The DHA assay is a sensitive indicator of environmental stress caused by foundry sand constituents and may be useful to assess which foundry sands are suitable for beneficial use in the environment.

  11. Sand wave fields beneath the Loop Current, Gulf of Mexico: Reworking of fan sands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenyon, Neil H.; Akhmetzhanov, A.M.; Twichell, D.C.

    2002-01-01

    Extensive fields of large barchan-like sand waves and longitudinal sand ribbons have been mapped by deep-towed SeaMARC IA sidescan sonar on part of the middle and lower Mississippi Fan that lies in about 3200 m of water. The area is beneath the strongly flowing Loop Current. The bedforms have not been adequately sampled but probably consist of winnowed siliciclastic-foraminiferal sands. The size (about 200 m from wingtip to wingtip) and shape of the large barchans is consistent with a previously observed peak current speed of 30 cm/s, measured 25 m above the seabed. The types of small-scale bedforms and the scoured surfaces of chemical crusts, seen on nearby bottom photographs, indicate that near-bed currents in excess of 30 cm/s may sometimes occur. At the time of the survey the sand transport direction was to the northwest, in the opposite direction to the Loop Current but consistent with there being a deep boundary current along the foot of the Florida Escarpment. Some reworking of the underlying sandy turbidites and debris flow deposits is apparent on the sidescan sonar records. Reworking by deep-sea currents, resulting in erosion and in deposits characterised by coarsening upwards structures and cross-bedding, is a process that has been proposed for sand found in cores in shallower parts of the Gulf of Mexico. This process is more widespread than hitherto supposed. 

  12. Transport of colloidal silica in unsaturated sand: Effect of charging properties of sand and silica particles.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Yosuke; Kobayashi, Motoyoshi

    2016-07-01

    We have studied the transport of colloidal silica in various degrees of a water-saturated Toyoura sand column, because silica particles are widely used as catalyst carriers and abrasive agents, and their toxicity is reported recently. Since water-silica, water-sand, and air-water interfaces have pH-dependent negative charges, the magnitude of surface charge was controlled by changing the solution pH. The results show that, at high pH conditions (pH 7.4), the deposition of colloidal silica to the sand surface is interrupted and the silica concentration at the column outlet immediately reaches the input concentration in saturated conditions. In addition, the relative concentration of silica at the column outlet only slightly decreases to 0.9 with decreasing degrees of water saturation to 38%, because silica particles are trapped in straining regions in the soil pore and air-water interface. On the other hand, at pH 5 conditions (low pH), where sand and colloid have less charge, reduced repulsive forces result in colloidal silica attaching onto the sand in saturated conditions. The deposition amount of silica particles remarkably increases with decreasing degrees of water saturation to 37%, which is explained by more particles being retained in the sand column associated with the air-water interface. In conclusion, at higher pH, the mobility of silica particles is high, and the air-water interface is inactive for the deposition of silica. On the other hand, at low pH, the deposition amount increases with decreasing water saturation, and the particle transport is inhibited. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cytotoxicity of yellow sand in lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y H; Kim, K S; Kwak, N J; Lee, K H; Kweon, S A; Lim, Y

    2003-02-01

    The present study was carried out to observe the cytotoxicity of yellow sand in comparison with silica and titanium dioxide in a rat alveolar type II cell line (RLE-6TN). Yellow sand (China Loess) was obtained from the loess layer in the Gunsu Province of China. The mean particle diameter of yellow sand was about 0.003 +/- 0.001 mm. Major elements of yellow sand were Si(27.7 +/- 0.6%), Al(6.01 +/- 0.17%), and Ca(5.83 +/- 0.23%) in that order. Silica and yellow sand significantly decreased cell viability and increased [Ca2+]i. All three particles increased the generation of H2O2. TiO2 did not change Fenton activity, while silica induced a slight increase of Fenton activity. In contrast, yellow sand induced a significant increase of Fenton activity. Silica, yellow sand and TiO2 induced significant nitrite formations in RLE-6TN cells. Silica showed the highest increase in nitrite formation, while yellow sand induced the least formation of nitrite. Silica and yellow sand increased the release of TNF-a. Based on these results, we suggest that yellow sand can induce cytotoxicity in RLE-6TN cells and reactive oxygen species, Fenton activity and reactive nitrogen species might be involved in this toxicity.

  14. Investigation of Sand-Cement Grouts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1960-09-01

    I -IEN NO Isis Table 1 InvestiiatLon of Sand-Cement Crouts Data on Lhe Physical Properties of the inely Divided Mineral Admixt)res Blaine Specific...Itoi, tuicrlt.nel, Caiftrnia; fl1; aish, Illinois; ;1iaricito, California; Lo’ss, Yisniasi~pi; bentornitoe, Wy~caing. Physical drnta for the raateriais...increase i’: tne a.cunt of .anj th-?t coul be puiped. As the diatomite had a specific ,i’face about 1C tines that of the loe33, it would appear that this

  15. Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure

    DOEpatents

    Stegemeier, George Leo [Houston, TX; Beer, Gary Lee [Houston, TX; Zhang, Etuan [Houston, TX

    2010-01-12

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. A pressure in the majority of the section may be maintained below a fracture pressure of the formation. The pressure in the majority of the section may be reduced to a selected pressure after the average temperature reaches a temperature that is above 240.degree. C. and is at or below pyrolysis temperatures of hydrocarbons in the section. At least some hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  16. Heating tar sands formations to visbreaking temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Karanikas, John Michael [Houston, TX; Colmenares, Tulio Rafael [Houston, TX; Zhang, Etuan [Houston, TX; Marino, Marian [Houston, TX; Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria [Houston, TX; Ryan, Robert Charles [Houston, TX; Beer, Gary Lee [Houston, TX; Dombrowski, Robert James [Houston, TX; Jaiswal, Namit [Houston, TX

    2009-12-22

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat may be controlled so that at least a majority of the section reaches an average temperature of between 200.degree. C. and 240.degree. C., which results in visbreaking of at least some hydrocarbons in the section. At least some visbroken hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  17. Aeolian Sand Transport with Collisional Suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, James T.; Pasini, Jose Miguel; Valance, Alexandre

    2004-01-01

    Aeolian transport is an important mechanism for the transport of sand on Earth and on Mars. Dust and sand storms are common occurrences on Mars and windblown sand is responsible for many of the observed surface features, such as dune fields. A better understanding of Aeolian transport could also lead to improvements in pneumatic conveying of materials to be mined for life support on the surface of the Moon and Mars. The usual view of aeolian sand transport is that for mild winds, saltation is the dominant mechanism, with particles in the bed being dislodged by the impact of other saltating particles, but without in-flight collisions. As the wind becomes stronger, turbulent suspension keeps the particles in the air, allowing much longer trajectories, with the corresponding increase in transport rate. We show here that an important regime exists between these two extremes: for strong winds, but before turbulent suspension becomes dominant, there is a regime in which in-flight collisions dominate over turbulence as a suspension mechanism, yielding transport rates much higher than those for saltation. The theory presented is based on granular kinetic theory, and includes both turbulent suspension and particle-particle collisions. The wind strengths for which the calculated transport rates are relevant are beyond the published strengths of current wind tunnel experiments, so these theoretical results are an invitation to do experiments in the strong-wind regime. In order to make a connection between the regime of saltation and the regime of collisional suspension, it is necessary to better understand the interaction between the bed and the particles that collide with it. This interaction depends on the agitation of the particles of the bed. In mild winds, collisions with the bed are relatively infrequent and the local disturbance associated with a collision can relax before the next nearby collision. However, as the wind speed increases, collision become more frequent

  18. Mechanical Properties of Misers Bluff Sand.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    in Chapter 4. 4 .7 Y~ e -~1 % CHAPTER 2 LABORATORY TESTS 2.1 CONVENTIONAL SOIL TESTS Samples of MB sand were split from the available supply of...air Va , and void ratio e (the ratio of void volume to solid volume). These composition data are listed in Table 2.1 for each test. 5 2.3 MECHANICAL...and diameter changes are made. The data can be plotted as principal stress difference versus axial strain, the slope of which is Young’s modulus E

  19. Environmental consequences of oil production from oil sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, Lorenzo; Davis, Kyle F.; Rulli, Maria C.; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2017-02-01

    Crude oil from oil sands will constitute a substantial share of future global oil demand. Oil sands deposits account for a third of globally proven oil reserves, underlie large natural forested areas, and have extraction methods requiring large volumes of freshwater. Yet little work has been done to quantify some of the main environmental impacts of oil sands operations. Here we examine forest loss and water use for the world's major oil sands deposits. We calculate actual and potential rates of water use and forest loss both in Canadian deposits, where oil sands extraction is already taking place, and in other major deposits worldwide. We estimated that their exploitation, given projected production trends, could result in 1.31 km3 yr-1 of freshwater demand and 8700 km2 of forest loss. The expected escalation in oil sands extraction thus portends extensive environmental impacts.

  20. Characterization and Evaluation of Incorporation the Casting Sand in Mortar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanelato, E. B.; Azevedo, A. R. G.; Alexandre, J.; Xavier, C. G.; Monteiro, S. N.; Mendonça, T. A. O.

    The process of casting metals and alloys occurs through the fusion of this metal and its subsequent casting into a mold with the dimensions and geometry close to the final piece. Most foundries use sand casting molds for making you. This work aims to characterize and evaluate the foundry sand to allow its use in segments of Civil Engineering, creating a viable destination for a residue is that discarded. The following characterization tests were performer: particle size, chemical analysis, X-ray Diffraction and Density Real grain. For the execution of the test specimens was used to 1:3 cement and sand, and the incorporation of 10% and 20% of the total mass replacing the sand, and the trace reference. The results show that best results in compression and bending tests were obtained by replacing 10 % of common sand for sand casting.

  1. Assessment of sand quality on concrete performance : examination of acidic and sulfate/sulfide-bearing sands.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine how the presence of sulfide- and sulfate-containing : minerals in acidic aggregates may affect the properties of mortar and concrete. Analyses were : performed to compare two sands from a deposit in the Geor...

  2. Investigations on Local Quartz Sand for Application in Glass Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dararutana, Pisutti; Chetanachan, Prukswan; Wathanakul, Pornsawat; Sirikulrat, Narin

    2009-03-01

    Silica or glass sand is a special type of quartz sand that is suitable for glass-making, because of its high silica content, and its low content of iron oxide and other compounds. In Thailand, deposits of quartz sand are found as the beach and the river sands in many areas; eastern, southern, northeastern and northern. In this work, grain-size distribution and chemical analyses were carried out on 10 sand samples taken from various localities in Thailand such as Chanthaburi, Trat, Rayong, Chumphon, Nakhon Si, Pattani, Phuket, Songkhla, Nong Khai, and Tak provinces. The geological resources show that most of them are the surface-to-near-surface glass sand deposits. The sand grains in most deposits were mainly angular-to-rounded, except in some areas of either angular or rounded grains. Chemical analysis showed that the sands contained more than 95wt% silica and low content of Fe, Al, Ca, Mg, Na, and K. The concentration levels of these components in the samples confirm with internationally acceptable standard for glass production. The quartz sand dressing plants that used the spiral classifier to improve the properties of the quartz sands to meet the standard specifications are mostly located in the eastern area. It can be concluded that most of the quartz sand deposits in Thailand investigated show well-sorted grain-size with considerable purity, i.e. high-grade quality. The advanced works resulted in that these raw quartz sands can be used as raw material for fabrication of soda-lime, lead crystal, and lead-free high refractive index glasses. The colorless and various colored glass products have been satisfactorily used in the domestic art and glass manufactures.

  3. Relationships Between Sand and Water Quality at Recreational Beaches

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Matthew C.; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.; Piggot, Alan M.; Klaus, James S.; Zhang, Yifan

    2011-01-01

    Enterococci are used to assess the risk of negative human health impacts from recreational waters. Studies have shown sustained populations of enterococci within sediments of beaches but comprehensive surveys of multiple tidal zones on beaches in a regional area and their relationship to beach management decisions are limited. We sampled three tidal zones on eight South Florida beaches in Miami-Dade and Broward counties and found that enterococci were ubiquitous within South Florida beach sands although their levels varied greatly both among the beaches and between the supratidal, intertidal and subtidal zones. The supratidal sands consistently had significantly higher (p<0.003) levels of enterococci (average 40 CFU/g dry sand) than the other two zones. Levels of enterococci within the subtidal sand correlated with the average level of enterococci in the water (CFU/100mL) for the season during which samples were collected (rs= 0.73). The average sand enterococci content over all the zones on each beach correlated with the average water enterococci levels of the year prior to sand samplings (rs=0.64) as well as the average water enterococci levels for the month after sand samplings (rs=0.54). Results indicate a connection between levels of enterococci in beach water and sands throughout South Florida’s beaches and suggest that the sands are one of the predominant reservoirs of enterococci impacting beach water quality. As a result, beaches with lower levels of enterococci in the sand had fewer exceedences relative to beaches with higher levels of sand enterococci. More research should focus on evaluating beach sand quality as a means to predict and regulate marine recreational water quality. PMID:22071324

  4. Relationships between sand and water quality at recreational beaches.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Matthew C; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Piggot, Alan M; Klaus, James S; Zhang, Yifan

    2011-12-15

    Enterococci are used to assess the risk of negative human health impacts from recreational waters. Studies have shown sustained populations of enterococci within sediments of beaches but comprehensive surveys of multiple tidal zones on beaches in a regional area and their relationship to beach management decisions are limited. We sampled three tidal zones on eight South Florida beaches in Miami-Dade and Broward counties and found that enterococci were ubiquitous within South Florida beach sands although their levels varied greatly both among the beaches and between the supratidal, intertidal and subtidal zones. The supratidal sands consistently had significantly higher (p < 0.003) levels of enterococci (average 40 CFU/g dry sand) than the other two zones. Levels of enterococci within the subtidal sand correlated with the average level of enterococci in the water (CFU/100mL) for the season during which samples were collected (r(s) = 0.73). The average sand enterococci content over all the zones on each beach correlated with the average water enterococci levels of the year prior to sand samplings (r(s) = 0.64) as well as the average water enterococci levels for the month after sand samplings (r(s) = 0.54). Results indicate a connection between levels of enterococci in beach water and sands throughout South Florida's beaches and suggest that the sands are one of the predominant reservoirs of enterococci impacting beach water quality. As a result, beaches with lower levels of enterococci in the sand had fewer exceedences relative to beaches with higher levels of sand enterococci. More research should focus on evaluating beach sand quality as a means to predict and regulate marine recreational water quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Trajectories of saltating sand particles behind a porous fence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ning; Lee, Sang Joon; Chen, Ting-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Trajectories of aeolian sand particles behind a porous wind fence embedded in a simulated atmospheric boundary layer were visualized experimentally, to investigate the shelter effect of the fence on sand saltation. Two sand samples, one collected from a beach (d = 250 μm) and the other from a desert (d = 100 μm), were tested in comparison with the previous studies of a 'no-fence' case. A wind fence (ε = 38.5%) was installed on a flat sand bed filled with each sand sample. A high-speed photography technique and the particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) method were employed to reconstruct the trajectories of particles saltating behind the fence. The collision processes of these sand particles were analyzed, momentum and kinetic energy transfer between saltating particles and ground surface were also investigated. In the wake region, probability density distributions of the impact velocities agree well with the pattern of no-fence case, and can be explained by a log-normal law. The horizontal component of impact velocity for the beach sand is decreased by about 54%, and about 76% for the desert sand. Vertical restitution coefficients of bouncing particles are smaller than 1.0 due to the presence of the wind fence. The saltating particles lose a large proportion of their energy during the collision process. These results illustrate that the porous wind fence effectively abates the further evolution of saltating sand particles.

  6. An investigation of waste foundry sand in asphalt concrete mixtures.

    PubMed

    Bakis, Recep; Koyuncu, Hakan; Demirbas, Ayhan

    2006-06-01

    A laboratory study regarding the reuse of waste foundry sand in asphalt concrete production by replacing a certain portion of aggregate with WFS was undertaken. The results showed that replacement of 10% aggregates with waste foundry sand was found to be the most suitable for asphalt concrete mixtures. Furthermore, the chemical and physical properties of waste foundry sand were analysed in the laboratory to determine the potential effect on the environment. The results indicated that the investigated waste foundry sand did not significantly affect the environment around the deposition

  7. Geologic and paleoecologic studies of the Nebraska Sand Hills

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ahlbrandt, Thomas S.; Fryberger, S.G.; Hanley, John H.; Bradbury, J. Platt

    1980-01-01

    PART A: The Nebraska Sand Hills are an inactive, late Quaternary, most probably Holocene, dune field (covering 57,000 km 2 ) that have been eroded along streams and in blowouts, resulting in excellent lateral and vertical exposures of the stratification of dune and interdune sediments. This paper presents new data on the geometry, primary sedimentary structures, modification of sedimentary structures, direction of sand movement, and petrography of these eolian deposits. Eolian deposits of the Sand Hills occur as relatively thin (9-24 m) 'blanket' sands, composed of a complex of dune and discontinuous, diachronous interdune deposits unconformably overlying fluviolacustrine sediments. The internal stratification of large dunes in the Sand Hills (as high as 100 m), is similar to the internal stratification of smaller dunes of the same type in the Sand Hills, differing only in scale. Studies of laminae orientation in the Sand Hills indicate that transverse, barchan, and blowout dunes can be differentiated in rocks of eolian origin using both the mean dip angle of laminae and the mean angular deviation of dip direction. A variety of secondary structures modify or replace primary eolian stratification in the Sand Hills, the more common of which are dissipation structures and bioturbation. Dissipation structures in the Sand Hills may develop when infiltrating water deposits clay adjacent to less permeable layers in the sand, or along the upper margins of frozen layers that form in the sands during winter. Cross-bed measurements from dunes of the Nebraska Sand Hills necessitate a new interpretation of the past sand transport directions. The data from these measurements indicate a general northwest-to-southeast drift of sand, with a more southerly drift in the southeast part of the Sand Hills. A large area of small dunes < 100 m high) described by Smith (1965) as linear or seif in the central part of the Sand Hills was interpreted by him on the basis of morphology only. We

  8. Experimental Study of Sand Production and Mud Erosion Phenomena for Sand Mud Alternate Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyama, H.; Sato, T.

    2014-12-01

    Methane hydrates are crystalline, ice-like compounds under specific thermodynamic conditions. The existence of methane hydrates is confirmed in the Nankai Trough, an offshore area of Japan. Japan's Methane Hydrate Research and Development Program (MH21) has been under way at this area. In the early 2013, the world's first intentional gas production attempt from marine gas hydrate deposits was tried and accomplished in the Daini Atumi Knoll area of the Eastern Nankai Trough. For gas production, depressurization method has been considered as a promising gas production technique from methane hydrate reservoirs. However, considering of continuous gas production over a long period, there is still something to clarify. The methane hydrate crystals are very small and existed in the intergranular pores of sandy layer of turbidite sediments. When the intergranular methane hydrates will be dissociated, it is considered that dissociated gas and water flow will cause sand production and mud erosion phenomena of turbidite sediments. The production of framework sands into a well is one of the problems plaguing the gas because of its adverse effects on well productivity and equipment. If the eroded mud is accumulated in the pore space of sand, skin is generated and permeability becomes lower. In addition, mud erosion has a negative effect for the well stability. This research presents an experimental study to understand sand production and mud erosion phenomena for sand mud alternate layer. The aims of this study are to understand these phenomena and clarify driving forces. In our experiments, we used an artificial sedimentary core and performed experiments under various conditions. As the results, the driving forces of these phenomena are not dissociation gas flow but water flow through pore.

  9. Avalanches of Singing Sand in the Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagois-Bohy, Simon; Courrech Du Pont, Sylvain; Douady, Stéphane

    2011-03-01

    The song of dunes is a natural phenomenon that has arisen travellers' curiosity for a long time, from Marco Polo to R.A. Bagnold. Scientific observations in the XXth century have shown that the sound is emitted during a shear flow of these particular grains, the free surface of the flow having coherent vibrations like a loud speaker. The sound emission is also submitted to a threshold effect with many parameters like humidity, flow speed, surface of the grains. The sound has been reproduced in laboratory avalanche experiments close to the natural phenomenon on field, but set in a channel with a hard bottom and a few centimeters of sand flowing, which contradicts explanations of the sound that involve a sand dune under the avalanche flow. Flow rates measurements also show the presence of a plug region in the flow above the sheared band, with the same characteristic length as the coherence zones of the sound. Finally we show experimentally that the Froude number, once modified to take into account the height of this plug band, is the parameter that sets the amplitude of the sound, and produces a threshold that depends on the grain type.

  10. Three-link Swimming in Sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatton, R. L.; Ding, Yang; Masse, Andrew; Choset, Howie; Goldman, Daniel

    2011-11-01

    Many animals move within in granular media such as desert sand. Recent biological experiments have revealed that the sandfish lizard uses an undulatory gait to swim within sand. Models reveal that swimming occurs in a frictional fluid in which inertial effects are small and kinematics dominate. To understand the fundamental mechanics of swimming in granular media (GM), we examine a model system that has been well-studied in Newtonian fluids: the three-link swimmer. We create a physical model driven by two servo-motors, and a discrete element simulation of the swimmer. To predict optimal gaits we use a recent geometric mechanics theory combined with empirically determined resistive force laws for GM. We develop a kinematic relationship between the swimmer's shape and position velocities and construct connection vector field and constraint curvature function visualizations of the system dynamics. From these we predict optimal gaits for forward, lateral and rotational motion. Experiment and simulation are in accord with the theoretical predictions; thus geometric tools can be used to study locomotion in GM.

  11. Hydrothermal deformation of granular quartz sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karner, Stephen L.; Kronenberg, Andreas K.; Chester, Frederick M.; Chester, Judith S.; Hajash, Andrew

    2008-05-01

    Isotropic and triaxial compression experiments were performed on porous aggregates of St Peter quartz sand to explore the influence of temperature (to 225°C). During isotropic stressing, samples loaded at elevated temperature exhibit the same sigmoidal stress-strain curves and non-linear acoustic emission rates as have previously been observed from room temperature studies on sands, sandstones, and soils. However, results from our hydrothermal experiments show that the critical effective pressure (P*) associated with the onset of significant pore collapse and pervasive cataclastic flow is lower at increased temperature. Samples subjected to triaxial loading at elevated temperature show yield behavior resembling that observed from room temperature studies on granular rocks and soils. When considered in terms of distortional and mean stresses, the yield strength data for a given temperature define an elliptical envelope consistent with critical state and CAP models from soil mechanics. For the conditions we tested, triaxial yield data at low effective pressure are essentially temperature-insensitive whereas yield levels at high effective pressure are lowered as a function of elevated temperature. We interpret our yield data in a manner consistent with Arrhenius behavior expected for thermally assisted subcritical crack growth. Taken together, our results indicate that increased stresses and temperatures associated with subsurface burial will significantly alter the yield strength of deforming granular media in systematic and predictable ways.

  12. Soil mixing of stratified contaminated sands.

    PubMed

    Al-Tabba, A; Ayotamuno, M J; Martin, R J

    2000-02-01

    Validation of soil mixing for the treatment of contaminated ground is needed in a wide range of site conditions to widen the application of the technology and to understand the mechanisms involved. Since very limited work has been carried out in heterogeneous ground conditions, this paper investigates the effectiveness of soil mixing in stratified sands using laboratory-scale augers. This enabled a low cost investigation of factors such as grout type and form, auger design, installation procedure, mixing mode, curing period, thickness of soil layers and natural moisture content on the unconfined compressive strength, leachability and leachate pH of the soil-grout mixes. The results showed that the auger design plays a very important part in the mixing process in heterogeneous sands. The variability of the properties measured in the stratified soils and the measurable variations caused by the various factors considered, highlighted the importance of duplicating appropriate in situ conditions, the usefulness of laboratory-scale modelling of in situ conditions and the importance of modelling soil and contaminant heterogeneities at the treatability study stage.

  13. Dust control effectiveness of drywall sanding tools.

    PubMed

    Young-Corbett, Deborah E; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2009-07-01

    In this laboratory study, four drywall sanding tools were evaluated in terms of dust generation rates in the respirable and thoracic size classes. In a repeated measures study design, 16 participants performed simulated drywall finishing tasks with each of four tools: (1) ventilated sander, (2) pole sander, (3) block sander, and (4) wet sponge. Dependent variables of interest were thoracic and respirable breathing zone dust concentrations. Analysis by Friedman's Test revealed that the ventilated drywall sanding tool produced significantly less dust, of both size classes, than did the other three tools. The pole and wet sanders produced significantly less dust of both size classes than did the block sander. The block sander, the most commonly used tool in drywall finishing operations, produced significantly more dust of both size classes than did the other three tools. When compared with the block sander, the other tools offer substantial dust reduction. The ventilated tool reduced respirable concentrations by 88% and thoracic concentrations by 85%. The pole sander reduced respirable concentrations by 58% and thoracic by 50%. The wet sander produced reductions of 60% and 47% in the respirable and thoracic classes, respectively. Wet sponge sanders and pole sanders are effective at reducing breathing-zone dust concentrations; however, based on its superior dust control effectiveness, the ventilated sander is the recommended tool for drywall finishing operations.

  14. Biodiversity of fungi in hot desert sands.

    PubMed

    Murgia, Manuela; Fiamma, Maura; Barac, Aleksandra; Deligios, Massimo; Mazzarello, Vittorio; Paglietti, Bianca; Cappuccinelli, Pietro; Al-Qahtani, Ahmed; Squartini, Andrea; Rubino, Salvatore; Al-Ahdal, Mohammed N

    2018-03-05

    The fungal community of six sand samples from Saudi Arabia and Jordan deserts was characterized by culture-independent analysis via next generation sequencing of the 18S rRNA genes and by culture-dependent methods followed by sequencing of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. By 18S sequencing were identified from 163 to 507 OTUs per sample, with a percentage of fungi ranging from 3.5% to 82.7%. The identified fungal Phyla were Ascomycota, Basal fungi, and Basidiomycota and the most abundant detected classes were Dothideomycetes, Pezizomycetes, and Sordariomycetes. A total of 11 colonies of filamentous fungi were isolated and cultured from six samples, and the ITS sequencing pointed toward five different species of the class Sordariomycetes, belonging to genera Fusarium (F. redolens, F. solani, F. equiseti), Chaetomium (C. madrasense), and Albifimbria (A. terrestris). The results of this study show an unexpectedly large fungal biodiversity in the Middle East desert sand and their possible role and implications on human health. © 2018 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. TESTING OF TMR SAND MANTIS FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Krementz, D; William Daugherty, W

    2007-06-12

    Screening tests of Sand Mantis candidate materials selected for erosion resistance have been completed. The results of this testing identified that over a relatively short period of operation (<1 hour), measurable erosion will occur in each of the candidate zoom tube materials given equal operating exposure. Additionally, this testing has shown that erosion of the rubber discharge hose directly downstream of the vehicle could be expected to limit the service life of the discharge hose. On the basis of these test results, SRNL recommends the following; {lg_bullet} redesign of critical system components (e.g., zoom tube, discharge hose) should be conductedmore » to improve system characteristics relative to erosion and capitalize on the results of this testing, {lg_bullet} continued efforts to deploy the Sand Mantis should include testing to better define and optimize operating parameters, and gain an understanding of system dynamics, {lg_bullet} discontinue wear testing with the selected materials pending redesign of critical system components (1st recommendation) and inclusion of other candidate materials. The final selection of additional candidate materials should be made following design changes, but might include a Stellite alloy or zirconia.« less

  16. Periodic Trajectories in Aeolian Sand Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valance, A.; Jenkins, J. T.

    2014-12-01

    Saltation is the primary mode of aeolian sand transport and refers to the hoping motion of grains over the bed [1]. We develop a simple model for steady, uniform transport in aeolian saltation over a horizontal bed that is based on the computation of periodic particle trajectories in a turbulent shearing flow [2]. The wind and the particles interact through drag, and the particles collide with the bed. We consider collisions with a rigid, bumpy bed, from which the particles rebound, and an erodible particle bed, for which a collision involves both rebound and particle ejection. The difference in the nature of the collisions results in qualitative differences in the nature of the solutions for the periodic trajectories and, in particular, to differences in the dependence of the particle flow rate on the strength of the turbulent shearing. We also discuss the pertinence of this model to describe bedload transport in water. References:[1] R. A. Bagnold, « The physics of blown sand and desert dunes » , Methuen, New York (1941).[2] J.T Jenkins and A. Valance. Periodic trajectories in Aeolian saltation transport. Physics of Fluids, 2014, 26, pp. 073301

  17. Autumn Frost, North Polar Sand Dunes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Autumn in the martian northern hemisphere began around August 1, 1999. Almost as soon as northern fall began, the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) started documenting the arrival of autumn frost--a precursor to the cold winter that will arrive in late December 1999. The first features to become covered by frost were the sand dunes that surround the north polar ice cap. The dunes seen here would normally appear very dark--almost black--except when covered by frost. Why the dunes begin to frost sooner than the surrounding surfaces is a mystery: perhaps the dunes contain water vapor that emerges from the sand during the day and condenses again at night. This picture shows dunes near 74.7oN, 61.4oW at a resolution of about 7.3 meters (24 feet) per pixel. The area covered is about 3 km (1.9 mi) across and is illuminated from the upper right. The picture appears to be somewhat fuzzy and grainy because the dunes here are seen through the thin haze of the gathering north polar winter hood (i.e., clouds).

  18. Comparison of buried sand ridges and regressive sand ridges on the outer shelf of the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ziyin; Jin, Xianglong; Zhou, Jieqiong; Zhao, Dineng; Shang, Jihong; Li, Shoujun; Cao, Zhenyi; Liang, Yuyang

    2017-06-01

    Based on multi-beam echo soundings and high-resolution single-channel seismic profiles, linear sand ridges in U14 and U2 on the East China Sea (ECS) shelf are identified and compared in detail. Linear sand ridges in U14 are buried sand ridges, which are 90 m below the seafloor. It is presumed that these buried sand ridges belong to the transgressive systems tract (TST) formed 320-200 ka ago and that their top interface is the maximal flooding surface (MFS). Linear sand ridges in U2 are regressive sand ridges. It is presumed that these buried sand ridges belong to the TST of the last glacial maximum (LGM) and that their top interface is the MFS of the LGM. Four sub-stage sand ridges of U2 are discerned from the high-resolution single-channel seismic profile and four strikes of regressive sand ridges are distinguished from the submarine topographic map based on the multi-beam echo soundings. These multi-stage and multi-strike linear sand ridges are the response of, and evidence for, the evolution of submarine topography with respect to sea-level fluctuations since the LGM. Although the difference in the age of formation between U14 and U2 is 200 ka and their sequences are 90 m apart, the general strikes of the sand ridges are similar. This indicates that the basic configuration of tidal waves on the ECS shelf has been stable for the last 200 ka. A basic evolutionary model of the strata of the ECS shelf is proposed, in which sea-level change is the controlling factor. During the sea-level change of about 100 ka, five to six strata are developed and the sand ridges develop in the TST. A similar story of the evolution of paleo-topography on the ECS shelf has been repeated during the last 300 ka.

  19. Faecal indicator bacteria enumeration in beach sand: A comparison study of extraction methods in medium to coarse sands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boehm, A.B.; Griffith, J.; McGee, C.; Edge, T.A.; Solo-Gabriele, H. M.; Whitman, R.; Cao, Y.; Getrich, M.; Jay, J.A.; Ferguson, D.; Goodwin, K.D.; Lee, C.M.; Madison, M.; Weisberg, S.B.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: The absence of standardized methods for quantifying faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in sand hinders comparison of results across studies. The purpose of the study was to compare methods for extraction of faecal bacteria from sands and recommend a standardized extraction technique. Methods and Results: Twenty-two methods of extracting enterococci and Escherichia coli from sand were evaluated, including multiple permutations of hand shaking, mechanical shaking, blending, sonication, number of rinses, settling time, eluant-to-sand ratio, eluant composition, prefiltration and type of decantation. Tests were performed on sands from California, Florida and Lake Michigan. Most extraction parameters did not significantly affect bacterial enumeration. anova revealed significant effects of eluant composition and blending; with both sodium metaphosphate buffer and blending producing reduced counts. Conclusions: The simplest extraction method that produced the highest FIB recoveries consisted of 2 min of hand shaking in phosphate-buffered saline or deionized water, a 30-s settling time, one-rinse step and a 10 : 1 eluant volume to sand weight ratio. This result was consistent across the sand compositions tested in this study but could vary for other sand types. Significance and Impact of the Study: Method standardization will improve the understanding of how sands affect surface water quality. ?? 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Faecal indicator bacteria enumeration in beach sand: a comparison study of extraction methods in medium to coarse sands.

    PubMed

    Boehm, A B; Griffith, J; McGee, C; Edge, T A; Solo-Gabriele, H M; Whitman, R; Cao, Y; Getrich, M; Jay, J A; Ferguson, D; Goodwin, K D; Lee, C M; Madison, M; Weisberg, S B

    2009-11-01

    The absence of standardized methods for quantifying faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in sand hinders comparison of results across studies. The purpose of the study was to compare methods for extraction of faecal bacteria from sands and recommend a standardized extraction technique. Twenty-two methods of extracting enterococci and Escherichia coli from sand were evaluated, including multiple permutations of hand shaking, mechanical shaking, blending, sonication, number of rinses, settling time, eluant-to-sand ratio, eluant composition, prefiltration and type of decantation. Tests were performed on sands from California, Florida and Lake Michigan. Most extraction parameters did not significantly affect bacterial enumeration. anova revealed significant effects of eluant composition and blending; with both sodium metaphosphate buffer and blending producing reduced counts. The simplest extraction method that produced the highest FIB recoveries consisted of 2 min of hand shaking in phosphate-buffered saline or deionized water, a 30-s settling time, one-rinse step and a 10 : 1 eluant volume to sand weight ratio. This result was consistent across the sand compositions tested in this study but could vary for other sand types. Method standardization will improve the understanding of how sands affect surface water quality.

  1. The use of Papuan iron sand and river sand for fine aggregate in mortar for nuclear radiation shield application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlan, K.; Haryati, E.; Aninam, Y. S.

    2018-03-01

    This study explores the effect of fine aggregate on mortar properties and its application as a nuclear shield. This study was based on a hypothesis that the types of aggregate applied as radiation shield determined the level of its effectiveness on preventing nuclear radiation. There are two types and sources of fine aggregate that was used as main ingredients for mortar production in this research, namely iron sand and river sand. Both types of sand were derived from the respective regions of Sarmi and Jayapura, Papua. The results showed that the mortar materials that were produced with the iron sand provided better results in dispelling radiation than that of river sand. The compressive strength of fine aggregate from the iron sand was 21.62 MPa, while the compressive strength of the river sand was 16.8 MPa. Measuring the attenuation coefficient of material, we found that the largest aggregated value of mortar with fine iron sand reached 0.0863 / cm. On the other hand, the smallest HVT (Half Value Thickness) was obtained from the iron sand mortar, at 8.03 cm.

  2. Properties of Desert Sand and CMAS Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Choi, Sung R.

    2014-01-01

    As-received desert sand from a Middle East country has been characterized for its phase composition and thermal stability. X-ray diffraction analysis showed the presence of quartz (SiO2), calcite (CaCO3), gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O), and NaAlSi3O8 phases in as-received desert sand and showed weight loss of approx. 35 percent due to decomposition of CaCO3 and CaSO4.2H2O when heated to 1400 C. A batch of as-received desert sand was melted into calcium magnesium aluminosilicate (CMAS) glass at approx. 1500 C. From inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, chemical composition of the CMAS glass was analyzed to be 27.8CaO-4MgO-5Al2O3-61.6SiO2-0.6Fe2O3-1K2O (mole percent). Various physical, thermal and mechanical properties of the glass have been evaluated. Bulk density of CMAS glass was 2.69 g/cc, Young's modulus 92 GPa, Shear modulus 36 GPa, Poisson's ratio 0.28, dilatometric glass transition temperature (T (sub g)) 706 C, softening point (T (sub d)) 764 C, Vickers microhardness 6.3 +/- 0.4 GPa, indentation fracture toughness 0.75 +/- 0.15 MPa.m (sup 1/2), and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) 9.8 x 10 (exp -6)/degC in the temperature range 25 to 700 C. Temperature dependence of viscosity has also been estimated from various reference points of the CMAS glass using the Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman (VFT) equation. The glass remained amorphous after heat treating at 850 C for 10 hr but crystallized into CaSiO3 and Ca-Mg-Al silicate phases at 900 C or higher temperatures. Crystallization kinetics of the CMAS glass has also been investigated by differential thermal analysis (DTA). Activation energies for the crystallization of two different phases in the glass were calculated to be 403 and 483 kJ/mol, respectively.

  3. 20. View of sand filtration bed. Wheelbarrow was used to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. View of sand filtration bed. Wheelbarrow was used to remove schmutzdeck (top, dirty sand layer containing particulate contamination, dead microorganisms and debris) for cleaning and or disposal. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  4. Overview of the technology and status of oil sands development

    SciTech Connect

    Detamore, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    In conjunction with the increasing emphasis upon alternate energy sources, interest in the oil sands resource is discussed. This paper reviews the primary established oil sands recovery techniques including surface mining, surface retorting, in situ thermal and nonthermal in situ, and presents an overview of their application in specific projects.

  5. 31. PETIBONE SAND THROWING MACHINE BOX FLOOR GREY IRON FOUNDRY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. PETIBONE SAND THROWING MACHINE BOX FLOOR GREY IRON FOUNDRY FORCES CONDITIONED MOLDING SAND, AT HIGH VELOCITY, INTO MOLDS TOO BIG TO BE MADE ON ONE OF THE CONVEYOR SYSTEMS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  6. Decay Of Fire-Caused snags in Ocala Sand Pine

    Treesearch

    Kenneth W. Outcalt

    2003-01-01

    Sand pine (Pinus clausa) scrub is adapted to. and regenerated by, periodic stand-replacement wildfire, which consumes the understory and kills the overstory. The heat of the fire opens the serotinous cones of Ocala sand pine (P. clausa var. clausa), releasing quantities of seed that reestablish the overstory, while the understory regenerates by sprouting or from soil-...

  7. 7 CFR 319.56-57 - Sand pears from China.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sand pears from China. 319.56-57 Section 319.56-57... from China. Fresh sand pears (Pyrus pyrifolia) from China may be imported into the United States from China only under the conditions described in this section. These conditions are designed to prevent the...

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-57 - Sand pears from China.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sand pears from China. 319.56-57 Section 319.56-57... from China. Fresh sand pears (Pyrus pyrifolia) from China may be imported into the United States from China only under the conditions described in this section. These conditions are designed to prevent the...

  9. The Sand Yacht Challenge...Inspires Lots of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Robin

    2018-01-01

    In this article, Robin James describes the Sand Yacht Challenge. The race took place on sand between small, wind-powered land yachts made by groups of children from four local schools. The project provided a term of collaborative opportunities at the designing and testing stage, followed by a competition when the students raced them. It was…

  10. Sugarcane Genotype Selection for Sand Soils in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Selection of high yielding sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) genotypes for organic (muck) soils in Florida has been more successful than for sand soils. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of 31 sugarcane genotypes on sand soils with and without mill mud added at the rate of 1510 cubic...

  11. Decay of Fire-Caused snags in Ocala Sand Pine

    Treesearch

    Kenneth W. Outcalt

    2003-01-01

    Sand pine (Pinus clausa) scrub is adapted to, and regenerated by, periodic stand-replacement wildfire, which consumes the understory and kills the overstory. The heat of the fire opens the serotinous cones of Ocala sand pine (P. clausa var. clausa), releasing quantities of seed that reestablish the overstory,...

  12. Acetylcholinesterase mutations and organophosphate resistance in sand flies and mosquitoes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The sand fly, Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) is a major vector of Leishamnia major, the principle causative agent of human cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Middle East, southern Europe, northern Africa, and Southern Asia. Sand fly bites and leishmaniasis significantly impacted U.S. military operations...

  13. Holocene sand shoals offshore of the Mississippi River delta plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Penland, Shea; Suter, John R.; McBride, Randolph A.; Williams, S. Jeffress; Kindinger, Jack G.; Boyd, Ron

    1989-01-01

    Collectively, these sand shoals represent a large potential source of aggregate for shoreline restoration and erosion control as well as possible hard mineral resources. Scientifically, these shoals provide insight into the processes which control coastal evolution and shelf sand development under the condition of relative sea level rise.

  14. An Old-Growth Definition for Sand Pine Forests

    Treesearch

    Kenneth W. Outcalt

    1997-01-01

    Sand pine scrub, Society of American Foresters cover type 69 (Eyre 1980), grows on deep, droughty, infertile sands of marine and aeolian origin. Water and wind formed these features as sea levels fluctuated during past glacial and interglacial periods (Kurz 1942, Laessle 1958, Brooks 1972). Because of washing and sorting during transport and deposition, soil parent...

  15. Constitutive Soil Properties for Unwashed Sand and Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Michael A.; Chitty, Daniel E.; Gildea, Martin L.; T'Kindt, Casey M.

    2008-01-01

    Accurate soil models are required for numerical simulations of land landings for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle. This report provides constitutive material models for one soil, unwashed sand, from NASA Langley's gantry drop test facility and three soils from Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The four soil models are based on mechanical and compressive behavior observed during geotechnical laboratory testing of remolded soil samples. The test specimens were reconstituted to measured in situ density and moisture content. Tests included: triaxial compression, hydrostatic compression, and uniaxial strain. A fit to the triaxial test results defines the strength envelope. Hydrostatic and uniaxial tests define the compressibility. The constitutive properties are presented in the format of LS-DYNA Material Model 5: Soil and Foam. However, the laboratory test data provided can be used to construct other material models. The four soil models are intended to be specific to the soil conditions discussed in the report. The unwashed sand model represents clayey sand at high density. The KSC models represent three distinct coastal sand conditions: low density dry sand, high density in-situ moisture sand, and high density flooded sand. It is possible to approximate other sands with these models, but the results would be unverified without geotechnical tests to confirm similar soil behavior.

  16. BLAISDELL SLOW SAND FILTER WASHING MACHINE. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST. PIPING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLAISDELL SLOW SAND FILTER WASHING MACHINE. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST. PIPING IN FOREGROUND IS NOT RELATED TO THE MACHINE. THE NORTHEAST CORNER OF SETTLING RESERVOIR NO. 3 IS SEEN AT THE LOWER LEFT. - Yuma Main Street Water Treatment Plant, Blaisdell Slow Sand Filter Washing Machine, Jones Street at foot of Main Street, Yuma, Yuma County, AZ

  17. BLAISDELL SLOW SAND FILTER WASHING MACHINE. VIEW LOOKING WEST. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLAISDELL SLOW SAND FILTER WASHING MACHINE. VIEW LOOKING WEST. THE NONHISTORIC CHEMICAL BUILDING IS SEEN IN THE BACKGROUND. - Yuma Main Street Water Treatment Plant, Blaisdell Slow Sand Filter Washing Machine, Jones Street at foot of Main Street, Yuma, Yuma County, AZ

  18. 7. SAND FILTERS, CANAL TO LEFT. CONCRETE OVERFLOW AREA TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. SAND FILTERS, CANAL TO LEFT. CONCRETE OVERFLOW AREA TO LEFT OF CANAL ORIGINALLY PLANNED AS A STORAGE LAKE. VIEW LOOKING DUE WEST OF HINDS COMPLEX IN BACKGROUND OF SAND FILTERS. - Hinds Pump Plant, East of Joshua Tree National Monument, 5 miles north of Route 10, Hayfield, Riverside County, CA

  19. Ecology and management of sand shinnery communities: a literature review

    Treesearch

    Roger Peterson; Chad S. Boyd

    2000-01-01

    Sand shinnery is codominated by oak shrubs and mid and tallgrasses; the grasses are usually taller than the oaks. The shrubs are the small, visible shoots of massive underground stem systems, which are hundreds or thousands of years old. Sand shinnery occupies 5 to 7 M acres in western Oklahoma, western Texas, and southeastern New Mexico. This area is a decrease from...

  20. Beach Sand Analysis for Indicators of Microbial Contamination

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditional beach monitoring has focused on water quality, with little attention paid to health risks associated with beach sand. Recent research has reported that fecal indicator bacteria, as well as human pathogens can be found in beach sand and may constitute a risk to human h...

  1. White Sands Space Harbor Area 1, Microwave Scanning Beam Landing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    White Sands Space Harbor Area 1, Microwave Scanning Beam Landing Ground Stations, 1,500' to the south of the north end of Runway 17/35; 1,500' to the west of the east end of Runway 23/05; and 1,500' southwest of the northeast end of Runway 20/02., White Sands, Dona Ana County, NM

  2. 'Sharks Teeth' -- Sand Dunes in Proctor Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Sometimes, pictures received from Mars Global Surveyor's Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) are 'just plain pretty.' This image, taken in early September 2000, shows a group of sand dunes at the edge of a much larger field of dark-toned dunes in Proctor Crater. Located at 47.9oS, 330.4oW, in the 170 km (106 mile) diameter crater named for 19th Century British astronomer Richard A. Proctor (1837-1888), the dunes shown here are created by winds blowing largely from the east/northeast. A plethora of smaller, brighter ripples covers the substrate between the dunes. Sunlight illuminates them from the upper left.

  3. Leishmania sand fly interaction: progress and challenges.

    PubMed

    Bates, Paul A

    2008-08-01

    Complex interactions occurs between Leishmania parasites and their sand fly vectors. Promastigotes of Leishmania live exclusively within the gut, possess flagella and are motile, and kinesins, kinases and G proteins have been described that play a role in regulating flagellar assembly. Movement within the gut is not random: promastigotes can detect gradients of solutes via chemotaxis and osmotaxis. Further they use their flagella to attach to the fly midgut using surface glyconconjugates, a key step in establishment of the infection. Differentiation of mammal-infective stages is characterised by significant biochemical and cellular remodelling. Further, the parasites can manipulate the behaviour of the vector to maximise their transmission, and flies may even deliver altruistic apoptotic forms to aid transmission of infective stages.

  4. Acoustic sand detector for fluid flowstreams

    DOEpatents

    Beattie, Alan G.; Bohon, W. Mark

    1993-01-01

    The particle volume and particle mass production rate of particulate solids entrained in fluid flowstreams such as formation sand or fracture proppant entrained in oil and gas production flowstreams is determined by a system having a metal probe interposed in a flow conduit for transmitting acoustic emissions created by particles impacting the probe to a sensor and signal processing circuit which produces discrete signals related to the impact of each of the particles striking the probe. The volume or mass flow rate of particulates is determined from making an initial particle size distribution and particle energy distribution and comparing the initial energy distribution and/or the initial size distribution with values related to the impact energies of a predetermined number of recorded impacts. The comparison is also used to recalibrate the system to compensate for changes in flow velocity.

  5. Dust Devil Passes Near Martian Sand Dune

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-02-27

    This image from an animation shows effects of one Martian day of wind blowing sand underneath NASA's Curiosity Mars rover on a non-driving day for the rover. Each image was taken just after sundown by the rover's downward-looking Mars Descent Imager (MARDI). The area of ground shown in the images spans about 3 feet (about 1 meter) left-to-right. The first image was taken on Jan. 23, 2017, during the 1,587th Martian day, or sol, of Curiosity's work on Mars. Figure 1 above is the image with a scale bar in centimeters. The second was taken on Jan. 24, 2017 (Sol 1588). The day-apart images by MARDI were taken as a part of investigation of wind's effects during Martian summer, the windiest time of year in Gale Crater. An animation is available at http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21143

  6. Spontaneous Emergence of Order in Vibrated Sand*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swinney, Harry L.

    2004-05-01

    Granular media such as sand, pharmaceuticals, cereal, cosmetics, and asteroids are involved in many processes, yet granular media remain less well understood than fluids and solids. Vertically oscillating granular layers provide a test bed for theory and modeling of granular dynamics. Experiments on vertically oscillating granular layers have revealed a variety of spatial patterns that emerge spontaneously as a function of the container acceleration amplitude and frequency: stripes, squares, hexagons, spirals, and oscillons (localized structures). Molecular dynamics simulations yield results in quantitative accord with laboratory observations. Since the gradients of density and velocity are large over a particle mean free path, the applicability of continuum theory has been questionable. However, hydrodynamic equations proposed for dissipative particles yield results in surprising qualitative accord with the laboratory observations. *Work in collaboration with C. Bizon, D. Goldman, W.D. McCormick, S.J. Moon, E. Rericha, M. Shattuck, and J. Swift. Supported by DOE.

  7. Change Observed in Martian Sand Dune

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-11-16

    This animation flips back and forth between views taken in 2010 and 2014 of a Martian sand dune at the edge of Mount Sharp, documenting dune activity. The images are from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. They cover an area about 740 feet (about 225 meters) wide, showing a site called "Dune 2" in the "Bagnold Dunes" dune field. NASA's Curiosity Mars rover will observe this dune up close on the rover's route up Mount Sharp. North is toward the top. The edge of the dune at the crescent-shaped slip face on the south edge advances slightly during the four-year period between the dates of the images. Figure A is an annotated version with an arrow indicating the location of this change. The lighting angle is different in the two images, resulting in numerous changes in shadows. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20161

  8. A High Resolution Look at Black Sand Particles from Sand Dunes of Saudi Arabia Using Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, M. M.; Aburizaiza, O. S.; Siddique, A.; Hershey, D. L.; Guerrieri, D. A.; Qurashi, J.; Abbass, M.; Blake, D. R.; Khwaja, H. A.

    2013-12-01

    Particulate air pollution is a problem of health concern. The microscopic make-up of different varieties of sand particles found and collected at a sand dune site in Badr, Saudi Arabia has been determined. Primary emphasis is given to the use of multiple high resolution electron microscopy (viz., Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDS) and Laser Scanning Microscopy (LSM)) to study the morphologies, emission source types, size, and elemental composition of the particles, and to evaluate the presence of ';coatings or contaminants' adsorbed or carried on by the black sand particles. White sand contains natural coarse particles associated with wind-blown releases from crustal surfaces, weathering of an igneous/metamorphic rock source, and volcanic activities. Silicates (alumino-silicates) and quartz (clear, milky, rose) dominate white sand and rest appears to contain calcite, olivine, feldspar, and magnetite. Black sand particles exhibit very different morphologies and microstructures (surface roughness) compared with white sand and volcanic ash. Morphological analyses have shown that the black sand contain ultrafine particles. Black sand is strongly magnetic, which indicates the mineral magnetite (strongly magnetic) or elemental iron. Iron, C, O, Ti, Si, V, and S particles dominate the black sand. Natural and anthropogenic sources have been implicated for the observed particles. Analysis revealed that the surface of white sand particles is mainly covered with the fine particles. It is known that emissions from combustion contain carbon soot and other contaminants that are easily absorbed by soil particles during a long-range transport.

  9. Recycling of petroleum-contaminated sand.

    PubMed

    Taha, R; Ba-Omar, M; Pillay, A E; Roos, G; al-Hamdi, A

    2001-08-01

    The environmental impact of using petroleum-contaminated sand (PCS) as a substitute in asphalt paving mixtures was examined. An appreciable component of PCS is oily sludge, which is found as the dregs in oil storage tanks and is also produced as a result of oil spills on clean sand. The current method for the disposal of oily sludge is land farming. However, this method has not been successful as an oil content of < 1% w/w is required, and difficulty was encountered in reaching this target. The reuse of the sludge in asphalt paving mixtures was therefore considered as an alternative. Standard tests and environmental studies were conducted to establish the integrity of the materials containing the recycled sludge. These included physical and chemical characterization of the sludge itself, and an assessment of the mechanical properties of materials containing 0%, 5%, 22% and 50% oily sludge. The blended mixtures were subjected to special tests, such as Marshall testing and the determination of stability and flow properties. The experimental results indicated that mixtures containing up to 22% oily sludge could meet the necessary criteria for a specific asphalt concrete wearing course or bituminous base course. To maximize the assay from the recycled material, the environmental assessment was restricted to the 50% oily sludge mixture. Leachates associated with this particular mixture were assayed for total organic residue and certain hazardous metal contaminants. The results revealed that the organics were negligible, and the concentrations of the metals were not significant. Thus, no adverse environmental impact should be anticipated from the use of the recycled product. Our research showed that the disposal of oily sludge in asphalt paving mixtures could possibly yield considerable savings per tonne of asphalt concrete, and concurrently minimize any direct impact on the environment.

  10. Method for filtering solvent and tar sand mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Kelterborn, J. C.; Stone, R. A.

    1985-09-03

    A method for filtering spent tar sands from a bitumen and organic solvent solution comprises separating the solution into two streams wherein the bulk of the coarser spent tar sand is in a first stream and has an average particle size of about 10 to about 100 mesh and the bulk of the finer spent tar sand is in a second stream; producing a filter cake by filtering the coarser spent tar sand from the first stream; and filtering the finer spent tar sand from the second stream with the filter cake. The method is particularly useful for filtering solutionsmore » of bitumen extracted from bitumen containing diatomite, spent diatomite and organic solvent.« less

  11. Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands

    DOEpatents

    Westhoff, J.D.; Harak, A.E.

    1988-05-04

    A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000/degree/F in a burner to remove residual char and produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another important advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capitol and operating costs. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  12. Mapping sand and gravel pits in the Patuxent River watershed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, T. J.; Witt, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    LANDSAT data from July 1973 and June 1978 for the Patuxent River Watershed of Maryland were processed in an effort to devise an economical method of monitoring the reclamation of sand and gravel pits. ASTEP-II and IDIMS software were utilized to derive signatures for sand and gravel pits and other land use/land cover types. Both unsupervised and supervised classifications of the two data sets were produced. Resultant statistics and color output products were compared in order to determine the extent of reclamation and expansion of sand and gravel pits over the five-year time span and to check the locations of more recent sand and gravel pits. Preliminary results indicate that, for a selected northern sub-acre, signatures derived for sand and gravel pits were nearly 90 percent accurate.

  13. Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands

    DOEpatents

    Westhoff, James D.; Harak, Arnold E.

    1989-01-01

    A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000.degree. F. in a burner to remove residual char and produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another important advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capitol and operating costs.

  14. Sand impaction of the small intestine in eight dogs.

    PubMed

    Moles, A D; McGhite, A; Schaaf, O R; Read, R

    2010-01-01

    To describe signalment, clinical findings, imaging and treatment of intestinal sand impaction in the dog. Medical records of dogs with radiographic evidence of small intestinal sand impaction were reviewed. Sand impaction resulting in small intestinal obstruction was diagnosed in eight dogs. All dogs presented with signs of vomiting. Other clinical signs included anorexia, lethargy and abdominal pain. Radiographs confirmed the presence of radio-opaque material consistent with sand causing distension of the terminal small intestine in all dogs. Four dogs were treated surgically for their impaction and four dogs were managed medically. Seven of the eight dogs survived. Both medical and surgical management of intestinal sand impaction in the dog can be effective and both afford a good prognosis for recovery.

  15. Aeolian sand transport and aeolian deposits on Venus: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreslavsly, Mikhail A.; Bondarenko, Nataliya V.

    2017-06-01

    We review the current state of knowledge about aeolian sand transport and aeolian bedforms on planet Venus. This knowledge is limited by lack of observational data. Among the four planetary bodies of the Solar System with sufficient atmospheres in contact with solid surfaces, Venus has the densest atmosphere; the conditions there are transitional between those for terrestrial subaerial and subaqueous transport. The dense atmosphere causes low saltation threshold and short characteristic saltation length, and short scale length of the incipient dunes. A few lines of evidence indicate that the typical wind speeds exceed the saltation threshold; therefore, sand transport would be pervasive, if sand capable of saltation is available. Sand production on Venus is probably much slower than on the Earth; the major terrestrial sand sinks are also absent, however, lithification of sand through sintering is expected to be effective under Venus' conditions. Active transport is not detectable with the data available. Aeolian bedforms (transverse dunes) resolved in the currently available radar images occupy a tiny area on the planet; however, indirect observations suggest that small-scale unresolved aeolian bedforms are ubiquitous. Aeolian transport is probably limited by sand lithification causing shortage of saltation-capable material. Large impact events likely cause regional short-term spikes in aeolian transport by supplying a large amount of sand-size particles, as well as disintegration and activation of older indurated sand deposits. The data available are insufficient to understand whether the global aeolian sand transport occurs or not. More robust knowledge about aeolian transport on Venus is essential for future scientific exploration of the planet, in particular, for implementation and interpretation of geochemical studies of surface materials. High-resolution orbital radar imaging with local to regional coverage and desirable interferometric capabilities is the

  16. Sand waves on an epicontinental shelf: Northern Bering Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Field, M.E.; Nelson, C.H.; Cacchione, D.A.; Drake, D.E.

    1981-01-01

    Sand waves and current ripples occupy the crests and flanks of a series of large linear sand ridges (20 km ?? 5 km ?? 10 m high) lying in an open-marine setting in the northern Bering Sea. The sand wave area, which lies west of Seward Peninsula and southeast of Bering Strait, is exposed to the strong continuous flow of coastal water northward toward Bering Strait. A hierarchy of three sizes of superimposed bedforms, all facing northward, was observed in successive cruises in 1976 and 1977. Large sand waves (height 2 m; spacing 200 m) have smaller sand waves (height 1 m; spacing 20 m) lying at a small oblique angle on their stoss slopes. The smaller sand waves in turn have linguoid ripples on their stoss slopes. Repeated studies of the sand wave fields were made both years with high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, side-scan sonographs, underwater photographs, current-meter stations, vibracores, and suspended-sediment samplers. Comparison of seismic and side-scan data collected along profile lines run both years showed changes in sand wave shape that indicate significant bedload transport within the year. Gouge marks made in sediment by keels of floating ice also showed significantly different patterns each year, further documenting modification to the bottom by sediment transport. During calm sea conditions in 1977, underwater video and camera observations showed formation and active migration of linguoid and straight-crested current ripples. Current speeds 1 m above the bottom were between 20 and 30 cm/s. Maximum current velocities and sand wave migration apparently occur when strong southwesterly winds enhance the steady northerly flow of coastal water. Many cross-stratified sand bodies in the geologic record are interpreted as having formed in a tidal- or storm-dominated setting. This study provides an example of formation and migration of large bedforms by the interaction of storms with strong uniform coastal currents in an open-marine setting. ?? 1981.

  17. Risk factors for faecal sand excretion in Icelandic horses.

    PubMed

    Husted, L; Andersen, M S; Borggaard, O K; Houe, H; Olsen, S N

    2005-07-01

    Sandy soil is often mentioned as a risk factor in the development of sand-related gastrointestinal disease (SGID) in the horse. There are other variables, but few studies confirm any of these. To investigate soil type, pasture quality, feeding practice in the paddock, age, sex and body condition score as risk factors for sand intake in the horse. Faeces were collected from 211 Icelandic horses on 19 different studs in Denmark together with soil samples and other potential risk factors. Sand content in faeces determined by a sand sedimentation test was interpreted as evidence of sand intake. Soil types were identified by soil analysis and significance of the data was tested using logistic analysis. Of horses included in the study, 56.4% showed sand in the faeces and 5.7% had more than 5 mm sand as quantified by the rectal sleeve sedimentation test. Soil type had no significant effect when tested as main effect, but there was interaction between soil type and pasture quality. Significant interactions were also found between paddock feeding practice and pasture quality. To evaluate the risk of sand intake it is important to consider 3 variables: soil type, pasture quality and feeding practice. Pasture quality was identified as a risk factor of both short and long grass in combination with sandy soil, while clay soil had the lowest risk in these combinations. Feeding practice in the paddock revealed feeding directly on the ground to be a risk factor when there was short (1-5 cm) or no grass. Also, no feeding outdoors increased the risk on pastures with short grass, while this had no effect in paddocks with no grass. More than 50% of all horses investigated in this study had sand in the faeces. The identification of risk factors is an important step towards prevention of SGID. Further research is necessary to determine why some horses exhibit more than 5 mm sand in the sedimentation test and whether this is correlated with geophagic behaviour.

  18. Microbes in Beach Sands: Integrating Environment, Ecology and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Whitman, Richard; Harwood, Valerie J.; Edge, Thomas A.; Nevers, Meredith; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Vijayavel, Kannappan; Brandão, João; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Alm, Elizabeth Wheeler; Crowe, Allan; Ferguson, Donna; Ge, Zhongfu; Halliday, Elizabeth; Kinzelman, Julie; Kleinheinz, Greg; Przybyla-Kelly, Kasia; Staley, Christopher; Staley, Zachery; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Beach sand is a habitat that supports many microbes, including viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa (micropsammon). The apparently inhospitable conditions of beach sand environments belie the thriving communities found there. Physical factors, such as water availability and protection from insolation; biological factors, such as competition, predation, and biofilm formation; and nutrient availability all contribute to the characteristics of the micropsammon. Sand microbial communities include autochthonous species/phylotypes indigenous to the environment. Allochthonous microbes, including fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and waterborne pathogens, are deposited via waves, runoff, air, or animals. The fate of these microbes ranges from death, to transient persistence and/or replication, to establishment of thriving populations (naturalization) and integration in the autochthonous community. Transport of the micropsammon within the habitat occurs both horizontally across the beach, and vertically from the sand surface and ground water table, as well as at various scales including interstitial flow within sand pores, sediment transport for particle-associated microbes, and the large-scale processes of wave action and terrestrial runoff. The concept of beach sand as a microbial habitat and reservoir of FIB and pathogens has begun to influence our thinking about human health effects associated with sand exposure and recreational water use. A variety of pathogens have been reported from beach sands, and recent epidemiology studies have found some evidence of health risks associated with sand exposure. Persistent or replicating populations of FIB and enteric pathogens have consequences for watershed/beach management strategies and regulatory standards for safe beaches. This review summarizes our understanding of the community structure, ecology, fate, transport, and public health implications of microbes in beach sand. It concludes with recommendations for future

  19. Influence of a Reclaimed Sand Addition to Moulding Sand with Furan Resin on Its Impact on the Environment.

    PubMed

    Holtzer, Mariusz; Dańko, Rafał; Kmita, Angelika

    Metalcasting involves having a molten metal poured in a hollow mould to produce metal objects. These moulds are generally made of sand and are chemically bonded, clay-bonded, or even unbounded. There are many binder systems used. Binders based on furfuryl resins constitute currently the highest fraction in the binders no-bake group. Moulding sand, after knocking out the cast, is partially reclaimed, and the remaining part, known as waste foundry sand is used or stored outside the foundry. In this case, the environment hazardous organic compounds and metals can be leached from the moulding sand, thus causing pollution of water and soil. Also during the casting moulds with molten metal, they emit pyrolysis gases containing many different compounds, often dangerous from the BTEX and PAH group, which has adverse impacts on the environment and workers. The article presents the results of research on the impact of the regenerate addition to the moulding sand matrix on emitted gases and the degree of threat to the environment due to leaching of hazardous components. Therefore, for the total assessment of the moulding sands harmfulness, it is necessary to perform investigations concerning the dangerous substances elution into the environment during their management and storage, as well as investigations concerning emissions of hazardous substances (especially from the BTEX and PAHs group) during moulds pouring, cooling, and casting knocking out. Both kinds of investigations indicated that reclaimed sand additions to moulding sands have significantly negative influence on the environment and working conditions.

  20. The Geodiversity in Drift Sand Landscapes of The Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; Riksen, Michel

    2015-04-01

    The authors carried out detailed field studies of more than twelve drift sand landscapes in The Netherlands. The objective of these studies was to restore Natura-2000 values by restoring the wind activity. Active drift sands occur almost exclusively in The Netherlands, Natura 2000 habitat 2330 'Inland dunes with open Corynephorus and Agrostis grasslands', for which reason our country is largely responsible for this European landscape. Active drift sands had almost disappeared for two reasons: first, the stabilization of the drift sands by air pollution, mainly nitrogen, which stimulates the growth of algae and grasses that initiate soil formation, and second, by the growth of forests surrounding the sands, which decreases the wind force. The restoration studies revealed differences in the geodiversity between and within the drift sand areas. Whereas the drift sands on geological and soil maps show as almost homogenous areas, they have in fact highly variable geo-conditions of which examples will be given. These geodiversity aspects concern differences in geomorphological structure, origin, sediments and age of the drift sands. Differences in wind and water erosion, trampling and soil formation add to the geodiversity within the drift sand areas. Especially in the primary stages of succession the differences in geodiversity are relevant for the Natura-2000 values. We discerned three main types of active sands. Firstly, the impressive drift sands with large parabolic dune structures, often consisting of series of interlocking parabolic dunes. They developed from the northeast towards the southwest, against the direction of the dominant wind, and must have taken centuries to develop. Small parts of these systems are still active, other parts show different degrees of soil formation. Their origin is still unclear but probably dates from medieval times (Heidinga, 1985, Jungerius & Riksen, 2008). Second are the drift sand areas with irregular hills from 0.5 to about 2

  1. Presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in sand from bathing beaches.

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, F. J.; Surman, S. B.; Martin, K.; Wareing, D. R.; Humphrey, T. J.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. in sand from non-EEC standard and EEC standard designated beaches in different locations in the UK and to assess if potentially pathogenic strains were present. Campylobacter spp. were detected in 82/182 (45%) of sand samples and Salmonella spp. in 10/182 (6%). Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 46/92 (50%) of samples from non-EEC standard beaches and 36/90 (40%) from EEC standard beaches. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was greater in wet sand from both types of beaches but, surprisingly, more than 30% of samples from dry sand also contained these organisms. The major pathogenic species C. jejuni and C. coli were more prevalent in sand from non-EEC standard beaches. In contrast, C. lari and urease positive thermophilic campylobacters, which are associated with seagulls and other migratory birds, were more prevalent in sand from EEC standard beaches. Campylobacter isolates were further characterized by biotyping and serotyping, which confirmed that strains known to be of types associated with human infections were frequently found in sand on bathing beaches. PMID:10098779

  2. Presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in sand from bathing beaches.

    PubMed

    Bolton, F J; Surman, S B; Martin, K; Wareing, D R; Humphrey, T J

    1999-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. in sand from non-EEC standard and EEC standard designated beaches in different locations in the UK and to assess if potentially pathogenic strains were present. Campylobacter spp. were detected in 82/182 (45%) of sand samples and Salmonella spp. in 10/182 (6%). Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 46/92 (50%) of samples from non-EEC standard beaches and 36/90 (40%) from EEC standard beaches. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was greater in wet sand from both types of beaches but, surprisingly, more than 30% of samples from dry sand also contained these organisms. The major pathogenic species C. jejuni and C. coli were more prevalent in sand from non-EEC standard beaches. In contrast, C. lari and urease positive thermophilic campylobacters, which are associated with seagulls and other migratory birds, were more prevalent in sand from EEC standard beaches. Campylobacter isolates were further characterized by biotyping and serotyping, which confirmed that strains known to be of types associated with human infections were frequently found in sand on bathing beaches.

  3. Geosynthetic Reinforcement of Sand-Mat Layer above Soft Ground

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Beom; Park, Hyun-Soo; Kim, Daehyeon

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the bearing capacity of soft ground for the purpose of getting trafficability of construction vehicles, the reinforcement of geosynthetics for sand-mat layers on soft ground has often been used. As the strength of the geosynthetics increases, and the sand-mat system becomes stronger, the bearing capacity of sand-mat systems will be increased. The depths of geosynthetics, reinforced in sand-mat layers, were varied with respect to the width of footing. The tensile strengths of geosynthetics were also varied to evaluate the effect of reinforcement on the bearing capacity of soft ground. The dispersion angles, with varying sand-mat thicknesses, were also determined in consideration of the tensile strength of geosynthetics and the depths of reinforcement installations. The bearing capacity ratios, with the variation of footing width and reinforced embedment depth, were determined for the geosynthetics-only, reinforced soft ground, 1-layer sand-mat system and 2-layer sand-mat system against the non-reinforced soft ground. From the test results of various models, a principle that better explains the concept of geosynthetic reinforcement has been found. On the basis of this principle, a new bearing capacity equation for practical use in the design of geosynthetically reinforced soft ground has been proposed by modifying Yamanouchi’s equation. PMID:28788392

  4. The effects of psammophilous plants on sand dune dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bel, Golan; Ashkenazy, Yosef

    2014-07-01

    Mathematical models of sand dune dynamics have considered different types of sand dune cover. However, despite the important role of psammophilous plants (plants that flourish in moving-sand environments) in dune dynamics, the incorporation of their effects into mathematical models of sand dunes remains a challenging task. Here we propose a nonlinear physical model for the role of psammophilous plants in the stabilization and destabilization of sand dunes. There are two main mechanisms by which the wind affects these plants: (i) sand drift results in the burial and exposure of plants, a process that is known to result in an enhanced growth rate, and (ii) strong winds remove shoots and rhizomes and seed them in nearby locations, enhancing their growth rate. Our model describes the temporal evolution of the fractions of surface cover of regular vegetation, biogenic soil crust, and psammophilous plants. The latter reach their optimal growth under either (i) specific sand drift or (ii) specific wind power. The model exhibits complex bifurcation diagrams and dynamics, which explain observed phenomena, and it predicts new dune stabilization scenarios. Depending on the climatological conditions, it is possible to obtain one, two, or, predicted here for the first time, three stable dune states. Our model shows that the development of the different cover types depends on the precipitation rate and the wind power and that the psammophilous plants are not always the first to grow and stabilize the dunes.

  5. Mechanics and energetics of human locomotion on sand.

    PubMed

    Lejeune, T M; Willems, P A; Heglund, N C

    1998-07-01

    Moving about in nature often involves walking or running on a soft yielding substratum such as sand, which has a profound effect on the mechanics and energetics of locomotion. Force platform and cinematographic analyses were used to determine the mechanical work performed by human subjects during walking and running on sand and on a hard surface. Oxygen consumption was used to determine the energetic cost of walking and running under the same conditions. Walking on sand requires 1.6-2.5 times more mechanical work than does walking on a hard surface at the same speed. In contrast, running on sand requires only 1.15 times more mechanical work than does running on a hard surface at the same speed. Walking on sand requires 2.1-2.7 times more energy expenditure than does walking on a hard surface at the same speed; while running on sand requires 1.6 times more energy expenditure than does running on a hard surface. The increase in energy cost is due primarily to two effects: the mechanical work done on the sand, and a decrease in the efficiency of positive work done by the muscles and tendons.

  6. Submarine sand dunes and sedimentary environments in Oceanographer Canyon.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valentine, P.C.; Cooper, R.A.; Uzmann, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    Observations from research submersibles in the northern part of Oceanographer Canyon reveal the presence of an extensive field of large sand dunes on the canyon floor. The dunes are medium to coarse sand, are oriented across the axis, and the largest of them are as high as 3 m and have wavelengths up to 15 m. Their asymmetry, grain size, and height suggest that they are formed by axial currents flowing up- and downcanyon and that the largest dunes require flows of at least 70 cm/sec. Shelf sand, low in silt and clay content, is transported by currents down and along the canyon walls onto the canyon floor. As the sand enters the canyon, it is mixed with immobile gravel deposits on the canyon rim; lower on the walls, the sand is mixed with silt and clay burrowed by organisms from the semiconsolidated sandy silt that underlies the canyon walls and floor. Upon reaching the canyon floor, the sand is sculpted into bed forms by currents, and the fines are winnowed out and transported out of the canyon. At present, the shelf and canyon walls are being eroded by bottom currents and burrowing organisms, whereas the canyon floor is covered by mobile sand that moves both up and down the axis in this part of the canyon.

  7. Case history of Yakin field: its development and sand control

    SciTech Connect

    Sawolo, N.; Krueger, R.F.; Maly, G.P.

    1983-01-01

    This paper deals with the development of the Yakin field in East Kalimantan, Indonesia, with emphasis on the sand control methods used. Implementation of an effective sand control program ensured the successful development of this field. Gravel-packed wells had substantially lower production decline rates than the initial completions without gravel packs. Control of sand production also has been demonstrated by the lack of sand problems during the 4 1/2 years since the sand control program was initiated. During this time there have been no submersible pump failures associated with sand production. The successful sand control program was achieved by amore » well-coordinated and cooperative effort of drilling, reservoir engineering, production research, and service company personnel. Establishment of communication among all people involved, starting early in the planning process and continuing through the rig operations to the final production phase, coupled with intensive training at all levels of responsibility, on-site supervision, and quality control were important factors in the success of the development program.« less

  8. DCS of Syrtis Major Sand Migration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released August 2, 2004 This image shows two representations of the same infra-red image of craters and lava flow features in Syrtis Major. On the left is a grayscale image showing surface temperature, and on the right is a false-color composite made from 3 individual THEMIS bands. The false-color image is colorized using a technique called decorrelation stretch (DCS), which emphasizes the spectral differences between the bands to highlight compositional variations.

    The prominent rim of the large crater at the top of the image is blocking migrating sand from entering the crater. This produces a very distinct compositional boundary between the pink/magenta basaltic sand and the green dust covering the crater rim and floor. Many of the smaller craters in this region have dust trails behind them, indicating the prevailing wind direction. At the top of the image, the prevailing wind direction is to the northwest, while at the bottom of the image, the prevailing winds have shifted towards the southwest.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 9.2, Longitude 68.4 East (291.6 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip

  9. Depositional settings of sand beaches along whitewater rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vincent, K.R.; Andrews, E.D.

    2008-01-01

    The numbers and sizes of sand beaches suitable for recreation along selected whitewater rivers in the western United States depend on sand concentrations, range of discharge and the size, frequency and type of depositional settings. River-width expansions downstream from constrictions are the predominant depositional setting for sand beaches in the upper Grand Canyon and along five Wild and Scenic Rivers in Idaho, but not along other rivers. Beaches located upstream from constrictions are rare, in general, except in the Grand Canyon. Beaches found in expansions without constrictions dominate depositional sites along the Yampa and Green Rivers, are fairly common along the rivers in Idaho, but are relatively rare in the Grand Canyon. The magnitude of flow expansion is a reliable predictor of beach size. Beaches located on the inside of curves are uncommon, in general, but can be important recreation sites. The mid-channel bar setting is the least important from a recreation standpoint because that setting is rare and beaches there are typically small, and emergent only at low flow. The frequency of beaches is highly variable among rivers and the concentration of sand in transport is only partially responsible. Of the rivers studied, the unregulated Yampa River carries the highest concentrations of suspended sand and has among the most beaches (1.2 beaches km-1). Emergent sand beaches are essentially nonexistent along the Deschutes River and are rare along other Oregon rivers, yet these rivers transport some sand. Sand beaches are fairly common (0.8-1.1 beaches km-1) along the regulated Colorado River, but are comparatively rare (0.6 beaches km-1) along the unregulated Middle Fork Salmon River. The suspended sand concentrations in study reaches of these two rivers are similar, and the difference in the frequency of beaches may be largely because the processes that create beach-deposition settings are less active along the Middle Fork Salmon.

  10. Supply-Limited Bedforms in a Gravel-Sand Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venditti, J. G.; Nittrouer, J. A.; Humphries, R. P.; Allison, M. A.

    2009-12-01

    Rivers often exhibit an abrupt transition from gravel to sand-bedded conditions as river channel slopes decrease. A distinct suite of bedforms has been observed through these reaches where sand supply to the bed is limited. The suite of bedforms includes a sequence of sand ribbons, barchans, and channel spanning dunes as sediment supply increases in the downstream direction. While these bedforms have been extensively documented in laboratory channels, there are relatively few observations of this sequence of supply-limited bedforms from large natural channels. Here we examine the sequence through the gravel-sand transition of the Fraser River in Southwestern British Columbia. We mapped the bed using multi-beam swath-bathymetry (Reson 8101 Seabat) at high flow (~9,000 m3s-1) immediately following a high peak flow of 11,800 m3s-1 in June 2007 The bed material grades from >70% gravel to entirely sand through the reach. The bedforms follow the expected sequence where sand ribbons and barchanoid forms cover the bed where it is primarily gravel. Channel spanning dunes form as the sand bed coverage increases. Bedform dimensions (height and length) increase moving downstream as the sand moving on the bed increases. Supply-unlimited bedforms typically scale with the flow depth where the height is 1/5 the flow depth. The bedforms developed over the gravel are undersized by this criterion. Downstream, where the bed is dominantly sand, bedforms do scale with flow depth. These data highlight the dominant role sediment supply can play in bedform morphology and scaling, confirming patterns observed in laboratory data.

  11. Controls on the abruptness of gravel-sand transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venditti, J. G.; Church, M. A.; Lamb, M. P.; Domarad, N.; Rennie, C. D.

    2014-12-01

    As gravel-bedded rivers fine downstream, they characteristically exhibit an abrupt transition from gravel- to sand-bed. This is the only abrupt transition in grain-size that occurs in the fluvial system and has attracted considerable attention. A number of competing theories have been proposed to account for the abruptness of the transition, including base-level control, attrition of ~10mm gravel to produce sand, and sediment sorting processes. The prevailing theory for the emergence of abrupt transitions is size selective sorting of bimodal sediment wherein gravel deposits due to downstream declining shear stress, fining the bedload until a sand-bed emerges. We explored this hypothesis by examining grain-size, shear stress, gravel mobility and sand suspension thresholds through the gravel-sand transition (GST) of the Fraser River, British Columbia. The Fraser GST is an arrested gravel wedge with patches of gravel downstream of the wedge forming a diffuse extension. There is an abrupt change in bed slope through the transition that leads to an abrupt change in shear stress. The GST, bed-slope change and backwater caused by the ocean are all coincident spatially, which enhances the sharpness of the GST. Interestingly, the bimodal reach of the river occurs downstream of the GST and exhibits no downstream gradients in shear stress, suspended sediment flux, gravel mobility or sand suspension thresholds. This calls into question the prevailing theory for the emergence of an abrupt GST by size selective sorting. We provide evidence, both empirical and theoretical, that suggests the emergence of an abrupt GST is caused by rapid deposition of sand when fine gravel deposits. We argue that the emergence of gravel-sand transitions is a consequence of gravel-bedded rivers adopting a steeper slope than sand-bedded rivers. The abruptness arises because the bed slope required to convey the gravel load fixes the distal location of a terminal gravel wedge, and once the river has

  12. Large sand waves in Navarinsky Canyon head, Bering Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karl, Herman A.; Carlson, P.R.

    1982-01-01

    Sand waves are present in the heads of large submarine canyons in the northwestern Bering Sea. They vary in height between 2 to 15 m and have wavelengths of 600 m. They are not only expressed on the seafloor, but are also well defined in the subsurface and resemble enormous climbing bed forms. We conjecture that the sand waves originated during lower stands of sea level in the Pleistocene. Although we cannot explain the mechanics of formation of the sand waves, internal-wave generated currents are among four types of current that could account for these large structures. ?? 1982 A. M. Dowden, Inc.

  13. 1. HEAD GATE OF THE SAND CREEK LATERAL AT THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. HEAD GATE OF THE SAND CREEK LATERAL AT THE HIGH LINE CANAL ON THE SOUTH END OF THE PEORIA STREET BRIDGE. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  14. Land and water impacts of oil sands production in Alberta.

    PubMed

    Jordaan, Sarah M

    2012-04-03

    Expansion of oil sands development results not only in the release of greenhouse gas emissions, but also impacts land and water resources. Though less discussed internationally due to to their inherently local nature, land and water impacts can be severe. Research in key areas is needed to manage oil sands operations effectively; including improved monitoring of ground and surface water quality. The resulting information gap means that such impacts are not well understood. Improved analyses of oil sands products are required that compare land and water use with other transportation fuel pathways and use a regional perspective so local effects can be considered and mitigated.

  15. BLAISDELL SLOW SAND FILTER WASHING MACHINE. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLAISDELL SLOW SAND FILTER WASHING MACHINE. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST. THE ELECTRIC TROLLEY IS SEEN AT THE LEFT. THE BULKHEAD SEEN AT THE LOWER RIGHT IS NOT PART OF THE MACHINE; IT WAS INSTALLED TO RETAIN THE FILTER SAND AFTER THE MACHINE WAS NO LONGER USED. THE NORTHWEST CORNER OF SETTLING RESERVOIR NO. 4 IS SEEN IN THE DISTANCE BELOW THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE TROLLEY. - Yuma Main Street Water Treatment Plant, Blaisdell Slow Sand Filter Washing Machine, Jones Street at foot of Main Street, Yuma, Yuma County, AZ

  16. Strength Characteristics of Quarry Dust in Replacement of Sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shyam Prakash, K.; Hanumantha Rao, Ch, Dr

    2017-08-01

    The replacement of natural fine aggregate by using quarry dust leads to consumption of generated quarry dust, the requirement of land fill area can be reduced and solves the natural sand scarcity problem. The sand availability as a fine aggregate at low cost which needs the reason to search as a alternative material. Even it causes saddle to dump the crusher dust at one place which causes environmental pollution. The chemical analysis, specific gravity, sieve analysis and compressive strength is identified for various percentage and grades of concrete by replacement of sand with quarry dust.

  17. Advanced Techniques for Simulating the Behavior of Sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clothier, M.; Bailey, M.

    2009-12-01

    Computer graphics and visualization techniques continue to provide untapped research opportunities, particularly when working with earth science disciplines. Through collaboration with the Oregon Space Grant and IGERT Ecosystem Informatics programs we are developing new techniques for simulating sand. In addition, through collaboration with the Oregon Space Grant, we’ve been communicating with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to exchange ideas and gain feedback on our work. More specifically, JPL’s DARTS Laboratory specializes in planetary vehicle simulation, such as the Mars rovers. This simulation utilizes a virtual "sand box" to test how planetary rovers respond to different terrains while traversing them. Unfortunately, this simulation is unable to fully mimic the harsh, sandy environments of those found on Mars. Ideally, these simulations should allow a rover to interact with the sand beneath it, particularly for different sand granularities and densities. In particular, there may be situations where a rover may become stuck in sand due to lack of friction between the sand and wheels. In fact, in May 2009, the Spirit rover became stuck in the Martian sand and has provided additional motivation for this research. In order to develop a new sand simulation model, high performance computing will play a very important role in this work. More specifically, graphics processing units (GPUs) are useful due to their ability to run general purpose algorithms and ability to perform massively parallel computations. In prior research, simulating vast quantities of sand has been difficult to compute in real-time due to the computational complexity of many colliding particles. With the use of GPUs however, each particle collision will be parallelized, allowing for a dramatic performance increase. In addition, spatial partitioning will also provide a speed boost as this will help limit the number of particle collision calculations. However, since the goal of this

  18. Denitrification in a sand and gravel aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, R.L.; Duff, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    Denitrification was assayed by the acetylene blockage technique in slurried core material obtained from a freshwater sand and gravel aquifer. The aquifer, which has been contaminated with treated sewage for more than 50 years, had a contaminant plume greater than 3.5-km long. Near the contaminant source, groundwater nitrate concentrations were greater than 1 mM, whereas 0.25 km downgradient the central portion of the contaminant plume was anoxic and contained no detectable nitrate. Samples were obtained along the longitudinal axis of the plume (0 to 0.25 km) at several depths from four sites. Denitrification was evident at in situ nitrate concentrations at all sites tested; rates ranged from 2.3 to 260 pmol of N20 produced (g of wet sediment)-' h-'. Rates were highest nearest the contaminant source and decreased with increasing distance downgradient. Denitrification was the predominant nitrate-reducing activity; no evidence was found for nitrate reduction to ammonium at any site. Denitrifying activity was carbon limited and not nitrate limited, except when the ambient nitrate level was less than the detection limit, in which case, even when amended with high concentrations of glucose and nitrate, the capacity to denitrify on a short-term basis was lacking. These results demonstrate that denitrification can occur in groundwater systems and, thereby, serve as a mechanism for nitrate remoyal from groundwater.

  19. Fragmentation modeling of a resin bonded sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilth, William; Ryckelynck, David

    2017-06-01

    Cemented sands exhibit a complex mechanical behavior that can lead to sophisticated models, with numerous parameters without real physical meaning. However, using a rather simple generalized critical state bonded soil model has proven to be a relevant compromise between an easy calibration and good results. The constitutive model formulation considers a non-associated elasto-plastic formulation within the critical state framework. The calibration procedure, using standard laboratory tests, is complemented by the study of an uniaxial compression test observed by tomography. Using finite elements simulations, this test is simulated considering a non-homogeneous 3D media. The tomography of compression sample gives access to 3D displacement fields by using image correlation techniques. Unfortunately these fields have missing experimental data because of the low resolution of correlations for low displacement magnitudes. We propose a recovery method that reconstructs 3D full displacement fields and 2D boundary displacement fields. These fields are mandatory for the calibration of the constitutive parameters by using 3D finite element simulations. The proposed recovery technique is based on a singular value decomposition of available experimental data. This calibration protocol enables an accurate prediction of the fragmentation of the specimen.

  20. Failures in sand in reduced gravity environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Jason P.; Hurley, Ryan C.; Arthur, Dan; Vlahinic, Ivan; Senatore, Carmine; Iagnemma, Karl; Trease, Brian; Andrade, José E.

    2018-04-01

    The strength of granular materials, specifically sand is important for understanding physical phenomena on other celestial bodies. However, relatively few experiments have been conducted to determine the dependence of strength properties on gravity. In this work, we experimentally investigated relative values of strength (the peak friction angle, the residual friction angle, the angle of repose, and the peak dilatancy angle) in Earth, Martian, Lunar, and near-zero gravity. The various angles were captured in a classical passive Earth pressure experiment conducted on board a reduced gravity flight and analyzed using digital image correlation. The data showed essentially no dependence of the peak friction angle on gravity, a decrease in the residual friction angle between Martian and Lunar gravity, no dependence of the angle of repose on gravity, and an increase in the dilation angle between Martian and Lunar gravity. Additionally, multiple flow surfaces were seen in near-zero gravity. These results highlight the importance of understanding strength and deformation mechanisms of granular materials at different levels of gravity.

  1. Denitrification in a Sand and Gravel Aquifer

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Richard L.; Duff, John H.

    1988-01-01

    Denitrification was assayed by the acetylene blockage technique in slurried core material obtained from a freshwater sand and gravel aquifer. The aquifer, which has been contaminated with treated sewage for more than 50 years, had a contaminant plume greater than 3.5-km long. Near the contaminant source, groundwater nitrate concentrations were greater than 1 mM, whereas 0.25 km downgradient the central portion of the contaminant plume was anoxic and contained no detectable nitrate. Samples were obtained along the longitudinal axis of the plume (0 to 0.25 km) at several depths from four sites. Denitrification was evident at in situ nitrate concentrations at all sites tested; rates ranged from 2.3 to 260 pmol of N2O produced (g of wet sediment)−1 h−1. Rates were highest nearest the contaminant source and decreased with increasing distance downgradient. Denitrification was the predominant nitrate-reducing activity; no evidence was found for nitrate reduction to ammonium at any site. Denitrifying activity was carbon limited and not nitrate limited, except when the ambient nitrate level was less than the detection limit, in which case, even when amended with high concentrations of glucose and nitrate, the capacity to denitrify on a short-term basis was lacking. These results demonstrate that denitrification can occur in groundwater systems and, thereby, serve as a mechanism for nitrate removal from groundwater. PMID:16347621

  2. Reciprocating down-hole sand pump

    SciTech Connect

    Ruhle, J.L.

    1987-04-28

    This patent describes the invention of a continuously-operated reciprocating down-hole sand pump comprising: a steel polished plunger pipe that strokes back and forth within a steel honed pump barrel, and is equipped with a self-lubricating fluorocarbon V-ring system that is pressure-actuated during compression strokes; the self-lubricating fluorocarbon V-ring system also is self-actuated by means of coil springs to provide wiping action to the polished plunger pipe during suction strokes; the self-lubricating fluorocarbons V-ring system also self-adjusts by means of coil springs located adjacent the fluorocarbon V-ring so as to automatically compensate for V-ring wear; and the self-lubricating fluorocarbon V-ring systemmore » also is designed in such a manner so as to eliminate voids and discourage the extrusion of V-rings in high temperature and high-pressure applications.« less

  3. Aerolian erosion, transport, and deposition of volcaniclastic sands among the shifting sand dunes, Christmas Lake Valley, Oregon: TIMS image analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgett, Kenneth S.; Ramsey, Michael S.; Christensen, Philip R.

    1995-01-01

    Remote sensing is a tool that, in the context of aeolian studies, offers a synoptic view of a dune field, sand sea, or entire desert region. Blount et al. (1990) presented one of the first studies demonstrating the power of multispectral images for interpreting the dynamic history of an aeolian sand sea. Blount's work on the Gran Desierto of Mexico used a Landsat TM scene and a linear spectral mixing model to show where different sand populations occur and along what paths these sands may have traveled before becoming incorporated into dunes. Interpretation of sand transport paths and sources in the Gran Desierto led to an improved understanding of the origin and Holocene history of the dunes. With the anticipated advent of the EOS-A platform and ASTER thermal infrared capability in 1998, it will become possible to look at continental sand seas and map sand transport paths using 8-12 mu m bands that are well-suited to tracking silicate sediments. A logical extension of Blount's work is to attempt a similar study using thermal infrared images. One such study has already begun by looking at feldspar, quartz, magnetite, and clay distributions in the Kelso Dunes of southern California. This paper describes the geology and application of TIMS image analysis of a less-well known Holocene dune field in south central Oregon using TIMS data obtained in 1991.

  4. Locomotive No. 17 coming towards Sand House & Water Column ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Locomotive No. 17 coming towards Sand House & Water Column at south end of the Yard complex - East Broad Top Railroad & Coal Company, State Route 994, West of U.S. Route 522, Rockhill Furnace, Huntingdon County, PA

  5. 10. SAND TOWER ON LEFT, FUEL STATION IN CENTER, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. SAND TOWER ON LEFT, FUEL STATION IN CENTER, AND LOCOMOTIVES AND CABOOSES IN TRAIN YARD, FACING EAST - Monongahela Railway Company Shops, Water Street & Seventeenth Street, Brownsville, Fayette County, PA

  6. Airborne sand and dust soiling of solar collecting mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sansom, Christopher; Almond, Heather; King, Peter; Endaya, Essam; Bouaichaoui, Sofiane

    2017-06-01

    The reflectance of solar collecting mirrors can be significantly reduced by sand and dust soiling, particularly in arid environments. Larger airborne sand and dust particles can also cause damage by erosion, again reducing reflectance. This work describes investigations of the airborne particle size, shape, and composition in three arid locations that are considered suitable for CSP plants, namely in Iran, Libya, and Algeria. Sand and dust has been collected at heights between 0.5 to 2.0m by a variety of techniques, but are shown not to be representative of the particle size found either in ground dust and sand, or on the solar collecting mirror facets themselves. The possible reasons for this are proposed, most notably that larger particles may rebound from the mirror surface. The implications for mirror cleaning and collector facet erosion are discussed.

  7. Assessment of sand encroachment in Kuwait using GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Helal, Anwar B.; Al-Awadhi, Jasem M.

    2006-04-01

    Assessment of sand encroachment in Kuwait using Geographical Information System (GIS) technology has been formulated as a Multi-Criteria Decision Making problem. The Delphi method and Analytical Hierarchy Process were adopted as evaluating techniques, in which experts’ judgments were analyzed for objectively estimating and weighting control factors. Seven triggering factors, depicted in the form of maps, were identified and ordered according to their priority. These factors are (1) wind energy; (2) surface sediment; (3) vegetation density; (4) land use; (5) drainage density; (6) topographic change and (7) vegetation type. The factor maps were digitized, converted to raster data and overlaid to determine their possible spatial relationships. Applying a susceptibility model, a map of sand encroachment susceptibility in Kuwait was developed. The map showed that the areas of very high and high sand encroachment susceptibility are located within the main corridor of sand pathway that coincides with the northwesterly dominant wind direction.

  8. The potential use of tar sand bitumen as paving asphalt

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper several research reports describing the preparation of potential paving asphalts from tar sand bitumen are reviewed and the results of the studies compared. The tar sand asphalts described in the studies were prepared from 1) hot water-recovered bitumen from deposits near San Luis Obispo, California (Edna deposits), and deposits near Vernal and Sunnyside, Utah; and 2) bitumen recovered from the Northwest Asphalt Ridge deposits near Vernal, Utah, by both in situ steamflood and in situ combustion recovery processes. Important properties of the tar sand asphalts compare favorably with those of specification petroleum asphalts. Laboratory data suggest thatmore » some tar sand asphalts may have superior aging characteristics and produce more water-resistant paving mixtures than typical petroleum asphalts.« less

  9. 2. VIEW SHOWING NATURAL SAND BEACH ON KIDNEY LAKE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SHOWING NATURAL SAND BEACH ON KIDNEY LAKE, LOOKING WEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Kidney Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.7 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  10. Ion movement in acidified, low base saturated sand soils.

    Treesearch

    A. Ray Harris; Douglas M. Stone

    1992-01-01

    Describes factors causing cation export in leachate in low base saturated forested sand soils. Reports the effects of varying acid precipitation and litter-humus treatments on ion movement and interaction.

  11. Documenting the global impacts of beach sand mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, R.; Griffith, A.

    2009-04-01

    For centuries, beach sand has been mined for use as aggregate in concrete, for heavy minerals, and for construction fill. The global extent and impact of this phenomenon has gone relatively unnoticed by academics, NGOs, and major news sources. Most reports of sand mining activities are found at the very local scale (if the mining is ever documented at all). Yet, sand mining in many localities has resulted in the complete destruction of beach (and related) ecosystems along with severe impacts to coastal protection and tourism. The Program for the Study of Developed Shorelines at Western Carolina University and Beachcare.org have initiated the construction of a global database of beach sand mining activities. The database is being built through a combination of site visits and through the data mining of media resources, peer reviewed papers, and reports from private and governmental entities. Currently, we have documented sand mining in 35 countries on 6 continents representing the removal of millions of cubic meters of sand. Problems extend from Asia where critical infrastructure has been disrupted by sand mining to the Caribbean where policy reform has swiftly followed a highly publicized theft of sand. The Program for the Study of Developed Shorelines recently observed extensive sand mining in Morocco at the regional scale. Tens of kilometers of beach have been stripped of sand and the mining continues southward reducing hope of a thriving tourism-based economy. Problems caused by beach sand mining include: destruction of natural beaches and the ecosystems they protect (e.g. dunes, wetlands), habitat loss for globally important species (e.g. turtles, shorebirds), destruction of nearshore marine ecosystems, increased shoreline erosion rates, reduced protection from storms, tsunamis, and wave events, and economic losses through tourist abandonment and loss of coastal aesthetics. The threats posed by sand mining are made even more critical given the prospect of a

  12. Nodules of Cemented Sand Grains Within Martian Sandstone

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-11

    This view from NASA Curiosity shows nodules exposed in sandstone that is part of the Stimson geological unit on Mount Sharp, Mars. The nodules can be seen to consist of grains of sand cemented together.

  13. 39. DETAIL OF SAND FILTER SYSTEM. MAIN LINE RUNS IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. DETAIL OF SAND FILTER SYSTEM. MAIN LINE RUNS IN FOREGROUND WITH VALVES IN CONCRETE PITS. - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

  14. DEGRADATION AND MIGRATION OF VINCLOZOLIN IN SAND AND SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The migration of the dicarboximide fungicide vinclozolin and its principal degradation products through porous media was experimentally determined by simulating pesticide applications to a 23-30 mesh Ottawa sand and a North Carolina Piedmont, aquic hapludult soil in laboratory ...

  15. The role of aluminum in slow sand filtration.

    PubMed

    Weber-Shirk, Monroe L; Chan, Kwok Loon

    2007-03-01

    Engineering enhancement of slow sand filtration has been an enigma in large part because the mechanisms responsible for particle removal have not been well characterized. The presumed role of biological processes in the filter ripening process nearly precluded the possibility of enhancing filter performance since interventions to enhance biological activity would have required decreasing the quality of the influent water. In previous work, we documented that an acid soluble polymer controls filter performance. The new understanding that particle removal is controlled in large part by physical chemical mechanisms has expanded the possibilities of engineering slow sand filter performance. Herein, we explore the role of naturally occurring aluminum as a ripening agent for slow sand filters and the possibility of using a low dose of alum to improve filter performance or to ripen slow sand filters.

  16. Augmenting Sand Simulation Environments through Subdivision and Particle Refinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clothier, M.; Bailey, M.

    2012-12-01

    Recent advances in computer graphics and parallel processing hardware have provided disciplines with new methods to evaluate and visualize data. These advances have proven useful for earth and planetary scientists as many researchers are using this hardware to process large amounts of data for analysis. As such, this has provided opportunities for collaboration between computer graphics and the earth sciences. Through collaboration with the Oregon Space Grant and IGERT Ecosystem Informatics programs, we are investigating techniques for simulating the behavior of sand. We are also collaborating with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) DARTS Lab to exchange ideas and gain feedback on our research. The DARTS Lab specializes in simulation of planetary vehicles, such as the Mars rovers. Their simulations utilize a virtual "sand box" to test how a planetary vehicle responds to different environments. Our research builds upon this idea to create a sand simulation framework so that planetary environments, such as the harsh, sandy regions on Mars, are more fully realized. More specifically, we are focusing our research on the interaction between a planetary vehicle, such as a rover, and the sand beneath it, providing further insight into its performance. Unfortunately, this can be a computationally complex problem, especially if trying to represent the enormous quantities of sand particles interacting with each other. However, through the use of high-performance computing, we have developed a technique to subdivide areas of actively participating sand regions across a large landscape. Similar to a Level of Detail (LOD) technique, we only subdivide regions of a landscape where sand particles are actively participating with another object. While the sand is within this subdivision window and moves closer to the surface of the interacting object, the sand region subdivides into smaller regions until individual sand particles are left at the surface. As an example, let's say

  17. An outbreak of sand impaction in postpartum dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Melendez, Pedro; Krueger, Traci; Benzaquen, Mauricio; Risco, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-two cases of indigestion occurred in a 650-cow herd. Five cows had severe sand abomasal impaction, diagnosed by laparotomy. The pH of prepartum cows’ urine was < 6.0 and of sand 8.0. Feed showed a dietary cation-anion difference ≤ −110 mEq/kg. After feeding management corrections, no more cases were diagnosed. PMID:17987969

  18. Microtox(TM) characterization of foundry sand residuals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bastian, K.C.; Alleman, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    Although foundry residuals, consisting mostly of waste Sands, represent a potentially attractive, high-volume resource for beneficial reuse applications (e.g. highway embankment construction), prospective end users are understandably concerned about unforeseen liabilities stemming from the use of these residuals. This paper, therefore, focuses on the innovative use of a microbial bioassay as a means of developing a characterization of environmental suitability extending beyond the analytical coverage already provided by mandated chemical-specific tests (i.e., TCLP, etc.). Microtox(TM) bioassays were conducted on leachates derived from residuals obtained at a wide range of facilities, including: 11 gray and ductile iron foundries plus one each steel and aluminum foundries. In addition, virgin sand samples were used to establish a relative 'natural' benchmark against which the waste foundry sands could then be compared in terms of their apparent quality. These bioassay tests were able to effectively 'fingerprint' those residuals whose bioassay behavior was comparable to that of virgin materials. In fact, the majority of gray and ductile iron foundry residuals tested during this reported study elicited Microtox(TM) response levels which fell within or below the virgin sand response range, consequently providing another quantifiable layer of Support for this industry's claim that their sands are 'cleaner than dirt.' However, negative Microtox(TM) responses beyond that of the virgin sands were observed with a number of foundry samples (i.e. four of the 11 gray or ductile iron sands plus both non-iron sands). Therefore, the latter results would suggest that these latter residuals be excluded from beneficial reuse for the immediate future, at least until the cause and nature of this negative response has been further identified.

  19. Sand dunes on the central Delmarva Peninsula, Maryland and Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Denny, Charles Storrow; Owens, James Patrick

    1979-01-01

    Inconspicuous ancient sand dunes are present in parts of the central Delmarva Peninsula, Maryland and Delaware. Many dunes are roughly V-shaped, built by northwest winds, especially on the east sides of some of the large rivers. On the uplands, the form and spacing of the dunes are variable. A surficial blanket composed mainly of medium and fine-grained sand-the Parsonsburg Sand-forms both the ancient dunes and the broad plains between the dunes. The sand that forms the dunes is massive and intensely burrowed in the upper part; traces of horizontal or slightly inclined bedding appear near the base. Quartz is the dominant mineral constituent of the sand. Microline is abundant in the very fine to fine sand fraction. The heavy-mineral assemblages (high zircon, tourmaline, rutile) are more mature than in most of the possible source rocks. The most abundant minerals in the clay-sized fraction are dioctahedral vermiculite, kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite, and gibbsite. The first four minerals are common in deposits of late Wisconsin and Holocene age. The gibbsite may be detrital, coming from weathered rocks of Tertiary age. The soil profile in the dune sand is weakly to moderately developed. At or near the base of the Parsonsburg Sand are peaty beds that range in age from about 30,000 to about 13,000 radiocarbon years B.P. Microfloral assemblages in the peaty beds suggest that the dunes on the uplands formed in a spruce parkland during the late Wisconsin glacial maximum. The river dunes may also be of late Wisconsin age, but could be Holocene.

  20. Which processes form the volcanic sands on Mars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grégoire, M.; Baratoux, D.; Mangold, N.; Arnalds, O.; Platvoet, B.; Bardinzeff, J.; Pinet, P.

    2007-12-01

    Volcanic sands are common at the surface of Mars. They are usually of basaltic composition. Occurrence of sands, mostly recognized as dark dune fields include numerous impact craters in the southern hemisphere [1], several volcanic provinces such as Cerberus and Syrtis Major[2], several impact craters in the northern hemisphere, the large basins (Hellas and Argyre), Valles Marineris, and the poles [3]. In most cases, the sands are of basaltic composition [2,4], at the exception of the polar dunes which are made of sulfates [3]. It is interesting to note that dunes have been found on the Hesperian volcanic plateau of Systis Major, while they are not reported on Tyrrhena Terra, a volcanic province similar in age and morphology to Syrtis. It seems thus that the formation of sand from volcanic material is not systematic and thus requires particular conditions. These different situations which will be presented raise the following questions. When did these volcanic sands form in the Martian history? Did they result from a long-standing and slow process operating in the present cold conditions or did they result from several episodes associated for instant to climate changes? We review several mechanisms which could account for the formation of volcanic sand on Mars from the volcanic material. In particular, we focus on the role of cold-climate processes from an analysis of terrestrial analogs in Iceland. In this case, the advance and retreat of glaciers over a recent erupted shield volcano associated with the strong catabatic winds have resulted in the rapid formation (less than few thousands years) of large volumes of sands. [1] Fenton, L. K. (2005), Potential sand sources for the dune fields in Noachis Terra, Mars, J. Geophys. Res. 110, E11004, doi :10.1029/2005JE002436. [2] Vaucher et. al, in revision for Icarus [3] Langevin et. al, (2005), Science, 307, 1584-1586 [4] Poulet F., Mangold N. and Erard S. (2003), Astron. & Astrophys. 412, L19-L23.

  1. Creating and maintaining a gas cap in tar sands formations

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael; Dinkoruk, Deniz Sumnu; Wellington, Scott Lee

    2010-03-16

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are disclosed herein. Methods for treating a tar sands formation may include providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the formation. Pressure may be allowed to increase in an upper portion of the formation to provide a gas cap in the upper portion. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from a lower portion of the formation.

  2. Frac Sand Mines Are Preferentially Sited in Unzoned Rural Areas.

    PubMed

    Locke, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Shifting markets can cause unexpected, stochastic changes in rural landscapes that may take local communities by surprise. Preferential siting of new industrial facilities in poor areas or in areas with few regulatory restrictions can have implications for environmental sustainability, human health, and social justice. This study focuses on frac sand mining-the mining of high-quality silica sand used in hydraulic fracturing processes for gas and oil extraction. Frac sand mining gained prominence in the 2000s in the upper midwestern United States where nonmetallic mining is regulated primarily by local zoning. I asked whether frac sand mines were more commonly sited in rural townships without formal zoning regulations or planning processes than in those that undertook zoning and planning before the frac sand boom. I also asked if mine prevalence was correlated with socioeconomic differences across townships. After creating a probability surface to map areas most suitable for frac sand mine occurrence, I developed neutral landscape models from which to compare actual mine distributions in zoned and unzoned areas at three different spatial extents. Mines were significantly clustered in unzoned jurisdictions at the statewide level and in 7 of the 8 counties with at least three frac sand mines and some unzoned land. Subsequent regression analyses showed mine prevalence to be uncorrelated with land value, tax rate, or per capita income, but correlated with remoteness and zoning. The predicted mine count in unzoned townships was over two times higher than that in zoned townships. However, the county with the most mines by far was under a county zoning ordinance, perhaps indicating industry preferences for locations with clear, homogenous rules over patchwork regulation. Rural communities can use the case of frac sand mining as motivation to discuss and plan for sudden land-use predicaments, rather than wait to grapple with unfamiliar legal processes during a period of

  3. Evaluation of Augmented REality Sandtable (ARES) during Sand Table Construction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2018-01-01

    ARL-TR-8278 ● JAN 2018 US Army Research Laboratory Evaluation of Augmented REality Sandtable ( ARES ) during Sand Table...NOTICES Disclaimers The findings in this report are not to be construed as an official Department of the Army position unless so designated by...Evaluation of Augmented REality Sandtable ( ARES ) during Sand Table Construction by Kelly S Hale and Jennifer M Riley Design Interactive

  4. Stand-yield prediction for managed Ocala sand pine

    Treesearch

    D.L. Rockwood; B. Yang; K.W. Outcalt

    1997-01-01

    Sand pine is a very important species in Florida, producing significant quantities of fiber. The purpose of this study was to develop the site index and stand-level growth and yield equations managers need to make informed decisions. Data were collected from 35 seeded plots of Ocala sand pine covering a range of site indexes, ages, and densities in 1982-83. These plots...

  5. White Sands Missile Range Overview & Introduction: Test Capabilities Briefing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-07

    PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Army Test and Evaluation Command (ATEC),White Sands Missile Range,White Sands Missile Range,NM,88002...5000 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 11. SPONSOR...solar radiation, icing, salt fog, etc. • Instrumented for system performance / diagnostics  Climatics testing capabilities • Fixed and mobile test

  6. Mechanical and Physical Properties of ASTM C33 Sand

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    ERDC/GSL TR-08-2 7 Grain-size Distribution (1) (ASTM D 422) 1 test run on total sand sample Proctor Density Curves (2) (ASTM D 698 and D... Proctor (Figure 4). Because of the noncohesive nature of the SP material, a series of relative density tests measuring both minimum and maximum... density tests were conducted with moisture added to the sand. A summary of the minimum and maximum densities is given in Table 2. During Proctor

  7. Sand-calcite crystals from Garfield County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargent, Kenneth A.; Zeller, H.D.

    1984-01-01

    Sand-calcite crystals are found in the Morrison Formation of Jurassic age in south-central Garfield County, Utah. The outcrop area is less than 1 acre, yet the locality contains many fine specimens of single, double, and complex crystals in good hexagonal form. This is the first known occurrence of sand-calcite crystals in rocks of Jurassic age and is the first reported occurrence in Utah.

  8. BLAISDELL SLOW SAND FILTER WASHING MACHINE. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLAISDELL SLOW SAND FILTER WASHING MACHINE. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH. THE OUTSIDE FACE OF THE NORTH WALL OF SETTLING RESERVOIR NO. 3 IS SEEN AT THE RIGHT. THE SETTLING RESERVOIR IS ELEVATED ABOVE THE FILTERING RESERVOIR TO ACHIEVE GRAVITY WATER FLOW FROM THE SETTLING RESERVOIR INTO THE FILTERING RESERVOIR. - Yuma Main Street Water Treatment Plant, Blaisdell Slow Sand Filter Washing Machine, Jones Street at foot of Main Street, Yuma, Yuma County, AZ

  9. Frac Sand Mines Are Preferentially Sited in Unzoned Rural Areas

    PubMed Central

    Locke, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Shifting markets can cause unexpected, stochastic changes in rural landscapes that may take local communities by surprise. Preferential siting of new industrial facilities in poor areas or in areas with few regulatory restrictions can have implications for environmental sustainability, human health, and social justice. This study focuses on frac sand mining—the mining of high-quality silica sand used in hydraulic fracturing processes for gas and oil extraction. Frac sand mining gained prominence in the 2000s in the upper midwestern United States where nonmetallic mining is regulated primarily by local zoning. I asked whether frac sand mines were more commonly sited in rural townships without formal zoning regulations or planning processes than in those that undertook zoning and planning before the frac sand boom. I also asked if mine prevalence was correlated with socioeconomic differences across townships. After creating a probability surface to map areas most suitable for frac sand mine occurrence, I developed neutral landscape models from which to compare actual mine distributions in zoned and unzoned areas at three different spatial extents. Mines were significantly clustered in unzoned jurisdictions at the statewide level and in 7 of the 8 counties with at least three frac sand mines and some unzoned land. Subsequent regression analyses showed mine prevalence to be uncorrelated with land value, tax rate, or per capita income, but correlated with remoteness and zoning. The predicted mine count in unzoned townships was over two times higher than that in zoned townships. However, the county with the most mines by far was under a county zoning ordinance, perhaps indicating industry preferences for locations with clear, homogenous rules over patchwork regulation. Rural communities can use the case of frac sand mining as motivation to discuss and plan for sudden land-use predicaments, rather than wait to grapple with unfamiliar legal processes during a period of

  10. Experiment Evaluation of Bifurcation in Sands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alshibi, Khalid A.; Sture, Stein

    2000-01-01

    The basic principles of bifurcation analysis have been established by several investigators, however several issues remain unresolved, specifically how do stress level, grain size distribution, and boundary conditions affect general bifurcation phenomena in pressure sensitive and dilatant materials. General geometrical and kinematics conditions for moving surfaces of discontinuity was derived and applied to problems of instability of solids. In 1962, the theoretical framework of bifurcation by studying the acceleration waves in elasto-plastic (J2) solids were presented. Bifurcation analysis for more specific forms of constitutive behavior was examined by studying localization in pressure-sensitive, dilatant materials, however, analyses were restricted to plane deformation states only. Bifurcation analyses were presented and applied to predict shear band formations in sand under plane strain condition. The properties of discontinuous bifurcation solutions for elastic-plastic solids under axisymmetric and plane strain loading conditions were studied. The study focused on theory, but also references and comparisons to experiments were made. The current paper includes a presentation of a summary of bifurcation analyses for biaxial and triaxial (axisymmetric) loading conditions. The Coulomb model is implemented using incremental piecewise scheme to predict the constitutive relations and shear band inclination angles. Then, a comprehensive evaluation of bifurcation phenomena is presented based on data from triaxial experiments performed under microgravity conditions aboard the Space Shuttle under very low effective confining pressure (0.05 to 1.30 kPa), in which very high peak friction angles (47 to 75 degrees) and dilatancy angles (30 to 31 degrees) were measured. The evaluation will be extended to include biaxial experiments performed on the same material under low (10 kPa) and moderate (100 kPa) confining pressures. A comparison between the behavior under biaxial and

  11. Cleavage in conical sand dollar eggs.

    PubMed

    Rappaport, R; Rappaport, B N

    1994-07-01

    Previous experiments have shown that the mitotic apparatus and the surface can interact and produce functional furrows in various unusual geometrical circumstances. The consistent development of the furrow in the plane equidistant from the aster centers has led to conjecture about the need for a special structural configuration of the subsurface in the future cleavage plane. In most experiments involving altered cell geometry, the relation between each aster and nearby surface was symmetrical, and the effect of that symmetry upon the position and orientation of the cleavage mechanism in the cortex has not been systematically analyzed. The normal symmetry of sand dollar eggs can be changed by reshaping them into cones. When the cone and mitotic axes are parallel, the aster center closer to the vertex is also closer to the nearby surface, and the cleavage plane develops on the vertex side of the midpoint between the asters. A mitotic apparatus oriented perpendicular to the cone axis produces in the base of the cone a normal unilateral furrow that advances toward the vertex, and a second contractile band that isolates the vertex region. This event only occurs when the surface is conical and the mitotic apparatus is perpendicular to the cone axis. Furrow formation is not restricted to the plane of the metaphase plate or the midpoint between the aster centers. The orientation of mitotic apparatus-produced contractile bands is not limited to the circumstances in normal cytokinesis, but may vary according to surface contour. These results confirm predictions of the Harris and Gewalt model of contractile ring induction.

  12. Learning Design at White Sands Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grotewiel, Shane

    2010-01-01

    During the Fall of 2010, I spent my time at NASA White Sands Test Facility in Las Cruces, NM as an Undergraduate Student Research Program (USRP) Intern. During that time, I was given three projects to work on: Large Altitude Simulation System (LASS) basket strainer, log books, and the design of a case for touch screen monitors used for simulations. I spent most of my time on the LASS basket strainer. The LASS system has a water feed line with a basket strainer that filters out rust. In 2009, there were three misfires which cost approximately $27,000 and about 8% of the allotted time. The strainer was getting a large change in pressure that would result in a shutdown of the system. I have designed a new basket that will eliminate the large pressure change and it can be used with the old basket strainer housing. The LASS system has three steam generators (modules). Documents pertaining to these modules are stored electronically, and the majority of the documents are not able to be searched with keywords, so they have to be gone through one by one. I have come up with an idea on how to organize these files so that the Propulsion Department may efficiently search through the documents needed. Propulsion also has a LASS simulator that incorporates two touch screen monitors. Currently these monitors are in six foot by two foot metal cabinet on wheels. During simulation these monitors are used in the block house and need to be taken out of the block house when not in use. I have designed different options for hand held cases for storing and transporting the monitors in and out of the block house. The three projects previously mentioned demonstrate my contributions to the Propulsion Department and have taught me real world experience that is essential in becoming a productive engineer.

  13. Geotechnical properties of cemented sands in steep slopes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, B.D.; Sitar, N.

    2009-01-01

    An investigation into the geotechnical properties specific to assessing the stability of weakly and moderately cemented sand cliffs is presented. A case study from eroding coastal cliffs located in central California provides both the data and impetus for this study. Herein, weakly cemented sand is defined as having an unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of less than 100 kPa, and moderately cemented sand is defined as having UCS between 100 and 400 kPa. Testing shows that both materials fail in a brittle fashion and can be modeled effectively using linear Mohr-Coulomb strength parameters, although for weakly cemented sands, curvature of the failure envelope is more evident with decreasing friction and increasing cohesion at higher confinement. Triaxial tests performed to simulate the evolving stress state of an eroding cliff, using a reduction in confinement-type stress path, result in an order of magnitude decrease in strain at failure and a more brittle response. Tests aimed at examining the influence of wetting on steep slopes show that a 60% decrease in UCS, a 50% drop in cohesion, and 80% decrease in the tensile strength occurs in moderately cemented sand upon introduction to water. In weakly cemented sands, all compressive, cohesive, and tensile strength is lost upon wetting and saturation. The results indicate that particular attention must be given to the relative level of cementation, the effects of groundwater or surficial seepage, and the small-scale strain response when performing geotechnical slope stability analyses on these materials. ?? 2009 ASCE.

  14. Sand fences in the coastal zone: intended and unintended effects.

    PubMed

    Grafals-Soto, Rosana; Nordstrom, Karl

    2009-09-01

    Sand-trapping fences modify the character of the coastal landscape and change its spatial structure, image, and meaning. This paper examines the relationship between these changes and fence usage at the municipal level, where most decisions about fence deployment are made. Use of fences in 29 municipalities on the developed coast of New Jersey is examined over a 6-year period. Interviews with municipal officers indicate that wooden slat sand-trapping fences are used primarily to build dunes to provide protection against wave uprush and flooding, but they are also used to control pedestrian traffic and demarcate territory. These uses result in changes in landforms and habitats. An aerial video inventory of fences taken in 2002 indicates that 82% of the shoreline had fences and 72% had dunes. Single and double straight fence rows are the most commonly used. Fences are often built to accomplish a specific primary purpose, but they can cause many different and often unanticipated changes to the landscape. The effects of a sand fence change through time as the initial structure traps sand, creates a dune that is colonized by vegetation, and becomes integrated into the environment by increasing topographic variability and aesthetic and habitat value. Sand fences can be made more compatible with natural processes by not placing them in locations where sources of wind blown sand are restricted or in unnatural shore perpendicular orientations. Symbolic fences are less expensive, are easy to replace when damaged, are less visually intrusive, and can be used for controlling pedestrian access.

  15. [Suffocation death by occlusion of the airways with sand].

    PubMed

    Maxeiner, H; Schneider, V

    1985-01-01

    Eleven cases are reported in which death occurred because of suffocation as a result of occlusion of the respiratory tract by sand (without thoracic compression: 3 cases) or being buried alive (8 cases). Two tables demonstrate the findings and circumstances in the events. Three cases are described in detail. A 22-year-old woman was manhandled by blows and kicks to the head and neck. She became unconscious and her head and neck were covered by a layer of sand so that she suffocated. A 42-year-old man was smothered, while unconscious, in a prone position with his face in the sand, after hard blows to the head by two culprits. A 17-year-old girl finally died by chocking. Previously the culprit had pressed her face into the ground, so that she aspirated particles of soil. The question of vital reactions during aspiration of sand was investigated by microscopic examination of the content of the air passage and by destroying parts of the lungs by sulphuric acid. Minimal aspiration of sand occurred in all cases. Although the postmortal remains were left in the ground, there was no postmortem penetration of sand into the air passage. Histological examinations were carried out to support the diagnosis of violent suffocation. In some cases, there were remarkable findings (mobilization of alveolar cells, hepatocelullar hydropic degeneration), but there were no typical or unanimous findings that pertained to all cases.

  16. Electrochemical and Dry Sand Impact Erosion Studies on Carbon Steel

    PubMed Central

    Naz, M. Y.; Ismail, N. I.; Sulaiman, S. A.; Shukrullah, S.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the dry and aqueous erosion of mild steel using electrochemical and dry sand impact techniques. In dry sand impact experiments, mild steel was eroded with 45 μm and 150 μm sand particles. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and micro-hardness techniques were used to elaborate the surface morphology of the eroded samples. The results revealed significant change in morphology of the eroded samples. In-depth analysis showed that although the metal erosion due to larger particles was significantly higher, the fines also notably damaged the metal surface. The surface damages were appreciably reduced with decrease in impact angle of the accelerated particles. The maximum damages were observed at an impact angle of 90°. The hardness of the samples treated with 45 μm and 150 μm sand remained in the range of 88.34 to 102.31 VHN and 87.7 to 97.55 VHN, respectively. In electrochemical experiments, a triple electrode probe was added into the metal treatment process. The linear polarization resistance (LPR) measurements were performed in slurries having 5% (by weight) of sand particles. LPR of the samples treated with 45 μm and 150 μm sand slurries was calculated about 949 Ω.cm2 and 809 Ω.cm2, respectively. PMID:26561231

  17. Constitutive Soil Properties for Mason Sand and Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Michael A.; Chitty, Daniel E.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate soil models are required for numerical simulations of land landings for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). This report provides constitutive material models for two soil conditions at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and four conditions of Mason Sand. The Mason Sand is the test sand for LaRC s drop tests and swing tests of the Orion. The soil models are based on mechanical and compressive behavior observed during geotechnical laboratory testing of remolded soil samples. The test specimens were reconstituted to measured in situ density and moisture content. Tests included: triaxial compression, hydrostatic compression, and uniaxial strain. A fit to the triaxial test results defines the strength envelope. Hydrostatic and uniaxial tests define the compressibility. The constitutive properties are presented in the format of LSDYNA Material Model 5: Soil and Foam. However, the laboratory test data provided can be used to construct other material models. The soil models are intended to be specific to the soil conditions they were tested at. The two KSC models represent two conditions at KSC: low density dry sand and high density in-situ moisture sand. The Mason Sand model was tested at four conditions which encompass measured conditions at LaRC s drop test site.

  18. Electrochemical and Dry Sand Impact Erosion Studies on Carbon Steel.

    PubMed

    Naz, M Y; Ismail, N I; Sulaiman, S A; Shukrullah, S

    2015-11-12

    This study investigated the dry and aqueous erosion of mild steel using electrochemical and dry sand impact techniques. In dry sand impact experiments, mild steel was eroded with 45 μm and 150 μm sand particles. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and micro-hardness techniques were used to elaborate the surface morphology of the eroded samples. The results revealed significant change in morphology of the eroded samples. In-depth analysis showed that although the metal erosion due to larger particles was significantly higher, the fines also notably damaged the metal surface. The surface damages were appreciably reduced with decrease in impact angle of the accelerated particles. The maximum damages were observed at an impact angle of 90°. The hardness of the samples treated with 45 μm and 150 μm sand remained in the range of 88.34 to 102.31 VHN and 87.7 to 97.55 VHN, respectively. In electrochemical experiments, a triple electrode probe was added into the metal treatment process. The linear polarization resistance (LPR) measurements were performed in slurries having 5% (by weight) of sand particles. LPR of the samples treated with 45 μm and 150 μm sand slurries was calculated about 949 Ω.cm(2) and 809 Ω.cm(2), respectively.

  19. Seismotectonic implications of sand blows in the southern Mississippi Embayment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, R.T.; Hill, A.A.; Larsen, D.; Holzer, T.; Forman, S.L.; Noce, T.; Gardner, C.; Morat, J.

    2007-01-01

    We explore seismically-induced sand blows from the southern Mississippi Embayment and their implications in resolving the question of near or distal epicentral source region. This was accomplished using aerial photography, field excavations, and cone penetration tests. Our analysis shows that three sand blow fields exhibit a distinct chronology of strong ground motion for the southern embayment: (1) The Ashley County, Arkansas sand blow field, near the Arkansas/Louisiana state border, experienced four Holocene sand venting episodes; (2) to the north, the Desha County field experienced at least three episodes of liquefaction; and (3) the Lincoln-Jefferson Counties field experienced at least one episode. Cone penetration tests (CPT) conducted in and between the sand blow fields suggest that the fields may not be distal liquefaction associated with New Madrid seismic zone earthquakes but rather are likely associated with strong earthquakes on local faults. This conclusion is consistent with the differences in timing of the southern embayment sand venting episodes and those in the New Madrid seismic zone. These results suggest that active tectonism and strong seismicity in intraplate North America may not be localized at isolated weak spots, but rather widespread on fault systems that are favorably oriented for slip in the contemporary stress field. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Rare Earth Elements in Alberta Oil Sand Process Streams

    DOE PAGES

    Roth, Elliot; Bank, Tracy; Howard, Bret; ...

    2017-04-05

    The concentrations of rare earth elements in Alberta, Canada oil sands and six oil sand waste streams were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP–MS). The results indicate that the rare earth elements (REEs) are largely concentrated in the tailings solvent recovery unit (TSRU) sample compared to the oil sand itself. The concentration of lanthanide elements is ~1100 mg/kg (1100 ppm or 0.11 weight %), which represents a >20× increase in the concentration compared to the oil sand itself and a >7× increase compared to the North American Shale Composite (NASC). The process water, which is used to extractmore » the oil from oil sands, and the water fraction associated with the different waste streams had very low concentrations of REEs that were near or below the detection limits of the instrument, with the highest total concentration of REEs in the water fraction being less than 10 μg/L (ppb). Size and density separations were completed, and the REEs and other potentially interesting and valuable metals, such as Ti and Zr, were concentrated in different fractions. These results give insights into the possibility of recovering REEs from waste streams generated from oil sand processing.« less

  1. Rare Earth Elements in Alberta Oil Sand Process Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, Elliot; Bank, Tracy; Howard, Bret

    The concentrations of rare earth elements in Alberta, Canada oil sands and six oil sand waste streams were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP–MS). The results indicate that the rare earth elements (REEs) are largely concentrated in the tailings solvent recovery unit (TSRU) sample compared to the oil sand itself. The concentration of lanthanide elements is ~1100 mg/kg (1100 ppm or 0.11 weight %), which represents a >20× increase in the concentration compared to the oil sand itself and a >7× increase compared to the North American Shale Composite (NASC). The process water, which is used to extractmore » the oil from oil sands, and the water fraction associated with the different waste streams had very low concentrations of REEs that were near or below the detection limits of the instrument, with the highest total concentration of REEs in the water fraction being less than 10 μg/L (ppb). Size and density separations were completed, and the REEs and other potentially interesting and valuable metals, such as Ti and Zr, were concentrated in different fractions. These results give insights into the possibility of recovering REEs from waste streams generated from oil sand processing.« less

  2. High temperature thermal energy storage in steel and sand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. H.

    1979-01-01

    The technical and economic potential for high temperature (343 C, 650 F) thermal energy storage in hollow steel ingots, pipes embedded in concrete, and for pipes buried in sand was evaluated. Because it was determined that concrete would separate from pipes due to thermal stresses, concrete was replaced by sand, which is free from thermal stresses. Variations of the steel ingot concept were not cost effective compared to the sand-pipe approach, therefore, the sand-pipe thermal storage unit (TSU) was evaluated in depth to assess the approximate tube spacing requirements consistent with different system performance characteristics and also attendant system costs. For large TSUs which do not require fast response times, the sand-pipe approach offers attractive possibilities. A pipe diameter about 9 cm (3.5 in) and pipe spacing of approximately 25 cm (10 in), with sand filling the interspaces, appears appropriate. Such a TSU system designed for 8 hours charge/discharge cycle has an energy unit storage cost (CE) of $2.63/kWhr-t and a power unit storage cost (Cp) of $42/kW-t (in 1977 dollars).

  3. Use of an integrated approach to characterize the physicochemical properties of foundry green sands

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A fresh green sand, spent green sand, and a weathered spent green sand from a landfill were analyzed using diffractometry, electron microscopy, granulometry, spectrometry, and thermogravimetry. Our objective was to understand how the physicochemical properties of the green sands change from their o...

  4. Evaluation of an Innovative Sand Filter for Small System Drinking Water Treatment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Results of evaluation of an innovative sand filter that uses the concepts of both slow and rapid sand filtration are presented in this article. The system uses a low-cost “Drum Sand Filter” (DSF) that consists of a 55-gallon drum filled with layers of sand of varying size. A low-...

  5. Prediction of sand transport over immobile gravel from supply limited to capacity conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The prediction of the transport of sand in armored gravel reaches downstream of dams is complicated by variable bed conditions ranging from sand transported through gravel to sand in transport over buried gravel. Knowledge of the rate of sand transport in these conditions, however, is necessary for...

  6. Insights into the sand fly saliva: Blood-feeding and immune interactions between sand flies, hosts, and Leishmania.

    PubMed

    Lestinova, Tereza; Rohousova, Iva; Sima, Michal; de Oliveira, Camila I; Volf, Petr

    2017-07-01

    Leishmaniases are parasitic diseases present worldwide that are transmitted to the vertebrate host by the bite of an infected sand fly during a blood feeding. Phlebotomine sand flies inoculate into the mammalian host Leishmania parasites embedded in promastigote secretory gel (PSG) with saliva, which is composed of a diverse group of molecules with pharmacological and immunomodulatory properties. In this review, we focus on 3 main aspects of sand fly salivary molecules: (1) structure and composition of salivary glands, including the properties of salivary molecules related to hemostasis and blood feeding, (2) immunomodulatory properties of salivary molecules and the diverse impacts of these molecules on leishmaniasis, ranging from disease exacerbation to vaccine development, and (3) use of salivary molecules for field applications, including monitoring host exposure to sand flies and the risk of Leishmania transmission. Studies showed interesting differences between salivary proteins of Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia species, however, no data were ever published on salivary proteins of Sergentomyia species. In the last 15 years, numerous studies have characterized sand fly salivary proteins and, in parallel, have addressed the impact of such molecules on the biology of the host-sand fly-parasite interaction. The results obtained shall pave the way for the development of field-application tools that could contribute to the management of leishmaniasis in endemic areas.

  7. Simulating Sand Behavior through Terrain Subdivision and Particle Refinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clothier, M.

    2013-12-01

    Advances in computer graphics, GPUs, and parallel processing hardware have provided researchers with new methods to visualize scientific data. In fact, these advances have spurred new research opportunities between computer graphics and other disciplines, such as Earth sciences. Through collaboration, Earth and planetary scientists have benefited by using these advances in hardware technology to process large amounts of data for visualization and analysis. At Oregon State University, we are collaborating with the Oregon Space Grant and IGERT Ecosystem Informatics programs to investigate techniques for simulating the behavior of sand. In addition, we have also been collaborating with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's DARTS Lab to exchange ideas on our research. The DARTS Lab specializes in the simulation of planetary vehicles, such as the Mars rovers. One aspect of their work is testing these vehicles in a virtual "sand box" to test their performance in different environments. Our research builds upon this idea to create a sand simulation framework to allow for more complex and diverse environments. As a basis for our framework, we have focused on planetary environments, such as the harsh, sandy regions on Mars. To evaluate our framework, we have used simulated planetary vehicles, such as a rover, to gain insight into the performance and interaction between the surface sand and the vehicle. Unfortunately, simulating the vast number of individual sand particles and their interaction with each other has been a computationally complex problem in the past. However, through the use of high-performance computing, we have developed a technique to subdivide physically active terrain regions across a large landscape. To achieve this, we only subdivide terrain regions where sand particles are actively participating with another object or force, such as a rover wheel. This is similar to a Level of Detail (LOD) technique, except that the density of subdivisions are determined by

  8. Method of tagging sand with ruthenium-103 and the resultant product

    DOEpatents

    Case, Forrest N.; McFarland, Clyde E.

    1976-01-01

    A procedure for tagging sand with a radioisotope for use in the study of sediment transport involves the precipitation of a metal radioisotope in the form of an iodide directly on the sand, followed by heating the sand to a temperature sufficient to effect a phase transformation of the sand and a decomposition of the metal iodide, leaving the metal firmly attached to the sand.

  9. Ecogeomorphology of Sand Dunes Shaped by Vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoar, H.

    2014-12-01

    Two dune types associated with vegetation are known: Parabolic and Vegetated Linear Dunes (VLDs), the latters are the dominant dune type in the world deserts. Parabolic dunes are formed in humid, sub-humid and semi-arid environments (rather than arid) where vegetation is nearby. VLDs are known today in semiarid and arid lands where the average yearly rainfall is ≥100 mm, enough to support sparse cover of vegetation. These two dune types are formed by unidirectional winds although they demonstrate a different form and have a distinct dynamics. Conceptual and mathematical models of dunes mobility and stability, based on three control parameters: wind power (DP), average annual precipitation (p), and the human impact parameter (μ) show that where human impact is negligible the effect of wind power (DP) on vegetative cover is substantial. The average yearly rainfall of 60-80 mm is the threshold of annual average rainfall for vegetation growth on dune sand. The model is shown to follow a hysteresis path, which explains the bistability of active and stabilized dunes under the same climatic conditions with respect to wind power. We have discerned formation of parabolic dunes from barchans and transverse dunes in the coastal plain of Israel where a decrease in human activity during the second half of the 20th century caused establishment of vegetation on the crest of the dunes, a process that changed the dynamics of these barchans and transverse dunes and led to a change in the shape of the windward slope from convex to concave. These dunes gradually became parabolic. It seems that VLDs in Australia or the Kalahari have always been vegetated to some degree, though the shrubs were sparser in colder periods when the aeolian erosion was sizeable. Those ancient conditions are characterized by higher wind power and lower rainfall that can reduce, but not completely destroy, the vegetation cover, leading to the formation of lee (shadow) dunes behind each shrub. Formation of

  10. Suspended sand transport in surf zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Nobuhisa; Zhao, Haoyu; Tega, Yukiko

    2005-12-01

    Three tests were conducted in a wave flume to investigate time-averaged suspended sediment transport processes under irregular breaking waves on equilibrium beaches consisting of fine sand. Free surface elevations were measured at ten locations for each test. Velocities and concentrations were measured in the vicinity of the bottom at 94 elevations along 17 vertical lines. The relations among the three turbulent velocity variances are found to be similar to those for the boundary layer flow. The vertical variation of the mean velocity, which causes offshore transport, is fitted by a parabolic profile fairly well. The vertical variation of the mean concentration ? is fitted by the exponential and power-form distributions equally well. The ratio between the concentration standard deviation σC and the mean ? varies little vertically. The correlation coefficient γUC between the horizontal velocity and concentration, which results in onshore transport, is of the order of 0.1 and decreases upward linearly. The offshore and onshore transport rates of suspended sediment are estimated and expressed in terms of the suspended sediment volume ? per unit area. A time-averaged numerical model is developed to predict ? as well as the mean and standard deviation of the free surface elevation and horizontal velocity. The bottom slope effect on the wave energy dissipation rate DB due to wave breaking is included in the model. The computation can be made well above the still water shoreline with no numerical difficulty. Reflected waves from the shoreline are estimated from the wave energy flux remaining at the shoreline. The numerical model is in agreement with the statistical data except that the undertow current is difficult to predict accurately. The measured turbulent velocities are found to be more related to the turbulent velocity estimated from the energy dissipation rate Df due to bottom friction. The suspended sediment volume ? expressed in terms of DB and Df can be

  11. Gravel Mobility in a High Sand Content Riverbed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haschenburger, J. K.

    2017-12-01

    In sand-gravel channels, sand may modify gravel transport by changing conditions of entrainment and promoting longer displacements or gravel may inhibit sand transport if concentrated into distinct deposits, which restrict sand supply with consequences for migrating bedform size or form. This study reports on gravel mobility in the lower San Antonio River, Texas, where gravel content in the bed material ranges from about 1% to more than 20%. Sediment transport observations were collected at three U.S. Geological Survey gauging stations by deploying a Helley-Smith sampler with a 0.2 mm mesh bag from which transport rates and mobile grain sizes were determined. The flow rates sampled translate into an annual exceedance expectation from 0.2% to 98%. Gravel transport rates are generally two orders of magnitude smaller than the rates of sand transport. However, the finest gravels are transported at rates on the same order of magnitude as the coarsest sands. At all sites, the 2 and 2.8 mm fractions are transported at the lowest flow rate sampled, suggesting mobility for at least 38% to as much as 98% of the year. Fractions as large as 8 mm are mobilized at flow rates that are expected between 25% and 53% of the year. The largest fractions captured in the sampling (16 to 32 mm) require flows closer to bankfull conditions that occur no more than 0.8% of the year. Results document that some gravel sizes can be frequently transported in low gradient riverbeds with high sand content.

  12. Numerical simulation of wind-sand movement in the reversed flow region of a sand dune with a bridge built downstream.

    PubMed

    He, Wei; Huang, Ning; Xu, Bin; Wang, Wenbo

    2018-04-23

    A bridge built inside the reversed flow region of a sand dune will change the characteristics of wind-sand movement in this region. The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulation and discrete particle tracing are used to simulate the wind-sand movement around a sand dune with a bridge built inside the reversed region. Three cases with different bridge positions are studied. The results show that 1) compared with the isolated dune case, a tall bridge built at the leeward toe leads to an increase in the deposition rate on the leeward slope and a longer reversed flow region downstream of the sand dune; meanwhile, the high speed of crosswind on the bridge indicates that some measures should be taken to protect trains from strong crosswind; 2) a low bridge at the leeward toe has little effect on the sand deposition and reversed flow region of the dune; however, low sand transport rate and crosswind speed on the bridge show that anti-crosswind/sand measures should be taken according to the actual situation and 3) a low bridge on the leeward slope has little effect on the length of reversed flow region, however, high crosswind speed and sand flux on the bridge reveal the need of anti-crosswind/sand measures on the bridge. Moreover, the bridges in the reversed flow region increase the sand flux near the leeward crest; as a result, the moving patterns of the sand dune are changed.

  13. Potential of iron sand from Betaf beach, Sarmi regency and river sand from Doyo, Jayapura regency, Papua as basic materials of mortar as nuclear radiation shielding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haryati, E.; Dahlan, K.

    2018-03-01

    According to the SNI, the type of concrete for use as nuclear radiation shielding is concrete or mortar that contains hematite, ilmenite, magnetite, barite, or ferrophosphorus synthesis. This study is focused on the characterization of iron sand from and river sand from Papua. The purpose of this research was to determine the specific content of gravity and minerals in iron sand and river sand from Papua. The specific gravities of the sands were measured by manual experiment in a laboratory, while their mineral content were calculated using XRF and SEM - EDS method. The result showed that the specific gravities of iron sand and river sand were 2.66 and 2.50, respectively. The XRF method revealed that the iron sand contained 41.68% Silica, 33.84% Iron, and 24.48% other minerals. The river sand on the other hand contained 58.98% Silica (Si), 26.87% Iron (Fe), and 14.15% other minerals. The SEM -EDS method showed that the iron sand was composed of 39.99 % SiO2, 21.67 % FeO, and, and 38.34 % others; while the river sand contained 39.28% SiO2, 17.45 % FeO, and 43.27 % others. The result showed that both sands have the potentials to be isolated from hematite minerals or magnetite.

  14. Where Do the Sand-Dust Storms Come From?: Conversations with Specialists from the Exploring Sand-Dust Storms Scientific Expedition Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shixin, Liu

    2004-01-01

    This article relates the different views from specialists of the scientific expedition team for the exploration of the origin of sand-dust storms. They observed and examined on-site the ecological environment of places of origin for sand-dust storms, and tried to find out causes of sand-dust storm and what harm it can cause in the hope of…

  15. Coastal geology and recent origins for Sand Point, Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Timothy G.; Krantz, David E.; Castaneda, Mario R.; Loope, Walter L.; Jol, Harry M.; Goble, Ronald J.; Higley, Melinda C.; DeWald, Samantha; Hansen, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Sand Point is a small cuspate foreland located along the southeastern shore of Lake Superior within Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore near Munising, Michigan. Park managers’ concerns for the integrity of historic buildings at the northern periphery of the point during the rising lake levels in the mid-1980s greatly elevated the priority of research into the geomorphic history and age of Sand Point. To pursue this priority, we recovered sediment cores from four ponds on Sand Point, assessed subsurface stratigraphy onshore and offshore using geophysical techniques, and interpreted the chronology of events using radiocarbon and luminescence dating. Sand Point formed at the southwest edge of a subaqueous platform whose base is probably constructed of glacial diamicton and outwash. During the post-glacial Nipissing Transgression, the base was mantled with sand derived from erosion of adjacent sandstone cliffs. An aerial photograph time sequence, 1939–present, shows that the periphery of the platform has evolved considerably during historical time, infl uenced by transport of sediment into adjacent South Bay. Shallow seismic refl ections suggest slump blocks along the leading edge of the platform. Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) and shallow seismic refl ections to the northwest of the platform reveal large sand waves within a deep (12 m) channel produced by currents fl owing episodically to the northeast into Lake Superior. Ground-penetrating radar profi les show transport and deposition of sand across the upper surface of the platform. Basal radiocarbon dates from ponds between subaerial beach ridges range in age from 540 to 910 cal yr B.P., suggesting that Sand Point became emergent during the last ~1000 years, upon the separation of Lake Superior from Lakes Huron and Michigan. However, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages from the beach ridges were two to three times as old as the radiocarbon ages, implying that emergence of Sand Point may have begun

  16. Seismic stochastic inversion identify river channel sand body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Z.

    2015-12-01

    The technology of seismic inversion is regarded as one of the most important part of geophysics. By using the technology of seismic inversion and the theory of stochastic simulation, the concept of seismic stochastic inversion is proposed.Seismic stochastic inversion can play an significant role in the identifying river channel sand body. Accurate sand body description is a crucial parameter to measure oilfield development and oilfield stimulation during the middle and later periods. Besides, rational well spacing density is an essential condition for efficient production. Based on the geological knowledge of a certain oilfield, in line with the use of seismic stochastic inversion, the river channel sand body in the work area is identified. In this paper, firstly, the single river channel body from the composite river channel body is subdivided. Secondly, the distribution of river channel body is ascertained in order to ascertain the direction of rivers. Morever, the superimposed relationship among the sand body is analyzed, especially among the inter-well sand body. The last but not at the least, via the analysis of inversion results of first vacuating the wells and continuous infilling later, it is meeted the most needs well spacing density that can obtain the optimal inversion result. It would serve effective guidance for oilfield stimulation.

  17. Effects of sand fences on coastal dune vegetation distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grafals-Soto, Rosana

    2012-04-01

    Sand fences are important human adjustments modifying the morphology of developed shores. The effects of sand fences on sediment transport and deposition in their initial stages have been well studied, but little is known about the effect of deteriorated sand fences that have become partially buried low scale barriers within the dune, potentially benefiting vegetation growth by protecting it from onshore stress. Data on vegetation, topography and fence characteristics were gathered at three dune sites in Ocean City, New Jersey on September 2007 and March 2008 to evaluate the effect of fences within the dune on vegetation distribution. Variables include: distance landward of dune toe, degree of sheltering from onshore stressors, net change in surface elevation (deposition or erosion), vegetation diversity and density, presence of remnant fence, and distance landward of fence. Results for the studied environment reveal that 1) vegetation diversity or density does not increase near remnant fences because most remnants are lower than average vegetation height and can not provide shelter; but 2) vegetation distribution is related to topographic variables, such as degree of sheltering, that are most likely the result of sand accretion caused by fence deployment. Fence deployment that prioritizes the creation of topographically diverse dunes within a restricted space may increase the diversity and density of the vegetation, and the resilience and value of developed dunes. Managers should consider the benefits of using sand fences on appropriately wide beaches to create a protective dune that is also diverse, functional and better able to adapt to change.

  18. Sand effects on thermal barrier coatings for gas turbine engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walock, Michael; Barnett, Blake; Ghoshal, Anindya; Murugan, Muthuvel; Swab, Jeffrey; Pepi, Marc; Hopkins, David; Gazonas, George; Kerner, Kevin

    Accumulation and infiltration of molten/ semi-molten sand and subsequent formation of calcia-magnesia-alumina-silicate (CMAS) deposits in gas turbine engines continues to be a significant problem for aviation assets. This complex problem is compounded by the large variations in the composition, size, and topology of natural sands, gas generator turbine temperatures, thermal barrier coating properties, and the incoming particulate's momentum. In order to simplify the materials testing process, significant time and resources have been spent in the development of synthetic sand mixtures. However, there is debate whether these mixtures accurately mimic the damage observed in field-returned engines. With this study, we provide a direct comparison of CMAS deposits from both natural and synthetic sands. Using spray deposition techniques, 7% yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings are deposited onto bond-coated, Ni-superalloy discs. Each sample is coated with a sand slurry, either natural or synthetic, and exposed to a high temperature flame for 1 hour. Test samples are characterized before and after flame exposure. In addition, the test samples will be compared to field-returned equipment. This research was sponsored by the US Army Research Laboratory, and was accomplished under Cooperative Agreement # W911NF-12-2-0019.

  19. Complexity confers stability: Climate variability, vegetation response and sand transport on longitudinal sand dunes in Australia's deserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesse, Paul P.; Telfer, Matt W.; Farebrother, Will

    2017-04-01

    The relationship between antecedent precipitation, vegetation cover and sand movement on sand dunes in the Simpson and Strzelecki Deserts was investigated by repeated (up to four) surveys of dune crest plots (≈25 × 25 m) over a drought cycle (2002-2012) in both winter (low wind) and spring (high wind). Vegetation varied dramatically between surveys on vegetated and active dune crests. Indices of sand movement had significant correlations with vegetation cover: the depth of loose sand has a strong inverse relationship with crust (cyanobacterial and/or physical) while the area covered by ripples has a strong inverse relationship with the areal cover of vascular plants. However, the relationship between antecedent rainfall and vegetation cover was found to be complex. We tentatively identify two thresholds; (1) >10 mm of rainfall in the preceding 90 days leads to rapid and near total cover of crust and/or small plants <50 cm tall, and (2) >400 mm of rainfall in the preceding three years leads to higher cover of persistent and longer-lived plants >50 cm tall. These thresholds were used to predict days of low vegetation cover on dune crests. The combination of seasonality of predicted bare-crest days, potential sand drift and resultant sand drift direction explains observed patterns of sand drift on these dunes. The complex vegetation and highly variable rainfall regime confer meta-stability on the dunes through the range of responses to different intervals of antecedent rainfall and non-linear growth responses. This suggests that the geomorphic response of dunes to climate variation is complex and non-linear.

  20. Effect of substrate size on sympatric sand darter benthic habitat preferences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Patricia A.; Welsh, Stuart A.; Rizzo, Austin A.; Smith, Dustin M.

    2017-01-01

    The western sand darter, Ammocrypta clara, and the eastern sand darter, A. pellucida, are sand-dwelling fishes that have undergone range-wide population declines, presumably owing to habitat loss. Habitat use studies have been conducted for the eastern sand darter, but literature on the western sand darter remains sparse. To evaluate substrate selection and preference, western and eastern sand darters were collected from the Elk River, West Virginia, one of the few remaining rivers where both species occur sympatrically. In the laboratory, individuals were given the choice to bury into five equally available and randomly positioned substrates ranging from fine sand to granule gravel (0.12–4.0 mm). The western sand darter selected for coarse and medium sand, while the eastern sand darter was more of a generalist selecting for fine, medium, and coarse sand. Substrate selection was significantly different (p = 0.02) between species in the same environment, where the western sand darter preferred coarser substrate more often compared to the eastern sand darter. Habitat degradation is often a limiting factor for many species of rare freshwater fish, and results from this study suggest that western and eastern sand darters may respond differently to variations in benthic substrate composition.

  1. Sand moulds milling for one-of-a-kind pieces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, A.; Calleja, A.; Olvera, D.; Peñafiel, F. J.; López de Lacalle, L. N.

    2012-04-01

    Time to market is a critical measurement for today's foundry market. Combining 3D digitizing and sand blocks milling is possible to reduce this time. Avoiding the use of a wood pattern, this technique is useful for art pieces or unique parts, when only one component is necessary. The key of the proposed methodology is to achieve enough tool life with conventional tool qualities, avoiding the risk of sand destruction or damage. A special study of tool wear is presented in this work, studying different tool materials and different sand types. Two examples of unique parts are also presented in this work following the proposed methodology in order to reduce time and cost for the rapid reproduction of very short batches.

  2. A Improved and Highly Effective Seabed Surface Sand Sampling Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying

    2017-04-01

    In marine geology research, it is necessary to obtain a sufficient quantity of seabed surface samples, while also ensuring that the samples are in their original state. Currently, there are a number of seabed surface sampling devices available, but it is very difficult to obtain sand samples using ordinary seabed surface sampling devices, whereas machine-controlled seabed surface sampling devices are unable to dive into deeper regions of water. To obtain larger quantities of samples in their original states, many researchers have tried to improve seabed surface sampling devices, but these efforts have generally produced ambiguous results. To resolve the aforementioned issue, we have designed an improved and highly effective seabed surface sand sampling device, which incorporates the strengths of a variety of sampling devices; it is capable of diving into deeper water regions to obtain sand samples, and is also suited for use in streams, rivers, lakes and seas with varying levels of flow velocities and depth.

  3. Geologic map of Great Sand Dunes National Park, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madole, Richard F.; VanSistine, D. Paco; Romig, Joseph H.

    2016-10-20

    Geologic mapping was begun after a range fire swept the area of what is now the Great Sand Dunes National Park in April 2000. The park spans an area of 437 square kilometers (or about 169 square miles), of which 98 percent is blanketed by sediment of Quaternary age, the Holocene and Pleistocene Epochs; hence, this geologic map of the Great Sand Dunes National Park is essentially a surficial geologic map. These surficial deposits are diverse and include sediment of eolian (windblown), alluvial (stream and sheetwash), palustrine (wetlands and marshes), lacustrine (lake), and mass-wasting (landslides) origin. Sediment of middle and late Holocene age, from about 8,000 years ago to the present, covers about 80 percent of the park.Fluctuations in groundwater level during Holocene time caused wetlands on the nearby lowland that bounds the park on the west to alternately expand and contract. These fluctuations controlled the stability or instability of eolian sand deposits on the downwind (eastern) side of the lowland. When groundwater level rose, playas became lakes, and wet or marshy areas formed in many places. When the water table rose, spring-fed streams filled their channels and valley floors with sediment. Conversely, when groundwater level fell, spring-fed streams incised their valley floors, and lakes, ponds, and marshes dried up and became sources of windblown sand.Discharge in streams draining the west flank of the Sangre de Cristo Range is controlled primarily by snowmelt and flow is perennial until it reaches the mountain front, beyond which streams begin losing water at a high rate as the water soaks into the creek beds. Even streams originating in the larger drainage basins, such as Sand and Medano Creeks, generally do not extend much more than 4 km (about 2.5 miles) beyond where they exit the mountains.The Great Sand Dunes contain the tallest dunes (maximum height about 750 feet, or 230 m) in North America. These dunes cover an area of 72 square kilometers

  4. K West Basin Sand Filter Backwash Sample Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Smoot, Margaret R.; Coffey, Deborah S.

    A sand filter is used to help maintain water clarity at the K West Basin where highly radioactive sludge is stored. Eventually that sand filter will require disposal. The radionuclide content of the solids trapped in the sand filter will affect the selection of the sand filter disposal pathway. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was contracted by the K Basin Operations & Plateau Remediation Project (operations contractor CH2M Hill) to analyze the radionuclide content of the solids collected from the backwash of the K West Basin sand filter. The radionuclide composition in the sand filter backwash solids will bemore » used by CH2M Hill to determine if the sand filter media and retained sludge solids will be designated as transuranic waste for disposal purposes or can be processed through less expensive means. On October 19, 2015, K Basin Operations & Plateau Remediation Project staff backwashed the sand filter into the North Load-Out Pit (NLOP) and immediately collected sample slurry from a sampling tube positioned 24 in. above the NLOP floor. The 764 g sand filter backwash slurry sample, KW-105 SFBW-001, was submitted to PNNL for analysis on October 20, 2015. Solids from the slurry sample were consolidated into two samples (i.e., a primary and a duplicate sample) by centrifuging and measured for mass (0.82 g combined – wet centrifuged solids basis) and volume (0.80 mL combined). The solids were a dark brown/orange color, consistent with iron oxide/hydroxide. The solids were dried; the combined dry solids mass was 0.1113 g, corresponding to 0.0146 weight percent (wt%) solids in the original submitted sample slurry. The solids were acid-digested using nitric and hydrochloric acids. Insoluble solids developed upon dilution with 0.5 M HNO 3, corresponding to an average 6.5 wt% of the initial dry solids content. The acid digestate and insoluble solids were analyzed separately by gamma spectrometry. Nominally, 7.7% of the 60Co was present in the

  5. The Halekulani Sand Channel and Makua Shelf sediment deposits: Are they a sand resource for replenishing Waikiki's beaches?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hampton, M.A.; Fletcher, C. H.; Barry, J.H.; Lemmo, S.J.; ,

    2000-01-01

    The Halekulani Sand Channel and the Makua Shelf off the south shore of Oahu contain at least 1.3 million m3 of sediment that is a possible resource for nourishing degraded sections of Waikiki Beach. A sidescan sonar survey indicates continuous sediment cover within the channel and on the shelf, and samples from the top and bottom of vibracores from the channel and shelf contain from 29% to 77% of grains between 0 to 2.5 phi (1 to 0.177 mm), the size range of four samples from Waikiki Beach. Compositional analyses indicate high variability, but the vibracore samples normally have relatively high Halimeda content compared to beach sand samples. Laboratory tests show a positive correlation of abrasion with Halimeda content, suggesting that the offshore sediment would abrade more than beach sediment under nearshore wave action. The common gray color of the offshore sediment can be aesthetically undesirable for sand on popular tourist beaches such as Waikiki; however, visual observation of native beach sand indicates that a significant component of gray color is endemic to many Hawaiian beaches. The gray color was removed in the laboratory by soaking in heated hydrogen peroxide. The geological properties of the offshore sediment indicate potential as a resource for beach nourishment, but industrial treatment might be necessary to remove excess fine and coarse grains, and possibly the gray color. Further, the abrasion potential might have to be considered in calculating beach sand losses over time.

  6. Study on sand particles creep model and open pit mine landslide mechanism caused by sand fatigue liquefaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Dong-Ning; Wang, Lai-Gui; Zhang, Xiang-Dong; Zhang, Shu-Kun

    2017-06-01

    The sand particles in the sand - rock composite slope of the open pit mine occurs creep deformation and fatigue liquefaction under the action of vehicle load vibration and hydraulic gradient, which causes landslide geological disasters and it destroys the surface environment. To reveal the mechanism, a mechanics model based on the model considering the soil structural change with a new “plastic hinge” element is developed, to improve its constitutive and creep curve equations. Data from sand creep experiments are used to identify the parameters in the model and to validate the model. The results show that the mechanical model can describe the rotation progress between the sand particles, disclose the negative acceleration creep deformation stage during the third phase, and require fewer parameters while maintaining accuracy. It provides a new creep model considering rotation to analyze sand creep mechanism, which provides a theoretical basis for revealing the open pit mine landslide mechanism induced by creep deformation and fatigue liquefaction of sandy soil.

  7. Penetration and blown-air effect in sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clement, R.; Courrech du Pont, S.; Douady, S.

    2012-04-01

    Sand is known to show a variety of uncommon physical features that do not fit the behavior of liquid or solid state. A good example of the inherent difficulties encountered when trying to describe collective grains behavior is the penetration of an intruding object into a granular medium. Such problems involve large coordination numbers, and the medium response dramatically depends on the volume fraction. On the fringe of these studies, we consider here the penetration of a cylindrical shell (typically an upside down glass) into dry sand, and report what we called the "blown-air effect". The air initially trapped escapes when the shell is pushed into sand, flowing through the granular medium. This flow dilates the sand and considerably eases the penetration of the shell. This is very different from what happens in liquids: when pushing a top-closed shell into a liquid, the trapped air increases the buoyancy and opposes the penetration. We show that the air flow does not change the general dynamics of penetration, suggesting that fluidization only involves an effective smaller volume fraction. Despite its simplicity (only a glass and some sand are needed to observe the effect), this experiment nicely illustrates the sometimes counter-intuitive behavior of granular media. Penetration in sand is also a critical issue in industry, and this work may help improving burying methods. Ref: Penetration and blown air effect in granular media R. Clément, S. Courrech du Pont, M. Ould-Hamouda, D. Duveau, and S. Douady Phys. Rev. Lett. 2011 Science News: http://news.sciencemag.org/sciencenow/2011/02/convince-your-friends-youre-a-ge.html

  8. The gravel sand transition in a disturbed catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knighton, A. David

    1999-03-01

    More than 40 million cubic metres of mining waste were supplied to the Ringarooma River between 1875 and 1984, leading to successive phases of aggradation and degradation. The natural bed material is gravel but, given the volume of introduced load and the fact that much of the input was less than 5 mm in diameter, the size composition of the bed changed from gravel to sand during the phase of downstream progressive aggradation. A very sharp gravel-sand transition developed in which median grain size decreased from over 30 mm to under 3 mm in less than 500 m. With upstream supplies of mining debris becoming depleted first, degradation followed the same downstream progressive pattern as aggradation, causing the transition to migrate downstream. By 1984, the river could be regarded as a series of zones, each characterized by a particular bed condition: a natural cobble-gravel bed, unaffected by mining inputs (0-32 km); pre-disturbance bed re-exposed by degradation over 35-40 years (32-53 km); sandy substrate with a gravel armour produced by differential transport during degradation (53-65 km); sand dominated but with developing surface patches of coarser material (65-75 km); sandy bed reflecting the size composition of the original mining input (75-118 km). Although the gravel-sand transition itself is sharp, the transitional zone is lengthy (53-75 km). As degradation continues, the gravel-sand transition is expected to progress downstream but it has remained in a stable position for 12 years. Indeed, two major floods during the period released large quantities of sand from the sub-armour layer and newly-formed banks of mine tailings, causing fining both above and below the transition. Surface grain size is an adjustable component in the transitional zone as the river strives to recover from a major anthropogenic disturbance.

  9. Investigation of guided waves propagation in pipe buried in sand

    SciTech Connect

    Leinov, Eli; Cawley, Peter; Lowe, Michael J.S.

    The inspection of pipelines by guided wave testing is a well-established method for the detection of corrosion defects in pipelines, and is currently used routinely in a variety of industries, e.g. petrochemical and energy. When the method is applied to pipes buried in soil, test ranges tend to be significantly compromised because of attenuation of the waves caused by energy radiating into the soil. Moreover, the variability of soil conditions dictates different attenuation characteristics, which in-turn results in different, unpredictable, test ranges. We investigate experimentally the propagation and attenuation characteristics of guided waves in pipes buried in fine sand usingmore » a well characterized full scale experimental apparatus. The apparatus consists of an 8 inch-diameter, 5.6-meters long steel pipe embedded over 3 meters of its length in a rectangular container filled with fine sand, and an air-bladder for the application of overburden pressure. Longitudinal and torsional guided waves are excited in the pipe and recorded using a transducer ring (Guided Ultrasonics Ltd). Acoustic properties of the sand are measured independently in-situ and used to make model predictions of wave behavior in the buried pipe. We present the methodology and the systematic measurements of the guided waves under a range of conditions, including loose and compacted sand. It is found that the application of overburden pressure modifies the compaction of the sand and increases the attenuation, and that the measurement of the acoustic properties of sand allows model prediction of the attenuation of guided waves in buried pipes with a high level of confidence.« less

  10. Fungal alteration of organic coatings on sand grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothhardt, S.; Gleixner, G.; Benzerara, K.; Fischer, C.; Gaupp, R.

    2012-04-01

    We studied the fungal alteration of organically coated sand particles, sampled in Eocene sediments in the open cast mining Profen, near Leipzig (Germany). These organic coatings were formed on sand grains after their sedimentation owing to mobilization of organic matter from younger coal layers. The organic coatings formed non-continuous layers on quartz grains, measuring few micrometers up to 30 µm in thickness. It has been shown that organic coatings on sand grains retain efficiently dissolved metals by adsorption from groundwaters. They consequently might be used as adsorbent to purify low heavy metal contaminated water. However, their stability has not been assessed yet especially in the oxic environment and, more specifically, in the presence of microorganisms. This is important in order to evaluate whether coated sands could act as a reliable tool in remediation. In order to address this question we characterized the fungal alteration of organic coatings on sand grains using several techniques, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and vertical scanning interferometry (VSI). Sand grains coated with organics were incubated on complex yeast medium with and without Schizophyllum commune to estimate changes in heavy metal retention. Formation of biominerals and etch pits is induced by fungal colonization as shown by SEM. Surface topography analysis was performed using VSI technique. Etch pit depth ranges from 0.5 to 1 µm. Pit formation is limited to the organic coating; dissolution of quartz grains was not detected. Using STXM we measured near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra at the C K-edge, N-edge, and O K-edge to characterize the different organic compartments (fungi, genuine organic coatings, altered organic coatings) down to the 25-nm scale. We observed in the spectra measured at the C K-edge on the altered organic coatings a decrease in aromatic and phenolic groups as well as an

  11. Annual water-resources review, White Sands Missile Range: 1971

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cruz, R.R.

    1972-01-01

    This report presents water-resource information that was collected at White Sands Missile Range during 1971 and early 1972 by personnel of the U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division. Data on ground-water pumpage and resulting water-level fluctuation, chemical quality, percipitation, and surface-water runoff are summarized in the report. The data were obtained as a result of the continuing water-resources basic-data collection program sponsored by the Facilities Engineering Directorate, White Sands Missile Range.

  12. Engineering knowledge requirements for sand and dust on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, D. I.

    1991-01-01

    The successful landing of human beings on Mars and the establishment of a permanent outpost there will require an understanding of the Martian environment by the engineers. A key feature of the Martian environment is the nearly ubiquitous presence of sand and dust. The process which the engineering community will undertake to determine the sensitivities of their designs to the current level of knowledge about Mars sand and dust is emphasized. The interaction of the engineering community with the space exploration initiative (SEI) mission planners and management is described.

  13. Water quality and bathymetry of Sand Lake, Anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donaldson, Donald E.

    1976-01-01

    Sand Lake, a dimictic lowland lake in Anchorage, Alaska, has recently become as urban lake. Analyses indicate that the lake is oligotrophic, having low dissolved solids and nutrient concentrations. Snowmelt runoff from an adjacent residential area, however, has a dissolved-solids concentration 10 times that of the main body of Sand Lake. Lead concentrations in the runoff exceed known values from other water in the ANchorage area, including water samples taken beneath landfills. The volume of the snowmelt runoff has not been measured. The data presented can be used as a baseline for water-resource management. (Woodard-USGS)

  14. Incident angle of saltating particles in wind-blown sand.

    PubMed

    Fu, Lin-Tao; Bo, Tian-Li; Gu, Hai-Hua; Zheng, Xiao-Jing

    2013-01-01

    Incident angle of saltating particles plays a very important role in aeolian events. In this paper, the incident angles of sand particles near the sand bed were measured in wind tunnel. It reveals that the incident angles range widely from 0° to 180° and thereby the means of angles are larger than published data. Surprisingly, it is found the proportion that angles of 5°-15° occupy is far below previous reports. The measuring height is probably the most important reason for the measurement differences between this study and previous investigations.

  15. Incident Angle of Saltating Particles in Wind-Blown Sand

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Lin-Tao; Bo, Tian-Li; Gu, Hai-Hua; Zheng, Xiao-Jing

    2013-01-01

    Incident angle of saltating particles plays a very important role in aeolian events. In this paper, the incident angles of sand particles near the sand bed were measured in wind tunnel. It reveals that the incident angles range widely from 0° to 180° and thereby the means of angles are larger than published data. Surprisingly, it is found the proportion that angles of 5°–15° occupy is far below previous reports. The measuring height is probably the most important reason for the measurement differences between this study and previous investigations. PMID:23874470

  16. BLAISDELL SLOW SAND FILTER WASHING MACHINE. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLAISDELL SLOW SAND FILTER WASHING MACHINE. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH. THE SUCTION (INTAKE) HOSE IS SEEN AT THE LEFT RESTING ON THE FILTER BED SURFACE; THE DISCHARGE HOSE IS AT THE RIGHT, RUNNING FROM THE BOTTOM OF THE CENTRAL VERTICAL AXLE TO THE CENTRIFUGAL PUMP. FROM THE PUMP WATER IS DISCHARGED THROUGH THE HORIZONTAL PIPE LOCATED UNDER THE EDGE OF PLATFORM DECK INTO THE WASTE-WATER TROUGH (NOT SEEN IN THIS VIEW). - Yuma Main Street Water Treatment Plant, Blaisdell Slow Sand Filter Washing Machine, Jones Street at foot of Main Street, Yuma, Yuma County, AZ

  17. Modern sands of South America: composition, provenance and global significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, P. E.

    1994-03-01

    Standard petrographic methods were used to study 604 modern sands from South America, of which 351 came from rivers and 253 from beaches. In spite of the wide geomorphic contrasts, these sands belong to only three great families: (1) an immature Andean family of lithic arenites rich in volcanic and metamorphic grains that covers about 30% of South America; (2) a cratonic association rich in quartz that covers about 62% of the continent; and (3) a transitional, molasse association, which occurs between these two and covers only about 8% of the continent. The grand arithmetic average Q:F: Rf ratio for the entire continent is 60:11:29 and the area-weighted, carbonate-free average Qa:Fa:Rfa is 68:10:22, a superior continental estimate, and the first ever for an entire continent. Rock fragments are the most informative of all the provenance indicators and in South America they range from tropical alterites of the cratonic family through the dominant volcanic and metamorphic grains of the Andean family to biogenic carbonate in beach sands. Carbonate grains are almost totally absent in modern South American rivers because of present day tropical weathering and a long geological evolution that has favored sand production. They are present in many of the beach sands, however, and are most abundant along the tropical Brazilian and Caribbean coasts. Metamorphic grains rival volcanics as earmarks of the Andean family and survive tropical weathering far better than volcanic grains. There is a strong association between continental soil types and the composition of river sand, but the ultimate controls are tectonic history — the ancient landscapes preserved on the Gondwana shields of South America versus the tectonically young landscapes of the Andes — and climate. Climate can either cause ‘leaks’ to a far distant ocean where weathering is retarded by aridity or it can serve as a barrier to continental sand dispersion, where tropical weathering eliminates unstable grains

  18. Micromechanics Models for Unsaturated, Saturated, and Dry Sands.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-25

    AUTHOR(S) J. K. Jeyapalan , M. Thiyagar, and W. E. Saleira 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 113b TIME COVF ED 14. DATE OF REPORT (Year, Month, Day) 1S. PAGE CQUNT...8 -015 4 I MICROMECHANICS MODELS FOR UNSATURATED, SATURATED, AND DRY SANDS By Jey K. Jeyapalan M. Thiyagaram W., E. Saleira 2304 Engi neering Building...UNSAYURATED SATURATED AND DRY 2 SANDS(U) WISCONSIN UNIV-MADISON J K JEYAPALAN ET AL UN IED25 JAN 88 AFOSR-TR-88-@i54 AFOSR-84-8898 UNCLASSIFIEDI F/G 8/1

  19. Sand ramps as palaeoenvironmental archives: Integrating general principles and regional contexts through reanalysis of the Klipkraal Sands, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowell, Alexandra L. K.; Thomas, David S. G.; Bailey, Richard M.; Holmes, Peter J.

    2018-06-01

    Sand ramps occur on a continuum of topographically-controlled landforms, ranging from purely aeolian features (climbing/falling dunes) to talus cones and alluvial fans. Sand ramps have been identified as potentially important palaeoenvironmental archives in dryland regions that possess relatively few Quaternary proxy records. Their utility however requires not only good age control of depositional phases but clear identification of process regimes, determined through morphological and sedimentological analyses, with several recent studies indicating the complexities of palaeoenvironmental interpretations and the controls of ramp development (Bateman et al., 2012; Rowell et al., 2018). Klipkraal Sands is a sand ramp on the north-eastern margin of the semi-arid Karoo that has been important for inferences of the extent of southern African Late Quaternary aeolian activity (Thomas et al., 2002). We reanalyse this feature, in the light of both its significance and other recent studies that have inferred extensive southern African LGM aeolian activity (Telfer et al., 2012, 2014). New sedimentological data and twelve OSL dates indicate the Klipkraal Sands formed episodically between 100-0.14 ka, rather than accumulating rapidly, while sedimentological data question the aeolian affinities of the bulk of the feature. Therefore, Klipkraal is reinterpreted as showing no particular affinity to the LGM, with sediments locally sourced with a significant colluvial component. Only the upper historical sediments can be clearly interpreted as aeolian deposits. A complex interplay of processes is suggested, for which a meaningful palaeoenvironmental interpretation cannot be easily defined. This implies that the local geomorphic processes and controls operating on sand ramps need to be established before they can be fully utilised as palaeoenvironmental archives, with implications for their interpretation worldwide.

  20. Examining the Relationship Between Suspended Sand Load and Bedload on the Colorado River Using Concurrent Measurements of Suspended Sand and Observations of Sand Dune Migration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashley, T.; McElroy, B. J.; Buscombe, D.; Grams, P. E.; Kaplinski, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Spatial variability in sediment flux is directly related to geomorphic change. Along the Colorado River, measurements of sediment flux are used to track changes in sediment storage and time the release of controlled floods aimed at building eroded sandbars. The very high uncertainty typical of measurements of sediment flux has been reduced by a program of continuous measurement of suspended-sediment concentration by acoustic surrogates. However, there is still significant uncertainty in calculations of total flux. A large fraction of that uncertainty may be caused by overly simplified treatment of bedload flux, which is currently estimated as a constant 5% of the suspended sand flux. That constant is based on estimates of bedform migration rate made with side-scan sonar. Here, we apply theory which relates bedform migration and streamwise sediment flux, to bathymetric data collected at unprecedented temporal and spatial resolution adjacent to the USGS sediment monitoring station above Diamond Creek (362 km downstream from Lees Ferry, AZ). Quantitative time series measurements of reach averaged bedform transport are calculated and compared to fluxes estimated by expressing bedload as a constant fraction of suspended load. Over the range of discharges expected during normal dam operations, bedload transport estimated from the migration of bedforms in the study reach is at least 20% of instantaneous suspended sand load measured at the gage. While bedload appears to be controlled primarily by discharge (and therefore transport capacity of the flow), suspended sand load varies inversely with the grain size of suspended material, suggesting dependence on sediment supply. Sediment transport capacity can vary significantly at a given discharge depending on local hydraulic geometry, so it is likely that there is more spatial variability in bedload transport than suspended sand transport.

  1. A sand budget for Marble Canyon, Arizona: implications for long-term monitoring of sand storage change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grams, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    Recent U.S. Geological Survey research is providing important insights into how best to monitor changes in the amount of tributary-derived sand stored on the bed of the Colorado River and in eddies in Marble Canyon, Arizona. Before the construction of Glen Canyon Dam and other dams upstream, sandbars in Glen, Marble, and Grand Canyons were replenished each year by sediment-rich floods. Sand input into the Colorado River is crucial to protecting endangered native fish, animals, and plants and cultural and recreational resources along the river in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area and Grand Canyon National Park.

  2. [Preliminary Study of Lonicera hypoglauca on Germination Conditions of Sand Culture Seeds and Sterilization Method of Sand Culture Seedling Sterilization].

    PubMed

    Tan, Mu-xiu; Zeng, Wen-wen; Wei, Peng-xiao; Mo, Qiao-cheng; Pu, Zu-ning; Cen, Xiu-fen; Shi, Feng-hua

    2015-05-01

    To explore the germination conditions of Lonicera hypoglauca sand culture seeds and the effects of sand culture seedlings sterilization. 0.1% HgCl2 with different sterilization time, different illumination time and temperature culture condition were adopted to study the germination conditions of sand culture seeds. Different sterilization treatments and different hardening-seedling days were used to test the sterilization effect of sand culture seedlings. The sterilization effect of the combination of 75% ethanol 30 s + 0.1% HgCl2 5 min on Lonicera hypoglauca seeds was the optimum,with the average pollution rate of 15.56%, and the average germination rate reached 51.11%. The combination of varied temperature-room temperature under light for 12 h/d was the best, with the average germination rate peaked at 75.49%, and the average germination potential reached 68.36%. The treatment of detergent liquor scrub-tap water wash on the part above the hypocotyl, which was sand cultured under the opening condition and had no root, showed the best sterilization effect, with the average pollution rate was zero, and the average survival rate peaked at 100.00%. The sterilization effect of sand culture seedlings, which was disinfected after cleaning by detergent liquor scrub-tap water wash after hardening-seeding for 30 days, was the best, with the average pollution rate of 50.00%, and the average survival rate of 100.00%. The best sterilization effect is the combination of 75% ethanol 30 s + 0.1% HgCl2 5 min; Lighting for 12 h/d of varied temperature-room temperature is regarded as the optimum culture condition. The treatment of detergent liquor scrub-tap water wash treatment on the part above the hypocotyl,which is sand cultured under the opening condition and had no root, shows the best sterilization effect. For the sand culture seedlings, before inoculated in subculture medium, should be hardening-seedling for some days and sterilized after detergent liquor scrub-tap water wash.

  3. Habitat selection models for Pacific sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus) in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ostrand, William D.; Gotthardt, Tracey A.; Howlin, Shay; Robards, Martin D.

    2005-01-01

    We modeled habitat selection by Pacific sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus) by examining their distribution in relation to water depth, distance to shore, bottom slope, bottom type, distance from sand bottom, and shoreline type. Through both logistic regression and classification tree models, we compared the characteristics of 29 known sand lance locations to 58 randomly selected sites. The best models indicated a strong selection of shallow water by sand lance, with weaker association between sand lance distribution and beach shorelines, sand bottoms, distance to shore, bottom slope, and distance to the nearest sand bottom. We applied an information-theoretic approach to the interpretation of the logistic regression analysis and determined importance values of 0.99, 0.54, 0.52, 0.44, 0.39, and 0.25 for depth, beach shorelines, sand bottom, distance to shore, gradual bottom slope, and distance to the nearest sand bottom, respectively. The classification tree model indicated that sand lance selected shallow-water habitats and remained near sand bottoms when located in habitats with depths between 40 and 60 m. All sand lance locations were at depths <60 m and 93% occurred at depths <40 m. Probable reasons for the modeled relationships between the distribution of sand lance and the independent variables are discussed.

  4. 9. A photograph, looking southwest, from the sand bar on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. A photograph, looking southwest, from the sand bar on the east side of the bridge. This image shows the west abutment, including the mold marks which remained from the timber forms. Leaching and cracking are also visible along the arch ring. - Vigo County Bridge No. 139, Spanning Sugar Creek at Seventy-fourth Place, Terre Haute, Vigo County, IN

  5. An efficient, self-orienting, vertical-array, sand trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilton, Michael; Nickling, Bill; Wakes, Sarah; Sherman, Douglas; Konlechner, Teresa; Jermy, Mark; Geoghegan, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    There remains a need for an efficient, low-cost, portable, passive sand trap, which can provide estimates of vertical sand flux over topography and within vegetation and which self-orients into the wind. We present a design for a stacked vertical trap that has been modelled (computational fluid dynamics, CFD) and evaluated in the field and in the wind tunnel. The 'swinging' trap orients to within 10° of the flow in the wind tunnel at 8 m s-1, and more rapidly in the field, where natural variability in wind direction accelerates orientation. The CFD analysis indicates flow is steered into the trap during incident wind flow. The trap has a low profile and there is only a small decrease in mass flow rate for multiple traps, poles and rows of poles. The efficiency of the trap was evaluated against an isokinetic sampler and found to be greater than 95%. The centre pole is a key element of the design, minimally decreasing trap efficiency. Finally, field comparisons with the trap of Sherman et al. (2014) yielded comparable estimates of vertical sand flux. The trap described in this paper provides accurate estimates of sand transport in a wide range of field conditions.

  6. Mid-infrared spectroscopic analysis of chemically bound metalcasting sands

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Foundries around the world discard millions of tonnes of molding and core sand each year even though they can be beneficially used in manufactured soils and geotechnical applications. Despite their usefulness as an aggregate replacement, some environmental authorities are concerned over potential ne...

  7. 1. View looking east from sand bar on west side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View looking east from sand bar on west side of bridge, upstream in the bed of Sugar Creek. West elevation of the bridge - Vigo County Bridge No. 139, Spanning Sugar Creek at Seventy-fourth Place, Terre Haute, Vigo County, IN

  8. Retempering of Concrete made by using Manufactured Sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pethkar, A. R.; Deshmukh, G.

    2014-06-01

    Retempering is defined as, " Addition of water and remixing of concrete or mortar which has lost enough workability to become unplaceable". Retempering inevitably results in some loss of strength compared with the original concrete [1]. Adding water to a plastic mix to increase slump is an extremely common practice, even though it is not recommended because it increases the porosity of concrete. Concrete often arrives on site more than half an hour after initial mixing. Placement operations can take anywhere from 10 to 60 min, depending on the field conditions and the size of the load. When the slump decreases to an unacceptable level during the operations, water is added to the mix [1]. In this work, an attempt is made to study the strength characteristics of retempered concrete made by using manufactured sand. Usually the retempering process is there with normal and ready mixed concrete; hence an attempt is made to check the compressive and flexural strength of normal retempered concrete with an addition of retarder 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 % at retempering time from 15 to 90 min. There is scarcity of natural sand due to various factors, which is replaced by the manufactured sand. The concept of manufactured sand is nothing but breaking stone into smaller and smaller particles in such way that the gradation of particle will match with zone-II of I.S.

  9. Biodegradation of propylene glycol and associated hydrodynamic effects in sand.

    PubMed

    Bielefeldt, Angela R; Illangasekare, Tissa; Uttecht, Megan; LaPlante, Rosanna

    2002-04-01

    At airports around the world, propylene glycol (PG) based fluids are used to de-ice aircraft for safe operation. PG removal was investigated in 15-cm deep saturated sand columns. Greater than 99% PG biodegradation was achieved for all flow rates and loading conditions tested, which decreased the hydraulic conductivity of the sand by 1-3 orders of magnitude until a steady-state minimum was reached. Under constant loading at 120 mg PG/d for 15-30 d, the hydraulic conductivity (K) decreased by 2-2.5 orders of magnitude when the average linear velocity of the water was 4.9-1.4 cm/h. Variable PG loading in recirculation tests resulted in slower conductivity declines and lower final steady-state conductivity than constant PG feeding. After significant sand plugging, endogenous periods of time without PG resulted in significant but partial recovery of the original conductivity. Biomass growth also increased the dispersivity of the sand.

  10. 38. SAND FILTER AT LEFT AND CHLORINATOR AT RIGHT, DOWN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. SAND FILTER AT LEFT AND CHLORINATOR AT RIGHT, DOWN LINE FROM THE RESERVOIR, IMPROVED WATER QUALITY BOTH LOCATED AT 275' ALTITUDE. FROM THIS POINT THE LINES BRANCH INTO KALAUPAP SETTLEMENT TO SUPPLY RESIDENCES AND OTHER BUILDINGS. - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

  11. A New Sand-Culture Apparatus for Tree Nutrition Research

    Treesearch

    B. G. Blackmon; N. E. Linnartz

    1970-01-01

    Research in tree nutrition often necessitates the use of rather large-scale installations of sand-culture equipment. The apparatus described below was developed during the course of experiments at Louisiana State University and provided daily irrigation to 102 culture units of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) for a period of 10 months. This apparatus is a modification of...

  12. Giant sand waves at the mouth of San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, P.L.; Hanes, D.M.; Rubin, D.M.; Kvitek, R.G.

    2006-01-01

    A field of giant sand waves, among the largest in the world, recently was mapped in high resolution for the first time during a multibeam survey in 2004 and 2005 through the strait of the Golden Gate at the mouth of San Francisco Bay in California (Figure la). This massive bed form field covers an area of approximately four square kilometers in water depths ranging from 30 to 106 meters, featuring more than 40 distinct sand waves with crests aligned approximately perpendicular to the dominant tidally generated cross-shore currents, with wavelengths and heights that measure up to 220 meters and 10 meters, respectively. Sand wave crests can be traced continuously for up to two kilometers across the mouth of this energetic tidal inlet, where depth-averaged tidal currents through the strait below the Golden Gate Bridge exceed 2.5 meters per second during peak ebb flows. Repeated surveys demonstrated that the sand waves are active and dynamic features that move in response to tidally generated currents. The complex temporal and spatial variations in wave and tidal current interactions in this region result in an astoundingly diverse array of bed form morphologies, scales, and orientations. Bed forms of approximately half the scale of those reported in this article previously were mapped inside San Francisco Bay during a multibeam survey in 1997 [Chin et al., 1997].

  13. Prey-sensing and orientational behaviors of sand scorpions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brownell, Philip

    2000-03-01

    Sand scorpions use exquisitely sensitive vibrational and chemosensory systems to locate prey and identify prospective mates active on the sand surface. Prey location is determined by input to a static array of 8 vibration-sensitive receptors, each responding as phase-locked accelerometers to compressional and surface waves conducted through sand. Angular orientation of the target is determined from passing surface (Rayleigh) waves, target distance possibly from the time delay between arrival of compressional and surface waves. For localization and identification of prospective mates, male scorpions use sexually dimorphic chemosensory appendages, the pectines, which are swept over a static stimulus field (chemical trail deposited on sand). These organs support a 2D array of closely-spaced (freq = 100/mm) sensilla containing more than 10^6 neurons, all projecting with great topographic precision to the central nervous system. Movement of this sensory array over a static stimulus field creates timing within the sensory signal. The potential importance of timing as a means of increasing sensitivity and selectivity of sensory response in two distinctly different modes is discussed.

  14. The effects of body properties on sand-swimming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpe, Sarah; Kuckuk, Robyn; Koehler, Stephan; Goldman, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Numerous animals locomote effectively within sand, yet few studies have investigated how body properties and kinematics contribute to subsurface performance. We compare the movement strategies of two desert dwelling subsurface sand-swimmers exhibiting disparate body forms: the long-slender limbless shovel-nosed snake (C. occipitalis) and the relatively shorter sandfish lizard (S. scincus). Both animals ``swim'' subsurface using a head-to-tail propagating wave of body curvature. We use a previously developed granular resistive force theory to successfully predict locomotion of performance of both animals; the agreement with theory implies that both animal's swim within a self-generated frictional fluid. We use theory to show that the snake's shape (body length to body radius ratio), low friction and undulatory gait are close to optimal for sand-swimming. In contrast, we find that the sandfish's shape and higher friction are farther from optimal and prevent the sandfish from achieving the same performance as the shovel-nosed snake during sand-swimming. However, the sandfish's kinematics allows it to operate at the highest performance possible given its body properties. NSF PoLS

  15. Hydrostratigraphy of a Sand Aquifer from Combined ERT and GPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadimitrios, K. S.; Ferris, G.; Bank, C.

    2015-12-01

    Overlapping resistivity and ground-penetrating radar transects were collected on a shallow sand aquifer. The study area covers about 150 by 150 m, and the water table depth in that area ranges from as shallow as 30 cm to over 2m. Electric resistivity tomography shows layers of resistances which we relate to the vadose zone (above 1200 Ohm.m), the saturated zone (approx. 300 Ohm.m), and underlying aquitard (above 1200 Ohm.m, made of glacial till). The resistivity sections fail to capture the topography of the sand-till boundary seen in collected radargrams (e.g., from 80 to 120 ns over a 30 m horizontal distance). Converting radar travel times to thickness of the aquifer requires knowledge of water table depth as well as radar velocity in both the saturated and unsaturated sands. Water table depth can be taken from resistivity pseudosections as well as local piezometers. Radar velocities can be estimated based on the properties of the local sand and assuming 100% saturation. In merging the results from the two datasets we are able to map local hydrostratigraphy and aquifer geometry.

  16. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, Sand Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, Sand Bruno, California (Navy # 110-A-1 2 of 5. Scofiled Construction Company Mare Island Office, Mare Island Cal. Plan of operating floor, September 2, 1908. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Pump House, California Avenue, east side between Dry Dock 1 & Dry Dock 2, near Ninth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  17. Flow and sand transport over an immobile gravel bed.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many dams in the USA and elsewhere have exceeded their design life and are being considered for remediation or removal, which will result in the reintroduction of fine sediments, often into coarse grained armored substrates, downstream of dams. The deposition of sand in the interstices of the grave...

  18. Fuel and weather influence wildfires in sand pine forests

    Treesearch

    W. A. Hough

    1973-01-01

    A complex combination of fuel and weather factors accounts for the dangerous fires that often develop during the spring in sand pine forests of Florida. Moisture content of live needles is lowest in March, and resin and energy contents reach their yearly highs during the 4-month period from February through May. These fuel properties become critical, however, only when...

  19. Does denitrification occur within porous carbonate sand grains?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miall Cook, Perran Louis; Kessler, Adam John; Eyre, Bradley David

    2017-09-01

    Permeable carbonate sands form a major habitat type on coral reefs and play a major role in organic matter recycling. Nitrogen cycling within these sediments is likely to play a major role in coral reef productivity, yet it remains poorly studied. Here, we used flow-through reactors and stirred reactors to quantify potential rates of denitrification and the dependence of denitrification on oxygen concentrations in permeable carbonate sands at three sites on Heron Island, Australia. Our results showed that potential rates of denitrification fell within the range of 2-28 µmol L-1 sediment h-1 and were very low compared to oxygen consumption rates, consistent with previous studies of silicate sands. Denitrification was observed to commence at porewater oxygen concentrations as high as 50 µM in stirred reactor experiments on the coarse sediment fraction (2-10 mm) and at oxygen concentrations of 10-20 µM in flow-through and stirred reactor experiments at a site with a median sediment grain size of 0.9 mm. No denitrification was detected in sediments under oxic conditions from another site with finer sediment (median grain size: 0.7 mm). We interpret these results as confirmation that denitrification may occur within anoxic microniches present within porous carbonate sand grains. The occurrence of such microniches has the potential to enhance denitrification rates within carbonate sediments; however further work is required to elucidate the extent and ecological significance of this effect.

  20. LITTLE JOE II - LIFTOFF - WHITE SANDS MISSILE RANGE (WSMR), NM

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1963-08-28

    S63-15701 (28 August 1963) --- All seven motors of Little Joe II, ignited simultaneously at launch, with a total thrust of about 310,000 pounds. A maximum height of 24,000 feet was attained as Little Joe II traveled 47,000 feet north on the White Sands Test Range.

  1. Salmonellosis Outbreak Traced to Playground Sand, Australia, 2007–2009

    PubMed Central

    Musto, Jennie; Hogg, Geoff; Janssen, Monika; Rose, Karrie

    2012-01-01

    A community outbreak of gastroenteritis in Australia during 2007–2009 was caused by ingestion of playground sand contaminated with Salmonella enterica Paratyphi B, variant Java. The bacterium was also isolated from local wildlife. Findings support consideration of nonfood sources during salmonellosis outbreak investigations and indicate transmission through the animal–human interface. PMID:22709539

  2. Two Sizes of Ripples on Surface of Martian Sand Dune

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-06-30

    Two sizes of wind-sculpted ripples are evident in this view of the top surface of a Martian sand dune. Sand dunes and the smaller type of ripples also exist on Earth. The larger ripples -- roughly 10 feet (3 meters) apart -- are a type not seen on Earth nor previously recognized as a distinct type on Mars. The Mast Camera (Mastcam) on NASA's Curiosity Mars rover took the multiple component images of this scene on Dec. 13, 2015, during the 1,192nd Martian day, or sol, of the rover's work on Mars. That month, Curiosity was conducting the first close-up investigation ever made of active sand dunes anywhere other than Earth. The larger ripples have distinctive sinuous crest lines, compared to the smaller ripples. The location is part of "Namib Dune" in the Bagnold Dune Field, which forms a dark band along the northwestern flank of Mount Sharp. The component images were taken in early morning at this site, with the camera looking in the direction of the sun. This mosaic combining the images has been processed to brighten it and make the ripples more visible. The sand is very dark, both from the morning shadows and from the intrinsic darkness of the minerals that dominate its composition. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20755

  3. White Sands, New Mexico as seen from STS-60

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-02-09

    STS060-83-016 (3-11 Feb 1994) --- White Sands National Monument (Park) is easily recognized in the center of this near-vertical color photograph. White Sands is the world's largest gypsum dune field. It represents an alabaster sea that covers nearly 300 square miles. The National Park Service has the responsibility to preserve this unique feature, allowing the dune world to unfold in its natural environment, but without interference from humans. White Sands lies within a spectacular, oblong geological depression called the Tularosa Basin bounded by the Sacramento Mountains on the east and the San Andres Mountains on the west. Climatically the basin is a true desert, averaging less than 10 inches of rainfall per year. In terms of topographic relief the Sacramento Mountains attain elevations greater than 9,000 feet above sea level, while the San Andres Mountains on the west exceed altitudes of 8,000 feet. At the southwest corner of the White Sands is dry lake, Lucero. This lake is the lowest point in the Tularosa Basin at 3,900 feet. In terms of cultural features the city of Alamogordo (over 20,000 population) and Holloman Air Force Base can be seen with great clarity on this photograph. The area is accessible by highways U.S.70 & 82 from Las Cruces, New Mexico, and U.S.54 from El Paso, Texas.

  4. Repeatability of Sugarcane Selection on Sand and Organic Soils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Canal Point (CP) Sugarcane Cultivar Development Program (a cooperative program between the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida and the Florida Sugarcane League) has been more successful at breeding for cultivars adapted to organic soils (muck) than for those adapted to sand soils. Currently, onl...

  5. A Scientific World in a Grain of Sand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2011-01-01

    Students investigate local sand samples on a shoestring budget. This investigation reveals a fascinating Earth history that can address various interdisciplinary scientific topics, provide rich inquiry experiences, and move beyond the science classroom to integrate history, culture, and art. (Contains 3 figures and 14 online resources.)

  6. Separation of time scales in the HCA model for sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemunis, Andrzej; Wichtmann, Torsten

    2014-10-01

    Separation of time scales is used in a high cycle accumulation (HCA) model for sand. An important difficulty of the model is the limited applicability of the Miner's rule to multiaxial cyclic loadings applied simultaneously or in a combination with monotonic loading. Another problem is the lack of simplified objective HCA formulas for geotechnical settlement problems. Possible solutions of these problems are discussed.

  7. Laser Hit on Martian Sand Target, Before and After

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-22

    The Chemistry and Camera ChemCam instrument on NASA Mars rover Curiosity used its laser and spectrometers to examine what chemical elements are in a drift of Martian sand during the mission 74th Martian day, or sol Oct. 20, 2012.

  8. Connecting Brabant's cover sand landscapes through landscape history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heskes, Erik; van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; Harthoorn, Jaap; Maes, Bert; Leenders, Karel; de Jongh, Piet; Kluiving, Sjoerd; van den Oetelaar, Ger

    2015-04-01

    Noord-Brabant has the largest variety of cover sand landscapes in The Netherlands, and probably in Western Europe. During the Last Ice Age the area was not covered by land ice and a polar desert developed in which sand dunes buried the existing river landscapes. Some of these polar dune landscapes experienced a geomorphological and soil development that remained virtually untouched up to the present day, such as the low parabolic dunes of the Strabrechtse Heide or the later and higher dunes of the Oisterwijkse Vennen. As Noord-Brabant lies on the fringe of a tectonic basin, the thickness of cover sand deposits in the Centrale Slenk, part of a rift through Europe, amounts up to 20 metres. Cover sand deposits along the fault lines cause the special phenomenon of 'wijst' to develop, in which the higher grounds are wetter than the boarding lower grounds. Since 4000 BC humans settled in these cover sand landscapes and made use of its small-scale variety. An example are the prehistoric finds on the flanks and the historic towns on top of the 'donken' in northwest Noord-Brabant, where the cover sand landscapes are buried by river and marine deposits and only the peaks of the dunes protrude as donken. Or the church of Handel that is built beside a 'wijst' source and a site of pilgrimage since living memory. Or the 'essen' and plaggen agriculture that developed along the stream valleys of Noord-Brabant from 1300 AD onwards, giving rise to geomorphological features as 'randwallen' and plaggen soils of more than a metre thickness. Each region of Brabant each has its own approach in attracting tourists and has not yet used this common landscape history to connect, manage and promote their territories. We propose a landscape-historical approach to develop a national or European Geopark Brabants' cover sand landscapes, in which each region focuses on a specific part of the landscape history of Brabant, that stretches from the Late Weichselian polar desert when the dune

  9. Simple stochastic cellular automaton model for starved beds and implications about formation of sand topographic features in terms of sand flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, Noritaka

    2016-12-01

    A simple stochastic cellular automaton model is proposed for simulating bedload transport, especially for cases with a low transport rate and where available sediments are very sparse on substrates in a subaqueous system. Numerical simulations show that the bed type changes from sheet flow through sand patches to ripples as the amount of sand increases; this is consistent with observations in flume experiments and in the field. Without changes in external conditions, the sand flux calculated for a given amount of sand decreases over time as bedforms develop from a flat bed. This appears to be inconsistent with the general understanding that sand flux remains unchanged under the constant-fluid condition, but it is consistent with the previous experimental data. For areas of low sand abundance, the sand flux versus sand amount (flux-density relation) in the simulation shows a single peak with an abrupt decrease, followed by a long tail; this is very similar to the flux-density relation seen in automobile traffic flow. This pattern (the relation between segments of the curve and the corresponding bed states) suggests that sand sheets, sand patches, and sand ripples correspond respectively to the free-flow phase, congested phase, and jam phase of traffic flows. This implies that sand topographic features on starved beds are determined by the degree of interference between sand particles. Although the present study deals with simple cases only, this can provide a simplified but effective modeling of the more complicated sediment transport processes controlled by interference due to contact between grains, such as the pulsatory migration of grain-size bimodal mixtures with repetition of clustering and scattering.

  10. Host association and the capacity of sand flies as vectors of lizard malaria in Panama.

    PubMed

    Kimsey, R B

    1992-08-01

    In this paper the capacity of sand flies (Lutzomyia) as vectors of parasites that cause malaria in anoles (Anolis limifrons) in the Zona de Canal, Panama was investigated. Inhabiting all study plots, often in local abundance, L. trinidadensis emerged as the principal candidate sand fly vector; the results of surveys did not suggest a likely mosquito vector. Although L. trinidadensis and infected anoles co-inhabited all plots, their abundances seemed unrelated. No evidence that sand flies parasitized anoles was uncovered. As anole activity patterns in daylight reciprocate with those of sand flies and at night anoles seem to avoid locations that sand flies frequent, anoles may evade sand fly bites altogether. Further, these sand flies occurred in close numerical and ecological association with Thecadactylus rapicauda, a reclusive moist forest gecko, often parasitizing these hosts in large numbers. Thus, sand flies lack capacity as vectors of malaria-causing parasites in central Panamanian anoles.

  11. White Sands Space Harbor Area 1, Crash/Rescue Standby Support GPS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    White Sands Space Harbor Area 1, Crash/Rescue Standby Support GPS Buildings, East side of Runway 17/35, approximately 2,650 feet north of intersection with Runway 23/05, White Sands, Dona Ana County, NM

  12. Sand and Gravel Company in Central Mass. to Reduce Emissions Under Settlement with EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In a settlement with the USEPA, Kimball Sand, a sand & gravel company operating in the MA communities of Blackstone & Northborough, agreed to reduce its emissions of hazardous air pollutants & visible emissions as required by federal clean air laws.

  13. White Sands Space Harbor Area 1, Runway 17/35, Extending 35,000 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    White Sands Space Harbor Area 1, Runway 17/35, Extending 35,000 feet north from Range Road 10, beginning approximately 4.2 miles northeast of intersection with Range Road 7, White Sands, Dona Ana County, NM

  14. Contact with beach sand among beach-goers and risk of illness

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Recently, numerous studies of fecal contamination of beach sand have triggered interest among scientists, the news media, and the general public. Evidence shows that beach sand harbors higher concentrations of fecal indicator organisms (microbes considered to indicate...

  15. The potential use of silica sand as nanomaterials for mortar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setiati, N. Retno

    2017-11-01

    The development of nanotechnology is currently experiencing rapid growth. The use of the term nanotechnology is widely applied in areas such as healthcare, industrial, pharmaceutical, informatics, or construction. By the nanotechnology in the field of concrete construction, especially the mechanical properties of concrete are expected to be better than conventional concrete. This study aims to determine the effect of the potential of silica sand as a nanomaterial that is added into the concrete mix The methodology used consist of nanomaterial synthesis process of silica sand using Liquid Polishing Milling Technology (PLMT). The XRF and XRD testing were conducted to determine the composition of silica contained in the silica sand and the level of reactivity of the compound when added into the concrete mix. To determine the effect of nano silica on mortar, then made the specimen with size 50 mm x 50 mm x 50 mm. The composition of mortar is made in two variations, ie by the addition of 3% nano silica and without the addition of nanosilica. To know the mechanical properties of mortar, it is done testing of mortar compressive strength at the age of 28 days. Based on the analysis and evaluation, it is shown that compounds of silica sand in Indonesia, especially Papua reached more than 99% SiO2 and so that the amorphous character of silica sand can be used as a nanomaterial for concrete construction. The results of mechanical tests show that there is an increase of 12% compressive strength of mortar that is added with 3% nano silica.

  16. Evaluating process origins of sand-dominated fluvial stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlin, E.; Hajek, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    Sand-dominated fluvial stratigraphy is often interpreted as indicating times of relatively slow subsidence because of the assumption that fine sediment (silt and clay) is reworked or bypassed during periods of low accommodation. However, sand-dominated successions may instead represent proximal, coarse-grained reaches of paleo-river basins and/or fluvial systems with a sandy sediment supply. Differentiating between these cases is critical for accurately interpreting mass-extraction profiles, basin-subsidence rates, and paleo-river avulsion and migration behavior from ancient fluvial deposits. We explore the degree to which sand-rich accumulations reflect supply-driven progradation or accommodation-limited reworking, by re-evaluating the Castlegate Sandstone (Utah, USA) and the upper Williams Fork Formation (Colorado, USA) - two Upper Cretaceous sandy fluvial deposits previously interpreted as having formed during periods of relatively low accommodation. Both units comprise amalgamated channel and bar deposits with minor intra-channel and overbank mudstones. To constrain relative reworking, we quantify the preservation of bar deposits in each unit using detailed facies and channel-deposit mapping, and compare bar-deposit preservation to expected preservation statistics generated with object-based models spanning a range of boundary conditions. To estimate the grain-size distribution of paleo-sediment input, we leverage results of experimental work that shows both bed-material deposits and accumulations on the downstream side of bars ("interbar fines") sample suspended and wash loads of active flows. We measure grain-size distributions of bar deposits and interbar fines to reconstruct the relative sandiness of paleo-sediment supplies for both systems. By using these novel approaches to test whether sand-rich fluvial deposits reflect river systems with accommodation-limited reworking and/or particularly sand-rich sediment loads, we can gain insight into large

  17. Hydrate morphology: Physical properties of sands with patchy hydrate saturation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dai, S.; Santamarina, J.C.; Waite, William F.; Kneafsey, T.J.

    2012-01-01

    The physical properties of gas hydrate-bearing sediments depend on the volume fraction and spatial distribution of the hydrate phase. The host sediment grain size and the state of effective stress determine the hydrate morphology in sediments; this information can be used to significantly constrain estimates of the physical properties of hydrate-bearing sediments, including the coarse-grained sands subjected to high effective stress that are of interest as potential energy resources. Reported data and physical analyses suggest hydrate-bearing sands contain a heterogeneous, patchy hydrate distribution, whereby zones with 100% pore-space hydrate saturation are embedded in hydrate-free sand. Accounting for patchy rather than homogeneous hydrate distribution yields more tightly constrained estimates of physical properties in hydrate-bearing sands and captures observed physical-property dependencies on hydrate saturation. For example, numerical modeling results of sands with patchy saturation agree with experimental observation, showing a transition in stiffness starting near the series bound at low hydrate saturations but moving toward the parallel bound at high hydrate saturations. The hydrate-patch size itself impacts the physical properties of hydrate-bearing sediments; for example, at constant hydrate saturation, we find that conductivity (electrical, hydraulic and thermal) increases as the number of hydrate-saturated patches increases. This increase reflects the larger number of conductive flow paths that exist in specimens with many small hydrate-saturated patches in comparison to specimens in which a few large hydrate saturated patches can block flow over a significant cross-section of the specimen.

  18. Offshore sand resources for coastal erosion control in Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, K.E.; Penland, S.; McBride, R.A.

    1990-09-01

    An inventory of existing geophysical data supplemented by more than 15,000 km of high-resolution seismic profiles and 400 vibracores collected cooperatively by the Louisiana Geological Survey and US Geological Survey since 1981 indicates that a wide range of aggregate minerals occurs on the continental shelf in a variety of depositional settings. The distribution of these deposits is controlled by the geometry of the preexisting fluvial and deltaic channel systems and the stratigraphic signature of the Holocene Transgression across these features. The geology of coastal and offshore Louisiana is tied to the depositional history of the Mississippi River. Offshore of themore » delta plain, five types of aggregate sources can be identified: inner shelf shoals, submerged barrier islands, tidal inlets, distributary channels, and barrier platforms. This paper describes the geology of offshore Louisiana, the available geophysical data sets, and the distribution of aggregate mineral resources. On the continental shelf of the Mississippi River delta plain, two extensive seismic survey grids have been developed by the Louisiana Geological Survey and US Geological Survey. The most prospective resources found are the huge sand bodies of Ship Shoal and associated distributaries, Cat Island Pass tidal channels and associated tidal deltas, and Barataria Pass/Grand Terre tidal channels and associated tidal deltas. East of the mouth of the Mississippi River are the Chandeleur Islands, where LGS identified seven major sand resource targets, truncated barrier-spit and tidal inlet deposits, submerged beach ridges, and distributaries associated with abandoned St. Bernard delta complexes. Abundant sand resources can be found in offshore Louisiana. Many of the sand bodies contain heavy minerals, but their concentration and distribution is unknown. Other potential sand resources not yet adequately explored include Sabine Bank, the Outer Shoal, and the St. Bernard shoal.« less

  19. Sand aggregation by exopolysaccharide-producing Microbacterium arborescens--AGSB.

    PubMed

    Godinho, Aureen L; Bhosle, Saroj

    2009-06-01

    In the rhizosphere, exopolymers are also known to be useful to improve the moisture-holding capacity. The ability of the isolates from coastal sand dunes to produce exopolymers was determined. Among which the isolate, showing very high production of exopolysaccharide (EPS), Microbacterium arborescens--AGSB, a facultative alkalophile was further studied for exopolymer production. The isolate a gram-positive non-spore forming, slender rod, catalase positive, oxidase negative, showed growth in 12% sodium chloride. The culture was found to produce exopolymer which showed good aggregation of sand which has an important role in the stabilization of sand dunes. The exopolymer was further analysed. The cold isopropanol precipitation of dialysed supernatants grown in polypeptone yeast extract glucose broth produced partially soluble EPSs with glucose as the sole carbon source. Chemical analysis of the EPS revealed the presence of rhamnose, fucose, arabinose, mannose, galactose and glucose. On optimization of growth parameters (sucrose as carbon source and glycine as nitrogen source), the polymer was found to be a heteropolysaccharide containing mannose as the major component. It was interesting to note that the chemical composition of the exopolymers produced from both unoptimized and optimized culture conditions of Microbacterium arborescens--AGSB is different from those of other species from the same genera. This study shows that marine coastal environments such as coastal sand dunes, are a previously unexplored habitat for EPS-producing bacteria, and that these molecules might be involved in ecological roles protecting the cells against dessication especially in nutrient-limited environments such as the coastal sand dunes more so in the extreme conditions of pH. Such polysaccharides may help the bacteria to adhere to solid substrates and survive during the nutrient limitations.

  20. Sandscape - engaging people in Met Office science through sand sculpture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liggins, Felicity; Dowell, Ellen; Wardley, Jamie; Jamieson, Claire

    2017-04-01

    In 2015, the Met Office's award-winning outreach programme, designed to inspire the next generation of scientists and engineers, delivered one of its most ambitious and creative activities to date. It explored how scientists and artists can come together to create an engaging experience for young people and families. This activity was called Sandscape. Sandscape is an interactive sand sculpture workshop exploring how weather and climate affect our health. Budding sand sculptors are shown how to fashion elaborate structures from sand and water - creating a landscape with bridges, skyscrapers, forests and factories. As they work, participants are encouraged by the scientists delivering the activity to reflect on what makes a healthy city, considering how the natural and built environments influence air quality and circulation and how this impacts our health. Topics discussed include urban heat islands, air pollution and dispersion modelling, pollen forecasting and predicting the wind-borne spread of animal diseases. Each hour long workshop culminates in a dramatic demonstration that uses dry ice to represent clean air circulating from mountains, along rivers and into cities. Here we present an overview of Sandscape, identify the strengths and challenges of such a collaborative, innovative and playful approach to public engagement and share the results of our evaluation. Sandscape was originally supported by the Met Office and the Wellcome Trust, and produced by Einstein's Garden in collaboration with the Met Office, scientists from the University of Exeter and sand sculptors from Sand in Your Eye. It was first presented in Einstein's Garden at Green Man festival 2015, an independent music and arts festival held annually in Wales, and has since been invited to run at the 2015 Bournemouth Arts By the Sea Festival and Teignmouth's TRAIL Sculpture Festival in the summer of 2016.

  1. Chlorine residuals and haloacetic acid reduction in rapid sand filtration.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Yi-Hsueh; Wang, Gen-Shuch; Tung, Hsin-hsin

    2011-11-01

    It is quite rare to find biodegradation in rapid sand filtration for drinking water treatment. This might be due to frequent backwashes and low substrate levels. High chlorine concentrations may inhibit biofilm development, especially for plants with pre-chlorination. However, in tropical or subtropical regions, bioactivity on the sand surface may be quite significant due to high biofilm development--a result of year-round high temperature. The objective of this study is to explore the correlation between biodegradation and chlorine concentration in rapid sand filters, especially for the water treatment plants that practise pre-chlorination. In this study, haloacetic acid (HAA) biodegradation was found in conventional rapid sand filters practising pre-chlorination. Laboratory column studies and field investigations were conducted to explore the association between the biodegradation of HAAs and chlorine concentrations. The results showed that chlorine residual was an important factor that alters bioactivity development. A model based on filter influent and effluent chlorine was developed for determining threshold chlorine for biodegradation. From the model, a temperature independent chlorine concentration threshold (Cl(threshold)) for biodegradation was estimated at 0.46-0.5mgL(-1). The results imply that conventional filters with adequate control could be conducive to bioactivity, resulting in lower HAA concentrations. Optimizing biodegradable disinfection by-product removal in conventional rapid sand filter could be achieved with minor variation and a lower-than-Cl(threshold) influent chlorine concentration. Bacteria isolation was also carried out, successfully identifying several HAA degraders. These degraders are very commonly seen in drinking water systems and can be speculated as the main contributor of HAA loss. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Diurnal emissivity dynamics in bare versus biocrusted sand dunes.

    PubMed

    Rozenstein, Offer; Agam, Nurit; Serio, Carmine; Masiello, Guido; Venafra, Sara; Achal, Stephen; Puckrin, Eldon; Karnieli, Arnon

    2015-02-15

    Land surface emissivity (LSE) in the thermal infrared depends mainly on the ground cover and on changes in soil moisture. The LSE is a critical variable that affects the prediction accuracy of geophysical models requiring land surface temperature as an input, highlighting the need for an accurate derivation of LSE. The primary aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that diurnal changes in emissivity, as detected from space, are larger for areas mostly covered by biocrusts (composed mainly of cyanobacteria) than for bare sand areas. The LSE dynamics were monitored from geostationary orbit by the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) over a sand dune field in a coastal desert region extending across both sides of the Israel-Egypt political borderline. Different land-use practices by the two countries have resulted in exposed, active sand dunes on the Egyptian side (Sinai), and dunes stabilized by biocrusts on the Israeli side (Negev). Since biocrusts adsorb more moisture from the atmosphere than bare sand does, and LSE is affected by the soil moisture, diurnal fluctuations in LSE were larger for the crusted dunes in the 8.7 μm channel. This phenomenon is attributed to water vapor adsorption by the sand/biocrust particles. The results indicate that LSE is sensitive to minor changes in soil water content caused by water vapor adsorption and can, therefore, serve as a tool for quantifying this effect, which has a large spatial impact. As biocrusts cover vast regions in deserts worldwide, this discovery has repercussions for LSE estimations in deserts around the globe, and these LSE variations can potentially have considerable effects on geophysical models from local to regional scales. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Laboratory studies of dune sand for the use of construction industry in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Silva Jayawardena, Upali; Wijesuriya, Roshan; Abayaweera, Gayan; Viduranga, Tharaka

    2015-04-01

    With the increase of the annual sand demand for the construction industry the excessive excavation of river sand is becoming a serious environmental problem in Sri Lanka. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the possibility for an alternative to stop or at least to minimize river sand mining activities. Dune sand is one of the available alternative materials to be considered instead of river sand in the country. Large quantities of sand dunes occur mainly along the NW and SE coastal belt which belong to very low rainfall Dry Zone coasts. The height of dune deposits, vary from 1m to about 30 meters above sea level. The objective of this paper is to indicate some studies and facts on the dune sand deposits of Sri Lanka. Laboratory studies were carried out for visual observations and physical properties at the initial stage and then a number of tests were carried out according to ASTM standards to obtain the compressive strength of concrete cylinders and mortar cubes mixing dune sand and river sand in different percentages keeping a constant water cement ratio. Next the water cement ratio was changed for constant dune sand and river sand proportion. Microscopic analysis shows that the dune sand consist of 95 % of quartz and 5 % of garnet, feldspar, illmenite and other heavy minerals with clay, fine dust, fine shell fragments and organic matters. Grains are sub-rounded to angular and tabular shapes. The grain sizes vary from fine to medium size of sand with silt. The degree of sorting and particle size observed with dune sands are more suited with the requirement of fine aggregates in the construction industry. The test result indicates that dune sand could be effectively used in construction work without sieving and it is ideal for wall plastering due to its'-uniformity. It could also be effectively used in concrete and in mortars mixing with river sand. The best mixing ratio is 75% dune sand and 25% river sand as the fine aggregate of concrete. For mortar the mixing

  4. North American Oil Sands: History of Development, Prospects for the Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-17

    SAGD operations. Canada’s Oil Sands, May 2004. 43 Canada’s Oil Sands, June 2006 p. 4. 44 Canada’s Oil Sands, Opportunities and Challenges to 2015, An...Energy Market Assessment, May 2004, National Energy Board, Canada, p. 108. But a relatively new technology — steam-assisted gravity drainage ( SAGD ...has demonstrated that its operations can recover as much as 70% of the bitumen in- place. Using SAGD , steam is added to the oil sands using a

  5. Ecological and Control Techniques for Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) Associated with Rodent Reservoirs of Leishmaniasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-12

    found naturally in plant and animal tissues was highly effective for linking adult sand flies with their larval diet , without having to locate or capture...tissues was highly effective for linking adult sand flies with their larval diet , without having to locate or capture the sand fly larvae themselves. In a...overall adult population of sand flies in an area. However, indirect methods have been used to identify the diets of larvae of other insects through

  6. Effect of compost-, sand-, or gypsum-amended waste foundry sands on turfgrass yield and nutrient content

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To prevent the 7-11 million metric tons of waste foundry sand (WFS) produced annually in the U.S. from entering landfills, current research is focused on the reuse of WFSs as soil amendments. The effects of different WFS-containing amendments on turfgrass growth and nutrient content were tested by ...

  7. Mycorrhizal inoculum potentials of pure reclamation materials and revegetated tailing sands from the Canadian oil sand industry.

    PubMed

    Bois, G; Piché, Y; Fung, M Y P; Khasa, D P

    2005-05-01

    Recent improvements in the management of oil sand tailings used by the Canadian oil sand industry have resulted in the production of composite tailing sands (CT): a new challenging material for reclamation work. Jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.), hybrid poplar (Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh. xPopulus nigra L.) and red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) plants were used in an 8-week greenhouse bioassay to evaluate the mycorrhizal inoculum potential of CT. This inoculum potential was compared with that of three other reclamation materials [common tailing sands (TS), deep overburden (OB) and muskeg peat (MK)], and with three sites reclaimed in 1982 (R82), 1988 (R88) and 1999 (R99). CT was devoid of active mycorrhizal propagules while all other materials showed some level of inoculum potential. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were observed on roots of clover or poplar grown in TS, OB, and all substrates containing peat (MK, R82, R88 and R99). Pine roots were also colonized by vesicle-forming hyphae of an unidentified fine endophyte and by dark septate fungi. Ectomycorrhizas (ECM) were observed on pine and poplar grown in OB, MK, and in soils from the two older reclaimed sites (R82 and R88). Using morpho- and molecular typing, six ECM fungi were identified to the genus or species level: Laccaria sp., Thelephora americana, Wilcoxina sp. (E-strain), Tuber sp. (I-type), a Sebacinoid, and a Pezizales species. Laccaria sp. and Wilcoxina sp. were the most frequently observed ECM species.

  8. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands. Final report, July 1989--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Dahlstrom, D.A.

    1994-03-01

    Research and development of surface extraction and upgrading processes of western tar sands are described. Research areas included modified hot water, fluidized bed, and rotary kiln pyrolysis of tar sands for extraction of bitumen. Bitumen upgrading included solvent extraction of bitumen, and catalytic hydrotreating of bitumen. Characterization of Utah tar sand deposits is also included.

  9. DOES CONTACT WITH SAND AT BEACHES INCREASE THE RISK OF ILLNESS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies found high levels ofE. coli in sand, causing concern and media reports about risks of illness from contact with sand during beach recreation. We summarized associations between beach sand exposure and gastrointestinal (GI), respiratory, eye, ear, cut and urinary tr...

  10. Emplacement and dewatering of the world's largest exposed sand injectite complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherry, Timothy J.; Rowe, Christie D.; Kirkpatrick, James D.; Brodsky, Emily E.

    2012-08-01

    Sandstone injectites form by up or down-section flow of a mobilized sand slurry through fractures in overlying rock. They act as reservoirs and high-permeability conduits through lower permeability rock in hydrocarbon systems. The Yellow Bank Creek Complex, Santa Cruz County, California is the largest known exposure of a sandstone injectite in the world. The complex contains granular textures that record processes of sand slurry flow, multiple pore fluids, and dewatering after emplacement. The injection was initially mobilized from a source containing both water and hydrocarbons. The water-sand slurry reached emplacement depth first, due to lower fluid viscosity. As the sand slurry emplaced, the transition from slurry flow to pore water percolation occurred. This transition resulted in preferred flow channels ˜6 mm wide in which sand grains were weakly aligned (laminae). The hydrocarbon-sand slurry intruded the dewatering sands and locally deformed the laminae. Compaction of the injectite deposit and pore fluid escape caused spaced compaction bands and dewatering pipes which created convolutions of the laminae. The hydrocarbon-rich sand slurry is preserved today as dolomite-cemented sand with oil inclusions. The laminae in this injectite are easily detected due to preferential iron oxide-cementation of the well-aligned sand laminae, and lack of cement in the alternating laminae. Subtle textures like these may develop during sand flow and be present but difficult to detect in other settings. They may explain permeability anisotropy in other sand deposits.

  11. Sand Transport, Flow Turbulence, and Bed Forms over an Immobile Gravel Bed

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Channels downstream of dams often become armored because the sediment supply from upstream is cut off. Sand is generally supplied to these armored reaches intermittently from tributaries downstream of the dam or from sand bypassing. Accurate predictions of the rate of transport of sand over and th...

  12. Soil Phosphorus Level Adequate for Growth of Ocala Sand Pine Seedlings, A Greenhouse Evaluation

    Treesearch

    James B. Baker; R. H. Brendemuehl

    1972-01-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the level of soil P adequate for satisfactory growth of Ocala sand pine (Pinus clausa (Chapm.) Vasey) seedlings. Various quantities of Lakeland sand with low and high P contents were blended to provide soil mixtures with a range of available P. Ocala sand pine seedlings were grown in these mixtures for 10...

  13. Aviation Turbine Fuels from Tar Sands Bitumen and Heavy Oils. Part 1. Process Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    Uinta Basin .......................too.... 11 b . Asphalt Ridge ........................ 13 c.* Tar Sand Triangle ..... to .. .. . .. .. . 15 e...Estimated ............**..* 7 3 CHARACTERISTICS OF UTAH’S MAJOR TAR SANDS ....... 12 4 UINTA BASIN DEPOSITS ................... *........ 13 *.5 UINTA ...7 UINTA BASIN , UTAH PROPERTIES -SUNNYSIDE ........ 20 8 UINTA BASIN , UTAH PROPERTIES -P. R. SPRINGS . 22 r9 ESTIMATED CALIFORNIA TAR SAND DISTRIBUTION

  14. 77 FR 63326 - Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, and Sand Lake Wetland...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... FXRS1265066CCP0] Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, and Sand Lake Wetland... assessment (EA) involving Huron, Madison, and Sand Lake Wetland Management Districts (Districts). In this..., Madison Wetland Management District, Sand Lake Wetland Management District final CCP'' in the subject line...

  15. 76 FR 65525 - Huron, Madison, and Sand Lake Wetland Management District; Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ...] Huron, Madison, and Sand Lake Wetland Management District; Comprehensive Conservation Plan AGENCY: Fish... (CCP) and environmental assessment (EA) for the Huron, Madison, and Sand Lake Wetland Management...), Madison Wetland Management District, and Sand Lake Wetland Management District are part of the National...

  16. Contact with beach sand, concentrations of fecal indicators, and enteric illness risk

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies ofbeach sand fecal contamination have triggered interest among scientists and in the media. Although evidence shows that beach sand can harbor fecal indicator organisms as well as fecal pathogens, illness risk associated with beach sand contact and fecal indicators...

  17. Examination of pulverized waste recycled glass as filter media in slow sand filtration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Piccirillo, J.B.; Letterman, R.D.

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the pulverization of waste recycled glass to produce glass sand for slow sand filters. Pulverization experiments were performed using a fail mill pulverizer. The glass sand product from the pulverizer meets the size distribution requirements of ASTM-C-33 without size distribution adjustment. The size distribution must be adjusted to meet the grain size distribution requirements of the Ten States Standards and the USEPA for filter media used in slow sand filters. Pulverized glass that meet slow sand filter media specifications is an effective alternative to silica sand as a filter media for slowmore » sand filtration. Three pilot plant slow sand filters with glass sand filter media were compared to a fourth filter containing silica sand filter media. Over an 8 month period of continuous operation, the performance of the glass sand filter media was as good or better than the silica sands, with removals of 56% to 96% for turbidity; 99.78% to 100.0% for coliform bacteria; 99.995% to 99.997% for giardia cysts; 99.92% and 99.97% for cryptosporidium oocysts. Based on a cost-benefit analysis, converting waste glass into filter media may be economically advantageous for recycling facilities.« less

  18. Molecular Diversity between Salivary Proteins from New World and Old World Sand Flies with Emphasis on Bichromomyia olmeca, the Sand Fly Vector of Leishmania mexicana in Mesoamerica

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Shannon; Pasos-Pinto, Silvia; Sanchez, Laura; Rasouli, Manoochehr; B. Guimaraes-Costa, Anderson; Aslan, Hamide; Francischetti, Ivo M. B.; Oliveira, Fabiano; Becker, Ingeborg; Kamhawi, Shaden; Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; Jochim, Ryan C.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Sand fly saliva has been shown to have proteins with potent biological activities, salivary proteins that can be used as biomarkers of vector exposure, and salivary proteins that are candidate vaccines against different forms of leishmaniasis. Sand fly salivary gland transcriptomic approach has contributed significantly to the identification and characterization of many of these salivary proteins from important Leishmania vectors; however, sand fly vectors in some regions of the world are still neglected, as Bichromomyia olmeca (formerly known as Lutzomyia olmeca olmeca), a proven vector of Leishmania mexicana in Mexico and Central America. Despite the importance of this vector in transmitting Leishmania parasite in Mesoamerica there is no information on the repertoire of B. olmeca salivary proteins and their relationship to salivary proteins from other sand fly species. Methods and Findings A cDNA library of the salivary glands of wild-caught B. olmeca was constructed, sequenced, and analyzed. We identified transcripts encoding for novel salivary proteins from this sand fly species and performed a comparative analysis between B. olmeca salivary proteins and those from other sand fly species. With this new information we present an updated catalog of the salivary proteins specific to New World sand flies and salivary proteins common to all sand fly species. We also report in this work the anti-Factor Xa activity of Lofaxin, a salivary anticoagulant protein present in this sand fly species. Conclusions This study provides information on the first transcriptome of a sand fly from Mesoamerica and adds information to the limited repertoire of salivary transcriptomes from the Americas. This comparative analysis also shows a fast degree of evolution in salivary proteins from New World sand flies as compared with Old World sand flies. PMID:27409591

  19. Adverse effects of inhaled sand dust particles on the respiratory organs of sheep and goats exposed to severe sand storms in Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yoshimi; Shimada, Akinori; Nemoto, Mai; Morita, Takehito; Adilbish, Altanchimeg; Bayasgalan, Mungun-Ochir

    2014-01-01

    Sand storms in Mongolia have increased in frequency and scale, resulting in increased exposure of the inhabitants of Asian countries, including Japan and Korea, to Asian sand dust (ASD), which results in adverse effects on the respiratory system. However, there is no information on the health risks of severe sand storms in domestic animals in Mongolia. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of sand dust particles on the respiratory organs, including the lungs and tracheobronchial lymph nodes, of sheep and goats exposed to severe sand storms in Mongolia. Seven adult sheep and 4 adult goats that had been exposed to sand storms and 3 sheep with no history of exposure were included in this study. Lung tissues and tracheobronchial lymph nodes were subjected to histopathological and immunohistochemical examination. The mineralogical contents of the lungs and lymph nodes were determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Fibrosis and granulomatous lesions comprising macrophages containing fine sand dust particles were observed exclusively in the lungs of sheep and goats exposed to sand storms. The activity of macrophages was also demonstrated by the presence of IL-6, TNF, and lysozyme. In addition, silicon, which is the major element of ASD (kosa aerosol), was detected exclusively in the lung tissues of the exposed animals. Our findings suggest that exposure to sand dust particles may affect the respiratory systems of domestic animals during their relatively short life span.

  20. Simultaneous recovery and desulfurization of bitumen from oil sand using ultrasound irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okawa, Hirokazu; Kamal, Wan Mohamad Ikhwan bin Wan; Akazawa, Nobuyuki; Kato, Takahiro; Sugawara, Katsuyasu

    2018-07-01

    Oil sand contains bitumen, which includes a high percentage of sulfur. Before using bitumen as a fuel, it must be recovered from oil sand and desulfurized. Currently, bitumen is recovered from oil sand using hot water (<100 °C), and sulfur is removed via hydrodesulfurization (>300 °C). Both of these processes consume significant amounts of energy. In this study, we demonstrate the simultaneous recovery and desulfurization of bitumen from oil sand using oxidative desulfurization with ultrasonic irradiation and tetrahydrofuran at 20 °C. We successfully recovered 88% of the bitumen from oil sand and removed 42% of the sulfur from the bitumen.

  1. Improved Sand-Compaction Method for Lost-Foam Metal Casting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakhtiyarov, Sayavur I.; Overfelt, Ruel A.

    2008-01-01

    An improved method of filling a molding flask with sand and compacting the sand around a refractory-coated foam mold pattern has been developed for incorporation into the lost-foam metal-casting process. In comparison with the conventional method of sand filling and compaction, this method affords more nearly complete filling of the space around the refractory-coated foam mold pattern and more thorough compaction of the sand. In so doing, this method enables the sand to better support the refractory coat under metallostatic pressure during filling of the mold with molten metal.

  2. Methane hydrate formation in partially water-saturated Ottawa sand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waite, W.F.; Winters, W.J.; Mason, D.H.

    2004-01-01

    Bulk properties of gas hydrate-bearing sediment strongly depend on whether hydrate forms primarily in the pore fluid, becomes a load-bearing member of the sediment matrix, or cements sediment grains. Our compressional wave speed measurements through partially water-saturated, methane hydrate-bearing Ottawa sands suggest hydrate surrounds and cements sediment grains. The three Ottawa sand packs tested in the Gas Hydrate And Sediment Test Laboratory Instrument (GHASTLI) contain 38(1)% porosity, initially with distilled water saturating 58, 31, and 16% of that pore space, respectively. From the volume of methane gas produced during hydrate dissociation, we calculated the hydrate concentration in the pore space to be 70, 37, and 20% respectively. Based on these hydrate concentrations and our measured compressional wave speeds, we used a rock physics model to differentiate between potential pore-space hydrate distributions. Model results suggest methane hydrate cements unconsolidated sediment when forming in systems containing an abundant gas phase.

  3. Seismic Anisotropy of Soft Sands, Offshore Western AUstralia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urosevic, M.; Gurevich, B.

    2007-05-01

    Seismic anisotropy is commonly measured in sand shale environment. Intrinsic polar anisotropy of the shale and its effect on seismic data processing and analysis is well established and reasonably well understood. In sandstone, azimuthal anisotropy is often detected and is typically connected to an in situ stress regime and the brittleness of the rock. This type of anisotropy, commonly referred to as fractured induced anisotropy, has been widely and extensively studied as it directly affects both permeability and the strength of the rock. Hence fracture induced anisotropy is not only important for hydrocarbon exploration but also for geotechnical studies, underground mining, etc. Interestingly, in the last few years azimuthal anisotropy has also been detected in soft, poorly consolidated clean sands, mainly by cross-dipole sonic log measurements. This is somewhat surprising as in such soft, typically highly porous and permeable rocks stress induced fractures are unlikely to be abundant. In this study we analyse the anisotropy in such sand class using well-log measurements, three-component VSP data, as well as 2D and 3D surface seismic (reflection) data. High-quality cross-dipole sonic log measurements showed significant shear wave splitting over unconsolidated, highly porous and permeable sand interval. The shear wave anisotropy was computed to be around 10-15%. This is commonly seen as an indication that the rock is fractured and that the fractures are likely to be open. However, image log data over the same sand section suggested dilute most likely non-conductive fractures. Analysis of the shear wave splitting in VSP data also suggested low fracture density. The frequency content of the direct fast and slow shear waves on the VSP data was very similar, not supporting the presence of open fluid saturated fractures. Unfortunately, the evidence from the VSP data is not very compelling because the reservoir is thin compared to the wavelength and sampling interval of

  4. Attenuation of sound in sand sediments due to porosity fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Hefner, Brian T; Jackson, Darrell R

    2014-08-01

    At high frequencies, the attenuation measured in sand sediments is larger than that predicted by Biot theory. To account for this discrepancy, perturbation theory is used to incorporate losses due to scattering by porosity variations into both Biot's poroelastic equations and the effective density fluid model. While previous results showed that fluctuations in the bulk frame modulus were insufficient to produce significant attenuation in a sand sediment, modest levels of fluctuations in the porosity produce significant scattering loss. By using the sediment parameters and the heterogeneity power spectrum measured during the Sediment Acoustics Experiment in 2004, the perturbation theory result shows good agreement with the sound speed and attenuation data without any free parameters.

  5. Mobility of icy sand packs, with application to Martian permafrost

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durham, W.B.; Pathare, A.V.; Stern, L.A.; Lenferink, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    [1] The physical state of water on Mars has fundamental ramifications for both climatology and astrobiology. The widespread presence of "softened" Martian landforms (such as impact craters) can be attributed to viscous creep of subsurface ground ice. We present laboratory experiments designed to determine the minimum amount of ice necessary to mobilize topography within Martian permafrost. Our results show that the jammed-to-mobile transition of icy sand packs neither occurs at fixed ice content nor is dependent on temperature or stress, but instead correlates strongly with the maximum dry packing density of the sand component. Viscosity also changes rapidly near the mobility transition. The results suggest a potentially lower minimum volatile inventory for the impact-pulverized megaregolith of Mars. Furthermore, the long-term preservation of partially relaxed craters implies that the ice content of Martian permafrost has remained close to that at the mobility transition throughout Martian history. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Thermal Consolidation of Dredge Sand for Artificial Reef Formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trevino, Alexandro

    Coral Reef ecosystems have degraded over years due to a variety of environmental issues such as ocean acidification. The continuous stress has detrimental effects on coral reef ecosystems that can possibly lead to the loss of the ecosystem. Our research aims to construct a prototype of an artificial reef by consolidating dredge sand from the ship channels of South Texas. Consolidation is achieved through an aluminum polytetrafluoroethylene self-propagating high temperature process that yields a solid formation to mimic the physical properties of coral reef structures. Using thermodynamic calculations, the variation of initial components was determined that reached an adiabatic temperature with a maximum peak of 2000 K. The self-sustaining reaction front was obtained to rigidly consolidate the dredge sand only at composition concentrations exceeding a critical value of 24 wt.% Al, and 3 wt.% PTFE. The combustion synthesis produced a consolidated formation with a hardened and porous structure.

  7. Sand waves at the mouth of San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Hanes, Daniel M.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Iampietro, Pat J.

    2006-01-01

    A multibeam bathymetric survey that produced unprecedented high resolution images of the mouth of San Francisco Bay was conducted in 2004 and 2005. The survey, performed over forty-four days by the Seafloor Mapping Lab at California State University, Monterey Bay, consisted of 1,138 track lines, 1.1 billion soundings, and covered an area of 154 km2 (60 mi2). The goals of this survey were to analyze sediment transport pathways at the mouth of San Francisco Bay and to calculate bathymetric change since the last survey was completed in 1956. The survey showed that significant bathymetric changes have occurred over the past 50 years. It also revealed that the study area contains sand waves that are among the largest and bedform morphologies that are among the most varied in the world. This set of five sheets shows views of the sand waves on the seafloor from different perspectives along with descriptive text.

  8. Downwind Side of Namib Sand Dune on Mars, Stereo

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-01-04

    This stereo view from NASA's Curiosity Mars Rover shows the downwind side of "Namib Dune," which stands about 13 feet (4 meters) high. The image appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. The site is part of Bagnold Dunes, a band of dark sand dunes along the northwestern flank of Mars' Mount Sharp. The component images stitched together into this scene were taken with Curiosity's Navigation Camera (Navcam) on Dec. 17, 2015, during the 1,196th Martian day, or sol, of the rover's work on Mars. In late 2015 and early 2016, Curiosity is conducting the first up-close studies ever made of active sand dunes anywhere but on Earth. Under the influence of Martian wind, the Bagnold Dunes are migrating up to about one yard or meter per Earth year. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20282

  9. Wind-blown sand on beaches: an evaluation of models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, Douglas J.; Jackson, Derek W. T.; Namikas, Steven L.; Wang, Jinkang

    1998-03-01

    Five models for predicting rates of aeolian sand transport were evaluated using empirical data obtained from field experiments conducted in April, 1994 at a beach on Inch Spit, Co. Kerry, Republic of Ireland. Measurements were made of vertical wind profiles (to derive shear velocity estimates), beach slope, and rates of sand transport. Sediment samples were taken to assess characteristics of grain size and surface moisture content. Estimates of threshold shear velocity were derived using grain size data. After parsing the field data on the basis of the quality of shear velocity estimation and the occurrence of blowing sand, 51 data sets describing rates of sand transport and environmental conditions were retained. Mean grain diameter was 0.17 mm. Surface slopes ranged from 0.02 on the foreshore to about 0.11 near the dune toe. Mean shear velocities ranged from 0.23 m s -1 (just above the observed transport threshold) to 0.65 m s -1. Rates of transport ranged from 0.02 kg m -1 h -1 to more than 80 kg m -1 h -1. These data were used as input to the models of Bagnold [Bagnold, R.A., 1936. The Movement of Desert Sand. Proc. R. Soc. London, A157, 594-620], Kawamura [Kawamura, R., 1951. Study of Sand Movement by Wind. Translated (1965) as University of California Hydraulics Engineering Laboratory Report HEL 2-8, Berkeley], Zingg [Zingg, A.W., 1953. Wind tunnel studies of the movement of sedimentary material. Proc. 5th Hydraulics Conf. Bull. 34, Iowa City, Inst. of Hydraulics, pp. 111-135], Kadib [Kadib, A.A., 1965. A function for sand movement by wind. University of California Hydraulics Engineering Laboratory Report HEL 2-8, Berkeley], and Lettau and Lettau [Lettau, K. and Lettau, H., 1977. Experimental and Micrometeorological Field Studies of Dune Migration. In: K. Lettau and H. Lettau (Eds.), Exploring the World's Driest Climate. University of Wisconsin-Madison, IES Report 101, pp. 110-147]. Correction factors to adjust predictions of the rate of transport to account

  10. Exceptional marine sand bodies in the Paleozoic of Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, R.D.; Kuykendall, M.D.; Hooker, E.O.

    Of the wide variety of sandstone reservoirs in Oklahoma, the most unusual types of sand bodies are present in the Atokan Spiro Sandstone, Devonian Misener Sandstone, and Morrowan lower Morrow Sandstone. The common factors are that upon correlation and mapping these units are channel-like (fluvial-deltaic) in geometry, but from petrographic evidence are quartz-rich shallow-marine units, with the exclusion of intraclastic and diagenetic constituents. Stratigraphic mapping of the Spiro Sandstone of the Arkoma basin indicates two types of sand bodies: channel and sheet. The marine channel-like deposits, 10-150 ft thick, probably were deposited on a paleosurface produced by a pre-Atokan unconformity.more » Examination of cores and outcrop indicate that both the channel and sheet Spiro sands contain shallow-marine fossils, limestones, peloidal chamosite, burrows, and bioturbation, all indicative of a shallow-marine setting. The Misener Sandstone of north-central Oklahoma ranges from 10 to 100 ft thick with sharp boundaries. It was deposited in pre-Frisco/Woodford eroded paleochannels. Core evidence for shallow-marine deposition is glauconite, phosphatic fossils and clasts, burrows, and bioturbation. These were probably deposited in an embayed, estuary-like environment. The lower Morrow Sandstone of the Anadarko basin is similar in geometry, except that the sand bodies are multistoried and multilateral and do not appear to be associated with a regional unconformity. The lower Morrow sandstones, usually 30-60 ft thick. commonly are elongated and deposited parallel to the shoreline. Deposition is inferred to be shallow-marine from marine fossils and glauconite.« less

  11. Sand Waves in Environmental Flows: Insights gained by LES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2014-11-01

    In fluvial and coastal environments, sediment transport processes induced by near-bed coherent structures in the turbulent boundary layer developing over a mobile sediment bed result in the formation of dynamically rich sand waves, or bed forms, which grow and migrate continuously. Bed form migration alters streambed roughness and provides the primary mechanism for transporting large amounts of sediment through riverine systems impacting the morphology, streambank stability, and ecology of waterways. I will present recent computational advances, which have enabled coupled, hydro-morphodynamic large-eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent flow in mobile-bed open channels. Numerical simulations: 1) elucidate the role of near-bed sweeps in the turbulent boundary layer as the mechanism for initiating the instability of the initially flat sand bed; 2) show how near-bed processes give rise to aperiodic eruptions of suspended sediment at the free surface; and 3) clarify the mechanism via which sand waves migrate. Furthermore, in agreement with recent experimental observations, the computed spectra of the resolved velocity fluctuations above the bed exhibit a distinct spectral gap whose width increases with distance from the bed. The spectral gap delineates the spectrum of turbulence from that of slowly evolving coherent structures associated with sand wave migration. The talk will also present computational results demonstrating the feasibility of carrying out coupled, hydro-morphodynamic LES of large dunes migrating in meandering streams and rivers with embedded hydraulic structures and discuss future challenges and opportunities. This work was supported by NSF Grants EAR-0120914 and EAR-0738726, and National Cooperative Highway Research Program Grant NCHRP-HR 24-33.

  12. Aboveground Biomass of Choctawhatchee Sand Pine in Northwest Florida

    Treesearch

    Michael A. Taras

    1980-01-01

    Choctawhatchee sand pine trees 4 to 14 inches d.b.h. were selected from a natural, uneven-aged stand in northwest Florida to determine the weight and volume of above ground biomass. On the average, 85 percent of the green weight of the total tree was wood, 11 percent bark. and 4 percent needles. The average tree sampled had 82 percent of its wood in the stem and 18...

  13. Axisymmetric Strain Path Tests on Nellis Baseline Sand

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    tested to determine their grain-size distributions, specific gravities , and Atterberg limits. The results of these tests are su-Arized in Table 2.1...plastic limits, plasticity index, and specific gravity . All four batches of NB sand were classified by the Unified Soil Classi- fication System...those contaminated by oil due to membrane leakage. Based on these data and a specific gravity of 2.62, values of dry density, void ratio, degree of

  14. Laboratory Validation of the Sand Fly Fever Virus Antigen Assay

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    TOSV), sandfly fever Sicilian virus (SFSV), sandfly fever Naples virus (SFNV), and Punta Toro virus (Tesh 1988 , Alkan et al . 2013). These viruses pose a...of meningitis in Mediter- ranean and southern European countries during the vector season (Braito et al . 1997). Sandfly fever Sicilian virus also...stationed there (Peralta et al . 1965). Rapid field assessments of sand flies for phleboviruses have been previously unavailable. The available tests are

  15. Weight and Volume of Plantation-Grown Choctawhatchee Sand Pine

    Treesearch

    W. Henry McNab; Kenneth W. Outcalt; Raymond H. Brendemuehl

    1985-01-01

    The aboveground green weight of the total tree and its major components, the main stem and crown, were determined in eight stands of planted Choctawhatchee sand-pine ranging in age from 7 to 27 years. Eighty-three trees, ranging in d.b.h. from 0.7 to11.1 inches from 11 to 59 feet in total height, were sampled. After testing for significant differences, data were...

  16. Electric breakdown during the pulsed current spreading in the sand

    SciTech Connect

    Vasilyak, L. M., E-mail: vasilyak@ihed.ras.ru; Vetchinin, S. P.; Panov, V. A.

    2016-03-15

    Processes of spreading of the pulsed current from spherical electrodes and an electric breakdown in the quartz sand are studied experimentally. When the current density on the electrode exceeds the critical value, a nonlinear reduction occurs in the grounding resistance as a result of sparking in the soil. The critical electric field strengths for ionization and breakdown are determined. The ionization-overheating instability is shown to develop on the electrode, which leads to the current contraction and formation of plasma channels.

  17. A Stand-Replacement Prescribed Burn in Sand Pine Scrub

    Treesearch

    Kenneth W. Outcalt; Cathryn H. Greenberg

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes fire characteristics and the immediate effects of a prescribed, high-intensity bum on a 12.2 hectare portion of a stand of Ocala sand pine scrub. The fire team on the Seminole District, Ocala National Forest used the BEHAVE fire model to predict the conditions needed to accomplish a stand-replacement bum. Suitable conditions arose on May 11, 1993...

  18. Field observations of artificial sand and oil agglomerates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalyander, Patricia (Soupy); Long, Joseph W.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; McLaughlin, Molly R.; Mickey, Rangley C.

    2015-01-01

    Oil that comes into the surf zone following spills, such as occurred during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout, can mix with local sediment to form heavier-than-water sand and oil agglomerates (SOAs), at times in the form of mats a few centimeters thick and tens of meters long. Smaller agglomerates that form in situ or pieces that break off of larger mats, sometimes referred to as surface residual balls (SRBs), range in size from sand-sized grains to patty-shaped pieces several centimeters (cm) in diameter. These mobile SOAs can cause beach oiling for extended periods following the spill, on the scale of years as in the case of DWH. Limited research, including a prior effort by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) investigating SOA mobility, alongshore transport, and seafloor interaction using numerical model output, focused on the physical dynamics of SOAs. To address this data gap, we constructed artificial sand and oil agglomerates (aSOAs) with sand and paraffin wax to mimic the size and density of genuine SOAs. These aSOAs were deployed in the nearshore off the coast of St. Petersburg, Florida, during a field experiment to investigate their movement and seafloor interaction. This report presents the methodology for constructing aSOAs and describes the field experiment. Data acquired during the field campaign, including videos and images of aSOA movement in the nearshore (1.5-meter and 0.5-meter water depth) and in the swash zone, are also presented in this report.

  19. Laboratory observations of artificial sand and oil agglomerates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Robert L.; Dalyander, P. Soupy; Penko, Allison; Long, Joseph W.

    2018-04-27

    Sand and oil agglomerates (SOAs) form when weathered oil reaches the surf zone and combines with suspended sediments. The presence of large SOAs in the form of thick mats (up to 10 centimeters [cm] in height and up to 10 square meters [m2] in area) and smaller SOAs, sometimes referred to as surface residual balls (SRBs), may lead to the re-oiling of beaches previously affected by an oil spill. A limited number of numerical modeling and field studies exist on the transport and dynamics of centimeter-scale SOAs and their interaction with the sea floor. Numerical models used to study SOAs have relied on shear-stress formulations to predict incipient motion. However, uncertainty exists as to the accuracy of applying these formulations, originally developed for sand grains in a uniformly sorted sediment bed, to larger, nonspherical SOAs. In the current effort, artificial sand and oil agglomerates (aSOAs) created with the size, density, and shape characteristics of SOAs were studied in a small-oscillatory flow tunnel. These experiments expanded the available data on SOA motion and interaction with the sea floor and were used to examine the applicability of shear-stress formulations to predict SOA mobility. Data collected during these two sets of experiments, including photographs, video, and flow velocity, are presented in this report, along with an analysis of shear-stress-based formulations for incipient motion. The results showed that shear-stress thresholds for typical quartz sand predicted the incipient motion of aSOAs with 0.5–1.0-cm diameters, but were inaccurate for aSOAs with larger diameters (>2.5 cm). This finding implies that modified parameterizations of incipient motion may be necessary under certain combinations of aSOA characteristics and environmental conditions.

  20. 10. View looking northwest from the sand bar on the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. View looking northwest from the sand bar on the east side of the bridge. This photograph of the northeast abutment shows cracks and efflorescence which as developed at the edge of the arch entrados. These effects show the thickness of the arch casting as it is contained by the spandrels and abutment. - Vigo County Bridge No. 139, Spanning Sugar Creek at Seventy-fourth Place, Terre Haute, Vigo County, IN

  1. NASA Johnson Space Center: White Sands Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggarwal, Pravin; Kowalski, Robert R.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the testing facilities and laboratories available at the White Sands Test Facility (WSTF). The mission of WSTF is to provide the expertise and infrastructure to test and evaluate spacecraft materials, components and propulsion systems that enable the safe exploration and use of space. There are nine rocket test stands in two major test areas, six altitude test stands, three ambient test stands,

  2. Characterization of minerals in natural and manufactured sand in Cauvery River belt, Tamilnadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnanasaravanan, S.; Rajkumar, P.

    2013-05-01

    The present study investigates the characterization of minerals in the River Sand (R - Sand) and the Manufactured sand (M-Sand) through FTIR spectroscopic studies. The R - Sand is collected from seven different locations in Cauvery River and M - Sand is collected from eight different manufactures around the Cauvery River belt in Salem, Erode, Tirupur and Namakkal districts of Tamilnadu, India. To extend the effectiveness of the analysis, the samples were subjected to grain size separation to classify the bulk samples into different grain sizes. All the samples were analyzed using FTIR spectrometer. The number of minerals identified with the help of FTIR spectra in overall (bulk) samples of R - Sand is 14 and of M - Sand is 13. The number has been increased while going for grain size separation, i.e., from 14 to 31 for R - Sand and from 13 to 20 for M - Sand. Among all minerals, quartz plays a major role. The relative distribution and the crystallinity nature of quartz have been discussed based on the extinction co-efficient and the crystallinity index values computed. There is no major variation found in M - Sand while going for grain size separation.

  3. Wall shear measurement in sand-water mixture flows

    SciTech Connect

    Yucel, O.; Grad, W.H.

    1975-07-01

    The wall shear stress was measured in clear-water and sand-water mixture flows with the use of a flush-mounting hot-film shear-sensor. Data were obtained with 2 shear-sensors and 2 different sands (d50 = 0.45 mm and d50 = 0.88 mm) with solids concentrations of up to Cmax = 1.6% by vol, and for flow Reynolds number of 10/sup 5/ < RD < 6 x 10/sup 5/. The measured sensor wall shear stresses were compared with the true wall shear stresses obtained with the energy head loss measurements conducted in a pipeline system. The results of the tests in the clear-water flowsmore » confirmed the relationship between the sensor power output, Ps, and the wall shear stress, tauo, given by tauo1/3 = APs + B, in which A and B are calibration coefficients. The tests with the low-concentration sand-water mixtures in a vertical pipe indicated that for the present range of experiments, sensor power outputs with the mixtures exceeded those for clear-water by an average of 5%. It is shown that the shear sensors are delicate but accurate instruments that can be used for the measurement of the wall shear stress. (13 refs.)« less

  4. Australian Red Dune Sand: A Potential Martian Regolith Analog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlman, K. R.; Marshall, J.; Evans, N. D.; Luttge, A.

    2001-01-01

    To demonstrate the potential scientific and technical merits of in situ microscopy on Mars, we analyzed a possible Martian regolith analog - an acolian red dune sand from the central Australian desert (near Mt. Olga). This sand was chosen for its ubiquitous red coating and the desert environment in which is it found. Grains of this sand were analyzed using a variety of microanalytical techniques. A database of detailed studies of such terrestrial analogs would assist the study of geological and astrobiological specimens in future missions to Mars. Potential instrument concepts for in situ deployment on Mars include local electrode atom probe nanoanalysis (LEAP), vertical scanning white light interferometry (VSWLI), scanning electron microscopies, energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis (EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). While in situ deployment of these techniques is many years away, ground-based studies using these analytical techniques extend our understanding of the data obtained from instruments to be flown in the near future.

  5. PM 2.5 Airborne Particulates Near Frac Sand Operations.

    PubMed

    Walters, Kristin; Jacobson, Jeron; Kroening, Zachary; Pierce, Crispin

    2015-11-01

    The rapid growth of hydraulic fracturing for oil and gas extraction in the U.S. has led to 135 active "frac" sand mines, processing plants, and rail transfer stations in Wisconsin. Potential environmental health risks include increased truck traffic, noise, ecosystem loss, and groundwater, light, and air pollution. Emitted air contaminants include fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and respirable crystalline silica. Inhalation of fine dust particles causes increased mortality, cardiovascular disease, lung disease, and lung cancer. In the authors' pilot study, use of a filter-based ambient particulate monitor found PM2.5 levels of 5.82-50.8 µg/m3 in six 24-hour samples around frac sand mines and processing sites. Enforcement of the existing U.S. Environmental Protection Agency annual PM2.5 standard of 12 µg/m3 is likely to protect the public from silica exposure risks as well. PM2.5 monitoring around frac sand sites is needed to ensure regulatory compliance, inform nearby communities, and protect public health.

  6. Experimental Study on Clogging of Fine Particles in Sand Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirabayashi, S.

    2015-12-01

    In the methane hydrate development from the sand sediment beneath the seafloor, it is anticipated that the migrating fine particles may block the pore and consequently reduces the permeability near the production well. Although this phenomenon is known as skin formation, its microscopic mechanism is still unknown. As a part of a Japanese National hydrate research program (MH21, funded by METI), we carried out an experiment on the clogging of fine particles in sand sediments. A transparent core holder was newly developed to directly visualize the behavior of fine particles in the pore of frame sands and formation of skin. It was observed that there seems to be an induction time before the clogging starts to occur. Once clogging occurs, the upstream fine particles cannot move downstream anymore and the skin is formed. It was found that the rate of skin formation is related to the total volume of injected fine particles while the flow velocity has something to do with the length of the induction time.

  7. Biocolloid transport in water saturated columns packed with sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syngouna, V. I.; Chrysikopoulos, C.

    2010-12-01

    Protection of groundwater supplies from microbial contamination necessitates a solid understanding of the factors controlling the migration and retention of pathogenic organisms (biocolloids) in the subsurface. The transport behavior of three waterborne pathogens (Escherichia coli, MS2, and ΦΧ174) was investigated using laboratory-scale columns packed with clean quartz sand. Various grain sizes and pore water velocities were examined. Though coliform bacteria and coliphages are used worldwide to indicate fecal pollution of groundwater, the various parameters controlling the transport of Escherichia coli MS2 and ΦΧ174 in the subsurface are not fully understood. In this study, the attachment behavior of Escherichia coli, MS2, and ΦΧ174 onto ultra-pure quartz sand were evaluated. The mass recoveries of the three biocolloids examined were found to be proportional to the sand size. The observed mass recoveries were in the order: Escherichia coli > ΦΧ174 > MS2. To assess the importance of biocolloid attachment, the single collector removal efficiency, and the collision efficiency were quantified using the classical colloid filtration theory. Our results indicate that the secondary energy minimum plays an important role in biocolloid deposition even for smaller biocolloid particles (e.g. viruses).

  8. Hardness characteristic of dental porcelain synthesized from Indonesian natural sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunawan, J.; Taufik, D.; Takarini, V.; Hasratiningsih, Z.; Ramelan, A.

    2018-02-01

    Porcelain has been one of dental biomaterials which can be used to restore tooth structure. Veneer and jacket crown were the examples of dental porcelain restoration. Since wear resistance is related to the strength on its surface, then Vickers Hardness Test of the synthesized porcelain was applied subsequently. If the porcelain hardness number is too high, it should be considered that an abrasion of the opposing teeth could occur. On previous research, dental porcelain had been successfully synthesized from Indonesian natural sand. In this experiment, 5 samples were prepared from a mixture of 65w/o Pangaribuan feldspar, 25w/o Belitung silica, 5w/o Sukabumi kaolinite, and 5w/o potassium salt. This synthesized porcelain samples were invested on 5 cm diameter resin each. A kilogram of load was placed on top of each sample for 10 seconds on 7 different indented areas using ZwickRoell Indentec ZHVμ Micro Vickers. The average hardness number of synthesized dental porcelain made from Indonesian natural sand was 936.06 VHN which was higher than the average hardness number of porcelain restoration. In conclusion of the hardness test, synthesized dental porcelain made from Indonesian natural sand can potentially be used as a core, which shall support hardness and strength of the crown restoration.

  9. Investigation of formaldehyde interaction with carbon nanotubes and quartz sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgopoulou, Maria P.; Chrysikopoulos, Constantinos V.

    2017-04-01

    Assessment of the potential impact of synthetic carbon nanotubes on the fate and transport of common chemical contaminants (pesticides, pharmaceuticals, etc.) in groundwater systems is considered to be an increasingly important aspect of environmental research. This study investigates the interaction of formaldehyde with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and quartz sand under static and dynamic conditions. Due to polarity, formaldehyde, is expected to develop strong adsorptive interactions with carbon nanotubes. Several batch adsorption experiments were conducted in test tubes, under controlled conditions. Various initial formaldehyde solution concentration (2, 5, 8 ppm), contact times, and temperatures (8, 18, 25 °C) were considered. Supernatant liquid samples were collected at regular intervals, and centrifuged. Subsequently, the formaldehyde concentration in the supernatant was quantified indirectly, by derivatization with Nash reagent and subsequent measurement of the resulting complex using spectrophotometry in the visible spectral range. Experimental results suggested that formaldehyde has a low affinity for quartz sand, but an enhanced potential for adsorption onto carbon nanotubes. Formaldehyde adsorption onto both absorbents (quartz sand and MWCNTs) was more pronounced under dynamic than static conditions, probably, because agitation improves the mixing of the absorbent within the solution. Also, it was shown that the adsorption data were adequately described by the pseudo-second order kinetic model, suggesting that the primary adsorption mechanism was chemisorption, where two or more (sequential or parallel) processes (e.g. surface chemisorption, intraparticle diffusion) were taking place. Therefore, MWCNTs could be promising adsorbent materials for groundwater remediation.

  10. Separability studies of construction and demolition waste recycled sand.

    PubMed

    Ulsen, Carina; Kahn, Henrique; Hawlitschek, Gustav; Masini, Eldon A; Angulo, Sérgio C

    2013-03-01

    The quality of recycled aggregates from construction and demolition waste (CDW) is strictly related to the content of porous and low strength phases, and specifically to the patches of cement that remain attached to the surface of natural aggregates. This phase increases water absorption and compromises the consistency and strength of concrete made from recycled aggregates. Mineral processing has been applied to CDW recycling to remove the patches of adhered cement paste on coarse recycled aggregates. The recycled fine fraction is usually disregarded due to its high content of porous phases despite representing around 50% of the total waste. This paper focus on laboratory mineral separability studies for removing particles with a high content of cement paste from natural fine aggregate particles (quartz/feldspars). The procedure achieved processing of CDW by tertiary impact crushing to produce sand, followed by sieving and density and magnetic separability studies. The attained results confirmed that both methods were effective in reducing cement paste content and producing significant mass recovery (80% for density concentration and 60% for magnetic separation). The production of recycled sand contributes to the sustainability of the construction environment by reducing both the consumption of raw materials and disposal of CDW, particularly in large Brazilian centers with a low quantity of sand and increasing costs of this material due to long transportation distances. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Large-eddy simulation of sand dune morphodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosronejad, Ali; Sotiropoulos, Fotis; St. Anthony Falls Laboratory, University of Minnesota Team

    2015-11-01

    Sand dunes are natural features that form under complex interaction between turbulent flow and bed morphodynamics. We employ a fully-coupled 3D numerical model (Khosronejad and Sotiropoulos, 2014, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 753:150-216) to perform high-resolution large-eddy simulations of turbulence and bed morphodynamics in a laboratory scale mobile-bed channel to investigate initiation, evolution and quasi-equilibrium of sand dunes (Venditti and Church, 2005, J. Geophysical Research, 110:F01009). We employ a curvilinear immersed boundary method along with convection-diffusion and bed-morphodynamics modules to simulate the suspended sediment and the bed-load transports respectively. The coupled simulation were carried out on a grid with more than 100 million grid nodes and simulated about 3 hours of physical time of dune evolution. The simulations provide the first complete description of sand dune formation and long-term evolution. The geometric characteristics of the simulated dunes are shown to be in excellent agreement with observed data obtained across a broad range of scales. This work was supported by NSF Grants EAR-0120914 (as part of the National Center for Earth-Surface Dynamics). Computational resources were provided by the University of Minnesota Supercomputing Institute.

  12. Discrimination of active and inactive sand from remote sensing - Kelso dunes, Mojave Desert, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paisley, Elizabeth C. I.; Lancaster, Nicholas; Gaddis, Lisa R.; Greeley, Ronald

    1991-01-01

    Landsat TM images, field data, and laboratoray reflectance spectra were examined for the Kelso dunes, Mojave Desert, California to assess the use of visible and near-infrared (VNIR) remote sensing data to discriminate aeolian sand populations on the basis of spectral brightness. Results show that areas of inactive sand have a larger percentage of dark, fine-grained materials compared to those composed of active sand, which contain less dark fines and a higher percentage of quartz sand-size grains. Both areas are spectrally distinct in the VNIR, suggesting that VNIR spectral data can be used to discriminate active and inactive sand populations in the Mojave Desert. Analysis of laboratory spectra was complicated by the presence of magnetite in the active sands, which decreases their laboratory reflectance values to those of inactive sands. For this application, comparison of TM and laboratory spectra suggests that less than 35 percent vegetation cover does not influence the TM spectra.

  13. Least tern and piping plover nesting at sand pits in Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sidle, John G.; Kirsch, E.M.

    1993-01-01

    Endangered Least Terns (Sterna antillarum) and threatened Piping Plovers (Charadrius melodus) nest at commercial sand and gravel mining operations (sand pits) along the Platte River system in Nebraska. Sandbar habitat has been disappearing since the early 1900's along the Platte River system, but numbers of sand pits have increased. We hypothesized that birds would more fully utilize sand pits where suitable sandbar habitat was limited. We inventoried sand pits and censused terns and plovers on both habitats along the Loup River, part of the North Loup River, and most of the Platte River during 1988-1991. Using aircraft, we also quantified features of suitable sand pits present on the central Platte in 1988 and lower Platte in 1990, and related features to abundance and presence of birds. We found 225 sand pits of which 78 were suitable and 187 were unsuitable for nesting. Along the central Platte, where sandbar habitat is severely degraded, birds nested at 81% of the suitable sand pits (N = 32) at least once during 1988-1991, and most birds (61-94%) nested on sand pits. Along the lower Platte, where both sandbar and sand pit habitat are plentiful, birds nested at 60% of the suitable sand pits (N = 35) at least once during 1988-1991, and most birds (60-86%) nested on sandbars. Numbers of terns and plovers were more weakly correlated with features of sand pits on the central Platte than on the lower Platte. Least Terns and Piping Plovers seem to use more of the suitable sand pit habitat on the central Platte than on the lower Platte. Sand pits probably have influenced the birds' distribution by providing alternative nesting habitat along rivers where suitable sandbars are rare or absent.

  14. Properties of palm oil fuel ash cement sand brick containing pulverized cockle shell as partial sand replacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mat Aris, S.; Muthusamy, K.; Uzer, A.; Ahmad, S. Wan

    2018-04-01

    Environmental pollution caused by the disposal of solid wastes generated from both palm oil industry and cockle shell trade has motivated researches to explore the potential of these wastes. Integrating these wastes in production of construction material is one of the ways to reduce amount of waste thrown at dumping area. Thus, the present investigation investigates the performance of palm oil fuel ash (POFA) cement sand brick containing pulverized cockle shell as partial fine aggregate replacement. All mixes used contain 20% of POFA as partial cement replacement. Total of six mixes were prepared by adding a range of pulverized cockle shell that is 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% as partial sand replacement. The mixes were prepared in form of brick. All the water cured samples were tested for compressive strength and flexural strength until 28 days. Findings show that brick produced using 20% pulverized cockle shell exhibit the highest compressive strength and flexural strength also the lowest water absorption value.

  15. Trends in Gypsiferous Aerosol Downwind of White Sands, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, W. H.; Trzepla, K.; Yatkin, S.; Gill, T. E.; Jin, L.

    2013-12-01

    White Sands is a known 'hotspot' of dust emissions in southwestern North America where an active gypsum dunefield abuts erodible playa sediments. Aerosols entrained from White Sands are sometimes visible on satellite images as distinct, light-colored plumes crossing the Sacramento Mountains to the northeast. The U.S. Forest Service operates an aerosol sampler at White Mountain in the lee of the Sacramento range as part of the IMPROVE network (Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environments). In recent years a spring pulse of sulfate aerosol has appeared at White Mountain, eclipsing the regional summer peak attributed to atmospheric reactions of sulfur dioxide emissions. A significant fraction of this spring sulfate is contributed by gypsum and other salts from White Sands, with clearly increased concentrations of calcium, strontium, and chloride. The increase in these species coincides with a drought following a period of above-average precipitation. White Sands and White Mountain thus provide an unusually well-defined natural laboratory: a climatically sensitive dust source that is both well characterized and chemically distinct from its surroundings, with a signature that remains identifiably distinct at a long-term observatory ~100 km downwind. This paper examines the routine PM2.5 (fine-particle, Dp < 2.5 um) composition data available from White Mountain and other regional IMPROVE sites (e.g. Bosque del Apache), supplemented by some elemental analysis of collocated PM10 samples. The ambient data are compared with chemical analyses of surface samples from White Sands, bulk dry dustfall and soil surface composition at White Mountain, satellite observations of dust plumes, and available meteorological records. Together, the observations document significant, episodic aeolian transport of gypsum and other salts across the Sacramento Mountains. Figure 1. Left: Monthly average concentrations of every-third-day 24h samples. Top right: MODIS image, 2

  16. Evaluation of Liquefaction Susceptibility of Clean Sands after Blast Densification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega Posada, Carlos Alberto

    The effect of earthquakes on infrastructure facilities is an important topic of interest in geotechnical research. A key design issue for such facilities is whether or not liquefaction will occur during an earthquake. The consequences of this type of ground failure are usually severe, resulting in severe damage to a facility and in some cases the loss of human life. One approach to minimize the effect of liquefaction is to improve the ground condition by controlled blasting. The main limitations of the blast densification technique are that the design is mostly empirical and verification studies of densification have resulted in contradictory results in some case studies. In such cases, even though the ground surface settles almost immediately after blasting, common verification tests such as the cone penetration test (CPT), standard penetration test (SPT), and shear wave velocity test (Vs) suggest that the soil mass has not been improved at all. This raises concerns regarding the future performance of the soil and casts doubts on whether or not the improved deposit is still susceptible to liquefaction. In this work, a blast densification program was implemented at the Oakridge Landfill located in Dorchester County, SC, to gain information regarding the condition of a loose sand deposit during and after each blast event. In addition, an extensive laboratory testing program was conducted on reconstituted sand specimens to evaluate the mechanical behavior of saturated and gassy, medium dense sands during monotonic and cyclic loading. The results from the field and laboratory program indicate that gas released during blasting can remain trapped in the soil mass for several years, and this gas greatly affects the mechanical behavior of the sand. Gas greatly increases the liquefaction resistance of the soil. If the gas remains in the sand over the life of a project, then it will maintain this increased resistance to liquefaction, whether or not the penetration

  17. Guided wave attenuation in coated pipes buried in sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinov, Eli; Cawley, Peter; Lowe, Michael J. S.

    2016-02-01

    Long-range guided wave testing (GWT) is routinely used for the monitoring and detection of corrosion defects in above ground pipelines in various industries. The GWT test range in buried, coated pipelines is greatly reduced compared to aboveground pipelines due to energy leakage into the embedding soil. In this study, we aim to increase test ranges for buried pipelines. The effect of pipe coatings on the T(0,1) and L(0,2) guided wave attenuation is investigated using a full-scale experimental apparatus and model predictions. Tests are performed on a fusion-bonded epoxy (FBE)-coated 8" pipe, buried in loose and compacted sand over a frequency range of 10-35 kHz. The application of a low impedance coating is shown to effectively decouple the influence of the sand on the ultrasound leakage from the buried pipe. We demonstrate ultrasonic isolation of a buried pipe by coating the pipe with a Polyethylene (PE)-foam layer that has a smaller impedance than both pipe and sand and the ability to withstand the overburden load from the sand. The measured attenuation in the buried PE-foam-FBE-coated pipe is substantially reduced, in the range of 0.3-1.2 dBm-1 for loose and compacted sand conditions, compared to buried FBE-coated pipe without the PE-foam, where the measured attenuation is in the range of 1.7-4.7 dBm-1. The acoustic properties of the PE-foam are measured independently using ultrasonic interferometry technique and used in model predictions of guided wave propagation in a buried coated pipe. Good agreement is found between the attenuation measurements and model predictions. The attenuation exhibits periodic peaks in the frequency domain corresponding to the through-thickness resonance frequencies of the coating layer. The large reduction in guided wave attenuation for PE-coated pipes would lead to greatly increased GWT test ranges, so such coatings would be attractive for new pipeline installations.

  18. Sand Transport under Highly Turbulent Airflow on a Beach Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baas, A. C. W.; Jackson, D. W. T.; Cooper, J. A. G.; Lynch, K.; Delgado-Fernandez, I.; Beyers, J. H. M.

    2012-04-01

    The past decade has seen a growing body of research on the relation between turbulence in the wind and the resultant transport of sediment over active sand surfaces. Widespread use of sonic anemometry and high-frequency sand transport sensors and traps have facilitated recent field studies over dunes and beach surfaces, to move beyond monitoring of mean wind speed and bulk transport to more detailed measurements at much higher spatio-temporal resolutions. In this paper we present results of a field study conducted in the recirculation flow and re-attachment zone on a beach behind a foredune at Magilligan Strand, Northern Ireland. The offshore winds over the foredune at this site are associated with flow separation and reversal located over the beach surface in the lee of the dune row, often strong enough to induce sand transport toward the toe of the foredune ('against' the overall offshore flow). The re-attachment and recirculation zone are associated with strongly turbulent fluid flow and complex streamlines that do not follow the underlying topography. High frequency (25 Hz) wind and sand transport data were collected at a grid of point locations distributed over the beach surface between 35 m to 55 m distance from the 10 m high dune crest, using ultrasonic anemometers at 0.5 m height and co-located load cell traps and Safires at the bed surface. The wind data are used to investigate the role of Reynolds shear stresses and quadrant analysis techniques for identifying burst-sweep events in relation to sand transport events. This includes an assessment of the issues involved with data rotations for yaw, pitch, and roll corrections relative to complex flow streamlines, and the subsequently derived turbulence parameters based on fluctuating vector components (u', v', w'). Results illustrate how transport may exist under threshold mean velocities because of the role played by coherent flow structures, and the findings corroborate previous findings that shear velocity

  19. Adaptation to life in aeolian sand: how the sandfish lizard, Scincus scincus, prevents sand particles from entering its lungs.

    PubMed

    Stadler, Anna T; Vihar, Boštjan; Günther, Mathias; Huemer, Michaela; Riedl, Martin; Shamiyeh, Stephanie; Mayrhofer, Bernhard; Böhme, Wolfgang; Baumgartner, Werner

    2016-11-15

    The sandfish lizard, Scincus scincus (Squamata: Scincidae), spends nearly its whole life in aeolian sand and only comes to the surface for foraging, defecating and mating. It is not yet understood how the animal can respire without sand particles entering its respiratory organs when buried under thick layers of sand. In this work, we integrated biological studies, computational calculations and physical experiments to understand this phenomenon. We present a 3D model of the upper respiratory system based on a detailed histological analysis. A 3D-printed version of this model was used in combination with characteristic ventilation patterns for computational calculations and fluid mechanics experiments. By calculating the velocity field, we identified a sharp decrease in velocity in the anterior part of the nasal cavity where mucus and cilia are present. The experiments with the 3D-printed model validate the calculations: particles, if present, were found only in the same area as suggested by the calculations. We postulate that the sandfish has an aerodynamic filtering system; more specifically, that the characteristic morphology of the respiratory channel coupled with specific ventilation patterns prevent particles from entering the lungs. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. To See the World in a Grain of Sand: Recognizing the Origin of Sand Specimens by Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy and Multivariate Exploratory Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pezzolo, Alessandra De Lorenzi

    2011-01-01

    The diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectra of sand samples exhibit features reflecting their composition. Basic multivariate analysis (MVA) can be used to effectively sort subsets of homogeneous specimens collected from nearby locations, as well as pointing out similarities in composition among sands of different origins.…

  1. Experimental study of optimal self compacting concrete with spent foundry sand as partial replacement for M-sand using Taguchi approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nirmala, D. B.; Raviraj, S.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the application of Taguchi approach to obtain optimal mix proportion for Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) containing spent foundry sand and M-sand. Spent foundry sand is used as a partial replacement for M-sand. The SCC mix has seven control factors namely, Coarse aggregate, M-sand with Spent Foundry sand, Cement, Fly ash, Water, Super plasticizer and Viscosity modifying agent. Modified Nan Su method is used to proportion the initial SCC mix. L18 (21×37) Orthogonal Arrays (OA) with the seven control factors having 3 levels is used in Taguchi approach which resulted in 18 SCC mix proportions. All mixtures are extensively tested both in fresh and hardened states to verify whether they meet the practical and technical requirements of SCC. The quality characteristics considering "Nominal the better" situation is applied to the test results to arrive at the optimal SCC mix proportion. Test results indicate that the optimal mix satisfies the requirements of fresh and hardened properties of SCC. The study reveals the feasibility of using spent foundry sand as a partial replacement of M-sand in SCC and also that Taguchi method is a reliable tool to arrive at optimal mix proportion of SCC.

  2. Identification of discontinuous sand pulses on the bed of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, E. R.; Grams, P. E.; Buscombe, D.; Topping, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    Decades of research on alluvial sandbars and sand transport on the Colorado River in Grand Canyon has contributed to in-depth understanding of the sand budget and lead to management actions designed to rebuild eroded sandbars. However, some basic, but difficult to address, questions about the processes and rates of sand movement through the system still limit our ability to predict geomorphic responses. The coarse fraction of the bed is heterogeneous and varies among boulders, cobble, gravel, and bedrock. Sand covers these substrates in patches of variable size and thickness, fills interstices to varying degrees, and forms mixed sand/coarse bed configurations such as linear stripes. Understanding the locations of sand accumulation, the quantities of sand contained in those locations, and the processes by which sand is exchanged among depositional locations is needed to predict the morphological response of sandbars to management actions, such as the controlled flood releases, and to predict whether sandbars are likely to increase or decrease in size over long (i.e. decadal) time periods. Here, we present evidence for the downstream translation of the sand component of tributary sediment inputs as discontinuous sand pulses. The silt and clay (mud) fraction of sediment introduced episodically by seasonal floods from tributary streams is transported entirely in suspension and moves through the 400 km series of canyons in a few days. The sand fraction of this sediment, which is transported on the bed and in suspension, moves downstream in sand pulses that we estimate range in length from a few km to tens of km. Owing to the complex geomorphic organization, the sand pulses are not detectable as coherent bed features; each individual sand pulse is comprised of many isolated storage locations, separated by rapids and riffles where sand cover is sparse. The presence of the sand pulses is inferred by the existence of alternating segments of sand accumulation and depletion

  3. Holocene beach buildup and coastal aeolian sand incursions off the Nile littoral cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roskin, Joel; Sivan, Dorit; Shtienberg, Gilad; Porat, Naomi; Bookman, Revital

    2017-04-01

    Israel's coastal plain is abundant with sand originating from the Nile littoral cell. The inland windblown loose sand has formed 3-6 km wide lobe-like sand and dune fields currently comprised of foredunes, linear and northeasterly facing transverse and parabolic dunes that are currently stabilized by vegetation. This study reviews the architecture and history of the these dune fields aiming to: (a) Date the timings of beach accretion, and sand and dune incursions. (b) Discriminate between natural and human-induced forcing factors of sand mobilization and stabilization in time and space. (c) Present a model of the dunescape development. (d) Assess scenarios of sand transport in the future charcaterized by intense human impact and climate change. Luminescence ages, radiocarbon dates and relative ages from previously published geological and archaeological reports, historical texts, together with new optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages and stratigraphic and sedimentological data are analyzed. The deposition, mobilizations and preservation of the sand bodies, initially induced by the decline in sea level rise at 6-4 ka, were later controlled by historic land-use intensity and modern land-use/negligence practices. At 6 ka, beach sand buildup rapidly started. Where aeolianite ridges bordered the coast, pulses of sand with biogenic carbonate grains unconformably draped the ridges and rapidly consolidated into a distinct sandy calcarenite unit. Further east, sand sheets and low dunes partly pedogenized following their incursion, but did not cement. The water retention capacities of the sand sheets enabled the establishment of a sand-stabilizing vegetation cover that probably became an attractive environment for fuel and grazing. The growing Hellenistic-Roman-Byzantine ( 2.4-1.3 ka) populations probably led to increased consumption and massive destruction of sand stabilizing vegetation, enabling sand erodibility and mobilization during winter storms. The sand

  4. National Metal Casting Research Institute final report. Volume 1, Sand reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Vondra, L.F.; Burningham, J.S.

    1995-08-01

    A mobile thermal foundry sand reclamation unit was designed and constructed. This unit consisted of thermal and mechanical sand reclamation equipment installed on the bed of a 50 foot low-boy trailer. It was transported to a number of Midwest foundries for on-site demonstration of the sand reclamation process. This allowed participating foundries to have their own refuse sand (10-100 tons) processed and then reused in production for evaluation. The purpose for building the unit was to demonstrate to foundries through ``hands on`` experience that refuse sands can be reclaimed and successfully reused particularly in regard to product quality. Most ofmore » the participating foundries indicated a high level of satisfaction with the reclaimed sand. Laboratory testing of samples of the used sand, before and after processing by the demonstration unit, verified the usability of the reclaimed sand. One of the foundries participating was a brass foundry, the sand from this foundry contained lead and is classified as a hazardous material. After reclamation the sand was no longer hazardous and could also be reused in the foundry.« less

  5. Generation rate and particle size distribution of wood dust by handheld sanding operation.

    PubMed

    Ojima, Jun

    2016-11-29

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and Japan Society for Occupational Health (JSOH) classified wood dust as a human carcinogen. Former studies have suggested that sanding with a portable sander is one of the processes that are liable to cause highest exposure to wood dust. However, the wood dust by sanding operation has not been investigated sufficiently. In this study, the generation rate and the particle size distribution of the wood dust produced by handheld sanding operation were observed by laboratory experiments. Beech and cypress were taken as typical hard and soft wood specimen respectively, and sanded with a portable sander. Three grades of sand paper (coarse, medium, fine) were attached to the sander in turn to be tested. The quantity of the wood dust produced by the sander was measured by weighing the specimen before and after the sanding and then the generation rate of the dust was calculated. Soft wood generated more dust than hard wood due to the difference in abrasion durability. A coarse sand paper produced more dust than a fine sand paper. The particles of less than 1 μm diameter were scarcely observed in the wood dust. When the specimens were sanded with a fine sand paper, the mass median aerodynamic diameters of beech dust and cypress dust were 9.0 μm and 9.8 μm, respectively. Respirable wood dust is able to be controlled by general ventilation with more than 0.7-4.2 m 3 /min ventilation rate.

  6. A multiscale investigation of habitat use and within-river distribution of sympatric sand darter species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Patricia A.; Welsh, Stuart A.; Strager, Michael P.; Rizzo, Austin A.

    2018-01-01

    The western sand darter Ammocrypta clara, and eastern sand darter Ammocrypta pellucida, are sand-dwelling fishes of conservation concern. Past research has emphasized the importance of studying individual populations of conservation concern, while recent research has revealed the importance of incorporating landscape scale processes that structure habitat mosaics and local populations. We examined habitat use and distributions of western and eastern sand darters in the lower Elk River of West Virginia. At the sandbar habitat use scale, western sand darters were detected in sandbars with greater area, higher proportions of coarse grain sand and faster bottom current velocity, while the eastern sand darter used a wider range of sandbar habitats. The landscape scale analysis revealed that contributing drainage area was an important predictor for both species, while sinuosity, which presumably represents valley type, also contributed to the western sand darter’s habitat suitability. Sandbar quality (area, grain size, and velocity) and fluvial geomorphic variables (drainage area and valley type) are likely key driving factors structuring sand darter distributions in the Elk River. This multiscale study of within-river species distribution and habitat use is unique, given that only a few sympatric populations are known of western and eastern sand darters.

  7. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands: Volume 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Oblad, A.G.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.

    1997-11-26

    The program is composed of 20 projects, of which 17 are laboratory bench or laboratory pilot scale processes or computer process simulations that are performed in existing facilities on the University of Utah campus in north-east Salt Lake City. These tasks are: (1) coupled fluidized-bed bitumen recovery and coked sand combustion; (2) water-based recovery of bitumen; (3) oil sand pyrolysis in a continuous rotary kiln reactor; (4) oil sand pyrolysis in a large diameter fluidized bed reactor; (5) oil sand pyrolysis in a small diameter fluidized bed reactor; (6) combustion of spent sand in a transport reactor; (7) recovery andmore » upgrading of oil sand bitumen using solvent extraction methods; (8) fixed-bed hydrotreating of Uinta Basin bitumens and bitumen-derived hydrocarbon liquids; (9) ebullieted bed hydrotreating of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; (10) bitumen upgrading by hydropyrolysis; (11) evaluation of Utah`s major oil sand deposits for the production of asphalt, high-energy jet fuels and other specialty products; (12) characterization of the bitumens and reservoir rocks from the Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (13) bitumen upgrading pilot plant recommendations; (14) liquid-solid separation and fine tailings thickening; (15) in-situ production of heavy oil from Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (16) oil sand research and development group analytical facility; and (17) process economics. This volume contains reports on nine of these projects, references, and a bibliography. 351 refs., 192 figs., 65 tabs.« less

  8. Middle and upper Miocene natural gas sands in onshore and offshore Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Mink, R.M.; Mancini, E.A.; Bearden, B.L.

    1988-09-01

    Thirty Miocene natural gas fields have been established in onshore and offshore Alabama since the discovery of Miocene gas in this area in 1979. These fields have produced over 16 bcf of natural gas from the middle Miocene Amos sand (24 fields) and upper Miocene Luce (3 fields), Escambia (1 field), and Meyer (3 fields) sands. Production from the Amos transgressive sands represents over 92% of the cumulative shallow Miocene natural gas produced in onshore and offshore Alabama. In addition, over 127 bcf of natural gas has been produced from upper Miocene sands in the Chandeleur area. The productive Miocenemore » section in onshore and coastal Alabama is interpreted to present transgressive marine shelf and regressive shoreface sands. The middle Miocene Amos sand bars are the most productive reservoirs of natural gas in onshore and coastal Alabama, principally due to the porous and permeable nature of these transgressive sands and their stratigraphic relationship to the underlying basinal clays in this area. In offshore Alabama the upper Miocene sands become thicker and are generally more porous and permeable than their onshore equivalents. Because of their deeper burial depth in offshore Alabama, these upper Miocene sands are associated with marine clays that are thermally more mature. The combination of reservoir grade lithologies associated with moderately mature petroleum source rocks enhances the natural gas potential of the upper Miocene sands in offshore Alabama.« less

  9. Comparative Emissions of Random Orbital Sanding between Conventional and Self-Generated Vacuum Systems

    PubMed Central

    Liverseed, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Conventional abrasive sanding generates high concentrations of particles. Depending on the substrate being abraded and exposure duration, overexposure to the particles can cause negative health effects ranging from respiratory irritation to cancer. The goal of this study was to understand the differences in particle emissions between a conventional random orbital sanding system and a self-generated vacuum random orbital sanding system with attached particle filtration bag. Particle concentrations were sampled for each system in a controlled test chamber for oak wood, chromate painted (hexavalent chromium) steel panels, and gel-coated (titanium dioxide) fiberglass panels using a Gesamtstaub-Probenahmesystem (GSP) sampler at three different locations adjacent to the sanding. Elevated concentrations were reported for all particles in the samples collected during conventional sanding. The geometric mean concentration ratios for the three substrates ranged from 320 to 4640 times greater for the conventional sanding system than the self-generated vacuum sanding system. The differences in the particle concentration generated by the two sanding systems were statistically significant with the two sample t-test (P < 0.0001) for all three substances. The data suggest that workers using conventional sanding systems could utilize the self-generated vacuum sanding system technology to potentially reduce exposure to particles and mitigate negative health effects. PMID:23065674

  10. Observations of transport of bacterial-like microspheres through beach sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gast, Rebecca J.; Elgar, Steve; Raubenheimer, Britt

    2015-04-01

    Often, there is an order of magnitude more fecal indicator bacteria (enterococci) in beach sand than in nearby water. Consequently, sand is considered a reservoir for these bacteria, potentially contributing to poor water quality, and raising questions regarding the human health risks associated with sand exposure. An integral aspect of the distribution and persistence of sand-associated enterococci is the transport of bacteria introduced into the beach environment. Here, plastic microspheres are used as a proxy to examine the wave-induced movement of bacterial-like particles through sand on an ocean beach. Laboratory tests suggest microspheres and bacteria move similarly through sand columns, and have qualitatively similar short-term adsorption-to-sand behavior. Microspheres buried ~0.05 m below the sand surface on an ocean beach moved rapidly [O(10-3) m/s] away from their initial location, both vertically into the ground water below the sand and horizontally seaward within the sediment matrix in response to waves running up the beach face and percolating through the sand.

  11. Comparative emissions of random orbital sanding between conventional and self-generated vacuum systems.

    PubMed

    Liverseed, David R; Logan, Perry W; Johnson, Carl E; Morey, Sandy Z; Raynor, Peter C

    2013-03-01

    Conventional abrasive sanding generates high concentrations of particles. Depending on the substrate being abraded and exposure duration, overexposure to the particles can cause negative health effects ranging from respiratory irritation to cancer. The goal of this study was to understand the differences in particle emissions between a conventional random orbital sanding system and a self-generated vacuum random orbital sanding system with attached particle filtration bag. Particle concentrations were sampled for each system in a controlled test chamber for oak wood, chromate painted (hexavalent chromium) steel panels, and gel-coated (titanium dioxide) fiberglass panels using a Gesamtstaub-Probenahmesystem (GSP) sampler at three different locations adjacent to the sanding. Elevated concentrations were reported for all particles in the samples collected during conventional sanding. The geometric mean concentration ratios for the three substrates ranged from 320 to 4640 times greater for the conventional sanding system than the self-generated vacuum sanding system. The differences in the particle concentration generated by the two sanding systems were statistically significant with the two sample t-test (P < 0.0001) for all three substances. The data suggest that workers using conventional sanding systems could utilize the self-generated vacuum sanding system technology to potentially reduce exposure to particles and mitigate negative health effects.

  12. A new turbulence-based model for sand transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayaud, Jerome; Wiggs, Giles; Bailey, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge of the changing rate of sediment flux in space and time is essential for quantifying surface erosion and deposition in desert landscapes. While many aeolian studies have relied on time-averaged parameters such as wind velocity (U) and wind shear velocity (u*) to determine sediment flux, there is increasing evidence that high-frequency turbulence is an important driving force behind the entrainment and transport of sand. However, turbulence has yet to be incorporated into a functional sand transport model that can be used for predictive purposes. In this study we present a new transport model (the 'turbulence model') that accounts for high-frequency variations in the horizontal (u) and vertical (w) components of wind flow. The turbulence model is fitted to wind velocity and sediment transport data from a field experiment undertaken in Namibia's Skeleton Coast National Park, and its performance at three temporal resolutions (10 Hz, 1 Hz, 1 min) is compared to two existing models that rely on time-averaged wind velocity data (Radok, 1977; Dong et al., 2003). The validity of the three models is analysed under a variety of saltation conditions, using a 2-hour (1 Hz measurement resolution) dataset from the Skeleton Coast and a 5-hour (1 min measurement resolution) dataset from the southwestern Kalahari Desert. The turbulence model is shown to outperform the Radok and Dong models when predicting total saltation count over the three experimental periods. For all temporal resolutions presented in this study (10 Hz-10 min), the turbulence model predicted total saltation count to within at least 0.34%, whereas the Radok and Dong models over- or underestimated total count by up to 5.50% and 20.53% respectively. The strong performance of the turbulence model can be attributed to a lag in mass flux response built into its formulation, which can be adapted depending on the temporal resolution of investigation. This accounts for the inherent lag within the physical

  13. OSL age and stratigraphy of the Strauss sand sheet in New Mexico, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Stephen A.; Goble, Ronald J.

    2015-07-01

    The Strauss sand sheet occurs in south-central New Mexico, USA, and northern Chihuahua, Mexico, covering an area of about 4740 km2. Its chronology is determined by 19 OSL ages. The sand sheet formed primarily during three phases of eolian deflation and deposition, each phase with a separate sand source and under different climatic and environmental circumstances. The first phase of eolian sedimentation occurred 45 to 15 ka with the deposition of unit 1. The sand source for the first phase was beach-related features along the eastern shoreline of pluvial Lake Palomas in Mexico. The glacial-age climate was cool, wet, and windy because of the southern path of the jet stream at that time. After 15 ka, with the onset of warmer conditions of the Bølling-Allerød, the shutting down of the Palomas sand source, and wet conditions of the Younger Dryas, the sand sheet stabilized with weak soil development in unit 1. By 11 ka, the climate shifted to Holocene drying conditions and the second phase of sand accumulation began, forming unit 2; the sand source was the local deflation of the previously deposited unit 1 sand. The sand sheet stabilized again by 1.9 ka with slightly wetter late Holocene climate; a weak soil formed in unit 2 sand. About A.D. 1500 and extending to about A.D. 1850 or later, an A horizon formed on the sand sheet, probably in response to a desert grassland vegetation during the period of wet climate of the Little Ice Age. In an anthropogenic third phase of eolian activity, after A.D. 1850, the vegetation was likely disturbed by overgrazing; and the unit 2 and A horizon (unit 3) sands were deflated, resulting in the deposition of a thin layer of massive eolian sand (unit 4) across the sand sheet. By about A.D. 1900 mesquite shrubs had increased in abundance; and deflated sand, largely from unit 2, began to accumulate around the shrubs, forming coppice dunes (unit 5). Mesquite coppice dunes continued to increase in number and volume during the twentieth

  14. Improvements in Fabrication of Sand/Binder Cores for Casting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakhitiyarov, Sayavur I.; Overfelt, Ruel A.; Adanur, Sabit

    2005-01-01

    Three improvements have been devised for the cold-box process, which is a special molding process used to make sand/binder cores for casting hollow metal parts. These improvements are: The use of fiber-reinforced composite binder materials (in contradistinction to the non-fiber-reinforced binders used heretofore), The substitution of a directed-vortex core-blowing subprocess for a prior core-blowing process that involved a movable gassing plate, and The use of filters made from filtration-grade fabrics to prevent clogging of vents. For reasons that exceed the scope of this article, most foundries have adopted the cold-box process for making cores for casting metals. However, this process is not widely known outside the metal-casting industry; therefore, a description of pertinent aspects of the cold-box process is prerequisite to a meaningful description of the aforementioned improvements. In the cold-box process as practiced heretofore, sand is first mixed with a phenolic resin (considered to be part 1 of a three-part binder) and an isocyanate resin (part 2 of the binder). Then by use of compressed air, the mixture is blown into a core box, which is a mold for forming the core. Next, an amine gas (part 3 of the binder) that acts as a catalyst for polymerization of parts 1 and 2 is blown through the core box. Alternatively, a liquid amine that vaporizes during polymerization can be incorporated into the sand/resin mixture. Once polymerization is complete, the amine gas is purged from the core box by use of compressed air. The finished core is then removed from the core box.

  15. Noise exposure and hearing loss among sand and gravel miners.

    PubMed

    Landen, Deborah; Wilkins, Steve; Stephenson, Mark; McWilliams, Linda

    2004-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe workplace noise exposures, risk factors for hearing loss, and hearing levels among sand and gravel miners, and to determine whether full shift noise exposures resulted in changes in hearing thresholds from baseline values. Sand and gravel miners (n = 317) were interviewed regarding medical history, leisure-time and occupational noise exposure, other occupational exposures, and use of hearing protection. Audiometric tests were performed both before the work shift (following a 12-hour noise-free interval) and immediately following the work shift. Full shift noise dosimetry was conducted. Miners' noise exposures exceeded the Recommended Exposure Limit (REL) of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) for 69% of workers, and exceeded the Mine Safety and Health Administration's action level for enrollment in a hearing conservation program for 41% of workers. Significantly higher noise exposures occurred among employees of small companies, among workers with a job classification of truck driver, among males, and among black workers. Hearing protection usage was low, with 48% of subjects reporting that they never used hearing protection. Hearing impairment, as defined by NIOSH, was present among 37% of 275 subjects with valid audiograms. Black male workers and white male workers had higher hearing thresholds than males from a comparison North Carolina population unexposed to industrial noise. Small but statistically significant changes in hearing thresholds occurred following full shift noise exposure among subjects who had good hearing sensitivity at baseline. In a logistic regression model, age and history of a past noisy job were significant predictors of hearing impairment. Overall, sand and gravel workers have excessive noise exposures and significant hearing loss, and demonstrate inadequate use of hearing protection. Well-designed hearing conservation programs, with reduction of noise exposure

  16. Environmental analysis of waste foundry sand via life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Mitterpach, Jozef; Hroncová, Emília; Ladomerský, Juraj; Balco, Karol

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this manuscript is to provide an environmental assessment of the creation and use of waste foundry sand (WFS) via an LCA in a foundry for grey cast iron. A life cycle impact assessment was carried out using SimaPro 8. This environmental analysis assessed the impact of creating waste foundry sand (WFS) in a foundry, Hronec (Slovakia, Central Europe). According to BREF, this foundry is classified as an iron foundry with a production capacity greater than 20 t/day with processes typical for grey cast iron foundries. Molten metal is poured into single-use sand moulds. We identified those factors influencing the creation and use of WFS which significantly affect the quality of the environment. The use of WFS from the production of cores in regenerated moulding mixtures with installed circuits brings marked minimisation of material and energy inputs in the processes of creating WFS and it positively influences the consumption of resources and the quality of the ecosystem. Space for lessening the impact of WFS processes upon the consumption of resources and ecosystem quality is mainly found in recycling WFS in the building sector. In the next step, it is necessary to thoroughly verify the eco-toxicological properties of not only the created WFS and other foundry waste, but mainly the building products for which this waste is used. In terms of transportation, it is important that waste is recycled at local level. The processes of creating WFS have a marked influence upon all the selected waste categories (consumption of resources, ecosystem quality, human health). By minimising material inputs into processes and the effective adjustment of production technology, a foundry can significantly lessen the impacts of processes for creating WFS upon the environment.

  17. Autoclaved Sand-Lime Products with a Polypropylene Mesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostrzewa, Paulina; Stępień, Anna

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the results of the research on modifications of silicate bricks with a polypropylene mesh and their influence on physical, mechanical and microstructural properties of such bricks. The main goal of the paper was to determine effects of the polypropylene mesh on sand-lime product parameters. The analysis has focused on compressive strength, water absorption, bulk density and structural features of the material. The obtained product is characterized by improved basic performance characteristics compared to traditional silicate products. Using the polypropylene mesh increased compressive strength by 25% while decreasing the product density. The modified products retain their form and do not disintegrate after losing their bearing capacity.

  18. The Coffee Sand and Ripley aquifers in Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boswell, E.H.

    1978-01-01

    The Coffee Sand and Ripley aquifers, of Cretaceous age, are in the Selma Group in northern Mississippi. The aquifers contain freshwater in an area of about 4,400 square miles in northern Mississippi. Water produced from the aquifers by public water systems and numerous industries in 1975 averaged about 4 Mgal/d. Regional water-level declines have been very small and the aquifers have a moderate potential for future development. The aquifers are used in some areas where there are no other significant sources of ground water. The most common problems in developing water supplies are low yields to wells and hard water. (Kosco-USGS)

  19. Elucidating carbon sources driving microbial metabolism during oil sands reclamation.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Lauren M; Ziolkowski, Lori A; Goad, Corey; Warren, Lesley A; Slater, Gregory F

    2017-03-01

    Microbial communities play key roles in remediation and reclamation of contaminated environments via biogeochemical cycling of organic and inorganic components. Understanding the trends in in situ microbial community abundance, metabolism and carbon sources is therefore a crucial component of effective site management. The focus of this study was to use radiocarbon analysis to elucidate the carbon sources driving microbial metabolism within the first pilot wetland reclamation project in the Alberta oil sands region where the observation of H 2 S had indicated the occurrence of microbial sulphate reduction. The reclamation project involved construction of a three compartment system consisting of a freshwater wetland on top of a sand cap overlying a composite tailings (CT) deposit. Radiocarbon analysis demonstrated that both dissolved and sediment associated organic carbon associated with the deepest compartments (the CT and sand cap) was primarily fossil (Δ 14 C = -769 to -955‰) while organic carbon in the overlying peat was hundreds to thousands of years old (Δ 14 C = -250 to -350‰). Radiocarbon contents of sediment associated microbial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) were consistent with the sediment bulk organic carbon pools (Peat: Δ 14 C PLFA  = -257‰; Sand cap Δ 14 C PLFA  = -805‰) indicating that these microbes were using sediment associated carbon. In contrast, microbial PLFA grown on biofilm units installed in wells within the deepest compartments contained much more modern carbon that the associated bulk carbon pools. This implied that the transfer of relatively more modern carbon was stimulating the microbial community at depth within the system. Correlation between cellular abundance estimates based on PLFA concentrations and the Δ 14 C PLFA indicated that the utilization of this more modern carbon was stimulating the microbial community at depth. These results highlight the importance of understanding the occurrence and potential

  20. Improved Measurement of Ejection Velocities From Craters Formed in Sand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cintala, Mark J.; Byers, Terry; Cardenas, Francisco; Montes, Roland; Potter, Elliot E.

    2014-01-01

    A typical impact crater is formed by two major processes: compression of the target (essentially equivalent to a footprint in soil) and ejection of material. The Ejection-Velocity Measurement System (EVMS) in the Experimental Impact Laboratory has been used to study ejection velocities from impact craters formed in sand since the late 1990s. The original system used an early-generation Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) camera; custom-written software; and a complex, multicomponent optical system to direct laser light for illumination. Unfortunately, the electronic equipment was overtaken by age, and the software became obsolete in light of improved computer hardware.

  1. Production from multiple zones of a tar sands formation

    DOEpatents

    Karanikas, John Michael; Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-02-26

    A method for treating a tar sands formation includes providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat is allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a portion of the formation. Fluids are produced from the formation through at least one production well that is located in at least two zones in the formation. The first zone has an initial permeability of at least 1 darcy. The second zone has an initial of at most 0.1 darcy. The two zones are separated by a substantially impermeable barrier.

  2. Systems and methods for producing hydrocarbons from tar sands formations

    DOEpatents

    Li, Ruijian [Katy, TX; Karanikas, John Michael [Houston, TX

    2009-07-21

    A system for treating a tar sands formation is disclosed. A plurality of heaters are located in the formation. The heaters include at least partially horizontal heating sections at least partially in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The heating sections are at least partially arranged in a pattern in the hydrocarbon layer. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the hydrocarbon layer. The provided heat creates a plurality of drainage paths for mobilized fluids. At least two of the drainage paths converge. A production well is located to collect and produce mobilized fluids from at least one of the converged drainage paths in the hydrocarbon layer.

  3. Sulfur Biogeochemistry of an Oil Sands Composite Tailings Deposit

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Lesley A.; Kendra, Kathryn E.; Brady, Allyson L.; Slater, Greg F.

    2016-01-01

    Composite tailings (CT), an engineered, alkaline, saline mixture of oil sands tailings (FFT), processed sand and gypsum (CaSO4; 1 kg CaSO4 per m3 FFT) are used as a dry reclamation strategy in the Alberta Oil Sands Region (AOSR). It is estimated that 9.6 × 108 m3 of CT are either in, or awaiting emplacement in surface pits within the AOSR, highlighting their potential global importance in sulfur cycling. Here, in the first CT sulfur biogeochemistry investigation, integrated geochemical, pyrosequencing and lipid analyses identified high aqueous concentrations of ∑H2S (>300 μM) and highly altered sulfur compounds composition; low cell biomass (3.3 × 106– 6.0 × 106 cells g−1) and modest bacterial diversity (H' range between 1.4 and 1.9) across 5 depths spanning 34 m of an in situ CT deposit. Pyrosequence results identified a total of 29,719 bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences, representing 131 OTUs spanning19 phyla including 7 candidate divisions, not reported in oil sands tailings pond studies to date. Legacy FFT common phyla, notably, gamma and beta Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi were represented. However, overall CT microbial diversity and PLFA values were low relative to other contexts. The identified known sulfate/sulfur reducing bacteria constituted at most 2% of the abundance; however, over 90% of the 131 OTUs identified are capable of sulfur metabolism. While PCR biases caution against overinterpretation of pyrosequence surveys, bacterial sequence results identified here, align with phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and geochemical results. The highest bacterial diversities were associated with the depth of highest porewater [∑H2S] (22–24 m) and joint porewater co-occurrence of Fe2+ and ∑H2S (6–8 m). Three distinct bacterial community structure depths corresponded to CT porewater regions of (1) shallow evident Fe(II) (<6 m), (2) co-occurring Fe(II) and ∑H2S (6–8 m) and (3) extensive ∑H2S (6–34 m) (Uni

  4. Renewable Energy Opportunities at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Chvala, William D.; Solana, Amy E.; States, Jennifer C.

    2008-09-01

    The document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 DoD Renewable Energy Assessment. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also ground source heat pumps (GSHPs) for heating and cooling buildings, as directed by IMCOM.

  5. Sedimentary controls on modern sand grain coat formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowey, Patrick J.; Worden, Richard H.; Utley, James; Hodgson, David M.

    2017-05-01

    Coated sand grains can influence reservoir quality evolution during sandstone diagenesis. Porosity can be reduced and fluid flow restricted where grain coats encroach into pore space. Conversely pore-lining grain coats can restrict the growth of pore-filling quartz cement in deeply buried sandstones, and thus can result in unusually high porosity in deeply buried sandstones. Being able to predict the distribution of coated sand grains within petroleum reservoirs is thus important to help find good reservoir quality. Here we report a modern analogue study of 12 sediment cores from the Anllóns Estuary, Galicia, NW Spain, collected from a range of sub-environments, to help develop an understanding of the occurrence and distribution of coated grains. The cores were described for grain size, bioturbation and sedimentary structures, and then sub-sampled for electron and light microscopy, laser granulometry, and X-ray diffraction analysis. The Anllóns Estuary is sand-dominated with intertidal sand flats and saltmarsh environments at the margins; there is a shallowing/fining-upwards trend in the estuary-fill succession. Grain coats are present in nearly every sample analysed; they are between 1 μm and 100 μm thick and typically lack internal organisation. The extent of grain coat coverage can exceed 25% in some samples with coverage highest in the top 20 cm of cores. Samples from muddy intertidal flat and the muddy saltmarsh environments, close to the margins of the estuary, have the highest coat coverage (mean coat coverage of 20.2% and 21.3%, respectively). The lowest mean coat coverage occurs in the sandy saltmarsh (10.4%), beyond the upper tidal limit and sandy intertidal flat environments (8.4%), close to the main estuary channel. Mean coat coverage correlates with the concentration of clay fraction. The primary controls on the distribution of fine-grained sediment, and therefore grain coat distribution, are primary sediment transport and deposition processes that

  6. Flow of sand and a variable mass Atwood machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, José; Solovey, Guillermo; Gil, Salvador

    2003-07-01

    We discuss a simple and inexpensive apparatus that lets us measure the instantaneous flow rate of granular media, such as sand, in real time. The measurements allow us to elucidate the phenomenological laws that govern the flow of granular media through an aperture. We use this apparatus to construct a variable mass system and study the motion of an Atwood machine with one weight changing in time in a controlled manner. The study illustrates Newton's second law for variable mass systems and lets us investigate the dependence of the flow rate on acceleration.

  7. Sand fly feeding on noxious plants: a potential method for the control of leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Schlein, Y; Jacobson, R L; Müller, G C

    2001-10-01

    The sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi transmits Leishmania major, which causes cutaneous leishmaniasis, in vast regions of the Old World. In addition to blood, the sand flies feed on plants. In a study of this diet, we observed that one night of feeding on branches of Solanum jasminoides, Ricinus communis, or Bougainvillea glabra drastically shortened the life span of the sand flies. Flowering B. glabra attracted P. papatasi in the field. Nevertheless, in the region endemic for L. major in yards abounding with vector sand flies, the number of P. papatasi trapped near hedges of B. glabra was eight times less (62 versus 502 flies trapped) than in the control sites. The results imply that B. glabra affords local protection against sand fly bites and decreases the risk of leishmaniasis. We suggest that this and other ornamental plants that are harmful to sand flies can be used as a tool for this purpose.

  8. Assessment of Enterococcus Levels in Recreational Beach Sand Along the Rhode Island Coast.

    PubMed

    Coakley, Eugenie; Parris, Amie L; Wyman, Al; Latowsky, Gretchen

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that coastal beach sand as well as coastal ocean water can be contaminated with fecal indicator Enterococcus bacteria (ENT). A study of sand ENT concentrations over a four-week period at 12 Rhode Island beaches was conducted during the summer of 2009. While average contamination was low relative to water quality standards, every beach had at least one day with very high sand ENT readings. On 10 of the 12 beaches, a statistically significant gradient occurred in geometric mean ENT concentrations among tidal zones, with dry (supratidal, or above high tide mark) sand having the highest level, followed by wet (intratidal, or below high tide mark) and underwater sand. Beaches with higher wave action had significantly lower ENT levels in wet and underwater sand compared to beaches with lower wave action.

  9. Simulation-Assisted Evaluation of Grinding Circuit Flowsheet Design Alternatives: Aghdarreh Gold Ore Processing Plant / Ocena Alternatywnych Schematów Technologicznych Procesu Rozdrabniania W Zakładach Przeróbki Rud Złota W Aghdarreh, Z Wykorzystaniem Metod Symulacji

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farzanegan, A.; Ghalaei, A. Ebtedaei

    2015-03-01

    modification. Surowy urobek z kopalni rud złota Aghdarreh musi najpierw zostać poddany rozdrobnieniu, aby zapewnić efektywniejsze uwalnianie cząsteczek złota. W chwili obecnej obiegi rozdrabniania obejmują kruszenie jednostopniowe z wykorzystaniem kruszarek szczękowych oraz kruszenie jednostopniowe z użyciem kruszarek półautomatycznych w obiegu zamkniętym z hydrocyklonem. Odzysk złota odbywa się przy zastosowaniu procesu ługowania, z zastosowaniem metody cyjankowej w szeregu mieszalników. W pracy tej przeprowadzono optymalizację procesu rozdrabniania rud w zakładach przeróbczych Aghdarreh prowadzonego w celu zmniejszenia rozmiarów uzyskiwanych cząsteczek złota (Ps0) z 70 μm do ok. 40 μm poprzez zapewnienie ciągłości procesu, z wykorzystaniem metod modelowania i symulacji. Na podstawie dwóch zestawów próbek z ciągu technologicznego rozdrabniania, rozkłady wielkości cząstek zostały statystycznie zrównoważone z wykorzystaniem oprogramowania NorBal. Pierwszy i drugi zbiór danych otrzymanych na podstawie dwóch zestawów próbek wykorzystany został do kalibracji i walidacji modeli, przed przystąpieniem do właściwych badań symulacyjnych z użyciem oprogramowania MODSIM. Symulacje komputerowe przeprowadzono w celu oceny wydajności dwóch proponowanych ciągów technologicznych. Pierwszy ciąg obejmuje istniejące kruszarki półautomatyczne i nowo proponowaną kruszarkę kulową pracującą w obiegu zamkniętym z hydrocyklonem. Drugi rozważany ciąg stanowi istniejąca kruszarka półautomatyczna, następnie proponowana kruszarka kulowa pracująca w obiegu zamkniętym z istniejącym hydrocyklonem. We wszystkich symulacjach bazowano na modelach SAGT, CYCL i MILL do symulacji pracy kruszarek półautomatycznych, pakietu hydrocyklonu oraz pojedynczych kruszarek. Modele SAGT i MILL oparte są na modelu zrównoważonej populacji w procesie rozdrabniania. Model CYCL opiera się na empirycznym modelu klasyfikacji Plitta

  10. Effect of Porosity on Synthetic Sand Infiltration within Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Pellets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Sand infiltration was investigated for several yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) pellets of varying porosity. The pellets were synthesized through...each. Several characterization techniques were used to correlate the sand infiltration to porosity. It was found that there was no significant...difference in the results of low and high porosity samples. Interestingly, sand had infiltrated all samples to some degree although the magnitude of the

  11. Sand resources, regional geology, and coastal processes for shoreline restoration: case study of Barataria shoreline, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kindinger, Jack G.; Flocks, James G.; Kulp, Mark; Penland, Shea; Britsch, Louis D.

    2002-01-01

    The Louisiana barrier shoreline of Barataria Basin, which lies within the western Mississippi River delta, has undergone significant retreat during the past 100 years. The most practical restoration method to rebuild these shorelines is sand nourishment. Seismic and sonar interpretations verified with geologic samples (vibracores and borings) indicate that there are nine sand targets within the Barataria study area that meet or exceed the minimum criteria for potential resource sites. However, the near surface lithology in the basin is typically silts and clays. Locating suitable sand resources for shoreline restoration is challenging. The sand units are associated with geologic depositional systems such as ebb-tidal deltas, distributary mouth bars, and channel fill (undifferentiated fluvial or tidal inlet channels). The nine potential sand targets consist primarily of fine sand and can be delineated into three surficial and six buried features. The surficial features contain approximately 10% of the total sand resources identified. At least 90% of the sand resources need overburden sediment removed prior to use; almost 570 million yd3 (438.5 mil m3) of overburden will need to be removed if the entire resource is mined. In this study, we identified 396 to 532 mil yd3 (305.8 to 410.8 mil m3) of potential sand deposits for shoreline restoration. Previous studies using less dense survey methods greatly over-estimated sand resources available in this area. Many fluvial channels reported previously as sand-filled are mud-filled. Contrary to these previous studies, few fluvial subsystems in this region have abundant sand resources.

  12. State of the Art for Design and Construction of Sand Compaction Piles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    Walz, Headquarters, US Army Corps of Engineers (HQUSACE), was REMR Technical Monitor. The REMR Overview Committee, consisted of Mr. John R. Nikel ... Wire Vibrator Hopper Casing Pipe Air Line Power Line Sand Skip Bucket Front End Loader Figure 2. Typical equipment used to construct a sand...8217~~~~--­ Rubber Packing Wire Inlet for air to close valve and press sand down ..,...__ Air lnl~ot: Figure 5. Special valve used to seal the casing when

  13. Unloading Characteristics of Sand-drift in Wind-shallow Areas along Railway and the Effect of Sand Removal by Force of Wind

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jian-jun; Xin, Guo-Wei; Zhi, Ling-yan; Jiang, Fu-qiang

    2017-01-01

    Wind-shield walls decrease the velocity of wind-drift sand flow in transit. This results in sand accumulating in the wind-shadow zone of both windshield wall and track line, causing severe sand sediment hazard. This study reveals the characteristics of sand accumulation and the laws of wind-blown sand removal in the wind-shadow areas of three different types of windshield walls, utilizing three-dimensional numerical simulations and wind tunnel experiments and on-site sand sediment tests. The results revealed the formation of apparent vortex and acceleration zones on the leeward side of solid windshield walls. For uniform openings, the vortex area moved back and narrowed. When bottom-opening windshield walls were adopted, the track-supporting layer at the step became a conflux acceleration zone, forming a low velocity vortex zone near the track line. At high wind speeds, windshield walls with bottom-openings achieved improved sand dredging. Considering hydrodynamic mechanisms, the flow field structure on the leeward side of different types of windshield structures is a result of convergence and diffusion of fluids caused by an obstacle. This convergence and diffusion effect of air fluid is more apparent at high wind velocities, but not obvious at low wind velocities. PMID:28120915

  14. The influence of groundwater depth on coastal dune development at sand flats close to inlets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Filipe Galiforni; Wijnberg, Kathelijne M.; de Groot, Alma V.; Hulscher, Suzanne J. M. H.

    2018-05-01

    A cellular automata model is used to analyze the effects of groundwater levels and sediment supply on aeolian dune development occurring on sand flats close to inlets. The model considers, in a schematized and probabilistic way, aeolian transport processes, groundwater influence, vegetation development, and combined effects of waves and tides that can both erode and accrete the sand flat. Next to three idealized cases, a sand flat adjoining the barrier island of Texel, the Netherlands, was chosen as a case study. Elevation data from 18 annual LIDAR surveys was used to characterize sand flat and dune development. Additionally, a field survey was carried out to map the spatial variation in capillary fringe depth across the sand flat. Results show that for high groundwater situations, sediment supply became limited inducing formation of Coppice-like dunes, even though aeolian losses were regularly replenished by marine import during sand flat flooding. Long dune rows developed for high sediment supply scenarios which occurred for deep groundwater levels. Furthermore, a threshold depth appears to exist at which the groundwater level starts to affect dune development on the inlet sand flat. The threshold can vary spatially depending on external conditions such as topography. On sand flats close to inlets, groundwater is capable of introducing spatial variability in dune growth, which is consistent with dune development patterns found on the Texel sand flat.

  15. Protection against suspended sand: the function of the branchial membrane in the blue mussel Mytilus edulis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vooys, C. G. N.

    2006-09-01

    Blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis) living in estuaries have to cope with varying concentrations of suspended sand. Sand flowing through the inhalant siphons comes into the infrabranchial chamber. The inhalant siphon can be partially closed by the branchial membrane. As a result the inward flow decreases, and suspended sand sinks and can be eliminated. Experiments with mussels from three ecologically different locations showed about the same response of the branchial membrane on contact with suspended sand. The presence and function of the branchial membrane appears to be an adaptation of mussels to their estuarine environment.

  16. Laboratory test on maximum and minimum void ratio of tropical sand matrix soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, B. A.; Marto, A.

    2018-04-01

    Sand is generally known as loose granular material which has a grain size finer than gravel and coarser than silt and can be very angular to well-rounded in shape. The present of various amount of fines which also influence the loosest and densest state of sand in natural condition have been well known to contribute to the deformation and loss of shear strength of soil. This paper presents the effect of various range of fines content on minimum void ratio e min and maximum void ratio e max of sand matrix soils. Laboratory tests to determine e min and e max of sand matrix soil were conducted using non-standard method introduced by previous researcher. Clean sand was obtained from natural mining site at Johor, Malaysia. A set of 3 different sizes of sand (fine sand, medium sand, and coarse sand) were mixed with 0% to 40% by weight of low plasticity fine (kaolin). Results showed that generally e min and e max decreased with the increase of fines content up to a minimal value of 0% to 30%, and then increased back thereafter.

  17. [Effect of concomitant substances and addition order on the adsorption of Tween 80 on sand].

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Zhao, Yong-sheng; Li, Sui; Dai, Ning

    2008-08-01

    Adsorption of Tween 80 on sand was investigated, and the effect of inorganic salts (CaCl2), anionic surfactant (SDS) and lignosulphonates (sodium lignosulphonate or ammonium lignosulphonate) on the adsorption of Tween 80 on sand were evaluated at 25 degrees C. The results show that saturated adsorption amount of Tween 80 on sand enhance when CaCl2 or SDS is added into flushing solution of Tween 80. And the adsorption of Tween 80 on sand increase with the increase of molar fraction of CaCl2 or SDS in mixed flushing solution. And adsorption amount of Tween 80 on sand also enhance when SDS is added into sand firstly. The effects of mixing ratios and addition order of lignosulphonates on adsorption of Tween 80 were considered. The results show that with the increase of molar fraction of lignosulphonates in mixing flushing solution, adsorption amount of Tween 80 on sand decrease. The adsorption amount of Tween 80 reduce 20%-75% due to the exist of ammonium lignosulphonate is superior to sodium lignosulphonate (10%-60%) when mix the lignosulphonates-Tween 80 at the total mass ratios of 1:10, while the adsorption amount of Tween 80 reduce 70%-90% at the total mass ratios of 1:2. Lignosulphonates added into sand firstly is more efficient than that together. Therefore,use of lignosulphonates as a preflush can reduce the adsorption of surfactants on sand and is a better method to applied in in situ flushing.

  18. Efficient management of marine resources in conflict: an empirical study of marine sand mining, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Goun

    2009-10-01

    This article develops a dynamic model of efficient use of exhaustible marine sand resources in the context of marine mining externalities. The classical Hotelling extraction model is applied to sand mining in Ongjin, Korea and extended to include the estimated marginal external costs that mining imposes on marine fisheries. The socially efficient sand extraction plan is compared with the extraction paths suggested by scientific research. If marginal environmental costs are correctly estimated, the developed efficient extraction plan considering the resource rent may increase the social welfare and reduce the conflicts among the marine sand resource users. The empirical results are interpreted with an emphasis on guidelines for coastal resource management policy.

  19. Prediction of Liquefaction Potential of Dredge Fill Sand by DCP and Dynamic Probing

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, Md. Jahangir; Azad, Abul Kalam; Rahman, Ziaur

    2008-07-08

    From many research it is proved that liquefaction potential of sand is function of mainly relative density and confining pressure. During routine site investigations, high-quality sampling and laboratory testing of sands are not feasible because of inevitable sample disturbance effects and budgetary constraints. On the other hand quality control of sand fill can be done by determining in situ density of sand in layer by layer which is expensive and time consuming. In this paper TRL DCP (Transportation Research Laboratory Dynamic Cone Penetration) and DPL (Dynamic Probing Light) are calibrated to predict the relative density of sand deposit. For thismore » purpose sand of known relative density is prepared in a calibration chamber which is a mild steel cylinder with diameter 0.5 m and height 1.0 m. Relative density of sand is varied by controlling height of fall and diameter of hole of sand discharge bowl. After filling, every time DPL and DCP tests are performed and for every blow the penetration of cone is recorded. N10 is then calculated from penetration records. Thus a database is compiled where N10 and relative densities are known. A correlation is made between N{sub 10} and relative density for two types of sand. A good correlation of N{sub 10} and relative density is found.« less

  20. Pheromonal Control of Metamorphosis in the Pacific Sand Dollar, Dendraster excentricus.

    PubMed

    Burke, R D

    1984-07-27

    Competent larvae are induced to undergo metamorphosis by sand from a sand dollar bed or an aqueous extract of the sand. Gel permeation chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography of the extract yielded a 980-dalton peptide that will induce metamorphosis between 10(-6) and 10(-5) molar. Extracts of whole adults and gonads were also able to induce metamorphosis, and adults can condition substrates to induce metamorphosis. Therefore, the initiation of metamorphosis in Dendraster excentricus is controlled by a pheromone released by adult sand dollars.

  1. Holocene reworking of a sand sheet in the Merrimack Embayment, Western Gulf of Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, C.J.; FitzGerald, D.M.; Barnhardt, W.

    2007-01-01

    Recent bathymetric, backscatter, and seafloor sediment samples demonstrate that a large sand sheet was formed in the inner shelf by the reworking of the Merrimack River lowstand delta (deposited 12 kya; currently at 45 m depth) and braid plain during the Holocene transgression. Asymmetric bedforms and distinct grain size distributions suggest the sand sheet is actively being reworked by inner-shelf processes. Bottom sediments range from silty sand at the submerged delta to coarse sand and fine gravel in the innermost shelf (depth: 10-50 m). Coarse-grained sand comprises an expansive (32 km2 ) featureless sand sheet centered off the Merrimack River. Fine-grained sand discontinuously overlies this sand sheet in many locations and forms long wavelength (100 – 800 m), low amplitude (1-2 m), asymmetrical bedforms. Sets of these bedforms are oriented from slightly oblique offshore to onshore; several bedform sets are located within 1 km and oriented orthogonally to one another. Along the paleo-delta front north-northwest oriented bedforms are dominant. Inshore of these features, the bedforms become more closely spaced and have orientations to the west and westsouthwest. Preliminary data suggest that the combined forcings of instantaneous storm-wave generated shear stress and storm-induced currents associated with high energy northeast storm events may be responsible for sand sheet reworking and bedform development.

  2. A practical method for estimating maximum shear modulus of cemented sands using unconfined compressive strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choo, Hyunwook; Nam, Hongyeop; Lee, Woojin

    2017-12-01

    The composition of naturally cemented deposits is very complicated; thus, estimating the maximum shear modulus (Gmax, or shear modulus at very small strains) of cemented sands using the previous empirical formulas is very difficult. The purpose of this experimental investigation is to evaluate the effects of particle size and cement type on the Gmax and unconfined compressive strength (qucs) of cemented sands, with the ultimate goal of estimating Gmax of cemented sands using qucs. Two sands were artificially cemented using Portland cement or gypsum under varying cement contents (2%-9%) and relative densities (30%-80%). Unconfined compression tests and bender element tests were performed, and the results from previous studies of two cemented sands were incorporated in this study. The results of this study demonstrate that the effect of particle size on the qucs and Gmax of four cemented sands is insignificant, and the variation of qucs and Gmax can be captured by the ratio between volume of void and volume of cement. qucs and Gmax of sand cemented with Portland cement are greater than those of sand cemented with gypsum. However, the relationship between qucs and Gmax of the cemented sand is not affected by the void ratio, cement type and cement content, revealing that Gmax of the complex naturally cemented soils with unknown in-situ void ratio, cement type and cement content can be estimated using qucs.

  3. The sand-deposition impact of artificial gravel beds on the protection of the Mogao Grottoes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guo Shuai; Qu, Jian Jun; Li, Xu Zhi; Wang, Wan Fu

    2014-01-01

    Gravel beds can prevent sand-dust emission and weaken sand-dust flux. We used wind-tunnel experiments and field observations on artificial gravel beds above the Mogao Grottoes to quantify their impact. In the report, we identified a significant correlation between gravel roughness and its ability to trap wind-transported sand. The optimal combinations of gravel diameter and coverage were determined. The greatest roughness is achieved when small gravel coverage is 75%, medium 40% and large 45%. We found that initial wind speed and gravel coverage are the key factors controlling the amount of sand trapped by the gravel beds. PMID:24614183

  4. Design and initial testing of a piezoelectric sensor to quantify aeolian sand transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raygosa-Barahona, Ruben; Ruiz-Martinez, Gabriel; Mariño-Tapia, Ismael; Heyser-Ojeda, Emilio

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes a sensor for measuring the mass flux of aeolian sand transport based on a low-cost piezo-electric transducer. The device is able to measure time series of aeolian sand transport. Maximum fluxes of 27 mg per second can be achieved. The design includes a sand trap, an electronic amplifier circuit and an embedded system for data collection. A field test was performed, where the basis for signal interpretation and the corresponding measurements of aeolian sand transport are presented. The sensor successfully measures fluxes driven by sea breezes of 10 ms-1, showing the importance of this process for dune-building in the region.

  5. A bright intra-dune feature on Titan and its implications for sand formation and transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenzie, Shannon; Barnes, Jason W.; Rodriguez, Sebastien; Cornet, Thomas; Brossier, Jeremy; Soderblom, Jason M.; Le Mouélic, Stephane; Sotin, Christophe; Brown, Robert H.; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Clark, Roger Nelson; Nicholson, Philip D.; Baines, Kevin

    2017-10-01

    Organic sands cover much of Titan’s equatorial belt, gathered into longitudinal dunes about a kilometer wide and hundreds of kilometers long. At the end of the Cassini era, questions of how such a vast volume of saltable material is or was created on Titan remain unanswered. At least two possible mechanisms suggested for forming sand-sized particles involve liquids: (1) evaporite deposition and erosion and (2) flocculation of material within a lake. Transporting sand from the lakes and seas of Titan’s poles to the equatorial belt is not strongly supported by Cassini observations: the equatorial belt sits higher than the poles and no sheets or corridors of travelling sand have been identified. Thus, previous sites of equatorial surface liquids may be of interest for understanding sand formation, such as the suggested paleoseas Tui and Hotei Regio. A newly identified feature in the VIMS data sits within the Fensal dune field but is distinct from the surrounding sand. We investigate this Bright Fensal Feature (BFF) using data from Cassini VIMS and RADAR. Specifically, we find spectral similarities between the BFF and both sand and Hotei Regio. The RADAR cross sectional backscatter is similar to neighboring dark areas, perhaps sand covered interdunes. We use this evidence to constrain the BFF’s formation history and discuss how this intra-dune feature may contribute to the processes of sand transport and supply.

  6. Foreshore sand as a source of Escherichia coli in nearshore water of a Lake Michigan beach.

    PubMed

    Whitman, Richard L; Nevers, Meredith B

    2003-09-01

    Swimming advisories due to excessive Escherichia coli concentrations are common at 63rd Street Beach, Chicago, Ill. An intensive study was undertaken to characterize the source and fate of E. coli in beach water and sand at the beach. From April through September 2000, water and sand samples were collected daily or twice daily at two depths on three consecutive days per week (water samples, n = 1,747; sand samples, n = 858); hydrometeorological conditions and bird and bather distributions were also recorded. E. coli concentrations in sand and water were significantly correlated, with the highest concentration being found in foreshore sand, followed by those in submerged sediment and water of increasing depth. Gull contributions to E. coli densities in sand and water were most apparent on the day following gull activity in a given area. E. coli recolonized newly placed foreshore sand within 2 weeks. Analysis of variance, correlation, cluster analyses, concentration gradients, temporal-spatial distribution, demographic patterns, and DNA fingerprinting suggest that E. coli may be able to sustain population density in temperate beach sand during summer months without external inputs. This research presents evidence that foreshore beach sand (i) plays a major role in bacterial lake water quality, (ii) is an important non-point source of E. coli to lake water rather than a net sink, (iii) may be environmentally, and perhaps hygienically, problematic, and (iv) is possibly capable of supporting an autochthonous, high density of indicator bacteria for sustained periods, independent of lake, human, or animal input.

  7. Survival potential of Escherichia coli and Enterococci in subtropical beach sand: implications for water quality managers.

    PubMed

    Hartz, A; Cuvelier, M; Nowosielski, K; Bonilla, T D; Green, M; Esiobu, N; McCorquodale, D S; Rogerson, A

    2008-01-01

    Fecal bacteria have traditionally been used as indicator organisms to monitor the quality of recreational waters. Recent work has questioned the robustness of traditional indicators, particularly at seawater bathing beaches. For example, a study of Florida beaches found unexpectedly high abundances of Escherichia coli, fecal coliforms, and enterococci in beach sand. The aim of the present study was to explain these abundances by assessing the survival of E. coli and enterococci in beach sand relative to seawater. We used a combination of quantitative laboratory mesocosm experiments and field observations. Results suggested that E. coli and enterococci exhibited increased survivability and growth in sand relative to seawater. Because fecal bacteria are capable of replicating in sand, at least under controlled laboratory conditions, the results suggest that sand may be an important reservoir of metabolically active fecal organisms. Experiments with "natural" mesocosms (i.e., unsterilized sand or water rich in micropredators and native bacteria) failed to show the same increases in fecal indicators as was found in sterile sand. It is postulated that this was due to predation and competition with indigenous bacteria in these "natural" systems. Nonetheless, high populations of indicators were maintained and recovered from sand over the duration of the experiment as opposed to the die-off noted in water. Indicator bacteria may wash out of sand into shoreline waters during weather and tidal events, thereby decreasing the effectiveness of these indicators as predictors of health risk and complicating the interpretations for water quality managers.

  8. Moisture Effects on the High Strain-Rate Behavior of Sand (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    1986) used a conventional SHPB to evaluate a single short pressure pulse traveling through long specimens of 20/40 dry sand, 50/80 dry sand...constant strain-rate within the specimen. In a conventional SHPB experiment, e.g., on dry sand by Veyera (1994), the incident pulse is nearly...strain-rate of 400 s-1. The sand specimen confined in a hardened steel tube, had a dry density of 1.50 g/cm3 with moisture contents varied from 3% to 20

  9. Baseline for beached marine debris on Sand Island, Midway Atoll.

    PubMed

    Ribic, Christine A; Sheavly, Seba B; Klavitter, John

    2012-08-01

    Baseline measurements were made of the amount and weight of beached marine debris on Sand Island, Midway Atoll, June 2008-July 2010. On 23 surveys, 32,696 total debris objects (identifiable items and pieces) were collected; total weight was 740.4 kg. Seventy-two percent of the total was pieces; 91% of the pieces were made of plastic materials. Pieces were composed primarily of polyethylene and polypropylene. Identifiable items were 28% of the total; 88% of the identifiable items were in the fishing/aquaculture/shipping-related and beverage/household products-related categories. Identifiable items were lowest during April-August, while pieces were at their lowest during June-August. Sites facing the North Pacific Gyre received the most debris and proportionately more pieces. More debris tended to be found on Sand Island when the Subtropical Convergence Zone was closer to the Atoll. This information can be used for potential mitigation and to understand the impacts of large-scale events such as the 2011 Japanese tsunami. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Vanadium Geochemistry of Oil Sands Fluid Petroleum Coke.

    PubMed

    Nesbitt, Jake A; Lindsay, Matthew B J

    2017-03-07

    Vanadium has previously been linked to elevated toxicity of leachates derived from oil sands petroleum coke. However, geochemical controls on V mobility within coke deposits remain poorly constrained. Detailed examinations of porewater and solid-phase V geochemistry were therefore performed on oil sands fluid petroleum coke deposits in Alberta, Canada. Sample collection focused on both active and reclaimed deposits, which contained more than 3 × 10 7 m 3 of fluid petroleum coke. Dissolved V concentrations were highest (up to 3.0 mg L -1 ) immediately below the water table but decreased rapidly with increasing depth. This trend corresponded to a transition from mildly acidic (pH 6-7) and oxic conditions to mildly alkaline (pH 7-8.5) and anoxic conditions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron microprobe analysis (EMPA), and micro-X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) mapping revealed coke particles exhibited an internal structure characterized by successive concentric layers. The outer margins of these layers were characterized by elevated V, Fe, Si, and Al concentrations, indicating the presence of inorganic phases. Micro-X-ray absorption near-edge structure (μXANES) spectroscopy revealed that V speciation was dominated by V(IV) porphyrins except at outer margins of layers, where octahedrally coordinated V(III) was a major component. Minor to trace V(V) was also detected within fluid petroleum coke particles.

  11. Spectroscopic signatures of PETN in contact with sand particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesteros, Luz M.; Herrera, Gloria M.; Castro, Miguel E.; Briano, Julio; Mina, Nairmen; Hernandez-Rivera, Samuel P.

    2005-06-01

    The detection of explosive materials is not only important as an issue in landmines but also for global security reasons, unexploded ordnance, and Improvised Explosive Devices detection. In such areas, explosives detection has played a central role in ensuring the safety of the lives of citizens in many countries. Raman Spectroscopy is a well established tool for vibrational spectroscopic analysis and can be applied to the field of explosives identification and detection. The analysis of PETN is important because it is used in laminar form or mixed with RDX to manufacture Semtex plastic explosive and in the fabrication of Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs). Our investigation is focused on the study of spectroscopic signatures of PETN in contact with soil. Ottawa sand mixed in different proportions with PETN together with the study of the influence of pH, temperature, humidity, and UV light on the vibrational signatures of the mixtures constitute the core of the investigation. The results reveal that the characteristic bands of PETN are not significantly shifted but rather appear constant with respect of the ubiquitous band of sand (~463 cm-1). These results will make possible the development of highly sensitive sensors for detection of explosives materials and IDEs.

  12. White sand potentially suppresses radon emission from uranium tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel Ghany, H. A.; El Aassy, Ibrahim E.; Ibrahim, Eman M.; Gamil, S. H.

    2018-03-01

    Uranium tailings represent a huge radioactive waste contaminant, where radon emanation is considered a major health hazard. Many trials have been conducted to minimize radon exhalation rate by using different covering materials. In the present work, three covering materials, commonly available in the local environment, (kaolin, white sand and bentonite) have been used with different thickness 10, 15, and 20 mm). 238U, 232Th, 40K and the radon exhalation rate were measured by using gamma spectrometry with a Hyper Pure Germanium (HPGe) detector and solid state nuclear track detectors (CR-39). Radon exhalation rate, calculated before and after covering, ranged from 2.80 ± 0.14 to 4.20 ± 0.21 Bq m-2 h-1, and from 0.30 ± 0.01 to 4.00 ± 0.20 Bq m-2 h-1, respectively. Also, the attenuation coefficients of different covering materials and radon emanation were calculated. The obtained results demonstrate that covering of uranium tailings by kaolin, white sand and bentonite has potentially minimized both the radon exhalation rate and the corresponding internal doses.

  13. Visual accumulation tube for size analysis of sands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colby, B.C.; Christensen, R.P.

    1956-01-01

    The visual-accumulation-tube method was developed primarily for making size analyses of the sand fractions of suspended-sediment and bed-material samples. Because the fundamental property governing the motion of a sediment particle in a fluid is believed to be its fall velocity. the analysis is designed to determine the fall-velocity-frequency distribution of the individual particles of the sample. The analysis is based on a stratified sedimentation system in which the sample is introduced at the top of a transparent settling tube containing distilled water. The procedure involves the direct visual tracing of the height of sediment accumulation in a contracted section at the bottom of the tube. A pen records the height on a moving chart. The method is simple and fast, provides a continuous and permanent record, gives highly reproducible results, and accurately determines the fall-velocity characteristics of the sample. The apparatus, procedure, results, and accuracy of the visual-accumulation-tube method for determining the sedimentation-size distribution of sands are presented in this paper.

  14. The microbiology of oil sands tailings: past, present, future.

    PubMed

    Foght, Julia M; Gieg, Lisa M; Siddique, Tariq

    2017-05-01

    Surface mining of enormous oil sands deposits in northeastern Alberta, Canada since 1967 has contributed greatly to Canada's economy but has also received negative international attention due largely to environmental concerns and challenges. Not only have microbes profoundly affected the composition and behavior of this petroleum resource over geological time, they currently influence the management of semi-solid tailings in oil sands tailings ponds (OSTPs) and tailings reclamation. Historically, microbial impacts on OSTPs were generally discounted, but next-generation sequencing and biogeochemical studies have revealed unexpectedly diverse indigenous communities and expanded our fundamental understanding of anaerobic microbial functions. OSTPs that experienced different processing and management histories have developed distinct microbial communities that influence the behavior and reclamation of the tailings stored therein. In particular, the interactions of Deltaproteobacteria and Firmicutes with methanogenic archaea impact greenhouse gas emissions, sulfur cycling, pore water toxicity, sediment biogeochemistry and densification, water usage and the trajectory of long-term mine waste reclamation. This review summarizes historical data; synthesizes current understanding of microbial diversity and activities in situ and in vitro; predicts microbial effects on tailings remediation and reclamation; and highlights knowledge gaps for future research. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Midgut morphological changes and autophagy during metamorphosis in sand flies.

    PubMed

    Malta, Juliana; Heerman, Matthew; Weng, Ju Lin; Fernandes, Kenner M; Martins, Gustavo Ferreira; Ramalho-Ortigão, Marcelo

    2017-06-01

    During metamorphosis, holometabolous insects undergo significant remodeling of their midgut and become able to cope with changes in dietary requirements between larval and adult stages. At this stage, insects must be able to manage and recycle available food resources in order to develop fully into adults, especially when no nutrients are acquired from the environment. Autophagy has been previously suggested to play a crucial role during metamorphosis of the mosquito. Here, we investigate the overall morphological changes of the midgut of the sand fly during metamorphosis and assess the expression profiles of the autophagy-related genes ATG1, ATG6, and ATG8, which are associated with various steps of the autophagic process. Morphological changes in the midgut start during the fourth larval instar, with epithelial degeneration followed by remodeling via the differentiation of regenerative cells in pre-pupal and pupal stages. The changes in the midgut epithelium are paired with the up-regulation of ATG1, ATG6 and ATG8 during the larva-adult transition. Vein, a putative epidermal growth factor involved in regulating epithelial midgut regeneration, is also up-regulated. Autophagy has further been confirmed in sand flies via the presence of autophagosomes residing within the cytoplasmic compartment of the pupal stages. An understanding of the underlying mechanisms of this process should aid the future management of this neglected tropical vector.

  16. Sand amendment enhances bioelectrochemical remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojing; Wang, Xin; Ren, Zhiyong Jason; Zhang, Yueyong; Li, Nan; Zhou, Qixing

    2015-12-01

    Bioelectrochemical system is an emerging technology for the remediation of soils contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons. However, performance of such systems can be limited by the inefficient mass transport in soil. Here we report a new method of sand amendment, which significantly increases both oxygen and proton transports, resulting to increased soil porosity (from 44.5% to 51.3%), decreased Ohmic resistance (by 46%), and increased charge output (from 2.5 to 3.5Cg(-1)soil). The degradation rates of petroleum hydrocarbons increased by up to 268% in 135d. The degradation of n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with high molecular weight was accelerated, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis showed that the microbial community close to the air-cathode was substantially stimulated by the induced current, especially the hydrocarbon degrading bacteria Alcanivorax. The bioelectrochemical stimulation imposed a selective pressure on the microbial community of anodes, including that far from the cathode. These results suggested that sand amendment can be an effective approach for soil conditioning that will enhances the bioelectrochemical removal of hydrocarbons in contaminated soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ottawa Sand for Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    What appear to be boulders fresh from a tumble down a mountain are really grains of Ottawa sand, a standard material used in civil engineering tests and also used in the Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment. The craggy surface shows how sand grans have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even causing sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. MGM uses the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. These images are from an Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) study conducted by Dr. Binayak Panda of IITRI for Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). (Credit: NASA/MSFC)

  18. Modeling and monitoring the hydrological effects of the Sand Engine.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaars, Frans; Hoogmoed, Merel; van Vliet, Frank; Stuyfzand, Pieter; Groen, Michel; van der Made, Kees-Jan; Caljé, Ruben; Auken, Esben; Bergsted Pedersen, Jesper

    2013-04-01

    Since 1887, Dunea Water Company produces high quality drinking water using the dune area at Monster (Province of South Holland, the Netherlands). Annually, 8 billion liters of water is produced here using artificial recharge and recovery with shallow wells and infiltration lakes. The dunes are an important step in producing drinking water serving as an underground buffer, leveling fluctuating in temperature and quality and removing bacteria and viruses from the infiltrated water in a natural way. Since space is limited in the Netherlands, the drinking water production of Dunea is closely matched with surrounding land uses and natural constraints. This prevents groundwater nuisance, upconing and intrusion of salt water and, in this case, movement of a nearby groundwater pollution. This is especially true in the Monster area where the dunes are fairly low and small; the coast is less than 350 meters from the recovery wells. The coast of Monster was identified as a weak link in the coastal defense of The Netherlands. Because of this, two coastal defense projects were carried out between 2009 and 2011. The first project involved creating an extra dune ridge in front of existing dunes which leads to intrusion of a large volume of seawater. Directly after completion, the Sand Engine was constructed. This hook shaped sand peninsula will supply the coast with sand for the coming decades due to erosion and deposition along the coast. These two large coastal defense projects would obviously influence the tightly balanced hydrological system of Monster. Without hydrological intervention, the drinking water production would no longer be sustainable in this area. To study the effects of these projects and to find a solution to combine coastal defense and drinking water supply, field research and effect (geochemical) modeling were used interactively. To prevent negative effects it was decided to construct interception wells on top of the new dune ridge (28 in total). A

  19. Alberta's economic development of the Athabasca oil sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinmann, Michael

    This dissertation examines the 61-year evolution of public policies pertaining to development of Alberta's non-conventional source of crude oil. The Athabasca oil sands contain an estimated 1.5 trillion barrels and provide for a safe continental supply. The Provincial Government first sponsored this undertaking in 1943. The period from then to 1971 was one of a transition from a wheat economy to a natural-resource economic base. A stable government emerged and was able to negotiate viable development policies. A second period, 1971 to 1986, was marked by unstable world conditions that afforded the Alberta government the ability to set terms of development with multi-national oil firms. A 50% profit-sharing plan was implemented, and basic 1973 terms lasted until 1996. However, 1986 was a critical year because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) reduced prices, causing the Alberta economy to lapse into recession. During a third period, 1986 to 1996, the Alberta Government was unable to adapt quickly to world conditions. A new leadership structure in 1996 made major changes to create ongoing fiscal and development policies. That history provides answers to two primary research questions: How do public policies affect the behaviors of the modern corporation and visa versa? What are the implications for development theory? Two sources of information were used for this study. First, it was possible to review the Premier's files located in the Provincial Archives. Materials from various government libraries were also examined. Some 7,000 documents were used to show the evolution of government policymaking. Second, interviews with leaders of oil companies and federal research facilities were important. Findings support the thesis that, to facilitate oil sands development, government and the private sector have closely collaborated. In particular, revenue policies have allowed for effective R&D organization. Relying on intensive technological

  20. The Role of 2D Circulation in Sand Bar Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Splinter, K. D.; Holman, R. A.; Plant, N. G.; Holland, K. T.

    2006-12-01

    Models of bar dynamics typically involve moments of the cross-shore flow, with offshore movement associated with the strong offshore directed undertow and onshore migration related to wave asymmetry and skewness [Gallagher, et al., 1998]. Based on these hypotheses, models and laboratory studies have used the alongshore-mean bar position and alongshore-uniform wave conditions (a 1DH approach) to study bar response to varying wave conditions. Commonly, cases of offshore migration were reproduced with reasonable accuracy, but predictions of onshore migration were less successful. However, examination of time-exposure images of waves show that during periods of offshore migration, bars tend to be alongshore uniform and move rapidly offshore, but during onshore migration, sand bars are rarely straight, instead becoming very sinuous, violating the 1DH approach. We hypothesize that under milder wave conditions, the 2DH circulation associated with this alongshore-variable morphology is, in fact, largely responsible for increased onshore net sand transport and the resulting onshore bar movement. We extend the work of Plant et al. [in review] that relates bar position, sinuosity, and wave forcing within a dynamical feedback model. The model consists of coupled differential equations that govern the rates of change of cross-shore position and horizontal sinuosity as a function of the current cross-shore position and sinuosity and a proxy for wave forcing. Using a short data set from Duck, NC, they solve for the unknown coupling coefficients by doing a least-squares fit. They find that the coefficients for the self-interaction terms have a negative sign, indicating the overall system is stable. The coefficients of the cross-interaction terms (the effect of sinuosity on rate of change of bar position and visa versa), however, are non-zero and have opposite signs indicating the systems are coupled and stability is not affected by these terms. We expand this study, relating bar