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Sample records for zaloz yi nirok

  1. Yi Guo | NREL

    Yi is dedicated to research and development in dynamic modeling, reliability analysis, vibro systems and has published numerous impactful journal publications. Prior to NREL, she pursued her Ph.D . research at Ohio State University with specialization in dynamics, vibration, and acoustics of wind turbine

  2. Typhoon Man-Yi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Typhoon Man-Yi was pummeling the Japanese island of Okinawa with winds between 230 and 295 kilometers per hour (125-160 knots, 144-184 miles per hour) and heavy rain on the morning of July 13, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image. The immense storm covered hundreds of kilometers with spiraling bands of thunderstorms, though it had lost the distinctive cloud-free eye it exhibited the day before. Typhoons are common in Japan, but powerful typhoons usually strike the island nation later in the year. The Japan Meteorological Agency said that Man-Yi is the fourth typhoon of the 2007 season and may be the most powerful ever observed in the northwest Pacific in July, reported Kyodo News. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center expected the typhoon to strike Kyushu, a southern Japanese island, on July 14, and then curve northeast along the eastern shore of Japan. By the time the storm reaches Tokyo on July 15, it should be degraded to a tropical storm. As of July 13, Typhoon Man-Yi had injured eight and flooded twenty houses in Okinawa, and forced airlines to cancel hundreds of flights, said Kyodo News. The storm was expected to bring heavy rain to Japan's Pacific coast. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the MODIS Rapid Response team.

  3. Yi-Hsiang Yu | NREL

    Yi-Hsiang Yu's expertise is in marine energy system design and performance analysis, hydrodynamics , a wave-to-wire numerical model for design and analysis of wave energy conversion systems, wave tank the design load for wave energy systems. Yi-Hsiang is currently serving as the associate editor of the

  4. [Study on Jisi Yi'an (Medical Cases of Multitude Thought) of Yi Jusun, a famous doctor of Lingnan region].

    PubMed

    Xu, Guo-min; Zhang, Heng-liu

    2006-07-01

    Textual research was made on Jisi Yián (Medical Cases of Multitude Thought), a book of medical cases written by Yi Jusun, whose nickname is Chubai, one of the "Four Warriors of Buddha", modern four heads school in favor of classical prescriptions in Lingnan region. The now extant hand- written copy of this medical book is collected in the Shu Renzhi's Juxiang Hall in the early period of Republic of China. Analyses are made on the medical records of treating difficult and critical illness applied by Yi Jusun. The Shengma Biejia San (skunk bugbane and Carapax Amydae Powder) proposed by him played a vital role in preventing and curing plague in modern Guangdong Province.

  5. Increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in Yi farmers and migrants from 2007 to 2015 in China: the Yi migrant study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ye; Pan, Li; Wan, Shaoping; Yi, Huowuli; Yang, Fang; He, Huijing; Li, Zheng; Zhang, Jia; Wang, Xiaoyang; Yong, Zhengping; Shan, Guangliang

    2018-05-24

    With the social development and lifestyle transition, increasing trends of overweight and obesity prevalence are commonly reported worldwide. Data focusing on overweight and obesity trends in rural residents and rural-to-urban migrants in China are limited. This study aims to assess the changes and related factors of overweight and obesity in Yi farmers and migrants in southwest China from 2007 to 2015, and to assess the disparities in prevalence changes. Pseudo-panel data was obtained from two cross-sectional studies conducted in Sichuan province, southwest China in 2007 and 2015. Standardized prevalence of overweight and obesity were evaluated by direct method using the 2010 national census population as the standard. Prevalence differences of overweight and obesity were calculated in each group and compared between groups to evaluate the disparity in prevalence changes. Generalized linear mixed model was performed to determine factors related to overweight/obesity. Standardized prevalence of overweight increased in both groups (from 5.54 to 16.65% in Yi farmers, from 27.91 to 33.61% in Yi migrants). Standardized prevalence of obesity increased only in Yi farmers (from 0.37 to 3.13%). Prevalence difference of overweight in Yi farmers was higher than that in Yi migrants (11.11 vs. 5.70), but prevalence differences of obesity were not significantly different between Yi farmers and migrants. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Yi farmers, and prevalence of overweight in Yi migrants increased from 2007 to 2015. Yi farmers were developing overweight at a greater pace than migrants. More attention should be paid to spread health knowledge and encourage healthy lifestyle in Yi people, especially Yi farmers.

  6. The genetic admixture in Tibetan-Yi Corridor.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hong-Bing; Tang, Senwei; Yao, Xiaotian; Yeh, Hui-Yuan; Zhang, Wanhu; Xie, Zhiyan; Du, Qiajun; Ma, Liying; Wei, Shuoyun; Gong, Xue; Zhang, Zilong; Li, Quanfang; Xu, Bingying; Zhang, Hu-Qin; Chen, Gang; Wang, Chuan-Chao

    2017-11-01

    The Tibetan-Yi Corridor located on the eastern edge of Tibetan Plateau is suggested to be the key region for the origin and diversification of Tibeto-Burman speaking populations and the main route of the peopling of the Plateau. However, the genetic history of the populations in the Corridor is far from clear due to limited sampling in the northern part of the Corridor. We collected blood samples from 10 Tibetan and 10 Han Chinese individuals from Gansu province and genotyped about 600,000 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Our data revealed that the populations in the Corridor are all admixed on a genetic cline of deriving ancestry from Tibetans on the Plateau and surrounding lowland East Asians. The Tibetan and Han Chinese groups in the north of the Plateau show significant evidence of low-level West Eurasian admixture that could be probably traced back to 600∼900 years ago. We conclude that there have been huge population migrations from surrounding lowland onto the Tibetan Plateau via the Tibetan-Yi Corridor since the initial formation of Tibetans probably in Neolithic Time, which leads to the current genetic structure of Tibeto-Burman speaking populations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. [Collation between Za Liao of Qian Jin Yi Fang and Xin Xiu Ben Cao].

    PubMed

    Liang, Fei; Jiang, Li-Sheng; Li, Jian; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Rui-Xian

    2012-10-01

    To analyze specific content of Za Liao of Qian Jin Yi Fang, this essay compares its content with related content of Xin Xiu Ben Cao, finding that Za Liao of Qian Jin Yi Fang is derived from the part of Jin An of Xin Xiu Ben Cao, which complements with herbal chapters from volume II to IV of Qian Jin Yi Fang. The texts in Za Liao can verify and collate part of Jin An, and thereby showing important literature value and great help for further studies on traditional Chinese medicines of Tang dynasty.

  8. Genetic polymorphisms of pharmacogenomic VIP variants in the Yi population from China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Mengdan; Li, Dianzhen; Zhao, Guige; Li, Jing; Niu, Fanglin; Li, Bin; Chen, Peng; Jin, Tianbo

    2018-03-30

    Drug response and target therapeutic dosage are different among individuals. The variability is largely genetically determined. With the development of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics, widespread research have provided us a wealth of information on drug-related genetic polymorphisms, and the very important pharmacogenetic (VIP) variants have been identified for the major populations around the world whereas less is known regarding minorities in China, including the Yi ethnic group. Our research aims to screen the potential genetic variants in Yi population on pharmacogenomics and provide a theoretical basis for future medication guidance. In the present study, 80 VIP variants (selected from the PharmGKB database) were genotyped in 100 unrelated and healthy Yi adults recruited for our research. Through statistical analysis, we made a comparison between the Yi and other 11 populations listed in the HapMap database for significant SNPs detection. Two specific SNPs were subsequently enrolled in an observation on global allele distribution with the frequencies downloaded from ALlele FREquency Database. Moreover, F-statistics (Fst), genetic structure and phylogenetic tree analyses were conducted for determination of genetic similarity between the 12 ethnic groups. Using the χ2 tests, rs1128503 (ABCB1), rs7294 (VKORC1), rs9934438 (VKORC1), rs1540339 (VDR) and rs689466 (PTGS2) were identified as the significantly different loci for further analysis. The global allele distribution revealed that the allele "A" of rs1540339 and rs9934438 were more frequent in Yi people, which was consistent with the most populations in East Asia. F-statistics (Fst), genetic structure and phylogenetic tree analyses demonstrated that the Yi and CHD shared a closest relationship on their genetic backgrounds. Additionally, Yi was considered similar to the Han people from Shaanxi province among the domestic ethnic populations in China. Our results demonstrated significant differences on

  9. The Chinese Herb Yi-Qi-Huo-Xue Protects Cardiomyocyte Function in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiangsheng; Huang, Jing; Wang, Shengyi; Ni, Qing

    2018-01-01

    Aims. To study the effect of the Chinese herb Yi-qi-huo-xue on cardiomyopathy in diabetic rats. Methods . Rats were fed a high fat and high glucose diet and injected with 50 ml/kg streptozotocin (STZ) to induce diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM), followed by treatment with Yi-qi-huo-xue for 4 weeks. We measured the rats' heart weight index, observed the myocardial morphology using hematoxylin eosin (HE) staining, and determined the content of collagen types I and III in the myocardium using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We determined Bcl-2, Bax, and P53 protein expression by Western blot analysis and the cardiomyocyte apoptosis rate via a flow cytometry assay. Results. Compared with the rats in the control group, the diabetic rats gained weight and had increased blood sugar levels, an enhanced heart weight index, and increased myocardial pathophysiological damage. There was a decrease in their Bcl-2 expression, and their Bax and P53 expression increased. The Bcl-2/Bax ratio was enhanced, and there was an increase in the content of collagen types I and III in the myocardium. After treatment with Yi-qi-huo-xue, all levels listed above returned to normal. Conclusion. The Chinese herb Yi-qi-huo-xue degraded the myocardial interstitial collagen types I and III to protect the myocardium of the diabetic rats, thus delaying the role of myocardial fibrosis. Yi-qi-huo-xue could play an important role in protecting the myocardium of DCM rats by enhancing the expression of the Bcl-2 protein, inhibiting the expression of the Bax and P53 proteins, increasing the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax, and inhibiting the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes.

  10. Yi-gan san restores behavioral alterations and a decrease of brain glutathione level in a mouse model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Makinodan, Manabu; Yamauchi, Takahira; Tatsumi, Kouko; Okuda, Hiroaki; Noriyama, Yoshinobu; Sadamatsu, Miyuki; Kishimoto, Toshifumi; Wanaka, Akio

    2009-01-01

    The traditional Chinese herbal medicine yi-gan san has been used to cure neuropsychological disorders. Schizophrenia can be one of the target diseases of yi-gan san. We aimed at evaluating the possible use of yi-gan san in improving the schizophrenic symptoms of an animal model. Yi-gan san or distilled water was administered to mice born from pregnant mice injected with polyinosinic-polycytidilic acid or phosphate buffered saline. The former is a model of schizophrenia based on the epidemiological data that maternal infection leads to psychotic disorders including schizophrenia in the offspring. Prepulse inhibition and sensitivity to methamphetamine in open field tests were analyzed and the total glutathione content of whole brains was measured. Yi-gan san reversed the decrease in prepulse inhibition, hypersensitivity to methamphetamine and cognitive deficits found in the model mice to the level of control mice. Total glutathione content in whole brains was reduced in the model mice but was restored to normal levels by yi-gan san treatment. These results suggest that yi-gan san may have ameliorating effects on the pathological symptoms of schizophrenia.

  11. [A population survey of the Yi nationality in Meigu County, Sichuan Province].

    PubMed

    Wang, D; Zhang, G

    1984-01-29

    In 1980, 95.35% of the 129,819 inhabitants of Meigu County in Faxin District of the Jinshan Yi autonomous district, Sichuan Province, were of Yi nationality. Agriculture is the primary mode of production and animal husbandry is an important secondary industry. Prior to Liberation, slavery was an integral part of Yi society. The standard of living was low, mortality high, and population growth slow. After Liberation from 1956-1980, the population grew 47.1%, 90% of which was a natural increase. The primary reason for the growth was a post-1960s annual average birth rate of 46/1000 and a mortality rate that fell from 35/1000 before Liberation to 13.3/1000 in 1976. The age structure also became younger. The average age in 1964 was 24 years, with a median age of 21.8 years, as compared to a 1980 average age of 23.8 years and a median age of 17 years. 47.2% of the population were aged from birth to 14 years; 2.9% were over 65 years. At the same time, 28% of the female population were of childbearing age. By 2000 Meigu County's population will reach 259,000. Although the primary reasons for the relatively rapid population increase are due to the destruction of the slave system and a higher standard of living, factors peculiar to Yi society are also significant: 1) the destruction of the slave system permitted the population to grow without the restraints of strict codes of class stratification; 2) the high value placed on having many offsprings, and of favoring male children still prevails; 3) the attitude of early marriage and the custom of widows marrying a relative of her deceased husband still prevail; 4) and infant mortality and the mortality rate of fertile women have declined. Elements which influence the population development of Meigu County include economic factors such as the need to support the old and the young, or the inability to produce enough food to keep up with the needs of an expanding population.

  12. Forensic evaluation and population genetic study of 30 insertion/deletion polymorphisms in a Chinese Yi group.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Dang; Shen, Chun-Mei; Jin, Rui; Li, Ya-Ni; Wang, Bo; Ma, Li-Xia; Meng, Hao-Tian; Yan, Jiang-Wei; Dan Wang, Hong-; Yang, Ze-Long; Zhu, Bo-Feng

    2015-05-01

    Insertion/deletion polymorphisms have become a research hot spot in forensic science due to their tremendous potential in recent years. In the present study, we investigated 30 indel loci in a Chinese Yi ethnic group. The allele frequencies of the short allele of the 30 indel loci were in the range of 0.1025-0.9221. The power of discrimination values were observed ranging from to 0.2630 (HLD111 locus) to 0.6607 (HLD70 locus) and probability of exclusion values ranged from 0.0189 (HLD111 locus) to 0.2343 (HLD56 locus). The combined power of discrimination and power of exclusion for 30 loci in the studied Yi group were 0.99999999995713 and 0.97746, respectively, which showed tremendous potential for forensic personal identification in the Yi group. Moreover, the DA distances, phylogenetic tree, principal component analysis, and cluster analysis showed the Yi group had close genetic relationships with the Tibetan, South Korean, Chinese Han, and She groups. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. A remarkable new species of Nemoura (Plecoptera: Nemouridae) from Chuxiong Yi Autonomous Prefecture of Yunnan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yu-Han; Xiao, Qian; Chen, Zhi-Teng; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2018-01-24

    A new species of the genus Nemoura, N. latilongispina sp. nov. from Chuxiong Yi Autonomous Prefecture of Yunnan Province, southwestern China is described and illustrated. The new species is characterized by ventral sclerite of epiproct extended laterally, forming upcurved plates fringed with long spines along upper margin, and by the strongly sclerotized, fork-shaped cercus.

  14. The modified Yi qi decoction protects cardiac ischemia-reperfusion induced injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao; Zhao, Xiao-Dong; Bao, Rong-Qi; Yu, Jia-Yu; Zhang, Guo-Xing; Chen, Jing-Wei

    2017-06-21

    To investigate the effects and involved mechanisms of the modified Yi Qi decoction (MYQ) in cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (IR) induced injury. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to a 30-min coronary arterial occlusion followed by reperfusion, low or high dose decoction of MYQ was administrated orally for 1 week or 1 month. Both in 1 week and 1 month IR rat groups, cardiac function indexes were significantly impaired compared with sham group rats, accompanied with higher ratio of infarct size to risk size, decreased expressions of sodium calcium exchanger (NCX1) and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ -ATPase (Serca2a), and different expressions of autophagic proteins, Beclin-1 and LC3. Treatment with MYQ (low or high dose) for 1 week showed no marked beneficial effects on cardiac function and cardiac injury (ratio of infarct size to risk size), although expressions of anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2, NCX1 and Serca2a were increased. Treatment with MYQ (low or high dose) for 1 month showed significantly improved effects on cardiac function and cardiac injury (ratio of infarct size to risk size), accompanied with increase of Bcl-2, NCX1 and Serca2a expressions, and decrease of Bax (a pro-apoptotic protein) and Beclin-1 expressions. The results show that MYQ have potential therapeutic effects on IR-induced cardiac injury, which may be through regulation of apoptotic proteins, cytosolic Ca 2+ handling proteins and autophagic proteins signal pathways.

  15. [The innovation of warm disease theory in the Ming Dynasty before Wen yi lun On Pestilence].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-bin

    2008-10-01

    Some doctors of the Ming dynasty raised subversive doubts against the traditional viewpoints of "exogenous cold disease is warm-heat" before the emergence of Wen yi lun (On Pestilence), holding that warm-heat disease "is contracted in different seasons instead of being transformed from cold to warm and/or heat". The conception of the separation of warm-heat disease and exogenous cold disease had changed from obscure to clear. As the idea became clear, the recognition on the new affection of warm, heat, summer-heat, pestilent pathogen was formed, and the idea that the pathogens of summer-heat and warm entered the human body through the mouth and nostrils was put forward. The six-channel syndrome differentiation of warm disease and the five sweat-resolving methods in pestilence raised by the doctors of this period are the aspects of the differential diagnosis of syndrome and treatment in warm diseases, and deserve to be paid attention to.

  16. The investigation of anti-inflammatory activity of Yi Guanjian decoction by serum metabonomics approach.

    PubMed

    Shui, Sufang; Cai, Xiaorong; Huang, Rongqing; Xiao, Bingkun; Yang, Jianyun

    2017-01-30

    Yi Guanjian (YGJ), one of the Chinese herbal medicines most commonly used in western countries, reported to possess significant anti-inflammatary effects that inhibit the process of inflammation. However, the mechanisms underlying its anti-inflammation effects remain largely unresolved. This study was aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of YGJ and to explore its potential anti-inflammatory mechanisms by serum metabonomics approach. An xylene-induced mouse right-ear-edema model was used as an inflammatory response in vivo model. Ear edema, prostaglandin E2 (PGE 2 ) and Tumor-Necrosis-Factor-alpha (TNF-α) were detected. Then, serum metabolic profiling was analyzed and pathway analysis performed on the biomarkers reversed after YGJ administration and further integration of metabolic networks. The results showed that YGJ alleviated ear edema and decreased serum PGE 2 and TNF-α levels. Fourteen biomarkers were screened, and the levels were all reversed to different degrees after YGJ administration. These biomarkers were mainly related to linoleic acid metabolism, taurine and hypotaurine metabolism, glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism, glycine, serine and threonine metabolism and citrate cycle (TCA cycle). In metabolic networks, glycine and pyruvate were node molecules. This indicated that YGJ could significantly inhibit inflammatory response triggered by acute local stimulation and exerted anti-inflammatory activity mainly by regulating node molecules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Forensic characteristics and phylogenetic analyses of the Chinese Yi population via 19 X-chromosomal STR loci.

    PubMed

    He, GuangLin; Li, Ye; Zou, Xing; Li, Ping; Chen, PengYu; Song, Feng; Gao, Tianzhen; Liao, Miao; Yan, Jing; Wu, Jin

    2017-09-01

    The demographic characteristics and genetic polymorphism data of 56 Chinese nationalities or 31 administrative divisions in Chinese mainland have repeatedly been the genetic research hotspots. While most genetic studies focused on some particular Chinese populations based on autosomal or Y-chromosomal genetic markers, the forensic characteristics and phylogenetic analyses of the seventh largest Chinese population (Yi ethnicity) on the X-chromosomal genetic markers are scarce. Here, allele frequencies and forensic statistical parameters for 19 X-chromosomal short tandem repeat loci (DXS7424-DXS101, DXS6789-DXS6809, DXS7423-DXS10134, DXS10103-HPRTB-DXS10101, DXS10159-DXS10162-DXS10164, DXS10148-DXS10135-DXS8378, and DXS7132-DXS10079-DXS10074-DXS10075) of 331 Chinese Yi individuals were obtained. All 19 X-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci in females were consistent with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium test. A total of 214 alleles were identified with the corresponding allele frequencies spanned from 0.0019 to 0.6106. The combined PE, PDF, and PDM were 0.9999999214, 0.9999999999999999999993, and 0.9999999999998, respectively. The high combined MEC Krüger , MEC Kishida , MEC Desmarais , and MEC Desmarais Duo were achieved as 0.9999999617638, 0.9999999999971, 0.9999999999971, and 0.9999999931538, respectively. The findings suggested that the panel of 19 X-STR loci is highly polymorphic and informative in the Yi ethnic population and can be considered to be a powerful tool in forensic complex kinship identification. Population differentiation analyses among 12 populations indicated that significant differences in genetic structure were observed in between the Yi ethnicity and the Chinese Uyghur as well as Kazakh, and genetic homogeneity existed in similar ethno-origin or geographic origin populations.

  18. Correlation between renin-angiotensin system gene polymorphisms and essential hypertension in the Chinese Yi ethnic group.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu-Ling; Mo, Yan-Ping; He, Yong-Shu; Yang, Fang; Xu, Yan; Li, Cheng-Cheng; Wang, Jiao; Reng, Hao-Ming; Long, Li

    2015-12-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been considered to play an important role in the regulation of blood pressure. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between RAS gene polymorphisms and essential hypertension (EH) in the Chinese Yi ethnic group. A total of 244 EH subjects and 185 normotensive individuals from the Chinese Yi ethnic group were genotyped for AGT M235T (rs699), AT1R A1166C (rs5186), ACE I/D (rs4340) and ACE G2350A (rs4343) polymorphisms by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method. Significant differences in the allele and genotype frequency of ACE G2350A were observed between the EH cases and controls (p=0.001, 0.002). After being grouped by gender, significant differences in the allele and genotype frequency of ACE G2350A and AT1R A1166C were observed between females of the EH cases and controls (ACE G2350A: p=0.000, 0.002; AT1R A1166C: p=0.008, 0.011). After excluding the influence of multifactorial interactions, the ACE G2350A polymorphism is significantly associated with the pathogenesis of EH in the Chinese Yi ethnic group (odds ratio (OR)=1.656, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.807-2.524, p=0.019). The RAS-related ACE G2350A polymorphism is associated with the pathogenesis of EH in the Chinese Yi ethnic group. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Neuroprotective effects of an herbal medicine, Yi-Gan San on MPP+/MPTP-induced cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Doo, Ah-Reum; Kim, Seung-Nam; Park, Ji-Yeon; Cho, Ki Ho; Hong, Jongki; Eun-Kyung, Kim; Moon, Sang Kwan; Jung, Woo Sang; Lee, Hyejung; Jung, Jae Han; Park, Hi-Joon

    2010-09-15

    A traditional herb, Yi-Gan San, has been widely used for the management of neurodegenerative disorders in traditional East Asian Medicine. The present study investigated the neuroprotective effects of Yi-Gan San in 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine/1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo and sought to clarify its underlying mechanisms. The effect of Yi-Gan San on 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine was measured in terms of 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays, caspase-3 activity, and western blot analysis of phosphorylated Akt, one of the survival-related signaling proteins in SH-SY5Y cells. The effects of Yi-Gan San were also confirmed in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced Parkinsonian mouse model using a rotarod test and tyrosine hydroxylase-immunohistochemistry. Pretreatment of Yi-Gan San with 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine showed a significant protective effect on SH-SY5Y cells and significantly decreased the level of caspase-3 activity compared to the values for the 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine-treated cells. This process increased the protein expressions of phosphorylated Akt, and an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, LY294002, significantly decreased this protective effect of Yi-Gan San. In the mouse Parkinson's disease model, treatment with Yi-Gan San also significantly improved motor functioning and prevented dopaminergic loss related to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine challenge. Using both in vitro and in vivo methods, this study revealed that Yi-Gan San has neuroprotective effects and rescues dopaminergic neurons from 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine/1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine toxicity, possibly via the PI3K/Akt pathway. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Analysis of HLA-B locus gene polymorphism in Sichuan Yi ethnic group and Xinjiang Uygur ethnic group].

    PubMed

    Xu, Ming-Yan; Hong, Kun-Xue; Ma, Jun; Deng, Xiao-Ling; Li, Jun; Peng, Hong; Ruan, Yu-Hua; Qin, Guan-Ming; Zhang, Yuan-Zhi; Xing, Hui; Xu, Xiao-Hu; Shao, Yi-Ming

    2006-08-01

    The polymorphism of HLA-B alleles in Sichuan Yi and Xinjiang Uygur population was investigated using the PCR-SSP method. Twenty one alleles were detected in HLA-B loci in 106 Sichuan unrelated Yi healthy subjects. Of them, B*40, B*15 and B*51 were the most common alleles with an allele frequency of 0.1981, 0.1368, 0.1274, respectively; while B*47, B*44, B*18, B*57 and B*78 were the rare alleles with an allele frequency of 0.0189, 0.0142, 0.0094, 0.0047 and 0.0047, respectively. The distribution of HLA-B allele frequencies in Sichuan Yis was between Southern Han and Northern Han. In 110 Xinjiang unrelated healthy Uygur subjects, 27 alleles were detected in HLA-B loci. Of them, B*35 and B*51 were the most common alleles with an allele frequency of 0.1136 and 0.1136, respectively; while B*41, B*56 and B*78 were the rare alleles with a frequency of 0.0045, 0.0045 and 0.0091, respectively. Frequencies of "Caucasoid origin" HLA alleles such as B*08, B*35 and B*50 in Xinjiang Uygurs were higher than other ethnic groups in China. The result of chi2 tests showed that the distributions of HLA-B alleles in Yi and Uygur ethnic groups were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Heterozygosity (H), discrimination power (DP) and probability of paternity exclusion (EP) of HLA-B locus from Sichuan Yi ethnic group were computed to be 0.8977, 0.9661 and 0.8009; and those from Xinjiang Uygur ethnic group were 0.9372, 0.9857 and 0.8732. The data obtained in this study on the distributions of HLA-B alleles in the Sichuan Yi and Xinjiang Uygur population provide important group genetics information for forensic and paternity tests to estimate the frequency of a DNA profile in these two populations, and can be used in transplant matching, anthropological and disease association studies.

  1. YI Kwang Su's Love and history records of modern hospital under the japanese colonial period.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byoung Hoon

    2016-12-01

    This article aims to evaluate and analyze the description of the modern hospital as history record, which appeared in YI Kwang Su's novel Love. This novel has mentioned in detail western style clinic, Bukgando Catholic hospital, tuberculosis sanitarium as its main space. Modern hospitals are depicted in the novel has a great significance in historical aspect as well as in literary aspect. The most data on modern hospital is laws, statistics and newspaper archives. These materials are a great help to understand the history and status of the modern hospital. Literary description here is important materials, that specific to reconstruct the appearance of the modern hospital at that time. Literary representations infuse life into the history record. In this regard, Love has special meaning in the history of Korean modern literature. Before anything else, doctor AN Bin's clinic as a first space of the novel vividly shows the reality of the Western style clinic and a general practitioner under the colonial period. The establishment of the hospital was based on 「Rules on private hospital」 declared by the Japanese Government General of Korea in 1919. According to this Rules, a private clinic's founder had to submit the documents to the director of police affairs, in which all the details were written. It included name of hospital, site location and size, floor plan of a nearby building, each size of patient's rooms, number of steps and emergency exit, bath, toilet, disinfecting room. AN Bin's clinic was a private hospital with the requirements in the rules. The descriptions of this clinic re-created real situation of private hospitals, specifically scale of hospital, interior space, conditions of patient's room at the time. The second modern hospital in the novel is Bukgando Catholic hospital. There is a lot more materials on medical activity and hospital of protestant churches than we thought. But we do not have a lot of information on catholic church's medical

  2. Effect and Mechanism of QiShenYiQi Pill on Experimental Autoimmune Myocarditis Rats.

    PubMed

    Lv, Shichao; Wu, Meifang; Li, Meng; Wang, Qiang; Xu, Ling; Wang, Xiaojing; Zhang, Junping

    2016-03-06

    To observe the effect of QiShenYiQi pill (QSYQ) on experimental autoimmune myocarditis rats, and to explore its mechanism of action. Lewis rats underwent the injection of myocardial myosin mixed with Freund's complete adjuvant were randomized into 3 groups: model, valsartan, and QSYQ groups. Rats injected with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) mixed with Freund's complete adjuvant were used as the control group. Rats were euthanized at 4 and 8 weeks, and we weighed rat body mass, heart mass, and left ventricular mass. Myocardium sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Masson trichrome. Myocardial TGF-β1 and CTGF protein expression was detected by immunohistochemistry, and myocardial TGF-β1 and CTGF mRNA expression was detected by real-time qPCR. QSYQ reduced HMI and LVMI, as well as the histological score of hearts and CVF, which further decreased over time, and its effect was significantly greater than that of valsartan at 4 and 8 weeks. After 4 weeks, QSYQ inhibited the protein and mRNA expression of TGF-β1 and CTGF, and its effect on lowering CTGF was significantly greater than that of valsartan. In addition, after 8 weeks, QSYQ also inhibited the protein and mRNA expression of CTGF, whereas there was no significant difference in the expression of myocardial TGF-β1. This study provides evidence that QSYQ can improve cardiac remodeling of experimental autoimmune myocarditis rats. It also effectively improved the degree of myocardial fibrosis, which is related to the mechanism of regulation of TGF-β1 CTGF.

  3. Effect and Mechanism of QiShenYiQi Pill on Experimental Autoimmune Myocarditis Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Shichao; Wu, Meifang; Li, Meng; Wang, Qiang; Xu, Ling; Wang, Xiaojing; Zhang, Junping

    2016-01-01

    Background To observe the effect of QiShenYiQi pill (QSYQ) on experimental autoimmune myocarditis rats, and to explore its mechanism of action. Material/methods Lewis rats underwent the injection of myocardial myosin mixed with Freund’s complete adjuvant were randomized into 3 groups: model, valsartan, and QSYQ groups. Rats injected with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) mixed with Freund’s complete adjuvant were used as the control group. Rats were euthanized at 4 and 8 weeks, and we weighed rat body mass, heart mass, and left ventricular mass. Myocardium sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Masson trichrome. Myocardial TGF-β1 and CTGF protein expression was detected by immunohistochemistry, and myocardial TGF-β1 and CTGF mRNA expression was detected by real-time qPCR. Results QSYQ reduced HMI and LVMI, as well as the histological score of hearts and CVF, which further decreased over time, and its effect was significantly greater than that of valsartan at 4 and 8 weeks. After 4 weeks, QSYQ inhibited the protein and mRNA expression of TGF-β1 and CTGF, and its effect on lowering CTGF was significantly greater than that of valsartan. In addition, after 8 weeks, QSYQ also inhibited the protein and mRNA expression of CTGF, whereas there was no significant difference in the expression of myocardial TGF-β1. Conclusions This study provides evidence that QSYQ can improve cardiac remodeling of experimental autoimmune myocarditis rats. It also effectively improved the degree of myocardial fibrosis, which is related to the mechanism of regulation of TGF-β1 CTGF. PMID:26946470

  4. Association among activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living and health-related quality of life in elderly Yi ethnic minority.

    PubMed

    Ran, Lingyun; Jiang, Xiaodong; Li, Baogang; Kong, Hongqian; Du, Mengqi; Wang, Xiaolan; Yu, Hua; Liu, Qin

    2017-03-22

    The health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of the elderly population of Yi ethnic minority, which is the seventh largest nationality in China, has been rarely reported. This study was designed to explore the HRQoL of the elderly Yi ethnicity and association between their HRQOL and functional abilities. A total of 291 Yi ethnic residents were randomly recruited from 12 rural counties in Yunnan province and divided into different age groups. Local residents in Yunnan province and the elderly from Hangzhou were enrolled as controls. The MOS 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) scales were utilized to evaluate the HRQoL and functional ability. One-way ANOVA was used to statistically compare the ADL and IADL among different age groups. The influential variables on HRQOL were analyzed by multiple linear regression analysis. Pearson correlation analysis was used to analyze the association among HRQoL, ADL and IADL. The HRQoL of the elderly Yi minority was significantly lower than those of local residents in Yunnan province and the elderly counterparts in Hangzhou. The IADL ability of the elderly Yi minority was low, whereas they could perform most items of ADL. ADL, IADL, and education level were positively associated with HRQoL, whereas age, chronic diseases, and the frequency of medication use were negatively correlated with HRQoL. The HRQoL and functional capacity of the elderly Yi ethnic minority were lower compared with their counterparts in Yunnan province and Hangzhou. The low level of IADL indicated that the elderly Yi participants had a high risk of cognitive impairment. Much attention should be diverted to influential factors of the HRQoL.

  5. Partial AZFc duplications not deletions are associated with male infertility in the Yi population of Yunnan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jun-jie; Ma, Li; Yang, Li-juan; Wang, Jin-huan; Wang, Yue-li; Guo, Hai; Gong, Ning; Nie, Wen-hui; Zhao, Shu-hua

    2013-09-01

    There are many reports on associations between spermatogenesis and partial azoospermia factor c (AZFc) deletions as well as duplications; however, results are conflicting, possibly due to differences in methodology and ethnic background. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association of AZFc polymorphisms and male infertility in the Yi ethnic population, residents within Yunnan Province, China. A total of 224 infertile patients and 153 fertile subjects were selected in the Yi ethnic population. The study was performed by sequence-tagged site plus/minus (STS+/-) analysis followed by gene dosage and gene copy definition analysis. Y haplotypes of 215 cases and 115 controls were defined by 12 binary markers using single nucleotide polymorphism on Y chromosome (Y-SNP) multiplex assays based on single base primer extension technology. The distribution of Y haplotypes was not significantly different between the case and control groups. The frequencies of both gr/gr (7.6% vs. 8.5%) and b2/b3 (6.3% vs. 8.5%) deletions do not show significant differences. Similarly, single nucleotide variant (SNV) analysis shows no significant difference of gene copy definition between the cases and controls. However, the frequency of partial duplications in the infertile group (4.0%) is significantly higher than that in the control group (0.7%). Further, we found a case with sY1206 deletion which had two CDY1 copies but removed half of DAZ genes. Our results show that male infertility is associated with partial AZFc duplications, but neither gr/gr nor b2/b3 deletions, suggesting that partial AZFc duplications rather than deletions are risk factors for male infertility in Chinese-Yi population.

  6. Comparative effects of Yi Jin Jing versus Tai Chi exercise training on benign prostatic hyperplasia-related outcomes in older adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Liu, XiangYun; Huang, Guoyuan; Chen, Peijie; Li, Yong; Xiang, JiuLin; Chen, Ting; Wang, Ru

    2016-07-16

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and its associated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) occur very commonly in older men. BPH and LUTS cause substantial physical and psychological impairment that could seriously affect the quality of late life and greatly cost the health-care systems. Current surgical and pharmacological therapies are expensive, may not effectively improve prostate function and health but cause adverse effects. There is an urgent need to find new and effective non-pharmacological preventions and treatments. Yi Jin Jing and Tai Chi are two common traditional Chinese mind-body exercises with different movements and techniques, but both emphasize regulating functional homeostasis and keeping whole body harmony. Yi Jin Jing and Tai Chi have not been studied much for potentially use in the treatment of BPH-related problems. The primary purpose of this protocol is to assess the effectiveness of Yi Jin Jing versus Tai Chi on the monographic and functional changes of prostate in older men. A prospective single-center randomized controlled trial will be conducted. A total of 150 old men (60-70 years old) will be recruited from the urban tertiary of Shanghai, China. Of these, 50 eligible participants will be randomly assigned to a control group and two intervention groups with either Yi Jin Jing or Tai Chi exercise training. They will undergo 30 minutes for each exercise for five times a week for 6 months. The primary outcomes are changes of signs and symptoms in BPH and lower urinary tract from baseline to post-intervention. The main secondary outcomes are exercise-induced effects on the circulating levels of estrogen and androgen. All the outcome measures will be assessed at baseline, immediately after the 6-month intervention, and at the 3-month post-intervention follow-up. This proposed study will be the first comparative randomized clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness of Yi Jin Jing versus Tai Chi exercise on prostate health among older

  7. [A Study on the quotations in the Wu xing da yi (The Gist of Five Phases) cited from Nei jing (Inner Canon)].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng-Shan; Zhang, Qi-Cheng

    2013-07-01

    In the Wu xing da yi (The Gist of Five Phases), written by Xiao Ji of the Sui Dynasty, there were 9 quotations cited from Huang di nei jing (Inner Canon of Huangdi). By comparison with current version of Huang di nei jing, most of the descriptions are similar, yet still with some differences, such as yin-yang nature of the five zang visceras, the liver being the root of "pi ji", the spleen being the root of "cang lin" etc. Wu xing da yi epitomizes the books about yin-yang and five phases before the Sui Dynasty, while Xiao Ji's quotations from Huang di nei jing interpreted from the views of yin-yang and five phases, are different from the annotations of later ages.

  8. Variations in Volatile Oil Yield and Composition of "Xin-yi" (Magnolia biondii Pamp. Flower Buds) at Different Growth Stages.

    PubMed

    Hu, Mingli; Bai, Mei; Ye, Wei; Wang, Yaling; Wu, Hong

    2018-06-01

    Dried flower buds of Magnolia biondii Pamp. are the main ingredient in "Xin-yi" in China, and the volatile oils of M. biondii flower buds are the principal medicinal component. Gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC-MS) and microscopic techniques were employed to detect the volatile yields of M. biondii flowers at various growth stages. The volatile oil yields of M. biondii flowers differed significantly at different growth stages and were closely related to flower dry weight, oil cell density and degree of oil accumulation. In February 2016, flower buds had the highest dry weight, the maximum percentage of oil cells at the oil saturation stage and the highest density of oil cells, which coincided with the highest oil yield. In March 2016, flower buds had a lower dry weight, a higher percentage of oil cells at the oil-degrading stage and the lowest oil cell density, resulting in decreased oil yields. The total amounts of the major medicinal components in the M. biondii flower also showed regular changes at different growth stages. In January and February of 2016, M. biondii flowers had a higher dry weight, volatile oil yield and total content of medicinal ingredients, which was the best time for harvesting high-quality medicinal components. Our study reveals that volatile oil content and chemical composition are closely related to the growth stage of M. biondii flower buds. The results provide a scientific morphology and composition index for evaluating the medicinal value and harvesting of high-quality M. biondii medicinal herbs.

  9. Prevalence, awareness, medication, control, and risk factors associated with hypertension in Yi ethnic group aged 50 years and over in rural China: the Yunnan minority eye study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lixing; Zong, Yuan; Wei, Tao; Sheng, Xun; Shen, Wei; Li, Jun; Niu, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Hua; Zhang, Yang; Yuan, Yuansheng; Chen, Qin; Zhong, Hua

    2015-04-15

    Hypertension is an important public health issue in China, but there are few studies examining hypertension in ethnic groups in Yunnan, China. This study, Yunnan Minority Eye Study (YMES), was initially designed to determine the prevalence and impact of eye diseases, including hypertension and diabetes mellitus. As a part of YMES, the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension and the associated risk factors among the Yi ethnic population in rural China are reported. A population-based survey was conducted in 2012 with adult participants over 50 from rural communities in Shilin Yi Autonomous County, Yunnan Province, located in southwest China. A random cluster sampling method was used to select a representative sample. The participants' blood pressure, height, weight, and waist circumference were measured. Hypertension was defined as mean systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg, and/or current use of antihypertensive medications. A total of 2208 adults were assessed. The prevalence of hypertension was 38.5%, and the age- and gender-adjusted prevalence was 37.0%. The proportion of patients who were aware of their hypertension among those diagnosed with hypertension was 24.8%. Of those aware of having hypertension, 23.6% took antihypertensive drugs. Among all hypertensive patients, only 7.2% had controlled their hypertension (<140/90 mmHg). Risk factors for hypertension were older age, smoking, alcohol consumption, family history of high blood pressure, overweight, and obesity. Protective factors included being slim and higher education. Hypertension was highly prevalent among this population of the Yi ethnic group in China. The ratio of awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension were considerately low. Hypertension education and screening programs in rural China are recommended to improve the health status of this population.

  10. Yi min Zhang | NREL

    Volkswagen Automotive Company, Ltd. Shanghai, China (1990-1996) Featured Publications Vimmerstedt, L., A . NREL/JA-5100-61691. doi:10.1002/bbb.1434 Chum, H. L., Y. Zhang, J. Hill, D.G. Tiffany, R.V. Morey, A.G -60059. Warner, E., D. Inman, B. Kunstman, B. Bush, L. Vimmerstedt, S. Peterson, J. Macknick, and Y

  11. Effect of QiShenYiQi pill on myocardial collagen metabolism in experimental autoimmune myocarditis rats.

    PubMed

    Lv, Shi-Chao; Wu, Meifang; Li, Meng; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Zhang, Ao; Xu, Ling; Zhang, Jun-Ping

    2017-04-01

    To observe the effect of QiShenYiQi pill (QSYQ) on myocardial collagen metabolism in experimental autoimmune myocarditis rats, and to explore its mechanism of action. Lewis rats underwent the injection of myocardial myosin mixed with freund's complete adjuvant were randomized into three groups: model, valsartan and QSYQ groups. And we treated rats which were injected phosphate buffered saline (PBS) mixed with freund's complete adjuvant as control group. Rats were intervened and euthanized at 4 and 8 weeks. We use alkaline hydrolysis to detect the content of myocardial hydroxyproline (HYP), and ELISA to detect the level of serum procollagen type I carboxyterminal peptide (PICP), procollagen type III amino-terminal peptide (PIIINP), and collagen C telopeptide type I (CTX-I). Myocardial MMP-1 and TIMP-1 protein expression was detected by immunohistochemistry, and myocardial MMP-1 and TIMP-1 mRNA expression was detected by real-time qPCR. QSYQ reduced the content of myocardial HYP, and this reduction was greater over time. QSYQ also reduced the serum concentration of PICP, PIIINP, CTX-I and the PICP/PIIINP ratio, which further reduced over time, whereas its effect on lowering PICP was significantly greater than that of valsartan at 4 and 8 weeks, and lowering CTX-I was significantly greater than that of valsartan at 8 weeks. In addition, after 4 weeks, QSYQ enhanced the protein and mRNA expression of MMP-1 and TIMP-1, and its effect on highering TIMP-1 was significantly greater than that of valsartan, whereas there was no significant difference in the expression of myocardial MMP-1 or TIMP-1 at 8 weeks. QSYQ reduced the ratio of MMP-1/TIMP-1, which further reduced over time, and the effect of QYSQ was significantly greater than that of valsartan after 4 weeks. This study provides evidence that QSYQ can reduce the rate of myocardial collagen synthesis and degradation. It also effectively improved the degree of myocardial fibrosis in experimental autoimmune myocarditis

  12. YiQiFuMai Powder Injection Attenuates Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Myocardial Apoptosis Through AMPK Activation.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang; Zheng, Xianjie; Fan, Xiaoxue; Zhai, Kefeng; Tan, Yisha; Kou, Junping; Yu, Boyang

    2016-12-01

    The YiQiFuMai powder injection (YQFM), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription re-developed based on the well-known TCM formula Sheng-maisan, showed a wide range of pharmacological activities in cardiovascular diseases in clinics. However, its role in protection against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury has not been elucidated. The present study not only evaluated the cardioprotective effect of YQFM from MI/R injury but also investigated the potential molecular mechanisms both in vivo and in vitro. The myocardium infarct size, production of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), cardiac function, TUNEL staining, and caspase-3 activity were measured. Cell viability was determined, and cell apoptosis was measured by Hoechst 33342 staining and flow cytometry. Mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) was measured, and ATP content was quantified by bioluminescent assay. Expression of apoptosis-related proteins, including Caspase-3, Bcl-2, Bax, AMPKα, and phospho-AMPKα, was analyzed by western blotting. AMPKα siRNA transfection was also applied to the mechanism elucidation. YQFM at a concentration of 1.06 g/kg significantly reduced myocardium infarct size and the production of LDH, CK in serum, improved the cardiac function, and also produced a significant decrease of apoptotic index. Further, combined treatment with compound C partly attenuated the anti-apoptotic effect of YQFM. In addition, pretreatment with YQFM ranging from 25 to 400 μg/mL markedly improved cell viability and decreased LDH release. Moreover, YQFM inhibited H9c2 apoptosis, blocked the expression of caspase-3, and modulated Bcl-2 and Bax proteins, leading to an increased mitochondrial membrane potential and cellular ATP content. Mechanistically, YQFM activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathways whereas pretreatment with AMPK inhibitor Compound C and application of transfection with AMPKα siRNA attenuated the anti-apoptotic effect of YQFM

  13. Cardioprotective Effects of QiShenYiQi Dripping Pills on Transverse Aortic Constriction-Induced Heart Failure in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Guoran; Ren, Haojin; Zhang, Chi; Zhu, Xiaogang; Xu, Chao; Wang, Liyue

    2018-01-01

    QiShenYiQi dripping pills (QSYQ), a traditional Chinese medicine, are commonly used to treat coronary heart disease, and QSYQ was recently approved as a complementary treatment for ischemic heart failure in China. However, only few studies reported on whether QSYQ exerts a protective effect on heart failure induced by pressure overload. In this study, we explored the role of QSYQ in a mouse model of heart failure induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Twenty-eight C57BL/6J mice were divided into four groups: Sham + NS group, Sham + QSYQ group, TAC + NS group, and TAC + QSYQ group. QSYQ dissolved in normal saline (NS) was administered intragastrically (3.5 mg/100 g/day) in the Sham + QSYQ and TAC + QSYQ groups. In the Sham + NS and TAC + NS groups, NS was provided every day intragastrically. Eight weeks after TAC, echocardiography, and cardiac catheterization were performed to evaluate the cardiac function, and immunofluorescent staining with anti-actinin2 antibody was performed to determine the structure of the myocardial fibers. Moreover, TUNEL staining and Masson trichrome staining were employed to assess the effects of QSYQ on cardiac apoptosis and cardiac fibrosis. Western blots and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used to measure the expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the heart, and immunohistochemical staining with anti-CD31 antibody was performed to explore the role of QSYQ in cardiac angiogenesis. Results showed that TAC-induced cardiac dysfunction and disrupted structure of myocardial fibers significantly improved after QSYQ treatment. Moreover, QSYQ treatment also significantly improved cardiac apoptosis and cardiac fibrosis in TAC-induced heart failure, which was accompanied by an increase in VEGF expression levels and maintenance of microvessel density in the heart. In conclusion, QSYQ exerts a protective effect on TAC-induced heart failure, which could be attributed to enhanced cardiac angiogenesis

  14. [Research on maternal health behaviors for Yi-nationality women in poor rural areas based on the theory of reasoned action].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuju; Hao, Gang; Sun, Shuai; Chen, Yuehui; Zhang, Rui; Liu, Qiaolan; Yang, Yang; Zhou, Huan

    2015-08-01

    To analyze the status of maternal health behaviors and it's risk factors for Yi-nationality women in poor rural areas of Sichuan province. In 2012, multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method was used to select 14 villages of two poor counties in Liangshan Yi-nationality autonomous prefecture Sichuan province. At least 10 women who have infants aged 0-12 months were selected in each simple villages, a total of 284. The structured questionnaire was developed on the basis of the theory of reasoned action. Yi-nationality female college students were trained as investigators. Research indicators included prenatal care rate, hospital delivery rate, postpartum examination rate, socio-demographic characteristics, maternal health care knowledge. χ² test was used to compare the differences of above indicators among different groups. The structural equation model were used to statistical analyze. In the 284 subject women, 51.7% (147/284) women owned more than 2 children, 41.6% (118/284) women were more than 30 years old, 87.3% (248/284) women were illiteracy. The prenatal care rate was 69.7% (197/284), the hospital delivery rate was 26.8% (76/284), and the postnatal check rate was 22.9% (65/284). The influence factors of maternal health behaviors included the number of children, age and education (χ² were 10.92, 13.24, 9.58; P values were 0.027, 0.004, 0.008, respectively).The structural equation model analysis results showed that the maternal health behaviors were directly or indirectly affected by subjective norms (β = 0.236, P < 0.001), women's cognition (β = 0.226, P = 0.020) and women's attitudes on maternal health behavior (β = 0.157, P = 0.001). Among subjective norms, women have high compliance to their husbands (β = 0.850, P < 0.001), their peers (β = 0.708, P < 0.001), and their mothers-in-law (β = 0.636, P < 0.001). There were still serious problems in maternal health behaviors for Yi-nationality women in poor rural areas. The main factors included

  15. A critical courier role of volatile oils from Dalbergia odorifera for cardiac protection in vivo by QiShenYiQi.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiahui; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Yiqian; Wang, Yadong; Zhang, Boli; Fan, Guanwei; Zhu, Yan

    2017-08-04

    Component-based Chinese medicine (CCM) is derived from traditional Chinese medicine but produced with modern pharmaceutical standard and clearer clinical indications. However, it still faces challenges of defining individual component contribution in the complex formula. Using QiShenYiQi (QSYQ) as a model CCM, we investigated the role of Dalbergia odorifera (DO), an herbal component, in preventing myocardial damage. We showed that in vitro, QSYQ exerted considerable protective activities on cardiomyocytes from H 2 O 2 -induced mitochondrial dysfunction with or without DO. However, in isolated rat hearts, myocardial protection by QSYQ was significantly weakened without DO. In everted gut sac model, DO significantly enhanced absorption of the major QSYQ ingredients in different regions of rat intestine. Finally, in in vivo mouse model of doxorubicin (DOX)-induced myocardial damage, only QSYQ, but not QiShenYiQi without DO (QSYQ-DO), exerted a full protection. Taken together, our results showed that instead of directly contributing to the myocardial protection, Dalbergia odorifera facilitates the major active ingredients absorption and increases their efficacy, eventually enhancing the in vivo potency of QSYQ. These findings may shed new lights on our understanding of the prescription compatibility theory, as well as the impacts of "courier herbs" in component-based Chinese medicine.

  16. Casual sex and concurrent sexual partnerships among young people from an Yi community with a high prevalence of HIV in China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Luan, Rong-Sheng; Liu, Peng; Wu, Chun-Lin; Zhou, Ying; Chen, Wen

    2012-01-01

    Liangshan Prefecture in Sichuan province, China, has a high prevalence of HIV infection, which is reflective of a change in the mode of transmission from injection drug use (IDU) to heterosexual intercourse. However, few studies focus on HIV-related heterosexual risk behaviours among the majority Yi population. The objectives of this study were to explore the characteristics of an egocentric sexual network and estimate the prevalence of casual sexual behaviour. Yi villagers (n=108), aged 15–35 years, who reported having had sex within the previous year were interviewed as to their sexual behaviours and networks. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions provided supplementary information on sexual norms. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate unadjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Most of the respondents reported having had casual sex at some time in their life, and 66.7% reported multiple sexual partnerships. Only 21.3% reported ever having used a condom. During the study year, a total of 137 partners were involved in 153 sexual partnerships. Among the reported sexual partnerships, 67.3% originated from a casual sexual relationship. For network members in components of size ≥3, 56.9% were involved in concurrent sexual partnerships. Having never been married (OR: 2.11; 95% CI: 1.03–4.33) and younger age (OR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.83–0.95) were both associated with being in a component of size ≥3. Size (OR: 2.99; 95% CI: 1.17–7.66), pair (OR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.39–0.74), the number of weak components of the egocentric sexual network (OR: 30.04; 95% CI: 6.47–139.46) and gender (OR: 0.19; 95% CI: 0.06–0.67) were all associated with being in concurrent sexual partnerships. HIV-related interventions for the Yi ethnic minority in Sichuan province must therefore address concurrent sexual partnerships and promote condom use. PMID:22683999

  17. [Applying the Methodology and Practice of Microhistory: The Diary of a Confucian Doctor, Yi Mun-gǒn (1495-1567)].

    PubMed

    Shin, Dongwon

    2015-08-01

    Since microhistory's approach to the past is based on an understanding of and a sympathy for the concrete details of human lives, its area of interests overlaps with the history of medicine and medical humanities, which examine illness and health. If we put a specific region and society in a specific period under a microscope and increase the magnifying power, we can understand the numerous network connections among the body, illness management, and medicine and how multilayered were the knowledge and power applied to them. And this approach of using microhistory to illuminate medical history can be more effective than any other historical approach. This article focuses on Yi Mun-gǒn's extensive volumes of Mukchaeilgi (Mukchae's diary) in approaching medical history from the perspective of microhistory. Simply defined, this work is a Confucian scholar-doctor's diary. Its author, Yi Mun-gǒn, played the role of a Confucian doctor, although not professionally, during his 23-year exile, after serving in a high governmental office on the senior grade of the third court rank. Thanks to this extensive and detailed diary, we can now get adetailed andthorough picture of his medical practice in the Sǒngju region, 270 kilometers southeast of Seoul, where he was exiled. This article aims to understand the state of medical practice in the Sǒngju region in the 16thcentury through the"zoom-in" method adopted by microhistory. In particular, I will focus on the following three aspects:1) Yi Mun-gǒn's motivation for and method of medical study, 2)the character of Yi Mun-gǒn'spatient treatment as hwarin (the act of life-saving), and 3) the plural existence of various illness management methods, including pyǒngjǒm (divination of illness), sutra-chanting, exorcism, and ch'oje (ritual toward Heaven). All three aspects are closely related to Confucianism. First, Yi Mun-gǒn decided to acquire professional-level medical knowledge in order to practice the Confucian virtue of filial

  18. [Textual research on Guang dong xin yu (New Sayings of Guangdong) quoted in Ben cao gang mu shi yi (Supplements to Compendium of Materia Medica].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruixian; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jian; Liang, Fei

    2014-05-01

    Altogether 15 terms for Guang dong xin yu (New Sayings of Guangdong) were used in Ben cao gang mu shi yi (Supplements to Compendium of Materia Medica), including Yue yu (Cantonese sayings), Chong yu (Sayings from Insect Drug), Jie yu (Sayings from Crustacean Drug), Xin yu (New Sayings), Yue hai xiang yu (Fragrant Sayings from Cantonese Region), Yue zhi mu yu (Sayings from Plants in Cantonese Annals), Guang dong suo yu (Trivial Sayings from Guangdong), Yue shan lu (Records of Cantonese Mountains), Yue lu (Cantonese Records), Jiao guang lu (Joint Guangdong Records), Yue cao zhi (Records of Cantonese Grasses), Guang guo lu (Records of Guangdong Fruits), Nan yue suo ji (Trivial Records of Southern Canton), Guang zhi (Guangdong Records), Yue zhi (Cantonese Records) etc. dealing with 57 sorts of drugs (with individual overlapping ones), the author of Xin yu was Qu Dajun, a surviving fogy of the Ming Dynasty actively involved in the activities to restore the old dynasty and resist the Qing Dynasty, and was persecuted in the literary inquisition in which his works were burnt so that Zhao Xuemin, when quoting his texts, had to go in a roundabout way.

  19. Identification of the chemical constituents of Chinese medicine Yi-Xin-Shu capsule by molecular feature orientated precursor ion selection and tandem mass spectrometry structure elucidation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-ping; Chen, Chang; Liu, Yan; Yang, Hong-Jun; Wu, Hong-Wei; Xiao, Hong-Bin

    2015-11-01

    The incomplete identification of the chemical components of traditional Chinese medicinal formula has been one of the bottlenecks in the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine. Tandem mass spectrometry has been widely used for the identification of chemical substances. Current automatic tandem mass spectrometry acquisition, where precursor ions were selected according to their signal intensity, encounters a drawback in chemical substances identification when samples contain many overlapping signals. Compounds in minor or trace amounts could not be identified because most tandem mass spectrometry information was lost. Herein, a molecular feature orientated precursor ion selection and tandem mass spectrometry structure elucidation method for complex Chinese medicine chemical constituent analysis was developed. The precursor ions were selected according to their two-dimensional characteristics of retention times and mass-to-charge ratio ranges from herbal compounds, so that all precursor ions from herbal compounds were included and more minor chemical constituents in Chinese medicine were identified. Compared to the conventional automatic tandem mass spectrometry setups, the approach is novel and can overcome the drawback for chemical substances identification. As an example, 276 compounds from the Chinese Medicine of Yi-Xin-Shu capsule were identified. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi Decoction, the Water Extract of Chinese Traditional Herbal Medicine, Enhances Cisplatin Cytotoxicity in A549/DDP Cells through Induction of Apoptosis and Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Cisplatin is one of the most active cytotoxic agents for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment. However, the development of cisplatin resistance is common. Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi decoction (BZYQD), a Chinese traditional herbal medicine, is widely used for the enhancement of antitumor effect in other medications. In this study, we evaluated the effect and drug-resistance reversal mechanism of BZYQD combined with cisplatin on cisplatin-resistant A549/DDP cells. Our results showed that BZYQD exhibited direct cytotoxic and chemosensitizing effects. Cotreatment with BZYQD and cisplatin induced intrinsic apoptotic pathways which were measured by condensed nuclear chromatin, Annexin V/PI apoptosis assay, and apoptosis related proteins expression. In addition, cotreatment with BZYQD and cisplatin also activated autophagy, as indicated by an increase in LC3 puncta, classical autophagosomes and/or autolysosomes, and an accumulation of LC3-II and ATG7 protein. Finally, cotreatment with BZYQD and cisplatin resulted in the generation of ROS and scavenging ROS by NAC almost completely suppressing cell death. These results suggest that cotreatment with BZYQD and cisplatin might reverse cisplatin resistance by inducing ROS accumulation, which activates apoptosis and autophagy by oxidative stress. The combination of BZYQD and cisplatin may represent a novel approach in treatment for NSCLC and thus offer a new target for chemotherapy. PMID:28154825

  1. Urine metabolic profile changes of CCl4-liver fibrosis in rats and intervention effects of Yi Guan Jian Decoction using metabonomic approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Yi Guan Jian Decoction (YGJD), a famous Chinese prescription, has long been employed clinically to treat liver fibrosis. However, as of date, there is no report on the effects of YGJD from a metabonomic approach. In this study, a urine metabonomic method based on gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was employed to study the protective efficacy and metabolic profile changes caused by YGJD in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis. Methods Urine samples from Wistar rats of three randomly divided groups (control, model, and YGJD treated) were collected at various time-points, and the metabolic profile changes were analyzed by GC/MS with principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA). Furthermore, histopathology and biochemical examination were also carried out to ensure the success of CCl4-induced liver fibrosis model. Results Urine metabolic profile studies suggested distinct clustering of the three groups, and YGJD group was much closer to the control group by showing a tendency of recovering towards the control group. Fourteen significantly changed metabolites were found, and YGJD treatment could reverse the levels of these metabolites to normal levels or close to normal levels. Conclusions The current study indicates that the YGJD has significant anti-fibrotic effects on CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in rats, which might be by regulating the dysfunction of energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism, tryptophan metabolism, cytochrome P450 metabolism, and gut microflora metabolism. The metabonomic approach can be recommended to study the pharmacological effect and mechanism of complex Chinese medicines. PMID:23725349

  2. Frederick Yi-Tung Cho (1939-2011) : His PhD days in Biophysics, the Photosynthesis Lab, and his patents in engineering physics.

    PubMed

    Govindjee; Munday, John C; Papageorgiou, George C

    2017-06-01

    We present here a Tribute to Frederick Yi-Tung Cho (1939-2011), an innovative and ingenious biophysicist and an entrepreneur. He was one of the 4 earliest PhD students [see: Cederstrand (1965)-Carl Nelson Cederstrand; coadvisor: Eugene Rabinowitch; Papageorgiou (1968)-George C. Papageorgiou (coauthor of this paper); and Munday (1968)-John C. Munday Jr. (also a coauthor of this paper)] of one of us (Govindjee) in Biophysics at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) during the late 1960s (1963-1968). Fred was best known, in the photosynthesis circle for his pioneering work on low temperature (down to liquid helium temperature, 4 K) absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy of photosynthetic systems; he showed temperature independence of excitation energy transfer from (i) chlorophyll (Chl) b to Chl a and (ii) from Chl a 670 to Chl a 678; and temperature dependence of energy transfer from the phycobilins to Chl a and from Chl a 678 to its suggested trap. After doing research in biophysics of photosynthesis, Fred shifted to do research in solid-state physics/engineering in the Government Electronics Division (Group) of the Motorola Company, Scottsdale, Arizona, from where he published research papers in that area and had several patents granted. We focus mainly on his days at the UIUC in context of the laboratory in which he worked. We also list some of his papers and most of his patents in engineering physics. His friends and colleagues have correctly described him as an innovator and an ingenious scientist of the highest order. On the personal side, he was a very easy-going and amiable individual.

  3. Protective effect of Bu-zhong-yi-qi decoction, the water extract of Chinese traditional herbal medicine, on 5-fluorouracil-induced renal injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Ying; Shang, Bingzhen; Xu, Siying; Zhao, Ran; Gou, He; Wang, Chun

    2016-09-01

    Drug-induced renal injury is a serious toxic side effect of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment. Bu-zhong-yi-qi decoction (BZYQD), a water extract of Chinese traditional herbal medicine, is widely used in Asia as an alternative treatment to reduce the side effects of chemotherapy and also improve cancer survival. However, the mechanism is unknown. This study is designed to investigate the protective effect of BZYQD on 5-FU-induced renal injury in mice. Mice were divided into four groups: the control, 5-FU, 5-FU + low, and high BZYQD group. Mice in the three latter groups were administered 5-FU (100 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally) for six days, and in the 5-FU + low and high BZYQD groups were given BZYQD (1 or 2 g raw herb/kg/day, intragastrically) beginning four days before 5-FU and continuing until the termination of the experiment. The right kidney fixed in formalin for histological examination and the left was homogenized to measure the levels of apoptosis-related proteins and activities of oxidative stress-related biomarkers. Blood samples were collected for measuring renal function-related biochemical indices. Renal morphology injury, increased urea nitrogen and creatinine concentration, and decreased SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px were all observed in 5-FU-administrated mice. However, BZYQD almost reversed the morphological injury as well as renal function-related indices and antioxidant enzyme activity. These results suggest that BZYQD inhibits 5-FU-induced renal injury, possibly through the reduction of apoptosis and necrosis in renal tubular epithelial cells via the antioxidant mechanism. Henceforth, BZYQD may be a potential antioxidant against drug-induced oxidative stress.

  4. Contamination and Human Health Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Oysters After the Wu Yi San Oil Spill in Korea.

    PubMed

    Loh, Andrew; Yim, Un Hyuk; Ha, Sung Yong; An, Joon Geon; Kim, Moonkoo

    2017-07-01

    After the collision of the Singapore-registered oil tanker M/V Wu Yi San into the oil terminal of Yeosu, Korea on January 31, 2014, approximately 900 m 3 of oil and oil mixture were released from the ruptured pipelines. The oil affected more than 10 km of coastline along Gwangyang Bay. Emergency oil spill responses recovered bulk oil at sea and cleaned up the stranded oil on shore. As part of an emergency environmental impact assessment, region-wide monitoring of oil contamination in oyster had been conducted for 2 months. Highly elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected at most of the spill affected sites. Four days after the spill, the levels of PAHs in oysters increased dramatically to 627-81,000 ng/g, the average of which was 20 times higher than those found before the spill (321-4040 ng/g). The level of PAHs in these oysters increased until 10 days after the spill and then decreased. Due to the strong tidal current and easterly winter winds, the eastern part of the Bay-the Namhae region-was heavily contaminated compared with other regions. The accumulation and depuration of spilled oil in oyster corresponded with the duration and intensity of the cleanup activities, which is the first field observation in oil spill cases. Human health risk assessments showed that benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentrations exceeded levels of concern in the highly contaminated sites, even 60 days after the spill.

  5. Nonlabens antarcticus sp. nov., a psychrophilic bacterium isolated from glacier ice, and emended descriptions of Nonlabens marinus Park et al. 2012 and Nonlabens agnitus Yi and Chun 2012.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yong Min; Yang, Sung-Hyun; Kwon, Kae Kyoung; Kim, Sang-Jin

    2014-02-01

    A Gram-negative, proteorhodopsin-containing, orange pigmented, rod-shaped and strictly aerobic bacterium, designated strain AKS622(T), was isolated from a glacier core collected from the coast of King George Island, Antarctica. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain AKS622(T) was affiliated to the genus Nonlabens of the family Flavobacteriaceae and showed highest similarity to Nonlabens marinus S1-08(T) (97.9%). The level of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain AKS622(T) and N. marinus S1-08(T) was 46%. Optimal growth of strain AKS622(T) was observed at pH 7.0, at 15 °C and with 2.0% NaCl. The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(16 : 0), iso-C(16 : 0) 3-OH, C17:0 2-OH and summed feature 3 (comprising C(16 : 1)ω7c and/or C(16 : 1)ω6c). The DNA G+C content was 37.9 mol%. The major respiratory quinone was MK-6. Phosphatidylethanolamine, four unidentified glycolipids, three unidentified aminolipids and one unidentified lipid were detected as major polar lipids. On the basis of the data from this polyphasic taxonomic study, it was concluded that strain AKS622(T) represents a novel species within the genus Nonlabens, for which the name Nonlabens antarcticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is AKS622(T) ( = KCCM 43019(T) = JCM 14068(T)). Emended descriptions of N. marinus Park et al. 2012 and Nonlabens agnitus Yi and Chun 2012 are given.

  6. Investigation of the therapy targets of Yi-Qi-Yang-Yin-Hua-Tan-Qu-Yu recipe on type 2 diabetes by serum proteome labeled with iTRAQ.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Xie, Ming; Liu, Jin-Na; Wang, Bang-Zhong

    2018-04-11

    Ethnopharmacology relevance Based on basic theories of Chinese medicine, Yi-Qi-Yang-Yin-Hua-Tan-Qu-Yu (YQYYHTQY) recipe was constituted by eleven kinds of Chinese herbs and effective in treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). But the therapy target was unclear. In this study, we used the serum proteome labeled by iTRAQ to find therapy target of YQYYHTQY recipe on T2DM. The rat model was induced by high-fat diet (HFD) and streptozotocin (STZ, 30mg/kg). Drugs were administered to rats once daily for 14 days. Related laboratory parameters were observed. Serum proteome were compared between T2DM and YQYYHTQY group using the iTRAQ labeling quantitative proteomics technique. Functional differential proteins were analysis by STRING software. Target proteins were confirmed by ELISA kits. Hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, decrease of glucose transporter, depilation, less activity, flock together, depression, ecchymosis of tongue and tail appearance, the typical diabetic patients "a little more than three" symptoms, as well as the decrease of grip strength, serum cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/ cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) ratio, serum high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and the increase of serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), thromboxane B 2 (TXB 2 )/ 6-keto prostaglandin F1α (6-keto PGF1α) ratio, endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels were found in T2DM group. After drugs treatment, all the above indexes almost were improved in different degrees and effect of YQYYHTQY recipe was superior to pioglitazone hydrochloride. In addition, there were 23 differential proteins, 5 up-regulated and 18 down-regulated proteins. Of them, there were 4 proteins related with diabetes, blood and behavior. Cell division control protein 42 homolog (CDC42) and Ras homolog gene family member A (RhoA) were the therapy targets of YQYYHTQY recipe on T2DM. YQYYHTQY recipe showed therapy effect on T2DM. CDC42 and

  7. [Deciphering the argots of the names of materia medica and its dosage in the Yi lin kou pu liu zhi mi shu (A Secret Medical Book of Six Therapies in Rhymes of Medical Professionals)].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian; Lin, Shiyi; Liu, Shijue

    2014-11-01

    Yi lin kou pu liu zhi mi shu (A Secret Medical Book of Six Therapies in Rhymes of Medical Professionals) was additionally compiled, supplemented and annotated by Zhou Sheng, a famous doctor of the Qing Dynasty, based on Yi lin kou pu (Rhymes of Medical Professionals) which was composed by Lu Qi. The book contains four volumes in total, dealing mainly with the miscellaneous diseases of internal medicine, as well as external medicine, gynecology, and pediatrics etc. The syndrome differentiation and treatment, prescriptions and medications in this book has its own characteristic with rather high academic value and practical significance. There were 20 drug names were deciphered by the argots, for instance, "you che" was the argot of golden thread, and "wu yue (May)" was the argot of medicinal evodia fruit, etc. In addition, the argots were often used to decipher numerals and quantifiers, for example, "su, qi, zi, qi, man" referring to 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 respectively, and "huo, pu, xiang, feng, lai" referring to 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 respectively, and "qing","zhong","xi" referring to qian, liang and fen respectively. Hence, deciphering of these argots could help to understand and apply these prescriptions correctly.

  8. YiXin-Shu, a ShengMai-San-based traditional Chinese medicine formula, attenuates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury by suppressing mitochondrial mediated apoptosis and upregulating liver-X-receptor α.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yichao; Xu, Longwei; Qiao, Zhiqing; Gao, Lingchen; Ding, Song; Ying, Xiaoying; Su, Yuanyuan; Lin, Nan; He, Ben; Pu, Jun

    2016-03-11

    Positive evidence from clinical trials has fueled growing acceptance of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of cardiac diseases; however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Here, we investigated the nature and underlying mechanisms of the effects of YiXin-Shu (YXS), an antioxidant-enriched TCM formula, on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. YXS pretreatment significantly reduced infarct size and improved viable myocardium metabolism and cardiac function in hypercholesterolemic mice. Mechanistically, YXS attenuated myocardial apoptosis by inhibiting the mitochondrial mediated apoptosis pathway (as reflected by inhibition of mitochondrial swelling, cytochrome c release and caspase-9 activity, and normalization of Bcl-2 and Bax levels) without altering the death receptor and endoplasmic reticulum-stress death pathways. Moreover, YXS reduced oxidative/nitrative stress (as reflected by decreased superoxide and nitrotyrosine content and normalized pro- and anti-oxidant enzyme levels). Interestingly, YXS upregulated endogenous nuclear receptors including LXRα, PPARα, PPARβ and ERα, and in-vivo knockdown of cardiac-specific LXRα significantly blunted the cardio-protective effects of YXS. Collectively, these data show that YXS is effective in mitigating MI/R injury by suppressing mitochondrial mediated apoptosis and oxidative stress and by upregulating LXRα, thereby providing a rationale for future clinical trials and clinical applications.

  9. An ab initio density functional study of the optical functions of 9-Methyl-3-Thiophen-2-YI-Thieno [3,2e] [1,2,4] Thriazolo [4,3c] Pyrimidine-8-Carboxylic Acid Ethyl Ester crystals.

    PubMed

    Reshak, Ali H; Kityk, I V; Khenata, R; Al-Douri, Y; Auluck, S

    2012-09-01

    An ab initio investigation of the optical constants of 9-Methyl-3-Thiophen-2-YI-Thieno [3,2e] [1,2,4] Thriazolo [4,3c] Pyrimidine-8-Carboxylic Acid Ethyl Ester crystal is performed within a framework of local density approximation (LDA), and the Engel-Vosko generalized gradient approximation (EV-GGA) exchange correlation potentials. It is established that there are two independent molecules (A and B) exhibiting different intra-molecular interactions: C-H⋯O (A) and C-H⋯N (B). These intra-molecular interactions favor stabilization of the crystal structure for molecules A and B. It should be emphasized that there exist remarkable π-π interactions between the pyrimidine rings of the two neighbors B molecules giving extra strengths and stabilizations to the superamolecular structure. These different intra-molecular interactions C-H⋯O (A) and C-H⋯N (B) and the π-π interaction between the pyrimidine rings of the two neighbors B molecules give principal contribution to dispersion of optical properties. With a view to seek deeper insight into the electronic structure, the optical properties were investigated. Our calculations show that the optical constants are very anisotropic. The EVGGA calculation shows a blue spectral shift of around 0.024 eV with significant changes in the spectra compared to the LDA calculation. The observed spectral shifts are in agreement with the calculated band structure and corresponding electron density of states. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. 78 FR 14556 - Cheng Yi Liang: Debarment Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    .... 1001 and securities fraud, a Federal felony offense under 15 U.S.C. 78j(b) and 78ff. FDA's finding that debarment is appropriate is based on the felony conviction for securities fraud referenced herein for... execution of trades on national securities exchanges, resulting in total profits and losses avoided of $3...

  11. Subgrouping of Nisoic (Yi) Languages: A Study from the Perspectives of Shared Innovation and Phylogenetic Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lama, Ziwo Qiu-Fuyuan

    2012-01-01

    In southwest China and neighboring countries, including Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, and Myanmar, there live over 100 ethnic groups who speak languages known as Nuosu, Naxi, Hani, Lisu, Lahu, etc. These languages belong to the "Nisoic Branch" or the "Loloish Branch" of Tibeto-Burman (TB) subfamily of Sino-Tibetan. Though the Nisoic…

  12. Reworked crustal of early Paleozoic WuYi Orogen revealed by receiver function data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Y.; Duan, Y.; Tian, X.; Zhao, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Intraplate orogenic belt, which occurs at the rigid and undeformable plate interiors, is a distinct new type of orogen rather than an interplate or plate marginal orogenic belt, whose deformation occurs exclusively at plate margins. Therefore, intraplate orogenic belts are the most obvious exception to the plate-tectonic paradigm, they are uncommon in Earth's history. The early Paleozoic Wuyi orogen in South China is one of the few examples of intraplate orogen, and is a key to understanding the process of intraplate orogenesis and global early Paleozoic geodynamics. In this study, we select teleseismic records from 45 mobile linear seismic stations deployed in Wuyi Mountain and 58 permanent stations setting in Jiangxi and Fujian provinces, from January 2011 to December 2012, and calculate the crustal thickness and average crustal Vp/Vs ratio using the H-κ stacking method. The main results include the following: 1) the crustal average Poission's ratio shows an increase tendency from land to sea, the interior of Wuyi orogen belt with an low ration less than 0.23, and the coastline with high ration which is up to 0.28, which indicate a very heterogeneous crustal structure and composition in Wuyi orogen and coast belt. 2) the crustal thickness ranges 28-34 km and shows a tendency of thinning from inland to coast in the region of SE China margin, which maight mean the eastern Eurasia lithospheric is extension and thinning induced by the subducted paleo-Pacific slab. To conclusion, we assume that Wuyi orogen experienced upper crustal thickening, lower crust and lithosphere delamination during the early Paleozoic orogeny, and lithosphere extension in Mesozoic. This research is founded by the Natural Science Foundation of China (41174052 and 41604048).

  13. Factors Influencing the Trilingual Education in Leshan Ebian Yi Autonomous County

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jian, Huang

    2013-01-01

    Language is symbolic of nationality culture (Claire, 2000). Trilingual education to the minority students is necessity for inheriting and developing their national culture. This survey studies the trilingual education in practice, analyses the existing trilingual education problems in Sichuan Leshan minority areas and indicates the prospect of the…

  14. Computational Thermodynamics of Materials Zi-Kui Liu and Yi Wang

    SciT

    Devanathan, Ram

    This authoritative volume introduces the reader to computational thermodynamics and the use of this approach to the design of material properties by tailoring the chemical composition. The text covers applications of this approach, introduces the relevant computational codes, and offers exercises at the end of each chapter. The book has nine chapters and two appendices that provide background material on computer codes. Chapter 1 covers the first and second laws of thermodynamics, introduces the spinodal as the limit of stability, and presents the Gibbs-Duhem equation. Chapter 2 focuses on the Gibbs energy function. Starting with a homogeneous system with amore » single phase, the authors proceed to phases with variable compositions, and polymer blends. The discussion includes the contributions of external electric and magnetic fields to the Gibbs energy. Chapter 3 deals with phase equilibria in heterogeneous systems, the Gibbs phase rule, and phase diagrams. Chapter 4 briefly covers experimental measurements of thermodynamic properties used as input for thermodynamic modeling by Calculation of Phase Diagrams (CALPHAD). Chapter 5 discusses the use of density functional theory to obtain thermochemical data and fill gaps where experimental data is missing. The reader is introduced to the Vienna Ab Initio Simulation Package (VASP) for density functional theory and the YPHON code for phonon calculations. Chapter 6 introduces the modeling of Gibbs energy of phases with the CALPHAD method. Chapter 7 deals with chemical reactions and the Ellingham diagram for metal-oxide systems and presents the calculation of the maximum reaction rate from equilibrium thermodynamics. Chapter 8 is devoted to electrochemical reactions and Pourbaix diagrams with application examples. Chapter 9 concludes this volume with the application of a model of multiple microstates to Ce and Fe3Pt. CALPHAD modeling is briefly discussed in the context of genomics of materials. The book introduces basic thermodynamic concepts clearly and directs readers to appropriate references for advanced concepts and details of software implementation. The list of references is quite comprehensive. The authors make liberal use of diagrams to illustrate key concepts. The two Appendices at the end discuss software requirements and the file structure, and present templates for special quasi-random structures. There is also a link to download pre-compiled binary files of the YPHON code for Linux or Microsoft Windows systems. The exercises at the end of the chapters assume that the reader has access to VASP, which is not freeware. Readers without access to this code can work on a limited number of exercises. However, results from other first principles codes can be organized in the YPHON format as explained in the Appendix. This book will serve as an excellent reference on computational thermodynamics and the exercises provided at the end of each chapter make it valuable as a graduate level textbook. Reviewer: Ram Devanathan is Acting Director of Earth Systems Science Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, USA.« less

  15. Comments on "place and human development" by Paul Shepard and Yi-Fu Tuan's "experience and appreciation"

    Florence C. Ladd

    1977-01-01

    Paul Shepard presents a dazzling array of profound ideas about the nature of the relationship between early developmental stages and places experienced in a variety of cultures. Shepard's analysis is related to the schema presented in Spivack's (1973) paper, in which he identifies some basic requirements of the human species and the environmental conditions...

  16. Discussing Teacher Induction in China and Relevant Debates in the United States with a Chinese Teacher: A Conversation with Yu Yi. Craft Paper 92-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Liping

    This paper introduces a Chinese teacher induction program. In China it is believed that formal teacher education constitutes only half of teacher preparation; the other half has to be accomplished on the job with the active support and involvement of the teaching community. The voice of teachers is introduced to the field of educational research…

  17. RuHe DuiDai WanMei ZhuYi De XueSheng (Working with Perfectionist Students). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brophy, Jere

    Perfectionist students are not satisfied with merely doing well or even with doing better than their peers. They are satisfied only if they have done a job perfectly. Problems associated with forms of perfectionism that focus on seeking success are relatively minor, but problems associated with forms of perfectionism that focus on avoiding failure…

  18. Geologic map of the Ahankashan-Rakhna basin, Badghis, Ghor, and Herat Provinces, Afghanistan, modified from the 1974 original map compilation of Y.I. Shcherbina and others

    Tucker, Robert D.; Stettner, Will R.; Masonic, Linda M.; Bogdanow, Anya K.

    2014-01-01

    The Ahankashan and Rakhna prospect area is one of several gold and copper deposits within west-central Afghanistan. Here, various felsic to intermediate igneous porphyries intrude Lower Triassic to lower Paleogene sedimentary rocks, producing mineral and ore-bearing zones related to hydrothermal alteration, skarns, silicification, and crushing (brecciation). Mineralized skarns contain assemblages such as magnetite, magnetite-hematite, epidote-hematite, and epidote-garnet, as well as disseminations of chalcopyrite, covellite, chalcocite, cuprite, malachite, and azurite. Gold mineralization is mainly associated with zones of crushing along faults, and with small silicified igneous veins within granite and quartz porphyry.

  19. Chieh Mei Ching Yi: A randomized controlled trial of a culturally tailored HIV prevention intervention for Chinese massage parlor women in Los Angeles.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Lois M; Tobin, Karin E; To, Stacy; Ou, Samuel; Ma, Chui Hing Helen; Ao, Fiona Ka Wa; Candelario, Jury

    2013-12-01

    Asian heterosexual women in the U.S. have experienced relative rising HIV case rates, but there remain few studies and no evidence-based interventions that focus on this population. This study was a randomized controlled trial of a gender and ethnically tailored HIV prevention intervention for monolingual Chinese-speaking women who work as masseuses in Los Angeles. The intervention was two group-based sessions focused on HIV risk and prevention knowledge and condom skills. The control condition was a single-session HIV review. Participants were recruited using newspaper advertisements and referrals from agencies and massage schools. Two hundred women were randomly assigned to one of each condition. Retention in both conditions exceeded 90% at 3-month follow-up. Participants in both conditions demonstrated increases in knowledge on how to use male and female condoms. These effects were sustained at 3-month follow-up. The results highlight the possible efficacy of a one-workshop intervention in increasing HIV knowledge, but that more intensive participant interaction may be needed for improved condom use knowledge.

  20. Biases in Global Reanalysis Datasets Undermine Intraseasonal Prediction Skill Xiouhua Fu1, Bin Wang, June-Yi Lee, Wanqiu Wang, and Li Gao 1International Pacific Research Center (IPRC), SOEST, University of Hawaii at Manoa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, J. X.

    2010-12-01

    Predictability of Intra-Seasonal Oscillation (ISO) relies on both initial conditions and lower boundary conditions (or atmosphere-ocean interaction). The atmospheric reanalysis datasets are commonly used as initial conditions. Here, the biases of three reanalysis datasets (NCEP_R1, _R2, and ERA_Interim) in describing ISO were revealed and the impacts of these biases as initial conditions on ISO prediction skills were assessed. A signal recovery method is proposed to improve ISO prediction. All three reanalysis datasets underestimate the intensity of the equatorial eastward-propagating ISO. When these reanalyses are used as initial conditions in the ECHAM4-UH hybrid coupled model (UH_HCM hereinafter), skillful ISO prediction reaches only about one week for both the 850-hPa zonal winds (U850) and rainfall over Southeast Asia and the global tropics. An enhanced nudging of divergence field is shown to significantly improve the initial conditions, resulting in an extension of the skillful rainfall prediction by 2-3 days and U850 prediction by 5-10 days. After recovering the ISO signals in the original reanalyses, the resultant initial conditions contain ISO strength much closer to the observed. Use of these signal-recovered reanalyses as initial conditions extends the skillful prediction of U850 and rainfall, respectively, to 23 and 18 days over Southeast Asia, and to 20 and 10 days over the global tropics. This finding underlines the urgent need to improve data assimilation systems and observations in advancement of ISO prediction by offering better initial conditions. It is also found that small-scale synoptic weather disturbances in initial conditions generally increase ISO prediction skill. The UH_HCM has better rainfall prediction than the NCEP Climate Forecast System (CFS) over Southeast Asia and both models suffer the prediction barrier over the Maritime Continent.

  1. Screening bioactive quality control markers of QiShenYiQi dripping pills based on the relationship between the ultra-high performance liquid chromatography fingerprint and vascular protective activity.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Limeng; Peng, Jingjing; Zhao, Yunli; Li, Dongxiang; Xie, Xiuman; Tong, Ling; Yu, Zhiguo

    2017-10-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine consists of complex phytochemical constituents. Selecting appropriate analytical markers of traditional Chinese medicine is a critical step in quality control. Currently, the combination of fingerprinting and efficacy evaluation is considered as a useful method for screening active ingredients in complex mixtures. This study was designed to develop an orthogonal partial least squares model for screening bioactive quality control markers of QishenYiqi dripping pills based on the fingerprint-efficacy relationship. First, the chemical fingerprints of 49 batches of QishenYiqi dripping pill samples were established by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with a photodiode array detector. Second, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry was exploited to systematically investigate the 36 copossessing fingerprint components in QishenYiqi dripping pills. The vascular protective activity of QishenYiqi dripping pills was determined by using a cell counting kit-8 assay. Finally, fingerprint-efficacy relationship was established by orthogonal partial least squares model. The results indicated that ten components exhibited strong correlation with vascular protective activity, and these were preliminarily screened as quality control markers. The present study provided a novel idea for the study of the pharmacodynamic material basis and quality evaluation of QishenYiqi dripping pills. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Differences in Visual-Spatial Input May Underlie Different Compression Properties of Firing Fields for Grid Cell Modules in Medial Entorhinal Cortex

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-19

    cortex. These features can be described through the plane equation (nx, ny, nz )(Xi, Yi, Zi) T − d = 0 with the normal vector (nx, ny, nz ) the point...operator. Using Eq 2 and Eq 3 we find the following expression for the distance Di ¼ d nx sin yi cosi þ ny sini þ nz cos yi cosi : ð5Þ Plugging in

  3. Comment on “Observations of ammonia, nitric acid, and fine particles in a rural gas production region” by Yi Li, Florian M. Schwandnera, H. James Sewell, Angela Zivkovich, Mark Tigges, Suresh Raja, Stephen Holcomb, John V. Molenar, Lincoln Sherman, Cassie Archuleta, Taehyoung Lee and Jeffrey L. Collett Jr. Atmospheric Environment (in press)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Gavin J.

    2014-05-01

    An artefact of the detection of nitric acid (HNO3) by denuder methods is discussed. This artefact arises from the likely reaction of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) on the denuder train resulting in the report of some fraction of N2O5 as HNO3.

  4. Trilingual Education in China: Perspectives from a University Programme for Minority Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jie; Edwards, Viv

    2017-01-01

    Attention to trilingual education programmes in China has tended to focus on basic education; there had been little attention to date on the higher education sector. This paper will attempt to bridge this gap by exploring a Yi-English-Chinese trilingual education programme through case studies of three Yi students, using the "River of…

  5. North Korean Civil-Military Trends: Military-First Politics to a Point

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    to the Great Leader. Yi Yong Mu. The NDC’s impact on the formal leadership lineup was made clear by 2001, when Yi Yong Mu, vice chairman of the NDC...to be restricted, as are career bonds that could come about between officers through sequential appointments to same commands. • First time

  6. A Two-Dimensional Fourth-Order CESE Method for the Euler Equations on Triangular Unstructured Meshes (Post-Print)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-12

    include area code) 661 275-5649 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239.18 A Two-Dimensional Fourth-Order CESE Method for the...remark that Eq. (4) is a special case of Eq. (5) with A = N . Similarly, the Taylor expansion of fluxes can be expressed as ∂ Cfx ,yi ∂xI∂yJ∂tK (x, y, t) = A...x2′ , y2′) and within t n − 1/2 ≤ t ≤ tn, the flux fx,yi can be expressed as (fx,yi ) ∗ = A ∑ a=0 A−a ∑ b=0 A−a−b ∑ c=0 ∂a+b+ cfx ,yi ∂xa∂yb∂tc ∆xa∆yb

  7. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2012 Greener Synthetic Pathways Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2012 award winner, Codexis and Professor Yi Tang, developed a synthesis for the high cholesterol drug, simvastatin, using an engineered acyltransferase enzyme and a low-cost acyl donor as a feedstock.

  8. A Comparison Between the PLM and the MC68020 as Prolog Processors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    Continnt &OII P0111ter CP Memory X6_ofset(MP) A11ument Register 6 A6 Memory X7_ofset(MP) A11ument Register 7 A7 Memory X6_ofaet(MP) Tempor&ry Register 6...get_vuia.ble_Y iaput. Permeunt nria.ble Yi &Dd &rgumeat ~Jl8ler XJ output: fuDctioD move the content of Xj iato Yi get_va.na.ble_Y: move.! Xi.·4

  9. Expedition 16 Soyuz TMA-11 Lands

    2008-04-18

    A Russian search and rescue helicopter flies over the burning Kazakh steppe after Expedition 16 Commander Peggy Whitson, Flight Engineer and Soyuz Commander Yuri Malenchenko and South Korean spaceflight participant So-yeon Yi landed their Soyuz TMA-11 spacecraft, Friday, April 19, 2008, in central Kazakhstan to complete 192 days in space for Whitson and Malenchenko and 11 days in orbit for Yi. Photo Credit: (NASA/Reuters/Pool)

  10. Preemptive Approach to Improving Survival in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    Metab 2008;93:3471–7. 692[87] Cho JH, Lee JG, Yang YI, Kim JH, Ahn JH, Baek NI, Lee KT, Choi JH. Eupatilin, a die- 693tary flavonoid , induces G2/M cell...Metab 2008;93:3471–7. 692[87] Cho JH, Lee JG, Yang YI, Kim JH, Ahn JH, Baek NI, Lee KT, Choi JH. Eupatilin, a die- 693tary flavonoid , induces G2/M

  11. Organo-Soluble Porphyrin Mixed Monolayer-Protected Gold Nanorods with Intercalated Fullerenes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-16

    Mixed Monolayer- Protected Gold Nanorods with Intercalated Fullerenes Chenming Xue, Yongqian Xu, Yi Pang, Dingshan Yu, Liming Dai, Min Gao, Augustine...Protected Gold Nanorods with Intercalated Fullerenes 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT... Fullerenes Chenming Xue, † Yongqian Xu, ‡ Yi Pang, ‡ Dingshan Yu, § Liming Dai, § Min Gao, † Augustine Urbas ± and Quan

  12. Korean Affairs Report, Number 258

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-03

    because of the affect they will have on the overall political situation. Recently, Yu Han-yol, the DKP secretary general, said: Unless physically...establishment of laws." A law’s objective can be more fruit - fully accomplished when those who manage the law have good intentions and a sense of...joint commission was signed by Korean Foreign Minister Yi Pom-sok and his Gabonese counterpart Martin Bongo on August 24, 1982 when Yi accompanied

  13. Molecular analysis of a novel Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR)-domain containing virulence protein of Y. pseudotuberculosis among Far East scarlet-like fever serotype I strains.

    PubMed

    Nörenberg, Dominik; Wieser, Andreas; Magistro, Giuseppe; Hoffmann, Christiane; Meyer, Christian; Messerer, Maxim; Schubert, Sören

    2013-12-01

    Pathogenicity of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is determined by an arsenal of virulence factors. Particularly, the Yersinia outer proteins (Yops) and the Type III secretion system (T3SS) encoded on the pYV virulence plasmid are required for Yersinia pathogenicity. A specific group of Y. pseudotuberculosis, responsible for the clinical syndrome described as Far East scarlet-like fever (FESLF), is known to have an altered virulence gene cluster. Far East strains cause unique clinical symptoms for which the pYV virulence plasmid plays apparently a rather secondary role. Here, we characterize a previously unknown protein of Y. pseudotuberculosis serotype I strains (TcpYI) which can be found particularly among the FESLF strain group. The TcpYI protein shares considerable sequence homology to members of the Toll/IL-1 receptor family. Bacterial TIR domain containing proteins (Tcps) interact with the innate immune system by TIR-TIR interactions and subvert host defenses via individual, multifaceted mechanisms. In terms of virulence, it appears that the TcpYI protein of Y. pseudotuberculosis displays its own virulence phenotype compared to the previously characterized bacterial Tcps. Our results clearly demonstrate that TcpYI increases the intracellular survival of the respective strains in vitro. Furthermore, we show here that the intracellular survival benefit of the wild-type strain correlates with an increase in tcpYI gene expression inside murine macrophages. In support of this, we found that TcpYI enhances the survival inside the spleens of mice in a mouse model of peritonitis. Our results may point toward involvement of the TcpYI protein in inhibition of phagocytosis, particularly in distinct Y. pseudotuberculosis strains of the FESLF strain group where the pYV virulence plasmid is absent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Ethnic Variations in Pterygium in a Rural Population in Southwestern China: The Yunnan Minority Eye Studies.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Hua; Chen, Qin; Li, Jun; Shen, Wei; Sheng, Xun; Niu, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Hua; Wei, Tao; Yuan, Yuansheng; Pan, Chen-Wei

    2016-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and associations of pterygium in a multiethnic adult population in rural China and to examine potential ethnic differences Methods: A total of 6418 adults (2133 ethnic Bai, 2130 ethnic Yi, and 2155 ethnic Han) aged 50 years or older participated in the study. Anterior segment examination was performed without pupil dilation using a slit lamp. Pterygium was defined as a raised fleshy triangular fibrovascular tissue growth of the conjunctiva encroaching onto a clear cornea. Pterygium was least prevalent among adults of Yi ethnicity (29.5%) compared with Bai (39.0%, p < 0.001) or Han (39.5%, p < 0.001) ethnicities. Those of Bai ethnicity were most likely to be affected by severe pterygium (7.5%), while Yi were least likely to be affected (3.8%). Multivariate analysis revealed that increasing age (odds ratio, OR, 1.017), female sex (OR 1.53), lower educational level (OR 1.25), higher blood pressure levels (OR 1.002), and greater time spent outdoors per day (OR 1.09) were significantly associated with a higher prevalence of pterygium, while Yi ethnicity (OR 0.65, comparing Yi with Han) and wearing brimmed hats outdoors (OR 0.82) were protective factors. Ethnicity was significantly associated with prevalence of pterygium. Our findings may be applicable to many other countries located within the "pterygium belt" for health resource allocation among different ethnic groups.

  15. Comparison on conjunctival sac bacterial flora of the seniors with dry eye in Ganzi autonomous prefecture

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yue; Liu, Zhi-Rong; Chen, Hui; Fan, Ying-Chuan; Duo, Ji; Zheng, Hong; Wang, Guang-Jin; Li, Yu-Chan; Jiachu, Dan-Ba; Zewang, Ge-Ma

    2013-01-01

    AIM To compare the bacterial flora in palpebral conjunctiva of xerophthalmia seniors of Tibetan, Yi and Han, and analyze the differences and similarities of the bacteria. METHODS The test subjects were selected from 2 Tibetan, 2 Yi and 3 Han populated places, respectively. Total 222 seniors (444 eyes) with dry eye were examined. Secretion was collected from the palpebral conjunctiva of the subjects and then inoculated onto a blood agar plate. After 48h of incubation, the bacteria were examined for the differences and similarities between different ethnics. RESULTS There was no significant difference (P>0.05) of Gram stain characterization, dominant bacteria and number of the bacterial species present in oxrophthalmia patients among Tibetan, Yi and Han nationalities. The bacteria presented in all groups include staphylococcus epidermidis, corynebacterium, micrococcus luteu, intracellular bacteria sphingomonas, pseudomonas aeruginosa. The bacteria detected from the two of three ethnic groups were staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus haemolyticus, escherichia coli, kytococcus sedentarius, streptococcus angina, micrococcus lylae, and staphylococcus heads. The incidence rate of bacteria-associated dry eye in Tibetan population was significantly lower than that of Han and Yi population. CONCLUSION There is no significant difference in the bacteria flora of palpebral conjunctiva observed among dry eye elder populations of Tibetan, Yi and Han people. All of staphylococcus epidermidis, corynebacterium, micrococcus luteu, intracellular bacteria sphingomonas, pseudomonas aeruginosa, staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus haemolyticus, escherichia coli, kytococcus sedentarius, streptococcus angina, micrococcus lylae and staphylococcus heads are common bacteria flora of the three nationalities inhibiting in this area. PMID:23991377

  16. Expedition 17 Pre-launch Images from Kazakhstan

    2008-04-07

    JSC2008-E-032248 (7 April 2008) --- At their crew quarters in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Expedition 17 Commander Sergei Volkov (center), Flight Engineer Oleg Kononenko (right) and South Korean spaceflight participant So-yeon Yi clasp hands for photographers on April 7, 2008, the eve of their launch to the International Space Station. Volkov, Kononenko and Yi are scheduled to launch to the station on the Soyuz TMA-12 spacecraft from the Baikonur Cosmodrome on April 8 and arrive at the ISS on April 10 to begin what will be six months in space for Volkov and Kononenko. Yi will be in space nine days on the complex, returning to Earth with two of the Expedition 16 crewmembers currently on the station. Photo Credit: NASA /Victor Zelentsov

  17. A Higher-Order Conservation Element Solution Element Method for Solving Hyperbolic Differential Equations on Unstructured Meshes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    Unclassified c. THIS PAGE Unclassified SAR 232 19b. TELEPHONE NO (include area code) 661 275-5649 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI ...34 # ∂ Cfx ,yi ∗ (x, y, t) ∂xI∂yJ∂tK = A∑ a=0 A−a∑ b=0 A−a−b∑ c=0 ( ∂Bfx,yi ∂xI+a∂yJ+b∂tK+c )n j Δxa a...A−a∑ b=0 A−a−b∑ c=0 ( ∂a+b+ cfx ,yi ∂xa∂yb∂tc )n−1/2 1′× (x− x1′×) a (y − y1′×) b ( t− tn−1/2 )c a!b!c

  18. A Decision Analysis Perspective on Multiple Response Robust Optimization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    the utility function in question is monotonically increasing and is twice differentiable . If γ(y) = 0, the utility function is describing risk neutral...twice differentiable , the risk aversion function with respect to a single attribute, yi, i = 1, . . . , n, is given in Equation 2.9, γUyi = − U ′′yi U...UV (V (y1, y2)) and fol- lowing the chain rule of differentiation , Matheson and Abbas [31] show that the risk aversion with respect to a single

  19. North Korean Policy Elites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    far the largest and covers almost the entire nation. Its programming includes news, educational, and entertainment shows; however, it mimics the print...Kim Chong-il, Head, Cadres of 5th Section (Female Entertainers ) Yi Myong-che Secretary to Kim Chong-il. Provides policy recommendations and oversees...for his table to Japanese jet skis and Sony home electronics.9 Likewise, the account of Yi Nam-oak (Li Nam-ok), who grew up as a companion to Kim’s

  20. Two Enhancements of the Logarithmic Least-Squares Method for Analyzing Subjective Comparisons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-25

    error term. 1 For this model, the total sum of squares ( SSTO ), defined as n 2 SSTO = E (yi y) i=1 can be partitioned into error and regression sums...of the regression line around the mean value. Mathematically, for the model given by equation A.4, SSTO = SSE + SSR (A.6) A-4 where SSTO is the total...sum of squares (i.e., the variance of the yi’s), SSE is error sum of squares, and SSR is the regression sum of squares. SSTO , SSE, and SSR are given

  1. Korean Affairs Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-26

    with the "outrageous" measures recently taken by the police to block its headquarters, Floor leader Kim Tong- yong of the party said that he expects the... Kims on the party as a precondition, is too wide. In the wake of his recent meetings with Kim Yong -sam, Yi Min-u, and Kim Sang- hyon, Cho is...Initial police investigation showed that Yi was hit by a 50cm-long wooden bar carried by Yim Yong -chol, 23, a junior. Police apprehended Yim, Miss Kim

  2. Translations on North Korea No. 495

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-12-02

    Yun Ch’i-ho Hwang Ch’ol-san Kim Yong -yon comrade, KPA general, political committee member, and DPRK minister of peoples armed forces colonel...t’ae " So Kwan-hi functionary of the sector concerned Chong Song-nam Kim Sok-chin So Nam-sin Han Pyong- yong Wang Kyong-hak Ch’oe Sang-muk...Chin-t’ae Kim Sok-ki Yi Chong-mok Ch’oe Tu-kwang Han Su-kil Yi Yong -ch’ang [Pyongyang NODONG SINMUN in Korean 8 Oct 76 p 3] LOYALTY OATH

  3. Regulation & Development of Membrane Transport Processes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-15

    221, 733-741. 30. Liu, A. Y. C. and Greengard, P. (1974) Proc. Nall. Acad. Sci. USA, 71, 3869-3873. 31. MacKnight, A. D. C., DiBona , D. R., and Leaf...However, DiBona and Sachs and their collaborators 2. IXO(YI’(YI’IC INSEITION OF OTHER TANSPORT SYSTEMS 155 have challenged this view, suggesting that...the U.S. Public Health Service. REFERENCES I. DiBona , D. R., Ito, S., Berglindh, T.. and Sachs, G. (1979) Proc. Nall. Acad. Sci. USA, 76, 6689-6693. 2

  4. Targeting histone abnormality in triple negative breast cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-08-01

    ELEMENT NUMBER N/A 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER N/A Yi Huang, M.D., Ph.D. 5e. TASK NUMBER N/A E -Mail:huangy2@upmc.edu 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER...prevention. This funded Breast Cancer Breakthrough Award is initially a partnership between Dr. Yi Huang (initiating PI) and Dr. Nancy E . Davidson...partner PI). During the current funding period, Dr. Nancy E . Davidson moved to University of Washington at Seattle and transferred the Partnering PI to

  5. JPRS Report, Proliferation Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-07

    Ruta Skatikaite; RESPUBLIKA, 19 May 93] ................................................................................ 20 Radioactive Beryllium...nuclear fuel will be transported around 2000 to a reprocessing facility in [Yi] IAEA surveillance cameras are said to take four photos Tokai, Ibaraki...Comparing these two methods, the method of extracting May 93 pp 342-346. plutonium is similar to carrying a backpack to transport goods, while

  6. The Performance of Multilevel Growth Curve Models under an Autoregressive Moving Average Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Daniel L.; Pituch, Keenan A.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined the robustness of multilevel linear growth curve modeling to misspecification of an autoregressive moving average process. As previous research has shown (J. Ferron, R. Dailey, & Q. Yi, 2002; O. Kwok, S. G. West, & S. B. Green, 2007; S. Sivo, X. Fan, & L. Witta, 2005), estimates of the fixed effects were unbiased, and Type I…

  7. Dissecting cold tolerance in rice as revealed by association mapping

    Cold stress is an important abiotic stress which negatively affects morphological development and seed production in rice (Oryza sativa L.). At the seedling stage, cold stress causes poor germination, seedling injury and poor stand establishment; and at the reproductive stage cold decreases seed yi...

  8. John Dewey and a Pedagogy of Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayanandhan, Stephanie Raill

    2009-01-01

    If asked to define the idea of "place" one might struggle. Yet people across time and cultures readily share examples of important places or safe places or "foreign" places with one another and offer heartfelt descriptions in literature and art of childhood places, favorite places, strange places. Akinbola Akinwumi, paraphrasing Yi-Fu Tuan,…

  9. Analysis of Liquid Rocket Tankage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-04-01

    pitting and essencially no attack of’ the base metal. The internal surfacees showed some shallow pitting and discoloration which 28 were less severe than...301 STAINLESS STEEL. spoIclus Cur FROM PARENT KETAL AND W=O JOINTS Oil A2IDE CRYOPORMNT OLTIATZ 0’ .% OFFSET TOS ILE YI AID 5 LOCATION"UNDOU S?1C1M N

  10. Tomatoes in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    BioServe researcher Dr. Yi Li first flew plant experiments on board STS-63. Li discovered that exposure to microgravity increased a particular hormone concentration in plants. Since that time, Li has been able to manipulate this phenomenon and grow fruits, such as tomatoes, that overproduce the hormone, and these plants bear larger seedless fruit in the absence of pollination.

  11. Intracellular Protein Delivery for treating Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    paraformaldehyde, and rocessed for staining using the In Situ Cell Death Detection it. The stained tumor slides were observed under micro - cope, and...treating Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Yi Tang CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION ...Tang 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER E-Mail: yitang@ucla.edu 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES

  12. International HRD Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on international perspectives on human resource development (HRD). The first paper, "Human Resource Development Practices in American and Chinese High-technology Companies in Taiwan" (Hsin-yi Chen), uses quantitative and qualitative data on HRD practices in high-technology companies in…

  13. MICROARRAY DATA ANALYSIS USING MULTIPLE STATISTICAL MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microarray Data Analysis Using Multiple Statistical Models

    Wenjun Bao1, Judith E. Schmid1, Amber K. Goetz1, Ming Ouyang2, William J. Welsh2,Andrew I. Brooks3,4, ChiYi Chu3,Mitsunori Ogihara3,4, Yinhe Cheng5, David J. Dix1. 1National Health and Environmental Effects Researc...

  14. Transportation Research Fueled by Academia | News | NREL

    . Interested in furthering their research and education with the vast resources available at NREL, university researchers who are currently teaching include Senior Research Engineer Adam Duran, who has a senior capstone more transportation researchers-Yi Hou, Clement Rames, and Josh Sperling-are currently teaching an

  15. Impacts of crop sequence and minimum and no-till cropping systems on soil carbon stocks in south-central North Dakota, USA

    Increased emphasis has been placed on developing agroecosystems that are inherently resistant and resilient to external stressors, yet are highly productive, economically competitive, and environmentally benign. As part of a long-term study to evaluate effects of crop sequence and tillage on crop yi...

  16. Deaf and Hard of Hearing Adolescents' Processing of Pictures and Written Words for Taxonomic Categories in a Priming Task of Semantic Categorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Degao; Gao, Kejuan; Wu, Xueyun; Chen, Xiaojun; Zhang, Xiaona; Li, Ling; He, Weiwei

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by research by Li, Yi, and Kim (2011), the authors examined Chinese deaf and hard of hearing adolescents' responses to pictures for taxonomic categories of basic level (exemplar pictures) preceded by exemplar pictures, and to written words for taxonomic categories of basic level (exemplar words) preceded by exemplar words or by written…

  17. Assessment of Group Preferences and Group Uncertainty for Decision Making

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-06-01

    the individ- uals. decision making , group judgments should be preferred to individual judgments if obtaining group judgments costs more. -26- -YI IV... decision making group . IV. A. 3. Aggregation using conjugate distribution. Arvther procedure for combining indivi(jai probability judgments into a group...statisticized group group decision making group judgment subjective probability Delphi method expected utility nominal group 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on

  18. Mechanisms of Chemical Modulation and Toxicity of the Immune System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-15

    antigens and suppressor/cytotoxic cells bearing Lyt-2 surface antigens. Autoimmune or immunodeficient diseases have been characte.ized by alterations...Written Publication (cumulative list) A. Suppression of mitogen-induced blastogenesis of feline lymphocytes by in Yi incubation with carcinogenic

  19. Berkeley Lab - Materials Sciences Division

    Chemical and Mechanical Properties of Surfaces, Interfaces and Nanostructures Inorganic-Organic (2016). top Inorganic-Organic Nanocomposites Program Leader: Ting Xu Co-PI's: A. Paul Alivisatos, Yi Liu , Miquel Salmeron, Lin-Wang Wang The organic/inorganic nanocomposite program aims to design and synthesize

  20. String Scale Gauge Coupling Unification with Vector-Like Exotics and Noncanonical U(1)Y Normalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barger, V.; Jiang, Jing; Langacker, Paul; Li, Tianjun

    We use a new approach to study string scale gauge coupling unification systematically, allowing both the possibility of noncanonical U(1)Y normalization and the existence of vector-like particles whose quantum numbers are the same as those of the Standard Model (SM) fermions and their Hermitian conjugates and the SM adjoint particles. We first give all the independent sets (Yi) of particles that can be employed to achieve SU(3)C and SU(2)L string scale gauge coupling unification and calculate their masses. Second, for a noncanonical U(1)Y normalization, we obtain string scale SU(3)C ×SU(2)L ×U(1)Y gauge coupling unification by choosing suitable U(1)Y normalizations for each of the Yi sets. Alternatively, for the canonical U(1)Y normalization, we achieve string scale gauge coupling unification by considering suitable combinations of the Yi sets or by introducing additional independent sets (Zi), that do not affect the SU(3)C ×SU(2)L unification at tree level, and then choosing suitable combinations, one from the Yi sets and one from the Zi sets. We also briefly discuss string scale gauge coupling unification in models with higher Kac-Moody levels for SU(2)L or SU(3)C.

  1. A report on the 2009 outfield variety tests

    Outfield variety tests are conducted each year on grower farms that represent different regions and soils of the Louisiana sugarcane industry. These tests are conducted during the final three years of the 12 year Louisiana sugarcane variety improvement program. This report is a summary of the yi...

  2. Purification and characterization of a hexanol-degrading enzyme extracted from apple

    An enzyme having activity towards n-hexanol was purified from apple and its biochemical characteristics were analyzed. The purification steps consisted of sedimentation with ammonium sulfate, DEAE Sepharose Fast Flow ion exchange chromatography and Sephadex G-100 column. The obtained enzyme had a yi...

  3. Work Papers of the Summer Institute of Linguistics, University of North Dakota Session. Volume 41.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlett, Stephen A., Ed.

    The collection of seven working papers in linguistics includes: "Proceeding from Syllable Inventory to Phonemic Inventory in the Analysis of Liangshan Yi (Andy Eatough); "Empty Consonants in Root-Medial Position" (Stephen A. Marlett); "What Is Literature? A Definition Based on Prototypes" (Jim Meyer); "Seri…

  4. Steam distillation extraction kinetics regression models to predict essential oil yield, composition, and bioactivity of chamomile oil

    Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) is one of the most widely spread and used medicinal and essential oil crop in the world. Chamomile essential oil is extracted via steam distillation of the inflorescences (flowers). In this study, distillation time (DT) was found to be a crucial determinant of yi...

  5. Release of OLe peanut

    OLe is a high oleic Spanish-type peanut that has excellent yield and enhanced Sclerotinia blight and pod rot resistance when compared to other high oleic Spanish cultivars. The purpose for releasing OLe is to provide peanut producers with a true Spanish peanut that is high oleic and has enhanced yi...

  6. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (82nd, New Orleans, Louisiana, August 3-8, 1999). Advertising, Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Advertising, Part 2 section of the Proceedings contains the following 8 papers: "Made in Taiwan and the U.S.A.: A Study of Gender Roles in Two Nations' Magazine Advertisements" (Kim E. Karloff and Yi-ching Lee); "The Impact of Culture on Political Advertising: A Comparison between the U.S. and Korean Newspaper Ads"…

  7. Social Red Bull: Exploring Energy Relationships in a School District Leadership Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Alan J.; Liou, Yi-Hwa; Brown, Chris

    2016-01-01

    In this article, Alan J. Daly, Yi-Hwa Liou, and Chris Brown explore the idea of positive affective arousal through "energy exchange relationships" within a district leadership team. Education leaders have long been expected to be not only effective leaders but also motivators who can move change efforts forward. Although there has been…

  8. New Hires at the National Cancer Institute at Frederick | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Forty-nine people joined the facility in September and October 2013. The National Cancer Institute welcomes… Aamir Akram Clarissa Alexander Robert Buckheit Brian Chan Kelly Dempsey Christopher Descalzi Ahmed Fahim Devikala Gurusamy Jaewoo Hong Rhushikesh Kulkarni James Shaum Dionysios Watson Yuheng Xi Yi Xiang Thomas Zengeya

  9. 75 FR 32956 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-10

    ... Center, 5701 Marinelli Road, Bethesda, MD 20852. Contact Person: Joanna M. Pyper, PhD, Scientific Review...: Yi-Hsin Liu, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Center for Scientific Review, National Institutes of... . Name of Committee: Center for Scientific Review Special Emphasis Panel, RFA-DA-10-017: Seek, Test, and...

  10. PREGNANCY AND PERINATAL OUTCOMES IN RELATION TO DRINKING WATER ARSENIC EXPOSURE IN BAMEN, INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pregnancy and Perinatal Outcomes in Relation to Drinking Water Arsenic Exposure in BaMen, Inner Mongolia, China
    Danelle T. Lobdell, Zhixiong Ning, Richard K. Kwok, Judy Mumford, Zhi Yi Liu, Pauline Mendola

    Introduction: Close to 40 million people worldwide are exposed t...

  11. High Performance Pillared Vanadium Oxide Cathode for Lithium Ion Batteries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-24

    As a result, two major approaches have been taken to increase electrode- electrolyte interfacial area while minimizing lithium diffusion lengths...Performance Pillared Vanadium Oxide Cathode for Lithium Ion Batteries Siu on Tung, Krista L. Hawthorne, Yi Ding, James Mainero, and Levi T. Thompson...Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center, Warren, MI 48387, USA Keywords: nanostructured materials, lithium ion batteries, cathode

  12. Gas-Phase and Surface Chemistry in Electronic Materials Processing. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings Held in Boston, Massachusetts on November 29-December 2, 1993. Volume 334

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    CHEMISTRY IN THE PULSL’ LASER DEPOSITION OF OXIDE DIELECTRIC THIN FILMS ........................ 305 John W. Hastie, David W. Bonnell, Albert J. Paul...INVESTIGATIONS OF TiN AND Ti FILM DEPOSITION BY PLASMA ACTIVATED CVD USING CYCLOPENTADIENYL CYCLOHEPTATRIENYL TITANIUM, A LOW OXIDATION STATE PRECURSOR...Zhong Lu, Yi Ma, Scott Habertnehl, and Gerry Lucovsky ........ SPECTROSCOPIC INVESTIGATIONS OF LASER ABLATED GERMANIUM OXIDE

  13. INVESTIGATION OF THE USE OF ISOCYANATE ADDUCTS IN URETHANE FOAM

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The fea ibility of a one-can, delayed action foaming system was successfully d monstra e . A literary arch revealed that y co poun s po e ing...ctive ydrogens may react with organic isocyanates to produce heat-s nsitive adducts. T HESE D UCT YI LD BACK THE ORIGINAL ISOCY N TE AND THE

  14. The "Missing Girls" of China and the Unintended Consequences of the One Child Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebenstein, Avraham

    2010-01-01

    High ratios of males to females in China have concerned researchers (Sen 1990, Yi et al. 1993) and the recent increase has alarmed policymakers worldwide. This paper presents an analysis of China's census data that indicates that the "missing girls" phenomenon is causally linked to enforcement of the One Child Policy. Fertility is lower…

  15. China Report, Red Flag, Number 1, 1 January 1985

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-05

    li0dSOf,the thlrd’ f°Urth’ and the fifth e^ elon . It is impossible for them to change. In recent times I have always told foreign guests that the...people sell hides, musk , and other articles to Han people in exchange for cloth and salt. The Yi costumes are completely different from the Han

  16. Multiple Competencies and Self-Regulated Learning: Implications for Multicultural Education. Research in Multicultural Education and International Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Chi-yue, Ed.; Salili, Farideh, Ed.; Hong, Ying-yi, Ed.

    This book presents 13 papers from a 1998 conference in Hong Kong that examined how to apply psychology to enhance learning and teaching quality and focused on multicultural education: (1) "The Role of Multiple Competencies and Self-Regulated Learning in Multicultural Education" (Chi-yue Chiu, Farideh Salili, and Ying-yi Hong); (2)…

  17. Yield response to landscape position under variable N for irrigated corn

    Variable nutrient and water supply can result in spatial and temporal variation in crop yield within a given agricultural field. For the western Corn Belt, irrigated corn accounts for 58% of total annual corn production with the majority grown in Nebraska. Although irrigation decreases temporal yi...

  18. Global War on Terrorism -- The Propensity for Blacks to Serve in the U.S. Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-25

    yi.pdf. 102 Kelli A. Green, Mayra López, Allen Wysocki, and Karl Kepner, “ Diversity in the Workplace : Benefits, Challenges, and the Required...A. et al. “ Diversity in the Workplace : Benefits, Challenges, and the Required Managerial Tools.” 28 January 2006. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/HR022

  19. Deeper Insights into the Allosteric Modulation of Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors.

    PubMed

    Regan, Michael C; Furukawa, Hiro

    2016-09-21

    Two articles in this issue of Neuron (Yelshanskaya et al., 2016; Yi et al., 2016) explore the structural basis of allosteric inhibition in ionotropic glutamate receptors, providing key insights into how iGluRs function in the brain as well as how they might be pharmacologically modulated in neurological disorders and disease. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Improving grafting efficiency of dicarboxylic anhydride monomer on polylactic acid by manipulating monomer structure and using comonomer and reducing agent

    Maleic anhydride (MA) grafted polylactic acid (PLA) acting as reactive compatibilizer for PLA blends and composites has been reported. However, melt free-radical grafting of MA on PLA is often subject to steric and electron effects of the substituents in the monomer and low initiation efficiency, yi...

  1. New Bedford, Marine And Estuarine Geochemistry - Chapter 7: Partitioning Of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) In Marine Sediments, 01-01-1985, SDMS no. 51931

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2012-04-15

    ... 1: i:ii:ii'iii!'ini|ii;:i:a|:ih:h: I n, ;, I. 1 l.ul.'Uin cli'j llolii!, Misiiiisini: him in? I: it n II I \\\\A\\\\ Ji'o.ll yi: li:h:u: l.mi!iiil:i!"il hi phnriiy I n '!:'' i'.n ! rani? mini! I'nII. modi! ...

  2. U.S. EPA, Pesticide Product Label, CUTLASS AQUEOUS FLOWABLE BIOINSECTICIDE, 04/21/1994

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-21

    ... _ of P .. tlclde Product ... West Langhorne, PA 19047-1810 • ·~~'ti;g" •.. 1a~1";¥tfU1119 111 .• w.taiocoI.#~Mt~;,IiYi!k!;i,!~~. Vi~~~l.fi~H~:~~ ; ...

  3. Laser-induced Multi-energy Processing in Diamond Growth

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X - ray (EDX) measurements, Drs. Yi Liu and Shah Valloppilly from Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience...NCMN) at UNL for help on X - Ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, and Professor Steve W. Martin and Dr. Young Sik Kim from the Department of Material...spectroscopy and X - ray diffraction ................... 62 4.4 Conclusions

  4. Korean Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pihl, Marshall R.

    While Chinese was, by and large, the formal and public literary language of the Korean court and aristocracy, native Korean literature survived as an oral tradition in the more informal and private realms of life. The Yi Dynasty which lasted until the Japanese annexation of 1910, produced and recorded a rich treasury of Chinese and Korean…

  5. Microgravity

    2004-04-15

    BioServe researcher Dr. Yi Li first flew plant experiments on board STS-63. Li discovered that exposure to microgravity increased a particular hormone concentration in plants. Since that time, Li has been able to manipulate this phenomenon and grow fruits, such as tomatoes, that overproduce the hormone, and these plants bear larger seedless fruit in the absence of pollination.

  6. Planning for deficit irrigation

    Irrigators with limited water supplies that lead to deficit irrigation management need to make decisions about crop selection, water allocations to each crop, and irrigation schedules. Many of these decisions need to occur before the crop is planted and depend on yield-evapotranspiration (ET) and yi...

  7. The Need of Safety-Net Programme for a Mass Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Edwin K. P.; Ngai, Sze Wan Emily; Lo, King Shuen

    2006-01-01

    Background: The Project Yi Jin (PYJ), an alternative pathway for secondary school leavers and adults to further their education, has been receiving full support from the government, the Federation for Continuing Education in Tertiary Institutions (FCE) in Hong Kong and the public. Graduates of PYJ have the equivalent academic status of their…

  8. Can Foster Care Interventions Diminish Justice System Inequality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Youngmin; Wildeman, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    Children who experience foster care, write Youngmin Yi and Christopher Wildeman, are considerably more likely than others to have contact with the criminal justice system, both during childhood and as adults. And because children of color disproportionately experience foster care, improvements to the foster care system could reduce racial/ethnic…

  9. Registration of cotton germplasm line md 10-5

    MD 10-5 (Reg. No. ______, PI 675077) is a noncommercial breeding line of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) released by the USDA-ARS at Stoneville, MS in 2015. MD 10-5 was selected in F4 progenies from a cross between MD 15 (PI 642769) and JJ 1145ne. MD 10-5 has a desirable combination between lint yi...

  10. Correlations between polymorphisms in the uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase 1A and C-C motif chemokine receptor 5 genes and infection with the hepatitis B virus in three ethnic groups in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chan; He, Yan; Shan, Ke-Ren; Tan, Kui; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Chan-Juan; Guan, Zhi-Zhong

    2018-02-01

    Objective To determine whether genetic polymorphisms in the uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase 1A ( UGT1A) and the C-C motif chemokine receptor 5 ( CCR5) genes are associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Yi, Yao and Han ethnic groups in the Guizhou Province of China. Methods The study enrolled subjects with and without HBV infection. Whole blood was used for DNA genotyping using standard techniques. The study determined the frequencies of several polymorphic alleles ( UGT1A6 [rs2070959], UGT1A1 [rs8175347], CCR5-59029 [rs1799987] and CCR5Δ32 [rs333]) and then characterized their relationship with HBV infection. Results A total of 404 subjects were enrolled in the study: 138 from the Yao group, 101 from the Yi group and 165 from the Han group. There was a significant difference in the frequency of UGT1A1 rs8175347 polymorphisms among the three groups. The rates of 7TA carriers of UGT1A1 rs8175347 in all three groups were significantly higher than the other genotypes. Individuals with genotype AA of UGT1A6 rs2070959 in the Yi group had a higher risk for HBV infection than in the Yao and Han groups. The frequency of genotype GG in CCR5-59029 in the Yao group was significantly higher than in the Yi group. The genotypes of CCR5Δ32 were not associated with HBV infection. Conclusion These findings provide genetic and epidemiological evidence for an association of UGT1A and CCR5-59029 polymorphisms with HBV infection in Chinese Yi and Yao populations.

  11. A Fixed Point Theorem in Weak Topology for Successively Recurrent System of Set-Valued Mapping Equations and Its Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiuchi, Kazuo

    Let us introduce n (≥ 2) mappings fi(i = 1, …, n ≡ 0) defined on reflexive real Banach spaces Xi-1 and let fi : Xi-1 → Yi be completely continuous on bounded convex closed subsets X_{i-1}^{(0)} \\\\subset X_{i-1}. Moreover, let us introduce n set-valued mappings F_i : X_{i-1} \\\\times Y_i \\\\to {\\\\cal F}_c(X_i) (the family of all non-empty compact subsets of Xi), (i=1, …, n ≡ 0). Here, we have a fixed point theorem in weak topology on the successively recurrent system of set-valued mapping equations: xi ∈ Fi(xi-1, fi(xi-1)), (i=1, …, n ≡ 0). This theorem can be applied immediately to analysis of the availability of system of circular networks of channels undergone by uncertain fluctuations and to evaluation of the tolerability of behaviors of those systems.

  12. A FORTRAN Program for Rectangular Microstrip Antennas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    accelerated by writing it as z -jko j cos(kyl)cos[k(b-yl)I 011 kasin(kb) + j i wx la)c osrxx /a) jAj mirdlI-I 1C0s(PnYi)cOS[Pm(b-Yi)1 a p.51n(pmb)Mi + jOM’OT...41 41 0. 4 i Q -4 -H -I rco .uU-4 ur -4c 10 -N > M 0) vi C ~ O 40 4w ~Ln U)4. 4814 aL. 00 a 0 00 0 00 r(A 410 00 0 Cl 4.49 0 td cc Nc~ ~44 0o tot E- 1

  13. Testing Properties of Boolean Functions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Applying the Hermite decomposition of f and linearity of expectation, E x,y [f(x)f(y) 〈x, y〉] = n∑ i=1 ∑ S,T∈Nn f̂(S)f̂(T )E x [HS(x)xi]E y [ HT (y)yi...otherwise it takes the value 0. Similarly, Ey[ HT (y)yi] = 1 iff T = ei. 38 Part I Exact Query Complexity 39 Chapter 5 Testing Juntas We begin by studying the...1− 2e− 6m /2 = 1− 2e−O( √ n). The estimate ν̃ is a U-statistic with kernel ψ∗f . This kernel satisfies ‖ψ∗f − Eψ∗f‖∞ ≤ 2‖ψ∗f‖∞ = 2 √ 4n log(4n/3

  14. Ancient Chinese Sundials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Kehui

    Timekeeping was essential in the agricultural society of ancient China. The use of sundials for timekeeping was associated with the use of the gnomon, which had its origin in remote antiquity. This chapter studies three sundials (guiyi 晷仪) from the Qin and Han dynasties, the shorter shadow plane sundial (duanying ping yi 短影平仪) invented by Yuan Chong in the Sui Dynasty, and the sundial chart (guiyingtu 晷影图) invented by Zeng Minxing in the Southern Song dynasty. This chapter also introduces Guo Shoujing's hemispherical sundial (yang yi 仰仪). A circular stone sundial discovered at the Small Wild Goose Pagoda in Xi'an is also mentioned. It is dated from the Sui and Tang dynasties. A brief survey of sundials from the Qing dynasty shows various types of sundials.

  15. Two-dimensional evolution equation of finite-amplitude internal gravity waves in a uniformly stratified fluid

    PubMed

    Kataoka; Tsutahara; Akuzawa

    2000-02-14

    We derive a fully nonlinear evolution equation that can describe the two-dimensional motion of finite-amplitude long internal waves in a uniformly stratified three-dimensional fluid of finite depth. The derived equation is the two-dimensional counterpart of the evolution equation obtained by Grimshaw and Yi [J. Fluid Mech. 229, 603 (1991)]. In the small-amplitude limit, our equation is reduced to the celebrated Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation.

  16. S6K1ing to ResTOR Adipogenesis with Polycomb.

    PubMed

    Juan, Aster H; Sartorelli, Vittorio

    2016-05-05

    Signal-directed chromatin recruitment of mammalian Polycomb complexes is a fundamental component of epigenetic regulation. In this issue, Yi et al. (2016) reveal how mTORC1 activation deploys the ribosomal serine/threonine kinase S6K1 and Polycomb proteins at genomic regulatory regions to repress expression of anti-adipogenic developmental regulators. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Thermal Analysis of Acetylene Terminated Sulfone (ATS) Resin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-18

    Hydrogen Sulfide by Difference Gravimetry 71 (6) Analysis by Quantitative Proton Nuclear 72 Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy C.YI The Noncondensable...CARBONYL SULFIDE 24 DISTRIBUTION OF SULFUR IN THE PRODUCTS OF THERMAL 72 DEGRADATION TO 1020’C OF PRECURED ATS-G 25 GRAVIMETRY OF THE CONDENSABLE VOLATILE...procedure was devised making use of gravimetry in conjunction with proton NMR spectroscopy. The condensable volatile product fraction of degradation was

  18. Feasibility Study of Helicopter-Towed Air Custion Logistic Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-01

    ILL7808/23699 ,ESSO/ ENCO TJ-15,ESSO/ ENCO 5251, TEXACO /CALTEX SATO 5180, 0 SINCLAIR TURBO OIL TYPE 11, P&WA 521B OUTPUT PAD(S): DUAL DRIVE PADS, AS 46963...Yi3 4 W’s ~" :.~ .. 3d Tyia Mode 913-30 DETOIT DISEL ~ )Gm Tyia Moel 9163-7300nealMoor MODEL 16V-149 F9163-7000 16V-149T 963-7300 .. . .... Tyia oe 1370

  19. Signal Transduction in T Cell Activation and Tolerance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    chains and ’ chains may transduce different signals in intact T cells. These studies demonstrate that while c- deficient and c-containing TCR complexes...three independently derived pairs of CD45- and CD45+ murine T cell lymphomas, the CD45- expressing cells were consistently deficient in...D.B., Larsen, A. and Wilson, C.B. (1986) Reduced interferon-gamma mRNA levels in human neonates: Evidence for an intrinsic T cell deficiency yi 114

  20. Eight-day consumption of inulin added to a yogurt breakfast lowers postprandial appetite ratings but not energy intakes in young healthy females: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Heap, Sarah; Ingram, Jessica; Law, Marron; Tucker, Amy J; Wright, Amanda J

    2016-01-28

    Increasing feelings of satiety may reduce appetite and energy intake. The role of inulin consumption in impacting satiety is unclear. A randomised double-blind controlled crossover trial aimed to determine the effects of inulin+yogurt on satiety after 1 and 8-d consumption. The preload breakfast included 100 g vanilla yogurt with (yogurt-inulin (YI)) and without (yogurt-control (YC)) 6 g inulin. A total of nineteen healthy females (22·8 (sd 2·7) years) with non-restrained eating behaviour and taking hormonal contraceptives participated in the study. Day 1 and 8 visual analogue scale (VAS) ratings of Hunger, Fullness, Desire to Eat and Prospective Food Consumption (PFC) were collected at fasting and every 30 min for 180 min. Energy intake was calculated from a weighed ad libitum lunch and remainder of day food records. Total AUC was calculated for each VAS. Day 1 (VAS only) and 8 (VAS and energy intakes) data were compared between YI and YC using ANCOVA, and ANOVA was used to compare energy intakes on Day 1. There were no significant differences between Day 1 YI and YC AUC appetite ratings or energy intakes. However, 8-d consumption of YI v. YC was associated with lower Desire to Eat and PFC ratings but similar lunch and total day energy intakes. Therefore, the addition of 6 g inulin to a commercially available yogurt affected feelings of appetite, but not energy intake, after repeated consumption. These results suggest that inulin may be a suitable ingredient to increase dietary fibre consumption, with potential to impact appetite.

  1. Characterization of Steroid Receptor RNA Activator Protein Function in Modulating the Estrogen Signaling Pathway

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    Signaling Pathway 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-05-1-0245 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Yi Yan 5e. TASK NUMBER...negative control to identify proteins non-specifically precipitated. Tandem mass spectrometric analysis of immunoprecipitated samples identified a...immunoprecipitated sample and negative control. It is important to note that, SRAP was present among the remaining specifically precipitated 87 proteins. Using the

  2. 1.3 micrometers Wavelength Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser Fabricated by Orientation-Mismatched Wafer Bonding: A Prospect for Polarization Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    mismatched wafer bonding: A prospect for polarization control Yae L. Okuno,a) Jon Geske , Kian-Giap Gan, Yi-Jen Chiu, Steven P. DenBaars, and John E. Bowers...Uomi, M. Aoki, and T. Tsuchiya, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 959 ~1997!. 20 Y. L. Okuno, J. Geske , Y.-J. Chiu, S. P. DenBaars, and J. E. Bowers, Proc

  3. [Textual research on the chronicle of Wang Fengchun's life].

    PubMed

    Wu, Z

    1999-10-01

    Wang Fengchun was a noted doctor in Beijing, but there were a lot of discrepancies and errors about the chronicle of Wang's life in the literatures. This article was a textual research on the chronicle of Wang Fengchun's life, such as the date of birth, the time when migrated to Beijing, and the number of years practised medicine in Beijing, mostly based on the Bo Lu Yi An.

  4. Techniques in Linear and Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-10-21

    theory. J. Grotowski (a student) studied the heat flow approach to harmonic maps betv:een manifolds: between spheres. and from the ball B’ in R 3 into...T. Yau; S. Kichenessamy: F. H. Lin. L. Sadun: Wu. Sigue; Yi. Fang. Also these graduate students: Li, Cong Ming, received Ph.D. in 1989. J. Grotowski . received Ph.D. in 1990. I. Birindelli, working on Ph.D. thesis. 5

  5. Homogenization and Linear Thermeoelasticity.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    this report) UNCLASSIFIED [7F-- D-EASSIFICATION/ OWNGRADING SCHEDU LE 16. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of this Report) APPRO)VED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE...analogues of Yi and G for Xi and as in (1.27), 18 + Y.4’ (def.) (2.14) 11 = 1o 1’ 1+ where denotes the Y-average f dy y1 we introduce A VIand H1 to

  6. Nonequilibrium Plasma Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    Kulikovsky, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 25, 439 (1997). 61. W. Yi and P. Williams, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 35, 205 (2002). 62. E. van Veldhuizen and W...Rutgers, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 35, 2169 (2002). 63. E. van Veldhuizen , A. Baede, D. Hayashi, and W. Rutgers, APP Spring Meeting (Bad Honnef...Nonequilibrium Air Plasmas at Atmosphere Pressure, (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK 2005) Review Article: P. Bletzinger, B. N. Ganguly, D. Van Wie and

  7. Composite Ceramic Superconducting Wires for Electric Motor Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-30

    current a-yi t6-ransition. - Emerson Motor Division has begun work on DC heteropolar and homopolar motor designs. The mechanical stresses on conventional...Emerson Motor Division has begun work on DC heteropolar motor designs and, through Professor Novotny at U. Wisconsin, DC homopolar machines. The...123 3.2 Literature Research .............................. .. 124 3 3.3 Application Study .............................. .. 124 3.3.1 Homopolar Motor

  8. Computer-aided Human Centric Cyber Situation Awareness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-20

    in Video, IJCAI: International Joint Conf. on Artificial Intelligence . 16-JUL-11, . : , Kun Sun, Sushil Jajodia, Jason Li, Yi Cheng, Wei Tang...Cyber-Security Conference, June 2015. 2. V.S. Subrahmanian, Invited Speaker, Summer School on Business Intelligence and Big Data Analysis, Capri, Italy... Cybersecurity Conference, Yuval Ne’eman Workshop for Science, Technology and Security, Tel Aviv University, the Israeli National Cyber Bureau, Prime

  9. Numerical Simulations of Turbulent Trapping in the Weak Beam-Plasma Instability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-05

    vdi -{l- cos^)a2 ) H(^, u) = cose, (33) where 6r = 0(’yi,^/uti) symbolizes the importance of the time derivative: Eq.(33) is in fact rigorous only...Spectra, Dover, 1985. TABLE 1: Simulation Parameters. Simulation 1 2 ^’, X 7v„ 2048 X 200 1024 X 250 Az At; At 0.5 0.0232 0.2 0.5 0.00723

  10. Grand Forks - East Grand Forks Urban Water Resources Study. Water Supply Appendix.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    investments are required for expansions. Water conservation measures may be implemented at any time. General measures are implemented during drought and...STORAGE DEPLETION 1)’R-FT.’: Sli OP=O , -SAWNT 110F; 1, FUNDEMENTAL ROUTING 98 Fr R Y=2 TO EQUATIONS .408 .LET D(YI=D(f-’.+( 47Y )460.32 448 FOR Y--2

  11. JPRS Report China.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-28

    Recognition’ [Yi Hao; Hong Kong LIAOWANG, 30 May 88] 57 Impact of NT Dollar Appreciation on Country’s Industry 58 JPRS-CAR-88-040 26 July 1988... industrial departments, our large and middle-size enterprises are, from policy to organization, very weak in technical innovation . The leadership of...of the Provi- sional Regulations on Control of Individual Urban and Rural Industrial and Commercial Entreprises (5 Septem- ber 1987) 14. Joint

  12. China Report RED FLAG No 13, 1 JULY 1986

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-21

    who were in Yanan to discuss the draft "Resolution." The group leaders, such as Li Fuchun, Ye Jianying , Nie Rongzhen, Liu Bocheng, and Chen Yi also...its nature is ’leftist’ opportunism. Compared with the two erroneous lines of Chen Duxiu and Li Lisan, this line is more perfect in form, of longer...comrades who had been attacked, including He Mengxiong, Lin Yunan, and Li Qiushi; and pointing out the important significance of the Zunyi meeting in

  13. Modeling and Control of the Cobelli Model as a Personalized Prescriptive Tool for Diabetes Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-05

    within the body allow for a more quantified approach in medicine prescription as well as a deeper understanding of the discrete operations of...dynamics within the body allow for a more quantified approach in medicine prescription as well as a deeper understanding of the discrete operations of... discrete value) of the desired output (healthy blood glucose concentration in this project), yi is the ith sample of the measured output, ui is

  14. JPRS Report, Nuclear Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-29

    Korea is developing nuclear weapons Yi and Bartholomew agreed that the two governments capability. should reestablish a bilateral science and...early this year. Taking advantage of such a mood of The government should develop state-of-the-art technol- detente. even our country is now actively...counter to such a mood of detente. and why can they not The report recommended that the government establish abandon nuclear weapons at a time when

  15. Department of the Army Justification of Estimates for Fiscal Year 1983 Submitted to Congress February 1982. Part 2 (Missiles).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    STINGER missiles and ground support equipment. The program for FY 1983 represents the sixth year of a planned eleven-year procurement effort designed ...planned eleven year procurement effort designed t., fill the Army’s inventory objective. The STINER, scheduled to replace the obsolete RED-YI, has greater...equipment. This is the fifth year of procurement designed to fill the Army inventory objective. MIRES is a self-propelled, fast- reacting, multiple rocket

  16. Korean Affairs Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-31

    Weinberger to open negotiations over the issue. North Korean Foreign Minister Kim Yong -nam expressed his willingness to comply with the U.S...dummy? The ruling party’s proposal in itself certainly is a change, but it is not reasonable. After a few consultations with Kim Tae-chung, Kim Yong -sam...Hungsadan Hall, making a. human tide which paralyzed traffic. As the crowd was growing out of their control, Yi Min-u and Kim Yong -sam stopped to

  17. Translations on North Korea, Number 518.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-04-05

    Populace To Assure Self-Defense (Yi Ung -kyu; MINJU CHOSON, 14 Jan 77) 13 Seoul Paper Comments on DPRK Defector ’s Revelations (Editorial; THE...56 Agricultural Meeting 57 Korean-Malagasy Association 57 Railroad Transportation 57 Kim Il-song Work Published 57 Women’s Union Session 58 Rail...Marshal Kim Il-song and the energetic guidance of the glorious Party Center our people and youths are furiously engaging in the Campaign to Capture

  18. Translations on North Korea. Number 534

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-06-13

    May 77)... Nature Remaking Work Needed To Occupy Food Grain Height ( Kim Il-song; ALGOK 1,000 MAN TON KOJIRUL CHOMNYONG HAGI WIHAN CHAYON KAEJO...meeting, Choe Yong -kun extended, on the occasion of the "week of support to the struggle of the Palestine people," warm congratu- lations and militant...people. Present at the meeting were Kim Kuk-hun, Yi Chong-mok, and other personages concerned, and working people in the city. Diplomatic envoys of

  19. Molecular Structure Analysis of Aminophenyl Silsesquioxane (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-31

    Preprint) 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Andre Lee (Michigan State Univ.); Timothy S . Haddad (ERC...Joseph J. Schwab & 23030521 Yi Zhong An (Hybrid Plastics, Inc.) 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND...Edwards AFB CA 93524-7401 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM( S ) Air Force Research Laboratory

  20. Practical Methods for the Compensation and Control of Multivariable Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    a constant gain element gji . To be more specific, let us consider a linear multivariable system whose dynamical behavior is specified by a (pxm...controllable via uk if Yi is fed back to uj via an arbitrary gain gji , as depicted in the figure below? It might be noted that only the outputs and inputs...modes controllable via uk(s) before feedback will remain -19- controllable via uk(s) irrespective of gji (although certain of these uk controllable

  1. Conversation Intention Perception based on Knowledge Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    Yi Liu Gastritis Fracture Vomit Pain Bleeding thirst Anti-acid Clarithromycin styptic Aspirin Symptom Medicine Disease 1/117 1/157 1/20...occurrence frequency. Firstly, we compute the distance between two entities. For example, distance between entity Gastritis and entity Vomit is...considered as one as they are connected directly, distance between entity Gastritis and entity Fracture is two since they are con- nected through entity

  2. Ethnic Variations in Central Corneal Thickness in a Rural Population in China: The Yunnan Minority Eye Studies.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chen-Wei; Li, Jun; Zhong, Hua; Shen, Wei; Niu, Zhiqiang; Yuan, Yuansheng; Chen, Qin

    2015-01-01

    To describe the ethnic differences in central corneal thickness (CCT) in population-based samples of ethnic Bai, Yi and Han people living in rural China. 6504 adults (2119 ethnic Bai, 2202 ethnic Yi and 2183 ethnic Han) aged 50 years or older participated in the study. Each subject underwent standardized ocular examinations and interviewer-administered questionnaires for risk factor assessment. CCT was measured for both eyes using an ultrasound pachymeter. Regression and principal component analysis were performed to examine the relationship of ethnicity and other factors with CCT. The mean CCT readings were 536.4 ± 34.2 μm in ethnic Bai, 532.1 ± 32.1 μm in ethnic Yi and 529.6 ± 32.7 μm in ethnic Han adults (P<0.001), respectively. There was a decreasing trend of mean CCT with increasing age across all ethnic groups. In multivariate linear regression models, increasing CCT was associated with younger age (P<0.001), male gender (P<0.001), Bai (P<0.001) or Yi (P<0.001) ethnicity, greater body mass index (P<0.001), higher systolic blood pressure (P<0.001), greater corneal curvature (P<0.001), deeper anterior chamber (P < 0.001), and thicker lens (P<0.001). Ethnicity contributed significantly to presence of thin cornea (60%; P< 0.001) compared with other factors. CCT had similar impact on intraocular pressure readings across all ethnic groups. This study of more than 6500 multiethnic participants demonstrates significant ethnic variations in CCT, with Han ethnicity having the thinnest cornea compared with ethnic minorities. These data are essential to guide future multiethnic clinical trials on CCT-related ocular conditions such as glaucoma.

  3. Pump for spawning channels includes a turbine and motor. Turbine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pump for spawning channels includes a turbine and motor. Turbine is Berkeley H-17500, model 8C2PH, Serial No. 2889, B.M. No. 4886 - Berkeley Pump Co. The Motor is G.E. Induction Motor, model 5K4256XA3YI, serial no. GAJ728337, Tri-Clad. View looking northeast. - Prairie Creek Fish Hatchery, Hwy. 101, Orick, Humboldt County, CA

  4. Education and Change in Rich, Poor and National Minority Areas in China: Two Decades of Transition. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 61

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, Keith M.; Lu, Wang

    2011-01-01

    This study traces education and change over two decades in three areas, Tongzhou on the periphery of Beijing chosen as one of the richest 300 counties in 1990; Ansai in Yan'an which was one of the poorest 300 counties and a famous base for the 8th Route Army at the end of the Long March, and Zhaojue a poor Yi national minority area in the…

  5. Rotating Detonation Engine Research at NRL

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    Bykovskii, Wolanski, Falempin, Hayashi, Schauer, Yi, Wang, Brophy, Wu, Clafin, Smith, Tsuboi, Frolov, et al.) Recant RDE Studies at NRL Flow-field...Symposium) Injection/inflow effects (JPC 2011~044; ASM 2012-0617, ASM 2013-1178) the expansion region change RDE performance. Can this model be...Efficient Complex Configuration Simulation Capability 158 BASELINE SOLUTION • Basetine configUration Stoichiometric hydrogen-air RDE of Wolanski

  6. Genetic parameters and prediction of genotypic values for root quality traits in cassava using REML/BLUP.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, E J; Santana, F A; Oliveira, L A; Santos, V S

    2014-08-28

    The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic parameters and predict the genotypic values of root quality traits in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) using restricted maximum likelihood (REML) and best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP). A total of 471 cassava accessions were evaluated over two years of cultivation. The evaluated traits included amylose content (AML), root dry matter (DMC), cyanogenic compounds (CyC), and starch yield (StYi). Estimates of the individual broad-sense heritability of AML were low (hg(2) = 0.07 ± 0.02), medium for StYi and DMC, and high for CyC. The heritability of AML was substantially improved based on mean of accessions (hm(2) = 0.28), indicating that some strategies such as increasing the number of repetitions can be used to increase the selective efficiency. In general, the observed genotypic values were very close to the predicted average of the improved population, most likely due to the high accuracy (>0.90), especially for DMC, CyC, and StYi. Gains via selection of the 30 best genotypes for each trait were 4.8 and 3.2% for an increase and decrease for AML, respectively, an increase of 10.75 and 74.62% for DMC for StYi, respectively, and a decrease of 89.60% for CyC in relation to the overall mean of the genotypic values. Genotypic correlations between the quality traits of the cassava roots collected were generally favorable, although they were low in magnitude. The REML/BLUP method was adequate for estimating genetic parameters and predicting the genotypic values, making it useful for cassava breeding.

  7. Pulmonary Adaptation to High Altitude.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-12

    base status, cerebral hypoxia,.periodic. breathing in sleep, exercise gas exchange, * respiratory mnuscle fatigue. .-. A4N~rea~.&P ol nftw-"Nyr OMI... respiratory muscle’ metboYi L * morphology in the rat; and the effects of lg-emyoxaand differint levels of hypoxia on venitilation and periodic breathing...34 hypothesis. 5. The rat appears to be a good model for the study of respiratory muscle metabolism during exercise and in chronic hypoxia. Studies on both of

  8. Piezoelectric and Electrostrictive Materials for Transducers Applications. Volume 4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-31

    Micromotors ." IEEE. 109-113 (1991). 41. Anita M. Flynn. Lee S. Tavrow. Stephen F. Bart. Rodney A. Brooks. Daniel J. Ehrlich. K. R. Udayakumar and L. Eric...Cross. "Piezoelectric Micromotors for Microrobots." J. Microelectromechanical Systems 1 (1) 47-50 (1992). 4 APPENDIX 35 A STUDY OF YI Ba2 Cti30 7.y...to produce miniature pumps. valves. microsensors and micromotors . This paper reports on the fabrication of thin films that are capable of producing

  9. Geochemistry, geochronology, and tectonic setting of Early Cretaceous volcanic rocks in the northern segment of the Tan-Lu Fault region, northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Yi-Yun; Zhang, Jin-Jiang; Liu, Kai; Ge, Mao-Hui; Wang, Meng; Wang, Jia-Min

    2017-08-01

    We present new geochemical and geochronological data for volcanic and related rocks in the regions of the Jia-Yi and Dun-Mi faults, in order to constrain the late Mesozoic tectonic evolution of the northern segment of the Tan-Lu Fault. Zircon U-Pb dating shows that rhyolite and intermediate-mafic rocks along the southern part of the Jia-Yi Fault formed at 124 and 113 Ma, respectively, whereas the volcanic rocks along the northern parts of the Jia-Yi and Dun-Mi faults formed at 100 Ma. The rhyolite has an A-type granitoid affinity, with high alkalis, low MgO, Ti, and P contents, high rare earth element (REE) contents and Ga/Al ratios, enrichments in large-ion lithophile (LILEs; e.g., Rb, Th, and U) and high-field-strength element (HFSEs; e.g., Nb, Ta, Zr, and Y), and marked negative Eu anomalies. These features indicate that the rhyolites were derived from partial melting of crustal material in an extensional environment. The basaltic rocks are enriched in light REEs and LILEs (e.g., Rb, K, Th, and U), and depleted in heavy REEs, HFSEs (e.g., Nb, Ta, Ti, and P), and Sr. These geochemical characteristics indicate that these rocks are calc-alkaline basalts that formed in an intraplate extensional tectonic setting. The dacite is a medium- to high-K, calc-alkaline, I-type granite that was derived from a mixed source involving both crustal and mantle components in a magmatic arc. Therefore, the volcanic rocks along the Jia-Yi and Dun-Mi faults were formed in an extensional regime at 124-100 Ma (Early Cretaceous), and these faults were extensional strike-slip faults at this time.

  10. Behavior and Effectiveness of First-Line Supervisors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-11-01

    program planning; A guide to nominal group and delphi processes. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman. Deutsch, M. (1973). The relocation of conflict. New Haven...To » Not larce larc « aone aoall at extent extent extent extent all 2A. flc umlirHtan.llnis of your... larce extent 11. How alnllar arc you to yi»ur boea compared to noat of tho people you know? I Mm auch more alnillar to moHt of the people I know than

  11. Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Analysis Fields Inter-Comparisons. Part 2. Near Real Time Web-based Level 4 SST Quality Monitor (L4-SQUAM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Reynoldsr, Viva Banzon*. Helen Beggs h, Jean-Francois Cayula1, Yi Chaoj, Robert Grumbinek, Eileen Maturia, Andy Harrisal. Jonathan Mittaza•’, John...number of valid OSTIA SSTs because NN matching is done to OSTIA grid. A dotted gray line shows an ideal Gaussian fit, X~N(Median, RSD...show significant differences. In the right panels, AT, statistics are annotated on the left side of the histograms, dotted gray line shows an ideal

  12. Integrated Doppler Correction to TWSTFT Using Round-Trip Measurement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    42 nd Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Meeting 251 INTEGRATED DOPPLER CORRECTION TO TWSTFT USING ROUND-TRIP MEASUREMENT Yi...Frequency Transfer ( TWSTFT ) data. It is necessary to correct the diurnal variation for comparing the time-scale difference. We focus on the up-/downlink...delay difference caused by satellite motion. In this paper, we propose to correct the TWSTFT data by using round-trip delay measurement. There are

  13. Interactive Implementation of the Optimal Systems Control Design Program (OPTSYSX) on the IBM 3033.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    DAS A44 159 INTERACTIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE OPTIMAL SYSTEMS I CONTROL DESIGN PROGRAM (OPTSYSX) ON THE 1DM 3033(U NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY...noesear end idswtif’r b block number) Optimal Systems Control Systems Control Control Systems 10.; ABSTRACT (Continu an reveree side ff Roe684v ad Id yI...34 by block number) .- This thesis discusses the modification of an existing Optimal Systems Control FORTRAN program (OPTSYS) originally obtained from

  14. Arms Control and British and French Nuclear Forces.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    ne:ghboring and allied territories. Although they still maintain their policy is one of massive retaliation, in 19S1 Prime Minister Pierre Mauroy ...York \\Vi:k.Paul, ’The lusion of’ N’A’TO’s Nuclear Defense," in N’uclear Weapons in lir’i’.ee Ib- Andre %%~ J. Pierre. New York L’i’rivPress. 1984. Yi

  15. From Mao toward Modernity: The Increasing Westernization of the People’s Liberation Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-22

    42Xiaoping Deng and Zhongguo gong chan dang. Zhong yang Makesi En’gesi Liening Sidalin zhu zuo bian yi ju., Selected Works of Deng Xiaoping, 1982...1992. vol. 3, 1st ed. ( Beijing , China: Foreign Languages Press, 1994), 133. 43Information Office of the State Council, The People’s Republic of China...its sovereign interests in what Beijing considered its backyard. The result was Beijing’s adoption of a strategy that sought to compel greater

  16. Dendrite-Free Electrodeposition and Reoxidation of Lithium-Sodium Alloy for Metal-Anode Battery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    Dendrite-Free Electrodeposition and Reoxidation of Lithium-Sodium Alloy for Metal-Anode Battery Johanna K. Star 1 , Yi Ding 2 , and Paul A. Kohl ,1, * 1...Journal Article 3. DATES COVERED 01-11-2011 to 01-11-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DENDRITE-FREE ELECTRODEPOSITION AND REOXIDATION OF LITHIUM-SODIUM...Results and Discussion The initial ionic liquid selection was driven by the need to electrodeposit sodium and lithium from the same electrolyte

  17. Semi-Supervised Multiple Feature Analysis for Action Recognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-26

    Technology and Electrical Engineering, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia ( e -mail: sen.wang@uq.edu.au; yi.yang@uq.edu.au). Z. Ma is with...the Language Technologies Institute, Carnegie Mellon Univer- sity, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 USA ( e -mail: kevinma@cs.cmu.edu). X. Li is with the School of...Service Computing in Cyber Physical Society, Chongqing University, Chongqing, China ( e -mail: xueli@itee.uq.edu.au). C. Pang is with the Australian e

  18. Minimum Error Bounded Efficient L1 Tracker with Occlusion Detection (PREPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Minimum Error Bounded Efficient `1 Tracker with Occlusion Detection Xue Mei\\ ∗ Haibin Ling† Yi Wu†[ Erik Blasch‡ Li Bai] \\Assembly Test Technology...proposed BPR-L1 tracker is tested on several challenging benchmark sequences involving chal- lenges such as occlusion and illumination changes. In all...point method de - pends on the value of the regularization parameter λ. In the experiments, we found that the total number of PCG is a few hundred. The

  19. U.S.-China Strategic Dialogue, Phase II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-12

    Chinese Presentation 12:00-1:30p Lunch – Hibiscus Suite (Kalia Tower-2nd floor) 1:30p Panel II: Crisis Escalation in Theory and History Paper...Lunch Hibiscus Suite (Kalia Tower-2nd floor) 1:30p Panel IV: Nuclear Weapons Safety and Security: Comparing national approaches and discussing... Hibiscus Suite (Kalia Tower-2nd floor) 25 APPENDIX II: CONFERENCE PARTICIPANTS 26 China Rear Admiral Yang Yi Director Institute of

  20. Targeting Histone Abnormality in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    mechanisms of polyamine analogues in cancer cells. Anti - Cancer Drugs, 16(3): 229-241, 2005. PMID: 15711175 3. Huang Y, Nayak S, Jankowitz R, Davidson NE...immunoprecipitated with anti -LSD1 antibody followed by IB with anti -HDAC5 and LSD1 antibodies in indicated breast cancer cell lines. IgG was used as...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0237 TITLE: Targeting Histone Abnormality in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Yi Huang

  1. Targeting Histone Abnormality in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    Casero RA, Davidson NE. Molecular mechanisms of polyamine analogues in cancer cells. Anti - Cancer Drugs, 16(3): 229-241, 2005. PMID: 15711175 18 3...1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0237 TITLE: Targeting Histone Abnormality in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Yi...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Targeting Histone Abnormality in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0237 5c

  2. [Study on the antibacterial activity of four kinds of nano-hydroxyapatite composites against Enterococcus faecalis].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Zhou, Rongjing; Wu, Hongkun

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to compare and determine a kind of nano-hydroxyapatite composite material with good antibacterial efficacy on Enterococcusfaecalis (E. faecalis) in vitro. We investigated the antimicrobial activity of four kinds of nano-hydroxyapatite composites, namely, silver/hydroxyapatite composite nanoparticles (Ag/nHA), yttrium/hydroxyapatite composite nanoparticles (Yi/nHA), cerium/hydroxyapatite composite nanoparticles (Ce/nHA), and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nHA), against E. faecalis in vitro using the agar diffusion and broth dilution method by measuring the growth inhibition zone and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), respectively. The agar diffusion test results showed that Ag/nHA displayed an obvious growth inhibition zone, whereas Yi/nHA, Ce/nHA, and nHA showed no influence on E. faecalis. The MIC value of Ag/nHA was 1.0 g.L-1, and the three other materials had no effect on E.faecalis even at the high concentration of 32.0 g.L-1. Ag/nHA display a potential antimicrobial efficacy to planktonic E.faecalis. Whereas, the three other kinds of nano-hydroxyapatite composites (Yi/nHA, Ce/nHA, nHA) show no influence.

  3. Spectral identification of melon seeds variety based on k-nearest neighbor and Fisher discriminant analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cuiling; Jiang, Kai; Zhao, Xueguan; Fan, Pengfei; Wang, Xiu; Liu, Chuan

    2017-10-01

    Impurity of melon seeds variety will cause reductions of melon production and economic benefits of farmers, this research aimed to adopt spectral technology combined with chemometrics methods to identify melon seeds variety. Melon seeds whose varieties were "Yi Te Bai", "Yi Te Jin", "Jing Mi NO.7", "Jing Mi NO.11" and " Yi Li Sha Bai "were used as research samples. A simple spectral system was developed to collect reflective spectral data of melon seeds, including a light source unit, a spectral data acquisition unit and a data processing unit, the detection wavelength range of this system was 200-1100nm with spectral resolution of 0.14 7.7nm. The original reflective spectral data was pre-treated with de-trend (DT), multiple scattering correction (MSC), first derivative (FD), normalization (NOR) and Savitzky-Golay (SG) convolution smoothing methods. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method was adopted to reduce the dimensions of reflective spectral data and extract principal components. K-nearest neighbour (KNN) and Fisher discriminant analysis (FDA) methods were used to develop discriminant models of melon seeds variety based on PCA. Spectral data pretreatments improved the discriminant effects of KNN and FDA, FDA generated better discriminant results than KNN, both KNN and FDA methods produced discriminant accuracies reaching to 90.0% for validation set. Research results showed that using spectral technology in combination with KNN and FDA modelling methods to identify melon seeds variety was feasible.

  4. Iyengar-Yoga Compared to Exercise as a Therapeutic Intervention during (Neo)adjuvant Therapy in Women with Stage I-III Breast Cancer: Health-Related Quality of Life, Mindfulness, Spirituality, Life Satisfaction, and Cancer-Related Fatigue.

    PubMed

    Lötzke, Désirée; Wiedemann, Florian; Rodrigues Recchia, Daniela; Ostermann, Thomas; Sattler, Daniel; Ettl, Johannes; Kiechle, Marion; Büssing, Arndt

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to test the effects of yoga on health-related quality of life, life satisfaction, cancer-related fatigue, mindfulness, and spirituality compared to conventional therapeutic exercises during (neo)adjuvant cytotoxic and endocrine therapy in women with breast cancer. In a randomized controlled trial 92 women with breast cancer undergoing oncological treatment were randomly enrolled for a yoga intervention (YI) (n = 45) or for a physical exercise intervention (PEI) (n = 47). Measurements were obtained before (t 0) and after the intervention (t 1) as well as 3 months after finishing intervention (t 2) using standardized questionnaires. Life satisfaction and fatigue improved under PEI (p < 0.05) but not under YI (t 0 to t 2). Regarding quality of life (EORTC QLQ-C30) a direct effect (t 0 to t 1; p < 0.001) of YI was found on role and emotional functioning, while under PEI only emotional functioning improved. Significant improvements (p < 0.001) were observed at both t 1 and t 2 also for symptom scales in both groups: dyspnea, appetite loss, constipation, and diarrhea. There was no significant difference between therapies for none of the analyzed variables neither for t 1 nor for t 2. During chemotherapy, yoga was not seen as more helpful than conventional therapeutic exercises. This does not argue against its use in the recovery phase.

  5. Iyengar-Yoga Compared to Exercise as a Therapeutic Intervention during (Neo)adjuvant Therapy in Women with Stage I–III Breast Cancer: Health-Related Quality of Life, Mindfulness, Spirituality, Life Satisfaction, and Cancer-Related Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Lötzke, Désirée; Wiedemann, Florian; Rodrigues Recchia, Daniela; Ostermann, Thomas; Sattler, Daniel; Ettl, Johannes; Kiechle, Marion; Büssing, Arndt

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to test the effects of yoga on health-related quality of life, life satisfaction, cancer-related fatigue, mindfulness, and spirituality compared to conventional therapeutic exercises during (neo)adjuvant cytotoxic and endocrine therapy in women with breast cancer. In a randomized controlled trial 92 women with breast cancer undergoing oncological treatment were randomly enrolled for a yoga intervention (YI) (n = 45) or for a physical exercise intervention (PEI) (n = 47). Measurements were obtained before (t 0) and after the intervention (t 1) as well as 3 months after finishing intervention (t 2) using standardized questionnaires. Life satisfaction and fatigue improved under PEI (p < 0.05) but not under YI (t 0 to t 2). Regarding quality of life (EORTC QLQ-C30) a direct effect (t 0 to t 1; p < 0.001) of YI was found on role and emotional functioning, while under PEI only emotional functioning improved. Significant improvements (p < 0.001) were observed at both t 1 and t 2 also for symptom scales in both groups: dyspnea, appetite loss, constipation, and diarrhea. There was no significant difference between therapies for none of the analyzed variables neither for t 1 nor for t 2. During chemotherapy, yoga was not seen as more helpful than conventional therapeutic exercises. This does not argue against its use in the recovery phase. PMID:27019663

  6. Analysis of genetic correlations of hip height with selection indices and mature weight in Nelore cattle.

    PubMed

    Boligon, A A; Carvalheiro, R; Ayres, D R; Albuquerque, L G

    2013-02-01

    Body size is directly related to the productive and reproductive performance of beef cattle raised under free-range conditions. In an attempt to better plan selection criteria, avoiding extremes in body size, this study estimated the heritabilities and genetic correlations of yearling hip height (YH) and mature hip height (MH) with selection indices obtained at weaning (WI) and yearling (YI) and mature weight (MW). Data from 102,373 Nelore animals born between 1984 and 2010, which belong to 263 farms that participate in genetic evaluation programmes of beef cattle conducted in Brazil and Paraguay, were used. The (co)variance components and genetic parameters were estimated by Bayesian inference in multi-trait analysis using an animal model. The mean heritabilities for YH, MH and MW were 0.56 ± 0.06, 0.47 ± 0.02 and 0.42 ± 0.02, respectively. The genetic correlation of YH with WI (0.13 ± 0.01) and YI (0.11 ± 0.01) was practically zero, whereas a higher correlation was observed with MW (0.22 ± 0.03). Positive genetic correlations of medium magnitude were estimated between MH and WI and YI (0.23 ± 0.01 and 0.43 ± 0.02, respectively). On the other hand, a high genetic correlation (0.68 ± 0.03) was observed between the indicator traits of mature body size (MH and MW). Considering the top 20 % of sire (896 sires) in terms of breeding values for the yearling index, the rank sire correlations between breeding values for MH and MW was 0.62. In general, the results indicate that selection based on WI and YI should not lead to important changes in YH. However, an undesired correlated response in mature cow height is expected, particularly when selection is performed using YI. Therefore, changes in the body structure of Nelore females can be obtained when MH and MW is used as a selection criterion for cows.

  7. Soft and hard classification by reproducing kernel Hilbert space methods.

    PubMed

    Wahba, Grace

    2002-12-24

    Reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) methods provide a unified context for solving a wide variety of statistical modelling and function estimation problems. We consider two such problems: We are given a training set [yi, ti, i = 1, em leader, n], where yi is the response for the ith subject, and ti is a vector of attributes for this subject. The value of y(i) is a label that indicates which category it came from. For the first problem, we wish to build a model from the training set that assigns to each t in an attribute domain of interest an estimate of the probability pj(t) that a (future) subject with attribute vector t is in category j. The second problem is in some sense less ambitious; it is to build a model that assigns to each t a label, which classifies a future subject with that t into one of the categories or possibly "none of the above." The approach to the first of these two problems discussed here is a special case of what is known as penalized likelihood estimation. The approach to the second problem is known as the support vector machine. We also note some alternate but closely related approaches to the second problem. These approaches are all obtained as solutions to optimization problems in RKHS. Many other problems, in particular the solution of ill-posed inverse problems, can be obtained as solutions to optimization problems in RKHS and are mentioned in passing. We caution the reader that although a large literature exists in all of these topics, in this inaugural article we are selectively highlighting work of the author, former students, and other collaborators.

  8. Relationship between Sensory Perception and Frailty in a Community-Dwelling Elderly Population.

    PubMed

    Somekawa, S; Mine, T; Ono, K; Hayashi, N; Obuchi, S; Yoshida, H; Kawai, H; Fujiwara, Y; Hirano, H; Kojima, M; Ihara, K; Kim, H

    2017-01-01

    Aging anorexia, defined as loss of appetite and/or reduced food intake, has been postulated as a risk factor for frailty. Impairments of taste and smell perception in elderly people can lead to reduced enjoyment of food and contribute to the anorexia of aging. To evaluate the relationship between frailty and taste and smell perception in elderly people living in urban areas. Data from the baseline evaluation of 768 residents aged ≥ 65 years who enrolled in a comprehensive geriatric health examination survey was analyzed. Fourteen out of 29-items of Appetite, Hunger, Sensory Perception questionnaire (AHSP), frailty, age, sex, BMI, chronic conditions and IADL were evaluated. AHSP was analyzed as the total score of 8 taste items (T) and 6 smell items (S). Frailty was diagnosed using a modified Fried's frailty criteria. The area under the receiver operator curves for detection of frailty demonstrated that T (0.715) had moderate accuracy, but S (0.657) had low accuracy. The cutoffs, sensitivity, specificity and Youden Index (YI) values for each perception were T: Cutoff 26.5 (YI: 0.350, sensitivity: 0.639, specificity: 0.711) and S: Cutoff 18.5 (YI: 0.246, sensitivity: 0.690, specificity: 0.556). Results from multiple logistic regression models, after adjusting for age, sex, IADL and chronic conditions showed that participants under the T cutoff were associated with exhaustion and those below the S cutoff were associated with slow walking speed. The adjusted logistic models for age, sex, IADL and chronic conditions showed significant association between T and frailty (OR 2.81, 95% CI 1.29-6.12), but not between S and frailty (OR 1.73, 95% CI 0.83-3.63). Taste and smell perception, particularly taste perception, were associated with a greater risk of frailty in community-dwelling elderly people. These results suggest that lower taste and smell perception may be an indicator of frailty in old age.

  9. Behaviors Related to Mosquito-Borne Diseases among Different Ethnic Minority Groups along the China-Laos Border Areas.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chao; Guo, Xiaofang; Zhao, Jun; Lv, Quan; Li, Hongbin; McNeil, Edward B; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Zhou, Hongning

    2017-10-15

    Background : In China, mosquito-borne diseases are most common in the sub-tropical area of Yunnan province. The objective of this study was to examine behaviors related to mosquito-borne diseases in different ethnic minority groups and different socioeconomic groups of people living in this region. Methods : A stratified two-stage cluster sampling technique with probability proportional to size was used in Mengla County, Xishuangbanna Prefecture, Yunnan. Twelve villages were used to recruit adult (≥18 years old) and eight schools were used for children (<18 years old). A questionnaire on behaviors and environment variables related to mosquito-borne diseases was devised. Results : Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) grouped 20 behaviors into three domains, namely, environmental condition, bed net use behaviors, and repellent use behaviors, respectively. The Han ethnicity had the lowest odds of rearing pigs, their odds being significantly lower than those of Yi and Yao. For bed net use, Dai and other ethnic minority groups were less likely to use bed nets compared to Yi and Yao. The odds of repellent use in the Han ethnicity was lower than in Yi, but higher than in Dai. The Dai group was the most likely ethnicity to use repellents. Farmers were at a higher risk for pig rearing and not using repellents. Education of less than primary school held the lowest odds of pig rearing. Those with low income were at a higher risk for not using bed nets and repellent except in pig rearing. Those with a small family size were at a lower risk for pig rearing. Conclusion : Different ethnic and socioeconomic groups in the study areas require different specific emphases for the prevention of mosquito-borne diseases.

  10. Systematic assessment of the representativeness of published collections of the traditional literature on Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    May, Brian H; Lu, Yubo; Lu, Chuanjian; Zhang, Anthony L; Chang, Suyueh; Xue, Charlie C L

    2013-05-01

    The traditional Chinese medical literature provides a substantial resource for natural products research. When undertaking systematic searches, investigators need to assess the scope, content, and relevance of collections both singly and in comparison. This study examines eight collections of pre-modern literature, develops an approach to quantitatively assess their content, and compares their relative inclusivity. All publications listed in each collection were collated and a uniform scoring system was developed to account for variant editions, incorporation of multiple books under a single title, addition of commentaries, and other factors affecting content. Comparisons were undertaken between collections to determine the degree of overlap, genres of literature represented, and relevance to natural products research. Following adjustments for differences in how books were listed, duplications, and variant editions, Zhong Hua Yi Dian (Encyclopaedia of Traditional Chinese Medicine) (4th edition CD) is the largest collection of complete books containing 1009 different books. Zhong Guo Ben Cao Quan Shu (The Complete Collection of Traditional Texts on Chinese Materia Medica) contains 2026 titles including multiple editions and extracts, so after adjustments the number of different complete books is approximately 740. No collection was fully inclusive of the others, but Zhong Hua Yi Dian includes between 52.1% and 91.5% of the books in the six smaller collections. Comparing traditional collections is complex due to variant editions and multiple titles. This necessitates examination of the text rather than title alone. Prior to undertaking systematic searches, the characteristics of collections need to be investigated, duplicated books identified, and differences between editions should be assessed. Its size, electronic format, and broad spread of genres makes Zhong Hua Yi Dian suitable for systematic searches, but due to the lack of bibliographical detail on included

  11. Ethnic variations in myopia and ocular biometry among adults in a rural community in China: the Yunnan minority eye studies.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chen-Wei; Chen, Qin; Sheng, Xun; Li, Jun; Niu, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Hua; Wei, Tao; Yuan, Yuansheng; Zhong, Hua

    2015-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of myopia and ocular biometry in population-based samples of ethnic Yi and Han people living in an inland rural community in China. A random cluster sampling strategy was used to select ethnic Han and Yi adults aged 50 years or older living in Yunnan. Refractive error was determined by subjective refraction and ocular biometric parameters, including axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), vitreous chamber depth (VCD), and lens thickness (LT), which were measured using an Echoscan. Adults of Yi ethnicity had lower prevalence of myopia (10.3% vs. 8.1%; P = 0.02) and high myopia (2.3% vs. 1.6%; P = 0.10) than their counterparts of Han ethnicity. The prevalence of myopia increased with age (P for trend < 0.05), whereas the mean AL did not differ significantly among age groups in both ethnic groups (both P for trend > 0.05). In multivariate analysis, time spent outdoors was associated with myopia (P = 0.003) and AL (P < 0.001) but not high myopia (P = 0.33). No interaction effect was detected between ethnicity and other risk factors on myopia (all P > 0.05). Adjustment for lens nuclear opacity score reduced the excess prevalence of myopia in Han ethnicity by 37.5%. There was little evidence showing that ethnic disparities existed in the prevalence and risk factors between the major and minor ethnic groups living in the same communities in rural China. The "cohort effect" on myopia observed in many other populations was not seen in this study.

  12. Prevalence, types and awareness of glaucoma in a multi-ethnic population in rural China: the Yunnan Minority Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chen-Wei; Zhao, Chun-Hua; Yu, Min-Bin; Cun, Qing; Chen, Qin; Shen, Wei; Li, Jun; Xu, Jian-Gang; Yuan, Yuansheng; Zhong, Hua

    2016-11-01

    To determine the prevalence, types and awareness of glaucoma in a rural community in China and to examine possible ethnic variations. The Yunnan Minority Eye Study was a multi-ethnic community-based eye survey using random cluster sampling strategies. 2133 Bai, 2205 Han and 2208 Yi Chinese aged 50 years or older participated in this study. Glaucoma including primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) and secondary glaucoma was defined based on the International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology criteria. The overall age-standardized prevalence of all glaucoma was 2.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.2-3.1%) in this population. It was 1.8% (95% CI: 1.1-1.9%) for POAG and 0.5% (95% CI: 0.9-1.6%) for PACG, respectively. Among 29 people with secondary glaucoma, 27 (93%) were blind in at least one eye. The presence of primary open-angle glaucoma was associated with male gender (odds ratio [OR] = 2.94; comparing men with women), Yi ethnicity (OR = 2.27; comparing Yi with Han people), higher IOP (OR = 1.09 per mmHg increase), and the presence of myopia (OR = 1.84). Of the 212 participants with glaucoma, only 38 (18%) were aware of the disease and had been diagnosed previously as having glaucoma or suspected glaucoma. Patients who were better educated tended to be aware of the disease. Significant ethnic difference in the prevalence of POAG was observed in this study. The low awareness of glaucoma highlights the pressing need to increase public awareness of this potentially blinding condition in rural China. © 2016 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2016 The College of Optometrists.

  13. Action spectra of photosystems II and I and quantum yield of photosynthesis in leaves in State 1.

    PubMed

    Laisk, Agu; Oja, Vello; Eichelmann, Hillar; Dall'Osto, Luca

    2014-02-01

    The spectral global quantum yield (YII, electrons/photons absorbed) of photosystem II (PSII) was measured in sunflower leaves in State 1 using monochromatic light. The global quantum yield of PSI (YI) was measured using low-intensity monochromatic light flashes and the associated transmittance change at 810nm. The 810-nm signal change was calibrated based on the number of electrons generated by PSII during the flash (4·O2 evolution) which arrived at the PSI donor side after a delay of 2ms. The intrinsic quantum yield of PSI (yI, electrons per photon absorbed by PSI) was measured at 712nm, where photon absorption by PSII was small. The results were used to resolve the individual spectra of the excitation partitioning coefficients between PSI (aI) and PSII (aII) in leaves. For comparison, pigment-protein complexes for PSII and PSI were isolated, separated by sucrose density ultracentrifugation, and their optical density was measured. A good correlation was obtained for the spectral excitation partitioning coefficients measured by these different methods. The intrinsic yield of PSI was high (yI=0.88), but it absorbed only about 1/3 of quanta; consequently, about 2/3 of quanta were absorbed by PSII, but processed with the low intrinsic yield yII=0.63. In PSII, the quantum yield of charge separation was 0.89 as detected by variable fluorescence Fv/Fm, but 29% of separated charges recombined (Laisk A, Eichelmann H and Oja V, Photosynth. Res. 113, 145-155). At wavelengths less than 580nm about 30% of excitation is absorbed by pigments poorly connected to either photosystem, most likely carotenoids bound in pigment-protein complexes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Traits Explaining Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum L. spp. Durum) Yield in Dry Chilean Mediterranean Environments

    PubMed Central

    González-Ribot, Gerlitt; Opazo, Marcela; Silva, Paola; Acevedo, Edmundo

    2017-01-01

    Yield under water stress (YS) is used as the main criterion in the selection of wheat varieties for dry Mediterranean environments. It has been proposed that selection of genotypes using YS assisted by morphological and physiological traits associated with YS is more efficient in selecting high yielding genotypes for dry environments. A study was carried out at the Antumapu Experiment Station of the University of Chile, located in Santiago, Chile (33° 40′S and 70° 38′ W). The objective was to evaluate the extent to which morpho physiological traits could explain YS. For this purpose, grain yield and yield components of 185 durum wheat genotypes from ICARDA (International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas) and INIA (Chilean National Institute for Agricultural Research) were evaluated along with seed size and weight, days to heading (DH), glaucousness (GLAU), plant height (PH) and 13C discrimination (Δ). The design was an α-lattice with two replications, the genotypes were grown in two different water conditions (high and low irrigation) during two seasons (2011-2012/2012-2013). Grain weight (GW) was the only yield component with high H associated with YS, but it was not associated with yield under high irrigation (YI). The combination of YI with DH+GLAU+PH+Δ+GW obtained in LI environments explained a greater fraction of YS (38%) across years; these traits had lower genotype x environment interaction than YS, they also explained a higher proportion of yield under drought than YI. None of the traits studied could replace YS in selections for grain yield. It is concluded that these traits could aid in the selection of durum wheat subject to water stress, particularly in early generations. PMID:29104578

  15. Attention deficits revealed by passive auditory change detection for pure tones and lexical tones in ADHD children.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming-Tao; Hsu, Chun-Hsien; Yeh, Pei-Wen; Lee, Wang-Tso; Liang, Jao-Shwann; Fu, Wen-Mei; Lee, Chia-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Inattention (IA) has been a major problem in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), accounting for their behavioral and cognitive dysfunctions. However, there are at least three processing steps underlying attentional control for auditory change detection, namely pre-attentive change detection, involuntary attention orienting, and attention reorienting for further evaluation. This study aimed to examine whether children with ADHD would show deficits in any of these subcomponents by using mismatch negativity (MMN), P3a, and late discriminative negativity (LDN) as event-related potential (ERP) markers, under the passive auditory oddball paradigm. Two types of stimuli-pure tones and Mandarin lexical tones-were used to examine if the deficits were general across linguistic and non-linguistic domains. Participants included 15 native Mandarin-speaking children with ADHD and 16 age-matched controls (across groups, age ranged between 6 and 15 years). Two passive auditory oddball paradigms (lexical tones and pure tones) were applied. The pure tone oddball paradigm included a standard stimulus (1000 Hz, 80%) and two deviant stimuli (1015 and 1090 Hz, 10% each). The Mandarin lexical tone oddball paradigm's standard stimulus was /yi3/ (80%) and two deviant stimuli were /yi1/ and /yi2/ (10% each). The results showed no MMN difference, but did show attenuated P3a and enhanced LDN to the large deviants for both pure and lexical tone changes in the ADHD group. Correlation analysis showed that children with higher ADHD tendency, as indexed by parents' and teachers' ratings on ADHD symptoms, showed less positive P3a amplitudes when responding to large lexical tone deviants. Thus, children with ADHD showed impaired auditory change detection for both pure tones and lexical tones in both involuntary attention switching, and attention reorienting for further evaluation. These ERP markers may therefore be used for the evaluation of anti-ADHD drugs that aim to

  16. Behaviors Related to Mosquito-Borne Diseases among Different Ethnic Minority Groups along the China-Laos Border Areas

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chao; Guo, Xiaofang; Zhao, Jun; Lv, Quan; Li, Hongbin; McNeil, Edward B.; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Zhou, Hongning

    2017-01-01

    Background: In China, mosquito-borne diseases are most common in the sub-tropical area of Yunnan province. The objective of this study was to examine behaviors related to mosquito-borne diseases in different ethnic minority groups and different socioeconomic groups of people living in this region. Methods: A stratified two-stage cluster sampling technique with probability proportional to size was used in Mengla County, Xishuangbanna Prefecture, Yunnan. Twelve villages were used to recruit adults (≥18 years old) and eight schools were used for children (<18 years old). A questionnaire on behaviors and environment variables related to mosquito-borne diseases was devised. Results: Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) grouped 20 behaviors into three domains, namely, environmental condition, bed net use behaviors, and repellent use behaviors, respectively. The Han ethnicity had the lowest odds of rearing pigs, their odds being significantly lower than those of Yi and Yao. For bed net use, Dai and other ethnic minority groups were less likely to use bed nets compared to Yi and Yao. The odds of repellent use in the Han ethnicity was lower than in Yi, but higher than in Dai. The Dai group was the most likely ethnicity to use repellents. Farmers were at a higher risk for pig rearing and not using repellents. Education of less than primary school held the lowest odds of pig rearing. Those with low income were at a higher risk for not using bed nets and repellent except in pig rearing. Those with a small family size were at a lower risk for pig rearing. Conclusion: Different ethnic and socioeconomic groups in the study areas require different specific emphases for the prevention of mosquito-borne diseases. PMID:29036937

  17. Nonzero θ13 from the Triangular Ansatz and Leptogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benaoum, H. B.

    2012-08-01

    Recent experiments indicate a departure from the exact tri-bimaximal mixing by measure ring definitive nonzero value of θ13. Within the framework of type I seesaw mechanism, we reconstruct the triangular Dirac neutrino mass matrix from the μ - τ symmetric mass matrix. The deviation from μ - τ symmetry is then parametrized by adding dimensionless parameters yi in the triangular mass matrix. In this parametrization of the neutrino mass matrix, the nonzero value θ13 is controlled by Δy = y4 - y6. We also calculate the resulting leptogenesis and show that the triangular texture can generate the observed baryon asymmetry in the universe via leptogenesis scenario.

  18. Diagnostics and Robust Estimation When Transforming the Regression Model and the Response.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-01

    Bounded-influence estimators place a bound on the influence function of each observation. Bounded-influence regression estimators have been proposed by...Hampel et al. (1986, chapter 4) for further details. First we note that the influence function of 9 satisfying (14) is IF -)8""’IF.(yi,.9) B -.(Y. ,9...where 1 1.1-1 Page 21 B - N-I N T B N IZ NVT O(Y0]1=1 1 1iY~). This definition of the influence function is conditional on x .. XN but coincides with

  19. Wing Axial Loads and Stresses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1950-10-04

    Appendix "A" A-l to 2 4 7 8 8 15 16 17 19 22 22 26 33 36 44 45 56 56 57 58 61 100 101 102 104 105 107 110 13 A-3 14 A-4...RrpoatNo 70I7C-I •• j-’J"- - .-•*• ’ Ilk I 4 -.- / ’• X .6 *B*t£Sb FAS Ö-1Q-50® rHb <A1QIRrPÖFT fO inr. MODEL y^i^ C

  20. A Numerical Model for the Computation of Radiance Distributions in Natural Waters with Wind-Roughened Surfaces, Part 2: User’s Guide and Code Listing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    8217) END IF C..... SOLUTION STEP 9 C COMPUTE THE AMPLITUDE A(A.’) C CALL AMPAP c WERKY1) NOW COtJ1AINS ACCA ,’). THE kF.,ELTED DIRECT BEAM C C END OF...FUNCTID IN IS USED;’//, SIGMA(V.COS(PSI)) = )’Y)I(44PI) wHERE/fl 2’ IV V S(V) ALPHA(Y) S,/ALPH-A!) 102 FORMAT ( H 14, F8 .IF8 .3,FI10.3, FlI1.3 END 95 §5

  1. Phosphorous fractions in soils of rubber-based agroforestry systems: Influence of season, management and stand age.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chenggang; Jin, Yanqiang; Liu, Changan; Tang, Jianwei; Wang, Qingwei; Xu, Mingxi

    2018-03-01

    Rubber-based agroforestry system is a vital management practice and its productivity is often controlled by soil phosphorus (P) nutrient, but little information is available on P fractions dynamics in such system. The aim of this study was to examine the seasonal, management and stand age effects on P fractions, acid phosphatase activity, microbial biomass P, other physical-chemical properties and litter and roots in four systems: 10-year-old rubber mono- (YM) and intercropping (YI) with N-fixing species (NFS), 22-year-old mono- (MM) and intercropping (MI) in Xishuangbanna, Southwestern China. Most P fractions varied seasonally at different depths, with highest values in the fog-cool season (i.e. labile P at 5-60cm, non-labile P and total P at 30-60cm). By contrast, moderately labile P varied little over time, except in MI that had lower values in the rainy season. Compared with their monoculture counterparts, YI doubled resin-P i concentration but decreased NaHCO 3 -extractable P, HCl-P i and residual-P o at the 0-30cm depth, whereas MI had hardly any changes in P species at the 60-cm depth. Surprisingly, residual-P o was enriched down to the deepest soil (30-60cm) in both YI and MI in the fog-cool season. All P fractions, except NaOH 0.1 -P i , were greatly reduced with increasing stand age. In addition to plants uptake, these changes can be explained by seasonality in soil environments (e.g. moisture, temperature, pH and microbial activity) and decomposition of litter and roots. Moreover, YI decreased labile P o stock, but MI increased moderately labile P i at the 60-cm depth across seasons. The results imply that a large amount of residual-P o exists in acidic Oxisol from China and that they can be reasonably exploited to reduce the application of P fertilizers, highlighting the importance of P o pool. Taken together, intercropping mature rubber plantation with NFS appears to be an effective way to enhance productivity while maintaining adequate soil P

  2. Optoelectronic Device Integration in Silicon (OpSIS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-26

    silicon-on-insulator," Opt. Express 22, 17872-17879 (2014) Y. Yang, C. Galland, Y. Liu, K. Tan , R. Ding, Q. Li, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, M...Ding, Ran; Liu, Yang; Ayazi, Ali; Pinguet, Thierry; Harris, Nicholas C; Streshinsky, Matt; Lee, Poshen; Zhang, Yi; Lim, Andy Eu-Jin; “Ultralow drive...Ding, Ran; Harris, Nicholas C; Baehr-Jones, Tom; Hochberg, Michael; “Broadband on-chip optical non-reciprocity using phase modulators” Optics express

  3. Stability and Adaptation of Neural Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-02

    lI ion:S,(xff) IW wher IIx I A + + x deine th sqare ~-Thle SCL2 algorithm slightly modifies thie SCLI algo- cI idean vector lorin oi x rithm. The...bles the reward-punish sign ch?.nge in the SCLI and SCL2 AS, (yi (t)) denotes the time change of the jth neurons algorithms. This suggests that we...xi, then the discrete version of DCL resembles the UCL, SCLI , and SCL2 algorithms. We used both iin- I if x > 0 ear and nonlinear formulations to

  4. THE PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS: Topological aspects in a two-component Bose condensed system in a neutron star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Ji-Rong; Guo, Heng

    2009-08-01

    By making use of Duan-Ge's decomposition theory of gauge potential and the topological current theory proposed by Prof. Duan Yi-Shi, we study a two-component superfluid Bose condensed system, which is supposed to be realized in the interior of neutron stars in the form of the coexistence of a neutron superfluid and a protonic superconductor. We propose that this system possesses vortex lines. The topological charges of the vortex lines are characterized by the Hopf indices and the Brower degrees of ø-mapping.

  5. Griffon Helicopter Neck Strain Project: Part 1: Mission Function Task Analysis and Physical Demands Analysis Report. Part 2: Physical Demands Analysis Library

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    nor limited to only rotary wing aircraft such as the CH-146 Griffon Helicopter. In fact, it is an international problem that militaries have been...Quality of Life Grant #1725981 and Military Health Program W3931-050513- 001/SV. Perry, C. E., Buhrman, J. R. and Knox, F. S. (1993). Biodynamic testing...a nd P D A Pa ge 1 24 V ig ne tte 1: L og ist ic s S up po rt a nd S ur ve ill an ce M iss io n Fl yi ng P ilo t: M is si on C lo

  6. JPRS Report, West Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-04

    this point, only one dark spot remains: How and where to find the 3,600 billion lire that must go into the Defense budget for fiscal year 1988. "We... escudo " continues to divide the members of the panel. As a matter of fact, while 21.4 percent mention it as the factor that most positively...Demand ^y Exchange Rate 6^ 28,9% of the Escudo OUTUBRO 87 410/y^i Government’s i!^0 2S𔃽°yL Economic Policy Domestic "S?/^. Demand Cost

  7. Parallel Flux Tensor Analysis for Efficient Moving Object Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    computing as well as parallelization to enable real time performance in analyzing complex video [3, 4 ]. There are a number of challenging computer vision... 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE Parallel Flux Tensor Analysis for Efficient Moving Object Detection 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...We use the trace of the flux tensor matrix, referred to as Tr JF , that is defined below, Tr JF = ∫ Ω W (x− y)(I2xt(y) + I2yt(y) + I2tt(y))dy ( 4 ) as

  8. Inferences from Images: Final Report 1984-1987

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    can be described by a twice- differentiable surface (not necessarily planar) Z(X,Y). Image coordinates will be denoted by lower-case letters (z, yi...velocity at the origin in the z and y directions. The next four can be thought of as describing the deformation of a differential neighborhood around...equivalent, they give the same solution for ( N1e ...,A4,T1 ,T2 ). This establishes the claim for the general case. Two special cases that were excluded from

  9. Geometric derivations of minimal sets of sufficient multiview constraints

    Thomas, Orrin H.; Oshel, Edward R.

    2012-01-01

    Geometric interpretations of four of the most common determinant formulations of multiview constraints are given, showing that they all enforce the same geometry and that all of the forms commonly in use in the machine vision community are a subset of a more general form. Generalising the work of Yi Ma yields a new general 2 x 2 determinant trilinear and 3 x 3 determinant quadlinear. Geometric descriptions of degenerate multiview constraints are given, showing that it is necessary, but insufficient, that the determinant equals zero. Understanding the degeneracies leads naturally into proofs for minimum sufficient sets of bilinear, trilinear and quadlinear constraints for arbitrary numbers of conjugate observations.

  10. Inactivation of Spores of Bacillus Species by Wet Heat: Studies on Single Spores Using Laser Tweezers Taman Spectroscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. a...Applied and Environmental Microbiology, (08 2011): 0. doi: 10.1128/ AEM .05031-11 11/13/2011 21.00 J. Liu, J. R. Faeder, P. Setlow, X. Yi. Synergism...individual spores was measured by fluorescence emission , while changes in spore refractility and the level of CaDPA were monitored by phase contrast

  11. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory Aerodynamically Shaped Tethered Balloon. 45,000 Cubic Feet.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    21 ~i ag 1 -- - - - - ’U - .~ zw ’U - - .~ -- ~ - ~-4 a~ - ~ N. ’U 1 N. - - - ~ - - ~- >- - ~J-’~ - -4-4 ~4 Cf -4 N N~’ N -, N. N.-~N.N.- N. ~ ~ ~ N N...extent that the physical parafmters will change, thus requiring vendor formulation selection. The above polymers plus others such as Teflon, Saran and EPDM ...Lnating Between Plies L utYi1 rubber i,, recommended by ILC Dover, instead of neoprene, for the middle 1,1vor of 󈧏 two ply biased laminated

  12. Navier-Stokes Solution for a NACA 0012 Airfoil with Mass Flux (Fan)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    unsymmetrical because points on) the body were clustered over the suction and ejection surfaces which, is evident in Figure 11. The number of points in...TRANSFORMATION DERIVATIVES C U,: VELOCITY COMPONENTS C RHO DENSITY C P PRESSURE . IS NON DIMENSIONALIZED BY 1/) GMX *MACHD..2) C XMU VISCOSITY C RE...8217Y1(-Y(.I3..2 9364 CONtIUJE WRITROOCUNI.. .. CLUSTERINGS * 1B2 . CRT.LP101 T’ : .LE NLONER VXNNN - LOWE; ALEC - AR ZFk IE! -ARCLEN A2; 20D0 FORMAT

  13. Modification of Programs CHIEF and CID to Compute Sound Radiation from an Arbitrary Body with Mixed Boundary Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    layer surfaces (NSU * NSV) DIMENSION CC(1I), TRNS(3), IELTS (8, 311) REAL Xl(lH@), YI(liOI) CHARACTER*3 SYMTYP CHARACTER*4 FLOTYP, TAPEID, PRTTYP INTEGER...element data. WRITE(NUINPRT, 1411) 1410 FORMAT(//,’ EEENT DATA’,/) DO 1412 1 = 1, I6EE WIlTE(KUNPRT,1411) 1, ( IELTS (J,1),J=1,S) 1412 CONTINUE 00 1414...1 = 1, iaaiM DO 1413 J =1, S CC(J) IELTS (J, 1) 1413 CONTINUE XIRG = XIRG * 1 CALL LDSURR(XIRG, 10, CC, TRNS, XIZAX, 22 NRL MEMORANDUM REPORT 6813 1

  14. BRIK, An Interactive, Goal Programming Model for Nuclear Exchange Problems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    Hedging),(ZW d-),(de+)) 2) min (( Td ),(Hedging),(Tdj-),(Zdi7),(de+)) 3) min ((Zd +),(2:d +),(Hedging),(d )) Constraint Set st: -. (nS ij)yi j + dj...1 Z; L- L) U u~ c) r-c L 00 0 0 0) +* -’ 0ki I . 9-I 0 t- ’f) +fl -4-4C N- M1-~C q, b") u3 Ul)4) . a) 0f c~4 ) al N U- 4) i Ill aj - X 111 a 10 C L

  15. Intensity of the Internal Standard Response as the Basis for Reporting a Test Specimen as Negative or Inconclusive

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    Documentation Page 1 . Report No. 2. Government Accession No. 3. Recipient’s Catalog No. DOT/FAA/AM-07/23 4. Title and Subtitle 5. Report Date...Organization Code 7. Author(s) 8. Performing Organization Report No. Ray H. Liu, 1 Chih-Hung Wu, 1 Yi-Jun Chen, 1 Chiung-Dan Chang, 1 Jason G...Investigation and the Office of Aerospace Medicine for sponsoring part of this research. 1 IntensIty of the Internal standard response as the BasIs

  16. Uncovering the Physical Basis Connecting Environment and Tribological Performance of Ultrananocrystalline Diamond

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-05

    Anisotropic Nanotribological Properties,” Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, Vol. 4, Issue 4, pp. 515-522 (SCI) Kuo -Cheng Chen...Nanodiamond With the Polymer Used as an Additive in Lubricant Oil,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, Vol. 21, pp. 13213-13222 (SCI) Chih- Jung Chen, Ray...Deep Submicron to Nano-Scale,” Journal of Mechanics, Vol. 28, Issue 3, pp. 507-511 (SCI) Yeau-Ren Jeng, Yi-Min Wang, Hua-Chiang Wen, Shih -Ming Huang

  17. Multiscale Mathematics for Nano-Particle-Endowed Active Membranes and Films

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-03

    Formation in Biofilms ,” Contemporary Mathematics (586), 2013, 105-116. 2. Yi Sun and Qi Wang, “Modeling and Simulations of Multicellular Aggregate Self...6402. 21. Hua Jiang, Hao Yang, Jun Zeng, Zhiyuan Zhou, Jin Peng, Qi Wang, Analytic Oncology, Electron J Metab Nutr Cancer ,Jun. 2015,Vol. 2, No. 2, 26...30. 22. Chen Chen, Dacheng Ren, Mingming Ren and Qi Wang, “3-D Spatial-Temporal Structures of Biofilms in A Water Channel,” Mathematical Methods

  18. High Voltage Design Guide for Airborne Equipment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-06-01

    Capacitance (Capacity). That property of a system of conductors and dielec- trics which permits the storage of electricity when potential dii’ference exists...rjldtlve low prr•strPs ani’d t (.::;•t.rd t LJr e S Pol yI, rene. A thc r:".li1 ti c p!c.,duu.•’d by th [ olyref r i i it on of st yreute (vi nyl Poly i...by cutting continuous filaments, to short lengtn~s. Storage Life. The period nf time during .inich ,liquid re-i: or adi* dye ca3r. be sored anu remain

  19. Central and Peripheral Significance of Neuropeptide Y and Its Related Peptides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-15

    Forskolin-Stimulated cAMP Concentrations in Neuroblastoma Cells " YI Y2 (SK-N-MC) (SK-N-BE2) pNPY 22 ± 8.1 7.8 _ 3.5 pllle 3 ,Pro314 NPY 9.6 ± 4.0 > 1000...peritoneal mast cells evoked by pNPY 1-36. NPY 22 -36 and NPY 26-36. Mast cells were prepared and i/ studied as described previously," and histamine was...Interestingly, NPY 22 -36 was at least as potent as NPY 1-36. Since, in addition, NPY 26-36 retained some activity on mast cells , while being

  20. Spacecraft and Stellar Occultations by Turbulent Planetary Atmospheres. A Theoretical Investigation of Various Wave Propagation Effects and Their Impact on Derived Profiles of Refractivity, Temperature and Pressure,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-08

    by writing the electric field observer approaches the focal as E = A exp I i(kS - wt) 1, where A is le in the plane ofthc sky the amplitude and kS...lowest-order correction to the electric field E. Writing z- [@ (Yi-Yo) 2 + o (zI -z 0 c 0 (zI - o) 3 4c 2 (z, -Zo) 2 (, -yo) + ... (3.14) it is...si ellair oc cult at ions when t It(- tcondit ions leadlIn-,, to equation (7.2) are satisfied. Thus equtins 17. 1) and( ( 7.2) ielt the( vatriance

  1. Performance Analysis and Odometry Improvement of an Omnidirectional Mobile Robot for Outdoor Terrain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    sin cos , , =      +=         = iD v v i i b yi xi i ξ ξ φ xx (1) where ix and bx are the planer velocity vectors at the i-th...variables given by an operator. The wheel angular velocities, ωi,L and ωi,R, that yield the desired i-th ASOC planer velocity are formulated as follows

  2. Application Actuation Trade Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    for a safe ditching or bailout. 3.10.2 Electrical Power System The electrical power systcm for the Baseline Airplanc is recuired to provide...results achieved can be duplicated by a user. The RCA PRICE Podel calculates the RDTSE. Production cost, and creates the YiDF file for use in the PCA...transmitters can create very broad spectrums of high frequency components by a rapid change in voltage and/or energy level. A rapid change of one volt is

  3. Segmentation and Analysis of Stereophotometric Body Surface Data.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    each anterior superior iliac spine. Anthropometry : Study of the physical dimensions of the human body. Articulated Total Body Model: Computer...X2 ) (x- xl ) + YI’ 0) (A.l) with x variable. Let the segmenting plane they are being compared to have a normal vector with components (nI , n2, n3...gives n3 ( z) ( Xl -X 2 ) + nX(XX + Xn 2 (Y-y 2 ) + n2 (Z -Y1 ) ( Xl -X 2 ) (A.3b) n 1 n(X 1-X 2 + n 2(Yl-y 2) Note that since the segmenting plane passes

  4. Management Control of Flight Operations (OFC-01) Funds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    3uide to Badgeta: y an ~~q.jntContro Svst___. -mpi~,~9 Ivancevich, John M. Szilagyi ,, Jr. kndrew D. and Wallace , Jr. Marc J,, OQ~anizational Bhivior...Sz~iagyi., and Wallace term the socio-techn-Ical systems molel. Showai in Figure 2-1, the molel is an input-transfociatior.-oLtpat system. The system...anA Performance, Goo)dyear Publi-hi-Ef ’ComP~ay,-rIc. T~7777 Ivancevich, John M., Szila; yi, Jr. kardrew D., and Wallace Jr. Marc J., Readi~qct In

  5. [Huxianweng (The Old man of Bottle Immortal) is not a famous doctor in the Eastern Han Dynasty].

    PubMed

    Li, B

    2017-01-28

    The name Huxianweng appeared in the Ming yi lei an ( Classified Medical Records of Famous Physicians ) did not live in the Eastern Han. Moreover, all medical cases it collected were not belonged to him alone but the accumulation of many people in several periods. By textual investigation, the prototype of Huxianweng is Yin Fu who lived in Yizheng County, Jiangsu Province in the end of the Ming Dynasty. He had expertise in medical skills and high medical ethics, and was therefore loved by the residents deeply. Besides, people alleged many mysterious cases to be cured by him which actually is not true.

  6. Theranostics Targeting Metastatic Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    Methodist Hospital Houston, TX 77030 REPORT DATE: October 2017 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command...77030 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort...near-IR imaging agents and PDT therapeutics in vivo (see below). They will be tested in this upcoming research year. N+ -O3S N SO3- N+Me3Me3+N OO YI

  7. Translations on North Korea, Number 546.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-08-26

    Comrade Ho Tam " Kye Ung -t’ae " Pak Yong -sok Functionary of the sector concerned Yi Ch’ang-son " Chon In-ch’ol " [Pyongyang NODONG SINMUN in Korean 14...functionary of the sector concerned Kim Tu- yong . [Pyongyang NODONG SINMUN in Korean 15 Jun 77 p 2] ARAB DELEGATION WELCOME—The following participated...Hwa-son . Functionary of the sector concerned Kim Yong -sun " [Pyongyang NODONG SINMUN in Korean 15 Jun 77 p 3] ARAB DELEGATION BANQUET—Attending a

  8. Air Traffic Control/Active Beacon Collision Avoidance System Knoxville Simulation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    I’s & AIRCRAFT 2’s POSITION VECTOR. ENTER (X1l,Y,Zl,,ZI,2) & (X2,Y2,Z2,X2,Y2,i2) As x = XI-X2 Y= Yl-Y2 VRX =Xi-X2 VRY = YI-Y2 MD2 -(4X*\\’RY - AY*vHJ...2 VRX 2 + vRy 2 M SQRT(MD2) YES MD> MDCM FILTER + OR - COMAND IF FITER VAVE TITRj-SITnLD PERFORMANCE LEATl. VALIE 3 o . U mi 5 3.0 1in t ;u~i:F-2

  9. Polarimetry Studies of Ionospheric Modification by Rocket boosters.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-27

    Chemical Releases Polarimetry Studies Rocket Booster Effects Faraday Rotation 20. ABSTRACT (Coniros an ,Oer* e side It necessary and Identify by block...1112 InL I X (I _ Tl : YI) Rijl I ± ,2 for the radiowave whose electric field is given by E - E ,(z) exp ( w) + c.c. - i + Ej (2) 3 REILLY, |tARNISH, AND...has a simple phasor represen- ta "n through the definition F - E , +j E ,. (3) The linearly polarized radiowave is represented in terms of the

  10. Unsolved Problems in Evolutionary Theory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1967-01-01

    finding the probability of survival of a single new mutant). Most natural populations probably satisfy these conditions , as is illustrated by the...Ykl) of small quantities adding to zero. Then under suitable conditions on the function f(x), (3) xi + Yi,t+i = fi(x) + YE yjfi(tf) + O(y yt...It is clear that a sufficient condition for the point x to be locally stable is that all the roots of the matrix, (4) (a j) = ____ should have moduli

  11. The p38–PGC-1α–irisin–betatrophin axis

    PubMed Central

    Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Perez-Quilis, Carme

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of irisin as a novel and promising peptidic hormone has raised hopes regarding the hypothesis that irisin may provide additional benefits, not only for obesity and diabetes, but also for a wide range of pathological conditions since this hormone may prove to be therapeutically and clinically beneficial. In addition, a new hormone, betatrophin, has recently been identified by Yi and coworkers. Both hormones are connected by a new pathway clearly involved in insulin resistance. We hypothesize here how these hormones may be linked and their possible implications in both aged-reduced restricted regenerative capacity and dedifferentiated β cells of diabetic patients. PMID:24575373

  12. Consensus Control of Complex and Multi-scale Networks with Network Uncertainty and Adversary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-02

    Mu 0.80 Yang Wang 0.50 1.60 3 PERCENT_SUPPORTEDNAME FTE Equivalent: Total Number: National Academy Member George Yin 0.11 Le Yi Wang 0.11 0.22 2...0) Nicholas Baran (0) Lijian Xu (0.3) Zhixin Yang (0) 4 PERCENT_SUPPORTEDNAME FTE Equivalent: Total Number: Project Report... Jifeng  Zhang, Asymptotically efficient identification of FIR systems with  quantized observations and general quantized inputs, Automatica, Vol. 57, pp

  13. Proceedings of Image Understanding Workshop Held at Miami, Florida on 9- 10 December 1985

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    established powerful tecl’n;ques f()( adaptatiOn and change in these networks (Feldmar.. 1982). A major milc:su..ne was ac;hie~ed with Sabbah’s thesis ...guation." Ph.D. thesis , Cor.1puter Science Dept.., Unh. Rochester. r\\p.il 1985; also TR145. Comput~.:r Science Dept, Lmv. Rochester. ~ .. 1ay, 1985...i(ien.:e Maater’• Thesis , 1985. Fl«lc, Mar~arrt. "Local Rotational !’yiDmetria: ~.t~hu!~etts Institute o( Tcc:hnology Dep.~rtmeot ol Electrical

  14. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-29

    have a duty to him. [Letter from Nadezhda Nikolayevna Kuzmina , Lenin- gradskaya Oblast] I am raising three sons and the oldest will enter the army...JPRS-UMA-88-023 29 SEPTEMBER 1988 343036 JPRS 010 Soviet Union Military Affairs Wi& i DTK) QUALITY INSPECTED 1 ■v-yx&fJ’&yiCM 5#1fi^wiv«*’* i ?f...Domestic Service, 11 Sep 88] 21 Mobile Quadrant Antennas [Ye. Klinshov, G. Titov.TEKHNIKA I VOORUZHENIYE, Jun 88] 23 AIR FORCE, AIR DEFENSE FORCES

  15. Semiannual Technical Summary, 1 October 1990 - 31 March 1991 (Royal Norwegian Council for Scientific and Industrial Research)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    Ronal Njorwegian Council !,r ScrerithC arid Industrial RuseIarch R A YI~L ~ AD-A242 758 NORSAR Scientific Report No . 2-90/91 Semiannual Technical...Authorization T/9141/B/PKP ARPA Order No . 4138 AMD # 16 Program Code No . OF10 Name of Contractor Royal Norwegian Council for Scientific and Industrial ...PROCUREMENT INSTRUMENT IDENTIFICATION NUMBER ORGANIZATION Defense Advanced -- "’able) Contract No . F08606-89-C-0005 Pae~h rjsct A ..... 8c. ADDRESS (Ci-tytate

  16. Large-scale Heterogeneous Network Data Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-31

    Mining (KDD’09), 527-535, 2009. [20] B. Long, Z. M. Zhang, X. Wu, and P. S. Yu . Spectral Clustering for Multi-type Relational Data. In Proceedings of...and Data Mining (KDD’06), 374-383, 2006. [33] Y. Sun, Y. Yu , and J. Han. Ranking-Based Clustering of Heterogeneous Information Networks with Star...publications in 2012 so far:  Yi-Kuang Ko, Jing- Kai Lou, Cheng-Te Li, Shou-de Lin, and Shyh-Kang Jeng. “A Social Network Evolution Model Based on

  17. Interpretation of Higher Order Magnetic effects in the Spectra of Transition Metal Ions in Terms of SO(5) and Sp(10)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J. E.; Judd, B. R.; Raassen, A. J. J.; Uylings, P. H. M.

    1997-04-01

    Small discrepancies in the fitted energy levels of the configurations 3dN of transition metal ions are ascribed to effective three-electron magnetic operators yi. Surprisingly it has been found that, of the 16 possible operators with ranks 1 in both spin and orbital spaces, four operators labeled by the irreducible representation (irrep) (11) of SO(5) are sufficient to obtain results which appear to be limited by the errors in the experimental energy levels. An interpretation is given involving products of operators labeled by the irreps of SO(5) and the symplectic group Sp(10).

  18. International Conference on Computing Methods in Applied Sciences and Engineering (9th) Held in Paris, France on 29 January-2 February 1990

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-02

    National Aero-Space Plane NTC no time counter TSS-2 Tethered Satellite System - 2 VHS variable hard sphere VSL viscous shock-layer Introduction With...required at each time step to evaluate the mass fractions Yi+’ it is shown in [21] that the matrix of this linear system is an M-matrix (see e.g. [42]), and...first rewrite system (4.7)- (4.8) under the following form, separating the time -dependent, convective, diffusive and reactive terms: VW’ + F(W)r + G(,W

  19. Exclusion Area Radiation Release during the MIT Reactor Design Basis Accident.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-06

    Concrete Wall 116 6.2 Concrete Albedo Dose 121 6.3 Steel Door Scattering Dose 124 7.1 Total Dose Results 133 A.1 Values of N /NO for Neutron -Capture...plate fuel elements arranged in x a compact hexagonal core. This core design maximizes the neutron flux in the DO2 reflector region where numerous...sec) V = Volume of the fuel (cm 3 f Ef = Macroscopic fission cross section (cm ) = Thermal neutron flux ( neutrons /cm2 - sec) = Core-averaged value Yi

  20. Design and Development of a Super Permeability Nanostructured Permalloy Composite

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-20

    Oh, J.Y. Lee, W.X. Chen, “Effect of the pH Value on the Magnetic Properties of Electroplated NiFe Layers”, Materials Science Forum 437-438 (2003) 57...60. 3 H.L. Seet, X.P. Li, N.Ning, W.C. Ng, J.B. Yi, “Effect of Magnetic Coating Layer Thickness on the Magnetic Properties of Electrodeposited NiFe ...15 5. Comparison between the magnetic properties of the stripe and wire structured composites 29 6. Design, development and

  1. Artificial Intelligence -- Research and Applications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-06-01

    Determination of Minimum Cost Paths," IEEE Trans. Sys . Sci. Cybernetics, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 100-107. Hendrix, G. (1975), "Expanding the Utility of Semantic...PLANS E , IN, 7979 IZ)’. TE.R ATE RECOGNITION LASEHTAED LOCATION SENP PARTS ANO AAlYI CONIP E TELOMPL T FP NET SSTEMCOMPRS SY -STy 7974 ’T S ST7p -TO...EXTNDE 1: OUBLE -ETNE %AT,,RAL ~C’v LA ~t PB IV P6 TO T4 %~ ’ F" _______________________________________ SY ~STEM 7’j NTJt, E EPAk AAII IJ Aii SASSEVELY

  2. Installation Restoration Program Records Search for Richards-Gebaur Air Force Base, Missouri.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    Richards-Gebaur AFB is located on the King anticline, a structural rise favorable for oil and gas production and the oldest gas -producing area in Cass... Oil and Gas Section Chief Don Miller, Ground Water Section Chief 314/364-1752 10. Missouri Department of Natural Resources Kansas City, Missouri Jim...tha uthe United states USMrce sac.. the Ne’lowf Ut of OMVieead this reprt my he rmfau Notsma" I9eb6isuL ?UE service SW~ Partlw Iptbf ll. Yi~taa, T21

  3. Scientific Satellites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1967-01-01

    414 S E S PC 210 SCIENTIFIC SATELLITES W.~YI to W.l WI* W FIGuRE 7-5.- Effects of vacuum on space components and types of vacuum pumps used in...origin, 16-17 Vacuum, effects on satellites, 207- relation to satellite dynamics, 90 210 , 284, 365 satellite research, 4, 18, 411, 584 simulation, 209...18 decades (_3 km to _..3 10-s A). (See fig. 1-1.) The charged- particle shielding effectiveness of the Earth’s magnetic field is also reduced at

  4. Complexity, Testability, and Fault Analysis of Digital, Analog, and Hybrid Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-30

    E. Moret Table 2. Decision Table. Example 3 ond and third rules are inconsistent, since Raining? Yes No No both could apparently apply when it is...misclassification; a similar to be approach based on game theory was de- p.. - 0.134. scribed in SLAG71 and a third in KULK76. When the class assignments are...to a change from (X, Y)=(I,1) to (X,Y)=(O,O); the second corresponds to a change in the value of the function g=X+Y; and the third corresponds to a

  5. Blistering of Graphite/Polymer Composites Galvanically Coupled with Metals in Sea Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    pressure Vi = molar volume of species T Yi = activity coefficient for species T (p = electrical potential Using the flux definition, the conservation...at = aJi/ax ...(11) (b) determine the rate of volume increase of water Vw’ cm3 1s in the blister cavity by the following expression: Vw’ = iVw/at = 1a...induced in the polymer and the fiber/matrix interface region due to the above volume change: The volume increase of the fluid in blister given by

  6. Normal Modes of a Lagrangian System Constrained in a Potential Well.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    A’ -137 948 NORMAL MODES OF A LFHbRANGIAN SYSTEM CONSTRAINED INvi P0TENTIAL WELL(U WISCONSNN UNIV-MADISON MATHEMATICS RESEARCH CENTER V EN DEC F1...Carolina 27709 DT FLE OP Y UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN-MADISON MATHEMATICS RESEARCH CENTER NORMAL MODES OF A LAGRANGIAN SYSTEM CONSTRAINED IN A POTENTIAL WELL...respect to the norm lYE [f i + 2 yi )dtl/ 0 Since H I(S’ 1 n’) C CO(S, fle ), then the set A 1 0 is an open set in H1 (lf’) The periodic solution of

  7. Generation of a Multivariate Distribution for Specified Univariate Marginals and Covariance Structure.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-28

    x2-+,(y) . F7. y1 (-i! Tf1 ’ 2) 2 f. 2;X (3 1(2 X T= t I (Y) F= I (yI) .(-l I f ill ; X ( 2 ) Combining the one-to-one property of Tf, with (B-4...transformation of probability, dT; (y) g(Y) - f( Tf1 (Y)). ldet ( dY )I = f(TfI (Y))/f(Tf (Y)) =1 Remarks m 1. It immediately follows that Y is uniformly

  8. Eisenhower Report on Torch

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1944-01-01

    Frcnchmcn from their apathy; if loyalties and emotions wcrc still confused, there was ronson to hope that rosistanco to us would bs no i:?orc than a...60,000 men ta keep the tribes quiet, and the danger that any tribal disturbance mi vent against our very insecure lines of communication. Noreovcr...weps,. clouds. Two thirds of the circre&t; t7.t SOUK YiL @? becuase of the mud. Conse~~.ue6tly, we were u+C$~+, infl.oi;r of’ men and of supnlies

  9. An Infrared Survey of the Diffuse Emission within 5 deg of the Galactic Plane.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-05

    t O ±60. Over the region of 100 to 3 0 oi longitude along the galactic equator, this emission can be fit by 500( K black -body emission with a dilution...from the AFGL catalog, which they classify as stars. The assumed background is, therefore, composed of black -body radiators with a characteristic...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 19 KEY WORDS (c-nIIl, ,l IY ,I. AIIId-1, hI MI’< A III-15SI, Infra red Diffuse emission Galactic structure 1111 regions yI 40

  10. A Comparison of the USAF Projected A-10 Employment in Europe and the Luftwaffe Schlachtgeschwader Experience on the Eastern Front in World War II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-03-01

    If one contrasts the present order of battle to the situation existing on the Russo -German Front in World War II, several noteworthy similarities...Tactics and Historical Summary To place the 1943-44 Russo /German military setting, in its strategic context, a brief review of Russian military geography in...16, 122 - / .Aw~o DAM"Q -- Aif feCLSARM ROAMD CA I ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ T TI . d~LxN~~~ RICOIL SLIWfbAIr. UN FAJWK ,C)IFFU5iNk fio - SAm1o* PAM P~)RLLi YiOw D 3.0

  11. Pulmonary MRI at 3T: Non-enhanced pulmonary magnetic resonance Imaging Characterization Quotients for differentiation of infectious and malignant lesions.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Sebastian Niko; Kim, Damon; Penzkofer, Tobias; Steffen, Ingo G; Wyschkon, Sebastian; Hamm, Bernd; Schwartz, Stefan; Elgeti, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    To investigate 3T pulmonary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for characterization of solid pulmonary lesions in immunocompromised patients and to differentiate infectious from malignant lesions. Thirty-eight pulmonary lesions in 29 patients were evaluated. Seventeen patients were immunocompromised (11 infections and 6 lymphomas) and 12 served as controls (4 bacterial pneumonias, 8 solid tumors). Ten of the 15 infections were acute. Signal intensities (SI) were measured in the lesion, chest wall muscle, and subcutaneous fat. Scaled SIs as Non-enhanced Imaging Characterization Quotients ((SI Lesion -SI Muscle )/(SI Fat -SI Muscle )*100) were calculated from the T2-weighted images using the mean SI (T2-NICQ mean ) or the 90th percentile of SI (T2-NICQ 90th ) of the lesion. Simple quotients were calculated by dividing the SI of the lesion by the SI of chest wall muscle (e.g. T1-Q mean : SI Lesion /SI Muscle ). Infectious pulmonary lesions showed a higher T2-NICQ mean (40.1 [14.6-56.0] vs. 20.9 [2.4-30.1], p<0.05) and T2-NICQ 90th (74.3 [43.8-91.6] vs. 38.5 [15.8-48.1], p<0.01) than malignant lesions. T1-Q mean was higher in malignant lesions (0.85 [0.68-0.94] vs. 0.93 [0.87-1.09], p<0.05). Considering infections only, T2-NICQ 90th was lower when anti-infectious treatment was administered >24h prior to MRI (81.8 [71.8-97.6] vs. 41.4 [26.6-51.1], p<0.01). Using Youden's index (YI), the optimal cutoff to differentiate infectious from malignant lesions was 43.1 for T2-NICQ mean (YI=0.42, 0.47 sensitivity, 0.95 specificity) and 55.5 for T2-NICQ 90th (YI=0.61, 0.71 sensitivity, 0.91 specificity). Combining T2-NICQ 90th and T1-Q mean increased diagnostic performance (YI=0.72, 0.77 sensitivity, 0.95 specificity). Considering each quotient alone, T2-NICQ 90th showed the best diagnostic performance and could allow differentiation of acute infectious from malignant pulmonary lesions with high specificity. Combining T2-NICQ 90th with T1-Q mean increased overall performance

  12. Predictive models of poly(ethylene-terephthalate) film degradation under multi-factor accelerated weathering exposures

    PubMed Central

    Ngendahimana, David K.; Fagerholm, Cara L.; Sun, Jiayang; Bruckman, Laura S.

    2017-01-01

    Accelerated weathering exposures were performed on poly(ethylene-terephthalate) (PET) films. Longitudinal multi-level predictive models as a function of PET grades and exposure types were developed for the change in yellowness index (YI) and haze (%). Exposures with similar change in YI were modeled using a linear fixed-effects modeling approach. Due to the complex nature of haze formation, measurement uncertainty, and the differences in the samples’ responses, the change in haze (%) depended on individual samples’ responses and a linear mixed-effects modeling approach was used. When compared to fixed-effects models, the addition of random effects in the haze formation models significantly increased the variance explained. For both modeling approaches, diagnostic plots confirmed independence and homogeneity with normally distributed residual errors. Predictive R2 values for true prediction error and predictive power of the models demonstrated that the models were not subject to over-fitting. These models enable prediction under pre-defined exposure conditions for a given exposure time (or photo-dosage in case of UV light exposure). PET degradation under cyclic exposures combining UV light and condensing humidity is caused by photolytic and hydrolytic mechanisms causing yellowing and haze formation. Quantitative knowledge of these degradation pathways enable cross-correlation of these lab-based exposures with real-world conditions for service life prediction. PMID:28498875

  13. Study on relationship between pollen exine ornamentation pattern and germplasm evolution in flowering crabapple

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wang-Xiang; Zhao, Ming-Ming; Fan, Jun-Jun; Zhou, Ting; Chen, Yong-Xia; Cao, Fu-Liang

    2017-01-01

    Pollen ornamentation patterns are important in the study of plant genetic evolution and systematic taxonomy. However, they are normally difficult to quantify. Based on observations of pollen exine ornamentation characteristics of 128 flowering crabapple germplasms (44 natural species and 84 varieties), three qualitative variables with binary properties (Xi: regularity of pollen exine ornamentation; Yi: scope of ornamentation arrangement regularity; Zi: ornamentation arrangement patterns) were extracted to establish a binary three-dimensional data matrix (Xi Yi Zi) and the matrix data were converted to decimal data through weight assignment, which facilitated the unification of qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis. The result indicates that from species population to variety population and from parent population to variety population, the exine ornamentation of all three dimensions present the evolutionary trend of regular → irregular, wholly regular → partially regular, and single pattern → multiple patterns. Regarding the evolutionary degree, the regularity of ornamentation was significantly lower in both the variety population and progeny population, with a degree of decrease 0.82–1.27 times that of the regularity range of R-type ornamentation. In addition, the evolutionary degree significantly increased along Xi  → Yi → Zi. The result also has certain reference values for defining the taxonomic status of Malus species. PMID:28059122

  14. [Efficiency of 27-plex single nucleotide polymorphism multiplex system for ancestry inference in different populations].

    PubMed

    Feng, Xing-Ling; Sun, Qi-Fan; Liu, Hong; Wei, Yi-Liang; DU, Wei-An; Li, Cai-Xia; Chen, Ling; Liu, Chao

    2016-04-20

    To validate the efficiency of 27-plex single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) multiplex system for ancestry inference. The 27-plex SNP system was validated for its sensitivity and species specificity. A total of 533 samples were collected from African, Southern Chinese Han, China's ethic minorities (Yi, Hui, Miao, Tibet, and Uygur), European, Central Asian, Western Asian, Southern Asian, Southeast Asian and South American populations for clustering analysis of the genotypes by citing 3 representative continental ancestral groups [East Asia (CHB), Europe (CEU), and Africa (YRI)] from HapMap database. The system sensitivity is 0.125 ng. Twenty and six genotypes were detected in chimpanzee and monkeys, respectively. Except in rs10496971, no more products were found in other animals. The system was capable of differentiating intercontinental populations but not of distinguishing between East Asian and Southeast Asian population or between Southern Chinese Han population and Chinese Ethnic populations (Hui, Miao, Yi and Tibet). This system achieved a 100% accuracy for intercontinental population source inference for 46 blind test samples. 27-plex SNPs multiplex system has a high sensitivity and species specificity and can correctly differentiate the ancestry origins of individuals from African, European and East Asian for criminal case investigation. But this system is not capable of distinguishing subpopulation groups and more specific ancestry-informative markers are needed to improve its recognition of Southeast Asian and Chinese ethnic populations.

  15. Evidence for Black Hole Event Horizons?, or Luminosities of Black Hole and Neutron Star Transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, M.; McClintock, J.; Narayan, R.

    1996-12-01

    Recently, models for Advection Dominated Accretion Flow (ADAF) have been shown to explain many of the quiescent properties of the X-ray and optical emission from black hole soft X-ray transients (BH SXT) (Narayan, McClintock and Yi 1996 ApJ 457, 821; Narayan, Barret and McClintock 1996, submitted to ApJ). One novel feature of the ADAF model is that the black hole event horizon plays a key role in the energetics of the flow, in that it absorbs the majority of the energy in the accretion flow. An ADAF flow around a neutron star (NS) SXT instead will release all of its accretion energy upon impacting on the NS surface (Yi et al 1996, submitted to A&A). Therefore one expects that NS SXT will be substantially more luminous than BH SXT in quiescence. We present results on 5 NS SXT and 4 BH SXT that appear to bear out this expectation. In the context of the ADAF model, the larger dynamic range in BH SXT outburst/quiescent luminosities can be seen as evidence for the existence of an event horizon in these BH.

  16. Spectroscopic constants and potential energy curve of the iodine weakly bound 1u state correlating with the I(2P1/2) + I(2P1/2) dissociation limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akopyan, M. E.; Baturo, V. V.; Lukashov, S. S.; Poretsky, S. A.; Pravilov, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    The stepwise three-step three-color laser population of the I2(β1g, νβ, Jβ) rovibronic states via the B0u+, νB, JB rovibronic states and rovibronic levels of the 1u(bb) and 0g+(bb) states mixed by hyperfine interaction is used for determination of rovibronic level energies of the weakly bound I2(1u(bb)) state. Dunham coefficients of the state, Yi0 (i = 0-3), Yi1 (i = 0-2), Y02 and Y12 for the {{v}{{1u}}} = 1-5, 8, 10, 15 and {{J}{{1u}}} ≈ 9-87 ranges, the dissociation energy of the state, De, and equilibrium I-I distance, Re, as well as the potential energy curve are determined. There are aperiodicities in the excitation spectrum corresponding to the β, νβ = 23, Jβ ← 1u(bb), ν1u = 4, 5, J1u progressions in the I2 + Rg = He, Ar mixture, namely, a great number of lines which do not coincide with the R or P line progressions. Their positions conflict with the ΔJ-even selection rule. Furthermore, they do not correspond to the ΔJ-odd progression.

  17. An ethnobotanical survey of edible fungi in Chuxiong City, Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dongyang; Cheng, Hong; Bussmann, Rainer W; Guo, Zhiyong; Liu, Bo; Long, Chunlin

    2018-06-15

    Chuxiong, known as "the City of Fungi," is rich in fungal resources and traditional knowledge related to fungal biodiversity. The local environment is an excellent habitat for a wide variety of edible fungi. In addition, the region is home to many ethnic minorities and especially the Yi ethnic group who has a long history for traditionally using fungi as food or medicine. The aims of this review are to provide up-to-date information on the knowledge about, and traditional management of, fungi in this area and give advice on future utilization and conservation. Field surveys and in-depth semi-structured interviews were used to gather data. Ethnomycological data was collected from 67 informants in the summer of 2015. Twenty-two edible fungal species were recorded both as food or non-timber forest products (NTFPs), used to increase income, and the importance of this resource for the Yi ethnic group was evaluated. Abundant and diverse wild genetic resources and a large production chain of edible fungi were recorded in Chuxiong. However, because of over-harvesting, the wild edible fungi are facing increasing threats. Suggestions are proposed to allow sustainable use of fungi resources, including (1) promotion of diversification of transportation, (2) development of fungi cultivation to improve quality and supply and reduce harvest pressure, (3) improvement of public awareness for environmental protection and sustainable development, and (4) promotion of eco-tourism and development of fungi catering in rural agro- and slow-food tourism.

  18. Improving the color of bulgur: new industrial applications of tempering and UV/sun-light treatments.

    PubMed

    Balci, Fatih; Bayram, Mustafa

    2015-09-01

    Color (CIE b*; yellowness) is an important parameter for bulgur quality. Color of bulgur is mainly due to natural pigments (carotenoids) that are present at different levels in wheat. In order to increase the customer acceptability, the producers try to obtain yellowish color in bulgur. In this study, two different tempering methods (spray and steam) were used before sun and UV- light polishing applications. Sun and UV-light were applied to tempered bulgur for 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 h. Moisture content (%, d.b.), ash content (%, d.b.), protein content (%, d.b.), total carotenoid content in terms of lutein equivalent (TCC) and color values (CIE L*; lightness, CIE b*; yellowness, CIE a*; redness and CIE YI; yellowness index) were determined. It was found that UV-light was more effective (P < 0.05) on the CIE L* and CIE b* values compared to sunlight. Both tempering methods were significantly (P < 0.05) increased the CIE L*, CIE b* and CIE YI values. Steam tempering has a significant effect (P < 0.05) on the CIE b* values as well as UV and time of UV exposure. The highest value of TCC i.e. 6.31 μg/g was obtained by using spray tempering and UV-light exposure. As a conclusion, as proposed methods steam tempering and UV-light have an obvious positive effect on the color of bulgur.

  19. A Study on New Song of the Sky Pacers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Sang-Hyeon

    2009-12-01

    We investigated `Song of the Sky Pacers, Adopted to the New Methods' (新法步天歌), the latest version of Joseon's `Song of the Sky Pacers' (步天歌). Due to the influence of new knowledge on Chinese asterisms imported from the Ching dynasty, `Song of the Sky Pacers with New Star-Charts' was written in the eighteenth century. However, the disagreement between song and star-charts was causing confusion in practical applications such as Joseon's national examination for selecting astronomers. In order to improve this situation, Royal Observatory of the Joseon dynasty (觀象監) published `Song of the Sky Pacers, Adopted to the New Methods' based upon star-charts and song in the Sequel of I-Hsiang-K'ao-ch'eng (欽定儀象考成續編). The New Song was edited by a middle-class professional astronomer Yi Jun-yang (李俊養), and corrected by a nobleman Nam Byeong-gil (南秉吉). We establish a brief biography of Yi Jun-yang. The New Song preserves the genuine characteristics of previous Joseon's Song including the format of title of each lunar mansion and description on the location of the Milky Way in the asterisms. The description of the Milky Way was newly written based on the data in volume 31 and 32 of the Sequel of I-Hsiang-K'ao-ch'eng.

  20. The use of films to simulate age-related declines in yellow vision.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, C A; Sakuraba, S

    1996-06-01

    One of characteristics of normal age-related vision losses depends on yellow-intensity in the lens of the eye. (1) We investigated discrimination between seven intensities of yellow in 303 elderly people aged from late 60s to early 90s. The results demonstrated that the failures of vision increase with age, and the losses depend on yellow intensity. (2) We got a yellow index (YI) from different Y-intensity color charts used in (I) above, covering 12 kinds of marketable yellow films, and selected two kinds of films which match (YI) original color charts, corresponding to 53% or 89% of Y intensity. (3) Finally, we judged that all of these colors' xy-chromaticities with or without the two films, were exactly on the unique-yellow line in the diagram, which means a pure yellow, not mixed. (4) Then, these two films could simulate each of the mid-level or high-level Y intensity, respectively, in age-related vision. (5) We analyzed changes of all kinds of colors (220) in xy-chromaticity diagrams and obtained mean changing distances from every original chromatogram compared to the others. These data would be useful for architects or designers to design cities or buildings for use by the elderly.

  1. The saccadic flow baseline: Accounting for image-independent biases in fixation behavior.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Alasdair D F; Stainer, Matthew J; Tatler, Benjamin W; Hunt, Amelia R

    2017-09-01

    Much effort has been made to explain eye guidance during natural scene viewing. However, a substantial component of fixation placement appears to be a set of consistent biases in eye movement behavior. We introduce the concept of saccadic flow, a generalization of the central bias that describes the image-independent conditional probability of making a saccade to (xi+1, yi+1), given a fixation at (xi, yi). We suggest that saccadic flow can be a useful prior when carrying out analyses of fixation locations, and can be used as a submodule in models of eye movements during scene viewing. We demonstrate the utility of this idea by presenting bias-weighted gaze landscapes, and show that there is a link between the likelihood of a saccade under the flow model, and the salience of the following fixation. We also present a minor improvement to our central bias model (based on using a multivariate truncated Gaussian), and investigate the leftwards and coarse-to-fine biases in scene viewing.

  2. Large variations in ocular dimensions in a multiethnic population with similar genetic background.

    PubMed

    Niu, Zhiqiang; Li, Jun; Zhong, Hua; Yuan, Zhonghua; Zhou, Hua; Zhang, Yang; Yuan, Yuansheng; Chen, Qin; Pan, Chen-Wei

    2016-03-07

    We aimed to describe the ethnic variations in ocular dimensions among three ethnic groups with similar genetic ancestry from mainland of China. We included 2119 ethnic Bai, 2202 ethnic Yi and 2183 ethnic Han adults aged 50 years or older in the study. Ocular dimensions including axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), vitreous chamber depth (VCD) and lens thickness (LT) were measured using A-scan ultrasonography. Bai Chinese had longer ALs (P < 0.001), deeper ACDs (P < 0.001) but shallower VCDs (P < 0.001) compared with the other two ethnic groups. There were no ethnic variations in LTs. Diabetes was associated with shallower ACDs and this association was stronger in Bai Chinese compared with Yi or Han Chinese (P for interaction = 0.02). Thicker lenses were associated with younger age (P = 0.04), male gender (P < 0.001), smoking history (P = 0.01), alcohol intake (P = 0.03), the presence of cataract (P < 0.001), and the presence of diabetes (P < 0.001). There were significant differences in ocular dimensions among different ethnic groups with small differences in genetics but large variations in cultures and lifestyles.

  3. Hakim Mohammad: A Persian Military Surgeon in Safavid Era (1501-1736 CE).

    PubMed

    Khodaie, S-Ali; Ghaffari, Farzaneh; Zargaran, Arman; Naseri, Mohsen

    2017-12-31

    Wars and injuries have accompanied mankind throughout history. Physicians and surgeons from various civilizations made difficult attempts to manage wounds and injuries. Among various civilizations, the Persian Empires had great armies which were well equipped. One of the most important organizations in Persian troops was the military surgery. This study presents a brief biography of Hakim Mohammad (a military surgeon in Safavid era) and introduces his book, Dhakhira-yi-Kamilah. Safavid kings (1501-1736 CE) with unifying all of Persian regions and provinces reconstructed the Persian Empire. Great scholars and physicians were raised in this era. It seems that Persian physicians and surgeons were well trained in Safavid era and many of them were even employed by other countries like Ottoman Empire and India. Hakim Mohammad as a military surgeon was one of such physicians who served in Ottoman Empire for some time. He gathered his surgical experiences and others in the book of Dhakhira-yi-Kamilah. This book was written in Persian. He has mainly written about the management of wounds and practical techniques. Later, he came back to his homeland and dedicated his book to the king of Persia.

  4. Effect of various refrigeration temperatures on quality of shell eggs.

    PubMed

    Shin, Daekeun; Narciso-Gaytán, Carlos; Regenstein, Joe M; Sánchez-Plata, Marcos X

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of low storage temperatures on shell egg quality. Approximately 2100 shell eggs were collected and stored at - 1.1, 0.6, 2.2, 3.9, 5.6 and 7.2 °C for up to 4 weeks. Eighteen eggs at each storage temperature were evaluated after 0, 2, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage. Haugh units (HU), yolk index (YI), albumen pH (pHA), yolk pH (pHY) and angel food cake density (CD) were measured. Shell egg quality tended to be preserved better at below 2.2 °C, as high HU and YI values relative to eggs stored at 7.2 °C were determined on day 28. However, storage at - 1.1 °C tended to cause the opposite effect, especially highly declined HU values over time. Significantly different HU values of shell eggs were measured after 14 days of storage, with eggs stored at 0.6 and 2.2 °C having the highest HU values, 80.42 and 77.97 respectively. A lower temperature limit for shell egg storage could be established between 0.6 and 2.2 °C, as both temperatures showed the highest HU values, 77.88 and 77.60 respectively, after 28 days of storage. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Identification of differentially expressed genes affecting hair and cashmere growth in the Laiwu black goat by microarray.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinshan; Li, Hegang; Liu, Kaidong; Zhang, Baoxun; Li, Peipei; He, Jianning; Cheng, Ming; De, Wei; Liu, Jifeng; Zhao, Yaofeng; Yang, Lihua; Liu, Nan

    2016-10-01

    Goats are an important source of fibers. In the present study microarray technology was used to investigate the potential genes primarily involved in hair and cashmere growth in the Laiwu black goat. A total of 655 genes differentially expressed in body (hair‑growing) and groin (hairless) skin were identified, and their potential association with hair and cashmere growth was analyzed. The majority of genes associated with hair growth regulation could be assigned to intracellular, intracellular organelle, membrane‑bound vesicle, cytoplasmic vesicle, pattern binding, heparin binding, polysaccharide binding, glycosaminoglycan binding and cytoplasmic membrane‑bound vesicle categories. Numerous genes upregulated in body compared with groin skin contained common motifs for nuclear factor 1A, Yi, E2 factor (E2F) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding (CREB)/CREBβ binding sites in their promoter region. The promoter region of certain genes downregulated in body compared with groin skin contained three common regions with LF‑A1, Yi, E2F, Collier/Olfactory‑1/early B‑cell factor 1, peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor α or U sites. Thus, the present study identified molecules in the cashmere‑bearing skin area of the Laiwu black goat, which may contribute to hair and cashmere traits.

  6. Optimum Aeroelastic Characteristics for Composite Supermaneuverable Aircraft.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-31

    1󈨌D22 1 k 16 ’ cD 22YI Y6 WL k 17 ’ cD 22 Y, Y7 k 18 ’ -2cD 26YI1 Y6 gi 0 k19 : -2cD26Y I y 7 k1,10 12 2c Bo 10 1 󈧐D22 1 10 22 cD22 (y2 )2 k23 -2cD...2 6y1Y2 k24 -2cD 2 6 Y2Y 2 3 ,, 11 10 k -S-D + 2cD a 25 12 D22 5 2 12 5 2 k26 cD22 Y2 Y6 k27 cD22 y2 Y7 28 -2cD 2 6 Y2 Y6 k29 -2cD 26Y2 Y7 k’ "" 0y

  7. The utilization of traditional Chinese medicine in patients with dysfunctional uterine bleeding in Taiwan: a nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Rong; Wu, Mei-Yao; Chiang, Jen-Huai; Yen, Hung-Rong; Yang, Su-Tso

    2017-08-29

    Many patients with gynecological disorders seek traditional medicine consultations in Asian countries. This study intended to investigate the utilization of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in patients with dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) in Taiwan. We analyzed a cohort of one million individuals randomly selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. We included 46,337 subjects with newly diagnosed DUB (ICD-9-CM codes 626.8) from January 1, 1997 to December 31, 2010. The patients were categorized into TCM seekers and non-TCM seekers according to their use of TCM. Among the subjects, 41,558 (89.69%) were TCM seekers and 4,779 (10.31%) were non-TCM seekers. Patients who were younger tended to be TCM seekers. Most of the patients had also taken Western medicine, especially tranexamic acid and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). More than half of TCM seekers (55.41%) received combined treatment with both Chinese herbal remedies and acupuncture. The most commonly used TCM formula and single herb were Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San (Bupleurum and Peony Formula) and Yi-Mu-Cao (Herba Leonuri), respectively. The core pattern of Chinese herbal medicine for DUB patients consisted of Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San, Xiang-Fu (Rhizoma Cyperi), and Yi-Mu-Cao (Herba Leonuri). TCM use is popular among patients with DUB in Taiwan. Further pharmacological investigations and clinical trials are required to validate the efficacy and safety of these items.

  8. Electron self-injection due to a plasma density downramp and gas ionization in a plasma wakefield accelerator in the blowout regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, S. A.; D'Avignon, E. C.; Khudik, V.; Shvets, G.

    2010-11-01

    We study self-injection into a plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) in the blowout regime analytically and through particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. We propose a new injection mechanism into a plasma wakefield accelerator, where growth of the blowout region is enabled through a slow decrease in background plasma density along the direction of propagation. Deepening of the potential well due to this growth causes a reduction of electron Hamiltonian in the co-moving frame. This reduction depends on the shape of the blowout region, its growth rate, and impact parameter of the electron. When the reduction is greater than mc^2 [1,2], the electron becomes trapped inside the bubble. We demonstrate this effect using analytic expressions for the bubble potentials [3], and estimate plasma density gradients, and beam charge and size required for injection. We also apply the injection criterion to electron trapping through gas ionization. This work is supported by the US DOE grants DE-FG02-04ER41321 and DE-FG02-07ER54945. [1] S. Kalmykov, S.A. Yi, V. Khudik, and G. Shvets, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 135004 (2009). [2] S.A. Yi, V. Khudik, S. Kalmykov, and G. Shvets, Plasma Phys. Contr. Fus., in press. [3] W. Lu, C. Huang, M. Zhou, M. Tzoufras et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 056709 (2006).

  9. Impact of primary amine group from aminophospholipids and amino acids on marine phospholipids stability: non-enzymatic browning and lipid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Lu, F S H; Nielsen, N S; Baron, C P; Diehl, B W K; Jacobsen, C

    2013-11-15

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the oxidative stability and non-enzymatic browning reactions of marine PL in the presence or in the absence of primary amine group from aminophospholipids and amino acids. Marine phospholipids liposomal dispersions were prepared from two authentic standards (phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine) and two purified PL from marine sources with and without addition of amino acids (leucine, methionine and lysine). Samples were incubated at 60°C for 0, 2, 4 and 6days. Non-enzymatic browning reactions were investigated through measurement of (i) Strecker derived volatiles, (ii) yellowness index (YI), (iii) hydrophobic and (iv) hydrophilic pyrroles content. The oxidative stability of the samples was assessed through measurement of secondary lipid derived volatile oxidation products. The result showed that the presence of PE and amino acids caused the formation of pyrroles, generated Strecker derived volatiles, decreased the YI development and lowered lipid oxidation. The lower degree of lipid oxidation in liposomal dispersions containing amino acids might be attributed to antioxidative properties of pyrroles or amino acids. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Textual research of Liu Wan-su's works on consumptive thirst].

    PubMed

    Yang, Shi-Zhe; Zhang, Xian-Zhe

    2007-07-01

    Liu Wan-su's San xiao lun (On Three Consumptions) was the earliest extant monograph dealing with the consumption thirst in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The other book, with the namesake of Liu Wan-su, Su wen bing ji qi yi bao ming ji (Collection for Preserving Life of Pathogenesis in Plain Questions), also included a section of consumption thirst. However, through comparison, the descriptions in both books were quite different and it seemed unlikely that it were written by the same author. Based on textural research of bibliography, it's hard to say if this is a true one. Further, comparison of the book with the texts of consumption thirst in Huang di su wen xuan ming lun fang (Elucidated Prescriptions and Expositions of Huangdi's Plain Questions), an authentic book of Liu, a consistency was found between San xiao lun and Huang di su wen xuan ming lun fang. It is very unlikely that Su wen bing ji qi yi bao ming ji was written by Liu because of its obvious different writing style.

  11. Analysis of HIV prevalence among pregnant women in Liangshan Prefecture, China, from 2009 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shujuan; Yang, Chao; Liao, Qiang; Zhai, Wenwen; Yu, Gang; Xiao, Lin; Wang, Qixing; Gong, Yuhan; Zhang, Suhua; Yao, Yongna; Wang, Ke; Wang, Ju; Bian, Shaochao; Liu, Qian

    2017-01-01

    Yi people make up about 50% of the population in Liangshan Prefecture, Sichuan Province, China, but accounted for 88.07% of new HIV cases in the prefecture from 2011 to 2013. This study evaluated HIV prevalence in pregnant women of Liangshan Prefecture using HIV sentinel surveillance (HSS) data over the period of 2009 to 2015. Xichang, Zhaojue County, and Butuo County were selected as HSS sites. We investigated the temporal trends in HIV prevalence in these areas, and the association between demographic and behavioral characteristics and risk of HIV infection. Data on a total of 2797 pregnant women in Xichang and 3983 pregnant women in Zhaojue and Butuo was collected for the period 2009 to 2015. There was a fluctuating HIV prevalence among pregnant women of Xichang, with a rate of 0.75% in 2015 (χ2trend = 2.27, P = 0.13). HIV prevalence among pregnant women of Zhaojue and Butuo was consistently high, varying between 3.4% (9/267, 2011) and 10.3% (82/796, 2012) over the period of 2010 to 2015 (χ2trend = 0.12, P = 0.73). In Xichang, we found that Yi ethnicity (OR = 11.37, 95% CI = 2.92-44.25) and a husband who used drugs (OR = 32.13, 95% CI = 5.33-193.67) were significantly associated with HIV risk in pregnant women. For Zhaojue and Butuo, we observed that pregnant women had a higher risk of HIV infection when they were over 30 years old (OR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.17-2.52), when they had a higher number of previous births, when their husbands had a history of migrating for work (OR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.16-2.08), and when they had a history of other sexually transmitted infections (OR = 2.19, 95% CI = 1.16-2.08). Compared to those with a primary school education or below, pregnant women with a secondary or high school education level had a lower risk of HIV infection (OR = 0.28, 95% CI = 0.09-0.89). Our results indicate that there is a serious HIV epidemic among pregnant Yi women, especially for those with less education, more past births, or a husband with a history of

  12. The geographic distribution patterns of HIV-, HCV- and co-infections among drug users in a national methadone maintenance treatment program in Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yi-Biao; Liang, Song; Wang, Qi-Xing; Gong, Yu-Han; Nie, Shi-Jiao; Nan, Lei; Yang, Ai-Hui; Liao, Qiang; Song, Xiu-Xia; Jiang, Qing-Wu

    2014-03-10

    HIV-, HCV- and HIV/HCV co-infections among drug users have become a rapidly emerging global public health problem. In order to constrain the dual epidemics of HIV/AIDS and drug use, China has adopted a methadone maintenance treatment program (MMTP) since 2004. Studies of the geographic heterogeneity of HIV and HCV infections at a local scale are sparse, which has critical implications for future MMTP implementation and health policies covering both HIV and HCV prevention among drug users in China. This study aimed to characterize geographic patterns of HIV and HCV prevalence at the township level among drug users in a Yi Autonomous Prefecture, Southwest of China. Data on demographic and clinical characteristics of all clients in the 11 MMTP clinics of the Yi Autonomous Prefecture from March 2004 to December 2012 were collected. A GIS-based geographic analysis involving geographic autocorrelation analysis and geographic scan statistics were employed to identify the geographic distribution pattern of HIV-, HCV- and co-infections among drug users. A total of 6690 MMTP clients was analyzed. The prevalence of HIV-, HCV- and co-infections were 25.2%, 30.8%, and 10.9% respectively. There were significant global and local geographic autocorrelations for HIV-, HCV-, and co-infection. The Moran's I was 0.3015, 0.3449, and 0.3155, respectively (P < 0.0001). Both the geographic autocorrelation analysis and the geographic scan statistical analysis showed that HIV-, HCV-, and co-infections in the prefecture exhibited significant geographic clustering at the township level. The geographic distribution pattern of each infection group was different. HIV-, HCV-, and co-infections among drug users in the Yi Autonomous Prefecture all exhibited substantial geographic heterogeneity at the township level. The geographic distribution patterns of the three groups were different. These findings imply that it may be necessary to inform or invent site-specific intervention strategies to

  13. Effect of Yifukang oral liquid on gastric emptying and intestinal peristalsis in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jianhua; Li, Jun; Li, Xianyu; Hao, Shaojun; Guo, Junyi; Ma, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Zhengchen

    2018-04-01

    To observe the effect of Yifukang oral liquid on gastric emptying and intestinal peristalsis in mice. Methods: 60 mice were randomly divided into 5 groups. The suspension of Baohe Pill and the same volume of normal saline group were given once a day for 7 days. After the last administration for 30 minutes, 0.25 ml of 0.04% phenolic red solution was administered by stomach. After 20 minutes, the animals were killed, the stomach was removed, the gastric contents were cleaned, and the lotion 5ml was centrifuged. The absorbance of the supernatant was measured by TU-1901 ultraviolet spectrophotometer at the wavelength of 560nm. The residual rate of gastric phenolic red was calculated. Rate was used to evaluate gastric emptying velocity.60 mice were randomly divided into five groups: group 5, large, medium, small Yifukang oral liquid dosage group, pill suspension and the same volume normal saline. After 20 min after the last dose of carbon powder suspension, the mice were sacrificed, the abdominal cavity was cut open, the intestine of the ileocecum was cut off, the intestinal mesentery was separated, the total length of the small intestine (cm) was measured, and the distance (cm) in the small intestine was measured, and the end-of-carbon propulsion rate was calculated. Compared with the blank group, small dose of Yi Fu Kang group and Baohe Pill group could significantly promote the ability of gastric emptying in mice. Compared with the blank group, small dose group and rehabilitation benefits Baohewan group can significantly promote the gastric emptying ability of mice (P<0.01), high dose group had no obvious benefit rehabilitation ability to promote gastric emptying in mice. Yi Fu Kang oral liquid group could significantly increase the percentage of small intestine carbon powder(P<0.01), Large, medium-dose Yifukang oral liquid and Baofuwan group could significantly increase the percentage of small intestinal carbon in mice (P<0.05). Yi Fukang oral liquid has the effect

  14. [The beginning of western medical education].

    PubMed

    Kee, C D

    1992-01-01

    Our country had quite an advanced system of medical education during the era of the Koryo Kingdom, and during the Choson Dynasty, the Kyong Guk Dae Jon, in which a systematized medical education was clearly described, was compiled in the era of King Sejong. However, the educational system was not for Western medicine. Western medicine was first introduced to our country in the 9th year of King Injo (1631) when Chong Du Won, Yi Yong Jun, etc. returned from Yon Gyong (Beiuin) with Chik Bang Oe Gi. Knowledge of Western medicine was disseminated by Shil Hak (practical learning) scholars who read a translation in Chinese characters, of Chik Bang Oe Gi. Yi Ik (Song Ho), Yi Gyu Gyong (O ju), Choe Han Gi (Hye Gang), Chong Yak Yong (Ta San), etc., read books of Western medicine and introduced in writing the excellent theory of Western medicine. In addition, Yu Hyong Won (Pan Gye), Pak Ji Won (Yon Am), Pak Je Ga (Cho Jong), etc., showed much interest in Western medicine, but no writings by them about western medicine can be found. With the establishment of a treaty of amity with Japan in the 13th year of King Kojong (1876), followed by the succession of amity treaties with Western powers, foreigners including medical doctors were permitted to flow into this country. At that time, doctors Horace N. Allen, W. B. Scranton, John W. Heron, Rosetta Sherwood (Rosetta S. Hall), etc., came to Korea and inaugurated hospitals, where they taught Western medicine to Korean students. Dr. Horace N. Allen, with the permission of king Kojong, established Che Jung Won in April 1885, and in March 1886, he began at the hospital to provide education of Western medicine to Korean students who were recrutied by the Korean Government. However, the education was not conduted on a regular basis, only training them for work as assistants. This is considered to be the pioneer case of Western medical education in this country. Before that time, Japanese medical doctors came to Korea, but there are no

  15. The geographic distribution patterns of HIV-, HCV- and co-infections among drug users in a national methadone maintenance treatment program in Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV-, HCV- and HIV/HCV co-infections among drug users have become a rapidly emerging global public health problem. In order to constrain the dual epidemics of HIV/AIDS and drug use, China has adopted a methadone maintenance treatment program (MMTP) since 2004. Studies of the geographic heterogeneity of HIV and HCV infections at a local scale are sparse, which has critical implications for future MMTP implementation and health policies covering both HIV and HCV prevention among drug users in China. This study aimed to characterize geographic patterns of HIV and HCV prevalence at the township level among drug users in a Yi Autonomous Prefecture, Southwest of China. Methods Data on demographic and clinical characteristics of all clients in the 11 MMTP clinics of the Yi Autonomous Prefecture from March 2004 to December 2012 were collected. A GIS-based geographic analysis involving geographic autocorrelation analysis and geographic scan statistics were employed to identify the geographic distribution pattern of HIV-, HCV- and co-infections among drug users. Results A total of 6690 MMTP clients was analyzed. The prevalence of HIV-, HCV- and co-infections were 25.2%, 30.8%, and 10.9% respectively. There were significant global and local geographic autocorrelations for HIV-, HCV-, and co-infection. The Moran’s I was 0.3015, 0.3449, and 0.3155, respectively (P < 0.0001). Both the geographic autocorrelation analysis and the geographic scan statistical analysis showed that HIV-, HCV-, and co-infections in the prefecture exhibited significant geographic clustering at the township level. The geographic distribution pattern of each infection group was different. Conclusion HIV-, HCV-, and co-infections among drug users in the Yi Autonomous Prefecture all exhibited substantial geographic heterogeneity at the township level. The geographic distribution patterns of the three groups were different. These findings imply that it may be necessary to inform or invent

  16. The impact of Chinese cultural values on Taiwan nursing leadership styles: comparing the self-assessments of staff nurses and head nurses.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yuanmay

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of Chinese culture on nursing leadership behavior in Taiwan nurses. A descriptive study compared staff nurses' assessment of Chinese value in the leadership behavior of their head nurses. Data analysis was made on a convenience sample in Taiwan of 214 head nurses and 2,127 staff nurses who had worked with their head nurse for at least one year. Six medical centers and regional hospitals in northern (Taipei), central (Taichung) and southern (Kaohsiung) Taiwan were recruited for this study. Instruments included the demographic questionnaire, Chinese Value Survey, and Kang's Chinese Leadership Behaviors Module Scale. Results indicated that head nurses scored significantly higher than staff nurses in terms of all cultural values and leadership behaviors. Both staff nurses and head nurses scored the highest mean scores in personal integrity (Yi) and human connectedness (Ren) and the lowest in moral discipline (Li). Staff nurse perceptions of leadership behavior indicated the role of parent to be higher than either the role of director or mentor. Head nurses perceptions of leadership behavior emphasized the role of the director more than either parent or mentor. There were no significant differences between the staff nurses and head nurses in terms of expectative leadership behavior, which gave the role of director higher mean scores than those of either the parent or mentor. Positive and significant associations (r = .266 to r = .334) were found between cultural values and perceptions of leadership behavior. Cultural values predicted 10.6% of leadership behavior variance. The three demographic characteristics of location in northern Taiwan (beta = .09), intention to leave (beta = -.14), and general unit (beta = .10) and the two cultural values of human connectedness (Ren) (beta = .16) and personal integrity (Yi) (beta = .16) together reported a cumulative R2 of 14.6% to explain variance in leadership behavior

  17. Nitramine Propellant Erosivity - III.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    Commanld c r AFTN. I. Busut t i I US A rmy M i ,, i I (ommiiad W ., Awst in ATTN: R ( IUN1I -YI. R . Mont 1,ol11v rv Red st ollAc enaIAl~~ .iIington .1 .Sant...A-D-A96 878 ARMY ARMAMENT RESEARCHRAN4D EVELOPMENTUCOMMAND ABERO--ETC F/G 19/1 NITRAM INE PROPELLANT EROSII TY_ II.( ) DEC 80 R GEENE, B GROLLMAN, A...NIILER A RYE UNCLASSIFIED ARBRL - R -02278 SBIE D-E430 574 N11hEEE~EEn~hh~~E EohEEEohhEE... LEVEL TECHNICAL REPORT ARBRL-TR-02278 NITRAMINE PROPELLANT

  18. An Automated Human Factors Analysis System for Imaging Data.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    ITANKI.E0S.AUO.VALIS.E@.3)TUEK 164 FRECOGF-FRECOSFl 165 ELSE * 22 * 66 FALIEIDF&FALSEIDF.1 167 ENSIF log 90 TO I lot ENDIF 179 T1IME mFLOAT( IDA-2)’.G9.*󈨉...X.Y.XY(2).TOP.BOTTOM.LEFT.RIGHT.TB(2).LR(2) 20 EOUIVALENCEX YI.X).XC).Y.IRIG6G.XY(I)) 39 EQUIVALENCE(T(). BOTTON ,(TB2Z.TOP).( IRG(1).TBtl)) 45 EOulVALENCE...GOT01I lot ENDIF tog IFISEC.LT.TSEC(LI)OO TO I 115f C BOIN-ISHFTITIDAV(L).-12) 49 III C WRITE(6.34)SOXN.L 113 SOXN.C ISNFT(T1DAYtL).-12l-1)*4 114 C

  19. New correlation for the temperature-dependent viscosity for saturated liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Jianxiang; Zhang, Laibin

    2016-11-01

    Based on the recent progress on both the temperature dependence of surface tension [H. L. Yi, J. X. Tian, A. Mulero and I. Cachading, J. Therm. Anal. Calorim. 126 (2016) 1603, and the correlation between surface tension and viscosity of liquids [J. X. Tian and A. Mulero, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 53 (2014) 9499], we derived a new multiple parameter correlation to describe the temperature-dependent viscosity of liquids. This correlation is verified by comparing with data from NIST Webbook for 35 saturated liquids including refrigerants, hydrocarbons and others, in a wide temperature range from the triple point temperature to the one very near to the critical temperature. Results show that this correlation predicts the NIST data with high accuracy with absolute average deviation (AAD) less than 1% for 21 liquids and more than 3% for only four liquids, and is clearly better than the popularly used Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman (VFT) correlation.

  20. Evaluating the influence of gully erosion on landslide hazard analysis triggered by heavy rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruljigaljig, Tjuku; Tsai, Ching-Jun; Peng, Wen-Fei; Yu, Teng-To

    2017-04-01

    During the rainstorm period such as typhoon or heavy rain, the development of gully will induce a large-scale landslide. The purpose of this study is to assess and quantify the existence and development of gully for the purpose of triggering landslides by analyzing the landslides hazard. Firstly, based on multi-scale DEM data, this study uses wavelet transform to construct an automatic algorithm. The 1-meter DEM is used to evaluate the location and type of gully, and to establish an evaluation model for predicting erosion development.In this study, routes in the Chai-Yi were studied to clarify the damage potential of roadways from local gully. The local of gully is regarded as a parameter to reduce the strength parameter. The distribution of factor of safe (F.S.) is compared with the landslide inventory map. The result of this research could be used to increase the prediction accuracy of landslide hazard analysis due to heavy rainfalls.

  1. A comparison between Bayes discriminant analysis and logistic regression for prediction of debris flow in southwest Sichuan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wenbo; Jing, Shaocai; Yu, Wenjuan; Wang, Zhaoxian; Zhang, Guoping; Huang, Jianxi

    2013-11-01

    In this study, the high risk areas of Sichuan Province with debris flow, Panzhihua and Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture, were taken as the studied areas. By using rainfall and environmental factors as the predictors and based on the different prior probability combinations of debris flows, the prediction of debris flows was compared in the areas with statistical methods: logistic regression (LR) and Bayes discriminant analysis (BDA). The results through the comprehensive analysis show that (a) with the mid-range scale prior probability, the overall predicting accuracy of BDA is higher than those of LR; (b) with equal and extreme prior probabilities, the overall predicting accuracy of LR is higher than those of BDA; (c) the regional predicting models of debris flows with rainfall factors only have worse performance than those introduced environmental factors, and the predicting accuracies of occurrence and nonoccurrence of debris flows have been changed in the opposite direction as the supplemented information.

  2. Delayed Senescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Researcher Dr. Yi Li developed a technique to manipulate certain characteristics of plant growth such as anit-senescence. For example, the tobacco leaf was clipped from a transgenic plant (right), and a wildtype plant (left). During ground-based laboratory studies, both leaves were left in a darkened area for 4 months. When retrieved, the wildtype plant leaf was dried-out and the transgenic leaf remained fresh and green. A variation of this technology that involves manipulating plant hormones has been conducted in space-based studies on tomato plants through BioServe Space Technologies. The transport and distribution of auxin, an important plant hormone has shown to be influenced by microgravity, which could lead to improving the quality of fruits and vegetables grown on Earth.

  3. Recognition of dementia in ancient China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Wang, Lu-Ning; Tian, Jin-Zhou

    2012-12-01

    A search of previous records in the literatures was done to summarize the opinions for dementia in ancient China. The earliest description of dementia was traced in the Yellow emperor's internal classic, a book written 2000 years ago. Hua Tuo (AD 140-208) in Han Dynasty first denominated "dementia" in the book, Hua Tuo Shen Yi Mi Zhuan. The pathogenesis of dementia could be generalized as the insufficiency of Qi, a flowing energy; the stagnation of phlegm, a harmful liquid substance in the body; and the blood stasis, which were also regarded as therapeutic targets. Therefore, we can conclude that dementia has been recognized and investigated in traditional Chinese medicine, which is definitely before the industrial civilization era. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Textual research on Costus root (Aucklandia lappa Decne) in the Sheng nong ben cao jing (Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica)].

    PubMed

    Li, Guangyan; Wang, Dequn; Fang, Shiying; Xu, Maohong

    2014-05-01

    Aucklandia lappa Decne was first recorded in the Sheng nong ben cao jing (Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica). Through the textual research of herbal literature, it was found that the costus root in the Sheng nong ben cao jing perhaps was not the plant of Aucklandia lappa Decne of Compositae, but the eaglewood or Lignum Aquilasria Resinatum based on the comprehensive judgment of shape, taste, nature, and function etc. In the Sheng nong ben cao jing, it only includes costus root without the title of eaglewood, and Tao Hongjing recorded both herbs together in his Ming yi bie lu (Supplementary Records of Celebrated Physicians), which became a foreshadow of misunderstanding of the later generations. Beginning from the Tang ben cao (Materia Medica of the Tang Dynasty), the costus root was considered as the plant of Auckiandia lappa Decne from the Compostae with its profound influence until now.

  5. Acoustic Analyses of the Singing Vibrato in Traditional Peking Opera.

    PubMed

    Han, Qichao; Zhang, Ruifeng

    2017-07-01

    China's traditional Peking Opera has four standard categories of roles: Sheng, Dan, Jing, and Chou, the singing vibrato of each displaying a different auditory effect. The audio and respiratory signals were recorded for two performers of the Qing Yi role, one of the Jing role, one of the Chou role, one of the Lao Sheng role, one of the Xiao Sheng role, and one of the Lao Dan role. The recordings gained eventually consisted of 24 representative songs from six roles. The rates and extents of vibrato, fundamental frequency, and rib cage signals were analyzed. Two findings were obtained: (1) the classical opera singing vibratos of China and Western countries are acoustically different from each other; and (2) in Peking Opera, the singing vibratos of different roles show significant acoustic differences. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Closed-Loop Control of Vortex Formation in Separated Flows with Application to Micro Air Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-25

    ruich. roll, «nd phasgi. innmt.yi of th« wwtg m tnpnap» lo die nnHriiiy fin—n nant flow r 1 faA fhiif—irm ■IIIIUIJ wah gutting fnxjBfju flow wa...a» ■ Altar kernel to predict the retpone of Ihe »nig lo mote complex actuator omul »pails A «oic. of caonvTkn of incrcaaang eornpkxirv were <toa>gard... lo rupracis bit Muctuatioru m puffing condition. The mow robust controller» were «Me to suppre« lift fluctuation» associated with • broadband

  7. Linear Models for Field Trials, Smoothing, and Cross-Validation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    TSR-2?79 UNCLASSIFIED DRAG29-80-C-9841 F /G 12/ 1 NL EhhiuEammhhihhhihhiu iI. U.. III1 11111- 1.2 11111 L.1g 1111IL25 11111J.4 I 6 MICROCOPY RESOLUTION...0 (2.2) where (de Hoog , Speed and Williams, 1985) 60 - 1 V-IR( RT- -1R)-RTV- 1 + (2.3) = I - HI - P R)V(I - P R (23 Here I is the n x n identity matrix...Here the model would be yi = (t ) + ni and one possible penalty function is f (&"(t)) 2dt + E2 1 Natural points of departure for generalizing the least

  8. Cooper River Rediversion Project. Lake Moultrie and Santee River, South Carolina. Intake and Tailrace Canals. Appendix A. Boring Logs and Laboratory Test.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-06-01

    Davis___________ CLASSIFICATION OF MATERIALS CORE B13OX OR P r REMARKSELE.AlT,CN CEP’- C ,, ,d’~ ( Deec ~,ritor. RECRV SA PENrI,, o. ’fl..dp NO weatherir,,e etC., If...TION _QEW (T3MiaAfSL, S C tSr 2 MANUFACTURER’S DESIGNA-ION OF DRILL. DL L N1 A r El- Fiilr 314_ -o _____ -l D________ 13 TOTAL NO OF OVER-. Y ,Br5T1 IF...i n1 . 2 h1 R e c 3 yI<. - 2..0 ----- ’ t’kVQY%I4:OI’t5II q~ r -ii - ,-.---- -7 - - fl’l~j... CO1t inli on "beet 2 ’ 0-- 147 m, i l i lI "p IDR 1LLING

  9. Effects of Assuming Independent Component Failure Times, If They Are Actually Dependent, In a Series System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-31

    non-negative random variables with system life Y = r ( TI, ..., rp ) and failure pattern kT) - [, ifY =- Td , I I and Y<Ty, j* (2.2) S=a , otherwise...Moeschberger - 3a. TYPE OF REPORT 1i3b. TIME COVERED 114. DATE OF REPORT (Year, Month, Day) S. PAGE COUNT Final I FROM9 -1- 8 2 Td .2-3l--8 7 IMay 31...T1iY > Td )since average concordanceeover the range Y > Tiis 0. When i - I arid l=-0, then Ti -Xi <.04= Ti, Xi < V ,Yi <Xi. Here if Ti Y1&<T, the

  10. [Effect of Yishen capsule on serum vascular endothelial growth factor and cell immunity in patients with chronic glomerulonephritis].

    PubMed

    Wu, Xi-li; Sun, Wan-sen; Zhang, Wang-gang; Qiao, Cheng-lin; Wang, Zhu; Wang, Juan

    2007-11-01

    To explore the effect of Yishen capsule on the serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), the cell immunity and the theraphic. Serum VEGF and T cell subsets were studied in 30 normal subjects and 83 patients before and after treatment. Compare with normal subjects, CD3, CD4, CD4/CD8 were decreased, CD8 and serum VEGF were increased obviously (P <0. 05 or P <0. 01). After three months treatment with YiShen capsule, CD4/CD8 was increased, CD8 and serum VEGF were decreased significantly (P <0.05 or P <0.01). Yishen capsule can reduce the proteinuria, increase the function of immunity and improve the clinical symptom of patients with chronic glomerulonephritis, achieved the effects of allevating chronic glomerular sclerosis ultimately.

  11. Microplastic pollution in the marine waters and sediments of Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Y Y; Mak, C W; Liebich, C; Lam, S W; Sze, E T-P; Chan, K M

    2017-02-15

    The presence of plastic waste with a diameter of less than 5mm ("microplastics") in marine environments has prompted increasing concern in recent years, both locally and globally. We conducted seasonal surveys of microplastic pollution in the surface waters and sediments from Deep Bay, Tolo Harbor, Tsing Yi, and Victoria Harbor in Hong Kong between June 2015 and March 2016. The average concentrations of microplastics in local coastal waters and sediments respectively ranged from 51 to 27,909particles per 100m 3 and 49 to 279particles per kilogram. Microplastics of different shapes (mainly fragments, lines, fibers, and pellets) were identified as polypropylene, low-density polyethylene, high-density polyethylene, a blend of polypropylene and ethylene propylene, and styrene acrylonitrile by means of Attenuated Total Reflectance - Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. This is the first comprehensive study to assess the spatial and temporal variations of microplastic pollution in Hong Kong coastal regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Corresponding state-based correlations for the temperature-dependent surface tension of saturated hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Jianxiang; Zhang, Cuihua; Zhang, Laibin; Zheng, Mengmeng; Liu, Shuzhen

    2017-10-01

    Based on the recent progresses on the corresponding state-based correlations for the temperature-dependent surface tension of saturated fluids [I. Cachadiña, A. Mulero and J. X. Tian, Fluid Phase Equilibr. 442 (2017) 68; J. X. Tian, M. M. Zheng, H. L. Yi, L. B. Zhang and S. Z. Liu, Mod. Phys. Lett. B 31 (2017) 1750110], we proposed a new correlation for saturated hydrocarbons. This correlation includes three fluid-independent parameters and inquires the critical temperature, the triple-point temperature and the surface tension at the triple-point temperature as inputs for each hydrocarbon. Results show that this correlation can reproduce NIST data with absolute average deviation (AAD) less than 1% for 10 out of 19 hydrocarbons and AAD less than 5% for 17 out of 19 hydrocarbons, clearly better than other correlations.

  13. NASA missions studies magnetic space explosions

    2017-12-08

    Every day, invisible magnetic explosions are happening around Earth, on the surface of the sun and across the universe. These explosions, known as magnetic reconnection, occur when magnetic field lines cross, releasing stored magnetic energy. Such explosions are a key way that clouds of charged particles — plasmas — are accelerated throughout the universe. In Earth’s magnetosphere — the giant magnetic bubble surrounding our planet — these magnetic reconnections can fling charged particles toward Earth, triggering auroras. Read more: go.nasa.gov/2mnMtDm Video caption - In this simulation, a reconnection even pushes a blob of plasma toward Earth. The jet blown in the opposite direction wobbles due to the unstable conditions. Credit: NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center/Yi-Hsin Liu/Joy Ng, producer

  14. Innovative development path of ethnomedicines: a case study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhaoyun; Gui, Yali; Wang, Li; Wang, Ting; Yang, Yang; Niu, Yunzhuang; Fu, Dehuan; Wang, Jingkun; Cui, Tao

    2017-06-01

    Innovative development extends the vitality of ethnomedicines. Developing ethnomedicines is not only beneficial to the public but also to the related industry and transforms economic growth, driving local social and economic development further. Its economic benefit can be used to optimize and promote the hardware and software of the platform, as well as support the sustainable development of ethnomedicines. Apart from research and discussion on the innovative development of ethnomedicines on the basis of theory and regulations, this series of articles also summarizes cases that are conducive to the overall understanding of the necessity and feasibility of the innovative development. In terms of industrial development, large enterprises and products, such as Yunnan Baiyao, Guizhou Miao ethnomedicines, Cheezheng Tibetan Medicine, products developed from Dengzhanhua (Erigeron breviscapus), the Gold series of Yi ethnomedicines, and products developed from Sanqi (Panax notoginseng), in China are introduced and summarized, focusing on resource superiority, sustainable innovation, standard research and development, and production, as well as intellectual property protection.

  15. A numerical study of nonlinear waves in a transcritical flow of stratified fluid past an obstacle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanazaki, Hideshi

    1992-10-01

    A numerical study of the flow of stratified fluid past an obstacle in a horizontal channel is described. Upstream advancing of waves near critically (resonance) appears in the case of ordinary two-layer flow, in which case the flow is described well by the solution of the forced extended Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation which has a cubic nonlinear term. It is shown theoretically that the upstream waves in the general two-layer flow cannot be well described by the forced KdV equation except when the wave amplitude is very small. The critical-level flow is also governed by the forced extended KdV equation. However, because of the smallness of the coefficient of the quadratic nonlinear term, the bore cannot propagate upstream at exact resonance. The results for the linearly stratified Boussinesq flow show good agreement with the solution of the Grimshaw and Yi (1991) equation, at least for exact resonance.

  16. Joint Logistics Commanders Precision Optics Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-19

    DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11IFORE couri- EIING FORM YI T I (-’a 1.61100~) TYEor arFPO. a PERIOD t’V.Fi.(( JoI-rT PRECISION OPTICS TECHINIC.AL GROUP FINHAL I PRVOr kG...34*m rtlds ortw d ta.4 i r’f. Wu Uuuai mkidu*~s @9 o pndct praade by Ow MfsKM 9W fidsder ~Ye bevwil Af cnot ei ’ for ,tWta &.Vtionitt it ts" diviate wi...Canada Austria Belgium i):E ( upec If, Price Quald ’ILy Input coz:b: capital other (specify) DelIvery (lead-time) Foo1 uc rv Ice Resea: ’, capatiliity Csto

  17. Confucian virtues and Chinese adolescent development: a conceptual review.

    PubMed

    Shek, Daniel T L; Yu, Lu; Fu, Xiao

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that different Chinese communities have already undergone industrialization and urbanization, Confucian virtues are still regarded as developmental ideals in Chinese culture. Unfortunately, while Confucian virtues are commonly discussed under Chinese philosophies, they are rarely examined in the context of developmental research. In this paper, several key Confucian virtues are discussed, including loyalty ("zhong"), filial piety ("xiao"), benevolence ("ren"), affection ("ai"), trustworthiness ("xin"), righteousness ("yi"), harmony ("he"), peace ("ping"), propriety ("li"), wisdom ("zhi"), integrity ("lian") and shame ("chi"). These Chinese traditional virtues are also linked to the concepts of character strengths and positive youth development constructs highlighted in Western culture. It is argued that Confucian virtues provide an indigenous conceptual framework to understand character strengths and positive youth development in Chinese culture. Furthermore, when service leadership is considered in Chinese contexts, these virtues should be regarded as important cornerstones.

  18. Stress Assisted Transformation in Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    831 0 877 467 0 878 262 00 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1,0 TRUE STRAIN I%) Fig. 5 -Illustration showing the- equivalency of the be-c and orthorhombic representa...iddletontG. T Terlinde 7,’ -- 6 -C !_ ~~1 I. c.wiias / NO 4 -76-C-0469JC.!Wil iams 1 9. PERFO IN;G CRIGAMI YI6IN N’ME AND ADDRESS 0. PL EMEN- PRDOJECT...R M MIDDLETON N00014-76-C ARGO UNCLASSIFIED JWTR-7 R ENDEEEE 󈧅 71. TIT.? ae, 11 TZ RIr - 4 1 .74 Si 4W T $PIN ml STRESS ASSISTED TRANSFORMATION IN

  19. Using simulation in out-patient queues: a case study.

    PubMed

    Huarng, F; Lee, M H

    1996-01-01

    Overwork and overcrowding in some periods was an important issue for the out-patient department of a local hospital in Chia-Yi in Taiwan. The hospital administrators wanted to manage the patient flow effectively. Describes a study which focused on the utilization of doctors and staff in the out-patient department, the time spent in the hospital by an out-patient, and the length of the out-patient queue. Explains how a computer simulation model was developed to study how changes in the appointment system, staffing policies and service units would affect the observed bottleneck. The results show that the waiting time was greatly reduced and the workload of the doctor was also reduced to a reasonable rate in the overwork and overcrowding periods.

  20. Reduced-Order Observer Model for Antiaircraft Artillery (AAA) Tracker Response

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    a22 -ka1 2) z + (a22 - ka1 2) ky + (a21 - kall ) y + (b2 - kb) uc (10) Next, the actual output of this model is expressed as the sum of the output u...a22x2 + b2u + f2eT = (a2 2 - kal2) z + (a2 2 - ka12) ky + (a21 - kall ) y + (b2 - kb l ) uc u=u +vC [Ti Y2] [y] By introducing new variables: X3 = x2...x3 [(a22- ka2)k + (a2- kall ) - (b2- kb) (YI + kY2) Y + [a22 - ka12 - (b2 - kbl) Y2] X3 + (b2 -kbl) y2 e + (2 - kbI) v + (f2 - kfl) 0 T e = (a22- ka12

  1. Geographic List of Prime Contract Awards. Oct 92-Sep 93. FY 93. (Amos, Kentucky-Montgomery County, Maryland). Part 6

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    r 11 c I0-eJI C1 31 00000P0) 0 (icc C) Cr) M 0 W( D(DE DW D0)o I o0)0 II.’I1)cc jinI 11 ) C\\LC\\m NA NI C111 Mr (’*4 Y MCJMMMMM (nr (YiC ) (ici MCici...0 00 0 0 III0-Ic14򒰌 OW 000 00 00 000 00 00 000> 00 0 00 11 1 l-4N II 1 N N, NN N 4 N NNN > II 10-i- 11 >- z co11111 - I\\ jINI ,-t 0 11 N N 00 Nc 4ɚ...I 0011C U.L 11 c I caoc II 00 11 E I Gao 0r, 1 -- -I .- ---- -- - - - - - - -- ----- 114- I COLD4l II 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 00 1

  2. Herbal Prescriptions and Medicinal Herbs for Parkinson-Related Rigidity in Korean Medicine: Identification of Candidates Using Text Mining.

    PubMed

    Park, So Hyun; Hwang, Min Seob; Park, Hye Jin; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Baek, Jin Ung; Choi, Byung Tae

    2018-03-27

    Dongeuibogam (DongYiBaoGian), one of the most important books in Korean medicine, comprises a comprehensive summary of all traditional medicines of North-East Asia before the 17th century. This medicinal literature was mined to establish a list of candidate herbs to treat Parkinson-related rigidity. A systematic search for terms describing Parkinson-related rigidity and candidate prescriptions for the treatment of Parkinson-related rigidity in the Dongeuibogam was performed. A high-frequency medicinal herb combination group and candidates for the treatment of Parkinson-related rigidity were also selected through an analysis of medicinal herb combination frequencies. The existing literature pertaining to the potential effects of candidate herbs for Parkinson-related rigidity was reviewed. Ten medicinal herb candidates for the treatment of Parkinson-related rigidity were selected, and their respective precedent studies were analyzed.

  3. Revealing the Chemistry between Band Gap and Binding Energy for Lead-/Tin-Based Trihalide Perovskite Solar Cell Semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Varadwaj, Arpita; Varadwaj, Pradeep R; Yamashita, Koichi

    2018-01-23

    A relationship between reported experimental band gaps (solid) and DFT-calculated binding energies (gas) is established, for the first time, for each of the four ten-membered lead (or tin) trihalide perovskite solar cell semiconductor series examined in this study, including CH 3 NH 3 PbY 3 , CsPbY 3 , CH 3 NH 3 SnY 3 and CsSnY 3 (Y=I (3-x) Br x=1-3 , I (3-x) Cl x=1-3 , Br (3-x) Cl x=1-3 , and IBrCl). The relationship unequivocally provides a new dimension for the fundamental understanding of the optoelectronic features of solid-state solar cell thin films by using the 0 K gas-phase energetics of the corresponding molecular building blocks. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. [Different meanings of Long(stranguria) in medicaland historical books in Han Dynasty].

    PubMed

    Zhang, T L; Liu, Q Y

    2017-03-28

    The word " long (stranguria)" is seen both in historical and medical works in the Han Dynasty, but with much different meanings. In medical books, including Nei jing ( Inner Canon ), Wu shi er bing fang ( Prescriptions for Fifty - two Diseases ), and Wu wei yi jian ( Medical Bamboo slips of Wuwei ), Long refers to incontinence of urination. However, in historical books, Long is usually expressed as " pi long " , referring to different conditions, including lame, fatigue, and disability, all congenital or acquired renal deficient illness. It is also seen in unearthed documents as fei ji (disability) and " du long " , referring to congenital or postnatal severe diseases resulting in disability to do anything. Together with orphan, widow, widower, senility, and poverty without relatives for existence, all weak communities need to be supported and saved.

  5. Developmental rate and behavior of early life stages of bighead carp and silver carp

    Chapman, Duane C.; George, Amy E.

    2011-01-01

    The early life stages of Asian carp are well described by Yi and others (1988), but since these descriptions are represented by line drawings based only on live individuals and lacked temperature controls, further information on developmental time and stages is of use to expand understanding of early life stages of these species. Bighead carp and silver carp were cultured under two different temperature treatments to the one-chamber gas bladder stage, and a photographic guide is provided for bighead carp and silver carp embryonic and larval development, including notes about egg morphology and larval swimming behavior. Preliminary information on developmental time and hourly thermal units for each stage is also provided. Both carp species developed faster under warmer conditions. Developmental stages and behaviors are generally consistent with earlier works with the exception that strong vertical swimming immediately after hatching was documented in this report.

  6. Model Design for Water Wheel Control System of Heumgyeonggaknu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang Hyuk; Ham, Seon Young; Lee, Yong Sam

    2016-03-01

    Heumgyeonggaknu (????) is powered by a water-hammering-type water wheel. The technique that maintains the constant speed of the water wheel is assumed to be the one used in the Cheonhyeong (???) apparatus in Shui Yun Yi Xiang Tai (???) made by the Northern Song (??) dynasty in the 11th century. We investigated the history of the development and characteristics of the Cheonhyeong apparatus, and we analyzed ways to transmit the power of Heumgyeonggaknu. In addition, we carried out a conceptual design to systematically examine the power control system. Based on the conceptual design, we built a model for a water wheel control system that could be used in experiments by drawing a 3D model and a basic design.

  7. Persistent Spin Current in a Hard-Wall Confining Quantum Wire with Weak Dresselhaus Spin-Orbit Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xi; Zhou, Guang-Hui

    2009-02-01

    We investigate theoretically the spin current in a quantum wire with weak Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling connected to two normal conductors. Both the quantum wire and conductors are described by a hard-wall confining potential. Using the electron wave-functions in the quantum wire and a new definition of spin current, we have calculated the elements of linear spin current density js,xiT and js,yiT (i = x, y, z). We find that the elements jTs,xx and jTs,yy have a antisymmetrical relation and the element jTs,yz has the same amount level as js,xxT and js,yyT. We also find a net linear spin current density, which has peaks at the center of quantum wire. The net linear spin current can induce a linear electric field, which may imply a way of spin current detection.

  8. The Combinatorics of Local Constraints in Model-Based Recognition and Localization,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    InCn ted alo0ng! th le 1111;i nor nria. T[hus, a secornd sensory point can 1,e cli aractcr: it’o ti this spare ’)N ;a uni~t vector in offset by some...number of independent constraints, defining the swept volume IVu,,ne! then the expec ted bound on the number of interpretations for k ± 1 sensory points...t It ll r I to our oart icu r c:1,:CCC;i ’erivv -xplicrt xpe(’ ted Counts Cit the or2 f C .Tlterpret at ons conitiro \\\\2tli ~ ’CCF pOilnts, 1C C I)YI

  9. Microgravity

    2004-04-15

    Researcher Dr. Yi Li developed a technique to manipulate certain characteristics of plant growth such as anit-senescence. For example, the tobacco leaf was clipped from a transgenic plant (right), and a wildtype plant (left). During ground-based laboratory studies, both leaves were left in a darkened area for 4 months. When retrieved, the wildtype plant leaf was dried-out and the transgenic leaf remained fresh and green. A variation of this technology that involves manipulating plant hormones has been conducted in space-based studies on tomato plants through BioServe Space Technologies. The transport and distribution of auxin, an important plant hormone has shown to be influenced by microgravity, which could lead to improving the quality of fruits and vegetables grown on Earth.

  10. Deaf and hard of hearing adolescents' processing of pictures and written words for taxonomic categories in a priming task of semantic categorization.

    PubMed

    Li, Degao; Gao, Kejuan; Wu, Xueyun; Chen, Xiaojun; Zhang, Xiaona; Li, Ling; He, Weiwei

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by research by Li, Yi, and Kim (2011), the authors examined Chinese deaf and hard of hearing adolescents' responses to pictures for taxonomic categories of basic level (exemplar pictures) preceded by exemplar pictures, and to written words for taxonomic categories of basic level (exemplar words) preceded by exemplar words or by written words for those of superordinate level (category names), in a priming task of semantic categorization. Stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was manipulated. The adolescents were less aware of taxonomic relations and were more likely to show the advantage of pictures over written words than their hearing counterparts. Their processing of exemplar primes steadily deepened as SOA increased, reaching its deepest level when SOA was 237 ms. Their processing of category names seemed immune to changes in SOA, probably because of their fuzzy representations of taxonomic categories of superordinate level.

  11. Measuring Dispersion Effects of Factors in Factorial Experiments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    error is MSE =i=l j=1 i n r (SSE/(N-p)), the sum of squares of pure error is SSPE = Z E Y i=1 j=1 and the mean square of pure error is MSPE - ( SSPE /n...the level of the factor in the ith run is 0. 3.1. First Measure We have n r n r SSPE = 1 Is it -yi) 2 + E r (1-8 )(yjj li-l j=l (iYjj +i= j=l l - i...The first component in SSPE corresponds to level I of the factor and has n degrees of freedom ( E 6i)(r-I). The second component corresponds to i=l n

  12. Survey of Sea Strait Data around Japan. Cruise Tracks by Japanese Agencies. Appendix 1. Japan Hydrographic Office. Appendix 2. Japan Fisheries Agency. Appendix 3. Japan Meteorological Agency.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    3 1982 Distribution/ Availability Codes Avall and/or D Dist Special orb .5., .1.: A -AI@O sT;!u ,_.,’ - . .. - .... .... .... . . .. ... .. f...OP YI Reproduction in whc~1e or in pazt is perntted for any purpose of the United States Govexzemnt. Appoved for pibaic release; distribdtion unimit( d ...0 𔃺 rtW Q) <u Q) 410 ()I rI (n > CU) U jpw ULLI 1 ( D V7 0 ( 4-J~a’~ U) -’aro a’)4UU U)-OQ oa 𔃾, (U 1 r U) 0 Lf)U) U)U) V) Q) 0 > Qz Wu C) m C .HH1

  13. Antibacterial, antioxidant and optical properties of edible starch-chitosan composite film containing Thymus kotschyanus essential oil

    PubMed Central

    Mehdizadeh, Tooraj; Tajik, Hossein; Razavi Rohani, Seyed Mehdi; Oromiehie, Abdol Rassol

    2012-01-01

    Thyme Essential oils (EO) with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties are widely used in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and perfume industry. It is also used for flavoring and preservation of several foods. Nowadays, packaging research is receiving a considerable attention due to the development of eco-friendly materials made from natural polymers such as starch and chitosan. In this study Thymus kotschyanus EO concentrations ranging from 0 to 2.0%, incorporated in starch-chitosan composite (S-CH) film were used. Antimicrobial and antioxidant properties significantly increased with the incorporation of EO (p < 0.05). Incorporating EO, increased total color differences (DE), yellowness index (YI) and whiteness index (WI) which were significantly higher than control and its transparency was reduced. Our results pointed out that the incorporation of Thymus kotschyanus EO as a natural antibacterial agent has potential for using the developed film as an active packaging. PMID:25610564

  14. [History of the term "tan" (phlegm) (II) -- studies of the term "tan" found in medical books before the Liang dynasty].

    PubMed

    Endo, J; Nakamura, T; Yamaki, H; Miyamoto, H

    1993-12-01

    The first description of the term "tan" is found in the Shan Han Za Bing Lun published at the end of the later Han dynasty. This book refers to this term as a disorder of the cold fluid in the body. The meaning of this term was revised to a viscous fluid as the years went on. The term "tan" from the Zhou Hou Bai Yi Fang published in the Liang dynasty was the same sense of phlegm as that found in present works. Our studies showed that changes of the words used for the concept "phlegm" in Chinese medical books coincided with those in Chinese Buddhist literature. We suggested that the concept "phlegm" in Buddhist medicine influenced Chinese tradition medicine.

  15. [Version and compilation of Harikyuuhousouyou of Vietnamese medical book].

    PubMed

    Du, Fengjuan; Xiao, Yongzhi

    2018-02-12

    Harikyuuhousouyou (《》)was written in 1827 and the author is unknown. The book has only one version which is collected by the National Library of Vietnam. The book contains one volume and includes contraindication of acupuncture and moxibustion, meridian points, point locations, indications and the therapeutic methods at extraordinary points. They are mainly cited from Zhen Jiu Da Quan (《》 Great Compendium on Acupuncture and Moxibustion ) by XU Feng , Yi Xue Ru Men (《》 Elementary Medicine ) by LI Chan and Shou Shi Bao Yuan (《》 Longevity and Health Preservation ) by GONG Tingxian in the Ming Dynasty. In the paper, in view of the characteristics of version and compilation, the hand-coped book was introduced. It was explored that Vietnam acupuncture absorbed Chinese medicine and emphasized clinical practice rather than theoretic statement.

  16. Traditional Chinese medicine for stable angina pectoris via TCM pattern differentiation and TCM mechanism: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhe; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Yang; Du, Yi; Zhang, Huiyong; Kong, Dezhao; Liu, Yue; Yang, Guanlin

    2014-10-30

    Stable angina pectoris is experienced as trans-sternal or retro-sternal pressure or pain that may radiate to the left arm, neck or back. Although available evidence relating to its effectiveness and mechanism are weak, traditional Chinese medicine is used as an alternative therapy for stable angina pectoris. We report a protocol of a randomized controlled trial using traditional Chinese medicine to investigate the effectiveness, mechanism and safety for patients with stable angina pectoris. This is a north-east Chinese, multi-center, multi-blinded, placebo-controlled and superiority randomized trail. A total of 240 patients with stable angina pectoris will be randomly assigned to three groups: two treatment groups and a control group. The treatment groups will receive Chinese herbal medicine consisting of Yi-Qi-Jian-Pi and Qu-Tan-Hua-Zhuo granule and Yi-Qi-Jian-Pi and Qu-Tan-Hua-Yu granule, respectively, and conventional medicine. The control group will receive placebo medicine in addition to conventional medicine. All 3 groups will undergo a 12-week treatment and 2-week follow-up. Four visits in sum will be scheduled for each subject: 1 visit each in week 0, week 4, week 12 and week 14. The primary outcomes include: the frequency of angina pectoris attack; the dosage of nitroglycerin; body limited dimension of Seattle Angina Questionnaire. The secondary outcomes include: except for the body limited dimension of SAQ, traditional Chinese medicine pattern questionnaire and so on. Therapeutic mechanism outcomes, safety outcomes and endpoint outcomes will be also assessed. The primary aim of this trial is to develop a standard protocol to utilize high-quality EBM evidence for assessing the effectiveness and safety of SAP via TCM pattern differentiation as well as exploring the efficacy mechanism and regulation with the molecular biology and systems biology. ChiCTR-TRC-13003608, registered 18 June 2013.

  17. The Use of Herbal Medicine in Alzheimer's Disease—A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos-Neto, Leopoldo Luiz; de Vilhena Toledo, Maria Alice; Medeiros-Souza, Patrícia; de Souza, Gustavo Almeida

    2006-01-01

    The treatments of choice in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are cholinesterase inhibitors and NMDA-receptor antagonists, although doubts remain about the therapeutic effectiveness of these drugs. Herbal medicine products have been used in the treatment of Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD) but with various responses. The objective of this article was to review evidences from controlled studies in order to determine whether herbs can be useful in the treatment of cognitive disorders in the elderly. Randomized controlled studies assessing AD in individuals older than 65 years were identified through searches of MEDLINE, LILACS, Cochrane Library, dissertation Abstract (USA), ADEAR (Alzheimer's Disease Clinical Trials Database), National Research Register, Current Controlled trials, Centerwatch Trials Database and PsychINFO Journal Articles. The search combined the terms Alzheimer disease, dementia, cognition disorders, Herbal, Phytotherapy. The crossover results were evaluated by the Jadad's measurement scale. The systematic review identified two herbs and herbal formulations with therapeutic effects for the treatment of AD: Melissa officinalis, Salvia officinalis and Yi-Gan San and BDW (Ba Wei Di Huang Wan). Ginkgo biloba was identified in a meta-analysis study. All five herbs are useful for cognitive impairment of AD. M. officinalis and Yi-Gan San are also useful in agitation, for they have sedative effects. These herbs and formulations have demonstrated good therapeutic effectiveness but these results need to be compared with those of traditional drugs. Further large multicenter studies should be conducted in order to test the cost-effectiveness of these herbs for AD and the impact in the control of cognitive deterioration. PMID:17173107

  18. I h and HCN channels in murine spiral ganglion neurons: tonotopic variation, local heterogeneity, and kinetic model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Manis, Paul B; Davis, Robin L

    2014-08-01

    One of the major contributors to the response profile of neurons in the auditory pathways is the I h current. Its properties such as magnitude, activation, and kinetics not only vary among different types of neurons (Banks et al., J Neurophysiol 70:1420-1432, 1993; Fu et al., J Neurophysiol 78:2235-2245, 1997; Bal and Oertel, J Neurophysiol 84:806-817, 2000; Cao and Oertel, J Neurophysiol 94:821-832, 2005; Rodrigues and Oertel, J Neurophysiol 95:76-87, 2006; Yi et al., J Neurophysiol 103:2532-2543, 2010), but they also display notable diversity in a single population of spiral ganglion neurons (Mo and Davis, J Neurophysiol 78:3019-3027, 1997), the first neural element in the auditory periphery. In this study, we found from somatic recordings that part of the heterogeneity can be attributed to variation along the tonotopic axis because I h in the apical neurons have more positive half-activation voltage levels than basal neurons. Even within a single cochlear region, however, I h current properties are not uniform. To account for this heterogeneity, we provide immunocytochemical evidence for variance in the intracellular density of the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel α-subunit 1 (HCN1), which mediates I h current. We also observed different combinations of HCN1 and HCN4 α-subunits from cell to cell. Lastly, based on the physiological data, we performed kinetic analysis for the I h current and generated a mathematical model to better understand varied I h on spiral ganglion function. Regardless of whether I h currents are recorded at the nerve terminals (Yi et al., J Neurophysiol 103:2532-2543, 2010) or at the somata of spiral ganglion neurons, they have comparable mean half-activation voltage and induce similar resting membrane potential changes, and thus our model may also provide insights into the impact of I h on synaptic physiology.

  19. Cryohemolysis, erythrocyte osmotic fragility, and supplementary hematimetric indices in the diagnosis of hereditary spherocytosis.

    PubMed

    Emilse, Ledesma Achem Miryam; Cecilia, Haro; María, Terán Magdalena; Eugenia, Mónaco María; Alicia, Issé Blanca; Lazarte, Sandra Stella

    2018-03-01

    Hereditary spherocytosis (HS) is a chronic hemolytic anemia characterized by microspherocytes in the peripheral blood and increased erythrocyte osmotic fragility (EOF). This study evaluated the cryohemolysis test (CHT); initial hemolysis (IH); immediate and incubated hemolysis percentage in 5.5 g/L NaCl (H5.5); mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC); red blood cell distribution width (RDW); and Hb/MCHC, Hb/RDW, and MCHC/RDW ratios for the diagnosis of HS. Data from 13 patients with HS were evaluated at the Instituto de Bioquímica Aplicada and compared with data from 14 unaffected individuals and 11 patients with anemia due to another etiology. Total blood and reticulocyte counts, CHT, and immediate and incubated EOF were performed in all subjects; sensitivity, specificity, efficiency, and Youden index (YI) were calculated. Eight patients with HS had MCHC ≥345 g/L, 10 had RDW ≥14.5%, 12 had IH >5.0 g/L, 11 had immediate H5.5 ≥5%, and 13 had incubated H5.5 ≥50% (the cut-off value to consider HS). The efficiency and YI were: immediate H5.5 (0.94-0.85), incubated H5.5 (0.89-0.82), IH (0.89-0.78), MCHC (0.87-0.62), CHT (0.84-0.54), and Hb/MCHC (0.71-0.56), respectively. The calculated ratios could distinguish subjects with HS from unaffected individuals ( P <0.05), but not those with anemia of another etiology ( P >0.05). Although the CHT and supplementary hematimetric indexes were useful to differentiate individuals with SH from healthy controls, they cannot distinguish from anemias of other etiology. CHT and MCHC, in addition to EOF, are recommended for diagnosing HS patients because of their low cost and efficiency.

  20. Non-linear Equation using Plasma Brain Natriuretic Peptide Levels to Predict Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients with Heart Failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Hiroki; Suwa, Hideaki; Nakano, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Mari; Imazu, Miki; Hasegawa, Takuya; Takahama, Hiroyuki; Amaki, Makoto; Kanzaki, Hideaki; Anzai, Toshihisa; Mochizuki, Naoki; Ishii, Akira; Asanuma, Hiroshi; Asakura, Masanori; Washio, Takashi; Kitakaze, Masafumi

    2016-11-01

    Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is the most effective predictor of outcomes in chronic heart failure (CHF). This study sought to determine the qualitative relationship between the BNP levels at discharge and on the day of cardiovascular events in CHF patients. We devised a mathematical probabilistic model between the BNP levels at discharge (y) and on the day (t) of cardiovascular events after discharge for 113 CHF patients (Protocol I). We then prospectively evaluated this model on another set of 60 CHF patients who were readmitted (Protocol II). P(t|y) was the probability of cardiovascular events occurring after >t, the probability on t was given as p(t|y) = -dP(t|y)/dt, and p(t|y) = pP(t|y) = αyβP(t|y), along with p = αyβ (α and β were constant); the solution was p(t|y) = αyβ exp(-αyβt). We fitted this equation to the data set of Protocol I using the maximum likelihood principle, and we obtained the model p(t|y) = 0.000485y0.24788 exp(-0.000485y0.24788t). The cardiovascular event-free rate was computed as P(t) = 1/60Σi=1,…,60 exp(-0.000485yi0.24788t), based on this model and the BNP levels yi in a data set of Protocol II. We confirmed no difference between this model-based result and the actual event-free rate. In conclusion, the BNP levels showed a non-linear relationship with the day of occurrence of cardiovascular events in CHF patients.

  1. Using stable isotopes (δD, δ18O, δ34S and 87Sr/86Sr) to identify sources of water in abandoned mines in the Fengfeng coal mining district, northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Shen; Wang, Guangcai; Shi, Zheming; Xu, Qingyu; Guo, Yuying; Ma, Luan; Sheng, Yizhi

    2018-05-01

    With depleted coal resources or deteriorating mining geological conditions, some coal mines have been abandoned in the Fengfeng mining district, China. Water that accumulates in an abandoned underground mine (goaf water) may be a hazard to neighboring mines and impact the groundwater environment. Groundwater samples at three abandoned mines (Yi, Er and Quantou mines) in the Fengfeng mining district and the underlying Ordovician limestone aquifer were collected to characterize their chemical and isotopic compositions and identify the sources of the mine water. The water was HCO3·SO4-Ca·Mg type in Er mine and the auxiliary shaft of Yi mine, and HCO3·SO4-Na type in the main shaft of Quantou mine. The isotopic compositions (δD and δ18O) of water in the three abandoned mines were close to that of Ordovician limestone groundwater. Faults in the abandoned mines were developmental, possibly facilitating inflows of groundwater from the underlying Ordovician limestone aquifers into the coal mines. Although the Sr2+ concentrations differed considerably, the ratios of Sr2+/Ca2+ and 87Sr/86Sr and the 34S content of SO4 2- were similar for all three mine waters and Ordovician limestone groundwater, indicating that a close hydraulic connection may exist. Geochemical and isotopic indicators suggest that (1) the mine waters may originate mainly from the Ordovician limestone groundwater inflows, and (2) the upward hydraulic gradient in the limestone aquifer may prevent its contamination by the overlying abandoned mine water. The results of this study could be useful for water resources management in this area and other similar mining areas.

  2. Detecting Tsunami Genesis and Scales Directly from Coastal GPS Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Y. Tony

    2013-04-01

    Different from the conventional approach to tsunami warnings that rely on earthquake magnitude estimates, we have found that coastal GPS stations are able to detect continental slope displacements of faulting due to big earthquakes, and that the detected seafloor displacements are able to determine tsunami source energy and scales instantaneously. This method has successfully replicated several historical tsunamis caused by the 2004 Sumatra earthquake, the 2005 Nias earthquake, the 2010 Chilean earthquake, and the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, respectively, and has been compared favorably with the conventional seismic solutions that usually take hours or days to get through inverting seismographs (reference listed). Because many coastal GPS stations are already in operation for measuring ground motions in real time as often as once every few seconds, this study suggests a practical way of identifying tsunamigenic earthquakes for early warnings and reducing false alarms. Reference Song, Y. T., 2007: Detecting tsunami genesis and scales directly from coastal GPS stations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L19602, doi:10.1029/2007GL031681. Song, Y. T., L.-L. Fu, V. Zlotnicki, C. Ji, V. Hjorleifsdottir, C.K. Shum, and Y. Yi, 2008: The role of horizontal impulses of the faulting continental slope in generating the 26 December 2004 Tsunami, Ocean Modelling, doi:10.1016/j.ocemod.2007.10.007. Song, Y. T. and S.C. Han, 2011: Satellite observations defying the long-held tsunami genesis theory, D.L. Tang (ed.), Remote Sensing of the Changing Oceans, DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-16541-2, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Song, Y. T., I. Fukumori, C. K. Shum, and Y. Yi, 2012: Merging tsunamis of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake detected over the open ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., doi:10.1029/2011GL050767 (Nature Highlights, March 8, 2012).

  3. Selective neurotensin-derived internally quenched fluorogenic substrates for neurolysin (EC 3.4.24.16): comparison with thimet oligopeptidase (EC 3.4.24.15) and neprilysin (EC 3.4.24.11).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, V; Campos, M; Hemerly, J P; Ferro, E S; Camargo, A C; Juliano, M A; Juliano, L

    2001-05-15

    Internally quenched fluorescent peptides derived from neurotensin (pELYENKPRRPYIL) sequence were synthesized and assayed as substrates for neurolysin (EC 3.4.24.16), thimet oligopeptidase (EC 3.4.24.15 or TOP), and neprilysin (EC 3.4.24.11 or NEP). Abz-LYENKPRRPYILQ-EDDnp (where EDDnp is N-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)ethylenediamine and Abz is ortho-aminobenzoic acid) was derived from neurotensin by the introduction of Q-EDDnp at the C-terminal end of peptide and by the substitution of the pyroglutamic (pE) residue at N-terminus for Abz and a series of shorter peptides was obtained by deletion of amino acids residues from C-terminal, N-terminal, or both sides. Neurolysin and TOP hydrolyzed the substrates at P--Y or Y--I or R--R bonds depending on the sequence and size of the peptides, while NEP cleaved P-Y or Y-I bonds according to its S'(1) specificity. One of these substrates, Abz-NKPRRPQ-EDDnp was a specific and sensitive substrate for neurolysin (k(cat) = 7.0 s(-1), K(m) = 1.19 microM and k(cat)/K(m) = 5882 mM(-1). s(-1)), while it was completely resistant to NEP and poorly hydrolyzed by TOP and also by prolyl oligopeptidase (EC 3.4.21.26). Neurolysin concentrations as low as 1 pM were detected using this substrate under our conditions and its analogue Abz-NKPRAPQ-EDDnp was hydrolyzed by neurolysin with k(cat) = 14.03 s(-1), K(m) = 0.82 microM, and k(cat)/K(m) = 17,110 mM(-1). s(-1), being the best substrate so far described for this peptidase. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  4. Cryohemolysis, erythrocyte osmotic fragility, and supplementary hematimetric indices in the diagnosis of hereditary spherocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Emilse, Ledesma Achem Miryam; Cecilia, Haro; María, Terán Magdalena; Eugenia, Mónaco María; Alicia, Issé Blanca

    2018-01-01

    Background Hereditary spherocytosis (HS) is a chronic hemolytic anemia characterized by microspherocytes in the peripheral blood and increased erythrocyte osmotic fragility (EOF). This study evaluated the cryohemolysis test (CHT); initial hemolysis (IH); immediate and incubated hemolysis percentage in 5.5 g/L NaCl (H5.5); mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC); red blood cell distribution width (RDW); and Hb/MCHC, Hb/RDW, and MCHC/RDW ratios for the diagnosis of HS. Methods Data from 13 patients with HS were evaluated at the Instituto de Bioquímica Aplicada and compared with data from 14 unaffected individuals and 11 patients with anemia due to another etiology. Total blood and reticulocyte counts, CHT, and immediate and incubated EOF were performed in all subjects; sensitivity, specificity, efficiency, and Youden index (YI) were calculated. Results Eight patients with HS had MCHC ≥345 g/L, 10 had RDW ≥14.5%, 12 had IH >5.0 g/L, 11 had immediate H5.5 ≥5%, and 13 had incubated H5.5 ≥50% (the cut-off value to consider HS). The efficiency and YI were: immediate H5.5 (0.94–0.85), incubated H5.5 (0.89–0.82), IH (0.89–0.78), MCHC (0.87–0.62), CHT (0.84–0.54), and Hb/MCHC (0.71–0.56), respectively. The calculated ratios could distinguish subjects with HS from unaffected individuals (P<0.05), but not those with anemia of another etiology (P>0.05). Conclusion Although the CHT and supplementary hematimetric indexes were useful to differentiate individuals with SH from healthy controls, they cannot distinguish from anemias of other etiology. CHT and MCHC, in addition to EOF, are recommended for diagnosing HS patients because of their low cost and efficiency. PMID:29662857

  5. The systematic assessment of traditional evidence from the premodern Chinese medical literature: a text-mining approach.

    PubMed

    May, Brian H; Zhang, Anthony; Lu, Yubo; Lu, Chuanjian; Xue, Charlie C L

    2014-12-01

    This project aimed to develop an approach to evaluating information contained in the premodern Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) literature that was (1) comprehensive, systematic, and replicable and (2) able to produce quantifiable output that could be used to answer specific research questions in order to identify natural products for clinical and experimental research. The project involved two stages. In stage 1, 14 TCM collections and compendia were evaluated for suitability as sources for searching; 8 of these were compared in detail. The results were published in the Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. Stage 2 developed a text-mining approach for two of these sources. The text-mining approach was developed for Zhong Hua Yi Dian; Encyclopaedia of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 4th edition) and Zhong Yi Fang Ji Da Ci Dian; Great Compendium of Chinese Medical Formulae). This approach developed procedures for search term selection; methods for screening, classifying, and scoring data; procedures for systematic searching and data extraction; data checking procedures; and approaches for analyzing results. Examples are provided for studies of memory impairment and diabetic nephropathy, and issues relating to data interpretation are discussed. This approach to the analysis of large collections of the premodern TCM literature uses widely available sources and provides a text-mining approach that is systematic, replicable, and adaptable to the requirements of the particular project. Researchers can use these methods to explore changes in the names and conceptions of a disease over time, to identify which therapeutic methods have been more or less frequently used in different eras for particular disorders, and to assist in the selection of natural products for research efforts.

  6. A novel index including SNPs for the screening of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease among elder Chinese: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huanhuan; Chen, Guochong; Song, Chunli; Li, Deming; Ma, Qinghua; Chen, Guangliang; Li, Xinli

    2018-03-01

    Presently noninvasive methods were employed to the diagnosis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), including fatty liver index (FLI), hepatic steatosis index (HSI), product of fasting triglyceride and glucose levels (TyG), and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), whereas the accuracy of those indexes need to be improved. Our study aimed to investigate the feasibility of a new index comprehensive index (CI), consisting of 6 serum biomarkers and anthropometric parameters through multivariate logistic regression analysis, to the earlier detection of NAFLD, and the diagnostic value of 5 SNPs (S1: rs2854116 of apolipoprotein C3 [APOC3], S2: rs4149267 of ATP-binding cassette transporter [ABCA1], S3: rs13702 of lipoprotein lipase [LPL], S4: rs738409 of protein 3 [patatin-like phospholipase domain containing protein 3 (PNPLA3)], S5: rs780094 of glucokinase regulatory protein gene [GCKR]) for NAFLD were also explored. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC) and Youden index (YI) were calculated to assess the diagnostic value. The AUROC of CI was higher than FLI, HSI, and TyG (CI: 0.897, FLI: 0.873, HSI: 0.855, TyG: 0.793). Therefore, CI might be a better index for the diagnosis of NAFLD. Although there had no statistical significance (P = .123), the AUROC and YI were increased when CI combined with rs2854116 (S1) (AUROC = 0.902, YI = 0.6844). The combination of CI with S1 showed even better diagnostic accuracy than CI, which suggests the potential value of rs2854116 for the diagnosis of NAFLD.

  7. A novel index including SNPs for the screening of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease among elder Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Huanhuan; Chen, Guochong; Song, Chunli; Li, Deming; Ma, Qinghua; Chen, Guangliang; Li, Xinli

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Presently noninvasive methods were employed to the diagnosis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), including fatty liver index (FLI), hepatic steatosis index (HSI), product of fasting triglyceride and glucose levels (TyG), and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), whereas the accuracy of those indexes need to be improved. Our study aimed to investigate the feasibility of a new index comprehensive index (CI), consisting of 6 serum biomarkers and anthropometric parameters through multivariate logistic regression analysis, to the earlier detection of NAFLD, and the diagnostic value of 5 SNPs (S1: rs2854116 of apolipoprotein C3 [APOC3], S2: rs4149267 of ATP-binding cassette transporter [ABCA1], S3: rs13702 of lipoprotein lipase [LPL], S4: rs738409 of protein 3 [patatin-like phospholipase domain containing protein 3 (PNPLA3)], S5: rs780094 of glucokinase regulatory protein gene [GCKR]) for NAFLD were also explored. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC) and Youden index (YI) were calculated to assess the diagnostic value. The AUROC of CI was higher than FLI, HSI, and TyG (CI: 0.897, FLI: 0.873, HSI: 0.855, TyG: 0.793). Therefore, CI might be a better index for the diagnosis of NAFLD. Although there had no statistical significance (P = .123), the AUROC and YI were increased when CI combined with rs2854116 (S1) (AUROC = 0.902, YI = 0.6844). The combination of CI with S1 showed even better diagnostic accuracy than CI, which suggests the potential value of rs2854116 for the diagnosis of NAFLD. PMID:29595690

  8. Fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in a mangrove swamp in Hong Kong following an oil spill.

    PubMed

    Ke, L; Wong, Teresa W Y; Wong, Y S; Tam, Nora F Y

    2002-01-01

    The fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in a mangrove swamp (Yi O) in Hong Kong after an oil spill accident was investigated. The concentrations and profiles of PAHs in surface sediments collected from five quadrats (each of 10 m x 10 m) covering different degrees of oil contamination and the most contaminated mangrove leaves were examined in December 2000 (30 days after the accident) and March 2001 (126 days later). The concentrations of total PAHs in surface sediments ranged from 138 to 2,135 ng g(-1), and PAHs concentrations decreased with time. In the most contaminated sediments, total PAHs dropped from 2,135 (30 days) to 1,196 ng g(-1) (120 days), and the decrease was smaller in less contaminated sediments. The percentage reduction in sediment PAHs over three months (44%) was less significant than that in contaminated leaves (85%), indicating PAH in or on leaves disappeared more rapidly. The PAH profiles were very similar in sediments collected from quadrats Q1 and Q2 with benzo[a]anthracene and pyrene being the most abundant PAH compounds, but were different in the other three quadrats. The proportion of the light molecular weight PAHs to total PAHs increased after three months, especially phenanthrene. Results suggest that physical and photo-chemical weathering (tidal washing and photo-oxidation) of crude oil in surface sediments and on plant leaves were important processes in the first few months after the oil spill. The PAH contamination in Yi O swamp came from both petrogenic and pyrolytic sources. The petrogenic characteristic in the most contaminated sediment was confirmed with high values of phenanthrene to anthracene ratio (>10) and low values of fluoranthene to pyrene ratio (0.3-0.4).

  9. Reactions homogenes en phase gazeuse dans les lits fluidises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laviolette, Jean-Philippe

    measurements of solids flux, chemical composition, temperature and pressure. Autoignition was only recorded within 0.06 m of the bed surface at temperatures greater than 833 K. Propane conversion predicted by six different microkinetic mechanistic models were compared to the experimental measurements: all six models underestimated the reaction rate above the bed surface. However, accounting for the production of H2O2 during in-bed combustion significantly increased the calculated reaction rates and resulted in a better agreement between predicted and measured propane conversion. In the third part of this work, a novel spectroscopic method was developed to measure quantitatively and simultaneously solids volume fraction (1-epsilon) and gaseous species composition (Yi) in a gas/solid system. The method was comprised of an FT-IR coupled to a fibre-optic probe that could perform real-time and in-situ measurements of absorbance. The effect of (1-epsilon) and Yi on the absorbance spectra were additive and could be independently calibrated. Experiments were conducted with alkane/nitrogen mixtures and two types of particles: sand and FCC. Fuel mole fractions and (1-epsilon) were varied between 1.8 - 10.1 mol% and 0 - 0.45, respectively. The relative errors for Yi time-averaged measurements were below 6% and the error increased significantly with decreasing beam intensity. A proof of concept for a novel application in fluidized beds was also completed: the fibre-optic probe was used to measure the molar fraction of a tracer gas inside the emulsion and bubble phases during gas tracer experiments. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  10. Gusev Rocks Solidified from Lava (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    In recent weeks, as NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has driven through the basin south of 'Husband Hill,' it has been traversing mainly sand and dune deposits. This week, though, Spirit has been maneuvering along the edge of an arc-shaped feature called 'Lorre Ridge' and has encountered some spectacular examples of basaltic rocks with striking textures. This panoramic camera (Pancam) image shows a group of boulders informally named 'FuYi.' These basaltic rocks were formed by volcanic processes and may be a primary constituent of Lorre Ridge and other interesting landforms in the basin.

    Spirit first encountered basalts at its landing site two years ago, on a vast plain covered with solidified lava that appeared to have flowed across Gusev Crater. Later, basaltic rocks became rare as Spirit climbed Husband Hill. The basaltic rocks that Spirit is now seeing are interesting because they exhibit many small holes or vesicles, similar to some kinds of volcanic rocks on Earth. Vesicular rocks form when gas bubbles are trapped in lava flows and the rock solidifies around the bubbles. When the gas escapes, it leaves holes in the rock. The quantity of gas bubbles in rocks on Husband Hill varies considerably; some rocks have none and some, such as several here at FuYi, are downright frothy.

    The change in textures and the location of the basalts may be signs that Spirit is driving along the edge of a lava flow. This lava may be the same as the basalt blanketing the plains of Spirit's landing site, or it may be different. The large size and frothy nature of the boulders around Lorre Ridge might indicate that eruptions once took place at the edge of the lava flow, where the lava interacted with the rocks of the basin floor. Scientists hope to learn more as Spirit continues to investigate these rocks.

    As Earth approaches the Chinese New Year (The Year of the Dog), the Athena science team decided to use nicknames representing Chinese culture and geography

  11. Gusev Rocks Solidified from Lava (Approximate True Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    In recent weeks, as NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has driven through the basin south of 'Husband Hill,' it has been traversing mainly sand and dune deposits. This week, though, Spirit has been maneuvering along the edge of an arc-shaped feature called 'Lorre Ridge' and has encountered some spectacular examples of basaltic rocks with striking textures. This panoramic camera (Pancam) image shows a group of boulders informally named 'FuYi.' These basaltic rocks were formed by volcanic processes and may be a primary constituent of Lorre Ridge and other interesting landforms in the basin.

    Spirit first encountered basalts at its landing site two years ago, on a vast plain covered with solidified lava that appeared to have flowed across Gusev Crater. Later, basaltic rocks became rare as Spirit climbed Husband Hill. The basaltic rocks that Spirit is now seeing are interesting because they exhibit many small holes or vesicles, similar to some kinds of volcanic rocks on Earth. Vesicular rocks form when gas bubbles are trapped in lava flows and the rock solidifies around the bubbles. When the gas escapes, it leaves holes in the rock. The quantity of gas bubbles in rocks on Husband Hill varies considerably; some rocks have none and some, such as several here at FuYi, are downright frothy.

    The change in textures and the location of the basalts may be signs that Spirit is driving along the edge of a lava flow. This lava may be the same as the basalt blanketing the plains of Spirit's landing site, or it may be different. The large size and frothy nature of the boulders around Lorre Ridge might indicate that eruptions once took place at the edge of the lava flow, where the lava interacted with the rocks of the basin floor. Scientists hope to learn more as Spirit continues to investigate these rocks.

    As Earth approaches the Chinese New Year (The Year of the Dog), the Athena science team decided to use nicknames representing Chinese culture and geography

  12. Linking hydro-climate to the sediment archive: a combined monitoring and calibration study from a varved lake in central Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, C. Neil; Dean, Jonathan R.; Eastwood, Warren J.; Jones, Matthew D.; Allcock, Samantha L.; Leng, Melanie J.; Metcalfe, Sarah E.; Woodbridge, Jessie; Yiǧitbaşıoǧlu, Hakan

    2016-04-01

    Hydro-climatic reconstructions from lake sediment proxies require an understanding of modern formation processes and calibration over multiple years. Here we use Nar Gölü, a non-outlet, monomictic maar lake in central Turkey, as a field site for such a natural experiment. Fieldwork since 1997 has included observations and measurements of lake water and sediment trap samples, and automated data logging (Jones et al., 2005; Woodbridge and Roberts, 2010; Dean et al., 2015). We compare these data to isotopic, chemical and biotic proxies preserved in the lake's annually-varved sediments. Nar Gölü underwent a 3 m lake-level fall between 2000 and 2010, and δ18O in both water and carbonates is correlated with this lake-level fall, responding to the change in water balance. Over the same period, sedimentary diatom assemblages responded via changes in habitat availability and mixing regime, while conductivity inferred from diatoms showed a rise in inferred salinity, although with a non-linear response to hydro-climatic forcing. There were also non-linear shifts in carbonate mineralogy and elemental chemistry. Building on the relationship between lake water balance and the sediment isotope record, we calibrated sedimentary δ18O against local meteorological records to derive a P/E drought index for central Anatolia. Application to of this to the longer sediment core isotope record from Nar Gölü (Jones et al. 2006) highlights major drought events over the last 600 years (Yiǧitbaşıoǧlu et al., 2015). Although this lacustrine record offers an archive of annually-dated, decadally-averaged hydro-climatic change, there were also times of non-linear lake response to climate. Robust reconstruction therefore requires understanding of physical processes as well as application of statistical correlations. Dean, J.R., Eastwood, W.J., Roberts, N., Jones, M.D., Yiǧitbaşıoǧlu, H., Allcock, S.L., Woodbridge, J., Metcalfe, S.E. and Leng, M.J. (2015) Tracking the hydro

  13. Gusev Rocks Solidified from Lava (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    In recent weeks, as NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has driven through the basin south of 'Husband Hill,' it has been traversing mainly sand and dune deposits. This week, though, Spirit has been maneuvering along the edge of an arc-shaped feature called 'Lorre Ridge' and has encountered some spectacular examples of basaltic rocks with striking textures. This panoramic camera (Pancam) image shows a group of boulders informally named 'FuYi.' These basaltic rocks were formed by volcanic processes and may be a primary constituent of Lorre Ridge and other interesting landforms in the basin.

    Spirit first encountered basalts at its landing site two years ago, on a vast plain covered with solidified lava that appeared to have flowed across Gusev Crater. Later, basaltic rocks became rare as Spirit climbed Husband Hill. The basaltic rocks that Spirit is now seeing are interesting because they exhibit many small holes or vesicles, similar to some kinds of volcanic rocks on Earth. Vesicular rocks form when gas bubbles are trapped in lava flows and the rock solidifies around the bubbles. When the gas escapes, it leaves holes in the rock. The quantity of gas bubbles in rocks on Husband Hill varies considerably; some rocks have none and some, such as several here at FuYi, are downright frothy.

    The change in textures and the location of the basalts may be signs that Spirit is driving along the edge of a lava flow. This lava may be the same as the basalt blanketing the plains of Spirit's landing site, or it may be different. The large size and frothy nature of the boulders around Lorre Ridge might indicate that eruptions once took place at the edge of the lava flow, where the lava interacted with the rocks of the basin floor. Scientists hope to learn more as Spirit continues to investigate these rocks.

    As Earth approaches the Chinese New Year (The Year of the Dog), the Athena science team decided to use nicknames representing Chinese culture and geography

  14. Three-dimensional Effects on Formation of a "Tiger Tail" of Turbidity in Lake Biwa, Japan, following a Typhoon.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, J. C.; Auger, G.

    2016-02-01

    Lake Biwa, Japan, supplies water to 14.5 million in Kyoto and beyond. The North Basin's dimensions of roughly 20×40 km, and maximal depth of 104 m, facilitate geostrophic gyres during the stratified season. Our motivation is pollution by large-scale runoff, possibly combined with hypothetical earthquake-induced damage. This report focuses on the days following Typhoon Man-Yi, which dumped record rainfall in our area around September 16, 2013. Clear skies allowed unobstructed visible and IR satellite images during the period Sept 17-19. The image on the left of the attached file is a near-IR MODIS image taken at 03:54 UTC on Sept 17th, in which turbid water appears milky. There is a thin filament of turbidity extending from the Ado River delta on the western shore northeast toward Chikubu Island near the north shore. The structure of turbidity near the tip of this filament, taken together with a corresponding image take 97 minutes earlier, strongly suggests that the flow at the tip is decelerating as it approaches a saddlepoint-like structure to its north-east. This aspect, and the overall shape, are strongly reminiscent of the "Tiger Tail" of surface oil that was observed after the Deepwater Horizon disaster and analyzed mathematically in terms of Lagrangian Coherent Structures by Olascoaga et al (2012 ; PNAS 109 (13): 4738-4743). We have applied the SUNTANS ocean model, in hydrostatic mode, to simulate the flow in the Lake in the period around Typhoon Man-Yi. Comparison of simulation results with temperatures measured in-situ at six depths every six hours near the Ado River mouth, and with available data from MODIS images (cf. right side of image file) lends credibility to the simulation results. Notably, an upwelling was hindcasted by the model to occur near the north shore during the night of Sept 16-17, and this matches MODIS estimates of SST distribution. We find that the upwelling water strongly limits the initially northward motion of the sediment from the

  15. Detecting Tsunami Source Energy and Scales from GNSS & Laboratory Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Y. T.; Yim, S. C.; Mohtat, A.

    2016-12-01

    Historically, tsunami warnings based on the earthquake magnitude have not been very accurate. According to the 2006 U.S. Government Accountability Office report, an unacceptable 75% false alarm rate has prevailed in the Pacific Ocean (GAO-06-519). One of the main reasons for those inaccurate warnings is that an earthquake's magnitude is not the scale or power of the resulting tsunami. For the last 10 years, we have been developing both theories and algorithms to detect tsunami source energy and scales, instead of earthquake magnitudes per se, directly from real-time Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) stations along coastlines for early warnings [Song 2007; Song et al., 2008; Song et al., 2012; Xu and Song 2013; Titov et al, 2016]. Here we will report recent progress on two fronts: 1) Examples of using GNSS in detecting the tsunami energy scales for the 2004 Sumatra M9.1 earthquake, the 2005 Nias M8.7 earthquake, the 2010 M8.8 Chilean earthquake, the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, and the 2015 M8.3 Illapel earthquake. 2) New results from recent state-of-the-art wave-maker experiments and comparisons with GNSS data will also be presented. Related reference: Titov, V., Y. T. Song, L. Tang, E. N. Bernard, Y. Bar-Sever, and Y. Wei (2016), Consistent estimates of tsunami energy show promise for improved early warning, Pur Appl. Geophs., DOI: 10.1007/s00024-016-1312-1. Xu, Z. and Y. T. Song (2013), Combining the all-source Green's functions and the GPS-derived source for fast tsunami prediction - illustrated by the March 2011 Japan tsunami, J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech., jtechD1200201. Song, Y. T., I. Fukumori, C. K. Shum, and Y. Yi (2012), Merging tsunamis of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake detected over the open ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., doi:10.1029/2011GL050767. Song, Y. T., L.-L. Fu, V. Zlotnicki, C. Ji, V. Hjorleifsdottir, C.K. Shum, and Y. Yi, 2008: The role of horizontal impulses of the faulting continental slope in generating the 26 December 2004 Tsunami (2007

  16. Efficacy of various protein-based coating on enhancing the shelf life of fresh eggs during storage.

    PubMed

    Caner, Cengiz; Yüceer, Muhammed

    2015-07-01

    The effectiveness of various coatings (whey protein isolate [WPI], whey protein concentrate [WPC], zein, and shellac) on functional properties, interior quality, and eggshell breaking strength of fresh eggs were evaluated during storage at 24 °: C for 6 weeks. Coatings and storage time had significant effects on Haugh unit, yolk index, albumen pH, dry matter (DMA), relative whipping capacity (RWC), and albumen viscosity. Uncoated eggs had higher albumen pH (9.56) and weight loss, and lower albumen viscosity (5.73), Haugh unit (HU), and yolk index (YI) during storage. Among the coated eggs, the shellac and zein coated eggs had the highest value of albumen viscosity (27.26 to 26.90), HU (74.10 to 73.61), and YI (44.84 to 44.63) after storage. Shellac (1.44%) was more effective in preventing weight loss than WPC (4.59%), WPI (4.60%), and zein (2.13%) coatings. Uncoated eggs had the higest value (6.71%) of weight lost. All coatings increased shell strength (5.18 to 5.73 for top and 3.58 to 4.71 for bottom) significantly (P < 0.05) compared to the uncoated eggs (4.70 for top and 3.15 for bottom). The functional properties such as albumen DMA (14.50 to 16.66 and 18.97 for uncoated) and albumen RWC (841 to 891 and 475 for uncoated) of fresh eggs can be preserved during storage when they are coated. The shellac and zein coatings were more effective for maintaining the internal quality of fresh eggs during storage. Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) in the 800 to 2500 nm reflection spectra were used to quantify the contents of the fresh eggs at the end of storage. Eggs coated with shellac or zein displayed a higher absorbance at 970 and 1,197 nm respectively (OH vibration of water) compared with those coated with WPI or WPC and the uncoated group at the end of storage. The coatings improved functional properties and also shell strength and could be a viable alternative technology for maintaining the internal quality of eggs during long-term storage. This study

  17. Inhibition of microRNA-214-5p promotes cell survival and extracellular matrix formation by targeting collagen type IV alpha 1 in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Q S; Meng, F Y; Zhao, Y H; Jin, C L; Tian, J; Yi, X J

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the functional effects of microRNA (miR)-214-5p on osteoblastic cells, which might provide a potential role of miR-214-5p in bone fracture healing. Blood samples were obtained from patients with hand fracture or intra-articular calcaneal fracture and from healthy controls (HCs). Expression of miR-214-5p was monitored by qRT-PCR at day 7, 14 and 21 post-surgery. Mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were transfected with antisense oligonucleotides (ASO)-miR-214-5p, collagen type IV alpha 1 (COL4A1) vector or their controls; thereafter, cell viability, apoptotic rate, and the expression of collagen type I alpha 1 (COL1A1), type II collagen (COL-II), and type X collagen (COL-X) were determined. Luciferase reporter assay, qRT-PCR, and Western blot were performed to ascertain whether COL4A1 was a target of miR-214-5p. Plasma miR-214-5p was highly expressed in patients with bone fracture compared with HCs after fracture (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01). Inhibition of miR-214-5p increased the viability of MC3T3-E1 cells and the expressions of COL1A1 and COL-X, but decreased the apoptotic rate and COL-II expression (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01). COL4A1 was a target of miR-214-5p, and was negatively regulated by miR-214-5p (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01). Overexpression of COL4A1 showed a similar impact on cell viability, apoptotic rate, and COL1A1, COL-II, and COL-X expressions inhibiting miR-214-5p (p < 0.01). Inhibition of miR-214-5p promotes cell survival and extracellular matrix (ECM) formation of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells by targeting COL4A1. Cite this article: Q. S. Li, F. Y. Meng, Y. H. Zhao, C. L. Jin, J. Tian, X. J. Yi. Inhibition of microRNA-214-5p promotes cell survival and extracellular matrix formation by targeting collagen type IV alpha 1 in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Bone Joint Res 2017;6:464-471. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.68.BJR-2016-0208.R2. © 2017 Yi et al.

  18. The phase transition of matrix recovery from Gaussian measurements matches the minimax MSE of matrix denoising.

    PubMed

    Donoho, David L; Gavish, Matan; Montanari, Andrea

    2013-05-21

    Let X(0) be an unknown M by N matrix. In matrix recovery, one takes n < MN linear measurements y(1),…,y(n) of X(0), where y(i) = Tr(A(T)iX(0)) and each A(i) is an M by N matrix. A popular approach for matrix recovery is nuclear norm minimization (NNM): solving the convex optimization problem min ||X||*subject to y(i) =Tr(A(T)(i)X) for all 1 ≤ i ≤ n, where || · ||* denotes the nuclear norm, namely, the sum of singular values. Empirical work reveals a phase transition curve, stated in terms of the undersampling fraction δ(n,M,N) = n/(MN), rank fraction ρ=rank(X0)/min {M,N}, and aspect ratio β=M/N. Specifically when the measurement matrices Ai have independent standard Gaussian random entries, a curve δ*(ρ) = δ*(ρ;β) exists such that, if δ > δ*(ρ), NNM typically succeeds for large M,N, whereas if δ < δ*(ρ), it typically fails. An apparently quite different problem is matrix denoising in Gaussian noise, in which an unknown M by N matrix X(0) is to be estimated based on direct noisy measurements Y =X(0) + Z, where the matrix Z has independent and identically distributed Gaussian entries. A popular matrix denoising scheme solves the unconstrained optimization problem min|| Y-X||(2)(F)/2+λ||X||*. When optimally tuned, this scheme achieves the asymptotic minimax mean-squared error M(ρ;β) = lim(M,N → ∞)inf(λ)sup(rank(X) ≤ ρ · M)MSE(X,X(λ)), where M/N → . We report extensive experiments showing that the phase transition δ*(ρ) in the first problem, matrix recovery from Gaussian measurements, coincides with the minimax risk curve M(ρ)=M(ρ;β) in the second problem, matrix denoising in Gaussian noise: δ*(ρ)=M(ρ), for any rank fraction 0 < ρ < 1 (at each common aspect ratio β). Our experiments considered matrices belonging to two constraint classes: real M by N matrices, of various ranks and aspect ratios, and real symmetric positive-semidefinite N by N matrices, of various ranks.

  19. Ocean Domains and Maximum Degree of Spherical Harmonic and Orthonormal Expansions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, R.

    1999-01-01

    Ocean domains used for the orthonormal (ON) systems are studied to determine the maximum degree of spherical harmonic and orthonormal expansions that can be constructed. Although it was shown that one domain was restricted to degree 24, others were shown could be constructed to determine expansions to at least degree 36. Since 1991 the maximum degree expansion used for several Ohio State studies has been 24. In this report it is shown that the maximum degree for the ocean domain used by Wang and Rapp [1994] was 32 and 29 for the domain used by Rapp, Zhang, Yi [1996]. A modification of the former domain was developed (D1e) that enabled a solution to degree 36 to be determined. A modification of the Rapp, Zhang, Yi domain (D7d) enabled a degree 30 solution to be made. Combination coefficients were developed for domain D1e, to degree 36, and to degree 30 for domain D7d. The degree 30 spherical harmonic expansion provided by Pavlis [1998] of the POCM_4B dynamic ocean topography (DOT), and the degree 30 part of the degree 360 expansion [Rapp. 1998] of the POCM_4B model was converted to an ON expansion valid for the D7d domain. The degree 36 part of the degree 360 expansion was converted to the ON expansion for the D1e domain. The square root of the degree variances of the various solutions were compared. The root mean square value of DOT from the Pai,lis expansion, after conversion to the ON system, was + or - 66.52 cm (D7d domain). The value from the degree 30 part of the 360 expansion was + or - 66.65 cm. The value based on the actual POCM-4B data, in the D7d domain, was + or - 66.74 cm showing excellent agreement with the ON results. If the spherical harmonic coefficients had been used the implied root mean square value was + or - 60.76 cm [Pavlis] and + or -59.70 cm [Rapp].

  20. Comparison of conventional medicine, TCM treatment, and combination of both conventional medicine and TCM treatment for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: study protocol of a randomized comparative effectiveness research trial.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Sheng; Xie, Yang; Li, Su-Yun; Yu, Xue-Qing

    2014-05-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) affects millions worldwide. Although many therapies exist and are being developed to relieve symptoms and reduce mortality, few data are available to understand which of the therapeutic alternatives is the most cost-effective for COPD patients in everyday clinical practice, especially for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Comparative effectiveness research can help patients, clinicians, and decision-makers make best informed treatment decisions where such evidence was previously lacking. This study aims to compare the effectiveness and economic evaluation of three treatments: (1) conventional Western medicine; (2) TCM treatments, which have been evaluated and have certain effect; and (3) a combination of both conventional Western medicine and TCM treatments, and then determine which treatment is the most suitable for COPD patients. A multicenter, pragmatic, randomized, controlled trial is adopted. A total of 360 patients will be recruited and randomly assigned to one of the three treatments group, with 120 in each group. Patients in the conventional Western medicine group will be given Salbutamol, Formoterol, Salmeterol/fluticasone, respectively, according to the guidelines. For the TCM group, patients will be given Bufei granule, Bu-Fei Jian-Pi granule, Bu-Fei Yi-Shen granule, and Yi-Qi Zi-Shen granule based on their corresponding TCM syndrome patterns, respectively. For the combination of conventional medicine and TCM treatments group, patients will be given a combination of conventional Western medicine and TCM granules. Treatments in each group are recognized as a whole comprehensive intervention. After the 26-week treatment, another 26 weeks will be followed up. The outcome measures including the frequency and duration of acute exacerbations, lung function, dyspnea, exercise capacity, quality of life, and economic evaluation will be assessed. It is hypothesized that each of the three treatments will have

  1. Secular trends in age at menarche among Chinese girls from 24 ethnic minorities, 1985 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yi; Ma, Jun; Agardh, Anette; Lau, Patrick W.C.; Hu, Peijin; Zhang, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Background Declining age at menarche has been observed in many countries. In China, a decrease of 4.5 months per decade in the average age at menarche among the majority Han girls has recently been reported. However, the trends in age at menarche among ethnic minority girls over the past 25 years remain unknown. Objectives To compare the differences in median age at menarche among girls aged 9–18 years across 24 ethnic minorities in 2010 and to estimate the trends in age at menarche in different ethnic minorities from 1985 to 2010. Design We used data from six cross-sectional Chinese National Surveys on Students’ Constitution and Health (1985, 1991, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010). The median age at menarche was estimated by using probit analysis. Results In 2010, the ethnic minorities with the earliest age at menarche were the Koreans (11.79 years), Mongolians (12.44 years), and Zhuang (12.52 years). The three ethnic minorities with the latest age at menarche were the Sala (14.32 years), Yi (13.74 years), and Uighurs (13.67 years). From 1985 to 2010, the age at menarche declined in all 24 minority groups. The Lisu, Kazakh, and Korean minorities showed the largest reductions in age at menarche by 1.79 (p<0.05), 1.69 (p<0.05), and 1.57 (p<0.05) years, respectively, from 1985 to 2010. The Yi, Sala, and Li minorities showed the smallest reductions, with age at menarche declining by only 0.06 (p>0.05), 0.15 (p>0.05), and 0.15 (p>0.05) years, respectively, in the same period. Conclusion A large variation in age at menarche was observed among different ethnic minorities, with the earliest age at menarche found among Korean girls. A reduction in the average age at menarche appeared among most of the ethnic minorities over time, and the largest decrease was observed in Lisu, Kazakh, and Korean girls. Thus, health education should focus on targeting the specific needs of each ethnic minority group. PMID:26220757

  2. Improving the indoor air quality of respiratory type of medical facility by zeolite filtering.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jyun-Hong; Wang, Yeoung-Sheng; Lin, Jhan-Ping; Wu, Sheng-Hung; Horng, Jao-Jia

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the indoor air quality (IAQ) conditions of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), formaldehyde (HCHO), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), and bio-aerosols (bacteria and fungi) in a respiratory type of medical facility in Chia-Yi County in southern Taiwan. Among those IAQ conditions, the concentrations of CO, O3, and HCHO exceeded the regulation values of the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (EPA) mostly in the morning. The concentrations of bacteria and fungi did not exceed the regulation values but still posed potential health and environment problems for workers, patients, and visitors. Therefore, self-made silver-coated zeolite (AgZ) was used as a filter material in air cleaners to remove bio-aerosols in the respiratory care ward (RCW), and the removals were still effective after 120 hr. The cumulative bio-aerosol removals for bacteria and fungi were 900 and 1,088 colony-forming units (CFU) g(-1) after 24 hr and were above 3,100 and 2,700 CFU g(-1) after 120 hr. From the research results, it is suggested that AgZ filtering could be used as a feasible engineering measure for hospitals to control their bacteria and fungi parameters in IAQ management. Hospitals should maintain their environmental management and monitoring programs and use different engineering measures to improve different IAQ parameters. This study investigated the IAQ conditions in the field at a hospital in Chia-Yi County in southern Taiwan. Although concentrations of most parameters were still within the regulation values, the concentrations of CO, O3, and HCHO were partially exceeded. We propose a method using an air cleaner with silver-coated zeolite (AgZ) as a possible engineering measure, and there were effective reductions of bacteria and fungi to lower levels with antibacterial effects after 120 hr. Furthermore, this study implies that hospitals should continuously maintain environmental monitoring programs and adopt optimal

  3. Accumulation and Transfer of Cadmium, by Indica Rice Cultivars Fujian Province of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, B.; Wang, G.

    2016-12-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the accumulating ability of cadmium (Cd) by different Indica rice varieties and to understand the differences in transfer factor in the soil-to-rice grain. A total of 189 crop samples and 189 corresponding soil samples were collected for treatment and chemical analysis. Sixteen (16) Indica rice varieties were selected for this study. Our preliminary results showed that there exist significant differences (p<0.05) in the grain Cd concentrations of the variety studied. A regression method was adopted to calculate the representative soil-to-grain (TF0.1) of each cultivar. The accumulating ability of cadmium of the 16 cultivars varied greatly.Yi-xiang 2292 had the highest TFsoil-grain (2.91), which was 22 times higher than the lowest cultivar Pei- za-tai- fen (0.13). However, no significant difference in TFsoil-grain was observed between conventional and hybrid cultivars. A further study was carried out to understand the transfer characteristics and accumulating ability of cadmium using four (4) selected cultivars (both of hybrid and conventional indica rice cultivars).The TFstem-grain among the variety revealed that significant differences (p<0.05) exist in the stem of the selected variety in the translocation of Cd among indica rice variety and cadmium decreases in the pattern: root>stem>leaf>grain in the four cultivars except Te -you 009 that showed similar cadmium content in root and stem. Among the hybrid cultivars Yi -you 673 accumulated the most Cadmium in root, stem, leaf and grain, while Te- you 009 accumulated the least Cadmium in root, whereas the conventional cultivar Jia-fu-zhan accumulated the lowest Cadmium in leaf and grain. Our findings also revealed that the Cadmium concentrations in rice grains were more significantly correlated with the Cadmium in stem, followed by leaf, which reveals that the transfer from stem and leaf to grain may be the determinant steps for Cadmium accumulation in the grains.

  4. Sophora flavescens Ait.: Traditional usage, phytochemistry and pharmacology of an important traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    He, Xirui; Fang, Jiacheng; Huang, Linhong; Wang, Jinhui; Huang, Xiaoqiang

    2015-08-22

    Sophora flavescens (Fabaceae), also known as Kushen (Chinese: ), has been an important species in Chinese medicine since the Qin and Han dynasties. The root of Sophora flavescens has a long history in the traditional medicine of many countries, including China, Japan, Korea, India and some countries in Europe. In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Sophora flavescens has been used extensively, mainly in combination with other medicinal plants in prescriptions to treat fever, dysentery, hematochezia, jaundice, oliguria, vulvar swelling, asthma, eczema, inflammatory disorders, ulcers and diseases associated with skin burns. The aim of this review is to provide updated and comprehensive information regarding the botany, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, biological activities and toxicology of Sophora flavescens and to discuss possible trends and opportunities for further research on Sophora flavescens. We systematically searched major scientific databases (PubMed, Elsevier, SpringerLink, Google Scholar, Medline Plus, ACS, "Da Yi Yi Xue Sou Suo (http://www.dayi100.com/login.jsp)", China Knowledge Resource Integrated (CNKI) and Web of Science) for information published between 1958 and 2015 on Sophora flavescens. Information was also acquired from local classic herbal literature, conference papers, government reports, and PhD and MSc dissertations. The broad spectrum of biological activities associated with Sophora flavescens has been considered a valuable resource in both traditional and modern medicine. Extracts are taken either orally or by injection. More than 200 compounds have been isolated from Sophora flavescens, and the major components have been identified as flavonoids and alkaloids. Recent in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that at least 50 pure compounds and crude extracts from Sophora flavescens possess wide-ranging antitumor, antimicrobial, antipyretic, antinociceptive, and anti-inflammatory pharmacological abilities. The anticancer and anti

  5. Reconciling late Quaternary transgressions in the Bohai Sea, China to the global sea level changes, and new linkage of sedimentary records to three astronomical rhythms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Liang

    2013-04-01

    The Bohai Sea in China was formed by subsidence during the Cenozoic. Some 2000-3000 m of fluvial, lacustrine and marine sediments has been deposited in the basin (IOCAS 1985), and these sediments have great potentials in high-/low-latitude interaction, environmental impacts on ancient human activities, and other important issues (Liu, 2009; Yi et al. 2012a), because it is influenced by the Siberian-Mongolian Highs and the ITCZ, and is close to the Nihewan basin and the Zhoukoudian site which are both world-renowned for the discovery of Homo erectus. Since the 1970s, hundreds of studies have been conducted around the Bohai Sea and the major results could be summarized as follows (Zhao et al., 1978; IOCAS, 1985; Liu, 2009, and references therein): (1) constrained by radiocarbon dating, TL/OSL or geomagnetic excursion, three transgressions (T1, T2, T3) developed during the Holocene, marine isotopic stage (MIS) 3 and MIS 5, respectively; and (2) regressions occurred at the beginning of glacial stages, i.e. MIS2 and MIS4. However, apparent inconsistency could be found between T2 and T3, and the question is that in the context that MIS 3 is an inter-stadial stage with a global sea level of 60~80 m lower than the present (Chappell et al. 1996), how did T2 occur in the Bohai Sea, and why did T2 have much larger influence than T3 which occurred at the beginning of MIS 5? To correlate regional environmental changes with global pattern and thus to detect the potential interaction between various driving factors on orbital timescales, three cores with a high recovery rate were drilled in the south Bohai Sea. This study was conducted following three perspectives: chronology (Yi et al. 2012b), sea-level change (Yi et al. 2012c) and paleoclimatology (Yi et al. 2012a), and the main results are as follows: 1. Chronology. Luminescence and radiocarbon dating methods were applied in dating these coastal/marine sediments: (1) For Holocene samples, most of the radiocarbon dates agree

  6. Monoenergetic ion acceleration and Rayleigh-Taylor instability of the composite target irradiated by the laser pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khudik, Vladimir; Yi, S. Austin; Shvets, Gennady

    2012-10-01

    Acceleration of ions in the two-specie composite target irradiated by a circularly polarized laser pulse is studied analytically and via particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. A self-consistent analytical model of the composite target is developed. In this model, target parameters are stationary in the center of mass of the system: heavy and light ions are completely separated from each other and form two layers, while electrons are bouncing in the potential well formed by the laser ponderomotive and electrostatic potentials. They are distributed in the direction of acceleration by the Boltzmann law and over velocities by the Maxwell-Juttner law. The laser pulse interacts directly only with electrons in a thin sheath layer, and these electrons transfer the laser pressure to the target ions. In the fluid approximation it is shown, the composite target is still susceptible to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability [1]. Using PIC simulations we found the growth rate of initially seeded perturbations as a function of their wavenumber for different composite target parameters and compare it with analytical results. Useful scaling laws between this rate and laser pulse pressure and target parameters are discussed.[4pt] [1] T.P. Yu, A. Pukhov, G. Shvets, M. Chen, T. H. Ratliff, S. A. Yi, and V. Khudik, Phys. Plasmas, 18, 043110 (2011).

  7. Human embryonic stem cell research debates: a Confucian argument

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, D

    2005-01-01

    The author proposes that the "gradualist" position is more plausible than the other two positions. Confucius's moral principle of jen, which proposes a unique theory of "love of gradation", and the principle of yi, which advocates "due treatment for persons", are then explored. The author then argues that our moral obligations to do good to other living organisms, persons, and our families are different. Putting together the "gradualist" position on the human embryo, and Confucius's theories of "love of gradation" and "due treatment for persons", the author concludes that the early embryo has less ethical significance than the later fetus and adult human. The moral obligation we have toward persons is clearer and stronger than that which we have toward human embryos. Embryo research is justifiable if it brings enormous welfare to human persons that cannot be otherwise achieved. The "love of gradation" requires us, however, to extend love and respect towards other entities according to their different status. We should therefore be very cautious in using human embryos for research, acknowledging the gradualist nature of their moral status. PMID:16269558

  8. ARPES studies of the electronic structure of Fe-based superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Donghui

    2009-03-01

    The recent discovery of superconductivity in Fe-based layered compounds has created renewed interest in high temperature superconductivity. With a superconducting transition temperature as high as 55 K, this discovery provides a new direction to understand the essential ingredients for achieving a high superconducting transition temperature. In this talk, I will present our recent angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) studies on LaOFeP and (Ba,K)Fe2As2 systems, with special emphasis on the basic electronic structure of the parent compounds. For LaOFeP, quantitative agreement can be found between our ARPES data and the LDA band structure calculations, suggesting that a weak coupling approach based on an itinerant ground state may be more appropriate for understanding this new superconducting compound [1]. On the other hand, the picture for (Ba,K)Fe2As2 system is more complicated. I will discuss two important issues in these FeAs compounds: 1) the unexpected Fermi surface topology in both undoped and doped compounds; 2) the peculiar signature of the SDW transition in ARPES spectra for the parent compound. [4pt] [1] D. H. Lu, M. Yi, S.-K. Mo, A. S. Erickson, J. Analytis, J.-H. Chu, D. J. Singh, Z. Hussain, T. H. Geballe, I. R. Fisher & Z.-X. Shen, Nature 455, 81 (2008).

  9. [A translation of the Tuhfe-i Aliyye--the Kina Kina (cinchona) essay by Ali Münşi of Bursa].

    PubMed

    Aydüz, Salim; Yildirim, Esma

    2002-01-01

    Ali Münşi (Bursa ? - Istanbul 1733), mostly known as Bursali Ali Münşi, is one of the most eminent physicians in the 18th century. He started education at a Bursa madrasa and attended courses given by many famous Ottoman physicians and scholars in various madrassas in Bursa. After completing his education in madrassa he was employed as a mudarris in Bursa and Istanbul madrassas. He was appointed to the Ottoman Palace and became a member of the royal physicians (etibba-yi hassa), because of his proficiency. Then, he was promoted and was officed as the head physician of the Galatasaray Enderun School. Ali Münşi has many works on medical practice, such as, Bida'at al-mübtedi, Cerrahnâme, Tuhfe-i aliyye and Altznotu Risalesi. Tuhfe-i Aliyye is known as the Kinakina Risalesi (chinchona), that is about how to treat a patient infected with malaria, by administering a drug named chinchona. Besides, it deals with the story of introducing chinchona to the Ottoman world from Europe. It was the first monography written on kinakina. There are several manuscripts of this text; for example, one is in the Bayezid Library, the other is in the Cerrahpaşa Medical School Medical History Department. This article is a Turkish transliteration of the Süleymaniye manuscript.

  10. Interaction between genotypes, environment and season (G x E x S) on anthocyanin corn in lowland zone of Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    G, M. Yasin H.; Isnaeni, M.; Faesal; Azrai, M.

    2018-05-01

    Interaction between genotypes (G), environment (E) and season (S) on anthocyanin corn has been studied under lowland zone in Indonesia. The experiment were conducted using Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) based on location namely Maros, Bajeng, and Polman with three replications. Ten populations of open pollinated variety (OPV) of anthocyanins purple corn included checks were used in two planting seasons (dry and rainy) in 2015/2016. The objective of the experiment is to determine which of the population is stable and has high yield to be promoted as candidate for new OPV varieties. Genotypes were planted in four rows of 5.0 m length, spacing of 75 cm x 20 cm, one plant per hill, and applied with Urea, Ponska (300 and 200 kg Ha-1). Population was then selected by t test in model Yij=µ+βiIj+δij, i≠j (Y: yield, µ: mean, β: regression coefficient, I: environmental index, δ: deviation from regression), and stability parameter bi=ΣYiIj/I2 j. The results show that there was a significant interaction of GxExS on PMU(S1).Synth.F.C1 and PPU(S1).F.C1 with yield ranging between 6.70-8.48 t ha-1 and grain potential found in the locations of Maros and Bajeng in the rainy season. Content of anthocyanins were between 37.15 and 51.92 µg per 100 g sample.

  11. Are carrots, corn and cattle really provided by Nature- If not ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    People harbor different perspectives regarding the aspects of agroecosystems or cultivated lands that are or could be considered ecosystem services. The first issues that need to be addressed in this regard are to define agro-ecosystem services and to establish their potential purpose (or use) to human beneficiaries. This early decision provides the foundation for what ecosystem services are, who uses them, and if or how they can be quantified. An important point to consider is that agricultural activities, while performed in and on environments provided by nature, are characterized by human labor and capital originating in the human economy. There are inherent reasons to quantify (i.e., measure) ecosystem services in a relatively standard way across landscapes and even within political units, such as counties or nations. Standard approaches to defining and measuring can underpin a multitude of accounting activities such as assigning value to them using either monetary or non-monetary approaches. The ecosystem services community could benefit by applying an ecosystem services definition that embodies from where in the environment the “service” originates and, equally as important, the user or beneficiary of this service. If we focus on the subset of ecosystem services which are Final Ecosystem Goods and Services by adopting the definition of Final Ecosystem Goods and Services (or FEGS), “components of nature, directly enjoyed, consumed or used to yi

  12. [Polymorphism of DYS287 on Y chromosome in 28 ethnic populations of China].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yang; Chu, Jia-you; Yu, Jian-kun; Yu, Liang; Sun, Hao; Lin, Ke-qin; Tao, Yu-fen; Shi, Lei; Huang, Xiao-qin; Shi, Tie-liu; Fu, Song-bin

    2006-04-01

    To investigate the polymorphism of DYS287 among 28 ethnic populations in 9 provinces of China. YAP element was detected by Touchdown PCR amplification and 2% agarose gel electrophoresis. YAP+ frequencies in these ethnic populations were as follows: Zang 36.7%, Tu 23.8%, Yi 18.4%, Pumi 11.3%, Tajik 7.4%, Bai 6.7%, Jino 5.1%, Shandong Han 4%, Mulao 2.7%, and Maonan 1.3%. The rest ethnic populations in our study, including Gansu Han, Yunnan Han, Zhuangzu, Daizu, Lizu, Nuzu, Lisu, Naxi, Lahu, Dulong, Hani, Shezu, Weiwuer, Sala, Kerkizi, Dongxiang, Vazu, and Korea didn't carry YAP + element. Zangzu, Tuzu, Yizu, Pumi, Jino, and Baizu, which belong to Sino-Tibetan language family, carry a high YAP + frequency. Sala, Tuzu, and Tajik, regarded as Central Asia by origin in history and linguistics, also have a high YAP + frequency. Mulao and Maonan, which origin from "Baiyue" ancient ethnic groups, also have a considerable YAP + frequency.

  13. Concurrent administration of anticancer chemotherapy drug and herbal medicine on the perspective of pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yung-Yi; Hsieh, Chen-Hsi; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2018-04-01

    With an increasing number of cancer patients seeking an improved quality of life, complementary and alternative therapies are becoming more common ways to achieve such improvements. The potential risks of concurrent administration are serious and must be addressed. However, comprehensive evidence for the risks and benefits of combining anticancer drugs with traditional herbs is rare. Pharmacokinetic investigations are an efficient way to understand the influence of concomitant remedies. Therefore, this study aimed to collect the results of pharmacokinetic studies relating to the concurrent use of cancer chemotherapy and complementary and alternative therapies. According to the National Health Insurance (NHI) database in Taiwan and several publications, the three most commonly prescribed formulations for cancer patients are Xiang-Sha-Liu-Jun-Zi-Tang, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San and Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang. The three most commonly prescribed single herbs for cancer patients are Hedyotis diffusa, Scutellaria barbata, and Astragalus membranaceus. Few studies have discussed herb-drug interactions involving these herbs from a pharmacokinetics perspective. Here, we reviewed Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San, Long-Dan-Xie-Gan-Tang, Curcuma longa and milk thistle to provide information based on pharmacokinetic evidence for healthcare professionals to use in educating patients about the risks of the concomitant use of various remedies. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Optical system for tablet variety discrimination using visible/near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Yongni; He, Yong; Hu, Xingyue

    2007-12-01

    An optical system based on visible/near-infrared spectroscopy (Vis/NIRS) for variety discrimination of ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L.) tablets was developed. This system consisted of a light source, beam splitter system, sample chamber, optical detector (diffuse reflection detector), and data collection. The tablet varieties used in the research include Da na kang, Xin bang, Tian bao ning, Yi kang, Hua na xing, Dou le, Lv yuan, Hai wang, and Ji yao. All samples (n=270) were scanned in the Vis/NIR region between 325 and 1075 nm using a spectrograph. The chemometrics method of principal component artificial neural network (PC-ANN) was used to establish discrimination models of them. In PC-ANN models, the scores of the principal components were chosen as the input nodes for the input layer of ANN, and the best discrimination rate of 91.1% was reached. Principal component analysis was also executed to select several optimal wavelengths based on loading values. Wavelengths at 481, 458, 466, 570, 1000, 662, and 400 nm were then used as the input data of stepwise multiple linear regression, the regression equation of ginkgo tablets was obtained, and the discrimination rate was researched 84.4%. The results indicated that this optical system could be applied to discriminating ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L.) tablets, and it supplied a new method for fast ginkgo tablet variety discrimination.

  15. Myricetin: a potent approach for the treatment of type 2 diabetes as a natural class B GPCR agonist

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ying; Zheng, Xuemin; Yi, Xiulin; Liu, Changxiao; Kong, Dexin; Zhang, Jianning; Gong, Min

    2017-01-01

    The physiologic properties of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) make it a potent candidate drug target in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). GLP-1 is capable of regulating the blood glucose level by insulin secretion after administration of oral glucose. The advantages of GLP-1 for the avoidance of hypoglycemia and the control of body weight are attractive despite its poor stability. The clinical efficacies of long-acting GLP-1 derivatives strongly support discovery pursuits aimed at identifying and developing orally active, small-molecule GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize a novel oral agonist of GLP-1R (i.e., myricetin). The insulinotropic characterization of myricetin was performed in isolated islets and in Wistar rats. Long-term oral administration of myricetin demonstrated glucoregulatory activity. The data in this study suggest that myricetin might be a potential drug candidate for the treatment of T2DM as a GLP-1R agonist. Further structural modifications on myricetin might improve its pharmacology and pharmacokinetics.—Li, Y., Zheng, X., Yi, X., Liu, C., Kong, D., Zhang, J., Gong, M. Myricetin: a potent approach for the treatment of type 2 diabetes as a natural class B GPCR agonist. PMID:28270518

  16. Magnitude Dependent Seismic Quiescence of 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suyehiro, K.; Sacks, S. I.; Takanami, T.; Smith, D. E.; Rydelek, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    The change in seismicity leading to the Wenchuan Earthquake in 2008 (Mw 7.9) has been studied by various authors based on statistics and/or pattern recognitions (Huang, 2008; Yan et al., 2009; Chen and Wang, 2010; Yi et al., 2011). We show, in particular, that the magnitude-dependent seismic quiescence is observed for the Wenchuan earthquake and that it adds to other similar observations. Such studies on seismic quiescence prior to major earthquakes include 1982 Urakawa-Oki earthquake (M 7.1) (Taylor et al., 1992), 1994 Hokkaido-Toho-Oki earthquake (Mw=8.2) (Takanami et al., 1996), 2011 Tohoku earthquake (Mw=9.0) (Katsumata, 2011). Smith and Sacks (2013) proposed a magnitude-dependent quiescence based on a physical earthquake model (Rydelek and Sacks, 1995) and demonstrated the quiescence can be reproduced by the introduction of "asperities" (dilantacy hardened zones). Actual observations indicate the change occurs in a broader area than the eventual earthquake fault zone. In order to accept the explanation, we need to verify the model as the model predicts somewhat controversial features of earthquakes such as the magnitude dependent stress drop at lower magnitude range or the dynamically appearing asperities and repeating slips in some parts of the rupture zone. We show supportive observations. We will also need to verify the dilatancy diffusion to be taking place. So far, we only seem to have indirect evidences, which need to be more quantitatively substantiated.

  17. [Textual research on Chen Ye and his Jia cang jing yan fang (Family-preserved Empirical Recipes) of the Song Dynasty].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuedan; Zhang, Ruqing; Chen, Dexing

    2014-01-01

    Chen Ye, an official of the Southern Song Dynasty, also known as Chen Rihua as his styled name, was born in Changle, Fuzhou in the reign of Shaoxing, and died during the reign of Duanping. He had been consecutively in the positions of Jiang shi lang (Court Gentleman for Ceremonial Service), Zhi zhou (Prefect) of Lingding, the Ti xing (Judicial Commissioner) of Guangdong, the Zong ling (Overseer-general) of Sichuan, Shan ding (Reviser), Shu lin and other positions in Tongzhou, Yuanzhou. His works included 1 volume of Gu ling xian sheng nian pu (Mr. Guling's Chronological Biography), 1 volume of Tan xie (On Humor), 1 volume of Shi hua (Poetry), 8 volumes of Jin yuan li shu (Jin Yuan's Smart Technique), 3 volumes of Yi jian zhi lei bian (Classified Compilation of Yijian's Annals), (Zeng guang) Suo sui lu (Augmented Records of Trivial Matters), 5 volumes of Jia cang jing yan fang (Family-preserved Empirical Recipes). He also compiled the 8-volume Yin jiang zhi (Yinjiang's Annals), published the 2-volume Jia cang ji yao fang (Collected Essential Recipes from Family Preservation), and other proses and poetry. Jia cang jing yan fang was a formulary compiled by Chen Ye, which was lost. Altogether 74 of its recipes were cited in Fu ren da quan liang fang (Complete Effective Prescriptions for Women's Diseases), Shou qin yang lao shu (A Book for Pursuing Seniors' Longevity and Healthcare), Pu ji fang (Prescriptions for Universal Relief) and Yong le da dian (Yongle Encyclopedia).

  18. Meeting Report on Experimental Approaches to Evolution and Ecology Using Yeast and Other Model Systems

    PubMed Central

    Jarosz, Daniel F.; Dudley, Aimée M.

    2017-01-01

    The fourth EMBO-sponsored conference on Experimental Approaches to Evolution and Ecology Using Yeast and Other Model Systems (https://www.embl.de/training/events/2016/EAE16-01/), was held at the EMBL in Heidelberg, Germany, October 19–23, 2016. The conference was organized by Judith Berman (Tel Aviv University), Maitreya Dunham (University of Washington), Jun-Yi Leu (Academia Sinica), and Lars Steinmetz (EMBL Heidelberg and Stanford University). The meeting attracted ∼120 researchers from 28 countries and covered a wide range of topics in the fields of genetics, evolutionary biology, and ecology, with a unifying focus on yeast as a model system. Attendees enjoyed the Keith Haring-inspired yeast florescence microscopy artwork (Figure 1), a unique feature of the meeting since its inception, and the 1 min flash talks that catalyzed discussions at two vibrant poster sessions. The meeting coincided with the 20th anniversary of the publication describing the sequence of the first eukaryotic genome, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Many of the conference talks focused on important questions about what is contained in the genome, how genomes evolve, and the architecture and behavior of communities of phenotypically and genotypically diverse microorganisms. Here, we summarize highlights of the research talks around these themes. Nearly all presentations focused on novel findings, and we refer the reader to relevant manuscripts that have subsequently been published. PMID:28814445

  19. Analysis of Herbal Medicine Prescriptions for Patients in An Academic Korean Medical Hospital: A Cross Sectional Study of Electronic Medical Records (2010-2013).

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung-Wook; Lee, Hyeon-Yeop; Heo, Kwang-Ho; Cho, Hyun-Woo; Hwang, Man-Suk; Heo, In; Shin, Byung-Cheul; Hwang, Eui-Hyoung

    2018-06-01

    To obtain fundamental information for the standardization of herbal medicine in Korea. We analyzed the herbal medicine prescription data of patients at the Pusan National University Korean Medicine Hospital from March 2010 to February 2013. We used the Dongui-Bogam (Dong Yi Bao Jian) to classify prescribed herbal medicines. The study revealed that the most frequently prescribed herbal medicine was 'Liuwei Dihuang Pill (LWDHP, )' which was used for invigorating 'Shen (Kidndy)-yin'. 'LWDHP' was most frequently prescribed to male patients aged 50-59, 60-69, 70-79 and 80-89 years, and 'Xionggui Tiaoxue Decoction (XGTXD, )' was most frequently prescribed to female patients aged 30-39 and 40-49 years. According to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes, 'Diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue' showed the highest prevalence. 'LWDHP' and 'XGTXD' was the most frequently prescribed in categories 5 and 3, respectively. Based on the percentage of prescriptions for each sex, 'Ziyin Jianghuo Decoction ()' was prescribed to mainly male patients, and 'XGTXD' with 'Guima Geban Decoction ()' were prescribed to mainly female patients. This study analysis successfully determined the frequency of a variety of herbal medicines, and many restorative herbal medicines were identified and frequently administered.

  20. Metabonomic study of the fruits of Alpinia oxyphylla as an effective treatment for chronic renal injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong-Hui; Tan, Yin-Feng; Cai, Hong-Die; Zhang, Jun-Qing

    2016-05-30

    Alpinia oxyphylla (Zingiberaceae) is a well-known medicinal plant. Its fruit ("Yi-Zhi-Ren" in Chinese) is used as an anti-diuretic and traditionally used for the treatment of enuresis and reduce urination. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a disease with the characteristic of the slowly loss of kidney function and has a prevalence of up to 7-10% in adults. Recent advances in its etiology and pathogenesis are providing more speculative hypotheses focused on integral systems. Using a UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS-based metabolomic platform, we explored the changes of metabolic profiling in plasma/urine simultaneously between chronic kidney disease (CKD) induced from adenine excess and the protective effects of A. oxyphylla extract (AOE). The total twenty-one metabolites (twelve in urine and nine in plasma), up-regulated or down-regulated, were identified and contributed to CKD progress. Among these biomarkers, agmatine, CAMP, 7-methylguanine, hippuric acid, indoxyl sulfate, asparagines, kynurenic acid and p-cresol sulfate were restored back to the control-like level after the treatment of AOE (p<0.05 or 0.01), These findings may be promising to yield a valuable insight into the pathophysiology of CKD and serve as characteristics to explain the mechanisms of AOE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Titanium-doped sapphire laser research and design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moulton, Peter F.

    1987-01-01

    Three main topics were considered in this study: the fundamental laser parameters of titanium-doped sapphire, characterization of commercially grown material, and design of a tunable, narrow-linewidth laser. Fundamental parameters investigated included the gain cross section, upper-state lifetime as a function of temperature and the surface-damage threshold. Commercial material was found to vary widely in the level of absorption of the laser wavelength with the highest absorption in Czochralski-grown crystals. Several Yi:sapphire lasers were constructed, including a multimode laser with greater than 50mJ of output energy and a single-transverse-mode ring laser, whose spectral and temporal characteristics were completely characterized. A design for a narrow-linewidth (single-frequency) Ti:sapphire laser was developed, based on the results of the experimental work. The design involves the use of a single-frequency, quasi-cw master oscillator, employed as an injection source for a pulsed ring laser.

  2. Sensitive and reliable multianalyte quantitation of herbal medicine in rat plasma using dynamic triggered multiple reaction monitoring.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhixiang; Li, Tianxue; Lv, Pin; Li, Xiang; Zhou, Chen; Yang, Xinghao

    2013-06-01

    There is a growing need both clinically and experimentally to improve the determination of the blood levels of multiple chemical constituents in herbal medicines. The conventional multiple reaction monitoring (cMRM), however, is not well suited for multi-component determination and could not provide qualitative information for identity confirmation. Here we apply a dynamic triggered MRM (DtMRM) algorithm for the quantification of 20 constituents in an herbal prescription Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang (BZYQT) in rat plasma. Dynamic MRM (DMRM) dramatically reduced the number of concurrent MRM transitions that are monitored during each MS scan. This advantage has been enhanced with the addition of triggered MRM (tMRM) for simultaneous confirmation, which maximizes the dwell time in the primary MRM quantitation phase, and also acquires sufficient MRM data to create a composite product ion spectrum. By allowing optimized collision energy for each product ion and maximizing dwell times, tMRM is significantly more sensitive and reliable than conventional product ion scanning. The DtMRM approach provides much higher sensitivity and reproducibility than cMRM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetic variation and forensic efficiency of autosomal insertion/deletion polymorphisms in Chinese Bai ethnic group: phylogenetic analysis to other populations

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chun-Hua; Yin, Cai-Yong; Shen, Chun-Mei; Guo, Yu-Xin; Dong, Qian; Yan, Jiang-Wei; Wang, Hong-Dan; Zhang, Yu-Dang; Meng, Hao-Tian; Jin, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Thirty insertion/deletion loci were utilized to study the genetic diversities of 125 bloodstain samples collected from Bai group in Yunnan Dali region, China. The observed heterozygosity and expected heterozygosity of the 30 loci ranged from 0.1520 to 0.5680, and 0.1927 to 0.4997, respectively. No deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium tests after Bonferroni correction were found at all 30 loci in Bai group. The cumulative probability of exclusion and combined discrimination power were 0.9859 and 0.9999999999887, respectively, which indicated the 30 loci could be used as complementary genetic markers for paternity testing and were qualified for personal identification in forensic cases. We found the studied Bai group had close relationships with Tibetan, Yi and Han groups from China by the population structure, principal component analysis, population differentiations, and phylogenetic reconstruction studies. Even so, for a better understanding of Bai ethnicity's genetic milieu, DNA genotyping at various genetic markers is necessary in future studies. PMID:28465476

  4. Multilingual Techniques for Low Resource Automatic Speech Recognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-20

    reprints for Governmental purposes notwithstanding any copyright anno - tation thereon. Disclaimer: The views and conclusions contained herein are...Cantonese: 一三二零 yat1saam1yi6leng4    j  6 t _1 . s a: m _1 .  j  i: _6 . l E: N _4 Figure 2-6: Example lexicon entries in the Babel corpus. The first...r d a n  Method Weight Pronunciation Baseline S y p e l e n i  j  o r u m  Baseline S y p h e l e n i  j  o m  Baseline S y p h e l e n i  j  o r u m  PMM

  5. The detection of cheating in multiple choice examinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, Peter; Roehner, Bertrand M.

    2015-10-01

    Cheating in examinations is acknowledged by an increasing number of organizations to be widespread. We examine two different approaches to assess their effectiveness at detecting anomalous results, suggestive of collusion, using data taken from a number of multiple-choice examinations organized by the UK Radio Communication Foundation. Analysis of student pair overlaps of correct answers is shown to give results consistent with more orthodox statistical correlations for which confidence limits as opposed to the less familiar "Bonferroni method" can be used. A simulation approach is also developed which confirms the interpretation of the empirical approach. Then the variables Xi =(1 -Ui) Yi +Ui Z are a system of symmetric dependent binary variables (0 , 1 ; p) whose correlation matrix is ρij = r. The proof is easy and given in the paper. Let us add two remarks. • We used the expression "symmetric variables" to reflect the fact that all Xi play the same role. The expression "exchangeable variables" is often used with the same meaning. • The correlation matrix has only positive elements. This is of course imposed by the symmetry condition. ρ12 < 0 and ρ23 < 0 would imply ρ13 > 0, thus violating the symmetry requirement. In the following subsections we will be concerned with the question of uniqueness of the set of Xi generated above. Needless to say, it is useful to know whether the proposition gives the answer or only one among many. More precisely, the problem can be stated as follows.

  6. Go Signaling in Mushroom Bodies Regulates Sleep in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Fang; Yi, Wei; Zhou, Mingmin; Guo, Aike

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep is a fundamental physiological process and its biological mechanisms are poorly understood. In Drosophila melanogaster, heterotrimeric Go protein is abundantly expressed in the brain. However, its post-developmental function has not been extensively explored. Design: Locomotor activity was measured using the Drosophila Activity Monitoring System under a 12:12 LD cycle. Sleep was defined as periods of 5 min with no recorded activity. Results: Pan-neuronal elevation of Go signaling induced quiescence accompanied by an increased arousal threshold in flies. By screening region-specific GAL4 lines, we mapped the sleep-regulatory function of Go signaling to mushroom bodies (MBs), a central brain region which modulates memory, decision making, and sleep in Drosophila. Up-regulation of Go activity in these neurons consolidated sleep while inhibition of endogenous Go via expression of Go RNAi or pertussis toxin reduced and fragmented sleep, indicating that the Drosophila sleep requirement is affected by levels of Go activity in the MBs. Genetic interaction results showed that Go signaling serves as a neuronal transmission inhibitor in a cAMP-independent pathway. Conclusion: Go signaling is a novel signaling pathway in MBs that regulates sleep in Drosophila. Citation: Guo F; Yi W; Zhou M; Guo A. Go signaling in mushroom bodies regulates sleep in drosophila. SLEEP 2011;34(3):273-281. PMID:21358844

  7. Properties of Magnetic Reconnection as a function of magnetic shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Daughton, W. S.; Karimabadi, H.; Li, H.; Gary, S. P.; Guo, F.

    2013-12-01

    Observations of reconnection events at the Earth's magnetopause and in the solar wind show that reconnection occurs for a large range in magnetic shear angles extending to the very low shear limit 1. Here we report a fully kinetic study of the influence of the magnetic shear on details of reconnection such as its structure and rate. In previous work, we found that the electron diffusion region bifurcates into two or more distinct layers in regimes with weak magnetic shear2, a new feature that may be observable by NASA's up-coming Magnetospheric Multiscale mission. In this work, we have systematically extended the study to lower shear cases and found a new regime, where the reconnection electric field becomes much smaller and the properties of the reconnection changes significantly. We will discuss the role of various physics mechanisms in determining the observed scaling of the reconnection rate, including the dispersive properties of the waves in the system, the dissipation mechanisms and the tearing instability. 1 J. T. Goslings and T. D. Phan. APJL 763, L39, 2013 2 Yi-Hsin Liu et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 , 265004, 2013

  8. A novel ethylene responsive factor CitERF13 plays a role in photosynthesis regulation.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiu-Lan; Xia, Xiao-Jian; Kuang, Sheng; Zhang, Xi-Li; Yin, Xue-Ren; Yu, Jing-Quan; Chen, Kun-Song

    2017-03-01

    Ethylene responsive factors (ERFs) act as critical downstream components of the ethylene signalling pathway in regulating plant development and stress responses. However little is known about its role in regulation of photosynthesis. Here, we identified an ethylene-inducible ERF gene in citrus, CitERF13. Transient over-expression of CitERF13 in N. tabacum leaves, resulted in a significant decrease in net photosynthetic rate. Closer examination of photosynthetic activity of PSII and PSI indicated that CitERF13 overexpression led to declines of F v /F m , Y(II) and Y(I). However, change in NPQ was less pronounced. CitERF13 overexpression also significantly reduced V c,max , J max and AQY, indicating inhibition of the Calvin cycle. The expression of photosynthesis-related genes was suppressed to a variable extent in leaf blades transiently over-expressing CitERF13. CitERF13 transient overexpression in tobacco or citrus both resulted in a decline of Chlorophyll content and CitERF13 overexpressing tobacco leaf disc was more susceptible to chlorosis in response to MV-mediated oxidative stress. The results suggest that CitERF13 is potentially involved in suppressing photosynthesis through multiple pathways, for instance, inhibiting photochemical activity of photosynthesis, CO 2 carboxylation capacity and chlorophyll metabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Urinary porphyrins as biomarkers for arsenic exposure among susceptible populations in Guizhou Province, China

    SciT

    Ng, J.C.; Wang, J.P.; Zheng, B.S.

    2005-08-07

    Coal from some areas in Guizhou Province contains elevated levels of arsenic. This has caused arsenicosis in individuals who use arsenic-contaminated coal for the purposes of heating, cooking and drying of food in poorly ventilated dwellings. The population at risk has been estimated to be approximately 200,000 people. We analyzed the porphyrin excretion profile using a HPLC method in urine samples collected from 113 villagers who lived in Xing Ren district, a coal-borne arsenicosis endemic area and from 30 villagers from Xing Yi where arsenicosis is not prevalent. Urinary porphyrins were higher in the arsenic exposed group than those inmore » the control group. The correlation between urinary arsenic and porphyrin concentrations demonstrated the effect of arsenic on heme biosynthesis resulting in increased porphyrin excretion. Both uroporphyrin and coproporphyrin III showed significant increases in the excretion profile of the younger age ({lt} 20 years) arsenic-exposed group, suggesting that porphyrins could be used as early warning biomarkers of chronic arsenic exposure in humans. Greater increases of urinary arsenic and porphyrins in women, children and older age groups who spend much of their time indoors suggest that they might be at a higher risk. Whether elevated porphyrins could predict adverse health effects associated with both cancer and non-cancer end-points in chronically arsenic-exposed populations need further investigation.« less

  10. Predicting Adherence and Persistence with Oral Bisphosphonate Therapy in an Integrated Health Care Delivery System.

    PubMed

    Hui, Rita L; Adams, Annette L; Niu, Fang; Ettinger, Bruce; Yi, David K; Chandra, Malini; Lo, Joan C

    2017-04-01

    excess of the 60-day allowable gap between prescription/refills (median cumulative nonpersistence = 0.65, IQR = 0.30-1.25 years). Women with mPDC ≥ 75% during the first year had a 12-fold and 6-fold increased odds of mPDC ≥ 75% during year 2 and year 3, respectively. BP discontinuation rates are highest for women during the first year. Among those continuing treatment in subsequent years, adherence rates were relatively stable. Persistence and adherence varied slightly by age and was somewhat higher in Asians, contributing to differences in cumulative BP exposure. We also found evidence that optimal adherence in the first year was highly predictive of optimal adherence in the subsequent 1-2 years. Hence, subgroups of patients receiving oral BP drugs may require different levels of support and monitoring to maximize treatment benefit, especially based on early patterns of use. This study was supported by grants from the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Community Benefit Program and the National Institutes of Health, 1R01AG047230-01A1. The opinions expressed in this publication are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not represent the official views of Kaiser Permanente or the National Institutes of Health. Hui, Yi, and Chandra have received past research funding from Amgen not related to the current study. Adams has received research funding from Amgen, Merck, and Otsuka not related to the current study. Niu has received research funding from Bristol-Myers Squibb not related to the current study. Ettinger has received past legal fees in litigation involving Fosamax. Lo has received past research funding from Amgen and current research funding from Sanofi not related to the current study. The data from this study were presented at the Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy Annual Meeting; April 19-22, 2016; San Francisco, California. Study concept and design were contributed primarily by Hui and Lo, along with Adams, Niu, Yi, and Ettinger. Hui took the lead

  11. Analysis of Geothermal Pathway in the Metamorphic Area, Northeastern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Wu, M. Y.; Song, S. R.; Lo, W.

    2016-12-01

    A quantitative measure by play fairway analysis in geothermal energy development is an important tool that can present the probability map of potential resources through the uncertainty studies in geology for early phase decision making purpose in the related industries. While source, pathway, and fluid are the three main geologic factors in traditional geothermal systems, identifying the heat paths is critical to reduce drilling cost. Taiwan is in East Asia and the western edge of Pacific Ocean, locating on the convergent boundary of Eurasian Plate and Philippine Sea Plate with many earthquake activities. This study chooses a metamorphic area in the western corner of Yi-Lan plain in northeastern Taiwan with high geothermal potential and several existing exploration sites. Having high subsurface temperature gradient from the mountain belts, and plenty hydrologic systems through thousands of millimeters annual precipitation that would bring up heats closer to the surface, current geothermal conceptual model indicates the importance of pathway distribution which affects the possible concentration of extractable heat location. The study conducts surface lineation analysis using analytic hierarchy process to determine weights among various fracture types for their roles in geothermal pathways, based on the information of remote sensing data, published geologic maps and field work measurements, to produce regional fracture distribution probability map. The results display how the spatial distribution of pathways through various fractures could affect geothermal systems, identify the geothermal plays using statistical data analysis, and compare against the existing drilling data.

  12. Characterization of MgO Based Tunnel Barriers in Graphene Based Spin Valve Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avsar, Ahmet; Balakrishnan, Jayakumar; Koon, Gavin; Ho, Yuda; Patra, Ajit; Bae, Sukang; Hong, Byung-Hee; Özyilmaz, Barbaros

    2012-02-01

    The low spin orbit coupling and hyperfine interaction in graphene allows a high spin relaxation length even at room temperature [1]. The demonstration of comparable spin transport properties in CVD synthesized single layer and bilayer graphene with its exfoliated counterparts raised hopes for the realization of possible room temperature spintronic applications [2]. To improve the spin transport properties of CVD Graphene based spin valves further, contact induced spin relaxation should be reduced by creating pin-hole free tunneling barriers. In this presentation, we will compare MgO barriers deposited under different conditions towards establishing pin-hole free barriers. We will discuss the effect of the substrate smoothness on the formation of high quality tunnel barriers by studying growth on different substrates. [4pt] [1] N. Tombros, C. Jozsa, M. Popinciuc, H. T. Jonkman, and B. J. van Wees, Nature 448, 571-574 (2007) [0pt] [2] A. Avsar, T. Yang, S. Bae, J. Balakrishnan, F. Volmer, M. Jaiswal, Z. Yi, S. R. Ali, G. Guntherodt, B. H. Hong, B. Beschoten, B. Ozyilmaz, Nano Lett. 10.10.1021/nl200714q (2011)

  13. [Textual criticism and discrimination on the naming of"Five-abstention Soup of Medical Professional"from the Han-tomb of the Marquis of Haihun].

    PubMed

    Wang, Y R; Yuan, Y; Xu, C Q; Cao, L J; Wang, Y L; Huang, L Q

    2017-05-28

    A lacquer vessel with the inscription of Yi gong wu jin tang (Five-abstention Soup of Medical Profession) has been unearthed from the Han-tomb of Marquis of Haihun, in which"Five abstentions"is related to the incantations and abstention therapies prevalent in the Qin and Han Dynasties. The"Five-abstention Law"is the five rituals and methods during the process of practicing incantations and abstentions therapies including"keeping one's thinking ( cun si )","holding the breath( bi qi )","twirling eyes ( nian mu )","stepping after Yu's sample ( yu bu )"and"incanting and blessing ( zhou zhu )". The"Five-abstention Law"uses the medium"soup"to achieve the purpose of treatment."Soup"refers either to"decoction"or to"magic water". The lacquer vessel with the inscription"Five-abstention Soup of Medical professional"could be an instrument for implementing the process of practising the"Five-abstention Law", reflecting the historical facts that Liu He, the Marquis Haihun did accept the incantations and abstention therapies.

  14. Grain-size based sea-level reconstruction in the south Bohai Sea during the past 135 kyr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Liang; Chen, Yanping

    2013-04-01

    Future anthropogenic sea-level rise and its impact on coastal regions is an important issue facing human civilizations. Due to the short nature of the instrumental record of sea-level change, development of proxies for sea-level change prior to the advent of instrumental records is essential to reconstruct long-term background sea-level changes on local, regional and global scales. Two of the most widely used approaches for past sea-level changes are: (1) exploitation of dated geomorphologic features such as coastal sands (e.g. Mauz and Hassler, 2000), salt marsh (e.g. Madsen et al., 2007), terraces (e.g. Chappell et al., 1996), and other coastal sediments (e.g. Zong et al., 2003); and (2) sea-level transfer functions based on faunal assemblages such as testate amoebae (e.g. Charman et al., 2002), foraminifera (e.g. Chappell and Shackleton, 1986; Horton, 1997), and diatoms (e.g. Horton et al., 2006). While a variety of methods has been developed to reconstruct palaeo-changes in sea level, many regions, including the Bohai Sea, China, still lack detailed relative sea-level curves extending back to the Pleistocene (Yi et al., 2012). For example, coral terraces are absent in the Bohai Sea, and the poor preservation of faunal assemblages makes development of a transfer function for a relative sea-level reconstruction unfeasible. In contrast, frequent alternations between transgression and regression has presumably imprinted sea-level change on the grain size distribution of Bohai Sea sediments, which varies from medium silt to coarse sand during the late Quaternary (IOCAS, 1985). Advantages of grainsize-based relative sea-level transfer function approaches are that they require smaller sample sizes, allowing for replication, faster measurement and higher spatial or temporal resolution at a fraction of the cost of detail micro-palaeontological analysis (Yi et al., 2012). Here, we employ numerical methods to partition sediment grain size using a combined database of

  15. The neural processing of foreign-accented speech and its relationship to listener bias

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Han-Gyol; Smiljanic, Rajka; Chandrasekaran, Bharath

    2014-01-01

    Foreign-accented speech often presents a challenging listening condition. In addition to deviations from the target speech norms related to the inexperience of the nonnative speaker, listener characteristics may play a role in determining intelligibility levels. We have previously shown that an implicit visual bias for associating East Asian faces and foreignness predicts the listeners' perceptual ability to process Korean-accented English audiovisual speech (Yi et al., 2013). Here, we examine the neural mechanism underlying the influence of listener bias to foreign faces on speech perception. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, native English speakers listened to native- and Korean-accented English sentences, with or without faces. The participants' Asian-foreign association was measured using an implicit association test (IAT), conducted outside the scanner. We found that foreign-accented speech evoked greater activity in the bilateral primary auditory cortices and the inferior frontal gyri, potentially reflecting greater computational demand. Higher IAT scores, indicating greater bias, were associated with increased BOLD response to foreign-accented speech with faces in the primary auditory cortex, the early node for spectrotemporal analysis. We conclude the following: (1) foreign-accented speech perception places greater demand on the neural systems underlying speech perception; (2) face of the talker can exaggerate the perceived foreignness of foreign-accented speech; (3) implicit Asian-foreign association is associated with decreased neural efficiency in early spectrotemporal processing. PMID:25339883

  16. A systematic review of RCTs and quasi-RCTs on traditional Chinese patent medicines for treatment of chronic hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Tao; Wei, Xing; Chen, Ze-Qi; Wang, Dong-Sheng; Dai, Xing-Ping

    2011-12-01

    Traditional Chinese patent medicines (TCPMs) are widely used for treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in China. To estimate the overall effectiveness of TCPMs for CHB, we performed a systematic review of clinical reports designed as randomized controlled trials (RCTs). One hundred and thirty-eight available RCTs and quasi-RCTs on 62 TCPMs, involving 16,393 patients, were included. The methodological quality of these trials was generally "poor". Few trials (6.52%) reported the methods of randomization correctly. Another common problem was the lack of allocation concealment, proper blinding, and the reporting of lost cases and dropouts. Forty-two trials (30.43%) on 27 TCPMs reported some anti-viral effect of TCPMs. Others reported beneficial aspects, including improvements of liver function (79.71% of the studies), liver fibrosis (29.99%), and CHB symptoms (92.75%). Forty-one articles (29.71%) reported mild adverse events with TCPMs but these occurred infrequently. In summary, the outcome of the report on currently registered TCPMs may be biased due to poor methodology. The data from these trials, therefore, is too weak to use in forming a recommendation for treatment of CHB. Nevertheless, five drugs (Dan Shen agents, Da Huang Zhe Chong pill/capsule, Shuang Hu Qing Gan granule, Fu Zheng Hua Yu granule and Cao Xian Yi Gan capsule) appear to be more effective than the other TCPMs.

  17. PLA Naval Aviation Training and Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-12-20

    cr aft Ty p es,” Re n mi n H aij u n , 1 6 A pril 2 0 1 3, p. 3. 3 3 I bi d. 3 4 K o u Yo n g qi a n g, Li Yi mi n, a n d Li X u ef e n g, “ Ta k e...6 a e 4 d 0 d 6 c 1.s ht ml. C h e n Z h e, Z h u Weij u n, a n d Z h u Ya, “ Yo u n g Offi c ers a n d E nlist e d Pers o n n el i n a N ort h S e a...ct o b er 2 0 1 4 , p. 3. MI S SI O N S, O R G A NI Z A TI O N A L S T R U C T U R E, A N D T R AI NI N G ( 2 0 1 3- 1 5) 8 5 K o u Yo n g qi a n g

  18. Wave setup over a Pacific Island fringing reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetter, O.; Becker, J. M.; Merrifield, M. A.; Pequignet, A.-C.; Aucan, J.; Boc, S. J.; Pollock, C. E.

    2010-12-01

    Measurements obtained across a shore-attached, fringing reef on the southeast coast of the island of Guam are examined to determine the relationship between incident waves and wave-driven setup during storm and nonstorm conditions. Wave setup on the reef flat correlates well (r > 0.95) and scales near the shore as approximately 35% of the incident root mean square wave height in 8 m water depth. Waves generated by tropical storm Man-Yi result in a 1.3 m setup during the peak of the storm. Predictions based on traditional setup theory (steady state, inviscid cross-shore momentum and depth-limited wave breaking) and an idealized model of localized wave breaking at the fore reef are in agreement with the observations. The reef flat setup is used to estimate a similarity parameter at breaking that is in agreement with observations from a steeply sloping sandy beach. A weak (˜10%) increase in setup is observed across the reef flat during wave events. The inclusion of bottom stress in the cross-shore momentum balance may account for a portion of this signal, but this assessment is inconclusive as the reef flat currents in some cases are in the wrong direction to account for the increase. An independent check of fringing reef setup dynamics is carried out for measurements at the neighboring island of Saipan with good agreement.

  19. Reengineering of the feedback-inhibition enzyme N-acetyl-L-glutamate kinase to enhance L-arginine production in Corynebacterium crenatum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingjing; Xu, Meijuan; Ge, Xiaoxun; Zhang, Xian; Yang, Taowei; Xu, Zhenghong; Rao, Zhiming

    2017-02-01

    N-acetyl-L-glutamate kinase (NAGK) catalyzes the second step of L-arginine biosynthesis and is inhibited by L-arginine in Corynebacterium crenatum. To ascertain the basis for the arginine sensitivity of CcNAGK, residue E19 which located at the entrance of the Arginine-ring was subjected to site-saturated mutagenesis and we successfully illustrated the inhibition-resistant mechanism. Typically, the E19Y mutant displayed the greatest deregulation of L-arginine feedback inhibition. An equally important strategy is to improve the catalytic activity and thermostability of CcNAGK. For further strain improvement, we used site-directed mutagenesis to identify mutations that improve CcNAGK. Results identified variants I74V, F91H and K234T display higher specific activity and thermostability. The L-arginine yield and productivity of the recombinant strain C. crenatum SYPA-EH3 (which possesses a combination of all four mutant sites, E19Y/I74V/F91H/K234T) reached 61.2 and 0.638 g/L/h, respectively, after 96 h in 5 L bioreactor fermentation, an increase of approximately 41.8% compared with the initial strain.

  20. Can 'distant water … quench the instant thirst'? The renegotiation of familial support in rural China in the face of extensive out migration.

    PubMed

    Cook, Joanne; Liu, Jieyu

    2016-04-01

    This article addresses debates on modernisation, ageing and intergenerational support in developing/emerging economies. By examining the impact of rural to urban migration on elder support in Chinese rural families, it examines how support is being renegotiated and the implications this holds for experiences of growing older. It is positioned critically within the Chinese rural families literature, both drawing on research that reveals the continued influence of familial culture (Silverstein 2009; Lin and Yi 2011, 2013; Guo, Chi and Silverstein 2011) while arguing that this research has under-examined the strain this places on rural families, emerging conflicts and the potentially negative implications for gender and ageing. A gendered intergenerational lens is adopted to examine how generations experience and interpret these changes in the form and delivery of intergenerational support. The article focuses on the experiences and lives of the older parents, and older women in particular, to address some of the oversights in existing literature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Variation of CAG repeats in coding region of ATXN2 gene in different ethnic groups].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Chen; Sun, Hao; Mi, Dong-Qing; Huang, Xiao-Qin; Lin, Ke-Qin; Yi, Wen; Yu, Liang; Shi, Lei; Shi, Li; Yang, Zhao-Qing; Chu, Jia-You

    2011-04-01

    Toinvestigate CAG repeats variation of ATXN2 gene coding region in six ethnic groups that live in comparatively different environments, to evaluate whether these variations are under positive selection, and to find factors driving selection effects, 291 unrelated healthy individuals were collected from six ethnic groups and their STR geneotyping was performed. The frequencies of alleles and genotypes were counted and thereby Slatkin's linearized Fst values were calculated. The UPGMA tree against this gene was constructed. The MDS analysis among these groups was carried out as well. The results from the linearized Fst values indicated that there were significant evolutionary differences of the STR in ATXN2 gene between Hui and Yi groups, but not among the other 4 groups. Further analysis was performed by combining our data with published data obtained from other groups. These results indicated that there were significant differences between Japanese and other groups including Hui, Hani, Yunnan Mongolian, and Inner Mongolian. Both Hui and Mongolian from Inner Mongolia were significantly different from Han. In conclusion, the six ethnic groups had their own distribution characterizations of allelic frequencies of ATXN2 STR, and the potential cause of frequency changes in rare alleles could be the consequence of positive selection.

  2. A NURBS-enhanced finite volume solver for steady Euler equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xucheng; Hu, Guanghui

    2018-04-01

    In Hu and Yi (2016) [20], a non-oscillatory k-exact reconstruction method was proposed towards the high-order finite volume methods for steady Euler equations, which successfully demonstrated the high-order behavior in the simulations. However, the degeneracy of the numerical accuracy of the approximate solutions to problems with curved boundary can be observed obviously. In this paper, the issue is resolved by introducing the Non-Uniform Rational B-splines (NURBS) method, i.e., with given discrete description of the computational domain, an approximate NURBS curve is reconstructed to provide quality quadrature information along the curved boundary. The advantages of using NURBS include i). both the numerical accuracy of the approximate solutions and convergence rate of the numerical methods are improved simultaneously, and ii). the NURBS curve generation is independent of other modules of the numerical framework, which makes its application very flexible. It is also shown in the paper that by introducing more elements along the normal direction for the reconstruction patch of the boundary element, significant improvement in the convergence to steady state can be achieved. The numerical examples confirm the above features very well.

  3. Research on Condition Assessment Method of Transmission Tower Under the Action of Strong Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ren-mou; An, Li-qiang; Zhang, Rong-lun; Wu, Jiong; Liang, Ya-feng

    2018-03-01

    Transmission towers are often subjected to the external damage of severe weather like strong wind and so on, which may cause the collapse due to the yield and fracture of the tower material. Aiming this issue, an assessment method was proposed in this paper to assess the operation condition of transmission towers under strong wind. With a reasonable assess index system established firstly, then the internal force of the tower material was solved and its stability was determined through the mechanical analysis of the transmission tower finite element model. Meanwhile, the condition risk level of the tower was finally determined by considering the difference among the influences of other factors like corrosion and loose of members, slope on the transmission tower through the analytic hierarchy process. The assessment method was applied to assess the wind-induced collapse of towers in 110kV Bao Yi II line in Wenchang City, Hainan Province, of which the result proves the method can assess the condition of transmission tower under strong wind and of guiding significance for improving the windproof capability of transmission towers.

  4. Singular trajectories: space-time domain topology of developing speckle fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasil'ev, Vasiliy; Soskin, Marat S.

    2010-02-01

    It is shown the space-time dynamics of optical singularities is fully described by singularities trajectories in space-time domain, or evolution of transverse coordinates(x, y) in some fixed plane z0. The dynamics of generic developing speckle fields was realized experimentally by laser induced scattering in LiNbO3:Fe photorefractive crystal. The space-time trajectories of singularities can be divided topologically on two classes with essentially different scenario and duration. Some of them (direct topological reactions) consist from nucleation of singularities pair at some (x, y, z0, t) point, their movement and annihilation. They possess form of closed loops with relatively short time of existence. Another much more probable class of trajectories are chain topological reactions. Each of them consists from sequence of links, i.e. of singularities nucleation in various points (xi yi, ti) and following annihilation of both singularities in other space-time points with alien singularities of opposite topological indices. Their topology and properties are established. Chain topological reactions can stop on the borders of a developing speckle field or go to infinity. Examples of measured both types of topological reactions for optical vortices (polarization C points) in scalar (elliptically polarized) natural developing speckle fields are presented.

  5. Genetic variation and forensic efficiency of autosomal insertion/deletion polymorphisms in Chinese Bai ethnic group: phylogenetic analysis to other populations.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chun-Hua; Yin, Cai-Yong; Shen, Chun-Mei; Guo, Yu-Xin; Dong, Qian; Yan, Jiang-Wei; Wang, Hong-Dan; Zhang, Yu-Dang; Meng, Hao-Tian; Jin, Rui; Chen, Feng; Zhu, Bo-Feng

    2017-06-13

    Thirty insertion/deletion loci were utilized to study the genetic diversities of 125 bloodstain samples collected from Bai group in Yunnan Dali region, China. The observed heterozygosity and expected heterozygosity of the 30 loci ranged from 0.1520 to 0.5680, and 0.1927 to 0.4997, respectively. No deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium tests after Bonferroni correction were found at all 30 loci in Bai group. The cumulative probability of exclusion and combined discrimination power were 0.9859 and 0.9999999999887, respectively, which indicated the 30 loci could be used as complementary genetic markers for paternity testing and were qualified for personal identification in forensic cases. We found the studied Bai group had close relationships with Tibetan, Yi and Han groups from China by the population structure, principal component analysis, population differentiations, and phylogenetic reconstruction studies. Even so, for a better understanding of Bai ethnicity's genetic milieu, DNA genotyping at various genetic markers is necessary in future studies.

  6. Profiles and risk assessment of phthalate acid esters (PAEs) in drinking water sources and treatment plants, East China.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yanli; Shen, Jimin; Chen, Zhonglin; Kang, Jing; Li, Taiping; Wu, Xiaofei; Kong, XiangZhen; Fan, Leitao

    2017-10-01

    This study is the first report describing the occurrence of 15 phthalate acid esters (PAEs) in the three typical water sources of YiXing City, Taihu Upper-River Basin, East China. The fate of target PAEs in the Jiubin drinking water treatment plant (JTP) was also analyzed. The amounts of Σ 15 PAE in the Hengshan (HS), Youche (YC), and Xijiu (XJ) water sources were relatively moderate, with mean values of 360, 357, and 697 ng L -1 , respectively. Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) dominated the PAE concentration, making up 80% of the 15 total PAEs. The highest levels of Σ 15 PAE were found in HS, YC, and XJ in March 2015, January 2015, and July 2014, respectively. The occurrence and concentrations of these compounds were spatially dependent, and the mean concentrations of Σ 15 PAE in HS, YC, and XJ samples increased from the surface layer to the bottom layer with varied percentage increases. The removal efficiency of the PAEs in the finished water varied markedly, and the removal of PAEs by the JTP ranged from 12.8 to 64.5%. The potential ecosystem risk assessment indicated that the risk of PAEs was relatively low in these three water sources. However, risks posed by PAEs due to drinking water still exist; therefore, special attention should be paid to source control in the JTP, and advanced treatment processes for drinking water supplies should be implemented.

  7. Estimation of exhaust emission from ocean-going vessels in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Yau, P S; Lee, S C; Corbett, James J; Wang, Chengfeng; Cheng, Y; Ho, K F

    2012-08-01

    As one of the busiest port in the world, ship emissions have become of great concern in Hong Kong. In this study, a detailed maritime emission inventory for ocean-going vessels (OGVs) in Hong Kong with the base year of 2007 was developed. The high-resolution vessel speed profiles determined using the Automatic Identification System (AIS) during 2009 were adopted for the speed data in the estimation. It was obtained that the total ship emissions from 37,150 voyages of OGVs in 2007 were 17,097, 8190, and 1035 tonnes accounting for 17%, 11%, and 16% of the total emissions of NO(x), SO(2), and PM(10), respectively. The contribution of ship emissions during transiting was 60-68% for three pollutants while the emissions during hotelling were responsible for the remaining portions. From the emission spatial allocation, the shipping route along the East Lamma Channel and the berthing location of the Kwai Chung and Tsing Yi Container Port comprised the regions with the highest emissions. The OGV emissions in Hong Kong contributed 0.07% NO(x), 0.05% SO(2), and 0.06% PM(10) out of the global total shipping emissions in 2007. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Wet chemical techniques for passivation of YBa2Cu3O7(7-x)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, R. P.; Foote, M. C.; Hunt, B. D.

    1989-01-01

    Wet chemical techniques are described for treatment of YBa2Cu3O(7-x) surfaces, resulting in the formation of native compounds with little or no reactivity to water. Promising native compounds include CuI, BaSO4, CuS, Cu2S, and the oxalates, all of which are either insoluble or have very low solubility in water. Treatment with dilute HI results in the formation of a native iodide film which is 80-90 percent CuI with small amounts of YI3 and BaI2. Treatment with dilute H2SO4 results in the formation of a film which is 95 percent BaSO4 and 5 percent Y2(SO4)3. Cu2S is formed on the surface with a dilute Na2S solution. An oxalate film with equal amounts of Y2(C2O4)3 and BaC2O4 results from treatment with dilute oxalic acid. X-ray photoelectron spectra show no significant changes when the sulfide, sulfate, or oxalate films are dipped in water, while the iodide film shows evidence of Cu(OH)2 formation.

  9. Study of hydrothermal channels based on near-bottom magnetic prospecting: Application to Longqi hydrothermal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, W.; Tao, C.; Li, H.; Zhaocai, W.; Jinhui, Z.; Qinzhu, C.; Shili, L.

    2014-12-01

    Mid-ocean ridges, largely present far from the continental plates, are characterized by complex geological structures and numerous hydrothermal systems with complex controlling factors. Exploring seafloor sulfide resources for industrial and scientific applications is a challenge. With the advent of geophysical surveys for seabed investigation, near-bottom magnetic prospecting, which yields shallow geological structure, is an efficient method for investigating active and inactive hydrothermal fields and for researching the structure of hydrothermal systems (Tivey et al., 1993, 1996;German et al., 2008). We collected near-bottom magnetic data in the Longqi hydrothermal area, located in the southwest Indian ridge (49.6° E; Zhu et al., 2010; Tao et al., 2014), using the autonomous benthic explorer, an autonomous underwater vehicle, during the second leg of the Chinese cruise DY115-19 on board R/V DaYangYiHao. Based on the results of the intensity of the spatial differential vector method (Seaman et al., 1993), we outline the hydrothermal alternation zone. By building models, we subsequently infer a fault along the discovered hydrothermal vents; this fault line may be connected to a detachment fault (Zhao et al., 2013). In addition, we discuss the channels of the hydrothermal circulation system (Figure 1), and presume that heat was conducted to the sea subsurface by the detachment fault; the aqueous fluid that infiltrated the fault is heated and conveyed to the seafloor, promoting the circulation of the hydrothermal system.

  10. Burkholderia cordobensis sp. nov., from agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Draghi, Walter O; Peeters, Charlotte; Cnockaert, Margo; Snauwaert, Cindy; Wall, Luis G; Zorreguieta, Angeles; Vandamme, Peter

    2014-06-01

    Two Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria were isolated from agricultural soils in Córdoba province in central Argentina. Their 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that they belong to the genus Burkholderia, with Burkholderia zhejiangensis as most closely related formally named species; this relationship was confirmed through comparative gyrB sequence analysis. Whole-cell fatty acid analysis supported their assignment to the genus Burkholderia. Burkholderia sp. strain YI23, for which a whole-genome sequence is available, represents the same taxon, as demonstrated by its highly similar 16S rRNA (100% similarity) and gyrB (99.1-99.7%) gene sequences. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization experiments and physiological and biochemical characterization further substantiated the genotypic and phenotypic distinctiveness of the Argentinian soil isolates, for which the name Burkholderia cordobensis sp. nov. is proposed, with strain MMP81(T) ( = LMG 27620(T) = CCUG 64368(T)) as the type strain. © 2014 IUMS.

  11. Chinese herbs for memory disorders: a review and systematic analysis of classical herbal literature.

    PubMed

    May, Brian H; Lu, Chuanjian; Lu, Yubo; Zhang, Anthony L; Xue, Charlie C L

    2013-02-01

    Text mining and other literature-based investigations can assist in identifying natural products for experimental and clinical research. This article details a method for systematically analyzing data derived from the classical Chinese medical literature. We present the results of electronic searches of Zhong Hua Yi Dian ("Encyclopaedia of Traditional Chinese Medicine"), a CD of 1000 premodern (before 1950) medical books, for single herbs, and other natural products used for dementia, memory disorders, and memory improvement. This review explores how the terminology for these disorders has changed over time and which herbs have been used more or less frequently, and compares the results from the premodern literature with the herbs indexed for memory disorders in a modern pharmacopoeia. The searches located 731 citations deriving from 127 different books written between ca. 188 ad and ca. 1920. Of the 110 different natural products identified, those most frequently cited for forgetfulness were yuan zhi (Polygala tenuifolia), fu shen (Poria cocos), and chang pu (Acorus spp.), all of which have been cited repeatedly over the past 1800 years and appear among the 31 herbs indexed in a modern pharmacopoeia. By providing a complete, hierarchically organized list of herbs for a specific disorder, this approach can assist researchers in selecting herbs for research. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Genetic diversity of rice tungro spherical virus in tungro-endemic provinces of the Philippines and Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Azzam, O; Yambao, M L; Muhsin, M; McNally, K L; Umadhay, K M

    2000-01-01

    The two adjacent genes of coat protein 1 and 2 of rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV) were amplified from total RNA extracts of serologically indistinguishable field isolates from the Philippines and Indonesia, using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Digestion with HindIII and BstYI restriction endonucleases differentiated the amplified DNA products into eight distinct coat protein genotypes. These genotypes were then used as indicators of virus diversity in the field. Inter- and intra-site diversities were determined over three cropping seasons. At each of the sites surveyed, one or two main genotypes prevailed together with other related minor or mixed genotypes that did not replace the main genotype over the sampling time. The cluster of genotypes found at the Philippines sites was significantly different from the one at the Indonesia sites, suggesting geographic isolation for virus populations. Phylogenetic studies based on the nucleotide sequences of 38 selected isolates confirm the spatial distribution of RTSV virus populations but show that gene flow may occur between populations. Under the present conditions, rice varieties do not seem to exert selective pressure on the virus populations. Based on the selective constraints in the coat protein amino acid sequences and the virus genetic composition per site, a negative selection model followed by random-sampling events due to vector transmissions is proposed to explain the inter-site diversity observed.

  13. [Herbological study on the botanical origin of the Chinese crude drug shan-zhu-yu].

    PubMed

    Mikage, Masayuki; Hutagi, Yukari

    2008-01-01

    The historical change in the botanical origin of the Chinese herbal drug Shan-zhu-yu, San-syu-yu in Japanese) was studied herbologically. The results obtained were as follows: The original plant, described in Shen-nong-ben-cao-jing written in the Hou-Han Dynasty (A.D. 25-220) and Wu-pu-ben-cao written in the Wei dynasty (A.D. 220-265), was Prunus pseudocerasus or an allied species such as P. tomentosa. However, the original plant described in Ming-yi-bie-lu, written in the same era, was thought to be Cornus officinalis; the fruit of which is used commonly today as Shan-zhu-yu. In addition to Prunus and Cornus, the plants of the genus Berberis, of the family Berberidaceae, and Zanthoxylum of Rutaceae were also used in China until the Ming Dynasty. The plants of Elaeagnus, of the family Elaeagnaceae, were possibly used in ancient Japan. Cornus officinalis was determined to be the origin of Shan-zhu-yu during the Qing Dynasty, China.

  14. Analytic model of electron self-injection in a plasma wakefield accelerator in the strongly nonlinear bubble regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Sunghwan; Khudik, Vladimir; Shvets, Gennady

    2012-10-01

    We study self-injection into a plasma wakefield accelerator in the blowout (or bubble) regime, where the bubble evolves due to background density inhomogeneities. To explore trapping, we generalize an analytic model for the wakefields inside the bubble [1] to derive expressions for the fields outside. With this extended model, we show that a return current in the bubble sheath layer plays an important role in determining the trapped electron trajectories. We explore an injection mechanism where bubble growth due to a background density downramp causes reduction of the electron Hamiltonian in the co-moving frame, trapping the particle in the dynamically deepening potential well [2]. Model calculations agree quantitatively with PIC simulations on the bubble expansion rate required for trapping, as well as the range of impact parameters for which electrons are trapped. This is an improvement over our previous work [3] using a simplified spherical bubble model, which ignored the fields outside of the bubble and hence overestimated the expansion rate required for trapping. [4pt] [1] W. Lu et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 056709 (2006).[0pt] [2] S. Kalmykov et al., Phys. Rev. Lett 103, 135004 (2009).[0pt] [3] S.A. Yi et al., Plasma Phys. Contr. Fus. 53, 014012 (2011).

  15. Delayed Dermal Hypersensitivity in Mice to Spherule and Mycelial Extracts of Coccidioides immitis

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Yi-Chi M.; Savage, D. C.; Kong, Leighton N. L.

    1966-01-01

    Kong, Yi-chi M. (University of California, Berkeley), D. C. Savage, and Leighton N. L. Kong. Delayed dermal hypersensitivity in mice to spherule and mycelial extracts of Coccidioides immitis. J. Bacteriol. 91:876–883. 1966.—A delayed hypersensitivity reaction to spherule and mycelial extracts of Coccidioides immitis was elicited in the footpads of mice vaccinated with killed spherules. Emulsification of the spherules with Freund's adjuvants was unnecessary, but a high concentration of antigen was required to elicit the reaction. Injection of the extracts produced, initially, a swelling which subsided within 4 hr, and then induration, which began at 6 to 8 hr and reached a maximum at 24 hr. The time course of the reaction corresponded to that of the tuberculin reaction in BCG-vaccinated mice. The histological response to coccidioidal extracts was characterized by the early infiltration of both polymorphonuclear and mononuclear cells, and the subsequent predominance of mononuclear cells at 24 to 48 hr. By 72 hr, the mononuclear cells comprised >90% of the cellular infiltrate. Animals infected intranasally with arthrospores (1 to 5 ld50) reacted negatively before and during the crisis period; thereafter (by 28 to 31 days after infection), up to 50% of the survivors showed a delayed reaction. Images PMID:5894227

  16. Association between anemia and bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Jun; Kong, Xiangyong; Li, Qiuping; Hua, Shaodong; Zhang, Sheng; Zhang, Xiaoying; Feng, Zhichun

    2016-01-01

    Anemia is commonly seen in preterm infants. It may reduce the capacity of hemoglobin to transport oxygen throughout the body and may result in tissue and organ dysfunction. This study aimed to investigate the effect of anemia on the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants. 243 infants who were admitted to BaYi Children’s Hospital Affiliated to Clinical Medical College in Beijing Military General Hospital with gestational age (GA) less than 32 weeks from February, 2014 to February, 2015 were included in the study. Maternal and infant data were recorded. Multivarariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the association between anemia and BPD. Of 243 preterm infants, the incidence of anemia was higher in BPD patients than non-BPD patients (p < 0.001). Mean Hct in BPD patients was lower than non-BPD patients at different time points in 1d, 7d, 14d, and 21d. Controlling for other confounding factors, early anemia was associated with an increased risk of BPD. Number of transfusions is also a significant risk factor for BPD (p = 0.001). Therefore, prevention and treatment of early anemia is necessary and reducing number of transfusions may reduce the incidence of BPD in preterm infants. PMID:26936610

  17. Surgical treatment for male prolactinoma

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yi-Jun; Chen, Mei-Ting; Lian, Wei; Xing, Bing; Yao, Yong; Feng, Ming; Wang, Ren-Zhi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A total of 184 cases of surgically treated male prolactinoma were analyzed retrospectively to summarize the outcome of this surgical intervention. We analyzed the general characteristics, clinical manifestations, hormone levels, imaging features, preoperative treatments, surgical outcomes, pathology results, and follow-up records for all included patients. The most common clinical manifestations included sexual dysfunction (47.4%), headache (55.9%), and visual disturbance (46.7%). Serum prolactin levels ranged from 150 to 204,952 ng/mL. Tumor size varied from 6 to 70 mm. Pituitary adenomas grew in a parasellar pattern with visual deficits occurring 40.7% of the time. After surgical therapy, 88.6% of patients achieved symptom relief, and 98.4% experienced an immediate postoperative decline in prolactin level. Fifty-seven patients (31.0%) achieved initial remission, and 26 patients (45.6%) experienced recurrence. Hence, our results suggest that in male prolactinoma characterized by a large pituitary diameter and high serum prolactin level, tumor size predicts the degree of gross resection. The prognostic predictors included preoperative tumor growth pattern and Ki-67 index. Citation: Yi-jun S, Mei-ting C, Wei L, Bing X, Yong Y, Ming F, Ren-zhi W. (2016) Surgical treatment for male prolactinoma: a retrospective study of 184 cases PMID:28079813

  18. Embryonic and larval development and early behavior in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella: implications for recruitment in rivers

    George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.

    2015-01-01

    With recent findings of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in tributaries of the Great Lakes, information on developmental rate and larval behavior is critical to efforts to assess the potential for establishment within the tributaries of that region. In laboratory experiments, grass carp were spawned and eggs and larvae reared at two temperature treatments, one "cold" and one "warm", and tracked for developmental rate, egg size, and behavior. Developmental rate was quantified using Yi's (1988) developmental stages and the cumulative thermal units method. Grass carp had a thermal minimum of 13.5°C for embryonic stages and 13.3°C for larval stages. Egg size was related to temperature and maternal size, with the largest eggs coming from the largest females, and eggs were generally larger in warmer treatments. Young grass carp larvae exhibited upward and downward swimming interspersed with long periods of lying on the bottom. Swimming capacity increased with ontogeny, and larvae were capable of horizontal swimming and position holding with gas bladder emergence. Developmental rates, behavior, and egg attributes can be used in combination with physical parameters of a river to assess the risk that grass carp are capable of reproduction and recruitment in rivers.

  19. N-fold Darboux transformation and double-Wronskian-typed solitonic structures for a variable-coefficient modified Kortweg-de Vries equation

    SciT

    Wang, Lei, E-mail: wanglei2239@126.com; Gao, Yi-Tian; State Key Laboratory of Software Development Environment, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191

    2012-08-15

    Under investigation in this paper is a variable-coefficient modified Kortweg-de Vries (vc-mKdV) model describing certain situations from the fluid mechanics, ocean dynamics and plasma physics. N-fold Darboux transformation (DT) of a variable-coefficient Ablowitz-Kaup-Newell-Segur spectral problem is constructed via a gauge transformation. Multi-solitonic solutions in terms of the double Wronskian for the vc-mKdV model are derived by the reduction of the N-fold DT. Three types of the solitonic interactions are discussed through figures: (1) Overtaking collision; (2) Head-on collision; (3) Parallel solitons. Nonlinear, dispersive and dissipative terms have the effects on the velocities of the solitonic waves while the amplitudes ofmore » the waves depend on the perturbation term. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N-fold DT is firstly applied to a vc-AKNS spectral problem. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Seeking a double Wronskian solution is changed into solving two systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effects of the variable coefficients on the multi-solitonic waves are discussed in detail. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This work solves the problem from Yi Zhang [Ann. Phys. 323 (2008) 3059].« less

  20. Ultraviolet laser spectroscopy of neutral mercury in a one-dimensional optical lattice

    SciT

    Mejri, S.; McFerran, J. J.; Yi, L.

    2011-09-15

    We present details on the ultraviolet lattice spectroscopy of the (6s{sup 2}) {sup 1}S{sub 0}{r_reversible} (6s6p) {sup 3}P{sub 0} transition in neutral mercury, specifically {sup 199}Hg. Mercury atoms are loaded into a one-dimensional vertically aligned optical lattice from a magneto-optical trap with an rms temperature of {approx}60 {mu}K. We describe aspects of the magneto-optical trapping, the lattice cavity design, and the techniques employed to trap and detect mercury in an optical lattice. The clock-line frequency dependence on lattice depth is measured at a range of lattice wavelengths. We confirm the magic wavelength to be 362.51(0.16) nm. Further observations to thosemore » reported by Yi et al.[Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 073005 (2011)] are presented regarding the laser excitation of a Wannier-Stark ladder of states.« less

  1. [Tianjin characteristics of integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine in first aid medical system].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhijun

    2018-05-01

    Tianjin, as the earliest city to open up, the exchange of Chinese and Western cultures also started earlier. Therefore, today's emergency medicine system with integrated features of Chinese and Western medicine is formed. Professor Wang Jinda, who works in Tianjin First Center Hospital, makes the theory of "treating bronchitis and treating diseases" and "three methods of three syndromes" for the treatment of severe diseases such as sepsis. The surgical aspect is the treatment of acute abdomen with the combination of Chinese and Western medicine which is proposed by Academician Wu Xianzhong who worked in Tianjin Nankai Hospital. In the aspect of acupuncture and moxibustion, Professor Guo Yi, who works in Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, provides the twelve Jing points blood-letting therapy for cerebral diseases such as stroke. Professor Liu Xinqiao from the First Affiliated Hospital of Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine also conducts in-depth studies on brain protection after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). He proposes the importance of traditional Chinese medicine in addition to mild hypothermia and neuroprotective agents. The author summarized these achievements, in light of which looked forward to the future and proposed the concept of establishing a multi-specialist collaboration and an emergency center with obvious characteristics of integrated Chinese and Western medicine, which would pave the way for the development of integrated Chinese and Western medicine first aid.

  2. A 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid degradation plasmid pM7012 discloses distribution of an unclassified megaplasmid group across bacterial species.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Yoriko; Ogawa, Naoto; Shimomura, Yumi; Fujii, Takeshi

    2014-03-01

    Analysis of the complete nucleotide sequence of plasmid pM7012 from 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic-acid (2,4-D)-degrading bacterium Burkholderia sp. M701 revealed that the plasmid had 582 142 bp, with 541 putative protein-coding sequences and 39 putative tRNA genes for the transport of the standard 20 aa. pM7012 contains sequences homologous to the regions involved in conjugal transfer and plasmid maintenance found in plasmids byi_2p from Burkholderia sp. YI23 and pBVIE01 from Burkholderia sp. G4. No relaxase gene was found in any of these plasmids, although genes for a type IV secretion system and type IV coupling proteins were identified. Plasmids with no relaxase gene have been classified as non-mobile plasmids. However, nucleotide sequences with a high level of similarity to the genes for plasmid transfer, plasmid maintenance, 2,4-D degradation and arsenic resistance contained on pM7012 were also detected in eight other megaplasmids (~600 or 900 kb) found in seven Burkholderia strains and a strain of Cupriavidus, which were isolated as 2,4-D-degrading bacteria in Japan and the United States. These results suggested that the 2,4-D degradation megaplasmids related to pM7012 are mobile and distributed across various bacterial species worldwide, and that the plasmid group could be distinguished from known mobile plasmid groups.

  3. A new mechanistic understanding of light-limitation in the seagrass Zostera muelleri.

    PubMed

    Davey, Peter A; Pernice, Mathieu; Ashworth, Justin; Kuzhiumparambil, Unnikrishnan; Szabó, Milán; Dolferus, Rudy; Ralph, Peter J

    2018-03-01

    In this study we investigated the effect of light-limitation (∼20 μmol photons m -2  s -1 ) on the southern hemisphere seagrass, Zostera muelleri. RNA sequencing, chlorophyll fluorometry and HPLC techniques were used to investigate how the leaf-specific transcriptome drives changes in photosynthesis and photo-pigments in Z. muelleri over 6 days. 1593 (7.51%) genes were differentially expressed on day 2 and 1481 (6.98%) genes were differentially expressed on day 6 of the experiment. Differential gene expression correlated with significant decreases in rETR Max , I k , an increase in Yi (initial photosynthetic quantum yield of photosystem II), and significant changes in pigment composition. Regulation of carbohydrate metabolism was observed along with evidence that abscisic acid may serve a role in the low-light response of this seagrass. This study provides a novel understanding of how Z. muelleri responds to light-limitation in the marine water column and provides potential molecular markers for future conservation monitoring efforts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Philological structure of Dan xi shou jing (Danxi's Hand Mirror)].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yincan; Zhu, Jianping

    2015-05-01

    Zhu Danxi, one of the four Major Schools of the Jin-Yuan Dynasties, had a lot of works circulated with its authorship in disarray. Part of the works were compiled by his disciples, while others were by his self-taught followers based on prior circulated Danxi's originals, plus some apocryphal so-called Danxi's works circulated posthumously. When sorting out Danxi's Hand Mirror, we found that some of its contents are closely related to Bei ji qian jin yao fang (Essential Prescriptions Worth a Thousand Gold for Emergencies), Qian jin yi fang (Supplements to Qian jin yao fang), Tai ping sheng hui fang (Peaceful Holy Benevolent Prescriptions), Zhu jie shang han lun (Annotated Treatises of Cold Pathogenic Disease), Shang han ming li lun (Elucidation of Cold Pathogenic Disease), Ge zhi yu lun (Treatise of Inquiring the Properties of Things), either by transcription or with an identical origin. By clearing their relationships, it can provide assistance to the research of the philological structure of Danxi's hand Mirror.

  5. Early Development of Four Cyprinids Native to the Yangtze River, China

    Chapman, Duane C.

    2006-01-01

    Chapter 1 -- Notes on the Translation and Use of "A Study of the Early Development of Grass Carp, Black Carp, Silver Carp, and Bighead Carp in the Yangtze River, China" By Duane C. Chapman and Ning Wang Chapter 2 -- A Study of the Early Development of Grass Carp, Black Carp, Silver Carp, and Bighead Carp in the Yangtze River, China By Bolu Yi, Zhishen Liang, Zhitang Yu, Randuan Lin, and Mingjue HeTranslated by Duane C. Chapman and Ning Wang The document A Study of the Early Development of Grass Carp, Black Carp, Silver Carp, and Bighead Carp in the Yangtze River, China (Chapter 2 of this volume) was translated from the Chinese with the approval and assistance of the living authors of that study. It contains the most detailed description available, and approximately 200 drawings, of the early development of the subject fishes. Chapter 1 provides important instructions on the use of the translation, including a description of the Chinese morphometric conventions, which differ from those used by North American scientists. Chapter 1 also provides the historical context in which Chapter 2 was developed, and information on how the larvae of the subject fishes, which have invaded the Mississippi River basin, may be distinguished from other fishes present in the basin.

  6. An estimation of water origins in the vicinity of a tropical cyclone's center and associated dynamic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takakura, Toshinari; Kawamura, Ryuichi; Kawano, Tetsuya; Ichiyanagi, Kimpei; Tanoue, Masahiro; Yoshimura, Kei

    2018-01-01

    To clarify the time evolution of water origins in the vicinity of a tropical cyclone (TC)'s center, we have simulated Typhoon Man-yi (July 2007) in our case study, using an isotopic regional spectral model. The model results confirm that the replacement of water origins occurs successively as the TC develops and migrates northward over the western North Pacific. It is confirmed that, in this case, a significant proportion of total precipitable water around the cyclone center comes from external regions rather than the underlying ocean during the mature stage of a TC. Similar features can also be seen in the proportion of each oceanic origin to total condensation. Indian Ocean, South China Sea, and Maritime Continent water vapors begin to increase gradually at the developing stage and reach their peak at the decay stage when the TC approaches southwestern Japan. These remote ocean vapors are transported to the east of the cyclone via the moisture conveyor belt, a zone characterized by distinct low-level moisture flux that stretches from the Indian Ocean to the TC, and are further supplied into the inner region of the TC by inflow within the boundary layer associated with its secondary circulation. Since it takes time to undergo these two dynamic processes, the delayed influence of remote ocean vapors on the TC appears to become evident during the mature stage.

  7. Identifying children with autism spectrum disorder based on their face processing abnormality: A machine learning framework.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenbo; Li, Ming; Yi, Li

    2016-08-01

    The atypical face scanning patterns in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has been repeatedly discovered by previous research. The present study examined whether their face scanning patterns could be potentially useful to identify children with ASD by adopting the machine learning algorithm for the classification purpose. Particularly, we applied the machine learning method to analyze an eye movement dataset from a face recognition task [Yi et al., 2016], to classify children with and without ASD. We evaluated the performance of our model in terms of its accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of classifying ASD. Results indicated promising evidence for applying the machine learning algorithm based on the face scanning patterns to identify children with ASD, with a maximum classification accuracy of 88.51%. Nevertheless, our study is still preliminary with some constraints that may apply in the clinical practice. Future research should shed light on further valuation of our method and contribute to the development of a multitask and multimodel approach to aid the process of early detection and diagnosis of ASD. Autism Res 2016, 9: 888-898. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Degradation of photovoltaic backsheet materials under multi-factor accelerated UV light exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinke, Addison G.; Gok, Abdulkerim; Ifeanyi, Silas I.; French, Roger H.; Bruckman, Laura S.

    2017-08-01

    Long term outdoor durability of photovoltaic (PV) module backsheets is critical to a module's power output over its lifetime. The use of uoropolymer-based backsheets or the addition of stabilizers to polyethylene-terephthalate (PET) and polyamide (PA) type backsheets can help extend their lifetime. This study presents the performance of 21 backsheets made of 8 different material combinations under ASTM G154 Cycle 4 accelerated light exposures. The backsheets were subjected to 4000 hours of high irradiance UVA light at a peak intensity of 1.55 W=m2 at 340 nm at 70°C with and without a condensing humidity cycle at 50°C. Backsheets were evaluated, with repeated measurements, using various evaluation techniques to identify and assess potential signs of degradation. These evaluations included the yellowness index (YI), CIE color space coordinates, and gloss at 20, 60, and 85°. The temporal evolution of the relative color change ΔE was statistically analyzed to develop a stress-response model which used the UVA light dose to predict color change. It was found that the PVF/PET/E backsheet performed the best while PET/PET/E and THV/PET/EVA backsheets performed the worst. Additionally, substantial variation in color change response, attributable to key manufacturing differences, was observed within a given material type.

  9. Artificial neural network aided non-invasive grading evaluation of hepatic fibrosis by duplex ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are widely studied for evaluating diseases. This paper discusses the intelligence mode of an ANN in grading the diagnosis of liver fibrosis by duplex ultrasonogaphy. Methods 239 patients who were confirmed as having liver fibrosis or cirrhosis by ultrasound guided liver biopsy were investigated in this study. We quantified ultrasonographic parameters as significant parameters using a data optimization procedure applied to an ANN. 179 patients were typed at random as the training group; 60 additional patients were consequently enrolled as the validating group. Performance of the ANN was evaluated according to accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, Youden’s index and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results 5 ultrasonographic parameters; i.e., the liver parenchyma, thickness of spleen, hepatic vein (HV) waveform, hepatic artery pulsatile index (HAPI) and HV damping index (HVDI), were enrolled as the input neurons in the ANN model. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the ANN model for quantitative diagnosis of liver fibrosis were 95.0%, 85.0% and 88.3%, respectively. The Youden’s index (YI) was 0.80. Conclusions The established ANN model had good sensitivity and specificity in quantitative diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis or liver cirrhosis. Our study suggests that the ANN model based on duplex ultrasound may help non-invasive grading diagnosis of liver fibrosis in clinical practice. PMID:22716936

  10. Comparative pharmacokinetics of swertiamarin in rats after oral administration of swertiamarin alone, Qing Ye Dan tablets and co-administration of swertiamarin and oleanolic acid.

    PubMed

    Xu, Gui-li; Li, Hong-liang; He, Jian-chang; Feng, En-fu; Shi, Pan-pan; Liu, Yue-qiong; Liu, Chang-xiao

    2013-08-26

    Qing Ye Dan is a well-known herbal drug that is widely used to treat viral hepatitis in the Yi and Hani minority regions in the Yunnan province of China. An LC-MS/MS method was developed to determine the levels of swertiamarin in rat plasma. Swertiamarin and naringin (internal standard, IS) were extracted from rat plasma using solid-phase extraction (SPE) to purify the samples. The pharmacokinetics of the following different administration methods of swertiamarin in rats were studied: oral administration of swertiamarin alone, a Qing Ye Dan tablet (QYDT) and co-administration of swertiamarin and oleanolic acid, with each method delivering approximately 20mg/kg of swertiamarin. Non-compartmental pharmacokinetic profiles were constructed by using the software DAS (version 2.1.1), and the pharmacokinetic parameters were compared using an unpaired Student's t-test. The results showed that the pharmacokinetic parameters Cmax, AUC0-∞, Vz/F and CLz/F were significantly different (P<0.05) among the three types of swertiamarin administration. The data indicate that oleanolic acid and the other ingredients present in QYDT could affect the pharmacokinetic behaviour of swertiamarin in rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. First-principles study of half-metallic properties in RbCaNZ (Z = O, S, and Se) quaternary Heusler compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, S.; Ahmadian, F.

    2018-06-01

    On the basis of first principles calculations, the electronic structures and magnetic properties of quaternary Heusler alloys RbCaNZ (Z = O, S, and Se) were studied. The negative formation energies indicated that all these compounds were thermodynamically stable and thus may be experimentally synthesized at appropriate conditions in the future. The results showed that YI structure was the most favorable configuration among the three possible structures. All compounds were found to be half-metallic ferromagnets. The characteristic of energy bands and origin of half-metallicity were also verified. The total magnetic moments of RbCaNZ (Z = O, S, and Se) compounds were obtained 2μB per formula unit, which were in an agreement with Slater-Pauling rule (Mtot = 12 - Ztot). Half-metallicity was preserved at ranges of 5.06-8.36 Å, 5.96-8.81 Å, and 6.13-8.73 Å for RbCaNO, RbCaNS, and RbCaNSe compounds, respectively, which show that these quaternary Heusler compounds may be potential candidates in spintronic applications.

  12. Dereplication-guided isolation of a new indole alkaloid triglycoside from the hooks of Uncaria rhynchophylla by LC with ion trap time-of-flight MS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-Gang; Huang, Xiao-Yan; Ma, Yun-Bao; Zhang, Xue-Mei; Chen, Ji-Jun; Geng, Chang-An

    2018-04-01

    Uncaria rhynchophylla (Gou-Teng) as the monarch herb of many formulae (Fufang), e.g. "Tian-Ma-Gou-Teng-Yin," "Ling-Jiao-Gou-Teng-Yin," and "Yi-Gan-San", is a famous traditional Chinese medicine documented in the Chinese pharmacopoeia for mental and cardiovascular diseases. In the traditional Chinese medicine system, only the hook-bearing stems are used as the crude materials for Gou-Teng, and the hooks are always considered more effective than the stems. Focusing on the mono-herb and its active constituents from combinatorial formulae is the core idea of reductionism of traditional Chinese medicine theory. Detailed liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry analysis on the hooks of U. rhynchophylla was performed to profile the chemical constituents based on tandem mass spectrometry fragmentation and UV absorption. Under the guidance of liquid chromatography with ion trap/time-of-flight mass spectrometry, one new indole alkaloid triglycoside (1), together with five known compounds 2-6 as the main constituents, were isolated from the hooks of U. rhynchophylla by various column chromatography methods. Compound 1 showed moderate activity on MT 1 and MT 2 melatonin receptors with agonistic rates of 79.6 and 46.3% at the concentration of 1 mM. This dereplication strategy can be equally applicable to rapidly disclose the active constituents of other Chinese herbs through targeted purification. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. [Herbal textual research on Chinese medicine "Huangjing" (Polygonati Rhizoma)and some enlightenments].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing-Jing; Si, Jin-Ping

    2018-02-01

    To clarify the change and development of the original plants, medicinal organs, traditional functions, resource distribution of "Huangjing"(Polygonati Rhizome), a traditional Chinese medicine, we investigated Polygonatum species on the ancient Chinese herbal texts. The name of "Nüwei" was first carried out in the book of Sheng Nong's Herbal Classic. Its effects included two aspects: one was similar to "Weirui"(Polygonati Odorati Rhizome, "Yuzhu"), that was tonifying, nourishing one's vitality, removing wind and dampness, settling five organs, making body lightness, keeping longevity and not being hungry; the second was alike to "Huangjing" recorded in the book of Ming Yi Bie Lu(Appendant Records of Famous Physicians). Specifically, "Weirui" possesses the therapeutic effect of "Nüwei", while "Huangjing" possesses the tonic effect of " Nüwei". Thereafter, the following ancient Chinese herbal texts kept those two names and function records. Accordingly, we hold the point of view that "Huangjing" was first carried out in the book of Sheng Nong's Herbal Classic in the synonym of "Nüwei". "Yuzhu" included the "Huangjing" in ancient herbal text before Qing Dynasty, that was further confirmed by the research on change and development of the original plants. The identification between "Yuzhu" and "Huangjing" was based on the shape of rhizome and size before early Tang Dynasty. The shape was a key character and used up to now, but size was not reasonable. The opposite phyllotaxy was an important character of authentic "Huangjing" from Tang to Qing Dynasty. The seedling of Polygonatum sibiricum and P. kingianum, the adult plant of P. cyrtonema with alternate leaves were misused as "Yuzhu"("Nüwei" and "Weirui") at that time. Therefore, both "Yuzhu" and "Huangjing" should be used as key words during the search of ancient prescriptions and development of new drugs and health foods. The leaves, flowers, fruits and seedlings could

  14. Local and traditional uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of Sophora japonica L.: A review.

    PubMed

    He, Xirui; Bai, Yajun; Zhao, Zefeng; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Fang, Jiacheng; Huang, Linhong; Zeng, Min; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Yajun; Zheng, Xiaohui

    2016-07-01

    Sophora japonica (Fabaceae), also known as Huai (Chinese: ), is a medium-sized deciduous tree commonly found in China, Japan, Korea, Vietnam, and other countries. The use of this plant has been recorded in classical medicinal treatises of ancient China, and it is currently recorded in both the Chinese Pharmacopoeia and European Pharmacopoeia. The flower buds and fruits of S. japonica, also known as Flos Sophorae Immaturus and Fructus Sophorae in China, are most commonly used in Asia (especially in China) to treat hemorrhoids, hematochezia, hematuria, hematemesis, hemorrhinia, uterine or intestinal hemorrhage, arteriosclerosis, headache, hypertension, dysentery, dizziness, and pyoderma. To discuss feasible trends for further research on S. japonica, this review highlights the botany, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, biological activities, and toxicology of S. japonica based on studies published in the last six decades. Information on the S. japonica was collected from major scientific databases (SciFinder, PubMed, Elsevier, SpringerLink, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Medline Plus, China Knowledge Resource Integrated (CNKI), and "Da Yi Yi Xue Sou Suo (http://www.dayi100.com/login.jsp)" for publications between 1957 and 2015 on S. japonica. Information was also obtained from local classic herbal literature, government reports, conference papers, as well as PhD and MSc dissertations. Approximately 153 chemical compounds, including flavonoids, isoflavonoids, triterpenes, alkaloids, polysaccharides, amino acids, and other compounds, have been isolated from the leaves, branches, flowers, buds, pericarps, and/or fruits of S. japonica. Among these compounds, several flavonoids and isoflavonoids comprise the active constituents of S. japonica, which exhibit a wide range of biological activities in vitro and in vivo such as anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, anti-osteoporotic, antioxidant, radical scavenging, antihyperglycemic, antiobesity, antitumor, and

  15. Collaborative Research: Process-Resolving Decomposition of the Global Temperature Response to Modes of Low Frequency Variability in a Changing Climate

    SciT

    Deng, Yi

    2014-11-24

    DOE-GTRC-05596 11/24/2104 Collaborative Research: Process-Resolving Decomposition of the Global Temperature Response to Modes of Low Frequency Variability in a Changing Climate PI: Dr. Yi Deng (PI) School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences Georgia Institute of Technology 404-385-1821, yi.deng@eas.gatech.edu El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Annular Modes (AMs) represent respectively the most important modes of low frequency variability in the tropical and extratropical circulations. The projection of future changes in the ENSO and AM variability, however, remains highly uncertain with the state-of-the-science climate models. This project conducted a process-resolving, quantitative evaluations of the ENSO and AM variability in the modern reanalysis observationsmore » and in climate model simulations. The goal is to identify and understand the sources of uncertainty and biases in models’ representation of ENSO and AM variability. Using a feedback analysis method originally formulated by one of the collaborative PIs, we partitioned the 3D atmospheric temperature anomalies and surface temperature anomalies associated with ENSO and AM variability into components linked to 1) radiation-related thermodynamic processes such as cloud and water vapor feedbacks, 2) local dynamical processes including convection and turbulent/diffusive energy transfer and 3) non-local dynamical processes such as the horizontal energy transport in the oceans and atmosphere. In the past 4 years, the research conducted at Georgia Tech under the support of this project has led to 15 peer-reviewed publications and 9 conference/workshop presentations. Two graduate students and one postdoctoral fellow also received research training through participating the project activities. This final technical report summarizes key scientific discoveries we made and provides also a list of all publications and conference presentations resulted from research activities at Georgia Tech. The main findings

  16. [Takeki Kudoh's Research on Modern Medical Science and Japanized Confucianism in Colonial Korea (Chosŏn)].

    PubMed

    Ch'oi, Jae-Mok; Kim, Jeŏng-Gon

    2015-12-01

    This paper reviews Kudoh Takeki's activity critically during the colonial Korea period, regarding his research on Medical Science and Japanized Confucianism. He managed 'The Seoul Gynecological Hospital'for approximately 35 years in the Chosŏn period as a Japanese resident with Chosŏn status. He published medical knowledge about obstetrics through more than 280 articles, and attempted to improve the hygiene and health of 'Korean Women'. He tried to complete his will toward 'One Unity of Chosŏn and Japan'by terminating the Chosŏn culture 'gene'as an intention. The purpose would enlighten Chosŏn by Japanese blessing. This paper aims to confirm his intention by two aspect of analysis by 'Medical Science'as an occupation and 'Confucianism'and the background of his thought. The content of Kudoh Takeki's research in Chosŏn regarding Medical Science-Confucianism is described as below. First, the purpose and mission of Kudoh Takeki regarding Chosŏn was analyzed. The papers revealed the Kudoh Takeki mentioned only the 'HusbandMurders of Corean Women', which was defined by Kudoh Takeki as 'A Special Crime of Corea'. This paper examined his intensions. Second, writings by Kudoh Takeki were listed to verify the 'medical'field and 'non-medical'field according to the subject. No list of contents was found for his more than 280 articles or essays in magazines/newspapers/ publications, and these papers only described the Kudoh paper "A Special Crime of Corea"and studied the separate book publication by Kudoh THE GYNAECOLOGICAL RESEARCH OF HUSBANDMURDERS OF COREAN WOMEN, A SPECIAL CRIME OF COREA. Third, the genealogy of Confucianism of Kudoh Takeki was analyzed as his background of mental·thought by his hometown and the school he graduated from. The people from Kumamoto and Seiseiko school who were influenced by 'Yi Toegye'of Chosŏn Confucianism were more active than general Japanese. Fourth, the practical activity of Kudoh Takeki in Chosŏn was described. The paper

  17. The clinical value of HPV E6/E7 and STAT3 mRNA detection in cervical cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yibing; Shen, Zongji

    2018-05-01

    To explore the value of human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) mRNA detection in the screening of cervical lesions. 192 patients with abnormal ThinPrep cytology test (TCT) results and/or high-risk HPV infection were screened to identify possible cervical lesions in cases. Diagnoses were confirmed by histopathology. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed to detect and qualify the mRNAs of HPV E6/E7, STAT3, and Survivin in cervical exfoliated cells. In addition, the performance of separate and combined mRNA detection methods were compared with TCT, HR-HPV DNA schemes respectively. 1. Compared with HPVE6/E7 and STAT3 mRNA methods, Survivin mRNA assay had poor specificity (Sp), Youden index (YI) and concordance rate. 2. HPV E6/E7, STAT3, and STAT3 + HR-HPV methods had the best Sp, concordance rate and positive predictive value (PPV) for cervical lesions screening and atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) triage. For screening of high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or greater (HSILs+), no difference was observed in the Se of mRNA detection methods in comparison with that of TCT, HR-HPV and TCT + HR-HPV, whereas the false positive rate (FPR) decreased by 41.48%/55.99%/17.19% and the colposcopy referral rate reduced by about 20.00%/25.00%/11.17%. For triage of women with ASCUS, no difference was observed in the Se of mRNA detection methods as compared to that of HR-HPV (χ 2  = 1.05, P > 0.75), while the FPR decreased by 45.83%/37.50%/41.66% and the colposcopy referral rate reduced by 32.42%/22.60%/25.28%, respectively. The Se, YI, and PPV of the combined methods increased in comparison to each method alone. 3. Compared with the TCT + HR-HPV method, HPV E6/E7 + STAT3 method had perfect Sp (95.92%) and PPV (95.40%) for screening HSILs+, the FPR and colposcopy referral rate decreased by 31.06% and 22.48% respectively. 1. The expression of HPV E6/E

  18. Eventos de Desconexão no Cometa P/Halley sob a Ótica do Modelo de Reconexão Magnética

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, M. R.; Matsuura, O. T.

    1998-08-01

    determinam o tempo de desconexão a partir de um movimento linear constantemente acelerado (Yi et al., 1994). A velocidade de um DE para outro varia enormemente. - Brandt, J.C., Niedner, M.B.Jr. and Rahe, J., (1992) The International Halley Watch Atlas of Large-Scale Phenomena (printed by: Johnson Printing Co., Boulder, CO), University of Colorado-Boulder. - Celnik, W.E., Koczet, P., Schlosser, W., Schulz, R., Svejda, P. and Weissbauer, K., (1988) Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 72, 89. - Delva, M., Schwingenschuh, K., Niedner, M.B.Jr. and Gringauz, K.I., (1991) Planet. Space Sci. 39, Number 5, 697. - Hoeksema, J.T., (1989) Adv. Space Res. 9, 141. - Jockers, K., (1985) Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 62, 791. - Niedner, M.B.Jr. and Brandt, J.C., (1979) Astrophys. J. 234, 723. - Voelzke, M.R. and Matsuura, O.T., (1988) Planet. Space Sci. 46, 835. - Yi, Y., Caputo, M.F. and Brandt, J.C., (1994) Planet. Space Sci. 42, Number 9, 705.

  19. Beyond Maslow's culture-bound linear theory: a preliminary statement of the double-Y model of basic human needs.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kuo-Shu

    2003-01-01

    Maslow's theory of basic human needs is criticized with respect to two of its major aspects, unidimensional linearity and cross-cultural validity. To replace Maslow's linear theory, a revised Y model is proposed on the base of Y. Yu's original Y model. Arranged on the stem of the Y are Maslow's physiological needs (excluding sexual needs) and safety needs. Satisfaction of these needs is indispensable to genetic survival. On the left arm of the Y are interpersonal and belongingness needs, esteem needs, and the self-actualization need. The thoughts and behaviors required for the fulfillment of these needs lead to genetic expression. Lastly, on the right arm of the Y are sexual needs, childbearing needs, and parenting needs. The thoughts and behaviors entailed in the satisfaction of these needs result in genetic transmission. I contend that needs for genetic survival and transmission are universal and that needs for genetic expression are culture-bound. Two major varieties of culture-specific expression needs are distinguished for each of the three levels of needs on the left arm of the Y model. Collectivistic needs for interpersonal affiliation and belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization prevail in collectivist cultures like those found in East Asian countries. Individualistic needs are dominant in individualist cultures like those in North America and certain European nations. I construct two separate Y models, one for people in collectivist cultures and the other for those in individualist ones. In the first (the Yc model), the three levels of expression needs on the left arm are collectivistic in nature, whereas in the second (the Yi model), the three levels of needs on the left arm are individualistic in nature. Various forms of the double-Y model are formulated by conceptually combining the Yc and Yi models at the cross-cultural, crossgroup, and intra-individual levels. Research directions for testing the various aspects of the double-Y model are

  20. Evaluation of Applying a Combination of Red Cell Indexes and Formulas to Differentiate β-Thalassemia Trait from Iron Deficiency Anemia in the Thai Population.

    PubMed

    Pornprasert, Sakorn; Thongsat, Choosak; Panyachadporn, Uraiporn

    2017-03-01

    Red cell indexes and formulas have been established as simple, fast, and inexpensive tools to differentiate β-thalassemia (β-thal) trait from iron deficiency anemia. However, none of them showed 100.0% sensitivity and specificity. Moreover, one index may show greater sensitivity and specificity in one population but is ineffective in another population. This study evaluated the diagnostic reliability of a combination of two red cell indexes [red blood cell (RBC) and red blood cell distribution width (RDW)] and nine formulas called '11T score' for differentiation of β-thal trait and iron deficiency anemia in the Thai population. A total of 103 cases, 67 β-thal trait and 36 iron deficiency anemia, Thai subjects with microcytic hypochromic anemia [mean corpuscular volume (MCV) <80.0 fL and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (Hb) (MCH) <27.0 pg] were involved in this retrospective study. The results showed that the 11T score with a cutoff value of 7 was able to discriminate between β-thal trait and iron deficiency anemia with sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and efficiency (EFF) higher than 70.0%. It also had 85.4% of correctly identified cases and the highest value of Youden's Index (YI) (73.8%) when compared to the 11T score with other cutoff values (5, 6, 8 and 9) and other indexes. Thus, the 11T score with the cutoff value of 7 could be used to differentiate β-thal trait from iron deficiency anemia in the Thai population.

  1. Best Practice Guide for the Treatment of REM Sleep Behavior Disorder (RBD)

    PubMed Central

    Aurora, R. Nisha; Zak, Rochelle S.; Maganti, Rama K.; Auerbach, Sanford H.; Casey, Kenneth R.; Chowdhuri, Susmita; Karippot, Anoop; Ramar, Kannan; Kristo, David A.; Morgenthaler, Timothy I.

    2010-01-01

    Summary of Recommendations: Modifying the sleep environment is recommended for the treatment of patients with RBD who have sleep-related injury. Level A Clonazepam is suggested for the treatment of RBD but should be used with caution in patients with dementia, gait disorders, or concomitant OSA. Its use should be monitored carefully over time as RBD appears to be a precursor to neurodegenerative disorders with dementia in some patients. Level B Clonazepam is suggested to decrease the occurrence of sleep-related injury caused by RBD in patients for whom pharmacologic therapy is deemed necessary. It should be used in caution in patients with dementia, gait disorders, or concomitant OSA, and its use should be monitored carefully over time. Level B Melatonin is suggested for the treatment of RBD with the advantage that there are few side effects. Level B Pramipexole may be considered to treat RBD, but efficacy studies have shown contradictory results. There is little evidence to support the use of paroxetine or L-DOPA to treat RBD, and some studies have suggested that these drugs may actually induce or exacerbate RBD. There are limited data regarding the efficacy of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, but they may be considered to treat RBD in patients with a concomitant synucleinopathy. Level C The following medications may be considered for treatment of RBD, but evidence is very limited with only a few subjects having been studied for each medication: zopiclone, benzodiazepines other than clonazepam, Yi-Gan San, desipramine, clozapine, carbamazepine, and sodium oxybate. Level C Citation: Aurora RN; Zak RS; Maganti RK; Auerbach SH; Casey KR; Chowdhuri S; Karippot A; Ramar K; Kristo DA; Morgenthaler TI. Best practice guide for the treatment of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). J Clin Sleep Med 2010;6(1):85-95. PMID:20191945

  2. Atrial Fibrillation Screening in Nonmetropolitan Areas Using a Telehealth Surveillance System With an Embedded Cloud-Computing Algorithm: Prospective Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Hsien; Hung, Chi-Sheng; Huang, Ching-Chang; Hung, Yu-Chien; Hwang, Juey-Jen; Ho, Yi-Lwun

    2017-09-26

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common form of arrhythmia that is associated with increased risk of stroke and mortality. Detecting AF before the first complication occurs is a recognized priority. No previous studies have examined the feasibility of undertaking AF screening using a telehealth surveillance system with an embedded cloud-computing algorithm; we address this issue in this study. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of AF screening in nonmetropolitan areas using a telehealth surveillance system with an embedded cloud-computing algorithm. We conducted a prospective AF screening study in a nonmetropolitan area using a single-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) recorder. All ECG measurements were reviewed on the telehealth surveillance system and interpreted by the cloud-computing algorithm and a cardiologist. The process of AF screening was evaluated with a satisfaction questionnaire. Between March 11, 2016 and August 31, 2016, 967 ECGs were recorded from 922 residents in nonmetropolitan areas. A total of 22 (2.4%, 22/922) residents with AF were identified by the physician's ECG interpretation, and only 0.2% (2/967) of ECGs contained significant artifacts. The novel cloud-computing algorithm for AF detection had a sensitivity of 95.5% (95% CI 77.2%-99.9%) and specificity of 97.7% (95% CI 96.5%-98.5%). The overall satisfaction score for the process of AF screening was 92.1%. AF screening in nonmetropolitan areas using a telehealth surveillance system with an embedded cloud-computing algorithm is feasible. ©Ying-Hsien Chen, Chi-Sheng Hung, Ching-Chang Huang, Yu-Chien Hung, Juey-Jen Hwang, Yi-Lwun Ho. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (http://mhealth.jmir.org), 26.09.2017.

  3. Different kernel functions due to rainfall response from borehole strainmeter in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen Chen, Chih; Hu, Jyr Ching; LIu, Chi Ching

    2014-05-01

    In order to realize reasons inducing earthquakes, project of monitoring of the fault activity using 3-component Gladwin Tensor Strainmeter (GTSM) has been initiated since 2003 in Taiwan, which is one of the most active seismic regions in the world. Observed strain contains several different effects within including barometric, tidal, groundwater, precipitation, tectonics, seismic and other irregular noise. After removing the response of tides and air pressure on strain, we still can find some anomalies highly related to the rainfall in short time in days. The strain response induced by rainfall can be separated into two parts as observation in groundwater, slow response and quick response, respectively. Quick response reflects the strain responding to the load of falling water drops on the ground surface. A kernel function shows the continual response induced by unit precipitation water in time domain. We split the quick response from data removing tidal and barometric response, and then calculate the kernel function by use of deconvolution method. More, an average kernel function was calculated to reduce the noise level. There are five of the sites installed by CGS Taiwan were selected to calculate kernel functions for individual sites. The results show there may be different on rainfall response in different environmental settings. In the case of stations site on gentle terrain, kernel function for each site shows the similar trend, it rises quickly to maximum in 1 to 2 hrs, and then goes down near to zero gently in period of 2-3 days. But in the case of sites settled side by the rivers, there will be 2nd peak of function when collected water in the catchment flows along by the sites related to the hydrograph of creeks. More, landslides will occur in some sites in hazard of landslide with more rainfall stored on, just like DARB in ChiaYi. The curve of kernel function will be controlled by landslides and debris flows.

  4. Crystal growth of argyrodite-type phases Cu 8-xGeS 6-xI x and Cu 8-xGeSe 6-xI x (0⩽ x⩽0.8)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomm, Yvonne; Schorr, Susan; Fiechter, Sebastian

    2008-04-01

    The growth of single crystalline argyrodites of type Cu 8-xGeX 6-xY x ( X=S, Se; Y=I) is reported. These materials undergo solid-solid phase transitions at temperatures ranging from 30 to 90 °C. In the high temperature phase, Cu 8GeS 6 crystallizes in the cubic space group F4¯3m. In the low temperature phase, the compound is present in the orthorhombic space group Pmn2 1. Cu 8GeSe 6 appears exclusively in the hexagonal space groups P6 3mc or P6 3cm, respectively. Single crystals of these argyrodites were obtained by chemical vapor transport in a temperature gradient Δ T=980-950 and Δ T=700-620 °C for sulfides and selenides, respectively. As a result of the growth process, the high temperature phase remains stable even at ambient temperature by incorporation of the transport agent iodine during the growth process. As determined by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), the composition of the sulfide crystals grown ranges from Cu 8GeS 6 to Cu 7.16GeS 5.16I 0.84. The selenide crystallizes as Cu 7.69GeSe 5.69I 0.31. In contrast, the solid state reaction of the elements Cu, Ge and X produces a material in the low temperature modification with an ideal composition of Cu 8GeX 6.

  5. Restoration of Long-Term Potentiation in Middle-Aged Hippocampus After Induction of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor

    PubMed Central

    Rex, Christopher S.; Lauterborn, Julie C.; Lin, Ching-Yi; Kramár, Eniko A.; Rogers, Gary A.; Gall, Christine M.; Lynch, Gary

    2006-01-01

    Rex, Christopher S., Julie C. Lauterborn, Ching-Yi Lin, Eniko A. Kramár, Gary A. Rogers, Christine M. Gall, and Gary Lynch. Restoration of long-term potentiation in middle-aged hippocampus after induction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. J Neurophysiol 96: 677-685, 2006. First published May 17, 2006; doi:10.1152/jn.00336.2006. Restoration of neuronal viability and synaptic plasticity through increased trophic support is widely regarded as a potential therapy for the cognitive declines that characterize aging. Previous studies have shown that in the hippocampal CA1 basal dendritic field deficits in the stabilization of long-term potentiation (LTP) are evident by middle age. The present study tested whether increasing endogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) could reverse this age-related change. We report here that in middle-aged (8- to 10-mo-old) rats, in vivo treatments with a positive AMPA-type glutamate receptor modulator both increase BDNF protein levels in the cortical telencephalon and restore stabilization of basal dendritic LTP as assessed in acute hippocampal slices 18 h after the last drug treatment. These effects were not attributed to enhanced synaptic transmission or to facilitation of burst responses used to induce LTP. Increasing extracellular levels of BDNF by exogenous application to slices of middle-aged rats was also sufficient to rescue the stabilization of basal dendritic LTP. Finally, otherwise stable LTP in ampakine-treated middle-aged rats can be eliminated by infusion of the extracellular BDNF scavenger TrkB-Fc. Together these results indicate that increases in endogenous BDNF signaling can offset deficits in the postinduction processes that stabilize LTP. PMID:16707719

  6. [National physician master Jin Shiyuan's dispensing technology of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata based on Li Shizhen's pharmaceutical academic thought].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yi-Ping; Zhai, Hua-Qiang; Guo, Zhao-Juan; Zhang, Tian; Kong, Li-Ting; Jia, Xiao-Yu; Tian, Wei-Lan; Li, Rui

    2016-05-01

    To collect Li Shizhen's experience in Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata identification and clinical application, compare and analyze national physician master Jin Shiyuan's practical operation and theoretical knowledge, which is beneficial for the inheritance and improvement of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata clinical dispensing technology. In the analysis process, CNKI, Wanfang and other databases were searched with "Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata", "Li Shizhen", "pharmacological method state theory" "Jin Shiyuan" and "Chinese medicine dispensing technology" as the key words. In addition, Treatise on Febrile Disease, Compendium of Materia Medica, Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2015 edition), Notes to Medical Professions(Yi Zong Shuo Yue), and other medicine books were accessed to summarize the processing methods and decoction dosage of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata in both ancient and modern medicine, and in consideration of technical research and practice operation, Li Shizhen's description of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata and Professor Jin Shiyuan's research on Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata dispensing technology were analyzed and collected. Li Shizhen recorded the nature identification and clinical application of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata by using pharmacological method state theory in Compendium of Materia Medica. National physician master Jin Shiyuan carries forward the essence of Li Shizhen's pharmaceutical academic thought with his own proficient knowledge structure in medicine, providing scientific pharmaceutical service for clinical application of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata Professor. Jin Shiyuan put forward the dispensing technology for the first time, including nature identification technology, clinical processing technology, clinical decocting technology, prescription coping technology, and class specifications of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata. In this paper, Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata was used as an example

  7. The characteristics of hydrothermal plumes observed at the Zouyu-1 and Zouyu-2 hydrothermal fields in the Southern Mid-Atlantic Ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S.; Tao, C.; Baker, E. T.; Li, H.

    2016-12-01

    The Zouyu-1 (14.41°W, 13.25°S) and Zouyu-2 (14.41°W, 13.28°S) hydrothermal fields are located on the neovolcanic Zouyu ridge on axis of a symmetrical spreading ridge, which is on the eastern side of the S14 segment on the southern Mid-Atlantic ridge (the ridge segments were numbered by Chunhui Tao (2016) ). The two hydrothermal fields were found during Chinese 22nd cruise in 2011 and 21st cruise in 2009 on board R/V Dayang YiHao, respectively. We collected data recorded by light-scattering and temperature sensors (Miniature Autonomous Plume Recorder, short for MAPR), and H2S and ORP sensors (Electro-chemical sensor, short for ECS) in multiple years (2009, 2011), yielding the following results: (1) The turbidity anomalies were widely distributed in the Zouyu-1 and Zouyu-2 hydrothermal fields. And the highest turbidity anomalies were concentrated around Zouyu-2 hydrothermal field, with a maximum value of 0.094 △NTU south of Zouyu-2 vent. The horizontal scale of hydrothermal plume maximum was 2.5 km. The plume maximum is offset 500 m east of the Zouyu-2 vent location. (2) ORP anomalies were detected near Zouyu-2 in 2011. Sharp and substantial ORP ( 80 mV) and H2S (2.5 nmol/L) anomalies occurred near 14.412°W,13.28°S for 300 m along the track line 22II-L07. (3)Temperature along the track line 21IV-L04 in the Zouyu-2 field increased by as much as 0.03 ° even as the depth of MAPR was largely unchanged. With the evidence of concomitant fluctuations in turbidity, it showed the temperature increases were hydrothermally induced. Keywords: hydrothermal plume, Zouyu-1 hydrothermal field, Zouyu-2 hydrothermal field

  8. Children prenatally exposed to maternal anxiety devote more attentional resources to neutral pictures.

    PubMed

    van den Heuvel, Marion I; Henrichs, Jens; Donkers, Franc C L; Van den Bergh, Bea R H

    2017-10-22

    Maternal anxiety during pregnancy can negatively affect fetal neurodevelopment, predisposing the offspring to a higher risk of behavioral and emotional problems later in life. The current study investigates the association between maternal anxiety during pregnancy and child affective picture processing using event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Mothers reported anxiety during the second trimester using the anxiety subscale of the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90). At age 4 years, child affective picture processing (N = 86) was measured by recording ERPs during viewing of neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant pictures selected from the International Affective Pictures System. The late positive potential (LPP)-an ERP component reflecting individual differences in affective processing-was used as child outcome. The expected positive association between maternal anxiety and LPP amplitude for unpleasant pictures was not found. Nevertheless, we found a positive association between maternal anxiety during pregnancy and LPP amplitudes for neutral pictures in the middle and late time window at anterior locations (all p < .05). These associations remained significant after adjusting for maternal postnatal anxiety and gestational age at birth and after FDR correction for multiple comparisons. Our study provides neurophysiological evidence that children prenatally exposed to higher maternal anxiety devote more attentional resources to neutral pictures, but not to unpleasant pictures. Possibly, these children show enhanced vigilance for threat when viewing neutral pictures. Although useful in dangerous environments, this enhanced vigilance may predispose children prenatally exposed to higher maternal anxiety to developing behavioral and/or emotional problems later in life. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kEzYi6IS2HA. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Analysis of East Asia Genetic Substructure Using Genome-Wide SNP Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Chao; Kosoy, Roman; Lee, Annette; Ransom, Michael; Belmont, John W.; Gregersen, Peter K.; Seldin, Michael F.

    2008-01-01

    Accounting for population genetic substructure is important in reducing type 1 errors in genetic studies of complex disease. As efforts to understand complex genetic disease are expanded to different continental populations the understanding of genetic substructure within these continents will be useful in design and execution of association tests. In this study, population differentiation (Fst) and Principal Components Analyses (PCA) are examined using >200 K genotypes from multiple populations of East Asian ancestry. The population groups included those from the Human Genome Diversity Panel [Cambodian, Yi, Daur, Mongolian, Lahu, Dai, Hezhen, Miaozu, Naxi, Oroqen, She, Tu, Tujia, Naxi, Xibo, and Yakut], HapMap [ Han Chinese (CHB) and Japanese (JPT)], and East Asian or East Asian American subjects of Vietnamese, Korean, Filipino and Chinese ancestry. Paired Fst (Wei and Cockerham) showed close relationships between CHB and several large East Asian population groups (CHB/Korean, 0.0019; CHB/JPT, 00651; CHB/Vietnamese, 0.0065) with larger separation with Filipino (CHB/Filipino, 0.014). Low levels of differentiation were also observed between Dai and Vietnamese (0.0045) and between Vietnamese and Cambodian (0.0062). Similarly, small Fst's were observed among different presumed Han Chinese populations originating in different regions of mainland of China and Taiwan (Fst's <0.0025 with CHB). For PCA, the first two PC's showed a pattern of relationships that closely followed the geographic distribution of the different East Asian populations. PCA showed substructure both between different East Asian groups and within the Han Chinese population. These studies have also identified a subset of East Asian substructure ancestry informative markers (EASTASAIMS) that may be useful for future complex genetic disease association studies in reducing type 1 errors and in identifying homogeneous groups that may increase the power of such studies. PMID:19057645

  10. Measurement of nitrous acid (HONO) by external-cavity quantum cascade laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Hongming; Maamary, Rabih; Gao, Xiaoming; Sigrist, Markus W.; Fertein, Eric; Chen, Weidong

    2016-04-01

    Spectroscopic detection of short-lived gaseous nitrous acid (HONO) at 1254.85 cm-1 was realized by off-beam coupled quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) in conjunction with an external cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCL). High sensitivity monitoring of HONO was performed within a very small gas-sample volume (of ~40 mm3) allowing a significant reduction (of about 4 orders of magnitude) of air sampling residence time which is highly desired for accurate quantification of chemically reactive short-lived species. Calibration of the developed QEPAS-based HONO sensor was carried out by means of lab-generated HONO samples whose concentrations were determined by simultaneous measurements of direct HONO absorption spectra in a 109.5 m multipass cell using a distributed feedback (DBF) QCL. A minimum detection limit (MDL @ SNR=1) of 66 ppbv HONO was achieved at 70 mbar using a laser output power of 50 mW and 1 s integration time, which corresponded to a normalized noise equivalent absorption coefficient of 3.6×10-8 cm-1.W/Hz1/2. This MDL was down to 7 ppbv at the optimal integration time of 150 s. The corresponding minimum detected absorption coefficient (SNR=1) is ~1.1×10-7 cm-1 (MDL: ~3 ppbv) in 1 s and ~1.1×10-8 cm-1 (MDL~330 pptv) in 150 s, respectively, with 1 W laser power. Acknowledgements The authors acknowledge financial supports from the CaPPA project (ANR-10-LABX-005) and the CPER CLIMIBIO program. References H. Yi, R. Maamary, X. Gao, M. W. Sigrist, E. Fertein, W. Chen, "Short-lived species detection of nitrous acid by external-cavity quantum cascade laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy", Appl. Phys. Lett. 106 (2015) 101109

  11. Underestimated Rate of Status Epilepticus according to the Traditional Definition of Status Epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Ong, Cheung-Ter; Wong, Yi-Sin; Sung, Sheng-Feng; Wu, Chi-Shun; Hsu, Yung-Chu; Su, Yu-Hsiang; Hung, Ling-Chien

    2015-01-01

    Status epilepticus (SE) is an important neurological emergency. Early diagnosis could improve outcomes. Traditionally, SE is defined as seizures lasting at least 30 min or repeated seizures over 30 min without recovery of consciousness. Some specialists argued that the duration of seizures qualifying as SE should be shorter and the operational definition of SE was suggested. It is unclear whether physicians follow the operational definition. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the incidence of SE was underestimated and to investigate the underestimate rate. This retrospective study evaluates the difference in diagnosis of SE between operational definition and traditional definition of status epilepticus. Between July 1, 2012, and June 30, 2014, patients discharged with ICD-9 codes for epilepsy (345.X) in Chia-Yi Christian Hospital were included in the study. A seizure lasting at least 30 min or repeated seizures over 30 min without recovery of consciousness were considered SE according to the traditional definition of SE (TDSE). A seizure lasting between 5 and 30 min was considered SE according to the operational definition of SE (ODSE); it was defined as underestimated status epilepticus (UESE). During a 2-year period, there were 256 episodes of seizures requiring hospital admission. Among the 256 episodes, 99 episodes lasted longer than 5 min, out of which 61 (61.6%) episodes persisted over 30 min (TDSE) and 38 (38.4%) episodes continued between 5 and 30 min (UESE). In the 38 episodes of seizure lasting 5 to 30 minutes, only one episode was previously discharged as SE (ICD-9-CM 345.3). Conclusion. We underestimated 37.4% of SE. Continuing education regarding the diagnosis and treatment of epilepsy is important for physicians.

  12. Characteristics of radiocesium runoff between five river basins near to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant over heavy rainfall events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakuma, Kazuyuki; Malins, Alex; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Akihiro

    2017-04-01

    Due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident triggered by the earthquake and subsequent tsunami on 11 March 2011, many radionuclides were released into environments such as forests, rivers, dam reservoirs, and the ocean. 137Cs is one of the most important radio-contaminants. In order to investigate 137Cs transport and discharge from contaminated basins, in this study we developed a three dimensional model of five river basins near to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. We applied the General-purpose Terrestrial fluid-Flow Simulator (GETFLOWS) watershed code to the Odaka, Ukedo, Maeda, Kuma, and Tomioka River basins. The main land uses in these areas are forests, rice paddy fields, crop fields and urban. The Ukedo, Kuma and Tomioka Rivers have relatively large dam reservoirs (>106 m3) in the upper basins. The radiocesium distribution was initiated based on the Second Airborne Monitoring Survey. The simulation periods were 2011 Typhoon Roke, nine heavy rainfall events in 2013, Typhoons Man-yi and Wipha, and tropical storm Etau in 2015. Water, sediment, and radiocesium discharge from the basins was calculated for these events. The characteristics of 137Cs runoff between the different basins were evaluated in terms of land use, the effect of dam reservoirs, geology, and the fraction of the initial radiocesium inventory discharged. The absolute 137Cs discharge from the Ukedo River basin was highest, however the 137Cs discharge ratio was lowest due to the Ogaki Dam and the inventory being mainly concentrated in upstream forests. The results for the water, suspended sediment and radiocesium discharge as a function of total precipitation over the various rainfall events can be used to predict discharges for other typhoons.

  13. Recent Patents of Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Allergic Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Hon, Kam L; Fung, Ching K; Leung, Alexander K C; Lam, Hung S; Lee, So L

    2015-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a common respiratory disease affecting both adults and children worldwide. Affected patients may experience nasal congestion/stuffiness, rhinorrhea (anterior and/or posterior), nasal/ nasopharyngeal itching and sneezing. Allergen avoidance is the principal step in the management. Nasal saline irrigation to remove allergen (s) in the nose is a useful adjunctive therapy in the management of moderate to severe AR. Symptomatic relief and improved quality of life may be achieved in the majority of patients with appropriate pharmacotherapy. Mild-to-moderate cases are usually managed with either an oral second generation antihistamine or an intranasal corticosteroid. More severe cases may require treatment with an intranasal corticosteroid in combination with various oral medications. Patients who require medications for more than 6 months per year or have intolerable side effects from pharmacotherapy can be considered for immunotherapy. A wide range of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) have also been proposed. This overview evaluates the evidence of use of CAM for AR. Some methods including acupuncture and herbal medicine have supportive evidence, but the efficacy of other CAM is controversial. Conversely, possible side effects of different modalities are often inadequately documented. The herbal formulae include Butterbur, Nigella sativa, Shi-Bi-Lin, Polyherbal formula, Grapeseed extract, Rosmarinic acid, Spirulina, Biminne, and Bhu-zhong-yi-qi-tong. Further research is needed to assess the efficacy and safety before they are employed in treating AR. This review article also discusses recent CAM patents for use in AR, which are exclusively traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) concoctions primarily for oral consumption but two as topical spray. Only 8 pertinent patents, all TCM compositions for treating AR and registered in 2014, were obtained. Description about their efficacy is impressive but objective outcome evaluation tools are

  14. Modeling dust emission in the Magellanic Clouds with Spitzer and Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chastenet, Jérémy; Bot, Caroline; Gordon, Karl D.; Bocchio, Marco; Roman-Duval, Julia; Jones, Anthony P.; Ysard, Nathalie

    2017-05-01

    Context. Dust modeling is crucial to infer dust properties and budget for galaxy studies. However, there are systematic disparities between dust grain models that result in corresponding systematic differences in the inferred dust properties of galaxies. Quantifying these systematics requires a consistent fitting analysis. Aims: We compare the output dust parameters and assess the differences between two dust grain models, the DustEM model and THEMIS. In this study, we use a single fitting method applied to all the models to extract a coherent and unique statistical analysis. Methods: We fit the models to the dust emission seen by Spitzer and Herschel in the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds (SMC and LMC). The observations cover the infrared (IR) spectrum from a few microns to the sub-millimeter range. For each fitted pixel, we calculate the full n-D likelihood based on a previously described method. The free parameters are both environmental (U, the interstellar radiation field strength; αISRF, power-law coefficient for a multi-U environment; Ω∗, the starlight strength) and intrinsic to the model (YI: abundances of the grain species I; αsCM20, coefficient in the small carbon grain size distribution). Results: Fractional residuals of five different sets of parameters show that fitting THEMIS brings a more accurate reproduction of the observations than the DustEM model. However, independent variations of the dust species show strong model-dependencies. We find that the abundance of silicates can only be constrained to an upper-limit and that the silicate/carbon ratio is different than that seen in our Galaxy. In the LMC, our fits result in dust masses slightly lower than those found in the literature, by a factor lower than 2. In the SMC, we find dust masses in agreement with previous studies.

  15. Bacteremic Urinary Tract Infection Caused by Multidrug-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Are Associated With Severe Sepsis at Admission: Implication for Empirical Therapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yi-Chien; Hsiao, Chih-Yen; Hung, Miao-Chiu; Hung, Sheng-Che; Wang, Hung-Ping; Huang, Yun-Jhong; Wang, Jann-Tay

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the clinical features and treatment outcomes among patients with bacteremic urinary tract infection (UTI) caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) and non-MDR Enterobacteriaceae and to identify whether MDR pathogens were independently associated with severe sepsis or septic shock at presentation.The clinical data of adult patients visiting and being treated at Chia-Yi Christian Hospital due to bacteremic UTI caused by Enterobacteriaceae from January 2006 to August 2015 were retrospectively analyzed.A total of 585 patients were enrolled. Among them, 220 (37.6%) were caused by the MDR Enterobacteriaceae. A total of 206 patients (35.2%) developed severe sepsis or septic shock at presentation. Patients in the MDR group tend to be male and have a past history of gout, recurrent UTI, prior hospitalization, hydronephrosis, renal stone, ureteral stone, indwelling urinary catheter, newly development of renal dysfunction, severe sepsis or septic shock, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, receipt of ineffective empirical therapy, longer hospital stay, and higher in-hospital mortality (2.7% vs 1.9%, P = 0.569). Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, it is revealed that independent predictors associated with severe sepsis or septic shock at presentation were liver cirrhosis (OR 2.868; 95% CI 1.439-5.716; P = 0.003), indwelling urinary catheter (OR 1.936; 95% CI 1.238-3.027; P = 0.004), and MDR Enterobacteriaceae (OR 1.447; 95% CI 1.002-2.090; P = 0.049).Multidrug resistance was associated with the development of severe sepsis or septic shock upon presentation among patients with bacteremic UTI caused by Enterobacteriaceae. Therefore, empirical antibiotics therapy for patients with UTI presented with severe sepsis and/or septic shock should be more broad-spectrum to effectively cover MDR Enterobacteriaceae.

  16. Bacteremic Urinary Tract Infection Caused by Multidrug-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Are Associated With Severe Sepsis at Admission

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yi-Chien; Hsiao, Chih-Yen; Hung, Miao-Chiu; Hung, Sheng-Che; Wang, Hung-Ping; Huang, Yun-Jhong; Wang, Jann-Tay

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study is to compare the clinical features and treatment outcomes among patients with bacteremic urinary tract infection (UTI) caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) and non-MDR Enterobacteriaceae and to identify whether MDR pathogens were independently associated with severe sepsis or septic shock at presentation. The clinical data of adult patients visiting and being treated at Chia-Yi Christian Hospital due to bacteremic UTI caused by Enterobacteriaceae from January 2006 to August 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 585 patients were enrolled. Among them, 220 (37.6%) were caused by the MDR Enterobacteriaceae. A total of 206 patients (35.2%) developed severe sepsis or septic shock at presentation. Patients in the MDR group tend to be male and have a past history of gout, recurrent UTI, prior hospitalization, hydronephrosis, renal stone, ureteral stone, indwelling urinary catheter, newly development of renal dysfunction, severe sepsis or septic shock, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, receipt of ineffective empirical therapy, longer hospital stay, and higher in-hospital mortality (2.7% vs 1.9%, P = 0.569). Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, it is revealed that independent predictors associated with severe sepsis or septic shock at presentation were liver cirrhosis (OR 2.868; 95% CI 1.439–5.716; P = 0.003), indwelling urinary catheter (OR 1.936; 95% CI 1.238–3.027; P = 0.004), and MDR Enterobacteriaceae (OR 1.447; 95% CI 1.002–2.090; P = 0.049). Multidrug resistance was associated with the development of severe sepsis or septic shock upon presentation among patients with bacteremic UTI caused by Enterobacteriaceae. Therefore, empirical antibiotics therapy for patients with UTI presented with severe sepsis and/or septic shock should be more broad-spectrum to effectively cover MDR Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:27196480

  17. A Subset of Cholinergic Mushroom Body Neurons Requires Go Signaling to Regulate Sleep in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Wei; Zhang, Yunpeng; Tian, Yinjun; Guo, Jing; Li, Yan; Guo, Aike

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Identifying the neurochemistry and neural circuitry of sleep regulation is critical for understanding sleep and various sleep disorders. Fruit flies display sleep-like behavior, sharing essential features with sleep of vertebrate. In the fruit fly's central brain, the mushroom body (MB) has been highlighted as a sleep center; however, its neurochemical nature remains unclear, and whether it promotes sleep or wake is still a topic of controversy. Design: We used a video recording system to accurately monitor the locomotor activity and sleep status. Gene expression was temporally and regionally manipulated by heat induction and the Gal4/UAS system. Measurements and Results: We found that expressing pertussis toxin (PTX) in the MB by c309-Gal4 to block Go activity led to unique sleep defects as dramatic sleep increase in daytime and fragmented sleep in nighttime. We narrowed down the c309-Gal4 expressing brain regions to the MB α/β core neurons that are responsible for the Go-mediated sleep effects. Using genetic tools of neurotransmitter-specific Gal80 and RNA interference approach to suppress acetylcholine signal, we demonstrated that these MB α/β core neurons were cholinergic and sleep-promoting neurons, supporting that Go mediates an inhibitory signal. Interestingly, we found that adjacent MB α/β neurons were also cholinergic but wake-promoting neurons, in which Go signal was also required. Conclusion: Our findings in fruit flies characterized a group of sleep-promoting neurons surrounded by a group of wake-promoting neurons. The two groups of neurons are both cholinergic and use Go inhibitory signal to regulate sleep. Citation: Yi W; Zhang Y; Tian Y; Guo J; Li Y; Guo A. A subset of cholinergic mushroom body neurons requires go signaling to regulate sleep in Drosophila. SLEEP 2013;36(12):1809-1821. PMID:24293755

  18. Tungsten (W) bioavailability in paddy rice soils and its accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa).

    PubMed

    James, Blessing; Zhang, Weili; Sun, Pei; Wu, Mingyan; Li, Hong Hong; Khaliq, Muhammad Athar; Jayasuriya, Pathmamali; James, Swithin; Wang, Guo

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the accumulation characteristics of tungsten (W) by different indica rice cultivars from the soil and to assess the potential risks to human health via dietary intake of W in rice consumption. A total of 153 rice (ear) samples of 15 cultivars and the corresponding surface soil samples were collected from 7 cities in Fujian Province of southeastern China. The available soil W were extracted using H 2 C 2 O 4 ·2H 2 O-(NH 4 ) 2 C 2 O 4 ·H 2 O at pH 3.3). Results showed that the total soil W ranged from 2.03 mg kg -1 to 15.34 mg kg -1  and available soil W ranged from 0.03 mg kg -1 to 1.61 mg kg -1 . The W concentration in brown rice varied from 7 μg kg -1 to 283 μg kg -1 and was significantly correlated with the available soil W. The highest mean TF avail (transfer factor based on available soil W) was 0.91 for Te-you 627 (hybrid, indica rice), whereas the lowest was 0.08 for Yi-you 673 (hybrid, indica rice). The TF avail decreased with the increase in available soil W, clay content, and cation exchange capacity. The consumption of the brown rice produced from the investigated areas in some cultivars by the present study may cause risks to human health.

  19. Modeling the impact of climate change on watershed discharge and sediment yield in the black soil region, northeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhiying; Fang, Haiyan

    2017-09-01

    Climate change is expected to impact discharge and sediment yield in watersheds. The purpose of this paper is to assess the potential impacts of climate change on water discharge and sediment yield for the Yi'an watershed of the black soil region, northeastern China, based on the newly released Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) during 2071-2099. For this purpose, the TETIS model was implemented to simulate the hydrological and sedimentological responses to climate change. The model calibration (1971-1977) and validation (1978-1987) performances were rated as satisfactory. The modeling results for the four RCP scenarios relative to the control scenario under the same land use configuration indicated an increase in discharge of 16.3% (RCP 2.6), 14.3% (RCP 4.5), 36.7% (RCP 6.0) and 71.4% (RCP 8.5) and an increase in the sediment yield of 16.5% (RCP 2.6), 32.4% (RCP 4.5), 81.8% (RCP 6.0) and 170% (RCP 8.5). This implies that the negative impact of climate change on sediment yield is generally greater than that on discharge. At the monthly scale, both discharge and sediment yield increased dramatically in April to June and August to September. A more vigorous hydrological cycle and an increase in high values of sediment yield are also expected. These changes in annual discharge and sediment yield were closely linked with changes in precipitation, whereas monthly changes in late spring and autumn were mainly related to temperature. This study highlights the possible adverse impact of climate change on discharge and sediment yield in the black soil region of northeastern China and could provide scientific basis for adaptive management.

  20. Final Report A Multi-Language Environment For Programmable Code Optimization and Empirical Tuning

    SciT

    Yi, Qing; Whaley, Richard Clint; Qasem, Apan

    This report summarizes our effort and results of building an integrated optimization environment to effectively combine the programmable control and the empirical tuning of source-to-source compiler optimizations within the framework of multiple existing languages, specifically C, C++, and Fortran. The environment contains two main components: the ROSE analysis engine, which is based on the ROSE C/C++/Fortran2003 source-to-source compiler developed by Co-PI Dr.Quinlan et. al at DOE/LLNL, and the POET transformation engine, which is based on an interpreted program transformation language developed by Dr. Yi at University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA). The ROSE analysis engine performs advanced compiler analysis,more » identifies profitable code transformations, and then produces output in POET, a language designed to provide programmable control of compiler optimizations to application developers and to support the parameterization of architecture-sensitive optimizations so that their configurations can be empirically tuned later. This POET output can then be ported to different machines together with the user application, where a POET-based search engine empirically reconfigures the parameterized optimizations until satisfactory performance is found. Computational specialists can write POET scripts to directly control the optimization of their code. Application developers can interact with ROSE to obtain optimization feedback as well as provide domain-specific knowledge and high-level optimization strategies. The optimization environment is expected to support different levels of automation and programmer intervention, from fully-automated tuning to semi-automated development and to manual programmable control.« less

  1. Characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine use for children with allergic rhinitis: a nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Yen, Hung-Rong; Liang, Kai-Li; Huang, Tzu-Ping; Fan, Ji-Yu; Chang, Tung-Ti; Sun, Mao-Feng

    2015-04-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a common allergic disorder in children, some of whom seek complementary treatments, including acupuncture and Chinese herbs. Little, however, is known about the treatment of pediatric AR with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). To characterize TCM use in pediatric AR, we conducted a nationwide population-based study. We screened one million randomly sampled beneficiaries of the National Health Insurance Program in Taiwan from 2002 to 2010 to identify children <18 years of age with newly diagnosed allergic rhinitis (ICD-9 code 477.9). The subjects were categorized according to their use of TCM. We identified 97,401 children newly diagnosed with AR for inclusion in the study. Among these children, 63.11% (N=61,472) had used TCM. There were significantly more TCM users than non-users among school-age children and adolescents (P<0.001). Most (99.1%) pediatric TCM users received Chinese herbal remedies (99.1%); only 0.9% received acupuncture or manipulative therapies. Xin-Yi-Qing-Fei-Tang (Magnolia Flower Lung-Clearing Decoction) was the most frequently prescribed TCM formulation (23.44%), and the most commonly prescribed single herb was Chan-Tui (Periostracum cicadae; 13.78%). Regarding syndrome differentiation (ZHENG) according to TCM theory, prescriptions for the Cold Syndrome exceeded those for the Hot Syndrome throughout the year in Taiwan. We found that approximately two-thirds of pediatric AR patients were prescribed TCM treatments in Taiwan. Further research is warranted to examine the efficacy and safety of TCM for pediatric AR patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Application of Social Characteristic and L1 Optimization in the Error Correction for Network Coding in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guangzhi; Cai, Shaobin; Xiong, Naixue

    2018-02-03

    One of the remarkable challenges about Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) is how to transfer the collected data efficiently due to energy limitation of sensor nodes. Network coding will increase network throughput of WSN dramatically due to the broadcast nature of WSN. However, the network coding usually propagates a single original error over the whole network. Due to the special property of error propagation in network coding, most of error correction methods cannot correct more than C /2 corrupted errors where C is the max flow min cut of the network. To maximize the effectiveness of network coding applied in WSN, a new error-correcting mechanism to confront the propagated error is urgently needed. Based on the social network characteristic inherent in WSN and L1 optimization, we propose a novel scheme which successfully corrects more than C /2 corrupted errors. What is more, even if the error occurs on all the links of the network, our scheme also can correct errors successfully. With introducing a secret channel and a specially designed matrix which can trap some errors, we improve John and Yi's model so that it can correct the propagated errors in network coding which usually pollute exactly 100% of the received messages. Taking advantage of the social characteristic inherent in WSN, we propose a new distributed approach that establishes reputation-based trust among sensor nodes in order to identify the informative upstream sensor nodes. With referred theory of social networks, the informative relay nodes are selected and marked with high trust value. The two methods of L1 optimization and utilizing social characteristic coordinate with each other, and can correct the propagated error whose fraction is even exactly 100% in WSN where network coding is performed. The effectiveness of the error correction scheme is validated through simulation experiments.

  3. Comparison of Tarim and central Asian FSU basins, I: Phanerozoic paleogeography

    SciT

    Heubeck, C.; Shangyou N.

    1996-01-01

    Large amounts of previously unpublished data on the petroleum geology of the FSU's Central Asian Republics and of China's Tarim region have found their way into the western public domain in the past few years. These data provide for the first time the opportunity to merge detailed stratigraphic, tectonic, and paleogeographic studies done during the past decades on both sides of the FSU-Chinese border and to place the results in a plate-tectonic and palinspastically restored reference frame. Major tectonic events affecting the active post-Silurian south-facing margin of Asia between the Caspian Sea and Tarim include (1) the collapse of themore » Kazakhstan arc fragments (ca. 400-300 Ma); (2) collision of YiIi with Tarim (ca. 375 Ma); (3) consolidation of the Turan Platform from pre-existing basement blocks (ca. 280-220 Ma), (4) collision of Tarim/Yili with the Kazakhstan arcs (ca. 260 Ma); (5) stabilization of a south-facing Triassic active margin (ca. 250 - 200 Ma); (6) accretion of Cimmeria (ca. 200 Ma) and associated reactivation events in Turan, Syr-Darja, and Tarim; (7) reactivation and modification of intracontinental structures during the collision of central Asia with India (ca. 55 Ma to present) and with the Arabian platform (ca. 25 Ma). Periodic large-scale flooding of denuded continental platforms (Turan, Tadjik) during sea-level highstands is recorded in the Jurassic, Mid-Late Cretaceous, and the Early Tertiary, resulting in extensive tracts of restricted marine sedimentary systems and marine incursions deep into central Asia (SW Tarim, Kuche Depression, Fergana, Turgay). Mesozoic-Cenozoic source rocks are sensitive to rapid lateral facies changes, and understanding their distribution requires detailed stratigraphic analysis. The attempted synthesis of data from China and the FSU with plate-tectonic concepts allows the transfer and testing of play concepts and hydrocarbons systems across the FSU-Chinese border.« less

  4. Comparison of Tarim and central Asian FSU basins, I: Phanerozoic paleogeography

    SciT

    Heubeck, C.; Shangyou N.

    1996-12-31

    Large amounts of previously unpublished data on the petroleum geology of the FSU`s Central Asian Republics and of China`s Tarim region have found their way into the western public domain in the past few years. These data provide for the first time the opportunity to merge detailed stratigraphic, tectonic, and paleogeographic studies done during the past decades on both sides of the FSU-Chinese border and to place the results in a plate-tectonic and palinspastically restored reference frame. Major tectonic events affecting the active post-Silurian south-facing margin of Asia between the Caspian Sea and Tarim include (1) the collapse of themore » Kazakhstan arc fragments (ca. 400-300 Ma); (2) collision of YiIi with Tarim (ca. 375 Ma); (3) consolidation of the Turan Platform from pre-existing basement blocks (ca. 280-220 Ma), (4) collision of Tarim/Yili with the Kazakhstan arcs (ca. 260 Ma); (5) stabilization of a south-facing Triassic active margin (ca. 250 - 200 Ma); (6) accretion of Cimmeria (ca. 200 Ma) and associated reactivation events in Turan, Syr-Darja, and Tarim; (7) reactivation and modification of intracontinental structures during the collision of central Asia with India (ca. 55 Ma to present) and with the Arabian platform (ca. 25 Ma). Periodic large-scale flooding of denuded continental platforms (Turan, Tadjik) during sea-level highstands is recorded in the Jurassic, Mid-Late Cretaceous, and the Early Tertiary, resulting in extensive tracts of restricted marine sedimentary systems and marine incursions deep into central Asia (SW Tarim, Kuche Depression, Fergana, Turgay). Mesozoic-Cenozoic source rocks are sensitive to rapid lateral facies changes, and understanding their distribution requires detailed stratigraphic analysis. The attempted synthesis of data from China and the FSU with plate-tectonic concepts allows the transfer and testing of play concepts and hydrocarbons systems across the FSU-Chinese border.« less

  5. Different physiological and photosynthetic responses of three cyanobacterial strains to light and zinc.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kui; Juneau, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Zinc pollution of freshwater aquatic ecosystems is a problem in many countries, although its specific effects on phytoplankton may be influenced by other environmental factors. Light intensity varies continuously under natural conditions depending on the cloud cover and the season, and the response mechanisms of cyanobacteria to high zinc stress under different light conditions are not yet well understood. We investigated the effects of high zinc concentrations on three cyanobacterial strains (Microcystis aeruginosa CPCC299, M. aeruginosa CPCC632, and Synechocystis sp. FACHB898) grown under two light regimes. Under high light condition (HL), the three cyanobacterial strains increased their Car/Chl a ratios and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), with CPCC299 showing the highest growth rate-suggesting a greater ability to adapt to those conditions as compared to the other two strains. Under high zinc concentrations the values of maximal (ФM) and operational (Ф'M) photosystem II quantum yields, photosystem I quantum yield [Y(I)], and NPQ decreased. The following order of sensitivity to high zinc was established for the three strains studied: CPCC299>CPCC632>FACHB898. These different sensitivities can be partly explained by the higher internal zinc content observed in CPCC299 as compared to the other two strains. HL increased cellular zinc content and therefore increased zinc toxicity in both M. aeruginosa strains, although to a greater extent in CPCC299 than in CPCC632. Car/Chl a ratios decreased with high zinc concentrations under HL only in CPCC299, but not under low light (LL) conditions for all the studied strains, suggesting that the three strains have different response mechanisms to high zinc stress when grown under different light regimes. We demonstrated that interactions between light intensity and zinc need to be considered when studying the bloom dynamics of cyanobacteria in freshwater ecosystems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of Photosystem I Donor and Acceptor Sides with a New Type of Online-Deconvoluting Kinetic LED-Array Spectrophotometer.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Ulrich; Klughammer, Christof

    2016-07-01

    The newly developed Dual/KLAS-NIR spectrophotometer, technical details of which were reported very recently, is used in measuring redox changes of P700, plastocyanin (PC) and ferredoxin (Fd) in intact leaves of Hedera helix, Taxus baccata and Brassica napus An overview of various light-/dark-induced changes of deconvoluted P700 + , PC + and Fd - signals is presented demonstrating the wealth of novel information and the consistency of the obtained results. Fd - changes are particularly large after dark adaptation. PC oxidation precedes P700 oxidation during dark-light induction and in steady-state light response curves. Fd reoxidation during induction correlates with the secondary decline of simultaneously measured fluorescence yield, both of which are eliminated by removal of O 2 By determination of 100% redox changes, relative contents of PC/P700 and Fd/P700 can be assessed, which show considerable variations between different leaves, with a trend to higher values in sun leaves. Based on deconvoluted P700 + signals, the complementary quantum yields of PSI, Y(I) (photochemical energy use), Y(ND) (non-photochemical loss due to oxidized primary donor) and Y(NA) (non-photochemical loss due to reduced acceptor) are determined as a function of light intensity and compared with the corresponding complementary quantum yields of PSII, Y(II) (photochemical energy use), Y(NPQ) (regulated non-photochemical loss) and Y(NO) (non-regulated non-photochemical loss). The ratio Y(I)/Y(II) increases with increasing intensities. In the low intensity range, a two-step increase of PC + is indicative of heterogeneous PC pools. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. [Preliminary processing, processing and usage of Dendrobii Caulis in history].

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen-yu; Tang, Sheng; Shi, Dong-jun; Chen, Xiang-gui; Li, Ming-yuan; Tang, Xian-fu; Yuan, Chang-jiang

    2015-07-01

    On account of the dense cuticles of the fresh stem and the light, hard and pliable texture of the dried stem, Dendrobii Caulis is difficult to dry or pulverize. So, it is very important to the ancient doctors that Dendrobii Caulis should be properly treated and applied to keep or evoke its medicinal effects. The current textual research results about the preliminary processing, processing and usage methods of Dendrobii Caulis showed that: (1) In history the clinical use of fresh or processed Dendrobii Caulis as teas and tinctures were very common. (2) Its roots and rhizomes would be removed before using. (3) Some ancillary approaches were applied to shorten drying times, such as rinsing with boiling mulberry-ash soup, washing or soaking with liquor, mixing with rice pulp and then basking, etc. (4) According to the ancients knowledge, the sufficient pulverization, by means of slicing, rasping, hitting or pestling techniques, was necessary for Dendrobii Caulis to take its effects. (5) The heat processing methods for Dendrobii Caulis included stir-baking, stir-frying, steaming, decocting and stewing techniques, usually with liquor as an auxiliary material. Among above mentioned, steaming by pretreating with liquor was most commonly used, and this scheme was colorfully drawn in Bu Yi Lei Gong Pao Zhi Bian Lan (Ming Dynasty, 1591 CE) ; moreover, decocting in advance or long-time simmering so as to prepare paste products were recommended in the Qing Dynasty. (6) Some different processing programs involving stir-baking with grit, air-tightly baking with ondol (Kangs), fumigating with sulfur, which appeared in modern times and brought attractive outward appearance of the drug, went against ancients original intentions of ensuring drug efficacy.

  8. Associations between prescribed Chinese herbal medicine and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic hepatitis B: a nationwide population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Tzung-Yi; Livneh, Hanoch; Hung, Tsung-Hsing; Lin, I -Hsin; Lu, Ming-Chi; Yeh, Chia-Chou

    2017-01-01

    Objective Patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) are reported to exhibit higher risk of subsequent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, it remains unclear if Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), an important category of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), may lower HCC risk in this population. So this study aimed to investigate the effects of CHM on HCC risk among patients with CHB. Methods This cohort study used the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database to identify 21 020 newly diagnosed patients with CHB from 1998 to 2007. Among them, 8640 received CHM products after CHB onset (CHM users), and the remaining 12 380 patients were designated as a control group (non-CHM users). All enrolees were followed until the end of 2012 to measure the incidence rate and HR of HCC. Results During 15 years of follow-up, 371 CHM users and 958 non-CHM users developed HCC, representing an incidence rate of 5.28% and 10.18% per 1000 person-years, respectively. CHM users had significantly lower HCC risk compared with non-CHM users (adjusted HR=0.63, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.72). The predominant effect was observed in those receiving CHM products for more than 180 days (adjusted HR=0.52). Some CHM products, such as Hedyotis diffusa, Scutellaria barbata, Rehmannia glutinosa, Isatis tinctoria, Yi Guan Jian, Xiao Chai Hu Tang, Wu Ling San and Gan Lu Yin, were significantly associated with lower risk of HCC. Conclusions The use of CHM was associated with a significantly reduced HCC risk in patients with CHB, which supports the integration of TCM with CHM into clinical practice to influence a favourable prognosis. PMID:28122837

  9. Associations between prescribed Chinese herbal medicine and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic hepatitis B: a nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tzung-Yi; Livneh, Hanoch; Hung, Tsung-Hsing; Lin, I-Hsin; Lu, Ming-Chi; Yeh, Chia-Chou

    2017-01-25

    Patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) are reported to exhibit higher risk of subsequent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, it remains unclear if Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), an important category of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), may lower HCC risk in this population. So this study aimed to investigate the effects of CHM on HCC risk among patients with CHB. This cohort study used the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database to identify 21 020 newly diagnosed patients with CHB from 1998 to 2007. Among them, 8640 received CHM products after CHB onset (CHM users), and the remaining 12 380 patients were designated as a control group (non-CHM users). All enrolees were followed until the end of 2012 to measure the incidence rate and HR of HCC. During 15 years of follow-up, 371 CHM users and 958 non-CHM users developed HCC, representing an incidence rate of 5.28% and 10.18% per 1000 person-years, respectively. CHM users had significantly lower HCC risk compared with non-CHM users (adjusted HR=0.63, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.72). The predominant effect was observed in those receiving CHM products for more than 180 days (adjusted HR=0.52). Some CHM products, such as Hedyotis diffusa, Scutellaria barbata, Rehmannia glutinosa, Isatis tinctoria, Yi Guan Jian, Xiao Chai Hu Tang, Wu Ling San and Gan Lu Yin, were significantly associated with lower risk of HCC. The use of CHM was associated with a significantly reduced HCC risk in patients with CHB, which supports the integration of TCM with CHM into clinical practice to influence a favourable prognosis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. An Effective Solution to Discover Synergistic Drugs for Anti-Cerebral Ischemia from Traditional Chinese Medicinal Formulae

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Peng; Chen, Chang; Fu, Meihong; Fang, Jing; Gao, Jian; Zhu, Li; Liang, Rixin; Shen, Xin; Yang, Hongjun

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the pharmaceutical industry has shifted to pursuing combination therapies that comprise more than one active ingredient. Interestingly, combination therapies have been used for more than 2500 years in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Understanding optimal proportions and synergistic mechanisms of multi-component drugs are critical for developing novel strategies to combat complex diseases. A new multi-objective optimization algorithm based on least angle regression-partial least squares was proposed to construct the predictive model to evaluate the synergistic effect of the three components of a novel combination drug Yi-qi-jie-du formula (YJ), which came from clinical TCM prescription for the treatment of encephalopathy. Optimal proportion of the three components, ginsenosides (G), berberine (B) and jasminoidin (J) was determined via particle swarm optimum. Furthermore, the combination mechanisms were interpreted using PLS VIP and principal components analysis. The results showed that YJ had optimal proportion 3(G): 2(B): 0.5(J), and it yielded synergy in the treatment of rats impaired by middle cerebral artery occlusion induced focal cerebral ischemia. YJ with optimal proportion had good pharmacological effects on acute ischemic stroke. The mechanisms study demonstrated that the combination of G, B and J could exhibit the strongest synergistic effect. J might play an indispensable role in the formula, especially when combined with B for the acute stage of stroke. All these data in this study suggested that in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke, besides restoring blood supply and protecting easily damaged cells in the area of the ischemic penumbra as early as possible, we should pay more attention to the removal of the toxic metabolites at the same time. Mathematical system modeling may be an essential tool for the analysis of the complex pharmacological effects of multi-component drug. The powerful mathematical analysis method could greatly

  11. Development of a High Precision Displacement Measurement System by Fusing a Low Cost RTK-GPS Sensor and a Force Feedback Accelerometer for Infrastructure Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Koo, Gunhee; Kim, Kiyoung; Chung, Jun Yeon; Choi, Jaemook; Kwon, Nam-Yeol; Kang, Doo-Young; Sohn, Hoon

    2017-11-28

    A displacement measurement system fusing a low cost real-time kinematic global positioning system (RTK-GPS) receiver and a force feedback accelerometer is proposed for infrastructure monitoring. The proposed system is composed of a sensor module, a base module and a computation module. The sensor module consists of a RTK-GPS rover and a force feedback accelerometer, and is installed on a target structure like conventional RTK-GPS sensors. The base module is placed on a rigid ground away from the target structure similar to conventional RTK-GPS bases, and transmits observation messages to the sensor module. Then, the initial acceleration, velocity and displacement responses measured by the sensor module are transmitted to the computation module located at a central monitoring facility. Finally, high precision and high sampling rate displacement, velocity, and acceleration are estimated by fusing the acceleration from the accelerometer, the velocity from the GPS rover, and the displacement from RTK-GPS. Note that the proposed displacement measurement system can measure 3-axis acceleration, velocity as well as displacement in real time. In terms of displacement, the proposed measurement system can estimate dynamic and pseudo-static displacement with a root-mean-square error of 2 mm and a sampling rate of up to 100 Hz. The performance of the proposed system is validated under sinusoidal, random and steady-state vibrations. Field tests were performed on the Yeongjong Grand Bridge and Yi Sun-sin Bridge in Korea, and the Xihoumen Bridge in China to compare the performance of the proposed system with a commercial RTK-GPS sensor and other data fusion techniques.

  12. A study on making a Honsang using the star catalogue from 『Seong Gyeong』

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, Seon Young; Kim, Sang Hyuk; Lee, Yong Sam

    2016-01-01

    The first record of Honsang (Celestial globe) was found in 『Sejong Sillok』 in Korea. Since then, there were records that Honsang was restored during the reign of King Jungjong and King Myungjong, and then restored again in the reign of King Seonjo. The only existing Honsang was made by Yi Hwang (1501-1570) in the 16th century for education of his followers. After then, Hong Dae Yong's (1731-1783) Honsangui, which was made in 18th century, had been passed down only through the literature. The constellations in Honsang and the scale system of each ring changed after 17th century when Western science began to affect Joseon dynasty. Since that time, the constellations, realized on Honsang globe, changed from constellations in the old method to ones in the new method. Furthermore, the scale system of rings on Honsang was changed from 365.25 Do, Jucheondo (Celestial globe circumference), to 360°. In this study, Honsang with constellations in the new method was made using star catalogue from 『Seong Gyeong』 published in 1861, which represented the constellations in the new method of Joseon dynasty. In order to realized the constellations from the star catalogue in 『Seong Gyeong』 on Honsang globe, the plane star chart and circular star chart of the area near the South and North Poles were drawn using spherical trigonometry. Using these star charts, the constellations in whole sky including stars near the South Pole were realized on Honsang globe. Also, equatorial coordinates and ecliptic coordinates were realized on Honsang globe simultaneously, and scales of Honsang's rings were marked as 360°.

  13. Measurements comparison of oxygenated volatile organic compounds at a rural site during the 1995 SOS Nashville Intensive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apel, E. C.; Calvert, J. G.; Riemer, D.; Pos, W.; Zika, R.; Kleindienst, T. E.; Lonneman, W. A.; Fung, K.; Fujita, E.; Shepson, P. B.; Starn, T. K.; Roberts, P. T.

    1998-09-01

    Simultaneous measurements of oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) by four independent research groups at the Youth Incorporated (YI) site during the 1995 Southern Oxidants Study Nashville Intensive, between July 4 and 30, 1995, provided a unique opportunity to compare results from different techniques. 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) coated C18 (C18AtmAA) and Si-Gel (Si-GelMTE) cartridges were compared with each other and with two sorbent-based preconcentration gas chromatographic (GC) techniques coupled with mass spectrometric (MS) detection (GC/MSUM and GC/MSPU) or flame ionization detection GC/FIDUM· The experiment consisted of both a laboratory (part A) and an ambient air comparison (part B). In part A of the study, standard mixtures of OVOCs were diluted in a flowing gas stream of humidified, purified air, both with and without addition of O3, and distributed to participant's instrumentation. Concentrations were compared with the expected values based on known cylinder concentrations and dilution factors. In part B of the study, the instruments sampled ambient air from a common glass manifold. Species intercompared were formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, and propanal. The C18AtmAA data were typically higher than the Si-GelMTE data for the four intercompared compounds, and possible explanations are given. Agreement between the cartridge systems and the GC/MS, GC/FID systems for comeasured compounds was poorer than expected but improved towards the end of the experiment. The GC/MS systems tracked each other well for acetone, but there were differences in the absolute concentration values. These results show that improvements in the accuracy and comparability of techniques should be of high priority.

  14. Generation and validation of oxygenated volatile organic carbon standards for the 1995 Southern Oxidants Study Nashville Intensive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apel, E. C.; Calvert, J. G.; Greenberg, J. P.; Riemer, D.; Zika, R.; Kleindienst, T. E.; Lonneman, W. A.; Fung, K.; Fujita, E.

    1998-09-01

    Two volatile organic compound (VOC) mixtures were made available and utilized for the calibration of instruments and intercomparison exercises at the Youth, Inc. (YI) site during the Southern Oxidants Study Nashville Intensive. Cylinder 1, made by Scott-Marrin, Inc., contained 14 components (3 nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and 11 oxygen-containing VOCs (OVOCs)) and is referred to as OVOCl. Cylinder 2, made at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), contained 4 components (one NMHC and three OVOCs) and is referred to as OVOC2. The mixtures were not prepared by either laboratory as primary standards but significant effort was applied to validate their concentrations by several different laboratories using several different techniques. The mixtures were prepared in high-pressure cylinders in the parts per million by volume (ppmv) range using calibrated syringe methods. Gas Chromatographic (GC) and 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) cartridge/high-pressure liquid Chromatographic (HPLC) systems were utilized in the calibration of the cylinders. GC detectors included the flame ionization detector (FID) and atomic emission detector (AED). Results obtained with the GC/FID systems for OVOCs were adjusted in terms of the effective carbon number (ECN), obtained from literature values, to correct for the reduced response of the FID for compounds containing oxygen, relative to compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen. Cylinder concentrations were derived and compared based on the ECN-adjusted FID results, the AED results, and the DNPH cartridge results. The various methods employed agreed to within approximately 15%. Both cylinders were stable (±4%) over a period of 2 years.

  15. Workplace violence against nurses in Chinese hospitals: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Mingli; Ning, Ning; Li, Ye; Gao, Lijun; Cui, Yu; Sun, Hong; Kang, Zheng; Liang, Libo; Wu, Qunhong; Hao, Yanhua

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence of workplace violence that Chinese nurses have encountered, identify risk factors and provide a basis for future targeted interventions. Setting Heilongjiang, a province in northeast China. Methods A cross-sectional survey. Participants A total of 588 nurses provided data. There were also in-depth interviews with 12 nurses, 7 hospital administrators and 6 health officials. Results A total of 7.8% of the nurses reported physically violent experiences and 71.9% reported non-physically violent experiences in the preceding year. Perpetrators were patients or their relatives (93.5% and 82%, respectively), and 24% of nurses experienced non-physical violence that involved Yi Nao (gangs specifically targeting hospitals). Inexperienced nurses were more likely to report physical (13.2%) or non-physical (89.5%) violence compared with experienced nurses. Graduate-level nurses were more likely to perceive and report non-physical violence (84.6%). Nurses who worked rotating shifts were 3.668 times (95% CI 1.275 to 10.554) more likely to experience physical violence, and 1.771 times (95% CI 1.123 to 2.792) more likely to experience non-physical violence compared with nurses who worked fixed day shifts. Higher anxiety levels about workplace violence and work types were associated with violence. Interviewees perceived financial burdens, unsatisfactory treatment outcomes and miscommunications as influencing factors for workplace violence. Conclusions Preplacement education should focus on high-risk groups to reduce workplace violence. Increased awareness from the public and policymakers is necessary to develop effective control strategies at individual, hospital and national levels. PMID:25814496

  16. SciT

    Pern, F.J.; Eisgruber, I.L.; Micheels, R.H.

    The effects of ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) discoloration due to accelerated field or laboratory exposure on the encapsulated silicon (Si) solar cells or EVA/glass laminates were characterized quantitatively by using non-invasive, non-destructive ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometry, spectrocolorimetry, spectrofluorometry, scanning laser OBIC (optical beam induced current) spectroscopy, and current-voltage (I-V) and quantum efficiency (QE) measurements. The results show that the yellowness index (YI) measured directly over the AR-coated solar cells under the glass superstrate increased from the range of {minus}80 to {minus}90 to the range of {minus}20 to 15 as the EVA changed from clear to brown. The ratio of two fluorescence emissionmore » peak areas generally increased from 1.45 to 5.69 as browning increased, but dropped to 4.21 on a darker EVA. For a solar cell with brown EVA in the central region, small-area grating QE measurements and scanning laser OBIC analysis between the brown and clear EVA regions showed that the quantum efficiency loss at 633 nm was 42%--48% of the loss at 488 nm, due to a reduced decrease of transmittance in browned EVA at the longer wavelengths. The portion of the solar cell under the browned EVA showed a decrease of {approximately}36% in efficiency, as compared to the cell efficiency under clear EVA. Transmittance loss at 633 nm was 38% of the loss at 488 nm for a light yellow-brown EVA/glass laminate that showed a small increase of 10 in the yellowness index.« less

  17. SciT

    Pern, F.J.; Eisgruber, I.L.; Micheels, R.H.

    The effects of ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) discoloration due to accelerated field or laboratory exposure on the encapsulated silicon (Si) solar cells or EVA/glass laminates were characterized quantitatively by using non-invasive, non-destructive ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometry, spectrocolorimetry, spectrofluorometry, scanning laser OBIC (optical beam induced current) spectroscopy, and current-voltage (I-V) and quantum efficiency (QE) measurements. The results show that the yellowness index (YI) measured directly over the AR-coated solar cells under the glass superstrate increased from the range of -80 to -90 to the range of -20 to 15 as the EVA changed from clear to brown. The ratio of two fluorescence emissionmore » peak areas generally increased from 1.45 to 5.69 as browning increased, but dropped to 4.21 on a darker EVA. For a solar cell with brown EVA in the central region, small-area grating QE measurements and scanning laser OBIC analysis between the brown and clear EVA regions showed that the quantum efficiency loss at 633 nm was 42%-48% of the loss at 488 nm, due to a reduced decrease of transmittance in browned EVA at the longer wavelengths. The portion of the solar cell under the browned EVA showed a decrease of {approximately}36% in efficiency, as compared to the cell efficiency under clear EVA. Transmittance loss at 633 nm was 38% of the loss at 488 nm for a light yellow-brown EVA/glass laminate that showed a small increase of 10 in the yellowness index.« less

  18. A hazard rate analysis of fertility using duration data from Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chang, C

    1988-01-01

    Data from the Malaysia Fertility and Family Planning Survey (MFLS) of 1974 were used to investigate the effects of biological and socioeconomic variables on fertility based on the hazard rate model. Another study objective was to investigate the robustness of the findings of Trussell et al. (1985) by comparing the findings of this study with theirs. The hazard rate of conception for the jth fecundable spell of the ith woman, hij, is determined by duration dependence, tij, measured by the waiting time to conception; unmeasured heterogeneity (HETi; the time-invariant variables, Yi (race, cohort, education, age at marriage); and time-varying variables, Xij (age, parity, opportunity cost, income, child mortality, child sex composition). In this study, all the time-varying variables were constant over a spell. An asymptotic X2 test for the equality of constant hazard rates across birth orders, allowing time-invariant variables and heterogeneity, showed the importance of time-varying variables and duration dependence. Under the assumption of fixed effects heterogeneity and the Weibull distribution for the duration of waiting time to conception, the empirical results revealed a negative parity effect, a negative impact from male children, and a positive effect from child mortality on the hazard rate of conception. The estimates of step functions for the hazard rate of conception showed parity-dependent fertility control, evidence of heterogeneity, and the possibility of nonmonotonic duration dependence. In a hazard rate model with piecewise-linear-segment duration dependence, the socioeconomic variables such as cohort, child mortality, income, and race had significant effects, after controlling for the length of the preceding birth. The duration dependence was consistant with the common finding, i.e., first increasing and then decreasing at a slow rate. The effects of education and opportunity cost on fertility were insignificant.

  19. Characterization of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles from a Mining City in Southwest China Using Electron Probe microanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, X.; Huang, Y.; Lu, H., III; Liu, Z., IV; Wang, N. V.

    2015-12-01

    Xin Cheng1, Yi Huang1*, Huilin Lu2, Zaidong Liu2, Ningming Wang21 Key Laboratory of Geological Nuclear Technology of Sichuan Province, College of Earth Science, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu 610059, China. ; E-mail:chengxin_cdut@163.com 2 College of Earth Science, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu 610059, China. ; *Corresponding author: E-mail: huangyi@cdut.cn Panzhihua is a mining city located at Pan-Xi Rift valley, southwest China. It has a long industrial history of vanadium-titanium magnetite mining, iron and steel smelting, and coal-fired power plants. Atomospheric environment has been seriously contaminated with airborne paticles, which is threatening human health.The harmful effects of aerosols are dependent on certain characteristics such as microphysical properties. However, few studsies have been carried out on morphological information contained on single atmospheric particles in this area. In this study, we provide a detailed morphologically and chemically characterization of airborne particles collected at Panzhihua city in October, 2014, using a quantitative single particle analysis based on EPXMA. The results indicate that based on their chemical composition, five major types of particles were identified. Among these, aluminosilicate particles have typical spherical shapes and are produced during the high-temperature combustion; Fe-containing particles contains high level of Mn, and more likely originated from mineralogical and steel industry; Si-containing particles can originate from mineralogical source; V-Ti-Mn-containing particles are also produced by steel industry; Ca-containing particles,these particles are CaCO3, mainly from the mining of limestone mine. The results help us on tracing and partitioning different sources of atomospheric particles in the industrial area. Fig.1 Fe-rich shperical particles

  20. Radiation Environment at GEO from the FY2G Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.

    2016-12-01

    WANG Chun-Qin1,2*, Zhang Shen-Yi1,2 Jing Tao1,2, Zhang Huan-Xin1,2 Li Jia-Wei3 Zhang Xiao-Xin3 Sun Yue-Qiang1,2 Liang Jin-Bao1,2 Wei Fei1,2 Shen Guo-Hong1,2 Huang Cong3 Shi Chun-Yan1,21.National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China; 2.Beijing Key Laboratory of Space Environment Exploration, Beijing 100190,China 3.National Satellite Meteorological Center, National Center for Space Weather, Beijing 100081, China; Abstract Recent measurements of the high energy electrons and protons with energetic particle instrument carried on the FY-2G satellite are presented. The instrument consist of two detectors-the high energy electrons instrument which can measure 200keV to greater than 4MeV electrons with eleven channels, and the high energy protons and heavy ions instrument which mainly senses incident flux of solar protons with seven channels from 4MeV to 300 MeV. The paper shows electrons and protons observations from Jan 2015 until Oct 2015. A precise description and preliminary analysis of particle dynamic during disturbances of magnetic storms、substorms and solar eruptions suggest that both of the detectors show accurate response to various disturbances and provide refined particles data. Comparison results of FY2G satellite with GOES series satellites reflect obvious local difference in particle flux evolvement especially during intensive disturbances time, which can be helpful for data assimilation of multi-satellite as well as further research in more complicated magnetosphere energy particle dynamic.

  1. Antiproliferative effect of methanolic extraction of tualang honey on human keloid fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Keloid is a type of scar which extends beyond the boundaries of the original wound. It can spread to the surrounding skin by invasion. The use of Tualang honey is a possible approach for keloid treatment. The objective of this study was to determine the antiproliferative effect of methanolic extraction of Tualang honey to primary human keloid fibroblasts and to identify the volatile compounds in methanol extraction of Tualang honey. Methods Crude Tualang honey was extracted with methanol and then dried using rota vapor to remove remaining methanol from honey. Normal and keloid fibroblasts were verified and treated with the extracted honey. Cell proliferation was tested with [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yi)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt] (MTS) assay. Extraction of Tualang honey using methanol was carried out and the extracted samples were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The result was analysed using SPSS and tested with Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Results Methanolic extraction of honey has positive anti proliferative effect on keloid fibroblasts in a dose-dependent manner. The presence of fatty acids such as palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and octadecanoic acid may contribute to the anti-proliferative effect in keloid fibroblasts. Conclusions The methanolic honey extraction has an antiproliferative effect on keloid fibroblasts and a range of volatile compounds has been identified from Tualang honey. The antiproliferative effect of keloid fibroblasts towards Tualang honey may involve cell signaling pathway. Identifying other volatile compounds from different organic solvents should be carried out in future. PMID:21943200

  2. β-Boomerang Antimicrobial and Antiendotoxic Peptides: Lipidation and Disulfide Bond Effects on Activity and Structure.

    PubMed

    Mohanram, Harini; Bhattacharjya, Surajit

    2014-04-21

    Drug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial pathogens and endotoxin- or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated inflammations are among some of the most  prominent health issues globally. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are eminent molecules that can kill drug-resistant strains and neutralize LPS toxicity. LPS, the outer layer of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria safeguards cell integrity against hydrophobic compounds, including antibiotics and AMPs. Apart from maintaining structural integrity, LPS, when released into the blood stream, also induces inflammatory pathways leading to septic shock. In previous works, we have reported the de novo design of a set of 12-amino acid long cationic/hydrophobic peptides for LPS binding and activity. These peptides adopt β-boomerang like conformations in complex with LPS. Structure-activity studies demonstrated some critical features of the β-boomerang scaffold that may be utilized for the further development of potent analogs. In this work, β-boomerang lipopeptides were designed and structure-activity correlation studies were carried out. These lipopeptides were homo-dimerized through a disulfide bridge to stabilize conformations and for improved activity. The designed peptides exhibited potent antibacterial activity and efficiently neutralized LPS toxicity under in vitro assays. NMR structure of C4YI13C in aqueous solution demonstrated the conserved folding of the lipopeptide with a boomerang aromatic lock stabilized with disulfide bond at the C-terminus and acylation at the N-terminus. These lipo-peptides displaying bacterial sterilization and low hemolytic activity may be useful for future applications as antimicrobial and antiendotoxin molecules.

  3. β-Boomerang Antimicrobial and Antiendotoxic Peptides: Lipidation and Disulfide Bond Effects on Activity and Structure

    PubMed Central

    Mohanram, Harini; Bhattacharjya, Surajit

    2014-01-01

    Drug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial pathogens and endotoxin- or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated inflammations are among some of the most prominent health issues globally. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are eminent molecules that can kill drug-resistant strains and neutralize LPS toxicity. LPS, the outer layer of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria safeguards cell integrity against hydrophobic compounds, including antibiotics and AMPs. Apart from maintaining structural integrity, LPS, when released into the blood stream, also induces inflammatory pathways leading to septic shock. In previous works, we have reported the de novo design of a set of 12-amino acid long cationic/hydrophobic peptides for LPS binding and activity. These peptides adopt β-boomerang like conformations in complex with LPS. Structure-activity studies demonstrated some critical features of the β-boomerang scaffold that may be utilized for the further development of potent analogs. In this work, β-boomerang lipopeptides were designed and structure-activity correlation studies were carried out. These lipopeptides were homo-dimerized through a disulfide bridge to stabilize conformations and for improved activity. The designed peptides exhibited potent antibacterial activity and efficiently neutralized LPS toxicity under in vitro assays. NMR structure of C4YI13C in aqueous solution demonstrated the conserved folding of the lipopeptide with a boomerang aromatic lock stabilized with disulfide bond at the C-terminus and acylation at the N-terminus. These lipo-peptides displaying bacterial sterilization and low hemolytic activity may be useful for future applications as antimicrobial and antiendotoxin molecules. PMID:24756162

  4. The traditional Chinese medicine prescription patterns for migraine patients in Taiwan: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Yun; Tsai, Yueh-Ting; Lai, Jung-Nien; Yeh, Chia-Hao; Lin, Shun-Ku

    2014-02-12

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), when given for symptom relief, has gained widespread popularity among migraine patients. The aim of this study is to analyze the utilization of TCM among migraine patients in Taiwan. The usage, frequency of service, and the Chinese herbal products prescribed for migraine were evaluated using a representative sample of one million subjects selected at random from the 22 million beneficiaries of the National Health Insurance scheme of Taiwan. Overall, 89.3% (N=12,827) migraine patients utilized TCM and 24.2% of them sought TCM with the intention of treating their migraine-related symptoms. Migraine patients who are living in urban area and those with an episodic migraine pattern (<15 days/month) (aOR=3.18, 95% CI: 2.75-3.67) were more likely to be TCM users than those living in a rural area and those who suffered from chronic migraine (≥15 days/month) (aOR=1.00). Overall, 81.2% of TCM visits involved the prescription of a Chinese herbal remedy or remedies and Chuan-Xiong-Cha-Tiao-San, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San, Ge-Gen-Tang, Xue-Fu-Zhu-Yu-Tang, Ban-Xia-Bai-Zhu-Tian-Ma-Tang, Qing-Shang-Juan-Tong-Tang, Xiao-Chai-Hu-Tang, Tian-Ma-Gou-Teng-Yin, Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang, and Tian-Wang-Bu-Xin-Dan were the ten most frequently prescribed formula for treating migraine based on syndrome differentiation. Chuan-Xiong-Cha-Tiao-San, which contains sedative and anti-inflammatory agents, is the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula for the treatment of migraine-related phenomena. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prescription patterns of Chinese herbal products for post-surgery colon cancer patients in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chao, Te-Hsin; Fu, Pin-Kuei; Chang, Chiung-Hung; Chang, Shih-Ni; Chiahung Mao, Frank; Lin, Ching-Heng

    2014-08-08

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is commonly provided to cancer patients, however, the patterns of prescriptions for this type of medicine in Taiwan are unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the use of traditional Chinese medicine products in colon cancer patients post-surgery in Taiwan and to research patterns of TCM. This was a cross-sectional study of newly diagnosed colon cancer patients who received surgery between 2004 and 2008 identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. The prescription patterns and reasons for the use of TCM for colon cancer were analyzed. The results showed that "symptoms, signs and ill-defined conditions" (23.3%) and diseases of the digestive system (16.9%) were the most common reasons for using Chinese herbal medicine. Xiang-sha-liu-jun-zi-tang (7.1%), Bu-zhong-yi-qi-tang (4.3%), Jia-wei-xiao-yao-san (4.1%), Shen-Ling-Bai-Zhu-San (3.7%), Ban-Xia-Xie-Xin-Tang (3.4%), Gui-pi-tang (2.4%), Ping-Wei-San (2.4%), Gan-Lu-Yin (2.0%), Bao-He-Wan (1.9%), and Zhen-Ren-Huo-Ming-Yin (1.8%) were the most commonly prescribed single Chinese herbal formulae (CHF) for colon cancer patients post-surgery. Hedyotis diffusa Willd (Bai Hua She She Cao) (5.1%) and Scutellaria barbata (Ban Zhi Lian )(4.8%) were the most commonly prescribed single Chinese herbs. This study identified patterns of TCM use in colon cancer patients post-surgery in Taiwan. The herbal ingredients were most commonly used for stimulate ghrelin secretion to increase food intake and had potential anti-tumor effect. However, further research is required to evaluate any beneficial effects which could identify leads for the development of new treatment strategies using TCM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Green tea extract as an anti-browning agent for cloudy apple juice.

    PubMed

    Klimczak, Inga; Gliszczyńska-Świgło, Anna

    2017-03-01

    Enzymatic browning of fruits and vegetables and their products is an important factor worsening their quality. The influence of five green tea extracts at the concentrations of 1 g L -1 , 2 g L -1 and 3 g L -1 on polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in fresh cloudy apple juice was investigated. Moreover, PPO inhibition by tea extract and colour stability of juice during short-time refrigerated storage was studied. The changes of juice colour during storage was expressed as the total colour differences (ΔE*), browning index (BI), yellowness index (YI), and the absorbance at 420 nm (A 420 ). All extracts inhibited PPO activity in fresh apple juice in concentration-dependent manner. PPO activity in pure apple juice decreased by 7% after 48 h, whereas PPO activity in samples with 1 g L -1 , 2 g L -1 and 3 g L -1 tea extract decreased by 53%, 74%, and 96%, respectively. Browning of apple juice during storage decreased with increased concentration of green tea extract. After 48 h, extract at 1 g L -1 , 2 g L -1 and 3 g L -1 inhibited browning of juice expressed as BI by 48%, 60%, and 86%, respectively, comparing to pure apple juice. Green tea extract may be an effective anti-browning agent for short-time stored cloudy apple juices. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Evidence-based guideline: treatment of tardive syndromes: report of the Guideline Development Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology.

    PubMed

    Bhidayasiri, Roongroj; Fahn, Stanley; Weiner, William J; Gronseth, Gary S; Sullivan, Kelly L; Zesiewicz, Theresa A

    2013-07-30

    To make evidence-based recommendations regarding management of tardive syndromes (TDS), including tardive dyskinesias (TDD), by addressing 5 questions: 1) Is withdrawal of dopamine receptor blocking agents (DRBAs) an effective TDS treatment? 2) Does switching from typical to atypical DRBAs reduce TDS symptoms? 3) What is the efficacy of pharmacologic agents in treating TDS? 4) Do patients with TDS benefit from chemodenervation with botulinum toxin? 5) Do patients with TDS benefit from surgical therapy? PsycINFO, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane were searched (1966-2011). Articles were classified according to a 4-tiered evidence-rating scheme; recommendations were tied to the evidence. Clonazepam probably improves TDD and ginkgo biloba probably improves TDS (both Level B); both should be considered as treatment. Risperidone may improve TDS but cannot be recommended as treatment because neuroleptics may cause TDS despite masking symptoms. Amantadine and tetrabenazine might be considered as TDS treatment (Level C). Diltiazem should not be considered as TDD treatment (Level B); galantamine and eicosapentaenoic acid may not be considered as treatment (Level C). Data are insufficient to support or refute use of acetazolamide, bromocriptine, thiamine, baclofen, vitamin E, vitamin B6, selegiline, clozapine, olanzapine, melatonin, nifedipine, fluperlapine, sulpiride, flupenthixol, thiopropazate, haloperidol, levetiracetam, quetiapine, ziprasidone, sertindole, aripiprazole, buspirone, yi-gan san, biperiden discontinuation, botulinum toxin type A, electroconvulsive therapy, α-methyldopa, reserpine, and pallidal deep brain stimulation as TDS treatments (Level U). Data are insufficient to support or refute TDS treatment by withdrawing causative agents or switching from typical to atypical DRBA (Level U).

  8. A critical role for macrophages in neovessel formation and the development of stenosis in tissue-engineered vascular grafts

    PubMed Central

    Hibino, Narutoshi; Yi, Tai; Duncan, Daniel R.; Rathore, Animesh; Dean, Ethan; Naito, Yuji; Dardik, Alan; Kyriakides, Themis; Madri, Joseph; Pober, Jordan S.; Shinoka, Toshiharu; Breuer, Christopher K.

    2011-01-01

    The primary graft-related complication during the first clinical trial evaluating the use of tissue-engineered vascular grafts (TEVGs) was stenosis. We investigated the role of macrophages in the formation of TEVG stenosis in a murine model. We analyzed the natural history of TEVG macrophage infiltration at critical time points and evaluated the role of cell seeding on neovessel formation. To assess the function of infiltrating macrophages, we implanted TEVGs into mice that had been macrophage depleted using clodronate liposomes. To confirm this, we used a CD11b-diphtheria toxin-receptor (DTR) transgenic mouse model. Monocytes infiltrated the scaffold within the first few days and initially transformed into M1 macrophages. As the scaffold degraded, the macrophage infiltrate disappeared. Cell seeding decreased the incidence of stenosis (32% seeded, 64% unseeded, P=0.024) and the degree of macrophage infiltration at 2 wk. Unseeded TEVGs demonstrated conversion from M1 to M2 phenotype, whereas seeded grafts did not. Clodronate and DTR inhibited macrophage infiltration and decreased stenosis but blocked formation of vascular neotissue, evidenced by the absence of endothelial and smooth muscle cells and collagen. These findings suggest that macrophage infiltration is critical for neovessel formation and provides a strategy for predicting, detecting, and inhibiting stenosis in TEVGs.—Hibino, N., Yi, T., Duncan, D. R., Rathore, A., Dean, E., Naito, Y., Dardik, A., Kyriakides, T., Madri, J., Pober, J. S., Shinoka, T., Breuer, C. K. A critical role for macrophages in neovessel formation and the development of stenosis in tissue-engineered vascular grafts. PMID:21865316

  9. Genetic differentiation and forensic efficiency evaluation for Chinese Salar ethnic minority based on a 5-dye multiplex insertion and deletion panel.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ruilin; Shen, Chunmei; Wei, Yuanyuan; Jin, Xiaoye; Guo, Yuxin; Mu, Yuling; Sun, Siqi; Chen, Chong; Cui, Wei; Wei, Zhaoming; Lian, Zhenmin

    2018-06-20

    The present study investigated the genetic diversities of 30 autosomal insertion and deletion (InDel) loci of Investigator DIPplex kit (Qiagen) in Chinese Salar ethnic minority and explored the genetic relationships between the studied Salar group and other populations. The allelic frequencies of deletion alleles at the 30 InDel loci were in the range of 0.1739 (HLD64) to 0.8478 (HLD39). The discrimination power, polymorphism information content and probability of exclusion ranged from 0.4101 (HLD39) to 0.6447 (HLD136), 0.2247 (HLD39) to 0.3750 (HLD92) and 0.0400 (HLD39) to 0.2806 (HLD92), respectively. The observed and expected heterozygosity were in the range of 0.2348 (HLD39) to 0.5913 (HLD92), and 0.2580 (HLD39) to 0.5000 (HLD92), respectively. The cumulative discrimination power and probability of exclusion of the 30 loci reached 0.999999999993418 and 0.99039, respectively. The results of population genetic differentiation comparisons revealed that Salar group had similar allele distributions with Qinghai Tibetan, Xibe and Yi groups. Population Bayesian cluster analysis showed that there were similar ancestry components between Salar group and most Chinese populations. Besides, the principal components analysis and phylogenetic reconstructions further indicated that Salar group had intimate genetic relationships with Qinghai Tibetan and Xibe groups. In short, the results of the current studies indicated the genetic distributions of the 30 InDel loci in Salar group were relatively high genetic polymorphisms, which could be used in forensic individual identifications and as a supplementary tool for complex paternity testing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of I-ching (Yijing, or The Book Of Changes) on Chinese medicine, philosophy and science.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dominic P

    2013-01-01

    I-Ching or Yi-Jing ([see text] also known as The Book of Changes) is the earliest classic in China. It simply explained the formation of the universe and the relationship of man to the universe. Most, if not all, branches of various knowledge, including traditional Chinese medicine, can be traced back its origin to this Book in which Fu Shi ([see text] 2852 B.C.) theorized how the universe was formed, through his keen observation of environment and orbits of sun, moon and stars. He used symbols to represent his views. The essence of I-Ching is basically the expression and function of Yang symbolized as "--" (from <---->) and Yin symbolized "- -" (from --><--), and [see text] Yin and Yang as interaction and circulation of Yang and Yin. Both Yin and Yang were derived from the same origin, Tai-Chi. Fu Shi believed Yin and Yang were the two opposite background force and energy that make the universe as what it is. Yang and Yin manifest in great variety of phenomena such as mind and body, masculine and feminine, sun and moon, hot and cold, heaven and earth, positive and negative electricity etc. The entire theory of Chinese medicine is based on the theories of Yin and Yang as well as that of 5 Element Cycles which are also related to the orderly arrangement of 8 trigrams ([see text]) by King Wen ([see text]1099-1050 B.C.). The 5 Elements Theory explains the "check and balance" mechanism created by the background force of Yin and Yang Qi and illustrated the relationships that are either strengthened or weakened by "acting and controlling" among the 5 elements. I-Ching has exerted profound influences on some well- known European philosophers and scientists, notably Leibnitz and Hegel. Between I-Ching and modern cosmology and the physics of sub-atomic particles, there are some basic theories in common.

  11. Time Frequency Analysis of The Land Subsidence Monitored Data with Exploration Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shang-Wei

    2014-05-01

    Taiwan geographic patterns and various industry water, caused Zhuoshui River Fan groundwater extraction of excess leads to land subsidence, affect the safety of high-speed railway traffic and public construction. It is necessary to do the deeply research on the reason and behavior of subsidence. All the related element will be confer including the water extracted groundwater that be used on each industry or the impact of climate change rainfall and the ground formation characteristics. Conducted a series of in situ measurements and monitoring data with Hilbert Huang Transform. Discussion of subsidence mechanism and estimate the future high-speed rail traffic may affect the extent of providing for future reference remediation. We investigate and experiment on the characteristic of land subsidence in Yun Lin area. The Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) and signal normalized are be used to discuss the physical meanings and interactions among the time series data of settlement, groundwater, pumping, rainfall and micro-tremor of ground. The broadband seismic signals of the Broadband Array in Taiwan for Seismology, (BATS) obtained near the Zhuoshui River (WLGB in Chia Yi, WGKB in Yun Lin and RLNB in Zhang Hua) were analyzed by using HHT and empirical mode decomposition (EMD) to discuss the micro-tremor characteristics of the settled ground. To compare among ten years series data of micro-tremor, groundwater and land subsidence monitoring wells, we can get more information about land subsidence. The electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) were performed to correlate the resistivity profile and borehole logging data at the test area. The relationships among resistivity, groundwater variation, and ground subsidence obtained from the test area have been discussed. Active and passive multichannel analysis of surface waves method (MASW) can calculate Poisson's ratio by using shear velocity and pressure velocity. The groundwater level can be presumed when Poisson's ratio arrive 0

  12. The role of ice particles in the microphysics and dynamics of deep convective storms in various latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y. C.; Wang, P. K.

    2017-12-01

    The role of ice particles in the microphysics and dynamics of deep convective storms in various latitudes Yi-Chih Huang and Pao K. Wang Ice particles contribute to the microphysics and dynamics of severe storms in various regions of the world to a degree that is not commonly recognized. This study is motivated by the need to understand the role of ice particles plays in the development of severe storms so that their impact on various aspects of the storm behavior can be properly assessed. In this study, we perform numerical simulations of thunderstorms using a cloud resolving model WISCDYMM that includes parameterized microphysical processes to understand the role played by ice processes. We simulate thunderstorms occurred over various regions of the world including tropics, substropics and midlatitudes. We then perform statistical analysis of the simulated results to show the formation of various categories of hydrometeors to reveal the importance of ice processes. We will show that ice hydrometeors (cloud ice, snow, graupel/hail) account for 80% of the total hydrometeor mass for the High Plains storms but 50% for the subtropical storms. In addition, the melting of large ice particles (graupel and hail) is the major production process of rain in tropical storms although the ratio of ice-phase mass is responsible for only 40% of the total hydrometeor mass. Furthermore, hydrometeors have their own special microphysical processes in development and depletion over various latitudes. Microphysical structures depend on atmospheric dynamical and thermodynamical conditions which determine the partitioning of hydrometeors. This knowledge would benefit the microphysics parameterization in cloud models and cumulus parameterization in global circulation models.

  13. Dual-Located WHIRLY1 Interacting with LHCA1 Alters Photochemical Activities of Photosystem I and Is Involved in Light Adaptation in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Dongmei; Lin, Wenfang; Deng, Ban

    2017-01-01

    Plastid-nucleus-located WHIRLY1 protein plays a role in regulating leaf senescence and is believed to associate with the increase of reactive oxygen species delivered from redox state of the photosynthetic electron transport chain. In order to make sure whether WHIRLY1 plays a role in photosynthesis, in this study, the performances of photosynthesis were detected in Arabidopsis whirly1 knockout (kowhy1) and plastid localized WHIRLY1 overexpression (oepWHY1) plants. Loss of WHIRLY1 leads to a higher photochemical quantum yield of photosystem I Y(I) and electron transport rate (ETR) and a lower non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) involved in the thermal dissipation of excitation energy of chlorophyll fluorescence than the wild type. Further analyses showed that WHIRLY1 interacts with Light-harvesting protein complex I (LHCA1) and affects the expression of genes encoding photosystem I (PSI) and light harvest complexes (LHCI). Moreover, loss of WHIRLY1 decreases chloroplast NAD(P)H dehydrogenase-like complex (NDH) activity and the accumulation of NDH supercomplex. Several genes encoding the PSI-NDH complexes are also up-regulated in kowhy1 and the whirly1whirly3 double mutant (ko1/3) but steady in oepWHY1 plants. However, under high light conditions (800 μmol m−2 s−1), both kowhy1 and ko1/3 plants show lower ETR than wild-type which are contrary to that under normal light condition. Moreover, the expression of several PSI-NDH encoding genes and ERF109 which is related to jasmonate (JA) response varied in kowhy1 under different light conditions. These results indicate that WHIRLY1 is involved in the alteration of ETR by affecting the activities of PSI and supercomplex formation of PSI with LHCI or NDH and may acting as a communicator between the plastids and the nucleus. PMID:29112140

  14. Evaluation of the genetic parameters and mutation analysis of 22 STR loci in the central Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Hongdan, Wang; Bing, Kang; Ning, Su; Miao, He; Bo, Zhang; Yuxin, Guo; Bofeng, Zhu; Shixiu, Liao; Zhaoshu, Zeng

    2017-01-01

    At present, the Han nationality is China's main ethnic group and also the most populous nation in the world. This is a great resource to study microsatellite mutations and for the study of ethnogeny. The aim of this study is to investigate the genetic polymorphisms and mutations of 22 autosomal STR loci in 2475 individuals from Henan province, China. DNA is amplified and genotyped using PowerPlex™24 system. The gene frequencies, forensic parameters, and the mutation rate of the 22 STR loci are analyzed. A total of 295 alleles are observed in this Henan Han population, and the allelic frequencies ranged from 0.0003 to 0.5036. In order to investigate the genetic relationships between the Henan Han and the other 14 different populations, our present data were compared with previously published data for the same 15 STR loci. The results indicated that the Henan Han had closer genetic relationships the groups including Minnan Han, Maonan, Yi and Guangdong Han groups while the South morocco population, the Moroccan population, the Malay group, and the Uigur stand away from Henan Han. Except of D2S441, D13S317, PentaE, D2S1338, D5S818, TPOX and D19S433, the mutation events are found in the other 15 STR loci. A total of 40 mutation events are observed in the 15 STR loci. The mutation rates are ranged from 0 to 4.85 × 10 -3 . In this study, 39 mutations are single-step mutations, and only one at FGA comprised two steps. STR mutation is commonly existed in paternity testing, while there are no STR mutation studies of the 22 STR loci in the Henan Han population. It is of great importance in forensic individual discrimination and paternal testing.

  15. Energy cost of square dancing.

    PubMed

    Jetté, M; Inglis, H

    1975-01-01

    This experiment was concerned with determining the energy cost of two popular Western square dancing routines: the "Mish-Mash," which is a relatively fast-moving dance with quick movements, and the "Singing" dance, which is a slower and more deliberate type of dance. The subjects were four middle-aged couples, veteran members of a local square dancing club. Sitting and standing pulmonary ventilations were determined through the use of the Tissot gasometer. Kofrańyi-Michaelis respirometers were employed for the dance routine ventilations. These apparatus were fitted with a Monoghan neoprene cushion plastic mask. Gas samples were collected in polyethylene metallized bags and analyzed for O2 and CO2 content. The net energy cost for the two dances was appropriately summarized. The results indicated that for the males the net average energy cost of the "Mish-Mash" dance was 0.085 and 0.077 kcal/min per kg for the "Singing" dance. For the females, the cost was 0.088 and 0.084 kcal/min per kg, respectively. A net average cost of these two dances yielded a caloric expenditure of 5.7 kcal/min for a 70-kg male and 5.2 kcal/min for a 60-kg female. It was indicated that during the course of a typical square dance evening, a 70-kg man would expend some 425 kcal. while a 60-kg female would burn some 390 kcal. The energy cost of the dances studied were determined to be within the permissible work load of a functional class 1 patient with diseases of the heart as determined by the American Heart Association.

  16. Influence of parameterized small-scale gravity waves on the migrating diurnal tide in Earth's thermosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yiǧit, Erdal; Medvedev, Alexander S.

    2017-04-01

    Effects of subgrid-scale gravity waves (GWs) on the diurnal migrating tides are investigated from the mesosphere to the upper thermosphere for September equinox conditions, using a general circulation model coupled with the extended spectral nonlinear GW parameterization of Yiğit et al. (). Simulations with GW effects cut off above the turbopause and included in the entire thermosphere have been conducted. GWs appreciably impact the mean circulation and cool the thermosphere down by up to 12-18%. GWs significantly affect the winds modulated by the diurnal migrating tide, in particular, in the low-latitude mesosphere and lower thermosphere and in the high-latitude thermosphere. These effects depend on the mutual correlation of the diurnal phases of the GW forcing and tides: GWs can either enhance or reduce the tidal amplitude. In the low-latitude MLT, the correlation between the direction of the deposited GW momentum and the tidal phase is positive due to propagation of a broad spectrum of GW harmonics through the alternating winds. In the Northern Hemisphere high-latitude thermosphere, GWs act against the tide due to an anticorrelation of tidal wind and GW momentum, while in the Southern high-latitudes they weakly enhance the tidal amplitude via a combination of a partial correlation of phases and GW-induced changes of the circulation. The variable nature of GW effects on the thermal tide can be captured in GCMs provided that a GW parameterization (1) considers a broad spectrum of harmonics, (2) properly describes their propagation, and (3) correctly accounts for the physics of wave breaking/saturation.

  17. Preface: International Reference Ionosphere - Progress in Ionospheric Modelling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilitza Dieter; Reinisch, Bodo

    2010-01-01

    The international reference ionosphere (lRI) is the internationally recommended empirical model for the specification of ionospheric parameters supported by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) and the International Union of Radio Science (URSI) and recognized by the International Standardization Organization (ISO). IRI is being continually improved by a team of international experts as new data become available and better models are being developed. This issue chronicles the latest phase of model updates as reported during two IRI-related meetings. The first was a special session during the Scientific Assembly of the Committee of Space Research (COSPAR) in Montreal, Canada in July 2008 and the second was an IRI Task Force Activity at the US Air Force Academy in Colorado Springs in May 2009. This work led to several improvements and additions of the model which will be included in the next version, IRI-201O. The issue is divided into three sections focusing on the improvements made in the topside ionosphere, the F-peak, and the lower ionosphere, respectively. This issue would not have been possible without the reviewing efforts of many individuals. Each paper was reviewed by two referees. We thankfully acknowledge the contribution to this issue made by the following reviewers: Jacob Adeniyi, David Altadill, Eduardo Araujo, Feza Arikan, Dieter Bilitza, Jilijana Cander, Bela Fejer, Tamara Gulyaeva, Manuel Hermindez-Pajares, Ivan Kutiev, John MacDougal, Leo McNamara, Bruno Nava, Olivier Obrou, Elijah Oyeyemi, Vadym Paznukhov, Bodo Reinisch, John Retterer, Phil Richards, Gary Sales, J.H. Sastri, Ludger Scherliess, Iwona Stanislavska, Stamir Stankov, Shin-Yi Su, Manlian Zhang, Y ongliang Zhang, and Irina Zakharenkova. We are grateful to Peggy Ann Shea for her final review and guidance as the editor-in-chief for special issues of Advances in Space Research. We thank the authors for their timely submission and their quick response to the reviewer comments and humbly

  18. Evaluation of potassium ferrate as an alternative disinfectant on cyanobacteria inactivation and associated toxin fate in various waters.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jiajia; Lin, Bo-Hung; Chang, Che-Wei; Zhang, Yuqing; Lin, Tsair-Fuh

    2018-02-01

    Potassium ferrate (K 2 FeO 4 ) is an effective oxidant that may be used as a pre- or post-oxidant in the purification of source water with cyanobacterial issues. To provide a better basis for the application of this oxidant during water treatment processes, the impacts of K 2 FeO 4 on the cell viability of Microcystis aeruginosa and the fate of associated microcystins (MCs) were investigated in various water matrices. The results showed that a water matrix can significantly affect the effectiveness of K 2 FeO 4 on cyanobacteria inactivation. 10 mg L -1 K 2 FeO 4 induced significant cell lysis of M. aeruginosa in Ran Yi Tan Reservoir (RYTR) water while the membrane integrity was relatively unaffected in ASM-1 media and Cheng Kung Lake (CKL) water. The reduced efficiency of K 2 FeO 4 oxidation may be attributed to the manganese (Mn 2+ ) and organic matter (Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, EDTA) in the ASM-1 media and high concentrations of natural organic matters (NOMs) in the CKL water. A delayed Chick-Watson model was applied to simulate the experimental data for cyanobacterial cell rupture, and the cell lysis rates of the M. aeruginosa samples were determined to be 128-242 M -1  s -1 (mol L -1  s -1 ). Generally, no significant increases in extracellular MCs were observed in the three different waters, even in the RYTR water where the membrane integrity of the cyanobacterial cells was severely disrupted. Therefore, K 2 FeO 4 could be a potential pre-oxidant to enhance subsequent treatments for cyanobacteria removal without affecting the cell integrity, or could serve as a post-oxidant to inactivate cyanobacterial cells and degrade MCs effectively, depending on the specific water matrix. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dry deposition of reduced and reactive nitrogen: A surrogate surfaces approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahin, Usama Mohammed

    Nitrogen deposition constitutes an important component of acidic deposition to terrestrial surfaces. However, deposition flux and ambient concentration measurement methods and are still under development. A new sampler using water as a surrogate surface was developed in the Department of Environmental Engineering at Illinois Institute of Technology. This study investigated nitrate and ammonia dry deposition to the water surface sampler, a Nylasorb filter, a citric acid impregnated filter, and a greased strip on the dry deposition plate. The nitrogen containing species that may be responsible for nitrate dry deposition to the WSS include nitrogen monoxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), nitrous acid (HNO2), nitric acid (HNO3), and particulate nitrate. The experimental measurements showed that HNO3 and particulate nitrate are the major nitrate contributors to the WSS. Ammonia sources to the water surface are ammonia gas (NH3) and ammonium (NH4+). The experimental results showed that these two species are the sole sources to ammonium deposition. Comparison between the measured deposition velocity of SO2, and HNO3, shows that their dry deposition velocities are statistically the same at the 95% confidence level and NH3 deposition velocity and the water evaporation rate are also the same. It was also shown that the air side MTC of two different compounds were correlated to the square root of the inverse of the molecular weight for compounds. The measured MTC was tested by the application of two models, the resistance model and the water evaporation model. The resistance model prediction of the MTC was very close to the measured value but the evaporation model prediction was not. This result is compatible with the finding of Yi, (1997) who used the same WSS for measurements of SO2. The experimental data collected in this research project was used to develop an empirical model to measure the MTC that is [kl/over D] = 0.0426 ([lv/rho/over /mu])0

  20. Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oza, Nikunj

    2012-03-01

    A supervised learning task involves constructing a mapping from input data (normally described by several features) to the appropriate outputs. A set of training examples— examples with known output values—is used by a learning algorithm to generate a model. This model is intended to approximate the mapping between the inputs and outputs. This model can be used to generate predicted outputs for inputs that have not been seen before. Within supervised learning, one type of task is a classification learning task, in which each output is one or more classes to which the input belongs. For example, we may have data consisting of observations of sunspots. In a classification learning task, our goal may be to learn to classify sunspots into one of several types. Each example may correspond to one candidate sunspot with various measurements or just an image. A learning algorithm would use the supplied examples to generate a model that approximates the mapping between each supplied set of measurements and the type of sunspot. This model can then be used to classify previously unseen sunspots based on the candidate’s measurements. The generalization performance of a learned model (how closely the target outputs and the model’s predicted outputs agree for patterns that have not been presented to the learning algorithm) would provide an indication of how well the model has learned the desired mapping. More formally, a classification learning algorithm L takes a training set T as its input. The training set consists of |T| examples or instances. It is assumed that there is a probability distribution D from which all training examples are drawn independently—that is, all the training examples are independently and identically distributed (i.i.d.). The ith training example is of the form (x_i, y_i), where x_i is a vector of values of several features and y_i represents the class to be predicted.* In the sunspot classification example given above, each training example

  1. Potential Geophysical Field Transformations and Combined 3D Modelling for Estimation the Seismic Site Effects on Example of Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppelbaum, Lev; Meirova, Tatiana

    2015-04-01

    masses', areas of 'compression' and 'dilatation'. Land gravity and magnetic data were processed by the use of abovementioned algorithms including procedures of downward continuation and computation of third derivatives of gravitational potential. For this investigation was utilized the recently constructed map of the Neogene-Quaternary structural stage (indicating thicknesses of these deposits) of Israel and the eastern Mediterranean (Eppelbaum and Katz, 2014b). Results of other map compilation (Palaeogene, Late and Early Cretaceous, Jurassic and Triassic structural stages, hypsometric map of the base of the newest (Post-Jurassic) tectonic complex as well as map of Lower Mesozoic wells and outcrop locations) (Eppelbaum and Katz, 2011, 2012a, 2012b, 2014a, 2014b, 2015a, 2015b) were taken into consideration for 3D PGMs construction. Acknowledgements This research was carried out under grant No. 214-17-016 from the Ministry of Infrastructure, Energy and Water Resources of Israel. References Bonnefoy-Claudet, S., Cotton, F. and Bard, P.-Y., 2006. The nature of noise wavefield and its applications for site effects studies. A literature review. Earth Sciences Review, 79, 205-227. Eppelbaum, L. and Katz, Y., 2011. Tectonic-Geophysical Mapping of Israel and eastern Mediterranean: Implication for Hydrocarbon Prospecting. Positioning, 2, No. 1, doi: 10.4236/pos.2011.21004, 36-54. Eppelbaum, L.V., Katz, Y.I., 2012a. Mineral deposits in Israel: A contemporary view, In: (Eds. Ya'ari, A. and Zahavi, E.D.), Israel: Social, Economic and Political Developments, Nova Science Publ, NY, USA, 1-41. Eppelbaum, L.V. and Katz, Y.I., 2012b. Key Features of Seismo-Neotectonic Pattern of the Eastern Mediterranean. Izv. Acad. Sci. Azerb. Rep., Ser.: Earth Sciences, No. 3, 29-40. Eppelbaum, L.V. and Katz, Y.I., 2014a. First Paleomagnetic Map of the Easternmost Mediterranean Derived from Combined Geophysical-Geological Analysis. Trans. of the 10th EUG Meet., Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 16

  2. Construction of Real-time Forecast System on the Boreal Summer Intraseasonal Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Wheeler, M. C.; Lee, J.; Gottschalck, J.

    2013-12-01

    Hae-Jeong Kim1, Matthew C. Wheeler2, June-Yi Lee3 and Jon C. Gottschalck4 1APEC Climate Center, 12 Centum 7-ro, Haeundae-gu, Busan, 612-020, South Korea 2Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research Bureau of Meteorology, Melbourne, Australia 3Global Monsoon Climate Laboratory, Pusan National University, Busan, Korea 4Climate Prediction Center, NOAA/National Weather Service, Washington D. C., USA *E-mail : shout@apcc21.org The boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation (BSISO) is one of the dominant mode of variability in the Asian summer monsoon and global monsoon (e.g. Webster et al., 1998; Lee et al., 2013). The BSISO influences summer monsoon onsets (e.g. Wang and Xie, 1997) and interacts with a wide range of atmospheric circulation and associated weather (e.g. Lee et al., 2011; Wang et al., 2012). In addition, the wet and dry spells of the BSISO strongly can influence extreme hydro-meteorological events, major driving forces of natural disasters (Lau and Waliser 2005). Thus, it is important to monitor and predict the BSISO. As the occurrence of and concern over extreme climate events rises, moreover, the provision of high-quality BSISO forecasts will become increasingly relevant. APCC has recently begun to provide the BSISO forecast information service at http://www.apcc21.org/eng/service/bsiso/fore/japcc030601.jsp. The forecast is contributed by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, the US National Centers for Environmental Prediction, the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasts and UK Meteorology Office in cooperation with the CAS/WCRP Working Group on Numerical Experimentation (WGNE) Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) Task Force. The APCC BSISO forecasts are displayed by newly developed indices proposed by Lee at al. (2013) that are able to overcome the limitation of the RMM index (Wheeler and Hendon, 2004) in terms of representing BSISO activity with northward propagation over off-equatorial monsoon domain. The BSISO forecast information can be

  3. Using Facebook to Recruit Young Adult Veterans: Online Mental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    than half screening positive for current probable mental health disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, anxiety, only about 1 in 3 received mental health care in the past year and only 1 in 50 received such care within the past month. Conclusions This work expands on the work of other studies that have examined clinical samples of veterans only and suggests Facebook can be an adequate method of obtaining samples of veterans in need of care. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02187887; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02187887 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6YiUKRsXY). PMID:26033209

  4. Tribological behaviour and statistical experimental design of sintered iron-copper based composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, Ileana Nicoleta; Ghiţă, Constantin; Bratu, Vasile; Palacios Navarro, Guillermo

    2013-11-01

    The sintered iron-copper based composites for automotive brake pads have a complex composite composition and should have good physical, mechanical and tribological characteristics. In this paper, we obtained frictional composites by Powder Metallurgy (P/M) technique and we have characterized them by microstructural and tribological point of view. The morphology of raw powders was determined by SEM and the surfaces of obtained sintered friction materials were analyzed by ESEM, EDS elemental and compo-images analyses. One lot of samples were tested on a "pin-on-disc" type wear machine under dry sliding conditions, at applied load between 3.5 and 11.5 × 10-1 MPa and 12.5 and 16.9 m/s relative speed in braking point at constant temperature. The other lot of samples were tested on an inertial test stand according to a methodology simulating the real conditions of dry friction, at a contact pressure of 2.5-3 MPa, at 300-1200 rpm. The most important characteristics required for sintered friction materials are high and stable friction coefficient during breaking and also, for high durability in service, must have: low wear, high corrosion resistance, high thermal conductivity, mechanical resistance and thermal stability at elevated temperature. Because of the tribological characteristics importance (wear rate and friction coefficient) of sintered iron-copper based composites, we predicted the tribological behaviour through statistical analysis. For the first lot of samples, the response variables Yi (represented by the wear rate and friction coefficient) have been correlated with x1 and x2 (the code value of applied load and relative speed in braking points, respectively) using a linear factorial design approach. We obtained brake friction materials with improved wear resistance characteristics and high and stable friction coefficients. It has been shown, through experimental data and obtained linear regression equations, that the sintered composites wear rate increases

  5. Oral administration of Yokukansan inhibits the development of atopic dermatitis-like lesions in isolated NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ju; Yamaguchi, Takuji; Funakushi, Naoko; Kuhara, Takatoshi; Fan, Ping-shen; Ueki, Rie; Suto, Hajime; Kase, Yoshio; Ikeda, Shigaku; Ogawa, Hideoki

    2009-10-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that stress can trigger and exacerbate atopic dermatitis (AD). Psychotherapy is becoming more important in the treatment of AD patients. Yokukansan (YKS, Yi-Gan San in Chinese), a traditional Japanese medicine, has been widely utilized in the treatment of neurosis, insomnia and anxiety especially in Asian countries. Furthermore, it was reported that YKS inhibited skin lesions in socially isolated mice but not in group-housed mice. Therefore, in the present study it was investigated whether or not YKS was effective in the treatment of AD using socially isolated NC/Nga mice. The present study was designed to assess the effect of YKS on the development of AD-like lesions in socially isolated NC/Nga mice to obtain information about its usefulness in the treatment of AD. Ten-week-old male NC/Nga mice were socially isolated under conventional conditions. YKS was administered orally to mice at the dose of 0.5% or 1.0% together with diet. The efficacy of YKS was evaluated by assessing skin lesion severity, scratching behaviors, skin hydration, and infiltration of inflammatory cells in the skin. Grooming behaviors evoked by social isolation stress and serum corticosterone levels were also measured. Oral administration of YKS to socially isolated NC/Nga mice resulted in the inhibition of exacerbation of AD-like skin lesions. It seemed that the inhibition of exacerbation of AD-like skin lesions observed in NC/Nga mice might be due to suppression of the scratching and grooming behaviors, inhibition of the infiltration of mast cells and eosinophils, and retention of humidity in the skin. Serum corticosterone levels were also significantly inhibited in the 1%-YKS-treated mice as compared with those of the control mice. There were no significant differences in the levels of serum total IgE and nerve growth factor (NGF) between the YKS-treated mice and the non-treated control mice. YKS inhibited the development of AD-like skin lesions in socially

  6. Effect of Contract Compliance Rate to a Fourth-Generation Telehealth Program on the Risk of Hospitalization in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease: Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chi-Sheng; Lee, Jenkuang; Chen, Ying-Hsien; Huang, Ching-Chang; Wu, Vin-Cent; Wu, Hui-Wen; Chuang, Pao-Yu; Ho, Yi-Lwun

    2018-01-24

    telehealth program and risk of hospitalization. Renal function status was associated with risk of hospitalization among these patients, and there was a significant interaction with contract compliance rate. ©Chi-Sheng Hung, Jenkuang Lee, Ying-Hsien Chen, Ching-Chang Huang, Vin-Cent Wu, Hui-Wen Wu, Pao-Yu Chuang, Yi-Lwun Ho. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 24.01.2018.

  7. Occurrence, distribution and risk assessment of organophosphate esters in surface water and sediment from a shallow freshwater Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Xing, Liqun; Zhang, Qin; Sun, Xu; Zhu, Hongxia; Zhang, Shenghu; Xu, Huaizhou

    2018-04-30

    Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are ubiquitous in the environment and pose a potential threat to ecosystem and human health. This study investigated the concentrations, distributions and risk of 12 OPEs in surface water and sediment from Luoma Lake, Fangting River and Yi River. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) method were used to extract OPEs from water samples, ultrasonic process and SPE method were used to extract OPEs from sediment samples, and the extracts were finally analyzed using the HPLC-MS/MS. The results revealed that the median and maximum concentrations of ΣOPEs were 73.9 and 1066 ng/L in surface water, and were 28.7 and 35.9 ng/g in sediment, respectively. Tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) and trimethyl phosphate (TMP) were the most abundant OPEs in the surface water with median concentrations of 24.3 and 16.4 ng/L in Luoma Lake, respectively. Triethyl phosphate (TEP) was the most abundant OPE in the sediment with a median concentrations of 28.9 ng/g. However, tricresyl phosphate (TCrP) and ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDPP) predominantly contributed to the ecological risk with respective median risk quotients 0.07 and 0.01 for surface water in Luoma Lake. TEP and TCrP were the most significant contributors to the ecological risk with respective median risk quotients of 6.4 × 10 -4 and 5.6 × 10 -4 for sediment. It was also found that inflowing Fangting River could be the major pollution source to Luoma Lake. The no-cancer and carcinogenic risks of OPEs were lower than the theoretical threshold of risk. The study found that the ecological and human health risks due to the exposure to OPEs were currently acceptable. In other words, the Luoma Lake was relatively safer to use as a drinking water source in urban areas in the context of OPEs pollution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Top five medical innovations in China mainland since Xinhai revolution [1911]: results of AME survey-002

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Fan

    2015-01-01

    Objective This survey aims to scrutinize important medical innovations in Chinese mainland since Xinhai (Hsin-hai) revolution in 1911, which marked the end of Manchurian imperial rule and the beginning of China’s republican era. Methods An online cross-sectional survey was carried out during the period of Dec 29, 2014 to Feb 5, 2015, totaling 37 days. The survey was conducted on the platform provided by DXY (www.dxy.cn), which is the largest medical and paramedical related website in China. An email was sent to all DXY registered users to invite them to participate in a 5-minute survey. The participants were asked to nominate up to four important medical innovations in China mainland since Xinhai revolution. The participant could select ‘zero’ which means he/she felt there was no important medical innovations, or he/she did not know important medical innovations. It was noted that important medical innovations refer to (I) those with practical and almost immediate significance to improve healthcare; (II) should not only be introducing western technique to China, but those involve major improvement of existing western techniques count; (III) should not be those with important theoretical discovery but did not have almost immediate significance to improve healthcare. Results In total 1,513 DXY users participated in the voting. Totally 489 (32.3%), 441 (29.1%), 342 (22.6%), 150 (9.9%), 91 (6.0%) participants provided 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 nominations respectively. (I) Artemisine (Qinghaosu) for malaria treatment (Project 523 team, 1972); (II) arsenic Trioxide (As2O3) for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) treatment (ZHANG Ting-Dong and colleagues, 1970s); (III) limb re-plantation (CHEN Zhong-Wei and colleagues, 1963); (IV) all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) for APL treatment (WANG Zhen-Yi and colleagues, 1988); and (V) Wu’s mask for plague prevention (WU Lien-The, 1910), were voted as the top five innovations in China mainland since Xinhai revolution, with 375, 96, 91, 53

  9. First Observation of Switch-Off Slow Shocks in Fully Kinetic Particle in Cell Simulation of Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapenta, G.; Sanna, L.; Goldman, M. V.; Newman, D. L.; Markidis, S.

    2014-12-01

    with state of the art massively parallel computers provided by the PRACE system in Europe (specifically the Curie and SuperMUC computers) and by NASA Pleiades. The present work was funded by the NASA MMS mission and by the EC-funded project eHeroes (www.eheroes.eu)[1] Liu, Yi-Hsin, et al., PoP 18.6 (2011): 062110.

  10. Planning 4D intensity-modulated arc therapy for tumor tracking with a multileaf collimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Ying; Betzel, Gregory T.; Yang, Xiaocheng; Gui, Minzhi; Parke, William C.; Yi, Byongyong; Yu, Cedric X.

    2017-02-01

    This study introduces a practical four-dimensional (4D) planning scheme of IMAT using 4D computed tomography (4D CT) for planning tumor tracking with dynamic multileaf beam collimation. We assume that patients can breathe regularly, i.e. the same way as during 4D CT with an unchanged period and amplitude, and that the start of 4D-IMAT delivery can be synchronized with a designated respiratory phase. Each control point of the IMAT-delivery process can be associated with an image set of 4D CT at a specified respiratory phase. Target is contoured at each respiratory phase without a motion-induced margin. A 3D-IMAT plan is first optimized on a reference-phase image set of 4D CT. Then, based on the projections of the planning target volume in the beam’s eye view at different respiratory phases, a 4D-IMAT plan is generated by transforming the segments of the optimized 3D plan by using a direct aperture deformation method. Compensation for both translational and deformable tumor motion is accomplished, and the smooth delivery of the transformed plan is ensured by forcing connectivity between adjacent angles (control points). It is envisioned that the resultant plans can be delivered accurately using the dose rate regulated tracking method which handles breathing irregularities (Yi et al 2008 Med. Phys. 35 3955-62).This planning process is straightforward and only adds a small step to current clinical 3D planning practice. Our 4D planning scheme was tested on three cases to evaluate dosimetric benefits. The created 4D-IMAT plans showed similar dose distributions as compared with the 3D-IMAT plans on a single static phase, indicating that our method is capable of eliminating the dosimetric effects of breathing induced target motion. Compared to the 3D-IMAT plans with large treatment margins encompassing respiratory motion, our 4D-IMAT plans reduced radiation doses to surrounding normal organs and tissues.

  11. Development of the scintillator-based probe for fast-ion losses in the HL-2A tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. P.; Liu, Yi; Luo, X. B.; Isobe, M.; Yuan, G. L.; Liu, Y. Q.; Hua, Y.; Song, X. Y.; Yang, J. W.; Li, X.; Chen, W.; Li, Y.; Yan, L. W.; Song, X. M.; Yang, Q. W.; Duan, X. R.

    2014-05-01

    A new scintillator-based lost fast-ion probe (SLIP) has been developed and operated in the HL-2A tokamak [L. W. Yan, X. R. Duan, X. T. Ding, J. Q. Dong, Q. W. Yang, Yi Liu, X. L. Zou, D. Q. Liu, W. M. Xuan, L. Y. Chen, J. Rao, X. M. Song, Y. Huang, W. C. Mao, Q. M. Wang, Q. Li, Z. Cao, B. Li, J. Y. Cao, G. J. Lei, J. H. Zhang, X. D. Li, W. Chen, J. Chen, C. H. Cui, Z. Y. Cui, Z. C. Deng, Y. B. Dong, B. B. Feng, Q. D. Gao, X. Y. Han, W. Y. Hong, M. Huang, X. Q. Ji, Z. H. Kang, D. F. Kong, T. Lan, G. S. Li, H. J. Li, Qing Li, W. Li, Y. G. Li, A. D. Liu, Z. T. Liu, C. W. Luo, X. H. Mao, Y. D. Pan, J. F. Peng, Z. B. Shi, S. D. Song, X. Y. Song, H. J. Sun, A. K. Wang, M. X. Wang, Y. Q. Wang, W. W. Xiao, Y. F. Xie, L. H. Yao, D. L. Yu, B. S. Yuan, K. J. Zhao, G. W. Zhong, J. Zhou, J. C. Yan, C. X. Yu, C. H. Pan, Y. Liu, and the HL-2A Team, Nucl. Fusion 51, 094016 (2011)] to measure the losses of neutral beam ions. The design of the probe is based on the concept of the α-particle detectors on Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) using scintillator plates. The probe is capable of traveling across an equatorial plane port and sweeping the aperture angle rotationally with respect to the axis of the probe shaft by two step motors, in order to optimize the radial position and the collimator angle. The energy and the pitch angle of the lost fast ions can be simultaneously measured if the two-dimensional image of scintillation light intensity due to the impact of the lost fast ions is detected. Measurements of the fast-ion losses using the probe have been performed during HL-2A neutral beam injection discharges. The clear experimental evidence of enhanced losses of beam ions during disruptions has been obtained by means of the SLIP system. A detailed description of the probe system and the first experimental results are reported.

  12. Using a Delphi consensus process to develop an acupuncture treatment protocol by consensus for women undergoing Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) treatment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    20, KD3, ST36, SP6, and PC6. Auricular points Shenmen and Zigong will be used. Practitioner intent or yi will be addressed in the treatment protocol. Conclusions Despite a lack of homogeneity in the research and clinical literature on ART and acupuncture, a consensus amongst experts on key components of a best practice treatment protocol was possible. Such consensus offers guidance for further research. PMID:22769059

  13. Rhodiola crenulata- and Cordyceps sinensis-Based Supplement Boosts Aerobic Exercise Performance after Short-Term High Altitude Training

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chung-Yu; Hou, Chien-Wen; Bernard, Jeffrey R.; Chen, Chiu-Chou; Hung, Ta-Cheng; Cheng, Lu-Ling; Liao, Yi-Hung

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Chen, Chung-Yu, Chien-Wen Hou, Jeffrey R. Bernard, Chiu-Chou Chen, Ta-Cheng Hung, Lu-Ling Cheng, Yi-Hung Liao, and Chia-Hua Kuo. Rhodiola crenulata- and Cordyceps sinensis-based supplement boosts aerobic exercise performance after short-term high altitude training. High Alt Med Biol 15:371–379, 2014.—High altitude training is a widely used strategy for improving aerobic exercise performance. Both Rhodiola crenulata (R) and Cordyceps sinensis (C) supplements have been reported to improve exercise performance. However, it is not clear whether the provision of R and C during high altitude training could further enhance aerobic endurance capacity. In this study, we examined the effect of R and C based supplementation on aerobic exercise capacity following 2-week high altitude training. Alterations to autonomic nervous system activity, circulatory hormonal, and hematological profiles were investigated. Eighteen male subjects were divided into two groups: Placebo (n=9) and R/C supplementation (RC, n=9). Both groups received either RC (R: 1400 mg+C: 600 mg per day) or the placebo during a 2-week training period at an altitude of 2200 m. After 2 weeks of altitude training, compared with Placebo group, the exhaustive run time was markedly longer (Placebo: +2.2% vs. RC: +5.7%; p<0.05) and the decline of parasympathetic (PNS) activity was significantly prevented in RC group (Placebo: −51% vs. RC: −41%; p<0.05). Red blood cell, hematocrit, and hemoglobin levels were elevated in both groups to a comparable extent after high altitude training (p<0.05), whereas the erythropoietin (EPO) level remained higher in the Placebo group (∼48% above RC values; p<0.05). The provision of an RC supplement during altitude training provides greater training benefits in improving aerobic performance. This beneficial effect of RC treatment may result from better maintenance of PNS activity and accelerated physiological adaptations during high altitude training. PMID

  14. Successes and Problems of Conventional Breakdown Theory of Sprites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasko, V. P.

    2004-12-01

    Sprite phenomenon is one of the most frequently observed forms of transient luminous events occurring at mesospheric/lower ionospheric altitudes, which is directly related to the lightning activity in underlying thunderstorms [Sentman et al., GRL, 22, 1205, 1995]. In this talk we will provide overview of conventional breakdown theory of sprites, which is build on original ideas advanced by C.T.R. Wilson [Wilson, Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond., 37, 32D, 1925]. We will discuss similarity properties of electrical discharges as a function of gas pressure and a selected set of results of recent laboratory studies of filamentary channels of ionization (termed streamers) [e.g., van Veldhuizen et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., 30, 162, 2002; Yi and Williams, J. Phys. D. Appl. Phys., 35, 205, 2002], which are directly applicable for understanding of high spatial resolution imagery of sprites revealing many internal filamentary features with transverse spatial scales ranging from tens to a few hundreds of meters [Gerken and Inan, JASTP, 65, 567, 2003]. The specific set of features, which can be successfully explained by existing conventional theory of sprites and which we will discuss in this talk, include: (1) sprite halos [Barrington-Leigh et al., 106, 1741, 2001]; (2) the observed diffuse and streamer regions of sprites [Pasko and Stenbaek-Nielsen, GRL, 29, 1440, doi:10.1029/2001GL014241, 2002]; (3) the observed ELF radiation from sprites [Cummer et al., GRL, 25, 1281, 1998; Pasko et al., GRL, 25, 3493, 1998]; (4) the observed spatial transverse scales of streamers in sprites; (5) the observed high-speed vertical development of sprites; and (6) the detections of short bursts of blue emissions from sprites (see [Liu and Pasko, JGR, 109, A04301, doi:10.1029/2003JA010064, 2004] for experimental references and recent modeling results pertaining to items (4), (5) and (6)). The talk will be concluded with a discussion of a set of unsolved problems in exiting sprite theory, which include

  15. Nonsurgical Strategies in Patients With NET Liver Metastases: A Protocol of Four Systematic Reviews.

    PubMed

    Limani, Perparim; Tschuor, Christoph; Gort, Laura; Balmer, Bettina; Gu, Alexander; Ceresa, Christos; Raptis, Dimitri Aristotle; Lesurtel, Mickael; Puhan, Milo; Breitenstein, Stefan

    2014-03-07

    Patients diagnosed with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) with hepatic metastases generally have a worse prognosis as compared with patients with nonmetastasized NETs. Due to tumor location and distant metastases, a surgical approach is often not possible and nonsurgical therapeutic strategies may apply. The aim of these systematic reviews is to evaluate the role of nonsurgical therapy options for patients with nonresectable liver metastases of NETs. An objective group of librarians will provide an electronic search strategy to examine the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and The Cochrane Library (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials [CENTRAL]) databases. There will be no restriction concerning language and publication date. The qualitative and quantitative synthesis of the systematic review will be conducted with randomized controlled trials (RCT), prospective, and retrospective comparative cohort, and case-control studies. Case series will be collected in a separate database and only used for descriptive purposes. This study is ongoing and presents a protocol of four systematic reviews to assess the role of nonsurgical treatment options in patients with neuroendocrine liver metastases. These systematic reviews, performed according to this protocol, will assess the value of noninvasive therapy options for patients with nonresectable liver metastases of NETs in combination with invasive techniques, such as percutaneous liver-directed techniques and local ablation techniques. International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO): CRD42012002657; http://www.metaxis.com/PROSPERO/full_doc.asp?RecordID=2657 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6NDlYi37O); CRD42012002658; http://www.metaxis.com/PROSPERO/full_doc.asp?RecordID=2658 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6NDlfWSuD); CRD42012002659; www.metaxis.com/PROSPERO/full_doc.asp?RecordID=2659 (Arichived

  16. Flow Control in a Compact Inlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaccaro, John C.

    2011-12-01

    An experimental investigation of flow control, via various control jets actuators, was undertaken to eliminate separation and secondary flows in a compact inlet. The compact inlet studied was highly aggressive with a length-to-diameter ratio of 1.5. A brand new facility was designed and built to enable various actuation methodologies as well as multiple measurement techniques. Techniques included static surface pressure, total pressure, and stereoscopic particle image velocimetry. Experimental data were supplemented with numerical simulations courtesy of Prof. Kenneth Jansen, Dr. Onkar Sahni, and Yi Chen. The baseline flow field was found to be dominated by two massive separations and secondary flow structures. These secondary structures were present at the aerodynamic interface plane in the form of two counter-rotating vortices inducing upwash along centerline. A dominant shedding frequency of 350 Hz was measured both at the aerodynamic interface plane and along the lower surface of the inlet. Flow control experiments started utilizing a pair of control jets placed in streamwise locations where flow was found to separate. Tests were performed for a range of inlet Mach numbers from 0.2 to 0.44. Steady and unsteady static pressure measurements along the upper and lower walls of the duct were performed for various combinations of actuation. The parameters that were tested include the control jets momentum coefficient, their blowing ratio, the actuation frequency, as well as different combinations of jets. It was shown that using mass flux ratio as a criterion to define flow control is not sufficient, and one needs to provide both the momentum coefficient and the blowing ratio to quantify the flow control performance. A detailed study was undertaken on controlling the upstream separation point for an inlet Mach number of 0.44. Similar to the baseline flow field, the flow field associated with the activation of a two-dimensional control jet actuator was dominated by

  17. Toward Predicting Social Support Needs in Online Health Social Networks.

    PubMed

    Choi, Min-Je; Kim, Sung-Hee; Lee, Sukwon; Kwon, Bum Chul; Yi, Ji Soo; Choo, Jaegul; Huh, Jina

    2017-08-02

    data to evaluate the feasibility of the framework. Our study contributes to providing personalized social support in OHSNs. ©Min-Je Choi, Sung-Hee Kim, Sukwon Lee, Bum Chul Kwon, Ji Soo Yi, Jaegul Choo, Jina Huh. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 02.08.2017.

  18. Posture And Dorsal Shape At A Sitted Workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepoutre, F. X.; Cloup, P.; Guerra, T. M.

    1986-07-01

    The ergonomic analysis of a control or a supervision workstation for a vehicle or a process, necessitates to take into account the biomecanical visuo-postural system. The measurements, which are necessary to do, must give informations about the spatial direction of the limbs, the dorsal shape, eventually the eyes direction, and the postural evolution during the working time. More, the smallness of the work station, the backrest and sometime a vibratory environment made use specific, strong and small devices wich do not disturb the operator. The measurement system which we propose is made of an optical device. This system is studied in relation with the french "Institute de Recherche pour les Transports" for an ergonomic analysis of a truck cabin. The optical device consists on placing on the body of the driver on particular places materializing specially members and trunck joint points, some drops which reflect the infra-red raies coming from a specific light. Several cameras whose relative positions depend on the experiment site, transmit video signals to the associated treatment systems which extract the coordinates (Xi, Yi) of each drop in the observation scope of any camera. By regrouping the informations obtained from every view, it is possible to obtain the spatial drop position and then to restore the individual's posture in three dimensions. Therefore, this device doesn't enable us, in consideration of the backrest, to analyse the dorsal posture, which is important with regard to dorsal pains frequency. For that reason, we complete the measurements by using a "curvometer". This device consists of a flexible stick fixed upon the individual back with elastic belts, whose distorsions (curvature in m-1) are measured, in the individual's sagittal plane, with 4 strain gauges pairs; located approximately at the level of vertebra D1, D6, D10 and L3. A fifth measurement, concerning the inclination (in degree) of the lower part of the stick, makes it is possible to

  19. Feasibility of optimizing trimetazidine dihydrochloride release from controlled porosity osmotic pump tablets of directly compressed cores

    PubMed Central

    Habib, Basant A.; Rehim, Randa T. Abd El; Nour, Samia A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and optimize Trimetazidine dihydrochloride (TM) controlled porosity osmotic pump (CPOP) tablets of directly compressed cores. A 23 full factorial design was used to study the influence of three factors namely: PEG400 (10% and 25% based on coating polymer weight), coating level (10% and 20% of tablet core weight) and hole diameter (0 “no hole” and 1 mm). Other variables such as tablet cores, coating mixture of ethylcellulose (4%) and dibutylphthalate (2%) in 95% ethanol and pan coating conditions were kept constant. The responses studied (Yi) were cumulative percentage released after 2 h (Q%2h), 6 h (Q%6h), 12 h (Q%12h) and regression coefficient of release data fitted to zero order equation (RSQzero), for Y1, Y2, Y3, and Y4, respectively. Polynomial equations were used to study the influence of different factors on each response individually. Response surface methodology and multiple response optimization were used to search for an optimized formula. Response variables for the optimized formula were restricted to 10% ⩽ Y1 ⩽ 20%, 40% ⩽ Y2 ⩽ 60%, 80% ⩽ Y3 ⩽ 100%, and Y4 > 0.9. The statistical analysis of the results revealed that PEG400 had positive effects on Q%2h, Q%6h and Q%12h, hole diameter had positive effects on all responses and coating level had positive effect on Q%6h, Q%12h and negative effect on RSQzero. Full three factor interaction (3FI) equations were used for representation of all responses except Q%2h which was represented by reduced (3FI) equation. Upon exploring the experimental space, no formula in the tested range could satisfy the required constraints. Thus, direct compression of TM cores was not suitable for formation of CPOP tablets. Preliminary trials of CPOP tablets with wet granulated cores were promising with an intact membrane for 12 h and high RSQzero. Further improvement of these formulations to optimize TM release will be done in further studies. PMID:25685502

  20. Mercury in the Black Sea - results of the 2013 GEOTRACES MEDBlack cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimbürger, L. E.; Sonke, J.; Rijkenberg, M. J. A.; Gerringa, L. J.; De Baar, H. J. W.

    2014-12-01

    (1-2): 4-21. Lamborg CH, Yiğiterhan O, Fitzgerald WF, Balcom PH, Hammerschmidt CR, Murray J.Vertical distribution of mercury species at two sites in the Western Black Sea. Mar.Chem. 2008, 111(1-2): 77-89. Luther III GW, Church TM, Powell D. Sulfur speciation and sulfide oxidation in the water column of the Black Sea. DSR I 1991, 38:1121-1137.