Science.gov

Sample records for zakharov simulation study

  1. Electron-acoustic Instability Simulated By Modified Zakharov Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jásenský, V.; Fiala, V.; Vána, O.; Trávnícek, P.; Hellinger, P.

    We present non-linear equations describing processes in plasma when electron - acoustic waves are excited. These waves are present for instance in the vicinity of Earth's bow shock and in the polar ionosphere. Frequently they are excited by an elec- tron beam in a plasma with two electron populations, a cold and hot one. We derive modified Zakharov equations from kinetic theory for such a case together with numer- ical method for solving of this type of equations. Bispectral analysis is used to show which non-linear wave processes are of importance in course of the instability. Finally, we compare these results with similar simulations using Vlasov approach.

  2. The Cauchy problem for the generalized Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation on modulation spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Tomoya

    2018-03-01

    We consider the Cauchy problem for the generalized Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation ∂t u +∂x1 Δu =∂x1 (u m + 1) on three and higher dimensions. We mainly study the local well-posedness and the small data global well-posedness in the modulation space M2,10 (Rn) for m ≥ 4 and n ≥ 3. We also investigate the quartic case, i.e., m = 3.

  3. Rogue-wave solutions of the Zakharov equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Jiguang; Wang, Lihong; Liu, Wei; He, Jingsong

    2017-12-01

    Using the bilinear transformation method, we derive general rogue-wave solutions of the Zakharov equation. We present these Nth-order rogue-wave solutions explicitly in terms of Nth-order determinants whose matrix elements have simple expressions. We show that the fundamental rogue wave is a line rogue wave with a line profile on the plane ( x, y) arising from a constant background at t ≪ 0 and then gradually tending to the constant background for t ≫ 0. Higher-order rogue waves arising from a constant background and later disappearing into it describe the interaction of several fundamental line rogue waves. We also consider different structures of higher-order rogue waves. We present differences between rogue waves of the Zakharov equation and of the first type of the Davey-Stewartson equation analytically and graphically.

  4. Zakharov equations for viscous flow and their use in the blood clot formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ai-Ping; Li, Xiao-Qing

    2017-12-01

    For theoretical study, blood can be regarded as a viscous electrically conducting fluid of negative ions and protons. Zakharov equations including viscosity are relevant for describing the behaviour of blood plasma. The dispersion formula is derived from the perturbation method and is solved numerically. It turns out that the imaginary part of one root of the perturbation frequency is greater than zero, and modulation instability occurs. This would lead to the formation of blood clot. The viscous force can suppress the occurrence of instability and prevent thrombosis. One can find that the chaotic state of blood signals human health.

  5. New solitary wave solutions of (3 + 1)-dimensional nonlinear extended Zakharov-Kuznetsov and modified KdV-Zakharov-Kuznetsov equations and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Dianchen; Seadawy, A. R.; Arshad, M.; Wang, Jun

    In this paper, new exact solitary wave, soliton and elliptic function solutions are constructed in various forms of three dimensional nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) in mathematical physics by utilizing modified extended direct algebraic method. Soliton solutions in different forms such as bell and anti-bell periodic, dark soliton, bright soliton, bright and dark solitary wave in periodic form etc are obtained, which have large applications in different branches of physics and other areas of applied sciences. The obtained solutions are also presented graphically. Furthermore, many other nonlinear evolution equations arising in mathematical physics and engineering can also be solved by this powerful, reliable and capable method. The nonlinear three dimensional extended Zakharov-Kuznetsov dynamica equation and (3 + 1)-dimensional modified KdV-Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation are selected to show the reliability and effectiveness of the current method.

  6. Soliton solutions of the quantum Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation which arises in quantum magneto-plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sindi, Cevat Teymuri; Manafian, Jalil

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we extended the improved tan(φ/2)-expansion method (ITEM) and the generalized G'/G-expansion method (GGEM) proposed by Manafian and Fazli (Opt. Quantum Electron. 48, 413 (2016)) to construct new types of soliton wave solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations (NPDEs). Moreover, we use of the improvement of the Exp-function method (IEFM) proposed by Jahani and Manafian (Eur. Phys. J. Plus 131, 54 (2016)) for obtaining solutions of NPDEs. The merit of the presented three methods is they can find further solutions to the considered problems, including soliton, periodic, kink, kink-singular wave solutions. This paper studies the quantum Zakharov-Kuznetsov (QZK) equation by the aid of the improved tan(φ/2)-expansion method, the generalized G'/G-expansion method and the improvement of the Exp-function method. Moreover, the 1-soliton solution of the modified QZK equation with power law nonlinearity is obtained by the aid of traveling wave hypothesis with the necessary constraints in place for the existence of the soliton. Comparing our new results with Ebadi et al. results (Astrophys. Space Sci. 341, 507 (2012)), namely, G'/G-expansion method, exp-function method, modified F-expansion method, shows that our results give further solutions. Finally, these solutions might play an important role in engineering, physics and applied mathematics fields.

  7. The solitary wave solution of coupled Klein-Gordon-Zakharov equations via two different numerical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehghan, Mehdi; Nikpour, Ahmad

    2013-09-01

    In this research, we propose two different methods to solve the coupled Klein-Gordon-Zakharov (KGZ) equations: the Differential Quadrature (DQ) and Globally Radial Basis Functions (GRBFs) methods. In the DQ method, the derivative value of a function with respect to a point is directly approximated by a linear combination of all functional values in the global domain. The principal work in this method is the determination of weight coefficients. We use two ways for obtaining these coefficients: cosine expansion (CDQ) and radial basis functions (RBFs-DQ), the former is a mesh-based method and the latter categorizes in the set of meshless methods. Unlike the DQ method, the GRBF method directly substitutes the expression of the function approximation by RBFs into the partial differential equation. The main problem in the GRBFs method is ill-conditioning of the interpolation matrix. Avoiding this problem, we study the bases introduced in Pazouki and Schaback (2011) [44]. Some examples are presented to compare the accuracy and easy implementation of the proposed methods. In numerical examples, we concentrate on Inverse Multiquadric (IMQ) and second-order Thin Plate Spline (TPS) radial basis functions. The variable shape parameter (exponentially and random) strategies are applied in the IMQ function and the results are compared with the constant shape parameter.

  8. Reformulating the Schrödinger equation as a Shabat-Zakharov system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boonserm, Petarpa; Visser, Matt

    2010-02-01

    We reformulate the second-order Schrödinger equation as a set of two coupled first-order differential equations, a so-called "Shabat-Zakharov system" (sometimes called a "Zakharov-Shabat" system). There is considerable flexibility in this approach, and we emphasize the utility of introducing an "auxiliary condition" or "gauge condition" that is used to cut down the degrees of freedom. Using this formalism, we derive the explicit (but formal) general solution to the Schrödinger equation. The general solution depends on three arbitrarily chosen functions, and a path-ordered exponential matrix. If one considers path ordering to be an "elementary" process, then this represents complete quadrature, albeit formal, of the second-order linear ordinary differential equation.

  9. A novel approach for solitary wave solutions of the generalized fractional Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batool, Fiza; Akram, Ghazala

    2018-01-01

    In this article the solitary wave solutions of generalized fractional Zakharov-Kuznetsov (GZK) equation which appear in the electrical transmission line model are investigated. The (G'/G)-expansion method is used to obtain the solitary solutions of fractional GZK equation via local fractional derivative. Three classes of solutions, hyperbolic, trigonometric and rational wave solutions of the associated equation are characterized with some free parameters. The obtained solutions reveal that the proposed technique is effective and powerful.

  10. Nonlinearity Domination in Hassellmann Equation as a Reason for Alternative Framework of its Numerical Simulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    nonlinear Schrodinger equation. It is well known that dark solitons are exact solutions of such equation. In the present paper it has been shown that gray...Reason for Alternative Framework of its Numerical Simulation Vladimir Zakharov, Andrei Pushkarev Waves and Solitons LLC 1719 W. Marlette Ave...situation; study of the implications of modulational instability on solitons , rogue waves and air-surface interaction. APPROACH Numerical methods

  11. Instability of standing waves for Klein-Gordon-Zakharov equations with different propagation speeds in three space dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Zaihui; Zhang, Jian

    2005-07-01

    This paper is concerned with the standing wave for Klein-Gordon-Zakharov equations with different propagation speeds in three space dimensions. The existence of standing wave with the ground state is established by applying an intricate variational argument and the instability of the standing wave is shown by applying Pagne and Sattinger's potential well argument and Levine's concavity method.

  12. Simulation verification techniques study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoonmaker, P. B.; Wenglinski, T. H.

    1975-01-01

    Results are summarized of the simulation verification techniques study which consisted of two tasks: to develop techniques for simulator hardware checkout and to develop techniques for simulation performance verification (validation). The hardware verification task involved definition of simulation hardware (hardware units and integrated simulator configurations), survey of current hardware self-test techniques, and definition of hardware and software techniques for checkout of simulator subsystems. The performance verification task included definition of simulation performance parameters (and critical performance parameters), definition of methods for establishing standards of performance (sources of reference data or validation), and definition of methods for validating performance. Both major tasks included definition of verification software and assessment of verification data base impact. An annotated bibliography of all documents generated during this study is provided.

  13. Airblast Simulator Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    RAREFACTION WAVE ELIMINATOR CONSIDERATIONS 110 5.1 FLIP CALCULATIONS 110 5.2 A PASSIVE/ACTIVE RWE 118 6 DISTRIBUTED FUEL AIR EXPLOSIVES 120 REFERENCES 123 TA...conventional and distributed-charge fuel- air explosive charges used in a study of the utility of distributed charge FAE systems for blast simulation. The...limited investigation of distributed charge fuel air explosive configurations for blast simulator applications. During the course of this study

  14. Snowplow Simulator Training Study

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-01-01

    This report evaluates simulation training of IDOT snowplow operators to improve IDOT snow and ice removal : operations. Specifically, it assesses a drivers evaluation of snowplow simulation training immediately after : training in fall 2009 and ag...

  15. Algorithmic framework for group analysis of differential equations and its application to generalized Zakharov-Kuznetsov equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ding-jiang; Ivanova, Nataliya M.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we explain in more details the modern treatment of the problem of group classification of (systems of) partial differential equations (PDEs) from the algorithmic point of view. More precisely, we revise the classical Lie algorithm of construction of symmetries of differential equations, describe the group classification algorithm and discuss the process of reduction of (systems of) PDEs to (systems of) equations with smaller number of independent variables in order to construct invariant solutions. The group classification algorithm and reduction process are illustrated by the example of the generalized Zakharov-Kuznetsov (GZK) equations of form ut +(F (u)) xxx +(G (u)) xyy +(H (u)) x = 0. As a result, a complete group classification of the GZK equations is performed and a number of new interesting nonlinear invariant models which have non-trivial invariance algebras are obtained. Lie symmetry reductions and exact solutions for two important invariant models, i.e., the classical and modified Zakharov-Kuznetsov equations, are constructed. The algorithmic framework for group analysis of differential equations presented in this paper can also be applied to other nonlinear PDEs.

  16. On the comparison of perturbation-iteration algorithm and residual power series method to solve fractional Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şenol, Mehmet; Alquran, Marwan; Kasmaei, Hamed Daei

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we present analytic-approximate solution of time-fractional Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation. This model demonstrates the behavior of weakly nonlinear ion acoustic waves in a plasma bearing cold ions and hot isothermal electrons in the presence of a uniform magnetic field. Basic definitions of fractional derivatives are described in the Caputo sense. Perturbation-iteration algorithm (PIA) and residual power series method (RPSM) are applied to solve this equation with success. The convergence analysis is also presented for both methods. Numerical results are given and then they are compared with the exact solutions. Comparison of the results reveal that both methods are competitive, powerful, reliable, simple to use and ready to apply to wide range of fractional partial differential equations.

  17. [Results of Simulation Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Lattice Monte Carlo and off-lattice molecular dynamics simulations of h(sub 1)t(sub 4) and h(sub 4)t(sub l) (head/tail) amphiphile solutions have been performed as a function of surfactant concentration and temperature. The lattice and off-lattice systems exhibit quite different self-assembly behavior at equivalent thermodynamic conditions. We found that in the weakly aggregating regime (no preferred-size micelles), all models yield similar micelle size distributions at the same average aggregation number, albeit at different thermodynamic conditions (temperatures). In the strongly aggregating regime, this mapping between models (through temperature adjustment) fails, and the models exhibit qualitatively different micellization behavior. Incipient micellization in a model self-associating telechelic polymer solution results in a network with a transient elastic response that decays by a two-step relaxation: the first is due to a heterogeneous jump-diffusion process involving entrapment of end-groups within well-defined clusters and this is followed by rapid diffusion to neighboring clusters and a decay (terminal relaxation) due to cluster disintegration. The viscoelastic response of the solution manifests characteristics of a glass transition and entangled polymer network.

  18. Conducting Simulation Studies in Psychometrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Richard A.; Rubright, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Simulation studies are fundamental to psychometric discourse and play a crucial role in operational and academic research. Yet, resources for psychometricians interested in conducting simulations are scarce. This Instructional Topics in Educational Measurement Series (ITEMS) module is meant to address this deficiency by providing a comprehensive…

  19. Simulation in International Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Social scientists have long worked to replicate real-world phenomena in their research and teaching environments. Unlike our biophysical science colleagues, we are faced with an area of study that is not governed by the laws of physics and other more predictable relationships. As a result, social scientists, and international studies scholars more…

  20. A Simulated Stream Ecology Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zampella, Robert A.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a simulated field experience to study stream ecology in the classroom. Secondary students determine the composition of the stream community, describe the distribution of the benthic invertebrates, and design a food web. (Author/MA)

  1. Relations between positivity, localization and degrees of freedom: The Weinberg-Witten theorem and the van Dam-Veltman-Zakharov discontinuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mund, Jens; Rehren, Karl-Henning; Schroer, Bert

    2017-10-01

    The problem of accounting for the quantum degrees of freedom in passing from massive higher-spin potentials to massless ones, and the inverse problem of "fattening" massless tensor potentials of helicity ±h to their massive s = | h | counterparts, are solved - in a perfectly ghost-free approach - using "string-localized fields". This approach allows to overcome the Weinberg-Witten impediment against the existence of massless | h | ≥ 2 energy-momentum tensors, and to qualitatively and quantitatively resolve the van Dam-Veltman-Zakharov discontinuity concerning, e.g., very light gravitons, in the limit m → 0.

  2. Exact traveling wave solutions of modified KdV-Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation and viscous Burgers equation.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Hamidul; Khan, Kamruzzaman; Akbar, M Ali; Salam, Md Abdus

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of many physical systems leads to nonlinear evolution equations because most physical systems are inherently nonlinear in nature. The investigation of traveling wave solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations (NPDEs) plays a significant role in the study of nonlinear physical phenomena. In this article, we construct the traveling wave solutions of modified KDV-ZK equation and viscous Burgers equation by using an enhanced (G '/G) -expansion method. A number of traveling wave solutions in terms of unknown parameters are obtained. Derived traveling wave solutions exhibit solitary waves when special values are given to its unknown parameters. 35C07; 35C08; 35P99.

  3. A channel simulator design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devito, D. M.; Goutmann, M. M.; Harper, R. C.

    1971-01-01

    A propagation path simulator was designed for the channel between a Tracking and Data Relay Satellite in geostationary orbit and a user spacecraft orbiting the earth at an altitude between 200 and 4000 kilometers. The simulator is required to duplicate the time varying parameters of the propagation channel.

  4. Social Studies Materials--"A Simulating Experience"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Place, Daniel R.

    1976-01-01

    Maintains that simulation games in social studies education are successful because they combine factual content, skills development, and experience in decision making. The five simulations described are Explorers I, River City, Boxcars, The Union Divides, and Starpower. (Author/DB)

  5. Simulation studies of glassy nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowles, Richard

    2015-03-01

    Glassy materials are amorphous solids usually formed by rapidly cooling a liquid below its equilibrium freezing temperature, trapping the particles in a liquid-like structure at the glass transition temperature. While appearing throughout nature and industry, these systems continue to challenge the way we think about the dynamics and thermodynamics of condensed matter and a fundamental understanding of the glass state remains elusive. This talk describes molecular simulation studies of glassy behaviour in binary Lennard-Jones nanoclusters. We show that the relaxation dynamics of the clusters is nonuniform and the core of the cluster goes through a glass transition at higher temperatures than at the surface. As the nanoclusters are cooled, they also exhibit a fragile-strong crossover in their dynamics and we explore how this phenomena is linked to the potential energy landscape of the clusters. Finally, we compare the properties of nanoclusters formed through vapour condensation, directly to the glassy state, with those of glassy clusters formed through traditional supercooling. The condensation clusters are shown to form ultra-stable glassy states analogous to the ultra-stable glasses formed by thin film vapour deposition onto a cold substrate. In all, our work suggests that nanoscale clusters exhibit some unique glassy features, while also offering potential insights into the fundamental nature of the glass transition.

  6. AMR Studies of Star Formation: Simulations and Simulated Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offner, Stella; McKee, C. F.; Klein, R. I.

    2009-01-01

    Molecular clouds are typically observed to be approximately virialized with gravitational and turbulent energy in balance, yielding a star formation rate of a few percent. The origin and characteristics of the observed supersonic turbulence are poorly understood, and without continued energy injection the turbulence is predicted to decay within a cloud dynamical time. Recent observations and analytic work have suggested a strong connection between the initial stellar mass function, the core mass function, and turbulence characteristics. The role of magnetic fields in determining core lifetimes, shapes, and kinematic properties remains hotly debated. Simulations are a formidable tool for studying the complex process of star formation and addressing these puzzles. I present my results modeling low-mass star formation using the ORION adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) code. I investigate the properties of forming cores and protostars in simulations in which the turbulence is driven to maintain virial balance and where it is allowed to decay. I will discuss simulated observations of cores in dust emission and in molecular tracers and compare to observations of local star-forming clouds. I will also present results from ORION cluster simulations including flux-limited diffusion radiative transfer and show that radiative feedback, even from low-mass stars, has a significant effect on core fragmentation, disk properties, and the IMF. Finally, I will discuss the new simulation frontier of AMR multigroup radiative transfer.

  7. Operations planning simulation: Model study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The use of simulation modeling for the identification of system sensitivities to internal and external forces and variables is discussed. The technique provides a means of exploring alternate system procedures and processes, so that these alternatives may be considered on a mutually comparative basis permitting the selection of a mode or modes of operation which have potential advantages to the system user and the operator. These advantages are measurements is system efficiency are: (1) the ability to meet specific schedules for operations, mission or mission readiness requirements or performance standards and (2) to accomplish the objectives within cost effective limits.

  8. Do Social Studies Teachers Use Simulations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Gail A; Schug, Mark C.

    1990-01-01

    Reports the results of a survey of Wisconsin secondary social studies teachers designed to answer the question: To what extent do teachers use simulations? Describes the study designed to replicate an earlier survey of Ohio teachers in 1979 by J.J. Blaga. Compares the results of the two surveys. Concludes simulation use has increased. (RW)

  9. Simulations & Case Studies. [SITE 2002 Section].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Cathy R., Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on simulations and case studies from the SITE (Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education) 2002 conference: "3-D Virtual Classroom Technology" (Kimberly Arseneau Miller, Angela Glod); "Simulated Lesson Design Studios" (Willis Copeland); "Lights, Camera, Integration: Presentation Programs and…

  10. NASA Constellation Distributed Simulation Middleware Trade Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasan, David; Bowman, James D.; Fisher, Nancy; Cutts, Dannie; Cures, Edwin Z.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a trade study designed to assess three distributed simulation middleware technologies for support of the NASA Constellation Distributed Space Exploration Simulation (DSES) project and Test and Verification Distributed System Integration Laboratory (DSIL). The technologies are the High Level Architecture (HLA), the Test and Training Enabling Architecture (TENA), and an XML-based variant of Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS-XML) coupled with the Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP). According to the criteria and weights determined in this study, HLA scores better than the other two for DSES as well as the DSIL.

  11. Simulation verification techniques study. Subsystem simulation validation techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, L. M.; Reddell, J. P.; Schoonmaker, P. B.

    1974-01-01

    Techniques for validation of software modules which simulate spacecraft onboard systems are discussed. An overview of the simulation software hierarchy for a shuttle mission simulator is provided. A set of guidelines for the identification of subsystem/module performance parameters and critical performance parameters are presented. Various sources of reference data to serve as standards of performance for simulation validation are identified. Environment, crew station, vehicle configuration, and vehicle dynamics simulation software are briefly discussed from the point of view of their interfaces with subsystem simulation modules. A detailed presentation of results in the area of vehicle subsystems simulation modules is included. A list of references, conclusions and recommendations are also given.

  12. Solitons, Lie Group Analysis and Conservation Laws of a (3+1)-Dimensional Modified Zakharov-Kuznetsov Equation in a Multicomponent Magnetised Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Xia-Xia; Tian, Bo; Chai, Jun; Sun, Yan; Yuan, Yu-Qiang

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we investigate a (3+1)-dimensional modified Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation, which describes the nonlinear plasma-acoustic waves in a multicomponent magnetised plasma. With the aid of the Hirota method and symbolic computation, bilinear forms and one-, two- and three-soliton solutions are derived. The characteristics and interaction of the solitons are discussed graphically. We present the effects on the soliton's amplitude by the nonlinear coefficients which are related to the ratio of the positive-ion mass to negative-ion mass, number densities, initial densities of the lower- and higher-temperature electrons and ratio of the lower temperature to the higher temperature for electrons, as well as by the dispersion coefficient, which is related to the ratio of the positive-ion mass to the negative-ion mass and number densities. Moreover, using the Lie symmetry group theory, we derive the Lie point symmetry generators and the corresponding symmetry reductions, through which certain analytic solutions are obtained via the power series expansion method and the (G'/G) expansion method. We demonstrate that such an equation is strictly self-adjoint, and the conservation laws associated with the Lie point symmetry generators are derived.

  13. Grid Sensitivity Study for Slat Noise Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockard, David P.; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Buning, Pieter G.

    2014-01-01

    The slat noise from the 30P/30N high-lift system is being investigated through computational fluid dynamics simulations in conjunction with a Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings acoustics solver. Many previous simulations have been performed for the configuration, and the case was introduced as a new category for the Second AIAA workshop on Benchmark problems for Airframe Noise Configurations (BANC-II). However, the cost of the simulations has restricted the study of grid resolution effects to a baseline grid and coarser meshes. In the present study, two different approaches are being used to investigate the effect of finer resolution of near-field unsteady structures. First, a standard grid refinement by a factor of two is used, and the calculations are performed by using the same CFL3D solver employed in the majority of the previous simulations. Second, the OVERFLOW code is applied to the baseline grid, but with a 5th-order upwind spatial discretization as compared with the second-order discretization used in the CFL3D simulations. In general, the fine grid CFL3D simulation and OVERFLOW calculation are in very good agreement and exhibit the lowest levels of both surface pressure fluctuations and radiated noise. Although the smaller scales resolved by these simulations increase the velocity fluctuation levels, they appear to mitigate the influence of the larger scales on the surface pressure. These new simulations are used to investigate the influence of the grid on unsteady high-lift simulations and to gain a better understanding of the physics responsible for the noise generation and radiation.

  14. OpenSimulator Interoperability with DRDC Simulation Tools: Compatibility Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    into two components: (1) backend data services consisting of user accounts, login service, assets, and inventory; and (2) the simulator server which...components are combined into a single OpenSimulator process. In grid mode, the two components are separated, placing the backend services into a ROBUST... mobile devices. Potential points of compatibility between Unity and OpenSimulator include: a Unity-based desktop computer OpenSimulator viewer; a

  15. Digital Simulation Games for Social Studies Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devlin-Scherer, Roberta; Sardone, Nancy B.

    2010-01-01

    Data from ten teacher candidates studying teaching methods were analyzed to determine perceptions toward digital simulation games in the area of social studies. This research can be used as a conceptual model of how current teacher candidates react to new methods of instruction and determine how education programs might change existing curricula…

  16. A Study of Imaging Interferometer Simulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Ronald J.

    2002-01-01

    Several new space science mission concepts under development at NASA-GSFC for astronomy are intended to carry out synthetic imaging using Michelson interferometers or direct (Fizeau) imaging with sparse apertures. Examples of these mission concepts include the Stellar Imager (SI), the Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT), the Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of Cosmic Structure (SPECS), and the Fourier-Kelvin Stellar Interferometer (FKSI). We have been developing computer-based simulators for these missions. These simulators are aimed at providing a quantitative evaluation of the imaging capabilities of the mission by modelling the performance on different realistic targets in terms of sensitivity, angular resolution, and dynamic range. Both Fizeau and Michelson modes of operation can be considered. Our work is based on adapting a computer simulator called imSIM, which was initially written for the Space Interferometer Mission in order to simulate the imaging mode of new missions such as those listed. In a recent GSFC-funded study we have successfully written a preliminary version of a simulator SISIM for the Stellar Imager and carried out some preliminary studies with it. In a separately funded study we have also been applying these methods to SPECS/SPIRIT.

  17. Simulator Studies of the Deep Stall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Maurice D.; Cooper, George E.

    1965-01-01

    Simulator studies of the deep-stall problem encountered with modern airplanes are discussed. The results indicate that the basic deep-stall tendencies produced by aerodynamic characteristics are augmented by operational considerations. Because of control difficulties to be anticipated in the deep stall, it is desirable that adequate safeguards be provided against inadvertent penetrations.

  18. Simulated Patient Studies: An Ethical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Karin V; Miller, Franklin G

    2012-01-01

    Context In connection with health care reform, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services commissioned a “mystery shopper,” or simulated patient study, to measure access to primary care. But the study was shelved because of public controversy over “government spying” on doctors. Opponents of the study also raised ethical concerns about the use of deception with human subjects without soliciting their informed consent. Methods We undertook an ethical analysis of the use of simulated patient techniques in health services research, with a particular focus on research measuring access to care. Using a case study, we explored relevant methodological considerations and ethical principles relating to deceptive research without informed consent, as well as U.S. federal regulations permitting exceptions to consent. Findings Several relevant considerations both favor and oppose soliciting consent for simulated patient studies. Making research participation conditional on informed consent protects the autonomy of research subjects and shields them from unreasonable exposure to research risks. However, scientific validity is also an important ethical principle of human subjects research, as the net risks to subjects must be justified by the value to society of the knowledge to be gained. The use of simulated patients to monitor access is a naturalistic and scientifically sound experimental design that can answer important policy-relevant questions, with minimal risks to human subjects. As interaction between researchers and subjects increases, however, so does the need for consent. Conclusions As long as adequate protections of confidentiality of research data are in place, minimally intrusive simulated patient research that gathers policy-relevant data on the health system without the consent of individuals working in that system can be ethically justified when the risks and burdens to research subjects are minimal and the research has the potential to generate

  19. Simulation studies using multibody dynamics code DART

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keat, James E.

    1989-01-01

    DART is a multibody dynamics code developed by Photon Research Associates for the Air Force Astronautics Laboratory (AFAL). The code is intended primarily to simulate the dynamics of large space structures, particularly during the deployment phase of their missions. DART integrates nonlinear equations of motion numerically. The number of bodies in the system being simulated is arbitrary. The bodies' interconnection joints can have an arbitrary number of degrees of freedom between 0 and 6. Motions across the joints can be large. Provision for simulating on-board control systems is provided. Conservation of energy and momentum, when applicable, are used to evaluate DART's performance. After a brief description of DART, studies made to test the program prior to its delivery to AFAL are described. The first is a large angle reorientating of a flexible spacecraft consisting of a rigid central hub and four flexible booms. Reorientation was accomplished by a single-cycle sine wave shape torque input. In the second study, an appendage, mounted on a spacecraft, was slewed through a large angle. Four closed-loop control systems provided control of this appendage and of the spacecraft's attitude. The third study simulated the deployment of the rim of a bicycle wheel configuration large space structure. This system contained 18 bodies. An interesting and unexpected feature of the dynamics was a pulsing phenomena experienced by the stays whole playout was used to control the deployment. A short description of the current status of DART is given.

  20. Simulators' validation study: Problem solution logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoultz, M. B.

    1974-01-01

    A study was conducted to validate the ground based simulators used for aircraft environment in ride-quality research. The logic to the approach for solving this problem is developed. The overall problem solution flow chart is presented. The factors which could influence the human response to the environment on board the aircraft are analyzed. The mathematical models used in the study are explained. The steps which were followed in conducting the validation tests are outlined.

  1. Studying Spacecraft Charging via Numerical Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delzanno, G. L.; Moulton, D.; Meierbachtol, C.; Svyatskiy, D.; Vernon, L.

    2015-12-01

    The electrical charging of spacecraft due to bombarding charged particles can affect their performance and operation. We study this charging using CPIC; a particle-in-cell code specifically designed for studying plasma-material interactions [1]. CPIC is based on multi-block curvilinear meshes, resulting in near-optimal computational performance while maintaining geometric accuracy. Relevant plasma parameters are imported from the SHIELDS framework (currently under development at LANL), which simulates geomagnetic storms and substorms in the Earth's magnetosphere. Simulated spacecraft charging results of representative Van Allen Probe geometries using these plasma parameters will be presented, along with an overview of the code. [1] G.L. Delzanno, E. Camporeale, J.D. Moulton, J.E. Borovsky, E.A. MacDonald, and M.F. Thomsen, "CPIC: A Curvilinear Particle-In-Cell Code for Plasma-Material Interaction Studies," IEEE Trans. Plas. Sci., 41 (12), 3577 (2013).

  2. Atmospheric Modeling And Sensor Simulation (AMASS) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, K. G.

    1984-01-01

    The capabilities of the atmospheric modeling and sensor simulation (AMASS) system were studied in order to enhance them. This system is used in processing atmospheric measurements which are utilized in the evaluation of sensor performance, conducting design-concept simulation studies, and also in the modeling of the physical and dynamical nature of atmospheric processes. The study tasks proposed in order to both enhance the AMASS system utilization and to integrate the AMASS system with other existing equipment to facilitate the analysis of data for modeling and image processing are enumerated. The following array processors were evaluated for anticipated effectiveness and/or improvements in throughput by attachment of the device to the P-e: (1) Floating Point Systems AP-120B; (2) Floating Point Systems 5000; (3) CSP, Inc. MAP-400; (4) Analogic AP500; (5) Numerix MARS-432; and (6) Star Technologies, Inc. ST-100.

  3. Simulation studies for surfaces and materials strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halicioglu, T.

    1986-01-01

    During this reporting period three investigations were carried out. The first area of research concerned the analysis of the structure-energy relationship in small clusters. This study is very closely related to the improvement of the potential energy functions which are suitable and simple enough to be used in atomistic simulation studies. Parameters obtained from ab initio calculations for dimers and trimers of Al were used to estimate energetics and global minimum energy structures of clusters continuing up to 15 Al atoms. The second research topic addressed modeling of the collision process for atoms impinging on surfaces. In this simulation study qualitative aspects of the O atom collision with a graphite surface were analyzed. Four different O/graphite systems were considered and the aftermath of the impact was analyzed. The final area of investigation was related to the simulation of thin amorphous Si films on crystalline Si substrates. Parameters obtained in an earlier study were used to model an exposed amorphous Si surface and an a-Si/c-Si interface. Structural details for various film thicknesses were investigated at an atomistic level.

  4. Combining simulated patients and simulators: pilot study of hybrid simulation in teaching cardiac auscultation.

    PubMed

    Friederichs, Hendrik; Weissenstein, Anne; Ligges, Sandra; Möller, David; Becker, Jan C; Marschall, Bernhard

    2014-12-01

    Auscultation torsos are widely used to teach position-dependent heart sounds and murmurs. To provide a more realistic teaching experience, both whole body auscultation mannequins and torsos have been used in clinical examination skills training at the Medical Faculty of the University of Muenster since the winter term of 2008-2009. This training has since been extended by simulated patients, which are normal, healthy subjects who have undergone attachment of the electronic components of the auscultation mannequins to their chests to mimic pathophysiological conditions ("hybrid models"). The acceptance of this new learning method was examined in the present pilot study. In total, 143 students in their second preclinical year who were participating in auscultation training were randomized into an intervention group (hybrid models) and a control group (auscultation mannequins). One hundred forty-two (99.3%) of these students completed a self-assessment Likert-scale questionnaire regarding different teaching approaches (where 1 = "very poor" to 100 = "very good"). The questionnaire focused on the "value of learning" of different teaching approaches. Direct comparison showed that students evaluated the hybrid models to be significantly more effective than the auscultation mannequins (median: 83 vs. 64, P < 0.001). The cardiac auscultation training was generally assessed positively (median: 88). Additionally, verbal feedback was obtained from simulated patients and tutors (trained students who had successfully passed the course a few semesters earlier). Personal feedback showed high satisfaction from student tutors and simulated patients. Hybrid simulators for teaching cardiac auscultation elucidated positive responses from students, tutors, and simulated patients. Copyright © 2014 The American Physiological Society.

  5. The ACT Vision Mission Study Simulation Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wunderer, C. B.; Kippen, R. M.; Bloser, P. F.; Boggs, S. E.; McConnell, M. L.; Hoover, A.; Oberlack, U.; Sturner, S.; Tournear, D.; Weidenspointner, G.; Zoglauer, A.

    2004-12-01

    The Advanced Compton Telescope (ACT) has been selected by NASA for a one-year "Vision Mission" study. The main goal of this study is to determine feasible instrument configurations to achieve ACT's sensitivity requirements, and to give recommendations for technology development. Space-based instruments operating in the energy range of nuclear lines are subject to complex backgrounds generated by cosmic-ray interactions and diffuse gamma rays; typically measurements are significantly background-dominated. Therefore accurate, detailed simulations of the background induced in different ACT configurations, and exploration of event selection and reconstruction techniques for reducing these backgrounds, are crucial to determining both the capabilities of a given instrument configuration and the technology enhancements that would result in the most significant performance improvements. The ACT Simulation team has assembled a complete suite of tools that allows the generation of particle backgrounds for a given orbit (based on CREME96), their propagation through any instrument and spacecraft geometry (using MGGPOD) - including delayed photon emission from instrument activation - as well as the event selection and reconstruction of Compton-scatter events in the given detectors (MEGAlib). The package can deal with polarized photon beams as well as e.g. anticoincidence shields. We will report on the progress of the ACT simulation effort and the suite of tools used. We thank Elena Novikova at NRL for her contributions, and NASA for support of this research.

  6. Simulation study of disruption characteristics in KSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jongkyu; Kim, J. Y.; Kessel, C. E.; Poli, F.

    2012-10-01

    A detailed simulation study of disruption in KSTAR had been performed using the Tokamak Simulation Code(TSC) [1] during the initial design phase of KSTAR [2]. Recently, however, a partial modification in the structure of passive plate was made in relation to reduce eddy current and increase the efficiency of control of vertical position. A substantial change can then occur in disruption characteristics and plasma behavior during disruption due to changes in passive plate structure. Because of this, growth rate of vertical instability is expected to be increased and eddy current and its associated electomagnetic force are expected to be reduced. To check this in more detail, a new simulation study is here given with modified passive plate structure of KSTAR. In particular, modeling of vertical disruption that is vertical displacement event (VDE) was carried out. We calculated vertical growth rate for a drift phase of plasma and electromagnetic force acting on PFC structures and compared the results between in a new model and an old model. [4pt] [1] S.C. Jardin, N. Pomphrey and J. Delucia, J. Comp. Phys. 66, 481 (1986).[0pt] [2] J.Y. Kim, S.Y. Cho and KSTAR Team, Disruption load analysis on KSTAR PFC structures, J. Accel. Plasma Res. 5, 149 (2000).

  7. Convergence studies in meshfree peridynamic simulations

    SciT

    Seleson, Pablo; Littlewood, David J.

    2016-04-15

    Meshfree methods are commonly applied to discretize peridynamic models, particularly in numerical simulations of engineering problems. Such methods discretize peridynamic bodies using a set of nodes with characteristic volume, leading to particle-based descriptions of systems. In this article, we perform convergence studies of static peridynamic problems. We show that commonly used meshfree methods in peridynamics suffer from accuracy and convergence issues, due to a rough approximation of the contribution to the internal force density of nodes near the boundary of the neighborhood of a given node. We propose two methods to improve meshfree peridynamic simulations. The first method uses accuratemore » computations of volumes of intersections between neighbor cells and the neighborhood of a given node, referred to as partial volumes. The second method employs smooth influence functions with a finite support within peridynamic kernels. Numerical results demonstrate great improvements in accuracy and convergence of peridynamic numerical solutions, when using the proposed methods.« less

  8. Simulation studies for the PANDA experiment

    SciT

    Kopf, B.

    2005-10-26

    One main component of the planned Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) is the High Energy Storage Ring (HESR) at GSI, Darmstadt, which will provide cooled antiprotons with momenta between 1.5 and 15 GeV/c. The PANDA experiment will investigate p-barannihilations with internal hydrogen and nuclear targets. Due to the planned extensive physics program a multipurpose detector with nearly complete solid angle coverage, proper particle identification over a large momentum range, and high resolution calorimetry for neutral particles is required. For the optimization of the detector design simulation studies of several benchmark channels are in progress which are covering themore » most relevant physics topics. Some important simulation results are discussed here.« less

  9. Mobile-ip Aeronautical Network Simulation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Tran, Diepchi T.

    2001-01-01

    NASA is interested in applying mobile Internet protocol (mobile-ip) technologies to its space and aeronautics programs. In particular, mobile-ip will play a major role in the Advanced Aeronautic Transportation Technology (AATT), the Weather Information Communication (WINCOMM), and the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) aeronautics programs. This report presents the results of a simulation study of mobile-ip for an aeronautical network. The study was performed to determine the performance of the transmission control protocol (TCP) in a mobile-ip environment and to gain an understanding of how long delays, handoffs, and noisy channels affect mobile-ip performance.

  10. DWPF Simulant CPC Studies For SB8

    SciT

    Newell, J. D.

    2013-09-25

    Prior to processing a Sludge Batch (SB) in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), flowsheet studies using simulants are performed. Typically, the flowsheet studies are conducted based on projected composition(s). The results from the flowsheet testing are used to 1) guide decisions during sludge batch preparation, 2) serve as a preliminary evaluation of potential processing issues, and 3) provide a basis to support the Shielded Cells qualification runs performed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). SB8 was initially projected to be a combination of the Tank 40 heel (Sludge Batch 7b), Tank 13, Tank 12, and the Tank 51more » heel. In order to accelerate preparation of SB8, the decision was made to delay the oxalate-rich material from Tank 12 to a future sludge batch. SB8 simulant studies without Tank 12 were reported in a separate report.1 The data presented in this report will be useful when processing future sludge batches containing Tank 12. The wash endpoint target for SB8 was set at a significantly higher sodium concentration to allow acceptable glass compositions at the targeted waste loading. Four non-coupled tests were conducted using simulant representing Tank 40 at 110-146% of the Koopman Minimum Acid requirement. Hydrogen was generated during high acid stoichiometry (146% acid) SRAT testing up to 31% of the DWPF hydrogen limit. SME hydrogen generation reached 48% of of the DWPF limit for the high acid run. Two non-coupled tests were conducted using simulant representing Tank 51 at 110-146% of the Koopman Minimum Acid requirement. Hydrogen was generated during high acid stoichiometry SRAT testing up to 16% of the DWPF limit. SME hydrogen generation reached 49% of the DWPF limit for hydrogen in the SME for the high acid run. Simulant processing was successful using previously established antifoam addition strategy. Foaming during formic acid addition was not observed in any of the runs. Nitrite was destroyed in all runs and no N2O was

  11. A simulation study on garment manufacturing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liong, Choong-Yeun; Rahim, Nur Azreen Abdul

    2015-02-01

    Garment industry is an important industry and continues to evolve in order to meet the consumers' high demands. Therefore, elements of innovation and improvement are important. In this work, research studies were conducted at a local company in order to model the sewing process of clothes manufacturing by using simulation modeling. Clothes manufacturing at the company involves 14 main processes, which are connecting the pattern, center sewing and side neating, pockets sewing, backside-sewing, attaching the front and back, sleeves preparation, attaching the sleeves and over lock, collar preparation, collar sewing, bottomedge sewing, buttonholing sewing, removing excess thread, marking button, and button cross sewing. Those fourteen processes are operated by six tailors only. The last four sets of processes are done by a single tailor. Data collection was conducted by on site observation and the probability distribution of processing time for each of the processes is determined by using @Risk's Bestfit. Then a simulation model is developed using Arena Software based on the data collected. Animated simulation model is developed in order to facilitate understanding and verifying that the model represents the actual system. With such model, what if analysis and different scenarios of operations can be experimented with virtually. The animation and improvement models will be presented in further work.

  12. Simulation of wind wave growth with reference source functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badulin, Sergei I.; Zakharov, Vladimir E.; Pushkarev, Andrei N.

    2013-04-01

    We present results of extensive simulations of wind wave growth with the so-called reference source function in the right-hand side of the Hasselmann equation written as follows First, we use Webb's algorithm [8] for calculating the exact nonlinear transfer function Snl. Second, we consider a family of wind input functions in accordance with recent consideration [9] ( )s S = ?(k)N , ?(k) = ? ? ?- f (?). in k 0 ?0 in (2) Function fin(?) describes dependence on angle ?. Parameters in (2) are tunable and determine magnitude (parameters ?0, ?0) and wave growth rate s [9]. Exponent s plays a key role in this study being responsible for reference scenarios of wave growth: s = 4-3 gives linear growth of wave momentum, s = 2 - linear growth of wave energy and s = 8-3 - constant rate of wave action growth. Note, the values are close to ones of conventional parameterizations of wave growth rates (e.g. s = 1 for [7] and s = 2 for [5]). Dissipation function Sdiss is chosen as one providing the Phillips spectrum E(?) ~ ?5 at high frequency range [3] (parameter ?diss fixes a dissipation scale of wind waves) Sdiss = Cdissμ4w?N (k)θ(? - ?diss) (3) Here frequency-dependent wave steepness μ2w = E(?,?)?5-g2 makes this function to be heavily nonlinear and provides a remarkable property of stationary solutions at high frequencies: the dissipation coefficient Cdiss should keep certain value to provide the observed power-law tails close to the Phillips spectrum E(?) ~ ?-5. Our recent estimates [3] give Cdiss ? 2.0. The Hasselmann equation (1) with the new functions Sin, Sdiss (2,3) has a family of self-similar solutions of the same form as previously studied models [1,3,9] and proposes a solid basis for further theoretical and numerical study of wave evolution under action of all the physical mechanisms: wind input, wave dissipation and nonlinear transfer. Simulations of duration- and fetch-limited wind wave growth have been carried out within the above model setup to check its

  13. Numerical aerodynamic simulation facility feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    There were three major issues examined in the feasibility study. First, the ability of the proposed system architecture to support the anticipated workload was evaluated. Second, the throughput of the computational engine (the flow model processor) was studied using real application programs. Third, the availability reliability, and maintainability of the system were modeled. The evaluations were based on the baseline systems. The results show that the implementation of the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Facility, in the form considered, would indeed be a feasible project with an acceptable level of risk. The technology required (both hardware and software) either already exists or, in the case of a few parts, is expected to be announced this year. Facets of the work described include the hardware configuration, software, user language, and fault tolerance.

  14. Fiber lubrication: A molecular dynamics simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongyi

    Molecular and mesoscopic level description of friction and lubrication remains a challenge because of difficulties in the phenomenological understanding of to the behaviors of solid-liquid interfaces during sliding. Fortunately, there is the computational simulation approach opens an opportunity to predict and analyze interfacial phenomena, which were studied with molecular dynamics (MD) and mesoscopic dynamics (MesoDyn) simulations. Polypropylene (PP) and cellulose are two of most common polymers in textile fibers. Confined amorphous surface layers of PP and cellulose were built successfully with xenon crystals which were used to compact the polymers. The physical and surface properties of the PP and cellulose surface layers were investigated by MD simulations, including the density, cohesive energy, volumetric thermal expansion, and contact angle with water. The topology method was employed to predict the properties of poly(alkylene glycol) (PAG) diblock copolymers and Pluronic triblock copolymers used as lubricants on surfaces. Density, zero shear viscosity, shear module, cohesive energy and solubility parameter were predicted with each block copolymer. Molecular dynamics simulations were used to study the interaction energy per unit contact area of block copolymer melts with PP and cellulose surfaces. The interaction energy is defined as the ratio of interfacial interaction energy to the contact area. Both poly(proplene oxide) (PPO) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) segments provided a lipophilic character to both PP and cellulose surfaces. The PPO/PEO ratio and the molecular weight were found to impact the interaction energy on both PP and cellulose surfaces. In aqueous solutions, the interaction energy is complicated due to the presence of water and the cross interactions between the multiple molecular components. The polymer-water-surface (PWS) calculation method was proposed to calculate such complex systems. In a contrast with a vacuum condition, the presence

  15. Studying marine stratus with large eddy simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moeng, Chin-Hoh

    1990-01-01

    Data sets from field experiments over the stratocumulus regime may include complications from larger scale variations, decoupled cloud layers, diurnal cycle, or entrainment instability, etc. On top of the already complicated turbulence-radiation-condensation processes within the cloud-topped boundary layer (CTBL), these complexities may sometimes make interpretation of the data sets difficult. To study these processes, a better understanding is needed of the basic processes involved in the prototype CTBL. For example, is cloud top radiative cooling the primary source of the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) within the CTBL. Historically, laboratory measurements have played an important role in addressing the turbulence problems. The CTBL is a turbulent field which is probably impossible to generate in laboratories. Large eddy simulation (LES) is an alternative way of 'measuring' the turbulent structure under controlled environments, which allows the systematic examination of the basic physical processes involved. However, there are problems with the LES approach for the CTBL. The LES data need to be consistent with the observed data. The LES approach is discussed, and results are given which provide some insights into the simulated turbulent flow field. Problems with this approach for the CTBL and information from the FIRE experiment needed to justify the LES results are discussed.

  16. Sensitivity Studies in Gyro-fluid Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, D. W.; Dorland, W.; Beer, M. A.; Hammett, G. W.

    1998-11-01

    Transport models [1] derived from gyrofluid simulation [2] have been successful in predicting general confinement scalings. Specific fluxes and turbulent spectra, however, can depend sensitively on the plasma configuration and profiles, particularly in experiments with transients. Here, we step back from initial studies on Alcator C-Mod [3] and DIII-D [4] to investigate the sensitivity of simulations to variations in density, temperature (and their gradients) of each plasma species. We discuss the role of electric field shear, and the construction of local transport models for experimental comparison. In accompanying papers [5] we investigate comparisons with the experiments. *Supported by USDOE Grants DE-FG03-95ER54296, and DE-AC02-76CHO3073. [1] M. Kotschenreuther et al., Phys. Plasmas 2, 2381 (1995). [2] M. A. Beer et al, Phys. Plasmas 2, 2687 (1995). [3] D. W. Ross et al., Transport Task Force, Atlanta, 1998. [4] R. V. Bravenec et al., in Proc. 25th EPS Conf. on Contr. Fusion and Plasma Phys., Prague (1998). [5] R. V. Bravenec et al. and W. L. Rowan et al., these proceedings.

  17. Accessing primary care: a simulated patient study.

    PubMed

    Campbell, John L; Carter, Mary; Davey, Antoinette; Roberts, Martin J; Elliott, Marc N; Roland, Martin

    2013-03-01

    Simulated patient, or so-called 'mystery-shopper', studies are a controversial, but potentially useful, approach to take when conducting health services research. To investigate the construct validity of survey questions relating to access to primary care included in the English GP Patient Survey. Observational study in 41 general practices in rural, urban, and inner-city settings in the UK. Between May 2010 and March 2011, researchers telephoned practices at monthly intervals, simulating patients requesting routine, but prompt, appointments. Seven measures of access and appointment availability, measured from the mystery-shopper contacts, were related to seven measures of practice performance from the GP Patient Survey. Practices with lower access scores in the GP Patient Survey had poorer access and appointment availability for five out of seven items measured directly, when compared with practices that had higher scores. Scores on items from the national survey that related to appointment availability were significantly associated with direct measures of appointment availability. Patient-satisfaction levels and the likelihood that patients would recommend their practice were related to the availability of appointments. Patients' reports of ease of telephone access in the national survey were unrelated to three out of four measures of practice call handling, but were related to the time taken to resolve an appointment request, suggesting responders' possible confusion in answering this question. Items relating to the accessibility of care in a the English GP patient survey have construct validity. Patients' satisfaction with their practice is not related to practice call handling, but is related to appointment availability.

  18. Accessing primary care: a simulated patient study

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, John L; Carter, Mary; Davey, Antoinette; Roberts, Martin J; Elliott, Marc N; Roland, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Background Simulated patient, or so-called ‘mystery-shopper’, studies are a controversial, but potentially useful, approach to take when conducting health services research. Aim To investigate the construct validity of survey questions relating to access to primary care included in the English GP Patient Survey. Design and setting Observational study in 41 general practices in rural, urban, and inner-city settings in the UK. Method Between May 2010 and March 2011, researchers telephoned practices at monthly intervals, simulating patients requesting routine, but prompt, appointments. Seven measures of access and appointment availability, measured from the mystery-shopper contacts, were related to seven measures of practice performance from the GP Patient Survey. Results Practices with lower access scores in the GP Patient Survey had poorer access and appointment availability for five out of seven items measured directly, when compared with practices that had higher scores. Scores on items from the national survey that related to appointment availability were significantly associated with direct measures of appointment availability. Patient-satisfaction levels and the likelihood that patients would recommend their practice were related to the availability of appointments. Patients’ reports of ease of telephone access in the national survey were unrelated to three out of four measures of practice call handling, but were related to the time taken to resolve an appointment request, suggesting responders’ possible confusion in answering this question. Conclusion Items relating to the accessibility of care in a the English GP patient survey have construct validity. Patients’ satisfaction with their practice is not related to practice call handling, but is related to appointment availability. PMID:23561783

  19. Space shuttle visual simulation system design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A recommendation and a specification for the visual simulation system design for the space shuttle mission simulator are presented. A recommended visual system is described which most nearly meets the visual design requirements. The cost analysis of the recommended system covering design, development, manufacturing, and installation is reported. Four alternate systems are analyzed.

  20. Simulation Higher Order Language Requirements Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodenough, John B.; Braun, Christine L.

    The definitions provided for high order language (HOL) requirements for programming flight training simulators are based on the analysis of programs written for a variety of simulators. Examples drawn from these programs are used to justify the need for certain HOL capabilities. A description of the general structure and organization of the…

  1. Magnetic Nozzle Simulation Studies for Electric Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarditi, Alfonso

    2010-11-01

    Electric Propulsion has recently re-gained interest as one of the key technologies to enable NASA's long-range space missions. Options are being considered also in the field of aneutronic fusion propulsion for high-power electric thrusters. To support these goals the study of the exhaust jet in a plasma thruster acquires a critical importance because the need of high-efficiency generation of thrust. A model of the plasma exhaust has been developed with the 3D magneto-fluid NIMROD code [1] to study the physics of the plasma detachment in correlation with experimentally relevant configurations. The simulations show the role of the plasma diamagnetism and of the magnetic reconnection process in the formation of a detached plasma. Furthermore, in direct fusion-propulsion concepts high-energy (MeV range) fusion products have to be efficiently converted into a slower and denser plasma jet (with specific impulse down to few 1000's seconds, for realistic missions in the Solar System). For this purpose, a two-stage conversion process is being modeled where high-energy ions are non-adiabatically injected and confined into a magnetic duct leading to the magnetic nozzle, transferring most of their energy into their gyro-motion and drifting at slower speed along with the plasma propellant. The propellant acquires then thermal energy that gets converted into the direction of thrust by the magnetic nozzle. [1] C. R. Sovinec et al., J. Comput. Phys. 195, 355 (2004).

  2. DWPF simulant CPC studies for SB8

    SciT

    Koopman, D. C.; Zamecnik, J. R.

    2013-06-25

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) accepted a technical task request (TTR) from Waste Solidification Engineering to perform simulant tests to support the qualification of Sludge Batch 8 (SB8) and to develop the flowsheet for SB8 in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). These efforts pertained to the DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC). Separate studies were conducted for frit development and glass properties (including REDOX). The SRNL CPC effort had two primary phases divided by the decision to drop Tank 12 from the SB8 constituents. This report focuses on the second phase with SB8 compositions that do not contain themore » Tank 12 piece. A separate report will document the initial phase of SB8 testing that included Tank 12. The second phase of SB8 studies consisted of two sets of CPC studies. The first study involved CPC testing of an SB8 simulant for Tank 51 to support the CPC demonstration of the washed Tank 51 qualification sample in the SRNL Shielded Cells facility. SB8-Tank 51 was a high iron-low aluminum waste with fairly high mercury and moderate noble metal concentrations. Tank 51 was ultimately washed to about 1.5 M sodium which is the highest wash endpoint since SB3-Tank 51. This study included three simulations of the DWPF Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle with the sludge-only flowsheet at nominal DWPF processing conditions and three different acid stoichiometries. These runs produced a set of recommendations that were used to guide the successful SRNL qualification SRAT/SME demonstration with actual Tank 51 washed waste. The second study involved five SRAT/SME runs with SB8-Tank 40 simulant. Four of the runs were designed to define the acid requirements for sludge-only processing in DWPF with respect to nitrite destruction and hydrogen generation. The fifth run was an intermediate acid stoichiometry demonstration of the coupled flowsheet for SB8. These runs produced a set of

  3. Simulation study of pixel detector charge digitization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fuyue; Nachman, Benjamin; Sciveres, Maurice; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Team

    2017-01-01

    Reconstruction of tracks from nearly overlapping particles, called Tracking in Dense Environments (TIDE), is an increasingly important component of many physics analyses at the Large Hadron Collider as signatures involving highly boosted jets are investigated. TIDE makes use of the charge distribution inside a pixel cluster to resolve tracks that share one of more of their pixel detector hits. In practice, the pixel charge is discretized using the Time-over-Threshold (ToT) technique. More charge information is better for discrimination, but more challenging for designing and operating the detector. A model of the silicon pixels has been developed in order to study the impact of the precision of the digitized charge distribution on distinguishing multi-particle clusters. The output of the GEANT4-based simulation is used to train neutral networks that predict the multiplicity and location of particles depositing energy inside one cluster of pixels. By studying the multi-particle cluster identification efficiency and position resolution, we quantify the trade-off between the number of ToT bits and low-level tracking inputs. As both ATLAS and CMS are designing upgraded detectors, this work provides guidance for the pixel module designs to meet TIDE needs. Work funded by the China Scholarship Council and the Office of High Energy Physics of the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  4. Deep Space Storm Shelter Simulation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugan, Kathryn; Phojanamongkolkij, Nipa; Cerro, Jeffrey; Simon, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Missions outside of Earth's magnetic field are impeded by the presence of radiation from galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events. To overcome this issue, NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Radiation Works Storm Shelter (RadWorks) has been studying different radiation protective habitats to shield against the onset of solar particle event radiation. These habitats have the capability of protecting occupants by utilizing available materials such as food, water, brine, human waste, trash, and non-consumables to build short-term shelters. Protection comes from building a barrier with the materials that dampens the impact of the radiation on astronauts. The goal of this study is to develop a discrete event simulation, modeling a solar particle event and the building of a protective shelter. The main hallway location within a larger habitat similar to the International Space Station (ISS) is analyzed. The outputs from this model are: 1) the total area covered on the shelter by the different materials, 2) the amount of radiation the crew members receive, and 3) the amount of time for setting up the habitat during specific points in a mission given an event occurs.

  5. Conducting Simulation Studies in the R Programming Environment.

    PubMed

    Hallgren, Kevin A

    2013-10-12

    Simulation studies allow researchers to answer specific questions about data analysis, statistical power, and best-practices for obtaining accurate results in empirical research. Despite the benefits that simulation research can provide, many researchers are unfamiliar with available tools for conducting their own simulation studies. The use of simulation studies need not be restricted to researchers with advanced skills in statistics and computer programming, and such methods can be implemented by researchers with a variety of abilities and interests. The present paper provides an introduction to methods used for running simulation studies using the R statistical programming environment and is written for individuals with minimal experience running simulation studies or using R. The paper describes the rationale and benefits of using simulations and introduces R functions relevant for many simulation studies. Three examples illustrate different applications for simulation studies, including (a) the use of simulations to answer a novel question about statistical analysis, (b) the use of simulations to estimate statistical power, and (c) the use of simulations to obtain confidence intervals of parameter estimates through bootstrapping. Results and fully annotated syntax from these examples are provided.

  6. Simulation studies of GST phase change alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martyna, Glenn

    2008-03-01

    In order to help drive post-Moore's Law technology development, switching processes involving novel materials, in particular, GeSbTe (GST) alloys are being investigated for use in memory and eFuse applications. An anneal/quench thermal process crystallizes/amorphosizes a GST alloy which then has a low/high resistance and thereby forms a readable/writeable bit; for example, a ``one'' might be the low resistance, conducting crystalline state and a ``zero'' might be the high resistance, glassy state. There are many open questions about the precise nature of the structural transitions and the coupling to electronic structure changes. Computational and experimental studies of the effect of pressure on the GST materials were initiated in order to probe the physics behind the thermal switching process. A new pathway to reversible phase change involving pressure-induced structural metal insulator transitions was discovered. In a binary GS system, a room-temperature, direct, pressure-induced transformation from the high resistance amorphous phase to the low resistance crystalline phase was observed experimentally while the reverse process under tensile load was demonstrated via ab initio MD simulations performed on IBM's Blue Gene/L enabled by massively parallel software. Pressure induced transformations of the ternary material GST-225 (Ge2Sb2Te5) were, also, examined In the talk, the behavior of the two systems will be compared and insight into the nature of the phase change given.

  7. A Simulation Study of Paced TCP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulik, Joanna; Coulter, Robert; Rockwell, Dennis; Partridge, Craig

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we study the performance of paced TCP, a modified version of TCP designed especially for high delay- bandwidth networks. In typical networks, TCP optimizes its send-rate by transmitting increasingly large bursts, or windows, of packets, one burst per round-trip time, until it reaches a maximum window-size, which corresponds to the full capacity of the network. In a network with a high delay-bandwidth product, however, Transmission Control Protocol's (TCPs) maximum window-size may be larger than the queue size of the intermediate routers, and routers will begin to drop packets as soon as the windows become too large for the router queues. The TCP sender then concludes that the bottleneck capacity of the network has been reached, and it limits its send-rate accordingly. Partridge proposed paced TCP as a means of solving the problem of queueing bottlenecks. A sender using paced TCP would release packets in multiple, small bursts during a round-trip time in which ordinary TCP would release a single, large burst of packets. This approach allows the sender to increase its send-rate to the maximum window size without encountering queueing bottlenecks. This paper describes the performance of paced TCP in a simulated network and discusses implementation details that can affect the performance of paced TCP.

  8. Atmospheric Modeling And Sensor Simulation (AMASS) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, K. G.

    1985-01-01

    A 4800 band synchronous communications link was established between the Perkin-Elmer (P-E) 3250 Atmospheric Modeling and Sensor Simulation (AMASS) system and the Cyber 205 located at the Goddard Space Flight Center. An extension study of off-the-shelf array processors offering standard interface to the Perkin-Elmer was conducted to determine which would meet computational requirements of the division. A Floating Point Systems AP-120B was borrowed from another Marshall Space Flight Center laboratory for evaluation. It was determined that available array processors did not offer significantly more capabilities than the borrowed unit, although at least three other vendors indicated that standard Perkin-Elmer interfaces would be marketed in the future. Therefore, the recommendation was made to continue to utilize the 120B ad to keep monitoring the AP market. Hardware necessary to support requirements of the ASD as well as to enhance system performance was specified and procured. Filters were implemented on the Harris/McIDAS system including two-dimensional lowpass, gradient, Laplacian, and bicubic interpolation routines.

  9. Simulation of Clinical Diagnosis: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    de Dombal, F. T.; Horrocks, Jane C.; Staniland, J. R.; Gill, P. W.

    1971-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison between three different modes of simulation of the diagnostic process—a computer-based system, a verbal mode, and a further mode in which cards were selected from a large board. A total of 34 subjects worked through a series of 444 diagnostic simulations. The verbal mode was found to be most enjoyable and realistic. At the board, considerable amounts of extra irrelevant data were selected. At the computer, the users asked the same questions every time, whether or not they were relevant to the particular diagnosis. They also found the teletype distracting, noisy, and slow. The need for an acceptable simulation system remains, and at present our Minisim and verbal modes are proving useful in training junior clinical students. Future simulators should be flexible, economical, and acceptably realistic—and to us this latter criterion implies the two-way use of speech. We are currently developing and testing such a system. PMID:5579197

  10. A molecular dynamics simulation study of chloroform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tironi, Ilario G.; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F.

    Three different chloroform models have been investigated using molecular dynamics computer simulation. The thermodynamic, structural and dynamic properties of the various models were investigated in detail. In particular, the potential energies, diffusion coefficients and rotational correlation times obtained for each model are compared with experiment. It is found that the theory of rotational Brownian motion fails in describing the rotational diffusion of chloroform. The force field of Dietz and Heinzinger was found to give good overall agreement with experiment. An extended investigation of this chloroform model has been performed. Values are reported for the isothermal compressibility, the thermal expansion coefficient and the constant volume heat capacity. The values agree well with experiment. The static and frequency dependent dielectric permittivity were computed from a 1·2 ns simulation conducted under reaction field boundary conditions. Considering the fact that the model is rigid with fixed partial charges, the static dielectric constant and Debye relaxation time compare well with experiment. From the same simulation the shear viscosity was computed using the off-diagonal elements of the pressure tensor, both via an Einstein type relation and via a Green-Kubo equation. The calculated viscosities show good agreement with experimental values. The excess Helmholtz energy is calculated using the thermodynamic integration technique and simulations of 50 and 80 ps. The value obtained for the excess Helmholtz energy matches the theoretical value within a few per cent.

  11. Computer Simulation of Classic Studies in Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Drake R.

    This paper describes DATASIM, a comprehensive software package which generates simulated data for actual or hypothetical research designs. DATASIM is primarily intended for use in statistics and research methods courses, where it is used to generate "individualized" datasets for students to analyze, and later to correct their answers.…

  12. Space shuttle visual simulation system design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The current and near-future state-of-the-art in visual simulation equipment technology is related to the requirements of the space shuttle visual system. Image source, image sensing, and displays are analyzed on a subsystem basis, and the principal conclusions are used in the formulation of a recommended baseline visual system. Perceptibility and visibility are also analyzed.

  13. Structure of Sphingomyelin Bilayers: A Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, S. W.; Vasudevan, S.; Jakobsson, Eric; Mashl, R. Jay; Scott, H. Larry

    2003-01-01

    We have carried out a molecular dynamics simulation of a hydrated 18:0 sphingomyelin lipid bilayer. The bilayer contained 1600 sphingomyelin (SM) molecules, and 50,592 water molecules. After construction and initial equilibration, the simulation was run for 3.8 ns at a constant temperature of 50°C and a constant pressure of 1 atm. We present properties of the bilayer calculated from the simulation, and compare with experimental data and with properties of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayers. The SM bilayers are significantly more ordered and compact than DPPC bilayers at the same temperature. SM bilayers also exhibit significant intramolecular hydrogen bonding between phosphate ester oxygen and hydroxyl hydrogen atoms. This results in a decreased hydration in the polar region of the SM bilayer compared with DPPC. Since our simulation system is very large we have calculated the power spectrum of bilayer undulation and peristaltic modes, and we compare these data with similar calculations for DPPC bilayers. We find that the SM bilayer has significantly larger bending modulus and area compressibility compared to DPPC. PMID:14645055

  14. Partnering to Establish and Study Simulation in International Nursing Education.

    PubMed

    Garner, Shelby L; Killingsworth, Erin; Raj, Leena

    The purpose of this article was to describe an international partnership to establish and study simulation in India. A pilot study was performed to determine interrater reliability among faculty new to simulation when evaluating nursing student competency performance. Interrater reliability was below the ideal agreement level. Findings in this study underscore the need to obtain baseline interrater reliability data before integrating competency evaluation into a simulation program.

  15. Unit Under Test Simulator Feasibility Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    interlocking connectors to conceptual differences such as octopus types of cables. 0 The validity of the IA description to the UUT simulator. Although...Research Institute, January 1978. 146. Ring , S. J. "Automatic Testing Via a Distributed Intelligence Processing System." Autotestcon 77, 2-4 November 1977...pp. 89-98. 147. Ring , S. J. "A Distributed Intelligence Automatic Test System for PATRIOT." IEEE Trans. 1977, Aerosp. and Electron Systems, Vol. AES

  16. Simulation study on combustion of biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, M. L.; Liu, X.; Cheng, J. W.; Liu, Y.; Jin, Y. A.

    2017-01-01

    Biomass combustion is the most common energy conversion technology, offering the advantages of low cost, low risk and high efficiency. In this paper, the transformation and transfer of biomass in the process of combustion are discussed in detail. The process of furnace combustion and gas phase formation was analyzed by numerical simulation. The experimental results not only help to optimize boiler operation and realize the efficient combustion of biomass, but also provide theoretical basis for the improvement of burner technology.

  17. Simulation studies of improved sounding systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yates, H.; Wark, D.; Aumann, H.; Evans, N.; Phillips, N.; Susskind, J.; Mcmillin, L.; Goldman, A.; Chahine, M.; Crone, L.

    1989-01-01

    Two instrument designs for indirect satellite sounding of the atmosphere in the infrared are represented by the High Resolution Infra-Red Sounder, Model 2 (HIRS-2) and by the Advanced Meteorological Temperature Sounder (AMTS). The relative capabilities of the two instruments were tested by simulating satellite measurements from a group of temperature soundings, allowing the two participants to retrieve the temperature profiles from the simulated data, and comparing the results with the original temperature profiles. Four data sets were produced from radiosondes data extrapolated to a suitable altitude, representing continents and oceans, between 30S and 30N. From the information available, temperature profiles were retrieved by two different methods, statistical regression and inversion of the radiative transfer equation. Results show the consequence of greater spectral purity, concomitant increase in the number of spectral intervals, and the better spatial resolution in partly clouded areas. At the same time, the limitation of the HIRS-2 without its companion instrument leads to some results which should be ignored in comparing the two instruments. A clear superiority of AMTS results is shown.

  18. Numerical aerodynamic simulation facility. Preliminary study extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The production of an optimized design of key elements of the candidate facility was the primary objective of this report. This was accomplished by effort in the following tasks: (1) to further develop, optimize and describe the function description of the custom hardware; (2) to delineate trade off areas between performance, reliability, availability, serviceability, and programmability; (3) to develop metrics and models for validation of the candidate systems performance; (4) to conduct a functional simulation of the system design; (5) to perform a reliability analysis of the system design; and (6) to develop the software specifications to include a user level high level programming language, a correspondence between the programming language and instruction set and outline the operation system requirements.

  19. Simulation studies for surfaces and materials strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halicioglu, Timur

    1987-01-01

    A realistic potential energy function comprising angle dependent terms was employed to describe the potential surface of the N+O2 system. The potential energy parameters were obtained from high level ab-initio results using a nonlinear fitting procedure. It was shown that the potential function is able to reproduce a large number of points on the potential surface with a small rms deviation. A literature survey was conducted to analyze exclusively the status of current small cluster research. This survey turned out to be quite useful in understanding and finding out the existing relationship between theoretical as well as experimental investigative techniques employed by different researchers. Additionally, the importance of the role played by computer simulation in small cluster research, was documented.

  20. Simulation Use in Paramedic Education Research (SUPER): A Descriptive Study.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Kim D; Carhart, Elliot; Bercher, Daniel; Spain, Andrew; Todaro, John; Freel, Joann

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to characterize the use of simulation in initial paramedic education programs in order assist stakeholders' efforts to target educational initiatives and resources. This group sought to provide a snapshot of what simulation resources programs have or have access to and how they are used; faculty perceptions about simulation; whether program characteristics, resources, or faculty training influence simulation use; and if simulation resources are uniform for patients of all ages. This was a cross-sectional census survey of paramedic programs that were accredited or had a Letter of Review from the Committee on Accreditation of Educational Programs for the EMS Professions at the time of the study. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square analyses. Of the 638 surveys sent, 389 valid responses (61%) were analyzed. Paramedic programs reported they have or have access to a wide range of simulation resources (task trainers [100%], simple manikins [100%], intermediate manikins [99%], advanced/fully programmable manikins [91%], live simulated patients [83%], computer-based [71%], and virtual reality [19%]); however, they do not consistently use them, particularly advanced (71%), live simulated patients (66%), computer-based (games, scenarios) (31%), and virtual reality (4%). Simulation equipment (of any type) reportedly sits idle and unused in (31%) of programs. Lack of training was cited as the most common reason. Personnel support specific to simulation was available in 44% of programs. Programs reported using simulation to replace skills more frequently than to replace field or clinical hours. Simulation goals included assessment, critical thinking, and problem-solving most frequently, and patient and crew safety least often. Programs using advanced manikins report manufacturers as their primary means of training (87%) and that 19% of faculty had no training specific to those manikins. Many (78%) respondents felt

  1. Laparoscopic skills acquisition: a study of simulation and traditional training.

    PubMed

    Marlow, Nicholas; Altree, Meryl; Babidge, Wendy; Field, John; Hewett, Peter; Maddern, Guy J

    2014-12-01

    Training in basic laparoscopic skills can be undertaken using traditional methods, where trainees are educated by experienced surgeons through a process of graduated responsibility or by simulation-based training. This study aimed to assess whether simulation trained individuals reach the same level of proficiency in basic laparoscopic skills as traditional trained participants when assessed in a simulated environment. A prospective study was undertaken. Participants were allocated to one of two cohorts according to surgical experience. Participants from the inexperienced cohort were randomized to receive training in basic laparoscopic skills on either a box trainer or a virtual reality simulator. They were then assessed on the simulator on which they did not receive training. Participants from the experienced cohort, considered to have received traditional training in basic laparoscopic skills, did not receive simulation training and were randomized to either the box trainer or virtual reality simulator for skills assessment. The assessment scores from different cohorts on either simulator were then compared. A total of 138 participants completed the assessment session, 101 in the inexperienced simulation-trained cohort and 37 on the experienced traditionally trained cohort. There was no statistically significant difference between the training outcomes of simulation and traditionally trained participants, irrespective of the simulator type used. The results demonstrated that participants trained on either a box trainer or virtual reality simulator achieved a level of basic laparoscopic skills assessed in a simulated environment that was not significantly different from participants who had been traditionally trained in basic laparoscopic skills. © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  2. Dropout during a driving simulator study: A survival analysis.

    PubMed

    Matas, Nicole A; Nettelbeck, Ted; Burns, Nicholas R

    2015-12-01

    Simulator sickness is the occurrence of motion-sickness like symptoms that can occur during use of simulators and virtual reality technologies. This study investigated individual factors that contributed to simulator sickness and dropout while using a desktop driving simulator. Eighty-eight older adult drivers (mean age 72.82±5.42years) attempted a practice drive and two test drives. Participants also completed a battery of cognitive and visual assessments, provided information on their health and driving habits, and reported their experience of simulator sickness symptoms throughout the study. Fifty-two participants dropped out before completing the driving tasks. A time-dependent Cox Proportional Hazards model showed that female gender (HR=2.02), prior motion sickness history (HR=2.22), and Mini-SSQ score (HR=1.55) were associated with dropout. There were no differences between dropouts and completers on any of the cognitive abilities tests. Older adults are a high-risk group for simulator sickness. Within this group, female gender and prior motion sickness history are related to simulator dropout. Higher reported experience of symptoms of simulator sickness increased rates of dropout. The results highlight the importance of screening and monitoring of participants in driving simulation studies. Older adults, females, and those with a prior history of motion sickness may be especially at risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  3. Simulation and Feedback in Health Education: A Mixed Methods Study Comparing Three Simulation Modalities.

    PubMed

    Tait, Lauren; Lee, Kenneth; Rasiah, Rohan; Cooper, Joyce M; Ling, Tristan; Geelan, Benjamin; Bindoff, Ivan

    2018-05-03

    Background . There are numerous approaches to simulating a patient encounter in pharmacy education. However, little direct comparison between these approaches has been undertaken. Our objective was to investigate student experiences, satisfaction, and feedback preferences between three scenario simulation modalities (paper-, actor-, and computer-based). Methods . We conducted a mixed methods study with randomized cross-over of simulation modalities on final-year Australian graduate-entry Master of Pharmacy students. Participants completed case-based scenarios within each of three simulation modalities, with feedback provided at the completion of each scenario in a format corresponding to each simulation modality. A post-simulation questionnaire collected qualitative and quantitative responses pertaining to participant satisfaction, experiences, and feedback preferences. Results . Participants reported similar levels satisfaction across all three modalities. However, each modality resulted in unique positive and negative experiences, such as student disengagement with paper-based scenarios. Conclusion . Importantly, the themes of guidance and opportunity for peer discussion underlie the best forms of feedback for students. The provision of feedback following simulation should be carefully considered and delivered, with all three simulation modalities producing both positive and negative experiences in regard to their feedback format.

  4. A theoretical and simulation study of the contact discontinuities based on a Vlasov simulation code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, T. C.; Lyu, L. H.; Chao, J. K.; Chen, M. Q.; Tsai, W. H.

    2009-12-01

    Contact discontinuity (CD) is the simplest solution that can be obtained from the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Rankine-Hugoniot jump conditions. Due to the limitations of the previous kinetic simulation models, the stability of the CD has become a controversial issue in the past 10 years. The stability of the CD is reexamined analytically and numerically. Our theoretical analysis shows that the electron temperature profile and the ion temperature profile must be out of phase across the CD if the CD structure is to be stable in the electron time scale and with zero electron heat flux on either side of the CD. Both a newly developed fourth-order implicit electrostatic Vlasov simulation code and an electromagnetic finite-size particle code are used to examine the stability and the electrostatic nature of the CD structure. Our theoretical prediction is verified by both simulations. Our results of Vlasov simulation also indicate that a simulation with initial electron temperature profile and ion temperature profile varying in phase across the CD will undergo very transient changes in the electron time scale but will relax into a quasi-steady CD structure within a few ion plasma oscillation periods if a real ion-electron mass ratio is used in the simulation and if the boundary conditions allow nonzero heat flux to be presented at the boundaries of the simulation box. The simulation results of this study indicate that the Vlasov simulation is a powerful tool to study nonlinear phenomena with nonperiodic boundary conditions and with nonzero heat flux at the boundaries of the simulation box.

  5. Molecular simulations and experimental studies of zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moloy, Eric C.

    Zeolites are microporous aluminosilicate tetrahedral framework materials that have symmetric cages and channels with open-diameters between 0.2 and 2.0 nm. Zeolites are used extensively in the petrochemical industries for both their microporosity and their catalytic properties. The role of water is paramount to the formation, structure, and stability of these materials. Zeolites frequently have extra-framework cations, and as a result, are important ion-exchange materials. Zeolites also play important roles as molecular sieves and catalysts. For all that is known about zeolites, much remains a mystery. How, for example, can the well established metastability of these structures be explained? What is the role of water with respect to the formation, stabilization, and dynamical properties? This dissertation addresses these questions mainly from a modeling perspective, but also with some experimental work as well. The first discussion addresses a special class of zeolites: pure-silica zeolites. Experimental enthalpy of formation data are combined with molecular modeling to address zeolitic metastability. Molecular modeling is used to calculate internal surface areas, and a linear relationship between formation enthalpy and internal surface areas is clearly established, producing an internal surface energy of approximately 93 mJ/m2. Nitrate bearing sodalite and cancrinite have formed under the caustic chemical conditions of some nuclear waste processing centers in the United States. These phases have fouled expensive process equipment, and are the primary constituents of the resilient heels in the bottom of storage tanks. Molecular modeling, including molecular mechanics, molecular dynamics, and density functional theory, is used to simulate these materials with respect to structure and dynamical properties. Some new, very interesting results are extracted from the simulation of anhydrous Na6[Si6Al 6O24] sodalite---most importantly, the identification of two distinct

  6. Simulation in an Undergraduate Nursing Pharmacology Course: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Tinnon, Elizabeth; Newton, Rebecca

    This study examined the effectiveness of simulation as a method of teaching pharmacological concepts to nursing students; perceptions of satisfaction with simulation as a teaching strategy were also evaluated. Second-semester juniors participated in three simulations and completed the National League for Nursing Student Satisfaction and Self-Confidence in Learning Questionnaire and the Student Evaluation of Educational Quality Survey; a control group received traditional lectures. A unit exam on anticoagulant therapy content was administered to measure effectiveness. Findings support that simulation is as effective as traditional lecture for an undergraduate pharmacology course.

  7. Empirical study of parallel LRU simulation algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, Eric; Nicol, David M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports on the performance of five parallel algorithms for simulating a fully associative cache operating under the LRU (Least-Recently-Used) replacement policy. Three of the algorithms are SIMD, and are implemented on the MasPar MP-2 architecture. Two other algorithms are parallelizations of an efficient serial algorithm on the Intel Paragon. One SIMD algorithm is quite simple, but its cost is linear in the cache size. The two other SIMD algorithm are more complex, but have costs that are independent on the cache size. Both the second and third SIMD algorithms compute all stack distances; the second SIMD algorithm is completely general, whereas the third SIMD algorithm presumes and takes advantage of bounds on the range of reference tags. Both MIMD algorithm implemented on the Paragon are general and compute all stack distances; they differ in one step that may affect their respective scalability. We assess the strengths and weaknesses of these algorithms as a function of problem size and characteristics, and compare their performance on traces derived from execution of three SPEC benchmark programs.

  8. Driving with visual field loss : an exploratory simulation study

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the influence of peripheral visual field loss (VFL) on driving performance in a motion-based driving simulator. Sixteen drivers (6 with VFL and 10 with normal visual fields) completed a 14 km simulated drive. Th...

  9. What Every Social Studies Teacher Should Know about Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright-Maley, Cory

    2015-01-01

    Simulations are of growing interest within the social studies in terms of research and practice. Although the findings of early research were unfavorable to simulations in terms of student learning, recent research has revealed new and interesting findings related to different domains of student learning that earlier research did not. In light of…

  10. Simulation and the Development of Clinical Judgment: A Quantitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative pretest posttest quasi-experimental research study was to explore the effect of the NESD on clinical judgment in associate degree nursing students and compare the differences between groups when the Nursing Education Simulation Design (NESD) guided simulation in order to identify educational strategies promoting…

  11. Case studies of simulation models of recreation use

    David N. Cole

    2005-01-01

    Computer simulation models can be usefully applied to many different outdoor recreation situations. Model outputs can also be used for a wide variety of planning and management purposes. The intent of this chapter is to use a collection of 12 case studies to illustrate how simulation models have been used in a wide range of recreation situations and for diverse...

  12. Developing a Simulation to Study Conflict in Intensive Care Units

    PubMed Central

    Chiarchiaro, Jared; Schuster, Rachel A.; Ernecoff, Natalie C.; Barnato, Amber E.; Arnold, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Although medical simulation is increasingly being used in healthcare education, there are few examples of how to rigorously design a simulation to evaluate and study important communication skills of intensive care unit (ICU) clinicians. Objectives: To use existing best practice recommendations to develop a medical simulation to study conflict management in ICUs, then assess the feasibility, acceptability, and realism of the simulation among ICU clinicians. Methods: The setting was a medical ICU of a tertiary care, university hospital. Participants were 36 physicians who treat critically ill patients: intensivists, palliative medicine specialists, and trainees. Using best-practice guidelines and an iterative, multidisciplinary approach, we developed and refined a simulation involving a critically ill patient, in which the patient had a clear advance directive specifying no use of life support, and a surrogate who was unwilling to follow the patient’s preferences. ICU clinicians participated in the simulation and completed surveys and semistructured interviews to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and realism of the simulation. Measurements and Main Results: All participants successfully completed the simulation, and all perceived conflict with the surrogate (mean conflict score, 4.2 on a 0–10 scale [SD, 2.5; range, 1–10]). Participants reported high realism of the simulation across a range of criteria, with mean ratings of greater than 8 on a 0 to 10 scale for all domains assessed. During semistructured interviews, participants confirmed a high degree of realism and offered several suggestions for improvements. Conclusions: We used existing best practice recommendations to develop a simulation model to study physician–family conflict in ICUs that is feasible, acceptable, and realistic. PMID:25643166

  13. Simulating household travel study data in metropolitan areas : technical summary.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-05-01

    The objectives of this study are: 1. To develop and validate a methodology for MPOs to synthesize household travel survey data using local sociodemographic characteristics in conjunction with a national source of simulated travel data. 2. To evalu...

  14. Simulation studies for surfaces and materials strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halicioglu, Timur

    1992-01-01

    Investigations were carried out in two major areas during the last reporting period. Energy- and structure-related properties of small gold clusters deposited on the GaAs(110) surface were investigated using a molecular dynamics procedure. Additionally, a comparative study of the many-body potentials of silicon systems was performed.

  15. Theoretical and simulation studies of seeding methods

    SciT

    Pellegrini, Claudio

    We report the theoretical and experimental studies done with the support of DOE-Grant DE-SC0009983 to increase an X-ray FEL peak power from the present level of 20 to 40 GW to one or more TW by seeding, undulator tapering and using the new concept of the Double Bunch FEL.

  16. Numerical Modeling Studies of Wake Vortices: Real Case Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Shao-Hua; Ding, Feng; Han, Jongil; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Arya, S. Pal; Proctor, Fred H.

    1999-01-01

    A three-dimensional large-eddy simulation model, TASS, is used to simulate the behavior of aircraft wake vortices in a real atmosphere. The purpose for this study is to validate the use of TASS for simulating the decay and transport of wake vortices. Three simulations are performed and the results are compared with the observed data from the 1994-1995 Memphis field experiments. The selected cases have an atmospheric environment of weak turbulence and stable stratification. The model simulations are initialized with appropriate meteorological conditions and a post roll-up vortex system. The behavior of wake vortices as they descend within the atmospheric boundary layer and interact with the ground is discussed.

  17. Analytical and simulator study of advanced transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levison, W. H.; Rickard, W. W.

    1982-01-01

    An analytic methodology, based on the optimal-control pilot model, was demonstrated for assessing longitidunal-axis handling qualities of transport aircraft in final approach. Calibration of the methodology is largely in terms of closed-loop performance requirements, rather than specific vehicle response characteristics, and is based on a combination of published criteria, pilot preferences, physical limitations, and engineering judgment. Six longitudinal-axis approach configurations were studied covering a range of handling qualities problems, including the presence of flexible aircraft modes. The analytical procedure was used to obtain predictions of Cooper-Harper ratings, a solar quadratic performance index, and rms excursions of important system variables.

  18. Simulation and performance study of ceramic THGEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jia-Qing; Xie, Yu-Guang; Hu, Tao; Lu, Jun-Guang; Zhou, Li; Qu, Guo-Pu; Cai, Xiao; Niu, Shun-Li; Chen, Hai-Tao

    2015-06-01

    THGEMs based on a ceramic substrate have been successfully developed for neutron and single photon detection. The influences on thermal neutron scattering and internal radioactivity of both ceramic and FR-4 substrates were studied and compared. The ceramic THGEMs are homemade, of 200 μm hole diameter, 600 μm pitch, 200 μm thickness, 80 μm rim, and 50 mm×50 mm sensitive area. FR-4 THGEMs with the same geometry were used as a reference. The gas gain, energy resolution and gain stability were measured in different gas mixtures using 5.9 keV X-rays. The maximum gain of a single layer ceramic THGEM reaches 6×104 and 1.5×104 at Ne+CH4=95:5 and Ar + i-C4H10 = 97:3, respectively. The energy resolution is better than 24%. Good gain stability was obtained during a more than 100 hour continuous test in Ar+CO2 = 80:20. By using a 239Pu source, the alpha deposited energy spectrum and gain curve of the ceramic THGEM were measured. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11205173) and State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics (H9294206TD)

  19. Simulation studies for surfaces and materials strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halicioglu, T.

    1985-01-01

    From intermolecular force studies, it is now known that the overall non-additive contribution to the lattice enegy is positive so that analysis based on only pairwise additivity suggests a shallower intermolecular potential than the true value. Two body contributions alone are also known to be categorically unable to even qualitatively describe some configurations of molecular clusters in the gas phase or the general relaxation and reconstruction of fcc crystal surfaces. In addition, the many-body contribution was shown to play a key role in the stability of certain crystal structures. In these recent analyses, a relatively simple potential energy function (PEF), comprising only a two-body Mie-type potential plus a three-body Axilrod-Teller-type potential, was found to be extremely effective. This same parametric PEF is applied to describe the bulk stability and surface energy for the diamond cubic structure. To test the stability condition, the FCC, BCC, diamond cubic, graphite and beta-tin structures were considered.

  20. Single event effects and laser simulation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Q.; Schwartz, H.; Mccarty, K.; Coss, J.; Barnes, C.

    1993-01-01

    The single event upset (SEU) linear energy transfer threshold (LETTH) of radiation hardened 64K Static Random Access Memories (SRAM's) was measured with a picosecond pulsed dye laser system. These results were compared with standard heavy ion accelerator (Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL)) measurements of the same SRAM's. With heavy ions, the LETTH of the Honeywell HC6364 was 27 MeV-sq cm/mg at 125 C compared with a value of 24 MeV-sq cm/mg obtained with the laser. In the case of the second type of 64K SRAM, the IBM640lCRH no upsets were observed at 125 C with the highest LET ions used at BNL. In contrast, the pulsed dye laser tests indicated a value of 90 MeV-sq cm/mg at room temperature for the SEU-hardened IBM SRAM. No latchups or multiple SEU's were observed on any of the SRAM's even under worst case conditions. The results of this study suggest that the laser can be used as an inexpensive laboratory SEU prescreen tool in certain cases.

  1. Simulation Use in Paramedic Education Research (SUPER): A Descriptive Study

    PubMed Central

    McKenna, Kim D.; Carhart, Elliot; Bercher, Daniel; Spain, Andrew; Todaro, John; Freel, Joann

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives. The purpose of this research was to characterize the use of simulation in initial paramedic education programs in order assist stakeholders’ efforts to target educational initiatives and resources. This group sought to provide a snapshot of what simulation resources programs have or have access to and how they are used; faculty perceptions about simulation; whether program characteristics, resources, or faculty training influence simulation use; and if simulation resources are uniform for patients of all ages. Methods. This was a cross-sectional census survey of paramedic programs that were accredited or had a Letter of Review from the Committee on Accreditation of Educational Programs for the EMS Professions at the time of the study. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square analyses. Results. Of the 638 surveys sent, 389 valid responses (61%) were analyzed. Paramedic programs reported they have or have access to a wide range of simulation resources (task trainers [100%], simple manikins [100%], intermediate manikins [99%], advanced/fully programmable manikins [91%], live simulated patients [83%], computer-based [71%], and virtual reality [19%]); however, they do not consistently use them, particularly advanced (71%), live simulated patients (66%), computer-based (games, scenarios) (31%), and virtual reality (4%). Simulation equipment (of any type) reportedly sits idle and unused in (31%) of programs. Lack of training was cited as the most common reason. Personnel support specific to simulation was available in 44% of programs. Programs reported using simulation to replace skills more frequently than to replace field or clinical hours. Simulation goals included assessment, critical thinking, and problem-solving most frequently, and patient and crew safety least often. Programs using advanced manikins report manufacturers as their primary means of training (87%) and that 19% of faculty had no training specific to

  2. Software for Brain Network Simulations: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Tikidji-Hamburyan, Ruben A.; Narayana, Vikram; Bozkus, Zeki; El-Ghazawi, Tarek A.

    2017-01-01

    Numerical simulations of brain networks are a critical part of our efforts in understanding brain functions under pathological and normal conditions. For several decades, the community has developed many software packages and simulators to accelerate research in computational neuroscience. In this article, we select the three most popular simulators, as determined by the number of models in the ModelDB database, such as NEURON, GENESIS, and BRIAN, and perform an independent evaluation of these simulators. In addition, we study NEST, one of the lead simulators of the Human Brain Project. First, we study them based on one of the most important characteristics, the range of supported models. Our investigation reveals that brain network simulators may be biased toward supporting a specific set of models. However, all simulators tend to expand the supported range of models by providing a universal environment for the computational study of individual neurons and brain networks. Next, our investigations on the characteristics of computational architecture and efficiency indicate that all simulators compile the most computationally intensive procedures into binary code, with the aim of maximizing their computational performance. However, not all simulators provide the simplest method for module development and/or guarantee efficient binary code. Third, a study of their amenability for high-performance computing reveals that NEST can almost transparently map an existing model on a cluster or multicore computer, while NEURON requires code modification if the model developed for a single computer has to be mapped on a computational cluster. Interestingly, parallelization is the weakest characteristic of BRIAN, which provides no support for cluster computations and limited support for multicore computers. Fourth, we identify the level of user support and frequency of usage for all simulators. Finally, we carry out an evaluation using two case studies: a large network with

  3. Piloted simulation study of two tilt-wing control concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birckelbaw, Lourdes G.; Corliss, Lloyd D.

    1994-01-01

    A two-phase piloted simulation study was conducted to investigate alternative wing and flap controls for tilt-wing aircraft. The initial phase of the study compared the flying qualities of both a conventional (programmed) flap and an innovative geared flap. The second phase of the study introduced an alternate method of pilot control for the geared flap and further studied the flying qualities of the programmed flap, and two geared flap configurations. In general, the pilot rating showed little variation between the programmed flap and the geared flap control concepts. Some differences between the two concepts were noticed and are discussed in this paper. The addition of pitch attitude stabilization in the second phase of the study greatly enhanced the aircraft flying qualities. This paper describes the simulated tilt-wing aircraft and the flap control concepts and presents the results of both phases of the simulation study.

  4. Numerical aerodynamic simulation facility preliminary study: Executive study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A computing system was designed with the capability of providing an effective throughput of one billion floating point operations per second for three dimensional Navier-Stokes codes. The methodology used in defining the baseline design, and the major elements of the numerical aerodynamic simulation facility are described.

  5. Virtual reality simulation training of mastoidectomy - studies on novice performance.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Steven Arild Wuyts

    2016-08-01

    Virtual reality (VR) simulation-based training is increasingly used in surgical technical skills training including in temporal bone surgery. The potential of VR simulation in enabling high-quality surgical training is great and VR simulation allows high-stakes and complex procedures such as mastoidectomy to be trained repeatedly, independent of patients and surgical tutors, outside traditional learning environments such as the OR or the temporal bone lab, and with fewer of the constraints of traditional training. This thesis aims to increase the evidence-base of VR simulation training of mastoidectomy and, by studying the final-product performances of novices, investigates the transfer of skills to the current gold-standard training modality of cadaveric dissection, the effect of different practice conditions and simulator-integrated tutoring on performance and retention of skills, and the role of directed, self-regulated learning. Technical skills in mastoidectomy were transferable from the VR simulation environment to cadaveric dissection with significant improvement in performance after directed, self-regulated training in the VR temporal bone simulator. Distributed practice led to a better learning outcome and more consolidated skills than massed practice and also resulted in a more consistent performance after three months of non-practice. Simulator-integrated tutoring accelerated the initial learning curve but also caused over-reliance on tutoring, which resulted in a drop in performance when the simulator-integrated tutor-function was discontinued. The learning curves were highly individual but often plateaued early and at an inadequate level, which related to issues concerning both the procedure and the VR simulator, over-reliance on the tutor function and poor self-assessment skills. Future simulator-integrated automated assessment could potentially resolve some of these issues and provide trainees with both feedback during the procedure and immediate

  6. Studies of Fault Interactions and Regional Seismicity Using Numerical Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yikilmaz, Mehmet Burak

    Numerical simulations are routinely used for weather and climate forecasting. It is desirable to simulate regional seismicity for seismic hazard analysis. One such simulation tool is the Virtual California earthquake simulator. We have used Virtual California (VC) to study various aspects of fault interaction and analyzed the statistics of earthquake recurrence times and magnitudes generated synthetically. The first chapter of this dissertation investigates the behavior of seismology simulations using three relatively simple models involving a straight strike-slip fault. We show that a series of historical earthquakes observed along the Nankai Trough in Japan exhibit similar patterns to those obtained in our model II. In the second chapter we utilize Virtual California to study regional seismicity in northern California. We generate synthetic catalogs of seismicity using a composite simulation. We use these catalogs to analyze frequency-magnitude and recurrence interval statistics on both a regional and fault specific level and compare our modeled rates of seismicity and spatial variability with observations. The final chapter explores the jump distance for a propagating rupture over a stepping strike-slip fault. Our study indicates that between 2.5 and 5.5 km of the separation distance, the percentage of events that jump from one fault to the next decreases significantly. We find that these step-over distance values are in good agreement with geologically observed values.

  7. Virtual Gaming Simulation in Nursing Education: A Focus Group Study.

    PubMed

    Verkuyl, Margaret; Hughes, Michelle; Tsui, Joyce; Betts, Lorraine; St-Amant, Oona; Lapum, Jennifer L

    2017-05-01

    The use of serious gaming in a virtual world is a novel pedagogical approach in nursing education. A virtual gaming simulation was implemented in a health assessment class that focused on mental health and interpersonal violence. The study's purpose was to explore students' experiences of the virtual gaming simulation. Three focus groups were conducted with a convenience sample of 20 first-year nursing students after they completed the virtual gaming simulation. Analysis yielded five themes: (a) Experiential Learning, (b) The Learning Process, (c) Personal Versus Professional, (d) Self-Efficacy, and (e) Knowledge. Virtual gaming simulation can provide experiential learning opportunities that promote engagement and allow learners to acquire and apply new knowledge while practicing skills in a safe and realistic environment. [J Nurs Educ. 2017;56(5):274-280.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. The Simulation Study of Horizontal Axis Water Turbine Using Flow Simulation Solidworks Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasetyo, H.; Budiana, EP; Tjahjana, DDDP; Hadi, S.

    2018-02-01

    The design of Horizontal Axis Water Turbine in pico hydro power plants involves many parameters. To simplify that, usually using computer simulation is applied. This research performs simulation process variation on turbine blade number, turbine blade curvature angle, turbine bucket angle and blocking system tilt angle. Those four variations were combined in order to obtain the best design of turbine. The study used Flow Simulation Solidworks application, and obtain data on turbine speed, pressure, force, and torque. However, this research focused on turbine torque value. The best design of turbine was obtained in the turbine with 6 blades, blade curvature angle of 65° and bucket angle of 10°, and blocking system tilt angle of 40°. In the best turbine, the produced torque value was 8.464 Nm.

  9. Study on the CFD simulation of refrigerated container

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arif Budiyanto, Muhammad; Shinoda, Takeshi; Nasruddin

    2017-10-01

    The objective this study is to performed Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulation of refrigerated container in the container port. Refrigerated container is a thermal cargo container constructed from an insulation wall to carry kind of perishable goods. CFD simulation was carried out use cross sectional of container walls to predict surface temperatures of refrigerated container and to estimate its cooling load. The simulation model is based on the solution of the partial differential equations governing the fluid flow and heat transfer processes. The physical model of heat-transfer processes considered in this simulation are consist of solar radiation from the sun, heat conduction on the container walls, heat convection on the container surfaces and thermal radiation among the solid surfaces. The validation of simulation model was assessed uses surface temperatures at center points on each container walls obtained from the measurement experimentation in the previous study. The results shows the surface temperatures of simulation model has good agreement with the measurement data on all container walls.

  10. PELS (Planetary Environmental Liquid Simulator): a new type of simulation facility to study extraterrestrial aqueous environments.

    PubMed

    Martin, Derek; Cockell, Charles S

    2015-02-01

    Investigations of other planetary bodies, including Mars and icy moons such as Enceladus and Europa, show that they may have hosted aqueous environments in the past and may do so even today. Therefore, a major challenge in astrobiology is to build facilities that will allow us to study the geochemistry and habitability of these extraterrestrial environments. Here, we describe a simulation facility (PELS: Planetary Environmental Liquid Simulator) with the capability for liquid input and output that allows for the study of such environments. The facility, containing six separate sample vessels, allows for statistical replication of samples. Control of pressure, gas composition, UV irradiation conditions, and temperature allows for the precise replication of aqueous conditions, including subzero brines under martian atmospheric conditions. A sample acquisition system allows for the collection of both liquid and solid samples from within the chamber without breaking the atmospheric conditions, enabling detailed studies of the geochemical evolution and habitability of past and present extraterrestrial environments. The facility we describe represents a new frontier in planetary simulation-continuous flow-through simulation of extraterrestrial aqueous environments.

  11. Simulation for emergency nurses (SIREN): A quasi-experimental study.

    PubMed

    Boyde, Mary; Cooper, Emily; Putland, Hannah; Stanton, Rikki; Harding, Christie; Learmont, Ben; Thomas, Clare; Porter, Jade; Thompson, Andrea; Nicholls, Louise

    2018-06-05

    Within nursing education, simulation has been recognised as an effective learning strategy. Embedding simulation within clinical units has the potential to enhance patient safety and improve clinical outcomes. However it is important to evaluate the effectiveness of this educational technique to support the actual value and effectiveness. This study aimed to implement and evaluate an innovative simulation experience for registered nurses. A high-fidelity simulation focusing on nursing assessment was conducted with 50 Registered Nurses in an Emergency Department (ED) at a large tertiary referral hospital. Two questionnaires were completed pre and post simulation to assess anxiety related to participating in the simulation, and self-efficacy in patient assessment. Participant satisfaction and self-confidence in learning was assessed post simulation. Additionally a documentation audit from the patient's electronic chart was completed to review documentation entries before and after participation in the simulation. Anxiety scores decreased significantly from pre (M = 38.56, SD = 9.87) to post (M = 33.54, SD = 8.99), t(49) = 4.273, p < 0.001. There was a statistically significant increase in self-efficacy scores from pre (M = 195.16, SD = 28.09) to post (M = 214.12, SD =25.77), t(49) = 5.072, p < 0.001. ED nurses were highly satisfied with their simulation training and they were in agreement with the statements about self-confidence in learning. There was a statistically significant increase in two components of the documentation scores; initial clinical handover increased from pre (M = 7.88, SD = 1.76) to post (M = 8.79, SD =1.22), t(41) = 3.41, p < 0.001 and indicators of urgent illness increased from pre (M = 7.33, SD = 1.95) to post (M = 8.10, SD = 1.45), t(41) =2.27, p = 0.028. This study has demonstrated that a high fidelity simulation decreased participants' anxiety, increased

  12. Effectiveness of Software Training Using Simulations: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElroy, Arnold D., Jr.; Pan, Cheng-Chang

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to explore the effectiveness in student performance and confidence of limited and full device simulators. The 30 employees from an information technology company who participated in this study were assigned to one of three groups. Each group received practice for learning a complex software procedure using traditional…

  13. A Simulation Study of Missing Data with Multiple Missing X's

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubright, Jonathan D.; Nandakumar, Ratna; Glutting, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    When exploring missing data techniques in a realistic scenario, the current literature is limited: most studies only consider consequences with data missing on a single variable. This simulation study compares the relative bias of two commonly used missing data techniques when data are missing on more than one variable. Factors varied include type…

  14. Framework for Architecture Trade Study Using MBSE and Performance Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Jessica; Sarkani, Shahram; Mazzuchim, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Increasing complexity in modern systems as well as cost and schedule constraints require a new paradigm of system engineering to fulfill stakeholder needs. Challenges facing efficient trade studies include poor tool interoperability, lack of simulation coordination (design parameters) and requirements flowdown. A recent trend toward Model Based System Engineering (MBSE) includes flexible architecture definition, program documentation, requirements traceability and system engineering reuse. As a new domain MBSE still lacks governing standards and commonly accepted frameworks. This paper proposes a framework for efficient architecture definition using MBSE in conjunction with Domain Specific simulation to evaluate trade studies. A general framework is provided followed with a specific example including a method for designing a trade study, defining candidate architectures, planning simulations to fulfill requirements and finally a weighted decision analysis to optimize system objectives.

  15. Computer Simulation for Pain Management Education: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Allred, Kelly; Gerardi, Nicole

    2017-10-01

    Effective pain management is an elusive concept in acute care. Inadequate knowledge has been identified as a barrier to providing optimal pain management. This study aimed to determine student perceptions of an interactive computer simulation as a potential method for learning pain management, as a motivator to read and learn more about pain management, preference over traditional lecture, and its potential to change nursing practice. A post-computer simulation survey with a mixed-methods descriptive design was used in this study. A college of nursing in a large metropolitan university in the Southeast United States. A convenience sample of 30 nursing students in a Bachelor of Science nursing program. An interactive computer simulation was developed as a potential alternative method of teaching pain management to nursing students. Increases in educational gain as well as its potential to change practice were explored. Each participant was asked to complete a survey consisting of 10 standard 5-point Likert scale items and 5 open-ended questions. The survey was used to evaluate the students' perception of the simulation, specifically related to educational benefit, preference compared with traditional teaching methods, and perceived potential to change nursing practice. Data provided descriptive statistics for initial evaluation of the computer simulation. The responses on the survey suggest nursing students perceive the computer simulation to be entertaining, fun, educational, occasionally preferred over regular lecture, and with potential to change practice. Preliminary data support the use of computer simulation in educating nursing students about pain management. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Simulating Aerosol Optical Properties With the Aerosol Simulation Program (ASP): Closure Studies Using ARCTAS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarado, M. J.; Macintyre, H. L.; Bian, H.; Chin, M.; Wang, C.

    2012-12-01

    The scattering and absorption of ultraviolet and visible radiation by aerosols can significantly alter actinic fluxes and photolysis rates. Accurate modeling of aerosol optical properties is thus essential to simulating atmospheric chemistry, air quality, and climate. Here we evaluate the aerosol optical property predictions of the Aerosol Simulation Program (ASP) with in situ data on aerosol scattering and absorption gathered during the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) campaign. The model simulations are initialized with in situ data on the aerosol size distribution and composition. We perform a set of sensitivity studies (e.g., internal vs. external mixture, core-in-shell versus Maxwell-Garnett, fraction of the organic carbon mass that is light-absorbing "brown carbon," etc.) to determine the model framework and parameters most consistent with the observations. We compare the ASP results to the aerosol optical property lookup tables in FAST-JX and suggest improvements that will better enable FAST-JX to simulate the impact of aerosols on photolysis rates and atmospheric chemistry.

  17. a Computer Simulation Study of Coherent Optical Fibre Communication Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urey, Zafer

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. A computer simulation study of coherent optical fibre communication systems is presented in this thesis. The Wiener process is proposed as the simulation model of laser phase noise and verified to be a good one. This model is included in the simulation experiments along with the other noise sources (i.e shot noise, thermal noise and laser intensity noise) and the models that represent the various waveform processing blocks in a system such as filtering, demodulation, etc. A novel mixed-semianalytical simulation procedure is designed and successfully applied for the estimation of bit error rates as low as 10^{-10 }. In this technique the noise processes and the ISI effects at the decision time are characterized from simulation experiments but the calculation of the probability of error is obtained by numerically integrating the noise statistics over the error region using analytical expressions. Simulation of only 4096 bits is found to give estimates of BER's corresponding to received optical power within 1 dB of the theoretical calculations using this approach. This number is very small when compared with the pure simulation techniques. Hence, the technique is proved to be very efficient in terms of the computation time and the memory requirements. A command driven simulation software which runs on a DEC VAX computer under the UNIX operating system is written by the author and a series of simulation experiments are carried out using this software. In particular, the effects of IF filtering on the performance of PSK heterodyne receivers with synchronous demodulation are examined when both the phase noise and the shot noise are included in the simulations. The BER curves of this receiver are estimated for the first time for various cases of IF filtering using the mixed-semianalytical approach. At a power penalty of 1 dB the IF linewidth requirement of this receiver with the matched filter is estimated to be

  18. A chemical EOR benchmark study of different reservoir simulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goudarzi, Ali; Delshad, Mojdeh; Sepehrnoori, Kamy

    2016-09-01

    chemical design for field-scale studies using commercial simulators. The benchmark tests illustrate the potential of commercial simulators for chemical flooding projects and provide a comprehensive table of strengths and limitations of each simulator for a given chemical EOR process. Mechanistic simulations of chemical EOR processes will provide predictive capability and can aid in optimization of the field injection projects. The objective of this paper is not to compare the computational efficiency and solution algorithms; it only focuses on the process modeling comparison.

  19. The simulation study on optical target laser active detection performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying-chun; Hou, Zhao-fei; Fan, Youchen

    2014-12-01

    According to the working principle of laser active detection system, the paper establishes the optical target laser active detection simulation system, carry out the simulation study on the detection process and detection performance of the system. For instance, the performance model such as the laser emitting, the laser propagation in the atmosphere, the reflection of optical target, the receiver detection system, the signal processing and recognition. We focus on the analysis and modeling the relationship between the laser emitting angle and defocus amount and "cat eye" effect echo laser in the reflection of optical target. Further, in the paper some performance index such as operating range, SNR and the probability of the system have been simulated. The parameters including laser emitting parameters, the reflection of the optical target and the laser propagation in the atmosphere which make a great influence on the performance of the optical target laser active detection system. Finally, using the object-oriented software design methods, the laser active detection system with the opening type, complete function and operating platform, realizes the process simulation that the detection system detect and recognize the optical target, complete the performance simulation of each subsystem, and generate the data report and the graph. It can make the laser active detection system performance models more intuitive because of the visible simulation process. The simulation data obtained from the system provide a reference to adjust the structure of the system parameters. And it provides theoretical and technical support for the top level design of the optical target laser active detection system and performance index optimization.

  20. Individualized feedback during simulated laparoscopic training: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    Weurlander, Maria; Hedman, Leif; Nisell, Henry; Lindqvist, Pelle G.; Felländer-Tsai, Li; Enochsson, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to explore the value of indi-vidualized feedback on performance, flow and self-efficacy during simulated laparoscopy. Furthermore, we wished to explore attitudes towards feedback and simulator training among medical students. Methods Sixteen medical students were included in the study and randomized to laparoscopic simulator training with or without feedback. A teacher provided individualized feedback continuously throughout the procedures to the target group. Validated questionnaires and scales were used to evaluate self-efficacy and flow. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to evaluate differences between groups regarding laparoscopic performance (instrument path length), self-efficacy and flow. Qualitative data was collected by group interviews and interpreted using inductive thematic analyses. Results Sixteen students completed the simulator training and questionnaires. Instrument path length was shorter in the feedback group (median 3.9 m; IQR: 3.3-4.9) as com-pared to the control group (median 5.9 m; IQR: 5.0-8.1), p<0.05. Self-efficacy improved in both groups. Eleven students participated in the focus interviews. Participants in the control group expressed that they had fun, whereas participants in the feedback group were more concentrated on the task and also more anxious. Both groups had high ambitions to succeed and also expressed the importance of getting feedback. The authenticity of the training scenario was important for the learning process. Conclusions This study highlights the importance of individualized feedback during simulated laparoscopy training. The next step is to further optimize feedback and to transfer standardized and individualized feedback from the simulated setting to the operating room. PMID:26223033

  1. Spectral evolution of weakly nonlinear random waves: kinetic description vs direct numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annenkov, Sergei; Shrira, Victor

    2016-04-01

    We study numerically the long-term evolution of water wave spectra without wind forcing, using three different models, aiming at understanding the role of different sets of assumptions. The first model is the classical Hasselmann kinetic equation (KE). We employ the WRT code kindly provided by G. van Vledder. Two other models are new. As the second model, we use the generalised kinetic equation (gKE), derived without the assumption of quasi-stationarity. Thus, unlike the KE, the gKE is valid in the cases when a wave spectrum is changing rapidly (e.g. at the initial stage of evolution of a narrow spectrum). However, the gKE employs the same statistical closure as the KE. The third model is based on the Zakharov integrodifferential equation for water waves and does not depend on any statistical assumptions. Since the Zakharov equation plays the role of the primitive equation of the theory of wave turbulence, we refer to this model as direct numerical simulation of spectral evolution (DNS-ZE). For initial conditions, we choose two narrow-banded spectra with the same frequency distribution (a JONSWAP spectrum with high peakedness γ = 6) and different degrees of directionality. These spectra are from the set of observations collected in a directional wave tank by Onorato et al (2009). Spectrum A is very narrow in angle (corresponding to N = 840 in the cosN directional model). Spectrum B is initially wider in angle (corresponds to N = 24). Short-term evolution of both spectra (O(102) wave periods) has been studied numerically by Xiao et al (2013) using two other approaches (broad-band modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation and direct numerical simulation based on the high-order spectral method). We use these results to verify the initial stage of our DNS-ZE simulations. However, the advantage of the DNS-ZE method is that it allows to study long-term spectral evolution (up to O(104) periods), which was previously possible only with the KE. In the short-term evolution

  2. School Leadership and Administration: Important Concepts, Case Studies and Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorton, Richard; Alston, Judy; Snowden, Petra

    2006-01-01

    This text helps prospective and experienced principals, administrators, and supervisors increase their knowledge and skills through concepts, case-studies, and simulations. This book contains the following two parts and fifteen chapters. Part I presents important theoretical concepts and research findings that can improve educators'…

  3. Simulation Games and Attitudes Toward the Poor: Three Questionnaire Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Samuel A.

    Three before-and-after questionnaire studies were made to test the effectiveness of a simulation game called "Ghetto." In this game the player takes the role of a poor person living in an inner-city slum neighborhood. The education purpose of the game was to increase the players' understanding of the obstacles and hazards that the poor…

  4. The Role of Simulation Case Studies in Enterprise Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunstall, Richard; Lynch, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the role of electronic simulation case studies in enterprise education, their effectiveness, and their relationship to traditional forms of classroom-based approaches to experiential learning. The paper seeks to build on previous work within the field of enterprise and management education, specifically in…

  5. Sequential Computerized Mastery Tests--Three Simulation Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiberg, Marie

    2006-01-01

    A simulation study of a sequential computerized mastery test is carried out with items modeled with the 3 parameter logistic item response theory model. The examinees' responses are either identically distributed, not identically distributed, or not identically distributed together with estimation errors in the item characteristics. The…

  6. Multislice spiral CT simulator for dynamic cardiopulmonary studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Francesco, Silvia; Ferreira da Silva, Augusto M.

    2002-04-01

    We've developed a Multi-slice Spiral CT Simulator modeling the acquisition process of a real tomograph over a 4-dimensional phantom (4D MCAT) of the human thorax. The simulator allows us to visually characterize artifacts due to insufficient temporal sampling and a priori evaluate the quality of the images obtained in cardio-pulmonary studies (both with single-/multi-slice and ECG gated acquisition processes). The simulating environment allows both for conventional and spiral scanning modes and includes a model of noise in the acquisition process. In case of spiral scanning, reconstruction facilities include longitudinal interpolation methods (360LI and 180LI both for single and multi-slice). Then, the reconstruction of the section is performed through FBP. The reconstructed images/volumes are affected by distortion due to insufficient temporal sampling of the moving object. The developed simulating environment allows us to investigate the nature of the distortion characterizing it qualitatively and quantitatively (using, for example, Herman's measures). Much of our work is focused on the determination of adequate temporal sampling and sinogram regularization techniques. At the moment, the simulator model is limited to the case of multi-slice tomograph, being planned as a next step of development the extension to cone beam or area detectors.

  7. Simulation study on the trembling shear behavior of eletrorheological fluid.

    PubMed

    Yang, F; Gong, X L; Xuan, S H; Jiang, W Q; Jiang, C X; Zhang, Z

    2011-07-01

    The trembling shear behavior of electrorheological (ER) fluids has been investigated by using a computer simulation method, and a shear-slide boundary model is proposed to understand this phenomenon. A thiourea-doped Ba-Ti-O ER fluid which shows a trembling shear behavior was first prepared and then systematically studied by both theoretical and experimental methods. The shear curves of ER fluids in the dynamic state were simulated with shear rates from 0.1 to 1000 s(-1) under different electric fields. The simulation results of the flow curves match the experimental results very well. The trembling shear curves are divided into four regions and each region can be explained by the proposed model.

  8. Molecular simulation studies on chemical reactivity of methylcyclopentadiene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qingsheng; Zhang, Yingchun; Rogers, William J; Mannan, M Sam

    2009-06-15

    Molecular simulations are important to predict thermodynamic values for reactive chemicals especially when sufficient experimental data are not available. Methylcyclopentadiene (MCP) is an example of a highly reactive and hazardous compound in the chemical process industry. In this work, chemical reactivity of 2-methylcyclopentadiene, including isomerization, dimerization, and oxidation reactions, is investigated in detail by theoretical computational chemistry methods and empirical thermodynamic-energy correlation. On the basis of molecular simulations, an average value of -15.2 kcal/mol for overall heat of dimerization and -45.6 kcal/mol for overall heat of oxidation were obtained in gaseous phase at 298 K and 1 atm. These molecular simulation studies can provide guidance for the design of safer chemical processes, safer handling of MCP, and also provide useful information for an investigation of the T2 Laboratories explosion on December 19, 2007, in Florida.

  9. Validation of computer simulation training for esophagogastroduodenoscopy: Pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sedlack, Robert E

    2007-08-01

    Little is known regarding the value of esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) simulators in education. The purpose of the present paper was to validate the use of computer simulation in novice EGD training. In phase 1, expert endoscopists evaluated various aspects of simulation fidelity as compared to live endoscopy. Additionally, computer-recorded performance metrics were assessed by comparing the recorded scores from users of three different experience levels. In phase 2, the transfer of simulation-acquired skills to the clinical setting was assessed in a two-group, randomized pilot study. The setting was a large gastroenterology (GI) Fellowship training program; in phase 1, 21 subjects (seven expert, intermediate and novice endoscopist), made up the three experience groups. In phase 2, eight novice GI fellows were involved in the two-group, randomized portion of the study examining the transfer of simulation skills to the clinical setting. During the initial validation phase, each of the 21 subjects completed two standardized EDG scenarios on a computer simulator and their performance scores were recorded for seven parameters. Following this, staff participants completed a questionnaire evaluating various aspects of the simulator's fidelity. Finally, four novice GI fellows were randomly assigned to receive 6 h of simulator-augmented training (SAT group) in EGD prior to beginning 1 month of patient-based EGD training. The remaining fellows experienced 1 month of patient-based training alone (PBT group). Results of the seven measured performance parameters were compared between three groups of varying experience using a Wilcoxon ranked sum test. The staffs' simulator fidelity survey used a 7-point Likert scale (1, very unrealistic; 4, neutral; 7, very realistic) for each of the parameters examined. During the second phase of this study, supervising staff rated both SAT and PBT fellows' patient-based performance daily. Scoring in each skill was completed using a 7-point

  10. Experimental study and numerical simulation of evacuation from a dormitory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Wenjun; Li, Angui; Gao, Ran; Zhou, Ning; Mei, Sen; Tian, Zhenguo

    2012-11-01

    The evacuation process of students from a dormitory is investigated by both experiment and modeling. We investigate the video record of pedestrian movement in a dormitory, and find some typical characteristics of evacuation, including continuous pedestrian flow, mass behavior and so on. Based on the experimental observation, we found that simulation results considering pre-movement time are closer to the experimental results. With the model considering pre-movement time, we simulate the evacuation process and compare the simulation results with the experimental results, and find that they agree with each other closely. The crowd massing phenomenon is conducted in this paper. It is found that different crowd massing phenomena will emerge due to different desired velocities. The crowd massing phenomenon could be more serious with the increase of the desired velocity. In this study, we also found the faster-is-slower effect. When the positive effect produced by increasing the desired velocity is not sufficient for making up for its negative effect, the phenomenon of the greater the desired velocity the longer the time required for evacuation will emerge. From the video record, it can be observed that the mass behavior is obvious during the evacuation process. And the mass phenomenon could also be found in simulation. The results obtained from our study are also suitable to all these buildings in which both living and resting areas occupy the majority space, such as dormitories, residential buildings, hotels (restaurants) and so on.

  11. Simulations to study the static polarization limit for RHIC lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Zhe; Qin, Qing

    2016-01-01

    A study of spin dynamics based on simulations with the Polymorphic Tracking Code (PTC) is reported, exploring the dependence of the static polarization limit on various beam parameters and lattice settings for a practical RHIC lattice. It is shown that the behavior of the static polarization limit is dominantly affected by the vertical motion, while the effect of beam-beam interaction is small. In addition, the “nonresonant beam polarization” observed and studied in the lattice-independent model is also observed in this lattice-dependent model. Therefore, this simulation study gives insights of polarization evolution at fixed beam energies, that are not available in simple spin tracking. Supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-AC02-98CH10886), Hundred-Talent Program (Chinese Academy of Sciences), and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11105164)

  12. Team play in surgical education: a simulation-based study.

    PubMed

    Marr, Mollie; Hemmert, Keith; Nguyen, Andrew H; Combs, Ronnie; Annamalai, Alagappan; Miller, George; Pachter, H Leon; Turner, James; Rifkind, Kenneth; Cohen, Steven M

    2012-01-01

    Simulation-based training provides a low-stress learning environment where real-life emergencies can be practiced. Simulation can improve surgical education and patient care in crisis situations through a team approach emphasizing interpersonal and communication skills. This study assessed the effects of simulation-based training in the context of trauma resuscitation in teams of trainees. In a New York State-certified level I trauma center, trauma alerts were assessed by a standardized video review process. Simulation training was provided in various trauma situations followed by a debriefing period. The outcomes measured included the number of healthcare workers involved in the resuscitation, the percentage of healthcare workers in role position, time to intubation, time to intubation from paralysis, time to obtain first imaging study, time to leave trauma bay for computed tomography scan or the operating room, presence of team leader, and presence of spinal stabilization. Thirty cases were video analyzed presimulation and postsimulation training. The two data sets were compared via a 1-sided t test for significance (p < 0.05). Nominal data were analyzed using the Fischer exact test. The data were compared presimulation and postsimulation. The number of healthcare workers involved in the resuscitation decreased from 8.5 to 5.7 postsimulation (p < 0.001). The percentage of people in role positions increased from 57.8% to 83.6% (p = 0.46). The time to intubation from paralysis decreased from 3.9 to 2.8 minutes (p < 0.05). The presence of a definitive team leader increased from 64% to 90% (p < 0.05). The rate of spine stabilization increased from 82% to 100% (p < 0.08). After simulation, training adherence to the advanced trauma life support algorithm improved from 56% to 83%. High-stress situations simulated in a low-stress environment can improve team interaction and educational competencies. Providing simulation training as a tool for surgical education may

  13. Simulation Study on Neoclassical Poloidal Viscosity in Helical Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satake, Shinsuke

    2012-10-01

    In helical plasma confinement devices such as LHD, CHS and TU-Heliac, biasing experiments have been carried out to study the relationships among the ExB rotation, neoclassical poloidal viscosity (NPV), JxB torque of biasing current, and plasma confinement properties. In earlier studies using simple analytic formulae, it has been suggested that the transition phenomena of plasma transport found in the biasing experiments is attributed to nonlinear dependence of NPV on poloidal Mach number of the ExB rotation speed, or Mp. To study the NPV dependence on Mp in LHD biasing plasmas more in detail, we have applied FORTEC-3D drift-kinetic Monte-Carlo simulation code which can evaluate NPV precisely in realistic 3-D magnetic configurations. This is the first application of the massive neoclassical transport simulation to study the dependence of NPV on the magnetic configuration and rotation speed. In LHD plasmas, neoclassical transport properties such as radial particle transport and viscosity can be controlled by shifting the magnetic axis position. Our simulation study revealed that the NPV is drastically reduced if magnetic axis moves from 3.75m to 3.53m. As the biasing voltage, or Mp increases, it is found that the local maximum of NPV appears when |Mp|˜1, at which the transition of plasma transport properties is expected to happen. The transition Mp value is much smaller than that is predicted from simple analytic estimations. Comparing with the data from LHD biasing experiments, we confirmed that Mp near the electrode is about unity when a transition occurs, and also found that the peak NPV value at |Mp|˜1 agrees with the magnitude of JxB torque at the transition point. This suggests that our simulation successfully explains the nonlinear dependence of NPV and can give a quantitative evaluation of NPV in realistic LHD biasing experiment.

  14. Real versus Simulated Mobile Phone Exposures in Experimental Studies

    PubMed Central

    Panagopoulos, Dimitris J.; Johansson, Olle; Carlo, George L.

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether exposures to mobile phone radiation in biological/clinical experiments should be performed with real-life Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs) emitted by commercially available mobile phone handsets, instead of simulated EMFs emitted by generators or test phones. Real mobile phone emissions are constantly and unpredictably varying and thus are very different from simulated emissions which employ fixed parameters and no variability. This variability is an important parameter that makes real emissions more bioactive. Living organisms seem to have decreased defense against environmental stressors of high variability. While experimental studies employing simulated EMF-emissions present a strong inconsistency among their results with less than 50% of them reporting effects, studies employing real mobile phone exposures demonstrate an almost 100% consistency in showing adverse effects. This consistency is in agreement with studies showing association with brain tumors, symptoms of unwellness, and declines in animal populations. Average dosimetry in studies with real emissions can be reliable with increased number of field measurements, and variation in experimental outcomes due to exposure variability becomes less significant with increased number of experimental replications. We conclude that, in order for experimental findings to reflect reality, it is crucially important that exposures be performed by commercially available mobile phone handsets. PMID:26346766

  15. Simulation Study on Missile Penetration Based on LS - DYNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jue; Sun, Xinli

    2017-12-01

    Penetrating the shell armor is an effective means of destroying hard targets with multiple layers of protection. The penetration process is a high-speed impact dynamics research category, involving high pressure, high temperature, high speed and internal material damage, including plugging, penetration, spalling, caving, splashing and other complex forms, therefore, Analysis is one of the difficulties in the study of impact dynamics. In this paper, the Lagrang algorithm and the SPH algorithm are used to analyze the penetrating steel plate, and the penetration model of the rocket penetrating the steel plate, the failure mode of the steel plate and the missile and the advantages and disadvantages of Lagrang algorithm and SPH algorithm in the simulation of high-speed collision problem are analyzed and compared, which provides a reference for the study of simulation collision problem.

  16. A static data flow simulation study at Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barszcz, Eric; Howard, Lauri S.

    1987-01-01

    Demands in computational power, particularly in the area of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), led NASA Ames Research Center to study advanced computer architectures. One architecture being studied is the static data flow architecture based on research done by Jack B. Dennis at MIT. To improve understanding of this architecture, a static data flow simulator, written in Pascal, has been implemented for use on a Cray X-MP/48. A matrix multiply and a two-dimensional fast Fourier transform (FFT), two algorithms used in CFD work at Ames, have been run on the simulator. Execution times can vary by a factor of more than 2 depending on the partitioning method used to assign instructions to processing elements. Service time for matching tokens has proved to be a major bottleneck. Loop control and array address calculation overhead can double the execution time. The best sustained MFLOPS rates were less than 50% of the maximum capability of the machine.

  17. Structure of overheated metal clusters: MD simulation study

    SciT

    Vorontsov, Alexander

    2015-08-17

    The structure of overheated metal clusters appeared in condensation process was studied by computer simulation techniques. It was found that clusters with size larger than several tens of atoms have three layers: core part, intermediate dense packing layer and a gas- like shell with low density. The change of the size and structure of these layers with the variation of internal energy and the size of cluster is discussed.

  18. The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS): Simulation Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fegan, Stephen; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, S.; Funk, S.; Konopelko, A.; Maier, G.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Simulation Studies Working Group; AGIS Collaboration

    2008-03-01

    The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS) is a concept for the next generation instrument in ground-based very high energy gamma-ray astronomy. It has the goal of achieving significant improvement in sensitivity over current experiments. We present the results of simulation studies of various possible designs for AGIS. The primary characteristics of the array performance, collecting area, angular resolution, background rejection, and sensitivity are discussed.

  19. Junior physician skill and behaviour in resuscitation: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Høyer, Christian Bjerre; Christensen, Erika F; Eika, Berit

    2009-02-01

    Physicians are expected to manage their role as teamleader during resuscitation. During inter-hospital transfer the physician has the highest medical credentials on a small team. The aim of this study was to describe physician behaviour as teamleaders in a simulated cardiac arrest during inter-hospital transfer. Our goal was to pinpoint deficits in knowledge and skill integration and make recommendations for improvements in education. An ambulance was the framework for the simulation; the scenario a patient with acute coronary syndrome suffering ventricular fibrillation during transportation. Physicians (graduation age < or =5 years) working in internal medicine departments in Denmark were studied. The ambulance crew was instructed to be passive to clarify the behaviour of the physicians. 72 physicians were studied. Chest compressions were initiated in 71 cases, ventilation and defibrillation in 72. The median times for arrival of the driver in the patient cabin, initiation of ventilation and chest compressions, and first defibrillation were all less than 1min. Medication was administered in 63/72 simulations (88%), after a median time of 210 s. Adrenaline was the preferred initial drug administered (58/63, 92%). Tasks delegated were ventilations, chest compressions, defibrillation, and administration of medication (97%, 92%, 42%, and 10% of cases, respectively). Junior physicians performed well with respect to the treatment given and the delegation of tasks. However, variations in the time of initiation it took for each treatment indicated lack of leadership skills. It is imperative that the education of physicians includes training in leadership.

  20. Can We Study Autonomous Driving Comfort in Moving-Base Driving Simulators? A Validation Study.

    PubMed

    Bellem, Hanna; Klüver, Malte; Schrauf, Michael; Schöner, Hans-Peter; Hecht, Heiko; Krems, Josef F

    2017-05-01

    To lay the basis of studying autonomous driving comfort using driving simulators, we assessed the behavioral validity of two moving-base simulator configurations by contrasting them with a test-track setting. With increasing level of automation, driving comfort becomes increasingly important. Simulators provide a safe environment to study perceived comfort in autonomous driving. To date, however, no studies were conducted in relation to comfort in autonomous driving to determine the extent to which results from simulator studies can be transferred to on-road driving conditions. Participants ( N = 72) experienced six differently parameterized lane-change and deceleration maneuvers and subsequently rated the comfort of each scenario. One group of participants experienced the maneuvers on a test-track setting, whereas two other groups experienced them in one of two moving-base simulator configurations. We could demonstrate relative and absolute validity for one of the two simulator configurations. Subsequent analyses revealed that the validity of the simulator highly depends on the parameterization of the motion system. Moving-base simulation can be a useful research tool to study driving comfort in autonomous vehicles. However, our results point at a preference for subunity scaling factors for both lateral and longitudinal motion cues, which might be explained by an underestimation of speed in virtual environments. In line with previous studies, we recommend lateral- and longitudinal-motion scaling factors of approximately 50% to 60% in order to obtain valid results for both active and passive driving tasks.

  1. Fatigue Damage of Collagenous Tissues: Experiment, Modeling and Simulation Studies

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Caitlin; Sun, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical fatigue damage is a critical issue for soft tissues and tissue-derived materials, particularly for musculoskeletal and cardiovascular applications; yet, our understanding of the fatigue damage process is incomplete. Soft tissue fatigue experiments are often difficult and time-consuming to perform, which has hindered progress in this area. However, the recent development of soft-tissue fatigue-damage constitutive models has enabled simulation-based fatigue analyses of tissues under various conditions. Computational simulations facilitate highly controlled and quantitative analyses to study the distinct effects of various loading conditions and design features on tissue durability; thus, they are advantageous over complex fatigue experiments. Although significant work to calibrate the constitutive models from fatigue experiments and to validate predictability remains, further development in these areas will add to our knowledge of soft-tissue fatigue damage and will facilitate the design of durable treatments and devices. In this review, the experimental, modeling, and simulation efforts to study collagenous tissue fatigue damage are summarized and critically assessed. PMID:25955007

  2. A simulation study to quantify the impacts of exposure ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    BackgroundExposure measurement error in copollutant epidemiologic models has the potential to introduce bias in relative risk (RR) estimates. A simulation study was conducted using empirical data to quantify the impact of correlated measurement errors in time-series analyses of air pollution and health.MethodsZIP-code level estimates of exposure for six pollutants (CO, NOx, EC, PM2.5, SO4, O3) from 1999 to 2002 in the Atlanta metropolitan area were used to calculate spatial, population (i.e. ambient versus personal), and total exposure measurement error.Empirically determined covariance of pollutant concentration pairs and the associated measurement errors were used to simulate true exposure (exposure without error) from observed exposure. Daily emergency department visits for respiratory diseases were simulated using a Poisson time-series model with a main pollutant RR = 1.05 per interquartile range, and a null association for the copollutant (RR = 1). Monte Carlo experiments were used to evaluate the impacts of correlated exposure errors of different copollutant pairs.ResultsSubstantial attenuation of RRs due to exposure error was evident in nearly all copollutant pairs studied, ranging from 10 to 40% attenuation for spatial error, 3–85% for population error, and 31–85% for total error. When CO, NOx or EC is the main pollutant, we demonstrated the possibility of false positives, specifically identifying significant, positive associations for copoll

  3. Leading teams during simulated pediatric emergencies: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Coolen, Ester H; Draaisma, Jos M; den Hamer, Sabien; Loeffen, Jan L

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Leadership has been identified as a key variable for the functioning of teams and as one of the main reasons for success or failure of team-based work systems. Pediatricians often function as team leaders in the resuscitation of a critically ill child. However, pediatric residents often report having little opportunity to perform in the role of team leader during residency. In order to gain more insight into leadership skills and behaviors, we classified leadership styles of pediatric residents during simulated emergencies. Methods We conducted a prospective quantitative study to investigate leadership styles used by pediatric residents during simulated emergencies with clinical deterioration of a child at a pediatric ward. Using videotaped scenarios of 48 simulated critical events among 12 residents, we were able to classify verbal and nonverbal communication into different leadership styles according to the situational leadership theory. Results The coaching style (mean 54.5%, SD 7.8) is the most frequently applied by residents, followed by the directing style (mean 35.6%, SD 4.1). This pattern conforms to the task- and role-related requirements in our scenarios and it also conforms to the concept of situational leadership. We did not find any significant differences in leadership style according to the postgraduate year or scenario content. Conclusion The model used in this pilot study helps us to gain a better understanding of the development of effective leadership behavior and supports the applicability of situational leadership theory in training leadership skills during residency. PMID:25610010

  4. Results of a joint NOAA/NASA sounder simulation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, N.; Susskind, Joel; Mcmillin, L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a joint NOAA and NASA sounder simulation study in which the accuracies of atmospheric temperature profiles and surface skin temperature measuremnents retrieved from two sounders were compared: (1) the currently used IR temperature sounder HIRS2 (High-resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder 2); and (2) the recently proposed high-spectral-resolution IR sounder AMTS (Advanced Moisture and Temperature Sounder). Simulations were conducted for both clear and partial cloud conditions. Data were analyzed at NASA using a physical inversion technique and at NOAA using a statistical technique. Results show significant improvement of AMTS compared to HIRS2 for both clear and cloudy conditions. The improvements are indicated by both methods of data analysis, but the physical retrievals outperform the statistical retrievals.

  5. Simulation and experimental study of resin flow in fibre fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Fei; Yan, Shilin; Li, Yongjing

    2017-06-01

    Liquid Composite Moulding (LCM) is gradually becoming the most competitive manufacturing technology for producing large composite parts with complex geometry with high quality and low cost. These parts include those for airplanes, wind turbine blades and automobile components. Fibre fabrics in liquid composite moulding can be considered as dual-scale porous media. In different gap scales, an unsaturated flow is produced during the mould filling process. This particular flow behaviour deviates from the traditional Darcy’s law, which is used to calculate the filling pressure and will cause errors. According to sink theory, the unsaturated flow characteristics of this dual-scale porous media were studied in this paper, and a FEM solution program was developed. The results showed that the pressure curves against the position which simulated by sink functions were departure from the position of traditional theory. In addition, the simulation results of partially-saturated region were consistent with the experimental data.

  6. Piloted Simulation Study of Rudder Pedal Force/Feel Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Ronald A.

    2007-01-01

    A piloted, fixed-base simulation was conducted in 2006 to determine optimum rudder pedal force/feel characteristics for transport aircraft. As part of this research, an evaluation of four metrics for assessing rudder pedal characteristics previously presented in the literature was conducted. This evaluation was based upon the numerical handling qualities ratings assigned to a variety of pedal force/feel systems used in the simulation study. It is shown that, with the inclusion of a fifth metric, most of the rudder pedal force/feel system designs that were rated poorly by the evaluation pilots could be identified. It is suggested that these metrics form the basis of a certification requirement for transport aircraft.

  7. A Quantitative Study of Simulated Bicuspid Aortic Valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szeto, Kai; Nguyen, Tran; Rodriguez, Javier; Pastuszko, Peter; Nigam, Vishal; Lasheras, Juan

    2010-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that congentially bicuspid aortic valves develop degenerative diseases earlier than the standard trileaflet, but the causes are not well understood. It has been hypothesized that the asymmetrical flow patterns and turbulence found in the bileaflet valves together with abnormally high levels of strain may result in an early thickening and eventually calcification and stenosis. Central to this hypothesis is the need for a precise quantification of the differences in the strain rate levels between bileaflets and trileaflet valves. We present here some in-vitro dynamic measurements of the spatial variation of the strain rate in pig aortic vales conducted in a left ventricular heart flow simulator device. We measure the strain rate of each leaflet during the whole cardiac cycle using phase-locked stereoscopic three-dimensional image surface reconstruction techniques. The bicuspid case is simulated by surgically stitching two of the leaflets in a normal valve.

  8. A simulator study on information requirements for precision hovering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemons, J. L.; Dukes, T. A.

    1975-01-01

    A fixed base simulator study of an advanced helicopter instrument display utilizing translational acceleration, velocity and position information is reported. The simulation involved piloting a heavy helicopter using the Integrated Trajectory Error Display (ITED) in a precision hover task. The test series explored two basic areas. The effect on hover accuracy of adding acceleration information was of primary concern. Also of interest was the operators' ability to use degraded information derived from less sophisticated sources. The addition of translational acceleration to a display containing velocity and position information did not appear to improve the hover performance significantly. However, displayed acceleration information seemed to increase the damping of the man machine system. Finally, the pilots could use translational information synthesized from attitude and angular acceleration as effectively as perfect acceleration.

  9. Airflow Hazard Visualization for Helicopter Pilots: Flight Simulation Study Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aragon, Cecilia R.; Long, Kurtis R.

    2005-01-01

    Airflow hazards such as vortices or low level wind shear have been identified as a primary contributing factor in many helicopter accidents. US Navy ships generate airwakes over their decks, creating potentially hazardous conditions for shipboard rotorcraft launch and recovery. Recent sensor developments may enable the delivery of airwake data to the cockpit, where visualizing the hazard data may improve safety and possibly extend ship/helicopter operational envelopes. A prototype flight-deck airflow hazard visualization system was implemented on a high-fidelity rotorcraft flight dynamics simulator. Experienced helicopter pilots, including pilots from all five branches of the military, participated in a usability study of the system. Data was collected both objectively from the simulator and subjectively from post-test questionnaires. Results of the data analysis are presented, demonstrating a reduction in crash rate and other trends that illustrate the potential of airflow hazard visualization to improve flight safety.

  10. Simulation verification techniques study: Simulation performance validation techniques document. [for the space shuttle system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, L. M.; Reddell, J. P.; Schoonmaker, P. B.

    1975-01-01

    Techniques and support software for the efficient performance of simulation validation are discussed. Overall validation software structure, the performance of validation at various levels of simulation integration, guidelines for check case formulation, methods for real time acquisition and formatting of data from an all up operational simulator, and methods and criteria for comparison and evaluation of simulation data are included. Vehicle subsystems modules, module integration, special test requirements, and reference data formats are also described.

  11. Study of Kapton Degradation under Simulated Shuttle Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eck, T. G.; Hoffman, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    Weight loss and severe degradation of the surface of Kapton that occurs in low Earth orbit is studied. Atomic oxygen, the major ambient species at low Earth altitude and incident with approximately 5 eV energy in ram conditions, is the primary suspect, but a thorough study of oxygen-Kapton interactions has not yet been carried out. A low-energy ion source is used to simulate the shuttle low Earth orbit environment. This source, together with diagnostic tools including surface analysis and mass spectroscopic capability, is being used to carry out experiments from which quantum yields may be obtained.

  12. A field study of wind over a simulated block building

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, W.; Shahabi, A. M.

    1977-01-01

    A full-scale field study of the wind over a simulated two-dimensional building is reported. The study develops an experiment to investigate the structure and magnitude of the wind fields. A description of the experimental arrangement, the type and expected accuracy of the data, and the range of the data are given. The data are expected to provide a fundamental understanding of mean wind and turbulence structure of the wind field around the bluff body. Preliminary analysis of the data demonstrates the reliability and completeness of the data in this regard.

  13. Adsorption of ammonium from simulated wastewater by montmorillonite nanoclay and natural vermiculite: experimental study and simulation.

    PubMed

    Mazloomi, Farhad; Jalali, Mohsen

    2017-08-01

    In this research, montmorillonite nanoclay (MNC) and vermiculite were used to adsorb ammonium (NH 4 + ) from simulated wastewater. The effect of organic acids, cations, and anions on adsorption of NH 4 + was also studied using batch experiments. The presence of organic acids significantly decreased the NH 4 + adsorption using both adsorbents and the reduction followed the order of citric acid > malic acid > oxalic acid. The presence of cations in wastewater could decrease the adsorption of NH 4 + and the ion exchange selectivity on the MNC and vermiculite followed the orders Mg > Ca ≥ K > Na and Mg > > Ca > Na > K, respectively. Adsorption of NH 4 + by adsorbents in the presence of sulfate (SO 4 ) was higher than those in the presence of phosphate (PO 4 ) and chloride (Cl) anions. Results indicated that MNC and vermiculite had good potential for NH 4 + removal depending on adsorbent dosage, pH, contact time, and initial NH 4 + concentration. The effect of pH on removal of NH 4 + indicated that MNC would be more appropriate as the adsorbent than vermiculite at low pH values. Kinetic analysis demonstrated that the rate-controlling step adsorption for NH 4 + by MNC and vermiculite was heterogeneous chemisorption and followed the pseudo-second-order model. The desorption experiments indicated that the adsorption of NH 4 + by adsorbents was not fully reversible, and the total recovery of adsorbed NH 4 + for MNC and vermiculite varied in the range of 72 to 94.6% and 11.5 to 45.7%, respectively. Cation exchange model (CEM) in PHREEQC program was used to simulate NH 4 + adsorption. Agreement between measured and simulated data suggested that CEM was favored in simulating adsorption of NH 4 + by clay minerals. The results indicated that MNC and vermiculite have good performance as economic and nature-friendly adsorbents that can ameliorate the water and environment quality.

  14. A Simulation Game for the Study of State Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enzer, Selwyn; And Others

    A simulated planning conference used both informed experts (simulating state planners and societal groups) and "Monte Carlo" procedures (simulating random events) to identify some possible futures for the state of Connecticut and to examine rational planning behavior patterns. In the simulation the participants were divided into two…

  15. Simulation Study on the Controllable Dielectrophoresis Parameters of Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Jian-Long; Liu, Ya-Li; Ge, Yang; Xie, Sheng-Dong; Zhang, Xi; Sang, Sheng-Bo; Jian, Ao-Qun; Duan, Qian-Qian; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Wen-Dong

    2017-03-01

    The method of using dielectrophoresis (DEP) to assemble graphene between micro-electrodes has been proven to be simple and efficient. We present an optimization method for the kinetic formula of graphene DEP, and discuss the simulation of the graphene assembly process based on the finite element method. The simulated results illustrate that the accelerated motion of graphene is in agreement with the distribution of the electric field squared gradient. We also conduct research on the controllable parameters of the DEP assembly such as the alternating current (AC) frequency, the shape of micro-electrodes, and the ratio of the gap between electrodes to the characteristic/geometric length of graphene (λ). The simulations based on the Clausius-Mossotti factor reveal that both graphene velocity and direction are influenced by the AC frequency. When graphene is close to the electrodes, the shape of micro-electrodes will exert great influence on the velocity of graphene. Also, λ has a great influence on the velocity of graphene. Generally, the velocity of graphene would be greater when λ is in the range of 0.4-0.6. The study is of a theoretical guiding significance in improving the precision and efficiency of the graphene DEP assembly. Supported by the Basic Research Project of Shanxi Province under Grant No 2015021092, the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos 61471255, 61474079, 61501316, 51505324 and 51622507, and the National High-Technology Research and Development Program of China under Grant No 2015AA042601.

  16. A decontamination study of simulated chemical and biological agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhm, Han S.; Lee, Han Y.; Hong, Yong C.; Shin, Dong H.; Park, Yun H.; Hong, Yi F.; Lee, Chong K.

    2007-07-01

    A comprehensive decontamination scheme of the chemical and biological agents, including airborne agents and surface contaminating agents, is presented. When a chemical and biological attack occurs, it is critical to decontaminate facilities or equipments to an acceptable level in a very short time. The plasma flame presented here may provide a rapid and effective elimination of toxic substances in the interior air in isolated spaces. As an example, a reaction chamber, with the dimensions of a 22cm diameter and 30cm length, purifies air with an airflow rate of 5000l/min contaminated with toluene, the simulated chemical agent, and soot from a diesel engine, the simulated aerosol for biological agents. Although the airborne agents in an isolated space are eliminated to an acceptable level by the plasma flame, the decontamination of the chemical and biological agents cannot be completed without cleaning surfaces of the facilities. A simulated sterilization study of micro-organisms was carried out using the electrolyzed ozone water. The electrolyzed ozone water very effectively kills endospores of Bacillus atrophaeus (ATCC 9372) within 3min. The electrolyzed ozone water also kills the vegetative micro-organisms, fungi, and virus. The electrolyzed ozone water, after the decontamination process, disintegrates into ordinary water and oxygen without any trace of harmful materials to the environment.

  17. Studying pressure denaturation of a protein by molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Sarupria, Sapna; Ghosh, Tuhin; García, Angel E; Garde, Shekhar

    2010-05-15

    Many globular proteins unfold when subjected to several kilobars of hydrostatic pressure. This "unfolding-up-on-squeezing" is counter-intuitive in that one expects mechanical compression of proteins with increasing pressure. Molecular simulations have the potential to provide fundamental understanding of pressure effects on proteins. However, the slow kinetics of unfolding, especially at high pressures, eliminates the possibility of its direct observation by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Motivated by experimental results-that pressure denatured states are water-swollen, and theoretical results-that water transfer into hydrophobic contacts becomes favorable with increasing pressure, we employ a water insertion method to generate unfolded states of the protein Staphylococcal Nuclease (Snase). Structural characteristics of these unfolded states-their water-swollen nature, retention of secondary structure, and overall compactness-mimic those observed in experiments. Using conformations of folded and unfolded states, we calculate their partial molar volumes in MD simulations and estimate the pressure-dependent free energy of unfolding. The volume of unfolding of Snase is negative (approximately -60 mL/mol at 1 bar) and is relatively insensitive to pressure, leading to its unfolding in the pressure range of 1500-2000 bars. Interestingly, once the protein is sufficiently water swollen, the partial molar volume of the protein appears to be insensitive to further conformational expansion or unfolding. Specifically, water-swollen structures with relatively low radii of gyration have partial molar volume that are similar to that of significantly more unfolded states. We find that the compressibility change on unfolding is negligible, consistent with experiments. We also analyze hydration shell fluctuations to comment on the hydration contributions to protein compressibility. Our study demonstrates the utility of molecular simulations in estimating volumetric properties

  18. Examining Road Traffic Mortality Status in China: A Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Schwebel, David C.; Li, Li; Hu, Guoqing

    2016-01-01

    Background Data from the Chinese police service suggest substantial reductions in road traffic injuries since 2002, but critics have questioned the accuracy of those data, especially considering conflicting data reported by the health department. Methods To address the gap between police and health department data and to determine which may be more accurate, we conducted a simulation study based on the modified Smeed equation, which delineates a non-linear relation between road traffic mortality and the level of motorization in a country or region. Our goal was to simulate trends in road traffic mortality in China and compare performances in road traffic safety management between China and 13 other countries. Results Chinese police data indicate a peak in road traffic mortalities in 2002 and a significant and a gradual decrease in population-based road traffic mortality since 2002. Health department data show the road traffic mortality peaked in 2012. In addition, police data suggest China’s road traffic mortality peaked at a much lower motorization level (0.061 motor vehicles per person) in 2002, followed by a reduction in mortality to a level comparable to that of developed countries. Simulation results based on health department data suggest high road traffic mortality, with a mortality peak in 2012 at a moderate motorization level (0.174 motor vehicles per person). Comparisons to the other 13 countries suggest the health data from China may be more valid than the police data. Conclusion Our simulation data indicate China is still at a stage of high road traffic mortality, as suggested by health data, rather than a stage of low road traffic mortality, as suggested by police data. More efforts are needed to integrate safety into road design, improve road traffic management, improve data quality, and alter unsafe behaviors of pedestrians, drivers and passengers in China. PMID:27071008

  19. Simulation study of the ROMPS robot control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Charles C.; Liu, HUI-I.

    1994-01-01

    This is a report presenting the progress of a research grant funded by NASA for work performed from June 1, 1993 to August 1, 1993. The report deals with the Robot Operated Material Processing System (ROMPS). It presents results of a computer simulation study conducted to investigate the performance of the control systems controlling the azimuth, elevation, and radial axes of the ROMPS and its gripper. Four study cases are conducted. The first case investigates the control of free motion of the three areas. In the second case, the compliant motion in the elevation axis with the wrist compliant device is studied in terms of position accuracy and impact forces. The third case focuses on the behavior of the control system in controlling the robot motion along the radial axis when pulling the pallet out of the rack. In the fourth case, the compliant motion of the gripper grasping a solid object under the effect of the gripper passive compliance is studied in terms of position accuracy and contact forces. For each of the above cases, a set of PIR gains will be selected to optimize the controller performance and computer simulation results will be presented and discussed.

  20. Operationalising elaboration theory for simulation instruction design: a Delphi study.

    PubMed

    Haji, Faizal A; Khan, Rabia; Regehr, Glenn; Ng, Gary; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Dubrowski, Adam

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of incorporating the Delphi process within the simplifying conditions method (SCM) described in elaboration theory (ET) to identify conditions impacting the complexity of procedural skills for novice learners. We generated an initial list of conditions impacting the complexity of lumbar puncture (LP) from key informant interviews (n = 5) and a literature review. Eighteen clinician-educators from six different medical specialties were subsequently recruited as expert panellists. Over three Delphi rounds, these panellists rated: (i) their agreement with the inclusion of the simple version of the conditions in a representative ('epitome') training scenario, and (ii) how much the inverse (complex) version increases LP complexity for a novice. Cronbach's α-values were used to assess inter-rater agreement. All panellists completed Rounds 1 and 2 of the survey and 17 completed Round 3. In Round 1, Cronbach's α-values were 0.89 and 0.94 for conditions that simplify and increase LP complexity, respectively; both values increased to 0.98 in Rounds 2 and 3. With the exception of 'high CSF (cerebral spinal fluid) pressure', panellists agreed with the inclusion of all conditions in the simplest (epitome) training scenario. Panellists rated patient movement, spinal anatomy, patient cooperativeness, body habitus, and the presence or absence of an experienced assistant as having the greatest impact on the complexity of LP. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using expert consensus to establish conditions impacting the complexity of procedural skills, and the benefits of incorporating the Delphi method into the SCM. These data can be used to develop and sequence simulation scenarios in a progressively challenging manner. If the theorised learning gains associated with ET are realised, the methods described in this study may be applied to the design of simulation training for other procedural and non-procedural skills

  1. A driving simulator study of driver performance on deceleration lanes.

    PubMed

    Calvi, A; Benedetto, A; De Blasiis, M R

    2012-03-01

    Deceleration lanes are important because they help drivers transition from high-speed lanes to low-speed ramps. Although they are designed to allow vehicles to depart the freeway safely and efficiently, many studies report high accident rates on exit ramps with the highest percentage of crashes taking place in deceleration lanes. This paper describes the results of a driving simulator study that focused on driving performance while approaching a divergence area and decelerating during the exiting maneuver. Three different traffic scenarios were simulated to analyze the influence of traffic volume on driving performance. Thirty drivers drove in the simulator in these scenarios while data on their lateral position, speed and deceleration were collected. Our results indicate there are considerable differences between the main assumptions of models generally used to design deceleration lanes and actual driving performance. In particular, diverging drivers begin to decelerate before arriving at the deceleration lane, causing interference with the main flow. Moreover, speeds recorded at the end of the deceleration lane exceed those for which the ramp's curves are designed; this creates risky driving conditions that could explain the high crash rates found in studies of exit ramps. Finally, statistical analyses demonstrate significant influences of traffic volume on some aspects of exiting drivers' performance: lower traffic volume results in elevated exiting speed and deceleration, and diverging drivers begin to decelerate earlier along the main lane when traffic volume is low. However, speeds at the end of the deceleration lane and the site of lane changing are not significantly influenced by traffic volume. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Tax amnesties, justice perceptions, and filing behavior: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Rechberger, Silvia; Hartner, Martina; Kirchler, Erich; Hämmerle, Franziska

    2010-04-01

    A simulation study demonstrates the influence of perceived justice of a tax amnesty on subsequent tax compliance. In addition, it investigates how the amnesty is perceived to serve the punishment objectives retribution (i.e., giving offenders what they "deserve") and value restoration (i.e., restoring the values violated by tax evasion). Hierarchical regression analysis revealed the expected positive influence of justice on subsequent tax compliance. However, when the influence of punishment objectives was controlled for, the influence of justice disappeared, while retribution and value restoration showed positive effects on post-amnesty tax compliance.

  3. Tax amnesties, justice perceptions, and filing behavior: a simulation study

    PubMed Central

    Rechberger, Silvia; Hartner, Martina; Kirchler, Erich; Hämmerle, Franziska

    2010-01-01

    A simulation study demonstrates the influence of perceived justice of a tax amnesty on subsequent tax compliance. In addition, it investigates how the amnesty is perceived to serve the punishment objectives retribution (i.e., giving offenders what they “deserve”) and value restoration (i.e., restoring the values violated by tax evasion). Hierarchical regression analysis revealed the expected positive influence of justice on subsequent tax compliance. However, when the influence of punishment objectives was controlled for, the influence of justice disappeared, while retribution and value restoration showed positive effects on post-amnesty tax compliance. PMID:20890463

  4. Designing artificial enzymes from scratch: Experimental study and mesoscale simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komarov, Pavel V.; Zaborina, Olga E.; Klimova, Tamara P.; Lozinsky, Vladimir I.; Khalatur, Pavel G.; Khokhlov, Alexey R.

    2016-09-01

    We present a new concept for designing biomimetic analogs of enzymatic proteins; these analogs are based on the synthetic protein-like copolymers. α-Chymotrypsin is used as a prototype of the artificial catalyst. Our experimental study shows that in the course of free radical copolymerization of hydrophobic and hydrophilic monomers the target globular nanostructures of a "core-shell" morphology appear in a selective solvent. Using a mesoscale computer simulation, we show that the protein-like globules can have a large number of catalytic centers located at the hydrophobic core/hydrophilic shell interface.

  5. A Monte Carlo simulation study of associated liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berardi, R.; Fehervari, M.; Zannoni, C.

    We have performed a Monte Carlo simulation study of a system of ellipsoidal particles with donor-acceptor sites modelling complementary hydrogen-bonding groups in real molecules. We have considered elongated Gay-Berne particles with terminal interaction sites allowing particles to associate and form dimers. The changes in the phase transitions and in the molecular organization and the interplay between orientational ordering and dimer formation are discussed. Particle flip and dimer moves have been used to increase the convergency rate of the Monte Carlo (MC) Markov chain.

  6. A simulation study to quantify the impacts of exposure ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A simulation study to quantify the impacts of exposure measurement error on air pollution health risk estimates in copollutant time-series models The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Computational Exposure Division (CED) develops and evaluates data, decision-support tools, and models to be applied to media-specific or receptor-specific problem areas. CED uses modeling-based approaches to characterize exposures, evaluate fate and transport, and support environmental diagnostics/forensics with input from multiple data sources. It also develops media- and receptor-specific models, process models, and decision support tools for use both within and outside of EPA.

  7. Large Scale Simulation Platform for NODES Validation Study

    SciT

    Sotorrio, P.; Qin, Y.; Min, L.

    2017-04-27

    This report summarizes the Large Scale (LS) simulation platform created for the Eaton NODES project. The simulation environment consists of both wholesale market simulator and distribution simulator and includes the CAISO wholesale market model and a PG&E footprint of 25-75 feeders to validate the scalability under a scenario of 33% RPS in California with additional 17% of DERS coming from distribution and customers. The simulator can generate hourly unit commitment, 5-minute economic dispatch, and 4-second AGC regulation signals. The simulator is also capable of simulating greater than 10k individual controllable devices. Simulated DERs include water heaters, EVs, residential and lightmore » commercial HVAC/buildings, and residential-level battery storage. Feeder-level voltage regulators and capacitor banks are also simulated for feeder-level real and reactive power management and Vol/Var control.« less

  8. Comparative Study of the Effectiveness of Three Learning Environments: Hyper-Realistic Virtual Simulations, Traditional Schematic Simulations and Traditional Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Guadalupe; Naranjo, Francisco L.; Perez, Angel L.; Suero, Maria Isabel; Pardo, Pedro J.

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the educational effects of computer simulations developed in a hyper-realistic virtual environment with the educational effects of either traditional schematic simulations or a traditional optics laboratory. The virtual environment was constructed on the basis of Java applets complemented with a photorealistic visual output.…

  9. Parameter uncertainty in simulations of extreme precipitation and attribution studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmermans, B.; Collins, W. D.; O'Brien, T. A.; Risser, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    The attribution of extreme weather events, such as heavy rainfall, to anthropogenic influence involves the analysis of their probability in simulations of climate. The climate models used however, such as the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM), employ approximate physics that gives rise to "parameter uncertainty"—uncertainty about the most accurate or optimal values of numerical parameters within the model. In particular, approximate parameterisations for convective processes are well known to be influential in the simulation of precipitation extremes. Towards examining the impact of this source of uncertainty on attribution studies, we investigate the importance of components—through their associated tuning parameters—of parameterisations relating to deep and shallow convection, and cloud and aerosol microphysics in CAM. We hypothesise that as numerical resolution is increased the change in proportion of variance induced by perturbed parameters associated with the respective components is consistent with the decreasing applicability of the underlying hydrostatic assumptions. For example, that the relative influence of deep convection should diminish as resolution approaches that where convection can be resolved numerically ( 10 km). We quantify the relationship between the relative proportion of variance induced and numerical resolution by conducting computer experiments that examine precipitation extremes over the contiguous U.S. In order to mitigate the enormous computational burden of running ensembles of long climate simulations, we use variable-resolution CAM and employ both extreme value theory and surrogate modelling techniques ("emulators"). We discuss the implications of the relationship between parameterised convective processes and resolution both in the context of attribution studies and progression towards models that fully resolve convection.

  10. Simulation study on combination of GRACE monthly gravity field solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jean, Yoomin; Meyer, Ulrich; Jäggi, Adrian

    2016-04-01

    The GRACE monthly gravity fields from different processing centers are combined in the frame of the project EGSIEM. This combination is done on solution level first to define weights which will be used for a combination on normal equation level. The applied weights are based on the deviation of the individual gravity fields from the arithmetic mean of all involved gravity fields. This kind of weighting scheme relies on the assumption that the true gravity field is close to the arithmetic mean of the involved individual gravity fields. However, the arithmetic mean can be affected by systematic errors in individual gravity fields, which consequently results in inappropriate weights. For the future operational scientific combination service of GRACE monthly gravity fields, it is necessary to examine the validity of the weighting scheme also in possible extreme cases. To investigate this, we make a simulation study on the combination of gravity fields. Firstly, we show how a deviated gravity field can affect the combined solution in terms of signal and noise in the spatial domain. We also show the impact of systematic errors in individual gravity fields on the resulting combined solution. Then, we investigate whether the weighting scheme still works in the presence of outliers. The result of this simulation study will be useful to understand and validate the weighting scheme applied to the combination of the monthly gravity fields.

  11. Simulation and experimental studies in needle-tissue interactions.

    PubMed

    Konh, Bardia; Honarvar, Mohammad; Darvish, Kurosh; Hutapea, Parsaoran

    2017-08-01

    This work aims to introduce a new needle insertion simulation to predict the deflection of a bevel-tip needle inside soft tissue. The development of such a model, which predicts the steering behavior of the needle during needle-tissue interactions, could improve the performance of many percutaneous needle-based procedures such as brachytherapy and thermal ablation, by means of the virtual path planning and training systems of the needle toward the target and thus reducing possible incidents of complications in clinical practices. The Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) formulation in LS-DYNA software was used to model the solid-fluid interactions between the needle and tissue. Since both large deformation and fracture of the continuum need to be considered in this model, applying ALE method for fluid analysis was considered a suitable approach. A 150 mm long needle was used to bend within the tissue due to the interacting forces on its asymmetric bevel tip. Three experimental cases of needle steering in a soft phantom were performed to validate the simulation. An error measurement of less than 10 % was found between the predicted deflection by the simulations and the one observed in experiments, validating our approach with reasonable accuracy. The effect of the needle diameter and its bevel tip angle on the final shape of the needle was investigated using this model. To maneuver around the anatomical obstacles of the human body and reach the target location, thin sharp needles are recommended, as they would create a smaller radius of curvature. The insertion model presented in this work is intended to be used as a base structure for path planning and training purposes for future studies.

  12. Focus on Games & Simulations: Trends+Technologies+Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Margery

    2011-01-01

    A changing mindset combined with changing technology is driving the use of games and simulations. People are becoming more open to using games and simulations for learning, and, at the same time, the technologies are making the development of games and simulations easier and faster than a mere five years ago. Together, the changing mindset and the…

  13. Studies of climate dynamics with innovative global-model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaoming

    Climate simulations with different degrees of idealization are essential for the development of our understanding of the climate system. Studies in this dissertation employ carefully designed global-model simulations for the goal of gaining theoretical and conceptual insights into some problems of climate dynamics. Firstly, global warming-induced changes in extreme precipitation are investigated using a global climate model with idealized geography. The precipitation changes over an idealized north-south mid-latitude mountain barrier at the western margin of an otherwise flat continent are studied. The intensity of the 40 most intense events on the western slopes increases by about ~4°C of surface warming. In contrast, the intensity of the top 40 events on the eastern mountain slopes increases at about ~6°C. This higher sensitivity is due to enhanced ascent during the eastern-slope events, which can be explained in terms of linear mountain-wave theory relating to global warming-induced changes in the upper-tropospheric static stability and the tropopause level. Dominated by different dynamical factors, changes in the intensity of extreme precipitation events over plains and oceans might differ from changes over mountains. So the response of extreme precipitation over mountains and flat areas are further compared using larger data sets of simulated extreme events over the two types of surfaces. It is found that the sensitivity of extreme precipitation to increases in global mean surface temperature is 3% per °C lower over mountains than over the oceans or the plains. The difference in sensitivity among these regions is not due to thermodynamic effects, but rather to differences between the gravity-wave dynamics governing vertical velocities over the mountains and the cyclone dynamics governing vertical motions over the oceans and plains. The strengthening of latent heating in the storms over oceans and plains leads to stronger ascent in the warming climate

  14. Socialising Health Burden Through Different Network Topologies: A Simulation Study.

    PubMed

    Peacock, Adrian; Cheung, Anthony; Kim, Peter; Poon, Simon K

    2017-01-01

    An aging population and the expectation of premium quality health services combined with the increasing economic burden of the healthcare system requires a paradigm shift toward patient oriented healthcare. The guardian angel theory described by Szolovits [1] explores the notion of enlisting patients as primary providers of information and motivation to patients with similar clinical history through social connections. In this study, an agent based model was developed to simulate to explore how individuals are affected through their levels of intrinsic positivity. Ring, point-to-point (paired buddy), and random networks were modelled, with individuals able to send messages to each other given their levels of variables positivity and motivation. Of the 3 modelled networks it is apparent that the ring network provides the most equal, collective improvement in positivity and motivation for all users. Further study into other network topologies should be undertaken in the future.

  15. Numerical aerodynamic simulation facility feasibility study, executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    There were three major issues examined in the feasibility study. First, the ability of the proposed system architecture to support the anticipated workload was evaluated. Second, the throughput of the computational engine (the flow model processor) was studied using real application programs. Third, the availability, reliability, and maintainability of the system were modeled. The evaluations were based on the baseline systems. The results show that the implementation of the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Facility, in the form considered, would indeed be a feasible project with an acceptable level of risk. The technology required (both hardware and software) either already exists or, in the case of a few parts, is expected to be announced this year.

  16. Communication in red fox dyads: a computer simulation study

    SciT

    Montgomery, Gerald Gene

    1973-06-01

    For any two animals, three major factors limit communication. These are (1) whether appropriate signal mechanisms are available to them, (2) whether the animals are motivated to communicate, and (3) whether their movements and locations are such that signal can pass between them. In this study, signal mechanisms and motivation were not considered as variables, but the role of animal movement in limiting communication was. A computer simulation study of amounts of communication which occur in red fox (Vulpes vulpes) dyads when various means of signalling are used, and when. the animals move about and signal with - various emissionmore » intensities and at various time intervals is reported.« less

  17. Using simulation in out-patient queues: a case study.

    PubMed

    Huarng, F; Lee, M H

    1996-01-01

    Overwork and overcrowding in some periods was an important issue for the out-patient department of a local hospital in Chia-Yi in Taiwan. The hospital administrators wanted to manage the patient flow effectively. Describes a study which focused on the utilization of doctors and staff in the out-patient department, the time spent in the hospital by an out-patient, and the length of the out-patient queue. Explains how a computer simulation model was developed to study how changes in the appointment system, staffing policies and service units would affect the observed bottleneck. The results show that the waiting time was greatly reduced and the workload of the doctor was also reduced to a reasonable rate in the overwork and overcrowding periods.

  18. Improving Aviation Safety with information Visualization: A Flight Simulation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aragon, Cecilia R.; Hearst, Marti

    2005-01-01

    Many aircraft accidents each year are caused by encounters with invisible airflow hazards. Recent advances in aviation sensor technology offer the potential for aircraft-based sensors that can gather large amounts of airflow velocity data in real-time. With this influx of data comes the need to study how best to present it to the pilot - a cognitively overloaded user focused on a primary task other than that of information visualization. In this paper, we present the results of a usability study of an airflow hazard visualization system that significantly reduced the crash rate among experienced helicopter pilots flying a high fidelity, aerodynamically realistic fixed-base rotorcraft flight simulator into hazardous conditions. We focus on one particular aviation application, but the results may be relevant to user interfaces in other operationally stressful environments.

  19. Phase aberration simulation study of MRgFUS breast treatments

    PubMed Central

    Farrer, Alexis I.; Almquist, Scott; Dillon, Christopher R.; Neumayer, Leigh A.; Parker, Dennis L.; Christensen, Douglas A.; Payne, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This simulation study evaluates the effects of phase aberration in breast MR-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) ablation treatments performed with a phased-array transducer positioned laterally to the breast. A quantification of these effects in terms of thermal dose delivery and the potential benefits of phase correction is demonstrated in four heterogeneous breast numerical models. Methods: To evaluate the effects of varying breast tissue properties on the quality of the focus, four female volunteers with confirmed benign fibroadenomas were imaged using 3T MRI. These images were segmented into numerical models with six tissue types, with each tissue type assigned standard acoustic properties from the literature. Simulations for a single-plane 16-point raster-scan treatment trajectory centered in a fibroadenoma in each modeled breast were performed for a breast-specific MRgFUS system. At each of the 16 points, pressure patterns both with and without applying a phase correction technique were determined with the hybrid-angular spectrum method. Corrected phase patterns were obtained using a simulation-based phase aberration correction technique to adjust each element’s transmit phase to obtain maximized constructive interference at the desired focus. Thermal simulations were performed for both the corrected and uncorrected pressure patterns using a finite-difference implementation of the Pennes bioheat equation. The effect of phase correction was evaluated through comparison of thermal dose accumulation both within and outside a defined treatment volume. Treatment results using corrected and uncorrected phase aberration simulations were compared by evaluating the power required to achieve a 20 °C temperature rise at the first treatment location. The extent of the volumes that received a minimum thermal dose of 240 CEM at 43 °C inside the intended treatment volume as well as the volume in the remaining breast tissues was also evaluated in the form of

  20. A protocol for conducting rainfall simulation to study soil runoff.

    PubMed

    Kibet, Leonard C; Saporito, Louis S; Allen, Arthur L; May, Eric B; Kleinman, Peter J A; Hashem, Fawzy M; Bryant, Ray B

    2014-04-03

    Rainfall is a driving force for the transport of environmental contaminants from agricultural soils to surficial water bodies via surface runoff. The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of antecedent soil moisture content on the fate and transport of surface applied commercial urea, a common form of nitrogen (N) fertilizer, following a rainfall event that occurs within 24 hr after fertilizer application. Although urea is assumed to be readily hydrolyzed to ammonium and therefore not often available for transport, recent studies suggest that urea can be transported from agricultural soils to coastal waters where it is implicated in harmful algal blooms. A rainfall simulator was used to apply a consistent rate of uniform rainfall across packed soil boxes that had been prewetted to different soil moisture contents. By controlling rainfall and soil physical characteristics, the effects of antecedent soil moisture on urea loss were isolated. Wetter soils exhibited shorter time from rainfall initiation to runoff initiation, greater total volume of runoff, higher urea concentrations in runoff, and greater mass loadings of urea in runoff. These results also demonstrate the importance of controlling for antecedent soil moisture content in studies designed to isolate other variables, such as soil physical or chemical characteristics, slope, soil cover, management, or rainfall characteristics. Because rainfall simulators are designed to deliver raindrops of similar size and velocity as natural rainfall, studies conducted under a standardized protocol can yield valuable data that, in turn, can be used to develop models for predicting the fate and transport of pollutants in runoff.

  1. A Protocol for Conducting Rainfall Simulation to Study Soil Runoff

    PubMed Central

    Kibet, Leonard C.; Saporito, Louis S.; Allen, Arthur L.; May, Eric B.; Kleinman, Peter J. A.; Hashem, Fawzy M.; Bryant, Ray B.

    2014-01-01

    Rainfall is a driving force for the transport of environmental contaminants from agricultural soils to surficial water bodies via surface runoff. The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of antecedent soil moisture content on the fate and transport of surface applied commercial urea, a common form of nitrogen (N) fertilizer, following a rainfall event that occurs within 24 hr after fertilizer application. Although urea is assumed to be readily hydrolyzed to ammonium and therefore not often available for transport, recent studies suggest that urea can be transported from agricultural soils to coastal waters where it is implicated in harmful algal blooms. A rainfall simulator was used to apply a consistent rate of uniform rainfall across packed soil boxes that had been prewetted to different soil moisture contents. By controlling rainfall and soil physical characteristics, the effects of antecedent soil moisture on urea loss were isolated. Wetter soils exhibited shorter time from rainfall initiation to runoff initiation, greater total volume of runoff, higher urea concentrations in runoff, and greater mass loadings of urea in runoff. These results also demonstrate the importance of controlling for antecedent soil moisture content in studies designed to isolate other variables, such as soil physical or chemical characteristics, slope, soil cover, management, or rainfall characteristics. Because rainfall simulators are designed to deliver raindrops of similar size and velocity as natural rainfall, studies conducted under a standardized protocol can yield valuable data that, in turn, can be used to develop models for predicting the fate and transport of pollutants in runoff. PMID:24748061

  2. A biomechanical study of artificial cervical discs using computer simulation.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hyung Soo; DiAngelo, Denis J

    2008-04-15

    A virtual simulation model of the subaxial cervical spine was used to study the biomechanical effects of various disc prosthesis designs. To study the biomechanics of different design features of cervical disc arthroplasty devices. Disc arthroplasty is an alternative approach to cervical fusion surgery for restoring and maintaining motion at a diseased spinal segment. Different types of cervical disc arthroplasty devices exist and vary based on their placement and degrees of motion offered. A virtual dynamic model of the subaxial cervical spine was used to study 3 different prosthetic disc designs (PDD): (1) PDD-I: The center of rotation of a spherical joint located at the mid C5-C6 disc, (2) PDD-II: The center of rotation of a spherical joint located 6.5 mm below the mid C5-C6 disc, and (3) PDD-III: The center of rotation of a spherical joint in a plane located at the C5-C6 disc level. A constrained spherical joint placed at the disc level (PDD-I) significantly increased facet loads during extension. Lowering the rotational axis of the spherical joint towards the subjacent body (PDD-II) caused a marginal increase in facet loading during flexion, extension, and lateral bending. Lastly, unconstraining the spherical joint to move freely in a plane (PDD-III) minimized facet load build up during all loading modes. The simulation model showed the impact simple design changes may have on cervical disc dynamics. The predicted facet loads calculated from computer model have to be validated in the experimental study.

  3. Earth resources mission performance studies. Volume 2: Simulation results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Simulations were made at three month intervals to investigate the EOS mission performance over the four seasons of the year. The basic objectives of the study were: (1) to evaluate the ability of an EOS type system to meet a representative set of specific collection requirements, and (2) to understand the capabilities and limitations of the EOS that influence the system's ability to satisfy certain collection objectives. Although the results were obtained from a consideration of a two sensor EOS system, the analysis can be applied to any remote sensing system having similar optical and operational characteristics. While the category related results are applicable only to the specified requirement configuration, the results relating to general capability and limitations of the sensors can be applied in extrapolating to other U.S. based EOS collection requirements. The TRW general purpose mission simulator and analytic techniques discussed in this report can be applied to a wide range of collection and planning problems of earth orbiting imaging systems.

  4. A piloted simulation study of data link ATC message exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Marvin C.; Lohr, Gary W.

    1989-01-01

    Data link Air Traffic Control (ATC) and Air Traffic Service (ATS) message and data exchange offers the potential benefits of increased flight safety and efficiency by reducing communication errors and allowing more information to be transferred between aircraft and ground facilities. Digital communication also presents an opportunity to relieve the overloading of ATC radio frequencies which hampers message exchange during peak traffic hours in many busy terminal areas. A piloted simulation study to develop pilot factor guidelines and assess potential flight crew benefits and liabilities from using data link ATC message exchange was completed. The data link ATC message exchange concept, implemented on an existing navigation computer Control Display Unit (CDU) required maintaining a voice radio telephone link with an appropriate ATC facility. Flight crew comments, scanning behavior, and measurements of time spent in ATC communication activities for data link ATC message exchange were compared to similar measures for simulated conventional voice radio operations. The results show crew preference for the quieter flight deck environment and a perception of lower communication workload.

  5. Simulation studies of nucleation of ferroelectric polarization reversal.

    SciT

    Brennecka, Geoffrey L.; Winchester, Benjamin Michael

    2014-08-01

    Electric field-induced reversal of spontaneous polarization is the defining characteristic of a ferroelectric material, but the process(es) and mechanism(s) associated with the initial nucleation of reverse-polarity domains are poorly understood. This report describes studies carried out using phase field modeling of LiTaO 3, a relatively simple prototype ferroelectric material, in order to explore the effects of either mechanical deformation or optically-induced free charges on nucleation and resulting domain configuration during field-induced polarization reversal. Conditions were selected to approximate as closely as feasible those of accompanying experimental work in order to provide not only support for the experimental work but alsomore » ensure that additional experimental validation of the simulations could be carried out in the future. Phase field simulations strongly support surface mechanical damage/deformation as effective for dramatically reducing the overall coercive field (Ec) via local field enhancements. Further, optically-nucleated polarization reversal appears to occur via stabilization of latent nuclei via the charge screening effects of free charges.« less

  6. Simulation Studies of Satellite Laser CO2 Mission Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawa, Stephan Randy; Mao, J.; Abshire, J. B.; Collatz, G. J.; Sun X.; Weaver, C. J.

    2011-01-01

    Results of mission simulation studies are presented for a laser-based atmospheric CO2 sounder. The simulations are based on real-time carbon cycle process modeling and data analysis. The mission concept corresponds to ASCENDS as recommended by the US National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey. Compared to passive sensors, active (lidar) sensing of CO2 from space has several potentially significant advantages that hold promise to advance CO2 measurement capability in the next decade. Although the precision and accuracy requirements remain at unprecedented levels of stringency, analysis of possible instrument technology indicates that such sensors are more than feasible. Radiative transfer model calculations, an instrument model with representative errors, and a simple retrieval approach complete the cycle from "nature" run to "pseudodata" CO2. Several mission and instrument configuration options are examined, and the sensitivity to key design variables is shown. Examples are also shown of how the resulting pseudo-measurements might be used to address key carbon cycle science questions.

  7. Autoinhibitory mechanisms of ERG studied by molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yan; Salsbury, Freddie R.

    2015-01-01

    ERG, an ETS-family transcription factor, acts as a regulator of differentiation of early hematopoietic cells. It contains an autoinhibitory domain, which negatively regulates DNA-binding. The mechanism of autoinhibitory is still illusive. To understand the mechanism, we study the dynamical properties of ERG protein by molecular dynamics simulations. These simulations suggest that DNA binding autoinhibition associates with the internal dynamics of ERG. Specifically, we find that (1), The N-C terminal correlation in the inhibited ERG is larger than that in uninhibited ERG that contributes to the autoinhibition of DNA-binding. (2), DNA-binding changes the property of the N-C terminal correlation from being anti-correlated to correlated, that is, changing the relative direction of the correlated motions and (3), For the Ets-domain specifically, the inhibited and uninhibited forms exhibit essentially the same dynamics, but the binding of the DNA decreases the fluctuation of the Ets-domain. We also find from PCA analysis that the three systems, even with quite different dynamics, do have highly similar free energy surfaces, indicating that they share similar conformations.

  8. Cognitive distance, absorptive capacity and group rationality: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Curşeu, Petru Lucian; Krehel, Oleh; Evers, Joep H M; Muntean, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of a simulation study in which we explore the joint effect of group absorptive capacity (as the average individual rationality of the group members) and cognitive distance (as the distance between the most rational group member and the rest of the group) on the emergence of collective rationality in groups. We start from empirical results reported in the literature on group rationality as collective group level competence and use data on real-life groups of four and five to validate a mathematical model. We then use this mathematical model to predict group level scores from a variety of possible group configurations (varying both in cognitive distance and average individual rationality). Our results show that both group competence and cognitive distance are necessary conditions for emergent group rationality. Group configurations, in which the groups become more rational than the most rational group member, are groups scoring low on cognitive distance and scoring high on absorptive capacity.

  9. Cognitive Distance, Absorptive Capacity and Group Rationality: A Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Curşeu, Petru Lucian; Krehel, Oleh; Evers, Joep H. M.; Muntean, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of a simulation study in which we explore the joint effect of group absorptive capacity (as the average individual rationality of the group members) and cognitive distance (as the distance between the most rational group member and the rest of the group) on the emergence of collective rationality in groups. We start from empirical results reported in the literature on group rationality as collective group level competence and use data on real-life groups of four and five to validate a mathematical model. We then use this mathematical model to predict group level scores from a variety of possible group configurations (varying both in cognitive distance and average individual rationality). Our results show that both group competence and cognitive distance are necessary conditions for emergent group rationality. Group configurations, in which the groups become more rational than the most rational group member, are groups scoring low on cognitive distance and scoring high on absorptive capacity. PMID:25314132

  10. Study of Flapping Flight Using Discrete Vortex Method Based Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devranjan, S.; Jalikop, Shreyas V.; Sreenivas, K. R.

    2013-12-01

    In recent times, research in the area of flapping flight has attracted renewed interest with an endeavor to use this mechanism in Micro Air vehicles (MAVs). For a sustained and high-endurance flight, having larger payload carrying capacity we need to identify a simple and efficient flapping-kinematics. In this paper, we have used flow visualizations and Discrete Vortex Method (DVM) based simulations for the study of flapping flight. Our results highlight that simple flapping kinematics with down-stroke period (tD) shorter than the upstroke period (tU) would produce a sustained lift. We have identified optimal asymmetry ratio (Ar = tD/tU), for which flapping-wings will produce maximum lift and find that introducing optimal wing flexibility will further enhances the lift.

  11. Computer Simulation Study of Graphene Oxide Supercapacitors: Charge Screening Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Won; DeYoung, Andrew D; Dhumal, Nilesh R; Shim, Youngseon; Kim, Hyung J; Jung, YounJoon

    2016-04-07

    Graphene oxide supercapacitors in the parallel plate configuration are studied via molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The full range of electrode oxidation from 0 to 100% is examined by oxidizing the graphene surface with hydroxyl groups. Two different electrolytes, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EMI(+)BF4(-)) as an ionic liquid and its 1.3 M solution in acetonitrile as an organic electrolyte, are considered. While the area-specific capacitance tends to decrease with increasing electrode oxidation for both electrolytes, its details show interesting differences between the organic electrolyte and ionic liquid, including the extent of decrease. For detailed insight into these differences, the screening mechanisms of electrode charges by electrolytes and their variations with electrode oxidation are analyzed with special attention paid to the aspects shared by and the contrasts between the organic electrolyte and ionic liquid.

  12. Dr. Cheryl Nickerson studies Salmonella in simulated low-g

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Dr. Cheryl Nickerson of Tulane University is studying the effects of simulated low-g on a well-known pathogen, Salmonella typhimurium, a bacterium that causes two to four million cases of gastrointestinal illness in the United States each year. While most healthy people recover readily, S. typhimurium can kill people with weakened immune systems. Thus, a simple case of food poisoning could disrupt a space mission. Using the NASA rotating-wall bioreactor, Nickerson cultured S. typhimurium in modeled microgravity. Mice infected with the bacterium died an average of three days faster than the control mice, indicating that S. typhimurium's virulence was enhanced by the bioreactor. Earlier research showed that 3 percent of the genes were altered by exposure to the bioreactor. Nickerson's work earned her a 2001 Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers.

  13. SMA texture and reorientation: simulations and neutron diffraction studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiujie; Brown, Donald W.; Brinson, L. Catherine

    2005-05-01

    With increased usage of shape memory alloys (SMA) for applications in various fields, it is important to understand how the material behavior is affected by factors such as texture, stress state and loading history, especially for complex multiaxial loading states. Using the in-situ neutron diffraction loading facility (SMARTS diffractometer) and ex situ inverse pole figure measurement facility (HIPPO diffractometer) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANCE), the macroscopic mechanical behavior and texture evolution of Nickel-Titanium (Nitinol) SMAs under sequential compression in alternating directions were studied. The simplified multivariant model developed at Northwestern University was then used to simulate the macroscopic behavior and the microstructural change of Nitinol under this sequential loading. Pole figures were obtained via post-processing of the multivariant results for volume fraction evolution and compared quantitatively well to the experimental results. The experimental results can also be used to test or verify other SMA constitutive models.

  14. Sputtering of rough surfaces: a 3D simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Toussaint, U.; Mutzke, A.; Manhard, A.

    2017-12-01

    The lifetime of plasma-facing components is critical for future magnetic confinement fusion power plants. A key process limiting the lifetime of the first-wall is sputtering by energetic ions. To provide a consistent modeling of the sputtering process of realistic geometries, the SDTrimSP-code has been extended to enable the processing of analytic as well as measured arbitrary 3D surface morphologies. The code has been applied to study the effect of varying the impact angle of ions on rough surfaces on the sputter yield as well as the influence of the aspect ratio of surface structures on the 2D distribution of the local sputtering yields. Depending on the surface morphologies reductions of the effective sputter yields to less than 25% have been observed in the simulation results.

  15. Fermilab Booster Transition Crossing Simulations and Beam Studies

    SciT

    Bhat, C. M.; Tan, C. Y.

    2016-01-01

    The Fermilab Booster accelerates beam from 400 MeV to 8 GeV at 15 Hz. In the PIP (Proton Improvement Plan) era, it is required that Booster deliver 4.2 xmore » $$10^{12}$$ protons per pulse to extraction. One of the obstacles for providing quality beam to the users is the longitudinal quadrupole oscillation that the beam suffers from right after transition. Although this oscillation is well taken care of with quadrupole dampers, it is important to understand the source of these oscillations in light of the PIP II requirements that require 6.5 x $$10^{12}$$ protons per pulse at extraction. This paper explores the results from machine studies, computer simulations and solutions to prevent the quadrupole oscillations after transition.« less

  16. Simulation study of sulfonate cluster swelling in ionomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allahyarov, Elshad; Taylor, Philip L.; Löwen, Hartmut

    2009-12-01

    We have performed simulations to study how increasing humidity affects the structure of Nafion-like ionomers under conditions of low sulfonate concentration and low humidity. At the onset of membrane hydration, the clusters split into smaller parts. These subsequently swell, but then maintain constant the number of sulfonates per cluster. We find that the distribution of water in low-sulfonate membranes depends strongly on the sulfonate concentration. For a relatively low sulfonate concentration, nearly all the side-chain terminal groups are within cluster formations, and the average water loading per cluster matches the water content of membrane. However, for a relatively higher sulfonate concentration the water-to-sulfonate ratio becomes nonuniform. The clusters become wetter, while the intercluster bridges become drier. We note the formation of unusual shells of water-rich material that surround the sulfonate clusters.

  17. Bias-free lateral terahertz emitters—A simulation study

    SciT

    Granzner, R., E-mail: ralf.granzner@tu-ilmenau.de; Schwierz, F.; Polyakov, V. M.

    2015-07-28

    The design and performance of bias-free InN-based THz emitters that exploit lateral photocurrents is studied by means of numerical simulations. We use a drift-diffusion model with adjusted carrier temperatures and mobilities. The applicability of this approach is demonstrated by a comparison with results from Monte-Carlo simulations. We consider a simple but robust lateral emitter concept using metal stripes with two different thicknesses with one of them being thin enough to be transparent for THz radiation. This arrangement can be easily multiplexed and the efficiency of this concept has already been demonstrated by experiment for GaAs substrates. In the present study,more » we consider InN, which is known to be an efficient photo-Dember emitter because of its superior transport properties. Our main focus is on the impact of the emitter design on the emission efficiency assuming different operation principles. Both the lateral photo-Dember (LPD) effect and built-in lateral field effects are considered. The appropriate choice of the metal stripe and window geometry as well as the impact of surface Fermi level pinning are investigated in detail, and design guidelines for efficient large area emitters using multiplexed structures are provided. We find that InN LPD emitters do not suffer from Fermi level pinning at the InN surface. The optimum emission efficiency is found for LPD emitter structures having 200 nm wide illumination windows and mask stripes. Emitter structures in which lateral electric fields are induced by the metal mask contacts can have a considerably higher efficiency than pure LPD emitters. In the best case, the THz emission of such structures is increased by one order of magnitude. Their optimum window size is 1 μm without the necessity of a partially transparent set of mask stripes.« less

  18. Dependence of Substorm Evolution on Solar Wind Condition: Simulation Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiyoshikawa, N.; Ebihara, Y.; Tanaka, T.

    2017-12-01

    A substorm is one of the remarkable disturbances occurring in the magnetosphere. It is known that the substorm occurs frequently when IMF is southward and solar wind speed is high. However, the physical process to determine substorm scale is not well understood. We reproduced substorms by using global MHD simulation, calculated auroral electrojet (ionospheric Hall current) flowing in the ionosphere to investigate the dependence of substorm evolution on solar wind condition. Solar wind speed of 372.4 km/s and IMF Bz of 5.0 nT were imposed to, obtain the quasi-stationary state of the magnetosphere. Then the solar wind parameters were changed as a step function. For the solar wind speed, we assumed 300 km/s, 500 km/s and 700 km/s. For IMF, we assumed -1.0 nT, -3.0 nT, -5.0 nT, -7.0 nT and -9.0 nT. In total, 15 simulation runs were performed. In order to objectively evaluate the substorm, the onset was identified with the method based on the one proposed by Newell et al. (2011). This method uses the SME index that is an extension of the AE index. In this study, the geomagnetic variation induced by the ionospheric Hall current was obtained every 1 degree from the magnetic latitude 40 degrees to 80 degrees and in every 0.5 hours in the magnetic region direction. The upper and the lower envelopes of the geomagnetic variation are regarded as SMU index and SML index, respectively. The larger the solar wind speed, the larger the southward IMF, the more the onset tends to be faster. This tendency is consistent with the onset occurrence probability indicated by Newell et al. (2016). Moreover, the minimum value of the SML index within 30 minutes from the beginning of the onset tends to decrease with the solar wind speed and the magnitude of the southward IMF. A rapid decrease of the SML index can be explained by a rapid increase in the field-aligned currents flowing in and out of the nightside ionosphere. This means that electromagnetic energies flowing into the ionosphere

  19. Simulation Study of Solar Wind Interaction with Mercury's Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richer, E.; Modolo, R.; Chanteur, G. M.; Hess, S.; Mancini, M.; Leblanc, F.

    2011-12-01

    The three flybys of Mariner 10, the numerous terrestrial observations of Mercury's exosphere and the recent flybys of MESSENGER [1] have brought important information about the Hermean environment. Mercury's intrinsic magnetic field is principally dipolar and its interaction with the Solar Wind (SW) creates a small and very dynamic magnetosphere. Mercury's exosphere is a highly variable [2] and complex neutral environment made of several species : H, He, O, Na, K, Ca, and Mg have already been detected [3,4]. The small number of in situ observations and the fact that the Hermean magnetospheric activity is not observable from Earth make simulation studies of the Hermean environment a useful tool to understand the global interaction of the SW with Mercury. This study presents simulation results from a 3-dimensional parallel multi-species hybrid model of Mercury's magnetosphere interaction with the SW. The SW in this model is representative of conditions at Mercury's aphelion (0.47AU) and is composed of 95% protons and 5% alpha particles. The simulated IMF is oriented accordingly observations during the first flyby of MESSENGER on January 2008 with a cone angle of ~45°. A neutral corona of atomic hydrogen is included in this model and is partly ionized by solar photons, electron impacts and charge exchange between SW ions and neutral H. Two electron fluids with different temperature are implemented to mimic the SW and ionospheric plasma. This model is an adapted version of the 3D parallel model for the Martian environment. Planetary and SW plasmas are treated separately and the dynamic of each ion species can be investigated separately. Simulations have been performed on a grid of 190×350×350 cells with a spatial resolution of Δx~120km. Acknowledgements The authors are indebted to CNES (French space agency) for the funding of their modeling activity through its program Sun - Heliosphere - Magnetosphere and to ANR (French national agency for research) for supporting

  20. Dual Energy Method for Breast Imaging: A Simulation Study.

    PubMed

    Koukou, V; Martini, N; Michail, C; Sotiropoulou, P; Fountzoula, C; Kalyvas, N; Kandarakis, I; Nikiforidis, G; Fountos, G

    2015-01-01

    Dual energy methods can suppress the contrast between adipose and glandular tissues in the breast and therefore enhance the visibility of calcifications. In this study, a dual energy method based on analytical modeling was developed for the detection of minimum microcalcification thickness. To this aim, a modified radiographic X-ray unit was considered, in order to overcome the limited kVp range of mammographic units used in previous DE studies, combined with a high resolution CMOS sensor (pixel size of 22.5 μm) for improved resolution. Various filter materials were examined based on their K-absorption edge. Hydroxyapatite (HAp) was used to simulate microcalcifications. The contrast to noise ratio (CNR tc ) of the subtracted images was calculated for both monoenergetic and polyenergetic X-ray beams. The optimum monoenergetic pair was 23/58 keV for the low and high energy, respectively, resulting in a minimum detectable microcalcification thickness of 100 μm. In the polyenergetic X-ray study, the optimal spectral combination was 40/70 kVp filtered with 100 μm cadmium and 1000 μm copper, respectively. In this case, the minimum detectable microcalcification thickness was 150 μm. The proposed dual energy method provides improved microcalcification detectability in breast imaging with mean glandular dose values within acceptable levels.

  1. Canal Aberration Assessment in Simulated Root Canals: a Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Jakupovic, Selma; Konjhodzic, Alma; Brankovic, Lajla Hasic; Korac, Samra; Tahmiscija, Irmina; Dzankovic, Aida; Glamoc, Alma Gavranovic

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to compare time of preparation and canal aberrations in a simulated root canals after using three different rotary systems: Endostar E5, Endostar E3 and T One File Gold. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 endodontic training blocks were used in this study and divided into three groups consisting of 30 each (n = 30). Blocks processing was performed by thirty dentists without any prior experience in rotary instrumentation techniques. In the first group blocks were prepared using Endostar E5, in second one with Endostar E3 and in third one with T One File Gold system. The preparation time was measured. The postoperative image of each block was taken by stereomicroscope and canal aberrations (ledge and instrument fracture) was recorded. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS software. Results: Instrumentation with T One File Gold system is significantly faster compared to instrumentation with Endostar E5 and Endostar E3 systems (p <0.05). There are no statistically significant differences in the type and number of procedural errors between Endostar E5, Endostar E3 and T One File Gold systems when the operators have no previous experience in rotary instrumentation techniques. Conclusion: Under the conditions of this study, the incidence of examined canal aberrations were similar for all tested systems. The preparation time was significantly shorter with single file system. PMID:28974834

  2. Driver fatigue and highway driving: a simulator study.

    PubMed

    Ting, Ping-Huang; Hwang, Jiun-Ren; Doong, Ji-Liang; Jeng, Ming-Chang

    2008-06-09

    Long duration of driving is a significant cause of fatigue-related accidents on motorways or major roadways. The fatigue caused by driving for extended periods acutely impairs driver alertness and performance and can compromise transportation safety. This study quantitatively measured the progression of driver fatigue and identified the conservative safe duration of continuous highway driving. Thirty young male subjects were analyzed during 90 min of laboratory-simulated highway driving. Sleepiness ratings (SSS) and reaction time (RT) tests were used to assess impairment of driver alertness and vigilance. Additionally, various measures of driving performance recorded throughout the experiment were used to measure temporal deterioration of driver performance from alert to fatigued using principal component analysis (PCA). The analytical results revealed that SSS scores, reaction times (RTs) and unstable driving performance significantly increased over time, indicating that excessive driving time is a significant fatigue factor and potential cause of fatigue-related accidents. Moreover, the analytical results indicated that 80 min was the safe limit for monotonous highway driving. Based on the experimental findings of this study, public awareness of the adverse affects of driver fatigue during long-distance driving should be enhanced. This study provides explicit information of fatigue development that can be used to prevent fatigue-related accidents.

  3. Dual Energy Method for Breast Imaging: A Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Dual energy methods can suppress the contrast between adipose and glandular tissues in the breast and therefore enhance the visibility of calcifications. In this study, a dual energy method based on analytical modeling was developed for the detection of minimum microcalcification thickness. To this aim, a modified radiographic X-ray unit was considered, in order to overcome the limited kVp range of mammographic units used in previous DE studies, combined with a high resolution CMOS sensor (pixel size of 22.5 μm) for improved resolution. Various filter materials were examined based on their K-absorption edge. Hydroxyapatite (HAp) was used to simulate microcalcifications. The contrast to noise ratio (CNRtc) of the subtracted images was calculated for both monoenergetic and polyenergetic X-ray beams. The optimum monoenergetic pair was 23/58 keV for the low and high energy, respectively, resulting in a minimum detectable microcalcification thickness of 100 μm. In the polyenergetic X-ray study, the optimal spectral combination was 40/70 kVp filtered with 100 μm cadmium and 1000 μm copper, respectively. In this case, the minimum detectable microcalcification thickness was 150 μm. The proposed dual energy method provides improved microcalcification detectability in breast imaging with mean glandular dose values within acceptable levels. PMID:26246848

  4. Study of dispersive and nonlinear effects of coastal wave dynamics with a fully nonlinear potential flow model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, Michel; Yates, Marissa L.; Raoult, Cécile

    2017-04-01

    Efficient and accurate numerical models simulating wave propagation are required for a variety of engineering projects including the evaluation of coastal risks, the design of protective coastal structures, and the estimation of the potential for marine renewable energy devices. Nonlinear and dispersive effects are particularly significant in the coastal zone where waves interact with the bottom, the shoreline, and coastal structures. The main challenge in developing a numerical models is finding a compromise between computational efficiency and the required accuracy of the simulated wave field. Here, a potential approach is selected and the (fully nonlinear) water wave problem is formulated using the Euler-Zakharov equations (Zakharov, 1968) describing the temporal evolution of the free surface elevation and velocity potential. The proposed model (Yates and Benoit, 2015) uses a spectral approach in the vertical (i.e. the vertical variation of the potential is approximated by a linear combination of the first NT+1 Chebyshev polynomials, following the work of Tian and Sato (2008)). The Zakharov equations are integrated in time using a fourth-order Runge-Kutta scheme with a constant time step. At each sub-timestep, the Laplace Boundary Value Problem (BVP) is solved to estimate the free surface vertical velocity using the spectral approach, with typical values of NT between 5 to 8 for practical applications. The 1DH version of the code is validated with comparisons to the experimental data set of Becq-Girard et al. (1999), which studied the propagation of irregular waves over a beach profile with a submerged bar. The nonlinear and dispersive capacities of the model are verified with the correct representation of wave-wave interactions, in particular the transfer of energy between different harmonic components during wave propagation (analysis of the transformation of the variance spectrum along the channel). Evolution of wave skewness, asymmetry and kurtosis along the

  5. Simulation verification techniques study: Simulation self test hardware design and techniques report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The final results are presented of the hardware verification task. The basic objectives of the various subtasks are reviewed along with the ground rules under which the overall task was conducted and which impacted the approach taken in deriving techniques for hardware self test. The results of the first subtask and the definition of simulation hardware are presented. The hardware definition is based primarily on a brief review of the simulator configurations anticipated for the shuttle training program. The results of the survey of current self test techniques are presented. The data sources that were considered in the search for current techniques are reviewed, and results of the survey are presented in terms of the specific types of tests that are of interest for training simulator applications. Specifically, these types of tests are readiness tests, fault isolation tests and incipient fault detection techniques. The most applicable techniques were structured into software flows that are then referenced in discussions of techniques for specific subsystems.

  6. General Aviation Cockpit Weather Information System Simulation Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAdaragh, Ray; Novacek, Paul

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on two experiments on the effectiveness of a cockpit weather information system on a simulated general aviation flight. The presentation covers the simulation hardware configuration, the display device screen layout, a mission scenario, conclusions, and recommendations. The second experiment, with its own scenario and conclusions, is a follow-on experiment.

  7. Flight Simulation for the Study of Skill Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lintern, Gavan

    1992-01-01

    Discusses skill transfer as a human performance issue based on experiences with computerized flight simulators. Highlights include the issue of similarity; simulation and the design of training devices; an information theory of transfer; invariants for flight control; and experiments involving the transfer of flight skills. (21 references) (LRW)

  8. Large Eddy Simulation Study for Fluid Disintegration and Mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, Josette; Taskinoglu, Ezgi

    2011-01-01

    A new modeling approach is based on the concept of large eddy simulation (LES) within which the large scales are computed and the small scales are modeled. The new approach is expected to retain the fidelity of the physics while also being computationally efficient. Typically, only models for the small-scale fluxes of momentum, species, and enthalpy are used to reintroduce in the simulation the physics lost because the computation only resolves the large scales. These models are called subgrid (SGS) models because they operate at a scale smaller than the LES grid. In a previous study of thermodynamically supercritical fluid disintegration and mixing, additional small-scale terms, one in the momentum and one in the energy conservation equations, were identified as requiring modeling. These additional terms were due to the tight coupling between dynamics and real-gas thermodynamics. It was inferred that if these terms would not be modeled, the high density-gradient magnitude regions, experimentally identified as a characteristic feature of these flows, would not be accurately predicted without the additional term in the momentum equation; these high density-gradient magnitude regions were experimentally shown to redistribute turbulence in the flow. And it was also inferred that without the additional term in the energy equation, the heat flux magnitude could not be accurately predicted; the heat flux to the wall of combustion devices is a crucial quantity that determined necessary wall material properties. The present work involves situations where only the term in the momentum equation is important. Without this additional term in the momentum equation, neither the SGS-flux constant-coefficient Smagorinsky model nor the SGS-flux constant-coefficient Gradient model could reproduce in LES the pressure field or the high density-gradient magnitude regions; the SGS-flux constant- coefficient Scale-Similarity model was the most successful in this endeavor although not

  9. A Sensor Failure Simulator for Control System Reliability Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melcher, K. J.; Delaat, J. C.; Merrill, W. C.; Oberle, L. G.; Sadler, G. G.; Schaefer, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    A real-time Sensor Failure Simulator (SFS) was designed and assembled for the Advanced Detection, Isolation, and Accommodation (ADIA) program. Various designs were considered. The design chosen features an IBM-PC/XT. The PC is used to drive analog circuitry for simulating sensor failures in real-time. A user defined scenario describes the failure simulation for each of the five incoming sensor signals. Capabilities exist for editing, saving, and retrieving the failure scenarios. The SFS has been tested closed-loop with the Controls Interface and Monitoring (CIM) unit, the ADIA control, and a real-time F100 hybrid simulation. From a productivity viewpoint, the menu driven user interface has proven to be efficient and easy to use. From a real-time viewpoint, the software controlling the simulation loop executes at greater than 100 cycles/sec.

  10. A sensor failure simulator for control system reliability studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melcher, K. J.; Delaat, J. C.; Merrill, W. C.; Oberle, L. G.; Sadler, G. G.; Schaefer, J. H.

    A real-time Sensor Failure Simulator (SFS) was designed and assembled for the Advanced Detection, Isolation, and Accommodation (ADIA) program. Various designs were considered. The design chosen features an IBM-PC/XT. The PC is used to drive analog circuitry for simulating sensor failures in real-time. A user defined scenario describes the failure simulation for each of the five incoming sensor signals. Capabilities exist for editing, saving, and retrieving the failure scenarios. The SFS has been tested closed-loop with the Controls Interface and Monitoring (CIM) unit, the ADIA control, and a real-time F100 hybrid simulation. From a productivity viewpoint, the menu driven user interface has proven to be efficient and easy to use. From a real-time viewpoint, the software controlling the simulation loop executes at greater than 100 cycles/sec.

  11. When does alcohol hurt? A driving simulator study.

    PubMed

    Vollrath, Mark; Fischer, Josefine

    2017-12-01

    World-wide, alcohol is still a major cause of traffic accidents. The dose-related accident risk function has been found in a large number of risk studies. A plethora of laboratory studies has examined the effect of alcohol with regard to different information processing capabilities of drivers. Summarizing the results, alcohol effects occur at lower blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) the more complex the tasks get. However, in contrast, typical alcohol-related crashes are frequently single vehicle crashes but not so often crashes in complex situations like at intersections. It may be that the subjective assessment of the traffic situation and the adaptation of behavior under the influence of alcohol plays a major role in accident causation. In order to examine this hypothesis, two driving simulator studies were conducted at a target BAC of 0.5g/l comparing two (alcohol vs. placebo; n=48, Experiment 1) and three (sober, placebo and alcohol; n=63, Experiment 2) groups of subjects in two critical scenarios. The first scenario was a seemingly easy traffic situation and was supposed to lead to a relaxed driving behavior under alcohol. The second scenario involved a complex intersection situation where especially drivers under the influence of alcohol should try to concentrate and compensate their experienced alcohol effects. In all scenarios, a critical object appeared suddenly and the driver had to react fast in order to prevent a (simulated) accident. Overall, the results support the hypothesis. Accidents were more frequent for alcohol drivers as compared to placebo/sober drivers in the easy scenario, but not the complex one. The initial speed of the driver when entering the scenario seems to play a major role in the accident causation. Drivers under the influence of alcohol seem to lower their speed in complex scenarios, possibly to thus counteract alcohol effects. In seemingly easy scenarios this does not seem necessary for them and the arousing effect of alcohol

  12. Transethnic differences in GWAS signals: A simulation study.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Daniela; Weale, Michael E

    2018-05-07

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have allowed researchers to identify thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and other variants associated with particular complex traits. Previous studies have reported differences in the strength and even the direction of GWAS signals across different populations. These differences could be due to a combination of (1) lack of power, (2) allele frequency differences, (3) linkage disequilibrium (LD) differences, and (4) true differences in causal variant effect sizes. To determine whether properties (1)-(3) on their own might be sufficient to explain the patterns previously noted in strong GWAS signals, we simulated case-control data of European, Asian and African ancestry, applying realistic allele frequencies and LD from 1000 Genomes data but enforcing equal causal effect sizes across populations. Much of the observed differences in strong GWAS signals could indeed be accounted for by allele frequency and LD differences, enhanced by the Euro-centric SNP bias and lower SNP coverage found in older GWAS panels. While we cannot rule out a role for true transethnic effect size differences, our results suggest that strong causal effects may be largely shared among human populations, motivating the use of transethnic data for fine-mapping. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/University College London.

  13. Simulated weightlessness in fish and neurophysiological studies on memory storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonbaumgarten, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    Simulated weightlessness was used to study the different types of gravity responses in blind fish. It was found that a shift in the direction of low magnitude acceleration in weightlessness causes a rapid 180 deg turn in the blind fish, while a shift in the direction of the applied acceleration in the earth's gravitational field is not significant because of a higher acceleration magnitude threshold than during the zero g condition. This increased responsiveness seems to be explained by a combination of directional sensitivity with a Weber-Fechner relationship of increased receptor sensitivity at diminished levels of background stimulation. Neurophysical studies of the statocyst nerve of the gastropod Mollusc Pleurobranchaea Californica were undertaken in order to understand how complex otolith systems operate. Information storage was investigated on relatively simple neuronal networks in the mollusc Aplysia. Intracellular electrical stimulation of isolated neurons show that a manipulation of autoditonous rhymicity is possible. It was also found that glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation are involved in inherent rhymicity of Aplysis neurons.

  14. Synaptobrevin Transmembrane Domain Dimerization Studied by Multiscale Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jing; Pluhackova, Kristyna; Wassenaar, Tsjerk A.; Böckmann, Rainer A.

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic vesicle fusion requires assembly of the SNARE complex composed of SNAP-25, syntaxin-1, and synaptobrevin-2 (sybII) proteins. The SNARE proteins found in vesicle membranes have previously been shown to dimerize via transmembrane (TM) domain interactions. While syntaxin homodimerization is supposed to promote the transition from hemifusion to complete fusion, the role of synaptobrevin’s TM domain association in the fusion process remains poorly understood. Here, we combined coarse-grained and atomistic simulations to model the homodimerization of the sybII transmembrane domain and of selected TM mutants. The wild-type helix is shown to form a stable, right-handed dimer with the most populated helix-helix interface, including key residues predicted in a previous mutagenesis study. In addition, two alternative binding interfaces were discovered, which are essential to explain the experimentally observed higher-order oligomerization of sybII. In contrast, only one dimerization interface was found for a fusion-inactive poly-Leu mutant. Moreover, the association kinetics found for this mutant is lower as compared to the wild-type. These differences in dimerization between the wild-type and the poly-Leu mutant are suggested to be responsible for the reported differences in fusogenic activity between these peptides. This study provides molecular insight into the role of TM sequence specificity for peptide aggregation in membranes. PMID:26287628

  15. Monotony of road environment and driver fatigue: a simulator study.

    PubMed

    Thiffault, Pierre; Bergeron, Jacques

    2003-05-01

    Studies have shown that drowsiness and hypovigilance frequently occur during highway driving and that they may have serious implications in terms of accident causation. This paper focuses on the task induced factors that are involved in the development of these phenomena. A driving simulator study was conducted in order to evaluate the impact of the monotony of roadside visual stimulation using a steering wheel movement (SWM) analysis procedure. Fifty-six male subjects each drove during two different 40-min periods. In one case, roadside visual stimuli were essentially repetitive and monotonous, while in the other one, the environment contained disparate visual elements aiming to disrupt monotony without changing road geometry. Subject's driving performance was compared across these conditions in order to determine whether disruptions of monotony can have a positive effect and help alleviate driver fatigue. Results reveal an early time-on-task effect on driving performance for both driving periods and more frequent large SWM when driving in the more monotonous road environment, which implies greater fatigue and vigilance decrements. Implications in terms of environmental countermeasures for driver fatigue are discussed.

  16. Simulation and study of stratified flows around finite bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gushchin, V. A.; Matyushin, P. V.

    2016-06-01

    The flows past a sphere and a square cylinder of diameter d moving horizontally at the velocity U in a linearly density-stratified viscous incompressible fluid are studied. The flows are described by the Navier-Stokes equations in the Boussinesq approximation. Variations in the spatial vortex structure of the flows are analyzed in detail in a wide range of dimensionless parameters (such as the Reynolds number Re = Ud/ ν and the internal Froude number Fr = U/( Nd), where ν is the kinematic viscosity and N is the buoyancy frequency) by applying mathematical simulation (on supercomputers of Joint Supercomputer Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences) and three-dimensional flow visualization. At 0.005 < Fr < 100, the classification of flow regimes for the sphere (for 1 < Re < 500) and for the cylinder (for 1 < Re < 200) is improved. At Fr = 0 (i.e., at U = 0), the problem of diffusion-induced flow past a sphere leading to the formation of horizontal density layers near the sphere's upper and lower poles is considered. At Fr = 0.1 and Re = 50, the formation of a steady flow past a square cylinder with wavy hanging density layers in the wake is studied in detail.

  17. Physical layer simulation study for the coexistence of WLAN standards

    SciT

    Howlader, M. K.; Keiger, C.; Ewing, P. D.

    This paper presents the results of a study on the performance of wireless local area network (WLAN) devices in the presence of interference from other wireless devices. To understand the coexistence of these wireless protocols, simplified physical-layer-system models were developed for the Bluetooth, Wireless Fidelity (WiFi), and Zigbee devices, all of which operate within the 2.4-GHz frequency band. The performances of these protocols were evaluated using Monte-Carlo simulations under various interference and channel conditions. The channel models considered were basic additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN), Rayleigh fading, and site-specific fading. The study also incorporated the basic modulation schemes, multiple accessmore » techniques, and channel allocations of the three protocols. This research is helping the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) understand the coexistence issues associated with deploying wireless devices and could prove useful in the development of a technical basis for guidance to address safety-related issues with the implementation of wireless systems in nuclear facilities. (authors)« less

  18. The cerebellum in action: a simulation and robotics study.

    PubMed

    Hofstötter, Constanze; Mintz, Matti; Verschure, Paul F M J

    2002-10-01

    The control or prediction of the precise timing of events are central aspects of the many tasks assigned to the cerebellum. Despite much detailed knowledge of its physiology and anatomy, it remains unclear how the cerebellar circuitry can achieve such an adaptive timing function. We present a computational model pursuing this question for one extensively studied type of cerebellar-mediated learning: the classical conditioning of discrete motor responses. This model combines multiple current assumptions on the function of the cerebellar circuitry and was used to investigate whether plasticity in the cerebellar cortex alone can mediate adaptive conditioned response timing. In particular, we studied the effect of changes in the strength of the synapses formed between parallel fibres and Purkinje cells under the control of a negative feedback loop formed between inferior olive, cerebellar cortex and cerebellar deep nuclei. The learning performance of the model was evaluated at the circuit level in simulated conditioning experiments as well as at the behavioural level using a mobile robot. We demonstrate that the model supports adaptively timed responses under real-world conditions. Thus, in contrast to many other models that have focused on cerebellar-mediated conditioning, we investigated whether and how the suggested underlying mechanisms could give rise to behavioural phenomena.

  19. Numerical simulation study on air quality in aircraft cabins.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yingjie; Dai, Bingrong; Yu, Qi; Si, Haiqing; Yu, Gang

    2017-06-01

    Air pollution is one of the main factors that affect the air quality in aircraft cabins, and the use of different air supply modes could influence the distribution of air pollutants in cabins. Based on the traditional ceiling air supply mode used on the B737NG, this study investigated another 3 different kinds of air supply modes for comparison: luggage rack air supply mode, joint mode combining ceiling and luggage rack air supply, and joint mode combining ceiling and individual air supply. Under the above 4 air supply modes, the air velocity, temperature and distribution of air pollutants in a cabin full of passengers were studied using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and formaldehyde were selected as 2 kinds of representative air pollutants. The simulation results show that the joint mode combining ceiling and individual air supply can create a more uniform distribution of air velocity and temperature, has a better effect on the removal of CO 2 and formaldehyde, and can provide better air quality in cabins than the other 3 modes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Upset susceptibility study employing circuit analysis and digital simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carreno, V. A.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to predicting the susceptibility of digital systems to signal disturbances. Electrical disturbances on a digital system's input and output lines can be induced by activities and conditions including static electricity, lightning discharge, Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) and Electromagnetic Pulsation (EMP). The electrical signal disturbances employed for the susceptibility study were limited to nondestructive levels, i.e., the system does not sustain partial or total physical damage and reset and/or reload will bring the system to an operational status. The front-end transition from the electrical disturbances to the equivalent digital signals was accomplished by computer-aided circuit analysis. The Super-Sceptre (system for circuit evaluation of transient radiation effects) Program was used. Gate models were developed according to manufacturers' performance specifications and parameters resulting from construction processes characteristic of the technology. Digital simulation at the gate and functional level was employed to determine the impact of the abnormal signals on system performance and to study the propagation characteristics of these signals through the system architecture. Example results are included for an Intel 8080 processor configuration.

  1. Evaluating best educational practices, student satisfaction, and self-confidence in simulation: A descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Zapko, Karen A; Ferranto, Mary Lou Gemma; Blasiman, Rachael; Shelestak, Debra

    2018-01-01

    The National League for Nursing (NLN) has endorsed simulation as a necessary teaching approach to prepare students for the demanding role of professional nursing. Questions arise about the suitability of simulation experiences to educate students. Empirical support for the effect of simulation on patient outcomes is sparse. Most studies on simulation report only anecdotal results rather than data obtained using evaluative tools. The aim of this study was to examine student perception of best educational practices in simulation and to evaluate their satisfaction and self-confidence in simulation. This study was a descriptive study designed to explore students' perceptions of the simulation experience over a two-year period. Using the Jeffries framework, a Simulation Day was designed consisting of serial patient simulations using high and medium fidelity simulators and live patient actors. The setting for the study was a regional campus of a large Midwestern Research 2 university. The convenience sample consisted of 199 participants and included sophomore, junior, and senior nursing students enrolled in the baccalaureate nursing program. The Simulation Days consisted of serial patient simulations using high and medium fidelity simulators and live patient actors. Participants rotated through four scenarios that corresponded to their level in the nursing program. Data was collected in two consecutive years. Participants completed both the Educational Practices Questionnaire (Student Version) and the Student Satisfaction and Self-Confidence in Learning Scale. Results provide strong support for using serial simulation as a learning tool. Students were satisfied with the experience, felt confident in their performance, and felt the simulations were based on sound educational practices and were important for learning. Serial simulations and having students experience simulations more than once in consecutive years is a valuable method of clinical instruction. When

  2. Pilot Comments for High Speed Research Cycle 3 Simulations Study (LaRC.1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Melvin L. (Editor); Jackson, E. Bruce (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This is a compilation of pilot comments from the Boeing High Speed Research Aircraft, Cycle 3 Simulation Study (LaRC.1) conducted from January to March 1997 at NASA Langley Research Center. This simulation study was conducted using the Visual Motion Simulator. The comments are direct tape transcriptions and have been edited for spelling only.

  3. Simulation Studies for Inspection of the Benchmark Test with PATRASH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimosaki, Y.; Igarashi, S.; Machida, S.; Shirakata, M.; Takayama, K.; Noda, F.; Shigaki, K.

    2002-12-01

    In order to delineate the halo-formation mechanisms in a typical FODO lattice, a 2-D simulation code PATRASH (PArticle TRAcking in a Synchrotron for Halo analysis) has been developed. The electric field originating from the space charge is calculated by the Hybrid Tree code method. Benchmark tests utilizing three simulation codes of ACCSIM, PATRASH and SIMPSONS were carried out. These results have been confirmed to be fairly in agreement with each other. The details of PATRASH simulation are discussed with some examples.

  4. Feasibility study for a numerical aerodynamic simulation facility. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lincoln, N. R.; Bergman, R. O.; Bonstrom, D. B.; Brinkman, T. W.; Chiu, S. H. J.; Green, S. S.; Hansen, S. D.; Klein, D. L.; Krohn, H. E.; Prow, R. P.

    1979-01-01

    A Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Facility (NASF) was designed for the simulation of fluid flow around three-dimensional bodies, both in wind tunnel environments and in free space. The application of numerical simulation to this field of endeavor promised to yield economies in aerodynamic and aircraft body designs. A model for a NASF/FMP (Flow Model Processor) ensemble using a possible approach to meeting NASF goals is presented. The computer hardware and software are presented, along with the entire design and performance analysis and evaluation.

  5. Mechanical coupling in myosin V: a simulation study

    PubMed Central

    Ovchinnikov, Victor; Trout, Bernhardt L.

    2009-01-01

    Myosin motor function depends on the interaction between different domains that transmit information from one part of the molecule to another. The inter-domain coupling in myosin V is studied with Restrained Targeted Molecular Dynamics (RTMD) using an all-atom representation in explicit solvent. To elucidate the origin of the conformational change due to the binding of ATP, targeting forces are applied to small sets of atoms (the forcing sets, FS) in the direction of their displacement from the rigor conformation, which has a closed actin-binding cleft, to the post-rigor conformation, in which the cleft is open. The ‘minimal’ FS that results in extensive structural changes in the overall myosin conformation is comprised of the ATP, Switch 1, and the nearby HF, HG and HH helices. Addition of switch 2 to the forcing set is required to achieve a complete opening of the actin-binding cleft. The RTMD simulations reveal the mechanical coupling pathways between (i) the nucleotide-binding pocket (NBP) and the actin-binding cleft, (ii) the NBP and the converter, and (iii) the actin-binding cleft and the converter. Closing of the NBP due to ATP binding is tightly coupled to the opening of the cleft, and leads to the rupture of a key hydrogen bond (F441N/A684O) between switch 2 and the SH1 helix. The actin-binding cleft may mediate the rupture of this bond via a connection between the HW helix, the Relay helix, and Switch 2. The findings are consistent with experimental studies and a recent normal mode analysis. The present method is expected to be useful more generally in studies of inter-domain coupling in proteins. PMID:19853615

  6. Mechanical coupling in myosin V: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Ovchinnikov, Victor; Trout, Bernhardt L; Karplus, Martin

    2010-01-29

    Myosin motor function depends on the interaction between different domains that transmit information from one part of the molecule to another. The interdomain coupling in myosin V is studied with restrained targeted molecular dynamics using an all-atom representation in explicit solvent. To elucidate the origin of the conformational change due to the binding of ATP, targeting forces are applied to small sets of atoms (the forcing sets, FSs) in the direction of their displacement from the rigor conformation, which has a closed actin-binding cleft, to the post-rigor conformation, in which the cleft is open. The "minimal" FS that results in extensive structural changes in the overall myosin conformation is composed of ATP, switch 1, and the nearby HF, HG, and HH helices. Addition of switch 2 to the FS is required to achieve a complete opening of the actin-binding cleft. The restrained targeted molecular dynamics simulations reveal the mechanical coupling pathways between (i) the nucleotide-binding pocket (NBP) and the actin-binding cleft, (ii) the NBP and the converter, and (iii) the actin-binding cleft and the converter. Closing of the NBP due to ATP binding is tightly coupled to the opening of the cleft and leads to the rupture of a key hydrogen bond (F441N/A684O) between switch 2 and the SH1 helix. The actin-binding cleft may mediate the rupture of this bond via a connection between the HW helix, the relay helix, and switch 2. The findings are consistent with experimental studies and a recent normal mode analysis. The present method is expected to be useful more generally in studies of interdomain coupling in proteins.

  7. Epidemiological impact of a syphilis vaccine: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Champredon, D; Cameron, C E; Smieja, M; Dushoff, J

    2016-11-01

    Despite the availability of inexpensive antimicrobial treatment, syphilis remains prevalent worldwide, affecting millions of individuals. Furthermore, syphilis infection is suspected of increasing both susceptibility to, and tendency to transmit, HIV. Development of a syphilis vaccine would be a potentially promising step towards control, but the value of dedicating resources to vaccine development should be evaluated in the context of the anticipated benefits. Here, we use a detailed mathematical model to explore the potential impact of rolling out a hypothetical syphilis vaccine on morbidity from both syphilis and HIV and compare it to the impact of expanded 'screen and treat' programmes using existing treatments. Our results suggest that an efficacious vaccine has the potential to sharply reduce syphilis prevalence under a wide range of scenarios, while expanded treatment interventions are likely to be substantially less effective. Our modelled interventions in our simulated study populations are expected to have little effect on HIV, and in some scenarios lead to small increases in HIV incidence, suggesting that interventions against syphilis should be accompanied with interventions against other sexually transmitted infections to prevent the possibility that lower morbidity or lower perceived risk from syphilis could lead to increases in other sexually transmitted diseases.

  8. Nanodroplets Impact on Rough Surfaces: A Simulation and Theoretical Study.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shan; Liao, Quanwen; Liu, Wei; Liu, Zhichun

    2018-05-22

    Impact of droplets is widespread in life, and modulating the dynamics of impinging droplets is a significant problem in production. However, on textured surfaces, the micromorphologic change and mechanism of impinging nanodroplets are not well-understood; furthermore, the accuracy of the theoretical model for nanodroplets needs to be improved. Here, considering the great challenge of conducting experiments on nanodroplets, a molecular dynamics simulation is performed to visualize the impact process of nanodroplets on nanopillar surfaces. Compared with macroscale droplets, apart from the similar relation of restitution coefficient with the Weber number, we found some distinctive results: the maximum spreading time is described as a power law of impact velocity, and the relation of maximum spreading factor with impact velocity or the Reynolds number is exponential. Moreover, the roughness of substrates plays a prominent role in the dynamics of impact nanodroplets, and on surfaces with lower solid fraction, the lower attraction force induces an easier rebound of impact nanodroplets. At last, on the basis of the energy balance, through modifying the estimation of viscous dissipation and surface energy terms, we proposed an improved model for the maximum spreading factor, which shows greater accuracy for nanodroplets, especially in the low-to-moderate velocity range. The outcome of this study demonstrates that a distinctive dynamical behavior of impinging nanodroplets, the fundamental insight, and more accurate prediction are very useful in the improvement of the hydrodynamic behavior of the nanodroplets.

  9. Simulations of hypervelocity impacts for asteroid deflection studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heberling, T.; Ferguson, J. M.; Gisler, G. R.; Plesko, C. S.; Weaver, R.

    2016-12-01

    The possibility of kinetic-impact deflection of threatening near-earth asteroids will be tested for the first time in the proposed AIDA (Asteroid Impact Deflection Assessment) mission, involving two independent spacecraft, NASAs DART (Double Asteroid Redirection Test) and ESAs AIM (Asteroid Impact Mission). The impact of the DART spacecraft onto the secondary of the binary asteroid 65803 Didymos, at a speed of 5 to 7 km/s, is expected to alter the mutual orbit by an observable amount. The velocity imparted to the secondary depends on the geometry and dynamics of the impact, and especially on the momentum enhancement factor, conventionally called beta. We use the Los Alamos hydrocodes Rage and Pagosa to estimate beta in laboratory-scale benchmark experiments and in the large-scale asteroid deflection test. Simulations are performed in two- and three-dimensions, using a variety of equations of state and strength models for both the lab-scale and large-scale cases. This work is being performed as part of a systematic benchmarking study for the AIDA mission that includes other hydrocodes.

  10. Speed behaviour in work zone crossovers. A driving simulator study.

    PubMed

    Domenichini, Lorenzo; La Torre, Francesca; Branzi, Valentina; Nocentini, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    Reductions in speed and, more critically, in speed variability between vehicles are considered an important factor to reduce crash risk in work zones. This study was designed to evaluate in a virtual environment the drivers' behaviour in response to nine different configurations of a motorway crossover work zone. Specifically, the speed behaviour through a typical crossover layout, designed in accordance with the Italian Ministerial Decree 10 July 2002, was compared with that of eight alternative configurations which differ in some characteristics such as the sequence of speed limits, the median opening width and the lane width. The influence of variable message signs, of channelizing devices and of perceptual treatments based on Human Factor principles were also tested. Forty-two participants drove in driving simulator scenarios while data on their speeds and decelerations were collected. The results indicated that drivers' speeds are always higher than the temporary posted speed limits for all configurations and that speeds decreases significantly only within the by-passes. However the implementation of higher speed limits, together with a wider median opening and taller channelization devices led to a greater homogeneity of the speeds adopted by the drivers. The presence of perceptual measures generally induced both the greatest homogenization of speeds and the largest reductions in mean speed values. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Loading Deformation Characteristic Simulation Study of Engineering Vehicle Refurbished Tire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, Wang; Xiaojie, Qi; Zhao, Yang; Yunlong, Wang; Guotian, Wang; Degang, Lv

    2018-05-01

    The paper constructed engineering vehicle refurbished tire computer geometry model, mechanics model, contact model, finite element analysis model, did simulation study on load-deformation property of engineering vehicle refurbished tire by comparing with that of the new and the same type tire, got load-deformation of engineering vehicle refurbished tire under the working condition of static state and ground contact. The analysis result shows that change rules of radial-direction deformation and side-direction deformation of engineering vehicle refurbished tire are close to that of the new tire, radial-direction and side-direction deformation value is a little less than that of the new tire. When air inflation pressure was certain, radial-direction deformation linear rule of engineer vehicle refurbished tire would increase with load adding, however, side-direction deformation showed linear change rule, when air inflation pressure was low; and it would show increase of non-linear change rule, when air inflation pressure was very high.

  12. Direct Simulation and Theoretical Study of Sub- and Supersonic Wakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickey, Jean-Pierre

    Wakes are constitutive components of engineering, aeronautical and geophysical flows. Despite their canonical nature, many fundamental questions surrounding wakes remain unanswered. The present work studies the nature of archetypal planar splitter-plate wakes in the sub- and supersonic regimes from a theoretical as well as a numerical perspective. A highly-parallelizable computational fluid dynamic solver was developed, from scratch, for the very-large scale direct numerical simulations of high-speed free shear flows. Wakes maintain a near indelible memory of their origins; thus, changes to the state of the flow on the generating body lead to multiple self-similar states in the far wake. To understand the source of the lack of universality, three distinct wake evolution scenarios are investigated in the incompressible limit: the Kelvin-Helmholtz transition, the bypass transition in an asymmetric wake and the initially turbulent wake. The multiplicity of self-similar states is the result of a plurality of far wake structural organizations, which maintains the memory of the flow. The structural organization is predicated on the presence or absence of near wake anti-symmetric perturbations (as a result of shedding, instability modes and/or trailing edge receptivity). The plurality of large-scale structural organization contrasts with the commonality observed in the mid-sized structures, which are dominated by inclined vortical rods, and not, as previously assumed, by horseshoe structures. The compressibility effects are a direct function of the maximal velocity defect in the wake and are therefore only important in the transitional region - the far wake having an essentially incompressible character. The compressibility simultaneously modifies the growth rate and wavelength of the primary instability mode with a concomitant effect on the emerging transitional structures. As a direct result, the spanwise rollers have an increasing ellipticity and cross-wake domain of

  13. Mobile Smog Simulator: New Capabilities to Study Urban Mixtures

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A smog simulator developed by EPA scientists and engineers has unique capabilities that will provide information for assessing the health impacts of relevant multipollutant atmospheres and identify contributions of specific sources.

  14. Studies and simulations of the DigiCipher system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayood, K.; Chen, Y. C.; Kipp, G.

    1993-01-01

    During this period the development of simulators for the various high definition television (HDTV) systems proposed to the FCC was continued. The FCC has indicated that it wants the various proposers to collaborate on a single system. Based on all available information this system will look very much like the advanced digital television (ADTV) system with major contributions only from the DigiCipher system. The results of our simulations of the DigiCipher system are described. This simulator was tested using test sequences from the MPEG committee. The results are extrapolated to HDTV video sequences. Once again, some caveats are in order. The sequences used for testing the simulator and generating the results are those used for testing the MPEG algorithm. The sequences are of much lower resolution than the HDTV sequences would be, and therefore the extrapolations are not totally accurate. One would expect to get significantly higher compression in terms of bits per pixel with sequences that are of higher resolution. However, the simulator itself is a valid one, and should HDTV sequences become available, they could be used directly with the simulator. A brief overview of the DigiCipher system is given. Some coding results obtained using the simulator are looked at. These results are compared to those obtained using the ADTV system. These results are evaluated in the context of the CCSDS specifications and make some suggestions as to how the DigiCipher system could be implemented in the NASA network. Simulations such as the ones reported can be biased depending on the particular source sequence used. In order to get more complete information about the system one needs to obtain a reasonable set of models which mirror the various kinds of sources encountered during video coding. A set of models which can be used to effectively model the various possible scenarios is provided. As this is somewhat tangential to the other work reported, the results are included as an

  15. Advanced simulation study on bunch gap transient effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Tetsuya; Akai, Kazunori

    2016-06-01

    Bunch phase shift along the train due to a bunch gap transient is a concern in high-current colliders. In KEKB operation, the measured phase shift along the train agreed well with a simulation and a simple analytical form in most part of the train. However, a rapid phase change was observed at the leading part of the train, which was not predicted by the simulation or by the analytical form. In order to understand the cause of this observation, we have developed an advanced simulation, which treats the transient loading in each of the cavities of the three-cavity system of the accelerator resonantly coupled with energy storage (ARES) instead of the equivalent single cavities used in the previous simulation, operating in the accelerating mode. In this paper, we show that the new simulation reproduces the observation, and clarify that the rapid phase change at the leading part of the train is caused by a transient loading in the three-cavity system of ARES. KEKB is being upgraded to SuperKEKB, which is aiming at 40 times higher luminosity than KEKB. The gap transient in SuperKEKB is investigated using the new simulation, and the result shows that the rapid phase change at the leading part of the train is much larger due to higher beam currents. We will also present measures to mitigate possible luminosity reduction or beam performance deterioration due to the rapid phase change caused by the gap transient.

  16. IUS/payload communication system simulator configuration definition study. [payload simulator for pcm telemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Udalov, S.; Springett, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    The requirements and specifications for a general purpose payload communications system simulator to be used to emulate those communications system portions of NASA and DOD payloads/spacecraft that will in the future be carried into earth orbit by the shuttle are discussed. For the purpose of on-orbit checkout, the shuttle is required to communicate with the payloads while they are physically located within the shuttle bay (attached) and within a range of 20 miles from the shuttle after they have been deployed (detached). Many of the payloads are also under development (and many have yet to be defined), actual payload communication hardware will not be available within the time frame during which the avionic hardware tests will be conducted. Thus, a flexible payload communication system simulator is required.

  17. Simulation verification techniques study. Task report 4: Simulation module performance parameters and performance standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Shuttle simulation software modules in the environment, crew station, vehicle configuration and vehicle dynamics categories are discussed. For each software module covered, a description of the module functions and operational modes, its interfaces with other modules, its stored data, inputs, performance parameters and critical performance parameters is given. Reference data sources which provide standards of performance are identified for each module. Performance verification methods are also discussed briefly.

  18. The Library and Human Memory Simulation Studies. Reports on File Organization Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Kevin D.

    This report describes digital computer simulation efforts in a study of memory systems for two important cases: that of the individual the brain; and that of society, the library. A neural system model is presented in which a complex system is produced by connecting simple hypothetical neurons whose states change under application of a…

  19. Sampling procedures for throughfall monitoring: A simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Beate; Zimmermann, Alexander; Lark, Richard Murray; Elsenbeer, Helmut

    2010-01-01

    What is the most appropriate sampling scheme to estimate event-based average throughfall? A satisfactory answer to this seemingly simple question has yet to be found, a failure which we attribute to previous efforts' dependence on empirical studies. Here we try to answer this question by simulating stochastic throughfall fields based on parameters for statistical models of large monitoring data sets. We subsequently sampled these fields with different sampling designs and variable sample supports. We evaluated the performance of a particular sampling scheme with respect to the uncertainty of possible estimated means of throughfall volumes. Even for a relative error limit of 20%, an impractically large number of small, funnel-type collectors would be required to estimate mean throughfall, particularly for small events. While stratification of the target area is not superior to simple random sampling, cluster random sampling involves the risk of being less efficient. A larger sample support, e.g., the use of trough-type collectors, considerably reduces the necessary sample sizes and eliminates the sensitivity of the mean to outliers. Since the gain in time associated with the manual handling of troughs versus funnels depends on the local precipitation regime, the employment of automatically recording clusters of long troughs emerges as the most promising sampling scheme. Even so, a relative error of less than 5% appears out of reach for throughfall under heterogeneous canopies. We therefore suspect a considerable uncertainty of input parameters for interception models derived from measured throughfall, in particular, for those requiring data of small throughfall events.

  20. Great Lakes Simulation Studies. Volume I. NETSIM: A General Network Simulator.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-11-01

    NOV 72 DACW23-72-C-00" INCLASSZFIED TTSC-715E,1 E2nI~nhE Eh/iln/El//llEE iIII I IIll flf EEEIIIIEEEIII EEEEEIhlllEEEE EIIIIEIIIEIIEE m 111112---2...the following people and organizations: (1) Mr. M . S. Campbell, Mr. Kosky, and Mr. Ahermy of the St. Lawrence Seaway Authority, St. Catherines, Ontario...authors suggest m ;dificatlzns that, ii implemented, would develop the MCDD model Into a gene.il systems model capable of simulating, for example, the

  1. Simulation and study of small numbers of random events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelton, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    Random events were simulated by computer and subjected to various statistical methods to extract important parameters. Various forms of curve fitting were explored, such as least squares, least distance from a line, maximum likelihood. Problems considered were dead time, exponential decay, and spectrum extraction from cosmic ray data using binned data and data from individual events. Computer programs, mostly of an iterative nature, were developed to do these simulations and extractions and are partially listed as appendices. The mathematical basis for the compuer programs is given.

  2. A STUDY OF SIMULATOR CAPABILITIES IN AN OPERATIONAL TRAINING PROGRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MEYER, DONALD E.; AND OTHERS

    THE EXPERIMENT WAS CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE THE EFFECTS OF SIMULATOR TRAINING TO CRITERION PROFICIENCY UPON TIME REQUIRED IN THE AIRCRAFT. DATA WERE ALSO COLLECTED ON PROFICIENCY LEVELS ATTAINED, SELF-CONFIDENCE LEVELS, INDIVIDUAL ESTIMATES OF CAPABILITY, AND SOURCES FROM WHICH THAT CAPABILITY WAS DERIVED. SUBJECTS FOR THE EXPERIMENT--48 AIRLINE…

  3. Business Profitability: A Simulation Study of Personalities and Organizational Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carsrud, A. L.; And Others

    There is no clearly established link between business success and the personality characteristics of the individual. To investigate the effect of the personalities of potential entrepreneurs/business owners on success, college senior business administration majors (N=152) participted in a business simulation game. Subjects first completed the Work…

  4. Soil Erosion Study through Simulation: An Educational Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Thomas P.; Falkenmayer, Karen

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the need for education about soil erosion and advocates the use of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) to show the impacts of human and natural action on the land. Describes the use of a computer simulated version of the USLE in several environmental and farming situations. (TW)

  5. MASTOS: Mammography Simulation Tool for design Optimization Studies.

    PubMed

    Spyrou, G; Panayiotakis, G; Tzanakos, G

    2000-01-01

    Mammography is a high quality imaging technique for the detection of breast lesions, which requires dedicated equipment and optimum operation. The design parameters of a mammography unit have to be decided and evaluated before the construction of such a high cost of apparatus. The optimum operational parameters also must be defined well before the real breast examination. MASTOS is a software package, based on Monte Carlo methods, that is designed to be used as a simulation tool in mammography. The input consists of the parameters that have to be specified when using a mammography unit, and also the parameters specifying the shape and composition of the breast phantom. In addition, the input may specify parameters needed in the design of a new mammographic apparatus. The main output of the simulation is a mammographic image and calculations of various factors that describe the image quality. The Monte Carlo simulation code is PC-based and is driven by an outer shell of a graphical user interface. The entire software package is a simulation tool for mammography and can be applied in basic research and/or in training in the fields of medical physics and biomedical engineering as well as in the performance evaluation of new designs of mammography units and in the determination of optimum standards for the operational parameters of a mammography unit.

  6. Experimental study and simulation of space charge stimulated discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noskov, M. D.; Malinovski, A. S.; Cooke, C. M.; Wright, K. A.; Schwab, A. J.

    2002-11-01

    The electrical discharge of volume distributed space charge in poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) has been investigated both experimentally and by computer simulation. The experimental space charge was implanted in dielectric samples by exposure to a monoenergetic electron beam of 3 MeV. Electrical breakdown through the implanted space charge region within the sample was initiated by a local electric field enhancement applied to the sample surface. A stochastic-deterministic dynamic model for electrical discharge was developed and used in a computer simulation of these breakdowns. The model employs stochastic rules to describe the physical growth of the discharge channels, and deterministic laws to describe the electric field, the charge, and energy dynamics within the discharge channels and the dielectric. Simulated spatial-temporal and current characteristics of the expanding discharge structure during physical growth are quantitatively compared with the experimental data to confirm the discharge model. It was found that a single fixed set of physically based dielectric parameter values was adequate to simulate the complete family of experimental space charge discharges in PMMA. It is proposed that such a set of parameters also provides a useful means to quantify the breakdown properties of other dielectrics.

  7. Decoding the Dopamine Signal in Macaque Prefrontal Cortex: A Simulation Study Using the Cx3Dp Simulator

    PubMed Central

    Spühler, Isabelle Ayumi; Hauri, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine transmission in the prefrontal cortex plays an important role in reward based learning, working memory and attention. Dopamine is thought to be released non-synaptically into the extracellular space and to reach distant receptors through diffusion. This simulation study examines how the dopamine signal might be decoded by the recipient neuron. The simulation was based on parameters from the literature and on our own quantified, structural data from macaque prefrontal area 10. The change in extracellular dopamine concentration was estimated at different distances from release sites and related to the affinity of the dopamine receptors. Due to the sparse and random distribution of release sites, a transient heterogeneous pattern of dopamine concentration emerges. Our simulation predicts, however, that at any point in the simulation volume there is sufficient dopamine to bind and activate high-affinity dopamine receptors. We propose that dopamine is broadcast to its distant receptors and any change from the local baseline concentration might be decoded by a transient change in the binding probability of dopamine receptors. Dopamine could thus provide a graduated ‘teaching’ signal to reinforce concurrently active synapses and cell assemblies. In conditions of highly reduced or highly elevated dopamine levels the simulations predict that relative changes in the dopamine signal can no longer be decoded, which might explain why cognitive deficits are observed in patients with Parkinson’s disease, or induced through drugs blocking dopamine reuptake. PMID:23951205

  8. Flight simulator for hypersonic vehicle and a study of NASP handling qualities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ntuen, Celestine A.; Park, Eui H.; Deeb, Joseph M.; Kim, Jung H.

    1992-01-01

    The research goal of the Human-Machine Systems Engineering Group was to study the existing handling quality studies in aircraft with sonic to supersonic speeds and power in order to understand information requirements needed for a hypersonic vehicle flight simulator. This goal falls within the NASA task statements: (1) develop flight simulator for hypersonic vehicle; (2) study NASP handling qualities; and (3) study effects of flexibility on handling qualities and on control system performance. Following the above statement of work, the group has developed three research strategies. These are: (1) to study existing handling quality studies and the associated aircraft and develop flight simulation data characterization; (2) to develop a profile for flight simulation data acquisition based on objective statement no. 1 above; and (3) to develop a simulator and an embedded expert system platform which can be used in handling quality experiments for hypersonic aircraft/flight simulation training.

  9. Study of accuracy of precipitation measurements using simulation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, Zoltán; Lajos, Tamás; Morvai, Krisztián

    2013-04-01

    Hungarian Meteorological Service1 Budapest University of Technology and Economics2 Precipitation is one of the the most important meteorological parameters describing the state of the climate and to get correct information from trends, accurate measurements of precipitation is very important. The problem is that the precipitation measurements are affected by systematic errors leading to an underestimation of actual precipitation which errors vary by type of precipitaion and gauge type. It is well known that the wind speed is the most important enviromental factor that contributes to the underestimation of actual precipitation, especially for solid precipitation. To study and correct the errors of precipitation measurements there are two basic possibilities: · Use of results and conclusion of International Precipitation Measurements Intercomparisons; · To build standard reference gauges (DFIR, pit gauge) and make own investigation; In 1999 at the HMS we tried to achieve own investigation and built standard reference gauges But the cost-benefit ratio in case of snow (use of DFIR) was very bad (we had several winters without significant amount of snow, while the state of DFIR was continously falling) Due to the problem mentioned above there was need for new approximation that was the modelling made by Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Department of Fluid Mechanics using the FLUENT 6.2 model. The ANSYS Fluent package is featured fluid dynamics solution for modelling flow and other related physical phenomena. It provides the tools needed to describe atmospheric processes, design and optimize new equipment. The CFD package includes solvers that accurately simulate behaviour of the broad range of flows that from single-phase to multi-phase. The questions we wanted to get answer to are as follows: · How do the different types of gauges deform the airflow around themselves? · Try to give quantitative estimation of wind induced error. · How does the use

  10. Simulation studies of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, David Llewellyn

    Simulation studies of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNFETs) are presented using models of increasing rigour and versatility that have been systematically developed. Firstly, it is demonstrated how one may compute the standard tight-binding band structure. From this foundation, a self-consistent solution for computing the equilibrium energy band diagram of devices with Schottky-barrier source and drain contacts is developed. While this does provide insight into the likely behaviour of CNFETs, a non-equilibrium model is required in order to predict the current-voltage relation. To this end, the effective-mass approximation is utilized, where a parabolic fit to the band structure is used in order to develop a Schrodinger-Poisson solver. This model is employed to predict both DC behaviour and switching times for CNFETs, and was one of the first models that captured quantum effects, such as tunneling and resonance, in these devices. In addition, this model has been used in order to validate compact models that incorporated tunneling via the WKB approximation. A modified WKB derivation is provided in order to account for the non-zero reflection of carriers above a potential energy step. In order to allow for greater flexibility in the CNFET geometries, and to lift the effective-mass approximation, a non-equilibrium Green's function method is finally developed, which uses an atomistic tight-binding Hamiltonian to model doped-contact, as opposed to Schottky-barrier-contact, devices. This approach benefits by being able to account for both inter- and intra-band tunneling, and by utilizing a quadratic matrix equation in order to improve the computation time for the required self-energy matrices. Within this technique, an expression for the local inter-atomic current is derived in order to provide more detailed information than the usual compact expression for the terminal current. With this final model, an investigation is presented into the effects of

  11. Aviation Human-in-the-Loop Simulation Studies: Experimental Planning, Design, and Data Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    Aviation Human-in-the-Loop Simulation Studies: Experimental Planning, Design , and Data Management Kevin W. Williams1 Bonny Christopher2 Gena...Simulation Studies: Experimental Planning, Design , and Data Management January 2014 6. Performing Organization Code 7. Author(s) 8. Performing...describe the process by which we designed our human-in-the-loop (HITL) simulation study and the methodology used to collect and analyze the results

  12. Why is the Magellanic Stream so Turbulent? - A Simulational Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Elliott; Shelton, Robin L.

    2018-06-01

    As the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds travel through the Milky Way (MW) halo, gas is tidally and ram pressure stripped from them, forming the Leading Arm (LA) and Magellanic Stream (MS). The evolution of the LA and MS are an interest to astronomers because there is evidence that the diffuse gas that has been stripped off is able to fall onto the galactic disk and cool enough to fuel star formation in the MW. For et al, 2014 published a catalog of 251 high velocity clouds (HVCs) in the MS, many of which have head-tail morphologies, suggesting interaction with the Milky Way’s halo or other gas in the MS. For et al noticed that the pointing direction of the HVCs are random, which they interpreted as an indication of strong turbulence. They suggested the shock cascade scenario as a contributing process, where ablated cloud material generates turbulence (and H-alpha emission). We take a closer look at this process via simulations. We ran numerical simulations of clouds in the MS using the University of Chicago’s FLASH software. We simulated cases that had two clouds, where one trailed behind the other, and we simulated cases that had one cloud in order to examine the effects of drafting on cloud dynamics and velocity dispersion. Initial cloud temperatures ranged from 100 K to 20,000 K. We have created velocity dispersion maps from the FLASH simulation data to visualize turbulence. We compare these generated maps with 21 cm observations (most recently Westmeier, 2017), in order to search for signatures similar to the small scale turbulence seen in the simulations. We find that if the clouds are initially near to each other, then drafting allows the trailing cloud to catch the leading cloud and mix together. For greater separations, Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities disrupt the clouds enough before impact that drafting has a minimal role. Our velocity dispersion maps of the warmer clouds closely match values published in For et al, 2014; although, thermal broadening

  13. Study of the Time Response of a Simulated Hydroelectric System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simani, S.; Alvisi, S.; Venturini, M.

    2014-12-01

    This paper addresses the design of an advanced control strategy for a typical hydroelectric dynamic process, performed in the Matlab and Simulink environments. The hydraulic system consists of a high water head and a long penstock with upstream and downstream surge tanks, and is equipped with a Francis turbine. The nonlinear characteristics of hydraulic turbine and the inelastic water hammer effects were considered to calculate and simulate the hydraulic transients. With reference to the control solution, the proposed methodology relies on an adaptive control designed by means of the on-line identification of the system model under monitoring. Extensive simulations and comparison with respect to a classic hydraulic turbine speed PID regulator show the effectiveness of the proposed modelling and control tools.

  14. Simulation and Experimental Study on Cavitating Water Jet Nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wei; He, Kai; Cai, Jiannan; Hu, Shaojie; Li, Jiuhua; Du, Ruxu

    2017-01-01

    Cavitating water jet technology is a new kind of water jet technology with many advantages, such as energy-saving, efficient, environmentally-friendly and so on. Based on the numerical simulation and experimental verification in this paper, the research on cavitating nozzle has been carried out, which includes comparison of the cleaning ability of the cavitating jet and the ordinary jet, and comparison of cavitation effects of different structures of cavitating nozzles.

  15. Freezing Transition Studies Through Constrained Cell Model Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayhouse, Michael; Kwon, Joseph Sang-Il; Heng, Vincent R.; Amlani, Ankur M.; Orkoulas, G.

    2014-10-01

    In the present work, a simulation method based on cell models is used to deduce the fluid-solid transition of a system of particles that interact via a pair potential, , which is of the form with . The simulations are implemented under constant-pressure conditions on a generalized version of the constrained cell model. The constrained cell model is constructed by dividing the volume into Wigner-Seitz cells and confining each particle in a single cell. This model is a special case of a more general cell model which is formed by introducing an additional field variable that controls the number of particles per cell and, thus, the relative stability of the solid against the fluid phase. High field values force configurations with one particle per cell and thus favor the solid phase. Fluid-solid coexistence on the isotherm that corresponds to a reduced temperature of 2 is determined from constant-pressure simulations of the generalized cell model using tempering and histogram reweighting techniques. The entire fluid-solid phase boundary is determined through a thermodynamic integration technique based on histogram reweighting, using the previous coexistence point as a reference point. The vapor-liquid phase diagram is obtained from constant-pressure simulations of the unconstrained system using tempering and histogram reweighting. The phase diagram of the system is found to contain a stable critical point and a triple point. The phase diagram of the corresponding constrained cell model is also found to contain both a stable critical point and a triple point.

  16. Sequence-dependent DNA deformability studied using molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Satoshi; Kono, Hidetoshi; Takenaka, Shigeori; Go, Nobuhiro; Sarai, Akinori

    2007-01-01

    Proteins recognize specific DNA sequences not only through direct contact between amino acids and bases, but also indirectly based on the sequence-dependent conformation and deformability of the DNA (indirect readout). We used molecular dynamics simulations to analyze the sequence-dependent DNA conformations of all 136 possible tetrameric sequences sandwiched between CGCG sequences. The deformability of dimeric steps obtained by the simulations is consistent with that by the crystal structures. The simulation results further showed that the conformation and deformability of the tetramers can highly depend on the flanking base pairs. The conformations of xATx tetramers show the most rigidity and are not affected by the flanking base pairs and the xYRx show by contrast the greatest flexibility and change their conformations depending on the base pairs at both ends, suggesting tetramers with the same central dimer can show different deformabilities. These results suggest that analysis of dimeric steps alone may overlook some conformational features of DNA and provide insight into the mechanism of indirect readout during protein-DNA recognition. Moreover, the sequence dependence of DNA conformation and deformability may be used to estimate the contribution of indirect readout to the specificity of protein-DNA recognition as well as nucleosome positioning and large-scale behavior of nucleic acids.

  17. Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations for Studying Solar Flare Trigger Mechanism

    SciT

    Muhamad, J.; Kusano, K.; Inoue, S.

    In order to understand the flare trigger mechanism, we conduct three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations using a coronal magnetic field model derived from data observed by the Hinode satellite. Several types of magnetic bipoles are imposed into the photospheric boundary of the Nonlinear Force-free Field model of Active Region (AR) NOAA 10930 on 2006 December 13, to investigate what kind of magnetic disturbance may trigger the flare. As a result, we confirm that certain small bipole fields, which emerge into the highly sheared global magnetic field of an AR, can effectively trigger a flare. These bipole fields can be classified into twomore » groups based on their orientation relative to the polarity inversion line: the so-called opposite polarity, and reversed shear structures, as suggested by Kusano et al. We also investigate the structure of the footpoints of reconnected field lines. By comparing the distribution of reconstructed field lines and observed flare ribbons, the trigger structure of the flare can be inferred. Our simulation suggests that the data-constrained simulation, taking into account both the large-scale magnetic structure and small-scale magnetic disturbance (such as emerging fluxes), is a good way to discover a flare-producing AR, which can be applied to space weather prediction.« less

  18. Comparative simulation study of chemical synthesis of functional DADNE material.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min Hsien; Liu, Chuan Wen

    2017-01-01

    Amorphous molecular simulation to model the reaction species in the synthesis of chemically inert and energetic 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethene (DADNE) explosive material was performed in this work. Nitromethane was selected as the starting reactant to undergo halogenation, nitration, deprotonation, intermolecular condensation, and dehydration to produce the target DADNE product. The Materials Studio (MS) forcite program allowed fast energy calculations and reliable geometric optimization of all aqueous molecular reaction systems (0.1-0.5 M) at 283 K and 298 K. The MS forcite-computed and Gaussian polarizable continuum model (PCM)-computed results were analyzed and compared in order to explore feasible reaction pathways under suitable conditions for the synthesis of DADNE. Through theoretical simulation, the findings revealed that synthesis was possible, and a total energy barrier of 449.6 kJ mol -1 needed to be overcome in order to carry out the reaction according to MS calculation of the energy barriers at each stage at 283 K, as shown by the reaction profiles. Local analysis of intermolecular interaction, together with calculation of the stabilization energy of each reaction system, provided information that can be used as a reference regarding molecular integrated stability. Graphical Abstract Materials Studio software has been suggested for the computation and simulation of DADNE synthesis.

  19. Adapting a Driving Simulator to Study Pedestrians' Street-Crossing Decisions: A Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Jäger, M; Nyffeler, T; Müri, R; Mosimann, U P; Nef, T

    2015-01-01

    The decision when to cross a street safely is a challenging task that poses high demands on perception and cognition. Both can be affected by normal aging, neurodegenerative disorder, and brain injury, and there is an increasing interest in studying street-crossing decisions. In this article, we describe how driving simulators can be modified to study pedestrians' street-crossing decisions. The driving simulator's projection system and the virtual driving environment were used to present street-crossing scenarios to the participants. New sensors were added to measure when the test person starts to cross the street. Outcome measures were feasibility, usability, task performance, and visual exploration behavior, and were measured in 15 younger persons, 15 older persons, and 5 post-stroke patients. The experiments showed that the test is feasible and usable, and the selected difficulty level was appropriate. Significant differences in the number of crashes between young participants and patients (p = .001) as well as between healthy older participants and patients (p = .003) were found. When the approaching vehicle's speed is high, significant differences between younger and older participants were found as well (p = .038). Overall, the new test setup was well accepted, and we demonstrated that driving simulators can be used to study pedestrians' street-crossing decisions.

  20. Space station Simulation Computer System (SCS) study for NASA/MSFC. Volume 6: Study issues report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Simulation Computer System (SCS) is the computer hardware, software, and workstations that will support the Payload Training Complex (PTC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The PTC will train the space station payload specialists and mission specialists to operate the wide variety of experiments that will be on-board the Freedom Space Station. This simulation Computer System (SCS) study issues report summarizes the analysis and study done as task 1-identify and analyze the CSC study issues- of the SCS study contract.This work was performed over the first three months of the SCS study which began in August of 1988. First issues were identified from all sources. These included the NASA SOW, the TRW proposal, and working groups which focused the experience of NASA and the contractor team performing the study-TRW, Essex, and Grumman. The final list is organized into training related issues, and SCS associated development issues. To begin the analysis of the issues, a list of all the functions for which the SCS could be used was created, i.e., when the computer is turned on, what will it be doing. Analysis was continued by creating an operational functions matrix of SCS users vs. SCS functions to insure all the functions considered were valid, and to aid in identification of users as the analysis progressed. The functions will form the basis for the requirements, which are currently being developed under task 3 of the SCS study.

  1. Molecular dynamics simulation studies of tailored nanostructured polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lixin

    With recent advancements in the synthesis and characterization of polymeric materials, scientists are able to create multi-scale novel polymers with various cases of chemical functionalities, diversified topologies, as well as cross-linking networks. Due to those remarkable achievements, there are a broad range of possible applications of smart polymers in catalysis, in environmental remediation, and especially in drug-delivery. Because of rising interest in developing therapeutic drug binding to specific treating target, polymer chemists are in particular interests in design and engineering the drug delivery materials to be not only bio-compatible, but also to be capable of self-assembly at various in-vivo physiological stimulus. Both experimental and theoretical work indicate that the thermodynamic properties relating to the hydrophobic effect play an important role in determining self-assembly process. At the same time, computational simulation and modeling are powerful instruments to contribute to microscopic thermodynamics' understanding toward self-assembly phenomenon. Along with statistical approaches, constructing empirical model based on simulation results would also help predict for further development of tailored nano-structured materials. My Research mainly focused on investigating physical and chemical characteristics of polymer materials through molecular dynamics simulation and probing the fundamental thermodynamic driving force of self-assembly behavior. We tried to surmount technological obstacles in computational chemistry and build an efficient scheme to identify the physical and chemical Feature of molecules, to reproduce underlying properties, to understand the origin of thermodynamic signatures, and to speed up current trial and error process in screening new materials.

  2. Simulation study on electric field intensity above train roof

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yizhe; Li, Huawei; Yang, Shasha

    2018-04-01

    In order to understand the distribution of electric field in the space above the train roof accurately and select the installation position of the detection device reasonably, in this paper, the 3D model of pantograph-catenary is established by using SolidWorks software, and the spatial electric field distribution of pantograph-catenary model is simulated based on Comsol software. According to the electric field intensity analysis within the 0.4m space above train roof, we give a reasonable installation of the detection device.

  3. Simulation Study Using a New Type of Sample Variance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, D. A.; Lainson, K. J.

    1996-01-01

    We evaluate with simulated data a new type of sample variance for the characterization of frequency stability. The new statistic (referred to as TOTALVAR and its square root TOTALDEV) is a better predictor of long-term frequency variations than the present sample Allan deviation. The statistical model uses the assumption that a time series of phase or frequency differences is wrapped (periodic) with overall frequency difference removed. We find that the variability at long averaging times is reduced considerably for the five models of power-law noise commonly encountered with frequency standards and oscillators.

  4. Numerical aerodynamic simulation facility preliminary study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A technology forecast was established for the 1980-1985 time frame and the appropriateness of various logic and memory technologies for the design of the numerical aerodynamic simulation facility was assessed. Flow models and their characteristics were analyzed and matched against candidate processor architecture. Metrics were established for the total facility, and housing and support requirements of the facility were identified. An overview of the system is presented, with emphasis on the hardware of the Navier-Stokes solver, which is the key element of the system. Software elements of the system are also discussed.

  5. HCIT Contrast Performance Sensitivity Studies: Simulation Versus Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidick, Erkin; Shaklan, Stuart; Krist, John; Cady, Eric J.; Kern, Brian; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham

    2013-01-01

    Using NASA's High Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, we have experimentally investigated the sensitivity of dark hole contrast in a Lyot coronagraph for the following factors: 1) Lateral and longitudinal translation of an occulting mask; 2) An opaque spot on the occulting mask; 3) Sizes of the controlled dark hole area. Also, we compared the measured results with simulations obtained using both MACOS (Modeling and Analysis for Controlled Optical Systems) and PROPER optical analysis programs with full three-dimensional near-field diffraction analysis to model HCIT's optical train and coronagraph.

  6. Large Blast and Thermal Simulator Reflected Wave Eliminator Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    it delays the passage of this wave through the test section until after the test is complete. The required length of extra duct depends on the strength...tube axis, which acts like an additional contraction effect since Se = Sj/[Cqsin(aj)]. Tii extra area is illustrated best by plotting (Se-Ae)/Ac versus...34Simulation de Choc et de Soaffie. Comimpensateur d’Ondes de Detente de Bouche pour tube a Choc de 2400 mm de diametre de Veine. Description, Compte- Renda

  7. Simulation Environment for Orion Launch Abort System Control Design Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMinn, J. Dana; Jackson, E. Bruce; Christhilf, David M.

    2007-01-01

    The development and use of an interactive environment to perform control system design and analysis of the proposed Crew Exploration Vehicle Launch Abort System is described. The environment, built using a commercial dynamic systems design package, includes use of an open-source configuration control software tool and a collaborative wiki to coordinate between the simulation developers, control law developers and users. A method for switching between multiple candidate control laws and vehicle configurations is described. Aerodynamic models, especially in a development program, change rapidly, so a means for automating the implementation of new aerodynamic models is described.

  8. Membrane Permeability of Fatty Acyl Compounds Studied via Molecular Simulation

    DOE PAGES

    Vermaas, Josh V.; Beckham, Gregg T.; Crowley, Michael F.

    2017-10-17

    Interest in fatty acid-derived products as fuel and chemical precursors has grown substantially. Microbes can be genetically engineered to produce fatty acid-derived products that are able to cross host membranes and can be extracted into an applied organic overlay. This process is thought to be passive, with a rate dependent on the chemistry of the crossing compound. The relationship between the chemical composition and the energetics and kinetics of product accumulation within the overlay is not well understood. Through biased and unbiased molecular simulation, we compute the membrane permeability coefficients from production to extraction for different fatty acyl products, includingmore » fatty acids, fatty alcohols, fatty aldehydes, alkanes, and alkenes. These simulations identify specific interactions that accelerate the transit of aldehydes across the membrane bilayer relative to other oxidized products, specifically the lack of hydrogen bonds to the surrounding membrane environment. However, since extraction from the outer membrane leaflet into the organic phase is found to be rate limiting for the entire process, we find that fatty alcohols and fatty aldehydes would both manifest similar fluxes into a dodecane overlay under equivalent conditions, outpacing the accumulation of acids or alkanes into the organic phase. Since aldehydes are known to be highly reactive as well as toxic in high quantities, the findings suggest that indeed fatty alcohols are the optimal long-tail fatty acyl product for extraction.« less

  9. Study of Hydrokinetic Turbine Arrays with Large Eddy Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sale, Danny; Aliseda, Alberto

    2014-11-01

    Marine renewable energy is advancing towards commercialization, including electrical power generation from ocean, river, and tidal currents. The focus of this work is to develop numerical simulations capable of predicting the power generation potential of hydrokinetic turbine arrays-this includes analysis of unsteady and averaged flow fields, turbulence statistics, and unsteady loadings on turbine rotors and support structures due to interaction with rotor wakes and ambient turbulence. The governing equations of large-eddy-simulation (LES) are solved using a finite-volume method, and the presence of turbine blades are approximated by the actuator-line method in which hydrodynamic forces are projected to the flow field as a body force. The actuator-line approach captures helical wake formation including vortex shedding from individual blades, and the effects of drag and vorticity generation from the rough seabed surface are accounted for by wall-models. This LES framework was used to replicate a previous flume experiment consisting of three hydrokinetic turbines tested under various operating conditions and array layouts. Predictions of the power generation, velocity deficit and turbulence statistics in the wakes are compared between the LES and experimental datasets.

  10. Pilot In-Trail Procedure Validation Simulation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bussink, Frank J. L.; Murdoch, Jennifer L.; Chamberlain, James P.; Chartrand, Ryan; Jones, Kenneth M.

    2008-01-01

    A Human-In-The-Loop experiment was conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC) to investigate the viability of the In-Trail Procedure (ITP) concept from a flight crew perspective, by placing participating airline pilots in a simulated oceanic flight environment. The test subject pilots used new onboard avionics equipment that provided improved information about nearby traffic and enabled them, when specific criteria were met, to request an ITP flight level change referencing one or two nearby aircraft that might otherwise block the flight level change. The subject pilots subjective assessments of ITP validity and acceptability were measured via questionnaires and discussions, and their objective performance in appropriately selecting, requesting, and performing ITP flight level changes was evaluated for each simulated flight scenario. Objective performance and subjective workload assessment data from the experiment s test conditions were analyzed for statistical and operational significance and are reported in the paper. Based on these results, suggestions are made to further improve the ITP.

  11. Characterizing hydrophobicity at the nanoscale: a molecular dynamics simulation study.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Dibyendu; Choudhury, Niharendu

    2012-06-14

    We use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of water near nanoscopic surfaces to characterize hydrophobic solute-water interfaces. By using nanoscopic paraffin like plates as model solutes, MD simulations in isothermal-isobaric ensemble have been employed to identify characteristic features of such an interface. Enhanced water correlation, density fluctuations, and position dependent compressibility apart from surface specific hydrogen bond distribution and molecular orientations have been identified as characteristic features of such interfaces. Tetrahedral order parameter that quantifies the degree of tetrahedrality in the water structure and an orientational order parameter, which quantifies the orientational preferences of the second solvation shell water around a central water molecule, have also been calculated as a function of distance from the plate surface. In the vicinity of the surface these two order parameters too show considerable sensitivity to the surface hydrophobicity. The potential of mean force (PMF) between water and the surface as a function of the distance from the surface has also been analyzed in terms of direct interaction and induced contribution, which shows unusual effect of plate hydrophobicity on the solvent induced PMF. In order to investigate hydrophobic nature of these plates, we have also investigated interplate dewetting when two such plates are immersed in water.

  12. Membrane Permeability of Fatty Acyl Compounds Studied via Molecular Simulation.

    PubMed

    Vermaas, Josh V; Beckham, Gregg T; Crowley, Michael F

    2017-12-21

    Interest in fatty acid-derived products as fuel and chemical precursors has grown substantially. Microbes can be genetically engineered to produce fatty acid-derived products that are able to cross host membranes and can be extracted into an applied organic overlay. This process is thought to be passive, with a rate dependent on the chemistry of the crossing compound. The relationship between the chemical composition and the energetics and kinetics of product accumulation within the overlay is not well understood. Through biased and unbiased molecular simulation, we compute the membrane permeability coefficients from production to extraction for different fatty acyl products, including fatty acids, fatty alcohols, fatty aldehydes, alkanes, and alkenes. These simulations identify specific interactions that accelerate the transit of aldehydes across the membrane bilayer relative to other oxidized products, specifically the lack of hydrogen bonds to the surrounding membrane environment. However, since extraction from the outer membrane leaflet into the organic phase is found to be rate limiting for the entire process, we find that fatty alcohols and fatty aldehydes would both manifest similar fluxes into a dodecane overlay under equivalent conditions, outpacing the accumulation of acids or alkanes into the organic phase. Since aldehydes are known to be highly reactive as well as toxic in high quantities, the findings suggest that indeed fatty alcohols are the optimal long-tail fatty acyl product for extraction.

  13. Molecular Dynamics Simulation Studies of Caffeine Aggregation in Aqueous Solution

    PubMed Central

    Tavagnacco, Letizia; Schnupf, Udo; Mason, Philip E.; Saboungi, Marie-Louise; Cesàro, Attilio; Brady, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out on a system of eight independent caffeine molecules in a periodic box of water at 300 K, representing a solution near the solubility limit for caffeine at room temperature, using a newly-developed CHARMM-type force field for caffeine in water. Simulations were also conducted for single caffeine molecules in water using two different water models (TIP3P and TIP4P). Water was found to structure in a complex fashion around the planar caffeine molecules, which was not sensitive to the water model used. As expected, extensive aggregation of the caffeine molecules was observed, with the molecules stacking their flat faces against one another like coins, with their methylene groups staggered to avoid steric clashes. A dynamic equilibrum was observed between large n-mers, including stacks with all eight solute molecules, and smaller clusters, with the calculated osmotic coefficient being in acceptable agreement with the experimental value. The insensitivity of the results to water model and the congruence with experimental thermodynamic data suggest that the observed stacking interactions are a realistic representation of the actual association mechanism in aqueous caffeine solutions. PMID:21812485

  14. Molecular dynamics simulation studies of caffeine aggregation in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Tavagnacco, Letizia; Schnupf, Udo; Mason, Philip E; Saboungi, Marie-Louise; Cesàro, Attilio; Brady, John W

    2011-09-22

    Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out on a system of eight independent caffeine molecules in a periodic box of water at 300 K, representing a solution near the solubility limit for caffeine at room temperature, using a newly developed CHARMM-type force field for caffeine in water. Simulations were also conducted for single caffeine molecules in water using two different water models (TIP3P and TIP4P). Water was found to structure in a complex fashion around the planar caffeine molecules, which was not sensitive to the water model used. As expected, extensive aggregation of the caffeine molecules was observed, with the molecules stacking their flat faces against one another like coins, with their methylene groups staggered to avoid steric clashes. A dynamic equilibrum was observed between large n-mers, including stacks with all eight solute molecules, and smaller clusters, with the calculated osmotic coefficient being in acceptable agreement with the experimental value. The insensitivity of the results to water model and the congruence with experimental thermodynamic data suggest that the observed stacking interactions are a realistic representation of the actual association mechanism in aqueous caffeine solutions.

  15. Simulation studies promote technological development of radiofrequency phased array hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Wust, P; Seebass, M; Nadobny, J; Deuflhard, P; Mönich, G; Felix, R

    1996-01-01

    A treatment planning program package for radiofrequency hyperthermia has been developed. It consists of software modules for processing three-dimensional computerized tomography (CT) data sets, manual segmentation, generation of tetrahedral grids, numerical calculation and optimisation of three-dimensional E field distributions using a volume surface integral equation algorithm as well as temperature distributions using an adaptive multilevel finite-elements code, and graphical tools for simultaneous representation of CT data and simulation results. Heat treatments are limited by hot spots in healthy tissues caused by E field maxima at electrical interfaces (bone/muscle). In order to reduce or avoid hot spots suitable objective functions are derived from power deposition patterns and temperature distributions, and are utilised to optimise antenna parameters (phases, amplitudes). The simulation and optimisation tools have been applied to estimate the improvements that could be reached by upgrades of the clinically used SIGMA-60 applicator (consisting of a single ring of four antenna pairs). The investigated upgrades are increased number of antennas and channels (triple-ring of 3 x 8 antennas and variation of antenna inclination. Significant improvement of index temperatures (1-2 degrees C) is achieved by upgrading the single ring to a triple ring with free phase selection for every antenna or antenna pair. Antenna amplitudes and inclinations proved as less important parameters.

  16. Membrane Permeability of Fatty Acyl Compounds Studied via Molecular Simulation

    SciT

    Vermaas, Josh V.; Beckham, Gregg T.; Crowley, Michael F.

    Interest in fatty acid-derived products as fuel and chemical precursors has grown substantially. Microbes can be genetically engineered to produce fatty acid-derived products that are able to cross host membranes and can be extracted into an applied organic overlay. This process is thought to be passive, with a rate dependent on the chemistry of the crossing compound. The relationship between the chemical composition and the energetics and kinetics of product accumulation within the overlay is not well understood. Through biased and unbiased molecular simulation, we compute the membrane permeability coefficients from production to extraction for different fatty acyl products, includingmore » fatty acids, fatty alcohols, fatty aldehydes, alkanes, and alkenes. These simulations identify specific interactions that accelerate the transit of aldehydes across the membrane bilayer relative to other oxidized products, specifically the lack of hydrogen bonds to the surrounding membrane environment. However, since extraction from the outer membrane leaflet into the organic phase is found to be rate limiting for the entire process, we find that fatty alcohols and fatty aldehydes would both manifest similar fluxes into a dodecane overlay under equivalent conditions, outpacing the accumulation of acids or alkanes into the organic phase. Since aldehydes are known to be highly reactive as well as toxic in high quantities, the findings suggest that indeed fatty alcohols are the optimal long-tail fatty acyl product for extraction.« less

  17. Increasing Interest in Social Studies: Social Perspective Taking and Self-Efficacy in Stimulating Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehlbach, Hunter; Brown, Scott W.; Ioannou, Andri; Boyer, Mark A.; Hudson, Natalie; Niv-Solomon, Anat; Maneggia, Donalyn; Janik, Laura

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the potential of simulations to bolster interest in middle school social studies classrooms. Using a pre-post-design, we examined 305 middle school students (49% female) who participated in the web-based "GlobalEd" simulation. In contrast to the motivation declines middle school students usually experience, participants in this…

  18. Real Time Bicycle Simulation Study of Bicyclists’ Behaviors and their Implication on Safety

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-06-30

    The main goal of this study was to build a bicycle simulator and study the interaction between cyclists and other roadway users. The simulator developed was used in conjunction with Oculus Rift goggles to create a virtual cycling environment. The vir...

  19. Multivariate Meta-Analysis of Genetic Association Studies: A Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Neupane, Binod; Beyene, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    In a meta-analysis with multiple end points of interests that are correlated between or within studies, multivariate approach to meta-analysis has a potential to produce more precise estimates of effects by exploiting the correlation structure between end points. However, under random-effects assumption the multivariate estimation is more complex (as it involves estimation of more parameters simultaneously) than univariate estimation, and sometimes can produce unrealistic parameter estimates. Usefulness of multivariate approach to meta-analysis of the effects of a genetic variant on two or more correlated traits is not well understood in the area of genetic association studies. In such studies, genetic variants are expected to roughly maintain Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium within studies, and also their effects on complex traits are generally very small to modest and could be heterogeneous across studies for genuine reasons. We carried out extensive simulation to explore the comparative performance of multivariate approach with most commonly used univariate inverse-variance weighted approach under random-effects assumption in various realistic meta-analytic scenarios of genetic association studies of correlated end points. We evaluated the performance with respect to relative mean bias percentage, and root mean square error (RMSE) of the estimate and coverage probability of corresponding 95% confidence interval of the effect for each end point. Our simulation results suggest that multivariate approach performs similarly or better than univariate method when correlations between end points within or between studies are at least moderate and between-study variation is similar or larger than average within-study variation for meta-analyses of 10 or more genetic studies. Multivariate approach produces estimates with smaller bias and RMSE especially for the end point that has randomly or informatively missing summary data in some individual studies, when the missing data

  20. Multivariate Meta-Analysis of Genetic Association Studies: A Simulation Study.

    PubMed

    Neupane, Binod; Beyene, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    In a meta-analysis with multiple end points of interests that are correlated between or within studies, multivariate approach to meta-analysis has a potential to produce more precise estimates of effects by exploiting the correlation structure between end points. However, under random-effects assumption the multivariate estimation is more complex (as it involves estimation of more parameters simultaneously) than univariate estimation, and sometimes can produce unrealistic parameter estimates. Usefulness of multivariate approach to meta-analysis of the effects of a genetic variant on two or more correlated traits is not well understood in the area of genetic association studies. In such studies, genetic variants are expected to roughly maintain Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium within studies, and also their effects on complex traits are generally very small to modest and could be heterogeneous across studies for genuine reasons. We carried out extensive simulation to explore the comparative performance of multivariate approach with most commonly used univariate inverse-variance weighted approach under random-effects assumption in various realistic meta-analytic scenarios of genetic association studies of correlated end points. We evaluated the performance with respect to relative mean bias percentage, and root mean square error (RMSE) of the estimate and coverage probability of corresponding 95% confidence interval of the effect for each end point. Our simulation results suggest that multivariate approach performs similarly or better than univariate method when correlations between end points within or between studies are at least moderate and between-study variation is similar or larger than average within-study variation for meta-analyses of 10 or more genetic studies. Multivariate approach produces estimates with smaller bias and RMSE especially for the end point that has randomly or informatively missing summary data in some individual studies, when the missing data

  1. Simulation studies for the evaluation of health information technologies: experiences and results.

    PubMed

    Ammenwerth, Elske; Hackl, Werner O; Binzer, Kristine; Christoffersen, Tue E H; Jensen, Sanne; Lawton, Kitta; Skjoet, Peter; Nohr, Christian

    It is essential for new health information technologies (IT) to undergo rigorous evaluations to ensure they are effective and safe for use in real-world situations. However, evaluation of new health IT is challenging, as field studies are often not feasible when the technology being evaluated is not sufficiently mature. Laboratory-based evaluations have also been shown to have insufficient external validity. Simulation studies seem to be a way to bridge this gap. The aim of this study was to evaluate, using a simulation methodology, the impact of a new prototype of an electronic medication management system on the appropriateness of prescriptions and drug-related activities, including laboratory test ordering or medication changes. This article presents the results of a controlled simulation study with 50 simulation runs, including ten doctors and five simulation patients, and discusses experiences and lessons learnt while conducting the study. Although the new electronic medication management system showed tendencies to improve medication safety when compared with the standard system, this tendency was not significant. Altogether, five distinct situations were identified where the new medication management system did help to improve medication safety. This simulation study provided a good compromise between internal validity and external validity. However, several challenges need to be addressed when undertaking simulation evaluations including: preparation of adequate test cases; training of participants before using unfamiliar applications; consideration of time, effort and costs of conducting the simulation; technical maturity of the evaluated system; and allowing adequate preparation of simulation scenarios and simulation setting. Simulation studies are an interesting but time-consuming approach, which can be used to evaluate newly developed health IT systems, particularly those systems that are not yet sufficiently mature to undergo field evaluation studies.

  2. Molecular Simulation Studies of Covalently and Ionically Grafted Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Bingbing

    Solvent-free covalently- or ionically-grafted nanoparticles (CGNs and IGNs) are a new class of organic-inorganic hybrid composite materials exhibiting fluid-like behaviors around room temperature. With similar structures to prior systems, e.g. nanocomposites, neutral or charged colloids, ionic liquids, etc, CGNs and IGNs inherit the functionality of inorganic nanopariticles, the facile processibility of polymers, as well as conductivity and nonvolatility from their constituent materials. In spite of the extensive prior experimental research having covered synthesis and measurements of thermal and dynamic properties, little progress in understanding of these new materials at the molecular level has been achieved, because of the lack of simulation work in this new area. Atomistic and coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations have been performed in this thesis to investigate the thermodynamics, structure, and dynamics of these systems and to seek predictive methods predictable for their properties. Starting from poly(ethylene oxide) oligomers (PEO) melts, we established atomistic models based on united-atom representations of methylene. The Green-Kubo and Einstein-Helfand formulas were used to calculate the transport properties. The simulations generate densities, viscosities, diffusivities, in good agreement with experimental data. The chain-length dependence of the transport properties suggests that neither Rouse nor reptation models are applicable in the short-chain regime investigated. Coupled with thermodynamic integration methods, the models give good predictions of pressure-composition-density relations for CO 2 + PEO oligomers. Water effects on the Henry's constant of CO 2 in PEO have also been investigated. The dependence of the calculated Henry's constants on the weight percentage of water falls on a temperature-dependent master curve, irrespective of PEO chain length. CGNs are modeled by the inclusion of solid-sphere nanoparticles into the atomistic

  3. Initial piloted simulation study of geared flap control for tilt-wing V/STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guerrero, Lourdes M.; Corliss, Lloyd D.

    1991-01-01

    A simulation study of a representative tilt wing transport aircraft was conducted in 1990 on the Ames Vertical Motion Simulator. This simulation is in response to renewed interest in the tilt wing concept for use in future military and civil applications. For past tilt wing concepts, pitch control in hover and low-speed flight has required a tail rotor or reaction jets at the tail. Use of mono cyclic propellers or a geared flap have also been proposed as alternate methods for providing pitch control at low speed. The geared flap is a subject of this current study. This report describes the geared flap concept, the tilt wing aircraft, the simulation model, the simulation facility and experiment setup, the pilots' evaluation tasks and procedures, and the results obtained from the simulation experiment. The pilot evaluations and comments are also documented in the report appendix.

  4. Allosteric dynamics of SAMHD1 studied by molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, K. K.; Bhattacharya, A.; Bhattacharya, S.

    2016-10-01

    SAMHD1 is a human cellular enzyme that blocks HIV-1 infection in myeloid cells and non-cycling CD4+T cells. The enzyme is an allosterically regulated triphosphohydrolase that modulates the level of cellular dNTP. The virus restriction is attributed to the lowering of the pool of dNTP in the cell to a point where reverse-transcription is impaired. Mutations in SAMHD1 are also implicated in Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome. A mechanistic understanding of the allosteric activation of the enzyme is still elusive. We have performed molecular dynamics simulations to examine the allosteric site dynamics of the protein and to examine the connection between the stability of the tetrameric complex and the Allosite occupancy.

  5. A study of Kapton degradation under simulated shuttle environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eck, T. G.; Hoffman, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    A system was developed which employs a source of low energy oxygen ion to simulate the shuttle low Earth orbit environment. This source, together with diagnostic tools including surface analysis ans mass spectroscopic capability, was used to measure the dependence of ion energy of the oxygen induced CO signals from pyrolytic graphite and Kapton. For graphite the CO signal was examined at energies ranging form 4.5 to 465 eV and for Kapton from 4.5 to 188 eV. While the relative quantum yields inferred from the data are reasonably precise, there are large uncertainties in the absolute yields because of the assumptions necessary to covert the measured signal strengths to quantum yields. These assumptions are discussed in detail.

  6. Study on longitudinal force simulation of heavy-haul train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chongyi; Guo, Gang; Wang, Junbiao; Ma, Yingming

    2017-04-01

    The longitudinal dynamics model of heavy-haul trains and air brake model used in the longitudinal train dynamics (LTDs) are established. The dry friction damping hysteretic characteristic of steel friction draft gears is simulated by the equation which describes the suspension forces in truck leaf springs. The model of draft gears introduces dynamic loading force, viscous friction of steel friction and the damping force. Consequently, the numerical model of the draft gears is brought forward. The equation of LTDs is strongly non-linear. In order to solve the response of the strongly non-linear system, the high-precision and equilibrium iteration method based on the Newmark-β method is presented and numerical analysis is made. Longitudinal dynamic forces of the 20,000 tonnes heavy-haul train are tested, and models and solution method provided are verified by the test results.

  7. Shuttle/TDRSS modelling and link simulation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, W. R.; Mckenzie, T. M.; Biederman, L.; Lindsey, W. C.

    1979-01-01

    A Shuttle/TDRSS S-band and Ku-band link simulation package called LinCsim was developed for the evaluation of link performance for specific Shuttle signal designs. The link models were described in detail and the transmitter distortion parameters or user constraints were carefully defined. The overall link degradation (excluding hardware degradations) relative to an ideal BPSK channel were given for various sets of user constraint values. The performance sensitivity to each individual user constraint was then illustrated. The effect of excessive Spacelab clock jitter on the return link BER performance was also investigated as was the problem of subcarrier recovery for the K-band Shuttle return link signal.

  8. Interactions in charged colloidal suspensions: A molecular dynamics simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padidela, Uday Kumar; Behera, Raghu Nath

    2017-07-01

    Colloidal suspensions are extensively used in everyday life and find several applications in the pharmaceutical, chemical, food industries, etc. We present the classical molecular dynamics simulation results of the structural and transport properties of charged colloidal suspensions as a function of its size, charge and concentration. The system is viewed as a two-component (colloids and counterions) primitive model consisting of spherical colloid particle (macroion) and the counterions (micro-particles), which are treated explicitly. The solvent is treated as dielectric continuum. A systematic trend in the radial distribution functions g(r), potential of mean force W(r), different thermodynamic properties and diffusion coefficients is obtained as a function of colloid charge, size and concentration. An attractive minimum in W(r) is obtained at short interparticle distance.

  9. Polymer Architecture Effects in Confined Geometry: Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijesinghe, Sidath; Perahia, Dvora; Grest, Gary

    Luminescent rigid polymers confined into nanoparticles, or polydots, are emerging as a promising tool for nano medicine. The constrained architecture of a rigid backbone trapped in nano-dimensions results in photophysics that differs from that of spontaneously assembled rigid polymers. Incorporating ionizable functionalities in the polymers, often required for therapeutics, impacts the polymer conformation in solution. Here we report fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations on the structure of dialkyl p-phenylene ethynylene confined into polydots. We find that the structure and thermal stability of polydots are sensitive to both the molecular weight n and the carboxylation fraction f. At room temperature , polydots remain confined regardless of n and f . However, as temperature is increased, polydots with lower n or f rearrange whereas polydots with higher n or fremain confined, though no direct clustering of the ionic groups was observed. NSF CHE 1308298 is acknowledged.

  10. Experimental study on foam coverage on simulated longwall roof.

    PubMed

    Reed, W R; Zheng, Y; Klima, S; Shahan, M R; Beck, T W

    2017-01-01

    Testing was conducted to determine the ability of foam to maintain roof coverage in a simulated longwall mining environment. Approximately 27 percent of respirable coal mine dust can be attributed to longwall shield movement, and developing controls for this dust source has been difficult. The application of foam is a possible dust control method for this source. Laboratory testing of two foam agents was conducted to determine the ability of the foam to adhere to a simulated longwall face roof surface. Two different foam generation methods were used: compressed air and blower air. Using a new imaging technology, image processing and analysis utilizing ImageJ software produced quantifiable results of foam roof coverage. For compressed air foam in 3.3 m/s (650 fpm) ventilation, 98 percent of agent A was intact while 95 percent of agent B was intact on the roof at three minutes after application. At 30 minutes after application, 94 percent of agent A was intact while only 20 percent of agent B remained. For blower air in 3.3 m/s (650 fpm) ventilation, the results were dependent upon nozzle type. Three different nozzles were tested. At 30 min after application, 74 to 92 percent of foam agent A remained, while 3 to 50 percent of foam agent B remained. Compressed air foam seems to remain intact for longer durations and is easier to apply than blower air foam. However, more water drained from the foam when using compressed air foam, which demonstrates that blower air foam retains more water at the roof surface. Agent A seemed to be the better performer as far as roof application is concerned. This testing demonstrates that roof application of foam is feasible and is able to withstand a typical face ventilation velocity, establishing this technique's potential for longwall shield dust control.

  11. Experimental study on foam coverage on simulated longwall roof

    PubMed Central

    Reed, W.R.; Zheng, Y.; Klima, S.; Shahan, M.R.; Beck, T.W.

    2018-01-01

    Testing was conducted to determine the ability of foam to maintain roof coverage in a simulated longwall mining environment. Approximately 27 percent of respirable coal mine dust can be attributed to longwall shield movement, and developing controls for this dust source has been difficult. The application of foam is a possible dust control method for this source. Laboratory testing of two foam agents was conducted to determine the ability of the foam to adhere to a simulated longwall face roof surface. Two different foam generation methods were used: compressed air and blower air. Using a new imaging technology, image processing and analysis utilizing ImageJ software produced quantifiable results of foam roof coverage. For compressed air foam in 3.3 m/s (650 fpm) ventilation, 98 percent of agent A was intact while 95 percent of agent B was intact on the roof at three minutes after application. At 30 minutes after application, 94 percent of agent A was intact while only 20 percent of agent B remained. For blower air in 3.3 m/s (650 fpm) ventilation, the results were dependent upon nozzle type. Three different nozzles were tested. At 30 min after application, 74 to 92 percent of foam agent A remained, while 3 to 50 percent of foam agent B remained. Compressed air foam seems to remain intact for longer durations and is easier to apply than blower air foam. However, more water drained from the foam when using compressed air foam, which demonstrates that blower air foam retains more water at the roof surface. Agent A seemed to be the better performer as far as roof application is concerned. This testing demonstrates that roof application of foam is feasible and is able to withstand a typical face ventilation velocity, establishing this technique’s potential for longwall shield dust control. PMID:29563765

  12. Simulation studies of a wide area health care network.

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, J. G.

    1994-01-01

    There is an increasing number of efforts to install wide area health care networks. Some of these networks are being built to support several applications over a wide user base consisting primarily of medical practices, hospitals, pharmacies, medical laboratories, payors, and suppliers. Although on-line, multi-media telecommunication is desirable for some purposes such as cardiac monitoring, store-and-forward messaging is adequate for many common, high-volume applications. Laboratory test results and payment claims, for example, can be distributed using electronic messaging networks. Several network prototypes have been constructed to determine the technical problems and to assess the effectiveness of electronic messaging in wide area health care networks. Our project, Health Link, developed prototype software that was able to use the public switched telephone network to exchange messages automatically, reliably and securely. The network could be configured to accommodate the many different traffic patterns and cost constraints of its users. Discrete event simulations were performed on several network models. Canonical star and mesh networks, that were composed of nodes operating at steady state under equal loads, were modeled. Both topologies were found to support the throughput of a generic wide area health care network. The mean message delivery time of the mesh network was found to be less than that of the star network. Further simulations were conducted for a realistic large-scale health care network consisting of 1,553 doctors, 26 hospitals, four medical labs, one provincial lab and one insurer. Two network topologies were investigated: one using predominantly peer-to-peer communication, the other using client-server communication.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7949966

  13. DWPF SIMULANT CPC STUDIES FOR SB7B

    SciT

    Koopman, D.

    2011-11-01

    Lab-scale DWPF simulations of Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b) processing were performed. Testing was performed at the Savannah River National Laboratory - Aiken County Technology Laboratory (SRNL-ACTL). The primary goal of the simulations was to define a likely operating window for acid stoichiometry for the DWPF Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT). In addition, the testing established conditions for the SRNL Shielded Cells qualification simulation of SB7b-Tank 40 blend, supported validation of the current glass redox model, and validated the coupled process flowsheet at the nominal acid stoichiometry. An acid window of 105-140% by the Koopman minimum acid (KMA) equation (107-142%more » DWPF Hsu equation) worked for the sludge-only flowsheet. Nitrite was present in the SRAT product for the 105% KMA run at 366 mg/kg, while SME cycle hydrogen reached 94% of the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle limit in the 140% KMA run. The window was determined for sludge with added caustic (0.28M additional base, or roughly 12,000 gallons 50% NaOH to 820,000 gallons waste slurry). A suitable processing window appears to be 107-130% DWPF acid equation for sludge-only processing allowing some conservatism for the mapping of lab-scale simulant data to full-scale real waste processing including potentially non-conservative noble metal and mercury concentrations. This window should be usable with or without the addition of up to 7,000 gallons of caustic to the batch. The window could potentially be wider if caustic is not added to SB7b. It is recommended that DWPF begin processing SB7b at 115% stoichiometry using the current DWPF equation. The factor could be increased if necessary, but changes should be made with caution and in small increments. DWPF should not concentrate past 48 wt.% total solids in the SME cycle if moderate hydrogen generation is occurring simultaneously. The coupled flowsheet simulation made more hydrogen in the SRAT and SME cycles than the sludge-only run

  14. Simulation study of interactions of Space Shuttle-generated electron beams with ambient plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Chin S.

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes results obtained through the support of NASA Grant NAGW-1936. The objective of this report is to conduct large scale simulations of electron beams injected into space. The topics covered include the following: (1) simulation of radial expansion of an injected electron beam; (2) simulations of the active injections of electron beams; (3) parameter study of electron beam injection into an ionospheric plasma; and (4) magnetosheath-ionospheric plasma interactions in the cusp.

  15. Genetic Simulation Tools for Post-Genome Wide Association Studies of Complex Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Amos, Christopher I.; Bafna, Vineet; Hauser, Elizabeth R.; Hernandez, Ryan D.; Li, Chun; Liberles, David A.; McAllister, Kimberly; Moore, Jason H.; Paltoo, Dina N.; Papanicolaou, George J.; Peng, Bo; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Rosenfeld, Gabriel; Witte, John S.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic simulation programs are used to model data under specified assumptions to facilitate the understanding and study of complex genetic systems. Standardized data sets generated using genetic simulation are essential for the development and application of novel analytical tools in genetic epidemiology studies. With continuing advances in high-throughput genomic technologies and generation and analysis of larger, more complex data sets, there is a need for updating current approaches in genetic simulation modeling. To provide a forum to address current and emerging challenges in this area, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) sponsored a workshop, entitled “Genetic Simulation Tools for Post-Genome Wide Association Studies of Complex Diseases” at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, Maryland on March 11-12, 2014. The goals of the workshop were to: (i) identify opportunities, challenges and resource needs for the development and application of genetic simulation models; (ii) improve the integration of tools for modeling and analysis of simulated data; and (iii) foster collaborations to facilitate development and applications of genetic simulation. During the course of the meeting the group identified challenges and opportunities for the science of simulation, software and methods development, and collaboration. This paper summarizes key discussions at the meeting, and highlights important challenges and opportunities to advance the field of genetic simulation. PMID:25371374

  16. A review of the curriculum development process of simulation-based educational intervention studies in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju-Young; Lee, Soon Hee; Kim, Jung-Hee

    2018-05-01

    Despite the increase in simulators at nursing schools and the high expectations regarding simulation for nursing education, the unique features of integrating simulation-based education into the curriculum are unclear. The purpose of this study was to assess the curriculum development process of simulation-based educational interventions in nursing in Korea. Integrative review of literature used. Korean Studies Information Services System (KISS), Korean Medical Database (KMbase), KoreaMed, Research Information Sharing Service (RISS), and National Digital Library (NDL). Comprehensive databases were searched for records without a time limit (until December 2016), using terms such as "nursing," "simulation," and "education." A total of 1006 studies were screened. According to the model for simulation-based curriculum development (Khamis et al., 2016), the quality of reporting on the curriculum development was reviewed. A total of 125 papers were included in this review. In three studies, simulation scenarios were made from easy to difficulty levels, and none of the studies presented the level of learners' proficiency. Only 17.6% of the studies reported faculty development or preparation. The inter-rater reliability was presented in performance test by 24 studies and two studies evaluated the long-term effects of simulation education although there was no statistically significant change in terms of publication years. These findings suggest that educators and researchers should pay more attention to the educational strategies to integrate simulation into nursing education. It could contribute to guiding educators and researchers to develop a simulation-based curriculum and improve the quality of nursing education research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Simulation of traumatic brain injury symptoms on the Personality Assessment Inventory: an analogue study.

    PubMed

    Keiski, Michelle A; Shore, Douglas L; Hamilton, Joanna M; Malec, James F

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the operating characteristics of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) validity scales in distinguishing simulators feigning symptoms of traumatic brain injury (TBI) while completing the PAI (n = 84) from a clinical sample of patients with TBI who achieved adequate scores on performance validity tests (n = 112). The simulators were divided into two groups: (a) Specific Simulators feigning cognitive and somatic symptoms only or (b) Global Simulators feigning cognitive, somatic, and psychiatric symptoms. The PAI overreporting scales were indeed sensitive to the simulation of TBI symptoms in this analogue design. However, these scales were less sensitive to the feigning of somatic and cognitive TBI symptoms than the feigning of a broad range of cognitive, somatic, and emotional symptoms often associated with TBI. The relationships of TBI simulation to consistency and underreporting scales are also explored. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Preliminary simulation study on regional climate change in Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Chunqiong; Guo, Qingyu; Xie, Hongbing; Pan, Xiaoling; Anabiek, Subai

    2004-01-01

    Under the conditions of global warming, the degenerated ecological environment has threatened human survival. Therefore, people will gradually pay more attention to the environmental problem of climate change. This paper analyzes the distribution features of air temperature, relative humidity (precipitation), and the horizontal stream field in Xinjiang for July 1997. In order to do the integration of one month (July, 1997) we ran the model NCAP/PENN MM5V3. Data from WLCCD (the latest World Land Cover Characteristics Database) was used to relate the two research domains of the model, and also to replace the vegetation in the MM5. The data in the WWLCD depends on the actual land surface characteristics. It was found that the general law of air temperature, relative humidity (precipitation) and the horizontal stream field of 1000hPa in Xinjiang in July of 1997 by means of the model. The mean regional data for July helped prefect the theory that humans are controlling the ecological environment in order to prevent and control desertification. Among these results, the simulated air temperature was the best.

  19. An experimental simulation study of four crosswind landing gear concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stubbs, S. M.; Byrdsong, T. A.; Sleeper, R. K.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted in order to evaluate several crosswind landing-gear concepts which have a potential application to tricycle-gear-configured, short take-off and landing (STOL) aircraft landing at crab or heading angles up to 30 deg. In this investigation, the landing gears were installed on a dynamic model which had a scaled mass distribution and gear spacing but no aerodynamic similarities when compared with a typical STOL aircraft. The model was operated as a free body with radio-control steering and was launched onto a runway sloped laterally in order to provide a simulated crosswind side force. During the landing rollout, the gear forces and the model trajectory were measured and the various concepts were compared with each other. Within the test limitations, the landing gear system, in which the gears were alined by the pilot and locked in the direction of motion prior to touchdown, gave the smoothest runout behavior with the vehicle maintaining its crab angle throughout the landing runout.

  20. Road characteristics and driver fatigue: a simulator study.

    PubMed

    Oron-Gilad, Tal; Ronen, Adi

    2007-09-01

    Two experiments examined the influence of road characteristics on driver fatigue in a prolonged simulator drive. In experiment one, ten military truck drivers drove a mixed route, with straight, winding, and straight highway segments. In experiment two, 16 additional drivers drove either a straight, a winding, or a mixed route. Fatigue symptoms were assessed using performance, subjective, and psychophysiological measures (HRV). We hypothesized that drivers adopt different fatigue-coping strategies relative to the demands of the drive. Thus, on straight roads drivers are more likely to loosen their driving demands by either increasing their driving speed and/or not maintaining the lane position, as the road is tolerant to both strategies, whereas on winding roads, drivers are more likely to increase their speed but not their lane positioning. Our results confirm that decremental changes in driving performance varied among road types. In the straight road components, we found decrements in the quality of lane maintaining (experiment one) and steering quality (experiments one and two) and longitudinal speed (experiment two). In the winding road, we found that drivers increased their driving speed over time (experiments one and two).

  1. A simulator-based study of in-flight auscultation.

    PubMed

    Tourtier, Jean-Pierre; Libert, Nicolas; Clapson, Patrick; Dubourdieu, Stéphane; Jost, Daniel; Tazarourte, Karim; Astaud, Cécil-Emmanuel; Debien, Bruno; Auroy, Yves

    2014-04-01

    The use of a stethoscope is essential to the delivery of continuous, supportive en route care during aeromedical evacuations. We compared the capability of 2 stethoscopes (electronic, Litmann 3000; conventional, Litmann Cardiology III) at detecting pathologic heart and lung sounds, aboard a C135, a medical transport aircraft. Sounds were mimicked using a mannequin-based simulator SimMan. Five practitioners examined the mannequin during a fly, with a variety of abnormalities as follows: crackles, wheezing, right and left lung silence, as well as systolic, diastolic, and Austin-Flint murmur. The comparison for diagnosis assessed (correct or wrong) between using the electronic and conventional stethoscopes were performed as a McNemar test. A total of 70 evaluations were performed. For cardiac sounds, diagnosis was right in 0/15 and 4/15 auscultations, respectively, with conventional and electronic stethoscopes (McNemar test, P = 0.13). For lung sounds, right diagnosis was found with conventional stethoscope in 10/20 auscultations versus 18/20 with electronic stethoscope (P = 0.013). Flight practitioners involved in aeromedical evacuation on C135 plane are more able to practice lung auscultation on a mannequin with this amplified stethoscope than with the traditional one. No benefit was found for heart sounds.

  2. Stress, deformation and diffusion interactions in solids - A simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, F. D.; Svoboda, J.

    2015-05-01

    Equations of diffusion treated in the frame of Manning's concept, are completed by equations for generation/annihilation of vacancies at non-ideal sources and sinks, by conservation laws, by equations for generation of an eigenstrain state and by a strain-stress analysis. The stress-deformation-diffusion interactions are demonstrated on the evolution of a diffusion couple consisting of two thin layers of different chemical composition forming a free-standing plate without external loading. The equations are solved for different material parameters represented by the values of diffusion coefficients of individual components and by the intensity of sources and sinks for vacancies. The results of simulations indicate that for low intensity of sources and sinks for vacancies a significant eigenstress state can develop and the interdiffusion process is slowed down. For high intensity of sources and sinks for vacancies a significant eigenstrain state can develop and the eigenstress state quickly relaxes. If the difference in the diffusion coefficients of individual components is high, then the intensity of sources and sinks for vacancies influences the interdiffusion process considerably. For such systems their description only by diffusion coefficients is insufficient and must be completed by a microstructure characterization.

  3. A Simulation to Study Speed Distributions in a Solar Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheeseman, Peter; Alvarellos, Jose Luis

    1999-01-01

    We have carried out a numerical simulation of a plasma with characteristics similar to those found in the core of the Sun. Particular emphasis is placed on the Coulomb interaction between the ions and electrons, which could result in a relative velocity distribution different from the Maxwell-Boltzmann (MB) distribution generally assumed for a plasma. The fact that the distribution may not exactly follow the MB distribution could have very important consequences for a variety of problems in solar physics, especially the neutrino problem. Very briefly, the neutrino problem is that the observed neutrino detections from the Sun are smaller than what the standard solar theory predicts. In Section I we introduce the problem and in section II we discuss the approach to try to solve the problem: i.e., a molecular dynamics approach. In section III we provide details about the integration method, and any simplifications that can be applied to the problem. In section IV (the core of this report) we state our results. First for the specific case of 1000 particles and then for other cases with different number of particles. In section V we summarize our findings and state our conclusions. Sections VI VII and VIII provide the list of figures, reference material and acknowledgements respectively.

  4. Exporting simulation technology to the Philippines: a comparative study of traditional versus simulation methods for teaching intravenous cannulation.

    PubMed

    Sotto, Juan Alejandro R; Ayuste, Eduardo C; Bowyer, Mark W; Almonte, Josefina R; Dofitas, Rodney B; Lapitan, Marie C M; Pimentel, Elisabeth A; Ritter, E Matthew; Wherry, David C

    2009-01-01

    This study examines effectiveness of a donated Laerdal Virtual I.V. simulator when compared with traditional methods of teaching intravenous (IV) cannulation to third year medical students in the Philippines. Forty novice Filipino medical students viewed an instructional video on how to start intravenous lines and were then randomly divided into two groups of twenty. The "Traditional" group observed an IV insertion on an actual patient performed by an experienced practitioner, and then subsequently performed an IV on an actual patient which was videotaped. The "Simulation" group practiced the Virtual I.V. simulator until they successfully completed level three using the "doctor" setting. These students then performed an IV on an actual patient which was videotaped. The videotapes for both groups were reviewed by two pre-trained (Inter-rater reliability of > or =0.84) observers who were blinded to the group using a previously validated checklist for IV insertion. Students trained on the Virtual I.V. showed significantly greater success in successfully starting an IV on an actual patient (40% VS. 15%, p<0.05), decreased constrictive band time (p<.05), increased raw score on the check list (p<.03), and decreased overall time to start an IV (p<.05). The technology was well received but wider application in the non western world is limited by lack of in country company support and the relative expense.

  5. A Simulation Study Comparing Procedures for Assessing Individual Educational Growth. Report No. 182.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, James M., Jr.

    A computer simulation procedure was developed to reproduce the overall pattern of results obtained in the Educational Testing Service Growth Study. Then simulated data for seven sets of 10,000 to 15,000 cases were analyzed, and findings compared on the basis of correlations between estimated and true growth scores. Findings showed that growth was…

  6. The Impact of Learner's Prior Knowledge on Their Use of Chemistry Computer Simulations: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Han-Chin; Andre, Thomas; Greenbowe, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    It is complicated to design a computer simulation that adapts to students with different characteristics. This study documented cases that show how college students' prior chemistry knowledge level affected their interaction with peers and their approach to solving problems with the use of computer simulations that were designed to learn…

  7. Exploring the Perceptions of College Instructors towards Computer Simulation Software Programs: A Quantitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Punch, Raymond J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the quantitative regression study was to explore and to identify relationships between attitudes toward use and perceptions of value of computer-based simulation programs, of college instructors, toward computer based simulation programs. A relationship has been reported between attitudes toward use and perceptions of the value of…

  8. Assisted Sonication vs Conventional Transesterification Numerical Simulation and Sensitivity Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janajreh, Isam; Noorul Hussain, Mohammed; El Samad, Tala

    2015-10-01

    Transeterification is known as slow reaction that can take over several hours to complete as the two immiscible liquid reactants combine to form biodiesel and the less favorable glycerol. The quest of finding the perfect catalyst, optimal operational conditions, and reactor configuration to accelerate the reaction in mere few minutes that ensures high quality biodiesel, in economically viable way is coming along with sonication. This drastic reduction is a key enabler for the development of a continuous processing that otherwise is fairly costly and low throughput using conventional method. The reaction kinetics of sonication assisted as inferred by several authors is several time faster and this work implements these rates in a high fidelity numerical simulation model. This flow model is based on Navier-Stokes equations coupled with energy equation for non-isothermal flow and the transport equations of the multiple reactive species. The model is initially validated against experimental data from previous work of the authors using an annular reactor configuration. Following the validation, comparison of the reaction rate is shown to gain more insight to the distribution of the reaction and its attained rates. The two models (conventional and sonication) then compared on the basis of their sensitivity to the methane to oil molar ratio as the most pronounced process parameter. Both the exit reactor yield and the distribution of the species are evaluated with favorable yield under sonication process. These results pave the way to build a more robust process intensified reactor having an integrated selective heterogeneous catalyst to steer the reaction. This can avoid the downstream cleaning processes, cutting reaction time, and render economic benefit to the process.

  9. Use of a Metronome in Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: A Simulation Study.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Elise; Cohen, Naiomi; Maniaci, Vincenzo; Pena, Barbara; Lozano, Juan Manuel; Linares, Marc

    2015-11-01

    Determine whether the use of a metronome improves chest compression rate and depth during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on a pediatric manikin. A prospective, simulation-based, crossover, randomized controlled trial was conducted. Participants included pediatric residents, fellows, nurses, and medical students who were randomly assigned to perform chest compressions on a pediatric manikin with and without an audible metronome. Each participant performed 2 rounds of 2 minutes of chest compressions separated by a 15-minute break. A total of 155 participants performed 2 rounds of chest compressions (74 with the metronome on during the first round and 81 with the metronome on during the second round of CPR). There was a significant improvement in the mean percentage of compressions delivered within an adequate rate (90-100 compressions per minute) with the metronome on compared with off (72% vs 50%; mean difference [MD] 22%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 15% to 29%). No significant difference was noted in the mean percentage of compressions within acceptable depth (38-51 mm) (72% vs 70%; MD 2%; 95% CI, -2% to 6%). The metronome had a larger effect among medical students (73% vs 55%; MD 18%; 95% CI, 8% to 28%) and pediatric residents and fellows (84% vs 48%; MD 37%; 95% CI, 27% to 46%) but not among pediatric nurses (46% vs 48%; MD -3%; 95% CI, -19% to 14%). The rate of chest compressions during CPR can be optimized by the use of a metronome. These findings will help medical professionals comply with the American Heart Association guidelines. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Molecular dynamics simulation studies of novel β-lactamase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Ul Haq, Farhan; Abro, Asma; Raza, Saad; Liedl, Klaus R; Azam, Syed Sikander

    2017-06-01

    New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase-1 (NDM-1) has drawn great attention due to its diverse antibiotic resistant activity. It can hydrolyze almost all clinically available β-lactam antibiotics. To inhibit the activity of NDM-1 a new strategy is proposed using computational methods. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to analyze the molecular interactions between selected inhibitor candidates and NDM-1 structure. The enzyme-ligand complex is subject to binding free energy calculations using MM(PB/GB)SA methods. The role of each residue of the active site contributing in ligand binding affinity is explored using energy decomposition analysis. Furthermore, a hydrogen bonding network between ligand and enzyme active site is observed and key residues are identified ensuring that the ligand stays inside the active site and maintains its movement towards the active site pocket. A production run of 150ns is carried out and results are analyzed using root mean square deviation (RMSD), root mean square fluctuation (RMSF), and radius of gyration (Rg) to explain the stability of enzyme ligand complex. Important active site residue e.g. PHE70, VAL73, TRP93, HIS122, GLN123, ASP124, HIS189, LYS216, CYS208, LYS211, ALA215, HIS250, and SER251 were observed to be involved in ligand attachemet inside the active site pocket, hence depicting its inhibitor potential. Hydrogen bonds involved in structural stability are analyzed through radial distribution function (RDF) and contribution of important residues involved in ligand movement is explained using a novel analytical tool, axial frequency distribution (AFD) to observe the role of important hydrogen bonding partners between ligand atoms and active site residues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Space station Simulation Computer System (SCS) study for NASA/MSFC. Volume 5: Study analysis report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Simulation Computer System (SCS) is the computer hardware, software, and workstations that will support the Payload Training Complex (PTC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The PTC will train the space station payload scientists, station scientists, and ground controllers to operate the wide variety of experiments that will be on-board the Freedom Space Station. The further analysis performed on the SCS study as part of task 2-Perform Studies and Parametric Analysis-of the SCS study contract is summarized. These analyses were performed to resolve open issues remaining after the completion of task 1, and the publishing of the SCS study issues report. The results of these studies provide inputs into SCS task 3-Develop and present SCS requirements, and SCS task 4-develop SCS conceptual designs. The purpose of these studies is to resolve the issues into usable requirements given the best available information at the time of the study. A list of all the SCS study issues is given.

  12. Simulation-based education with deliberate practice may improve intraoperative handoff skills: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Pukenas, Erin W; Dodson, Gregory; Deal, Edward R; Gratz, Irwin; Allen, Elaine; Burden, Amanda R

    2014-11-01

    To examine the results of simulation-based education with deliberate practice on the acquisition of handoff skills by studying resident intraoperative handoff communication performances. Preinvention and postintervention pilot study. Simulated operating room of a university-affiliated hospital. Resident handoff performances during 27 encounters simulating elective surgery were studied. Ten residents (CA-1, CA-2, and CA-3) participated in a one-day simulation-based handoff course. Each resident repeated simulated handoffs to deliberately practice with an intraoperative handoff checklist. One year later, 7 of the 10 residents participated in simulated intraoperative handoffs. All handoffs were videotaped and later scored for accuracy by trained raters. A handoff assessment tool was used to characterize the type and frequency of communication failures. The percentage of handoff errors and omissions were compared before simulation and postsimulation-based education with deliberate practice and at one year following the course. Initially, the overall communication failure rate, defined as the percentage of handoff omissions plus errors, was 29.7%. After deliberate practice with the intraoperative handoff checklist, the communication failure rate decreased to 16.8%, and decreased further to 13.2% one year after the course. Simulation-based education using deliberate practice may result in improved intraoperative handoff communication and retention of skills at one year. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of Simulated Ground Motions in Earthquake Engineering Practice: A Case Study for Duzce (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimzadeh, Shaghayegh; Askan, Aysegul; Yakut, Ahmet

    2017-09-01

    Simulated ground motions can be used in structural and earthquake engineering practice as an alternative to or to augment the real ground motion data sets. Common engineering applications of simulated motions are linear and nonlinear time history analyses of building structures, where full acceleration records are necessary. Before using simulated ground motions in such applications, it is important to assess those in terms of their frequency and amplitude content as well as their match with the corresponding real records. In this study, a framework is outlined for assessment of simulated ground motions in terms of their use in structural engineering. Misfit criteria are determined for both ground motion parameters and structural response by comparing the simulated values against the corresponding real values. For this purpose, as a case study, the 12 November 1999 Duzce earthquake is simulated using stochastic finite-fault methodology. Simulated records are employed for time history analyses of frame models of typical residential buildings. Next, the relationships between ground motion misfits and structural response misfits are studied. Results show that the seismological misfits around the fundamental period of selected buildings determine the accuracy of the simulated responses in terms of their agreement with the observed responses.

  14. New media simulation stories in nursing education: a quasi-experimental study exploring learning outcomes.

    PubMed

    Webb-Corbett, Robin; Schwartz, Melissa Renee; Green, Bob; Sessoms, Andrea; Swanson, Melvin

    2013-04-01

    New media simulation stories are short multimedia presentations that combine simulation, digital technology, and story branching to depict a variety of healthcare-related scenarios. The purpose of this study was to explore whether learning outcomes were enhanced if students viewed the results of both correct and incorrect nursing actions demonstrated through new media simulation stories. A convenience sample of 109 undergraduate nursing students in a family-centered maternity course participated in the study. Study findings suggests that students who viewed both correct and incorrect depictions of maternity nursing actions scored better on tests than did those students who viewed only correct nursing actions.

  15. Simulation studies of STOL airplane operations in metropolitan downtown and airport air traffic control environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, R. H.; Mclaughlin, M. D.

    1974-01-01

    The operating problems and equipment requirements for STOL airplanes in terminal area operations in simulated air traffic control (ATC) environments were studied. These studies consisted of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) arrivals and departures in the New York area to and from a downtown STOL port, STOL runways at John F. Kennedy International Airport, or STOL runways at a hypothetical international airport. The studies were accomplished in real time by using a STOL airplane flight simulator. An experimental powered lift STOL airplane and two in-service airplanes having high aerodynamic lift (i.e., STOL) capability were used in the simulations.

  16. Experiment-scale molecular simulation study of liquid crystal thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Trung Dac; Carrillo, Jan-Michael Y.; Matheson, Michael A.; Brown, W. Michael

    2014-03-01

    Supercomputers have now reached a performance level adequate for studying thin films with molecular detail at the relevant scales. By exploiting the power of GPU accelerators on Titan, we have been able to perform simulations of characteristic liquid crystal films that provide remarkable qualitative agreement with experimental images. We have demonstrated that key features of spinodal instability can only be observed with sufficiently large system sizes, which were not accessible with previous simulation studies. Our study emphasizes the capability and significance of petascale simulations in providing molecular-level insights in thin film systems as well as other interfacial phenomena.

  17. A Novel Simulation Technician Laboratory Design: Results of a Survey-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Patrick G; Friedl, Ed; Ortiz Figueroa, Fabiana; Cepeda Brito, Jose R; Frey, Jennifer; Birmingham, Lauren E; Atkinson, Steven Scott

    2016-01-01

    Objective  The purpose of this study was to elicit feedback from simulation technicians prior to developing the first simulation technician-specific simulation laboratory in Akron, OH. Background Simulation technicians serve a vital role in simulation centers within hospitals/health centers around the world. The first simulation technician degree program in the US has been approved in Akron, OH. To satisfy the requirements of this program and to meet the needs of this special audience of learners, a customized simulation lab is essential.  Method A web-based survey was circulated to simulation technicians prior to completion of the lab for the new program. The survey consisted of questions aimed at identifying structural and functional design elements of a novel simulation center for the training of simulation technicians. Quantitative methods were utilized to analyze data. Results Over 90% of technicians (n=65) think that a lab designed explicitly for the training of technicians is novel and beneficial. Approximately 75% of respondents think that the space provided appropriate audiovisual (AV) infrastructure and space to evaluate the ability of technicians to be independent. The respondents think that the lab needed more storage space, visualization space for a large number of students, and more space in the technical/repair area. Conclusions  A space designed for the training of simulation technicians was considered to be beneficial. This laboratory requires distinct space for technical repair, adequate bench space for the maintenance and repair of simulators, an appropriate AV infrastructure, and space to evaluate the ability of technicians to be independent. PMID:27096134

  18. A Novel Simulation Technician Laboratory Design: Results of a Survey-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Rami; Hughes, Patrick G; Friedl, Ed; Ortiz Figueroa, Fabiana; Cepeda Brito, Jose R; Frey, Jennifer; Birmingham, Lauren E; Atkinson, Steven Scott

    2016-03-16

    OBJECTIVE : The purpose of this study was to elicit feedback from simulation technicians prior to developing the first simulation technician-specific simulation laboratory in Akron, OH. Simulation technicians serve a vital role in simulation centers within hospitals/health centers around the world. The first simulation technician degree program in the US has been approved in Akron, OH. To satisfy the requirements of this program and to meet the needs of this special audience of learners, a customized simulation lab is essential. A web-based survey was circulated to simulation technicians prior to completion of the lab for the new program. The survey consisted of questions aimed at identifying structural and functional design elements of a novel simulation center for the training of simulation technicians. Quantitative methods were utilized to analyze data. Over 90% of technicians (n=65) think that a lab designed explicitly for the training of technicians is novel and beneficial. Approximately 75% of respondents think that the space provided appropriate audiovisual (AV) infrastructure and space to evaluate the ability of technicians to be independent. The respondents think that the lab needed more storage space, visualization space for a large number of students, and more space in the technical/repair area. CONCLUSIONS : A space designed for the training of simulation technicians was considered to be beneficial. This laboratory requires distinct space for technical repair, adequate bench space for the maintenance and repair of simulators, an appropriate AV infrastructure, and space to evaluate the ability of technicians to be independent.

  19. Analytical stability and simulation response study for a coupled two-body system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, K. M.; Roberts, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    An analytical stability study and a digital simulation response study of two connected rigid bodies are documented. Relative rotation of the bodies at the connection is allowed, thereby providing a model suitable for studying system stability and response during a soft-dock regime. Provisions are made of a docking port axes alignment torque and a despin torque capability for encountering spinning payloads. Although the stability analysis is based on linearized equations, the digital simulation is based on nonlinear models.

  20. Simulation studies of the fidelity of biomolecular structure ensemble recreation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lätzer, Joachim; Eastwood, Michael P.; Wolynes, Peter G.

    2006-12-01

    We examine the ability of Bayesian methods to recreate structural ensembles for partially folded molecules from averaged data. Specifically we test the ability of various algorithms to recreate different transition state ensembles for folding proteins using a multiple replica simulation algorithm using input from "gold standard" reference ensembles that were first generated with a Gō-like Hamiltonian having nonpairwise additive terms. A set of low resolution data, which function as the "experimental" ϕ values, were first constructed from this reference ensemble. The resulting ϕ values were then treated as one would treat laboratory experimental data and were used as input in the replica reconstruction algorithm. The resulting ensembles of structures obtained by the replica algorithm were compared to the gold standard reference ensemble, from which those "data" were, in fact, obtained. It is found that for a unimodal transition state ensemble with a low barrier, the multiple replica algorithm does recreate the reference ensemble fairly successfully when no experimental error is assumed. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test as well as principal component analysis show that the overlap of the recovered and reference ensembles is significantly enhanced when multiple replicas are used. Reduction of the multiple replica ensembles by clustering successfully yields subensembles with close similarity to the reference ensembles. On the other hand, for a high barrier transition state with two distinct transition state ensembles, the single replica algorithm only samples a few structures of one of the reference ensemble basins. This is due to the fact that the ϕ values are intrinsically ensemble averaged quantities. The replica algorithm with multiple copies does sample both reference ensemble basins. In contrast to the single replica case, the multiple replicas are constrained to reproduce the average ϕ values, but allow fluctuations in ϕ for each individual copy. These

  1. Computational study of nonlinear plasma waves. [plasma simulation model applied to electrostatic waves in collisionless plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsuda, Y.

    1974-01-01

    A low-noise plasma simulation model is developed and applied to a series of linear and nonlinear problems associated with electrostatic wave propagation in a one-dimensional, collisionless, Maxwellian plasma, in the absence of magnetic field. It is demonstrated that use of the hybrid simulation model allows economical studies to be carried out in both the linear and nonlinear regimes with better quantitative results, for comparable computing time, than can be obtained by conventional particle simulation models, or direct solution of the Vlasov equation. The characteristics of the hybrid simulation model itself are first investigated, and it is shown to be capable of verifying the theoretical linear dispersion relation at wave energy levels as low as .000001 of the plasma thermal energy. Having established the validity of the hybrid simulation model, it is then used to study the nonlinear dynamics of monochromatic wave, sideband instability due to trapped particles, and satellite growth.

  2. Computer Simulation in the Social Sciences/Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klassen, Daniel L.

    Computers are beginning to be used more frequently as instructional tools in secondary school social studies. This is especially true of "new social studies" programs; i.e., programs which subordinate mere mastery of factual content to the recognition of and ability to deal with the social imperatives of the future. Computer-assisted…

  3. Fundus oculi pigmentation studies simulating the fs-LASIK process Fundus oculi pigmentation studies simulating the fs-LASIK process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sander, M.; Minet, O.; Zabarylo, U.; Müller, M.; Tetz, M. R.

    2012-06-01

    The femtosecond-laser in situ keratomileusis (fs-LASIK) technique has successfully entered the refractive surgery market to correct ametropia by cutting transparent corneal tissue with ultra-short laser pulses based on photodisruption. The laser pulses in the near infrared range (NIR) generate a laser-induced breakdown (LIOB) in the cornea. By propagating through the eye, a certain amount of the pulse is deposited in the cornea and the remaining energy interacts with the strong absorbing tissue behind. Due to the absorption by the retinal pigment epithelium and the transfer of the thermal energy to surrounding tissue, the transmitted energy can induce damage to the retina. The aim of this project was to find out the threshold influences concerning the tissue and the correlation between the results of the macroscopical appraisal and the fundus oculi pigmentation by simulating the fs-LASIK procedure with two various laser systems in the continuous wave (CW) and fs-regime. Therefore ex-vivo determinations were carried out macroscopically and histopathologically on porcine tissue.

  4. Radiation damage in WC studied with MD simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Träskelin, P.; Björkas, C.; Juslin, N.; Vörtler, K.; Nordlund, K.

    2007-04-01

    Studying radiation damage in tungsten carbide (WC) is of importance due to its applications in fusion reactors. We have used molecular dynamics to study both deuterium induced sputtering and modification of WC surfaces and collision cascades in bulk WC. For collision cascades in bulk WC we note a massive recombination and major elemental asymmetry for the damage. Studying the erosion of WC surfaces, we find that C can erode through swift chemical sputtering, while W does not sputter more easily than from pure W. The amorphization of the surface and the D-content due to the D bombardment is important for the damage production and sputtering process.

  5. Numerical aerodynamic simulation facility preliminary study, volume 2 and appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Data to support results obtained in technology assessment studies are presented. Objectives, starting points, and future study tasks are outlined. Key design issues discussed in appendices include: data allocation, transposition network design, fault tolerance and trustworthiness, logic design, processing element of existing components, number of processors, the host system, alternate data base memory designs, number representation, fast div 521 instruction, architectures, and lockstep array versus synchronizable array machine comparison.

  6. Simulation Study of Flap Effects on a Commercial Transport Airplane in Upset Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Kevin; Foster, John V.; Shah, Gautam H.; Stewart, Eric C.; Ventura, Robin N.; Rivers, Robert A.; Wilborn, James E.; Gato, William

    2005-01-01

    As part of NASA's Aviation Safety and Security Program, a simulation study of a twinjet transport airplane crew training simulation was conducted to address fidelity for upset or loss of control conditions and to study the effect of flap configuration in those regimes. Piloted and desktop simulations were used to compare the baseline crew training simulation model with an enhanced aerodynamic model that was developed for high-angle-of-attack conditions. These studies were conducted with various flap configurations and addressed the approach-to-stall, stall, and post-stall flight regimes. The enhanced simulation model showed that flap configuration had a significant effect on the character of departures that occurred during post-stall flight. Preliminary comparisons with flight test data indicate that the enhanced model is a significant improvement over the baseline. Some of the unrepresentative characteristics that are predicted by the baseline crew training simulation for flight in the post-stall regime have been identified. This paper presents preliminary results of this simulation study and discusses key issues regarding predicted flight dynamics characteristics during extreme upset and loss-of-control flight conditions with different flap configurations.

  7. Random Telegraph Signal Amplitudes in Sub 100 nm (Decanano) MOSFETs: A 3D 'Atomistic' Simulation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asenov, Asen; Balasubramaniam, R.; Brown, A. R.; Davies, J. H.; Saini, Subhash

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we use 3D simulations to study the amplitudes of random telegraph signals (RTS) associated with the trapping of a single carrier in interface states in the channel of sub 100 nm (decanano) MOSFETs. Both simulations using continuous doping charge and random discrete dopants in the active region of the MOSFETs are presented. We have studied the dependence of the RTS amplitudes on the position of the trapped charge in the channel and on the device design parameters. We have observed a significant increase in the maximum RTS amplitude when discrete random dopants are employed in the simulations.

  8. A protocol for conducting rainfall simulation to study soil runoff

    Rainfall is a driving force for the transport of environmental contaminants from agricultural soils to surficial water bodies via surface runoff. The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of antecedent soil moisture content on the fate and transport of surface applied commercial ur...

  9. Lung assist devices influence cardio-energetic parameters: Numerical simulation study.

    PubMed

    De Lazzari, C; Quatember, B; Recheis, W; Mayr, M; Demertzis, S; Allasia, G; De Rossi, A; Cavoretto, R; Venturino, E; Genuini, I

    2015-08-01

    We aim at an analysis of the effects mechanical ventilators (MVs) and thoracic artificial lungs (TALs) will have on the cardiovascular system, especially on important quantities, such as left and right ventricular external work (EW), pressure-volume area (PVA) and cardiac mechanical efficiency (CME). Our analyses are based on simulation studies which were carried out by using our CARDIOSIM(©) software simulator. At first, we carried out simulation studies of patients undergoing mechanical ventilation (MV) without a thoracic artificial lung (TAL). Subsequently, we conducted simulation studies of patients who had been provided with a TAL, but did not undergo MV. We aimed at describing the patient's physiological characteristics and their variations with time, such as EW, PVA, CME, cardiac output (CO) and mean pulmonary arterial/venous pressure (PAP/PVP). We were starting with a simulation run under well-defined initial conditions which was followed by simulation runs for a wide range of mean intrathoracic pressure settings. Our simulations of MV without TAL showed that for mean intrathoracic pressure settings from negative (-4 mmHg) to positive (+5 mmHg) values, the left and right ventricular EW and PVA, right ventricular CME and CO decreased, whereas left ventricular CME and the PAP increased. The simulation studies of patients with a TAL, comprised all the usual TAL arrangements, viz. configurations "in series" and in parallel with the natural lung and, moreover, hybrid configurations. The main objective of the simulation studies was, as before, the assessment of the hemodynamic response to the application of a TAL. We could for instance show that, in case of an "in series" configuration, a reduction (an increase) in left (right) ventricular EW and PVA values occurred, whereas the best performance in terms of CO can be achieved in the case of an in parallel configuration.

  10. A simulation study of Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE) technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziegler, L. (Principal Investigator); Potter, J.

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The LACIE performance predictor (LPP) was used to replicate LACIE phase 2 for a 15 year period, using accuracy assessment results for phase 2 error components. Results indicated that the (LPP) simulated the LACIE phase 2 procedures reasonably well. For the 15 year simulation, only 7 of the 15 production estimates were within 10 percent of the true production. The simulations indicated that the acreage estimator, based on CAMS phase 2 procedures, has a negative bias. This bias was too large to support the 90/90 criterion with the CV observed and simulated for the phase 2 production estimator. Results of this simulation study validate the theory that the acreage variance estimator in LACIE was conservative.

  11. Human cadavers Vs. multimedia simulation: A study of student learning in anatomy.

    PubMed

    Saltarelli, Andrew J; Roseth, Cary J; Saltarelli, William A

    2014-01-01

    Multimedia and simulation programs are increasingly being used for anatomy instruction, yet it remains unclear how learning with these technologies compares with learning with actual human cadavers. Using a multilevel, quasi-experimental-control design, this study compared the effects of "Anatomy and Physiology Revealed" (APR) multimedia learning system with a traditional undergraduate human cadaver laboratory. APR is a model-based multimedia simulation tool that uses high-resolution pictures to construct a prosected cadaver. APR also provides animations showing the function of specific anatomical structures. Results showed that the human cadaver laboratory offered a significant advantage over the multimedia simulation program on cadaver-based measures of identification and explanatory knowledge. These findings reinforce concerns that incorporating multimedia simulation into anatomy instruction requires careful alignment between learning tasks and performance measures. Findings also imply that additional pedagogical strategies are needed to support transfer from simulated to real-world application of anatomical knowledge. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  12. High fidelity studies of exploding foil initiator bridges, Part 3: ALEGRA MHD simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, William; Garasi, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Simulations of high voltage detonators, such as Exploding Bridgewire (EBW) and Exploding Foil Initiators (EFI), have historically been simple, often empirical, one-dimensional models capable of predicting parameters such as current, voltage, and in the case of EFIs, flyer velocity. Experimental methods have correspondingly generally been limited to the same parameters. With the advent of complex, first principles magnetohydrodynamic codes such as ALEGRA and ALE-MHD, it is now possible to simulate these components in three dimensions, and predict a much greater range of parameters than before. A significant improvement in experimental capability was therefore required to ensure these simulations could be adequately verified. In this third paper of a three part study, the experimental results presented in part 2 are compared against 3-dimensional MHD simulations. This improved experimental capability, along with advanced simulations, offer an opportunity to gain a greater understanding of the processes behind the functioning of EBW and EFI detonators.

  13. Quality of resuscitation: flight attendants in an airplane simulator use a new mechanical resuscitation device--a randomized simulation study.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Henrik; Neuhold, Stephanie; Hochbrugger, Eva; Steinlechner, Barbara; Koinig, Herbert; Milosevic, Ljubisa; Havel, Christof; Frantal, Sophie; Greif, Robert

    2011-04-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) during flight is challenging and has to be sustained for long periods. In this setting a mechanical-resuscitation-device (MRD) might improve performance. In this study we compared the quality of resuscitation of trained flight attendants practicing either standard basic life support (BLS) or using a MRD in a cabin-simulator. Prospective, open, randomized and crossover simulation study. Study participants, competent in standard BLS were trained to use the MRD to deliver both chest compressions and ventilation. 39 teams of two rescuers resuscitated a manikin for 12 min in random order, standard BLS or mechanically assisted resuscitation. Primary outcome was "absolute hands-off time" (sum of all periods during which no hand was placed on the chest minus ventilation time). Various parameters describing the quality of chest compression and ventilation were analysed as secondary outcome parameters. Use of the MRD led to significantly less "absolute hands-off time" (164±33 s vs. 205±42 s, p<0.001). The quality of chest compression was comparable among groups, except for a higher compression rate in the standard BLS group (123±14 min(-1) vs. 95±11 min(-1), p<0.001). Tidal volume was higher in the standard BLS group (0.48±0.14 l vs. 0.34±0.13 l, p<0.001), but we registered fewer gastric inflations in the MRD group (0.4±0.3% vs. 16.6±16.9%, p<0.001). Using the MRD resulted in significantly less "absolute hands-off time", but less effective ventilation. The translation of higher chest compression rate into better outcome, as shown in other studies previously, has to be investigated in another human outcome study. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of medical student career aims on ophthalmic surgical simulator performance (part of the international forum for ophthalmic simulation studies).

    PubMed

    Gillan, S N; Okhravi, N; O'Sullivan, F; Sullivan, P; Viswanathan, A; Saleh, G M

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate whether medical students who have expressed a strong desire to pursue ophthalmology as a career perform simulated ophthalmic surgical tasks to a higher level than medical students whose interests lie elsewhere. All participants were fourth or fifth year students at University College London (UCL) Medical School, London, UK. One cohort was recruited from the Moorfields Academy, an ophthalmic forum designed to enhance collaboration and innovation within the specialty. These students were therefore seen as highly motivated, expressing a desire to pursue a career in ophthalmology. The other cohort of students was invited to participate during their fourth year UCL Ophthalmology attachment, but expressed interest in non-ophthalmic disciplines. Participants carried out a single attempt of three modules on the Eyesi Surgical Simulator, and total and mean scores were calculated out of 100. 13 academy and 15 non-academy students were enrolled. The overall mean scores were 51/100 for the academy group, range 0-97, and 45.5/100 for the non-academy group, range 0-90 (p=0.49). Scores for precision testing, forceps training and capsulorrhexis training for academy versus non-academy were 45.8 versus 37.8 (p=0.61), 57.1 versus 52.3 (p=0.8) and 50.2 versus 46.4 (p=0.55), respectively. This study is the first to suggest that medical students with a strong career interest in ophthalmology do not perform microsurgical tasks to a higher level than medical students who have no goal in this area. This also indicates variation in scores between novices, which may serve as a pitfall in the use of simulators as a tool for entry into training. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. An IT-enabled supply chain model: a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannella, Salvatore; Framinan, Jose M.; Barbosa-Póvoa, Ana

    2014-11-01

    During the last decades, supply chain collaboration practices and the underlying enabling technologies have evolved from the classical electronic data interchange (EDI) approach to a web-based and radio frequency identification (RFID)-enabled collaboration. In this field, most of the literature has focused on the study of optimal parameters for reducing the total cost of suppliers, by adopting operational research (OR) techniques. Herein we are interested in showing that the considered information technology (IT)-enabled structure is resilient, that is, it works well across a reasonably broad range of parameter settings. By adopting a methodological approach based on system dynamics, we study a multi-tier collaborative supply chain. Results show that the IT-enabled supply chain improves operational performance and customer service level. Nonetheless, benefits for geographically dispersed networks are of minor entity.

  16. Method and simulation to study 3D crosstalk perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaustova, Dar'ya; Blondé, Laurent; Huynh-Thu, Quan; Vienne, Cyril; Doyen, Didier

    2012-03-01

    To various degrees, all modern 3DTV displays suffer from crosstalk, which can lead to a decrease of both visual quality and visual comfort, and also affect perception of depth. In the absence of a perfect 3D display technology, crosstalk has to be taken into account when studying perception of 3D stereoscopic content. In order to improve 3D presentation systems and understand how to efficiently eliminate crosstalk, it is necessary to understand its impact on human perception. In this paper, we present a practical method to study the perception of crosstalk. The approach consists of four steps: (1) physical measurements of a 3DTV, (2) building of a crosstalk surface based on those measurements and representing specifically the behavior of that 3TV, (3) manipulation of the crosstalk function and application on reference images to produce test images degraded by crosstalk in various ways, and (4) psychophysical tests. Our approach allows both a realistic representation of the behavior of a 3DTV and the easy manipulation of its resulting crosstalk in order to conduct psycho-visual experiments. Our approach can be used in all studies requiring the understanding of how crosstalk affects perception of stereoscopic content and how it can be corrected efficiently.

  17. Temperature dependence of creep compliance of highly cross-linked epoxy: A molecular simulation study

    SciT

    Khabaz, Fardin, E-mail: rajesh.khare@ttu.edu; Khare, Ketan S., E-mail: rajesh.khare@ttu.edu; Khare, Rajesh, E-mail: rajesh.khare@ttu.edu

    2014-05-15

    We have used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study the effect of temperature on the creep compliance of neat cross-linked epoxy. Experimental studies of mechanical behavior of cross-linked epoxy in literature commonly report creep compliance values, whereas molecular simulations of these systems have primarily focused on the Young’s modulus. In this work, in order to obtain a more direct comparison between experiments and simulations, atomistically detailed models of the cross-linked epoxy are used to study their creep compliance as a function of temperature using MD simulations. The creep tests are performed by applying a constant tensile stress and monitoring themore » resulting strain in the system. Our results show that simulated values of creep compliance increase with an increase in both time and temperature. We believe that such calculations of the creep compliance, along with the use of time temperature superposition, hold great promise in connecting the molecular insight obtained from molecular simulation at small length- and time-scales with the experimental behavior of such materials. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first reported effort that investigates the creep compliance behavior of cross-linked epoxy using MD simulations.« less

  18. Simulating direct shear tests with the Bullet physics library: A validation study.

    PubMed

    Izadi, Ehsan; Bezuijen, Adam

    2018-01-01

    This study focuses on the possible uses of physics engines, and more specifically the Bullet physics library, to simulate granular systems. Physics engines are employed extensively in the video gaming, animation and movie industries to create physically plausible scenes. They are designed to deliver a fast, stable, and optimal simulation of certain systems such as rigid bodies, soft bodies and fluids. This study focuses exclusively on simulating granular media in the context of rigid body dynamics with the Bullet physics library. The first step was to validate the results of the simulations of direct shear testing on uniform-sized metal beads on the basis of laboratory experiments. The difference in the average angle of mobilized frictions was found to be only 1.0°. In addition, a very close match was found between dilatancy in the laboratory samples and in the simulations. A comprehensive study was then conducted to determine the failure and post-failure mechanism. We conclude with the presentation of a simulation of a direct shear test on real soil which demonstrated that Bullet has all the capabilities needed to be used as software for simulating granular systems.

  19. A hybrid simulation approach for integrating safety behavior into construction planning: An earthmoving case study.

    PubMed

    Goh, Yang Miang; Askar Ali, Mohamed Jawad

    2016-08-01

    One of the key challenges in improving construction safety and health is the management of safety behavior. From a system point of view, workers work unsafely due to system level issues such as poor safety culture, excessive production pressure, inadequate allocation of resources and time and lack of training. These systemic issues should be eradicated or minimized during planning. However, there is a lack of detailed planning tools to help managers assess the impact of their upstream decisions on worker safety behavior. Even though simulation had been used in construction planning, the review conducted in this study showed that construction safety management research had not been exploiting the potential of simulation techniques. Thus, a hybrid simulation framework is proposed to facilitate integration of safety management considerations into construction activity simulation. The hybrid framework consists of discrete event simulation (DES) as the core, but heterogeneous, interactive and intelligent (able to make decisions) agents replace traditional entities and resources. In addition, some of the cognitive processes and physiological aspects of agents are captured using system dynamics (SD) approach. The combination of DES, agent-based simulation (ABS) and SD allows a more "natural" representation of the complex dynamics in construction activities. The proposed hybrid framework was demonstrated using a hypothetical case study. In addition, due to the lack of application of factorial experiment approach in safety management simulation, the case study demonstrated sensitivity analysis and factorial experiment to guide future research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Surgical stent planning: simulation parameter study for models based on DICOM standards.

    PubMed

    Scherer, S; Treichel, T; Ritter, N; Triebel, G; Drossel, W G; Burgert, O

    2011-05-01

    Endovascular Aneurysm Repair (EVAR) can be facilitated by a realistic simulation model of stent-vessel-interaction. Therefore, numerical feasibility and integrability in the clinical environment was evaluated. The finite element method was used to determine necessary simulation parameters for stent-vessel-interaction in EVAR. Input variables and result data of the simulation model were examined for their standardization using DICOM supplements. The study identified four essential parameters for the stent-vessel simulation: blood pressure, intima constitution, plaque occurrence and the material properties of vessel and plaque. Output quantities such as radial force of the stent and contact pressure between stent/vessel can help the surgeon to evaluate implant fixation and sealing. The model geometry can be saved with DICOM "Surface Segmentation" objects and the upcoming "Implant Templates" supplement. Simulation results can be stored using the "Structured Report". A standards-based general simulation model for optimizing stent-graft selection may be feasible. At present, there are limitations due to specification of individual vessel material parameters and for simulating the proximal fixation of stent-grafts with hooks. Simulation data with clinical relevance for documentation and presentation can be stored using existing or new DICOM extensions.

  1. Creation and Validation of a Simulator for Neonatal Brain Ultrasonography: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Andy; Barnewolt, Carol E; Prahbu, Sanjay P; Yonekura, Reimi; Hosmer, Andrew; Schulz, Noah E; Weinstock, Peter H

    2017-01-01

    Historically, skills training in performing brain ultrasonography has been limited to hours of scanning infants for lack of adequate synthetic models or alternatives. The aim of this study was to create a simulator and determine its utility as an educational tool in teaching the skills that can be used in performing brain ultrasonography on infants. A brain ultrasonography simulator was created using a combination of multi-modality imaging, three-dimensional printing, material and acoustic engineering, and sculpting and molding. Radiology residents participated prior to their pediatric rotation. The study included (1) an initial questionnaire and resident creation of three coronal images using the simulator; (2) brain ultrasonography lecture; (3) hands-on simulator practice; and (4) a follow-up questionnaire and re-creation of the same three coronal images on the simulator. A blinded radiologist scored the quality of the pre- and post-training images using metrics including symmetry of the images and inclusion of predetermined landmarks. Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to compare pre- and post-training questionnaire rankings and image quality scores. Ten residents participated in the study. Analysis of pre- and post-training rankings showed improvements in technical knowledge and confidence, and reduction in anxiety in performing brain ultrasonography. Objective measures of image quality likewise improved. Mean reported value score for simulator training was high across participants who reported perceived improvements in scanning skills and enjoyment from simulator use, with interest in additional practice on the simulator and recommendations for its use. This pilot study supports the use of a simulator in teaching radiology residents the skills that can be used to perform brain ultrasonography. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Ceiling Fires Studied to Simulate Low-Gravity Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Sandra L.

    2001-01-01

    A unique new way to study low-gravity flames in normal gravity has been developed. To study flame structure and extinction characteristics in low-stretch environments, a normal gravity low-stretch diffusion flame was generated using a cylindrical PMMA sample of varying large radii, as shown in the photograph. These experiments have demonstrated that low-gravity flame characteristics can be generated in normal gravity through the proper use of scaling. On the basis of this work, it is feasible to apply this concept toward the development of an Earth-bound method of evaluating material flammability in various gravitational environments from normal gravity to microgravity, including the effects of partial gravity low-stretch rates such as those found on the Moon (1/6g) or Mars (1/3g). During these experiments, the surface regression rates for PMMA were measured for the first time over the full range of flammability in air, from blowoff at high stretch, to quenching at low stretch, as plotted in the graph. The solid line drawn through the central portion of the data (3

  3. Human patient simulators and interactive case studies: a comparative analysis of learning outcomes and student perceptions.

    PubMed

    Howard, Valerie Michele; Ross, Carl; Mitchell, Ann M; Nelson, Glenn M

    2010-01-01

    Although human patient simulators provide an innovative teaching method for nursing students, they are quite expensive. To investigate the value of this expenditure, a quantitative, quasi-experimental, two-group pretest and posttest design was used to compare two educational interventions: human patient simulators and interactive case studies. The sample (N = 49) consisted of students from baccalaureate, accelerated baccalaureate, and diploma nursing programs. Custom-designed Health Education Systems, Inc examinations were used to measure knowledge before and after the implementation of the two educational interventions. Students in the human patient simulation group scored significantly higher than did those in the interactive case study group on the posttest Health Education Systems, Inc examination, and no significant difference was found in student scores among the three types of nursing programs that participated in the study. Data obtained from a questionnaire administered to participants indicated that students responded favorably to the use of human patient simulators as a teaching method.

  4. Operating room clinicians' ratings of workload: a vignette simulation study.

    PubMed

    Wallston, Kenneth A; Slagle, Jason M; Speroff, Ted; Nwosu, Sam; Crimin, Kimberly; Feurer, Irene D; Boettcher, Brent; Weinger, Matthew B

    2014-06-01

    Increased clinician workload is associated with medical errors and patient harm. The Quality and Workload Assessment Tool (QWAT) measures anticipated (pre-case) and perceived (post-case) clinical workload during actual surgical procedures using ratings of individual and team case difficulty from every operating room (OR) team member. The purpose of this study was to examine the QWAT ratings of OR clinicians who were not present in the OR but who read vignettes compiled from actual case documentation to assess interrater reliability and agreement with ratings made by clinicians involved in the actual cases. Thirty-six OR clinicians (13 anesthesia providers, 11 surgeons, and 12 nurses) used the QWAT to rate 6 cases varying from easy to moderately difficult based on actual ratings made by clinicians involved with the cases. Cases were presented and rated in random order. Before rating anticipated individual and team difficulty, the raters read prepared clinical vignettes containing case synopses and much of the same written case information that was available to the actual clinicians before the onset of each case. Then, before rating perceived individual and team difficulty, they read part 2 of the vignette consisting of detailed role-specific intraoperative data regarding the anesthetic and surgical course, unusual events, and other relevant contextual factors. Surgeons had higher interrater reliability on the QWAT than did OR nurses or anesthesia providers. For the anticipated individual and team workload ratings, there were no statistically significant differences between the actual ratings and the ratings obtained from the vignettes. There were differences for the 3 provider types in perceived individual workload for the median difficulty cases and in the perceived team workload for the median and more difficult cases. The case difficulty items on the QWAT seem to be sufficiently reliable and valid to be used in other studies of anticipated and perceived clinical

  5. Systematic parameter study of dynamo bifurcations in geodynamo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petitdemange, Ludovic

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the nature of the dynamo bifurcation in a configuration applicable to the Earth's liquid outer core, i.e. in a rotating spherical shell with thermally driven motions with no-slip boundaries. Unlike in previous studies on dynamo bifurcations, the control parameters have been varied significantly in order to deduce general tendencies. Numerical studies on the stability domain of dipolar magnetic fields found a dichotomy between non-reversing dipole-dominated dynamos and the reversing non-dipole-dominated multipolar solutions. We show that, by considering weak initial fields, the above transition disappears and is replaced by a region of bistability for which dipolar and multipolar dynamos coexist. Such a result was also observed in models with free-slip boundaries in which the geostrophic zonal flow can develop and participate to the dynamo mechanism for non-dipolar fields. We show that a similar process develops in no-slip models when viscous effects are reduced sufficiently. The following three regimes are distinguished: (i) Close to the onset of convection (Rac) with only the most critical convective mode (wave number) being present, dynamos set in supercritically in the Ekman number regime explored here and are dipole-dominated. Larger critical magnetic Reynolds numbers indicate that they are particularly inefficient. (ii) in the range 3 < Ra /Rac 10) , the relative importance of zonal flows increases with Ra in non-magnetic models. The field topology depends on the magnitude of the initial magnetic field. The dipolar branch has a subcritical behavior whereas the multipolar branch has a supercritical behavior. By approaching more realistic parameters, the extension of this bistable regime increases. A hysteretic behavior questions the common interpretation for geomagnetic reversals. Far above the dynamo threshold (by increasing

  6. Numerical simulation studies for optical properties of biomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnikov, I.; Seteikin, A.

    2016-11-01

    Biophotonics involves understanding how light interacts with biological matter, from molecules and cells, to tissues and even whole organisms. Light can be used to probe biomolecular events, such as gene expression and protein-protein interaction, with impressively high sensitivity and specificity. The spatial and temporal distribution of biochemical constituents can also be visualized with light and, thus, the corresponding physiological dynamics in living cells, tissues, and organisms in real time. Computer-based Monte Carlo (MC) models of light transport in turbid media take a different approach. In this paper, the optical and structural properties of biomaterials discussed. We explain the numerical simulationmethod used for studying the optical properties of biomaterials. Applications of the Monte-Carlo method in photodynamic therapy, skin tissue optics, and bioimaging described.

  7. Experimental and simulated study of a composite structure metamaterial absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shengyong; Ai, Xiaochuan; Wu, Ronghua; Chen, Jiajun

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, a high performance metamaterial absorber is designed and experimental studied. Measured results indicate that a perfect absorption band and a short-wavelength absorption peak are achieved in the near-infrared spectrum. Current strength distributions reveal that the absorption band is excited by the cavity resonance. And electric field distributions show that the short-wavelength absorption peak is excited by the horizontal coupled of localized surface plasmon (LSP) modes near hole edges. On the one hand, the absorption property of the measured metamaterial absorber can be enhanced through optimizing the structural parameters (a, w, and H). On the other hand, the absorption property is sensitive to the change of refractive index of environmental medias. A sensing scheme is proposed for refractive index detecting based on the figure of merit (FOM) value. Measured results indicate that the proposed sensing scheme can achieve high FOM value with different environmental medias (water, glucose solution).

  8. DIF Analysis with Multilevel Data: A Simulation Study Using the Latent Variable Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Ying; Eason, Hershel

    2016-01-01

    The effects of mean ability difference (MAD) and short tests on the performance of various DIF methods have been studied extensively in previous simulation studies. Their effects, however, have not been studied under multilevel data structure. MAD was frequently observed in large-scale cross-country comparison studies where the primary sampling…

  9. Joint coverage probability in a simulation study on Continuous-Time Markov Chain parameter estimation.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Julia S; Chan, Wenyaw; Doody, Rachelle S

    2015-01-01

    Parameter dependency within data sets in simulation studies is common, especially in models such as Continuous-Time Markov Chains (CTMC). Additionally, the literature lacks a comprehensive examination of estimation performance for the likelihood-based general multi-state CTMC. Among studies attempting to assess the estimation, none have accounted for dependency among parameter estimates. The purpose of this research is twofold: 1) to develop a multivariate approach for assessing accuracy and precision for simulation studies 2) to add to the literature a comprehensive examination of the estimation of a general 3-state CTMC model. Simulation studies are conducted to analyze longitudinal data with a trinomial outcome using a CTMC with and without covariates. Measures of performance including bias, component-wise coverage probabilities, and joint coverage probabilities are calculated. An application is presented using Alzheimer's disease caregiver stress levels. Comparisons of joint and component-wise parameter estimates yield conflicting inferential results in simulations from models with and without covariates. In conclusion, caution should be taken when conducting simulation studies aiming to assess performance and choice of inference should properly reflect the purpose of the simulation.

  10. Virtual gaming simulation of a mental health assessment: A usability study.

    PubMed

    Verkuyl, Margaret; Romaniuk, Daria; Mastrilli, Paula

    2018-05-18

    Providing safe and realistic virtual simulations could be an effective way to facilitate the transition from the classroom to clinical practice. As nursing programs begin to include virtual simulations as a learning strategy; it is critical to first assess the technology for ease of use and usefulness. A virtual gaming simulation was developed, and a usability study was conducted to assess its ease of use and usefulness for students and faculty. The Technology Acceptance Model provided the framework for the study, which included expert review and testing by nursing faculty and nursing students. This study highlighted the importance of assessing ease of use and usefulness in a virtual game simulation and provided feedback for the development of an effective virtual gaming simulation. The study participants said the virtual gaming simulation was engaging, realistic and similar to a clinical experience. Participants found the game easy to use and useful. Testing provided the development team with ideas to improve the user interface. The usability methodology provided is a replicable approach to testing virtual experiences before a research study or before implementing virtual experiences into curriculum. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A randomized controlled study of manikin simulator fidelity on neonatal resuscitation program learning outcomes.

    PubMed

    Curran, Vernon; Fleet, Lisa; White, Susan; Bessell, Clare; Deshpandey, Akhil; Drover, Anne; Hayward, Mark; Valcour, James

    2015-03-01

    The neonatal resuscitation program (NRP) has been developed to educate physicians and other health care providers about newborn resuscitation and has been shown to improve neonatal resuscitation skills. Simulation-based training is recommended as an effective modality for instructing neonatal resuscitation and both low and high-fidelity manikin simulators are used. There is limited research that has compared the effect of low and high-fidelity manikin simulators for NRP learning outcomes, and more specifically on teamwork performance and confidence. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of using low versus high-fidelity manikin simulators in NRP instruction. A randomized posttest-only control group study design was conducted. Third year undergraduate medical students participated in NRP instruction and were assigned to an experimental group (high-fidelity manikin simulator) or control group (low-fidelity manikin simulator). Integrated skills station (megacode) performance, participant satisfaction, confidence and teamwork behaviour scores were compared between the study groups. Participants in the high-fidelity manikin simulator instructional group reported significantly higher total scores in overall satisfaction (p = 0.001) and confidence (p = 0.001). There were no significant differences in teamwork behaviour scores, as observed by two independent raters, nor differences on mandatory integrated skills station performance items at the p < 0.05 level. Medical students' reported greater satisfaction and confidence with high-fidelity manikin simulators, but did not demonstrate overall significantly improved teamwork or integrated skills station performance. Low and high-fidelity manikin simulators facilitate similar levels of objectively measured NRP outcomes for integrated skills station and teamwork performance.

  12. Simulation of breast compression in mammography using finite element analysis: A preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan-Lin; Liu, Pei-Yuan; Huang, Mei-Lan; Hsu, Jui-Ting; Han, Ruo-Ping; Wu, Jay

    2017-11-01

    Adequate compression during mammography lowers the absorbed dose in the breast and improves the image quality. The compressed breast thickness (CBT) is affected by various factors, such as breast volume, glandularity, and compression force. In this study, we used the finite element analysis to simulate breast compression and deformation and validated the simulated CBT with clinical mammography results. Image data from ten subjects who had undergone mammography screening and breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were collected, and their breast models were created according to the MR images. The non-linear tissue deformation under 10-16 daN in the cranial-caudal direction was simulated. When the clinical compression force was used, the simulated CBT ranged from 2.34 to 5.90 cm. The absolute difference between the simulated CBT and the clinically measured CBT ranged from 0.5 to 7.1 mm. The simulated CBT had a strong positive linear relationship to breast volume and a weak negative correlation to glandularity. The average simulated CBT under 10, 12, 14, and 16 daN was 5.68, 5.12, 4.67, and 4.25 cm, respectively. Through this study, the relationships between CBT, breast volume, glandularity, and compression force are provided for use in clinical mammography.

  13. Monte Carlo simulations for generic granite repository studies

    SciT

    Chu, Shaoping; Lee, Joon H; Wang, Yifeng

    In a collaborative study between Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the DOE-NE Office of Fuel Cycle Technologies Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign project, we have conducted preliminary system-level analyses to support the development of a long-term strategy for geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. A general modeling framework consisting of a near- and a far-field submodel for a granite GDSE was developed. A representative far-field transport model for a generic granite repository was merged with an integrated systems (GoldSim) near-field model. Integrated Monte Carlo model runs with the combined near- and farfield transport modelsmore » were performed, and the parameter sensitivities were evaluated for the combined system. In addition, a sub-set of radionuclides that are potentially important to repository performance were identified and evaluated for a series of model runs. The analyses were conducted with different waste inventory scenarios. Analyses were also conducted for different repository radionuelide release scenarios. While the results to date are for a generic granite repository, the work establishes the method to be used in the future to provide guidance on the development of strategy for long-term disposal of high-level radioactive waste in a granite repository.« less

  14. [Numerical simulation study of SOA in Pearl River Delta region].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yan-li; Li, Tian-tian; Bai, Yu-hua; Li, Jin-long; Liu, Zhao-rong; Wang, Xue-song

    2009-12-01

    Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) is an important component of the atmospheric particle pollution, thus, determining the status and sources of SOA pollution is the premise of deeply understanding the occurrence, development law and the influence factors of the atmospheric particle pollution. Based on the pollution sources and meteorological data of Pearl River Delta region, the study used the two-dimensional model coupled with SOA module to stimulate the status and source of SOA pollution in regional scale. The results show: the generation of SOA presents obvious characteristics of photochemical reaction, and the high concentration appears at about 14:00; SOA concentration is high in some areas of Guangshou and Dongguan with large pollution source-emission, and it is also high in some areas of Zhongshan, Zhuhai and Jiangmen which are at downwind position of Guangzhou and Dongguan. Contribution ratios of several main pollution sources to SOA are: biogenic sources 72.6%, mobile sources 30.7%, point sources 12%, solvent and oil paint sources 12%, surface sources less than 5% respectively.

  15. Computerized adaptive measurement of depression: A simulation study

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, William; Shear, Katherine; Kelleher, Kelly J; Pajer, Kathleen A; Mammen, Oommen; Buysse, Daniel; Frank, Ellen

    2004-01-01

    Background Efficient, accurate instruments for measuring depression are increasingly important in clinical practice. We developed a computerized adaptive version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). We examined its efficiency and its usefulness in identifying Major Depressive Episodes (MDE) and in measuring depression severity. Methods Subjects were 744 participants in research studies in which each subject completed both the BDI and the SCID. In addition, 285 patients completed the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Results The adaptive BDI had an AUC as an indicator of a SCID diagnosis of MDE of 88%, equivalent to the full BDI. The adaptive BDI asked fewer questions than the full BDI (5.6 versus 21 items). The adaptive latent depression score correlated r = .92 with the BDI total score and the latent depression score correlated more highly with the Hamilton (r = .74) than the BDI total score did (r = .70). Conclusions Adaptive testing for depression may provide greatly increased efficiency without loss of accuracy in identifying MDE or in measuring depression severity. PMID:15132755

  16. Negotiating the role of the professional nurse: The pedagogy of simulation: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Walton, Joni; Chute, Elizabeth; Ball, Lynda

    2011-01-01

    Simulation is the mainstay of laboratory education in health sciences, yet there is a void of pedagogy-the art and science of teaching. Nursing faculty does not have adequate evidence-based resources related to how students learn through simulation. The research questions that were addressed were as follows: (a) How do students learn using simulation? (b) What is the process of learning with simulations from the students' perspective? (c) What faculty teaching styles promote learning? and (d) How can faculty support students during simulation? Grounded theory methodology was used to explore how senior baccalaureate nursing students learn using simulation. Twenty-six students participated in this research study. Sixteen nursing students who completed two semesters of simulation courses volunteered for in-depth audio-taped interviews. In addition, there were two focus groups with five senior students in each group who validated findings and identified faculty teaching styles and supportive interventions. Negotiating the Role of the Professional Nurse was the core category, which included the following phases (I) feeling like an imposter, (II) trial and error, (III) taking it seriously, (IV) transference of skills and knowledge, and (V) professionalization. Faculty traits and teaching strategies for teaching with simulation were also identified. A conceptual model of the socialization process was developed to assist faculty in understanding the ways students learn with simulation and ways to facilitate their development. These findings provide a midrange theory for the pedagogy of simulation and will help faculty gain insight and help to assimilate into teaching-learning strategies. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Exploring the role of 3-dimensional simulation in surgical training: feedback from a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Podolsky, Dale J; Martin, Allan R; Whyne, Cari M; Massicotte, Eric M; Hardisty, Michael R; Ginsberg, Howard J

    2010-12-01

    Randomized control study assessing the efficacy of a pedicle screw insertion simulator. To evaluate the efficacy of an in-house developed 3-dimensional software simulation tool for teaching pedicle screw insertion, to gather feedback about the utility of the simulator, and to help identify the context and role such simulation has in surgical education. Traditional instruction for pedicle screw insertion technique consists of didactic teaching and limited hands-on training on artificial or cadaveric models before guided supervision within the operating room. Three-dimensional computer simulation can provide a valuable tool for practicing challenging surgical procedures; however, its potential lies in its effective integration into student learning. Surgical residents were recruited from 2 sequential years of a spine surgery course. Patient and control groups both received standard training on pedicle screw insertion. The patient group received an additional 1-hour session of training on the simulator using a CT-based 3-dimensional model of their assigned cadaver's spine. Qualitative feedback about the simulator was gathered from the trainees, fellows, and staff surgeons, and all pedicles screws physically inserted into the cadavers during the courses were evaluated through CT. A total of 185 thoracic and lumbar pedicle screws were inserted by 37 trainees. Eighty-two percent of the 28 trainees who responded to the questionnaire and all fellows and staff surgeons felt the simulator to be a beneficial educational tool. However, the 1-hour training session did not yield improved performance in screw placement. A 3-dimensional computer-based simulation for pedicle screw insertion was integrated into a cadaveric spine surgery instructional course. Overall, the tool was positively regarded by the trainees, fellows, and staff surgeons. However, the limited training with the simulator did not translate into widespread comfort with its operation or into improvement in

  18. Space Station Simulation Computer System (SCS) study for NASA/MSFC. Concept document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA's Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) planning efforts have identified a need for a payload training simulator system to serve as both a training facility and as a demonstrator to validate operational concepts. The envisioned MSFC Payload Training Complex (PTC) required to meet this need will train the Space Station Payload of experiments that will be onboard the Space Station Freedom. The simulation will support the Payload Training Complex at MSFC. The purpose of this SCS Study is to investigate issues related to the SCS, alternative requirements, simulator approaches, and state-of-the-art technologies to develop candidate concepts and designs.

  19. Simulation study on the maximum continuous working condition of a power plant boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ning; Han, Jiting; Sun, Haitian; Cheng, Jiwei; Jing, Ying'ai; Li, Wenbo

    2018-05-01

    First of all, the boiler is briefly introduced to determine the mathematical model and the boundary conditions, then the boiler under the BMCR condition numerical simulation study, and then the BMCR operating temperature field analysis. According to the boiler actual test results and the hot BMCR condition boiler output test results, the simulation results are verified. The main conclusions are as follows: the position and size of the inscribed circle in the furnace and the furnace temperature distribution and test results under different elevation are compared and verified; Accuracy of numerical simulation results.

  20. Modeling and simulation of queuing system for customer service improvement: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xian, Tan Chai; Hong, Chai Weng; Hawari, Nurul Nazihah

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to develop a queuing model at UniMall by using discrete event simulation approach in analyzing the service performance that affects customer satisfaction. The performance measures that considered in this model are such as the average time in system, the total number of student served, the number of student in waiting queue, the waiting time in queue as well as the maximum length of buffer. ARENA simulation software is used to develop a simulation model and the output is analyzed. Based on the analysis of output, it is recommended that management of UniMall consider introducing shifts and adding another payment counter in the morning.

  1. Studies of turbulent round jets through experimentation, simulation, and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keedy, Ryan

    This thesis studies the physics of the turbulent round jet. In particular, it focuses on three different problems that have the turbulent round jet as their base flow. The first part of this thesis examines a compressible turbulent round jet at its sonic condition. We investigate the shearing effect such a jet has when impinging on a solid surface that is perpendicular to the flow direction. We report on experiments to evaluate the jet's ability to remove different types of explosive particles from a glass surface. Theoretical analysis revealed trends and enabled modeling to improve the predictability of particle removal for various jet conditions. The second part of thesis aims at developing a non-intrusive measurement technique for free-shear turbulent flows in nature. Most turbulent jet investigations in the literature, both in the laboratory and in the field, required specialized intrusive instrumentation and/or complex optical setups. There are many situations in naturally-occurring flows where the environment may prove too hostile or remote for existing instrumentation. We have developed a methodology for analyzing video of the exterior of a naturally-occurring flow and calculating the flow velocity. We found that the presence of viscosity gradients affects the velocity analysis. While these effects produce consistent, predictable changes, we became interested in the mechanism by which the viscosity gradients affect the mixing and development of the turbulent round jet. We conducted a stability analysis of the axisymmetric jet when a viscosity gradient is present. Finally, the third problem addressed in this thesis is the growth of liquid droplets by condensation in a turbulent round jet. A vapor-saturated turbulent jet issues into a cold, dry environment. The resulting mixing produces highly inhomogeneous regions of supersaturation, where droplets grow and evaporate. Non-linear interactions between the droplet growth rate and the supersaturation field make

  2. Pilot Study: Impact of Computer Simulation on Students' Economic Policy Performance. Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domazlicky, Bruce; France, Judith

    Fiscal and monetary policies taught in macroeconomic principles courses are concepts that might require both lecture and simulation methods. The simulation models, which apply the principles gleened from comparative statistics to a dynamic world, may give students an appreciation for the problems facing policy makers. This paper is a report of a…

  3. Capacity improvement using simulation optimization approaches: A case study in the thermotechnology industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yelkenci Köse, Simge; Demir, Leyla; Tunalı, Semra; Türsel Eliiyi, Deniz

    2015-02-01

    In manufacturing systems, optimal buffer allocation has a considerable impact on capacity improvement. This study presents a simulation optimization procedure to solve the buffer allocation problem in a heat exchanger production plant so as to improve the capacity of the system. For optimization, three metaheuristic-based search algorithms, i.e. a binary-genetic algorithm (B-GA), a binary-simulated annealing algorithm (B-SA) and a binary-tabu search algorithm (B-TS), are proposed. These algorithms are integrated with the simulation model of the production line. The simulation model, which captures the stochastic and dynamic nature of the production line, is used as an evaluation function for the proposed metaheuristics. The experimental study with benchmark problem instances from the literature and the real-life problem show that the proposed B-TS algorithm outperforms B-GA and B-SA in terms of solution quality.

  4. Guidance law simulation studies for complex approaches using the Microwave Landing System (MLS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, J. B.

    1986-01-01

    This report documents results for MLS guidance algorithm development conducted by DAC for NASA under the Advance Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) Technology Studies program (NAS1-18028). The study consisted of evaluating guidance laws for vertical and lateral path control, as well as speed control, by simulating an MLS approach for the Washington National Airport. This work is an extension and generalization of a previous ATOPS contract (NAS1-16202) completed by DAC in 1985. The Washington river approach was simulated by six waypoints and one glideslope change and consisted of an eleven nautical mile approach path. Tracking performance was generated for 10 cases representing several different conditions, which included MLS noise, steady wind, turbulence, and windshear. Results of this simulation phase are suitable for use in future fixed-base simulator evaluations employing actual hardware (autopilot and a performance management system), as well as crew procedures and information requirements for MLS.

  5. A new solver for granular avalanche simulation: Indoor experiment verification and field scale case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, XiaoLiang; Li, JiaChun

    2017-12-01

    A new solver based on the high-resolution scheme with novel treatments of source terms and interface capture for the Savage-Hutter model is developed to simulate granular avalanche flows. The capability to simulate flow spread and deposit processes is verified through indoor experiments of a two-dimensional granular avalanche. Parameter studies show that reduction in bed friction enhances runout efficiency, and that lower earth pressure restraints enlarge the deposit spread. The April 9, 2000, Yigong avalanche in Tibet, China, is simulated as a case study by this new solver. The predicted results, including evolution process, deposit spread, and hazard impacts, generally agree with site observations. It is concluded that the new solver for the Savage-Hutter equation provides a comprehensive software platform for granular avalanche simulation at both experimental and field scales. In particular, the solver can be a valuable tool for providing necessary information for hazard forecasts, disaster mitigation, and countermeasure decisions in mountainous areas.

  6. Defining the Simulation Technician Role: Results of a Survey-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Rachel; Taylor, Regina G; FitzGerald, Michael R; Kerrey, Benjamin T; LeMaster, Thomas; Geis, Gary L

    2015-10-01

    In health care simulation, simulation technicians perform multiple tasks to support various educational offerings. Technician responsibilities and the tasks that accompany them seem to vary between centers. The objectives were to identify the range and frequency of tasks that technicians perform and to determine if there is a correspondence between what technicians do and what they feel their responsibilities should be. We hypothesized that there is a core set of responsibilities and tasks for the technician position regardless of background, experience, and type of simulation center. We conducted a prospective, survey-based study of individuals currently functioning in a simulation technician role in a simulation center. This survey was designed internally and piloted within 3 academic simulation centers. Potential respondents were identified through a national mailing list, and the survey was distributed electronically during a 3-week period. A survey request was sent to 280 potential participants, 136 (49%) responded, and 73 met inclusion criteria. Five core tasks were identified as follows: equipment setup and breakdown, programming scenarios into software, operation of software during simulation, audiovisual support for courses, and on-site simulator maintenance. Independent of background before they were hired, technicians felt unprepared for their role once taking the position. Formal training was identified as a need; however, the majority of technicians felt experience over time was the main contributor toward developing knowledge and skills within their role. This study represents a first step in defining the technician role within simulation-based education and supports the need for the development of a formal job description to allow recruitment, development, and certification.

  7. FLUKA simulation studies on in-phantom dosimetric parameters of a LINAC-based BNCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghal-Eh, N.; Goudarzi, H.; Rahmani, F.

    2017-12-01

    The Monte Carlo simulation code, FLUKA version 2011.2c.5, has been used to estimate the in-phantom dosimetric parameters for use in BNCT studies. The in-phantom parameters of a typical Snyder head, which are necessary information prior to any clinical treatment, have been calculated with both FLUKA and MCNPX codes, which exhibit a promising agreement. The results confirm that FLUKA can be regarded as a good alternative for the MCNPX in BNCT dosimetry simulations.

  8. First-principles molecular dynamics simulation study on electrolytes for use in redox flow battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choe, Yoong-Kee; Tsuchida, Eiji; Tokuda, Kazuya; Ootsuka, Jun; Saito, Yoshihiro; Masuno, Atsunobu; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2017-11-01

    Results of first-principles molecular dynamics simulations carried out to investigate structural aspects of electrolytes for use in a redox flow battery are reported. The electrolytes studied here are aqueous sulfuric acid solutions where its property is of importance for dissolving redox couples in redox flow battery. The simulation results indicate that structural features of the acid solutions depend on the concentration of sulfuric acid. Such dependency arises from increase of proton dissociation from sulfuric acid.

  9. Astronauts Young and Duke study rock formations on simulated lunar traverse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Astronauts John W. Young, right, prime crew commander for Apollo 16, and Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, study rock formations along their simulated lunar traverse route. The prime and backup commanders and lunar module pilots for Apollo 16 took part in the two-day geology field trip and simulations in the Coso Range, near Ridgecrest, California. The training was conducted at the U.S. Naval Ordnance Test Station.

  10. Round Robin Study: Molecular Simulation of Thermodynamic Properties from Models with Internal Degrees of Freedom.

    PubMed

    Schappals, Michael; Mecklenfeld, Andreas; Kröger, Leif; Botan, Vitalie; Köster, Andreas; Stephan, Simon; García, Edder J; Rutkai, Gabor; Raabe, Gabriele; Klein, Peter; Leonhard, Kai; Glass, Colin W; Lenhard, Johannes; Vrabec, Jadran; Hasse, Hans

    2017-09-12

    Thermodynamic properties are often modeled by classical force fields which describe the interactions on the atomistic scale. Molecular simulations are used for retrieving thermodynamic data from such models, and many simulation techniques and computer codes are available for that purpose. In the present round robin study, the following fundamental question is addressed: Will different user groups working with different simulation codes obtain coinciding results within the statistical uncertainty of their data? A set of 24 simple simulation tasks is defined and solved by five user groups working with eight molecular simulation codes: DL_POLY, GROMACS, IMC, LAMMPS, ms2, NAMD, Tinker, and TOWHEE. Each task consists of the definition of (1) a pure fluid that is described by a force field and (2) the conditions under which that property is to be determined. The fluids are four simple alkanes: ethane, propane, n-butane, and iso-butane. All force fields consider internal degrees of freedom: OPLS, TraPPE, and a modified OPLS version with bond stretching vibrations. Density and potential energy are determined as a function of temperature and pressure on a grid which is specified such that all states are liquid. The user groups worked independently and reported their results to a central instance. The full set of results was disclosed to all user groups only at the end of the study. During the study, the central instance gave only qualitative feedback. The results reveal the challenges of carrying out molecular simulations. Several iterations were needed to eliminate gross errors. For most simulation tasks, the remaining deviations between the results of the different groups are acceptable from a practical standpoint, but they are often outside of the statistical errors of the individual simulation data. However, there are also cases where the deviations are unacceptable. This study highlights similarities between computer experiments and laboratory experiments, which are

  11. Study of the functional hyperconnectivity between couples of pilots during flight simulation: an EEG hyperscanning study.

    PubMed

    Astolfi, L; Toppi, J; Borghini, G; Vecchiato, G; Isabella, R; De Vico Fallani, F; Cincotti, F; Salinari, S; Mattia, D; He, B; Caltagirone, C; Babiloni, F

    2011-01-01

    Brain Hyperscanning, i.e. the simultaneous recording of the cerebral activity of different human subjects involved in interaction tasks, is a very recent field of Neuroscience aiming at understanding the cerebral processes generating and generated by social interactions. This approach allows the observation and modeling of the neural signature specifically dependent on the interaction between subjects, and, even more interestingly, of the functional links existing between the activities in the brains of the subjects interacting together. In this EEG hyperscanning study we explored the functional hyperconnectivity between the activity in different scalp sites of couples of Civil Aviation Pilots during different phases of a flight reproduced in a flight simulator. Results shown a dense network of connections between the two brains in the takeoff and landing phases, when the cooperation between them is maximal, in contrast with phases during which the activity of the two pilots was independent, when no or quite few links were shown. These results confirms that the study of the brain connectivity between the activity simultaneously acquired in human brains during interaction tasks can provide important information about the neural basis of the "spirit of the group".

  12. Development of a Neural Network Simulator for Studying the Constitutive Behavior of Structural Composite Materials

    DOE PAGES

    Na, Hyuntae; Lee, Seung-Yub; Üstündag, Ersan; ...

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a recent development and application of a noncommercial artificial neural network (ANN) simulator with graphical user interface (GUI) to assist in rapid data modeling and analysis in the engineering diffraction field. The real-time network training/simulation monitoring tool has been customized for the study of constitutive behavior of engineering materials, and it has improved data mining and forecasting capabilities of neural networks. This software has been used to train and simulate the finite element modeling (FEM) data for a fiber composite system, both forward and inverse. The forward neural network simulation precisely reduplicates FEM results several orders ofmore » magnitude faster than the slow original FEM. The inverse simulation is more challenging; yet, material parameters can be meaningfully determined with the aid of parameter sensitivity information. The simulator GUI also reveals that output node size for materials parameter and input normalization method for strain data are critical train conditions in inverse network. The successful use of ANN modeling and simulator GUI has been validated through engineering neutron diffraction experimental data by determining constitutive laws of the real fiber composite materials via a mathematically rigorous and physically meaningful parameter search process, once the networks are successfully trained from the FEM database.« less

  13. The Use of Instructional Simulations to Support Classroom Teaching: A Crisis Communication Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shifflet, Mark; Brown, Jane

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how exposure to classroom instruction affected the use of a computer simulation that was designed to provide students an opportunity to apply material presented in class. The study involved an analysis of a computer-based crisis communication case study designed for a college-level public relations…

  14. Piloted simulation study of two tilt-wing flap control concepts, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birckelbaw, Lourdes G.; Corliss, Lloyd D.; Hindson, William S.; Churchill, Gary B.

    1994-01-01

    A two phase piloted simulation study has been conducted in the Ames Vertical Motion Simulator to investigate alternative wing and flap controls for tilt-wing aircraft. This report documents the flying qualities results and findings of the second phase of the piloted simulation study and describes the simulated tilt-wing aircraft, the flap control concepts, the experiment design and the evaluation tasks. The initial phase of the study compared the flying qualities of both a conventional programmed flap and an innovative geared flap. The second phase of the study introduced an alternate method of pilot control for the geared flap and further studied the flying qualities of the programmed flap and two geared flap configurations. In general, the pilot ratings showed little variation between the programmed flap and the geared flap control concepts. Some differences between the two control concepts were noticed and are discussed in this report. The geared flap configurations had very similar results. Although the geared flap concept has the potential to reduce or eliminate the pitch control power requirements from a tail rotor or a tail thruster at low speeds and in hover, the results did not show reduced tail thruster pitch control power usage with the geared flap configurations compared to the programmed flap configuration. The addition of pitch attitude stabilization in the second phase of simulation study greatly enhanced the aircraft flying qualities compared to the first phase.

  15. Experimental Study and CFD Simulation of a 2D Circulating Fluidized Bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallio, S.; Guldén, M.; Hermanson, A.

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) gains popularity in fluidized bed modeling. For model validation, there is a need of detailed measurements under well-defined conditions. In the present study, experiments were carried out in a 40 em wide and 3 m high 2D circulating fluidized bed. Two experiments were simulated by means of the Eulerian multiphase models of the Fluent CFD software. The vertical pressure and solids volume fraction profiles and the solids circulation rate obtained from the simulation were compared to the experimental results. In addition, lateral volume fraction profiles could be compared. The simulated CFB flow patterns and the profiles obtained from simulations were in general in a good agreement with the experimental results.

  16. Welding Thermal Simulation and Corrosion Study of X-70 Deep Sea Pipeline Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weipeng; Li, Zhuoran; Gao, Jixiang; Peng, Zhengwu

    2017-12-01

    Gleeble thermomechanical processing machine was used to simulate coarse grain heat affected zone (CGHAZ) of API X-70 thick wall pipeline steel used in deep sea. Microstructures and corresponding corrosion behavior of the simulated CGHAZs using different cooling rate were investigated and compared to the as-received material by scanning electron microscope and electrochemical experiments carried out in 3.5 wt. % NaCl solution. Results of this study show that the as-received samples exhibited a little bit higher corrosion resistance than the simulated CGHAZs. Among 3 sets of simulation experiments, the maximum corrosion tendency was exhibited at the t8/5 = 20 s with the most martensite-austensite (M-A) microstructure and highest corrosion potential was shown at the t8/5 = 60 s.

  17. Performance of Disease Risk Score Matching in Nested Case-Control Studies: A Simulation Study.

    PubMed

    Desai, Rishi J; Glynn, Robert J; Wang, Shirley; Gagne, Joshua J

    2016-05-15

    In a case-control study, matching on a disease risk score (DRS), which includes many confounders, should theoretically result in greater precision than matching on only a few confounders; however, this has not been investigated. We simulated 1,000 hypothetical cohorts with a binary exposure, a time-to-event outcome, and 13 covariates. Each cohort comprised 2 subcohorts of 10,000 patients each: a historical subcohort and a concurrent subcohort. DRS were estimated in the historical subcohorts and applied to the concurrent subcohorts. Nested case-control studies were conducted in the concurrent subcohorts using incidence density sampling with 2 strategies-matching on age and sex, with adjustment for additional confounders, and matching on DRS-followed by conditional logistic regression for 9 outcome-exposure incidence scenarios. In all scenarios, DRS matching yielded lower average standard errors and mean squared errors than did matching on age and sex. In 6 scenarios, DRS matching also resulted in greater empirical power. DRS matching resulted in less relative bias than did matching on age and sex at lower outcome incidences but more relative bias at higher incidences. Post-hoc analysis revealed that the effect of DRS model misspecification might be more pronounced at higher outcome incidences, resulting in higher relative bias. These results suggest that DRS matching might increase the statistical efficiency of case-control studies, particularly when the outcome is rare. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Study on photon transport problem based on the platform of molecular optical simulation environment.

    PubMed

    Peng, Kuan; Gao, Xinbo; Liang, Jimin; Qu, Xiaochao; Ren, Nunu; Chen, Xueli; Ma, Bin; Tian, Jie

    2010-01-01

    As an important molecular imaging modality, optical imaging has attracted increasing attention in the recent years. Since the physical experiment is usually complicated and expensive, research methods based on simulation platforms have obtained extensive attention. We developed a simulation platform named Molecular Optical Simulation Environment (MOSE) to simulate photon transport in both biological tissues and free space for optical imaging based on noncontact measurement. In this platform, Monte Carlo (MC) method and the hybrid radiosity-radiance theorem are used to simulate photon transport in biological tissues and free space, respectively, so both contact and noncontact measurement modes of optical imaging can be simulated properly. In addition, a parallelization strategy for MC method is employed to improve the computational efficiency. In this paper, we study the photon transport problems in both biological tissues and free space using MOSE. The results are compared with Tracepro, simplified spherical harmonics method (SP(n)), and physical measurement to verify the performance of our study method on both accuracy and efficiency.

  19. Study on Photon Transport Problem Based on the Platform of Molecular Optical Simulation Environment

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Kuan; Gao, Xinbo; Liang, Jimin; Qu, Xiaochao; Ren, Nunu; Chen, Xueli; Ma, Bin; Tian, Jie

    2010-01-01

    As an important molecular imaging modality, optical imaging has attracted increasing attention in the recent years. Since the physical experiment is usually complicated and expensive, research methods based on simulation platforms have obtained extensive attention. We developed a simulation platform named Molecular Optical Simulation Environment (MOSE) to simulate photon transport in both biological tissues and free space for optical imaging based on noncontact measurement. In this platform, Monte Carlo (MC) method and the hybrid radiosity-radiance theorem are used to simulate photon transport in biological tissues and free space, respectively, so both contact and noncontact measurement modes of optical imaging can be simulated properly. In addition, a parallelization strategy for MC method is employed to improve the computational efficiency. In this paper, we study the photon transport problems in both biological tissues and free space using MOSE. The results are compared with Tracepro, simplified spherical harmonics method (S P n), and physical measurement to verify the performance of our study method on both accuracy and efficiency. PMID:20445737

  20. Organizational culture shapes the adoption and incorporation of simulation into nursing curricula: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Taplay, Karyn; Jack, Susan M; Baxter, Pamela; Eva, Kevin; Martin, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To create a substantive mid-range theory explaining how the organizational cultures of undergraduate nursing programs shape the adoption and incorporation of mid-to high-level technical fidelity simulators as a teaching strategy within curricula. Method. A constructivist grounded theory was used to guide this study which was conducted in Ontario, Canada, during 2011-12. Semistructured interviews (n = 43) with participants that included nursing administrators, nursing faculty, and simulation leaders across multiple programs (n = 13) informed this study. Additionally, key documents (n = 67) were reviewed. Purposeful and theoretical sampling was used and data were collected and analyzed simultaneously. Data were compared among and between sites. Findings. The organizational elements that shape simulation in nursing (OESSN) model depicts five key organizational factors at the nursing program level that shaped the adoption and incorporation of simulation: (1) leaders working in tandem, (2) information exchange, (3) physical locale, (4) shared motivators, and (5) scaffolding to manage change. Conclusions. The OESSN model provides an explanation of the organizational factors that contributed to the adoption and incorporation of simulation into nursing curricula. Nursing programs that use the OESSN model may experience a more rapid or broad uptake of simulation when organizational factors that impact adoption and incorporation are considered and planned for.

  1. Organizational Culture Shapes the Adoption and Incorporation of Simulation into Nursing Curricula: A Grounded Theory Study

    PubMed Central

    Jack, Susan M.; Eva, Kevin; Martin, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To create a substantive mid-range theory explaining how the organizational cultures of undergraduate nursing programs shape the adoption and incorporation of mid-to high-level technical fidelity simulators as a teaching strategy within curricula. Method. A constructivist grounded theory was used to guide this study which was conducted in Ontario, Canada, during 2011-12. Semistructured interviews (n = 43) with participants that included nursing administrators, nursing faculty, and simulation leaders across multiple programs (n = 13) informed this study. Additionally, key documents (n = 67) were reviewed. Purposeful and theoretical sampling was used and data were collected and analyzed simultaneously. Data were compared among and between sites. Findings. The organizational elements that shape simulation in nursing (OESSN) model depicts five key organizational factors at the nursing program level that shaped the adoption and incorporation of simulation: (1) leaders working in tandem, (2) information exchange, (3) physical locale, (4) shared motivators, and (5) scaffolding to manage change. Conclusions. The OESSN model provides an explanation of the organizational factors that contributed to the adoption and incorporation of simulation into nursing curricula. Nursing programs that use the OESSN model may experience a more rapid or broad uptake of simulation when organizational factors that impact adoption and incorporation are considered and planned for. PMID:24818018

  2. Structure and rheology of star polymers in confined geometries: a mesoscopic simulation study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Feiwo; Goujon, Florent; Mendonça, Ana C F; Malfreyt, Patrice; Tildesley, Dominic J

    2015-11-28

    Mesoscopic simulations of star polymer melts adsorbed onto solid surfaces are performed using the dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) method. A set of parameters is developed to study the low functionality star polymers under shear. The use of a new bond-angle potential between the arms of the star creates more rigid chains and discriminates between different functionalities at equilibrium, but still allows the polymers to deform appropriately under shear. The rheology of the polymer melts is studied by calculating the kinetic friction and viscosity and there is good agreement with experimental properties of these systems. The study is completed with predictive simulations of star polymer solutions in an athermal solvent.

  3. Studying distributed cognition of simulation-based team training with DiCoT.

    PubMed

    Rybing, Jonas; Nilsson, Heléne; Jonson, Carl-Oscar; Bang, Magnus

    2016-03-01

    Health care organizations employ simulation-based team training (SBTT) to improve skill, communication and coordination in a broad range of critical care contexts. Quantitative approaches, such as team performance measurements, are predominantly used to measure SBTTs effectiveness. However, a practical evaluation method that examines how this approach supports cognition and teamwork is missing. We have applied Distributed Cognition for Teamwork (DiCoT), a method for analysing cognition and collaboration aspects of work settings, with the purpose of assessing the methodology's usefulness for evaluating SBTTs. In a case study, we observed and analysed four Emergo Train System® simulation exercises where medical professionals trained emergency response routines. The study suggests that DiCoT is an applicable and learnable tool for determining key distributed cognition attributes of SBTTs that are of importance for the simulation validity of training environments. Moreover, we discuss and exemplify how DiCoT supports design of SBTTs with a focus on transfer and validity characteristics. Practitioner Summary: In this study, we have evaluated a method to assess simulation-based team training environments from a cognitive ergonomics perspective. Using a case study, we analysed Distributed Cognition for Teamwork (DiCoT) by applying it to the Emergo Train System®. We conclude that DiCoT is useful for SBTT evaluation and simulator (re)design.

  4. A simulator study of the combined effects of alcohol and marihuana on driving behavior--phase II

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1983-02-01

    Author's abstract: The study described in this report investigated the effects of alcohol and marihuana, alone and in combination, on driver performance and behavior in a fully interactive driving simulator. The simulator provided the driver a comple...

  5. A Study on Simulation Methods in Academic Success with Reference to Teaching Biology for Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasikala, P.; Tanyong, Siriwan

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to determine the utility of simulation methods in biology teaching for nursing students and academic success. 100 students (50 control, 50 experimental) who studied at Srinivasa Teacher Training School, Kalikiri, Recognised by Sri Venkateswara University, Faculty of Education, Tirupati, AP, India, 2014-215…

  6. Heat and mass transfer in wooden dowels during a simulated fire: an experimental and analytical study

    J. A. Mardini; A. S. Lavine; V. K. Dhir

    1996-01-01

    Abstract--An experimental and analytical study of heat and mass transfer in wooden dowels during a simulated fire is presented in this paper. The goal of this study is to understand the processes of heat and mass transfer in wood during wildland fires. A mathematical model is developed to describe the processes of heating, drying and pyrolysis of wood until ignition...

  7. Costing Educational Wastage: A Pilot Simulation Study. Current Surveys and Research in Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berstecher, D.

    This pilot simulation study examines the important methodological problems involved in costing educational wastage, focusing specifically on the cost implications of educational wastage in primary education. Purpose of the study is to provide a clearer picture of the underlying rationale and interrelated consequences of reducing educational…

  8. Application of an interactive water simulation model in urban water management: a case study in Amsterdam.

    PubMed

    Leskens, J G; Brugnach, M; Hoekstra, A Y

    2014-01-01

    Water simulation models are available to support decision-makers in urban water management. To use current water simulation models, special expertise is required. Therefore, model information is prepared prior to work sessions, in which decision-makers weigh different solutions. However, this model information quickly becomes outdated when new suggestions for solutions arise and are therefore limited in use. We suggest that new model techniques, i.e. fast and flexible computation algorithms and realistic visualizations, allow this problem to be solved by using simulation models during work sessions. A new Interactive Water Simulation Model was applied for two case study areas in Amsterdam and was used in two workshops. In these workshops, the Interactive Water Simulation Model was positively received. It included non-specialist participants in the process of suggesting and selecting possible solutions and made them part of the accompanying discussions and negotiations. It also provided the opportunity to evaluate and enhance possible solutions more often within the time horizon of a decision-making process. Several preconditions proved to be important for successfully applying the Interactive Water Simulation Model, such as the willingness of the stakeholders to participate and the preparation of different general main solutions that can be used for further iterations during a work session.

  9. Simulation debriefing based on principles of transfer of learning: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Sandra; Coyer, Fiona; Nash, Robyn

    2017-09-01

    Upon completion of undergraduate nursing courses, new graduates are expected to transition seamlessly into practice. Education providers face challenges in the preparation of undergraduate nurses due to increasing student numbers and decreasing availability of clinical placement sites. High fidelity patient simulation is an integral component of nursing curricula as an adjunct to preparation for clinical placement. Debriefing after simulation is an area where the underlying structure of problems can consciously be explored. When central principles of problems are identified, they can then be used in situations that differ from the simulation experience. Third year undergraduate nursing students participated in a pilot study conducted to test a debriefing intervention where the intervention group (n=7) participated in a simulation, followed by a debriefing based on transfer of learning principles. The control group (n=5) participated in a simulation of the same scenario, followed by a standard debriefing. Students then attended focus group interviews. The results of this pilot test provided preliminary information that the debriefing approach based on transfer of learning principles may be a useful way for student nurses to learn from a simulated experience and consider the application of learning to future clinical encounters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of an adjustable hand plate in studying the perceived horizontal plane during simulated flight.

    PubMed

    Tribukait, Arne; Eiken, Ola; Lemming, Dag; Levin, Britta

    2013-07-01

    Quantitative data on spatial orientation would be valuable not only in assessing the fidelity of flight simulators, but also in evaluation of spatial orientation training. In this study a manual indicator was used for recording the subjective horizontal plane during simulated flight. In a six-degrees-of-freedom hexapod hydraulic motion platform simulator, simulating an F-16 aircraft, seven fixed-wing student pilots were passively exposed to two flight sequences. The first consisted in a number of coordinated turns with visual contact with the landscape below. The visually presented roll tilt was up to a maximum 670. The second was a takeoff with a cabin pitch up of 100, whereupon external visual references were lost. The subjects continuously indicated, with the left hand on an adjustable plate, what they perceived as horizontal in roll and pitch. There were two test occasions separated by a 3-d course on spatial disorientation. Responses to changes in simulated roll were, in general, instantaneous. The indicated roll tilt was approximately 30% of the visually presented roll. There was a considerable interindividual variability. However, for the roll response there was a correlation between the two occasions. The amplitude of the response to the pitch up of the cabin was approximately 75%; the response decayed much more slowly than the stimulus. With a manual indicator for recording the subjective horizontal plane, individual characteristics in the response to visual tilt stimuli may be detected, suggesting a potential for evaluation of simulation algorithms or training programs.

  11. Minimizing a Wireless Passive LC-Tank Sensor to Monitor Bladder Pressure: A Simulation Study.

    PubMed

    Melgaard, Jacob; Struijk, Johannes J; Rijkhoff, Nico J M

    2017-01-01

    In this simulation study, a wireless passive LC-tank sensor system was characterized. Given the application of continuous bladder monitoring, a specific system was proposed in terms of coil geometries and electronic circuitry. Coupling coefficients were spatially mapped by simulation, as a function of both coil distance, and longitudinal and transverse translation of the sensor relative to the antenna. Further, two interrogation schemes were outlined. One was an auto-balancing bridge for computing the sensor-system impedance. In this case, the theoretical noise limit of the analogue part of the system was found by simulations. As the full system is not necessary for obtaining a pressure reading from the sensor, a simplified circuit more suited for an implantable system was deduced. For this system, both the analogue and digital parts were simulated. First, the required ADC resolution for operating the system at a given coupling was found by simulations in the noise-free case. Then, for one selected typical operational point, noise was added gradually, and through Monte-Carlo type simulations, the system performance was obtained. Combining these results, it was found that it at least is possible to operate the proposed system for distances up to 12 mm, or equivalently for coupling coefficients above 0.005. In this case a 14 bit ADC is required, and a carrier SNR of 27 dB can be tolerated.

  12. A computer simulation study of VNTR population genetics: Constrained recombination rules out the infinite alleles model

    SciT

    Harding, R.M.; Martinson, J.J.; Flint, J.

    1993-11-01

    Extensive allelic diversity in variable numbers of tandem repeats (VNTRs) has been discovered in the human genome. For population genetic studies of VNTRs, such as forensic applications, it is important to know whether a neutral mutation-drift balance of VNTR polymorphism can be represented by the infinite alleles model. The assumption of the infinite alleles model that each new mutant is unique is very likely to be violated by unequal sister chromatid exchange (USCE), the primary process believed to generate VNTR mutants. The authors show that increasing both mutation rates and misalignment constraint for intrachromosomal recombination in a computer simulation modelmore » reduces simulated VNTR diversity below the expectations of the infinite alleles model. Maximal constraint, represented as slippage of single repeats, reduces simulated VNTR diversity to levels expected from the stepwise mutation model. Although misalignment rule is the more important variable, mutation rate also has an effect. At moderate rates of USCE, simulated VNTR diversity fluctuates around infinite alleles expectation. However, if rates of USCE are high, as for hypervariable VNTRs, simulated VNTR diversity is consistently lower than predicted by the infinite alleles model. This has been observed for many VNTRs and accounted for by technical problems in distinguishing alleles of neighboring size classes. The authors use sampling theory to confirm the intrinsically poor fit to the infinite model of both simulated VNTR diversity and observed VNTR polymorphisms sampled from two Papua New Guinean populations. 25 refs., 20 figs., 4 tabs.« less

  13. A Computer Simulation Study of Vntr Population Genetics: Constrained Recombination Rules Out the Infinite Alleles Model

    PubMed Central

    Harding, R. M.; Boyce, A. J.; Martinson, J. J.; Flint, J.; Clegg, J. B.

    1993-01-01

    Extensive allelic diversity in variable numbers of tandem repeats (VNTRs) has been discovered in the human genome. For population genetic studies of VNTRs, such as forensic applications, it is important to know whether a neutral mutation-drift balance of VNTR polymorphism can be represented by the infinite alleles model. The assumption of the infinite alleles model that each new mutant is unique is very likely to be violated by unequal sister chromatid exchange (USCE), the primary process believed to generate VNTR mutants. We show that increasing both mutation rates and misalignment constraint for intrachromosomal recombination in a computer simulation model reduces simulated VNTR diversity below the expectations of the infinite alleles model. Maximal constraint, represented as slippage of single repeats, reduces simulated VNTR diversity to levels expected from the stepwise mutation model. Although misalignment rule is the more important variable, mutation rate also has an effect. At moderate rates of USCE, simulated VNTR diversity fluctuates around infinite alleles expectation. However, if rates of USCE are high, as for hypervariable VNTRs, simulated VNTR diversity is consistently lower than predicted by the infinite alleles model. This has been observed for many VNTRs and accounted for by technical problems in distinguishing alleles of neighboring size classes. We use sampling theory to confirm the intrinsically poor fit to the infinite alleles model of both simulated VNTR diversity and observed VNTR polymorphisms sampled from two Papua New Guinean populations. PMID:8293988

  14. A computer simulation study of VNTR population genetics: constrained recombination rules out the infinite alleles model.

    PubMed

    Harding, R M; Boyce, A J; Martinson, J J; Flint, J; Clegg, J B

    1993-11-01

    Extensive allelic diversity in variable numbers of tandem repeats (VNTRs) has been discovered in the human genome. For population genetic studies of VNTRs, such as forensic applications, it is important to know whether a neutral mutation-drift balance of VNTR polymorphism can be represented by the infinite alleles model. The assumption of the infinite alleles model that each new mutant is unique is very likely to be violated by unequal sister chromatid exchange (USCE), the primary process believed to generate VNTR mutants. We show that increasing both mutation rates and misalignment constraint for intrachromosomal recombination in a computer simulation model reduces simulated VNTR diversity below the expectations of the infinite alleles model. Maximal constraint, represented as slippage of single repeats, reduces simulated VNTR diversity to levels expected from the stepwise mutation model. Although misalignment rule is the more important variable, mutation rate also has an effect. At moderate rates of USCE, simulated VNTR diversity fluctuates around infinite alleles expectation. However, if rates of USCE are high, as for hypervariable VNTRs, simulated VNTR diversity is consistently lower than predicted by the infinite alleles model. This has been observed for many VNTRs and accounted for by technical problems in distinguishing alleles of neighboring size classes. We use sampling theory to confirm the intrinsically poor fit to the infinite alleles model of both simulated VNTR diversity and observed VNTR polymorphisms sampled from two Papua New Guinean populations.

  15. A study on optimization of hybrid drive train using Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Same, Adam; Stipe, Alex; Grossman, David; Park, Jae Wan

    This study investigates the advantages and disadvantages of three hybrid drive train configurations: series, parallel, and "through-the-ground" parallel. Power flow simulations are conducted with the MATLAB/Simulink-based software ADVISOR. These simulations are then applied in an application for the UC Davis SAE Formula Hybrid vehicle. ADVISOR performs simulation calculations for vehicle position using a combined backward/forward method. These simulations are used to study how efficiency and agility are affected by the motor, fuel converter, and hybrid configuration. Three different vehicle models are developed to optimize the drive train of a vehicle for three stages of the SAE Formula Hybrid competition: autocross, endurance, and acceleration. Input cycles are created based on rough estimates of track geometry. The output from these ADVISOR simulations is a series of plots of velocity profile and energy storage State of Charge that provide a good estimate of how the Formula Hybrid vehicle will perform on the given course. The most noticeable discrepancy between the input cycle and the actual velocity profile of the vehicle occurs during deceleration. A weighted ranking system is developed to organize the simulation results and to determine the best drive train configuration for the Formula Hybrid vehicle. Results show that the through-the-ground parallel configuration with front-mounted motors achieves an optimal balance of efficiency, simplicity, and cost. ADVISOR is proven to be a useful tool for vehicle power train design for the SAE Formula Hybrid competition. This vehicle model based on ADVISOR simulation is applicable to various studies concerning performance and efficiency of hybrid drive trains.

  16. Predictive validity of driving-simulator assessments following traumatic brain injury: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Lew, Henry L; Poole, John H; Lee, Eun Ha; Jaffe, David L; Huang, Hsiu-Chen; Brodd, Edward

    2005-03-01

    To evaluate whether driving simulator and road test evaluations can predict long-term driving performance, we conducted a prospective study on 11 patients with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury. Sixteen healthy subjects were also tested to provide normative values on the simulator at baseline. At their initial evaluation (time-1), subjects' driving skills were measured during a 30-minute simulator trial using an automated 12-measure Simulator Performance Index (SPI), while a trained observer also rated their performance using a Driving Performance Inventory (DPI). In addition, patients were evaluated on the road by a certified driving evaluator. Ten months later (time-2), family members observed patients driving for at least 3 hours over 4 weeks and rated their driving performance using the DPI. At time-1, patients were significantly impaired on automated SPI measures of driving skill, including: speed and steering control, accidents, and vigilance to a divided-attention task. These simulator indices significantly predicted the following aspects of observed driving performance at time-2: handling of automobile controls, regulation of vehicle speed and direction, higher-order judgment and self-control, as well as a trend-level association with car accidents. Automated measures of simulator skill (SPI) were more sensitive and accurate than observational measures of simulator skill (DPI) in predicting actual driving performance. To our surprise, the road test results at time-1 showed no significant relation to driving performance at time-2. Simulator-based assessment of patients with brain injuries can provide ecologically valid measures that, in some cases, may be more sensitive than a traditional road test as predictors of long-term driving performance in the community.

  17. The process of adopting and incorporating simulation into undergraduate nursing curricula: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Taplay, Karyn; Jack, Susan M; Baxter, Pamela; Eva, Kevin; Martin, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explain the process of adopting and incorporating simulation as a teaching strategy in undergraduate nursing programs, define uptake, and discuss potential outcomes. In many countries, simulation is increasingly adopted as a common teaching strategy. However, there is a dearth of knowledge related to the process of adoption and incorporation. We used an interpretive, constructivist approach to grounded theory to guide this research study. We conducted the study was in Ontario, Canada, during 2011-2012. Using multiple data sources, we informed the development of this theory including in-depth interviews (n = 43) and a review of key organizational documents, such as mission and vision statements (n = 67) from multiple nursing programs (n = 13). The adoption and uptake of mid- to high-fidelity simulation equipment is a multistep iterative process involving various organizational levels within the institution that entails a seven-phase process: (a) securing resources, (b) nursing leaders working in tandem, (c) getting it out of the box, (d) learning about simulation and its potential for teaching, (e) finding a fit, (f) trialing the equipment, and (g) integrating into the curriculum. These findings could assist nursing programs in Canada and internationally that wish to adopt or further incorporate simulation into their curricula and highlight potential organizational and program level outcomes. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Simulation and experimental study of rheological properties of CeO2-water nanofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loya, Adil; Stair, Jacqueline L.; Ren, Guogang

    2015-10-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles offer great merits over controlling rheological, thermal, chemical and physical properties of solutions. The effectiveness of a nanoparticle to modify the properties of a fluid depends on its diffusive properties with respect to the fluid. In this study, rheological properties of aqueous fluids (i.e. water) were enhanced with the addition of CeO2 nanoparticles. This study was characterized by the outcomes of simulation and experimental results of nanofluids. The movement of nanoparticles in the fluidic media was simulated by a large-scale molecular thermal dynamic program (i.e. LAMMPS). The COMPASS force field was employed with smoothed particle hydrodynamic potential (SPH) and discrete particle dynamics potential (DPD). However, this study develops the understanding of how the rheological properties are affected due to the addition of nanoparticles in a fluid and the way DPD and SPH can be used for accurately estimating the rheological properties with Brownian effect. The rheological results of the simulation were confirmed by the convergence of the stress autocorrelation function, whereas experimental properties were measured using a rheometer. These rheological values of simulation were obtained and agreed within 5 % of the experimental values; they were identified and treated with a number of iterations and experimental tests. The results of the experiment and simulation show that 10 % CeO2 nanoparticles dispersion in water has a viscosity of 2.0-3.3 mPas.

  19. The Problem of Controlling for Imperfectly Measured Confounders on Dissimilar Populations: A Database Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Schonberger, Robert B; Gilbertsen, Todd; Dai, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s) Observational database research frequently relies on imperfect administrative markers to determine comorbid status, and it is difficult to infer to what extent the associated misclassification impacts validity in multivariable analyses. The effect that imperfect markers of disease will have on validity in situations where researchers attempt to match populations that have strong baseline health differences is underemphasized as a limitation in some otherwise high-quality observational studies. The present simulations were designed as a quantitative demonstration of the importance of this common and underappreciated issue. Design Two groups of Monte Carlo simulations were performed. The first demonstrated the degree to which controlling for a series of imperfect markers of disease between different populations taking 2 hypothetically harmless drugs would lead to spurious associations between drug assignment and mortality. The second Monte Carlo simulation applied this principle to a recent study in the field of anesthesiology that purported to show increased perioperative mortality in patients taking metoprolol versus atenolol. Setting/Participants/Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results Simulation 1: High type 1 error (ie, false positive findings of an independent association between drug assignment and mortality) was observed as sensitivity and specificity declined and as systematic differences in disease prevalence increased. Simulation 2: Propensity score matching across several imperfect markers was unlikely to eliminate important baseline health disparities in the referenced study. Conclusions In situations where large baseline health disparities exist between populations, matching on imperfect markers of disease may result in strong bias away from the null hypothesis. PMID:23962461

  20. Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko during the Rosetta mission: numerical simulation of dusty gas coma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenishev, Valeriy; Combi, Michael; Rubin, Martin; Hansen, Kenneth; Gombosi, Tamas

    The Rosetta spacecraft is en route to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko for a rendezvous, landing, and extensive orbital phase beginning in 2014. Having a limited amount of information regarding its coma, interpretation of measurements and safety consideration of the spacecraft will require modeling of the comet's environment. Such models should be able to simulate both the gas and dust phases of the coma as well as the interaction between them in a self-consistent manner. The relevant physical processes in the coma include photolytic reactions and interaction with the nucleus for the gas phase and drag by the gas, gravity of the nucleus, solar gravity and radiation pressure, and charging by the ambient plasma for the dust phase. Developing of such modeling capabilities will be able to link measurements obtained by different instruments onboard of spacecraft. Some examples of cometary comae simulations can be found in [1-3]. In this work we present our kinetic model of a dusty gas coma [4] with results of its application to the case of comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko at conditions corresponding to some stages the during the Rosetta mission. Based on the surface properties and local production rates obtained by MIRO, RSI and VIRTIS the model will be able to propagate the injected gas and dust into the coma linking the measurements to those obtained by ALICE, MIDAS and ROSINA for the gas phase and COSIMA and GIADA for the dust phase of the coma. A simultaneous simulation of the major components of the multi-phase coma will allow us to link observations of the gas and dust phases. In this work we present results of a numerical study of neutral/ionized multispecies gaseous and electrically charged dust environment of the comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko at a helio-centric distance of 1.3 AU. The simulation is performed in fully 3D geometry with a realistic nucleus model that describes its topological features and source distribution. Both, neutral and ionized components of the

  1. A study of the feasibility of statistical analysis of airport performance simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of conducting a statistical analysis of simulation experiments to study airport capacity is investigated. First, the form of the distribution of airport capacity is studied. Since the distribution is non-Gaussian, it is important to determine the effect of this distribution on standard analysis of variance techniques and power calculations. Next, power computations are made in order to determine how economic simulation experiments would be if they are designed to detect capacity changes from condition to condition. Many of the conclusions drawn are results of Monte-Carlo techniques.

  2. Simulation study of terahertz radiation generation by circularly polarized laser pulses propagating in axially magnetized plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saroch, Akanksha; Jha, Pallavi

    2017-12-01

    This paper deals with a two-dimensional simulation study of terahertz radiation emission in the wake of circularly polarized laser pulses propagating in uniformly magnetized plasma, using the XOOPIC code. The external magnetic field is applied along the direction of propagation of the laser pulse. It is seen that linearly polarized terahertz radiation is emitted off-axis, along the propagation direction, in plasma. This emitted radiation is also seen to be transmitted in vacuum. Simulation studies reveal that no such radiation is generated on-axis for the given configuration.

  3. A Study of the Characteristics of Human-Pilot Control Response to Simulated Aircraft Lateral Motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheatham, Donald C

    1954-01-01

    Report presents the results of studies made in an attempt to provide information on the control operations of the human pilot. These studies included an investigation of the ability of pilots to control simulated unstable yawing oscillations, a study of the basic characteristics of human-pilot control response, and a study to determine whether and to what extent pilot control response can be represented in an analytical form.

  4. Simulation Based Studies of Low Latency Teleoperations for NASA Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernhardt, Michael L.; Crues, Edwin Z.; Bielski, Paul; Dexter, Dan; Litaker, Harry L.; Chappell, Steven P.; Beaton, Kara H.; Bekdash, Omar S.

    2017-01-01

    Human exploration of Mars will involve both crewed and robotic systems. Many mission concepts involve the deployment and assembly of mission support assets prior to crew arrival on the surface. Some of these deployment and assembly activities will be performed autonomously while others will be performed using teleoperations. However, significant communications latencies between the Earth and Mars make teleoperations challenging. Alternatively, low latency teleoperations are possible from locations in Mars orbit like Mars' moons Phobos and Deimos. To explore these latency opportunities, NASA is conducting a series of studies to investigate the effects of latency on telerobotic deployment and assembly activities. These studies are being conducted in laboratory environments at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC), the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) at JSC and the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) underwater habitat off the coast of Florida. The studies involve two human-in-the-loop interactive simulations developed by the NASA Exploration Systems Simulations (NExSyS) team at JSC. The first simulation investigates manipulation related activities while the second simulation investigates mobility related activities. The first simulation provides a simple real-time operator interface with displays and controls for a simulated 6 degree of freedom end effector. The initial version of the simulation uses a simple control mode to decouple the robotic kinematic constraints and a communications delay to model latency effects. This provides the basis for early testing with more detailed manipulation simulations planned for the future. Subjects are tested using five operating latencies that represent teleoperation conditions from local surface operations to orbital operations at Phobos, Deimos and ultimately high Martian orbit. Subject performance is measured and correlated with three distance-to-target zones of interest. Each zone represents a target

  5. Thermal and Mechanical Non-Equilibrium Effects on Turbulent Flows: Fundamental Studies of Energy Exchanges Through Direct Numerical Simulations, Molecular Simulations and Experiments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-26

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0104 Thermal and mechanical non-equilibrium effects on turbulent flows:fundamental studies of energy exchanges through direct...flows: fundamental studies of energy exchanges through direct numerical simulations, molecular simulations and experiments 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT A DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED: PB Public Release 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Utilizing internal energy exchange for intelligent

  6. Identification of Barriers to Pediatric Care in Limited-Resource Settings: A Simulation Study.

    PubMed

    Shilkofski, Nicole; Hunt, Elizabeth A

    2015-12-01

    Eighty percent of the 10 million annual deaths in children aged <5 years in developing countries are estimated to be avoidable, with improvements in education for pediatric emergency management being a key factor. Education must take into account cultural considerations to be effective. Study objectives were: (1) to use simulation to identify factors posing barriers to patient care in limited resource settings (LRS); and (2) to understand how simulations in LRS can affect communication and decision-making processes. A qualitative study was conducted at 17 different sites in 12 developing countries in Asia, Latin America, and Africa. Data from observations of 68 in situ simulated pediatric emergencies were coded for thematic analysis. Sixty-two different "key informants" were interviewed regarding perceived benefit of simulations. Coding of observations and interviews yielded common themes: impact of culture on team hierarchy, impact of communication and language barriers on situational awareness, systematic emergency procedures, role delineation, shared cognition and resource awareness through simulation, logistic barriers to patient care, and use of recognition-primed decision-making by experienced clinicians. Changes in clinical environments were implemented as a result of simulations. Ad hoc teams in LRS face challenges in caring safely for patients; these include language and cultural barriers, as well as environmental and resource constraints. Engaging teams in simulations may promote improved communication, identification of systems issues and latent threats to target for remediation. There may be a role for training novices in use of recognition-primed or algorithmic decision-making strategies to improve rapidity and efficiency of decisions in LRS. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. An evaluation of edge effects in nutritional accessibility and availability measures: a simulation study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This paper addresses the statistical use of accessibility and availability indices and the effect of study boundaries on these measures. The measures are evaluated via an extensive simulation based on cluster models for local outlet density. We define outlet to mean either food retail store (convenience store, supermarket, gas station) or restaurant (limited service or full service restaurants). We designed a simulation whereby a cluster outlet model is assumed in a large study window and an internal subset of that window is constructed. We performed simulations on various criteria including one scenario representing an urban area with 2000 outlets as well as a non-urban area simulated with only 300 outlets. A comparison is made between estimates obtained with the full study area and estimates using only the subset area. This allows the study of the effect of edge censoring on accessibility measures. Results The results suggest that considerable bias is found at the edges of study regions in particular for accessibility measures. Edge effects are smaller for availability measures (when not smoothed) and also for short range accessibility Conclusions It is recommended that any study utilizing these measures should correct for edge effects. The use of edge correction via guard areas is recommended and the avoidance of large range distance-based accessibility measures is also proposed. PMID:20663199

  8. Closed-loop controller for chest compressions based on coronary perfusion pressure: a computer simulation study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunfei; Zhang, Guang; Wu, Taihu; Zhan, Ningbo; Wang, Yaling

    2016-03-01

    High-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation contributes to cardiac arrest survival. The traditional chest compression (CC) standard, which neglects individual differences, uses unified standards for compression depth and compression rate in practice. In this study, an effective and personalized CC method for automatic mechanical compression devices is provided. We rebuild Charles F. Babbs' human circulation model with a coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) simulation module and propose a closed-loop controller based on a fuzzy control algorithm for CCs, which adjusts the CC depth according to the CPP. Compared with a traditional proportion-integration-differentiation (PID) controller, the performance of the fuzzy controller is evaluated in computer simulation studies. The simulation results demonstrate that the fuzzy closed-loop controller results in shorter regulation time, fewer oscillations and smaller overshoot than traditional PID controllers and outperforms the traditional PID controller for CPP regulation and maintenance.

  9. Toward high-efficiency and detailed Monte Carlo simulation study of the granular flow spallation target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Han-Jie; Zhang, Zhi-Lei; Fu, Fen; Li, Jian-Yang; Zhang, Xun-Chao; Zhang, Ya-Ling; Yan, Xue-Song; Lin, Ping; Xv, Jian-Ya; Yang, Lei

    2018-02-01

    The dense granular flow spallation target is a new target concept chosen for the Accelerator-Driven Subcritical (ADS) project in China. For the R&D of this kind of target concept, a dedicated Monte Carlo (MC) program named GMT was developed to perform the simulation study of the beam-target interaction. Owing to the complexities of the target geometry, the computational cost of the MC simulation of particle tracks is highly expensive. Thus, improvement of computational efficiency will be essential for the detailed MC simulation studies of the dense granular target. Here we present the special design of the GMT program and its high efficiency performance. In addition, the speedup potential of the GPU-accelerated spallation models is discussed.

  10. 42: An Open-Source Simulation Tool for Study and Design of Spacecraft Attitude Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoneking, Eric

    2018-01-01

    Simulation is an important tool in the analysis and design of spacecraft attitude control systems. The speaker will discuss the simulation tool, called simply 42, that he has developed over the years to support his own work as an engineer in the Attitude Control Systems Engineering Branch at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. 42 was intended from the outset to be high-fidelity and powerful, but also fast and easy to use. 42 is publicly available as open source since 2014. The speaker will describe some of 42's models and features, and discuss its applicability to studies ranging from early concept studies through the design cycle, integration, and operations. He will outline 42's architecture and share some thoughts on simulation development as a long-term project.

  11. Effect of Single-Electron Interface Trapping in Decanano MOSFETs: A 3D Atomistic Simulation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asenov, Asen; Balasubramaniam, R.; Brown, A. R.; Davies, J. H.

    2000-01-01

    We study the effect of trapping/detrapping of a single-electron in interface states in the channel of n-type MOSFETs with decanano dimensions using 3D atomistic simulation techniques. In order to highlight the basic dependencies, the simulations are carried out initially assuming continuous doping charge, and discrete localized charge only for the trapped electron. The dependence of the random telegraph signal (RTS) amplitudes on the device dimensions and on the position of the trapped charge in the channel are studied in detail. Later, in full-scale, atomistic simulations assuming discrete charge for both randomly placed dopants and the trapped electron, we highlight the importance of current percolation and of traps with strategic position where the trapped electron blocks a dominant current path.

  12. A Multi-agent Simulation Tool for Micro-scale Contagion Spread Studies

    SciT

    Koch, Daniel B

    2016-01-01

    Within the disaster preparedness and emergency response community, there is interest in how contagions spread person-to-person at large gatherings and if mitigation strategies can be employed to reduce new infections. A contagion spread simulation module was developed for the Incident Management Preparedness and Coordination Toolkit that allows a user to see how a geographically accurate layout of the gathering space helps or hinders the spread of a contagion. The results can inform mitigation strategies based on changing the physical layout of an event space. A case study was conducted for a particular event to calibrate the underlying simulation model. Thismore » paper presents implementation details of the simulation code that incorporates agent movement and disease propagation. Elements of the case study are presented to show how the tool can be used.« less

  13. Using a Radiofrequency Identification System for Improving the Patient Discharge Process: A Simulation Study.

    PubMed

    Shim, Sung J; Kumar, Arun; Jiao, Roger

    2016-01-01

    A hospital is considering deploying a radiofrequency identification (RFID) system and setting up a new "discharge lounge" to improve the patient discharge process. This study uses computer simulation to model and compare the current process and the new process, and it assesses the impact of the RFID system and the discharge lounge on the process in terms of resource utilization and time taken in the process. The simulation results regarding resource utilization suggest that the RFID system can slightly relieve the burden on all resources, whereas the RFID system and the discharge lounge together can significantly mitigate the nurses' tasks. The simulation results in terms of the time taken demonstrate that the RFID system can shorten patient wait times, staff busy times, and bed occupation times. The results of the study could prove helpful to others who are considering the use of an RFID system in the patient discharge process in hospitals or similar processes.

  14. Scottish healthcare student's perceptions of an interprofessional ward simulation: An exploratory, descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Fiona E; Goodhand, Kate

    2018-03-01

    The most memorable learning occurs during placement. Simulated interprofessional learning is a logical learning opportunity to help healthcare professionals work beyond their professional silos. In this qualitative study, we investigated the perceived learning of students from six health professions (adult nursing, diagnostic radiography, occupational therapy, physiotherapy, dietetics, and pharmacy) from their participation in a 45 min interprofessional ward simulation. Semistructured focus groups were undertaken, and data were analyzed using framework analysis. Two overarching themes were evident, each of which had subthemes: (i) the ward simulation as an interprofessional education opportunity (subthemes: reality of situations and interactions); and (ii) the perceived learning achieved (subthemes: professional roles, priorities, respect, communication, teamwork, and quality of care). The results indicated that a short interprofessional ward simulation, unsupported by additional learning opportunities or directed study, is a useful and engaging interprofessional learning opportunity. Students appear to have learnt important key messages central to the interprofessional education curricula to help develop practitioners who can effectively work together as an interprofessional team, and that this learning is partly due to simulation allowing things to go wrong. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. A Validation Study of Merging and Spacing Techniques in a NAS-Wide Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaab, Patricia C.

    2011-01-01

    In November 2010, Intelligent Automation, Inc. (IAI) delivered an M&S software tool to that allows system level studies of the complex terminal airspace with the ACES simulation. The software was evaluated against current day arrivals in the Atlanta TRACON using Atlanta's Hartsfield-Jackson International Airport (KATL) arrival schedules. Results of this validation effort are presented describing data sets, traffic flow assumptions and techniques, and arrival rate comparisons between reported landings at Atlanta versus simulated arrivals using the same traffic sets in ACES equipped with M&S. Initial results showed the simulated system capacity to be significantly below arrival capacity seen at KATL. Data was gathered for Atlanta using commercial airport and flight tracking websites (like FlightAware.com), and analyzed to insure compatible techniques were used for result reporting and comparison. TFM operators for Atlanta were consulted for tuning final simulation parameters and for guidance in flow management techniques during high volume operations. Using these modified parameters and incorporating TFM guidance for efficiencies in flowing aircraft, arrival capacity for KATL was matched for the simulation. Following this validation effort, a sensitivity study was conducted to measure the impact of variations in system parameters on the Atlanta airport arrival capacity.

  16. Statistical Analysis of Large Simulated Yield Datasets for Studying Climate Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makowski, David; Asseng, Senthold; Ewert, Frank; Bassu, Simona; Durand, Jean-Louis; Martre, Pierre; Adam, Myriam; Aggarwal, Pramod K.; Angulo, Carlos; Baron, Chritian; hide

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have been carried out during the last decade to study the effect of climate change on crop yields and other key crop characteristics. In these studies, one or several crop models were used to simulate crop growth and development for different climate scenarios that correspond to different projections of atmospheric CO2 concentration, temperature, and rainfall changes (Semenov et al., 1996; Tubiello and Ewert, 2002; White et al., 2011). The Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP; Rosenzweig et al., 2013) builds on these studies with the goal of using an ensemble of multiple crop models in order to assess effects of climate change scenarios for several crops in contrasting environments. These studies generate large datasets, including thousands of simulated crop yield data. They include series of yield values obtained by combining several crop models with different climate scenarios that are defined by several climatic variables (temperature, CO2, rainfall, etc.). Such datasets potentially provide useful information on the possible effects of different climate change scenarios on crop yields. However, it is sometimes difficult to analyze these datasets and to summarize them in a useful way due to their structural complexity; simulated yield data can differ among contrasting climate scenarios, sites, and crop models. Another issue is that it is not straightforward to extrapolate the results obtained for the scenarios to alternative climate change scenarios not initially included in the simulation protocols. Additional dynamic crop model simulations for new climate change scenarios are an option but this approach is costly, especially when a large number of crop models are used to generate the simulated data, as in AgMIP. Statistical models have been used to analyze responses of measured yield data to climate variables in past studies (Lobell et al., 2011), but the use of a statistical model to analyze yields simulated by complex

  17. Application of geostatistical simulation to compile seismotectonic provinces based on earthquake databases (case study: Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalali, Mohammad; Ramazi, Hamidreza

    2018-04-01

    This article is devoted to application of a simulation algorithm based on geostatistical methods to compile and update seismotectonic provinces in which Iran has been chosen as a case study. Traditionally, tectonic maps together with seismological data and information (e.g., earthquake catalogues, earthquake mechanism, and microseismic data) have been used to update seismotectonic provinces. In many cases, incomplete earthquake catalogues are one of the important challenges in this procedure. To overcome this problem, a geostatistical simulation algorithm, turning band simulation, TBSIM, was applied to make a synthetic data to improve incomplete earthquake catalogues. Then, the synthetic data was added to the traditional information to study the seismicity homogeneity and classify the areas according to tectonic and seismic properties to update seismotectonic provinces. In this paper, (i) different magnitude types in the studied catalogues have been homogenized to moment magnitude (Mw), and earthquake declustering was then carried out to remove aftershocks and foreshocks; (ii) time normalization method was introduced to decrease the uncertainty in a temporal domain prior to start the simulation procedure; (iii) variography has been carried out in each subregion to study spatial regressions (e.g., west-southwestern area showed a spatial regression from 0.4 to 1.4 decimal degrees; the maximum range identified in the azimuth of 135 ± 10); (iv) TBSIM algorithm was then applied to make simulated events which gave rise to make 68,800 synthetic events according to the spatial regression found in several directions; (v) simulated events (i.e., magnitudes) were classified based on their intensity in ArcGIS packages and homogenous seismic zones have been determined. Finally, according to the synthetic data, tectonic features, and actual earthquake catalogues, 17 seismotectonic provinces were introduced in four major classes introduced as very high, high, moderate, and low

  18. Computer Simulations and Theoretical Studies of Complex Systems: from complex fluids to frustrated magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Eunsong

    Computer simulations are an integral part of research in modern condensed matter physics; they serve as a direct bridge between theory and experiment by systemactically applying a microscopic model to a collection of particles that effectively imitate a macroscopic system. In this thesis, we study two very differnt condensed systems, namely complex fluids and frustrated magnets, primarily by simulating classical dynamics of each system. In the first part of the thesis, we focus on ionic liquids (ILs) and polymers--the two complementary classes of materials that can be combined to provide various unique properties. The properties of polymers/ILs systems, such as conductivity, viscosity, and miscibility, can be fine tuned by choosing an appropriate combination of cations, anions, and polymers. However, designing a system that meets a specific need requires a concrete understanding of physics and chemistry that dictates a complex interplay between polymers and ionic liquids. In this regard, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is an efficient tool that provides a molecular level picture of such complex systems. We study the behavior of Poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) and the imidazolium based ionic liquids, using MD simulations and statistical mechanics. We also discuss our efforts to develop reliable and efficient classical force-fields for PEO and the ionic liquids. The second part is devoted to studies on geometrically frustrated magnets. In particular, a microscopic model, which gives rise to an incommensurate spiral magnetic ordering observed in a pyrochlore antiferromagnet is investigated. The validation of the model is made via a comparison of the spin-wave spectra with the neutron scattering data. Since the standard Holstein-Primakoff method is difficult to employ in such a complex ground state structure with a large unit cell, we carry out classical spin dynamics simulations to compute spin-wave spectra directly from the Fourier transform of spin trajectories. We

  19. Design and simulation of novel laparoscopic renal denervation system: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Ye, Eunbi; Baik, Jinhwan; Lee, Seunghyun; Ryu, Seon Young; Yang, Sunchoel; Choi, Eue-Keun; Song, Won Hoon; Yuk, Hyeong Dong; Jeong, Chang Wook; Park, Sung-Min

    2018-05-18

    In this study, we propose a novel laparoscopy-based renal denervation (RDN) system for treating patients with resistant hypertension. In this feasibility study, we investigated whether our proposed surgical instrument can ablate renal nerves from outside of the renal artery safely and effectively and can overcome the depth-related limitations of the previous catheter-based system with less damage to the arterial walls. We designed a looped bipolar electrosurgical instrument to be used with laparoscopy-based RDN system. The tip of instrument wraps around the renal artery and delivers the radio-frequency (RF) energy. We evaluated the thermal distribution via simulation study on a numerical model designed using histological data and validated the results by the in vitro study. Finally, to show the effectiveness of this system, we compared the performance of our system with that of catheter-based RDN system through simulations. Simulation results were within the 95% confidence intervals of the in vitro experimental results. The validated results demonstrated that the proposed laparoscopy-based RDN system produces an effective thermal distribution for the removal of renal sympathetic nerves without damaging the arterial wall and addresses the depth limitation of catheter-based RDN system. We developed a novel laparoscope-based electrosurgical RDN method for hypertension treatment. The feasibility of our system was confirmed through a simulation study as well as in vitro experiments. Our proposed method could be an effective treatment for resistant hypertension as well as central nervous system diseases.

  20. A simulation study of capacity utilization to predict future capacity for manufacturing system sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimo, Tan Hauw Sen; Chai Tin, Ong

    2017-12-01

    Capacity utilization (CU) measurement is an important task in a manufacturing system, especially in make-to-order (MTO) type manufacturing system with product customization, in predicting capacity to meet future demand. A stochastic discrete-event simulation is developed using ARENA software to determine CU and capacity gap (CG) in short run production function. This study focused on machinery breakdown and product defective rate as random variables in the simulation. The study found that the manufacturing system run in 68.01% CU and 31.99% CG. It is revealed that machinery breakdown and product defective rate have a direct relationship with CU. By improving product defective rate into zero defect, manufacturing system can improve CU up to 73.56% and CG decrease to 26.44%. While improving machinery breakdown into zero breakdowns will improve CU up to 93.99% and the CG decrease to 6.01%. This study helps operation level to study CU using “what-if” analysis in order to meet future demand in more practical and easier method by using simulation approach. Further study is recommended by including other random variables that affect CU to make the simulation closer with the real-life situation for a better decision.

  1. [3D Virtual Reality Laparoscopic Simulation in Surgical Education - Results of a Pilot Study].

    PubMed

    Kneist, W; Huber, T; Paschold, M; Lang, H

    2016-06-01

    The use of three-dimensional imaging in laparoscopy is a growing issue and has led to 3D systems in laparoscopic simulation. Studies on box trainers have shown differing results concerning the benefit of 3D imaging. There are currently no studies analysing 3D imaging in virtual reality laparoscopy (VRL). Five surgical fellows, 10 surgical residents and 29 undergraduate medical students performed abstract and procedural tasks on a VRL simulator using conventional 2D and 3D imaging in a randomised order. No significant differences between the two imaging systems were shown for students or medical professionals. Participants who preferred three-dimensional imaging showed significantly better results in 2D as wells as in 3D imaging. First results on three-dimensional imaging on box trainers showed different results. Some studies resulted in an advantage of 3D imaging for laparoscopic novices. This study did not confirm the superiority of 3D imaging over conventional 2D imaging in a VRL simulator. In the present study on 3D imaging on a VRL simulator there was no significant advantage for 3D imaging compared to conventional 2D imaging. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. The effect of simulation courseware on critical thinking in undergraduate nursing students: multi-site pre-post study.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyunsook; Ma, Hyunhee; Park, Jiyoung; Ji, Eun Sun; Kim, Dong Hee

    2015-04-01

    The use of simulations has been considered as opportunities for students to enhance their critical thinking (CT), but previous studies were limited because they did not provide in-depth information on the working dynamics of simulation or on the effects of the number of simulation exposures on CT. This study examined the effect of an integrated pediatric nursing simulation used in a nursing practicum on students' CT abilities and identified the effects of differing numbers of simulation exposures on CT in a multi-site environment. The study used a multi-site, pre-test, post-test design. A total of 237 nursing students at three universities enrolled in a pediatric practicum participated in this study from February to December 2013. All three schools used the same simulation courseware, including the same simulation scenarios, evaluation tools, and simulation equipment. The courseware incorporated high-fidelity simulators and standardized patients. Students at school A completed one simulation session, whereas students at schools B and C completed two and three simulation sessions, respectively. Yoon's Critical Thinking Disposition tool (2008) was used to measure students' CT abilities. The gains in students' CT scores varied according to their numbers of exposures to the simulation courseware. With a single exposure, there were no statistically significant gains in CT, whereas three exposures to the courseware produced significant gains in CT. In seven subcategories of critical thinking, three exposures to the simulation courseware produced CT gains in the prudence and intellectual eagerness subcategories, and the overall simulation experience produced CT gains in the prudence, systematicity, healthy skepticism, and intellectual eagerness subcategories. Simulation courseware may produce positive learning outcomes for prudence in nursing education. In addition, the findings from the multi-site comparative study may contribute to greater understanding of how patient

  3. Case Study: An Examination of the Decision Making Process for Selecting Simulations for an Online MBA Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neely, Pat; Tucker, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Simulations are designed as activities which imitate real world scenarios and are often used to teach and enhance skill building. The purpose of this case study is to examine the decision making process and outcomes of a faculty committee tasked with examining simulations in the marketplace to determine if the simulations could be used as…

  4. Goals, Success Factors, and Barriers for Simulation-Based Learning: A Qualitative Interview Study in Health Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dieckmann, Peter; Friis, Susanne Molin; Lippert, Anne; Ostergaard, Doris

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This study describes (a) process goals, (b) success factors, and (c) barriers for optimizing simulation-based learning environments within the simulation setting model developed by Dieckmann. Methods: Seven simulation educators of different experience levels were interviewed using the Critical Incident Technique. Results: (a) The…

  5. Comparison of meaningful learning characteristics in simulated nursing practice after traditional versus computer-based simulation method: a qualitative videography study.

    PubMed

    Poikela, Paula; Ruokamo, Heli; Teräs, Marianne

    2015-02-01

    Nursing educators must ensure that nursing students acquire the necessary competencies; finding the most purposeful teaching methods and encouraging learning through meaningful learning opportunities is necessary to meet this goal. We investigated student learning in a simulated nursing practice using videography. The purpose of this paper is to examine how two different teaching methods presented students' meaningful learning in a simulated nursing experience. The 6-hour study was divided into three parts: part I, general information; part II, training; and part III, simulated nursing practice. Part II was delivered by two different methods: a computer-based simulation and a lecture. The study was carried out in the simulated nursing practice in two universities of applied sciences, in Northern Finland. The participants in parts II and I were 40 first year nursing students; 12 student volunteers continued to part III. Qualitative analysis method was used. The data were collected using video recordings and analyzed by videography. The students who used a computer-based simulation program were more likely to report meaningful learning themes than those who were first exposed to lecture method. Educators should be encouraged to use computer-based simulation teaching in conjunction with other teaching methods to ensure that nursing students are able to receive the greatest educational benefits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dawn simulation and bright light in the treatment of SAD: a controlled study.

    PubMed

    Avery, D H; Eder, D N; Bolte, M A; Hellekson, C J; Dunner, D L; Vitiello, M V; Prinz, P N

    2001-08-01

    Some small controlled studies have found that dawn simulation is effective in treating seasonal affective disorder (SAD). With a larger sample size and a longer duration of treatment, we compared dawn simulation with bright light therapy and a placebo condition in patients with SAD. Medication-free patients with SAD were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: bright light therapy (10,000 lux for 30 min, from 6:00 AM to 6:30 AM), dawn simulation (1.5 hour dawn signal from 4:30 AM to 6:00 AM peaking at 250 lux), and a placebo condition, a dim red light (1.5 hour dawn signal from 4:30 am to 6:00 AM peaking at 0.5 lux.) Over the subsequent 6 weeks, the subjects were blindly rated by a psychiatrist using the Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Depression Rating-Seasonal Affective Disorder Version (SIGH-SAD). We modeled the profiles of the remissions (SIGH-SAD < or = 8) and response (> or =50% decrease in SIGH-SAD) to treatment over time using Cox proportional hazards models. The sample consisted of 95 subjects who were randomized to the three conditions: bright light (n = 33), dawn simulation (n = 31) and placebo (n = 31). Dawn simulation was associated with greater remission (p <.05) and response (p <.001) rates compared to the placebo. Bright light did not differ significantly from the placebo. Dawn simulation was associated with greater remission (p <.01) and response (p <.001) rates compared to the bright light therapy. The mean daily hours of sunshine during the week before each visit were associated with a significant increase in likelihood of both remission (p <.001) and response (p <.001). Dawn simulation was associated with greater remission and response rates compared to the placebo and compared to bright light therapy. The hours of sunshine during the week before each assessment were associated with a positive clinical response.

  7. Co-producing simulation models to inform resource management: a case study from southwest South Dakota

    Miller, Brian W.; Symstad, Amy J.; Frid, Leonardo; Fisichelli, Nicholas A.; Schuurman, Gregor W.

    2017-01-01

    Simulation models can represent complexities of the real world and serve as virtual laboratories for asking “what if…?” questions about how systems might respond to different scenarios. However, simulation models have limited relevance to real-world applications when designed without input from people who could use the simulated scenarios to inform their decisions. Here, we report on a state-and-transition simulation model of vegetation dynamics that was coupled to a scenario planning process and co-produced by researchers, resource managers, local subject-matter experts, and climate change adaptation specialists to explore potential effects of climate scenarios and management alternatives on key resources in southwest South Dakota. Input from management partners and local experts was critical for representing key vegetation types, bison and cattle grazing, exotic plants, fire, and the effects of climate change and management on rangeland productivity and composition given the paucity of published data on many of these topics. By simulating multiple land management jurisdictions, climate scenarios, and management alternatives, the model highlighted important tradeoffs between grazer density and vegetation composition, as well as between the short- and long-term costs of invasive species management. It also pointed to impactful uncertainties related to the effects of fire and grazing on vegetation. More broadly, a scenario-based approach to model co-production bracketed the uncertainty associated with climate change and ensured that the most important (and impactful) uncertainties related to resource management were addressed. This cooperative study demonstrates six opportunities for scientists to engage users throughout the modeling process to improve model utility and relevance: (1) identifying focal dynamics and variables, (2) developing conceptual model(s), (3) parameterizing the simulation, (4) identifying relevant climate scenarios and management

  8. Biomechanical testing simulation of a cadaver spine specimen: development and evaluation study.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hyung Soo; DiAngelo, Denis J

    2007-05-15

    This article describes a computer model of the cadaver cervical spine specimen and virtual biomechanical testing. To develop a graphics-oriented, multibody model of a cadaver cervical spine and to build a virtual laboratory simulator for the biomechanical testing using physics-based dynamic simulation techniques. Physics-based computer simulations apply the laws of physics to solid bodies with defined material properties. This technique can be used to create a virtual simulator for the biomechanical testing of a human cadaver spine. An accurate virtual model and simulation would complement tissue-based in vitro studies by providing a consistent test bed with minimal variability and by reducing cost. The geometry of cervical vertebrae was created from computed tomography images. Joints linking adjacent vertebrae were modeled as a triple-joint complex, comprised of intervertebral disc joints in the anterior region, 2 facet joints in the posterior region, and the surrounding ligament structure. A virtual laboratory simulation of an in vitro testing protocol was performed to evaluate the model responses during flexion, extension, and lateral bending. For kinematic evaluation, the rotation of motion segment unit, coupling behaviors, and 3-dimensional helical axes of motion were analyzed. The simulation results were in correlation with the findings of in vitro tests and published data. For kinetic evaluation, the forces of the intervertebral discs and facet joints of each segment were determined and visually animated. This methodology produced a realistic visualization of in vitro experiment, and allowed for the analyses of the kinematics and kinetics of the cadaver cervical spine. With graphical illustrations and animation features, this modeling technique has provided vivid and intuitive information.

  9. A Simulation Study of Acoustic-Assisted Tracking of Whales for Mark-Recapture Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Peel, David; Miller, Brian S.; Kelly, Natalie; Dawson, Steve; Slooten, Elisabeth; Double, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Collecting enough data to obtain reasonable abundance estimates of whales is often difficult, particularly when studying rare species. Passive acoustics can be used to detect whale sounds and are increasingly used to estimate whale abundance. Much of the existing effort centres on the use of acoustics to estimate abundance directly, e.g. analysing detections in a distance sampling framework. Here, we focus on acoustics as a tool incorporated within mark-recapture surveys. In this context, acoustic tools are used to detect and track whales, which are then photographed or biopsied to provide data for mark-recapture analyses. The purpose of incorporating acoustics is to increase the encounter rate beyond using visual searching only. While this general approach is not new, its utility is rarely quantified. This paper predicts the “acoustically-assisted” encounter rate using a discrete-time individual-based simulation of whales and survey vessel. We validate the simulation framework using existing data from studies of sperm whales. We then use the framework to predict potential encounter rates in a study of Antarctic blue whales. We also investigate the effects of a number of the key parameters on encounter rate. Mean encounter rates from the simulation of sperm whales matched well with empirical data. Variance of encounter rate, however, was underestimated. The simulation of Antarctic blue whales found that passive acoustics should provide a 1.7–3.0 fold increase in encounter rate over visual-only methods. Encounter rate was most sensitive to acoustic detection range, followed by vocalisation rate. During survey planning and design, some indication of the relationship between expected sample size and effort is paramount; this simulation framework can be used to predict encounter rates and establish this relationship. For a case in point, the simulation framework indicates unequivocally that real-time acoustic tracking should be considered for quantifying the

  10. A simulation study of acoustic-assisted tracking of whales for mark-recapture surveys.

    PubMed

    Peel, David; Miller, Brian S; Kelly, Natalie; Dawson, Steve; Slooten, Elisabeth; Double, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Collecting enough data to obtain reasonable abundance estimates of whales is often difficult, particularly when studying rare species. Passive acoustics can be used to detect whale sounds and are increasingly used to estimate whale abundance. Much of the existing effort centres on the use of acoustics to estimate abundance directly, e.g. analysing detections in a distance sampling framework. Here, we focus on acoustics as a tool incorporated within mark-recapture surveys. In this context, acoustic tools are used to detect and track whales, which are then photographed or biopsied to provide data for mark-recapture analyses. The purpose of incorporating acoustics is to increase the encounter rate beyond using visual searching only. While this general approach is not new, its utility is rarely quantified. This paper predicts the "acoustically-assisted" encounter rate using a discrete-time individual-based simulation of whales and survey vessel. We validate the simulation framework using existing data from studies of sperm whales. We then use the framework to predict potential encounter rates in a study of Antarctic blue whales. We also investigate the effects of a number of the key parameters on encounter rate. Mean encounter rates from the simulation of sperm whales matched well with empirical data. Variance of encounter rate, however, was underestimated. The simulation of Antarctic blue whales found that passive acoustics should provide a 1.7-3.0 fold increase in encounter rate over visual-only methods. Encounter rate was most sensitive to acoustic detection range, followed by vocalisation rate. During survey planning and design, some indication of the relationship between expected sample size and effort is paramount; this simulation framework can be used to predict encounter rates and establish this relationship. For a case in point, the simulation framework indicates unequivocally that real-time acoustic tracking should be considered for quantifying the abundance

  11. An Overview and Study on the Use of Games, Simulations, and Gamification in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Bradley E.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the use of both game-based learning (GBL) and gamification in tertiary education. This study focuses specifically on the use of games and/or simulations as well as familiarity with gamification strategies by communication faculty. Research questions concentrate on the rate, frequency, and usage of digital and non-digital…

  12. The Statistical Power of the Cluster Randomized Block Design with Matched Pairs--A Simulation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Nianbo; Lipsey, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This study uses simulation techniques to examine the statistical power of the group- randomized design and the matched-pair (MP) randomized block design under various parameter combinations. Both nearest neighbor matching and random matching are used for the MP design. The power of each design for any parameter combination was calculated from…

  13. Studying Turbulence Using Numerical Simulation Databases. Proceedings of the 1987 Summer Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moin, Parviz (Editor); Reynolds, William C. (Editor); Kim, John (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The focus was on the use of databases obtained from direct numerical simulations of turbulent flows, for study of turbulence physics and modeling. Topics addressed included: stochastic decomposition/chaos/bifurcation; two-point closure (or k-space) modeling; scalar transport/reacting flows; Reynolds stress modeling; and structure of turbulent boundary layers.

  14. Debriefing after High-Fidelity Simulation and Knowledge Retention: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Susan L.

    2013-01-01

    High-fidelity simulation (HFS) use in nursing education has been a frequent research topic in recent years. Previous research included studies on the use of HFS with nursing students, focusing on their feelings of self-confidence and anxiety. However, research focused specifically on the debriefing portion of HFS was limited. This quantitative,…

  15. Assessing Critical Thinking Outcomes of Dental Hygiene Students Utilizing Virtual Patient Simulation: A Mixed Methods Study.

    PubMed

    Allaire, Joanna L

    2015-09-01

    Dental hygiene educators must determine which educational practices best promote critical thinking, a quality necessary to translate knowledge into sound clinical decision making. The aim of this small pilot study was to determine whether virtual patient simulation had an effect on the critical thinking of dental hygiene students. A pretest-posttest design using the Health Science Reasoning Test was used to evaluate the critical thinking skills of senior dental hygiene students at The University of Texas School of Dentistry at Houston Dental Hygiene Program before and after their experience with computer-based patient simulation cases. Additional survey questions sought to identify the students' perceptions of whether the experience had helped develop their critical thinking skills and improved their ability to provide competent patient care. A convenience sample of 31 senior dental hygiene students completed both the pretest and posttest (81.5% of total students in that class); 30 senior dental hygiene students completed the survey on perceptions of the simulation (78.9% response rate). Although the results did not show a significant increase in mean scores, the students reported feeling that the use of virtual patients was an effective teaching method to promote critical thinking, problem-solving, and confidence in the clinical realm. The results of this pilot study may have implications to support the use of virtual patient simulations in dental hygiene education. Future research could include a larger controlled study to validate findings from this study.

  16. A Theory for the Neural Basis of Language Part 2: Simulation Studies of the Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    Computer simulation studies of the proposed model are presented. Processes demonstrated are (1) verbally directed recall of visual experience; (2) understanding of verbal information; (3) aspects of learning and forgetting; (4) the dependence of recognition and understanding in context; and (5) elementary concepts of sentence production. (Author)

  17. Methods to Estimate the Variance of Some Indices of the Signal Detection Theory: A Simulation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suero, Manuel; Privado, Jesús; Botella, Juan

    2017-01-01

    A simulation study is presented to evaluate and compare three methods to estimate the variance of the estimates of the parameters d and "C" of the signal detection theory (SDT). Several methods have been proposed to calculate the variance of their estimators, "d'" and "c." Those methods have been mostly assessed by…

  18. MERCURY SPECIATION IN COMBUSTION SYSTEMS: STUDIES WITH SIMULATED FLUE GASES AND MODEL FLY ASHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a bench-scale study of the effects of flue gas and fly ash parameters on the oxidation of elemental mercury in simulated flue gases containing hydrogen chloride (HCl), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and water vapor (H2O...

  19. Promoting Collaboration in Health Care Teams through Interprofessional Education: A Simulation Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekmekci, Ozgur

    2013-01-01

    This simulation study explores how the integration of interprofessional components into health care curriculum may impact professional stereotyping and collaborative behavior in care delivery teams comprised of a physician, a registered nurse, a physician's assistant, a physical therapist, and a radiation therapist. As part of the agent-based…

  20. A simulation study of spectral Čerenkov luminescence imaging for tumour margin estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvert, Nick; Helo, Yusef; Mertzanidou, Thomy; Tuch, David S.; Arridge, Simon R.; Stoyanov, Danail

    2017-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in the world. Breast-conserving surgery (BCS) is a standard surgical treatment for breast cancer with the key objective of removing breast tissue, maintaining a negative surgical margin and providing a good cosmetic outcome. A positive surgical margin, meaning the presence of cancerous tissues on the surface of the breast specimen after surgery, is associated with local recurrence after therapy. In this study, we investigate a new imaging modality based on Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) for the purpose of detecting positive surgical margins during BCS. We develop Monte Carlo (MC) simulations using the Geant4 nuclear physics simulation toolbox to study the spectrum of photons emitted given 18F-FDG and breast tissue properties. The resulting simulation spectra show that the CLI signal contains information that may be used to estimate whether the cancerous cells are at a depth of less than 1 mm or greater than 1 mm given appropriate imaging system design and sensitivity. The simulation spectra also show that when the source is located within 1 mm of the surface, the tissue parameters are not relevant to the model as the spectra do not vary significantly. At larger depths, however, the spectral information varies significantly with breast optical parameters, having implications for further studies and system design. While promising, further studies are needed to quantify the CLI response to more accurately incorporate tissue specific parameters and patient specific anatomical details.

  1. A Simulation Study on Methods of Correcting for the Effects of Extreme Response Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetzel, Eunike; Böhnke, Jan R.; Rose, Norman

    2016-01-01

    The impact of response styles such as extreme response style (ERS) on trait estimation has long been a matter of concern to researchers and practitioners. This simulation study investigated three methods that have been proposed for the correction of trait estimates for ERS effects: (a) mixed Rasch models, (b) multidimensional item response models,…

  2. Simulation study of gust alleviation in a tilt rotor aircraft, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amos, A. K.; Alexander, H. R.

    1977-01-01

    The response to vertical turbulence in cruise of the HTR XV-15 design is studied using simulation techniques. This design is a modified version of the XV-15 with a hingeless fiberglass soft-in-plane rotor system. The parameters of a gust alleviation system are determined and the performance of the system is evaluated over a range of cruise velocities and altitudes.

  3. A Study of the Relationship between Student Final Exam Performance and Simulation Game Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteley, T. R.; Faria, A. J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes study that investigated the relationship between participation in a business simulation game and performance on a final exam in a principles of marketing course. Past research on business games is reviewed; the use of midterm exam performance level as a pretest variable is explained; and question classification is described. (44…

  4. Testing the Intervention Effect in Single-Case Experiments: A Monte Carlo Simulation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyvaert, Mieke; Moeyaert, Mariola; Verkempynck, Paul; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Vervloet, Marlies; Ugille, Maaike; Onghena, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on a Monte Carlo simulation study, evaluating two approaches for testing the intervention effect in replicated randomized AB designs: two-level hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) and using the additive method to combine randomization test "p" values (RTcombiP). Four factors were manipulated: mean intervention effect,…

  5. SIMULATION STUDIES OF THE WETTING OF CRYSTALLINE FACES OF COTTON CELLULOSE

    Models of the surfaces of nano-sized cellulose crystals were constructed and a model droplet of water was placed on each. Then, the model atoms were given motion that corresponds to room temperature (a molecular dynamics simulation), and the spreading of the water over the surfaces was studied. Besi...

  6. A Simulation Study of Rater Agreement Measures with 2x2 Contingency Tables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ato, Manuel; Lopez, Juan Jose; Benavente, Ana

    2011-01-01

    A comparison between six rater agreement measures obtained using three different approaches was achieved by means of a simulation study. Rater coefficients suggested by Bennet's [sigma] (1954), Scott's [pi] (1955), Cohen's [kappa] (1960) and Gwet's [gamma] (2008) were selected to represent the classical, descriptive approach, [alpha] agreement…

  7. Human Cadavers vs. Multimedia Simulation: A Study of Student Learning in Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltarelli, Andrew J.; Roseth, Cary J.; Saltarelli, William A.

    2014-01-01

    Multimedia and simulation programs are increasingly being used for anatomy instruction, yet it remains unclear how learning with these technologies compares with learning with actual human cadavers. Using a multilevel, quasi-experimental-control design, this study compared the effects of "Anatomy and Physiology Revealed" (APR) multimedia…

  8. Hybrid computers and simulation languages in the study of dynamics of continuous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acaccia, G. M.; Lucifredi, A. L.

    1970-01-01

    A comparison is presented of the use of hybrid computers and simulation languages as a means of studying the behavior of dynamic systems. Both procedures are defined and their advantages and disadvantages at the present state of the art are discussed. Some comparison and evaluation criteria are presented.

  9. A DEVELOPMENTAL STUDY OF MEDICAL TRAINING SIMULATORS FOR ANESTHESIOLOGISTS. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ABRAHAMSON, STEPHEN; DENSON, JUDSON S.

    IN THIS STUDY, A COMPUTER-CONTROLLED PATIENT SIMULATOR (SIM ONE) WAS DESIGNED, CONSTRUCTED, AND TESTED FOR THE TRAINING OF ANESTHESIOLOGY RESIDENTS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA SCHOOL OF MEDICINE. THE TRAINING INVOLVED THE DEVELOPMENT OF SKILL IN ENDOTRACHEAL INTUBATION. THE EXPERIMENT INVOLVED 10 ANESTHESIOLOGY RESIDENTS. FIVE WERE…

  10. A pilot feasibility study of virtual patient simulation to enhance social work students' brief mental health assessment skills.

    PubMed

    Washburn, Micki; Bordnick, Patrick; Rizzo, Albert Skip

    2016-10-01

    This study presents preliminary feasibility and acceptability data on the use of virtual patient (VP) simulations to develop brief assessment skills within an interdisciplinary care setting. Results support the acceptability of technology-enhanced simulations and offer preliminary evidence for an association between engagement in VP practice simulations and improvements in diagnostic accuracy and clinical interviewing skills. Recommendations and next steps for research on technology-enhanced simulations within social work are discussed.

  11. Studying Turbulence Using Numerical Simulation Databases, 2. Proceedings of the 1988 Summer Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The focus of the program was on the use of direct numerical simulations of turbulent flow for study of turbulence physics and modeling. A special interest was placed on turbulent mixing layers. The required data for these investigations were generated from four newly developed codes for simulation of time and spatially developing incompressible and compressible mixing layers. Also of interest were the structure of wall bounded turbulent and transitional flows, evaluation of diagnostic techniques for detection of organized motions, energy transfer in isotropic turbulence, optical propagation through turbulent media, and detailed analysis of the interaction of vortical structures.

  12. Power estimation using simulations for air pollution time-series studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Estimation of power to assess associations of interest can be challenging for time-series studies of the acute health effects of air pollution because there are two dimensions of sample size (time-series length and daily outcome counts), and because these studies often use generalized linear models to control for complex patterns of covariation between pollutants and time trends, meteorology and possibly other pollutants. In general, statistical software packages for power estimation rely on simplifying assumptions that may not adequately capture this complexity. Here we examine the impact of various factors affecting power using simulations, with comparison of power estimates obtained from simulations with those obtained using statistical software. Methods Power was estimated for various analyses within a time-series study of air pollution and emergency department visits using simulations for specified scenarios. Mean daily emergency department visit counts, model parameter value estimates and daily values for air pollution and meteorological variables from actual data (8/1/98 to 7/31/99 in Atlanta) were used to generate simulated daily outcome counts with specified temporal associations with air pollutants and randomly generated error based on a Poisson distribution. Power was estimated by conducting analyses of the association between simulated daily outcome counts and air pollution in 2000 data sets for each scenario. Power estimates from simulations and statistical software (G*Power and PASS) were compared. Results In the simulation results, increasing time-series length and average daily outcome counts both increased power to a similar extent. Our results also illustrate the low power that can result from using outcomes with low daily counts or short time series, and the reduction in power that can accompany use of multipollutant models. Power estimates obtained using standard statistical software were very similar to those from the simulations

  13. Feasibility study for a numerical aerodynamic simulation facility. Volume 2: Hardware specifications/descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, F. M.; Resnick, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    An FMP (Flow Model Processor) was designed for use in the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Facility (NASF). The NASF was developed to simulate fluid flow over three-dimensional bodies in wind tunnel environments and in free space. The facility is applicable to studying aerodynamic and aircraft body designs. The following general topics are discussed in this volume: (1) FMP functional computer specifications; (2) FMP instruction specification; (3) standard product system components; (4) loosely coupled network (LCN) specifications/description; and (5) three appendices: performance of trunk allocation contention elimination (trace) method, LCN channel protocol and proposed LCN unified second level protocol.

  14. Power estimation using simulations for air pollution time-series studies.

    PubMed

    Winquist, Andrea; Klein, Mitchel; Tolbert, Paige; Sarnat, Stefanie Ebelt

    2012-09-20

    Estimation of power to assess associations of interest can be challenging for time-series studies of the acute health effects of air pollution because there are two dimensions of sample size (time-series length and daily outcome counts), and because these studies often use generalized linear models to control for complex patterns of covariation between pollutants and time trends, meteorology and possibly other pollutants. In general, statistical software packages for power estimation rely on simplifying assumptions that may not adequately capture this complexity. Here we examine the impact of various factors affecting power using simulations, with comparison of power estimates obtained from simulations with those obtained using statistical software. Power was estimated for various analyses within a time-series study of air pollution and emergency department visits using simulations for specified scenarios. Mean daily emergency department visit counts, model parameter value estimates and daily values for air pollution and meteorological variables from actual data (8/1/98 to 7/31/99 in Atlanta) were used to generate simulated daily outcome counts with specified temporal associations with air pollutants and randomly generated error based on a Poisson distribution. Power was estimated by conducting analyses of the association between simulated daily outcome counts and air pollution in 2000 data sets for each scenario. Power estimates from simulations and statistical software (G*Power and PASS) were compared. In the simulation results, increasing time-series length and average daily outcome counts both increased power to a similar extent. Our results also illustrate the low power that can result from using outcomes with low daily counts or short time series, and the reduction in power that can accompany use of multipollutant models. Power estimates obtained using standard statistical software were very similar to those from the simulations when properly implemented

  15. JSC Mars-1 Martian Soil Simulant: Melting Experiments and Electron Microprobe Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, P.; Sebille, L.; Boles, W.; Chadwell, M.; Schwarz, L.

    2003-01-01

    JSC Mars-1 has been developed as a Martian regolith simulant, and is the <1 mm size fraction of a palagonitic tephra (a glassy volcanic ash altered at low temperatures) from Pu'u Nene cinder cone on the Island of Hawaii. The Mars-1 simulant forms the basis for numerous terrestrial studies which aim to evaluate the suitability of Martian soil for materials processing. Martian soil may be sintered to form building materials for construction, and also melted or reacted to extract metals for various uses, as well as oxygen for life support.

  16. Results of intravehicular manned cargo-transfer studies in simulated weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spady, A. A., Jr.; Beasley, G. P.; Yenni, K. R.; Eisele, D. F.

    1972-01-01

    A parametric investigation was conducted in a water immersion simulator to determine the effect of package mass, moment of inertia, and size on the ability of man to transfer cargo in simulated weightlessness. Results from this study indicate that packages with masses of at least 744 kg and moments of inertia of at least 386 kg-m2 can be manually handled and transferred satisfactorily under intravehicular conditions using either one- or two-rail motion aids. Data leading to the conclusions and discussions of test procedures and equipment are presented.

  17. Practical aspects in surface biopotential electrode placement for smart clothing: A simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulyadi, Indra H.; Haueisen, Jens; Supriyanto, Eko

    2017-02-01

    In addition to physiological aspects, placement of surface biopotential electrodes for smart clothing should consider practical aspects due to their dynamic application environment. This study is aimed at finding the best places to put the electrode on areas where the measurement is practically reliable. Calculation was performed by using three practical aspects: 1) skin-shirt gap; 2) shirt movement, and 4) regional sweat rate. We employed 3DS Max software to simulate shirt behavior. The simulation result showed that generally practical satisfaction degrees are higher in the posterior. The quantitative approach may help smart clothing designers to choose the locations to place electrodes.

  18. A Comprehensive Study of Three Delay Compensation Algorithms for Flight Simulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Liwen; Cardullo, Frank M.; Houck, Jacob A.; Kelly, Lon C.; Wolters, Thomas E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarizes a comprehensive study of three predictors used for compensating the transport delay in a flight simulator; The McFarland, Adaptive and State Space Predictors. The paper presents proof that the stochastic approximation algorithm can achieve the best compensation among all four adaptive predictors, and intensively investigates the relationship between the state space predictor s compensation quality and its reference model. Piloted simulation tests show that the adaptive predictor and state space predictor can achieve better compensation of transport delay than the McFarland predictor.

  19. [Learning in clinical simulation: observational study on satisfaction perceived by students of nursing].

    PubMed

    Rubbi, Ivan; Ferri, Paola; Andreina, Giulia; Cremonini, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Simulation in the context of the educational workshop is becoming an important learning method, as it allows to play realistic clinical-care situations. These vocational training activities promote the development of cognitive, affective and psychomotor skills in a pedagogical context safe and risk-free, but need to be accounted for using by valid and reliable instruments. To inspect the level of satisfaction of the students of a Degree in Nursing in northern Italy about static and high-fidelity exercises with simulators and clinical cases. A prospective observational study has been conducted involving a non-probabili- stic sample of 51 third-year students throughout the academic year 2013/14. The data collection instrument consists of three questionnaires Student Satisfaction and Self-confidence in Learning Scale, Educational Practices Questionnaire, Simulation Design Scale and 3 questions on overall satisfaction. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 20.0 and Office 2003 Excel. The response rate of 89.5% is obtained. The Cronbach Alfa showed a good internal reliability (α = .982). The students were generally satisfied with the activities carried out in the teaching laboratory, showing more enthusiasm for the simulation with static mannequins (71%) and with high-fidelity simulators (60%), activities for which they have experienced a significant involvement and active learning. The teaching with clinical cases scored a lesser degree of satisfaction (38%) and for this method it was found the largest number of elements of weakness.

  20. Objects Mental Rotation under 7 Days Simulated Weightlessness Condition: An ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Duan, Jiaobo; Liao, Yang; Wang, Chuang; Li, Hongzheng; Liu, Xufeng

    2017-01-01

    During the spaceflight under weightlessness condition, human's brain function may be affected by the changes of physiological effects along with the distribution of blood and body fluids to the head. This variation of brain function will influence the performance of astronauts and therefore create possible harm to flight safety. This study employs 20 male subjects in a 7-day−6° head-down tilted (HDT) bed rest model to simulate physiological effects under weightlessness condition, and use behavioral, electrophysiological techniques to compare the changes of mental rotation ability (MR ability) before and after short-term simulated weightlessness state. Behavioral results suggested that significant linear relationship existed between the rotation angle of stimuli and the reaction time, which means mental rotation process do happen during the MR task in simulated weightlessness state. In the first 3 days, the P300 component induced by object mental rotation followed the “down-up-down” pattern. In the following 4 days it changed randomly. On HDT D2, the mean of the amplitude of the P300 was the lowest, while increased gently on HDT D3. There was no obvious changing pattern of the amplitude of P300 observed after 3 days of HDT. Simulated weightlessness doesn't change the basic process of mental rotation. The effect of simulated weightlessness is neural mechanism of self-adaptation. MR ability didn't bounce back to the original level after HDT test. PMID:29270115

  1. Objects Mental Rotation under 7 Days Simulated Weightlessness Condition: An ERP Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Duan, Jiaobo; Liao, Yang; Wang, Chuang; Li, Hongzheng; Liu, Xufeng

    2017-01-01

    During the spaceflight under weightlessness condition, human's brain function may be affected by the changes of physiological effects along with the distribution of blood and body fluids to the head. This variation of brain function will influence the performance of astronauts and therefore create possible harm to flight safety. This study employs 20 male subjects in a 7-day-6° head-down tilted (HDT) bed rest model to simulate physiological effects under weightlessness condition, and use behavioral, electrophysiological techniques to compare the changes of mental rotation ability (MR ability) before and after short-term simulated weightlessness state. Behavioral results suggested that significant linear relationship existed between the rotation angle of stimuli and the reaction time, which means mental rotation process do happen during the MR task in simulated weightlessness state. In the first 3 days, the P300 component induced by object mental rotation followed the "down-up-down" pattern. In the following 4 days it changed randomly. On HDT D2, the mean of the amplitude of the P300 was the lowest, while increased gently on HDT D3. There was no obvious changing pattern of the amplitude of P300 observed after 3 days of HDT. Simulated weightlessness doesn't change the basic process of mental rotation. The effect of simulated weightlessness is neural mechanism of self-adaptation. MR ability didn't bounce back to the original level after HDT test.

  2. Diversity of nursing student views about simulation design: a q-methodological study.

    PubMed

    Paige, Jane B; Morin, Karen H

    2015-05-01

    Education of future nurses benefits from well-designed simulation activities. Skillful teaching with simulation requires educators to be constantly aware of how students experience learning and perceive educators' actions. Because revision of simulation activities considers feedback elicited from students, it is crucial to understand the perspective from which students base their response. In a Q-methodological approach, 45 nursing students rank-ordered 60 opinion statements about simulation design into a distribution grid. Factor analysis revealed that nursing students hold five distinct and uniquely personal perspectives-Let Me Show You, Stand By Me, The Agony of Defeat, Let Me Think It Through, and I'm Engaging and So Should You. Results suggest that nurse educators need to reaffirm that students clearly understand the purpose of each simulation activity. Nurse educators should incorporate presimulation assignments to optimize learning and help allay anxiety. The five perspectives discovered in this study can serve as a tool to discern individual students' learning needs. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. A simulation study of homogeneous ice nucleation in supercooled salty water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soria, Guiomar D.; Espinosa, Jorge R.; Ramirez, Jorge; Valeriani, Chantal; Vega, Carlos; Sanz, Eduardo

    2018-06-01

    We use computer simulations to investigate the effect of salt on homogeneous ice nucleation. The melting point of the employed solution model was obtained both by direct coexistence simulations and by thermodynamic integration from previous calculations of the water chemical potential. Using a seeding approach, in which we simulate ice seeds embedded in a supercooled aqueous solution, we compute the nucleation rate as a function of temperature for a 1.85 NaCl mol per water kilogram solution at 1 bar. To improve the accuracy and reliability of our calculations, we combine seeding with the direct computation of the ice-solution interfacial free energy at coexistence using the Mold Integration method. We compare the results with previous simulation work on pure water to understand the effect caused by the solute. The model captures the experimental trend that the nucleation rate at a given supercooling decreases when adding salt. Despite the fact that the thermodynamic driving force for ice nucleation is higher for salty water for a given supercooling, the nucleation rate slows down with salt due to a significant increase of the ice-fluid interfacial free energy. The salty water model predicts an ice nucleation rate that is in good agreement with experimental measurements, bringing confidence in the predictive ability of the model. We expect that the combination of state-of-the-art simulation methods here employed to study ice nucleation from solution will be of much use in forthcoming numerical investigations of crystallization in mixtures.

  4. Acoustic hemostasis of porcine superficial femoral artery: Simulation and in-vivo experimental studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xiaozheng; Mitchell, Stuart; Miller, Matthew; Barnes, Stephen; Hopple, Jerry; Kook, John; Moreau-Gobard, Romain; Hsu, Stephen; Ahiekpor-Dravi, Alexis; Crum, Lawrence A.; Eaton, John; Wong, Keith; Sekins, K. Michael

    2012-10-01

    In-vivo focused ultrasound studies were computationally simulated and conducted experimentally with the aim of occluding porcine superficial femoral arteries (SFA) via thermal coagulation. A multi-array HIFU applicator was used which electronically scanned multiple beam foci around the target point. The spatio-temporally averaged acoustic and temperature fields were simulated in a fluid dynamics and acousto-thermal finite element model with representative tissue fields, including muscle, vessel and blood. Simulations showed that with an acoustic power of 200W and a dose time of 60s, perivascular tissue reached 91°C; and yet blood reached a maximum 59°C, below the coagulation objective for this dose regime (75°C). Per simulations, acoustic-streaming induced velocity in blood reached 6.1cm/s. In in-vivo experiments, several arteries were treated. As simulated, thermal lesions were observed in muscle surrounding SFA in all cases. In dosing limited to 30 to 60 seconds, it required 257W to provide occlusion (one complete and one partial occlusion). Angiography and histology showed evidence of thrombogenesis and collagen shrinkage-based vessel constriction at these doses.

  5. A simulation study of homogeneous ice nucleation in supercooled salty water.

    PubMed

    Soria, Guiomar D; Espinosa, Jorge R; Ramirez, Jorge; Valeriani, Chantal; Vega, Carlos; Sanz, Eduardo

    2018-06-14

    We use computer simulations to investigate the effect of salt on homogeneous ice nucleation. The melting point of the employed solution model was obtained both by direct coexistence simulations and by thermodynamic integration from previous calculations of the water chemical potential. Using a seeding approach, in which we simulate ice seeds embedded in a supercooled aqueous solution, we compute the nucleation rate as a function of temperature for a 1.85 NaCl mol per water kilogram solution at 1 bar. To improve the accuracy and reliability of our calculations, we combine seeding with the direct computation of the ice-solution interfacial free energy at coexistence using the Mold Integration method. We compare the results with previous simulation work on pure water to understand the effect caused by the solute. The model captures the experimental trend that the nucleation rate at a given supercooling decreases when adding salt. Despite the fact that the thermodynamic driving force for ice nucleation is higher for salty water for a given supercooling, the nucleation rate slows down with salt due to a significant increase of the ice-fluid interfacial free energy. The salty water model predicts an ice nucleation rate that is in good agreement with experimental measurements, bringing confidence in the predictive ability of the model. We expect that the combination of state-of-the-art simulation methods here employed to study ice nucleation from solution will be of much use in forthcoming numerical investigations of crystallization in mixtures.

  6. Simulation approach for the evaluation of tracking accuracy in radiotherapy: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Rie; Ichikawa, Katsuhiro; Mori, Shinichiro; Sanada, Sigeru

    2013-01-01

    Real-time tumor tracking in external radiotherapy can be achieved by diagnostic (kV) X-ray imaging with a dynamic flat-panel detector (FPD). It is important to keep the patient dose as low as possible while maintaining tracking accuracy. A simulation approach would be helpful to optimize the imaging conditions. This study was performed to develop a computer simulation platform based on a noise property of the imaging system for the evaluation of tracking accuracy at any noise level. Flat-field images were obtained using a direct-type dynamic FPD, and noise power spectrum (NPS) analysis was performed. The relationship between incident quantum number and pixel value was addressed, and a conversion function was created. The pixel values were converted into a map of quantum number using the conversion function, and the map was then input into the random number generator to simulate image noise. Simulation images were provided at different noise levels by changing the incident quantum numbers. Subsequently, an implanted marker was tracked automatically and the maximum tracking errors were calculated at different noise levels. The results indicated that the maximum tracking error increased with decreasing incident quantum number in flat-field images with an implanted marker. In addition, the range of errors increased with decreasing incident quantum number. The present method could be used to determine the relationship between image noise and tracking accuracy. The results indicated that the simulation approach would aid in determining exposure dose conditions according to the necessary tracking accuracy.

  7. Space Station Simulation Computer System (SCS) study for NASA/MSFC. Volume 1: Baseline architecture report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA's Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) planning efforts have identified a need for a payload training simulator system to serve as both a training facility and as a demonstrator to validate operational concepts. The envisioned MSFC Payload Training Complex (PTC) required to meet this need will train the Space Station payload scientists, station scientists, and ground controllers to operate the wide variety of experiments that will be onboard the Space Station Freedom. The Simulation Computer System (SCS) is made up of the computer hardware, software, and workstations that will support the Payload Training Complex at MSFC. The purpose of this SCS Study is to investigate issues related to the SCS, alternative requirements, simulator approaches, and state-of-the-art technologies to develop candidate concepts and designs.

  8. Ventilation inhomogeneity in obstructive lung diseases measured by electrical impedance tomography: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Schullcke, B; Krueger-Ziolek, S; Gong, B; Jörres, R A; Mueller-Lisse, U; Moeller, K

    2017-10-10

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) has mostly been used in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) to monitor ventilation distribution but is also promising for the diagnosis in spontaneously breathing patients with obstructive lung diseases. Beside tomographic images, several numerical measures have been proposed to quantitatively assess the lung state. In this study two common measures, the 'Global Inhomogeneity Index' and the 'Coefficient of Variation' were compared regarding their capability to reflect the severity of lung obstruction. A three-dimensional simulation model was used to simulate obstructed lungs, whereby images were reconstructed on a two-dimensional domain. Simulations revealed that minor obstructions are not adequately recognized in the reconstructed images and that obstruction above and below the electrode plane may result in misleading values of inhomogeneity measures. EIT measurements on several electrode planes are necessary to apply these measures in patients with obstructive lung diseases in a promising manner.

  9. A study of workstation computational performance for real-time flight simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Cleveland, Jeff I., II

    1995-01-01

    With recent advances in microprocessor technology, some have suggested that modern workstations provide enough computational power to properly operate a real-time simulation. This paper presents the results of a computational benchmark, based on actual real-time flight simulation code used at Langley Research Center, which was executed on various workstation-class machines. The benchmark was executed on different machines from several companies including: CONVEX Computer Corporation, Cray Research, Digital Equipment Corporation, Hewlett-Packard, Intel, International Business Machines, Silicon Graphics, and Sun Microsystems. The machines are compared by their execution speed, computational accuracy, and porting effort. The results of this study show that the raw computational power needed for real-time simulation is now offered by workstations.

  10. Static, rheological and mechanical properties of polymer nanocomposites studied by computer modeling and simulation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Zhang, Liqun; Cao, Dapeng; Wang, Wenchuan

    2009-12-28

    Polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) often exhibit excellent mechanical, thermal, electrical and optical properties, because they combine the performances of both polymers and inorganic or organic nanoparticles. Recently, computer modeling and simulation are playing an important role in exploring the reinforcement mechanism of the PNCs and even the design of functional PNCs. This report provides an overview of the progress made in past decades in the investigation of the static, rheological and mechanical properties of polymer nanocomposites studied by computer modeling and simulation. Emphases are placed on exploring the mechanisms at the molecular level for the dispersion of nanoparticles in nanocomposites, the effects of nanoparticles on chain conformation and glass transition temperature (T(g)), as well as viscoelastic and mechanical properties. Finally, some future challenges and opportunities in computer modeling and simulation of PNCs are addressed.

  11. Study on the Depth, Rate, Shape, and Strength of Pulse with Cardiovascular Simulator.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju-Yeon; Jang, Min; Shin, Sang-Hoon

    2017-01-01

    Pulse diagnosis is important in oriental medicine. The purpose of this study is explaining the mechanisms of pulse with a cardiovascular simulator. The simulator is comprised of the pulse generating part, the vessel part, and the measurement part. The pulse generating part was composed of motor, slider-crank mechanism, and piston pump. The vessel part, which was composed with the aorta and a radial artery, was fabricated with silicon to implement pulse wave propagation. The pulse parameters, such as the depth, rate, shape, and strength, were simulated. With changing the mean pressure, the floating pulse and the sunken pulse were generated. The change of heart rate generated the slow pulse and the rapid pulse. The control of the superposition time of the reflected wave generated the string-like pulse and the slippery pulse. With changing the pulse pressure, the vacuous pulse and the replete pulse were generated. The generated pulses showed good agreements with the typical pulses.

  12. Computational study on UV curing characteristics in nanoimprint lithography: Stochastic simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Masanori; Shirai, Masamitsu; Kawata, Hiroaki; Hirai, Yoshihiko; Yasuda, Masaaki

    2017-06-01

    A computational simulation model of UV curing in nanoimprint lithography based on a simplified stochastic approach is proposed. The activated unit reacts with a randomly selected monomer within a critical reaction radius. Cluster units are chained to each other. Then, another monomer is activated and the next chain reaction occurs. This process is repeated until a virgin monomer disappears within the reaction radius or until the activated monomers react with each other. The simulation model well describes the basic UV curing characteristics, such as the molecular weight distributions of the reacted monomers and the effect of the initiator concentration on the conversion ratio. The effects of film thickness on UV curing characteristics are also studied by the simulation.

  13. On a simulation study for reliable and secured smart grid communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallapuram, Sriharsha; Moulema, Paul; Yu, Wei

    2015-05-01

    Demand response is one of key smart grid applications that aims to reduce power generation at peak hours and maintain a balance between supply and demand. With the support of communication networks, energy consumers can become active actors in the energy management process by adjusting or rescheduling their electricity usage during peak hours based on utilities pricing incentives. Nonetheless, the integration of communication networks expose the smart grid to cyber-attacks. In this paper, we developed a smart grid simulation test-bed and designed evaluation scenarios. By leveraging the capabilities of Matlab and ns-3 simulation tools, we conducted a simulation study to evaluate the impact of cyber-attacks on demand response application. Our data shows that cyber-attacks could seriously disrupt smart grid operations, thus confirming the need of secure and resilient communication networks for supporting smart grid operations.

  14. Space Station Simulation Computer System (SCS) study for NASA/MSFC. Volume 2: Baseline architecture report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA's Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) planning efforts have identified a need for a payload training simulator system to serve as both a training facility and as a demonstrator to validate operational concepts. The envisioned MSFC Payload Training Complex (PTC) required to meet this need will train the Space Station payload scientists, station scientists, and ground controllers to operate the wide variety of experiments that will be onboard the Space Station Freedom. The Simulation Computer System (SCS) is the computer hardware, software, and workstations that will support the Payload Training Complex at MSFC. The purpose of this SCS Study is to investigate issues related to the SCS, alternative requirements, simulator approaches, and state-of-the-art technologies to develop candidate concepts and designs.

  15. Fixed base simulator study of an externally blown flap STOL transport airplane during approach and landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantham, W. D.; Nguyen, L. T.; Patton, J. M., Jr.; Deal, P. L.; Champine, R. A.; Carter, C. R.

    1972-01-01

    A fixed-base simulator study was conducted to determine the flight characteristics of a representative STOL transport having a high wing and equipped with an external-flow jet flap in combination with four high-bypass-ratio fan-jet engines during the approach and landing. Real-time digital simulation techniques were used. The computer was programed with equations of motion for six degrees of freedom and the aerodynamic inputs were based on measured wind-tunnel data. A visual display of a STOL airport was provided for simulation of the flare and touchdown characteristics. The primary piloting task was an instrument approach to a breakout at a 200-ft ceiling with a visual landing.

  16. Space Station Simulation Computer System (SCS) study for NASA/MSFC. Phased development plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA's Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) planning efforts have identified a need for a payload training simulator system to serve as both a training facility and as a demonstrator to validate operational concepts. The envisioned MSFC Payload Training Complex (PTC) required to meet this need will train the Space Station payload scientists, station scientists and ground controllers to operate the wide variety of experiments that will be onboard the Space Station Freedom. The Simulation Computer System (SCS) is made up of computer hardware, software, and workstations that will support the Payload Training Complex at MSFC. The purpose of this SCS Study is to investigate issues related to the SCS, alternative requirements, simulator approaches, and state-of-the-art technologies to develop candidate concepts and designs.

  17. Molecular dynamics simulations to study the solvent influence on protein structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominguez, Hector

    2016-05-01

    Molecular simulations were carried out to study the influence of different water models in two protein systems. Most of the solvents used in protein simulations, e.g., SPC/E or TIP3P, fail to reproduce the bulk water static dielectric constant. Recently a new water model, TIP4P/ɛ, which reproduces the experimental dielectric constant was reported. Therefore, simulations for two different proteins, Lysozyme and Ubiquitin with SPC/E, TIP3P and TIP4P/ɛ solvents were carried out. Dielectric constants and structural properties were calculated and comparisons were conducted. The structural properties between the three models are very similar, however, the dielectric constants are different in each case.

  18. Simulation study of the discharge characteristics of silos with cohesive particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hund, David; Weis, Dominik; Hesse, Robert; Antonyuk, Sergiy

    2017-06-01

    In many industrial applications the silo for bulk materials is an important part of an overall process. Silos are used for instance to buffer intermediate products to ensure a continuous supply for the next process step. This study deals with the discharging behaviour of silos containing cohesive bulk solids with particle sizes in the range of 100-500 μm. In this contribution the TOMAS [1,2] model developed for stationary and non-stationary discharging of a convergent hopper is verified with experiments and simulations using the Discrete Element Method. Moreover the influence of the cohesion of the bulk solids on the discharge behaviour is analysed by the simulation. The simulation results showed a qualitative agreement with the analytical model of TOMAS.

  19. Study on longitudinal dispersion relation in one-dimensional relativistic plasma: Linear theory and Vlasov simulation

    SciT

    Zhang, H.; Wu, S. Z.; Zhou, C. T.

    2013-09-15

    The dispersion relation of one-dimensional longitudinal plasma waves in relativistic homogeneous plasmas is investigated with both linear theory and Vlasov simulation in this paper. From the Vlasov-Poisson equations, the linear dispersion relation is derived for the proper one-dimensional Jüttner distribution. Numerically obtained linear dispersion relation as well as an approximate formula for plasma wave frequency in the long wavelength limit is given. The dispersion of longitudinal wave is also simulated with a relativistic Vlasov code. The real and imaginary parts of dispersion relation are well studied by varying wave number and plasma temperature. Simulation results are in agreement with establishedmore » linear theory.« less

  20. Simulation Study of Impact of Aeroelastic Characteristics on Flying Qualities of a High Speed Civil Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, David L.; Jackson, E. Bruce; Buttrill, Carey S.

    2002-01-01

    A piloted simulation study conducted in NASA Langley Visual Motion Simulator addressed the impact of dynamic aero- servoelastic effects on flying qualities of a High Speed Civil Transport. The intent was to determine effectiveness of measures to reduce the impact of aircraft flexibility on piloting tasks. Potential solutions examined were increasing frequency of elastic modes through structural stiffening, increasing damping of elastic modes through active control, elimination of control effector excitation of the lowest frequency elastic modes, and elimination of visual cues associated with elastic modes. Six test pilots evaluated and performed simulated maneuver tasks, encountering incidents wherein cockpit vibrations due to elastic modes fed back into the control stick through involuntary vibrations of the pilots upper body and arm. Structural stiffening and compensation of the visual display were of little benefit in alleviating this impact, while increased damping and elimination of control effector excitation of the elastic modes both offered great improvements when applied in sufficient degree.

  1. Space Station Simulation Computer System (SCS) study for NASA/MSFC. Operations concept report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA's Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) planning efforts have identified a need for a payload training simulator system to serve as both a training facility and as a demonstrator to validate operational concepts. The envisioned MSFC Payload Training Complex (PTC) required to meet this need will train the Space Station payload scientists, station scientists, and ground controllers to operate the wide variety of experiments that will be onboard the Space Station Freedom. The Simulation Computer System (SCS) is made up of computer hardware, software, and workstations that will support the Payload Training Complex at MSFC. The purpose of this SCS Study is to investigate issues related to the SCS, alternative requirements, simulator approaches, and state-of-the-art technologies to develop candidate concepts and designs.

  2. Tokamak magneto-hydrodynamics and reference magnetic coordinates for simulations of plasma disruptions

    SciT

    Zakharov, Leonid E.; Li, Xujing

    This paper formulates the Tokamak Magneto-Hydrodynamics (TMHD), initially outlined by X. Li and L. E. Zakharov [Plasma Science and Technology 17(2), 97–104 (2015)] for proper simulations of macroscopic plasma dynamics. The simplest set of magneto-hydrodynamics equations, sufficient for disruption modeling and extendable to more refined physics, is explained in detail. First, the TMHD introduces to 3-D simulations the Reference Magnetic Coordinates (RMC), which are aligned with the magnetic field in the best possible way. The numerical implementation of RMC is adaptive grids. Being consistent with the high anisotropy of the tokamak plasma, RMC allow simulations at realistic, very high plasmamore » electric conductivity. Second, the TMHD splits the equation of motion into an equilibrium equation and the plasma advancing equation. This resolves the 4 decade old problem of Courant limitations of the time step in existing, plasma inertia driven numerical codes. The splitting allows disruption simulations on a relatively slow time scale in comparison with the fast time of ideal MHD instabilities. A new, efficient numerical scheme is proposed for TMHD.« less

  3. Simulated Driving Assessment (SDA) for Teen Drivers: Results from a Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Catherine C.; Kandadai, Venk; Loeb, Helen; Seacrist, Thomas S.; Lee, Yi-Ching; Winston, Zachary; Winston, Flaura K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Driver error and inadequate skill are common critical reasons for novice teen driver crashes, yet few validated, standardized assessments of teen driving skills exist. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the construct and criterion validity of a newly developed Simulated Driving Assessment (SDA) for novice teen drivers. Methods The SDA's 35-minute simulated drive incorporates 22 variations of the most common teen driver crash configurations. Driving performance was compared for 21 inexperienced teens (age 16–17 years, provisional license ≤90 days) and 17 experienced adults (age 25–50 years, license ≥5 years, drove ≥100 miles per week, no collisions or moving violations ≤3 years). SDA driving performance (Error Score) was based on driving safety measures derived from simulator and eye-tracking data. Negative driving outcomes included simulated collisions or run-off-the-road incidents. A professional driving evaluator/instructor reviewed videos of SDA performance (DEI Score). Results The SDA demonstrated construct validity: 1.) Teens had a higher Error Score than adults (30 vs. 13, p=0.02); 2.) For each additional error committed, the relative risk of a participant's propensity for a simulated negative driving outcome increased by 8% (95% CI: 1.05–1.10, p<0.01). The SDA demonstrated criterion validity: Error Score was correlated with DEI Score (r=−0.66, p<0.001). Conclusions This study supports the concept of validated simulated driving tests like the SDA to assess novice driver skill in complex and hazardous driving scenarios. The SDA, as a standard protocol to evaluate teen driver performance, has the potential to facilitate screening and assessment of teen driving readiness and could be used to guide targeted skill training. PMID:25740939

  4. Simulated Driving Assessment (SDA) for teen drivers: results from a validation study.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Catherine C; Kandadai, Venk; Loeb, Helen; Seacrist, Thomas S; Lee, Yi-Ching; Winston, Zachary; Winston, Flaura K

    2015-06-01

    Driver error and inadequate skill are common critical reasons for novice teen driver crashes, yet few validated, standardised assessments of teen driving skills exist. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the construct and criterion validity of a newly developed Simulated Driving Assessment (SDA) for novice teen drivers. The SDA's 35 min simulated drive incorporates 22 variations of the most common teen driver crash configurations. Driving performance was compared for 21 inexperienced teens (age 16-17 years, provisional license ≤90 days) and 17 experienced adults (age 25-50 years, license ≥5 years, drove ≥100 miles per week, no collisions or moving violations ≤3 years). SDA driving performance (Error Score) was based on driving safety measures derived from simulator and eye-tracking data. Negative driving outcomes included simulated collisions or run-off-the-road incidents. A professional driving evaluator/instructor (DEI Score) reviewed videos of SDA performance. The SDA demonstrated construct validity: (1) teens had a higher Error Score than adults (30 vs. 13, p=0.02); (2) For each additional error committed, the RR of a participant's propensity for a simulated negative driving outcome increased by 8% (95% CI 1.05 to 1.10, p<0.01). The SDA-demonstrated criterion validity: Error Score was correlated with DEI Score (r=-0.66, p<0.001). This study supports the concept of validated simulated driving tests like the SDA to assess novice driver skill in complex and hazardous driving scenarios. The SDA, as a standard protocol to evaluate teen driver performance, has the potential to facilitate screening and assessment of teen driving readiness and could be used to guide targeted skill training. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Simulated stellar kinematics studies of high-redshift galaxies with the HARMONI Integral Field Spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendrew, S.; Zieleniewski, S.; Houghton, R. C. W.; Thatte, N.; Devriendt, J.; Tecza, M.; Clarke, F.; O'Brien, K.; Häußler, B.

    2016-05-01

    We present a study into the capabilities of integrated and spatially resolved integral field spectroscopy of galaxies at z = 2-4 with the future HARMONI spectrograph for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) using the simulation pipeline, HSIM. We focus particularly on the instrument's capabilities in stellar absorption line integral field spectroscopy, which will allow us to study the stellar kinematics and stellar population characteristics. Such measurements for star-forming and passive galaxies around the peak star formation era will provide a critical insight into the star formation, quenching and mass assembly history of high-z, and thus present-day galaxies. First, we perform a signal-to-noise study for passive galaxies at a range of stellar masses for z = 2-4, assuming different light profiles; for this population, we estimate that integrated stellar absorption line spectroscopy with HARMONI will be limited to galaxies with M* ≳ 1010.7 M⊙. Secondly, we use HSIM to perform a mock observation of a typical star-forming 1010 M⊙ galaxy at z = 3 generated from the high-resolution cosmological simulation NUTFB. We demonstrate that the input stellar kinematics of the simulated galaxy can be accurately recovered from the integrated spectrum in a 15-h observation, using common analysis tools. Whilst spatially resolved spectroscopy is likely to remain out of reach for this particular galaxy, we estimate HARMONI's performance limits in this regime from our findings. This study demonstrates how instrument simulators such as HSIM can be used to quantify instrument performance and study observational biases on kinematics retrieval; and shows the potential of making observational predictions from cosmological simulation output data.

  6. Autonomic arousal and learning in Web-based simulation: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Gorrindo, Tristan; Chevalier, Lydia; Goldfarb, Elizabeth; Hoeppner, Bettina B; Birnbaum, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Autonomic arousal is an important component of understanding learning as it is related to cognitive effort, attention, and emotional arousal. Currently, however, little is known about its relationship to online education. We conducted a study to determine the feasibility of measuring autonomic arousal and engagement in online continuing medical education (CME). Using the Computer Simulation Assessment Tool (CSAT) platform, health care providers were randomly assigned to either high- or low-valence versions of a Web-based simulation on risk assessment for a returning veteran. Data were collected on participants' actions within the simulation, self-reported cognitive engagement, knowledge retention, and autonomic arousal measured using galvanic skin response (GSR). Participants in the high-valence condition (n = 7) chose a lower percentage of critical actions (M = 79.2, SD = 4.2) than participants in the low valence (n = 8) condition (M = 83.9, SD = 3.6, t(1,14) = 2.44, p = .03). While not statistically significant, high-valence participants reported higher cognitive engagement. Participants in the high-valence condition showed a larger increase in physiologic arousal when comparing mean tonic GSR during the orientation simulation to the study simulation (high-valence mean difference = 4.21 μS, SD = 1.23 vs low-valence mean difference = 1.64 μS, SD = 2.32, t(1,13) = -2.62, p = .01). In addition to being consistent with previous engagement research, this experiment functioned as a feasibility study for measuring autonomic arousal in online CME. The current study provides a framework for future studies, which may use neurophysiology to identify the critical autonomic and engagement components associated with effective online learning. © 2014 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on Continuing Medical Education, Association for Hospital Medical Education.

  7. Simulated ventriculostomy training with conventional neuronavigational equipment used clinically in the operating room: prospective validation study.

    PubMed

    Kirkman, Matthew A; Muirhead, William; Sevdalis, Nick; Nandi, Dipankar

    2015-01-01

    Simulation is gaining increasing interest as a method of delivering high-quality, time-effective, and safe training to neurosurgical residents. However, most current simulators are purpose-built for simulation, being relatively expensive and inaccessible to many residents. The purpose of this study was to provide the first comprehensive validity assessment of ventriculostomy performance metrics from the Medtronic StealthStation S7 Surgical Navigation System, a neuronavigational tool widely used in the clinical setting, as a training tool for simulated ventriculostomy while concomitantly reporting on stress measures. A prospective study where participants performed 6 simulated ventriculostomy attempts on a model head with StealthStation-coregistered imaging. The performance measures included distance of the ventricular catheter tip to the foramen of Monro and presence of the catheter tip in the ventricle. Data on objective and self-reported stress and workload measures were also collected. The operating rooms of the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, London. A total of 31 individuals with varying levels of prior ventriculostomy experience, varying in seniority from medical student to senior resident. Performance at simulated ventriculostomy improved significantly over subsequent attempts, irrespective of previous ventriculostomy experience. Performance improved whether or not the StealthStation display monitor was used for real-time visual feedback, but performance was optimal when it was. Further, performance was inversely correlated with both objective and self-reported measures of stress (traditionally referred to as concurrent validity). Stress and workload measures were well-correlated with each other, and they also correlated with technical performance. These initial data support the use of the StealthStation as a training tool for simulated ventriculostomy, providing a safe environment for repeated practice with immediate feedback

  8. Study on the flood simulation techniques for estimation of health risk in Dhaka city, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, M.; Suetsugi, T.; Sunada, K.; ICRE

    2011-12-01

    Although some studies have been carried out on the spread of infectious disease with the flooding, the relation between flooding and the infectious expansion has not been clarified yet. The improvement of the calculation precision of inundation and its relation with the infectious disease, surveyed epidemiologically, are therefore investigated in a case study in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. The inundation was computed using a flood simulation model that is numerical 2D-model. The "sensitivity to inundation" of hydraulic factors such as drainage channel, dike, and the building occupied ratio was examined because of the lack of digital data set related to flood simulation. Each element in the flood simulation model was incorporated progressively and results were compared with the calculation result as inspection materials by the inundation classification from the existing study (Mollah et al., 2007). The results show that the influences by ''dyke'' and "drainage channel" factors are remarkable to water level near each facility. The inundation level and duration have influence on wide areas when "building occupied ratio" is also considered. The correlation between maximum inundation depth and health risk (DALY, Mortality, Morbidity) was found, but the validation of the inundation model for this case has not been performed yet. The flood simulation model needs to be validated by observed inundation depth. The drainage facilities such as sewer network or the pumping system will be also considered in the further research to improve the precision of the inundation model.

  9. Informing Hospital Change Processes through Visualization and Simulation: A Case Study at a Children's Emergency Clinic.

    PubMed

    Persson, Johanna; Dalholm, Elisabeth Hornyánszky; Johansson, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    To demonstrate the use of visualization and simulation tools in order to involve stakeholders and inform the process in hospital change processes, illustrated by an empirical study from a children's emergency clinic. Reorganization and redevelopment of a hospital is a complex activity that involves many stakeholders and demands. Visualization and simulation tools have proven useful for involving practitioners and eliciting relevant knowledge. More knowledge is desired about how these tools can be implemented in practice for hospital planning processes. A participatory planning process including practitioners and researchers was executed over a 3-year period to evaluate a combination of visualization and simulation tools to involve stakeholders in the planning process and to elicit knowledge about needs and requirements. The initial clinic proposal from the architect was discarded as a result of the empirical study. Much general knowledge about the needs of the organization was extracted by means of the adopted tools. Some of the tools proved to be more accessible than others for the practitioners participating in the study. The combination of tools added value to the process by presenting information in alternative ways and eliciting questions from different angles. Visualization and simulation tools inform a planning process (or other types of change processes) by providing the means to see beyond present demands and current work structures. Long-term involvement in combination with accessible tools is central for creating a participatory setting where the practitioners' knowledge guides the process. © 2014 Vendome Group, LLC.

  10. A Radiative Transfer Simulation of Water Rotational Excitation in Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, V.; Biver, N.; Bockelee-Morvan, D.; Crovisier, J.; Lecacheux, A.

    2005-08-01

    In order to interpret comet observations of the 557 GHz water line performed with the Odin satellite (e.g., Lecacheux et al. 2003, A&A, 402, 55), we have developed a numerical model for the simulation of optically thick water rotational emission in cometary coma. For the treatment of radiative transfer, we have elaborated a Monte Carlo code based on the accelerated lambda iteration algorithm presented in Hogerheijde and van der Tak (2000, A&A, 362, 697). The model assumes a spherically symmetric density distribution with constant expansion velocity. It includes the seven lowest rotational levels of ortho-water, which are the primarily populated levels in the rotationally cold gas of the coma. Collisions with water and electrons, and infrared pumping, are taken into account. The model is similar to that presented by Bensch and Bergin (2004, ApJ, 615, 531). We compared the results obtained with this new model with those obtained by the model of Bockelee-Morvan (1987, A&A, 181, 169). Bockelee-Morvan used the escape probability formalism to treat radiation trapping, which is in principle only valid for large velocity gradients. Surprisingly, the results of both models differ only by a few percent, showing that the escape probability formalism can be used with good confidence to treat rotational excitation in cometary atmospheres. This model will allow us to prepare future observations by the ESA Herschel Space Observatory. V.Zakharov acknowledges financial support from CNES.

  11. Simulating a base population in honey bee for molecular genetic studies.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Pooja; Conrad, Tim; Spötter, Andreas; Reinsch, Norbert; Bienefeld, Kaspar

    2012-06-27

    Over the past years, reports have indicated that honey bee populations are declining and that infestation by an ecto-parasitic mite (Varroa destructor) is one of the main causes. Selective breeding of resistant bees can help to prevent losses due to the parasite, but it requires that a robust breeding program and genetic evaluation are implemented. Genomic selection has emerged as an important tool in animal breeding programs and simulation studies have shown that it yields more accurate breeding value estimates, higher genetic gain and low rates of inbreeding. Since genomic selection relies on marker data, simulations conducted on a genomic dataset are a pre-requisite before selection can be implemented. Although genomic datasets have been simulated in other species undergoing genetic evaluation, simulation of a genomic dataset specific to the honey bee is required since this species has a distinct genetic and reproductive biology. Our software program was aimed at constructing a base population by simulating a random mating honey bee population. A forward-time population simulation approach was applied since it allows modeling of genetic characteristics and reproductive behavior specific to the honey bee. Our software program yielded a genomic dataset for a base population in linkage disequilibrium. In addition, information was obtained on (1) the position of markers on each chromosome, (2) allele frequency, (3) χ(2) statistics for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, (4) a sorted list of markers with a minor allele frequency less than or equal to the input value, (5) average r(2) values of linkage disequilibrium between all simulated marker loci pair for all generations and (6) average r2 value of linkage disequilibrium in the last generation for selected markers with the highest minor allele frequency. We developed a software program that takes into account the genetic and reproductive biology specific to the honey bee and that can be used to constitute a genomic

  12. Simultaneous transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation mitigates simulator sickness symptoms in healthy adults: a crossover study.

    PubMed

    Chu, Hsin; Li, Min-Hui; Huang, Yu-Cheng; Lee, Shih-Yu

    2013-04-15

    Flight simulators have been used to train pilots to experience and recognize spatial disorientation, a condition in which pilots incorrectly perceive the position, location, and movement of their aircrafts. However, during or after simulator training, simulator sickness (SS) may develop. Spatial disorientation and SS share common symptoms and signs and may involve a similar mechanism of dys-synchronization of neural inputs from the vestibular, visual, and proprioceptive systems. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), a maneuver used for pain control, was found to influence autonomic cardiovascular responses and enhance visuospatial abilities, postural control, and cognitive function. The purpose of present study was to investigate the protective effects of TENS on SS. Fifteen healthy young men (age: 28.6 ± 0.9 years, height: 172.5 ± 1.4 cm, body weight: 69.3 ± 1.3 kg, body mass index: 23.4 ± 1.8 kg/m2) participated in this within-subject crossover study. SS was induced by a flight simulator. TENS treatment involved 30 minutes simultaneous electrical stimulation of the posterior neck and the right Zusanli acupoint. Each subject completed 4 sessions (control, SS, TENS, and TENS + SS) in a randomized order. Outcome indicators included SS symptom severity and cognitive function, evaluated with the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) and d2 test of attention, respectively. Sleepiness was rated using the Visual Analogue Scales for Sleepiness Symptoms (VAS-SS). Autonomic and stress responses were evaluated by heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV) and salivary stress biomarkers (salivary alpha-amylase activity and salivary cortisol concentration). Simulator exposure increased SS symptoms (SSQ and VAS-SS scores) and decreased the task response speed and concentration. The heart rate, salivary stress biomarker levels, and the sympathetic parameter of HRV increased with simulator exposure, but parasympathetic parameters decreased (p

  13. Simultaneous transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation mitigates simulator sickness symptoms in healthy adults: a crossover study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Flight simulators have been used to train pilots to experience and recognize spatial disorientation, a condition in which pilots incorrectly perceive the position, location, and movement of their aircrafts. However, during or after simulator training, simulator sickness (SS) may develop. Spatial disorientation and SS share common symptoms and signs and may involve a similar mechanism of dys-synchronization of neural inputs from the vestibular, visual, and proprioceptive systems. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), a maneuver used for pain control, was found to influence autonomic cardiovascular responses and enhance visuospatial abilities, postural control, and cognitive function. The purpose of present study was to investigate the protective effects of TENS on SS. Methods Fifteen healthy young men (age: 28.6 ± 0.9 years, height: 172.5 ± 1.4 cm, body weight: 69.3 ± 1.3 kg, body mass index: 23.4 ± 1.8 kg/m2) participated in this within-subject crossover study. SS was induced by a flight simulator. TENS treatment involved 30 minutes simultaneous electrical stimulation of the posterior neck and the right Zusanli acupoint. Each subject completed 4 sessions (control, SS, TENS, and TENS + SS) in a randomized order. Outcome indicators included SS symptom severity and cognitive function, evaluated with the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) and d2 test of attention, respectively. Sleepiness was rated using the Visual Analogue Scales for Sleepiness Symptoms (VAS-SS). Autonomic and stress responses were evaluated by heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV) and salivary stress biomarkers (salivary alpha-amylase activity and salivary cortisol concentration). Results Simulator exposure increased SS symptoms (SSQ and VAS-SS scores) and decreased the task response speed and concentration. The heart rate, salivary stress biomarker levels, and the sympathetic parameter of HRV increased with simulator exposure, but

  14. Simulating a base population in honey bee for molecular genetic studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the past years, reports have indicated that honey bee populations are declining and that infestation by an ecto-parasitic mite (Varroa destructor) is one of the main causes. Selective breeding of resistant bees can help to prevent losses due to the parasite, but it requires that a robust breeding program and genetic evaluation are implemented. Genomic selection has emerged as an important tool in animal breeding programs and simulation studies have shown that it yields more accurate breeding value estimates, higher genetic gain and low rates of inbreeding. Since genomic selection relies on marker data, simulations conducted on a genomic dataset are a pre-requisite before selection can be implemented. Although genomic datasets have been simulated in other species undergoing genetic evaluation, simulation of a genomic dataset specific to the honey bee is required since this species has a distinct genetic and reproductive biology. Our software program was aimed at constructing a base population by simulating a random mating honey bee population. A forward-time population simulation approach was applied since it allows modeling of genetic characteristics and reproductive behavior specific to the honey bee. Results Our software program yielded a genomic dataset for a base population in linkage disequilibrium. In addition, information was obtained on (1) the position of markers on each chromosome, (2) allele frequency, (3) χ2 statistics for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, (4) a sorted list of markers with a minor allele frequency less than or equal to the input value, (5) average r2 values of linkage disequilibrium between all simulated marker loci pair for all generations and (6) average r2 value of linkage disequilibrium in the last generation for selected markers with the highest minor allele frequency. Conclusion We developed a software program that takes into account the genetic and reproductive biology specific to the honey bee and that can be used to

  15. A digital computer simulation and study of a direct-energy-transfer power-conditioning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, W. W., III; Owen, H. A., Jr.; Wilson, T. G.; Rodriguez, G. E.; Paulkovich, J.

    1974-01-01

    A digital computer simulation technique, which can be used to study such composite power-conditioning systems, was applied to a spacecraft direct-energy-transfer power-processing system. The results obtained duplicate actual system performance with considerable accuracy. The validity of the approach and its usefulness in studying various aspects of system performance such as steady-state characteristics and transient responses to severely varying operating conditions are demonstrated experimentally.

  16. Simulating clinical trial visits yields patient insights into study design and recruitment.

    PubMed

    Lim, S Sam; Kivitz, Alan J; McKinnell, Doug; Pierson, M Edward; O'Brien, Faye S

    2017-01-01

    We elicited patient experiences from clinical trial simulations to aid in future trial development and to improve patient recruitment and retention. Two simulations of draft Phase II and Phase III anifrolumab studies for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)/lupus nephritis (LN) were performed involving African-American patients from Grady Hospital, an indigent care hospital in Atlanta, GA, USA, and white patients from Altoona Arthritis and Osteoporosis Center in Altoona, PA, USA. The clinical trial simulation included an informed consent procedure, a mock screening visit, a mock dosing visit, and a debriefing period for patients and staff. Patients and staff were interviewed to obtain sentiments and perceptions related to the simulated visits. The Atlanta study involved 6 African-American patients (5 female) aged 27-60 years with moderate to severe SLE/LN. The Altoona study involved 12 white females aged 32-75 years with mild to moderate SLE/LN. Patient experiences had an impact on four patient-centric care domains: 1) information, communication, and education; 2) responsiveness to needs; 3) access to care; and 4) coordination of care; and continuity and transition. Patients in both studies desired background material, knowledgeable staff, family and friend support, personal results, comfortable settings, shorter wait times, and greater scheduling flexibility. Compared with the Altoona study patients, Atlanta study patients reported greater preferences for information from the Internet, need for strong community and online support, difficulties in discussing SLE, emphasis on transportation and child care help during the visits, and concerns related to financial matters; and they placed greater importance on time commitment, understanding of potential personal benefit, trust, and confidentiality of patient data as factors for participation. Using these results, we present recommendations to improve study procedures to increase retention, recruitment, and compliance

  17. Blinded randomized controlled study of a web-based otoscopy simulator in undergraduate medical education.

    PubMed

    Stepniak, Camilla; Wickens, Brandon; Husein, Murad; Paradis, Josee; Ladak, Hanif M; Fung, Kevin; Agrawal, Sumit K

    2017-06-01

    OtoTrain is a Web-based otoscopy simulator that has previously been shown to have face and content validity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of this Web-based otoscopy simulator in teaching diagnostic otoscopy to novice learners STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, blinded randomized control trial. Second-year medical students were invited to participate in the study. A pretest consisted of a series of otoscopy videos followed by an open-answer format assessment pertaining to the characteristics and diagnosis of each video. Participants were then randomly divided into a control group and a simulator group. Following the pretest, both groups attended standard otology lectures, but the simulator group was additionally given unlimited access to OtoTrain for 1 week. A post-test was completed using a separate set of otoscopy videos. Tests were graded based on a comprehensive marking scheme. The pretest and post-test were anonymized, and the three evaluators were blinded to student allotment. A total of 41 medical students were enrolled in the study and randomized to the control group (n = 20) and the simulator group (n = 21). There was no significant difference between the two groups on their pretest scores. With the standard otology lectures, the control group had a 31% improvement in their post-test score (mean ± standard error of the mean, 30.4 ± 1.5) compared with their pretest score (23.3 ± 1.8) (P < .001). The simulator group had the addition of OtoTrain to the otology lectures, and their score improved by 71% on their post-test (37.8 ± 1.6) compared to their pretest (22.1 ± 1.9) (P < .001). Comparing the post-test results, the simulator group had a 24% higher score than the control group (P < .002). Inter-rater reliability between the blinded evaluators was excellent (r = 0.953, P < .001). The use of OtoTrain increased the diagnostic otoscopic performance in novice learners. OtoTrain may be an effective teaching adjunct for undergraduate

  18. Intraoperative Noise Increases Perceived Task Load and Fatigue in Anesthesiology Residents: A Simulation-Based Study.

    PubMed

    McNeer, Richard R; Bennett, Christopher L; Dudaryk, Roman

    2016-02-01

    Operating rooms are identified as being one of the noisiest of clinical environments, and intraoperative noise is associated with adverse effects on staff and patient safety. Simulation-based experiments would offer controllable and safe venues for investigating this noise problem. However, realistic simulation of the clinical auditory environment is rare in current simulators. Therefore, we retrofitted our operating room simulator to be able to produce immersive auditory simulations with the use of typical sound sources encountered during surgeries. Then, we tested the hypothesis that anesthesia residents would perceive greater task load and fatigue while being given simulated lunch breaks in noisy environments rather than in quiet ones. As a secondary objective, we proposed and tested the plausibility of a novel psychometric instrument for the assessment of stress. In this simulation-based, randomized, repeated-measures, crossover study, 2 validated psychometric survey instruments, the NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX), composed of 6 items, and the Swedish Occupational Fatigue Inventory (SOFI), composed of 5 items, were used to assess perceived task load and fatigue, respectively, in first-year anesthesia residents. Residents completed the psychometric instruments after being given lunch breaks in quiet and noisy intraoperative environments (soundscapes). The effects of soundscape grouping on the psychometric instruments and their comprising items were analyzed with a split-plot analysis. A model for a new psychometric instrument for measuring stress that combines the NASA-TLX and SOFI instruments was proposed, and a factor analysis was performed on the collected data to determine the model's plausibility. Twenty residents participated in this study. Multivariate analysis of variance showed an effect of soundscape grouping on the combined NASA-TLX and SOFI instrument items (P = 0.003) and the comparisons of univariate item reached significance for the NASA Temporal

  19. Angular momentum evolution in dark matter haloes: a study of the Bolshoi and Millennium simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, S.; Padilla, N.; Lagos, C. D. P.

    2017-12-01

    We use three different cosmological dark matter simulations to study how the orientation of the angular momentum (AM) vector in dark matter haloes evolve with time. We find that haloes in this kind of simulations are constantly affected by a spurious change of mass, which translates into an artificial change in the orientation of the AM. After removing the haloes affected by artificial mass change, we found that the change in the orientation of the AM vector is correlated with time. The change in its angle and direction (i.e. the angle subtended by the AM vector in two consecutive time-steps) that affect the AM vector has a dependence on the change of mass that affects a halo, the time elapsed in which the change of mass occurs and the halo mass. We create a Monte Carlo simulation that reproduces the change of angle and direction of the AM vector. We reproduce the angular separation of the AM vector since a lookback time of 8.5 Gyr to today (α) with an accuracy of approximately 0.05 in cos(α). We are releasing this Monte Carlo simulation together with this publication. We also create a Monte Carlo simulation that reproduces the change of the AM modulus. We find that haloes in denser environments display the most dramatic evolution in their AM direction, as well as haloes with a lower specific AM modulus. These relations could be used to improve the way we follow the AM vector in low-resolution simulations.

  20. The role of simulation in urological training - A quantitative study of practice and opinions.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Abdullatif; Ahmed, Kamran; Shafi, Ahmed M A; Khan, Muhammad Shamim; Dasgupta, Prokar

    2016-12-01

    Over the past few decades, simulation-based training has rapidly been adopted by many centres for effective technical and non-technical skills training, as a supplementary method to traditional operating room experience. The aim of this study is to assess the current practice in training and seek opinion regarding the future role of simulation in urological training. A cross sectional survey was designed and distributed amongst expert and trainee urological surgeons. The survey consisted of twenty-two questions that were split into three sections; Introduction (6), Technical Skills training in urology (10) and Non-technical skills training in urology (6). A total of 91 residents and 172 specialists completed the survey. In both groups, there was an agreed consensus that laparoscopic training and exposure was insufficient as only 21% of trainees and 23% of specialists believed that they had sufficient training in this area. Furthermore, both groups lacked simulation-based training in common urological procedures including nephrectomy (62%), cystoscopy (69-74%), ureteroscopy (47-59%), transurethral resection of the prostate (56-65%) and percutaneous renal surgery (76-73%). 90% of trainees and 70% of specialists believed (agreed and strongly agreed) that there is a role for non-technical skills simulation in urological training. Simulation training has been under-used thus far and trainees face an uphill challenge to enhance their skills and technical abilities in the operating room. Simulation is recommended by both trainees and specialists and may represent one of the solutions to the challenges of safe and effective urology procedural training. Copyright © 2015 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.