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Sample records for zamfara state nigeria

  1. Children with paralytic poliomyelitis: utilization of physiotherapy services in Zamfara State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogwumike, Omoyemi O; Kaka, Bashir; Adeniyi, Ade F

    2013-02-01

    Physiotherapy is usually indicated for health promotion and the rehabilitation of individuals with paralytic poliomyelitis. The endemic nature of this condition in children in Zamfara State, Nigeria necessitated investigation into the utilization of physiotherapy services by parents or primary caregivers of children affected with polio in this sub-region. Parents and primary caregivers of children with paralytic poliomyelitis were recruited using a purposive multi-stage sampling procedure in a cross-sectional survey. Factors associated with the utilization of physiotherapy services were assessed based on questions extracted from a 4-part, 52-item structured questionnaire originally designed for a study which investigated knowledge, attitude, and beliefs of parents of children with paralytic poliomyelitis. A total of 217 participants were included in this study. The mean age was 32.29 ± 9.89 years and the mean knowledge of polio score was 62.0 ± 17.3%. The mean age of the children with paralytic poliomyelitis was 6.41 ± 2.50 years. Only 27.2% of the parents or primary caregivers had utilized physiotherapy service for their children at some point. No association existed between utilization of physiotherapy service and 'knowledge of paralytic poliomyelitis', 'employment status', and 'family income' of respondents. Explanations for low utilization of physiotherapy services for children with paralytic poliomyelitis by parents or primary caregivers are discussed.

  2. Unknown risk: co-exposure to lead and other heavy metals among children living in small-scale mining communities in Zamfara State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Bartrem, Casey; Tirima, Simba; von Lindern, Ian; von Braun, Margrit; Worrell, Mary Claire; Mohammad Anka, Shehu; Abdullahi, Aishat; Moller, Gregory

    2014-08-01

    The lead poisoning crisis in Zamfara State, Northern Nigeria has been called the worst such case in modern history and it presents unique challenges for risk assessment and management of co-exposure to multiple heavy metals. More than 400 children have died in Zamfara as a result of ongoing lead intoxication since early in 2010. A review of the common toxic endpoints of the major heavy metals advances analysis of co-exposures and their common pathologies. Environmental contamination in Bagega village, examined by X-ray fluorescence of soils, includes lead, mercury, cadmium, arsenic and manganese. Co-exposure risk is explored by scoring common toxic endpoints and hazard indices to calculate a common pathology hazard risk ranking of Pb > As > Hg > Cd > Mn. Zamfara presents an extreme picture of both lead and multiple heavy metal mortality and morbidity, but similar situations have become increasingly prevalent worldwide.

  3. Children with paralytic poliomyelitis: a cross-sectional study of knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of parents in Zamfara state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogwumike, Omoyemi O; Kaka, Bashir; Adeniyi, Ade F

    2012-10-22

    Nigeria is one of the major African countries in which incidences of polio infection persist in spite of several eradication efforts. The preponderance of paralytic poliomyelitis particularly in the northern part of Nigeria raises the question as to whether parents of children affected with polio know how polio is contracted and spread, whether having a disabled child affects the parents' attitude towards these children, and what they believe about poliomyelitis in view of their socio-cultural and belief system in the sub-region. Zamfara State, in the north-west of Nigeria is one of the endemic areas where resistance to the global campaign on polio eradication was very high. Therefore this study was conducted to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of parents/primary caregivers of children affected with paralytic poliomyelitis in Zamfara State. This study is a cross-sectional survey in which the multistage probability sampling technique was used to randomly select two local government areas in Zamfara State where consenting parents/primary caregivers of children with paralytic poliomyelitis were purposively selected. The knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of parents were assessed with the aid of a 4-part 52-item structured researcher administered questionnaire and the data obtained were analyzed. Two hundred and seventeen parents/primary caregivers participated in the study. One hundred and forty-two, (65.4%) reported good, 51 (23.8%) reported fair, while 24 (11%) of participants reported poor knowledge of paralytic poliomyelitis. More respondents 120 (55.3%) showed a positive attitude towards children with paralytic poliomyelitis. Younger age (P=0.016) and paid employment (P=0.020) were positively associated with good knowledge of paralytic poliomyelitis. Female gender (P=0.020), higher educational level (P=0.015), being employed (P=0.010) and having from middle to high household income (P=0.016) were positively associated with a positive attitude toward

  4. Children with paralytic poliomyelitis: a cross-sectional study of knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of parents in Zamfara state, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nigeria is one of the major African countries in which incidences of polio infection persist in spite of several eradication efforts. The preponderance of paralytic poliomyelitis particularly in the northern part of Nigeria raises the question as to whether parents of children affected with polio know how polio is contracted and spread, whether having a disabled child affects the parents’ attitude towards these children, and what they believe about poliomyelitis in view of their socio-cultural and belief system in the sub-region. Zamfara State, in the north-west of Nigeria is one of the endemic areas where resistance to the global campaign on polio eradication was very high. Therefore this study was conducted to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of parents/primary caregivers of children affected with paralytic poliomyelitis in Zamfara State. Methods This study is a cross-sectional survey in which the multistage probability sampling technique was used to randomly select two local government areas in Zamfara State where consenting parents/primary caregivers of children with paralytic poliomyelitis were purposively selected. The knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of parents were assessed with the aid of a 4-part 52-item structured researcher administered questionnaire and the data obtained were analyzed. Results Two hundred and seventeen parents/primary caregivers participated in the study. One hundred and forty-two, (65.4%) reported good, 51 (23.8%) reported fair, while 24 (11%) of participants reported poor knowledge of paralytic poliomyelitis. More respondents 120 (55.3%) showed a positive attitude towards children with paralytic poliomyelitis. Younger age (P=0.016) and paid employment (P=0.020) were positively associated with good knowledge of paralytic poliomyelitis. Female gender (P=0.020), higher educational level (P=0.015), being employed (P=0.010) and having from middle to high household income (P=0.016) were positively associated

  5. Horizontal and Vertical Distribution of Heavy Metals in Farm Produce and Livestock around Lead-Contaminated Goldmine in Dareta and Abare, Zamfara State, Northern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Orisakwe, O E; Oladipo, O O; Ajaezi, G C; Udowelle, N A

    2017-01-01

    Background . Hitherto studies in response to the June 2010 lead poisoning, Zamfara State, Nigeria, have focused on clinical interventions without information on livestock and other metals. Objective . This study has investigated the distribution of heavy metals in farm produce and livestock around lead-contaminated goldmine in Dareta and Abare, Zamfara State, Nigeria. Methods . Vegetables, soil, water, blood, and different meat samples were harvested from goat, sheep, cattle, and chicken from Dareta, Abare, and Gusau communities. The samples were digested with 10 mL of a mix of nitric and perchloric acids; the mixture was then heated to dryness. Lead, cadmium, zinc, chromium, copper, magnesium, and nickel were analysed using flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The daily intake, bioaccumulation factor, and target hazard quotient (THQ) were calculated. Results . Chicken bone-muscles from Dareta had the highest concentrations of lead, zinc, and nickel (28.2750, 16.1650, and 4.2700 mg/kg, resp.), while chicken brain had the highest levels of cadmium, magnesium (0.3800 and 67.5400 mg/kg), and chromium (6.1650 mg/kg, kidney tissue inclusive). Conclusion . In addition to lead, cadmium may also be of concern in the contaminated mining communities of Zamfara State, Nigeria, given the high levels of cadmium in meat and vegetables samples from these areas.

  6. Horizontal and Vertical Distribution of Heavy Metals in Farm Produce and Livestock around Lead-Contaminated Goldmine in Dareta and Abare, Zamfara State, Northern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oladipo, O. O.; Ajaezi, G. C.; Udowelle, N. A.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Hitherto studies in response to the June 2010 lead poisoning, Zamfara State, Nigeria, have focused on clinical interventions without information on livestock and other metals. Objective. This study has investigated the distribution of heavy metals in farm produce and livestock around lead-contaminated goldmine in Dareta and Abare, Zamfara State, Nigeria. Methods. Vegetables, soil, water, blood, and different meat samples were harvested from goat, sheep, cattle, and chicken from Dareta, Abare, and Gusau communities. The samples were digested with 10 mL of a mix of nitric and perchloric acids; the mixture was then heated to dryness. Lead, cadmium, zinc, chromium, copper, magnesium, and nickel were analysed using flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The daily intake, bioaccumulation factor, and target hazard quotient (THQ) were calculated. Results. Chicken bone-muscles from Dareta had the highest concentrations of lead, zinc, and nickel (28.2750, 16.1650, and 4.2700 mg/kg, resp.), while chicken brain had the highest levels of cadmium, magnesium (0.3800 and 67.5400 mg/kg), and chromium (6.1650 mg/kg, kidney tissue inclusive). Conclusion. In addition to lead, cadmium may also be of concern in the contaminated mining communities of Zamfara State, Nigeria, given the high levels of cadmium in meat and vegetables samples from these areas. PMID:28539940

  7. Childhood lead poisoning associated with gold ore processing: a village-level investigation-Zamfara State, Nigeria, October-November 2010.

    PubMed

    Lo, Yi-Chun; Dooyema, Carrie A; Neri, Antonio; Durant, James; Jefferies, Taran; Medina-Marino, Andrew; de Ravello, Lori; Thoroughman, Douglas; Davis, Lora; Dankoli, Raymond S; Samson, Matthias Y; Ibrahim, Luka M; Okechukwu, Ossai; Umar-Tsafe, Nasir T; Dama, Alhassan H; Brown, Mary Jean

    2012-10-01

    During May-June 2010, a childhood lead poisoning outbreak related to gold ore processing was confirmed in two villages in Zamfara State, Nigeria. During June-September of that year, villages with suspected or confirmed childhood lead poisoning continued to be identified in Zamfara State. We investigated the extent of childhood lead poisoning [≥ 1 child with a blood lead level (BLL) ≥ 10 µg/dL] and lead contamination (≥ 1 soil/dust sample with a lead level > 400 parts per million) among villages in Zamfara State and identified villages that should be prioritized for urgent interventions. We used chain-referral sampling to identify villages of interest, defined as villages suspected of participation in gold ore processing during the previous 12 months. We interviewed villagers, determined BLLs among children < 5 years of age, and analyzed soil/dust from public areas and homes for lead. We identified 131 villages of interest and visited 74 (56%) villages in three local government areas. Fifty-four (77%) of 70 villages that completed the survey reported gold ore processing. Ore-processing villages were more likely to have ≥ 1 child < 5 years of age with lead poisoning (68% vs. 50%, p = 0.17) or death following convulsions (74% vs. 44%, p = 0.02). Soil/dust contamination and BLL ≥ 45 µg/dL were identified in ore-processing villages only [50% (p < 0.001) and 15% (p = 0.22), respectively]. The odds of childhood lead poisoning or lead contamination was 3.5 times as high in ore-processing villages than the other villages (95% confidence interval: 1.1, 11.3). Childhood lead poisoning and lead contamination were widespread in surveyed areas, particularly among villages that had processed ore recently. Urgent interventions are required to reduce lead exposure, morbidity, and mortality in affected communities.

  8. Childhood Lead Poisoning Associated with Gold Ore Processing: a Village-Level Investigation—Zamfara State, Nigeria, October–November 2010

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Yi-Chun; Dooyema, Carrie A.; Neri, Antonio; Durant, James; Jefferies, Taran; Medina-Marino, Andrew; de Ravello, Lori; Thoroughman, Douglas; Davis, Lora; Dankoli, Raymond S.; Samson, Matthias Y.; Ibrahim, Luka M.; Okechukwu, Ossai; Umar-Tsafe, Nasir T.; Dama, Alhassan H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: During May–June 2010, a childhood lead poisoning outbreak related to gold ore processing was confirmed in two villages in Zamfara State, Nigeria. During June–September of that year, villages with suspected or confirmed childhood lead poisoning continued to be identified in Zamfara State. Objectives: We investigated the extent of childhood lead poisoning [≥ 1 child with a blood lead level (BLL) ≥ 10 µg/dL] and lead contamination (≥ 1 soil/dust sample with a lead level > 400 parts per million) among villages in Zamfara State and identified villages that should be prioritized for urgent interventions. Methods: We used chain-referral sampling to identify villages of interest, defined as villages suspected of participation in gold ore processing during the previous 12 months. We interviewed villagers, determined BLLs among children < 5 years of age, and analyzed soil/dust from public areas and homes for lead. Results: We identified 131 villages of interest and visited 74 (56%) villages in three local government areas. Fifty-four (77%) of 70 villages that completed the survey reported gold ore processing. Ore-processing villages were more likely to have ≥ 1 child < 5 years of age with lead poisoning (68% vs. 50%, p = 0.17) or death following convulsions (74% vs. 44%, p = 0.02). Soil/dust contamination and BLL ≥ 45 µg/dL were identified in ore-processing villages only [50% (p < 0.001) and 15% (p = 0.22), respectively]. The odds of childhood lead poisoning or lead contamination was 3.5 times as high in ore-processing villages than the other villages (95% confidence interval: 1.1, 11.3). Conclusion: Childhood lead poisoning and lead contamination were widespread in surveyed areas, particularly among villages that had processed ore recently. Urgent interventions are required to reduce lead exposure, morbidity, and mortality in affected communities. PMID:22766030

  9. Willingness to pay for cataract surgery is much lower than actual costs in Zamfara state, northern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Nazaradden; Ramke, Jacqueline; Pozo-Martin, Francisco; Gilbert, Clare E

    2018-06-01

    Direct medical and non-medical costs incurred by those undergoing subsidised cataract surgery at Gusau eye clinic, Zamfara state, were recently determined. The aim of this study was to assess the willingness to pay for cataract surgery among adults with severe visual impairment or blindness from cataract in rural Zamfara and to compare this to actual costs. In three rural villages served by Gusau eye clinic, key informants helped identify 80 adults with bilateral severe visual impairment or blindness (<6/60), with cataract being the cause in at least one eye. The median amount participants were willing to pay for cataract surgery was determined. The proportion willing to pay actual costs of the (i) subsidised surgical fee (US$18.5), (ii) average non-medical expenses (US$25.2), and (iii) average total expenses (US$51.2) at Gusau eye clinic were calculated. Where participants would seek funds for surgery was determined. Among 80 participants (38% women), most (n = 73, 91%) were willing to pay something, ranging from Zamfara state is far lower than current costs of undergoing surgery. People who were widowed-most of whom were women-were willing to pay least. Further financial support is required for cataract surgery to be universally accessible.

  10. Cognitive Styles Field Dependence/Independence and Scientific Achievement of Male and Female Students of Zamfara State College of Education Maru, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhammad, Tukur; Daniel, Esther Gananamalar Sarojini; Abdurauf, Rose Amnah

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the association between cognitive styles (Field dependence/Independence) and scientific achievement in Male and Female student of Biology and Integrated science Department of Zamfara State College of Education Maru, the is correlational. A population of 700 students were used, in which 150 were randomly selected…

  11. Association of blood lead level with neurological features in 972 children affected by an acute severe lead poisoning outbreak in Zamfara State, northern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Greig, Jane; Thurtle, Natalie; Cooney, Lauren; Ariti, Cono; Ahmed, Abdulkadir Ola; Ashagre, Teshome; Ayela, Anthony; Chukwumalu, Kingsley; Criado-Perez, Alison; Gómez-Restrepo, Camilo; Meredith, Caitlin; Neri, Antonio; Stellmach, Darryl; Sani-Gwarzo, Nasir; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; Shanks, Leslie; Dargan, Paul I

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) investigated reports of high mortality in young children in Zamfara State, Nigeria, leading to confirmation of villages with widespread acute severe lead poisoning. In a retrospective analysis, we aimed to determine venous blood lead level (VBLL) thresholds and risk factors for encephalopathy using MSF programmatic data from the first year of the outbreak response. We included children aged ≤5 years with VBLL ≥45 µg/dL before any chelation and recorded neurological status. Odds ratios (OR) for neurological features were estimated; the final model was adjusted for age and baseline VBLL, using random effects for village of residence. 972 children met inclusion criteria: 885 (91%) had no neurological features; 34 (4%) had severe features; 47 (5%) had reported recent seizures; and six (1%) had other neurological abnormalities. The geometric mean VBLLs for all groups with neurological features were >100 µg/dL vs 65.9 µg/dL for those without neurological features. The adjusted OR for neurological features increased with increasing VBLL: from 2.75, 95%CI 1.27-5.98 (80-99.9 µg/dL) to 22.95, 95%CI 10.54-49.96 (≥120 µg/dL). Neurological features were associated with younger age (OR 4.77 [95% CI 2.50-9.11] for 1-<2 years and 2.69 [95%CI 1.15-6.26] for 2-<3 years, both vs 3-5 years). Severe neurological features were seen at VBLL <105 µg/dL only in those with malaria. Increasing VBLL (from ≥80 µg/dL) and age 1-<3 years were strongly associated with neurological features; in those tested for malaria, a positive test was also strongly associated. These factors will help clinicians managing children with lead poisoning in prioritising therapy and developing chelation protocols.

  12. Association of Blood Lead Level with Neurological Features in 972 Children Affected by an Acute Severe Lead Poisoning Outbreak in Zamfara State, Northern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Greig, Jane; Thurtle, Natalie; Cooney, Lauren; Ariti, Cono; Ahmed, Abdulkadir Ola; Ashagre, Teshome; Ayela, Anthony; Chukwumalu, Kingsley; Criado-Perez, Alison; Gómez-Restrepo, Camilo; Meredith, Caitlin; Neri, Antonio; Stellmach, Darryl; Sani-Gwarzo, Nasir; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; Shanks, Leslie; Dargan, Paul I.

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2010, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) investigated reports of high mortality in young children in Zamfara State, Nigeria, leading to confirmation of villages with widespread acute severe lead poisoning. In a retrospective analysis, we aimed to determine venous blood lead level (VBLL) thresholds and risk factors for encephalopathy using MSF programmatic data from the first year of the outbreak response. Methods and Findings We included children aged ≤5 years with VBLL ≥45 µg/dL before any chelation and recorded neurological status. Odds ratios (OR) for neurological features were estimated; the final model was adjusted for age and baseline VBLL, using random effects for village of residence. 972 children met inclusion criteria: 885 (91%) had no neurological features; 34 (4%) had severe features; 47 (5%) had reported recent seizures; and six (1%) had other neurological abnormalities. The geometric mean VBLLs for all groups with neurological features were >100 µg/dL vs 65.9 µg/dL for those without neurological features. The adjusted OR for neurological features increased with increasing VBLL: from 2.75, 95%CI 1.27–5.98 (80–99.9 µg/dL) to 22.95, 95%CI 10.54–49.96 (≥120 µg/dL). Neurological features were associated with younger age (OR 4.77 [95% CI 2.50–9.11] for 1–<2 years and 2.69 [95%CI 1.15–6.26] for 2–<3 years, both vs 3–5 years). Severe neurological features were seen at VBLL <105 µg/dL only in those with malaria. Interpretation Increasing VBLL (from ≥80 µg/dL) and age 1–<3 years were strongly associated with neurological features; in those tested for malaria, a positive test was also strongly associated. These factors will help clinicians managing children with lead poisoning in prioritising therapy and developing chelation protocols. PMID:24740291

  13. Environmental Remediation to Address Childhood Lead Poisoning Epidemic due to Artisanal Gold Mining in Zamfara, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Tirima, Simba; Bartrem, Casey; von Lindern, Ian; von Braun, Margrit; Lind, Douglas; Anka, Shehu Mohammed; Abdullahi, Aishat

    2016-01-01

    Background: From 2010 through 2013, integrated health and environmental responses addressed an unprecedented epidemic lead poisoning in Zamfara State, northern Nigeria. Artisanal gold mining caused widespread contamination resulting in the deaths of > 400 children. Socioeconomic, logistic, and security challenges required remediation and medical protocols within the context of local resources, labor practices, and cultural traditions. Objectives: Our aim was to implement emergency environmental remediation to abate exposures to 17,000 lead poisoned villagers, to facilitate chelation treatment of children ≤ 5 years old, and to establish local technical capacity and lead health advocacy programs to prevent future disasters. Methods: U.S. hazardous waste removal protocols were modified to accommodate local agricultural practices. Remediation was conducted over 4 years in three phases, progressing from an emergency response by international personnel to comprehensive cleanup funded and accomplished by the Nigerian government. Results: More than 27,000 m3 of contaminated soils and mining waste were removed from 820 residences and ore processing areas in eight villages, largely by hand labor, and disposed in constructed landfills. Excavated areas were capped with clean soils (≤ 25 mg/kg lead), decreasing soil lead concentrations by 89%, and 2,349 children received chelation treatment. Pre-chelation geometric mean blood lead levels for children ≤ 5 years old decreased from 149 μg/dL to 15 μg/dL over the 4-year remedial program. Conclusions: The unprecedented outbreak and response demonstrate that, given sufficient political will and modest investment, the world’s most challenging environmental health crises can be addressed by adapting proven response protocols to the capabilities of host countries. Citation: Tirima S, Bartrem C, von Lindern I, von Braun M, Lind D, Anka SM, Abdullahi A. 2016. Environmental remediation to address childhood lead poisoning epidemic

  14. Environmental Remediation to Address Childhood Lead Poisoning Epidemic due to Artisanal Gold Mining in Zamfara, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Tirima, Simba; Bartrem, Casey; von Lindern, Ian; von Braun, Margrit; Lind, Douglas; Anka, Shehu Mohammed; Abdullahi, Aishat

    2016-09-01

    From 2010 through 2013, integrated health and environmental responses addressed an unprecedented epidemic lead poisoning in Zamfara State, northern Nigeria. Artisanal gold mining caused widespread contamination resulting in the deaths of > 400 children. Socioeconomic, logistic, and security challenges required remediation and medical protocols within the context of local resources, labor practices, and cultural traditions. Our aim was to implement emergency environmental remediation to abate exposures to 17,000 lead poisoned villagers, to facilitate chelation treatment of children ≤ 5 years old, and to establish local technical capacity and lead health advocacy programs to prevent future disasters. U.S. hazardous waste removal protocols were modified to accommodate local agricultural practices. Remediation was conducted over 4 years in three phases, progressing from an emergency response by international personnel to comprehensive cleanup funded and accomplished by the Nigerian government. More than 27,000 m3 of contaminated soils and mining waste were removed from 820 residences and ore processing areas in eight villages, largely by hand labor, and disposed in constructed landfills. Excavated areas were capped with clean soils (≤ 25 mg/kg lead), decreasing soil lead concentrations by 89%, and 2,349 children received chelation treatment. Pre-chelation geometric mean blood lead levels for children ≤ 5 years old decreased from 149 μg/dL to 15 μg/dL over the 4-year remedial program. The unprecedented outbreak and response demonstrate that, given sufficient political will and modest investment, the world's most challenging environmental health crises can be addressed by adapting proven response protocols to the capabilities of host countries. Tirima S, Bartrem C, von Lindern I, von Braun M, Lind D, Anka SM, Abdullahi A. 2016. Environmental remediation to address childhood lead poisoning epidemic due to artisanal gold mining in Zamfara, Nigeria. Environ Health

  15. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Elevated Blood Lead in Children in Gold Ore Processing Communities, Zamfara, Nigeria, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, John A.; Brown, Mary Jean; Umar-Tsafe, Nasir T.; Adbullahi, Muhammad Bashir; Getso, Kabiru I.; Kaita, Ibrahim M.; Sule, Binta Bako; Ba’aba, Ahmed; Davis, Lora; Nguku, Patrick M.; Sani-Gwarzo, Nasir

    2018-01-01

    Background In March 2010, Medecins Sans Frontieres/Doctors Without Borders detected an outbreak of acute lead poisoning in Zamfara State, northwestern Nigeria, linked to low-technology gold ore processing. The outbreak killed more than 400 children ≤5 years of age in the first half of 2010 and has left more than 2,000 children with permanent disabilities. Objectives The aims of this study were to estimate the statewide prevalence of children ≤5 years old with elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) in gold ore processing and non-ore-processing communities, and to identify factors associated with elevated blood lead levels in children. Methods A representative, population-based study of ore processing and non-ore-processing villages was conducted throughout Zamfara in 2012. Blood samples from children, outdoor soil samples, indoor dust samples, and survey data on ore processing activities and other lead sources were collected from 383 children ≤5 years old in 383 family compounds across 56 villages. Results 17.2% of compounds reported that at least one member had processed ore in the preceding 12 months (95% confidence intervals (CI): 9.7, 24.7). The prevalence of BLLs ≥10 µg/dL in children ≤5 years old was 38.2% (95% CI: 26.5, 51.4) in compounds with members who processed ore and 22.3% (95% CI: 17.8, 27.7) in compounds where no one processed ore. Ore processing activities were associated with higher lead concentrations in soil, dust, and blood samples. Other factors associated with elevated BLL were a child’s age and sex, breastfeeding, drinking water from a piped tap, and exposure to eye cosmetics. Conclusions Childhood lead poisoning is widespread in Zamfara State in both ore processing and non-ore-processing settings, although it is more prevalent in ore processing areas. Although most children’s BLLs were below the recommended level for chelation therapy, environmental remediation and use of safer ore processing practices are needed to prevent further

  16. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Elevated Blood Lead in Children in Gold Ore Processing Communities, Zamfara, Nigeria, 2012.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, John A; Brown, Mary Jean; Umar-Tsafe, Nasir T; Adbullahi, Muhammad Bashir; Getso, Kabiru I; Kaita, Ibrahim M; Sule, Binta Bako; Ba'aba, Ahmed; Davis, Lora; Nguku, Patrick M; Sani-Gwarzo, Nasir

    2016-09-01

    In March 2010, Medecins Sans Frontieres/Doctors Without Borders detected an outbreak of acute lead poisoning in Zamfara State, northwestern Nigeria, linked to low-technology gold ore processing. The outbreak killed more than 400 children ≤5 years of age in the first half of 2010 and has left more than 2,000 children with permanent disabilities. The aims of this study were to estimate the statewide prevalence of children ≤5 years old with elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) in gold ore processing and non-ore-processing communities, and to identify factors associated with elevated blood lead levels in children. A representative, population-based study of ore processing and non-ore-processing villages was conducted throughout Zamfara in 2012. Blood samples from children, outdoor soil samples, indoor dust samples, and survey data on ore processing activities and other lead sources were collected from 383 children ≤5 years old in 383 family compounds across 56 villages. 17.2% of compounds reported that at least one member had processed ore in the preceding 12 months (95% confidence intervals (CI): 9.7, 24.7). The prevalence of BLLs ≥10 µg/dL in children ≤5 years old was 38.2% (95% CI: 26.5, 51.4) in compounds with members who processed ore and 22.3% (95% CI: 17.8, 27.7) in compounds where no one processed ore. Ore processing activities were associated with higher lead concentrations in soil, dust, and blood samples. Other factors associated with elevated BLL were a child's age and sex, breastfeeding, drinking water from a piped tap, and exposure to eye cosmetics. Childhood lead poisoning is widespread in Zamfara State in both ore processing and non-ore-processing settings, although it is more prevalent in ore processing areas. Although most children's BLLs were below the recommended level for chelation therapy, environmental remediation and use of safer ore processing practices are needed to prevent further exposures. Obtained. The study protocol was approved

  17. Malaria rapid diagnostic test in children: The Zamfara, Nigeria experience.

    PubMed

    Abdulkadir, Isa; Rufai, Hafsah Ahmad; Ochapa, Sunday Onazi; Malam, Mado Sani; Garba, Bilkisu Ilah; Oloko, Adebayo Ganiyu Yusuf; George, Idemudia Itoya

    2015-01-01

    Malaria remains a major cause of under-five morbidity and mortality in Nigeria, and prompt diagnosis occupies a strategic position in its management. Malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT), a nontechnical, easy to perform test promises to meet this need. It is important to locally document the usefulness of the use of RDT in making prompt malaria diagnosis in children. To determine the prevalence of malaria and evaluate the diagnostic performance of malaria RDT kit in febrile under-five children presenting to a Tertiary Health Facility in Gusau, North-Western Nigeria. A cross-sectional study of children aged 6-59 months, evaluated for malaria in a tertiary health facility from August 2012 to January 2013. Information was obtained from care providers of all subjects with fever and a presumptive diagnosis of malaria. All subjects were investigated using Giemsa stain microscopy and Carestart™ malaria RDT. The prevalence of malaria in 250 febrile under-five children was 54%. Three-quarter (79%) of the children received inappropriate nonrecommended antimalaria prior to their presentation, including 20% who received chloroquine. The overall sensitivity of RDT was 40.3%. The specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 89.6%, 81.8%, and 56.5%, respectively. Use of RDT should be encouraged for screening and diagnosis using a protocol such that febrile children with positive RDT results are confirmed as having malaria while those with negative results are further evaluated using microscopy.

  18. Food contamination as a pathway for lead exposure in children during the 2010-2013 lead poisoning epidemic in Zamfara, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Tirima, Simba; Bartrem, Casey; von Lindern, Ian; von Braun, Margrit; Lind, Douglas; Anka, Shehu Mohamed; Abdullahi, Aishat

    2018-05-01

    In 2010, an estimated 400 to 500 children died of acute lead poisoning associated with artisanal gold mining in Zamfara, Nigeria. Processing of gold ores containing up to 10% lead within residential compounds put residents, especially children, at the highest risk. Principal routes of exposure were incidental ingestion and inhalation of contaminated soil and dusts. Several Nigerian and international health organizations collaborated to reduce lead exposures through environmental remediation and medical treatment. The contribution of contaminated food to total lead exposure was assessed during the environmental health response. Objectives of this investigation were to assess the influence of cultural/dietary habits on lead exposure pathways and estimate the contribution of contaminated food to children's blood lead levels (BLLs). A survey of village dietary practices and staple food lead content was conducted to determine dietary composition, caloric intakes, and lead intake. Potential blood lead increments were estimated using bio-kinetic modeling techniques. Most dietary lead exposure was associated with contamination of staple cereal grains and legumes during post-harvest processing and preparation in contaminated homes. Average post-harvest and processed cereal grain lead levels were 0.32mg/kg and 0.85mg/kg dry weight, respectively. Age-specific food lead intake ranged from 7 to 78μg/day. Lead ingestion and absorption were likely aggravated by the dusty environment, fasting between meals, and nutritional deficiencies. Contamination of staple cereal grains by highly bioavailable pulverized ores could account for as much as 11%-34% of children's BLLs during the epidemic, and were a continuing source after residential soil remediation until stored grain inventories were exhausted. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Description of 3,180 Courses of Chelation with Dimercaptosuccinic Acid in Children ≤5 y with Severe Lead Poisoning in Zamfara, Northern Nigeria: A Retrospective Analysis of Programme Data

    PubMed Central

    Thurtle, Natalie; Greig, Jane; Cooney, Lauren; Amitai, Yona; Ariti, Cono; Brown, Mary Jean; Kosnett, Michael J.; Moussally, Krystel; Sani-Gwarzo, Nasir; Akpan, Henry; Shanks, Leslie; Dargan, Paul I.

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2010, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) discovered extensive lead poisoning impacting several thousand children in rural northern Nigeria. An estimated 400 fatalities had occurred over 3 mo. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) confirmed widespread contamination from lead-rich ore being processed for gold, and environmental management was begun. MSF commenced a medical management programme that included treatment with the oral chelating agent 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA, succimer). Here we describe and evaluate the changes in venous blood lead level (VBLL) associated with DMSA treatment in the largest cohort of children ≤5 y of age with severe paediatric lead intoxication reported to date to our knowledge. Methods and Findings In a retrospective analysis of programme data, we describe change in VBLL after DMSA treatment courses in a cohort of 1,156 children ≤5 y of age who underwent between one and 15 courses of chelation treatment. Courses of DMSA of 19 or 28 d duration administered to children with VBLL ≥ 45 µg/dl were included. Impact of DMSA was calculated as end-course VBLL as a percentage of pre-course VBLL (ECP). Mixed model regression with nested random effects was used to evaluate the relative associations of covariates with ECP. Of 3,180 treatment courses administered, 36% and 6% of courses commenced with VBLL ≥ 80 µg/dl and ≥ 120 µg/dl, respectively. Overall mean ECP was 74.5% (95% CI 69.7%–79.7%); among 159 inpatient courses, ECP was 47.7% (95% CI 39.7%–57.3%). ECP after 19-d courses (n = 2,262) was lower in older children, first-ever courses, courses with a longer interval since a previous course, courses with more directly observed doses, and courses with higher pre-course VBLLs. Low haemoglobin was associated with higher ECP. Twenty children aged ≤5 y who commenced chelation died during the period studied, with lead poisoning a primary factor in six deaths. Monitoring of alanine

  20. Description of 3,180 courses of chelation with dimercaptosuccinic acid in children ≤ 5 y with severe lead poisoning in Zamfara, Northern Nigeria: a retrospective analysis of programme data.

    PubMed

    Thurtle, Natalie; Greig, Jane; Cooney, Lauren; Amitai, Yona; Ariti, Cono; Brown, Mary Jean; Kosnett, Michael J; Moussally, Krystel; Sani-Gwarzo, Nasir; Akpan, Henry; Shanks, Leslie; Dargan, Paul I

    2014-10-01

    In 2010, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) discovered extensive lead poisoning impacting several thousand children in rural northern Nigeria. An estimated 400 fatalities had occurred over 3 mo. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) confirmed widespread contamination from lead-rich ore being processed for gold, and environmental management was begun. MSF commenced a medical management programme that included treatment with the oral chelating agent 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA, succimer). Here we describe and evaluate the changes in venous blood lead level (VBLL) associated with DMSA treatment in the largest cohort of children ≤ 5 y of age with severe paediatric lead intoxication reported to date to our knowledge. In a retrospective analysis of programme data, we describe change in VBLL after DMSA treatment courses in a cohort of 1,156 children ≤ 5 y of age who underwent between one and 15 courses of chelation treatment. Courses of DMSA of 19 or 28 d duration administered to children with VBLL ≥ 45 µg/dl were included. Impact of DMSA was calculated as end-course VBLL as a percentage of pre-course VBLL (ECP). Mixed model regression with nested random effects was used to evaluate the relative associations of covariates with ECP. Of 3,180 treatment courses administered, 36% and 6% of courses commenced with VBLL ≥ 80 µg/dl and ≥ 120 µg/dl, respectively. Overall mean ECP was 74.5% (95% CI 69.7%-79.7%); among 159 inpatient courses, ECP was 47.7% (95% CI 39.7%-57.3%). ECP after 19-d courses (n = 2,262) was lower in older children, first-ever courses, courses with a longer interval since a previous course, courses with more directly observed doses, and courses with higher pre-course VBLLs. Low haemoglobin was associated with higher ECP. Twenty children aged ≤ 5 y who commenced chelation died during the period studied, with lead poisoning a primary factor in six deaths. Monitoring of alanine transaminase (ALT), creatinine, and full blood

  1. Impact of Sex Education in Kogi State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sule, H. A.; Akor, J. A.; Toluhi, O. J.; Suleiman, R. O.; Akpihi, L.; Ali, O. U.

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this study was to investigate the impact of family sex education in secondary schools on students in Kogi State, Nigeria. The descriptive survey design was used for the study. A total of 1,960 secondary school students were drawn by stratified random sampling from 40 schools within Kogi State, Nigeria. Three research questions were…

  2. Direct non-medical costs double the total direct costs to patients undergoing cataract surgery in Zamfara state, Northern Nigeria: a case series.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Nazaradden; Pozo-Martin, Francisco; Gilbert, Clare

    2015-04-16

    Cost is frequently reported as a barrier to cataract surgery, but few studies have reported costs of accessing surgery in Africa. The purpose of this prospective, facility based study was to compare direct non-medical cost with total direct cost of cataract surgery to patients, and to assess how money was found to cover costs. Participants were those aged 17 years and above attending their first post-operative visit after first eye, subsidised, day case cataract surgery. Systematic random sampling was used to select participants who were interviewed to obtain data on socio-demographic details, and on expenditure during the assessment visit, the surgical visit, and the first follow-up visit. Costs were a) direct medical costs (patients' costs for registration, investigations, surgery, medication), and b) direct non-medical costs (patients' and escorts' costs for transport, accommodation, meals). The source of funds to pay for the services received was also assessed. Almost two thirds (63%) of the 104 participants were men. The mean age of men was 64 (± 12.5) years, being 63 (± 12.9) years for women. All men were married and 35% of women were widows. 84% of men were household heads compared with 6% of women. The median total direct cost for all visits by all participants was N8,245 (US$51), being higher for men than women (N9,020; US$56 and N7,620; US$47) (p < 0.09) respectively. Direct non-medical cost constituted 49% of total direct cost. 92% of participants had adequate money to pay, but 8% had to sell possessions to raise the money. 20% of unmarried women sold possessions or took out a loan. Despite the subsidy, cost is still likely to be a barrier to accessing cataract surgery, as the total direct costs represented at least 50 days income for 70% of the local population. Provision of transport would reduce direct non-medical costs.

  3. Refugee Education: The State of Nigeria's Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obashoro-John, Oluwayemisi A.; Oni, Gbolabo J.

    2017-01-01

    The spate of insurgences and conflicts in the country and around the sub-region has led to the increased presence of refugees and Internally Displaced People (IDPs) in Nigeria. This has resultant challenges on the basic needs of refugees and IDPs at different levels. One of the highest priorities of refugees and IDPs communities is education.…

  4. Stakeholder Perceptions of Secondary Education Quality in Sokoto State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, Yaro; Arshad, Rozita; Salleh, Dani

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to obtain stakeholder perceptions of secondary education quality in Sokoto State, Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative research approach was used by conducting interviews. Data were purposively collected from a sample of 15 education stakeholders in Sokoto State, and analyzed to extract major themes using…

  5. Determinants of Internet use in Imo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anunobi, C. V.; Mbagwu, F. C.

    2009-01-01

    The research was designed to determine the use of internet in Imo state, Nigeria with a view to enlighten societal stakeholders on their implications to development. Self designed questionnaire was distributed to users from five internet centers in the three local government areas of Imo State. 219 (73%) of the 300 distributed questionnaires were…

  6. Understanding Women's Associations in Nigeria: The Case of Oun State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deji, O. F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper has analyzed the characteristic features of women's associations and problems inhibiting their effective participation in rural development projects in Osun State, Nigeria. One rural local government area was purposively selected in each of the six administrative zones in Osun State, based on high degrees of ruralness. A list of…

  7. Nigeria

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-15

    article title:  Smoke over Nigeria and the Gulf of Guinea     ... document extensive smoke from fires burning throughout Nigeria and north central Africa on January 31, 2003. At left are natural-color ... the dark-colored Aïr Mountains), through forested Nigeria, and beyond the Niger Delta to the Gulf of Guinea and the open ocean. ...

  8. Functional Literacy Empowerment for Nomadic Herdsmen in Osun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olateju, Mojisola Ajibike

    2010-01-01

    The need for adequate functional English literacy and numeracy instruction for the herdsmen in Osun State in Nigeria arose as a result of the persistent clashes between the herdsmen and their neighbours. In all, 48 participants (22 adults and 26 children and youths) took part in the International Reading Association assisted functional literacy…

  9. Health & demographic surveillance system profile: the Nahuche Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Northern Nigeria (Nahuche HDSS).

    PubMed

    Alabi, Olatunji; Doctor, Henry V; Jumare, Abdulazeez; Sahabi, Nasiru; Abdulwahab, Ahmad; Findley, Sally E; Abubakar, Sani D

    2014-12-01

    The Nahuche Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) study site, established in 2009 with 137 823 individuals is located in Zamfara State, north western Nigeria. North-West Nigeria is a region with one of the worst maternal and child health indicators in Nigeria. For example, the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey estimated an under-five mortality rate of 185 deaths per 1000 live births for the north-west geo-political zone compared with a national average of 128 deaths per 1000 live births. The site comprises over 100 villages under the leadership of six district heads. Virtually all the residents of the catchment population are Hausa by ethnicity. After a baseline census in 2010, regular update rounds of data collection are conducted every 6 months. Data collection on births, deaths, migration events, pregnancies, marriages and marriage termination events are routinely conducted. Verbal autopsy (VA) data are collected on all deaths reported during routine data collection. Annual update data on antenatal care and household characteristics are also collected. Opportunities for collaborations are available at Nahuche HDSS. The Director of Nahuche HDSS, M.O. Oche at [ochedr@hotmail.com] is the contact person for all forms of collaboration. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  10. PIXE analysis of Thaumatococcus danielli in Osun State of Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olabanji, S. O.; Osinkolu, G. A.; Pelemo, D. A.; Obiajunwa, E. I.; Oladele, A. T.

    2014-01-01

    Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique was employed for the determination of elemental compositions of Thaumatococcus danielli (T. danielli) {Marantaceae} (Benn.) Benth [miraculous berry] in Osun State of Nigeria. The objective is to show the usefulness of T. danielli and especially the beneficial effects of the mineral concentrations from the leaves and fruits of T. danielli. The results show the detection of seventeen elements at different concentrations, and their beneficial effects to humans were discussed.

  11. Socioeconomic status and obesity in Abia State, South East Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Chukwuonye, Innocent Ijezie; Chuku, Abali; Okpechi, Ikechi Gareth; Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu Uchenna; Madukwe, Okechukwu Ojoemelam; Okafor, Godwin Oguejiofor Chukwuebuka; Ogah, Okechukwu Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease in developed and emerging economies. There is a paucity of data from Nigeria on the association between socioeconomic status and obesity. The aim of this study is to highlight that association in Abia State, South East Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional survey in South East Nigeria. Participating subjects were recruited from the three senatorial zones of Abia state. A total of 2,487 adults took part in the study. The subjects were classified based on their monthly income and level of educational attainment (determinants of obesity). Monthly income was classified into three groups: low, middle, and upper income, while educational level was classified into four groups: no formal education, primary, secondary, and tertiary education. Body mass index of subjects was determined and used for defining obesity. Data on blood pressure and other anthropometric measurements were also collected using a questionnaire, modified from the World Health Organization STEPwise Approach to Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance. Overall, the prevalence of obesity in low, middle, and upper income groups was 12.2%, 16%, and 20%, respectively. The overall prevalence of obesity in individuals with no formal education, primary, secondary, and tertiary education was 6.3%, 14.9%, 10.5%, and 17.7%, respectively. Educational status was found to be significantly associated with obesity in women, but not in men, or in the combined group. However, level of income was observed to be significantly associated with obesity in men, women, and in the combined group. Sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors are important determinants of obesity in our study population, and therefore may be indirectly linked to the prevalence and the outcomes of cardiovascular disease in Nigeria.

  12. Socioeconomic status and obesity in Abia State, South East Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Chukwuonye, Innocent Ijezie; Chuku, Abali; Okpechi, Ikechi Gareth; Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu Uchenna; Madukwe, Okechukwu Ojoemelam; Okafor, Godwin Oguejiofor Chukwuebuka; Ogah, Okechukwu Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives Obesity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease in developed and emerging economies. There is a paucity of data from Nigeria on the association between socioeconomic status and obesity. The aim of this study is to highlight that association in Abia State, South East Nigeria. Material and methods This was a cross-sectional survey in South East Nigeria. Participating subjects were recruited from the three senatorial zones of Abia state. A total of 2,487 adults took part in the study. The subjects were classified based on their monthly income and level of educational attainment (determinants of obesity). Monthly income was classified into three groups: low, middle, and upper income, while educational level was classified into four groups: no formal education, primary, secondary, and tertiary education. Body mass index of subjects was determined and used for defining obesity. Data on blood pressure and other anthropometric measurements were also collected using a questionnaire, modified from the World Health Organization STEPwise Approach to Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance. Results Overall, the prevalence of obesity in low, middle, and upper income groups was 12.2%, 16%, and 20%, respectively. The overall prevalence of obesity in individuals with no formal education, primary, secondary, and tertiary education was 6.3%, 14.9%, 10.5%, and 17.7%, respectively. Educational status was found to be significantly associated with obesity in women, but not in men, or in the combined group. However, level of income was observed to be significantly associated with obesity in men, women, and in the combined group. Conclusion Sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors are important determinants of obesity in our study population, and therefore may be indirectly linked to the prevalence and the outcomes of cardiovascular disease in Nigeria. PMID:24204167

  13. Health manpower development in Bayelsa State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    McFubara, Kalada G; Edoni, Elizabeth R; Ezonbodor-Akwagbe, Rose E

    2012-01-01

    Health manpower is one of the critical factors in the development of a region. This is because health is an index of development. Bayelsa State has a low level of health manpower. Thus, in this study, we sought to identify factors necessary for effective development of health manpower. Three methods were used to gather information, ie, face-to-face interviews, postal surveys, and documentary analysis. Critical incidents were identified, and content and thematic analyses were conducted. There is no full complement of a primary health care workforce in any of the health centers in the state. The three health manpower training institutions have the limitations of inadequate health care educators and other manpower training facilities, including lack of a teaching hospital. Accreditation of health manpower training institutions is a major factor for effective development of health manpower. Public officers can contribute to the accreditation process by subsuming their personal interest into the state's common interest. Bayelsa is a fast-growing state and needs a critical mass of health care personnel. To develop this workforce requires a conscious effort rich in common interests in the deployment of resources.

  14. Health manpower development in Bayelsa State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    McFubara, Kalada G; Edoni, Elizabeth R; Ezonbodor-Akwagbe, Rose E

    2012-01-01

    Background: Health manpower is one of the critical factors in the development of a region. This is because health is an index of development. Bayelsa State has a low level of health manpower. Thus, in this study, we sought to identify factors necessary for effective development of health manpower. Methods: Three methods were used to gather information, ie, face-to-face interviews, postal surveys, and documentary analysis. Critical incidents were identified, and content and thematic analyses were conducted. Results: There is no full complement of a primary health care workforce in any of the health centers in the state. The three health manpower training institutions have the limitations of inadequate health care educators and other manpower training facilities, including lack of a teaching hospital. Conclusion: Accreditation of health manpower training institutions is a major factor for effective development of health manpower. Public officers can contribute to the accreditation process by subsuming their personal interest into the state’s common interest. Bayelsa is a fast-growing state and needs a critical mass of health care personnel. To develop this workforce requires a conscious effort rich in common interests in the deployment of resources. PMID:23271926

  15. Technical Training Skills Needs of Youth for Sustainable Job Security in Rice Production in Ebonyi State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edu, Chukwuma Nwofe; Ogba, Ernest Ituma

    2016-01-01

    The study identifies technical training skills needs of youth for sustainable job security in rice production in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. This study was carried out in secondary schools in three educational zones in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Ebonyi state is one of the states in the southeast geopolitical zone in Nigeria. Descriptive survey design was…

  16. Occupational Stress and Management Strategies of Secondary School Principals in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyanwu, Joy; Ezenwaji, Ifeyinwa; Okenjom, Godian; Enyi, Chinwe

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed at finding out sources and symptoms of occupational stress and management strategies of principals in secondary schools in Cross River State, Nigeria. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study with a population of 420 principals (304 males and 116 females) in secondary schools in Cross River State, Nigeria. Three…

  17. Adoption of Aquaculture Technology by Fish Farmers in Imo State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ike, Nwachukwu; Roseline, Onuegbu

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluated the level of adoption of aquaculture technology extended to farmers in Imo State, Nigeria. To improve aquaculture practice in Nigeria, a technology package was developed and disseminated to farmers in the state. This package included ten practices that the farmers were supposed to adopt. Eighty-two respondents were randomly…

  18. Entrepreneurship Education and Graduates Unemployment in Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emunemu, B. O.; Kasali, O. J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated entrepreneurship and graduates' unemployment in Nigeria.The problem of unemployment in Nigeria has become endemic. There have been reported cases of under-employment, seasonal, casual and full blown unemployment. Previous studies on unemployment and factors influencing it in Nigeria identify poor educational standards,…

  19. HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitudes, and Opinions among Adolescents in the River States of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodi, Ben E.

    2005-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa remains the epicenter of the global HIV/AIDS pandemic (Taylor et al., 2003; UNAIDS/UNICEF/WHO, 2000; Eaton, Flishera and Arob, 2002; Prat, et al., 2000). Nigeria is one of the most afflicted sub-Saharan nations (UNAIDS, 2002). Rivers State, a major industrial area of Nigeria and the nerve center of the oil industry, represents a…

  20. An Investigation into the State of Status Planning of Tiv Language of Central Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terkimbi, Atonde

    2016-01-01

    The Tiv language is one of the major languages spoken in central Nigeria. The language is of the Benue-Congo subclass of the Bantu parent family. It has over four million speakers spoken in five states of Nigeria. The language like many other Nigerian languages is in dire need of language planning efforts and strategies. Some previous efforts were…

  1. Conservation of indigenous medicinal botanicals in Ekiti State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Kayode, Joshua

    2006-01-01

    The rapid appraisal method was used to identify the botanicals used ethnomedicinally from a total of 300 randomly selected respondents drawn from the existing three geo-political zones of Ekiti State, Nigeria. The results obtained revealed that about 40% of the 71 botanicals identified presently rare. Most of the presently abundant botanicals are species primarily cultivated for other purpose other than medicine. Most of the identified species are valued for their curative effects on malaria and fever, the predominant diseases in the study area. The need for the conservation of the rare species cannot be over emphasised as most rural dwellers in the study area depend mostly on herbs from these species. Strategies towards the attainment of this goal are proposed. PMID:16909472

  2. Ectoparasitic infestation of dogs in Bendel State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ugochukwu, E I; Nnadozie, C C

    1985-12-01

    An investigation into ectoparasitic infestation of different breeds of dogs presented to four veterinary clinics in Benin, Sapele and Auchi in Bendel State of Nigeria during the period January 1983 to December 1983 is presented. Of a total of 820 dogs examined for ectoparasites 246 (30.00%) were infected by ticks, 226 (27.56%) by lice, 212 (25.85%) by fleas and 109 (13.29%) by mites. The species of ectoparasites identified and their prevalence rates were Rhipicephalus sanguineus (19.5%), Otobius megnini (10.48%), Ctenocephalides canis (25.85%), Demodex canis (13.29%). Common clinical symptoms evinced in this species include scratching, licking, irritation, restlessness, alopecia, otitis externa and dermatitis. Some aspects of epidemiology of canine ectoparasitic infestation are discussed.

  3. Cataract Blindness in Osun State, Nigeria: Results of a Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kolawole, Olubayo U.; Ashaye, Adeyinka O.; Mahmoud, Abdulraheem O.; Adeoti, Caroline O.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate the burden of blindness and visual impairment due to cataract in Egbedore Local Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Twenty clusters of 60 individuals who were 50 years or older were selected by systematic random sampling from the entire community. A total of 1,183 persons were examined. Results: The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of bilateral cataract-related blindness (visual acuity (VA) < 3/60) in people of 50 years and older was 2.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.6–2.4%). The Cataract Surgical Coverage (CSC) (persons) was 12.1% and Couching Coverage (persons) was 11.8%. The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of bilateral operable cataract (VA < 6/60) in people of 50 years and older was 2.7% (95% CI: 2.3–3.1%). In this last group, the cataract intervention (surgery + couching) coverage was 22.2%. The proportion of patients who could not attain 6/60 vision after surgery were 12.5, 87.5, and 92.9%, respectively, for patients who underwent intraocular lens (IOL) implantation, cataract surgery without IOL implantation and those who underwent couching. “Lack of awareness” (30.4%), “no need for surgery” (17.6%), cost (14.6%), fear (10.2%), “waiting for cataract to mature” (8.8%), AND “surgical services not available” (5.8%) were reasons why individuals with operable cataract did not undergo cataract surgery. Conclusions: Over 600 operable cataracts exist in this region of Nigeria. There is an urgent need for an effective, affordable, and accessible cataract outreach program. Sustained efforts have to be made to increase the number of IOL surgeries, by making IOL surgery available locally at an affordable cost, if not completely free. PMID:23248537

  4. Diverticular disease at colonoscopy in Lagos State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oluyemi, Aderemi; Odeghe, Emuobor

    2016-01-01

    The upsurge in the reported cases of diverticular disease (DD) has led to a re-appraisal of the earlier held views that it was a rare entity in Nigeria. The advent of colonoscopy has contributed in no small way to this change. We sought to determine the clinical characteristics, indications for colonoscopy, and intra-procedural findings among these patients. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out on the colonoscopy records from four private endoscopy units based in Lagos State, Nigeria. The records were drawn from a 5-year period (August 2010 to July 2015). The endoscopy logs and reports were reviewed, and the bio data, indications, and colonoscopy findings were gleaned. A total of 265 colonoscopies were carried out in the stated period. Of these, 28 (10.6%) had DD. Of the patients with DD, 5 (17.9%) were females while 23 (82.1%) were males. Their ages ranged from 46 to 94 years (mean = 68.2 ± 11 years). Fifteen patients had been referred for the procedure on account of hematochezia alone (15 = 53.6%). Other reasons for referral included abdominal pain alone (2 = 7%), hematochezia plus abdominal pain (5 = 17.9%), and change in bowel habits (3 = 10.8%). Ten (35%) patients had pan-colonic involvement. Regional disease involved the right side alone in only one case (3.5%) while the other combinations of sites are as follows; 6 (21.4%) in the sigmoid colon alone, 2 (7%) in the descending colon alone, 5 (17.9%) in the sigmoid-descending colon, 4 (14.3%) in the sigmoid-descending-transverse colon, thus the sigmoid colon was involved in 25 (89.3%) cases. Five cases (17.9%) had endoscopic features suggestive of diverticulitis. DD should no longer be regarded as a rare problem in the Nigerian patient. The study findings support the notion of higher prevalence among the elderly, in males, and of sigmoid colon involvement.

  5. Seroprevalence of Brucella antibodies in camels in Katsina State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Salisu, U S; Kudi, C A; Bale, J O O; Babashani, M; Kaltungo, B Y; Saidu, S N A; Asambe, A; Baba, A Y

    2017-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the status of Brucella infection in one-humped (Dromedary) camels in the North and Central senatorial districts of Katsina State, Nigeria. Nine hundred and eighty serum samples from live and slaughtered camels were tested. Modified Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) and serum agglutination test (SAT) with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, (EDTA) were used as screening and standard tests, respectively. The prevalence of Brucella antibodies were 110 (11.2%) and 103 (10.5%) for RBPT and SAT, respectively. Of the 472 and 508 serum samples tested from the herds and abattoirs, respectively, 63 (13.3%) and 47 (9.3%) were positive by RBPT while 62 (13.1%) and 41 (8.1%) were positive by SAT, respectively. Based on the results, it was concluded that Brucella antibodies were present in camels in the study area. Poor management practices and mixing of camels with other species of livestock as well as unrestricted movement of camels were proposed to be the reasons for the prevalence of the disease in the study area. In view of the public health importance of the disease, it is recommended that there is the need to develop a strategic plan to decrease spread of brucellosis in the study area.

  6. Analyses of GIMMS NDVI Time Series in Kogi State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palka, Jessica; Wessollek, Christine; Karrasch, Pierre

    2017-10-01

    The value of remote sensing data is particularly evident where an areal monitoring is needed to provide information on the earth's surface development. The use of temporal high resolution time series data allows for detecting short-term changes. In Kogi State in Nigeria different vegetation types can be found. As the major population in this region is living in rural communities with crop farming the existing vegetation is slowly being altered. The expansion of agricultural land causes loss of natural vegetation, especially in the regions close to the rivers which are suitable for crop production. With regard to these facts, two questions can be dealt with covering different aspects of the development of vegetation in the Kogi state, the determination and evaluation of the general development of the vegetation in the study area (trend estimation) and analyses on a short-term behavior of vegetation conditions, which can provide information about seasonal effects in vegetation development. For this purpose, the GIMMS-NDVI data set, provided by the NOAA, provides information on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in a geometric resolution of approx. 8 km. The temporal resolution of 15 days allows the already described analyses. For the presented analysis data for the period 1981-2012 (31 years) were used. The implemented workflow mainly applies methods of time series analysis. The results show that in addition to the classical seasonal development, artefacts of different vegetation periods (several NDVI maxima) can be found in the data. The trend component of the time series shows a consistently positive development in the entire study area considering the full investigation period of 31 years. However, the results also show that this development has not been continuous and a simple linear modeling of the NDVI increase is only possible to a limited extent. For this reason, the trend modeling was extended by procedures for detecting structural breaks in

  7. Management of immunization solid wastes in Kano State, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Oke, I.A.

    Inadequate management of waste generated from injection activities can have a negative impact on the community and environment. In this paper, a report on immunization wastes management in Kano State (Nigeria) is presented. Eight local governments were selected randomly and surveyed by the author. Solid wastes generated during the Expanded Programme on Immunization were characterised using two different methods: one by weighing the waste and the other by estimating the volume. Empirical data was obtained on immunization waste generation, segregation, storage, collection, transportation, and disposal; and waste management practices were assessed. The study revealed that immunization offices were accommodated inmore » either in local government buildings, primary health centres or community health care centres. All of the stations demonstrated a high priority for segregation of the infectious wastes. It can be deduced from the data obtained that infectious waste ranged from 67.6% to 76.7% with an average of 70.1% by weight, and 36.0% to 46.1% with an average of 40.1% by volume. Non-infectious waste generated ranged from 23.3% to 32.5% with an average of 29.9% by weight and 53.9% to 64.0% with an average of 59.9% by volume. Out of non-infectious waste (NIFW) and infectious waste (IFW), 66.3% and 62.4% by weight were combustible and 33.7% and 37.6% were non-combustible respectively. An assessment of the treatment revealed that open pit burning and burial and small scale incineration were the common methods of disposal for immunization waste, and some immunization centres employed the services of the state or local government owned solid waste disposal board for final collection and disposal of their immunization waste at government approved sites.« less

  8. Time delays in the response to the Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C outbreak in Nigeria - 2017.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Assad; Mustapha, G U; Lawal, Bola B; Na'uzo, Aliyu M; Ismail, Raji; Womi-Eteng Oboma, Eteng; Oyebanji, Oyeronke; Agenyi, Jeremiah; Thomas, Chima; Balogun, Muhammad Shakir; Dalhat, Mahmood M; Nguku, Patrick; Ihekweazu, Chikwe

    2018-01-01

    Nigeria reports high rates of mortality linked with recurring meningococcal meningitis outbreaks within the African meningitis belt. Few studies have thoroughly described the response to these outbreaks to provide strong and actionable public health messages. We describe how time delays affected the response to the 2016/2017 meningococcal meningitis outbreak in Nigeria. Using data from Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC), National Primary Health Care Development Agency (NPHCDA), World Health Organisation (WHO), and situation reports of rapid response teams, we calculated attack and death rates of reported suspected meningococcal meningitis cases per week in Zamfara, Sokoto and Yobe states respectively, between epidemiological week 49 in 2016 and epidemiological week 25 in 2017. We identified when alert and epidemic thresholds were crossed and determined when the outbreak was detected and notified in each state. We examined response activities to the outbreak. There were 12,535 suspected meningococcal meningitis cases and 877 deaths (CFR: 7.0%) in the three states. It took an average time of three weeks before the outbreaks were detected and notified to NCDC. Four weeks after receiving notification, an integrated response coordinating centre was set up by NCDC and requests for vaccines were sent to International Coordinating Group (ICG) on vaccine provision. While it took ICG one week to approve the requests, it took an average of two weeks for approximately 41% of requested vaccines to arrive. On the average, it took nine weeks from the date the epidemic threshold was crossed to commencement of reactive vaccination in the three states. There were delays in detection and notification of the outbreak, in coordinating response activities, in requesting for vaccines and their arrival from ICG, and in initiating reactive vaccination. Reducing these delays in future outbreaks could help decrease the morbidity and mortality linked with meningococcal meningitis

  9. Staff Utilization and Commitment in Borno State Colleges of Education, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fika, Ibrahim Baba; Ibi, Mustapha Baba; Abdulrahman, Aishatu

    2016-01-01

    The study determines the relationship between staff utilization and staff commitment in Borno State Colleges of Education, Nigeria. The objectives of the study were to determine: the level of staff utilization in Borno State Colleges of Education, the level of staff commitment in Borno State Colleges of Education and the relationship between staff…

  10. Law Libraries in the Western Region/State of Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okewusi, Peter Agboola

    1988-01-01

    Reviews the establishment of the Western Regional Ministry of Justice in Nigeria and the subsequent development of law libraries to aid that agency. The functions of the ministry, staffing, and services of the law libraries, and the establishment of a printing office for government publications are described. (5 references) (CLB)

  11. Determinants of Successful Inclusive Education Practice in Lagos State Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeniyi, Samuel Olufemi; Owolabi, Josiah O.; Olojede, Kehinde

    2015-01-01

    Inclusive education is a new educational philosophy and a worldwide reform strategy intended to include students with different abilities in mainstream regular schools with the aim of achieving education for all. However, there is serious concern for total inclusiveness of special needs children in Nigeria. This study therefore investigated some…

  12. Economic burden of glaucoma in Rivers State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adio, Adedayo O; Onua, Alfred A

    2012-01-01

    Primary open angle glaucoma is reported to blind 150,000 people in the Nigerian population and over 7000 in Rivers State, and requires constant follow-up. Compliance is a challenge, given that most inhabitants live below the poverty line. This study was performed to determine how Nigerian patients are affected economically by the disease. Consecutive adult patients attending the eye clinic of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Rivers State, Nigeria, with a diagnosis of primary open angle glaucoma and on outpatient antiglaucoma treatment in the first 6 months of 2006, were recruited for the study. The lowest paid government worker was on USD50 (N7500.00) per month and the gross domestic product per capita was USD1150 for the period under review. We enrolled 120 consecutive patients of mean age 52.7 ± 10.4 years, with a male to female ratio of 2:3. The most common occupations were in the civil service (n = 56, 46.7%). All participants were on topical antiglaucoma treatment. The average cost of medical antiglaucoma medication was N6000 (USD40) per month. Computed to include indirect costs, including medical laboratory tests, transportation, and care by patient escorts, an average sum of USD105.4 (N15,810) was spent by each patient per month. Most of the patients (73.3%) were responsible for their own treatment costs. No patient accepted the cheaper option of surgery (USD275.4, N41,310). Eighty of the patients (66.7%) visited our eye clinic monthly. Direct and indirect loss to the economy was USD3,064587 per annum from those already blind. This was in addition to the USD 4.1 million being spent yearly on medical treatment by those who were visually impaired by glaucoma. Middle-income earners spent over 50% of their monthly income and low-income earners spend all their monthly earnings on treatment for glaucoma. This situation often resulted in noncompliance with treatment and hospital follow-up visits. To reduce the economic burden of glaucoma

  13. The Effective Management of Primary Schools in Ekiti State, Nigeria: An Analytical Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeyemi, T. O.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the management of education in primary schools in Ekiti State, Nigeria. As a correlational research, the study population comprised all the 694 primary schools in the State. Out of this, a sample of 320 schools was selected through the stratified random sampling technique. Two instruments were used to collect data for the…

  14. Ethnobotanical Potentials of Common Herbs in Nigeria: A Case Study of Enugu State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiyeloja, A. A.; Bello, O. A.

    2006-01-01

    Research was carried out on the ethnobotanical potentials of common herbs in Nigeria using Enugu State as a case study. A total of 200 questionnaires were administered on herb sellers in major herb markets in the state. In all, 96 different plant species were encountered in the markets. Attempts were made to write the names of the species both in…

  15. Youth Empowerment in Higher Education for Sustainable Development of Developing Communities in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekpiken, William E.; Ukpabio, Godfrey U.

    2015-01-01

    This paper was an attempt to examine youth empowerment in higher education for sustainable development of developing communities in Cross River State in Nigeria. In Cross River State developing communities, youths are in the majority and form a very strong formidable force in the society we live, study, but are not empowered while in school nor…

  16. Languages of Education in Nigeria: Extent of Implementation in the (UBE) Schools in Ebonyi State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okonkwo, Adaobi F.

    2016-01-01

    The study focused on languages of education in Nigeria and extent of implementation in the (UBE) Schools in Ebonyi State. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. The population of the study constituted all the Universal Basic Education teachers in the 13 LGA of the State. A sample study of 555 respondents was selected using proportionate…

  17. Relationship between Balanced Scorecard and Professors' Job Characteristics at Ekiti State University, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatile, Mopelola

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative, correlational study was to understand the relationship between a balanced scorecard, professors' job characteristics, and the leadership styles of higher education leaders at Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti State, Nigeria, which was the site of the study. The problem statement addressed whether or not a…

  18. Principals' Management of Conflicts in Public Secondary Schools in Ondo State, Nigeria: A Critical Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeyemi, T. O.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examined principals' management of conflicts in public secondary schools in Ondo State, Nigeria. As a descriptive survey, the study population comprised all the 281 public secondary schools in the State. Out of this population, a sample of 80 schools was drawn while 340 respondents (80 principals and 260 teachers) were selected through…

  19. Lecturers' Perception of Research Activities for Knowledge Production in Universities in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uchendu, C. C.; Osim, R. O.; Odigwe, F. N.; Alade, F. N.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined lecturers' perception of research activities for knowledge production in universities in Cross River State, Nigeria. Two hypotheses were isolated to give direction to this investigation. 240 university lecturers were sampled from a population of 1,868 from the two universities in Cross River State, using stratified random…

  20. State variations in women's socioeconomic status and use of modern contraceptives in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Lamidi, Esther O

    2015-01-01

    According to the 2014 World Population Data Sheet, Nigeria has one of the highest fertility and lowest contraceptive prevalence rates around the world. However, research suggests that national contraceptive prevalence rate overshadows enormous spatial variations in reproductive behavior in the country. I examined the variations in women's socioeconomic status and modern contraceptive use across states in Nigeria. Using the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey data (n = 18,910), I estimated the odds of modern contraceptive use among sexually active married and cohabiting women in a series of multilevel logistic regression models. The share of sexually active, married and cohabiting women using modern contraceptives widely varied, from less than one percent in Kano, Yobe, and Jigawa states, to 40 percent in Osun state. Most of the states with low contraceptive prevalence rates also ranked low on women's socioeconomic attributes. Results of multilevel logistic regression analyses showed that women residing in states with greater shares of women with secondary or higher education, higher female labor force participation rates, and more women with health care decision-making power, had significantly higher odds of using modern contraceptives. Differences in women's participation in health care decisions across states remained significantly associated with modern contraceptive use, net of individual-level socioeconomic status and other covariates of modern contraceptive use. Understanding of state variations in contraceptive use is crucial to the design and implementation of family planning programs. The findings reinforce the need for state-specific family planning programs in Nigeria.

  1. Status of Health Appraisal Services for Primary School Children in Edo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojugo, Augustine I.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the status of the health appraisal services provided for primary school children in Edo State, Nigeria. Using the cross-sectional survey design a total of 1506 primary school children were selected from across the state as the study participants. The analysis of data collected through a 14-item…

  2. Determinants of Adoption of Improved Fish Production Technologies among Fish Farmers in Delta State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofuoku, A. U.; Olele, N. F.; Emah, G. N.

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to isolate the determinants of improved fish production technologies in Delta State, Nigeria. Data were collected from a sample population of 250 fish farmers from ten randomly selected Local Government Areas of Delta State. The data were elicited from respondents with the use of structured interview schedule while…

  3. Impact of Principal Leadership on Catholic High School Students' Academic Achievement in Edo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imhangbe, Osayamen Samson

    2012-01-01

    Over the years, students of Catholic High/Senior secondary schools in Edo state, Nigeria have maintained a significantly higher level of academic achievement than their counterparts in public schools in the state. This development has not only been a cause of serious concern for parents of students who attend public High/Senior secondary schools…

  4. Teachers' Teaching Experience and Students' Learning Outcomes in Secondary Schools in Ondo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeyemi, T. O.

    2008-01-01

    This article examined teachers' teaching experience and students' learning outcomes in the secondary schools in Ondo State Nigeria. As a correlational survey, the study population comprised all the 257 secondary schools in the State. This population was made up of 147 rural schools and 110 urban schools. It was also made up of 12 single sex…

  5. Childhood acute glomerulonephritis in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Anochie, Ifeoma; Eke, Felicia; Okpere, Augustina

    2009-01-01

    and overcrowding in this oil rich state of Nigeria.

  6. Case based rubella surveillance in Abia State, South East Nigeria, 2007–2011

    PubMed Central

    Umeh, Chukwuemeka Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Rubella infection has the potential of causing severe fetal birth defects collectively called congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) if the mother is infected early in pregnancy. However, little is known about rubella and CRS epidemiology in Nigeria and rubella vaccines are still not part of routine childhood immunization in Nigeria. Methods. Analysis of confirmed cases of rubella in Abia State, Nigeria from 2007 to 2011 detected through Abia State Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response system. Results. Of the 757 febrile rash cases, 81(10.7%) tested positive for rubella immunoglobulin M (IgM). New rubella infection decreased from 6.81/1,000,000 population in 2007 to 2.28/1,000,000 in 2009 and increased to 6.34/1,000,000 in 2011. The relative risk of rubella was 1.5 (CI [0.98–2.28]) times as high in females compared to males and 1.6 times (CI [0.90–2.91]) as high in rural areas compared to urban areas. Eighty six percent of rubella infections occurred in children less than 15 years with a high proportion of cases occurring between 5 and 14 years. Conclusion. Rubella infection in Abia State, Nigeria is predominantly in those who are younger than 15 years old. It is also more prevalent in females and in those living in rural areas of the state. Unfortunately, there is no surveillance of CRS in Nigeria and so the public health impact of rubella infection in the state is not known. Efforts should be made to expand the rubella surveillance in Nigeria to incorporate surveillance for CRS. PMID:25289179

  7. Case based rubella surveillance in Abia State, South East Nigeria, 2007-2011.

    PubMed

    Umeh, Chukwuemeka Anthony; Onyi, Stella Chioma

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Rubella infection has the potential of causing severe fetal birth defects collectively called congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) if the mother is infected early in pregnancy. However, little is known about rubella and CRS epidemiology in Nigeria and rubella vaccines are still not part of routine childhood immunization in Nigeria. Methods. Analysis of confirmed cases of rubella in Abia State, Nigeria from 2007 to 2011 detected through Abia State Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response system. Results. Of the 757 febrile rash cases, 81(10.7%) tested positive for rubella immunoglobulin M (IgM). New rubella infection decreased from 6.81/1,000,000 population in 2007 to 2.28/1,000,000 in 2009 and increased to 6.34/1,000,000 in 2011. The relative risk of rubella was 1.5 (CI [0.98-2.28]) times as high in females compared to males and 1.6 times (CI [0.90-2.91]) as high in rural areas compared to urban areas. Eighty six percent of rubella infections occurred in children less than 15 years with a high proportion of cases occurring between 5 and 14 years. Conclusion. Rubella infection in Abia State, Nigeria is predominantly in those who are younger than 15 years old. It is also more prevalent in females and in those living in rural areas of the state. Unfortunately, there is no surveillance of CRS in Nigeria and so the public health impact of rubella infection in the state is not known. Efforts should be made to expand the rubella surveillance in Nigeria to incorporate surveillance for CRS.

  8. Business Studies Academic Performance Differences of Secondary School Juniors in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udoukpong, Bassey E.; Emah, Ime E.; Umoren, Shirley E.

    2012-01-01

    The research examined the differences in the academic performance in Business Studies of a sampled secondary school junior students in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria. A sample of 290 (138 male and 152 female) Junior Secondary Three (9th grade) students was surveyed. The students' variables' being examined vis-à-vis academic performance in Business…

  9. Parental Involvement as a Correlate of Academic Achievement of Primary School Pupils in Edo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fajoju, Samuel A.; Aluede, Oyaziwo; Ojugo, Augustine I.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between parental involvement in children's education and the academic achievement of primary six pupils in Edo State, Nigeria. The ex-post facto research design was employed in this study. The sample consisted of 1,895 primary six pupils (1,024 males and 863 females drawn from 37,908 primary six pupils in…

  10. Some Correlates of Risky Sexual Behavior among Secondary School Adolescents in Ogun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeyemo, D. A.; Williams, T. M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine factors associated with risky sexual behaviors among secondary school adolescents in Ogun State, Nigeria. Two hundred and fifty adolescents randomly selected from three schools participated in the study. The ages of the participants ranged from 13 to 18 years. Both the independent and dependent variables were…

  11. Political Empowerment of Women through Literacy Education Programmes in EDO and Delta States, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olomukoro, Caroline O.; Adelore, Omobola O.

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the political empowerment of women through literacy education programmes in Edo and Delta States in the South-South Geopolitical zone of Nigeria. A sample of 1022 women was randomly drawn from the different levels of literacy classes organised by the Agency of Adult and Nonformal Education and non-governmental and private…

  12. Personality Variables as Correlates of Marital Adjustment among Married Persons in Delta State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebenuwa-Okoh, E. E.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which emotional expression, communication flow, financial management and work involvement predict marital adjustment among married persons in Delta State, Nigeria. One question was raised and one hypothesis was formulated to guide the study. 2561 married persons were selected through the use of purposive sampling…

  13. Availability and Accessibility of ICT-Based Instructional Tools in Medical Colleges in Ogun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwosu, Jonathan Chinaka; John, Henry Chukwudi; Akorede, O. J.

    2018-01-01

    This study assessed the availability and use of ICT-based Instructional tools in selected medical colleges in Ogun State, Nigeria. This study adopted a descriptive survey research design. The population to be studied is medical lecturers (328), clinical instructors (42) and laboratory technologist (92) from Ben Carson Snr. Medical School, Babcock…

  14. Counselling Strategies for Curbing Examination Malpractices in Secondary Schools in Enugu State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egbo, Anthonia Chinonyelum

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the Counselling strategies for curbing "Examination Malpractices" in Secondary Schools in Enugu State Nigeria. The researcher used three research questions. The Design used was a descriptive survey design. Sample consisted of 335 respondents comprising principals (N = 19), PTA secretaries (N = 19), teachers (N =…

  15. Teachers' Perception on the Dimensions of Moral Decadence among Secondary School Students in Ebonyi State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Njoku, Nkechi C.

    2016-01-01

    The study deals with teachers' perceptions on the dimension of moral decadence among secondary school students in Ebony state of Nigeria. The study adopted a descriptive survey designed which aimed at finding teachers' perception on moral decadence among secondary school students. Ebonyi is the area of the study. Population of the study comprised…

  16. Conditions Restraining the Teaching of Major Nigerian Languages in Secondary School in Ebonyi State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chidi-Ehiem, Ugochi Ijeoma

    2015-01-01

    This descriptive survey was carried out in order to determine the conditions handicapping the teaching of major Nigerian languages in secondary schools in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. A random sample of 953 students and 602 language teachers completed a corresponding copies of questionnaire designed for the study. Out of 1555 copies of questionnaire…

  17. Assessment of Users Information Needs and Satisfaction in Selected Seminary Libraries in Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adekunjo, Olalekan Abraham; Adepoju, Samuel Olusegun; Adeola, Anuoluwapo Odebunmi

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed users' information needs and satisfaction in selected seminary libraries in Oyo State, Nigeria. This paper employed the descriptive survey research design, whereby the expost-facto was employed with a sample size of three hundred (300) participants, selected from six seminaries located in Ibadan, Oyo and Ogbomoso, all in Oyo…

  18. Assessing Principals' Quality Assurance Strategies in Osun State Secondary Schools, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasasi, Yunus Adebunmi; Oyeniran, Saheed

    2014-01-01

    This paper examined principals' quality assurance strategies in secondary schools in Osun State, Nigeria. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select 10 male and 10 female principals, and 190 male and190 female teachers. "Secondary School Principal Quality Assurance…

  19. Teacher Factors and Perceived Assessment Practices Needs of Social Studies Teachers in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekuri, Emmanuel Etta; Egbai, Julius Michael; Ita, Caroline Iserome

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated perceived assessment practices needs among social studies teachers in Cross River State, Nigeria, in relation to some teacher factors (attitude towards social studies, sex, teaching experience and educational qualification). Subjects who participated in this study were 297 social studies teachers (144 males and 153 females)…

  20. Primary School Teachers' Comfortability with Generalised Teaching in Public Schools in Osun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojo, Olubukola Olakunbi; Akintomide, Akinjide G.; Ehindero, S. A.

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated the level of comfortability, adequacy of training/skills, influence of gender and years of experience on teachers preference for specialized teaching. Survey research design was adopted, and 254 teachers in Osun state, Nigeria participated in the study. Questionnaire on advocacy for specialised teaching in public primary…

  1. Correlates of Examination Malpractice among Secondary School Students in Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Animasahun, R. A.; Ogunniran, J. O.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the correlates of examination malpractice among secondary school students in Oyo State, Nigeria. The instrument used for the study was tagged Predisposing Factors towards Examination Malpractice Questionnaire (PFTEMQ). The instrument was administered to 300 students randomly selected from 20 multi staged…

  2. Farmers' Adoption of Soil Conservation Technologies: A Case Study from Osun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junge, B.; Deji, O.; Abaidoo, R.; Chikoye, D.; Stahr, K.

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the attitude of farmers towards erosion and the adoption of appropriate soil conservation technologies (SCTs). For the survey, farmers were selected from the communities Esa Oke, Elwure and Owode-Ede and Akoda in Osun State in Nigeria. In the first three communities farmers did receive training on…

  3. Emotional Abuse of Secondary School Students by Teachers in Edo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aluede, Oyaziwo; Ojugo, A. I.; Okoza, Jolly

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the forms of emotional abuse experienced by students and the percentage of victims that experience the various forms of emotional abuse. The survey design was adopted for this study. A total of 1,559 students drawn from public secondary schools in Edo State, Nigeria, who were randomly selected through the multi-stage…

  4. Prevalence, Causes and Effects of Bullying in Tertiary Institutions in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ada, Mary Juliana; Okoli, Georgina; Obeten, Okoi Okorn; Akeke, M. N. G.

    2016-01-01

    This research is an evaluation of the impact of causes, consequences and effects of bullying in academic setting on student academic performance in tertiary institutions in Cross River State, Nigeria. The research made use of purposive and random sampling techniques made up of 302 students. Questionnaire served as the data collection instrument.…

  5. Information and Communication Technologies in Enhancing Learning Ability in Secondary Schools in Edo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osagie, Roseline O.

    2012-01-01

    The dismal results of 2011, 2010, 2009, and previous years WAEC and NECO Senior School Certificate Examinations (SSCE) show the pitiable state of education in secondary schools in Nigeria. The youths of today live in a digital age. Web technologies and sites have become an integral part of the youth culture. Today's youths use the web tools to…

  6. Expectancy Beliefs and English Language Performance of Secondary Schools Students in Maiduguri Metropolis, Borno State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musa, Alice K. J.; Nwachukwu, Kelechukwu I.; Ali, Domiya Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    The study determined Relationship between Students' Expectancy Beliefs and English Language Performance of Students in Maiduguri Metropolis, Borno State, Nigeria. Correlation design was adopted for the study. Four hypotheses which determined the relationships between the components of expectancy beliefs: ability, tasks difficulty, and past…

  7. Principals' Administrative Styles and Students' Academic Performance in Taraba State Secondary Schools, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bello, Suleiman; Ibi, Mustapha Baba; Bukar, Ibrahim Bulama

    2016-01-01

    The study determined the relationship between principals' administrative styles and students' academic performance in Taraba State secondary schools, Nigeria. The objectives of the study were to determine the relationships between initiative structure of leadership styles, consideration structure of leadership styles, participatory structure of…

  8. Some Issues in Formal Music Education in Nigeria: A Case Study of Kwara State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emielu, Austin

    2011-01-01

    Every educational system has its goals and objectives, curricula and modes of implementation. There is however the need for periodic assessment and evaluation. Specifically, this research paper sets out to evaluate the success or otherwise of the music education delivery system in Kwara state of Nigeria and its implications for the goals of music…

  9. An Investigation on Secondary School Students' Attitude towards Science in Ogun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakariyau, A. O.; Taiwo, Michael O.; Ajagbe, Olalere W.

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the attitudes of secondary school students towards science in Odeda Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria. Two hundred senior secondary school students consisting of 84 males and 116 females were selected from five secondary schools using stratified random sampling techniques. A 20-item Attitude to Science…

  10. Assessing Students' Metacognitive Awareness of Learning Strategies among Secondary School Students in Edo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoza, Jolly; Aluede, Oyaziwo; Owens-Sogolo, Osasere

    2013-01-01

    This study examined metacognitive awareness of learning strategies among Secondary School Students in Edo State, Nigeria. The study was an exploratory one, which utilized descriptive statistics. A total number of 1200 students drawn through multistage proportionate random sampling technique participated in the study. The study found that secondary…

  11. Assessment of Day Caring Methods among Civil Servant Mothers of Reproductive Age in Lagos State Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinnubi, Caroline Funmbi

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the day caring methods among the civil servants of reproductive age with children between three months to four years in Lagos State Nigeria. The research design employed for this study was a descriptive research design. A total number of 212 teachers and 128 ministry workers making a total of 340 reproductive age mothers were…

  12. Teachers' Continuing Professional Development as Correlates of Sustainable Universal Basic Education in Bayelsa State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iyunade, Olufunmilayo T.

    2017-01-01

    The study examined the correlates of teachers' continuing professional development on universal basic education in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Using descriptive survey, a sample of 500 teachers was randomly selected from twenty (20) Basic Junior Secondary Schools and Primary Schools used for the study. The instrument used for data collection was a…

  13. Entrepreneurial Training Needs of Illiterate Women in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingwu, Emmanuel U.; Okey, Stella-Maris A.

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve on the curriculum and participation rate of adult learners in the current Adult Basic Education (ABE) program in Nigeria, this explorative study investigated the entrepreneurial (or vocational) training needs of illiterate women in Cross River State (CRS). Three research questions were posed to elicit from the participants…

  14. Conflict Resolution Strategies in Non-Government Secondary Schools in Benue State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oboegbulem, Angie; Alfa, Idoko Alphonusu

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated perceived CRSs (conflict resolution strategies) for the resolution of conflicts in non-government secondary schools in Benue State, Nigeria. Three research questions and three hypotheses guided this study. Proportionate stratified random sampling technique was used in drawing 15% of the population which gave a total of 500…

  15. Management of Re-Occurring Cases of Examination Malpractice in Plateau State Collage of Health Technology Pankshin, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dusu, Paul Bot; Gotan, Anthony; Deshi, Jummai M.; Gambo, Barashe

    2016-01-01

    Nigeria's educational system is gradually degenerating, as the sanctity of education process has been affected by malpractice. The purpose of this paper was to assess re-occurring incidence of examination malpractice in Plateau State College of Health Technology Pankshin, Nigeria. It looked at cases of examination malpractice and students'…

  16. A Study of Power Relations in Doctor-Patient Interactions in Selected Hospitals in Lagos State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adam, Qasim

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores power relations in clinical interactions in Nigeria. It seeks to investigate the use of power between doctors and patients during consultations on patient-centred approach to medicine in selected public and private hospitals in Lagos State, Nigeria. The objective is to establish how doctors' projection of power, using the…

  17. Tested, Trusted, Yet Frustrating: An Investigation into the Effectiveness of Environmental Radio Jingles in Oyo State Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojebode, Ayo

    2005-01-01

    Radio stations have used jingles for environmental education and communication in Nigeria for decades though not much has been done to study the impact of such use--which is the purpose of this article. Through 12 focus group discussions (FGDs) in six local government areas of Oyo state, Nigeria, interviews with the program directors of two radio…

  18. AAR in concrete of Asejire spillway (OYO state - Nigeria)

    SciTech Connect

    Lamaudiere, J.P.; Spaeti, F.

    1995-12-31

    The Asejire dam at Ibadan, Nigeria was constructed in the late sixties for the purpose of providing water for the city of Ibadan (presently about 4,5 million inhabitants). It is located on the Oshun river approximately fifteen miles from the city. In 1982 cracks were observed on the wing walls and although these continued to develop, no attempt was made at that time to investigate their causes and no repair was carried out. In 1989 the SGI ENGINEERING Group of Geneva, Switzerland was appointed as the consultant for the complete refurbishment of the Asejire water scheme. The consortium Degremont-Poat-Clemessy wasmore » awarded the contract for the project. The African Development Bank and the Nigerian Government have provided the loan to finance the project.« less

  19. DIAGNOSIS OF ORF IN WEST AFRICAN DWARF GOATS IN UYO, AKWA IBOM STATE, NIGERIA

    PubMed Central

    Adedeji, Adeyinka Jeremy; Maurice, Nanven Abraham; Wungak, Yiltawe Simwal; Adole, Jolly Amoche; Chima, Nneka Chineze; Woma, Timothy Yusufu; Chukwuedo, Anthony Amechi; DavidShamaki, and

    2017-01-01

    Background: Sixty (60) male West African Dwarf goats were reported with clinical signs of enlarged lymph nodes, scabs on the mouth, nose and ears. Two of the goats died and post mortem examination reveals enlarged submandibular lymph nodes and vesicular lesions on the tongue. Clinical diagnosis of Orf has been reported in Nigeria but this report is the confirmatory diagnosis of Orf in a suspected outbreak in an experimental farm in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria using molecular techniques. Materials and Methods: Scabs, spleen and lymph node samples from goats suspected to have died from Orf were collected, transported on ice to the laboratory and homogenized. The DNA was extracted using QIAmp DNA minikit (Qiagen) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Orf virus (ORFV) was amplified using published ORFVspecific primers by PCR. Results: Morbidity and mortality were 100% and 3.3% respectively, while ORFV was detected by PCR. Diagnosis of Orf was confirmed based on clinical signs of enlarged lymph nodes, scabs on the mouth, nose and ears, necropsy findings of enlarged submandibular lymph nodes and vesicular lesions on the tongue and PCR results. Conclusion: This may be the first report of molecular diagnosis of Orf in Nigeria. The 100% morbidity and 3.3% mortality rate is higher than previously reported thus Orf is becoming of greater economic importance than previously thought. It is therefore recommended that routine laboratory diagnosis of Orf be carried nationwide to determine the prevalence of Orf in Nigeria. PMID:28670645

  20. Prevalence of Lassa virus among rodents trapped in three South-South States of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Agbonlahor, D E; Erah, A; Agba, I M; Oviasogie, F E; Ehiaghe, A F; Wankasi, M; Eremwanarue, O A; Ehiaghe, I J; Ogbu, E C; Iyen, R I; Abbey, S; Tatfeng, M Y; Uhunmwangho, J

    2017-01-01

    Lassa fever has been endemic in Nigeria since 1969. The rodent Mastomys natalensis has been widely claimed to be the reservoir host of the Lassa virus. This study was designed to investigate the dis- tribution of species of rodents in three states (Edo, Delta and Bayelsa) of Nigeria and to determine the prevalence of Lassa virus amongst trapped rodents in the selected states. Rodents were trapped during November 2015 to October 2016 from the three states in South-South re- gion of Nigeria. Total RNA was extracted from the blood collected from the trapped rodents. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to confirm the presence of Lassa virus in the rodents. The results revealed that six species of rodents were predominantly present in these geographical locations. Mus musculus (39.4%) had the highest prevalence, closely followed by Rattus rattus (36.1%), R. fuscipus (20.3%), M. natalensis (2%), Myosoricinae soricidae (1.2%) and R. norvegicus (1%). The overall positivity (carrier rate) of Lassa virus was 1.6% amongst the 1500 rodents caught in the three states. In Edo and Delta States, the RT-PCR results showed presence of Lassa virus in R. rattus, M. musculus and M. natalensis. On the other hand, only M. na- talensis was detected with the virus, amongst the species of rodents caught in Bayelsa State. M. natalensis recorded the highest Lassa virus among rodents trapped in Edo (87%), Delta (50%) and Bayelsa (11%) States respectively. The rather low Lassa virus positive among rodents in Bayelsa State of Nigeria may explain the absence of reports of outbreak of Lassa fever over the past 48 yr in the state. The results also confirmed that apart from Mastomys natalensis, other rodents such as Rattus rattus and Mus musculus may also serve as res- ervoirs for Lassa virus. From the findings of this cross-sectional study, it was concluded that a more comprehensive study on rodents as reservoir host, need to be undertaken across the entire states of

  1. High maternal mortality in Jigawa State, Northern Nigeria estimated using the sisterhood method.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vandana; Brown, Willa; Kainuwa, Muhammad Abdullahi; Leight, Jessica; Nyqvist, Martina Bjorkman

    2017-06-02

    Maternal mortality is extremely high in Nigeria. Accurate estimation of maternal mortality is challenging in low-income settings such as Nigeria where vital registration is incomplete. The objective of this study was to estimate the lifetime risk (LTR) of maternal death and the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in Jigawa State, Northern Nigeria using the Sisterhood Method. Interviews with 7,069 women aged 15-49 in 96 randomly selected clusters of communities in 24 Local Government Areas (LGAs) across Jigawa state were conducted. A retrospective cohort of their sisters of reproductive age was constructed to calculate the lifetime risk of maternal mortality. Using most recent estimates of total fertility for the state, the MMR was estimated. The 7,069 respondents reported 10,957 sisters who reached reproductive age. Of the 1,026 deaths in these sisters, 300 (29.2%) occurred during pregnancy, childbirth or within 42 days after delivery. This corresponds to a LTR of 6.6% and an estimated MMR for the study areas of 1,012 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births (95% CI: 898-1,126) with a time reference of 2001. Jigawa State has an extremely high maternal mortality ratio underscoring the urgent need for health systems improvement and interventions to accelerate reductions in MMR. The trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov ( NCT01487707 ). Initially registered on December 6, 2011.

  2. Effect of highways and local activities on the quality of underground water in Ogun State, Nigeria: a case study of three districts in Ogun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Odukoya, Olusegun O; Onianwa, Percy C; Sanusi, Olanrewaju I

    2010-09-01

    The effect of highways and local activities on the quality of groundwater in Ogun State, Nigeria was investigated. This was done by collecting groundwater samples from three different districts in the state, located in Southwestern Nigeria. The water samples collected at 5 m from the highway and control samples collected at 3 km from the highway were analyzed for the following physicochemical parameters: pH, conductivity, chemical oxygen demand, alkalinity, total hardness, total solid, suspended solid, dissolved solid, chloride, sulfate, phosphate, nitrate, phenol, and the metals-lead, zinc, iron, aluminum, sodium, and potassium. The levels of chromium, copper, and cadmium in the samples were below the detectable limit. The levels of the parameters show that there are significant differences between those in the samples and the controls (F test) except for phosphate and phenol. Also, anthropogenic sources (local activities) elevate the levels of different specific parameters, which are related to these activities. Good correlation was observed between traffic density and lead levels as well as between conductivity and dissolved solids. Comparisons with the World Health Organization guidelines indicate that most of the water samples are not suitable for human consumption.

  3. Road traffic accidents prediction modelling: An analysis of Anambra State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ihueze, Chukwutoo C; Onwurah, Uchendu O

    2018-03-01

    One of the major problems in the world today is the rate of road traffic crashes and deaths on our roads. Majority of these deaths occur in low-and-middle income countries including Nigeria. This study analyzed road traffic crashes in Anambra State, Nigeria with the intention of developing accurate predictive models for forecasting crash frequency in the State using autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) and autoregressive integrated moving average with explanatory variables (ARIMAX) modelling techniques. The result showed that ARIMAX model outperformed the ARIMA (1,1,1) model generated when their performances were compared using the lower Bayesian information criterion, mean absolute percentage error, root mean square error; and higher coefficient of determination (R-Squared) as accuracy measures. The findings of this study reveal that incorporating human, vehicle and environmental related factors in time series analysis of crash dataset produces a more robust predictive model than solely using aggregated crash count. This study contributes to the body of knowledge on road traffic safety and provides an approach to forecasting using many human, vehicle and environmental factors. The recommendations made in this study if applied will help in reducing the number of road traffic crashes in Nigeria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence and Significance of Parasites of Horses in Some States of Northern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    EHIZIBOLO, David O.; KAMANI, Joshua; EHIZIBOLO, Peter O.; EGWU, Kinsley O.; DOGO, Goni I.; SALAMI-SHINABA, Josiah O.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and significance of parasites of horses in northern Nigeria. Blood and faecal samples were randomly collected from 243 horses from different stables in some states of northern Nigeria for laboratory analyses. Fifty-seven horses (23.5%) were found infected with parasites. The hemoparasites detected, 21 (8.6%), include Theileria equi, Babesia caballi, Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma evansi. The endoparasites encountered, 29 (11.9%) were Strongylus spp., Strongyloides spp., Oxyuris equi, Parascaris equorum, Paragonimus spp. and Dicrocoelium spp., 3 (1.2%) was Eimeria spp. Four horses (1.6%) had mixed infection of hemo- and endoparasites. This preliminary finding shows that parasitism is a problem in the horse stables examined, and calls for proper stable hygiene, routine tick control and regular deworming programme. PMID:24833991

  5. Epidemiological study of bovine brucellosis in three senatorial zones of Bauchi State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adamu, S. G.; Atsanda, N. N.; Tijjani, A. O.; Usur, A. M.; Sule, A. G; Gulani, I. A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To determine the seroepidemiological patterns of bovine brucellosis in three senatorial zones of Bauchi State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were aseptically collected from the anterior jugular vein of 336 slaughtered cattle, between September 2013 and March 2014 in three senatorial zones of Bauchi State, Nigeria. The sera obtained were screened for brucellosis using rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) and serum agglutination test (SAT) in parallel. The data generated was subjected to Chi-square and Fishers exact test analysis to establish whether there is a relationship between the breeds, sex, and location of the animals sampled. Results: Of the 336 cattle screened, 18 (5.4%) and 13 (3.9%) were positive by RBPT and SAT, respectively. There was no statistically significant association (p>0.05) between the sex, age, and location of cattle with seropositivity of brucellosis in the state. It was concluded that brucellosis is prevalent in Bauchi State. Further study is recommended in other abattoirs and herds of cattle in Bauchi State for confirmation of the status of the disease among cattle slaughtered in the state. Conclusion: A high seroprevalence of brucellosis among the cattle in Bauchi state indicates that the disease is endemic and cattle are one of the animals that perpetuate and sustain the disease. PMID:27051184

  6. PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS AMONG HAUSA COMMUNITIES IN KANO STATE, NIGERIA

    PubMed Central

    DAWAKI, Salwa; AL-MEKHLAFI, Hesham Mahyoub; ITHOI, Init; IBRAHIM, Jamaiah; ABDULSALAM, Awatif Mohammed; AHMED, Abdulhamid; SADY, Hany; ATROOSH, Wahib Mohammed; AL-AREEQI, Mona Abdullah; ELYANA, Fatin Nur; NASR, Nabil Ahmed; SURIN, Johari

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Schistosomiasis remains one of the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases especially in Nigeria which has the greatest number of infected people worldwide. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 551 participants from Kano State, North Central Nigeria. Fecal samples were examined for the presence of Schistosoma mansoni eggs using the formalin-ether sedimentation method while the urine samples were examined using the filtration technique for the presence of S. haematobium eggs. Demographic, socioeconomic and environmental information was collected using a pre-validated questionnaire. The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis was 17.8%, with 8.9% and 8.3% infected with S. mansoni and S. haematobium, respectively and 0.5% presenting co-infection with both species. The multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that age < 18 years (OR = 2.13; 95% CI; 1.34- 3.41), presence of infected family members (OR = 3.98; 95% CI; 2.13-7.46), and history of infection (OR = 2.87; 95% CI; 1.87- 4.56) were the significant risk factors associated with schistosomiasis in these communities. In conclusion, this study revealed that schistosomiasis is still prevalent among Hausa communities in Nigeria. Mass drug administration, health education and community mobilization are imperative strategies to significantly reduce the prevalence and morbidity of schistosomiasis in these communities. PMID:27410914

  7. Technical Education in Nigeria: The Way Forward. Summary of Proceedings of the Workshop on Technical Education: A Foundation for a Healthy Economy (Ota, Ogun State of Nigeria, March 1-2, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This summary of proceedings includes papers from and about a workshop on technical education in Nigeria and the lessons Nigeria may gain by examining the vocational and technical education systems of Germany, the United States, Great Britain, and Japan. The following papers are included: "Foreword" (Iyorchia Ayu); "Introduction: A…

  8. The impact of declining vaccination coverage on measles control: a case study of Abia state Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Umeh, Chukwuemeka Anthony; Ahaneku, Hycienth Peterson

    2013-01-01

    Efforts at immunizing children against measles was intensified in Nigeria with nation-wide measles vaccination campaigns in 2005-2006, 2008 and 2011 targeting children between 9 and 59 months. However, there were measles outbreaks in 2010 and 2011 in Abia state Nigeria. This study seeks to find out if there is any association between measles immunization coverage and measles outbreak. This is a descriptive analysis of the 2007 to 2011 Abia state measles case-based surveillance data supplied to Abia state World Health Organization office and Abia State Ministry of Health by the disease surveillance and notification officers. As the proportion of cases with febrile rash who were immunized decreased from 81% in 2007 to 42% in 2011, the laboratory confirmed cases of measles increased from two in 2007 to 53 in 2011.Of the laboratory confirmed cases of measles, five (7%) occurred in children < 9 months, 48 (64%) occurred in children 9-59 months and 22 (29%) occurred in children < 59 months old. Seventy five percent of all laboratory confirmed cases of measles occurred in rural areas. Efforts should be made to increase measles immunization in children between 9 and 59 months as most cases of measles occurred in this age group as immunization coverage dropped. In addition, further studies should be carried out to determine the cause of the disproportional incidence of measles in rural areas in Abia state bearing in mind that measles immunization coverage in urban and rural areas was not markedly different.

  9. The impact of declining vaccination coverage on measles control: a case study of Abia state Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Umeh, Chukwuemeka Anthony; Ahaneku, Hycienth Peterson

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Efforts at immunizing children against measles was intensified in Nigeria with nation-wide measles vaccination campaigns in 2005 - 2006, 2008 and 2011 targeting children between 9 and 59 months. However, there were measles outbreaks in 2010 and 2011in Abia state Nigeria. This study seeks to find out if there is any association between measles immunization coverage and measles outbreak. Methods This is a descriptive analysis of the 2007 to 2011 Abia state measles case-based surveillance data supplied to Abia state World Health Organization office and Abia State Ministry of Health by the disease surveillance and notification officers. Results As the proportion of cases with febrile rash who were immunized decreased from 81% in 2007 to 42% in 2011, the laboratory confirmed cases of measles increased from two in 2007 to 53 in 2011.Of the laboratory confirmed cases of measles, five (7%) occurred in children < 9 months, 48 (64%) occurred in children 9 - 59 months and 22 (29%) occurred in children < 59 months old. Seventy five percent of all laboratory confirmed cases of measles occurred in rural areas. Conclusion Efforts should be made to increase measles immunization in children between 9 and 59 months as most cases of measles occurred in this age group as immunization coverage dropped. In addition, further studies should be carried out to determine the cause of the disproportional incidence of measles in rural areas in Abia state bearing in mind that measles immunization coverage in urban and rural areas was not markedly different PMID:24244791

  10. Climate change in Lagos state, Nigeria: what really changed?

    PubMed

    Sojobi, Adebayo Olatunbosun; Balogun, Isaac Idowu; Salami, Adebayo Wahab

    2015-10-01

    Our study revealed periodicities of 2.3 and 2.25 years in wet and dry seasons and periodicities of 2 to 5 years on seasonal and annual timescales. Minimum temperature (Tmin), maximum temperature (Tmax) and evaporation recorded increases of 2.47, 1.37 and 28.37 %, respectively, but a reduction of 19.58 % in rainfall on decadal timescale. Periodicity of 8 to 12 years was also observed in annual Tmax. Cramer's test indicated a warming trend with significant Tmax increase in February, April, July, August, October and November during 2000-2009 on decadal monthly timescale, a significant decline in Summer rainfall but significant Tmax increase in Spring, Autumn and Winter on decadal seasonal timescale. The low correlation of rainfall with temperature parameters and evaporation indicates that advection of moisture into Lagos State seems to be the dominant mechanism controlling rainfall within the State alongside other tropical and extra-tropical factors. In addition, our study revealed that the persistent state of minimum temperature often precedes the arrival and reversal of the phase of maximum temperature. Furthermore, our study also revealed that extreme and high variable rainfalls, which are associated with the increased warming trend, had periodicities of 1 to 3 years with a probability of 86.45 % of occurring every 3 years between April and September. It is recommended that government and private sector should give financial and technical supports to climate researches in order to appropriately inform policy making to improve the adaptive capacity and resilience of Lagos State against climate change impacts and guard against maladaptation.

  11. Blindness and visual impairment in Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria: a hospital-based study.

    PubMed

    Otulana, T O

    2012-09-01

    This study was conducted to determine the magnitude and causes of blindness and visual impairment in Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria. A retrospective clinic based study to analyse the cases of patients with blindness in general hospitals of Iperu and Isara areas of Ogun state between May 2005 and December 2005. The data of demographic characteristics and diagnosis were retrieved from the outpatient cards. Three hundred and sixty-nine cases registered in the eye clinic during the period of the study and were examined. 177 were males and 190 were females. The age range of patients seen was between 17 days and 89years with a mean age of 43.3 years, ± 23.62(SD). 116 patients were aged 70years and above while 13 patients were less than 10years. 29.5% of the clinic attendance were uniocularly blind, 21.1% were bilaterally blind while 25 2% were visually impaired. 55.1% of the bilateral blindness was in males. 30.8% cases of the bilaterally blind were from age related cataract, 23.1% from glaucoma, 6 cases were due to Retinitis Pigmentosa and 3 from pterygium, Cataract followed by glaucoma was the leading cause of uniocular blindness. Cataract was responsible for 66.7% of visually impairment. Blindness and visual impairment is a public health problem in Remo Ogun State, Nigeria; cataract, glaucoma and pterygium were the important causes of blindness and visual impairment. The major causes of blindness in this part of Ogun state are preventable.

  12. Survey of poliovirus antibodies in Borno and Yobe States, North-Eastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Gofama, Mustapha Modu; Verma, Harish; Abdullahi, Hamisu; Craig, Kehinde T.; Urua, Utibe-Abasi; Garba, Mohammed Ashir; Alhaji, Mohammed Arab; Weldon, William C.; Oberste, M. Steven; Braka, Fiona; Muhammad, Ado J. G.; Sutter, Roland W.

    2017-01-01

    Background Nigeria remains one of only three polio-endemic countries in the world. In 2016, after an absence of 2 years, wild poliovirus serotype 1 was again detected in North-Eastern Nigeria. To better guide programmatic action, we assessed the immunity status of infants and children in Borno and Yobe states, and evaluated the impact of recently introduced inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) on antibody seroprevalence. Methods and findings We conducted a facility-based study of seroprevalence to poliovirus serotypes 1, 2 and 3 among health-seeking patients in two sites each of Borno and Yobe States. Enrolment was conducted amongst children 6–9 and 36–47 months of age attending the paediatrics outpatient department of the selected hospitals in the two states between 11 January and 5 February 2016. Detailed demographic and immunization history of the child was taken and an assessment of the child’s health and nutritional state was conducted via physical examination. Blood was collected to test for levels of neutralizing antibody titres against the three poliovirus serotypes. The seroprevalence in the two age groups, potential determinants of seropositivity and the impact of one dose of IPV on humoral immunity were assessed. A total of 583 subjects were enrolled and provided sufficient quantities of serum for testing. Among 6-9-month-old infants, the seroprevalence was 81% (74–87%), 86% (79–91%), and 72% (65–79%) in Borno State, and 75% (67–81%), 74% (66–81%) and 69% (61–76%) in Yobe States, for serotypes-1, 2 and 3, respectively. Among children aged 36–47 months, the seroprevalence was >90% in both states for all three serotypes, with the exception of type 3 seroprevalence in Borno [87% (80–91%)]. Median reciprocal anti-polio neutralizing antibody titers were consistently >900 for serotypes 1 and 2 across age groups and states; with lower estimates for serotype 3, particularly in Borno. IPV received in routine immunization was found to be a

  13. Survey of poliovirus antibodies in Borno and Yobe States, North-Eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Gofama, Mustapha Modu; Verma, Harish; Abdullahi, Hamisu; Molodecky, Natalie A; Craig, Kehinde T; Urua, Utibe-Abasi; Garba, Mohammed Ashir; Alhaji, Mohammed Arab; Weldon, William C; Oberste, M Steven; Braka, Fiona; Muhammad, Ado J G; Sutter, Roland W

    2017-01-01

    Nigeria remains one of only three polio-endemic countries in the world. In 2016, after an absence of 2 years, wild poliovirus serotype 1 was again detected in North-Eastern Nigeria. To better guide programmatic action, we assessed the immunity status of infants and children in Borno and Yobe states, and evaluated the impact of recently introduced inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) on antibody seroprevalence. We conducted a facility-based study of seroprevalence to poliovirus serotypes 1, 2 and 3 among health-seeking patients in two sites each of Borno and Yobe States. Enrolment was conducted amongst children 6-9 and 36-47 months of age attending the paediatrics outpatient department of the selected hospitals in the two states between 11 January and 5 February 2016. Detailed demographic and immunization history of the child was taken and an assessment of the child's health and nutritional state was conducted via physical examination. Blood was collected to test for levels of neutralizing antibody titres against the three poliovirus serotypes. The seroprevalence in the two age groups, potential determinants of seropositivity and the impact of one dose of IPV on humoral immunity were assessed. A total of 583 subjects were enrolled and provided sufficient quantities of serum for testing. Among 6-9-month-old infants, the seroprevalence was 81% (74-87%), 86% (79-91%), and 72% (65-79%) in Borno State, and 75% (67-81%), 74% (66-81%) and 69% (61-76%) in Yobe States, for serotypes-1, 2 and 3, respectively. Among children aged 36-47 months, the seroprevalence was >90% in both states for all three serotypes, with the exception of type 3 seroprevalence in Borno [87% (80-91%)]. Median reciprocal anti-polio neutralizing antibody titers were consistently >900 for serotypes 1 and 2 across age groups and states; with lower estimates for serotype 3, particularly in Borno. IPV received in routine immunization was found to be a significant determinant of seropositivity and anti

  14. Understanding whose births get registered: a cross sectional study in Bauchi and Cross River states, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adi, Atam E; Abdu, Tukur; Khan, Amir; Rashid, Musa Haruna; Ebri, Ubi E; Cockcroft, Anne; Andersson, Neil

    2015-03-13

    It is a recognized child right to acquire a name and a nationality, and birth registration may be necessary to allow access to services, but the level of birth registration is low in Nigeria. A household survey about management of childhood illnesses provided an opportunity to examine actionable determinants of birth registration of children in Bauchi and Cross River states of Nigeria. Trained field teams visited households in a stratified random cluster sample of 90 enumeration areas in each state. They administered a questionnaire to women 14-49 years old which included questions about birth registration of their children 0-47 months old and about socio-economic and other factors potentially related to birth registration, including education of the parents, poverty (food sufficiency), marital status of the mother, maternal antenatal care and place of delivery of the last pregnancy. Bivariate then multivariate analysis examined associations with birth registration. Facilitators later conducted separate male and female focus group discussions in the same 90 communities in each state, discussing the reasons for the findings about levels of birth registration. Nearly half (45%) of 8602 children in Cross River State and only a fifth (19%) of 9837 in Bauchi State had birth certificates (seen or unseen). In both states, children whose mothers attended antenatal care and who delivered in a government health facility in their last pregnancy were more likely to have a birth certificate, as were children of more educated parents, from less poor households, and from urban communities. Focus group discussions revealed that many people did not know about birth certificates or where to get them, and parents were discouraged from getting birth certificates because of the unofficial payments involved. There are low levels of birth registration in Bauchi and Cross River states, particularly among disadvantaged households. As a result of this study, both states have planned

  15. Dog Ecology and Population Studies in Lagos State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Hambolu, Sunday E.; Dzikwi, Asabe A.; Kwaga, Jacob K.P.; Kazeem, Haruna M.; Umoh, Jarlath U.; Hambolu, Dupe A.

    2014-01-01

    Dog population dynamics have a major impact upon the effectiveness of rabies control strategies. As such, understanding domestic dog ecology has been recognized as central to the design of effective rabies control programmes. This study was conducted to determine the dog ecology in Lagos State using compound dog count and street dog count in the three senatorial districts (Lagos West, East and Central) of Lagos State from February, 2011 to January, 2012. A total of 546 questionnaires were distributed for the compound dog count and all were completed and returned. Various aspects of dog ecology were determined, including size, sex, breed of the dog population, management of dogs and rabies awareness among the respondents. Out of the 546 compounds surveyed, 518 (94.87%) owned at least one dog. A total of 1,427 dogs were counted from the street counts while a total of 1,447 dogs (2.8 dogs/compound) were counted from the compound count. The dogs comprised of 583 males and 864 females, out of which 64.10% are confined. The dog vaccination coverage in the dog population surveyed was 64.10% and administered majorly (91.30%) by veterinarians. Security (60%) and pets (26%) were the major reasons for keeping dogs. Majority (88.80%) of the respondents were aware of rabies and its mode of transmission, but still believed in the use of concoctions (40.40%), herbs (19.90%) and consumption of the organ of the offending dog (11.50%) for the treatment of rabies. The findings of this study showed a male: female ratio of dog to be 1:1.5 and a dog: human ratio of 1:5.6. There was also a responsible dog ownership as majority of the respondents do confine, vaccinate and provide food for their dogs. Vaccination coverage of the total dog population was however below the 70-80% target recommended by the World Health Organization to achieve herd immunity. PMID:24576383

  16. Bovine tuberculosis: a retrospective study at Jos abattoir, Plateau State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okeke, Lilian Akudo; Fawole, Olufunmilayo; Muhammad, Maryam; Okeke, Ikenna Osemeka; Nguku, Patrick; Wasswa, Peter; Dairo, David; Cadmus, Simeon

    2016-01-01

    Nigeria has the thirteenth highest burden of human tuberculosis. The current increasing incidence of tuberculosis in humans, particularly in immune-compromised persons, has given interest in the zoonotic importance of Mycobacterium bovis in developing countries like Nigeria. This study determined the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis as a background information for effective control measures in Plateau State in cattle population. We reviewed surveillance records on cattle slaughtered and suggestive tuberculosis lesions from cattle slaughtered annually from 2007-2012 in Jos abattoir, Plateau State. Bovine tuberculosis cases at post mortem were based on examination of characteristics TB lesion on organs by Veterinary officers. We performed descriptive analysis using Epi info version 3.5.3 and Microsoft Excel 2007. A total of 52, 262 cattle were slaughtered from 2007-2012, out of which 4, 658 (11.2%) had evidence of tuberculosis lesion at post mortem. The average yearly prevalence was 9.1% but varied from a high of 16.3% in 2007 to a low of 3.1% in 2012. Trend analysis showed that bovine tuberculosis had a seasonal variation and peaked mostly in July and August. The number of suggestive Tb lesion cases was highest in the month of August and lowest in the month of January, 2007-2012. This study shows that bovine tuberculosis is endemic in Plateau State. Trend analysis showed that bovine tuberculosis is seasonal and peaked mostly in July and August. Continuous surveillance through meat inspection is required to prevent zoonotic transmission of bovine tuberculosis.

  17. Coccidiosis of domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica Gmelin, 1789) in Kano State, Nigeria

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Balarabe R; Simon, Malang K; Agbede, Rowland IS; Arzai, Auwalu H

    Pigeon coccidiosis is caused by Eimeria spp., a protozoan parasite which limits productivity by causing severe illness. Although numerous studies have been conducted on the coccidiosis of pigeons in some parts of Nigeria, there is no published data from Kano State. The intestinal contents of 144 pigeons (72 females and 72 males) were analysed for Eimeria oocysts in 2007 from 12 Local Government Areas of Kano State over the period of six months including the dry (February–April) and wet (June–August) seasons. The pigeons were divided into three groups according to age: squabs (0–4 weeks), squeakers (5–8 weeks) and youngsters (9+ weeks); each group including 48 pigeons. The results of these studies revealed an overall prevalence of 19.44%. The prevalence was higher in females (20.83%) than males (18.06%) (p<0.05). Furthermore, squabs had the highest prevalence (27.08%) followed by squeakers (20.83%), and youngsters (10.42%) (p<0.05). Infection with Eimeria spp. oocysts was higher during the wet season (8.96%) than dry season (5.98%) (p<0.05). This study provides basic information on the first detection of coccidiosis of pigeons in Kano State, Nigeria which has an implication on the sustainable pigeon production for human protein reguirement.

  18. Application of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) in the Management of Universities in the North-Central State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oboegbulem, Angie Ijeoma; Godwin, Ochai

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the application of ICT (information and communication technology) in the management of universities in the north-central Nigeria. The study was a descriptive survey. The population of the study comprised 1,294 respondents in federal and state universities (763 in federal and 531 in state universities). The sample size…

  19. Effectiveness of Demonstration and Lecture Methods in Learning Concept in Economics among Secondary School Students in Borno State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhammad, Amin Umar; Bala, Dauda; Ladu, Kolomi Mutah

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the Effectiveness of Demonstration and Lecture Methods in Learning concepts in Economics among Secondary School Students in Borno state, Nigeria. Five objectives: to determine the effectiveness of demonstration method in learning economics concepts among secondary school students in Borno state, determine the effectiveness…

  20. The Role of Counselling and Parental Encouragement on Re-Entry of Adolescents into Secondary Schools in Abia State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alika, Henrietta Ijeoma; Ohanaka, Blessing Ijeoma

    2013-01-01

    This paper examined the role of counselling, and parental encouragement on re-entry of adolescents into secondary school in Abia State, Nigeria. A total of 353 adolescents who re-entered school were selected from six secondary schools in the State through a simple random sampling technique. A validated questionnaire was used for data analysis.…

  1. Extent of Head Teachers' Utilization of Innovative Sources of Funding Primary Schools in Enugu State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amogechukwu, Eze Thecla; Unoma, Chidobi Roseline

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent Head teachers utilize innovative sources of funding primary schools in Enugu State of Nigeria. Descriptive survey design was employed to examine the extent head teachers utilize innovative sources of funding primary schools in Enugu State. Data were collected through a 14-item questionnaire…

  2. Assesment of Perceived Academic and Incentive Needs of Senior Secondary School Biology Teachers in Kwara State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Mulkah Adebisi; Moradeyo, Ismail; Abimbola, Isaac Olakanmi

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the Assessment of perceived academic and incentive needs of senior secondary school biology teachers in Kwara State, Nigeria. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select two hundred and fifty (250) biology teachers from the three senatorial district of Kwara State. A questionnaire was prepared, validated and used…

  3. Socio Cultural and Geographical Determinants of Child Immunisation in Borno State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Immunisation has been an important strategy for disease prevention globally. Despite proven successes in other settings, child immunisation has continued to be problematic in developing countries including Nigeria. In addressing the problems, policy in Nigeria is largely directed at overcoming socio cultural issues surrounding parents’ rejection of vaccines. However, determinants of immunisation have geographical implications as well. A cross sectional survey was used to select 484 mothers/caregivers through a multi stage cluster sampling technique from the three senatorial districts of Borno State, Nigeria. Mothers or caregivers of children 12–23 months were interviewed using a structured questionnaire adapted from the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (2008). Socio cultural factors measured include mother’s education, religion, husband’s permission and sex of child while spatial variables include location i.e. whether rural or urban, and distance measured in terms of physical distance, cost and perception of physical distance. Descriptive statistics, univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to analyse the results. Data indicate that only 10.5% of children were fully immunised. Though immunisation uptake differed between the senatorial districts, this was not significant (P=0.1). In the bivariate analysis, mothers living in urban areas, <1 km to immunisation centre, their perception of travel distance and travel cost were the spatial predictors of immunisation while literacy and husband’s permission were the socio-cultural factors of significance. However, in the multivariate regression only two geographical factors i.e. living in an urban area [odds ratio (OR) 3.42, confidence interval (CI) 1.40–8.33] and mothers’ perception of distance (OR 4.52, CI 2.14–9.55) were protective against under immunisation while mother’s education was the only socio cultural variable of significance (OR 0.10, CI 0.03–0.41). It was concluded

  4. Quality and rural-urban comparison of tuberculosis care in Rivers State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Tobin-West, Charles Ibiene; Isodje, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    Nigeria ranks among countries with the highest burden of tuberculosis. Yet evidence continues to indicate poor treatment outcomes which have been attributed to poor quality of care. This study aims to identify some of the systemic problems in order to inform policy decisions for improved quality of services and treatment outcomes in Nigeria. A comparative assessment of the quality of TB care in rural and urban health facilities was carried out between May and June 2013, employing the Donabedian model of quality assessment. Data was analysed using the SPSS software package version 20.0. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Health facility infrastructures were more constrained in the urban than rural settings. Both the urban and rural facilities lacked adequate facilities for infection control such as, running water, air filter respirators, hand gloves and extractor fans. Health education and HIV counselling and testing (HCT) were limited in rural facilities compared to urban facilities. Although anti-TB drugs were generally available in both settings, the DOTS strategy in patient care was completely ignored. Finally, laboratory support for diagnosis and patient monitoring was limited in the rural facilities. The study highlights suboptimal quality of TB care in Rivers State with limitations in health education and HCT of patients for HIV as well as laboratory support for TB care in rural health facilities. We, therefore, recommend that adequate infection control measures, strict observance of the DOTS strategy and sufficient laboratory support be provided to TB clinics in the State.

  5. National health insurance scheme: how protected are households in Oyo State, Nigeria from catastrophic health expenditure?

    PubMed Central

    Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen; Adebiyi, Akindele Olupelumi; Fatiregun, Akinola Ayoola

    2014-01-01

    Background: The major objective of the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Nigeria is to protect families from the financial hardship of large medical bills. Catastrophic Health Expenditure (CHE) is rampart in Nigeria despite the take-off of the NHIS. This study aimed to determine if households enrolled in the NHIS were protected from having CHE. Methods: The study took place among 714 households in urban communities of Oyo State. CHE was measured using a threshold of 40% of monthly non-food expenditure. Descriptive statistics were done, Principal Component Analysis was used to divide households into wealth quintiles. Chi-square test and binary logistic regression were done. Results: The mean age of household respondent was 33.5 years. The median household income was 43,500 naira (290 US dollars) and the range was 7,000–680,000 naira (46.7–4,533 US dollars) in 2012. The overall median household healthcare cost was 890 naira (5.9 US dollars) and the range was 10-17,700 naira (0.1–118 US dollars) in 2012. In all, 67 (9.4%) households were enrolled in NHIS scheme. Healthcare services was utilized by 637 (82.9%) and CHE occurred in 42 (6.6%) households. CHE occurred in 14 (10.9%) of the households in the lowest quintile compared to 3 (2.5%) in the highest wealth quintile (P= 0.004). The odds of CHE among households in lowest wealth quintile is about 5 times. They had Crude OR (CI): 4.7 (1.3–16.8), P= 0.022. Non enrolled households were two times likely to have CHE, though not significant Conclusion: Households in the lowest wealth quintiles were at higher risk of CHE. Universal coverage of health insurance in Nigeria should be fast-tracked to give the expected financial risk protection and decreased incidence of CHE. PMID:24847483

  6. National health insurance scheme: how protected are households in Oyo State, Nigeria from catastrophic health expenditure?

    PubMed

    Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen; Adebiyi, Akindele Olupelumi; Fatiregun, Akinola Ayoola

    2014-05-01

    The major objective of the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Nigeria is to protect families from the financial hardship of large medical bills. Catastrophic Health Expenditure (CHE) is rampart in Nigeria despite the take-off of the NHIS. This study aimed to determine if households enrolled in the NHIS were protected from having CHE. The study took place among 714 households in urban communities of Oyo State. CHE was measured using a threshold of 40% of monthly non-food expenditure. Descriptive statistics were done, Principal Component Analysis was used to divide households into wealth quintiles. Chi-square test and binary logistic regression were done. The mean age of household respondent was 33.5 years. The median household income was 43,500 naira (290 US dollars) and the range was 7,000-680,000 naira (46.7-4,533 US dollars) in 2012. The overall median household healthcare cost was 890 naira (5.9 US dollars) and the range was 10-17,700 naira (0.1-118 US dollars) in 2012. In all, 67 (9.4%) households were enrolled in NHIS scheme. Healthcare services was utilized by 637 (82.9%) and CHE occurred in 42 (6.6%) households. CHE occurred in 14 (10.9%) of the households in the lowest quintile compared to 3 (2.5%) in the highest wealth quintile (P= 0.004). The odds of CHE among households in lowest wealth quintile is about 5 times. They had Crude OR (CI): 4.7 (1.3-16.8), P= 0.022. Non enrolled households were two times likely to have CHE, though not significant Conclusion: Households in the lowest wealth quintiles were at higher risk of CHE. Universal coverage of health insurance in Nigeria should be fast-tracked to give the expected financial risk protection and decreased incidence of CHE.

  7. Field durability of the same type of long-lasting insecticidal net varies between regions in Nigeria due to differences in household behaviour and living conditions.

    PubMed

    Kilian, Albert; Koenker, Hannah; Obi, Emmanuel; Selby, Richmond A; Fotheringham, Megan; Lynch, Matthew

    2015-03-24

    With the recent publication of WHO-recommended methods to estimate net survival, comparative analyses from different areas have now become possible. With this in mind, a study was undertaken in Nigeria to compare the performance of a specific long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) product in three socio-ecologically different areas. In addition, the objective was to assess the feasibility of a retrospective study design for durability. In three states, Zamfara in the north, Nasarawa in the centre and Cross River in the south, four local government areas were selected one year after mass distribution of 100-denier polyester LLINs. From a representative sample of 300 households per site that had received campaign nets, an assessment of net survival was made based on rate of loss of nets and the physical condition of surviving nets measured by the proportionate hole index (pHI). Surveys were repeated after two and three years. Over the three-year period 98% of the targeted sample size of 3,720 households was obtained and 94% of the 5,669 campaign nets found were assessed for damage. With increasing time since distribution, recall of having received campaign nets dropped by 11-22% and only 31-87% of nets actually lost were reported. Using a recall bias adjustment, attrition rates were fairly similar in all three sites. The proportion of surviving nets in serviceable condition differed dramatically, however, resulting in an estimated median net survival of 3.0 years in Nasarawa, 4.5 years in Cross River and 4.7 years in Zamfara. Although repairs on damaged nets increased from around 10% at baseline to 21-38% after three years, the average pHI value for each of the four hole size categories did not differ between repaired and unrepaired nets. First, the differences observed in net survival are driven by living conditions and household behaviours and not the LLIN material. Second, recall bias in a retrospective durability study can be significant and while adjustments can

  8. Gender issues in contraceptive use among educated women in Edo state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Osemwenkha, Sylvia Osayi

    2004-04-01

    While traditional contraception is widely used, in southern Nigerian modern contraception is a relatively recent phenomenon. Modern contraception is more wide spread among the educated and sexually active youth in Nigeria. Few studies have been done on contraception among educated women in Nigeria. This study was carried out in December 2000 to determine factors that influence the choice of contraceptives among female undergraduates at the University of Benin and Edo State University Ekpoma. Data was collected from a sample of 800 female undergraduates matched ethnic group, socio economic status, religion and rural urban residence. Subjects were selected by proportional representation and the instrument used was closed ended questionnaire. The responses obtained were analysed using Spearman Rank Correlation co-efficient and regression analysis. Findings revealed the highest correlation for availability (r =.96) vis a vis the use of various types of artificial contraceptive and cost (r =.96), next was safety (r =.95) and effectiveness (r =.95). Others were peer group influence (r =.80) and convenience (r =.77). An important step in improving women's reproductive health is the involvement of men. Health programmes should conduct campaigns to educate men about reproductive health and the role they can assume in family planning.

  9. Improving maternal and child healthcare programme using community-participatory interventions in Ebonyi State Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ndukwe, Chinwendu Daniel; Ezeoha, Abel Abeh; Urochukwu, Henry Chukwuemeka; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla

    2014-01-01

    In Nigeria, the government is implementing the Free Maternal and Child Health Care Programme (FMCHCP). The policy is premised on the notion that financial barriers are one of the most important constraints to equitable access and use of skilled maternal and child healthcare. In Ebonyi State, Southeastern Nigeria the FMCHCP is experiencing implementation challenges including: inadequate human resource for health, inadequate funding, out of stock syndrome, inadequate infrastructure, and poor staff remuneration. Furthermore, there is less emphasis on community involvement in the programme implementation. In this policy brief, we recommend policy options that emphasize the implementation of community-based participatory interventions to strengthen the government’s FMCHCP as follows: Option 1: Training community women on prenatal care, life-saving skills in case of emergency, reproductive health, care of the newborn and family planning. Option 2: Sensitizing the community women towards behavioural change, to understand what quality services that respond to their needs are but also to seek and demand for such. Option 3: Implementation packages that provide technical skills to women of childbearing age as well as mothers’ groups, and traditional birth attendants for better home-based maternal and child healthcare. The effectiveness of this approach has been demonstrated in a number of community-based participatory interventions, building on the idea that if community members take part in decision-making and bring local knowledge, experiences and problems to the fore, they are more likely to own and sustain solutions to improve their communities’ health. PMID:25337602

  10. Comparative Analysis of Pathogenic Organisms in Cockroaches from Different Community Settings in Edo State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Orue, Philip Ogbeide; Iyamu, Mercy Itohan; Ehiaghe, Joy Imuetiyan; Isaac, Osesojie

    2014-01-01

    Cockroaches are abundant in Nigeria and are seen to harbour an array of pathogens. Environmental and sanitary conditions associated with demographic/socio-economic settings of an area could contribute to the prevalence of disease pathogens in cockroaches. A total of 246 cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) in urban (Benin, n=91), semi-urban (Ekpoma, n=75) and rural (Emuhi, n=70) settings in Edo State, Nigeria were collected within and around households. The external body surfaces and alimentary canal of these cockroaches were screened for bacterial, fungal, and parasitological infections. Bacillus sp. and Escherichia coli were the most common bacteria in cockroaches. However, Enterococcus faecalis could not be isolated in cockroaches trapped from Ekpoma and Emuhi. Aspergillus niger was the most prevalent fungus in Benin and Ekpoma, while Mucor sp. was predominant in Emuhi. Parasitological investigations revealed the preponderance of Ascaris lumbricoides in Benin and Emuhi, while Trichuris trichura was the most predominant in Ekpoma. The prevalence and burden of infection in cockroaches is likely to be a reflection of the sanitary conditions of these areas. Also, cockroaches in these areas making incursions in homes may increase the risk of human infections with these disease agents. PMID:24850961

  11. Improving maternal and child healthcare programme using community-participatory interventions in Ebonyi State Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ndukwe, Chinwendu Daniel; Ezeoha, Abel Abeh; Urochukwu, Henry Chukwuemeka; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla

    2014-10-01

    In Nigeria, the government is implementing the Free Maternal and Child Health Care Programme (FMCHCP). The policy is premised on the notion that financial barriers are one of the most important constraints to equitable access and use of skilled maternal and child healthcare. In Ebonyi State, Southeastern Nigeria the FMCHCP is experiencing implementation challenges including: inadequate human resource for health, inadequate funding, out of stock syndrome, inadequate infrastructure, and poor staff remuneration. Furthermore, there is less emphasis on community involvement in the programme implementation. In this policy brief, we recommend policy options that emphasize the implementation of community-based participatory interventions to strengthen the government's FMCHCP as follows: Option 1: Training community women on prenatal care, life-saving skills in case of emergency, reproductive health, care of the newborn and family planning. Option 2: Sensitizing the community women towards behavioural change, to understand what quality services that respond to their needs are but also to seek and demand for such. Option 3: Implementation packages that provide technical skills to women of childbearing age as well as mothers' groups, and traditional birth attendants for better home-based maternal and child healthcare. The effectiveness of this approach has been demonstrated in a number of community-based participatory interventions, building on the idea that if community members take part in decision-making and bring local knowledge, experiences and problems to the fore, they are more likely to own and sustain solutions to improve their communities' health.

  12. Response of patent medicine vendors in rural areas of Lagos state Nigeria to antimalarial policy change.

    PubMed

    Oyeyemi, Abisoye; Ogunnowo, Babatunde; Odukoya, Oluwakemi

    2015-06-01

    Patent medicine vendors (PMVs) play an important role in the treatment of malaria, especially in the rural areas. Nigeria recently changed her antimalarial treatment policy from chloroquine to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). To determine the response of PMVs to the new policy. A baseline study was conducted in two local government areas (LGAs) of Lagos state Nigeria as the first phase in an intervention study aimed at improving the malarial treatment practices of PMVs in rural Lagos. A mixed method design involving a questionnaire survey of 180 PMVs and four key informant interviews were used. An antimalarial drug (AMD) audit was also performed. More than 80% of respondents were aware of the policy change in malaria treatment, but only 23.9% sold an ACT for the last case of malaria treated in an under five child. The main determining factor of the particular AMD sold was PMV's personal choice (70.6%). About half (58.9%) of the shops stocked ACTs, the newly recommended antimalarials. The high awareness of the policy change did not translate to a commensurate increase in the sale of the new drugs. Factors beyond the PMVs need to be addressed for a successful adoption of the new policy.

  13. Molecular characterization of environmental Cryptococcus neoformans VNII isolates in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nnadi, N E; Enweani, I B; Cogliati, M; Ayanbimpe, G M; Okolo, M O; Kim, E; Sabitu, M Z; Criseo, G; Romeo, O; Scordino, F

    2016-12-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are encapsulated yeasts able to cause fatal neurological infections in both human and other mammals. Cryptococcosis is the most common fungal infection of the central nervous system and has a huge burden in sub-Saharan Africa and South East Asia. Bird excreta are considered an environmental reservoir for C. neoformans in urban areas, therefore a study aimed at isolating and characterizing this yeast is important in disease management. In this study, one hundred samples of pigeon droppings were collected in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. C. neoformans was isolated from three samples and initially identified using standard phenotypic and biochemical tests. Molecular analysis revealed that all three isolates belonged to C. neoformans genotype VNII, mating type α and were assigned to the sequence type ST43 by multilocus sequence typing analysis. This study reports, for the first time, the molecular characterization of C. neoformans in Nigeria, where little is still known about the environmental distribution of the genotypes, serotypes and mating types of this important human pathogen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. A techno-economic analysis of aquaculture business in Ogun State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kareem, R. O.; Williams, S. B.

    2009-05-01

    Fish supplies 25% of the total protein source in developing countries. A techno-economic analysis was performed for developing a good business proposal for aquaculture loans to enhance aquaculture development in Nigeria. A case study of catfish Clarias gariepinus framing was conducted in Abeokuta North Local Government of Ogun State, Nigeria. The results show that the fixed cost is N18 338 per year, and the variable cost is N459 700 per year, accounting for the largest amount of the total; therefore, a profit of N43 289 per month can be made. Sensitivity analysis was performed to assess any risk(s) that associated with unfavorable changes in government policy with particular reference to monetary policy. Positive net present value shows that the investment in fish farm is economically feasible and the net investment ratio is 3.52. Also, the benefit-cost ratio is 2.17. The internal rate of return (IRR) is 21% showing that the enterprise is able to offset the interest being charged on the loan. It is therefore worthwhile to invest into fish farm business in the study area. The study suggests that to better sustain the local aquaculture business, the government should create a good conducive environment to foster development of the fish farming. Government intervention is urgently needed to solve problems such as in traditional land tenure, grant credit facilities and subsidies, to enhance the aquacultural development in the country.

  15. Job satisfaction: rural versus urban primary health care workers' perception in Ogun State of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Campbell, P C; Ebuehi, O M

    2011-01-01

    Job satisfaction implies doing a job one enjoys, doing it well, and being suitably rewarded for one' efforts. Several factors affect job satisfaction. To compare factors influencing job satisfaction amongst rural and urban primary health care workers in southwestern Nigeria. A cross sectional comparative study recruited qualified health workers selected by multi stage sampling technique from rural and urban health facilities in four local government areas (LGAs) of Ogun State in Southwestern Nigeria. Data were collected and analysed using Epi info V 3.5.1 RESULTS: The response rates were 88(88%) and 91(91%) respectively in the rural and urban areas. While urban workers derived satisfaction from availability of career development opportunities, materials and equipment, in their current job, rural workers derived satisfaction from community recognition of their work and improved staff relationship. Major de-motivating factors common to both groups were lack of supportive supervision, client-provider relationship and lack of in-service training. However more rural 74(84.1%) than urban 62(68.1%) health workers would prefer to continue working in their present health facilities (p=0.04). There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups in job satisfaction with respect to tools availability and career development opportunities (p<0.05). There is dissimilarity in factors influencing job satisfaction between rural and urban healthcare workers. There is need for human resource policy to be responsive to the diverse needs of health workers particularly at the primary level.

  16. Low rate of proteinuria in hypertensives resident in a rural area of Plateau State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okeahialam, B N; Ogbonna, C; Joseph, D E; Chuhwak, E K; Isiguzoro, I O

    2013-06-01

    Hypertensives are screened for proteinuria largely to detect kidney involvement. In most reports from urban areas, the burden is considerable. We decided to see the scenario in a rural setting with the opportunity presented by our cardiovascular disease (CVD) survey of a rural area in North Central Nigeria. In 2008 we surveyed a rural population in Mangu Local Government area of Plateau State for CVD risk factors using the protocol of the National survey of 1991; slightly modified. One in three subjects was sequentially randomized to have blood and urine examination. Blood tests included glucose, creatinine, uric acid, total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Blood pressures were also taken. Blood and urine tests were done on 282 subjects. Eight of them (2.84%) had proteinuria. Ninety-nine of the 282 (35.11%) were hypertensive. Seven out of the 99 hypertensives (7.07%) had proteinuria. Between those hypertensives (positive or negative for proteinuria), the following indices: glucose, HDL cholesterol, SBP and DBP differed significantly (p = 0.000, p = 0.015, p = 0.000, p = 0.000 respectively). Compared with rates in urban centres of Nigeria, our population recorded low proteinuria rates both for the whole population and the hypertensive segment. It therefore appears that proteinuria in hypertension is not only a reflection of severity and burden of hypertension, but has some relation with residence. Rural areas have lower constellation of CVD risk factor (due to different life style) and lower incidence of hypertension. Consequently, their proteinuria rates are low.

  17. Prevalence and molecular characterisation of Schistosoma haematobium among primary school children in Kebbi State, Nigeria

    PubMed

    Umar, Shuaibu; Shinkafi, Saadatu Haruna; Hudu, Shuaibu Abdullahi; Neela, Vasanthakumari; Suresh, Kumar; Nordin, Syafinaz Amin; Malina, Osman

    Schistosomiasis is the major source of morbidity in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. It is estimated that 207 million people are infected, of which 97% are in Africa. The aim of this study was the determining of prevalence as well as the phylogeny of S. haematobium among school children in Argungu Emirate, Kebbi State Nigeria. A total of 325 urine samples was collected from school children between 7 to 14 years. S. heamatobium eggs was examined under dissecting microscope and DNA was extracted from urine sample and COX1 gene was amplified by nested PCR. The PCR products were purified, sequenced and analysed. This study showed a prevalence of 32.09%, with male pupils having the highest prevalence. S. haematobium infections in children who fetch water in the river have 24 times higher risk of being infected while those who bath in the river have 158 times higher risk of being infected. Our sequences were phylogenetically related to S. haematobium isolate U82266 from Kenya and consistence with the predominant species in Africa. This was the first S. haematobium and S. mansoni co-infection reported in Nigeria. S. haematobium infection is prevalent among school age and significantly associated with water contact.

  18. Review of population based coroners autopsy findings in Rivers state of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Obiorah, C C; Amakiri, C N

    2013-12-10

    Sudden deaths are common findings in Rivers state of Nigeria. The victims of such deaths are subjects, of coroners' autopsies, and the records there from constitute important sources of epidemiological data. To determine the pattern, causes and demographic features of all deaths reported to the coroner for medico legal autopsies in Rivers state of Nigeria. Retrospective descriptive study on reports of coroner autopsies carried out between January 2000 and December 2010 in different mortuaries located across Rivers state was undertaken. The autopsies were unlimited and standardized. Information analyzed were: gender, age, circumstances of death and, autopsy-defined cause of death. Of the 1987 cases reviewed, 83.4% were males. The age range was 2 weeks to 98 years with a mean of, 31.7 years. The peak age range was 21-30 years with 46.5%. The manners of deaths in descending order include: homicides with 50.5%, accidents with 32%, sudden natural deaths with 14.1%, maternal deaths with 2.6% and suicides with 0.8%. Males were most affected in homicidal death with average male:female ratio of 12.4:1. Gunshots constituted the commonest means of homicidal deaths, with 67.9% while decapitation was the least with 0.1%. The commonest cause of accidental death was, road traffic accident with 63.6%. Cardiovascular system pathologies were the commonest causes of natural deaths with 46.1%. Illegal abortions with 41.1% were the commonest causes of maternal, deaths and all suicidal cases were committed by hanging. Homicides were by far the commonest findings of medico legal autopsies, followed by accidental and natural deaths respectively while suicides were the least in Rivers state of Nigeria. Firearms were the, most frequently used weapons for homicides and road traffic accidents remain the major causes of accidental deaths while cardiovascular system pathologies account for the highest proportion of sudden natural deaths and suicides are committed by hanging. Males within the

  19. Epilepsy prevalence, potential causes and social beliefs in Ebonyi State and Benue State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Osakwe, Chijioke; Otte, Willem M; Alo, Chimhurumnanya

    2014-02-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder in Nigeria. Many individuals are affected in rural areas, although prevalence data is not available. In this study we aimed to establish the prevalence of epilepsy in a rural community in south-east Nigeria, a community suspected for having a high number of people living with epilepsy. We compared this with the prevalence in a nearby semi-urban community in north-central Nigeria. In both communities we identified potential causes of epilepsy and obtained information on the social beliefs regarding epilepsy. We used door-to-door surveys and focus group discussions. The epilepsy prevalence in the rural community was 20.8/1000 [95% confidence interval (CI): 15.7-27.4]. The prevalence in the semi-rural community was lower, namely 4.7/1000 [CI: 3.2-6.9]. The difference in prevalence was highly significant (χ(2)-test, p<0.0001). In both communities most people with epilepsy were in the age range of 7-24 years. Causes that might be contributory to the prevalence of epilepsy in both communities included poor obstetric practices, frequent febrile convulsions, head trauma, meningitis and neurocysticercosis. In both communities we found stigma of people with epilepsy. In conclusion, the epilepsy prevalence in the semi-urban community is similar to that in industrialized countries. In contrast, the rural community has a much higher prevalence. This may require the establishment of specific community-based epilepsy control programs. Community interventions should focus on treatment of acute epilepsy and on stigma reduction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Factors Related to under Achievement in Science, Technology and Mathematics Education (STME) in Secondary Schools in Rivers State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obomanu, B. J.; Adaramola, M. O.

    2011-01-01

    We report a research into factors related to underachievement in science, technology and mathematics (STM) education in schools in Rivers State, Nigeria. The study investigated 240 Nigerian secondary school students, 100 parents, 140 STM teachers and 20 government officials from Port Harcourt Metropolis. Five (5) research questions and one…

  1. Students' Perception of Factors Influencing Teaching and Learning of Mathematics in Senior Secondary Schools in Maiduguri Metropolis, Borno State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dauda, Bala; Jambo, Hyelni Emmanuel; Umar, Muhammad Amin

    2016-01-01

    This study examined students' perception of factors influencing teaching and learning of mathematics in senior secondary schools in Maiduguri Metropolis of Borno State, Nigeria. The objectives of the study were to determine the extent to which students perceived: qualification, method of teaching, instructional materials and attitude of both…

  2. Students' Perception of Causes and Effect of Teachers' Psychological Abuse in Senior Secondary Schools in Borno State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pur, Hamsatu Joseph; Liman, Mukhtar Alhaji; Ali, Domiya G.

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out on the students' perception of the causes and effect of teachers' psychological abuse in senior secondary schools in Borno State, Nigeria. Different forms of psychological abuse, perceptions, causes and effect of psychological abuse were discussed. The main objective of the study is to determine the perception of…

  3. Effects of Training Programme on HIV/AIDS Prevention among Primary Health Care Workers in Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajuwon, Ademola; Funmilayo, Fawole; Oladepo, Oladimeji; Osungbade, Kayode; Asuzu, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to train primary health care workers to be trainers and implementers of community-based AIDS prevention activities in Oyo State, Nigeria, by describing an evaluation of the project. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 148 primary health care workers recruited from the 33 local government areas (LGA) of the…

  4. Influence of Retraining Programme on Self-Esteem of Primary School Teachers in Ebonyi State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Igbo, Janet N.; Eze, Justina U.; Eskay, M.; Onu, V. C.; Omeje, J.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of retraining programme on self-esteem of primary school teachers in Ebonyi State of Nigeria. The study was guided by one research question and a null hypothesis. A purposively selected sample of 775 primary school teachers who attended capacity building retraining programme provided the data collected using…

  5. Sports Participation and Social Personality Variable of Students in Secondary Schools in Central Senatorial District of Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edim, M. E.; Odok, E. A.

    2015-01-01

    The main thrust of this study was to investigate sports participation and social personality variable of students in secondary schools in Central Senatorial District of Cross River State, Nigeria. To achieve the purpose of this study, one hypothesis was formulated to guide the study. Literature review was carried out according to the variable of…

  6. Improving Agricultural Science Teachers' Work Attitude in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria: The Financial Initiative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben, Camilus Bassey

    2014-01-01

    This research study carried out to investigate the influence of financial incentive initiatives on agricultural teachers' work attitude in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. One hypothesis was formulated to guide the study. Ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study. A total sample of 150 agricultural science teachers and 150 students drawn…

  7. Bio-Social Variables as Predictors of Teacher Union Leaders' Adherence to Democratic Principles in Ogun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fejoh, Johnson

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of bio-social variables - educational status, age and family socio-economic background on teacher union leaders' adherence to democratic principles in Ogun State of Nigeria. The study employed the ex-post-facto research design. Five hypotheses were generated and tested using an instrument titled "union…

  8. Impact of Cloud Services on Students' Attitude towards Mathematics Education in Public Universities in Benue State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iji, Clement Onwu; Abah, Joshua Abah; Anyor, Joseph Wuave

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on the impact of cloud services on students' attitude towards mathematics education in public universities in Benue State, Nigeria. Ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study. The instrument for the study is the researcher-developed Cloud Service Impact Questionnaire--CSIQ (Cronbach Alpha Coefficient = 0.92). The…

  9. Influence of Psychosocial Factors on Aging among the Aged in Ihitte-Uboma Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojukwu, M. O.

    2016-01-01

    The major aim of this study was to examine influence of psychosocial factors on aging among the aged in Ihitte Uboma Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria. Ex-post facto or casual comparative research design was adopted for the study. Two hundred and twenty-five (225) old people were selected through random sampling for the study.…

  10. Effect of Constructivist Teaching Method on Students' Achievement in French Listening Comprehension in Owerri North LGA of Imo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uwalaka, A. J.; Offorma, G. C.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the effect of constructivist teaching method on students' achievement in French listening comprehension in Owerri North Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria. Achievement in French listening comprehension over the years has been discouraging. The conventional method of teaching French Language has not improved the…

  11. Effects of Teaching Gardening on Science Students' Attitudes toward Entrepreneurial Skills Acquisition in Jos South, Plateau State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charity, Dimlong; Ozoji, Bernadette Ebele; Osasebor, Florence Osaze; Ibn Umar, Suleiman

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of teaching gardening on science students' attitudes toward entrepreneurial skills acquisition in Jos South, Plateau State, Nigeria. The study employed the non-randomized pre-test post-test non-equivalent control group design. A sample of 75 senior secondary school students from two intact classes, randomly…

  12. Usability Assessment of Educational Software by Students: Case of "?Pón-Ìm?`" in Osun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tijani, O. K.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated usability of educational software: case of "?pón-Ìm?`" in Osun state, Nigeria. Specifically, the study investigated influences of gender and school locations on students' assessment of "?pón-Ìm?`" Technology Enhanced Learning System (OTELS) based on selected usability parameters. 701 students were…

  13. Psychosocial Care in Complementary Feeding of Children: A Comparative Study of the Urban and Rural Communities of Osun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunba, Beatrice Olubukola

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated psychosocial care in complementary feeding of children under two years of age. The cross-sectional study was carried out in Osun State of Nigeria within Sub-Saharan Africa, and 450 mothers were interviewed of which 337 were from the urban and 113 from the rural communities. Results revealed that 37.4% of the respondents…

  14. Availability of Instructional Materials at the Basic Education Level in Enugu Educational Zone of Enugu State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chukwu, Leo C.; Eze, Thecla A. Y.; Agada, Fidelia Chinyelugo

    2016-01-01

    The study examined the availability of instructional materials at the basic education level in Enugu Education Zone of Enugu State, Nigeria. One research question and one hypothesis guided the study. The research question was answered using mean and grand mean ratings, while the hypothesis was tested using t-test statistics at 0.05 level of…

  15. Influence of Students' Understanding and Goal Commitment on Academic Achievement in Introductory Technology in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akpan, Godwin A.; Mbaba, Uduak G.; Udofia, Aniefiok E.

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the influence of students' understanding and goal commitment on their academic achievement in Introductory Technology in secondary schools in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. An ex-post facto survey design was used and a random sample of 2,500 junior secondary three (13-14 years old) students from a population of 48,302 JSS three…

  16. Entrepreneurship Education and Career Intentions of Tertiary Education Students in Akwa Ibom and Cross River States, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekpoh, Uduak Imo; Edet, Aniefiok Oswald

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of entrepreneurship education on career intentions among 500 students drawn from two universities in Akwa Ibom and Cross River States of Nigeria. The study adopted a survey design. Two research questions and two hypotheses were raised for the study. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire titled…

  17. Qualification and Gender Dimensions in Attitude of Secondary School Social Studies Teachers towards Computer Usage in Kogi State Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achor, Emmanuel E.; Shaibu, Joshua S.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined attitude dimensions of secondary school social studies teachers towards computer usage in Kogi State Nigeria. Qualification and Gender influence on their use was examined. Participants were 427 (Male = 224; female = 203) social studies teachers. Sampling was purposive and random. The study adopted the survey design. Data were…

  18. Violation of Students' Legal Rights as Correlate of Organization Climate in Imo State Secondary Schools, in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anuna, M. C.; Mbonu, F. O.; Amanchukwu, R. N.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether violation of students' legal rights has relationship with organizational climate in secondary schools in Imo State, Nigeria. Three research questions and null hypothesis were put forward and tested in order to make one's decisions on the issues investigated. Relevant literature to the study was…

  19. Use of Multimedia in Teaching and Learning of Political Science in University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udim, Davies Kelvin; Etim, Eyo Akon

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the use of multimedia in teaching and learning of political science in University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. A survey research was adopted and the tool employed for this research study was a questionnaire titled "Use of Multimedia in Teaching and Learning of Political Science in University of Uyo" (UMTLPSUU).…

  20. Awareness of Climate Change and Sustainable Development among Undergraduates from Two Selected Universities in Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agboola, Omowunmi Sola; Emmanuel, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated awareness of climate change and sustainable development among undergraduates in two universities: University of Ibadan, Ibadan and Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso in Oyo State of Nigeria. This was aimed at increasing the knowledge of undergraduates on climate change and sustainable development. The study…

  1. An Analysis of Factors Influencing Students' Academic Performance in Public and Private Secondary Schools in Rivers State-Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalagbor, Levi Doe

    2016-01-01

    The study examined factors that positively influence students' academic performance in public and private secondary schools in Rivers State-Nigeria. One research question addressed the objectives and problem of the study. The instrument used for the collection of data was the "Students' Academic Performance Questionnaire" (SAPQ),…

  2. Effects of Enhanced Laboratory Instructional Technique on Senior Secondary Students' Attitude toward Chemistry in Oyo Township, Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adesoji, Francis Adewumi; Raimi, Sikiru Morakinyo

    2004-01-01

    The study examined the effect of supplementing laboratory instruction with problem solving strategy and or practical skills teaching on students' attitude toward chemistry. A total of 286 senior secondary class II students (145 males and 141 females) drawn from four local government areas in Oyo township in Oyo state, Nigeria, took part in the…

  3. Predictive Factors in Undergraduates' Involvement in Campus Secret Cults in Public Universities in Edo State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azetta Arhedo, Philip; Aluede, Oyaziwo; Adomeh, Ilu O. C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the predictive factors in undergraduates' involvement in campus secret cults in public universities in Edo State of Nigeria. The study employed the descriptive method, specifically the survey format. A random sample of three hundred and eighty (380) undergraduates was drawn from the two public universities. Data were elicited…

  4. Effectiveness of Blended Learning and Elearning Modes of Instruction on the Performance of Undergraduates in Kwara State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambari, Amosa Isiaka; Shittu, Ahmed Tajudeen; Ogunlade, O. Olufunmilola; Osunlade, Olourotimi Rufus

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of blended learning and E-learning modes of instruction on the performance of undergraduates in Kwara State, Nigeria. It also determined if the student performance would vary with gender. Quasi experimental that employs pretest, posttest, control group design was adopted for this study. This involves three…

  5. Instructional Methods and Students' End of Term Achievement in Biology in Selected Secondary Schools in Sokoto Metropolis, Sokoto State Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamsuddeen, Abdulrahman; Amina, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the Correlation between instructional methods and students end of term achievement in Biology in selected secondary schools in Sokoto Metropolis, Sokoto State Nigeria. The study addressed three Specific objectives. To examine the relationship between; Cooperative learning methods, guided discovery, Simulation Method and…

  6. Public Perception of the Millennium Development Goals on Access to Safe Drinking Water in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eni, David D.; Ojong, William M.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the public perception of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of environmental sustainability with focus on the MDG target which has to do with reducing the proportion of people without access to safe drinking water in Cross River State, Nigeria. The stratified and systematic sampling techniques were adopted for the study,…

  7. Nursery School Headteacher Leadership Behaviour Correlates of Nursery School Teachers Job Satisfaction in Akoko North, Ondo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clara, Okoroafor Nnenna

    2016-01-01

    The present study focuses on nursery school head teacher leadership behaviour as it correlates to nursery school teacher's job satisfaction. Data were collected through a scale and returned by sample of two hundred and fifty nursery school teacher's in Akoko North, Ondo State, Nigeria.Data collected were analyzed using mean and standard deviation…

  8. Western and Traditional Educational Background of Midwives and Delivery Pain Control among Women in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyira, Emilia James; Emon, Umoe Duke; Essien, N. C.; Ekpenyong, Affiong Onoyom

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to investigate western and traditional educational background of midwives with regard to their effectiveness in delivery pain control in Cross River State-Nigeria. To achieve this purpose, two null hypotheses were formulated to guide the investigation. The study adopted the survey design. The sample consisted of 360 post-natal…

  9. Coroner autopsy study of homicides in Rivers State of Nigeria: 11-year review.

    PubMed

    Obiorah, C C; Amakiri, C N

    2014-01-01

    As most developing countries, including Nigeria, grapple with economic crisis, poor human capital development and high levels of income inequality, violent crimes - especially homicides - continue to be a cause for concern. We studied the pathology and demographic distribution of homicides in Rivers State of Nigeria expecting that the findings would be useful in formulating preventive strategies. Reports of homicide autopsies in the state for 11 years were retrospectively scrutinized for age, gender, type of weapon, site of injury, circumstances, mechanisms and causes of death. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 17. Homicides constituted 50.5% of the medicolegal autopsies. Although the overall male:female ratio was 12.4 : 1, there was variation with weapon. Deaths by firearm had the highest male:female ratio of 24.6 : 1. The mean and peak ages were 29.2 ± 11.4 and 21-30 years, respectively, while the range was 1 to 96 years. Firearms were the most common weapons, at 68.9%, hemorrhagic shock and head injuries at 61.5% and 28.2% respectively were the most common mechanisms and causes of death. Armed robbery incidents were the most common circumstances, while the head was the most common site of injury at 48.8%. The homicide rate is high in our environment and most homicides are committed during armed robberies using firearms. Improving medical care and providing emergency medical services will reduce cases of deaths from homicides, most of which occur due to manageable hemorrhagic shock. Increasing the drive towards controlling illegal arms acquisition and possession will reduce the present carnage in the state.

  10. Nutritional status of urban and rural primary school pupils in Lagos State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ekekezie, O O; Odeyemi, K A; Ibeabuchi, N M

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out in Lagos State in Ikorodu LGA (rural), a largely agrarian area producing raw materials for agro-allied industries and Ikeja LGA (urban), a highly-developed metropolis and commercial centre. Hitherto, studies showed that undernutrition had been the main form of malnutrition among Nigerian children. However with influences from urbanization, westernization and globalization in cosmopolitan Lagos, it is imperative to find out if the global epidemic of overweight and obesity has caught on. To compare the nutritional status of primary school pupils in urban and rural LGAs in Lagos State, Nigeria. This was a cross , sectional comparative study. A multistage sampling method was adopted. Data were collected from 529 pupils with an interviewer administered questionnaire. Their weight and height were recorded in pre-designed proforma and converted to nutritional indices. The prevalence rates of underweight, stunting and wasting in the rural area were 49.6%, 50.8% and 24.2% respectively; while it was 15.1%, 16.6% and 13.6% in the urban area respectively. There was overnutrition in the urban area: 15.1% were overweight and 13.2% were obese. The mean nutritional indices were significantly lower among the rural pupils than urban pupils (p<0.001) in each case. Undernutrition is still a major health problem among school children in Lagos State, Nigeria, more so in the rural area. There is an emergence of overweight and obesity in the urban area. A comprehensive programme to improve nutritional status is recommended as part of a well funded school health programme.

  11. Antenatal Care Services Utilization in Yobe State, Nigeria: Examining Predictors and Barriers.

    PubMed

    Umar, Abubakar Sadiq; Bawa, Samuel Bitrus

    2015-01-01

    In Nigeria, wide disparities exist between the different parts of the country, with the states in the North East zone having poor health resources. The objective of this study is to assess whether women's biological, sociocultural, and economic characteristics are associated with utilization of ante natal care services as measured by number of antenatal care (ANC) visits in Yobe State. This is a secondary data analysis of the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey with records from 33,385 women between 15-49 years who had given birth between January 2003 and December 2008 in Yobe State. Bivariate Pearson's Chi square test and two stages of Multivariate regression analysis were conducted. Women with at least primary level education (adjusted OR (AOR) = 2.40; CI 1.24 - 4.67), belonging to professional employment category (AOR = 12.07; CI 0.19 - 75.74) and those who had access to skilled health workers (AOR = 5.13; CI 2.50 - 10.52) are more likely to make the required number of ANC visits compared to those who are illiterates, unemployed and had no access to skilled health workers. This study demonstrated that educational level, family wealth income, and availability of skilled health worker were consistently associated with the number of ANC visits even after controlling for covariates. These three covariates are in tandem with the Millenium Development Goals (MDG) 1 - eradication of extreme poverty and hunger; MDG 2 - universal basic education; MDG 3 - gender equality; and MDG 4 - maternal mortality. There is the need for inter-sectoral holistic intervention approach.

  12. Investigating the Impact of Computer Technology on the Teaching and Learning of Graphic Arts in Nigeria Osun State College of Education Ila-Orangun as a Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abass, Bada Tayo

    2012-01-01

    This paper focused on the use of computer technology in the teaching and learning of graphic arts in Nigeria colleges of Education. Osun State Colleges of Education Ila-Orangun was used as a case study. The population of the study consisted of all Graphic students in Nigeria colleges of Education. 50 subjects were used for the study while…

  13. Incidence of rubella in a state in North-western Nigeria: a call for action.

    PubMed

    Omoleke, Semeeh Akinwale; Udenenwu, Henry Chukwuebuka

    2016-01-01

    Rubella cases are often under-reported, especially in many developing countries, owing to inadequate attention and weak funding of elimination strategies, despite being an epidemic-prone disease. Based on available data, this paper, therefore, seeks to bring the attention of public health practitioners, researchers and policy makers to threats of rubella in our environment, and also recommend measures to mitigate the threats. The authors conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study in which the laboratory results of febrile-rash-illness cases in Kebbi State, Northwest Nigeria, from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2015 were analysed, using descriptive statistics and chi-square test. We obtained the data set through the routine Integrated Disease Surveillance System and Response being conducted in Nigeria. A total of 413 febrile-rash-illness cases were reported and investigated in Kebbi State from 2014 to 2015, 5 (3.5%) tested positive for rubella IgM in 2014 while 7(2.6%) tested positive in 2015. There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of rubella between 2014 and 2015 (p> 0.05). Rubella infection was mainly found in children less than 5 years of age with peak incidence period during the hot season (between February and April). There was no significant sex bias in this study. However, our practice experiences in this environment suggest a systematic under-reporting and under-diagnosis of febrile- rash-illnesses. There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of rubella in children in our setting for the 2-years studied. However, there is a potential for increase in the transmission of the disease due to non-availability of routine childhood vaccination against rubella and the systematic under-reporting of suspected cases and weak laboratory support. In order to better appreciate the burden of rubella infection, there may be a need to undertake a prevalence survey, and simultaneously, strengthening case

  14. Incidence of rubella in a state in North-western Nigeria: a call for action

    PubMed Central

    Omoleke, Semeeh Akinwale; Udenenwu, Henry Chukwuebuka

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Rubella cases are often under-reported, especially in many developing countries, owing to inadequate attention and weak funding of elimination strategies, despite being an epidemic-prone disease. Based on available data, this paper, therefore, seeks to bring the attention of public health practitioners, researchers and policy makers to threats of rubella in our environment, and also recommend measures to mitigate the threats. Methods The authors conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study in which the laboratory results of febrile-rash-illness cases in Kebbi State, Northwest Nigeria, from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2015 were analysed, using descriptive statistics and chi-square test. We obtained the data set through the routine Integrated Disease Surveillance System and Response being conducted in Nigeria. Results A total of 413 febrile-rash-illness cases were reported and investigated in Kebbi State from 2014 to 2015, 5 (3.5%) tested positive for rubella IgM in 2014 while 7(2.6%) tested positive in 2015. There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of rubella between 2014 and 2015 (p> 0.05). Rubella infection was mainly found in children less than 5 years of age with peak incidence period during the hot season (between February and April). There was no significant sex bias in this study. However, our practice experiences in this environment suggest a systematic under-reporting and under-diagnosis of febrile- rash-illnesses. Conclusion There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of rubella in children in our setting for the 2-years studied. However, there is a potential for increase in the transmission of the disease due to non-availability of routine childhood vaccination against rubella and the systematic under-reporting of suspected cases and weak laboratory support. In order to better appreciate the burden of rubella infection, there may be a need to undertake a prevalence survey, and

  15. Public Health Implications and Risk Factors Assessment of Mycobacterium bovis Infections among Abattoir Personnel in Bauchi State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Sa'idu, A. S.; Okolocha, E. C.; Dzikwi, A. A.; Gamawa, A. A.; Ibrahim, S.; Kwaga, J. K. P.; Usman, A.; Maigari, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a chronic infectious and contagious zoonotic disease of domestic animals, wild animals, and humans. It poses a public health threat and economic losses due to abattoir condemnation of infected carcasses during meat inspection of slaughtered animals. Bovine tuberculosis is widespread in Africa including Nigeria affecting both cattle and humans, particularly Northern Nigeria. A prospective survey was conducted from June to August 2013 in the three Zonal abattoirs of Bauchi State, Nigeria. A total of 150 structured close-ended questionnaires were administered to abattoir personnel to assess their level of awareness of bTB. This study was aimed at determining the level of public health awareness, attitude, and practices of abattoir workers of bTB in Bauchi State, Nigeria. There was a statistically significant association between respondents' awareness of bTB and their occupational status, age, and duration of exposure to cattle carcasses (P < 0.05); the odds of being aware of bTB were 9.4, 7.3, and 2.1, respectively. In conclusion, these demonstrate the urgent need for public health authorities to intervene in bTB control. The risk of bTB transmission as indicated by the personnel's practices and awareness levels in Bauchi State could be prevented through the use of protective clothing (PPEs). PMID:26464954

  16. Economic Effects of Fascioliasis on Animal Traction Technology in Adamawa State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaafar-Furo, M. R.; Mshelia, S. I.; Suleiman, A.

    This study reports the results of a survey conducted in 2001 to investigate the economic effects of Fascioliasis (Liverflukes) on drought animals in Adamawa State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 60 and 74 farmers` owners of 148 non-infested and 204 infested drought animals, respectively, through a cost-route method using structured questionnaires and supplemented with interviews. Analysis using descriptive statistics and animal traction efficiency measure showed that the non-infested drought animals were efficiently utilized than the infested drought animals. It was concluded that the non-infested drought animals were more productive. The study therefore, recommend among others, the regular deworming of drought animals in order to improve their efficiency.

  17. Institutional and production characteristics among smallholder pig producers in Enugu State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Chah, Jane M; Dimelu, Mebel U; Ukwuani, Stella U

    2014-10-01

    A study on the institutional and production characteristics of pig farming in Enugu State, Nigeria, was conducted using 80 randomly selected smallholder pig producers. Data were collected by using an interview schedule. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze data. The mean number of pigs owned by smallholder producer was 18. Only 20.0 and 6.3 % of the producers had access to credit and to extension services, respectively. Ninety percent of the respondents practiced intensive management system. The major housing type used by producers was cement brick walls with aluminum roofing sheets (97.6 %). The majority (80 %) of producers reared mostly crossbred pigs and family labor (68.7 %) was most prevalent. Fourteen (50 %) of the 28 routine management practices were always performed by the pig producers. Extension service providers should intensify efforts to provide producers with appropriate management practices and training for effective disease control and improve productivity.

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons profiles of spent drilling fluids deposited at Emu-Uno, Delta State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Iwegbue, Chukwujindu M A

    2011-10-01

    The concentrations and profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined in spent drilling fluid deposited at Emu-Uno, Delta State of Nigeria. The total concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the spent drilling fluid deposits ranged between 40 and 770 μg kg(-1). The PAHs profile were predominantly 2- and 3-rings with acenaphthalene, phenanthrene, fluorene being the predominant PAHs. The prevalence of 2- and 3-rings PAHs in the spent drilling fluid deposits indicate contamination of the drilling fluids with crude oil during drilling. Incorporation of spent drilling fluids into the soil has serious implication for soil, surface water and groundwater quality. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

  19. Visual acuity of commercial motor drivers in Ogun State of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Onabolu, O O; Bodunde, O T; Otulana, T O; Ajibode, H A; Awodein, O G; Onadipe, O J; Jagun, O A

    2012-12-01

    To objectively assess the visual acuity of commercial motor drivers (CMD) in 3 Local Government Areas (LGA) of Ogun State of Nigeria in order to determine their eligibility to drive. The visual acuities of CMDs in 3 LGAS of Ogun state in Nigeria (selected using a multistage sampling technique) were tested with Snellens acuity charts and the eyes examined with bright pen torches and ophthamoscopes. Visual acuity 6/12 or better in the worse eye was taken as adequate to obtain a driving license. The drivers with worse visual acuities were further examined to find the cause of decreased vision. The visual acuities of 524 drivers were determined and analyzed. Their ages ranged from 19-66 years with a mean of 46.8 ±7.2 years. Two hundred and twenty (41.9%) of the drivers were between 40 and 49 years old. Four hundred and four (77.1%) did not have any form of eye test prior to this study. Four hundred and sixty three drivers (88.4%) were eligible to drive while 61 drivers (11.6%) were not eligible. Decreased visual acuity was caused by refractive error in 22(36.1%), cataract in 19(31.2%), glaucoma in 12(19.7%), corneal scar in 5(8.2%) and posterior segment lesions in 3(4.9%). Objective assessment of vision should be an essential component of licensure. Middle aged and elderly drivers are prone to age related ocular diseases and require reassessment of visual status every 3 years when licenses are renewed.

  20. Quality and rural-urban comparison of tuberculosis care in Rivers State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Tobin-West, Charles Ibiene; Isodje, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nigeria ranks among countries with the highest burden of tuberculosis. Yet evidence continues to indicate poor treatment outcomes which have been attributed to poor quality of care. This study aims to identify some of the systemic problems in order to inform policy decisions for improved quality of services and treatment outcomes in Nigeria. Methods A comparative assessment of the quality of TB care in rural and urban health facilities was carried out between May and June 2013, employing the Donabedian model of quality assessment. Data was analysed using the SPSS software package version 20.0. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Results Health facility infrastructures were more constrained in the urban than rural settings. Both the urban and rural facilities lacked adequate facilities for infection control such as, running water, air filter respirators, hand gloves and extractor fans. Health education and HIV counselling and testing (HCT) were limited in rural facilities compared to urban facilities. Although anti-TB drugs were generally available in both settings, the DOTS strategy in patient care was completely ignored. Finally, laboratory support for diagnosis and patient monitoring was limited in the rural facilities. Conclusion The study highlights suboptimal quality of TB care in Rivers State with limitations in health education and HCT of patients for HIV as well as laboratory support for TB care in rural health facilities. We, therefore, recommend that adequate infection control measures, strict observance of the DOTS strategy and sufficient laboratory support be provided to TB clinics in the State. PMID:27642401

  1. Poliovirus seroprevalence before and after interruption of poliovirus transmission in Kano State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Iliyasu, Zubairu; Verma, Harish; Craig, Kehinde T; Nwaze, Eric; Ahmad-Shehu, Amina; Jibir, Binta Wudil; Gwarzo, Garba Dayyabu; Gajida, Auwalu U; Weldon, William C; Steven Oberste, M; Takane, Marina; Mkanda, Pascal; Muhammad, Ado J G; Sutter, Roland W

    2016-09-30

    In September 2015, Nigeria was removed from the list of polio-endemic countries after more than 12months had passed since the detection of last wild poliovirus case in the country on 24 July 2014. We are presenting here a report of two polio seroprevalence surveys conducted in September 2013 and October 2014, respectively, in the Kano state of northern Nigeria. Health facility based seroprevalence surveys were undertaken at Murtala Mohammad Specialist Hospital, Kano. Parents or guardians of children aged 6-9months, 36-47months, 5-9years and 10-14years in 2013 and 6-9months and 19-22months (corresponding to 6-9months range at the time of 2013 survey) in 2014 presenting to the outpatient department, were approached for participation, screened for eligibility and asked to provide informed consent. A questionnaire was administered and a blood sample collected for polio neutralization assay. Among subjects aged 6-9months in the 2013 survey, seroprevalence was 58% (95% confidence interval [CI] 51-66%) to poliovirus type 1, 42% (95% CI 34-50%) to poliovirus type 2, and 52% (95% CI 44-60%) to poliovirus type 3. Among children 36-47months and older, seroprevalence was 85% or higher for all three serotypes. In 2014, seroprevalence in 6-9month infants was 72% (95% CI 65-79%) for type 1, 59% (95% CI 52-66%) for type 2, and 65% (95% CI 57-72%) for type 3 and in 19-22months, 80% (95% CI 74-85%), 57% (49-63%) and 78% (71-83%) respectively. Seroprevalence was positively associated with history of increasing oral poliovirus vaccine doses. There was significant improvement in seroprevalence in 2014 over the 2013 levels indicating a positive impact of recent programmatic interventions. However the continued low seroprevalence in 6-9month age is a concern and calls for improved immunization efforts to sustain the polio-free Nigeria. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Ethno medicinal survey of plants used by the indigenes of Rivers State of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ajibesin, Kola' K; Bala, Danladi N; Umoh, Uwemedimo F

    2012-09-01

    The medicinal plants used in the traditional medicine of Rivers State of Nigeria were surveyed. The survey aims to identify and document the plants used amongst the indigenes of Rivers State. Semi-structured interviews were conducted during a field trip to gather information from traditional medical practitioners (TMPs) and community elders. Medicinal plant species (188) representing 169 genera and 82 families used in the ethno medicine of the people of Rivers State were recorded from 460 households. The most represented genera were Ipomoea and Citrus providing four species each. The most important species showed the highest Fidelity level (FL) value and these included Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae) (100%) and Tridax procumbens L. (Asteraceae) (100%). The most important categories of diseases were those that showed the highest Informant consensus factor (ICF) value of 0.99, such as dermal or digestive problems and fever/malaria. The most used plant part was leaves (42%), while decoction was the main method of drug preparation (36%). The survey shows that more than half of the medicinal plants gathered in Rivers State are also used in other countries of the world for various ailments. The high values of ICF recorded indicate high degree of agreement among the informants, while the high FL values suggest the popular use of the plants. The survey provides a useful source of information for TMPs and medicinal plant researchers. These medicinal plants gathered may bring about drug discovery and may also be incorporated into the healthcare delivery system of the country.

  3. Epidemic yellow fever in Borno State of Nigeria: characterisation of hospitalised patients.

    PubMed

    Ekenna, O; Chikwem, J O; Mohammed, I; Durojaiye, S O

    2010-01-01

    In 1990, an outbreak of a febrile illness with high mortality was reported in border villages, later spreading to other areas of Borno State of Nigeria. To present a report of the investigation of that outbreak, with emphasis on the characterisation of hospitalised patients. Selected centres reporting cases of acute febrile illness during the months of August to December, 1990 were visited, to establish surveillance. Case investigation forms were used to obtain clinical and demographic data; and blood samples were obtained from patients for analyses. Only hospitalised patients with adequate clinical information from three centres were included in the analysis. The outbreak, which involved five of the six health zones in the state, and spread into adjoining Gongola state and the Cameroun Republic, was caused by the yellow fever virus. Fever, central nervous system (CNS) involvement, jaundice and haemorrhage were the most common clinical manifestations of 102 hospitalised patients. Eighty -three (81%) of hospitalised patients died and most within two days of admission. CNS manifestations were more common in dying patients than in survivors. The reasons for this rare outbreak of yellow fever in the dry Savannah belt of Borno State remain unclear. Improved surveillance and more effective prevention strategies are needed to avert the recurrence of such outbreaks.

  4. Teachers' Training and Involvement in School Health Programme in Oyo State, Southwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adebayo, A M; Makinde, G I; Omode, P K

    2018-02-01

    School Health Programme (SHP) currently lacks effective implementation in Nigeria. Lack of training/orientation of teachers in the programme may have contributed to this. Developing an appropriate training intervention may require prior situation analysis to know teachers' current level of training and involvement in the programme, as there is paucity of information on such study in Oyo State. Thus, this study was carried out to assess primary school teachers' training and involvement in the SHP in Oyo state, Nigeria. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using a 2-stage cluster sampling method to select 2 out of the 33 Local Government Areas (LGAs) in Oyo State. A semi-structured self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on respondents' characteristics and previous training and involvement in the SHP. The major variable for assessing teachers' involvement in the SHP was "ever been involved in health inspection of pupils". Level of involvement was categorized into "never, "once", "occasionally", "frequently", and "very regularly". These options were further re-categorized into "never", "infrequently" (once and occasionally) and "frequently" (frequently and very regularly) for the purpose of inferential statistics. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi-square test at p=0.05. A total of 811 respondents participated in the study. Twenty-eight percent of the respondents reported previous training in the SHP out of whom 44.7% received the training on-the-job. Forty-seven percent were regularly involved in health inspection of pupils. Teachers who taught health education (92.3%) were involved in health inspection of pupils compared with counterparts who did not (74.4%) (p<0.001). Similarly, 85.3% of teachers trained on-the-job were frequently involved in the SHP compared with 73.6% of those trained during undergraduate years (p=0.026). Training and involvement of public primary school teachers in the SHP in Oyo State

  5. Autonomy and Reproductive Rights of Married Ikwerre Women in Rivers State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Princewill, Chitu Womehoma; Jegede, Ayodele Samuel; Wangmo, Tenzin; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Elger, Bernice Simone

    2017-06-01

    A woman's lack of or limited reproductive autonomy could lead to adverse health effects, feeling of being inferior, and above all being unable to adequately care for her children. Little is known about the reproductive autonomy of married Ikwerre women of Rivers State, Nigeria. This study demonstrates how Ikwerre women understand the terms autonomy and reproductive rights and what affects the exercise of these rights. An exploratory research design was employed for this study. A semi-structured interview schedule was used to conduct thirty-four in-depth interviews and six focus group discussions with purposively sampled educated, semi-educated, and uneducated Ikwerre women in monogamous or polygynous marriages. The collected data was analysed qualitatively with MAXQDA 11 using open and axial coding. The interviews and focus group responses reveal a low level of awareness of autonomy and reproductive rights amongst the Ikwerre women in Nigeria. While some educated women were aware of their reproductive rights, cultural practices were reported to limit the exercise of these rights. Participants reported that Ikwerre culture is a patriarchal one where married women are expected to submit and obey their husbands in all matters; and a good married woman according to Ikwerre standard is one who complies with this culture. Women's refusal of sexual advances from their husbands is described as not being acceptable in this culture; and hence rape in marriage is not recognized in Ikwerre culture. Education and awareness creation on the importance of women's reproductive autonomy could improve their reproductive rights and autonomy in marital settings. Overcoming the patriarchal aspects of Ikwerre culture-for example, the greater value placed on male children than female children and treating women as incompetent individuals-is necessary to promote gender equality as well as help improve women's reproductive autonomy.

  6. Acceptability and willingness to pay for telemedicine services in Enugu state, southeast Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Arize, Ifeyinwa; Onwujekwe, Obinna

    2017-01-01

    Background This study examines the level of awareness, acceptability and consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for telemedicine services using the contingent valuation method (CVM). This work is important as it elicits the value that consumers attach to telemedicine given there is a gap in this knowledge in many sub-Saharan countries such as in Nigeria. Methods The study was based on primary data obtained through an interviewer-administered questionnaire of 370 individuals including both males and females from 25 years and over, to collect data on respondents’ awareness of, acceptability of, and WTP for telemedicine, using the bidding game question format. A socioeconomic status (SES) index was created, based on information on household assets, and was used to categorize respondents into SES quartiles. The data were analyzed using a combination of descriptive techniques, logistics and the Tobit regression model (Tobit Type 1) methods. Results The study found that majority of the people (58.9%) had no knowledge of telemedicine. However, 48.7% of the respondents were willing to pay for telemedicine. The mean WTP for a telemedicine was US$2.04 for each visit. Tobit regression analysis showed that respondents’ socioeconomic status (SES) was the main statistically significant variable that explained their WTP for telemedicine. Conclusion The study has shown that there is a low-level awareness of and WTP for telemedicine services in Enugu State, South East of Nigeria. The finding of a positive relationship between SES and WTP implies that the poor may not be able to pay for telemedicine and may need government subsidies to be able to benefit from such service. Also, government and their partners need to undertake wide scale campaign before the introduction of telemedicine. PMID:29942606

  7. Hydrogeology and groundwater evaluation of a shallow coastal aquifer, southern Akwa Ibom State (Nigeria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edet, Aniekan

    2017-09-01

    The rapid expansion of economic activities in coastal parts of Nigeria has triggered an uncoordinated development of groundwater leading to stress on the resource. Hence a study was conducted to assess the hydrogeological characteristics of the shallow coastal aquifer of southern Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Emphasis was on the hydraulic characteristics, quality with respect to domestic and irrigation purposes and influence of seawater. The study result revealed that the aquifer consist of intercalations of clayey sand and sand. The aquifer is characterized by high hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity values. The groundwater flow direction is southwards with higher groundwater depletion in the dry season. Groundwater samples from hand dug wells and boreholes were evaluated based on World Health Organization standard and some indices, respectively, for drinking and irrigation uses. The groundwaters are fit for drinking and domestic uses. However, more than 70 % of the pH values are not within the allowable limits of between 6.5 and 9.2 for drinking and domestic use. Therefore, it is recommended that neutralizing filter containing calcite or ground limestone should be applied to raise the pH of the groundwater. Of the 10 parameters used to assess the water for irrigation use, only sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), magnesium hazard (MH) and magnesium ratio indicated the excellent quality of these waters. Na+-K+-HCO3 - constitute the dominant water type. Total dissolved solids and ratios of Na+/Cl-, Mg2+/Cl-, and Ca2+/SO4 2- and saltwater mixing index (SMI) suggest some level of seawater intrusion in the area.

  8. Fertility response to child survival in Nigeria: an analysis of microdata from Bendel State.

    PubMed

    Okojie, C E

    1991-01-01

    A researcher used data on 2145 15-50 year old ever married women from a 1985 fertility survey in Bendel State, Nigeria to estimate fertility response to own child survival. For 35-50 year old women, fertility fell steadily with higher levels of education even when she controlled for the age education interaction. Education did not have a significant effect for younger women, however. Yet husband's education had a significant positive effect on fertility. Further the proportion of surviving children (the survival ratio) was negatively associated with fertility for all women and for all age groups, especially 25-34 year old women. The fact that the survival ratio was still negatively associated with fertility for women =or+ 35 years old suggested that women adjusted to their own experience of child mortality by the end of childbearing. Further it implied that a rise in child survival would inevitably lower fertility. The researcher then compared the fertility behavior of rural and urban women in terms of child survival. Since the survival rate was significant for rural women, it is suggested that own child survival had a considerable influence on fertility behavior. For urban women, however, it was significant perhaps because access to water did not differ much in the urban sample or account for child mortality. Own child mortality was 36.7% for rural women compared to 23.7% for urban women. The stronger reproductive response among older women and among rural women implied that behavior factors had a stronger role in the reproductive response than biological factors. These results suggested that own child mortality and community mortality may be more important than national average mortality. Further research on aggregate mortality trends and individual child survival experience and their link to individual reproductive behavior in Nigeria are needed.

  9. Evaluation of rare earth elements in groundwater of Lagos and Ogun States, Southwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ayedun, H; Arowolo, T A; Gbadebo, A M; Idowu, O A

    2017-06-01

    Rare earth elements in our environment are becoming important because of their utilization in permanent magnets, lamp phosphors, superconductors, rechargeable batteries, catalyst, ceramics and other applications. This study was conducted to evaluate the level of rare earth elements (REE) and the variability of their anomalous behavior in groundwater samples collected from Lagos and Ogun States, Southwest, Nigeria. REE concentrations were determined in 170 groundwater samples using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, while the physicochemical parameters were determined using standard methods. Lagos State groundwater is enriched with REE [sum REEs range (mean ± SD)]; [0.365-488 (69.5 ± 117)] µg L -1 than Ogun State groundwater [sum REEs range (mean ± SD)]; [1.14-232 (22.6 ± 41.1)] µg L -1 . Boreholes are more enriched with REEs than wells. Significant (P < 0.05) positive correlation (R = Pearson) was recorded in Lagos State groundwater between sum REEs and Fe (R = 0.55). However, there were no significant correlations between sum REEs, pH (R = 0.073) and HCO 3 2- (R = 0.157) in Ogun State groundwater. Chondrite-normalized plot shows that Lagos groundwater exhibits positive Ce anomaly, while Ogun State groundwater does not. The source of REE in Lagos State may be from the ocean and leaching from wastes dumpsites, while the source in Ogun State groundwater may be from the rocks.

  10. Factors influencing knowledge about childhood autism among final year undergraduate Medical, Nursing and Psychology students of University of Nigeria, Enugu State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Igwe, Monday N; Bakare, Muideen O; Agomoh, Ahamefule O; Onyeama, Gabriel M; Okonkwo, Kevin O

    2010-06-13

    Knowledge and awareness about childhood autism is low among health care workers and the general populace in Nigeria. Poor knowledge about childhood autism among final year medical, nursing and psychology students who would form tomorrow's child health care professionals can compromise early recognition and interventions that are known to improve prognosis in childhood autism. Educational factors that could be influencing knowledge about childhood autism among these future health care professionals are unknown. This study assessed knowledge about childhood autism among final year undergraduate medical, nursing and psychology students in south-eastern Nigeria and determined the factors that could be influencing such knowledge. One hundred final year undergraduate students were randomly selected from each of the Departments of Medicine, Nursing Science and Psychology respectively of University of Nigeria, Enugu State, Nigeria making a sample size of three hundred. A socio-demographic questionnaire and knowledge about childhood autism among health workers (KCAHW) questionnaire were administered to the students. The total mean score for the three groups of students on the KCAHW questionnaire was 10.67+/-3.73 out of a possible total score of 19, with medical, nursing and psychology students having total mean scores of 12.24+/-3.24, 10.76+/-3.50 and 9.01+/-3.76 respectively. The mean scores for the three groups showed statistically significant difference for domain 1 (p=0.000), domain 3 (p=0.029), domain 4 (p=0.000) and total score (p=0.000), with medical students more likely to recognise symptoms and signs of autism compared to nursing and psychology students. The mean score in domain 2 did not show statistically significant difference among the three groups (p=0.769). The total score on the KCAHW questionnaire is positively correlated with the number of weeks of posting in psychiatry (r=0.319, p=0.000) and the number of weeks of posting in paediatrics (r=0.372, p=0

  11. Misconception of emergency contraception among tertiary school students in Akwa Ibom State, South-south, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Abasiattai, A M; Umoiyoho, A J; Bassey, E A; Etuk, S J; Udoma, E J

    2007-03-01

    To assess the degree of awareness and use of emergency contraception among tertiary school students inAkwa Ibom State, Nigeria. A self-administered questionnaire survey. The Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic, Ikot Osurua, located on the outskirts of Ikot Ekpene local government area between 1stApril 2002 and 31st April 2002. 1,000 randomly selected female students ofthe Akwa Ibom State polytechnic, Ikot Osurua The students were aged between 16 and 43 years. Five hundred and eighty-nine (68.5%) of the respondents had heard of products that could be used as emergency contraceptives. However, only 49 (5.7%) of the respondents had practised some form of emergency contraception, which was most commonly practised by those between 16 and 25 years (71.4%). Menstrogen (30.6%), gynaecosid (24.5%), and quinine (14.3%) were the most common medications used for emergency contraception. Patent medicine dealers (40.9%) and friends/course mates (29.7%) were the most common sources of knowledge about emergency contraception. This study shows that awareness and use of emergency contraception by our youths is low. Community enlightenment about emergency contraception using specifically designed programmes, the formation of reproductive health clubs in our tertiary institutions and training of peer group educators in all our communities are advocated. Patent medicine dealers in our communities should have basic training in modern contraceptive methods and periodic evaluation should be carried out to assess their knowledge and practice of emergency contraception.

  12. Midwives as drivers of reproductive health commodity security in Kaduna State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Alayande, Audu; Mamman-Daura, Fatima; Adedeji, Olanike; Muhammad, Ado Zakari

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: The significant improvement in the contraceptive prevalence rate in Kaduna State, Nigeria, from 8.4% in 2008 to 18.5% in 2013 is a notable achievement. This article analyses the role of midwives as drivers of reproductive health commodity security (RHCS) and their impact on contraceptive use in Kaduna State. Methods: The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) supported the bimonthly review resupply meetings facilitated by midwives at State and local government area (LGA) levels. The midwives deliver contraception to the LGAs for onward distribution to 6974 of the 25,000 health facilities across the country according to usage data from the previous 2 months. They also collect requisition, issue and resupply form data from the previous 2 months. Results: The active participation of midwives at the bimonthly meetings improved data timeliness by 23% and data completeness by 50% in 1 year. Only one health facility ran out of intrauterine devices and only 17% reported running out of female condoms. The total number of contraceptives issued increased from 31,866 in 2012 to 177,828 in 2013, resulting in a couple–year protection increase from 3408 in 2012 to 102,207 in 2013. Conclusions: Creation of increased demand and engagement of midwives in providing family planning services, especially long-acting contraceptive methods, coupled with the removal of cost to the user and the strengthening of the supply chain have been major factors in more than doubling the contraceptive prevalence rate. PMID:26909871

  13. Suitability assessment and mapping of Oyo State, Nigeria, for rice cultivation using GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayoade, Modupe Alake

    2017-08-01

    Rice is one of the most preferred food crops in Nigeria. However, local rice production has declined with the oil boom of the 1970s causing demand to outstrip supply. Rice production can be increased through the integration of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and crop-land suitability analysis and mapping. Based on the key predictor variables that determine rice yield mentioned in relevant literature, data on rainfall, temperature, relative humidity, slope, and soil of Oyo state were obtained. To develop rice suitability maps for the state, two MCE-GIS techniques, namely the Overlay approach and weighted linear combination (WLC), using fuzzy AHP were used and compared. A Boolean land use map derived from a landsat imagery was used in masking out areas currently unavailable for rice production. Both suitability maps were classified into four categories of very suitable, suitable, moderate, and fairly moderate. Although the maps differ slightly, the overlay and WLC (AHP) approach found most parts of Oyo state (51.79 and 82.9 % respectively) to be moderately suitable for rice production. However, in areas like Eruwa, Oyo, and Shaki, rainfall amount received needs to be supplemented by irrigation for increased rice yield.

  14. Enhancing transit polio vaccination in collaboration with targeted stakeholders in Kaduna State, Nigeria: Lessons learnt: 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Musa, Audu; Abba, Bashir; Ningi, Adamu M I; Gali, Emanuel; Bawa, Samuel; Manneh, Fadninding; Mkanda, Pascal; Banda, Richard; Yehuluashet, Yared G; Tegegne, Sisay G; Umeh, Gregory; Nsubuga, Peter; Etsano, Andrew; Shuaib, Faisal; Mohammed, Ado; Vaz, Rui G

    2016-10-10

    In Kaduna State of Nigeria, the high influx of people from neighboring states with eligible children for polio vaccination represents a significant proportion of the target population. Many of these children are often missed by the vaccination team. The purpose of the study was to determine the contribution of targeted stakeholders in transit polio vaccination. We used the trends of vaccinated children at transit points, motor parks and markets, well as total children vaccinated by transit teams in Chikun, Igabi and Sabon Gari Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Kaduna State, Nigeria, four rounds before and after the introduction of transit polio vaccination with targeted stakeholders in Kaduna State. A total of 87,502 under-5 children were vaccinated by the various transit teams in the three LGAs, which accounted for 3.2% of the total 2,781,162 children vaccinated by the three LGAs. For transit point vaccination, the number of vaccinated children increased from 1026 to 19,289 (302%), while motor park vaccination increased from 1289 to 4106 (318%) and market vaccination increased from 10,488 to 14,511 (138%), four rounds after the introduction of transit polio vaccination with targeted stakeholders. Engagement of targeted stakeholders significantly enhanced transit polio vaccination in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Tetanus remains a formidable health challenge in Nigeria: The experience from a single Teaching Hospital in Osun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Mustapha, A F; Eegunranti, B A; Fawale, Mb B

    2015-01-01

    Tetanus, though an eminently preventable disease still ranks as a leading cause of death in Nigeria as well as in other developing countries. Reported mortality for severe tetanus varies from 20-60% and depends on the availability and quality of intensive care. Farmers and artisans are mostly affected. This retrospective study was carried out to determine the pattern of clinical presentation of tetanus, the immunization status, case fatality rate and factors influencing mortality. Case notes of patients (age > 10 and above) managed for tetanus from 2004-2008 at LAUTECH Teaching Hospital Osogbo were retrieved. Demographic, clinical data, laboratory investigation results and response to treatment were collated. The data obtained were analysed using the SPSS version 15 Statistical package. Over the 5-year period,80 cases of tetanus were managed in the medical wards of LAUTECH Hospital Teaching Osogbo. However, the medical records of 12 of them could not be retrieved, leaving 68(85%) for analysis. This comprised of 45 males and 23 females. Tetanus was highest in the third decade of life. The commonest portal of entry was the lower limb (n = 43). Only one subject was fully vaccinated and received booster dose of vaccine. Thirty-one (31)out of the 68 patients died giving a case fatality rate of 51.5%. The mortality of tetanus is still very high from this retrospective study. The rate of immunization against tetanus was dismally low. Active immunization should be given to all Nigerians particularly those in the vulnerable group.

  16. Potential health risks due to telecommunications radiofrequency radiation exposures in Lagos State Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Aweda, M A; Ajekigbe, A T; Ibitoye, A Z; Evwhierhurhoma, B O; Eletu, O B

    2009-01-01

    The global system mobile telecommunications system (GSM) which was recently introduced in Nigeria is now being used by over 40 million people in Nigeria. The use of GSM is accompanied with exposure of the users to radiofrequency radiation (RFR), which if significant, may produce health hazards. This is the reason why many relevant national and international organizations recommended exposure limits to RFR and why it is made compulsory for GSM handsets to indicate the maximum power output as a guide to potential consumers. This study was conducted to measure the RFR output power densities (S) from the most commonly used GSM handsets used in Lagos State and compare with the limit recommended for safety assessment. Over 1100 most commonly used handsets of different makes and models as well as wireless phones were sampled and studied in all over the local government areas of the State. An RFR meter, Electrosmog from LESSEMF USA was used for the measurements. The handsets were assessed for health risks using the reference value of 9 Wm(-2) as recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The range of the S-values obtained varied from a minimum of 1.294 0.101 Wm(-2) with Siemens model R228 to a maximum of 16.813 +/- 0.094 Wm(-2) with Samsung model C140*. The results from wireless telephones showed very low S-values ranging from a minimum of 0.024 +/- 0.001 Wm(-2) with HUAWEI and ST CDMA 1 to a maximum of 0.093 +/- 0.002 Wm(-2) with HISENSE. The results showed that the population in Lagos State may be at risk due to significant RFR exposures resulting principally from the use of GSM. Quite a number of handsets emit power above the ICNIRP recommended value. Measured RFR power close to Radio and Television masts and transmitters are within tolerable limits in most cases, only that the public should not reside or work close to RFR installations. Phone calls with GSM should be restricted to essential ones while youths and children

  17. Pattern of Disabilities among Leprosy Patients in Abia State, Nigeria - a Retrospective Review.

    PubMed

    Onyeonoro, U U; Aguocha, G U; Madukwe, S O; Nwokeukwu, H I; Nwamoh, U N; Aguocha, B U

    2016-01-01

    Early case detection and prompt treatment have been identified as key strategies for effective control and elimination of leprosy disease. Hence, control efforts should include among others treatment of the disease and disability prevention. This study is aimed at determining prevalence and pattern of disability among leprosy patients treated in a Leprosy Center in Abia State, Nigeria. Records of 287 leprosy patients treated in Uzoakoli Leprosy Center, Abia State between 2002 and 2006 were reviewed and analysed. Findings showed 23 (9.9%) with childhood leprosy, 206 (83.7%) multi-bacillary type and 64 (28.4%) with grade 2 disability among the leprosy cases.Four children (15.4%) presented with grade 2 disability at diagnosis. Prior to treatment 80 (27.9%) had grade 2 disability, while 11 (6.6%) at the end of the treatment.,Based on EHF score 85 patients (50.9%) out 167 patients who completed treatment had impairment before treatment; on completion of treatment 133 (89.9%) of them improved, while 5 (3.4%) deteriorated. The lower limb (92.6%) was the most affected site in the leprosy patients,, while the eye (3.4%) was the leastaffected. The current leprosy control efforts should be intensified to ensure early case detection and prompt treatment in order to reduce the leprosy burden, including disabilities in individuals and community at large.

  18. Hospital-based surveillance for Lassa fever in Edo State, Nigeria, 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Ehichioya, Deborah U; Asogun, Danny A; Ehimuan, Jacqueline; Okokhere, Peter O; Pahlmann, Meike; Olschläger, Stephan; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Günther, Stephan; Omilabu, Sunday A

    2012-08-01

    To estimate the burden of Lassa fever in northern and central Edo, a state in south Nigeria where Lassa fever has been reported. Blood samples were obtained from 60 patients hospitalised at the Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital (ISTH), Irrua, with a clinical suspicion of Lassa fever and from 451 febrile outpatients seen at the ISTH and hospitals in Ekpoma, Iruekpen, Uromi, Auchi and Igarra. All samples were tested retrospectively by Lassa virus-specific RT-PCR. Outpatients were additionally screened for Lassa virus-specific antibodies by indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay. Lassa virus was detected in 25 of 60 (42%) patients with a clinical suspicion of Lassa fever. The disease affected persons of all age groups and with various occupations, including healthcare workers. The clinical picture was dominated by gastrointestinal symptoms. The case fatality rate was 29%. Lassa virus was detected in 2 of 451 (0.44%) febrile outpatients, and 8 (1.8%) were positive for Lassa virus-specific IgG. Lassa fever contributes to hospital mortality in Edo State. The low prevalence of the disease among outpatients and the low seroprevalence may indicate that the population-level incidence is not high. Surveillance for Lassa fever should focus on the hospitalised patient. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Pregnancy detecting plants used in Remo and Ijebu areas of Ogun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Fred-Jaiyesimi, Adediwura; Taiwo, Jolaade

    2017-01-01

    Plants and plants extracts are employed in cultures for religious purposes, as beauty therapies, in the detection and management/treatment of diseases. In this study, an ethnobotanical studies of plants used in detecting pregnancy in Ijebu and Remo areas of Ogun State were carried out using semi-structured to obtain demographic data, local names of plants, the morphological parts used. Furthermore, a phytochemical analysis of two of the identified plants was performed. Topical and urine tests of plants in detecting pregnancy were designed to mimic procedures used in traditional medicine for detecting pregnancy. Five plant species were identified belonging to the families Araceae, Asteraceae, Convolvulaceae, Nyctaginaceae, and Rubiaceae in the survey. The identified plants had the use value (UV) of 0.25 ( Culcasia scandens ), 0.17 ( Ipomoea mauritiana ), Boerhavia diffusa while Launea taraxacifolia and Chassalia kolly had the UV of 0.08, respectively. B. diffusa L, C. kolly (Schumach) Hepper tested positive for the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, and tannins. The onset and duration of symptoms of both B. diffusa and C. kolly leaves at 2000 and 1000 mg were dose-dependent. The hexane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol extracts of B. diffusa and C. kolly exhibited pruritus and restlessness in the in vivo model while the urine of pregnant women caused black spots on the leaves of L. taraxacifolia (Willd) Amin Ex. C. Jeffrey. This study reports a rare knowledge of using plants in detecting pregnancy in the Remo and Ijebu areas of Ogun State, Nigeria.

  20. The knowledge, perceptions and practice of pharmacovigilance amongst community pharmacists in Lagos state, south west Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oreagba, I A; Ogunleye, O J; Olayemi, S O

    2011-01-01

    Community Pharmacists both have an important responsibility in monitoring the ongoing safety of medicines and are widely accessible to do it. This study aims to investigate the knowledge, perceptions and practice of Pharmacovigilance amongst community pharmacists in Lagos State, South West Nigeria A cross-sectional observational survey was used in this study. A multistage random sampling technique was employed in the selection of 420 community pharmacies in Lagos. About 55% of respondents have ever heard of the word 'Pharmacovigilance' out of which less than half (representing only 18% of all respondents) could define the term 'Pharmacovigilance'. Forty percent of the respondents stated that patients reported ADRs to them at least once a month, and 20% reported to the relevant authorities. However only 3% of respondents actually reported an ADR to the National Pharmacovigilance Centre. The most important reason for poor reporting was lack of knowledge about how to report ADRs (44.6%).Meanwhile, 90% of respondents believed that the role of the pharmacists in ADR reporting was important. Most community pharmacists were willing to practice pharmacovigilance if they were trained. Community pharmacists in Lagos had poor knowledge about pharmacovigilance. Reporting rate was also poor. There is an urgent need for educational programs to train pharmacists about pharmacovigilance and ADR reporting. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Evaluation of the Measles Surveillance System in Kaduna State, Nigeria (2010-2012).

    PubMed

    Ameh, Celestine A; Sufiyan, Muawiyyah B; Jacob, Matthew; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya E; Olayinka, Adebola T

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the case-based measles surveillance system in Kaduna State of Nigeria and identify gaps in its operation. In Africa, approximately 13 million cases, 650,000 deaths due to measles occur annually, with sub-Saharan Africa having the highest morbidity and mortality. Measles infection is endemic in Nigeria and has been documented to occur all year round, despite high measles routine and supplemental immunization coverage. The frequent outbreaks of measles in Kaduna State prompted the need for the evaluation of the measles case-based surveillance system. We interviewed stakeholders and conducted a retrospective record review of the measles case-based surveillance data from 2010 - 2012 and adapted the 2001 CDC guidelines on surveillance evaluation and the Framework for Evaluating Public Health Surveillance Systems for Early Detection of Outbreaks, to assess the systems usefulness, representativeness, timeliness, stability, acceptability and data quality. We calculated the annualized detection rate of measles and non-measles febrile rash, proportion of available results, proportion of LGAs (Districts) that investigated at least one case with blood, proportion of cases that were IgM positive and the incidence of measles. We compared the results with WHO(2004) recommended performance indicators to determine the quality and effectiveness of measles surveillance system. According to the Stakeholders, the case-based surveillance system was useful and acceptable. Median interval between specimen collection and release of result was 7days (1 - 25 days) in 2010, 38 days (Range: 16 - 109 days) in 2011 and 11 days (Range: 1 - 105 days) in 2012. The annualized detection rate of measles rash in 2010 was 2.1 (target: 3 2), 1.0 (target: 3 2) in 2011 and 1.4 (target: 3 2) in 2012. The annualized detection rate of non-measles febrile rash in 2010 was 2.1 (target: 3 2), 0.6 (target: 3 2) in 2011 and 0.8 (target: 3 2) in 2012. Case definitions are simple and understood by all

  2. Contraception among bankers in an urban community in Lagos State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Meka, Ijeoma Angela; Okwara, Emmanuel Chidiebere; Meka, Anthony Obiamaka

    2013-01-01

    Contraception means procedures employed to interfere at one stage or the other with the normal sequence of events in the process of reproduction leading to a failure in conception. It means voluntary techniques adopted to achieve birth control. Its use remains sensitive worldwide. Within the same society, contraception varies amongst people of different socio-cultural, educational, religious, or occupational affiliations. It also varies between urban and rural settlements. Some contraceptive techniques also prevent sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The prevalence of STIs also varies with these same factors. There is very limited literature on contraception exclusively amongst bankers. We sought to investigate the level of awareness and practice of contraception amongst bankers in an urban society in Lagos State, Nigeria. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 200 self-administered structured questionnaires were retrieved from bankers from 5 banks selected by simple random sampling in Surulere Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria. Data was subsequently statistically analyzed using SPSS. The age range was 21-45 years, mean 28.8±1.4 years, 51.7% were males (72% single, 27% married, 1% separated) and 48.3% were females (52.4% single, 47.6% married). All (100%) respondents were aware of contraception, 93.3% males and 91.7% females were sexually active, 88.9% males and 84.5% females believe contraception is useful. Most (71.4%) respondents practice contraception, males (81%) being more than females (61.1%), p < 0.05. More (71.4%) females and fewer (37.8%) males believe that contraception prevents pregnancy but not STIs, 28.6% of females and 46.6% of males believe it prevents both pregnancy and STIs, whereas 14% of males and no female believe contraception prevents STIs but not pregnancy. The awareness of and practice of contraception was very high among the bankers but more male bankers practice contraception whereas more female bankers perceive

  3. Emergency Contraception: Awareness, Perception and Practice among Female Undergraduates in Imo State University, Southeastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ojiyi, Ec; Anolue, Fc; Ejekunle, Sd; Nzewuihe, Ac; Okeudo, C; Dike, Ei; Ejikem, Ce

    2014-11-01

    Limited knowledge and practice of contraception is a global public health problem. Unintended pregnancies are the primary cause of induced abortion. When safe abortions are not available, as in Nigeria with restricted abortion laws, abortion can contribute significantly to maternal mortality and morbidity. Adequate information on the awareness and the use of emergency contraception is necessary for planning interventions in groups vulnerable to unwanted pregnancy. The aim of the following study is to access the awareness, perception and practice of emergency contraception among female undergraduates in Imo State University, South Eastern Nigeria. A questionnaire based cross-sectional survey using female undergraduates selected randomly from Imo State University, Owerri. A total of 700 students participated in the study. Awareness of emergency contraception was very high (85.1%) (596/700). The awareness was significantly higher amongst students in health related faculties than in the non-health related faculties (P = 0.01). The main sources of information were through friends (43.1%) (317/700) and lectures (22.1%) (192/700). High dose progestogen (postinor-2) was the most commonly known type of emergency contraception (70.8%) (422/596). Only 58.1% (346/596) of those who were aware of emergency contraception approved of their use. The major reasons given by the 41.9% (250/596) who disapproved of their use were religious reasons (50.4%) (126/250) and that they were harmful to health (49.2%) (123/250). Two-third (67%) (46 9/700) of the students were sexually active and only 39.9% (187/469) of them used emergency contraception. High dose progestogen (postinor-2) was again the most commonly used method (70.8%) (422/596). The most common situation in which emergency contraception was used was following unprotected sexual intercourse (45.5%) (85/144). Only 34.6% (206/596) of those who were aware of emergency contraception identified correctly the appropriate time interval

  4. Community perceptions of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia in Ogun State, Nigeria: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Akeju, David O; Vidler, Marianne; Oladapo, Olufemi T; Sawchuck, Diane; Qureshi, Rahat; von Dadelszen, Peter; Adetoro, Olalekan O; Dada, Olukayode A

    2016-06-08

    Pre-eclampsia is a complication of pregnancy responsible for high rates of morbidity and mortality, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. When undetected or poorly managed, it may progress to eclampsia which further worsens the prognosis. While most studies examining pre-eclampsia have used a bio-medical model, this study recognizes the role of the socio-cultural environment, in order to understand perceptions of pre-eclampsia within the community. The study was conducted in Ogun State, Nigeria in 2011-2012. Data were obtained through twenty-eight focus group discussions; seven with pregnant women (N = 80), eight with new mothers (N = 95), three with male decision-makers (N = 35), six with community leaders (N = 68), and three with traditional birth attendants (N = 36). Interviews were also conducted with the heads of the local traditional birth attendants (N = 4) and with community leaders (N = 5). Data were transcribed verbatim and analysed in NVivo 10 software. There was no terminology reportedly used for pre-eclampsia in the native language - Yoruba; however, hypertension has several terms independent of pregnancy status. Generally, 'gìrì âlábôyún' describes seizures specific to pregnancy. The cause of hypertension in pregnancy was thought to be due to depressive thoughts as a result of marital conflict and financial worries, while seizures in pregnancy were perceived to result from prolonged exposure to cold. There seemed to be no traditional treatment for hypertension. However for seizures the use of herbs, concoctions, incisions, and topical application of black soap were widespread. This study illustrates that knowledge of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia are limited amongst communities of Ogun State, Nigeria. Findings reveal that pre-eclampsia was perceived as a stress-induced condition, while eclampsia was perceived as a product of prolonged exposure to cold. Thus, heat-related local medicines and herbal concoctions were the

  5. Prevalence of abdominal obesity in Abia State, Nigeria: results of a population-based house-to-house survey.

    PubMed

    Chukwuonye, Innocent Ijezie; Chuku, Abali; Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu Uchenna; Okpechi, Ikechi Gareth; Madukwe, Okechukwu Ojoemelam; Umeizudike, Theophilus Ifeanyichukwu; Ogah, Okechukwu Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Abdominal obesity is associated with the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes and hypertension. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of abdominal obesity in Abia State, Nigeria. We carried out a cross-sectional study aimed at ascertaining the prevalence of abdominal obesity in Abia State, Nigeria. Participants in the study were recruited from communities in the three senatorial zones in the state. Screening for abdominal obesity was carried out in these subjects using waist circumference (the National Cholesterol Education Program Third Adult Treatment Panel criteria were used). The World Health Organization Stepwise Approach to Surveillance of chronic disease risk factors was used. Body mass index, anthropometric measurements, and other relevant data were also collected. Data on waist circumference were obtained from 2,807 subjects. The prevalence of obesity using body mass index in the population was 11.12%. In men and women, it was 7.73%, and 14.37%, respectively. The prevalence of abdominal obesity in the population was 21.75%. In men and women, it was 3.2% and 39.2%, respectively. The prevalence of abdominal obesity is high in Nigeria, and needs to be monitored because it is associated with increased cardiovascular risk.

  6. Prevalence of abdominal obesity in Abia State, Nigeria: results of a population-based house-to-house survey

    PubMed Central

    Ijezie, Innocent Chukwuonye; Chuku, Abali; Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu Uchenna; Okpechi, Ikechi Gareth; Madukwe, Okechukwu Ojoemelam; Umeizudike, Theophilus Ifeanyichukwu; Ogah, Okechukwu Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Background and objective Abdominal obesity is associated with the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes and hypertension. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of abdominal obesity in Abia State, Nigeria. Materials and methods We carried out a cross-sectional study aimed at ascertaining the prevalence of abdominal obesity in Abia State, Nigeria. Participants in the study were recruited from communities in the three senatorial zones in the state. Screening for abdominal obesity was carried out in these subjects using waist circumference (the National Cholesterol Education Program Third Adult Treatment Panel criteria were used). The World Health Organization Stepwise Approach to Surveillance of chronic disease risk factors was used. Body mass index, anthropometric measurements, and other relevant data were also collected. Results Data on waist circumference were obtained from 2,807 subjects. The prevalence of obesity using body mass index in the population was 11.12%. In men and women, it was 7.73%, and 14.37%, respectively. The prevalence of abdominal obesity in the population was 21.75%. In men and women, it was 3.2% and 39.2%, respectively. Conclusion The prevalence of abdominal obesity is high in Nigeria, and needs to be monitored because it is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. PMID:23946664

  7. Ambulance services of lagos state, Nigeria: a six-year (2001-2006) audit.

    PubMed

    Adewole, O A; Fadeyibi, I O; Kayode, M O; Giwa, S O; Shoga, M O; Adejumo, A O; Ademiluyi, S A

    2012-01-01

    Emergency medical care is designed to overcome the factors most commonly implicated in preventable mortality, such as delays in seeking care, access to health facility, and the provision of adequate care at the facility. The developed world has recognized the importance of organized emergency medical services and has well established systems. The Lagos State Government established the first emergency medical system in Nigeria in 2001. This was to review the activities of the Lagos State Emergency Ambulance Services (LASAMBUS) within the stated period with the hope that our findings can be used to audit the system and make recommendations for further improvement. We reviewed the records of the State Ministry of Health for the data on the activities of LASAMBUS from 2001-2006. The number and types of emergencies that were seen and managed with the associated morbidity and mortality were reviewed. The constraints that were encountered by the LASAMBUS staff were also studied. The data that was obtained was entered into a proforma designed for the study. Analysis of the data was done using the Microsoft Excel software. A total of 32,774 cases comprising 21,977(67.1%) males,10,797(32.9%) females and a male to female (M:F) ratio of 2.04:1, were seen during the study period. Trauma was responsible for 29,500 (90%) of the cases. No mortality was recorded during the transfer of the cases. The records of mortality for the LASAMBUS-transferred cases were not available. Trauma cases formed the majority of the cases that were seen with road traffic accident constituting a large proportion of these. Health education focusing on improving driving etiquette of Drivers and injury prevention should intensified. More equipped emergency centres should be established to reduce victims transit and injuryintervention time. Record keeping and documentations should be improved for better assessment of the activities.

  8. OS033. Correlates of maternal health outcomes associated with a low-costintervention in secondary facilities across Kano state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Tukur, J; Ahonsi, B; Salisu, I; Oginni, A B; Okereke, E

    2012-07-01

    Nigeria has one of the highest rates of maternal mortality in the world. Eclampsia is a major contributor to the deaths especially in Northern Nigeria where the culture of teenage marriage is common. Kano is the state with the highest population in Nigeria. Despite its effectiveness, magnesium sulphate was been used to treat eclampsia and severe preclampsia in only one of 35 general hospitals inthe state as at 2007. In 2008, magnesium sulphate was introduced in 10 General Hospitals in Kano state of Northern Nigeria in a Population Council project funded by the MacArthur Foundation. The aim of the study was to determine if the maternal outcomes improved. Doctors and midwives from the 10 hospitals were trained on the use of magnesium sulphate. The trained health workers later conducted step down trainings at their health facilities. Magnesium sulphate, treatment protocol, patella hammer and calcium gluconate were then supplied to the hospitals. Data was collected through structured data forms. The data was analysed using SPSS. Within a year of the project, 1045 patients with severe preeclampsia and eclampsia were treated. The case fatality rate for severe preeclampsia and eclampsia fell from 20.9% (95% CI 18.7-23.2) recorded before the project to 2.3% (95%CI 1.5-3.5) after the project. The perinatal mortality rate in those that received magnesium sulphate was 12.3% (CI 10.4-14.5) while the 5min APGAR score for 72.9% of the babies was 7 or more. Training of health workers on updated evidence based interventions and providing an enabling environment for their practice are key components to the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals in developing countries. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Integrated Resources Management Approach to Ensuring Sustainable Food Security in Nigeria-The Nexus of Rice Production in Niger State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omotoso, T.

    2015-12-01

    By 2050, the world will need to feed 9 billion people. This will require a 60% increase in agricultural production and subsequently a 6% increase in water use by the agricultural sector alone. By 2030, global water demand is expected to increase by 40%, mostly in developing countries like Nigeria (Addams, Boccaletti, Kerlin, & Stuchtey, 2009) and global energy demand is expected to increase by 33% in 2035, also, mostly in emerging economies (IEA, 2013). These resources have to be managed efficiently in preparation for these future demands. Population growth leads to increased demand for water, energy and food. More food production will lead to more water-for-food and energy-for-food usage; and more demand for energy will lead to more water-for-energy needs. This nexus between water, energy and food is poorly understood and furthermore, complicated by external drivers such as climate change. Niger State Nigeria, which is blessed with abundant water and arable land resources, houses the three hydropower dams in Nigeria and one of the governments' proposed Staple Crops Processing Zones (SCPZ) for rice production. Both of these capital intensive investments depend heavily on water resources and are all highly vulnerable to changes in climate. Thus, it is essential to know how the local climate in this state will likely change and its impacts on water, energy and food security, so that policy makers can make informed mitigation/adaptation plans; operational and investment decisions. The objective of this project is to provide information, using an integrated resources management approach, on the effects of future climate changes on water, energy (hydropower) and food resources in Niger State, Nigeria and improve knowledge on the interlinkages between water, energy and food at a local scale.

  10. Adherence to malaria diagnosis and treatment guidelines among healthcare workers in Ogun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Bamiselu, Oluyomi F; Ajayi, IkeOluwapo; Fawole, Olufunmilayo; Dairo, David; Ajumobi, Olufemi; Oladimeji, Abisola; Steven, Yoon

    2016-08-19

    Malaria case management remains a vital component of malaria control strategies. Despite the introduction of national malaria treatment guidelines and scale-up of malaria control interventions in Nigeria, anecdotal evidence shows some deviations from the guidelines in malaria case management. This study assessed factors influencing adherence to malaria diagnosis and treatment guidelines among healthcare workers in public and private sectors in Ogun State, Nigeria. A comparative cross-sectional study was carried out among 432 (216 public and 216 private) healthcare workers selected from nine Local Government Areas using a multistage sampling technique. A pre-tested interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect information on availability and use of malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test (mRDT) and artemisinin combination therapy (ACT), for management of uncomplicated malaria. Adherence was defined as when choice of antimalarials for parasitological confirmed malaria cases was restricted to recommended antimalarial medicines. Association between adherence and independent variables were tested using Chi-square at 5 % level of significance. Malaria RDT was available in 81.9 % of the public health facilities and 19.4 % of the private health facilities (p = 0.001). Its use was higher among public healthcare workers (85.2 %) compared to 32.9 % in private facilities (p = 0.000). Presumptive diagnosis of malaria was higher among private healthcare workers (94.9 %) compared to 22.7 % public facilities (p = <0.0001). The main reason for non-usage of mRDT among private healthcare workers was its perceived unreliability of mRDT (40.9 %). Monotherapy including artesunate (58.3 % vs 12.5 %), amodiaquine (38.9 % vs 8.3 %) and chloroquine (26.4 % vs 4.2 %) were significantly more available in private than public health facilities, respectively. Adherence to guidelines was significantly higher among public healthcare workers (60.6 %) compared to those

  11. Natural radioactivity of the tar-sand deposits of Ondo State, Southwestern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasasi, M. K.; Oyawale, A. A.; Mokobia, C. E.; Tchokossa, P.; Ajayi, T. R.; Balogun, F. A.

    2003-06-01

    A combination of gamma spectrometry and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence was used to determine the presence and level of radioactivity of radionuclides in bituminous sand and overburden obtained from bituminous sand deposits in Ondo State Nigeria for the purpose of providing baseline data and assessing its impact on the environment. The radionuclides identified with reliable regularity belong to the decay series of naturally occurring radionuclides headed by 238U and 232Th. The non-decay series of naturally occurring 40K was found to be below the limit of detection. The average specific activity concentration values obtained for 214 Bi, 208Tl, and 226Ra in the overburden are 165.64±2.91, 150.25±2.91 and 60.97±2.27 Bq kg -1, respectively. The measured activity in the bituminous sand layer is so low that it can be said to be non-radioactive. The result of the EDXRF supports the presence of radioelements in the overburden, which are likely to be embedded in accessory minerals like zircon and tourmaline. Thus, surface exploration technique using soil-gas radon measurement will not yield the desired result. Furthermore, the level of radioelements and associated decay daughter 222Rn is not expected to cause any health hazard.

  12. Climate change adaptation: a panacea for food security in Ondo State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatuase, A. I.

    2017-08-01

    This paper examines the likely perceived causes of climate change, adaptation strategies employed and technical inefficiency of arable crop farmers in Ondo State, Nigeria. Data were obtained from primary sources using a set of structured questionnaire assisted with interview schedule. Multistage sampling technique was used. Data were analyzed using the following: descriptive statistics and the stochastic frontier production function. The findings showed that majority of the respondents (59.1 %) still believed that climate change is a natural phenomenon that is beyond man's power to abate while industrial release, improper sewage disposal, fossil fuel use, deforestation and bush burning were perceived as the most human factors that influence climate change by the category that chose human activities (40.9 %) as the main causes of climate change. The main employed adaptation strategies by the farmers were mixed cropping, planting early matured crop, planting of resistant crops and use of agrochemicals. The arable crop farmers were relatively technically efficient with about 53 % of them having technical efficiency above the average of 0.784 for the study area. The study observed that education, adaptation, perception, climate information and farming experience were statistically significant in decreasing inefficiency of arable crop production. Therefore, advocacy on climate change and its adaptation strategies should be intensified in the study area.

  13. Prevalence of Tinea Capitis among School Children in Nok Community of Kaduna State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Dogo, Josephine; Afegbua, Seniyat Larai; Dung, Edward Christopher

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the prevalence of tinea capitis, an infection of the scalp by dermatophytes, has increased in children worldwide. This cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and risk factor of tinea capitis among school children in Nok community of Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 100 children were screened and 45% were diagnosed to have tinea capitis after fungal culture and microscopy. The prevalence of tinea capitis among girls was higher (51.4%) than that among boys (41.5%) but not significantly different (p = 0.402). The prevalence with respect to age was lower for the age group 5-10 years (42.6%) than that of 11-15 years (50%) but was not significantly different (p = 0.524). Trichophyton rubrum (28.8%) and Microsporum canis (22.7%) were the most prevalent dermatophytes isolated and the least were Trichophyton verrucosum (4.5%) and Trichophyton tonsurans (4.5%). There were 73.3% single infection while 26.7% had 2-4 dermatophytes of the genera Microsporum and Trichophyton. The predisposing factors with statistically significant association with tinea capitis were number of children in the family (p = 0.02) and sharing of the same bed (p = 0.002). This indicates the high tendencies of spread of tinea capitis through human-to-human mode of transmission and possible animal contact. Community health education on the cause, mode of transmission, prevention, and prompt treatment of tinea capitis is recommended.

  14. Lymphatic filariasis and associated morbidities in rural communities of Ogun State, Southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Christiana, Okonofua; Olajumoke, Morenikeji; Oyetunde, Salawu

    2014-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis caused by Wuchereria bancrofti is a serious public health problem in rural communities of Nigeria. The study assessed the prevalence of lymphatic filariasis and associated clinical morbidities in Ado-Odo Ota Local Government Area of Ogun State. Microscopic examination of thick blood smears of 500 participants of both sexes and age ranging from 1 to 79 years was conducted. Visual observations of clinical manifestations of chronic infection were also conducted. The overall prevalence and intensity of infection were 21% and 21.4 mf/mL of blood respectively. Microfilaraemic prevalence was significantly higher in males (27.1%) than in females (16%) (P < 0.001). However, intensity of infection was not gender and age dependent (P > 0.05). The overall prevalence of all clinical manifestations of infection due to W. bancrofti is 15% with hydrocele, limb and breast elephantiasis constituting 16.9%, 4.6% and 5.1% of the total population respectively. Prevalence of hydrocele and limb elephantiasis was significantly higher in the older age groups (P < 0.05). Occurrence of elephantiasis of the breast in women however was not associated with age (P > 0.05). Integrated approach through chemotherapy and vector control is therefore advocated to reduce morbidity due to infection in this study area. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A survey of anthropometry of rural agricultural workers in Enugu State, south-eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Obi, Okey Francis; Ugwuishiwu, Boniface O; Adeboye, Busayo S

    2015-01-01

    In developed countries, large amount of anthropometric data are available for reference purposes; however, anthropometric data of Nigerian populace are lacking. As a result, most agricultural machines and equipment used are designed using anthropometric data from other populations of the world. A total of 377 rural agricultural workers within the age limit of 18-45 years, who are involved in different agricultural activities, were selected from six rural agriculture-based communities in Enugu state. Thirty-six anthropometric body dimensions were measured including age and body weight. A comparison between the male and female data indicated that data obtained from male agricultural workers were higher than that obtained from their female counterparts in all body dimensions except chest (bust) depth, abdominal breadth and hip breadth (sitting). In terms of design parameters, it was observed that the data from Nigerian agricultural workers were different from that obtained from agricultural workers in north-eastern India. Practitioner Summary. Anthropometric data of Nigeria populace are lacking. As a result, most agricultural machines and equipment used are designed using anthropometric data from other populations of the world. It was observed that the data from Nigerian agricultural workers were different from that obtained from agricultural workers in north-eastern India.

  16. Bacteriological contamination of well water in Makurdi town, Benue State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Mile, I I; Jande, J A; Dagba, B I

    2012-11-01

    Bacteriological contamination of well water in Makurdi town, of Benue State, Nigeria was investigated. A total of 15 water samples were collected from hand dug wells and analyzed for total bacteria count as it affect the quality of drinking water for both wet and dry season. The analysis was done according to standard methods of water examination and as reported in WHO guide limit for drinking water. The investigation revealed that the wells examined were highly contaminated with bacteria. Wells 6 and 7 showed highest total bacteria counts of 7.0 x 10(5)/100 mL and 8.2 x 10(5)/100 mL in the wet season, while wells 7 and 2 showed highest total bacteria counts of 8.0 x 10(5)/100 mL and 5.5 x 10(5)/100 mL in the dry season. The contamination of all wells could be due to improper construction of wells, refuse dumping sites and various human activities around the wells. Water generally from these wells is not safe for drinking except some form of treatment is carried out.

  17. Bedbug infestation and its control practices in Gbajimba: a rural settlement in Benue state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Omudu, E A; Kuse, C N

    2010-12-01

    The common bedbug Cimex lectularius Linnaeus 1758 (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) is a globally re-emerging pest of serious public health concern. We investigated bedbug infestation in randomly selected apartments in Gbajimba community in Guma Local Government area in Benue state, Nigeria. Beddings and furniture (bed frames, pillows, mattresses, cushion chairs, mats, mosquito nets and bamboo beds) were thoroughly inspected for bedbug infestation using the hand-picking technique. Data were analysed using chi- square analysis for differences in the infestation levels in harbourages and sampling locations. Only 16% of the apartments investigated showed no evidence of bedbug infestation as egg cases and faecal marks were sighted in 62.2% of apartments surveyed. The highest infestation rate was observed in Angwan Jukun area and infestation here was higher compared to other study locations within the town though the difference was not statistically significant (x2 = 7.92, df = 6, p >0.05). Bamboo beds harboured the highest number of bedbugs collected, accounting for 35.8%, while other harbourages like iron bed frames and sleeping mats had 23 and 22.7% infestation rates respectively. The infestation rates in these household items were significantly higher than other items inspected (x2 = 11.8, df = 4, p > 0.05). This study demonstrates the urgent need for identification of evidences of infestation and bedbug management involving community participation in inspection, detection and education, including physical removal and exclusion as well as pesticide application.

  18. Radiological study of soils in oil and gas producing areas in Delta State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Tchokossa, P; Olomo, J B; Balogun, F A; Adesanmi, C A

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of radioactivity concentrations in soils around the oil and gas producing areas in Delta State of Nigeria were carried out using a high-purity germanium detector gamma-ray spectrometer. Soil samples were collected from 20 locations from the study area and analysed. The radionuclides detected are traceable to the primordial series of (238)U and(232)Th as well as (40)K and traces of globally released (137)Cs. The specific activity values ranged between 7 and 60 Bq kg(-1) with a mean of 24±2 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U; while for (232)Th the range was 7-73 Bq kg(-1) with a mean of 29±3 Bq kg(-1). Relatively higher specific activity values were recorded in (40)K with a range of 15-696 Bq kg(-1), while the mean was 256±37 Bq kg(-1). However, a relatively low-specific radioactivity was obtained from(137)Cs with a range of 1-25 Bq kg(-1) and a mean of 7±1 Bq kg(-1). The estimated dose equivalent obtainable per year from these levels of radioactivity is <5 % of the recommended safe level of 1 mSv per annum. Therefore, the area and the use of the soils as building materials may be considered safe.

  19. Assessing Inactivated Polio Vaccine Introduction and Utilization in Kano State, Nigeria, April-November 2015.

    PubMed

    Osadebe, Lynda U; MacNeil, Adam; Elmousaad, Hashim; Davis, Lora; Idris, Jibrin M; Haladu, Suleiman A; Adeoye, Olorunsogo B; Nguku, Patrick; Aliu-Mamudu, Uneratu; Hassan, Elizabeth; Vertefeuille, John; Bloland, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Kano State, Nigeria, introduced inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) into its routine immunization (RI) schedule in March 2015 and was the pilot site for an RI data module for the National Health Management Information System (NHMIS). We determined factors impacting IPV introduction and the value of the RI module on monitoring new vaccine introduction. Two assessment approaches were used: (1) analysis of IPV vaccinations reported in NHMIS, and (2) survey of 20 local government areas (LGAs) and 60 associated health facilities (HF). By April 2015, 66% of LGAs had at least 20% of HFs administering IPV, by June all LGAs had HFs administering IPV and by July, 91% of the HFs in Kano reported administering IPV. Among surveyed staff, most rated training and implementation as successful. Among HFs, 97% had updated RI reporting tools, although only 50% had updated microplans. Challenges among HFs included: IPV shortages (20%), hesitancy to administer 2 injectable vaccines (28%), lack of knowledge on multi-dose vial policy (30%) and age of IPV administration (8%). The introduction of IPV was largely successful in Kano and the RI module was effective in monitoring progress, although certain gaps were noted, which should be used to inform plans for future vaccine introductions. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  20. Prevalence of Trachoma in Kano State, Nigeria: Results of 44 Local Government Area-Level Surveys.

    PubMed

    Mpyet, Caleb; Muhammad, Nasiru; Adamu, Mohammed Dantani; Muazu, Habila; Umar, Murtala Muhammad; Goyol, Musa; Yahaya, Hadi Bala; Onyebuchi, Uwazoeke; Ogoshi, Chris; Hussaini, Tijjani; Isiyaku, Sunday; William, Adamani; Flueckiger, Rebecca M; Chu, Brian K; Willis, Rebecca; Pavluck, Alexandre L; Olobio, Nicholas; Phelan, Sophie; Macleod, Colin; Solomon, Anthony W

    2017-06-01

    We sought to determine the prevalence of trachoma in 44 Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Kano State, Nigeria. A population-based prevalence survey was conducted in each Kano LGA. We used a two-stage systematic and quasi-random sampling strategy to select 25 households from each of 25 clusters in each LGA. All consenting household residents aged 1 year and above were examined for trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF), trachomatous inflammation-intense (TI) and trichiasis. State-wide crude prevalence of TF in persons aged 1-9 years was 3.4% (95% CI 3.3-3.5%), and of trichiasis in those aged ≥15 years was 2.3% (95% CI 2.1-2.4%). LGA-level age- and sex-adjusted trichiasis prevalence in those aged ≥15 years ranged from 0.1% to 2.9%. All but 4 (9%) of 44 LGAs had trichiasis prevalences in adults above the elimination threshold of 0.2%. State-wide prevalence of trichiasis in adult women was significantly higher than in adult men (2.6% vs 1.8%; OR = 1.5, 95% CI 1.3-1.7; p = 0.001). Four of 44 LGAs had TF prevalences in 1-9-year-olds between 10 and 15%, while another six LGAs had TF prevalences between 5 and 9.9%. In 37 LGAs, >80% of households had access to water within 30 minutes round-trip, but household latrine access was >80% in only 19 LGAs. Trichiasis is a public health problem in most LGAs in Kano. Surgeons need to be trained and deployed to provide community-based trichiasis surgery, with emphasis on delivery of such services to women. Antibiotics, facial cleanliness and environmental improvement are needed in 10 LGAs.

  1. Estimating the sensitivity of passive surveillance for HPAI H5N1 in Bayelsa state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ojimelukwe, Agatha E; Prakarnkamanant, Apisit; Rushton, Jonathan

    2016-07-01

    This study identified characteristics of poultry farming with a focus on practices that affect the detection of HPAI; and estimated the system sensitivity of passive surveillance for HPAI H5N1 in commercial and backyard chicken farms in Bayelsa-State, Nigeria. Field studies were carried out in Yenegoa and Ogbia local government areas in Bayelsa state. Willingness to report HPAI was highest in commercial poultry farms (13/13) than in Backyard farms (8/13). Poor means of dead bird disposal was common to both commercial and backyard farms. Administering some form of treatment to sick birds without prior consultation with a professional was higher in backyard farms (8/13) than in commercial farms (4/13). Consumption of sick birds was reported in 4/13 backyard farms and sale of dead birds was recorded in one commercial farm. The sensitivity of passive surveillance for HPAI was assessed using scenario tree modelling. A scenario tree model was developed and applied to estimate the sensitivity, i.e. the probability of detecting one or more infected chicken farms in Bayelsa state at different levels of disease prevalence. The model showed a median sensitivity of 100%, 67% and 23% for detecting HPAI by passive surveillance at a disease prevalence of 0.1%, a minimum of 10 and 3 infected poultry farms respectively. Passive surveillance system sensitivity at a design prevalence of 10 infected farms is increasable up to 86% when the disease detection in backyard chicken farms is enhanced. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Knowledge, attitude and practice towards child adoption amongst women attending infertility clinics in Lagos State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Kofoworola, Odeyemi

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Child adoption is a recommended alternative form of infertility management. Infertility is of public health importance in Nigeria and many other developing nations. This is a result of its high prevalence and especially because of its serious social implications as the African society places a passionate premium on procreation in any family setting. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of child adoption amongst women attending infertility clinics in teaching hospitals in Lagos State and to determine the factors that influence their attitude and practice towards it. Method A cross-sectional descriptive design was used. Data were collected by using a structured questionnaire which was interviewer-administered. The study was conducted in the two teaching hospitals in Lagos State (LUTH [Lagos University Teaching Hospital] and LASUTH [Lagos State University Teaching Hospital]) from amongst 350 women attending the gynaecological clinics. All the patients under management for infertility at the gynaecology clinics during the period of the study were interviewed. Results Many respondents (85.7%) had heard of child adoption and 59.3% of them knew the correct meaning of the term. More than half of the respondents (68.3%) said that they could love an adopted child but less than half of them (33.7%) were willing to consider adoption. Only 13.9% has ever adopted a child. The major reason given for their unwillingness to adopt was their desire to have their own biological child. Factors that were favourable towards child adoption were Igbo tribe identity, an age above 40 years, duration of infertility above 15 years, and knowing the correct meaning of child adoption. Conclusion There is a poor attitude to adoption even amongst infertile couples. Interventions need to be implemented to educate the public on child adoption, to improve their attitude towards adoption and to make it more acceptable.

  3. Prevalence of African swine fever virus and classical swine fever virus antibodies in pigs in Benue State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Asambe, A; Sackey, A K B; Tekdek, L B

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of African swine fever virus (ASFV) and classical swine fever virus (CSFV) antibodies in pigs in Benue State, Nigeria. Serum samples were collected from a total of 460 pigs, including 416 from 74 piggeries and 44 from Makurdi slaughter slab. The samples were analysed using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kit to detect the presence of ASFV antibodies, while competitive ELISA test kit was used to detect antibodies to CSFV. Our findings showed a total ASF prevalence of 13 (2.8%), while prevalences of 7 (1.7%) and 6 (13.6%) were observed in piggeries and in Makurdi slaughter slab, respectively. However, no CSFV antibody sera were detected in this study. Relatively higher ASFV antibody-positive pigs were detected in the slaughter slab than in piggeries. The difference in prevalence of ASF between the two locations was significantly associated (p = 0.017). These findings suggest the presence of ASFV antibody-positive pig in Benue State, Nigeria. Continuous surveillance and monitoring of these diseases among pigs in Nigeria to prevent any fulminating outbreak are recommended.

  4. Comparative study of meanings, beliefs, and practices of female circumcision among three Nigerian tribes in the United States and Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Anuforo, Prisca O; Oyedele, Lola; Pacquiao, Dula F

    2004-04-01

    The study was conducted to gain insight into the meanings, beliefs, and practices of female circumcision among three Nigerian tribes in the United States and Nigeria. Participant-observations occurred in three sites in Nigeria (Ibadan, Lagos, and Owerri) and in Essex County, New Jersey (Newark, Irvington, and East Orange). A total of 50 informants included adult males and females from the three main Nigerian ethnic tribes: Igbo, Yoruba, and Hausa. Leininger's culture care theory of diversity and universality was the study framework. Findings revealed existence of similarities and differences in the cultural meanings, beliefs, and practices among the tribes. Religion, education, and occupation were significant factors influencing informants' attitudes toward continuation of the practice. Government-sponsored public education and influence by the media were found to increase informants' awareness of complications of female circumcision. Changes in attitudes toward the practice and use of alternative practices were evident.

  5. Cattle cruelty and risks of meat contamination at Akinyele cattle market and slaughter slab in Oyo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adeyemo, Olanike K; Adeyemi, Isaac G; Awosanya, Emmanuel J

    2009-12-01

    Cattle transported to the government-run cattle market and slaughter slab in Akinyele, Oyo State, Nigeria on their final voyage are facing a disturbingly cruel, filthy and unsafe environment that is also raising the risk of contamination of meat sold for human consumption. This report gives a picture of what the cattle have to go through before they are slaughtered. This study also reveals cattle awaiting slaughter in abysmal health conditions, cows pulled with extreme force towards lairage and slaughter slab. Equally disturbing is the filthy situation inside the abattoir where the risk of contamination of meat is significant. Also, poor meat handling, transportation and sales practices subject meat to contamination leading to poor quality and exposure of human consumers to health risk. Development of hygienic slaughter slab operations, improved transportation system for both livestock and meat is therefore recommended; not only for Akinyele, but all abattoirs and slaughter slabs in Nigeria.

  6. The Menace of Schistosomiasis in Nigeria: Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices Regarding Schistosomiasis among Rural Communities in Kano State

    PubMed Central

    Dawaki, Salwa; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Ithoi, Init; Ibrahim, Jamaiah; Abdulsalam, Awatif M.; Ahmed, Abdulhamid; Sady, Hany; Nasr, Nabil A.; Atroosh, Wahib M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is one of the most common neglected tropical diseases, especially in the developing countries in Africa, Asia and South America, with Nigeria having the greatest number of cases of schistosomiasis worldwide. This community-based study aims to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) regarding schistosomiasis among rural Hausa communities in Kano State, Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among 551 participants from Hausa communities in five local government areas in Kano State, North Central Nigeria. Demographic, socioeconomic and environmental information as well as KAP data were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. Moreover, faecal and urine samples were collected and examined for the presence of Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium eggs respectively. Results The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis was 17.8%, with 8.9% and 8.3% infected with S. mansoni and S. haematobium respectively, and 0.5% had co-infection of both species. Moreover, 74.5% of the participants had prior knowledge about schistosomiasis with 67.0% of them how it is transmitted and 63.8% having no idea about the preventive measures. Three-quarters of the respondents considered schistosomiasis a serious disease while their practices to prevent infections were still inadequate, with only 34.7% of them seeking treatment from clinics/hospitals. Significant associations between the KAP and age, gender, education and employment status were reported. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that age, gender, history of infection and educational level of the respondents were the most important factors significantly associated with the KAP on schistosomiasis among this population. Conclusions Schistosomiasis is still prevalent among Hausa communities in Nigeria and participants’ knowledge about the disease was poor. Mass drug administration, community mobilization and health education regarding the cause, transmission and

  7. The Menace of Schistosomiasis in Nigeria: Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices Regarding Schistosomiasis among Rural Communities in Kano State.

    PubMed

    Dawaki, Salwa; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Ithoi, Init; Ibrahim, Jamaiah; Abdulsalam, Awatif M; Ahmed, Abdulhamid; Sady, Hany; Nasr, Nabil A; Atroosh, Wahib M

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is one of the most common neglected tropical diseases, especially in the developing countries in Africa, Asia and South America, with Nigeria having the greatest number of cases of schistosomiasis worldwide. This community-based study aims to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) regarding schistosomiasis among rural Hausa communities in Kano State, Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 551 participants from Hausa communities in five local government areas in Kano State, North Central Nigeria. Demographic, socioeconomic and environmental information as well as KAP data were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. Moreover, faecal and urine samples were collected and examined for the presence of Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium eggs respectively. The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis was 17.8%, with 8.9% and 8.3% infected with S. mansoni and S. haematobium respectively, and 0.5% had co-infection of both species. Moreover, 74.5% of the participants had prior knowledge about schistosomiasis with 67.0% of them how it is transmitted and 63.8% having no idea about the preventive measures. Three-quarters of the respondents considered schistosomiasis a serious disease while their practices to prevent infections were still inadequate, with only 34.7% of them seeking treatment from clinics/hospitals. Significant associations between the KAP and age, gender, education and employment status were reported. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that age, gender, history of infection and educational level of the respondents were the most important factors significantly associated with the KAP on schistosomiasis among this population. Schistosomiasis is still prevalent among Hausa communities in Nigeria and participants' knowledge about the disease was poor. Mass drug administration, community mobilization and health education regarding the cause, transmission and prevention of schistosomiasis and education

  8. GENDER-RELATED FACTORS INFLUENCING WOMEN'S HEALTH SEEKING FOR TUBERCULOSIS CARE IN EBONYI STATE, NIGERIA.

    PubMed

    Oshi, Daniel C; Oshi, Sarah N; Alobu, Isaac N; Ukwaja, Kingsley N

    2016-01-01

    This is a qualitative, descriptive study to explore gender-related factors that influence health seeking for tuberculosis (TB) care by women in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. In-depth interviews based on interview guides were conducted with participants selected through purposive sampling in communities in the state. The results show that gender relations prohibit women from seeking care for symptoms of TB and other diseases outside their community without their husbands' approval. Gender norms on intra-household resource ownership and control divest women of the power to allocate money for health care seeking. Yet, the same norms place the burden of spending on health care for minor illnesses on women, and such repeated, out-of-pocket expenditures on health care at the village level make it difficult for women to save money for use for health care seeking for major illnesses such as TB, which, even if subsidized, still involves hidden costs such as transport fare. The opening hours of TB clinics do not favour their use by most women as they are open when women are usually engaged in income-generating activities. Attending the clinics may therefore entail opportunity costs for many women. People with chronic, infectious diseases such as TB and HIV are generally stigmatized and avoided. Women suffer more stigma and discrimination than men. Stigma and discrimination make women reluctant to seek care for TB until the disease is advanced. Policies and programmes aimed at increasing women's access to TB services should not only take these gender norms that disempower women into explicit consideration but also include interventions to address them. The programmes should integrate flexible opening hours for TB treatment units, including introduction of evening consultation for women. Interventions should also integrate anti-stigma strategies led by the community members themselves.

  9. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Klebsiella species from Ebonyi State University Teaching Hospital Abakaliki, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akujobi, C N

    2005-12-01

    Klesiella specie isolated from clinical specimens from Ebonyi State University Teaching Hospital (EBSUTH). Abakakliki were studied to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. Between January, 2003 and September 2004 a total of 3.600 specimens processed in the routine Medical Microbiology laboratory of EBSUTH, of which 245(6.8%) yielded Klebsiella species, with 84 from out - patients and 161 from in - patients. The number of isolates from various samples were: Urine 126, Sputum 37 Endocervical swab 13, Aspirates 8, High Vaginal Swab 7, Blood 3, Eye Swab, Ear Swab and Cerebrospinal fluid were 2 samples each. Organisms were identified by conventional methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility was done by the disk diffusion methods. The antimicrobial disk used include: Ceftazidime, Cefuroxime, Cefotaxine, Augmentin, Pefloxacin (30ug), Doxycyline (25ug) Genticin (10 ug) Ciprofloacin and Ofloxacin (5ug) each and Erythromycin (15ug). All were Oxoid products. Results were interpreted according to NCCLS criteria. Klebsilla species were isolated mostly from urine specimens (51.4%) followed by wound swabs (18.4%). Antimicrobial susceptibility to various groups drugs used was generally poor. The most sensitive antimicrobial was Ciprofloxacin with 121(49.4%) isolates susceptible to it, followed by Gentamicin with 95 (38.8%) and Ceftazidime with 90(36.7%). Seventeen isolates were multiresistant to all the antimicrobial agents used. The result of this study will help in the empiric therapy of infection caused by Klebsiella species in Ebonyi State University Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Nigeria but continuous surverillance of antimicrobial resistance of the organnisn is very necessary in the formulation of a sound antibiotic policy in the hospital.

  10. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic sheep and goats in Borno state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Kamani, Joshua; Mani, Aliyu U; Egwu, Godwin O

    2010-04-01

    Serum samples were collected from 372 sheep and same number of goats from the three geopolitical zones of Borno state, Nigeria. The samples were tested for the presences of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Of these, 6.7% (25/372) and 4.6% (17/372) of sheep and goats, respectively, were found to be seropositive to T. gondii antibodies, both far less than the estimated global average of 31%. Results were statistically analyzed by chi-square (chi(2)) test. The results showed that age, environmental conditions, and farm location are the main determinants of prevalence of antibodies against T. gondii in the study area. Older animals (>3 years) are significantly more infected than younger animals (between 6 months and 1 year).The prevalence of anti T. gondii antibodies is significantly higher (P < 0.05) in both sheep and goats sampled from the southern zone than the northern zone. Animals from the southern zones are about four times more likely to be exposed to T. gondii infection than those in the northern zone, (sheep; odds ratio (OR) = 4.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.177-15.36, P = 0.018), (goats; OR = 4.38, 95% CI = 0.925-20.73, P = 0.04). Farm location in urban area was identified as a risk factor for sheep (OR = 6.06, 95% CI = 2.53-14.54, P = 0.000), and goats (OR = 4.99, 95% CI = 1.59-15.62, P = 0.004). Current data on prevalence of ovine and caprine T. gondii in Borno state are provided by the study as well as identifying the main risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in the area.

  11. Utilization of Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria by Pregnant Women in Rivers State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Tobin-West, Charles I; Asuquo, Eme O

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study was conducted to assess the level of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) in Rivers State, Nigeria, to identify obstacles prohibiting utilization in order to make recommendations for improved uptake and malaria control in general. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in November 2008 among 339 pregnant women and those who had delivered children in the last 1 year, using a multistage sampling method. Data were analyzed using the Epi-Info version 6.04d statistical software package and hypothesis tests were conducted to compare summary statistics at 95% significance level. Results: Most of the respondents (76.4%) had knowledge that malaria was caused by mosquitoes and was harmful in pregnancy. Although majority of the pregnant women (80.8%) attended antenatal care clinics, knowledge of the correct use of SP was low (32.6%) and only 62.8% took malaria preventive treatment. Of these, 58.4% took SP, while nearly a third, 31.8%, took chloroquine. Only 16.4% took their SP at the health facility directly observed by health workers according to the national guidelines. The commonest reason for not preventing malaria was that they were not sick during the period of pregnancy. Conclusions: Misconceptions about IPTp persist among women known to have attended antenatal care clinics, resulting in only a minority of pregnant women receiving IPTp as recommended by national guidelines. Efforts directed at awareness creation on the new malaria prevention and treatment policy are therefore necessary to enhance the uptake of IPT in pregnancy in Rivers State. Further studies are however, needed to evaluate the knowledge and practices of health care workers on the new malaria treatment policy. PMID:23412963

  12. Changes in the prevalence of dental caries in primary school children in Lagos State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Sofola, O O; Folayan, M O; Oginni, A B

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the changes in the prevalence of dental caries in Lagos State over a 3 years period and the role of age, sex, and playing in the changes observed. Three primary schools in Lagos State, Nigeria were randomly selected for the study. Six hundred and thirty-three children age 2-12 years, were examined for caries in 2000 while 513 children were examined in 2003. The prevalence of tooth decay and the prevalence of untreated tooth decay were calculated for the two years, that is, 2000 and 2003. Also the degree of unmet treatment need among the population with caries experience was measured. Differences in the prevalence and severity of dental caries in the primary and permanent dentition were assessed. Approximately 18% of children had untreated tooth decay in their primary dentition in 2003: A 26.1% increase from 2000. About 12.0% of the decay, extracted, and filled teeth (deft) index was seen with decayed teeth in 2000 and 16.6% in 2003. Extracted primary teeth decreased from 2.5% in 2000 to 1.5% in 2003. The change in mean deft between 2000 (0.42) and 2003 (0.47) was 11.9%. Over the study period, the overall reduction in the prevalence of dental caries was 34.8% in the permanent dentition. The decline was larger among children aged 5-9 years (62.1%) and among females (75%). The study showed no overall changes in caries severity but a decrease in caries prevalence in the permanent dentition over the study period. The largest decline in caries prevalence in the permanent dentition was observed in children aged 5-9 years and females. On the contrary, there was an increase in the caries prevalence in the primary dentition.

  13. Knowledge and attitude of civil servants in Osun state, Southwestern Nigeria towards the national health insurance.

    PubMed

    Olugbenga-Bello, A I; Adebimpe, W O

    2010-12-01

    In Nigeria, inequity and poor accessibility to quality health care has been a persistent problem. This study aimed to determine knowledge and attitude of civil servants in Osun state towards the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS). This is a descriptive, cross sectional study of 380 civil servants in the employment of Osun state government, using multi stage sampling method. The research instruments was pre-coded, semi structured, self administered questionnaires. About 60% were aware of out of pocket as the most prevalent form of health care financing, while 40% were aware of NHIS, television and billboards were their main sources of awareness, However, none had good knowledge of the components of NHIS, 26.7% knew about its objectives, and 30% knew about who ideally should benefit from the scheme. Personal spending still accounts for a high as 74.7% of health care spending among respondents but respondents believed that this does not cover all their health needs. Only 0.3% have so far benefited from NHIS while 199 (52.5%) of respondents agreed to participate in the scheme. A significant association exists between willingness to participate in the NHIS scheme and awareness of methods of options of health care financing and awareness of NHIS (P < 0.05) Poor knowledge of the objectives and mechanism of operation of the NHIS scheme characterised the civil servants under study. The poor knowledge of the components and fair attitude towards joining the scheme observed in this study could be improved upon, if stakeholders in the scheme could carry out adequate awareness seminars targeted at the civil servants.

  14. Determinants of breastfeeding pattern among nursing mothers in Anambra State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ukegbu, A U; Ebenebe, E U; Ukegbu, P O; Onyeonoro, U U

    2011-09-01

    The practice of optimal breastfeeding including exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life is still rare among nursing mothers despite numerous benefits of breastfeeding. This study was aimed at identifying the factors influencing breastfeeding pattern among nursing mothers in Anambra State, Nigeria. A cross sectional study was carried out in three comprehensive health centres of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital (NAUTH) located at Neni, Ukpo and Nnewi communities of Anambra State. A semi structured questionnaire was interviewer administered on 228 nursing mothers consecutively selected by a systematic random sampling method as they visited the maternal and child welfare clinics. In addition, four sessions of focus group discussions (one in each centre) involving 8-10 nursing mothers were held. Most mothers 190 (83.3%) were aged between 20 and 34 years. About 152 (66.6%) had attended or completed secondary education and were mainly traders 86 (37.7%) and full time house wives 66 (29.0%). Majority 208 (91.2%) had at least good knowledge of breastfeeding. Their main source of breastfeeding education was government health facilities (80.85%). Only 85 (37.3%) breastfed exclusively. Exclusively breastfeeding was significantly associated with maternal older age, parity, delivery at government facility, positive family attitude towards exclusive breastfeeding and breastfeeding education from government health facility (p < 0.05). Focus group discussion showed that mothers believed that adequate nutrition, physical, financial and emotional support to them would increase exclusive breastfeeding practice. Exclusive breastfeeding rate was low among the mothers and the factors identified to influence its practice have important implications to breastfeeding intervention programmes. Activities to promote exclusive breastfeeding should be focused on the group of women and location in which it was poorly practiced. In addition, support to the mothers would

  15. Factors influencing knowledge about childhood autism among final year undergraduate Medical, Nursing and Psychology students of University of Nigeria, Enugu State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Knowledge and awareness about childhood autism is low among health care workers and the general populace in Nigeria. Poor knowledge about childhood autism among final year medical, nursing and psychology students who would form tomorrow's child health care professionals can compromise early recognition and interventions that are known to improve prognosis in childhood autism. Educational factors that could be influencing knowledge about childhood autism among these future health care professionals are unknown. This study assessed knowledge about childhood autism among final year undergraduate medical, nursing and psychology students in south-eastern Nigeria and determined the factors that could be influencing such knowledge. Methods One hundred final year undergraduate students were randomly selected from each of the Departments of Medicine, Nursing Science and Psychology respectively of University of Nigeria, Enugu State, Nigeria making a sample size of three hundred. A socio-demographic questionnaire and knowledge about childhood autism among health workers (KCAHW) questionnaire were administered to the students. Results The total mean score for the three groups of students on the KCAHW questionnaire was 10.67 ± 3.73 out of a possible total score of 19, with medical, nursing and psychology students having total mean scores of 12.24 ± 3.24, 10.76 ± 3.50 and 9.01 ± 3.76 respectively. The mean scores for the three groups showed statistically significant difference for domain 1 (p = 0.000), domain 3 (p = 0.029), domain 4 (p = 0.000) and total score (p = 0.000), with medical students more likely to recognise symptoms and signs of autism compared to nursing and psychology students. The mean score in domain 2 did not show statistically significant difference among the three groups (p = 0.769). The total score on the KCAHW questionnaire is positively correlated with the number of weeks of posting in psychiatry (r = 0.319, p = 0.000) and the number of weeks

  16. Anaemia is typical of pregnancies: capturing community perception and management of anaemia in pregnancy in Anambra State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Onyeneho, Nkechi G; Igweonu, Obianuju U

    2016-08-31

    Anaemia during pregnancy continues to constitute significant challenge to maternal health in Nigeria and contributes substantially to the worsening maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in Nigeria despite a global reduction in MMR in response to effort to improve safe motherhood. The incidence of anaemia during pregnancy is still high (>40 %) in Nigeria, and attitudes and management practices are yet unclear as the peoples' understanding of the phenomenon remains unclear. This study explored the perceptions/attitudes on anaemia during pregnancy and practices to prevent and/or manage it in Anambra State. In-depth interview and focus group discussion data were collected from health workers and mothers who delivered within 6 months preceding the study and from mothers and husbands of women who delivered within 6 months preceding the study, respectively. The people expressed some knowledge of anaemia, being common in pregnancies. However, some expressed the view that anaemia being a typical sign of pregnancy cannot be prevented. Some mothers expressed desire for focused antenatal care services to control anaemia but lamented the attitude of the health workers, who make access to these interventions difficult. Control of anaemia in pregnancy should start with providing health education to pregnant women and their partners, who reinforce what the women are told during antenatal care, and with training health workers for friendlier attitudes to clients.

  17. A Comparative Analysis of Teacher Supply and Pupils' Enrolment in Public and Private Primary Schools in Kwara and Ekiti States, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeyemi, T. O.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated teacher supply and pupils' enrolment in public and private primary schools in Kwara and Ekiti States, Nigeria. The study population comprised all the 811 primary schools in Kwara State and 810 primary schools in Ekiti State. Out of the forty-seven higher institutions that supply teachers to primary schools in the two…

  18. Prevalence of Tinea Capitis among School Children in Nok Community of Kaduna State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Dogo, Josephine; Dung, Edward Christopher

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the prevalence of tinea capitis, an infection of the scalp by dermatophytes, has increased in children worldwide. This cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and risk factor of tinea capitis among school children in Nok community of Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 100 children were screened and 45% were diagnosed to have tinea capitis after fungal culture and microscopy. The prevalence of tinea capitis among girls was higher (51.4%) than that among boys (41.5%) but not significantly different (p = 0.402). The prevalence with respect to age was lower for the age group 5–10 years (42.6%) than that of 11–15 years (50%) but was not significantly different (p = 0.524). Trichophyton rubrum (28.8%) and Microsporum canis (22.7%) were the most prevalent dermatophytes isolated and the least were Trichophyton verrucosum (4.5%) and Trichophyton tonsurans (4.5%). There were 73.3% single infection while 26.7% had 2–4 dermatophytes of the genera Microsporum and Trichophyton. The predisposing factors with statistically significant association with tinea capitis were number of children in the family (p = 0.02) and sharing of the same bed (p = 0.002). This indicates the high tendencies of spread of tinea capitis through human-to-human mode of transmission and possible animal contact. Community health education on the cause, mode of transmission, prevention, and prompt treatment of tinea capitis is recommended. PMID:27471603

  19. Medical rehabilitation of leprosy patients discharged home in abia and ebonyi States of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Enwereji, Ezinne Ezinna; Ahuizi, Eke Reginald; Iheanocho, Okereke Chukwunenye; Enwereji, Kelechi Okechukwu

    2011-11-01

    To examine the extent to which medical coverage is available to discharged leprosy patients in communities. Evidence has shown that after care services, follow-up visits and national disease prevention programs are important components of medical rehabilitation to leprosy patients discharged home after treatment. Denying them accessibility to these services could expose them to multiple disabilities as well as several disease conditions including HIV/AIDS. These adverse health conditions could be averted if health workers extend healthcare services to discharged leprosy patients. This study was conducted to examine the extent to which discharged leprosy patients have access to healthcare services in the communities. All 33 leprosy patients who were fully treated with multi-drug therapy (MDT) and discharged home in the two leprosy settlements in Abia and Ebonyi States of Nigeria were included in this study. The list of discharged leprosy patients studied and their addresses were provided by the leprosy settlements where they were treated. Also, snowball-sampling method was used to identify some of the leprosy patients whose addresses were difficult to locate in the communities. Instruments for data collection were questionnaire, interview guide and checklist. These were administered because respondents were essentially those with no formal education. Analysis of data was done quantitatively and qualitatively. Findings showed that 20 (60.6%) of discharged patients did not receive health programs like HIV/AIDS prevention or family planning. Also, follow-up visits and after-care services were poor. About 14 (42.4%) of the patients live in dirty and overcrowded houses. On the whole, discharged patients were poorly medically rehabilitated (mean score: 4.7±1.1 out of total score of 7). Denying discharged leprosy patients opportunity of accessing health care services could increase prevalence of infectious diseases including HIV/AIDS among them. There is need to extend

  20. Demographic and ecological survey of dog population in aba, abia state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Otolorin, Gbeminiyi Richard; Umoh, Jarlath U; Dzikwi, Asabe Adamu

    2014-01-01

    Dog ecology is essential in understanding the distribution, structure, and population density of dogs and pattern of dog ownership in any given area. A cross-sectional study was designed to study dog ecology in Aba, Abia state, Nigeria, from April to June 2013. The study revealed that the 500 households surveyed possessed 5,823 individuals and 747 dogs, giving a dog to human ratio of 1 : 7.8; hence dog population in Aba was estimated to be 68,121. About 495/747 (66.3%) of the dogs were exotic and 465/747 (62.2%) were males. A total of 319/500 (63.8%) of the households had fences that restrained dog movement and there was no incidence of dog bite in 447/500 (89.4%) of the households surveyed. There were statistical associations between vaccination against antirabies and breeds of dogs (χ (2) = 79.8, df = 2, P < 0.005). Exotic breed (adjusted OR = 0.39; CI = 0.23-0.65) and local breed of dogs (adjusted OR = 0.08; CI = 0.04-0.14) had less odds of being vaccinated as compared to crossbreed of dogs. About 126 dogs (2.5 dogs per street) were estimated from street counts survey. The relative high dog to human ratio and low vaccination coverage of owned dogs population pose public health concerns requiring adequate public health education and proper antirabies vaccination coverage of dogs in the study area.

  1. Sexual behaviour and inheritance rights among HIV-positive women in Abia State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Enwereji, E E

    2008-04-01

    In developing countries, culture favours males for economic ventures more than females. There is evidence that allowing HIV positive women inheritance rights will mitigate negative economic consequences of HIV/AIDS and other related risks. This study aimed to examine the extent to which HIV positive women have access to family resources in Abia State, Nigeria. Data collection instruments were questionnaire, focus group discussion and interview guides using 98 HIV positive women in network of people living with HIV/AIDS. Five key informants were also interviewed to authenticate women's responses. Results showed that 85 (86.7%) of the women were denied rights to family resources. Thirty-eight (64.4%) of them had negative relationship with their family members for demanding their husbands' property. Because of limited financial assistance, the women took two types of risks in order to survive in the communities. Twenty-five women (25.5%) earned their livelihood by acting as hired labourers to others in the farm. More that half (55.1%) of the HIV positive women were practicing unprotected sex. Although as high as 79.6% of women were aware of risks of unprotected sex, 54 (55%) of them practised it. The commonest reason for taking the risk was sex partners' dislike for condom use. The high proportion of HIV positive women who were denied access to family resources, could suggest lack of care and support. If this denial continues, Government's efforts to reduce HIV prevalence would yield no significant result. There is therefore need for organized community education programme that emphasizes the benefits of empowering women living positively with HIV/AIDS economically.

  2. Demographic and Ecological Survey of Dog Population in Aba, Abia State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Otolorin, Gbeminiyi Richard; Umoh, Jarlath U.; Dzikwi, Asabe Adamu

    2014-01-01

    Dog ecology is essential in understanding the distribution, structure, and population density of dogs and pattern of dog ownership in any given area. A cross-sectional study was designed to study dog ecology in Aba, Abia state, Nigeria, from April to June 2013. The study revealed that the 500 households surveyed possessed 5,823 individuals and 747 dogs, giving a dog to human ratio of 1 : 7.8; hence dog population in Aba was estimated to be 68,121. About 495/747 (66.3%) of the dogs were exotic and 465/747 (62.2%) were males. A total of 319/500 (63.8%) of the households had fences that restrained dog movement and there was no incidence of dog bite in 447/500 (89.4%) of the households surveyed. There were statistical associations between vaccination against antirabies and breeds of dogs (χ 2 = 79.8, df = 2, P < 0.005). Exotic breed (adjusted OR = 0.39; CI = 0.23–0.65) and local breed of dogs (adjusted OR = 0.08; CI = 0.04–0.14) had less odds of being vaccinated as compared to crossbreed of dogs. About 126 dogs (2.5 dogs per street) were estimated from street counts survey. The relative high dog to human ratio and low vaccination coverage of owned dogs population pose public health concerns requiring adequate public health education and proper antirabies vaccination coverage of dogs in the study area. PMID:25002978

  3. Evaluation of subsoil competence for foundation studies at site III of the Delta State University, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofomola, M. O.; Iserhien-Emekeme, R. E.; Okocha, F. O.; Adeoye, T. O.

    2018-06-01

    An integrated geophysical and geotechnical investigation has been carried out at site III of the Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria. This took place in a bid to generate information on the competence of the soil in withstanding stress and strain emanating from overburden or pore pressure, swelling, cracking and other anthropogenic activity in relation to civil engineering and building structures. An electromagnetic method employing the very low frequency (VLF) technique, and electrical resistivity employing the Wenner and the vertical electrical sounding techniques were used for this study. Soil samples were also collected at depth for geotechnical analysis. Isoresistivity slices generated from the data of 33 VES stations at 1 m showed generally low resistivity values of subsurface earth materials, classified as clayey sand, sandy clay or clay, and ranging from 60-300 Ωm. However, at depths of 3 and 5 m, the result showed a generally high resistivity distribution with values ranging from 500-6000 Ωm, which is an indication of competent Earth materials of fine to coarse grain sand. The results of the liquid limit, plastic limit, plasticity index, cohesion, angle of internal friction and clay content of the soil samples vary from 10%-17%, 18%-29%, 3%-15%, 45-95 KN m-2, 31°-35° and 14%-22% respectively. The low cohesion, low clay content and high angle of internal friction of the soil at the encountered depth makes it competent for engineering foundation. It is concluded that the subsoil in the area, starting at a depth of 3 m, is a competent material for hosting engineering structures.

  4. Becoming pregnant during secondary school: findings from concurrent mixed methods research in Anambra State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Onyeka, Ifeoma N; Miettola, Juhani; Ilika, Amobi L; Vaskilampi, Tuula

    2012-03-01

    Pregnancies among teenagers and problems associated with premarital births have raised concerns in many countries. It is important to explore unintended pregnancy from the viewpoints of local stakeholders such as students, schools/teachers, and community members. This study assessed reported cases of unintended pregnancy among students and perceptions of these pregnancies by members of the community. This study took place in a rural community in Anambra state, southeastern Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey of 1,234 students and 46 teachers in five secondary schools was carried out using self-administered questionnaires. In addition, focus group discussions (FGD) involving 10 parents and in-depth interview (IDI) with a student who became pregnant were conducted. Reports of pregnancy were more common during second and third years of junior secondary school than other school years or level. According to teachers, ignorance was the main reason given by students who became pregnant. Students who became pregnant were reported to have performed poorly academically and lived with both parents, who were either subsistence farmers or petty traders. In the IDI, the ex-student opined that pregnant students faced shame, marital limitations and lack of respect from community members. Participants in the FGD suggested that teenagers should be provided with sex education in schools and in churches; parents should communicate with teenagers about sexual matters and make adequate financial provision; and the male partners should be held more accountable for the pregnancies. Poor sexual knowledge and poor socioeconomic conditions play important roles in teenage pregnancy. Male participation may enhance effectiveness of prevention programmes.

  5. Human intestinal parasites in non-biting synanthropic flies in Ogun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adenusi, Adedotun Adesegun; Adewoga, Thomas O Sunday

    2013-01-01

    Filth-feeding and breeding, non-biting synanthropic flies have been incriminated in the dissemination of human enteropathogens in the environment. This study determined the species of non-biting synanthropic flies associated with four filthy sites in Ilishan, Ogun State, southwest Nigeria, and assessed their potentials for mechanical transmission of human intestinal parasites. 7190 flies identified as Musca domestica (33.94%), Chrysomya megacephala (26.01%), Musca sorbens (23.23%), Lucilia cuprina (8.76%), Calliphora vicina (4.59%), Sarcophaga sp. (2.78%) and Fannia scalaris (0.70%) were examined for human intestinal parasites by the formol-ether concentration and modified Ziehl-Neelsen techniques. Eggs of the following parasites: Ascaris lumbricoides (34.08%), Trichuris trichiura (25.87%), hookworms (20.45%), Taenia sp. (2.36%), Hymenolepis nana (1.11%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.56%), Strongyloides stercoralis (larvae; 3.89%) and cysts of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (27.26%), Entamoeba coli (22.67%), Giardia lamblia (3.34%) and Cryptosporidium sp. (1.81%) were isolated from the body surfaces and or gut contents of 75.24% of 719 pooled fly batches. The helminths A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura and the protozoans, E. histolytica/dispar and E. coli were the dominant parasites detected, both on body surfaces and in the gut contents of flies. C. megacephala was the highest carrier of parasites (diversity and number). More parasites were isolated from the gut than from body surfaces (P < 0.05). Flies from soiled ground often carried more parasites than those from abattoir, garbage or open-air market. Synanthropic fly species identified in this study can be of potential epidemiological importance as mechanical transmitters of human intestinal parasites acquired naturally from filth and carried on their body surfaces and or in the gut, because of their vagility and feeding mechanisms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Economic costs of motorcycle injury among crash-involved commercial motorcyclists in Oyo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Sangowawa, A O; Owoaje, E T; Ekanem, S E U; Faseru, B; Adekunle, B J

    2011-12-01

    This study presents the costs of injury from road crashes sustained by commercial motorcyclists in Oyo state, Nigeria. Across-sectional survey of 373 commercial motorcyclists selected using a multi-stage sampling technique was conducted. Information on injury costs for 44 (11.8%) of them who were reportedly involved in a road crash in the 12-month preceding the survey are presented. The mean age of the 44 crash-involved motorcyclists was 33.6 +/- 9.1 years. Daily income ranged from N300.00 ($2.31) - N1, 500.00 ($11.54). Thirty-three (75.0%) of those involved in crashes sustained injuries and 7 (21.2%) of them were admitted. Common injuries sustained were bruises (75.8%), fractures (12.1%), cuts (6.1%) and burns (6.1%). Median number of days away from work was 14 (range: 1 - 150). Median number of days on admission was 60 (range 7 - 90). The median cost of treatment was N2, 000.00 ($15.38), range: N20.00 (about 16 cents) - N25, 000.00 ($192.31) and this was paid by the injured motorcyclist alone in about 47% of cases. Median productivity costs lost was N7, 000.00 ($53.85), range N300 ($2.31) - N72, 000.00 ($553.85). The study showed that the costs of injuries were considerable. Efforts to prevent road crashes must be intensified to reduce the ensuing economic losses.

  7. Cyanide and Aflatoxin Loads of Processed Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Tubers (Garri) in Njaba, Imo State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Chikezie, Paul Chidoka; Ojiako, Okey A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The present study sought to investigate the role of palm oil, in conjunction with the duration of fermentation, on cyanide and aflatoxin (AFT) loads of processed cassava tubers (Garri). Materials and Methods: Matured cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) tubers were harvested from three different locations (Akunna, Mkporo-Oji and Durungwu) in Njaba Local Government Area, Imo State, Nigeria. The cassava tubers were processed into Garri according to standard schemes with required modifications and measured for cyanide content using titrimetric methods. Samples of Garri for determination of AFT levels were stored for 30 days before the commencement of spectrophotometric analysis. Results: Cyanide content of peeled cassava tubers was within the range of 4.07 ± 0.16-5.20 ± 0.19 mg hydrocyanic acid (HCN) equivalent/100 g wet weight, whereas the various processed cassava tubers was within the range of 1.44 ± 0.34-3.95 ± 0.23 mg HCN equivalents/100 g. For the 48 h fermentation scheme, Garri treated with palm oil exhibited marginal reduction in cyanide contents by 0.96%, 3.52% and 3.69%, whereas 4 h fermentation scheme is in concurrence with palm oil treatment caused 4.42%, 7.47% and 5.15% elimination of cyanide contents compared with corresponding untreated Garri samples (P > 0.05). Levels of AFT of the various Garri samples ranged between 0.26 ± 0.07 and 0.55 ± 0.04 ppb/100 g. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in AFT levels among the various samples in relation to their corresponding sources. Conclusion: The present study showed that the 48 h fermentation scheme for Garri production caused significant (P < 0.05) reduction, but did not obliterate the cyanide content of cassava tubers. Conversely, the 48 h fermentation scheme promoted the elevation of AFT levels, but was relatively reduced in Garri samples treated with palm oil. PMID:24403736

  8. Respiratory symptoms and ventilatory functions among quarry workers in Edo state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Isara, Alphonsus Rukevwe; Adam, Vincent Yakubu; Aigbokhaode, Adesuwa Queen; Alenoghena, Innocent Osi

    2016-01-01

    Workers in the quarry industries are exposed to hazards resulting from the inhalation of air borne particulates. The study determined the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and assessed ventilatory functions among quarry workers in Edo state, Nigeria. Quarry workers (site workers and office workers) were interviewed using structured questionnaire. FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC and PEFR were measured using a KoKo Legend spirometer. A total of 113 quarry workers (76 exposure and 37 controls) were studied. The exposure group had significantly higher occurrence of chest tightness (35.5%) compared with 16.2% of the controls (p < 0.05). The occurrence of cough (23.7% versus 13.5%), sputum (21.1% versus 16.2%), and dyspnoea (7.9% versus 5.4%), were higher in exposure groups while wheeze (10.8% versus 10.5%) and nasal congestion (27.0% and 25.0%) were higher in the control groups. The mean (SD) FEV1, and FVC were significantly lower among the exposure compared with the control group; 2.77L (0.73) versus 3.14L (0.78), p < 0.05, and 3.48L (0.84) versus 3.89L (0.92), p < 0.05. In both groups, smokers had significantly lower mean (SD) FEV1, FVC and PEFR compared with non-smokers; 2.91L (0.77) versus 3.39L (0.69), p = 0.01, 3.61L (0.91) versus 4.26L (0.74), p < 0.05 and 6.56L (2.43) versus 7.98L (1.67), p < 0.05. Chronic exposure to quarry dust is associated with respiratory symptoms and reduced lung function indices among quarry workers. The enforcement of the use of PPEs and periodic evaluation the lung function status of quarry workers is advocated.

  9. Information Needs and Seeking Behaviours of Nurses: A Survey of Two Hospitals in Bayelsa State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baro, Emmanuel E.; Ebhomeya, Loveth

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the information needs of nurses in two hospitals in Nigeria and the ways in which they went about attempting to meet those needs. Design/methodology/approach: The study is a descriptive survey of nurses at the Federal Medical Center (FMC), Yenagoa, and Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital…

  10. Impact of Sexual Harassment on Women Undergraduates' Educational Experience in Anambra State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okeke, Carina Maris Amaka

    2010-01-01

    Sexual harassment in educational settings is a common problem globally. While it is well addressed in college and university campuses in most developed countries of the world through specific policies and mechanisms of enforcement, it remains a taboo topic in African colleges and universities particularly in Nigeria. This study investigated the…

  11. Delivery Pain Anxiety/Fear Control between Midwives among Women in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyira, Emilia James; Mgbekem, Mary; Osuchukwu, Easther Chukwudi; Affiong, Ekpenyong Onoyom; Lukpata, Felicia E.; Ojong-Alasia, Mary Manyo

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine background of midwives the effectiveness in delivery pain and anxiety/fear control of expectant mothers in Nigeria. Methods: Two null hypotheses were formulated. The survey design with sample of 360 post-natal women was selected from a population of 78,814 through the polio immunization registers of selected health center in…

  12. Source to point of use drinking water changes and knowledge, attitude and practices in Katsina State, Northern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onabolu, B.; Jimoh, O. D.; Igboro, S. B.; Sridhar, M. K. C.; Onyilo, G.; Gege, A.; Ilya, R.

    In many Sub-Saharan countries such as Nigeria, inadequate access to safe drinking water is a serious problem with 37% in the region and 58% of rural Nigeria using unimproved sources. The global challenge to measuring household water quality as a determinant of safety is further compounded in Nigeria by the possibility of deterioration from source to point of use. This is associated with the use of decentralised water supply systems in rural areas which are not fully reticulated to the household taps, creating a need for an integrated water quality monitoring system. As an initial step towards establishing the system in the north west and north central zones of Nigeria, The Katsina State Rural Water and Sanitation Agency, responsible for ensuring access to safe water and adequate sanitation to about 6 million people carried out a three pronged study with the support of UNICEF Nigeria. Part 1 was an assessment of the legislative and policy framework, institutional arrangements and capacity for drinking water quality monitoring through desk top reviews and Key Informant Interviews (KII) to ascertain the institutional capacity requirements for developing the water quality monitoring system. Part II was a water quality study in 700 households of 23 communities in four local government areas. The objectives were to assess the safety of drinking water, compare the safety at source and household level and assess the possible contributory role of end users’ Knowledge Attitudes and Practices. These were achieved through water analysis, household water quality tracking, KII and questionnaires. Part III was the production of a visual documentary as an advocacy tool to increase awareness of the policy makers of the linkages between source management, treatment and end user water quality. The results indicate that except for pH, conductivity and manganese, the improved water sources were safe at source. However there was a deterioration in water quality between source and

  13. Seroepidemiological study and associated risk factors of Toxocara canis infection among preschool children in Osun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Sowemimo, Oluyomi A; Lee, Yueh-Lun; Asaolu, Samuel O; Chuang, Ting-Wu; Akinwale, Olaoluwa P; Badejoko, Bolaji O; Gyang, Vincent P; Nwafor, Timothy; Henry, Emmanuel; Fan, Chia-Kwung

    2017-09-01

    Human toxocariasis is caused by the nematode, Toxocara canis and it is a poorly understood phenomenon in Nigeria. Seroepidemiological studies have not been previously carried out among the preschool aged children in Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was conducted in pre-school children in four communities from Osun State, Nigeria between January and July 2016. A total of 308 children Aged 9 months and 5 years were studied comprising 53.2% (164/308) male and 46.8% (144/308) female. Blood samples were collected and screened for the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies by Western blot analysis based on the excretory-secretory antigens of larva T. canis (TcES), targeting low molecular weight bands of 24 - 35kDa specific for T. canis. Questionnaires were given to parents/guardians of the studied children to collect information regarding relationship between infection and host factors. The overall seroprevalence of Toxocara infection was 37.3%. The seroprevalence in the studied preschool children ranged from 18.2% in children less than one year old to a max of 57.6% in children aged 3 years and above. The logistic regression analysis of risk factors showed that children's age (odds ratio (OR)=6.12, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.25-29.90, p=0.02), contact with dogs (OR=3.17, 95% CI=1.40-7.20, p=0.01) and parent's religion (OR=0.54, 95% CI=0.32-0.91, p=0.02) were the risk factors associated with Toxocara infection. However, after adjustment by multivariate logistic regression analysis, contact with dogs (p=0.02) remained the only statistically significant risk factor. Preschool children were exposed early in life to T. canis infection as 18.18% of children less than one year old were infected. This is the first serological investigation of T. canis infection among preschool children in Nigeria. The results show high levels of exposure to T. canis infection among the studied group and contact with the dog plays the predominant risk factor. It indicates high transmission

  14. Phenological cues intrinsic in indigenous knowledge systems for forecasting seasonal climate in the Delta State of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Fitchett, Jennifer M; Ebhuoma, Eromose

    2018-06-01

    Shifts in the timing of phenological events in plants and animals are cited as one of the most robust bioindicators of climate change. Much effort has thus been placed on the collection of phenological datasets, the quantification of the rates of phenological shifts and the association of these shifts with recorded meteorological data. These outputs are of value both in tracking the severity of climate change and in facilitating more robust management approaches in forestry and agriculture to changing climatic conditions. However, such an approach requires meteorological and phenological records spanning multiple decades. For communities in the Delta State of Nigeria, small-scale farming communities do not have access to meteorological records, and the dissemination of government issued daily to seasonal forecasts has only taken place in recent years. Their ability to survive inter-annual to inter-decadal climatic variability and longer-term climatic change has thus relied on well-entrenched indigenous knowledge systems (IKS). An analysis of the environmental cues that are used to infer the timing and amount of rainfall by farmers from three communities in the Delta State reveals a reliance on phenological events, including the croaking of frogs, the appearance of red millipedes and the emergence of fresh rubber tree and cassava leaves. These represent the first recorded awareness of phenology within the Delta State of Nigeria, and a potentially valuable source of phenological data. However, the reliance of these indicators is of concern given the rapid phenological shifts occurring in response to climate change.

  15. Phenological cues intrinsic in indigenous knowledge systems for forecasting seasonal climate in the Delta State of Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitchett, Jennifer M.; Ebhuoma, Eromose

    2017-12-01

    Shifts in the timing of phenological events in plants and animals are cited as one of the most robust bioindicators of climate change. Much effort has thus been placed on the collection of phenological datasets, the quantification of the rates of phenological shifts and the association of these shifts with recorded meteorological data. These outputs are of value both in tracking the severity of climate change and in facilitating more robust management approaches in forestry and agriculture to changing climatic conditions. However, such an approach requires meteorological and phenological records spanning multiple decades. For communities in the Delta State of Nigeria, small-scale farming communities do not have access to meteorological records, and the dissemination of government issued daily to seasonal forecasts has only taken place in recent years. Their ability to survive inter-annual to inter-decadal climatic variability and longer-term climatic change has thus relied on well-entrenched indigenous knowledge systems (IKS). An analysis of the environmental cues that are used to infer the timing and amount of rainfall by farmers from three communities in the Delta State reveals a reliance on phenological events, including the croaking of frogs, the appearance of red millipedes and the emergence of fresh rubber tree and cassava leaves. These represent the first recorded awareness of phenology within the Delta State of Nigeria, and a potentially valuable source of phenological data. However, the reliance of these indicators is of concern given the rapid phenological shifts occurring in response to climate change.

  16. Phenological cues intrinsic in indigenous knowledge systems for forecasting seasonal climate in the Delta State of Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitchett, Jennifer M.; Ebhuoma, Eromose

    2018-06-01

    Shifts in the timing of phenological events in plants and animals are cited as one of the most robust bioindicators of climate change. Much effort has thus been placed on the collection of phenological datasets, the quantification of the rates of phenological shifts and the association of these shifts with recorded meteorological data. These outputs are of value both in tracking the severity of climate change and in facilitating more robust management approaches in forestry and agriculture to changing climatic conditions. However, such an approach requires meteorological and phenological records spanning multiple decades. For communities in the Delta State of Nigeria, small-scale farming communities do not have access to meteorological records, and the dissemination of government issued daily to seasonal forecasts has only taken place in recent years. Their ability to survive inter-annual to inter-decadal climatic variability and longer-term climatic change has thus relied on well-entrenched indigenous knowledge systems (IKS). An analysis of the environmental cues that are used to infer the timing and amount of rainfall by farmers from three communities in the Delta State reveals a reliance on phenological events, including the croaking of frogs, the appearance of red millipedes and the emergence of fresh rubber tree and cassava leaves. These represent the first recorded awareness of phenology within the Delta State of Nigeria, and a potentially valuable source of phenological data. However, the reliance of these indicators is of concern given the rapid phenological shifts occurring in response to climate change.

  17. Effect of Group Counselling on Attitude of Senior Secondary School Students' towards Schooling in Federal Government College Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Audu, Amos; Ali, Domiya G.; Pur, Hamsatu J.

    2017-01-01

    The study investigated the effect of group counselling on attitude of senior secondary school students' towards schooling in Federal Government College, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. Two objectives were stated and two null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. Experimental design was used for the study. The target…

  18. Primary School Environment Trend, Class-Ratio and Head Teachers Overcrowded Classrooms Management Strategies in Northern Senatorial District of Ondo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babatunde, Ehinola Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Primary school Enrolment Trend, Class-Ratio and Head Teachers overcrowded classrooms management strategies in Northern Senatorial District of Ondo State, Nigeria was investigated. The purpose of the study is to examine the current enrolment trend in public primary schools in northern senatorial District of Ondo State. Also, is to ascertain the…

  19. An Exploration of the Wider Costs of the Decision by the Rivers State Government in Nigeria to Revoke International Students' Scholarships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achinewhu-Nworgu, Elizabeth; Nworgu, Queen Chioma

    2016-01-01

    In a move intended to cut costs to the state, the government of Rivers State has announced that it is revoking international scholarships for its young people studying overseas (except for final year students). Whether or not there are corresponding courses available for them back in Nigeria, some 600 students are effectively being recalled and…

  20. Medical Rehabilitation of Leprosy Patients Discharged Home in Abia and Ebonyi States of Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Enwereji, Ezinne Ezinna; Ahuizi, Eke Reginald; Iheanocho, Okereke Chukwunenye; Enwereji, Kelechi Okechukwu

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To examine the extent to which medical coverage is available to discharged leprosy patients in communities. Evidence has shown that after care services, follow-up visits and national disease prevention programs are important components of medical rehabilitation to leprosy patients discharged home after treatment. Denying them accessibility to these services could expose them to multiple disabilities as well as several disease conditions including HIV/AIDS. These adverse health conditions could be averted if health workers extend healthcare services to discharged leprosy patients. This study was conducted to examine the extent to which discharged leprosy patients have access to healthcare services in the communities. Methods All 33 leprosy patients who were fully treated with multi-drug therapy (MDT) and discharged home in the two leprosy settlements in Abia and Ebonyi States of Nigeria were included in this study. The list of discharged leprosy patients studied and their addresses were provided by the leprosy settlements where they were treated. Also, snowball-sampling method was used to identify some of the leprosy patients whose addresses were difficult to locate in the communities. Instruments for data collection were questionnaire, interview guide and checklist. These were administered because respondents were essentially those with no formal education. Analysis of data was done quantitatively and qualitatively. Results Findings showed that 20 (60.6%) of discharged patients did not receive health programs like HIV/AIDS prevention or family planning. Also, follow-up visits and after-care services were poor. About 14 (42.4%) of the patients live in dirty and overcrowded houses. On the whole, discharged patients were poorly medically rehabilitated (mean score: 4.7±1.1 out of total score of 7). Conclusion Denying discharged leprosy patients opportunity of accessing health care services could increase prevalence of infectious diseases including HIV

  1. Helminthiasis and Hygiene Conditions of Schools in Ikenne, Ogun State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ekpo, Uwem Friday; Odoemene, Simon Nnayere; Mafiana, Chiedu Felix; Sam-Wobo, Sammy Olufemi

    2008-01-01

    Background A study of the helminth infection status of primary-school children and the hygiene condition of schools in Ikenne Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria was undertaken between November 2004 and February 2005 to help guide the development of a school-based health programme. Methods and Findings Three primary schools were randomly selected: two government-owned schools (one urban and the other rural) and one urban private school. No rural private schools existed to survey. A total of 257 schoolchildren aged 4–15 y, of whom 146 (56.8%) were boys and 111 (43.2%) were girls, took part in the survey. A child survey form, which included columns for name, age, sex, and class level, was used in concert with examination of stool samples for eggs of intestinal helminths. A school survey form was used to assess the conditions of water supply, condition of latrines, presence of soap for handwashing, and presence of garbage around the school compound. The demographic data showed that the number of schoolchildren gradually decreased as their ages increased in all three schools. The sex ratio was proportional in the urban school until primary level 3, after which the number of female pupils gradually decreased, whereas in the private school, sexes were proportionally distributed even in higher classes. The prevalence of helminth infection was 54.9% of schoolchildren in the urban government school, 63.5% in the rural government school, and 28.4% in the urban private school. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent species, followed by Trichuris trichiura, Taenia species, and hookworm in the three schools. Prevalence of infection in the government-owned schools was significantly higher than in the private school (χ 2 = 18.85, df = 2, p<0.0005). A survey of hygiene conditions in the three schools indicated that in the two government schools tapwater was unavailable, sanitation of latrines was poor, handwashing soap was unavailable, and garbage was

  2. Respiratory symptoms and ventilatory functions among quarry workers in Edo state, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Isara, Alphonsus Rukevwe; Adam, Vincent Yakubu; Aigbokhaode, Adesuwa Queen; Alenoghena, Innocent Osi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Workers in the quarry industries are exposed to hazards resulting from the inhalation of air borne particulates. The study determined the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and assessed ventilatory functions among quarry workers in Edo state, Nigeria. Methods Quarry workers (site workers and office workers) were interviewed using structured questionnaire. FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC and PEFR were measured using a KoKo Legend spirometer. Results A total of 113 quarry workers (76 exposure and 37 controls) were studied. The exposure group had significantly higher occurrence of chest tightness (35.5%) compared with 16.2% of the controls (p < 0.05). The occurrence of cough (23.7% versus 13.5%), sputum (21.1% versus 16.2%), and dyspnoea (7.9% versus 5.4%), were higher in exposure groups while wheeze (10.8% versus 10.5%) and nasal congestion (27.0% and 25.0%) were higher in the control groups. The mean (SD) FEV1, and FVC were significantly lower among the exposure compared with the control group; 2.77L (0.73) versus 3.14L (0.78), p < 0.05, and 3.48L (0.84) versus 3.89L (0.92), p < 0.05. In both groups, smokers had significantly lower mean (SD) FEV1, FVC and PEFR compared with non-smokers; 2.91L (0.77) versus 3.39L (0.69), p = 0.01, 3.61L (0.91) versus 4.26L (0.74), p < 0.05 and 6.56L (2.43) versus 7.98L (1.67), p < 0.05. Conclusion Chronic exposure to quarry dust is associated with respiratory symptoms and reduced lung function indices among quarry workers. The enforcement of the use of PPEs and periodic evaluation the lung function status of quarry workers is advocated. PMID:27347301

  3. A critical needs assessment for collaborative ecotourism development linked to protected areas in Cross River State, Nigeria

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey J. Brooks; John Neary; Blessing E. Asuquo

    2007-01-01

    Nigeria has abundant natural resources, and the nation, working with its partners over the years, has made large strides toward conservation of this natural wealth, but the future of Nigeria's natural resources remains uncertain.

  4. Understanding Internal Accountability in Nigeria's Routine Immunization System: Perspectives From Government Officials at the National, State, and Local Levels.

    PubMed

    Erchick, Daniel J; George, Asha S; Umeh, Chukwunonso; Wonodi, Chizoba

    2016-12-10

    Routine immunization coverage in Nigeria has remained low, and studies have identified a lack of accountability as a barrier to high performance in the immunization system. Accountability lies at the heart of various health systems strengthening efforts recently launched in Nigeria, including those related to immunization. Our aim was to understand the views of health officials on the accountability challenges hindering immunization service delivery at various levels of government. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview immunization and primary healthcare (PHC) officials from national, state, local, and health facility levels in Niger State in north central Nigeria. Individuals were selected to represent a range of roles and responsibilities in the immunization system. The questionnaire explored concepts related to internal accountability using a framework that organizes accountability into three axes based upon how they drive change in the health system. Respondents highlighted accountability challenges across multiple components of the immunization system, including vaccine availability, financing, logistics, human resources, and data management. A major focus was the lack of clear roles and responsibilities both within institutions and between levels of government. Delays in funding, especially at lower levels of government, disrupted service delivery. Supervision occurred less frequently than necessary, and the limited decision space of managers prevented problems from being resolved. Motivation was affected by the inability of officials to fulfill their responsibilities. Officials posited numerous suggestions to improve accountability, including clarifying roles and responsibilities, ensuring timely release of funding, and formalizing processes for supervision, problem solving, and data reporting. Weak accountability presents a significant barrier to performance of the routine immunization system and high immunization coverage in Nigeria. As one

  5. Child Survival Strategies: Assessment of Knowledge and Practice of Rural Women of Reproductive Age in Cross River State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Etokidem, Aniekan Jumbo; Johnson, Ofonime

    2016-01-01

    Introduction . Nigeria is one of the five countries that account for about 50% of under-five mortality in the world. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and practice of child survival strategies among rural community caregivers in Cross River State of Nigeria. Materials and Methods . This descriptive cross-sectional survey used a pretested questionnaire to obtain information from 150 women of reproductive age. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 20. Results . The child survival strategy known to most of the respondents was oral rehydration therapy as indicated by 98% followed by female education by 73.3% and immunization by 67.3%. Only 20% of the respondents had adequate knowledge of frequency of weighing a child while only 32.7% knew that breastfeeding should be continued even if the child had diarrhea. More respondents with nonformal education (83.3%) practiced exclusive breastfeeding of their last children compared to respondents with primary education (77.3%), secondary education (74.2%), and tertiary education (72.2%). Conclusion . Although respondents demonstrated adequate knowledge and practice of most of the strategies, there was evidence of gaps, including myths and misconceptions that could mar efforts towards reducing child morbidity and mortality in the state.

  6. Neurodevelopmental delay among children under the age of three years at immunization clinics in Lagos State, Nigeria - Preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Bakare, Muideen O; Bello-Mojeed, Mashudat A; Munir, Kerim M; Ogun, Oluwayemi C; Eaton, Julian

    2016-04-29

    Late diagnosis and interventions characterize childhood neurodevelopmental disorders in Sub-Saharan Africa. This has negatively impacted on the prognosis of the children with neurodevelopmental disorders. This study examined the prevalence and pattern of neurodevelopmental delays among children under the age of 3 years attending immunization clinics in Lagos State, Nigeria and also affords opportunity of early follow-up and interventions, which had been documented to improve prognosis. The study involved two stage assessments; which consisted of first phase screening of the children for neurodevelopmental delays in immunization clinics at primary healthcare centers Lagos State, Nigeria and second phase which consists of definitive clinical evaluation and follow-up interventions for children screened positive for neurodevelopmental delays. Twenty seven (0.9%) of a total of 3,011 children under the age of 3 years were screened positive for neurodevelopmental delays and subsequently undergoing clinical evaluation and follow-up interventions. Preliminary working diagnoses among these children include cerebral palsy, autism spectrum disorder trait, nutritional deficiency, Down syndrome and Non-specific neurodevelopmental delay with co-morbid seizure disorder accounting for 33.3%, 14.8%, 18.5%, 7.4% and 25.9% respectively. This is a preliminary report that would be followed up with information on medium and long term intervention phase.

  7. Health risk assessment and dietary exposure of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), lead and cadmium from bread consumed in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Udowelle, Nnaemeka Arinze; Igweze, Zelinjo Nkeiruka; Asomugha, Rose Ngozi; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere

    A risk assessment and dietary exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), lead and cadmium from bread, a common food consumed in Nigeria. Sixty samples of bread were collected from different types of bakeries where the heat is generated by wood (42 samples) or by electricity (18 samples) from twenty bakeries located in Gusau Zamfara (B1- B14) and Port Harcourt Rivers States (B15-B20) in Nigeria. PAHs in bread were determined by gas chromatography. Lead and cadmium were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Non-carcinogenic PAHs pyrene (13.72 μg/kg) and genotoxic PAHs (PAH8), benzo[a]anthracene (9.13 μg/ kg) were at the highest concentrations. Total benzo[a]pyrene concentration of 6.7 μg/kg was detected in 100% of tested samples. Dietary intake of total PAHs ranged between 0.004-0.063 μg/kg bw. day-1 (children), 0.002-0.028 μg/kg day-1 (adolescents), 0.01-0.017 μg/kg day-1 (male), 0.002-0.027 μg/kg day-1 (female), and 0.002-0.025 μg/kg day-1 (seniors). The Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) for Pb and Cd were below 1. Lead ranged from 0.01-0.071 mg/kg with 10.85 and 100% of bread samples violating the permissible limit set by USEPA, WHO and EU respectively. Cadmium ranged from 0.01-0.03 mg/kg, with all bread samples below the permissible limits as set by US EPA, JECFA and EU. The daily intake of Pb and Cd ranged from 0.03-0.23 μg/kg bw day-1 and 0.033-0.36 μg/kg bw day-1 respectively. Incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) was 3.8 x 10-7. The levels of these contaminants in bread if not controlled might present a possible route of exposure to heavy metals and PAHs additional to the body burden from other sources.

  8. The midwives service scheme: a qualitative comparison of contextual determinants of the performance of two states in central Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okpani, Arnold I; Abimbola, Seye

    2016-01-01

    The federal government of Nigeria started the Midwives Service Scheme in 2009 to address the scarcity of skilled health workers in rural communities by temporarily redistributing midwives from urban to rural communities. The scheme was designed as a collaboration among federal, state and local governments. Six years on, this study examines the contextual factors that account for the differences in performance of the scheme in Benue and Kogi, two contiguous states in central Nigeria. We obtained qualitative data through 14 in-depth interviews and 2 focus group discussions: 14 government officials at the federal, state and local government levels were interviewed to explore their perceptions on the design, implementation and sustainability of the Midwives Service Scheme. In addition, mothers in rural communities participated in 2 focus group discussions (one in each state) to elicit their views on Midwives Service Scheme services. The qualitative data were analysed for themes. The inability of the federal government to substantially influence the health care agenda of sub-national governments was a significant impediment to the achievement of the objectives of the Midwives Service Scheme. Participants identified differences in government prioritisation of primary health care between Benue and Kogi as relevant to maternal and child health outcomes in those states: Kogi was far more supportive of the Midwives Service Scheme and primary health care more broadly. High user fees in Benue was a significant barrier to the uptake of available maternal and child health services. Differential levels of political support and prioritisation, alongside financial barriers, contribute substantially to the uptake of maternal and child health services. For collaborative health sector strategies to gain sufficient traction, where federating units determine their health care priorities, they must be accompanied by strong and enforceable commitment by sub-national governments.

  9. Countdown to 2015: Tracking Maternal and Child Health Intervention Targets Using Lot Quality Assurance Sampling in Bauchi State Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Abegunde, Dele; Orobaton, Nosa; Sadauki, Habib; Bassi, Amos; Kabo, Ibrahim A; Abdulkarim, Masduq

    2015-01-01

    Improving maternal and child health remains a top priority in Nigeria's Bauchi State in the northeastern region where the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) and infant mortality rate (IMR) are as high as 1540 per 100,000 live births and 78 per 1,000 live births respectively. In this study, we used the framework of the continuum of maternal and child care to evaluate the impact of interventions in Bauchi State focused on improved maternal and child health, and to ascertain progress towards the achievement of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5. At baseline (2012) and then at follow-up (2013), we randomly sampled 340 households from 19 random locations in each of the 20 Local Government Areas (LGA) of Bauchi State in Northern Nigeria, using the Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) technique. Women residents in the households were interviewed about their own health and that of their children. Estimated LGA coverage of maternal and child health indicators were aggregated across the State. These values were then compared to the national figures, and the differences from 2012 to 2014 were calculated. For several of the indicators, a modest improvement from baseline was found. However, the indicators in the continuum of care neither reached the national average nor attained the 90% globally recommended coverage level. The majority of the LGA surveyed were classifiable as high priority, thus requiring intensified efforts and programmatic scale up. Intensive scale-up of programs and interventions is needed in Bauchi State, Northern Nigeria, to accelerate, consolidate and sustain the modest but significant achievements in the continuum of care, if MDGs 4 and 5 are to be achieved by the end of 2015. The intentional focus of LGAs as the unit of intervention ought to be considered a condition precedent for future investments. Priority should be given to the re-allocating resources to program areas and regions where coverage has been low. Finally, systematic considerations

  10. Librarian-initiated HIV/AIDS prevention intervention program outcome in rural communities in Oyo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ajuwon, G A; Komolafe-Opadeji, H O; Ikhizama, B

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to meet the HIV/AIDS information and service needs of citizens living in selected rural, underserved communities in Oyo State, Nigeria. This was a librarian-initiated intervention program (pre-post) study of heads of rural households in Oyo State. A questionnaire was used for pre- and post-intervention assessment. The education covered knowledge about HIV/AIDS, routes of transmission, prevention strategies, and attitude toward persons living with HIV. It increased participants' knowledge about AIDS and improved attitude toward those living with HIV. Provision and dissemination of information on HIV/AIDS through librarians to rural settlers is an important prevention strategy and librarians can make major contributions.

  11. Parents' perceptions of timing of initiation of sexuality discussion with adolescents in Anambra State, South Eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Emelumadu, O F; Ezeama, N N; Ifeadike, C O; Ubajaka, C F; Adogu, P O U; Umeh, U; Nwamoh, U N; Ukegbu, A U; Onyeonoro, U U

    2014-10-01

    This study was aimed at determining the perception of the timing and practice of sexuality discussion among parents in South Eastern Nigeria. A cross-sectional, descriptive, community-based study. The study was carried out in 3 randomly selected Local Government Areas in Anambra State, South Eastern Nigeria. The study participants were parents with adolescent children resident in the study areas for at least 2 years. Most parents opined that sexuality discussion should be initiated after puberty. Only 20% of them discussed reproductive health issues often with their adolescents, while another 20% never discussed such issues with their adolescent children. Topics most commonly discussed bordered on the adverse consequences of sex rather than measures for preventing them. About half of parents were willing to discuss contraception with their adolescent child. Predictors of parent-child communication were age, gender, and educational status. Common reasons for low parental involvement in sexuality discussions were due to their lack of capacity and the perception that discussing such issues before puberty is ill timed. Therefore, measures should be taken to improve the capacity of parents to engage in such conversations to provide sexuality information to their teens. Copyright © 2014 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Home-based care for people living with HIV/AIDS in Plateau State, Nigeria: findings from qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Agbonyitor, M

    2009-01-01

    As health-care services in Nigeria and other African countries are becoming overstrained with patients, home-based care has increasingly been touted as a possible solution. The faith-based organisation, Gospel Health and Development Services, provides a home-based care programme for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) residing in Plateau State, Nigeria. This paper assesses the challenges that PLWHA in the programme faced while maintaining their health and livelihoods. The frustrations that volunteers endured in performing their work are also described, as well as the benefits and weaknesses of the programme from the perspective of PLWHA and their volunteer caregivers. Focus groups and interviews were done with 30 PLWHA and 22 volunteers to learn about their experiences with the home-based care programme and possible areas for its improvement. From these discussions three major challenges facing PLWHA emerged: discrimination towards PLWHA; the lack of money, food, and transport to health-care centres; and the desire for closer antiretroviral drug access.

  13. Monitoring maternal, newborn, and child health interventions using lot quality assurance sampling in Sokoto State of northern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Abegunde, Dele; Orobaton, Nosa; Shoretire, Kamil; Ibrahim, Mohammed; Mohammed, Zainab; Abdulazeez, Jumare; Gwamzhi, Ringpon; Ganiyu, Akeem

    2015-01-01

    Maternal mortality ratio and infant mortality rate are as high as 1,576 per 100,000 live births and 78 per 1,000 live births, respectively, in Nigeria's northwestern region, where Sokoto State is located. Using applicable monitoring indicators for tracking progress in the UN/WHO framework on continuum of maternal, newborn, and child health care, this study evaluated the progress of Sokoto toward achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5 by December 2015. The changes in outcomes in 2012-2013 associated with maternal and child health interventions were assessed. We used baseline and follow-up lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) data obtained in 2012 and 2013, respectively. In each of the surveys, data were obtained from 437 households sampled from 19 LQAS locations in each of the 23 local government areas (LGAs). The composite state-level coverage estimates of the respective indicators were aggregated from estimated LGA coverage estimates. None of the nine indicators associated with the continuum of maternal, neonatal, and child care satisfied the recommended 90% coverage target for achieving MDGs 4 and 5. Similarly, the average state coverage estimates were lower than national coverage estimates. Marginal improvements in coverage were obtained in the demand for family planning satisfied, antenatal care visits, postnatal care for mothers, and exclusive breast-feeding. Antibiotic treatment for acute pneumonia increased significantly by 12.8 percentage points. The majority of the LGAs were classifiable as low-performing, high-priority areas for intensified program intervention. Despite the limited time left in the countdown to December 2015, Sokoto State, Nigeria, is not on track to achieving the MDG 90% coverage of indicators tied to the continuum of maternal and child care, to reduce maternal and childhood mortality by a third by 2015. Targeted health system investments at the primary care level remain a priority, for intensive program scale-up to

  14. Monitoring maternal, newborn, and child health interventions using lot quality assurance sampling in Sokoto State of northern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Abegunde, Dele; Orobaton, Nosa; Shoretire, Kamil; Ibrahim, Mohammed; Mohammed, Zainab; Abdulazeez, Jumare; Gwamzhi, Ringpon; Ganiyu, Akeem

    2015-01-01

    Background Maternal mortality ratio and infant mortality rate are as high as 1,576 per 100,000 live births and 78 per 1,000 live births, respectively, in Nigeria's northwestern region, where Sokoto State is located. Using applicable monitoring indicators for tracking progress in the UN/WHO framework on continuum of maternal, newborn, and child health care, this study evaluated the progress of Sokoto toward achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5 by December 2015. The changes in outcomes in 2012–2013 associated with maternal and child health interventions were assessed. Design We used baseline and follow-up lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) data obtained in 2012 and 2013, respectively. In each of the surveys, data were obtained from 437 households sampled from 19 LQAS locations in each of the 23 local government areas (LGAs). The composite state-level coverage estimates of the respective indicators were aggregated from estimated LGA coverage estimates. Results None of the nine indicators associated with the continuum of maternal, neonatal, and child care satisfied the recommended 90% coverage target for achieving MDGs 4 and 5. Similarly, the average state coverage estimates were lower than national coverage estimates. Marginal improvements in coverage were obtained in the demand for family planning satisfied, antenatal care visits, postnatal care for mothers, and exclusive breast-feeding. Antibiotic treatment for acute pneumonia increased significantly by 12.8 percentage points. The majority of the LGAs were classifiable as low-performing, high-priority areas for intensified program intervention. Conclusions Despite the limited time left in the countdown to December 2015, Sokoto State, Nigeria, is not on track to achieving the MDG 90% coverage of indicators tied to the continuum of maternal and child care, to reduce maternal and childhood mortality by a third by 2015. Targeted health system investments at the primary care level remain a

  15. Indigenous Knowledge of Herbal Medicines among Adolescents in Amassoma, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Alade, Gideon O.; Okpako, Ese; Ajibesin, Kola’ K.; Omobuwajo, Olanrewaju R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use of herbal medicines in Nigeria is on the increase. Documented Population based data on the use of herbal medicinal products and indigenous knowledge among the younger generations are lacking in Nigeria and Africa at large. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the extent of use and general knowledge of herbal medicines among adolescents in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. Methods: The study covered a total of Two hundred and twenty-eight adolescents randomly selected in Senior Secondary Schools (SSS 1-3) in Amassoma using a semi structured questionnaire/Interview and informal conversation on the respondents. Findings: Nearly all (97%) the respondents have had contact with herbs. Less than 1% had contact with herbs through formal education (teachers/literatures). Stimulation of interest was majorly through parents (53%). Grandparents were the highest (46%) of custodian of indigenous knowledge. Parents were the next (39.7%). Only 39% of the respondents would prefer the use of herbal medicine to modern medicine. Fever was the main ailment mentioned followed by eye ailment and stomach ache. Vernonia amygdalina was the main plant for the treatment of fever. Conclusion: The study revealed that parents are the major custodians of knowledge being transferred to the younger generation and little or none is learnt from Schools. There is therefore the need to include the study of herbal medicines in School’s curricula especially at SS 2 and SS 3 since they are matured enough to appreciate the importance of Herbal medicine so as to prepare them for the promotion of herbal medicine in future and to preserve our indigenous knowledge. PMID:26234964

  16. Levels of Possession of Science Process Skills by Final Year Students of Colleges of Education in South-Eastern States of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akani, Omiko

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the levels of possession of science process skills by final year Nigerian Certificate in Education (NCE) Students in colleges of Education in South-Eastern States of Nigeria. The skills that were assessed were observation, experimentation, measurement, communication, and inference. The research was guided by five research…

  17. Cheating Tendency in Examinations among Secondary School Students in Nigeria: A Case Study of Schools in the Odukpani Local Government Area, Cross River State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisong, Nonso Ngozika; Akpama, Felicia; Edet, Pauline B.

    2009-01-01

    This study is designed to examine cheating tendency among secondary school students in Nigeria, with evidence from schools in the Odukpani Local Government Area of Cross River State. A total of 331 respondents in Senior Secondary 3 classes were randomly selected from 10 post-primary schools in the area. A survey questionnaire was used to elicit…

  18. Relative Contributions of Selected Teachers' Variables and Students' Attitudes toward Academic Achievement in Biology among Senior Secondary School Students in Ondo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gbore, L. O.; Daramola, C. A.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relative contributions of selected teachers' variables and students' attitude towards academic achievement in biology among senior secondary schools in Ondo State, Nigeria. It involved descriptive survey research and ex-post facto research designs. The sample, 360 respondents which consists of 180 biology teachers and…

  19. Gender Differences in Achievement Goals and Performances in English Language and Mathematics of Senior Secondary Schools Students in Borno State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musa, Alice K. J.; Dauda, Bala; Umar, Mohammad A.

    2016-01-01

    The paper investigated gender difference in achievement goals and performance in English Language and Mathematics of senior secondary schools students in Borno State, Nigeria. The study specifically sought to determine gender differences in students' academic performances in English Language, Mathematics and overall academic performance as well as…

  20. The Parental Attitude towards Adolescent Sexual Behaviour in Akoko-Edo and Estako-West Local Government Areas, Edo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olubayo-Fatiregun, Martina A.

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the Parental Attitude towards Adolescent Sexual Behaviour in Akoko Edo and Estako--West Local Government Areas, Edo State, Nigeria. A descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. The sample size of 600 parents--350 (58.39%) fathers and 250 (41.7%) mothers--was purposively selected from the two local government…

  1. Educational Cloud Services and the Mathematics Confidence, Affective Engagement, and Behavioral Engagement of Mathematics Education Students in Public University in Benue State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iji, Clement Onwu; Abah, Joshua Abah; Anyor, Joseph Wuave

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of cloud services on mathematics education students' mathematics confidence, affective engagement, and behavioral engagement in public universities in Benue State, Nigeria. Ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study. The instrument for the study was the researcher-developed Cloud Services Mathematics…

  2. Impact of In-Service Training and Staff Development on Workers' Job Performance and Optimal Productivity in Public Secondary Schools in Osun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fejoh, Johnson; Faniran, Victoria Loveth

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of in-service training and staff development on workers' job performance and optimal productivity in public secondary schools in Osun State, Nigeria. The study used the ex-post-facto research design. Three research questions and three hypotheses were generated and tested using questionnaire items adapted from…

  3. Effect of Instruction in Emotional Intelligence Skills on Locus of Control and Academic Self-Efficacy among Junior Secondary School Students in Niger State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umaru, Yunusa; Umma, Abdulwahid

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of instruction in emotional intelligence Skills on locus of control and academic self-efficacy among junior secondary school students in Niger state, Nigeria. This study employed a quasi-experimental, non-equivalent control group, pre-test - post-test design. The population of this study was 105,034 secondary…

  4. Effects of Insecurity on Community Development Projects in Ogba/Egbema/Ndoni and Ahoada East Local Government Areas of Rivers State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adekola, G.; Enyiche, C. C.

    2017-01-01

    The study examined the effects of insecurity on community development projects in Ogba/Egbema/Ndoni and Ahoada East Local Government Areas of Rivers State, Nigeria. The study was guided by two research questions and one null hypothesis. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with a population of 3,211 members of various Community Based…

  5. Mode of Entry as a Predictor of Success in Final Year Bachelor of Education Degree Examinations in Universities in Ekiti and Ondo States, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeyemi, T. O.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the mode of entry as a predictor of success in final year bachelor of education degree examinations in universities in Ekiti and Ondo States, Nigeria. As an ex-post facto and correlational research, the study population comprised all the 1810 final year 400 level students in the two universities offering education courses,…

  6. Guidelines on How to Read a Physics Textbook and the Assessment of the Readability of Recommended Physics Textbooks in Secondary Schools in Osun State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinbobola, Akinyemi Olufunminiyi

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the readability of the four recommended physics textbooks in senior secondary schools in Osun State of Nigeria. A total of 25 physics teachers and 300 senior secondary three (SS3) physics students were randomly selected in the 12 secondary schools used for the study. A survey design was used for the study. Results showed that…

  7. Evaluation of Teachers' Activities in the Use of Animated Instructional Resource Materials in Biology Teaching in Senior Secondary Schools in Bauchi State Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwasu, I. A.; Abubakar; Ema, E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a profile on how teachers in senior secondary schools in Bauchi state Nigeria utilise animated instructional resource (AIR) in the teaching of biology. A structured questionnaire used to generate data on the availability, accessibility and application of the AIR for classroom instruction by teachers. The instrument for data…

  8. Assessment of the Availability, Utilization and Management of ICT Facilities in Teaching English Language in Secondary Schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yusuf, Hanna Onyi; Maina, Bashir; Dare, Michael Omotayo

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the availability, utilization and management of ICT facilities in teaching English language in secondary schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. A questionnaire titled "Availability, Utilization and Management of Information and Communication Technology in teaching…

  9. Bridging Policy Implementation Gaps in Nigerian Education System: A Case Study of Universal Basic Education Programme in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogbiji, Joseph Etiongbie; Ogbiji, Sylvanus Achua

    2016-01-01

    This research focuses on identifying policy gaps in the implementation of Universal Basic Education (UBE) programme in Nigeria, with Cross River State being the study area. The three research questions used for the research center on the extent of the freeness of the UBE, the extent to which the programme has stimulated educational consciousness…

  10. Parenting Styles as Correlates of Adolescents Drug Addiction among Senior Secondary School Students in Obio-Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onukwufor, Jonathan N.; Chukwu, Mercy Anwuri

    2017-01-01

    The study was conducted to find out the relationship between parenting styles and secondary students' drug addiction among adolescents in secondary schools in Obio-Akpor Local Government Area (L.G.A.) of Rivers State Nigeria. The study was guided by three research questions and similar number of null hypotheses. The study adopted a correlation…

  11. Effects of Two and Three-Dimensional Visual Objects on the Acquisition of Drawing Skills among JSS1 Students in Osun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abass, Bada Tayo; Isyakka, Bello; Olaolu, Ijisakin Yemi; Olusegun, Fajuyigbe Michael

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the effects of two and three dimensional visual objects on learners' drawing skills in junior secondary schools in OsunState, Nigeria. It also determined students' ability to identify visual objects. Furthermore, it investigated the comparative effectiveness of two and three dimensional visual objects on drawing skills of junior…

  12. Teacher Self-Efficacy Enhancement and School Location: Implication for Students' Achievement in Economics in Senior Secondary School in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durowoju, Esther O.; Onuka, Adams O. U.

    2015-01-01

    The paper investigated the effect of teacher self-efficacy enhancement and school location on students' achievement in Economics in Senior Secondary School in Ibadan Metropolis of Oyo State, Nigeria. Three hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. Multi-stage sampling technique was adopted in the study. Four Local Government Areas (two…

  13. Cross-Cultural Comparison of Effective Leadership in Schools for Children with Blindness or Low Vision in the United States and Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajuwon, Paul M.; Oyinlade, A. Olu

    2016-01-01

    In this project, the authors used the Essential Behavioral Leadership Qualities (EBLQ) method of measuring leadership effectiveness to assess and compare the effectiveness of principals (leaders) of residential schools for children with blindness or low vision in the United States (U.S.) and Nigeria. A total of 248 teachers (subordinates) in 25…

  14. Health and ecological hazards due to natural radioactivity in soil from mining areas of Nasarawa State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq; Ibrahim, Umar; Akpa, Chidozie Timothy; Garba, Nuraddeen Nasiru; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi

    2015-01-01

    Nasarawa State is located in north central Nigeria and it is known as Nigeria's home of solid minerals. It is endowed with barite, copper, zinc, tantalite and granite. Continuous releases of mining waste and tailings into the biosphere may result in a build-up of radionuclides in air, water and soil. This work therefore aims to measure the activity concentration levels of primordial radionuclides in the soil/sediment samples collected from selected mines of the mining areas of Nasarawa State. The paper also assesses the radiological and radio ecological impacts of mining activities on the residents of mining areas and their environment. The activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) in the surface soils/sediment samples were determined using sodium iodide-thallium gamma spectroscopy. Seven major mines were considered with 21 samples taken from each of the mines for radiochemistry analysis. The human health hazard assessment was conducted using regulatory methodologies set by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, while the radio ecological impact assessment was conducted using the ERICA tool v. 1.2. The result shows that the activity concentrations of (40)K in the water ways of the Akiri copper and the Azara barite mines are 60 and 67% higher than the world average value for (40)K, respectively. In all mines, the annual effective dose rates (mSv y(-1)) were less than unity, and a maximum annual gonadal dose of 0.58 mSv y(-1) is received at the Akiri copper mine, which is almost twice the world average value for gonadal dose. The external hazard indices for all the mines were less than unity. Our results also show that mollusc-gastropod, insect larvae, mollusc-bivalve and zooplankton are the freshwater biotas with the highest dose rates ranging from 5 to 7 µGy h(-1). These higher dose rates could be associated with zinc and copper mining at Abuni and Akiri, respectively. The most exposed

  15. A Note on the Spatio Temporal Variations in the Temperature and Relative Humidity over Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eludoyin, A. O.; Akinbode, O. M.; Archibong, E. O.

    2007-07-01

    This study was carried out in one of the Administrative State Capitals in the southwestern part of Nigeria. Its aim is to serve as a baseline data for highlighting the effect of spatial distribution of settlements, population, and socioeconomic activities on urban air temperature and relative humidity. The main objective of the study is to assess the impact of urban growth on the microclimate of the administrative city. Temperature and relative humidity data from 1992 to 2001 were obtained from the three existing meteorological stations in Akure, the Administrative Capital of Ondo State, Nigeria, namely the Federal Ministry of Aviation, Akure Airport station (FMA), Federal University of Technology, Akure (FUTA) and the Federal School of Agriculture (SOA). Air temperature and relative humidity measurements along primary roads and in the built up areas were obtained from seventeen stations, using sling psychrometer. The data were subsequently analysed for spatial and temporal variations. The results obtained indicated that while the maximum, average and minimum temperatures showed significant annual variations, the spatial variations among the existing meteorological stations were not significant. The city is characterized by increasing annual mean temperatures whose maximum was significantly higher than that of Ondo town — another important town within the state. The annual mean temperatures ranged between 26.2°C and 30.4°C. Minimum and maximum temperatures varied from 12.3°C to 26°C and 22.5°C to 39.6°C, respectively while the relative humidity ranged between 27.5% and 98.2%. Urban `heat island' intensity was exhibited around central business district of the Oba market. 2007 American Institute of Physics

  16. Is Nigeria winning the battle against malaria? Prevalence, risk factors and KAP assessment among Hausa communities in Kano State.

    PubMed

    Dawaki, Salwa; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Ithoi, Init; Ibrahim, Jamaiah; Atroosh, Wahib M; Abdulsalam, Awatif M; Sady, Hany; Elyana, Fatin Nur; Adamu, Ado U; Yelwa, Saadatu I; Ahmed, Abdulhamid; Al-Areeqi, Mona A; Subramaniam, Lahvanya R; Nasr, Nabil A; Lau, Yee-Ling

    2016-07-08

    Malaria is one of the most severe global public health problems worldwide, particularly in Africa, where Nigeria has the greatest number of malaria cases. This community-based study was designed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of malaria and to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding malaria among rural Hausa communities in Kano State, Nigeria. A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted on 551 participants from five local government areas in Kano State. Blood samples were collected and examined for the presence of Plasmodium species by rapid diagnostic test (RDT), Giemsa-stained thin and thick blood films, and PCR. Moreover, demographic, socioeconomic, and environmental information as well as KAP data were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. A total of 334 (60.6 %) participants were found positive for Plasmodium falciparum. The prevalence differed significantly by age group (p < 0.01), but not by gender or location. A multivariate analysis showed that malaria was associated significantly with being aged 12 years or older, having a low household family income, not using insecticide treated nets (ITNs), and having no toilets in the house. Overall, 95.6 % of the respondents had prior knowledge about malaria, and 79.7, 87.6 and 95.7 % of them knew about the transmission, symptoms, and prevention of malaria, respectively. The majority (93.4 %) of the respondents considered malaria a serious disease. Although 79.5 % of the respondents had at least one ITN in their household, utilization rate of ITNs was 49.5 %. Significant associations between the respondents' knowledge concerning malaria and their age, gender, education, and household monthly income were reported. Malaria is still highly prevalent among rural Hausa communities in Nigeria. Despite high levels of knowledge and attitudes in the study area, significant gaps persist in appropriate preventive practices, particularly the use of ITNs

  17. Knowledge, Attitude and Perception of Ebola Virus Disease among Secondary School Students in Ondo State, Nigeria, October, 2014.

    PubMed

    Ilesanmi, Olayinka; Alele, Faith Osaretin

    2016-03-04

    The first case of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in Nigeria was imported on 20th July 2014, by an air traveller. On 8th August, 2014, WHO declared the Ebola outbreak in West Africa a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). This study aimed at assessing the knowledge, perception and attitude of secondary school students towards EVD and adopting disease preventive behaviour. A descriptive cross sectional study of 440 students from a mixed secondary school in Owo, Ondo State was done. Data was collected in October 2014 when Nigeria was yet to be declared EVD free.Simple random sampling was used to select the school while Systematic random sampling was used in the selection of participants. A semi-structured, interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Data was analyzed with SPSS version 21. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square test were done, level of statistical significant was 5%. Mean age of respondents was 13.7±1.9 years. Females were 48.2%. Most of the respondents had heard of Ebola Virus Disease (95.4%). Female respondents (51.3%), those who were 15 years and above (51.1%) and in the senior class (54.1%), and had good general knowledge of EVD and across all domains. Being in the senior secondary class and seeking for health care in the hospital were positively associated with good general knowledge (p-value: 0.029, and <0.001 respectively). Three commonest modes of spread of EVD mentioned were contact between infected animals and men (74.8%), touching body fluids of a person who is sick of EVD (57.0%), and contact (55.2%). The top three signs of EVD mentioned were abnormal bleeding from any part of the body (56.10%), vomiting (47.0%) and fever (42.3%). Our results revealed suboptimal EVD-related knowledge, attitude and practice among the students. Promotion of health messages and training of students on prevention of EVD to effectively control past and future outbreaks of EVD in Nigeria was immediately initiated in schools in

  18. Knowledge, Attitude and Perception of Ebola Virus Disease among Secondary School Students in Ondo State, Nigeria, October, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Ilesanmi, Olayinka; Alele, Faith Osaretin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The first case of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in Nigeria was imported on 20th July 2014, by an air traveller. On 8th August, 2014, WHO declared the Ebola outbreak in West Africa a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). This study aimed at assessing the knowledge, perception and attitude of secondary school students towards EVD and adopting disease preventive behaviour. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study of 440 students from a mixed secondary school in Owo, Ondo State was done. Data was collected in October 2014 when Nigeria was yet to be declared EVD free.Simple random sampling was used to select the school while Systematic random sampling was used in the selection of participants. A semi-structured, interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Data was analyzed with SPSS version 21. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square test were done, level of statistical significant was 5%. Results: Mean age of respondents was 13.7±1.9 years. Females were 48.2%. Most of the respondents had heard of Ebola Virus Disease (95.4%). Female respondents (51.3%), those who were 15 years and above (51.1%) and in the senior class (54.1%), and had good general knowledge of EVD and across all domains. Being in the senior secondary class and seeking for health care in the hospital were positively associated with good general knowledge (p-value: 0.029, and <0.001 respectively). Three commonest modes of spread of EVD mentioned were contact between infected animals and men (74.8%), touching body fluids of a person who is sick of EVD (57.0%), and contact (55.2%). The top three signs of EVD mentioned were abnormal bleeding from any part of the body (56.10%), vomiting (47.0%) and fever (42.3%). Conclusion: Our results revealed suboptimal EVD-related knowledge, attitude and practice among the students. Promotion of health messages and training of students on prevention of EVD to effectively control past and future outbreaks of EVD in

  19. Empowering teachers to change youth practices: evaluating teacher delivery and responses to the FLHE programme in Edo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Dlamini, Nombuso; Okoro, Felicia; Ekhosuehi, Uyi Oni; Esiet, Adenike; Lowik, A J; Metcalfe, Karen

    2012-06-01

    School-based programming is one of the most common approaches to HIV/AIDS prevention among youth. This paper presents the history and development of the Family Life and HIV Education (FLHE) programme in Edo State, Nigeria and results of evaluation of teacher actions and responses to training in its delivery. Results indicate that teachers benefited from the training, were aware of new and/or existing teaching resources and began to teach about HIV/AIDS. Teachers expressed that the programme facilitated open dialogue about HIV/AIDS. However, given limited human resources, FLHE was viewed as additional work to already overloaded teaching schedules. It is recommended that the Ministry of Education channel resources to enhance teachers' efforts towards combating HIV/AIDS. To facilitate learning about sexual health and family life, it is recommended that FLHE-based training be viewed as the first rather than the only step towards teacher professional development in this area.

  20. Nigeria`s Escravos gas project starts up

    SciTech Connect

    Nwokoma, M.

    Nigeria`s Escravos gas project, Delta state, officially began late last year. The project -- 6,650 b/d of LPG and 1,740 b/d of condensate from 165 MMscfd of gas -- is the first attempt to rid Nigeria of incessant flares that have lit the Delta skies. Operator Chevron Nigeria Ltd. believes that the Escravos project will enable the joint venture to utilize a significant portion of the gas reserves, thus reducing gas flaring. The paper describes the background of the project, the gas fields, transport pipeline, process design, construction, and start-up.

  1. Prevalence and determinants of hypertension in Abia State Nigeria: results from the Abia State Non-Communicable Diseases and Cardiovascular Risk Factors Survey.

    PubMed

    Ogah, Okechukwu S; Madukwe, Okechukwu O; Chukwuonye, Innocent I; Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu U; Ukegbu, Andrew U; Akhimien, Moses O; Onwubere, Basden J C; Okpechi, Ikechi G

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension is the most common non-communicable disease and risk factor for heart failure, stroke, chronic kidney disease and ischemic heart disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Few population-based studies have been conducted recently in Nigeria and, in Abia State, no previous study has been conducted on the prevalence and correlates of hypertension among the populace. The purpose of our study was, therefore, to determine the prevalence and determinants of high blood pressure in Abia State, southeastern Nigeria. We hypothesise that high blood pressure burden is high in Abia State. The study was a community based cross-sectional house-to-house survey aimed at ascertaining the burden/prevalence of hypertension in the state as well as identifying related risk factors associated with them. The study was conducted in rural and urban communities in Abia State, Nigeria. Participants in the study were men and women aged > or =15 years and were recruited from the three senatorial zones in the state. A total of 2,999 respondents were selected for the survey and, 2,983 consented to be interviewed giving a response rate of 99.5%. The data for 2,928 participants were suitable for analysis. Of these, 1,399 (47.8%) were men. The mean age of the population was 41.7 +/- 18.5 years (range 18-96 years). About 54% of the population were < or =40 years. Ninety percent had at least primary education with about 47% having completed secondary education. Expectedly, 96% of the respondents were Ibos, the predominant tribe in the southeastern part of the country. Women had significantly higher BMI than the men. Similarly, waist circumference was also larger in women but waist-to-hip ratio was only significantly higher in women in the urban areas compared to those in rural areas. Thirty-one percent of all participants had systolic hypertension (33.5% in men and 30.5% in women). This sex difference was statistically different in the urban area. On the other hand, diastolic hypertension was 22

  2. Antimicrobials in animal production: usage and practices among livestock farmers in Oyo and Kaduna States of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ojo, Olufemi Ernest; Fabusoro, Eniola; Majasan, Ademola Adetokunbo; Dipeolu, Morenike Atinuke

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobials have proven to be important for sustainable livestock production by their use as growth promoters and in the control of animal infections. However, injudicious use of antimicrobials could accelerate the emergence and spread of resistant bacterial strains with attendant socioeconomic and public health issues. This work assessed antimicrobial usage in animal production with emphasis on usage and practices by livestock producers in Oyo and Kaduna States of Nigeria. Data on antimicrobial usage were collected through interviews, questionnaire and focus group discussions. Four hundred and fifty-four farmers in 11 communities within 11 Local Government Areas of Oyo and Kaduna States of Nigeria were sampled in a multi-stage sampling procedure. The study showed that antimicrobial agents were widely distributed, readily accessible and commonly used in animal production. Fluoroquinolones and other critically important antimicrobials for human medicine were widely used in animals as prophylactics. Potentially harmful antimicrobials including furazolidones and chloramphenicol already banned for use in humans and animals were freely marketed and used in livestock production. Most of the respondents believed that veterinarians should be responsible for the administration of antimicrobials to animals, but in practice, they buy and administer antimicrobials without consulting veterinary professionals. It was observed that the ready availability of antimicrobial agents promoted the use of antimicrobials in livestock production and may encourage non-adherence to hygienic principles and management laxity in farm operations. The non-involvement of veterinary professionals and laboratory investigations in disease diagnosis prior to antimicrobial use could lead to improper usage that contribute to the development of antimicrobial resistance in bacterial strains. Responsible antimicrobial stewardship and strict regulations are vital to prolonging the benefits derivable from

  3. Health and environmental implications of rural female entrepreneurship practices in osun state Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akinbami, Catherine A O; Momodu, Abiodun S

    2013-09-01

    In rural Nigeria, food processing is mostly engaged in by women and children. Most of these processes are done using outdated technologies that make use of traditional woodstoves. This article presents the health and environmental implications of the rural female entrepreneurs involved in food processing and proffer means of bettering the lot of these women to handle these hazards. A partially structured questionnaire and focus group discussion was used to capture data from respondents. The study revealed that about 73 % of women involved in direct production of garri and palm oil processing could be at risk of early death or disability-adjusted life years from the mentioned diseases. The article concludes that the rural female entrepreneur needs to be better positioned to handle these hazards, for her health, that of her children, as well as for the environment.

  4. The socio-cultural context of health behaviour among Esan communities, Edo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Omorodion, F I

    1993-10-01

    This paper reports on health beliefs and their influence on treatment decisions and behaviour among the Esan people of mid-west Nigeria. The sources for the study are my own experience of growing up in Esan society, anthropological field work, and focus groups. The research revealed a transitional society where both traditional and modern medicine are employed and where the choice between them is determined by belief systems which are themselves in the process of change, as well as by distance and costs. The traditional health-belief system was one which placed most responsibility and blame upon women, and a system of social control over the adult female population. Changing health beliefs are less the result of the introduction of a new health philosophy than of the retreat, under the impact of Christianity, of traditional religion which embodied the older health philosophy.

  5. Sexual and health behaviour of commercial sex workers in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Asowa-Omorodion, F I

    2000-06-01

    In this paper, examined are the sexual and health behaviours of commercial sex workers in Nigeria, a high-risk group in this era of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. The aim is to provide in-depth knowledge of their sexual networking and the prevalence rate of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). This analysis is intended to highlight their implications in the spread and control of AIDS and HIV infection. The results of the study show the extensive sexual networking of these commercial sex workers, the health implications, and the utilisation of nonorthodox health services in diagnosing STDs. The implications of these results are the likely drain on the limited health resources of the Nigerian government and the harmful effects on the women, fetuses, children, and other sexual partners of clients of these commercial sex workers.

  6. Knowledge and attitude of sexually transmitted diseases among adolescents in Ikeji-Arakeji, Osun State, in South-Western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akokuwebe, M E; Daini, B; Falayi, E O; Oyebade, O

    2016-09-01

    Globally, sexually transmitted disease (STD) is a public health problem. In Nigeria, adolescents form a substantial proportion (22%) of the population and are particularly prone to STDs because of the influence of peer pressure and urge to experiment sexual activity. The study examined the knowledge and attitude of adolescents towards the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. The survey study was descriptive cross- sectional and carried out among consenting secondary school students aged 10-24 years completing a self- administered questionnaire on knowledge and attitude in relation to sexually transmitted diseases in Ikeji- Arakeji, Oriade Local government, Osun State, Nigeria. The proportionate sampling technique was used to recruit 341 participants into the study. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Male-Female distributions were 46.3% and 53.7% respectively. Mean age at first sex (sex initiation) was 16.8 years (approximately 17years) and about 97% of the respondents knew about STDs. The media/ magazine was the major source of information about STDs, accounting for more than half (57%) of the responses on sources of STD information followed closely from that from friends with 31%. Parent's source of information was about 11%. Knowledge of STDs centred mainly on HIV/AIDS with 83% and there was a poor knowledge (78%) of its symptoms. About 40% of all respondents had initiated sex at the time of the study and 46% of the adolescents, as against 54%, thought it was bad to initiate sex before marriage. There was a significant association between perception about initiating sex before marriage and ever having sex using bivariate analysis x(2)=268.4, P<0.001). Also, there was a significant difference between the different groups (sources of information) in influencing sex initiation (F=318.47 and P=0.000). Post-hoc analysis showed that each of the different groups (sources of information) was distinct. Adolescents' knowledge of STDs

  7. Benchmarking health system performance across states in Nigeria: a systematic analysis of levels and trends in key maternal and child health interventions and outcomes, 2000-2013.

    PubMed

    Wollum, Alexandra; Burstein, Roy; Fullman, Nancy; Dwyer-Lindgren, Laura; Gakidou, Emmanuela

    2015-09-02

    Nigeria has made notable gains in improving childhood survival but the country still accounts for a large portion of the world's overall disease burden, particularly among women and children. To date, no systematic analyses have comprehensively assessed trends for health outcomes and interventions across states in Nigeria. We extracted data from 19 surveys to generate estimates for 20 key maternal and child health (MCH) interventions and outcomes for 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory from 2000 to 2013. Source-specific estimates were generated for each indicator, after which a two-step statistical model was applied using a mixed-effects model followed by Gaussian process regression to produce state-level trends. National estimates were calculated by population-weighting state values. Under-5 mortality decreased in all states from 2000 to 2013, but a large gap remained across them. Malaria intervention coverage stayed low despite increases between 2009 and 2013, largely driven by rising rates of insecticide-treated net ownership. Overall, vaccination coverage improved, with notable increases in the coverage of three-dose oral polio vaccine. Nevertheless, immunization coverage remained low for most vaccines, including measles. Coverage of other MCH interventions, such as antenatal care and skilled birth attendance, generally stagnated and even declined in many states, and the range between the lowest- and highest-performing states remained wide in 2013. Countrywide, a measure of overall intervention coverage increased from 33% in 2000 to 47% in 2013 with considerable variation across states, ranging from 21% in Sokoto to 66% in Ekiti. We found that Nigeria made notable gains for a subset of MCH indicators between 2000 and 2013, but also experienced stalled progress and even declines for others. Despite progress for a subset of indicators, Nigeria's absolute levels of intervention coverage remained quite low. As Nigeria rolls out its National Health Bill and

  8. Cations and anions in drinking water as putative contributory factors to endemic goitre in Plateau State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Das, S C; Isichei, U P; Egbuta, J O; Banwo, A I

    1989-10-01

    The prevalence of endemic goitre in Plateau State, Nigeria was established and an attempt was made to identify some of the possible environmental goitrogenic agents in the region to establish their likely relationship with the goitre endemicity. Iodine deficiency appears to be a major aetiological factor for the disease as indicated by low iodine levels observed in portable drinking water and in daily urinary excretion. The carbonate (CO3-) content of drinking water supply was found to bear a significant positive correlation with the goitre rate for the entire state (p less than 0.005). The calcium (Ca++) and magnesium (Mg++) levels of the drinking water also exhibited relatively good linear direct correlations with the percentage goitre distribution in a region, nearly 2/3 of the state. It is concluded that there is possibly an interplay of several factors and in particular the carbonate content of drinking water which, in association with a state of iodine deficiency, may be regarded as responsible for the goitre endemic seen in this part of the Continental Africa.

  9. Countdown to 2015: Tracking Maternal and Child Health Intervention Targets Using Lot Quality Assurance Sampling in Bauchi State Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Abegunde, Dele; Orobaton, Nosa

    2015-01-01

    Background Improving maternal and child health remains a top priority in Nigeria’s Bauchi State in the northeastern region where the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) and infant mortality rate (IMR) are as high as 1540 per 100,000 live births and 78 per 1,000 live births respectively. In this study, we used the framework of the continuum of maternal and child care to evaluate the impact of interventions in Bauchi State focused on improved maternal and child health, and to ascertain progress towards the achievement of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5. Methods At baseline (2012) and then at follow-up (2013), we randomly sampled 340 households from 19 random locations in each of the 20 Local Government Areas (LGA) of Bauchi State in Northern Nigeria, using the Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) technique. Women residents in the households were interviewed about their own health and that of their children. Estimated LGA coverage of maternal and child health indicators were aggregated across the State. These values were then compared to the national figures, and the differences from 2012 to 2014 were calculated. Results For several of the indicators, a modest improvement from baseline was found. However, the indicators in the continuum of care neither reached the national average nor attained the 90% globally recommended coverage level. The majority of the LGA surveyed were classifiable as high priority, thus requiring intensified efforts and programmatic scale up. Conclusions Intensive scale-up of programs and interventions is needed in Bauchi State, Northern Nigeria, to accelerate, consolidate and sustain the modest but significant achievements in the continuum of care, if MDGs 4 and 5 are to be achieved by the end of 2015. The intentional focus of LGAs as the unit of intervention ought to be considered a condition precedent for future investments. Priority should be given to the re-allocating resources to program areas and regions where coverage has been

  10. Malarial Infection among Antenatal and Maternity Clinics Attendees at the Federal Medical Centre, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Amuta, Elizabeth; Houmsou, Robert; Wama, Emmanuel; Ameh, Mary

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the level of malarial infection in relation to some epidemiological factors, gravidity and pregnancy period of antenatal clinic attendees of the Federal Medical Centre, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria. We also assessed malarial infection in placental blood in relation to gravidity of pregnant women at delivery in the maternity clinic of the same hospital. Thin and thick blood films were prepared for microscopic examination. A questionnaire was administered to each pregnant woman at the antenatal clinic to collect data on educational level, occupation, gravidity, pregnancy period, malaria preventive measures and malaria symptoms. Of the 163 pregnant women examined at the antenatal clinic, 68.3% (111/163) were infected with malaria. Pregnant women that are illiterates (χ2=15.44, P=0.100) and those that are farmers (χ2=9.20, P=0.270) had the highest infection rate with no significant difference respectively. Malarial infection was significantly higher in the multigravidae, 57.6% (34/59) (χ2=5.16, P=0.007) and non-significant in the pregnant women at their third trimester of pregnancy, 60.9% (53/89) (χ2=4.45, P=0.108). Placental malaria was significantly higher in the primigravidae among pregnant women at delivery (χ2=9.33, P=0.000). A significant difference (χ2=33.52, P=0.000) was observed between pregnant women that did not use any malaria preventive methods, 91.2% (31/34) and those that used single, 64.3% (65/101) and combined, 46.4% (13/28) methods of prevention. Malaria remains highly prevalent among antenatal clinics attendees in Makurdi, Nigeria. Combined method of prevention (insecticides treated nets and insecticide spray) yielded good results and its use is advocated in preventing malaria among the pregnant women. PMID:24757507

  11. Prevalence and risk factors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex infection in slaughtered cattle at Jos South Abattoir, Plateau State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okeke, Lilian Akudo; Cadmus, Simeon; Okeke, Ikenna Osemeka; Muhammad, Maryam; Awoloh, Oluchi; Dairo, David; Waziri, Endie Ndadilnasiya; Olayinka, Adebola; Nguku, Patrick Mboyo; Fawole, Olufunmilayo

    2014-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is widespread yet poorly controlled in Nigeria hence posing a public health threat. This study determined the prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) and factors associated with MTC among slaughtered cattle at Jos South Abattoir in Plateau State, Nigeria. We conducted a cross sectional study in which we collected 168 lung samples systematically from 485 slaughtered cattle from May-June, 2012, and tested for acid fast bacilli (AFB) using Ziehl-Neelsen test and a duplex polymerase chain reaction technique (PCR) for MTC detection. Data on cattle socio-demographic characteristics and risk factors for zoonotic BTB infection was obtained and analyzed using Epi info version 3.5.3 to determine frequency, proportions, and prevalence odds ratios. Multiple logistic regression was done at 95% Confidence Interval (CI). The mean age of the cattle was 5.6 ± 1.3 years and (108) 64.3% were females. Majority were indigenous White Fulani breed of cattle (58.5%) and about half (54.8%) were slightly emaciated. Prevalence of MTB complex was 21.4% by AFB test and 16.7% by duplex PCR. Of 33 (19.6%) lungs with lesions, 27 (81.8%) were positive for AFB; while of 135 (80.4%) lungs without lesions, 9 (6.7%) were positive for AFB. Lungs with lesions were 52 times more likely to test positive to AFB test compared to tissues without lesions (AOR=52.3; 95% CI: 16.4-191.8). The presence of MTC in cattle signifies its potential risk to public health. Presence of lesions on lungs is a reliable indicator of MTC infection that meat inspectors should look out for.

  12. The Insecticide Susceptibility Status of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Farm and Nonfarm Sites of Lagos State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ayorinde, A.; Oboh, B.; Oduola, A.; Otubanjo, O.

    2015-01-01

    Nigeria is one of the malaria-endemic countries. In Lagos State, Nigeria, various malaria vector control programs including the use of chemical insecticides are currently being implemented. This study was designed to provide information on the susceptibility status of some nontargeted vectors such as Aedes aegypti. Adult Ae. aegypti mosquitoes from two farm sites and a nonfarm site were exposed to World Health Organization test papers impregnated with Deltamethrin (0.05%), Permethrin (0.75%), and DDT (4%) insecticides. The Knockdown time (KdT50 and KdT95) and percentage mortality after 24 h post exposure were determined. In all the exposed mosquito populations to permethrin, mortality rate > 98% (susceptibility) was recorded, whereas mortality rates < 95.8% (resistance) and > 98% (susceptibility) to deltamethrin were observed in the nonfarm site and farm sites mosquito populations, respectively. All the mosquito populations were resistant to DDT in 2 yr. The KdT50 of the populations to DDT increased (60.2–69.6) in one of the farm sites and the nonfarm site (68.9–199.96), while a decrease (243–63.4) in another farm site in 2 yr. Significant difference (P < 0.05) in KdT50 was recorded between the farm and nonfarm sites Ae. aegypti mosquitoes in the second year after exposure to deltamethrin and DDT. An increase in KdT95 after exposure to deltamethrin in the first year was recorded. Higher KdT values and lower mortality rates in Ae. aegypti populations in the nonfarm sites are indications there are existing factors selecting for insecticide resistance outside agricultural use of insecticides. PMID:26106087

  13. Preventive and social cost implications of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak on selected organizations in Lagos state, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Olugasa, Babasola Oluseyi; Oshinowo, Oluwafunmilola Yemisi; Odigie, Eugene Amienwanlen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction As Ebola virus disease (EVD) continues to pose public health challenge in West Africa, with attending fears and socio-economic implications in the current epidemic challenges. It is compelling to estimate the social and preventive costs of EVD containment in a Nigerian city. Hence, this study was to determine the social and preventive cost implications of EVD among selected public institutions in Lagos, Nigeria, from July to December, 2014. Methods Questionnaires and key-informants interview were administered to respondents and administrators of selected hospitals, hotels and schools in Eti-Osa Local Government Area of Lagos State. Knowledge of disease transmission, mortality and protocols for prevention, including cost of specific preventive measures adopted against EVD were elicited from respondents. Descriptive statistics and categorical analysis were used to summarize and estimate social and preventive costs incurred by respective institutions. Results An estimated five million, nineteen thousand, three hundred and seventy-nine Naira and eighty kobo (N5,019,379.80) only was observed as direct and social cost implication of EVD prevention. This amount translated into a conservative estimate of one billion, twenty-seven million, ninety-four thousand, seven hundred and fifty-six Naira (N1,027,094,756.10) for a total of four thousand schools, two hundred and fifty-three hospitals and one thousand, four hundred and fifty one hotels in Lagos during the period (July 20-November 20, 2014). Conclusion The high cost of prevention of EVD within the short time-frame indicated high importance attached to a preventive policy against highly pathogenic zoonotic disease in Nigeria. PMID:26740848

  14. Motile Salmonella serotypes causing high mortality in poultry farms in three South-Western States of Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Najume Doguwar-Giginya; Saidu, Shehu NaAllah; Azeez, Aminullah Ajiyobiojo; Akinduti, Paul Akinniyi; Kwanashie, Clara Nna; Fakilahyel Kadiri, Amina Kinta; Muhammed, Maryam; Fagbamila, Idowu Oluwabunmi; Luka, Pam Dachung

    2017-01-01

    This study was carried out to identify the Salmonella serotypes causing high mortality in chickens in Lagos, Ogun and Oyo states, Nigeria. Chickens presented for postmortem examination during disease outbreaks that were characterised by high mortality (40 per cent to 80 per cent) in poultry farms in the study area were examined from January to December, 2013. Samples of the lungs, heart, liver, spleen, kidneys, proventriculus, intestine and caecum were collected from suspected cases of salmonellosis, for bacterial culture and identification. Salmonella isolates were confirmed using PCR and serotyped using the Kauffman-White scheme. Twenty-six day-old pullets were raised to two weeks and inoculated orally with 0.2 mL of 1×108 colony forming units of Salmonella Zega identified in the present study to determine their pathogenicity, while another 26 served as control. The Salmonella serotypes were S Zega (n=13; 35.14 per cent), Salmonella Kentucky (n=9; 24.32 per cent), Salmonella Herston (n=6; 16.22 per cent), Salmonella Nima (n=4; 10.81 per cent), Salmonella Telelkebir (n=3; 8.11 per cent), Salmonella Colindale (n=1; 2.70 per cent) and Salmonella Tshiongwe (n=1; 2.70 per cent). Clinical signs in both natural and experimental infections were acute (70 per cent) and chronic (30 per cent), and included weakness, anorexia, yellowish diarrhoea, pasted vents, somnolescence and mortality, while gross lesions showed marked pulmonary congestion and oedema, necrotic foci in the myocardium; the liver, spleen and kidneys were markedly enlarged and had subcapsular multifocal necrosis. There were catarrhal proventriculitis and enteritis, and haemorrhagic typhlitis. While most of the serotypes identified in the present study have been isolated from poultry sources from commercial farms in Nigeria, to the best of the authors' knowledge, they have not been previously reported to cause high mortality in chickens in the study area. PMID:29344363

  15. Monitoring maternal and newborn health outcomes in Bauchi State, Nigeria: an evaluation of a standards-based quality improvement intervention.

    PubMed

    Kabo, Ibrahim; Otolorin, Emmanuel; Williams, Emma; Orobaton, Nosa; Abdullahi, Hannatu; Sadauki, Habib; Abdulkarim, Masduk; Abegunde, Dele

    2016-10-01

    This study assessed the correlation between compliance with set performance standards and maternal and neonatal deaths in health facilities. Baseline and three annual follow-up assessments were conducted, and each was followed by a quality improvement initiative using the Standards Based Management and Recognition (SBM-R) approach. Twenty-three secondary health facilities of Bauchi state, Nigeria. Health care workers and maternity unit patients. We examined trends in: (i) achievement of SBM-R set performance standards based on annual assessment data, (ii) the use of maternal and newborn health (MNH) service delivery practices based on data from health facility registers and supportive supervision and (iii) MNH outcomes based on routine service statistics. At the baseline assessment in 2010, the facilities achieved 4% of SBM-R standards for MNH, on average, and this increased to 86% in 2013. Over the same time period, the study measured an increase in the administration of uterotonic for active management of third stage of labor from 10% to 95% and a decline in the incidence of postpartum hemorrhage from 3.3% to 1.9%. Institutional neonatal mortality rate decreased from 9 to 2 deaths per 1000 live births, while the institutional maternal mortality ratio dropped from 4113 to 1317 deaths per 100 000 live births. Scaling up SBM-R for quality improvement has the potential to prevent maternal and neonatal deaths in Nigeria and similar settings. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care.

  16. Barriers to Contraceptive Uptake among Women of Reproductive Age in a Semi-Urban Community of Ekiti State, Southwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Durowade, Kabir A; Omokanye, Lukman O; Elegbede, Olusegun E; Adetokunbo, Stella; Olomofe, Charles O; Ajiboye, Akinyosoye D; Adeniyi, Makinde A; Sanni, Taofik A

    2017-03-01

    Globally, unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) persist as a significant threat to women's reproductive health. In Nigeria, despite huge resources committed to family planning programs by stakeholders, contraceptive use has been very low. This study aimed at unraveling the barriers to the use of modern contraceptives among women of reproductive age (15-49 years) in Ise-Ekiti community, Ekiti State, Southwest Nigeria. This study was a cross sectional study among women aged 15-49 years. A multi-stage sampling technique was used in the recruitment of respondents from the community. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 15. Although contraceptive awareness among respondents was high 496(98.6%), only 254 of the 503 respondents were using modern contraceptive methods giving a Contraceptive Prevalence Rate (CPR) of 50.5%. Among those not using any form of contraceptives, some identifiable barriers to contraceptive use includes desire for more children, 62(39.5%), partner disapproval, 40(25.5%), and fear of side-effects, 23(14.6%). Factors associated with contraceptive uptake include marital status (p=0.028), educational level (p=0.041) and religion (p=0.043) with traditional worshippers having the least uptake. This study showed that awareness to modern forms of contraceptives does translate into use. The identified barriers to contraceptive uptake suggest the need to improve uptake of contraceptives through a community-based and culturally acceptable intervention as doing this will go a long way in addressing some of these barriers.

  17. Making a difference with Vision 2020: The Right to Sight? Lessons from two states of North Western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, N; Adamu, M D

    2014-01-01

    Settings and Aim: The World Health Organization launched in 1999 an initiative to eliminate the global avoidable blindness and prevent the projected doubling of avoidable visual impairment between 1990 and 2020 (Vision 2020: The Right to Sight). The World Health Assembly (WHA) adopted resolutions WHA 59.25, WHA 56.26 urging member states to adopt the Vision 2020 principles. More than 90 nongovernmental development organizations, agencies, and institutions, together with a number of major corporations, are now working together in this global partnership. Two neighboring states in North Western Nigeria provide eye care services using different approaches; one state uses the principles of Vision 2020, the other uses a different strategy. The aim of the study was to assess awareness and utilization of eye care services in two Nigerian states. A population-based cross-sectional interview of households was conducted in two neighboring states using a structured questionnaire. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 21 and a P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Participation rate was 97% in the two states. The population in the Vision 2020-compliant state were significantly more aware about general eye care services (80% vs. 44%, P < 0.0005); had less proportion of households unaware of any eye care service (55% vs. 69%, P < 0.0005); and have a significantly higher felt the need to utilize eye care services (47% vs. 5.9%, P < 0.0005). The service utilization rate was however low in the two states. The principles of Vision 2020: The Right to Sight is adaptable to different cultures/societies and has demonstrated a potential to increase awareness and a felt need for eye care in poor resource settings.

  18. Lecturers' Awareness and Utilization of Instructional Media in the State-Owned Colleges of Education, South-West Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fakomogbon, Micheal Ayodele; Olanrewaju, Olatayo Solomon; Soetan, Aderonke Kofo

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigated the awareness and utilization of instructional media (IM) based on gender of the lecturers of tertiary institutions in Nigeria. It was a descriptive type of survey research. All lecturers of Colleges of Education in Southwest geo-political zone of Nigeria formed the population. Some 621 lecturers were randomly selected.…

  19. Managing the Recurrent Cost of University Education in Nigeria: A Case of Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oni, Abimbola Oluranti

    2013-01-01

    The education sector especially higher education in Nigeria faces financial challenges. The recurrent cost of university education constitutes about 95% of the total cost incurred by the government in Nigeria. However, the Nigerian government is unable to meet the UNESCO recommendation that 26% of national budgets should be allocated to education.…

  20. Utilisation of Pangolin (Manis sps) in traditional Yorubic medicine in Ijebu province, Ogun State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Concern about the use of endangered and threatened species in traditional medicine escalated as populations of many species plummeted because of poaching for the medicinal trade. Nigeria is known for a long and valued tradition of using wild animals and plants for medicinal purposes. Despite this, studies on medicinal animals are still scarce when compared to those focusing on medicinal plants. Utilisation of wild animals in traditional Yorubic medical practices was indiscriminate as it involved threatened species. By touting the medicinal properties of these species, traditional medicine fuel continuing demand, thereby subjecting such species to further threats. This paper examined the use and commercialisation of pangolins for traditional medicinal purposes amongst the Ijebus, South-western Nigeria, and the implications of this utilisation for the conservation of this species. Methods Traditional Yorubic medical practitioners (tymps) (16) and dealers in traditional medicinal ingredients (56) in public markets in Ijebu province, Nigeria, were interviewed using open-ended questionnaires. The dynamic stock movement of pangolins in the stalls of dealers was also monitored to determine quantity of pangolins sold into the traditional Yorubic medicinal practices. Specific conditions treated and the parts required were also documented. Results A total of 178 whole pangolin carcasses were sold into traditional medical practices. Above 55% of respondents had just primary education, over 90% of respondents were not aware of either the conservation status of this species or the existence of any legal machinery regulating its trade and utilisation, while 14% admitted to giving contracts to hunters for deliberate search for this animal when needed. More than 98% of respondents have no other means of livelihood. The trade was female dominated while the healing practice had more males. Pangolins were used in various preparations to treat a total of 42 conditions

  1. Improving Access to Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test in Niger State, Nigeria: An Assessment of Implementation up to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Awoleye, Olatunji Joshua; Thron, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Nigeria's 2009–2013 malaria strategic plan adopted WHO diagnosis and treatment guidelines, which include the use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) prior to prescribing treatment with artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs). The current study explores accessibility barriers to the use of RDTs in Niger State and makes recommendations for improving the uptake of RDTs. The study employs literature review, review of data from the Niger State Health Management Information System for January–October 2013, and application of Peters' conceptual framework for assessing access to health services. Data showed that 27 percent of public health facilities (HFs) implemented RDTs, with the aid of donor funds. In these facilities, 77 percent of fever cases presented during the study period were tested with RDTs; 53 percent of fever cases were confirmed cases of malaria, while 60 percent of fever cases were treated. Stockouts of RDTs were a major constraint, and severe fever tended to trigger presumptive treatment. We conclude that although implementation of RDTs led to a reduction in the use of ACTs at HFs, more substantial reduction could be achieved if the state government directed more resources towards the acquisition of RDTs as well as raising the level of awareness of potential users. PMID:27042376

  2. An mHealth Framework to Improve Birth Outcomes in Benue State, Nigeria: A Study Protocol.

    PubMed

    Ezeanolue, Echezona Edozie; Gbadamosi, Semiu Olatunde; Olawepo, John Olajide; Iwelunmor, Juliet; Sarpong, Daniel; Eze, Chuka; Ogidi, Amaka; Patel, Dina; Onoka, Chima

    2017-05-26

    The unprecedented coverage of mobile technology across the globe has led to an increase in the use of mobile health apps and related strategies to make health information available at the point of care. These strategies have the potential to improve birth outcomes, but are limited by the availability of Internet services, especially in resource-limited settings such as Nigeria. Our primary objective is to determine the feasibility of developing an integrated mobile health platform that is able to collect data from community-based programs, embed collected data into a smart card, and read the smart card using a mobile phone-based app without the need for Internet access. Our secondary objectives are to determine (1) the acceptability of the smart card among pregnant women and (2) the usability of the smart card by pregnant women and health facilities in rural Nigeria. We will leverage existing technology to develop a platform that integrates a database, smart card technology, and a mobile phone-based app to read the smart cards. We will recruit 300 pregnant women with one of the three conditions-HIV, hepatitis B virus infection, and sickle cell trait or disease-and four health facilities in their community. We will use Glasgow's Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance framework as a guide to assess the implementation, acceptability, and usability of the mHealth platform. We have recruited four health facilities and 300 pregnant women with at least one of the eligible conditions. Over the course of 3 months, we will complete the development of the mobile health platform and each participant will be offered a smart card; staff in each health facility will receive training on the use of the mobile health platform. Findings from this study could offer a new approach to making health data from pregnant women available at the point of delivery without the need for an Internet connection. This would allow clinicians to implement evidence

  3. Pattern of skin diseases at university of Benin teaching hospital, Benin city, Edo State, South-South Nigeria: a 12 month prospective study.

    PubMed

    Ukonu, Agwu Bob; Eze, E U

    2012-04-28

    This study aims to look at the pattern and incidence of skin diseases seen in Dermatology/Venereology clinic at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Edo State, South-South Zone, Nigeria and compare it with other zones of Nigeria. This was a prospective study on pattern and incidence of skin diseases in new patients presenting at the Dermatology/ Venereology outpatient clinic of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Edo State, South-South, Nigeria, from September 2006 to August 2007. All patients were seen by the researchers. Diagnosis were made clinically and sometimes with the support of histopathology. A total number of 4786 patients were seen during the study period and these comprised 2647 HIV/AIDS patients and 2112 pure Dermatological patients. Out of 4786 patients, 755 (15.8%) were new patients. The new patients comprised 96 (12.7%) children patients (< 15 years) and 659 (83.7%) adult patients (>15years). The ages of the patients ranged from 2 weeks to 80 years and more than two-third were < 40 years. There were 354 males (46.9%) and 401 females (53.1%). This represents female: male ratio of 1.1: 1. Eczematous dermatitis accounted for 20.9% of the skin diseases and was the most common of the skin diseases observed. This is consistent with observation from other zones in Nigeria. Other skin diseases observed in order of frequencies include: Papulosqamous disorder (9.0%), Infectious skin diseases like fungal, viral, bacterial and parasitic infestation, at 7.9%, 7.7%, 2.3% and 2.1% respectively. Pigmentary disorders (5.0%), hair disorders (4.2%) and Benign neoplastic skin disease (6.5%). All the patients that had neurofibromatosis were females (1.9%). HIV-related skin diseases were observed to have increased remarkably (7.9%) with Kaposi's sarcoma, papular pruritic eruptions and drug eruptions being the commonest mode of presentation. The current pattern of skin diseases in Benin City, South-South Nigeria seems to

  4. Nutrition intervention program and childhood malnutrition: a comparative study of two rural riverine communities in bayelsa state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, W; Ordinioha, B; Abuwa, Pnc

    2013-07-01

    The prevalence of malnutrition is high in the Niger delta region of Nigeria, in spite of the region's oil wealth and nutrition intervention programs have been found to be effective in similar circumstance. This study is to assess the nutrition intervention program, implemented by UNICEF in some rural communities of Bayelsa State, one of the six States in the Niger delta region of Nigeria. The study was carried out in 2009 in Toruorua and Gbaranbiri, two rural riverine communities, in Baylesa State. Toruorua benefited from the nutrition intervention program of UNICEF between 1999 and 2008, while Gbaranbiri did not benefit. A comparative, cross-sectional study design was used, with the data collected using anthropometry and semi-structured questionnaire, administered on 105 respondents, chosen with the cluster sampling technique, popularized by UNICEF, from each of the study communities. Data were analyzed using EPI-INFO version 2002, Microsoft Excel software, and manually. Differences between the study communities were tested using the student's t-test for means, and Chi-square test for proportions. Significant values were set at P <0.05. A total of 210 questionnaires were administered and retrieved from both study communities, and the anthropometric measurements of equal number of under-five year children were also taken. There were no significant differences in the occupations of the respondents, and in the sizes of their households. The prevalence of wasting, under-weight and stunting were however found to be significantly higher in the reference community, as 20.0% (21/105) of the children were found to be wasted, compared to 5.0% (6/105) in the intervention community (P < 0.01); 17.1% (18/105) were found to be underweight, compared to 9.5% (10/105) in the exposed community (P = 0.01); while 24.8% (26/105) were stunted, compared to 10.5% (11/105) in the exposed community (P = 0.01). Nutrition intervention program delivered in a primary health care facility can

  5. Malaria prevalence, anemia and baseline intervention coverage prior to mass net distributions in Abia and Plateau States, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Noland, Gregory S; Graves, Patricia M; Sallau, Adamu; Eigege, Abel; Emukah, Emmanuel; Patterson, Amy E; Ajiji, Joseph; Okorofor, Iheanyichi; Oji, Oji Uka; Umar, Mary; Alphonsus, Kal; Damen, James; Ngondi, Jeremiah; Ozaki, Masayo; Cromwell, Elizabeth; Obiezu, Josephine; Eneiramo, Solomon; Okoro, Chinyere; McClintic-Doyle, Renn; Oresanya, Olusola; Miri, Emmanuel; Emerson, Paul M; Richards, Frank O

    2014-03-26

    Nigeria suffers the world's largest malaria burden, with approximately 51 million cases and 207,000 deaths annually. As part of the country's aim to reduce by 50% malaria-related morbidity and mortality by 2013, it embarked on mass distribution of free long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). Prior to net distribution campaigns in Abia and Plateau States, Nigeria, a modified malaria indicator survey was conducted in September 2010 to determine baseline state-level estimates of Plasmodium prevalence, childhood anemia, indoor residual spraying (IRS) coverage and bednet ownership and utilization. Overall age-adjusted prevalence of Plasmodium infection by microscopy was similar between Abia (36.1%, 95% CI: 32.3%-40.1%; n = 2,936) and Plateau (36.6%, 95% CI: 31.3%-42.3%; n = 4,209), with prevalence highest among children 5-9 years. P. malariae accounted for 32.0% of infections in Abia, but only 1.4% of infections in Plateau. More than half of children ≤10 years were anemic, with anemia significantly higher in Abia (76.9%, 95% CI: 72.1%-81.0%) versus Plateau (57.1%, 95% CI: 50.6%-63.4%). Less than 1% of households in Abia (n = 1,305) or Plateau (n = 1,335) received IRS in the 12 months prior to survey. Household ownership of at least one bednet of any type was 10.1% (95% CI: 7.5%-13.4%) in Abia and 35.1% (95% CI: 29.2%-41.5%) in Plateau. Ownership of two or more bednets was 2.1% (95% CI: 1.2%-3.7%) in Abia and 14.5% (95% CI: 10.2%-20.3%) in Plateau. Overall reported net use the night before the survey among all individuals, children <5 years, and pregnant women was 3.4%, 6.0% and 5.7%, respectively in Abia and 14.7%, 19.1% and 21.0%, respectively in Plateau. Among households owning nets, 34.4% of children <5 years and 31.6% of pregnant women in Abia used a net, compared to 52.6% of children and 62.7% of pregnant women in Plateau. These results reveal high Plasmodium prevalence and childhood anemia in both states, low baseline coverage of IRS and

  6. Assessing interventions available to internally displaced persons in Abia state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Enwereji, Ee

    2009-03-01

    Internally displaced persons are faced with several problems, such as sexual violence, and deserve appropriate intervention, especially in view of the increasing prevalence of HIV/AIDS and other infections in Nigeria. This study attempts to assess interventions offered by governmental authorities and organizations to internally displaced persons and to identify gaps in services as well as to identify what needs to be strengthened. The author reviewed relevant published and unpublished documents and collected data by interviews with semi-structured questions. Twenty-five organizations and government and police departments and 55 internally displaced persons were interviewed. None of the organizations, including governmental institutions, provided social services or assistance in prevention of HIV/AIDS to internally displaced persons. The main services provided by 17 (68%) organizations to 43 (78.2%) of internally displaced persons were provision of food, clothing and money, but these were provided on an ad hoc basis. Only 3 organizations (12%) included spiritual counseling and resolution of communal conflicts in their services. The fact that most organizations, including the government, do not have services for internally displaced persons indicates lack of support for internally displaced persons. The government should be urged to include these people in most prevention services, including HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment. This should help reduce the national prevalence of HIV/AIDS.

  7. Assessing interventions available to internally displaced persons in Abia state, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Enwereji, EE

    2009-01-01

    Internally displaced persons are faced with several problems, such as sexual violence, and deserve appropriate intervention, especially in view of the increasing prevalence of HIV/AIDS and other infections in Nigeria. This study attempts to assess interventions offered by governmental authorities and organizations to internally displaced persons and to identify gaps in services as well as to identify what needs to be strengthened. Method: The author reviewed relevant published and unpublished documents and collected data by interviews with semi-structured questions. Twenty-five organizations and government and police departments and 55 internally displaced persons were interviewed. Results: None of the organizations, including governmental institutions, provided social services or assistance in prevention of HIV/AIDS to internally displaced persons. The main services provided by 17 (68%) organizations to 43 (78.2%) of internally displaced persons were provision of food, clothing and money, but these were provided on an ad hoc basis. Only 3 organizations (12%) included spiritual counseling and resolution of communal conflicts in their services. Conclusion: The fact that most organizations, including the government, do not have services for internally displaced persons indicates lack of support for internally displaced persons. The government should be urged to include these people in most prevention services, including HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment. This should help reduce the national prevalence of HIV/AIDS PMID:21483498

  8. Multichannel analysis of the surface waves of earth materials in some parts of Lagos State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adegbola, R. B.; Oyedele, K. F.; Adeoti, L.; Adeloye, A. B.

    2016-09-01

    We present a method that utilizes multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW), which was used to measure shear wave velocities, with a view to establishing the probable causes of road failure, subsidence and weakening of structures in some local government areas in Lagos, Nigeria. MASW data were acquired using a 24-channel seismograph. The acquired data were processed and transformed into a two-dimensional (2-D) structure reflective of the depth and surface wave velocity distribution within a depth of 0-15 m beneath the surface using SURFSEIS software. The shear wave velocity data were compared with other geophysical/ borehole data that were acquired along the same profile. The comparison and correlation illustrate the accuracy and consistency of MASW-derived shear wave velocity profiles. Rigidity modulus and N-value were also generated. The study showed that the low velocity/ very low velocity data are reflective of organic clay/ peat materials and thus likely responsible for the failure, subsidence and weakening of structures within the study areas.

  9. Toxicological study of the Anam River in Otuocha, Anambra State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Igwilo, Innocent O; Afonne, Onyenmechi Johnson; Maduabuchi, Ugwuona John-Moses; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere

    2006-01-01

    The authors studied the quality of water and soil samples from the Anam River in Nigeria. Using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer, they analyzed levels of lead, cadmium, copper, and nickel. They also analyzed sulfates, nitrates, biological oxygen demand, total hardness, total dissolved solids, pH values, electrical conductivity, chloride, and salinity. The ranges of detected metals were 0.002-0.005 mg/L for cadmium, 0.008-0.016 mg/L for lead, and 0.580-1.345 mg/L for copper. In the soil samples, the authors detected cadmium (0.07-3.45 ppm), copper (4.38-13.54 ppm), lead (0.59-7.34 ppm), and nickel (0.36-5.64 ppm). The mean values of the chemical parameters were 11.34 +/- 1.20 mg/L for total hardness, 4.43 +/- 1.54 mg/L for biological oxygen demand, 20.00 +/- 0.00 mg/L for total dissolved solids, and 0.22 +/- 0.05 mg/L for nitrates. Chloride, salinity, electrical conductivity, and pH values were 8.00 +/- 1.73 mg/L, 14.44 +/- 3.13 mg/L, 19.33 +/- 0.67 ps cm-L, and 7.09 +/- 0.05, respectively. The World Health Organization guidelines for the parameters in soil were exceeded.

  10. An Assessment of Food Safety Needs of Restaurants in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Onyeneho, Sylvester N.; Hedberg, Craig W.

    2013-01-01

    One hundred and forty five head chefs and catering managers of restaurants in Owerri, Nigeria were surveyed to establish their knowledge of food safety hazards and control measures. Face-to-face interviews were conducted and data collected on their knowledge of risk perception, food handling practices, temperature control, foodborne pathogens, and personal hygiene. Ninety-two percent reported that they clean and sanitize food equipment and contact surfaces while 37% engaged in cross-contamination practices. Forty-nine percent reported that they would allow a sick person to handle food. Only 70% reported that they always washed their hands while 6% said that they continued cooking after cracking raw eggs. All respondents said that they washed their hands after handling raw meat, chicken or fish. About 35% lacked knowledge of ideal refrigeration temperature while 6% could not adjust refrigerator temperature. Only 40%, 28%, and 21% had knowledge of Salmonella, E. coli, and Hepatitis A, respectively while 8% and 3% had knowledge of Listeria and Vibrio respectively, as pathogens. Open markets and private bore holes supplied most of their foods and water, respectively. Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient analysis revealed almost perfect linear relationship between education and knowledge of pathogens (r = 0.999), cooking school attendance and food safety knowledge (r = 0.992), and class of restaurant and food safety knowledge (r = 0.878). The lack of current knowledge of food safety among restaurant staff highlights increased risk associated with fast foods and restaurants in Owerri. PMID:23917815

  11. An African Role for the United States Military -- Nigeria as a Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-04-08

    COLLEGE FOR SUCH BENEFIT TO THE USER AS MAY ACCRUE. 8 April 1966 STUDENT THESIS ********** AN AFRICAN ROLE FOR THE UNITED STATES MILITARY...United States support for the African military will offer many benefits to the United States and the recipient state: Add to the unity and stability of...oriented. An additional benefit of military assistance is that in most states United States military presence will preclude the influence of

  12. Revised Household-Based Microplanning in Polio Supplemental Immunization Activities in Kano State, Nigeria. 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Gali, Emmanuel; Mkanda, Pascal; Banda, Richard; Korir, Charles; Bawa, Samuel; Warigon, Charity; Abdullahi, Suleiman; Abba, Bashir; Isiaka, Ayodeji; Yahualashet, Yared G; Touray, Kebba; Chevez, Ana; Tegegne, Sisay G; Nsubuga, Peter; Etsano, Andrew; Shuaib, Faisal; Vaz, Rui G

    2016-05-01

    Remarkable progress had been made since the launch of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative in 1988. However endemic wild poliovirus transmission in Nigeria, Pakistan, and Afghanistan remains an issue of international concern. Poor microplanning has been identified as a major contributor to the high numbers of chronically missed children. We assessed the contribution of the revised household-based microplanning process implemented in Kano State from September 2013 to April 2014 to the outcomes of subsequent polio supplemental immunization activities using used preselected planning and outcome indicators. There was a 38% increase in the number of settlements enumerated, a 30% reduction in the number of target households, and a 54% reduction in target children. The reported number of children vaccinated and the doses of oral polio vaccine used during subsequent polio supplemental immunization activities showed a decline. Postvaccination lot quality assurance sampling and chronically missed settlement reports also showed a progressive reduction in the number of children and settlements missed. We observed improvement in Kano State's performance based on the selected postcampaign performance evaluation indicators and reliability of baseline demographic estimates after the revised household-based microplanning exercise. © 2016 World Health Organization; licensee Oxford Journals.

  13. Clients’ Willingness to Pay for Immunization Services in the Urban and Rural Primary Health Centers of Enugu State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ossai, Edmund Ndudi; Fatiregun, Akinola Ayoola

    2015-01-01

    Our study aims at determining the pattern of willingness of clients to pay for childhood immunization services in urban and rural primary health centers of Enugu state, Nigeria. Using a cross-sectional design, 800 clients who presented with their children/wards to receive childhood immunization services were selected at the primary health center in rural and urban local government areas of the state. The mean age was 28.9±4.5 and 26.7±5.1 years in the urban and rural areas respectively. About 54.5% of clients in the urban and 55.3% in the rural area were willing to pay for immunization services. The clients willingness to pay was influenced by: non satisfaction with immunization services, (OR=0.3, 95%CI: 0.2-0.5), younger age, (OR=1.4, 95%CI: 1.0-2.0) marital status (OR=2.8, 95%CI: 1.2-6.5), proximity to health centers (OR=0.6, 95%CI: 0.4-0.8), and delivering in a private health facility (OR=0.4, 95%CI: 0.1-0.9). The study suggests that the economic value that clients give to immunization services was similar in the rural and urban areas, and this could be increased by improving the level of clients’ satisfaction for the services among others. PMID:28299135

  14. Revised Household-Based Microplanning in Polio Supplemental Immunization Activities in Kano State, Nigeria. 2013–2014

    PubMed Central

    Gali, Emmanuel; Mkanda, Pascal; Banda, Richard; Korir, Charles; Bawa, Samuel; Warigon, Charity; Abdullahi, Suleiman; Abba, Bashir; Isiaka, Ayodeji; Yahualashet, Yared G.; Touray, Kebba; Chevez, Ana; Tegegne, Sisay G.; Nsubuga, Peter; Etsano, Andrew; Shuaib, Faisal; Vaz, Rui G.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Remarkable progress had been made since the launch of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative in 1988. However endemic wild poliovirus transmission in Nigeria, Pakistan, and Afghanistan remains an issue of international concern. Poor microplanning has been identified as a major contributor to the high numbers of chronically missed children. Methods. We assessed the contribution of the revised household-based microplanning process implemented in Kano State from September 2013 to April 2014 to the outcomes of subsequent polio supplemental immunization activities using used preselected planning and outcome indicators. Results. There was a 38% increase in the number of settlements enumerated, a 30% reduction in the number of target households, and a 54% reduction in target children. The reported number of children vaccinated and the doses of oral polio vaccine used during subsequent polio supplemental immunization activities showed a decline. Postvaccination lot quality assurance sampling and chronically missed settlement reports also showed a progressive reduction in the number of children and settlements missed. Conclusions. We observed improvement in Kano State's performance based on the selected postcampaign performance evaluation indicators and reliability of baseline demographic estimates after the revised household-based microplanning exercise. PMID:26908755

  15. Patient Experiences of Decentralized HIV Treatment and Care in Plateau State, North Central Nigeria: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Kolawole, Grace O.; Gilbert, Hannah N.; Dadem, Nancin Y.; Genberg, Becky L.; Agbaji, Oche O.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Decentralization of care and treatment for HIV infection in Africa makes services available in local health facilities. Decentralization has been associated with improved retention and comparable or superior treatment outcomes, but patient experiences are not well understood. Methods. We conducted a qualitative study of patient experiences in decentralized HIV care in Plateau State, north central Nigeria. Five decentralized care sites in the Plateau State Decentralization Initiative were purposefully selected. Ninety-three patients and 16 providers at these sites participated in individual interviews and focus groups. Data collection activities were audio-recorded and transcribed. Transcripts were inductively content analyzed to derive descriptive categories representing patient experiences of decentralized care. Results. Patient participants in this study experienced the transition to decentralized care as a series of “trade-offs.” Advantages cited included saving time and money on travel to clinic visits, avoiding dangers on the road, and the “family-like atmosphere” found in some decentralized clinics. Disadvantages were loss of access to ancillary services, reduced opportunities for interaction with providers, and increased risk of disclosure. Participants preferred decentralized services overall. Conclusion. Difficulty and cost of travel remain a fundamental barrier to accessing HIV care outside urban centers, suggesting increased availability of community-based services will be enthusiastically received. PMID:28331636

  16. Patient Experiences of Decentralized HIV Treatment and Care in Plateau State, North Central Nigeria: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Kolawole, Grace O; Gilbert, Hannah N; Dadem, Nancin Y; Genberg, Becky L; Agaba, Patricia A; Okonkwo, Prosper; Agbaji, Oche O; Ware, Norma C

    2017-01-01

    Background. Decentralization of care and treatment for HIV infection in Africa makes services available in local health facilities. Decentralization has been associated with improved retention and comparable or superior treatment outcomes, but patient experiences are not well understood. Methods. We conducted a qualitative study of patient experiences in decentralized HIV care in Plateau State, north central Nigeria. Five decentralized care sites in the Plateau State Decentralization Initiative were purposefully selected. Ninety-three patients and 16 providers at these sites participated in individual interviews and focus groups. Data collection activities were audio-recorded and transcribed. Transcripts were inductively content analyzed to derive descriptive categories representing patient experiences of decentralized care. Results. Patient participants in this study experienced the transition to decentralized care as a series of "trade-offs." Advantages cited included saving time and money on travel to clinic visits, avoiding dangers on the road, and the "family-like atmosphere" found in some decentralized clinics. Disadvantages were loss of access to ancillary services, reduced opportunities for interaction with providers, and increased risk of disclosure. Participants preferred decentralized services overall. Conclusion. Difficulty and cost of travel remain a fundamental barrier to accessing HIV care outside urban centers, suggesting increased availability of community-based services will be enthusiastically received.

  17. Mass immunization with inactivated polio vaccine in conflict zones--Experience from Borno and Yobe States, North-Eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Shuaibu, Faisal M; Birukila, Gerida; Usman, Samuel; Mohammed, Ado; Galway, Michael; Corkum, Melissa; Damisa, Eunice; Mkanda, Pascal; Mahoney, Frank; Wa Nganda, Gatei; Vertefeuille, John; Chavez, Anna; Meleh, Sule; Banda, Richard; Some, Almai; Mshelia, Hyelni; Umar, Al-Umra; Enemaku, Ogu; Etsano, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    The use of Inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV) in routine immunization to replace Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) is crucial in eradicating polio. In June 2014, Nigeria launched an IPV campaign in the conflict-affected states of Borno and Yobe, the largest ever implemented in Africa. We present the initiatives and lessons learned. The 8-day event involved two parallel campaigns. OPV target age was 0-59 months, while IPV targeted all children aged 14 weeks to 59 months. The Borno state primary health care agency set up temporary health camps for the exercise and treated minor ailments for all. The target population for the OPV campaign was 685,674 children in Borno and 113,774 in Yobe. The IPV target population for Borno was 608,964 and for Yobe 111,570. OPV coverage was 105.1 per cent for Borno and 103.3 per cent for Yobe. IPV coverage was 102.9 per cent for Borno and 99.1 per cent for Yobe. (Where we describe coverage as greater than 100 per cent, this reflects original underestimates of the target populations.) A successful campaign and IPV immunization is viable in conflict areas.

  18. Performance needs assessment of maternal and newborn health service delivery in urban and rural areas of Osun State, South-West, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Esan, Oluwaseun T; Fatusi, Adesegun O

    2014-06-01

    The study aimed to determine performance and compare gaps in maternal and newborn health (MNH) services in urban and rural areas of Osun State, Nigeria, to inform decisions for improved services. This study involved 14 urban and 10 rural-based randomly selected PHC facilities. Using a Performance Needs Assessment framework, desired performances were determined by key stakeholders and actual performances measured by conducting facility survey. Questionnaire interview of 143 health workers and 153 antenatal clients were done. Performance gaps were determined for the urban and rural areas and compared using Chi-square tests with SPSS version 17. PHC facilities and health workers in Osun State, Nigeria, were found to have significant gaps in MNH service performance and this was worse in the rural areas. Root cause of most of the performance gaps was poor political will of local government authorities. Improved government commitment to MNH is needful to address most of the gaps.

  19. Iron Status of Pregnant Women in Rural and Urban Communities of Cross River State, South-South Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okafor, I M; Okpokam, D C; Antai, A B; Usanga, E A

    2017-03-06

    Anaemia in pregnancy is a major public health problem in Nigeria. Iron deficiency is one of the major causes of anaemia in pregnancy.  Inadequate iron intake during pregnancy can be dangerous to both baby and mother. Iron status of pregnant women was assessed in two rural and one urban communities in Cross River State Nigeria. Packed cell volume, haemoglobin, mean cell haemoglobin, mean cell haemoglobin concentration, red cell count, serum iron, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation, serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor and soluble transferrin receptor/ferritin ratio were measured in plasma/serum of 170 pregnant women within the age range of 15-45 years. Seventy participants were from antenatal clinic of University of Calabar Teaching Hospital Calabar (urban community), 50 from St Joseph Hospital Ikot Ene (rural community) in Akpabuyo Local Government Area and the remaining 50 from University of Calabar Teaching Hospital   extension clinic in Okoyong (rural community), Odukpani Local Government Area of Cross River state. The prevalence of   anaemia, iron deficiency, iron depletion and iron deficiency anaemia were found to be significantly higher among pregnant women from the two rural communities when compared to the urban community. it was also observed that  the prevalence of  anaemia, iron deficiency, iron depletion and iron deficiency anaemia   were significantly higher (p<0.05) among pregnant women from Akpabuyo   38(76.00%),   20(40.00%),   23(46.0%)   ,   16(32.00%)   respectively followed   by  Okoyong 24(48.0%),  20(40.0%),  16(32.0%),  6(12.0)     and  then  those  from     Calabar  14(20%), 12(17.90%) , 14(20.0%).  The mean haemoglobin and haematocrit were significantly reduced in pregnant women from the two rural communities. Serum iron, serum ferritin and transferrin saturation showed no significant difference while total iron binding capacity and soluble transferrin receptor significantly increased among

  20. Sociocultural factors and the promotion of exclusive breastfeeding in rural Yoruba communities of Osun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Davies-Adetugbo, A A

    1997-07-01

    Child survival strategies include prolonged and intensive breastfeeding, together with its early initiation, and breastmilk only for the first six months of life. This paper reports on local knowledge and attitudes of breastfeeding and the sociocultural factors that shape its practice in poor rural Yoruba communities of Southwestern Nigeria. The study has conducted 10 focus group discussions among homogeneous groups of grandmothers, pregnant women, lactating mothers, husbands, and community health workers, and a questionnaire survey of 256 third trimester pregnant women. All women in these communities breastfeed their infants on demand, and for up to two years, because breastmilk is universally accepted as the best food for babies, and breastfeeding spaces births. Prelacteal feedings of water herbal infusions and ritual fluids are the norm, and breastmilk is supplemented, from birth, with water and teas. Exclusive breastfeeding is considered dangerous to the infant: the baby has an obligatory requirement for supplementary water to quench its thirst and promote its normal development, and for herbal teas which serve as food and medicine. Colostrum is discarded because it is dirty, "like pus", and therefore potentially harmful to the infant, although 24% of the survey sample would give it to their babies. Expressed breastmilk is suspect as it can get contaminated, poisoned or bewitched. Complementary foods are introduced as early as two months because of perceived lactation insufficiency. The commonest supplement is a watery maize porridge of low nutrient density. Breastfeeding can also be dangerous, as toxins and contaminants can be passed to the infant through breastmilk. The most serious conflict with the WHO/UNICEF recommendations is the lack of local credibility of exclusive breastfeeding. According to local knowledge, the early introduction of water, herbal teas, and of complementary foods is designed to enhance child survival, while these are supposed to do

  1. Self-referral patterns among federal civil servants in oyo state, South-Western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okoli, Henry; Obembe, Taiwo; Osungbade, Kayode; Adeniji, Folashayo; Adewole, David

    2017-01-01

    Primary health care is widely accepted as the first point of care; yet, individuals requiring healthcare engage in self-referrals to higher levels of care thereby by-passing primary care. Little is known of the extent to which self-referrals are carried out when care is needed. This study thus sought to determine the prevalence of self-referral, its patterns and factors influencing self-referrals amongst federal civil servants in Southwestern Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 300 federal civil servants who were interviewed using validated and pre-tested interviewer-administered semi structured questionnaires. Data was analyzed using univariate and Chi-square test at level of significance set at P <0.05. Mean age of the respondents was 39.96 ± 9.1 years with majority being married (80.7%); 90.7% completed tertiary education (and 76.7 % were middle grade (7-12) level officers. Most (60.0%) of the respondents had ever engaged in self-referral. Malaria was the commonest health problem (39.7%) for self-referral to secondary or tertiary facilities. Desire for quality service (35.7%) and competent staff (35.2%) were the commonest reasons for self-referral to a higher level of health care. More female respondents (76.0%) compared to male respondents (64.0%) significantly engaged in self-referral (p = 0.02, X2 = 5.14). Respondents having good knowledge of referral practices engaged less in self-referral compared to those with poor knowledge. (p = 0.02, X2 = 5.43). Having good knowledge of referral practices and being male are positively associated with referral practices. Creating awareness and improving knowledge on referral practices with special emphasis on women population are desirable strategies for encouraging the use of primary health care as first of point of contact with health systems.

  2. Adverse drug reactions amongst adult patients admitted in Lagos State University Teaching Hospital Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Aderemi-Williams, R I; Awodele, O; Boyle, C A

    2015-01-01

    Adverse drug reaction (ADR) is a global drug therapy problem. It has been rated as one of the top leading causes of morbidity and mortality. In Nigeria, not much is known about ADRs especially with the existing weak post marketing surveillance for monitoring drug use, and its effect on the population. The study is aimed at determining the incidence of ADRs, presentations of ADRs, classes of drugs that frequently cause ADRs and predictors of ADRs in adult medical in-patients in LASUTH. A retrospective study of six hundred and twenty four (624) case notes of all patients admitted to the medical wards in LASUTH between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2009 was carried out. Information obtained included age, gender, and adverse drug reaction and drug details. The results obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 16 statistical software. Level of significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. A total of 624 case notes consisting of 358 males and 266 females were assessed. The number of patients who experienced adverse drug reactions was 67 (n = 624, 10.7%). The incidence rate of ADRs in LASUTH from the study was 10.7 per 100 patients' population. Most of the ADRs observed were type A reactions (97.8%). Mostly implicated classes of drugs were antidiabetics (26.7%) and NSAIDs (29.3%). The incidence rate of ADRs was 10.7%. ADRs which are predictable and preventable occur in hospitalized patients, such may be prevented or minimized by implementing measures to target specific drugs that are commonly suspected.

  3. Tobacco related knowledge and support for smoke-free policies among community pharmacists in Lagos state, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Poluyi, Edward O.; Odukoya, Oluwakemi O.; Aina, Bolajoko; Faseru, Babalola

    2014-01-01

    Background: There are no safe levels of exposure to second hand smoke and smoke-free policies are effective in reducing the burden of tobacco-related diseases and death. Pharmacists, as a unique group of health professionals, might be able to play a role in the promotion of smoke-free policies. Objective: To determine the tobacco-related knowledge of community pharmacists and assess their support for smoke-free policies in Lagos state, Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study design using both quantitative and qualitative methods was employed. Two hundred and twelve randomly selected community pharmacists were surveyed using a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. In addition, one focus group discussion was conducted with ten members of the Lagos state branch of the Association of Community Pharmacists of Nigeria. Results: The quantitative survey revealed that the majority (72.1%) of the respondents were aged between 20 and 40 years, predominantly male (60.8%), Yoruba (50.2%) or Igbo (40.3%) ethnicity and had been practicing pharmacy for ten years or less (72.2%). A majority (90.1%) of respondents were aware that tobacco is harmful to health. Slightly less (75.8%) were aware that second hand smoke is harmful to health. Among the listed diseases, pharmacists responded that lung (84.4%) and esophageal (68.9%) cancers were the most common diseases associated with tobacco use. Less than half of those surveyed associated tobacco use with heart disease (46.9%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (27.8%), bladder cancer (47.2%), peripheral vascular disease (35.8%) and sudden death (31.1%). Only 51.9% had heard of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC). A little over half of the respondents (53.8%) were aware of any law in Nigeria controlling tobacco use. The majority of respondents supported a ban on smoking in homes (83.5%), in public places (79.2%), and in restaurants, nightclubs and bars (73.6%). For every

  4. Rationale for Students' Participation in University Governance and Organizational Effectiveness in Ekiti and Ondo States, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akomolafe, C. O.; Ibijola, E. Y.

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated the rationale for students' participation in university governance and organizational effectiveness. A descriptive research of survey design was adopted. The population consisted of all staff and students of Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State and Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State. 700 subjects…

  5. The effect of Ebola Virus Disease outbreak on hand washing among secondary school students in Ondo State Nigeria, October, 2014.

    PubMed

    Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen; Alele, Faith Osaretin

    2015-01-01

    Hand washing with soap and water is one of the cheapest, most effective ways of limiting the spread of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD). Despite its importance the prevalence of hand washing was low before the EVD outbreak in Nigeria. This study aimed at determining the factors associated with improved hand washing practices following the EVD outbreak. A descriptive cross sectional study of 440 students from a secondary school in Owo, Ondo State was done. Data was collected in October 2014 when Nigeria was yet to be declared EVD free. Systematic random sampling was used. A semi-structured, interviewer administered questionnaire was used. Data was analysed with epi info version 7, descriptive statistics were done, Chi square test was used for the assessment of significant associations between proportions. Determinants of good hand washing practices was identified using logistics regression analysis at 5% level of significance. Of 440 respondents, mean age was 13.7±1.9 years. Females were 48.2%. Only 4.6% have never heard of Ebola Virus Disease.Level of hand washing with soap and water improved by62.6%. Significant improvement in hand washing was in 75.8% of those who heard through social media (p < 0.001), 70.5% of Newspaper readers(p < 0.001), 65.6% of radio listeners (p = 0.001), 75.4% of family members p < 0.001, 76.3% talk in church p < 0.001, 77.6% peers p = 0.02, 72.4% TV p < 0.001. Change in hand washing practices was associated with watching television (AOR: 2.2; CI 95%: 1.1-4.3) and listening to health education in church (AOR: 2.4; CI 95%: 1.2-4.7).Major reason for change in hand washing practices was because of EVD deadly nature, 170(40.5%). Watching health education messages on television and listening to it in church are the determinants of change in hand washing practices. Promotion of hand washing with soap and water needs to be sustained to prevent other diseases. Training of students on prevention of EVD was conducted in selected schools.

  6. Young Age as a Predictor of Poor Road Safety Practices of Commercial Motorcyclists in Oyo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olumide, Adesola O; Owoaje, Eme T

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the association between young age and poor road safety practices of commercial motorcyclists in Oyo state, Nigeria. A cross-sectional study of 371 commercial motorcyclists selected via a multistage sampling technique was conducted. Information on sociodemographic characteristics and road safety practices (possession of a valid license, helmet use, number of passengers carried per trip, and compliance with 10 selected traffic signs) was obtained with the aid of an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Individual road safety practice items were scored and a total score was obtained giving minimum and maximum obtainable scores of 0 and 35. Respondents with scores ≤ 17.5 (i.e., less than or equal to half of the maximum obtainable score of 35) were categorized as having poor road safety practices. Descriptive statistics, chi-square, and multiple logistic regression tests were conducted. Selected sociodemographic and occupation-related factors were controlled for in the logistic regression analysis. All respondents were male, 80.1% had been riding for commercial purposes for less than 5 years, and 73.0% had other jobs in addition to commercial riding. Road safety practices were generally poor; that is, 84.4% of commercial riders were categorized as having poor road safety practices. Almost all (98.6%) respondents aged < 25 years compared to 84.3% of those aged 25 to <35 years and 76.8% of those ≥35 years had poor road safety practices. This difference was statistically significant. Following logistic regression, younger age (<25 years) remained predictive of poor road safety practices. Motorcyclists aged < 25 years had about 16 times higher odds of having poor road safety practices compared to those aged 35 years and more (odds ratio = 15.72, 95% confidence interval, 1.82-135.91). Most studies conduct only bivariate analysis to test the association between age and road practices of commercial motorcyclists; however, we investigated the

  7. Contraceptive prevalence and determinants among women of reproductive age group in Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adeyemi, Adewale S; Olugbenga-Bello, Adenike I; Adeoye, Oluwatosin A; Salawu, Moshood O; Aderinoye, Adesola A; Agbaje, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Background The fertility rate in Nigeria is 5.7 children per woman. The contraceptive prevalence rate has been found to be low at 15% in 2013, compared to other countries such as the US and Pakistan. Objective The study aimed to assess the contraceptive prevalence among women of reproductive age in Ogbomoso town, and determinants of use, with a view to make appropriate recommendations that will enhance the uptake of family planning services. Materials and methods This is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted with 560 respondents, using a multistage sampling technique. Data were retrieved using a semi-structured, pretested questionnaire. Results All the respondents were aware of contraception; however, only 49.7% (271) had ever used any method, while 25.4% (69) of the number who had ever used contraception were currently using a method. The methods being used were the traditional type (four [5.9%]), natural type (two [3.0%]), and modern type (63 [91.1%]). The predictors of contraception use included the age group of 40–49 years (odds ratio [OR] 14.1; confidence interval [CI] 3.06–73.24; P=0.0001); the married women were approximately four times more likely to use contraception than the single women (OR 4.5; CI 3.03–6.72; P<0.0001). The women with tertiary level of education were three times more likely to use contraception than those without formal education (OR 3.1; CI 1.13–9.95; P=0.0268), and the odds ratio of respondents with a positive attitude to using contraception more than those with negative attitude was 2 (OR 2; CI 1.41–2.91; P<0.0001). Conclusion In light of the advantages associated with contraception use, there needs to be a conscious effort, especially among health care workers, to educate women about contraception and encourage its use. PMID:29386935

  8. Land susceptibility to soil erosion in Orashi Catchment, Nnewi South, Anambra State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odunuga, Shakirudeen; Ajijola, Abiodun; Igwetu, Nkechi; Adegun, Olubunmi

    2018-02-01

    Soil erosion is one of the most critical environmental hazards that causes land degradation and water quality challenges. Specifically, this phenomenon has been linked, among other problems, to river sedimentation, groundwater pollution and flooding. This paper assesses the susceptibility of Orashi River Basin (ORB) to soil erosion for the purpose of erosion control measures. Located in the South Eastern part of Nigeria, the ORB which covers approximately 413.61 km2 is currently experiencing one of the fastest population growth rate in the region. Analysis of the soil erosion susceptibility of the basin was based on four factors including; rainfall, Land use/Land cover change (LULC), slope and soil erodibility factor (k). The rainfall was assumed to be a constant and independent variable, slope and soil types were categorised into ten (10) classes each while the landuse was categorised into five classes. Weight was assigned to the classes based on the degree of susceptibility to erosion. An overlay of the four variables in a GIS environment was used to produce the basin susceptibility to soil erosion. This was based on the weight index of each factors. The LULC analysis revealed that built-up land use increased from 26.49 km2 (6.4 %) in year 1980 to 79.24 km2 (19.16 %) in 2015 at an average growth rate of 1.51 km2 per annum while the light forest decreased from 336.41 km2 (81.33 %) in 1980 to 280.82 km2 (67.89 %) in 2015 at an average rate 1.59 km2 per annum. The light forest was adjudged to have the highest land cover soil erosion susceptibility. The steepest slope ranges between 70 and 82° (14.34 % of the total land area) and was adjudged to have the highest soil susceptibility to erosion. The total area covered of the loamy soil is 112.37 km2 (27.07 %) with erodibility of 0.7. In all, the overlay of all the variables revealed that 106.66 km2 (25.70 %) and 164.80 km2 (39.7 %) of the basin has a high and very high susceptibility to soil erosion. The over 50

  9. Determinants of climate change adaptation strategies used by fish farmers in Epe Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Arimi, Kayode S

    2014-05-01

    Undesirable impacts of climate change have been a common occurrence that has made fish farmers in developing countries adopt some climate-change adaptation strategies. However, little is known about determinants of climate-change adaptation strategies used by these fish farmers. This study, therefore, articulates novelties on adaptation to climate change, as well ascertains determinants of adaptation strategies used by fish farmers in Epe, Lagos State, Nigeria. Climate change adaptation strategies mostly used by fish farmers include frequent seeking for early warning information about climate change (76.7%) and avoidance of areas susceptible to flooding (60.0%). Climate-change adaptation strategies used by fish farmers were significantly influenced by access to early warning information (β = 7.21), knowledge of farmers about climate change adaptation strategies (β = 8.86), access to capital (β = 28.25), and participation in workshop and conferences (β = 37.19) but were reduced by number of fish stocking (β = -2.06). The adaptation strategies used by fish farmers were autonomous and mostly determined by the access to credit facilities and information. Development policy should focus on carbon capture and storage technology in order to reduce adverse impacts of climate change, as well as making early warning information on climate change available to fish farmers. These will enhance adaptation to climate change. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Aflatoxin M1 contamination of milk and ice cream in Abeokuta and Odeda local governments of Ogun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Atanda, Olusegun; Oguntubo, Adenike; Adejumo, Oloyede; Ikeorah, John; Akpan, Iyang

    2007-07-01

    A survey was undertaken to determine the aflatoxin M(1) contamination of milk and some locally produced dairy products in Abeokuta and Odeda local governments of Ogun State, Nigeria. Samples of human and cow milk, yoghurt, "wara", ice cream and "nono" were collected randomly within the local governments and analysed for aflatoxin M(1) using the two-dimensional TLC. Aflatoxin M(1) contamination in the range of 2.04-4.00 microg l(-1) was noticed only in milk and ice cream. In particular, samples of human milk, cow milk and ice cream recorded high scores of 4.0 microg l(-1), 2.04 microg l(-1) and 2.23 microg l(-1), respectively in Abeokuta local governments and a score of 4.0 microg l(-1) for cow milk in Odeda local government. This indicates a high level contamination in the local governments since the weighted mean concentration of aflatoxin M1 in milk for African diet is 0.002 microg l(-1). Therefore the concentration of AFB1 in feeds which is transformed to AFM1 in milk should be reduced by good manufacturing and good storage practices. Furthermore, there is need for stringent quality control during processing and distribution of these products.

  11. The prevalence, intensity and clinical manifestations of Onchocerca volvulus infection in Toro local government area of Bauchi State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Anosike, J C; Celestine; Onwuliri, O E; Onwuliri, V A

    2001-07-01

    Between January and October 1994, a study of the prevalence, intensity and clinical manifestations of onchocerciasis in nine communities of Toro local government area of Bauchi State, Nigeria was undertaken using the skin-snip method. Of the 1117 inhabitants examined, 188 (16.8%) were positive for microfilariae of Onchocerca volvulus. The prevalence of onchocerciasis was significantly higher (P < 0.05) among males than females, in subjects 21 years of age and above than in those in the first two decades of life, in nomads, farmers, hunters and fishermen than smiths and traders. Intensity of infection was light, not exceeding a geometric mean of 5.3 microfilaria per 2 mm skin bite. Preponderance of positive cases below 20 years presented no chronic signs. Conversely, persons above 20 years had higher microfilaria counts which coincides with the period when most clinical signs manifest. Microfilarial-rate and -density in relation to age were closely associated (r = 0.75, P < 0.001). The need for a sustained mass distribution of Mectizan in these communities is highlighted.

  12. Effect of thermal environment on the temporal, spatial and seasonal occurrence of measles in Ondo state, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omonijo, Akinyemi Gabriel; Matzarakis, Andreas; Oguntoke, Olusegun; Adeofun, Clement Olabinjo

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the temporal and spatial dynamics, as well as the seasonal occurrence of measles in Ondo state, Nigeria, to better understand the role of the thermal environment in the occurrence of the childhood killer disease measles, which ranks among the top ten leading causes of child deaths worldwide. The linkages between measles and atmospheric environmental factors were examined by correlating human-biometeorological parameters in the study area with reported clinical cases of measles for the period 1998-2008. We also applied stepwise regression analysis in order to determine the human-biometeorological parameters that lead to statistical changes in reported clinical cases of measles. We found that high reported cases of measles are associated with the least populated areas, where rearing and cohabitation of livestock/domestic animals within human communities are common. There was a significant correlation ( P < 0.01) between monthly cases of measles and human-biometeorological parameters except wind speed and vapour pressure. High transmission of measles occurred in the months of January to May during the dry season when human thermal comfort indices are very high. This highlights the importance of the thermal environment in disease demographics since it accounted for more than 40% variation in measles transmission within the study period.

  13. Unintended pregnancy and termination of studies among students in Anambra state, Nigeria: are secondary schools playing their part?

    PubMed

    Onyeka, Ifeoma N; Miettola, Juhani; Ilika, Amobi L; Vaskilampi, Tuula

    2011-06-01

    This study evaluated efforts of secondary schools to prevent unintended pregnancy among students and their reactions to pregnant students before and after delivery. A cross-sectional survey of 46 teachers in three public and two private schools in Anambra state, Nigeria was carried out. Information was collected using self-administered questionnaire. Of all the teachers in the study, 87% reported unintended pregnancies among students in the previous 3 years. Expulsion (43%) and suspension (28%) were the most common reactions. Private schools were more likely to expel pregnant students than public schools. Following the delivery of their babies, 43% discontinued their education in the same school, whereas 37% continued their education in a different school. Counselling was given before suspension or expulsion in 4% of public schools and 15% of private schools. Majority of the schools (61%) did not have sex education as part of their schools' curriculum. Students should be re-admitted in order to ensure continuity of their academic development, prevent unemployment and mitigate poverty-induced repeat pregnancy.

  14. Strategy for Cost Recovery in the Rural Water Sector: A Case Study of Nsukka District, Anambra State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittington, Dale; Okorafor, Apia; Okore, Augustine; McPhail, Alexander

    1990-09-01

    In-depth interviews were conducted with 395 households in three rural communities in the Nsukka district of Anambra State, Nigeria, concerning their household water use practices, water expenditures to vendors, willingness to pay for improved water supplies, and household socioeconomic characteristics. Households in Nsukka district do not want to pay for water in advance or commit themselves to a fixed monthly payment for water. They want the freedom to buy water only when they use it, partly due to the seasonal nature of water use and partly because they want control over their cash flow in order to meet other more immediately pressing needs. Equally important, they do not trust government to provide a reliable public water supply. They do not want to pay in advance for a service they are not sure they will ever get. If they are required to pay a fixed fee every month, households are willing to pay only relatively small amounts for improved services, even less than they are currently paying water vendors. Current arrangements for cost recovery, fixed monthly fees for both public taps and unmetered private connections, are inappropriate. Kiosk systems, or kiosk systems with metered private connections for some households, are the most promising way to improve cost recovery and meet consumers' cash flow needs.

  15. Changes in contraceptive use following integration of family planning into ART Services in Cross River State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    McCarraher, Donna R; Vance, Gwyneth; Gwarzo, Usman; Taylor, Douglas; Chabikuli, Otto Nzapfurundi

    2011-12-01

    One strategy for meeting the contraceptive needs of HIV-positive women is to integrate family planning into HIV services. In 2008 in Cross River State, Nigeria,family planning was integrated into antiretroviral (ART) services in five local government areas. A basic family planning/HIV integration model was implemented in three of these areas, and an enhanced model in the other two. We conducted baseline interviews in 2008 and follow-up interviews 12-14 months later with 274 female ART clients aged 18-45 in 2009 across the five areas. Unmet need for contraception was high at baseline (28-35 percent). We found that modern contraceptive use rose in the enhanced and basic groups; most of the increase was in consistent condom use. Despite an increase in family planning counseling by ART providers, referrals to family planning services for noncondom methods were low. We conclude by presenting alternative strategies for family planning/HIV integration in settings where large families and low contraceptive use are normative.

  16. Epidemiology of tree-hole breeding mosquitoes in the tropical rainforest of Imo State, south-east Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Anosike, Jude C; Nwoke, Bertram E B; Okere, Anthony N; Oku, Ene E; Asor, Joe E; Emmy-Egbe, Ifeyinwa O; Adimike, Desmond A

    2007-01-01

    The study of tree-hole breeding mosquitoes was carried out in the tropical rainforest of Imo State Nigeria (two rural areas and two forest reserves in some parts of Orlu Senatorial Zone) between May-October 2002. Using standard entomological procedures, two macrohabitats (natural tree-holes and bamboo traps) and two microhabitats (leaf axils of cocoyams/pineapples and leaf axils of plantain/banana) were sampled for various mosquito species. Mosquitoes were recovered from all the various biotypes sampled. Types of mosquitoes species encountered, their relative abundance, as well as genera varied significantly during the study (p<0.05). Four genera of mosquitoes: Aedes, Culex, Anopheles and Toxorhynchites were recovered while 16 species of mosquitoes encountered include: Aedes aegypti, Ae. africanus, Ae. simpsoni, Ae. albopictus, Ae. stokesi, Ae. taylori, Ae. apicoargenteus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. nebulosus, Cx. trigripes, Cx. decens, Anopheles gambiae, An. funiestus, An. coustani and Toxorhynchites viridibasis. Most of the mosquitoes showed oviposition preferences for one or more habitats. The presence of Ae. africanus, Ae. simpsoni and Ae. aegypti indicate that the study areas were at risk of yellow fever epidemic. The presence of Anopheles and Culex species ensured endemicity of malaria and filariasis, while the recovery of Ae. albopictus in this region suggests a possible outbreak of dengue fever in future if not properly controlled.

  17. Physicians utilisation of internet medical databases at the tertiary health institutions in Osun State, south west, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Shabi, Iwok N; Shabi, Olabode M; Akewukereke, Modupe A; Udofia, Emem P

    2011-12-01

    To determine the extent, purpose, determinants and the impact of the utilization of Internet medical databases among the respondents. A descriptive cross sectional survey of 540 randomly selected physicians at the two tertiary health institutions in Osun State, south west, Nigeria. A total of 444 (82.2%) physicians completed the questionnaires. All the respondents have used the internet medical databases within the last 4 weeks of the study. Majority, (53.8%) used the internet resources at least once in 2 weeks, while 12.2% used the resources every day. The online resources are mainly sought for Routine patient care and for Research purposes. pubmed (70.3%), hinari (69.0%), and Free medical journals (60.1%) are the frequently used online databases/digital archives. The internet resources has positively impacted the Clinical practice (40.0%) and Research output (65.5%) of the physicians. There had been considerable increase in the extent and quality of utilization of online medical databases which has positively impacted on the Clinical practice and Research output of the physicians. Ease of finding the needed information and the availability of evidence based resources are the major determinants of the databases utilized. © 2011 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2011 Health Libraries Group.

  18. International note: awareness and context of cyber-harassment among secondary school students in Oyo state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olumide, Adesola O; Adams, Patricia; Amodu, Olukemi K

    2015-02-01

    We determined the awareness and context of cyber-harassment among secondary school students (653 survey respondents and 18 in-depth interviewees) in Oyo state, Nigeria. Respondents' mean age was 14.2 ± 2.2 years and 53.9% were aware of cyber-harassment occurring in their school or among their friends. Cyber-harassment was often perpetrated via phone calls (62.5%), text messaging (36.9%), chat rooms (28.7%), through pictures or video clips sent via mobile phones (11.9%), emails (6.8%) or websites (5.9%). Cyber-harassment behaviours mentioned were the use of abusive words (25.4%), saying mean things or making fun of the victim (13.9%), solicitations for relationships (7.9%) or sex (6.8%) and spreading rumours about the victim (6.8%). In-depth interviewees recounted experiences of cyber-harassment suffered by their friends. Many were relationship-related, sexual solicitations and threats and corroborated quantitative findings. Respondents are aware of cyber-harassment occurring among students in the study area. Comprehensive interventions to address the problem need to be instituted. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Studies into the prevalence of Mycoplasma species in small ruminants in Benue State, North-central Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akwuobu, Chinedu A; Ayling, Roger D; Chah, Kennedy Foinkfu; Oboegbulem, Stephen I

    2014-08-01

    The indicative prevalence of respiratory Mycoplasma species in small ruminants (SR) was determined in North-central Nigeria. Nasal swabs from 172 sheep and 336 goats from the Northeast, Northwest and South Senatorial Districts of Benue State were examined. Initial Mycoplasma isolation used Mycoplasma culture techniques followed by digitonin sensitivity testing. Species identification was done using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Overall, Mycoplasma organisms were isolated from 131 (25.8 %) of the 508 SR examined. Prevalence rates of 18.1 and 29.8 % were recorded for sheep and goats, respectively. A total of 135 isolates of Mycoplasma belonging to three different species were identified: Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae (127), Mycoplasma arginini (7) and Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies capri (1). More than one Mycoplasma species were detected in four (3.1 %) of the 131 confirmed Mycoplasma positive cultures. Mycoplasma was isolated from 16.2 and 29.1 % of animals with and without respiratory signs, respectively. The high isolation rate of mycoplasmas in apparently healthy and clinically sick sheep and goats in this study indicates a carrier status in these SR which may constitute a serious problem in disease control.

  20. The Imo State (Nigeria) Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Project, 2. Impact on dracunculiasis, diarrhoea and nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Huttly, S R; Blum, D; Kirkwood, B R; Emeh, R N; Okeke, N; Ajala, M; Smith, G S; Carson, D C; Dosunmu-Ogunbi, O; Feachem, R G

    1990-01-01

    Morbidity due to dracunculiasis (guinea worm disease) and diarrhoea in persons of all ages, and nutritional status of young children, were used as health impact indicators in the evaluation of the Imo State Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Project in south-eastern Nigeria. Data were collected using repeated cross-sectional surveys and longitudinal follow-up. The study area was found to have a low level of endemicity of dracunculiasis. While no impact could be demonstrated on overall period or point prevalence rates in the cross-sectional surveys, a prospective longitudinal survey showed a significant reduction in the percentage of person-fortnights positive for dracunculiasis in areas served by the project, while the control areas showed no such change. In the cross-sectional surveys it was found that, in the project villages, those persons drinking only borehole water had significantly lower period prevalence rates one year later than others. Moreover, those living further from the nearest borehole had higher rates of dracunculiasis. An impact of the project on diarrhoea morbidity was found only in limited sub-groups of the population. A greater association with water availability rather than quality was suggested for rates in young children. The prevalence of wasting (less than 80% weight-for-height) among children aged less than 3 years decreased significantly over time in all 3 intervention villages; there was no such decline in the control villages.

  1. Female genital mutilation as sexual disability: perceptions of women and their spouses in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Owojuyigbe, Michael; Bolorunduro, Miracle-Eunice; Busari, Dauda

    2017-05-01

    Disability encompasses the limitations on an individual's basic physical activities, and the consequent social oppressions such individual faces in society. In this regard, the limitation on the use of some parts of the genitals in a patriarchal system is considered a form of disability. This paper describes the perceptions of and the coping mechanisms employed by affected couples dealing with the consequences of female genital mutilation (FGM) as a form of sexual disability. Cultural Libertarianism was employed as a theoretical framework. The paper presents the results of a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria, with 10 male and 12 female respondents purposively selected through a snowball sampling for in-depth interviews. The findings present the justifications provided for the practice of FGM, and victims' perceptions of how it affects their sexual relations. Furthermore, it highlights coping strategies employed by affected women and their spouses. The study shows that the disabling consequence of FGM is largely sexual in nature, leading to traumatic experiences and negative beliefs about sex, and requiring a myriad of coping strategies employed by the disabled women, and their spouses, which may have its own implications for marital and sexual bliss.

  2. Prevalence and pattern of rape among girls and women attending Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, southeast Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ohayi, Robsam S; Ezugwu, Euzebus C; Chigbu, Chibuike O; Arinze-Onyia, Susan U; Iyoke, Chukwuemeka A

    2015-07-01

    To determine the prevalence and pattern of rape in Enugu, southeast Nigeria. A prospective descriptive study was conducted among female survivors of rape who presented at the emergency gynecologic and/or forensic unit of Enugu State University Teaching Hospital between February 2012 and July 2013. Data were collected via a pretested interviewer-administered questionnaire. Among 1374 gynecologic emergencies, there were 121 (8.8%) rape cases. The mean age of the rape survivors was 13.1±8.1 years. Ninety (74.4%) survivors were younger than 18 years. At least 72 hours had passed since the rape for 74 (61.2%) cases. The perpetrator was known to 74 (82.2%) patients younger than 18 years and 18 (58.1%) aged at least 18 years (P=0.013). The location of the rape was the bush or an uncompleted building for 36 (29.8%) and the perpetrator's residence for another 36 (29.8%). Four (3.3%) individuals became pregnant after the rape. A considerable proportion of patients with gynecologic emergencies had been raped. Individuals should be encouraged to report to the hospital quickly to prevent unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Healthcare waste management status in Lagos State, Nigeria: a case study from selected healthcare facilities in Ikorodu and Lagos metropolis.

    PubMed

    Longe, Ezechiel O

    2012-06-01

    A survey of healthcare waste management practices and their implications for health and the environment was carried out. The study assessed waste management practices in 20 healthcare facilities ranging in capacity from 40 to 600 beds in Ikorodu and metropolitan Lagos, Lagos State, Nigeria. The prevailing healthcare waste management status was analysed. Management issues on quantities and proportion of different constituents of waste, segregation, collection, handling, transportation, treatment and disposal methods were assessed. The waste generation averaged 0.631 kg bed(-1) day(-1) over the survey area. The waste stream from the healthcare facilities consisted of general waste (59.0%), infectious waste (29.7%), sharps and pathological (8.9%), chemical (1.45%) and others (0.95%). Sharps/pathological waste includes disposable syringes. In general, the waste materials were collected in a mixed form, transported and disposed of along with municipal solid waste with attendant risks to health and safety. Most facilities lacked appropriate treatment systems for a variety of reasons that included inadequate funding and little or no priority for healthcare waste management as well as a lack of professionally competent waste managers among healthcare providers. Hazards associated with healthcare waste management and shortcomings in the existing system were identified.

  4. Knowledge, Attitude, and Preventive Practices among Prison Inmates in Ogbomoso Prison at Oyo State, South West Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Saliu, Abdulsalam; Akintunde, Babatunde

    2014-01-01

    Prisoners are at special risk for infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) because of overcrowded prisons, unprotected sex and sexual assault, occurrence of sexual practices that are risky to health, unsafe injecting practices, and inadequate HIV prevention, care, and support services. This study aimed to describe the knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices towards HIV/AIDS by male inmates in Ogbomoso Prison at Oyo State, South West Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional study. A simple random sampling method was employed to select 167 male participants and data were collected using pretested structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. The data were collated and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17. Fifty (29.9%) were in the age group 20–24 years with mean age of 30.99 ± 11.41. About half (50.3%) had been married before incarceration. Family and friends (30%), health care workers (25%), prison staff (20%), and mass media (25%) were the commonest sources of information on HIV/AIDS. Knowledge about HIV was found to be high (94.6%). About 68.9% believed that people with the disease should be avoided. The knowledge about HIV/AIDS among inmates was high, but misconceptions about HIV/AIDS are still rife among the prisoners and educational programs would be required to correct this. PMID:25763397

  5. Sero-epizootiological investigation of infectious laryngotracheitis infection in commercial poultry of Plateau State, north central Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Shittu, Ismaila; Sulaiman, Lanre K; Gado, Dorcas A; Egbuji, Anthony N; Ndahi, Mwapu D; Pam, Ezekiel; Joannis, Tony M

    2016-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease of chickens with outbreaks resulting in high economic losses due to increased mortality and drop in egg production. This study reports a survey of ILT virus antibody conducted in nine local government areas (LGAs) of Plateau State involving 67 randomly selected commercial poultry flocks. In all, 938 sera were tested using the Agar Gel Immuno-diffusion (AGID) technique. Overall prevalence of 1.2% (N = 11) was recorded. ILT virus antibody was found in 2.5% (n = 9) and 7.1% (n = 2) of the tested sera from Jos South and Langtang North LGAs, respectively. No detectable ILT virus antibody was found from the other seven LGAs. This is the first report of ILT infection in poultry from the North central part of Nigeria. It is therefore recommended that the economic implication of ILT infection in Nigerian poultry population be conducted in order to know if vaccination should be adopted for control.

  6. Examining equity in access to long-lasting insecticide nets and artemisinin-based combination therapy in Anambra State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Mbachu, Chinyere O; Onwujekwe, Obinna E; Uzochukwu, Benjamin S C; Uchegbu, Eloka; Oranuba, Joseph; Ilika, Amobi L

    2012-05-22

    In order to achieve universal health coverage, the government of Anambra State, southeast Nigeria has distributed free Long-lasting Insecticide treated Nets (LLINs) to the general population and delivered free Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT) to pregnant women and children less than 5 years. However, the levels of coverage with LLINS and ACTs is not clear, especially coverage of different socio-economic status (SES) population groups. This study was carried out to determine the level of coverage and access to LLINs and ACTs amongst different SES groups. A questionnaire was used to collect data from randomly selected households in 19 local government areas of the State. Selected households had a pregnant woman and/or a child less than 5 years. The lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) methodology was used in sampling. The questionnaire explored the availability and utilization of LLINs and ACTs from 2394 households. An asset-based SES index was used to examine the level of access of LLINS and ACTs to different SES quintiles. It was found that 80.5% of the households had an LLIN and 64.4% of the households stated that they actually used the nets the previous night. The findings showed that 42.3% of pregnant women who had fever within the past month received ACTs, while 37.5% of children<5 years old who had malaria in the past month had received ACTs. There was equity in ownership of nets for the range 1-5 nets per household. No significant SES difference was found in use of ACTs for treatment of malaria in children under five years old and in pregnant women. The free distribution of LLINs and ACTs increased household coverage of both malaria control interventions and bridged the equity gap in access to them among the most vulnerable groups.

  7. Examining equity in access to long-lasting insecticide nets and artemisinin-based combination therapy in Anambra state, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In order to achieve universal health coverage, the government of Anambra State, southeast Nigeria has distributed free Long-lasting Insecticide treated Nets (LLINs) to the general population and delivered free Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT) to pregnant women and children less than 5 years. However, the levels of coverage with LLINS and ACTs is not clear, especially coverage of different socio-economic status (SES) population groups. This study was carried out to determine the level of coverage and access to LLINs and ACTs amongst different SES groups. Methods A questionnaire was used to collect data from randomly selected households in 19 local government areas of the State. Selected households had a pregnant woman and/or a child less than 5 years. The lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) methodology was used in sampling. The questionnaire explored the availability and utilization of LLINs and ACTs from 2394 households. An asset-based SES index was used to examine the level of access of LLINS and ACTs to different SES quintiles. Results It was found that 80.5 % of the households had an LLIN and 64.4 % of the households stated that they actually used the nets the previous night. The findings showed that 42.3 % of pregnant women who had fever within the past month received ACTs, while 37.5 % of children ≪5 years old who had malaria in the past month had received ACTs. There was equity in ownership of nets for the range 1–5 nets per household. No significant SES difference was found in use of ACTs for treatment of malaria in children under five years old and in pregnant women. Conclusions The free distribution of LLINs and ACTs increased household coverage of both malaria control interventions and bridged the equity gap in access to them among the most vulnerable groups. PMID:22545723

  8. Teachers' Perception and Implementation of Continuous Assessment Practices in Secondary Schools in Ekiti-State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modup, Ale Veronica; Sunday, Omirin Michael

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the practices and implementation of continuous assessment in Ekiti State Secondary Schools with special interest in Ado Local Government. The population for the study was the whole number of teachers in Ekiti State secondary school and the sample for the study was 160 secondary school teachers who were randomly selected from…

  9. School Dropout Pattern among Senior Secondary Schools in Delta State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajaja, O. Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The major purpose of this study was to determine the pattern of dropout among secondary school students in Delta State. To guide this study, 7 research questions were asked and answered, 3 hypotheses stated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The design of study was ex post facto using the past school attendance registers as the major…

  10. Sexual behavior and experience of sexual coercion among secondary school students in three states in North Eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ajuwon, Ademola J; Olaleye, Adeniyi; Faromoju, Banji; Ladipo, Oladapo

    2006-12-23

    Interest in the reproductive health of adolescents continues to grow throughout the world. Few studies had explored the reproductive health knowledge, sexual behavior and experience of sexual coercion among secondary school students in North Eastern states of Nigeria. The objectives of this descriptive survey were to collect data to plan appropriate interventions that meet the reproductive health knowledge, service and skills needs of students in Bauchi, Borno and Gombe states. Face-to-face interviews were conducted for 624 consenting students who were randomly selected from eighteen secondary schools using an 83-item structured questionnaire. Data were collected on demographic profile, reproductive health knowledge, sexual behavior and experience of sexual coercion. The mean age of the respondents was 16.5 years. There were slightly more males (52%) than females (48%). Students' knowledge about reproductive health was generally low even though girls had better knowledge than boys. Thirteen percent of the entire students had had sexual experience; significantly more males (19%) than females (6%) had done so (p < 0.001). Among boys the age at sexual debut ranged from 10-26 with a mean of 15.7 and median of 16. By contrast, the age at first sex among girls ranged from 10 to 18 years with a mean and median of 16.1 and 17 years respectively. Only 24% of those who were sexually active used a condom during their last sexual encounter. Overall 11% of the students reported that they had been tricked into having sex, 9% had experienced unwanted touch of breast and backside, and 5% reported rape. Students low reproductive health knowledge and involvement in risky sexual activities predispose them to undesirable reproductive health outcomes.

  11. Sexual behavior and experience of sexual coercion among secondary school students in three states in North Eastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ajuwon, Ademola J; Olaleye, Adeniyi; Faromoju, Banji; Ladipo, Oladapo

    2006-01-01

    Background Interest in the reproductive health of adolescents continues to grow throughout the world. Few studies had explored the reproductive health knowledge, sexual behavior and experience of sexual coercion among secondary school students in North Eastern states of Nigeria. The objectives of this descriptive survey were to collect data to plan appropriate interventions that meet the reproductive health knowledge, service and skills needs of students in Bauchi, Borno and Gombe states. Methods Face-to-face interviews were conducted for 624 consenting students who were randomly selected from eighteen secondary schools using an 83-item structured questionnaire. Data were collected on demographic profile, reproductive health knowledge, sexual behavior and experience of sexual coercion. Results The mean age of the respondents was 16.5 years. There were slightly more males (52%) than females (48%). Students' knowledge about reproductive health was generally low even though girls had better knowledge than boys. Thirteen percent of the entire students had had sexual experience; significantly more males (19%) than females (6%) had done so (p < 0.001). Among boys the age at sexual debut ranged from 10–26 with a mean of 15.7 and median of 16. By contrast, the age at first sex among girls ranged from 10 to 18 years with a mean and median of 16.1 and 17 years respectively. Only 24% of those who were sexually active used a condom during their last sexual encounter. Overall 11% of the students reported that they had been tricked into having sex, 9% had experienced unwanted touch of breast and backside, and 5% reported rape. Conclusion Students low reproductive health knowledge and involvement in risky sexual activities predispose them to undesirable reproductive health outcomes. PMID:17187685

  12. Assessing exclusive breastfeeding practices, dietary intakes and body mass index (BMI) of nursing mothers in Ekiti State of Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Breastfeeding is an unequalled way of providing ideal food for the infants. The benefits of breastfeeding practices to infants and mothers are well documented. However, information on breastfeeding practices and its effect on body mass index (BMI) of mothers are scarce, particularly in Ekiti State of Nigeria. Therefore, the present study is designed to assess breastfeeding practices and its association with BMI of mothers. A descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted among breastfeeding mothers that attended postnatal clinic of the state specialist hospitals and maternity centers in the study location. The specialist hospital and two-third of the nine maternity centers were purposively selected because of their health facilities and personnel. The mother-child pairs (200 respondents) were randomly selected from the study locations. Information on demographic characteristic, socio-economic parameters, nutritional knowledge of breastfeeding and dietary intakes of mothers were collected using questionnaires. BMI of mothers was determined as described by World Health Organization. Age distribution of mothers was between 25-34 years; and almost half of respondents had good educational background and were engaged in different occupations. The respondent monthly income ranged between = N = 3500 - 26000 ($26.92 - $200); and their dietary intakes varied between starchy and protein-based food. The result also showed that the respondent consumed enough nutrients to meet up the recommended daily allowance for protein, carbohydrate, fat, zinc, magnesium, sodium and phosphorous requirements. The BMI classifications showed that over three-fifth of respondents were normal, while the remaining were underweight (6%) and overweight/obese (26.5%). Also, large proportion of respondents engaged in exclusive breastfeeding and with good knowledge of breastfeeding practices. Statistically, exclusive breastfeeding practices had no correlation between the BMI and frequency of

  13. Assessing exclusive breastfeeding practices, dietary intakes and body mass index (BMI) of nursing mothers in Ekiti State of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ijarotimi, Oluwole Steve

    2010-06-01

    Breastfeeding is an unequalled way of providing ideal food for the infants. The benefits of breastfeeding practices to infants and mothers are well documented. However, information on breastfeeding practices and its effect on body mass index (BMI) of mothers are scarce, particularly in Ekiti State of Nigeria. Therefore, the present study is designed to assess breastfeeding practices and its association with BMI of mothers. A descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted among breastfeeding mothers that attended postnatal clinic of the state specialist hospitals and maternity centers in the study location. The specialist hospital and two-third of the nine maternity centers were purposively selected because of their health facilities and personnel. The mother-child pairs (200 respondents) were randomly selected from the study locations. Information on demographic characteristic, socio-economic parameters, nutritional knowledge of breastfeeding and dietary intakes of mothers were collected using questionnaires. BMI of mothers was determined as described by World Health Organization. Age distribution of mothers was between 25-34 years; and almost half of respondents had good educational background and were engaged in different occupations. The respondent monthly income ranged between = N = 3500 - 26000 ($26.92 - $200); and their dietary intakes varied between starchy and protein-based food. The result also showed that the respondent consumed enough nutrients to meet up the recommended daily allowance for protein, carbohydrate, fat, zinc, magnesium, sodium and phosphorous requirements. The BMI classifications showed that over three-fifth of respondents were normal, while the remaining were underweight (6%) and overweight/obese (26.5%). Also, large proportion of respondents engaged in exclusive breastfeeding and with good knowledge of breastfeeding practices. Statistically, exclusive breastfeeding practices had no correlation between the BMI and frequency of

  14. Socio-Demographic Determinants of Maternal Health-Care Service Utilization Among Rural Women in Anambra State, South East Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Emelumadu, OF; Ukegbu, AU; Ezeama, NN; Kanu, OO; Ifeadike, CO; Onyeonoro, UU

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although, antenatal care (ANC) attendance in sub Saharan Africa is high, however this does not always translate into quality ANC care service utilization. Aim: This study therefore is aimed at exploring pattern of maternal health (MH) services utilization and the socio-demographic factors influencing it in Anambra State, South East Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: A total of 310 women of reproductive age with a previous history of gestation attending ANC services between September, 2007 and August, 2008 in selected Primary Health Centers in Anambra State were studied. Responses were elicited from the study participants using a pre-tested, semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17 (SPSS Inc, Chicago Illinois, USA). Association between socio-demographic characteristics and pattern of utilization of ANC and delivery services was measured using χ2-test, Regression analysis was done to identify factors associated with utilization of MH services. P < 0.05 was assumed to be significant. Results: Use of health facility was 293 (97.0%) and 277 (92,7%) out 302 women for ANC and delivery services respectively. Most women attended their first ANC consultation during the preceding pregnancy was after the first trimester and about 31% (94/298) of them had <4 ANC visits prior to delivery. Socio-demographic factors were found to be significantly associated with places where MH care services are accessed. Parity was found to be associated with timing of ANC booking and number of ANC attendance (χ2 = 9.49, P = 0.05). Odds of utilizing formal health facility for MH services were found to be significantly associated with increasing age (P < 0.01) and educational status of mothers (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The study revealed high maternal service utilization and 10% fetal loss, hence the need to address the gaps of late ANC booking and low ANC visits. PMID:24971212

  15. Malaria prevalence, anemia and baseline intervention coverage prior to mass net distributions in Abia and Plateau States, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nigeria suffers the world’s largest malaria burden, with approximately 51 million cases and 207,000 deaths annually. As part of the country’s aim to reduce by 50% malaria-related morbidity and mortality by 2013, it embarked on mass distribution of free long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). Methods Prior to net distribution campaigns in Abia and Plateau States, Nigeria, a modified malaria indicator survey was conducted in September 2010 to determine baseline state-level estimates of Plasmodium prevalence, childhood anemia, indoor residual spraying (IRS) coverage and bednet ownership and utilization. Results Overall age-adjusted prevalence of Plasmodium infection by microscopy was similar between Abia (36.1%, 95% CI: 32.3%–40.1%; n = 2,936) and Plateau (36.6%, 95% CI: 31.3%–42.3%; n = 4,209), with prevalence highest among children 5-9 years. P. malariae accounted for 32.0% of infections in Abia, but only 1.4% of infections in Plateau. More than half of children ≤10 years were anemic, with anemia significantly higher in Abia (76.9%, 95% CI: 72.1%–81.0%) versus Plateau (57.1%, 95% CI: 50.6%–63.4%). Less than 1% of households in Abia (n = 1,305) or Plateau (n = 1,335) received IRS in the 12 months prior to survey. Household ownership of at least one bednet of any type was 10.1% (95% CI: 7.5%–13.4%) in Abia and 35.1% (95% CI: 29.2%-41.5%) in Plateau. Ownership of two or more bednets was 2.1% (95% CI: 1.2%–3.7%) in Abia and 14.5% (95% CI: 10.2%–20.3%) in Plateau. Overall reported net use the night before the survey among all individuals, children <5 years, and pregnant women was 3.4%, 6.0% and 5.7%, respectively in Abia and 14.7%, 19.1% and 21.0%, respectively in Plateau. Among households owning nets, 34.4% of children <5 years and 31.6% of pregnant women in Abia used a net, compared to 52.6% of children and 62.7% of pregnant women in Plateau. Conclusions These results reveal high Plasmodium prevalence and childhood

  16. Resource Availability and Distribution in Public and Private Special Education Schools in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ntukidem, Peter James; Ntukidem, Eno Peter; Eyo, Eno Etudor

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the availability and distribution of staff and facilities/equipment in private and public special needs schools in Cross River State. Sixty-nine (69) teachers and three (3) principals of these schools constituted the sample size of the study. One hypothesis and one research question were postulated to guide the study. The…

  17. Stress among Secondary School Teachers in Ebonyi State, Nigeria: Suggested Interventions in the Worksite Milieu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwimo, Ignatius O.; Onwunaka, Chinagorom

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the level of stress experienced by secondary school teachers in Ebonyi State. The dimensions of stress studied included physical stress, mental stress, emotional stress and social stress. The study adopted the cross-sectional survey design using a sample of 660 (male 259, female 401) teachers randomly drawn…

  18. Non-Timber Forest Products' Marketing in Nigeria. A Case Study of Osun State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiyeloja, Adedapo Ayo; Ajewole, Opeyemi Isaac

    2006-01-01

    Research on markets and marketing of some non-timber forest products (NTFPs) was carried out in selected locations of Osun State. The NTFPs considered are chewing sticks such as "Massularia acuminata" and bush meat like "Thryonomys swinderianus", representing both the flora and fauna aspects of NTFPs, respectively. Five Local…

  19. Leadership among Secondary School Agricultural Science Teachers and Their Job Performance in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben, Camilus Bassey

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to investigate leadership among secondary school Agricultural Science teachers and their job performance in Akwa Ibom State. To achieve the aim of this study, three research hypotheses were generated to direct the study. Literature was reviewed based on the variables derived from the postulated hypotheses. Survey…

  20. The Causes of Instability in Nigeria and Implications for the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    though it had previously epitomized the slogan “home of peace and tourism .”166 Here indigenous politicians and groups fear and denigrate Muslim...northern state of violence-prone Kaduna, for example, the Committee on Inter-Religious Harmony is chaired by the gover - nor to identify causes of

  1. The Impact of Instructional Supervision on Academic Performance of Secondary School Students in Nasarawa State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usman, Yunusa Dangara

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the Impact of Instructional Supervision on Academic Performance of Secondary School Students in Nasarawa State with reference to Senior Secondary Certificate Examination (SSCE). Five research questions were used to guide the study to a rational conclusion. Descriptive Survey method was adopted in which Instructional Supervision…

  2. Attitude towards Pre-Marital Genetic Screening among Students of Osun State Polytechnics in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odelola, J. O.; Adisa, O.; Akintaro, O. A.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the attitude towards pre-marital genetic screening among students of Osun State Polytechnics. Descriptive survey design was used for the study. The instrument for data collection was self developed and structured questionnaire in four-point likert scale format. Descriptive statistics of frequency count and percentages were…

  3. Marketing Strategies and Students' Enrolment in Private Secondary Schools in Calabar Municipality, Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uchendu, Chika C.; Nwafor, Innocent A.; Nwaneri, Mary G.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated marketing strategies and students' enrolment in private secondary schools in Calabar Municipality, Cross River State. One research question was raised and two null hypotheses formulated to guide the study. Thirty two (32) school administrators in 32 private secondary schools in the study area constitute the study population…

  4. School Environment and Satisfaction with Schooling among Primary School Pupils in Ondo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aina, Stephen Ileoye

    2015-01-01

    Modern school environments put emphasis on adequate and qualitative facilities to promote conducive teaching and learning environments, the deplorable conditions of the primary schools has become worrisome to the state government and education stakeholders. The study investigated the school environment and pupils' satisfaction with schooling in…

  5. School Types, Facilities and Academic Performance of Students in Senior Secondary Schools in Ondo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alimi, Olatunji Sabitu; Ehinola, Gabriel Babatunde; Alabi, Festus Oluwole

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated the influence of school types and facilities on students' academic performance in Ondo State. It was designed to find out whether facilities and students' academic performance are related in private and public secondary schools respectively. Descriptive survey design was used. Proportionate random sampling technique was used…

  6. Uses and Gratification of the Internet among Mass Communication Students in Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olise, Festus; Makka, Emotongha Job

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the uses and gratification of the Internet among students in the Department of Mass Communication, Delta State University (DELSU) Abraka. The study became necessary following the influx of and increase in the use of the Internet in education, which portends functional as well as dysfunctional roles on students if not…

  7. Perceived Sources of Occupational Stress among Primary School Teachers in Delta State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akpochafo, G. O.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the most prevalent sources of occupational stress and also the demographic variables of gender, age and length of service among primary school teachers in Delta State. Two research questions and three hypotheses guided the study. The study used a descriptive survey design. The population was the primary school teachers in…

  8. Teaching, Academic Achievement, and Attitudes toward Mathematics in the United States and Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, S. Marshall; Catapano, Michael; Ramon, Olosunde Gbolagade

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the relationships among attitudes toward mathematics, teaching, and academic achievement in mathematics. Based on the contextual and social nature of academic self-concept, two complementary studies are discussed. The first study from the northeastern United States examined the relationships among these variables in 84 high…

  9. Hepatobiliary Ultrasonographic Abnormalities in Adult Patients with Sickle Cell Anaemia in Steady State in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oguntoye, Oluwatosin O; Ndububa, Dennis A; Yusuf, Musah; Bolarinwa, Rahman A; Ayoola, Oluwagbemiga O

    2017-01-01

    Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is associated with structural manifestations in the hepatobiliary axis. This study aimed to investigate the hepatobiliary ultrasonographic abnormalities in adult patients with sickle cell anaemia in steady state attending the Haematology clinic of a federal tertiary health institution in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Basic demographic data as well as right upper abdominal quadrant ultrasonography of 50 consecutive sickle cell anaemia patients were compared with those of 50 age- and sex-matched subjects with HbAA as controls. Each of the study groups (patients and controls) comprised of 21 (42%) males and 29 (58%) females. The age range of the patients was 18-45 years with a mean (±SD) of 27.6±7.607 years, while that of the controls was 21-43 years with a mean (±SD) of 28.0±5.079 years (p=0.746). Amongst the patients, 32 (64%) had hepatomegaly, 15 (30%) cholelithiasis and 3 (6%) biliary sludge. Fourteen (28%) of the patients had normal hepatobiliary ultrasound findings. In the control group, one (2%) person had cholelithiasis, one (2%) biliary sludge, one (2%) fatty liver and none hepatomegaly. Forty-seven (94%) of the controls had normal hepatobiliary ultrasound findings. There was a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of hepatomegaly and cholelithiasis between the patients and controls (p value <0.001 for both comparisons). In this study, hepatomegaly, cholelithiasis and biliary sludge were the most common hepatobiliary ultrasound findings in patients with sickle cell anaemia. Ultrasonography is a useful tool for assessing hepatobiliary abnormalities in patients with sickle cell anaemia.

  10. Quality assessment and public health status of harvested rainwater in a peri-urban community in Edo State of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Igbinosa, Isoken H; Aighewi, Isoken T

    2017-08-01

    The harvested rainwater is an alternative water source in communities where there is limited or scarcity of water distribution system. However, contamination of roof-harvested rainwater is of immense concern to the general public health. Therefore, this study was initiated to assess the levels of physicochemical quality and heavy metal concentrations in the harvested rainwater from Oluku communities in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. The roof-harvested rainwater samples were collected from 20 independent different residential households in Oluku communities, between April 2015 and September 2015. Physicochemical analyses were carried out using standard analytical methods, and heavy metal concentrations were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The evaluation of the rainwater harvesting shows that 60% (12/20) of the roofs were made of corrugated iron sheets; aluminum sheets, 20% (4/20); asbestos, 10% (2/20); and open space was 10% (2/20). Also, the storage systems used for the storage of harvested rainwater were as follows: PVC tanks, 20% (4/20); drums, 30% (6/20); buckets, 25% (5/20); and wells, 25% (5/20). The physicochemical indicators investigated (temperature, nitrate, chlorine content, electrical conductivity, phosphate, total dissolved solids, and sulfate) were within World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. However, some pH levels of the roof-harvested rainwater were acidic and below the WHO standard. Furthermore, a high value of turbidity was observed in some locations and exceeded the WHO guidelines. Though some heavy metal indicators (Zn, Na, K, and Ca) in this study were within the WHO guidelines, some locations revealed heavy metal (Cu, Fe, and Cd) concentrations slightly above the WHO guidelines. There is need for proper rainwater harvesting system and continuous monitoring of harvested rainwater for potable uses.

  11. Health care workers' knowledge and attitude towards TB patients under Direct Observation of Treatment in Plateau state Nigeria, 2011.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Luka Mangveep; Hadjia, Idris Suleiman; Nguku, Patrick; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya Endie; Akhimien, Moses Obiemen; Patrobas, Phillip; Nsubuga, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a public health problem in Nigeria. Adherence to the total duration of treatment is critical to cure the patients. We explored the knowledge of the health care workers on management of TB patients including their perceived reasons for patient non adherence to treatment to develop strategies to improve the quality of the TB control service in the state. We conducted a cross sectional study. We used self administered questionnaire to extract information from the health workers on their trainings for TB control, knowledge of the control services, patients' education including prevention of defaulting from treatment. We conducted focus group discussion with the health care workers. We performed descriptive analysis using epiInfo software. Of the 76 respondents 41 (53.9%) were female, 39.9% were community health extension workers, 26.3% were nurses/midwifes 30.3% lacked training on management of TB patient. Only 43.4% knew when to take action on patients who miss their drugs in the intensive phase, 30.3% and 35.5% knew defaults among category 1 and category 2 in the continuation phases of treatment respectively. They identified side effects of drugs (80%), daily clinic attendance (76.3%), health workers attitude (73.4%) and lack of knowledge on duration of treatment (71.1%) including their unfriendly attitudes towards the patients as the major barriers to patients' adherence to treatment. Lack of knowledge of the health care workers on management of TB patients and poor interpersonal relation and communication with patients have negative effect on patients' adherence to the long duration of TB treatment.

  12. Assessing Factors that affect Childbirth Choices of People living positively with HIV/AIDS in Abia State of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Enwereji, Ezinne E; Enwereji, Kelechi O

    2010-04-01

    Poor interpersonal relationships with women especially those living positively with HIV/AIDS can make them take risks that would expose their new born and others to infection during childbirth. The factors that influence childbirth choices of people living positively with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) deserve attention. Sometimes, women, especially PLWHA, for several reasons, resort to the use of other health care services instead of the general hospitals equipped for ante-natal care (ANC). This study aims to identify factors and conditions that determine childbirth choices of PLWHA in the Abia State of Nigeria. A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out using a total sample of 96 PLWHA who attend meetings with the network of PLWHA and also a purposive convenience sample of 45 health workers. Data collection instruments were questionnaire, focus group discussions and interview guides. Data was analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively using simple percentages. There was a low patronage for hospital services. A total of 79 (82%) PLWHA did not use hospital services due to the lack of confidentiality. In total, 61 (64%) PLWHA had their childbirth with Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) at home. Embarrassment, rejection, interpersonal conflicts with health workers, non-confidentiality, cultural stigma and stigmatization were among the factors that encouraged childbirth choices. On the whole, 82 (85%) of the PLWHA discontinued ANC services because of stigmatization. Poor interpersonal relationships between health workers and PLWHA facilitated PLWHA childbirth choices more than other factors. PLWHA and health workers termed management of belligerent tendencies against each other as their greatest concern. Therefore, concerted effort is needed to improve health workers/PLWHA relationship in hospitals. This would minimize factors and/or conditions that encourage HIV infection. Exposing PLWHA to factors that influence childbirth at home demonstrates high risks of mother

  13. PERIPHERAL PARASITAEMIA AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH PLASMA CYTOKINES LEVELS IN MALARIA-INFECTED PREGNANT WOMEN IN ABA, ABIA STATE, NIGERIA

    PubMed Central

    Ifeanyichukwu, M.O.; Okamgba, O.C.; Amilo, G.I.; Nwokorie, E.A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cytokines in pregnant female may not be a normal phenomenon as malarial infection is often associated with strong CD4+ cell activation and up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We investigated the relationship between peripheral parasitaemia and plasma levels of cytokines among malaria infected pregnant women in Aba, Abia State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 206 non-HIV positive asymptomatic malaria parasitaemic (n=144) and non-parasitaemic (n=62) pregnant women were recruited for this study alongside 80 non-pregnant women who served as positive (n=40) and negative (n=40) controls. Blood samples were aseptically collected from each subject and tested for HIV and malaria parasites using standard methods. Also, plasma levels of cytokines were measured using Th1/Th2 human cytokine ELISA kits (Abcam, UK). Analysis of Variance and Student’s t-test were used for Comparison of groups while Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient was used for tests of association. Results: The results revealed a mean parasite density of 685.56±484.55 parasites/µl of blood. Malaria infected pregnant subjects showed significantly higher levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 when compared with their non-infected counterparts (P< 0.05). The cytokines evaluated were higher in moderate parasitaemia than mild parasitaemia. Positive correlation existed between peripheral parasite density (PPD) and IL-4 (r= 0.24, P=0.004), PPD and IL-6 (r = 0.35, P = 0.001) as well as PPD and IL-10 (r = 0.29, P = 0.001). Conclusion: This study showed that increase in peripheral parasitaemia increased levels of some plasma cytokines (IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10) but not IFN-γ and TNF-α in the malaria infected pregnant women studied. PMID:28670640

  14. PERIPHERAL PARASITAEMIA AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH PLASMA CYTOKINES LEVELS IN MALARIA-INFECTED PREGNANT WOMEN IN ABA, ABIA STATE, NIGERIA.

    PubMed

    Ifeanyichukwu, M O; Okamgba, O C; Amilo, G I; Nwokorie, E A

    2017-01-01

    Cytokines in pregnant female may not be a normal phenomenon as malarial infection is often associated with strong CD4+ cell activation and up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We investigated the relationship between peripheral parasitaemia and plasma levels of cytokines among malaria infected pregnant women in Aba, Abia State, Nigeria. A total of 206 non-HIV positive asymptomatic malaria parasitaemic (n=144) and non-parasitaemic (n=62) pregnant women were recruited for this study alongside 80 non-pregnant women who served as positive (n=40) and negative (n=40) controls. Blood samples were aseptically collected from each subject and tested for HIV and malaria parasites using standard methods. Also, plasma levels of cytokines were measured using Th1/Th2 human cytokine ELISA kits (Abcam, UK). Analysis of Variance and Student's t-test were used for Comparison of groups while Pearson's Correlation Coefficient was used for tests of association. The results revealed a mean parasite density of 685.56±484.55 parasites/µl of blood. Malaria infected pregnant subjects showed significantly higher levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 when compared with their non-infected counterparts (P< 0.05). The cytokines evaluated were higher in moderate parasitaemia than mild parasitaemia. Positive correlation existed between peripheral parasite density (PPD) and IL-4 (r= 0.24, P=0.004), PPD and IL-6 (r = 0.35, P = 0.001) as well as PPD and IL-10 (r = 0.29, P = 0.001). This study showed that increase in peripheral parasitaemia increased levels of some plasma cytokines (IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10) but not IFN-γ and TNF-α in the malaria infected pregnant women studied.

  15. Assessing Factors that affect Childbirth Choices of People living positively with HIV/AIDS in Abia State of Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Enwereji, Ezinne E.; Enwereji, Kelechi O.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Poor interpersonal relationships with women especially those living positively with HIV/AIDS can make them take risks that would expose their new born and others to infection during childbirth. The factors that influence childbirth choices of people living positively with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) deserve attention. Sometimes, women, especially PLWHA, for several reasons, resort to the use of other health care services instead of the general hospitals equipped for ante-natal care (ANC). This study aims to identify factors and conditions that determine childbirth choices of PLWHA in the Abia State of Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out using a total sample of 96 PLWHA who attend meetings with the network of PLWHA and also a purposive convenience sample of 45 health workers. Data collection instruments were questionnaire, focus group discussions and interview guides. Data was analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively using simple percentages. Results There was a low patronage for hospital services. A total of 79 (82%) PLWHA did not use hospital services due to the lack of confidentiality. In total, 61 (64%) PLWHA had their childbirth with Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) at home. Embarrassment, rejection, interpersonal conflicts with health workers, non-confidentiality, cultural stigma and stigmatization were among the factors that encouraged childbirth choices. On the whole, 82 (85%) of the PLWHA discontinued ANC services because of stigmatization. Conclusion Poor interpersonal relationships between health workers and PLWHA facilitated PLWHA childbirth choices more than other factors. PLWHA and health workers termed management of belligerent tendencies against each other as their greatest concern. Therefore, concerted effort is needed to improve health workers/PLWHA relationship in hospitals. This would minimize factors and/or conditions that encourage HIV infection. Exposing PLWHA to factors that influence childbirth at

  16. Dietary practices and nutritional status of under-five children in rural and urban communities of Lagos State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Senbanjo, Idowu O; Olayiwola, Ibiyemi O; Afolabi, Wasiu A O

    2016-01-01

    Evidence shows that urban children generally have a better nutritional status than their rural counterparts. However, data establishing whether this difference in prevalence of undernutrition could be ascribed to difference in dietary practices are few. The aim of this study was to compare dietary practices and nutritional status of children in rural and urban communities of Lagos State, Nigeria. This was a comparative-analytical study conducted using the multistage sampling technique to select the study cases. A total of 300 mother-child pairs were studied, including 150 each from rural and urban communities. Data collected include demographics, socioeconomic characteristics, feeding practices and anthropometric measurements of the participants. Food intake data were collected using 24-h dietary recall. Malnutrition in children was determined by calculating the prevalence of low height-for-age (stunting), low weight-for-age (underweight), and low weight-for-height (wasting) using the World Health Organization cutoff points. The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months (25.3% vs. 28.7%; P = 0.516), use of formula feeds (48.7% vs. 44%; P = 0.077), and mean age of child at introduction of semisolid foods (7.54 ± 4.0 months vs. 8.51 ± 7.3 months; P = 0.117) were not significantly different between urban and rural communities. The diversity of food choices and frequencies of consumption were similar between urban and rural communities. However, prevalence levels of underweight and stunted children were significantly higher in rural than that of urban communities (19.4% vs. 9.3%, P < 0.001 and 43.3% vs. 12.6%, P < 0.001, respectively). Other risk factors besides inappropriate feeding practices need to be considered for higher prevalence of undernutrition among children in rural communities.

  17. Dietary practices and nutritional status of under-five children in rural and urban communities of Lagos State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Senbanjo, Idowu O.; Olayiwola, Ibiyemi O.; Afolabi, Wasiu A. O.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence shows that urban children generally have a better nutritional status than their rural counterparts. However, data establishing whether this difference in prevalence of undernutrition could be ascribed to difference in dietary practices are few. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare dietary practices and nutritional status of children in rural and urban communities of Lagos State, Nigeria. Methods: This was a comparative-analytical study conducted using the multistage sampling technique to select the study cases. A total of 300 mother–child pairs were studied, including 150 each from rural and urban communities. Data collected include demographics, socioeconomic characteristics, feeding practices and anthropometric measurements of the participants. Food intake data were collected using 24-h dietary recall. Malnutrition in children was determined by calculating the prevalence of low height-for-age (stunting), low weight-for-age (underweight), and low weight-for-height (wasting) using the World Health Organization cutoff points. Results: The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months (25.3% vs. 28.7%; P = 0.516), use of formula feeds (48.7% vs. 44%; P = 0.077), and mean age of child at introduction of semisolid foods (7.54 ± 4.0 months vs. 8.51 ± 7.3 months; P = 0.117) were not significantly different between urban and rural communities. The diversity of food choices and frequencies of consumption were similar between urban and rural communities. However, prevalence levels of underweight and stunted children were significantly higher in rural than that of urban communities (19.4% vs. 9.3%, P < 0.001 and 43.3% vs. 12.6%, P < 0.001, respectively). Conclusions: Other risk factors besides inappropriate feeding practices need to be considered for higher prevalence of undernutrition among children in rural communities. PMID:27942096

  18. Maternal and child under-nutrition in rural and urban communities of Lagos state, Nigeria: the relationship and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Senbanjo, Idowu O; Olayiwola, Ibiyemi O; Afolabi, Wasiu A; Senbanjo, Olayinka C

    2013-07-23

    Poor nutritional status of mothers has a direct and indirect consequence on their own health and that of their children. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between nutritional status of mothers and their children and the risk factors for under-nutrition among mothers and children in rural and urban communities of Lagos State, Nigeria. This was a cross sectional survey conducted using the multistage random sampling technique. A total of 300 mother-child pairs were studied, consisting of 150 each from rural and urban communities. Under-nutrition in mothers and children was determined using standard criteria. The prevalence of under-nutrition among mothers was significantly higher in rural than urban communities (10.7% vs. 2.7%, p = 0.014). The prevalences of underweight and stunted children were also significantly higher in rural than urban communities (19.4% vs. 9.3%, p < 0.001) and (43.3% vs. 12.6%, p < 0.001) respectively. In rural communities, the risk of stunted mothers having children with stunting was about 7 times higher than those who were not (OR 6.7, 95% CI = 1.4-32.0, p = 0.007). In urban communities, undernourished mothers have about 11 and 12 times risk of having children with underweight and wasting respectively (OR 11.2, 95% CI = 1.4-86.5, p = 0.005) and (OR 12.3, 95% CI = 1.6-95.7, p = 0.003) respectively. The identified risk factors for maternal and child under nutrition differs across rural and urban communities. The prevalence of maternal and child under-nutrition is high in both communities although higher in rural communities. Efforts at reducing the vicious cycle of under-nutrition among mothers and children should concentrate on addressing risk factors specific for each community.

  19. Hepatobiliary Ultrasonographic Abnormalities in Adult Patients with Sickle Cell Anaemia in Steady State in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oguntoye, Oluwatosin O.; Ndububa, Dennis A.; Yusuf, Musah; Bolarinwa, Rahman A.; Ayoola, Oluwagbemiga O.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is associated with structural manifestations in the hepatobiliary axis. This study aimed to investigate the hepatobiliary ultrasonographic abnormalities in adult patients with sickle cell anaemia in steady state attending the Haematology clinic of a federal tertiary health institution in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Material/Methods Basic demographic data as well as right upper abdominal quadrant ultrasonography of 50 consecutive sickle cell anaemia patients were compared with those of 50 age- and sex-matched subjects with HbAA as controls. Results Each of the study groups (patients and controls) comprised of 21 (42%) males and 29 (58%) females. The age range of the patients was 18–45 years with a mean (±SD) of 27.6±7.607 years, while that of the controls was 21–43 years with a mean (±SD) of 28.0±5.079 years (p=0.746). Amongst the patients, 32 (64%) had hepatomegaly, 15 (30%) cholelithiasis and 3 (6%) biliary sludge. Fourteen (28%) of the patients had normal hepatobiliary ultrasound findings. In the control group, one (2%) person had cholelithiasis, one (2%) biliary sludge, one (2%) fatty liver and none hepatomegaly. Forty-seven (94%) of the controls had normal hepatobiliary ultrasound findings. There was a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of hepatomegaly and cholelithiasis between the patients and controls (p value <0.001 for both comparisons). Conclusions In this study, hepatomegaly, cholelithiasis and biliary sludge were the most common hepatobiliary ultrasound findings in patients with sickle cell anaemia. Ultrasonography is a useful tool for assessing hepatobiliary abnormalities in patients with sickle cell anaemia. PMID:28105246

  20. Prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis antibodies in a healthy population in a South-Eastern State of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Chinedu, Awujo N; Seema, Bibi; Gladys, Anyanwu O

    2008-01-01

    To determine the seroprevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in apparently healthy residents of two densely-populated and model settlement nucleated towns of Akwakuma and Orji in Owerri North Local Government Area of Imo State, South Eastern Nigeria. Antibodies to M. tuberculosis in human serum or plasma were qualitatively detected in four hundred and eighty individuals using the one step TB 1gG/1gM two sided-lateral flow chromatographic immunoassay. The prevalence of M. tuberculosis antibodies in the study population was 6.67%. However, the prevalence was significantly higher (p<0.05) in sera of inhabitants of Orji (8.33%) than in those of Akwakuma (5.56%). Generally, in both communities, the females were significantly (p<0.05) more sero-positive for M. tuberculosis antibodies (8.57%) than the males (4.0%). The antibodies were most prevalent (22.2%) in persons between the ages of 20 and 29 years. No M. tuberculosis antibody was detected in individuals that were in the 1-9, 30-39 and 50-59 year age groups. Amongst the study population, the bacterial antibodies were only detected in 25.0% of the males in Orji that were between 20 and 29 years. Comparatively, the antibodies were prevalent (16.7%) in female residents of Akwakuma that were within the 10-19 and 40-49 years age group. The high prevalence of M. tuberculosis in the study population is worrisome as the sero-positive individuals are not only at risk of having full blown tuberculosis later on, but are also a source of spreading the bacteria to the populace. Therefore, there is an urgent need for further epidemiological survey to be undertaken in the study area and, to initiate appropriate preventive and control measures.

  1. Psychological morbidity, job satisfaction and intentions to quit among teachers in private secondary schools in Edo-State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ofili, A N; Usiholo, E A; Oronsaye, M O

    2009-01-01

    Teachers are an inseparable corner stone of the society and their satisfaction will affect the quality of service they render. Poor job satisfaction could result in job stress and this could affect their psychological health. This study aims to ascertain the level, causes of job dissatisfaction, intentions to quit and psychological morbidity among teachers in private secondary schools in a developing country. A cross-sectional study was conducted among teachers (392) in private secondary schools in Benin-City, Edo-State Nigeria, between June 2003 to November 2003. A total population of 400 teachers who had spent at least one year in the service were included in the study. The respondents completed a self-administered designed questionnaire and a standard instrument--The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ 28) The response rate was 98%. Fifty-eight (14.8%) of the respondents had psychological morbidity (GHQ score of 4 and above). One hundred and seventy-eight (45.4%) teachers were very satisfied or satisfied with their jobs. A significant number (45.9%) of teachers would want to quit their jobs. The proportion of teachers with GHQ score 4 and above increased with the level of dissatisfaction but this was not found to be statistically significant. Poor salary was found to be the main cause of job dissatisfaction and major reason for wanting to quit the job. This study shows a low level of job satisfaction among Nigerian teachers. Poor salary was the major cause of job dissatisfaction and intention to quit. Further work need to be done to ascertain the association of psychological morbidity and job dissatisfaction.

  2. Effect of irrigation on soil health: a case study of the Ikere irrigation project in Oyo State, southwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adejumobi, M A; Awe, G O; Abegunrin, T P; Oyetunji, O M; Kareem, T S

    2016-12-01

    Irrigated agriculture is one of the significant contributors to the food security of the millennium development goals (MDGs); however, the modification of soil matrix by irrigation could alter the overall soil health due to changes in soil properties and processes. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of irrigation on soil quality status of the Ikere center pivot irrigation project site in Oyo State, southwest Nigeria. Disturbed soil samples were collected from 0 to 30, 30 to 60, and 60 to 90-cm layers from four different sites in three replicates, within the project location for the determination of soil bio-chemical properties. The average values of sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) < 13, electrical conductivity (EC) <4 μS/cm, and pH < 8.5 showed that the soil condition is normal in relation to salinity and sodicity hazards. The effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC), soil organic matter (SOM), total nitrogen (TN), and calcium ion (Ca 2+ ) concentrations were low while the available phosphorus (P) was moderate. The principal component analysis showed EC, ECEC, SAR, SOM, and TN as the minimum data set (MDS) for monitoring and assessing the soil quality status of this irrigation field. In terms of bio-chemical properties, the soil quality index (SQI) of the field was average (about 0.543) while the sampling locations were ranked as site 2 > site 4 > site 3 > site 1 in terms of SQI. The results of this study are designated as baseline for future evaluation of soil quality status of this irrigation field and further studies should incorporate soil physical and more biological properties when considering overall soil quality status.

  3. Population redistribution in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adebayo, A

    1984-07-01

    One of the major consequences of the reorganization of Nigeria from 4 states into 12 states in 1967 and then into 19 states in the late 1970s was the redistribution of the Nigerian population. Prior to 1967 Nigeria's rural population migrated primarily to the 4 state capitals of Kaduna, Ibadan, Enugu, Benin City and to the federal capital of Lagos. The creation of additional states, each with their own capital, provided new urban environments where migrants from rural areas were afforded opportunities for employment and social mobility. Between 1960-1980, World Bank estimates indicate that 1) population in Nigerian cityes of over 500,000 population increased from 22-57%; 2) the number of cities with a population of 500,000 or more increased from 2 to 9 and 3) the urban population increased from 13-20%. Given Nigeria's estimated population growth rate of 3.6%/year, it is imperative that the goverment continue its decentralization efforts. Tables show 1) population by region based on the 1963 census; 2) estimated population of the 19 state capitals for 1963 and 1975; and 3) estimated population of the areas included in each of the 19 states for 196o, 1977, 1979, and 19819

  4. Detection and Molecular Characterization of Foot and Mouth Disease Viruses from Outbreaks in Some States of Northern Nigeria 2013-2015.

    PubMed

    Ehizibolo, D O; Haegeman, A; De Vleeschauwer, A R; Umoh, J U; Kazeem, H M; Okolocha, E C; Van Borm, S; De Clercq, K

    2017-12-01

    Control measures for foot and mouth disease (FMD) in Nigeria have not been implemented due to the absence of locally produced vaccines and risk-based analysis resulting from insufficient data on the circulating FMD virus (FMDV) serotypes/strains. In 2013-2015, blood and epithelial samples were collected from reported FMD outbreaks in four states (Kaduna, Kwara, Plateau and Bauchi) in northern Nigeria. FMDV non-structural protein (NSP) seroprevalence for the outbreaks was estimated at 80% (72 of 90) and 70% (131 of 188) post-outbreak. Antibodies against FMDV serotypes O, A, SAT1, SAT2 and SAT3 were detected across the states using solid-phase competitive ELISA. FMDV genome was detected in 99% (73 of 74) of the samples from FMD-affected animals using rRT-PCR, and cytopathic effect was found in cell culture by 59% (44 of 74) of these samples. Three FMDV serotypes O, A and SAT2 were isolated and characterized. The phylogenetic assessments of the virus isolates showed that two topotypes of FMDV serotype O, East Africa-3 (EA-3) and West Africa (WA) topotypes were circulating, as well as FMDV strains belonging to the Africa genotype (G-IV) of serotype A and FMDV SAT2 topotype VII strains. While the serotype O (EA-3) strains from Nigeria were most closely related to a 1999 virus strain from Sudan, the WA strain in Nigeria shares genetic relationship with three 1988 viruses in Niger. The FMDV serotype A strains were closely related to a known virus from Cameroon, and the SAT2 strains were most closely related to virus subtypes in Libya. This study provides evidence of co-occurrence of FMDV serotypes and topotypes in West, Central, East and North Africa, and this has implication for control. The findings help filling the knowledge gap of FMDV dynamics in Nigeria and West Africa subregion to support local and regional development of vaccination-based control plans and international risk assessment. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Biomedical loopholes, distrusted state, and the politics of HIV/AIDS "cure" in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Obadare, Ebenezer; Okeke, Iruka N

    2011-01-01

    As socio-medical phenomena, epidemics are revealing of the cultures in which they are experienced. The HIV/AIDS epidemic in Africa exposes antecedent tensions between state and society, and, on a broader canvas, between the global north and south. As a contribution to the emerging literature on the social ramifications of HIV/AIDS, this article examines the saga of the Nigerian physician and immunologist, Dr Jeremiah Abalaka, who like other innovators in sub-Saharan Africa claims to have developed a curative HIV vaccine. Whilst articulating the social conditions that enabled Abalaka to thrive, the article explores the marked differences in the reaction to his "discovery" among state representatives, the scientific establishment, the general public, people living with HIV, and the media. Finally, the article valorizes the emergence of new actors in the African health sector, and the diversity of strategies used by ordinary people to achieve and maintain wellness.

  6. Descriptive epidemiology of a cholera outbreak in Kaduna State, Northwest Nigeria, 2014.

    PubMed

    Sule, Ibrahim Baffa; Yahaya, Mohammed; Aisha, Abubakar Ahmed; Zainab, Ahmed Datti; Ummulkhulthum, Bajoga; Nguku, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Cholera is an acute gastrointestinal infection caused by Vibrio cholerae, which may lead to severe dehydration and death if not treated. This analysis is aimed at highlighting the magnitude, pattern and trend of cholera outbreak that occurred in Kaduna State in 2014. We obtained the 2014 cholera line-list from the Kaduna State Disease Surveillance and Notification officer (DSNO). We described the outbreaks in time, place and person using Epi-info 7 and Health Mapper. A total of 1468 case-patients and 54 deaths were recorded, giving a case fatality rate (CFR) of 3.68%. Female case-patients were 809(55.08%). The median age for case-patients was 15 years, with an age range of 0.04-90 years. Age specific case fatality rate (ASCFR) is highest among the > 60 years. Seven (30%) out of the 23 local government areas (LGAs) in Kaduna State were affected by the cholera outbreak in 2014. Igabi LGA has the highest attack rate (150.46 per 100,000 population) while Chikun LGA has the lowest attack rate (12.22 per 100,000 population). Chikun LGA records the highest CFR (17.54%). Cholera infection spread across LGAs sharing the same borders. The outbreak started from the first epidemic week of 2014 and lasted over 33 weeks. Our analysis revealed a protracted cholera outbreak that gradually increases in magnitude throughout the first half of 2014 and spread within contiguous LGAs. We recommended the strengthening of the state's diseases surveillance system towards timely detection and early response to disease outbreaks in the future.

  7. Prospects of using Community Directed Intervention strategy in delivering health services among Fulani Nomads in Enugu State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okeibunor, Joseph C; Onyeneho, Nkechi G; Nwaorgu, Obioma C; I'Aronu, Ngozi; Okoye, Ijeoma; Iremeka, Felicia U; Sommerfeld, Johannes

    2013-04-08

    The Community Directed Interventions (CDI) strategy has proven effective in increasing access to health services in sedentary populations. It remains to be seen if CDI strategy is feasible among nomads given the dearth of demographic and medical data on the nomads. This study thus characterized the nomadic populations in Enugu State, Nigeria and outlined the potentials of implementing CDI among nomads. This exploratory study adopted qualitative methods. Forty focus group discussions (FGD) were held with members of 10 nomadic camps in 2 LGAs in Enugu State, as well as their host communities. Thirty in-depth interviews (IDIs) were held with leaders of nomadic camps and sedentary populations. Ten IDIs with traditional healers in the nomadic camps and 14 key informant interviews with health workers and programme officers were also conducted. Documents and maps were reviewed to ascertain the grazing routes of the nomads as well as existing health interventions in the area. Like sedentary populations, nomads have definable community structures with leaders and followers, which is amenable to implementation of CDI. Nomads move their cattle, in a definite pattern, in search of grass and water. In this movement, the old and vulnerable are left in the camps. The nomads suffer from immunization preventable health problems as their host communities. The priority health problems in relation to CDI include malaria, measles, anemia, and other vaccine preventable infections. However, unlike the sedentary populations, the nomads lack access to health interventions, due to the mutual avoidance between the nomads and the sedentary populations in terms of health services. The later consider the services as mainly theirs. The nomads, however, are desirous of the modern health services and often task themselves to access these modern health services in private for profit health facilities when the need arises. Given the definable organizational structure of the nomads in Enugu State and

  8. Religious-Based Violence and National Security in Nigeria: Case Studies of Kaduna State and the Taliban Activities in Borno State

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-12

    A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the...other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a ...Violence and National Security in Nigeria: Nigeria is a multi-religious and multi-ethnic society with enormous potential for economic, social, and

  9. Screening for refractive error among primary school children in Bayelsa state, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Opubiri, Ibeinmo; Pedro-Egbe, Chinyere

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Vision screening study in primary school children has not been done in Bayelsa State. This study aims to screen for refractive error among primary school children in Bayelsa State and use the data to plan for school Eye Health Program. Methods A cross sectional study on screening for refractive error in school children was carried out in Yenagoa Local Government Area of Bayelsa State in June 2009. A multistage sampling technique was used to select the study population (pupils aged between 5-15 years). Visual acuity (VA) for each eye, was assessed outside the classroom at a distance of 6 meters. Those with VA ≤6/9 were presented with a pinhole and the test repeated. Funduscopy was done inside a poorly lit classroom. An improvement of the VA with pinhole was considered refractive error. Data was analyzed with EPI INFO version 6. Results A total of 1,242 school children consisting of 658 females and 584 males were examined.About 97.7% of pupils had normal VA (VA of 6/6) while 56 eyes had VAs ≤ 6/9. Of these 56 eyes, the visual acuity in 49 eyes (87.5%) improved with pinhole. Twenty seven pupils had refractive error, giving a prevalence of 2.2%. Refractive error involved both eyes in 22 pupils (81.5%) and the 8-10 years age range had the highest proportion (40.7%) of cases of refractive error followed by the 9-13 year-old age range (37%). Conclusion The prevalence of refractive error was 2.2% and most eyes (97.7%) had normal vision. PMID:23646210

  10. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the treatment of animal diarrhoea in Plateau State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Offiah, Nkechi V; Makama, Sunday; Elisha, Ishaku L; Makoshi, Micah S; Gotep, Jurbe G; Dawurung, Christiana J; Oladipo, Olusola O; Lohlum, Ann S; Shamaki, David

    2011-07-11

    The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of diseases has generated renewed interest in recent times, as herbal preparations are increasingly being used in both human and animal healthcare systems. Diarrhoea is one of the common clinical signs of gastrointestinal disorders caused by both infectious and non-infectious agents and an important livestock debilitating condition. Plateau State is rich in savannah and forest vegetations and home to a vast collection of plants upheld in folklore as having useful medicinal applications. There is however scarcity of documented information on the medicinal plants used in the treatment of animal diarrhoea in the state, thus the need for this survey. Ten (10) out of 17 Local Government Areas (LGAs), spread across the three senatorial zones were selected. Farmers were interviewed using well structured, open-ended questionnaire and guided dialogue techniques between October and December 2010. Medicinal plants reported to be effective in diarrhoea management were collected using the guided field-walk method for identification and authentication. A total of 248 questionnaires were completed, out of which 207 respondents (83.47%) acknowledged the use of herbs in diarrhoea management, while 41 (16.53%) do not use herbs or apply other traditional methods in the treatment of diarrhoea in their animals. Medicinal plants cited as beneficial in the treatment of animal diarrhoea numbered 132, from which 57(43.18%) were scientifically identified and classified into 25 plant families with the families Fabaceae (21%) and Combretaceae (14.04%) having the highest occurrence. The plant parts mostly used in antidiarrhoeal herbal preparations are the leaves (43.86%) followed by the stem bark (29.82%). The herbal preparations are usually administered orally. Rural communities in Plateau State are a rich source of information on medicinal plants as revealed in this survey. There is need to scientifically ascertain the authenticity of the claimed

  11. Salmonella typhi infection in a tertiary institution in Nasarawa State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ishaleku, D; Sar, T T; Houmsou, R S

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of Sabmonella typhi (S.typhi) among subjects attending College of Education Health Clinic, Akwanga, Nasarawa state from the year. 2005 to 2007 and to recommend some preventive measures to the populace. Blood samples were tested for infection using the widal test. Out of the 793 patients examined, 579(73.0%) were positive with 174 (30.05%), 254(43.86%) and 151(26.07%) for the years 2005, 2006 and 2007 respectively. The age range with the highest prevalence of infection for the period was 21-30 with 207(35.75%) followed by 31-40 year group with 133 (22.97%). Chi-square analysis showed no significant difference in infection between males and females (P>0.05). The results of this study provide a useful guide in the formulation of S. typhi control measures in tertiary institutions in the State and also help to check the spread of the pathogen in the general population. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment of the Reproductive Health Status of Adult Prison Inmates in Osun State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Olugbenga-Bello, A. I.; Adeoye, O. A.; Osagbemi, K. G.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. All over the world, numbers of prisoners have being increasing with majority in the sexually active age group; hence diseases such as HIV, Tuberculosis and Hepatitis are more prevalent in prisons than in the community. This study thus aims to provide an overview of the reproductive health status of adult prison inmates in Osun State. Methodology. This is a cross-sectional study among adult inmates in Osun State prison. Data was obtained from 209 selected respondents using pre-tested semi structured questionnaire. Result. Majority of the respondents were in the age group 20–39 years with mean age of 30.9 + 7.5. 73.2% are aware of STIs, 93.3% HIV/AIDS and 81.3% contraception. 54.6% had multiple sexual partners before incarceration and 23.3% of them used condom always. 89.5% were not involved in any sexual practice inside the prison, 9.1% masturbated and 1.4% had homosexual partners. Less than 6% had access to male condoms gotten from prison staffs and prison clinics. Conclusion and recommendation. No comprehensive reproductive health care system to address reproductive health services in prisons. Respondents' knowledge about STIs, HIV/AIDS and contraception is good, but their condom usage is low compared with the knowledge. Government should put in place specific reproductive health programmes in prisons. PMID:25763387

  13. Development and validation of serological assays for viral hemorrhagic fevers and determination of the prevalence of Rift Valley fever in Borno State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Bukbuk, David Nadeba; Fukushi, Shuetsu; Tani, Hideki; Yoshikawa, Tomoki; Taniguchi, Satoshi; Iha, Koichiro; Fukuma, Aiko; Shimojima, Masayuki; Morikawa, Shigeru; Saijo, Masayuki; Kasolo, Francis; Baba, Saka Saheed

    2014-12-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is endemic to the tropical regions of eastern and southern Africa. The seroprevalence of RVF was investigated among the human population in Borno State, Nigeria to determine the occurrence of the disease in the study area in comparison with that of Lassa fever and Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic fever. Recombinant nucleoprotein (rNP)-based IgG-ELISAs for the detection of serum antibodies against RVF virus (RVFV), Lassa fever virus (LASV), and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) were used to test human sera in Borno State, Nigeria. The presence of neutralizing antibody against the RVFV-glycoprotein-bearing vesicular stomatitis virus pseudotype (RVFVpv) was also determined in the human sera. Of the 297 serum samples tested, 42 (14.1%) were positive for the presence of RVFV-IgG and 22 (7.4%) and 7 (2.4%) of the serum samples were positive for antibodies against LASV and CCHFV, respectively. There was a positive correlation between the titers of neutralizing antibodies obtained using RVFVpv and those obtained using the conventional neutralization assay with the attenuated RVFV-MP12 strain. The seroprevalence of RVF was significantly higher than that of LASV and CCHF in Borno State, Nigeria. The RVFVpv-based neutralization assay developed in this study has the potential to replace the traditional assays based on live viruses for the diagnosis and seroepidemiological studies of RVF. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Teachers' Knowledge Indices as Predictors of Secondary School Students' Academic Achievement in Kwara State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olasehinde-Williams, Felicia; Yahaya, Lasiele; Owolabi, Henry

    2018-01-01

    That less than 40% of candidates who took the Senior School Certificate Examinations in Nigeria between 2009 and 2015 had credits and above in English language and Mathematics has become a source of worry to all stakeholders. Results of research efforts to provide plausible explanations to the problem have been inconclusive. Also, not much had…

  15. Adult Learners' Demographic Variable as Predictor of Access and Participation in Literacy Programmes in Oyo and Ondo States, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olojede, Adeshina Abideen; Oladitan, Idowu Oladiran

    2013-01-01

    Literacy is an indispensable foundation that enables young people and adults to engage in learning opportunities at all stages of the learning continuum. Literacy is a prerequisite for the development of personal, social, economic and political empowerment. In Nigeria, attempt to increase access to literacy education for the enhancement of…

  16. Correlates of Unemployed Graduates' Perceptions of the Importance of Entrepreneurial Education in Poverty Alleviation in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekuri, E. E.; Alade, F. O.; Sule, M.; Odigwe, F. N.

    2013-01-01

    Drawing from the empirical research on unemployment among young graduates and the question of economic relevance of curricula of the tertiary education in Nigeria, this investigation was carried out to answer the following research question: Will unemployed graduates' perceptions of the importance of entrepreneurial education in poverty…

  17. Tapping into Basic 7-9 Science and Technology Teachers' Conceptions of Indigenous Knowledge in Imo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh-Pillay, Asheena; Alant, Busisiwe P.; Nwokocha, Godson

    2017-01-01

    The discussion on how to integrate African indigenous knowledge (IK) into mainstream Science and Technology schooling prevails. Nigeria's colonised school curriculum is antithetical to its rich IK heritage. Guided by postcolonial theory, and the need for a culturally relevant and decolonised curriculum, this paper sought to explore seven basic 7-9…

  18. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the treatment of animal diarrhoea in Plateau State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of diseases has generated renewed interest in recent times, as herbal preparations are increasingly being used in both human and animal healthcare systems. Diarrhoea is one of the common clinical signs of gastrointestinal disorders caused by both infectious and non-infectious agents and an important livestock debilitating condition. Plateau State is rich in savannah and forest vegetations and home to a vast collection of plants upheld in folklore as having useful medicinal applications. There is however scarcity of documented information on the medicinal plants used in the treatment of animal diarrhoea in the state, thus the need for this survey. Ten (10) out of 17 Local Government Areas (LGAs), spread across the three senatorial zones were selected. Farmers were interviewed using well structured, open-ended questionnaire and guided dialogue techniques between October and December 2010. Medicinal plants reported to be effective in diarrhoea management were collected using the guided field-walk method for identification and authentication. Results A total of 248 questionnaires were completed, out of which 207 respondents (83.47%) acknowledged the use of herbs in diarrhoea management, while 41 (16.53%) do not use herbs or apply other traditional methods in the treatment of diarrhoea in their animals. Medicinal plants cited as beneficial in the treatment of animal diarrhoea numbered 132, from which 57(43.18%) were scientifically identified and classified into 25 plant families with the families Fabaceae (21%) and Combretaceae (14.04%) having the highest occurrence. The plant parts mostly used in antidiarrhoeal herbal preparations are the leaves (43.86%) followed by the stem bark (29.82%). The herbal preparations are usually administered orally. Conclusion Rural communities in Plateau State are a rich source of information on medicinal plants as revealed in this survey. There is need to scientifically ascertain

  19. Strengthening primary healthcare through community involvement in Cross River State, Nigeria: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Adie, Hilary; Igbang, Thomas; Otu, Akaninyene; Braide, Ekanem; Okon, Okpok; Ikpi, Edet; Joseph, Charles; Desousa, Alexander; Sommerfeld, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In preparation for implementation of primary healthcare (PHC) services in Cross River State, a study to identify perceptions of communities and health systems concerning such interventions was conducted. Methods Existing PHC practices were documented through observation and document reviews, including facility checklists at frontline levels. Perceptions of consumers and providers on PHC were elucidated through 32 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and 78 semi-structured questionnaires. Results There was some level of implementation of the Nigerian PHC policy in the study districts. However, this policy emphasized curative instead of preventive services. Private partners perceived healthcare programmes as largely donor driven with poor release of allocations for health by government. Conclusion Both providers and consumers presented similar perceptions on the current PHC implementation and similar perspectives on services to be prioritized. These common views together with their on-going participatory experience are important platforms for strengthening community participation in the delivery of PHC. PMID:25237418

  20. HIV association with conventional STDS (sexual transmitted diseases) in Lagos State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Otuonye, N M; Olukoya, D K; Odunukwe, N N; Idigbe, E O; Udeaja, M N; Bamidele, M; Onyewuchie, J I; Oparaugu, C T; Ayelari, O S; Oyekunle, B

    2002-01-01

    The study examined a possible association between HIV infection and conventional sexually transmitted diseases (STDS) in a population of 700 patients seen in some hospitals and clinics in Lagos State between November 1997 and December 1999. The patients were drawn mainly from LUTH and Jolad hospitals in Lagos State. In these hospitals, patients who presented with symptoms of STDS were screened clinically and microbiologically for agents of STDS and HIV antibodies. Screening was carried out using conventional methods. A total of 150 (21.5%) were found positive for various STDS while 550 (78.5%) were negative Also, 109 (15.8%) were sero-positive for HIV while 591 (84.4%) were sero-negative. The frequency of STDS diagnosed were, Treponema pallidum, 38(25.3%), Neisseria gonorrhoea 3(2.0%), Chlamydia trachomatis 26(17.3), Hepatitis B virus 60(40.0%) Staphylococcus aureaus, 20 (13.3%) and Candida albicans 3(2.0%). Data showed that Syphillis was the most prevalent STDS diagnosed while Calbicans and N. gonorrhoea are the least. Amongst the 150 (21.5%) patients positive with STDS, 82(54.65%) were found to be positive for HIV antibodies. The remaining 68(45.3%) patients were negative for HIV. The difference in sero-prevalence on the true group of patients rates was significant. The higher rate in the STDS patients strongly suggest some association between HIV infections andSTDS amongst the patients studied p = 0.05. It was also recorded that HIV-1 infection is four times more prevalent than HIV-2 in these patients.

  1. Screening of antibiotics and chemical analysis of penicillin residue in fresh milk and traditional dairy products in Oyo state, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Olatoye, Isaac Olufemi; Daniel, Oluwayemisi Folashade; Ishola, Sunday Ayobami

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim: There are global public health and economic concerns on chemical residues in food of animal origin. The use of antibiotics in dairy cattle for the treatment of diseases such as mastitis has contributed to the presence of residues in dairy products. Penicillin residues as low as 1 ppb can lead to allergic reactions and shift of resistance patterns in microbial population as well as interfere with the processing of several dairy products. Antibiotic monitoring is an essential quality control measure in safe milk production. This study was aimed at determining antibiotic residue contamination and the level of penicillin in dairy products from Fulani cattle herds in Oyo State. Materials and Methods: The presence of antibiotic residues in 328 samples of fresh milk, 180 local cheese (wara), and 90 fermented milk (nono) from Southwest, Nigeria were determined using Premi® test kit (R-Biopharm AG, Germany) followed by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of penicillin-G residue. Results: Antibiotic residues were obtained in 40.8%, 24.4% and 62.3% fresh milk, wara and nono, respectively. Penicillin-G residue was also detected in 41.1% fresh milk, 40.2% nono and 24.4% wara at mean concentrations of 15.22±0.61, 8.24±0.50 and 7.6±0.60 μg/L with 39.3%, 36.7% and 21.1%, respectively, containing penicillin residue above recommended Codex maximum residue limit (MRL) of 5 μg/L in dairy. There was no significant difference between the mean penicillin residues in all the dairy products in this study. Conclusion: The results are of food safety concern since the bulk of the samples and substantial quantities of dairy products in Oyo state contained violative levels of antibiotic residues including penicillin residues in concentrations above the MRL. This could be due to indiscriminate and unregulated administration of antibiotics to dairy cattle. Regulatory control of antibiotic use, rapid screening of milk and dairy farmers’ extension education

  2. Liver function assessment in malaria, typhoid and malaria-typhoid co-infection in Aba, Abia State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Enemchukwu, B N; Ibe, C C; Udedi, S C; Iroha, A; Ubaoji, K I; Ogundapo, S S

    2014-06-01

    Malaria and typhoid fever are among the most endemic diseases in the tropics and are associated with poverty and underdevelopment with significant morbidity and mortality. Both diseases can lead to liver damage if not properly treated. The liver function assessment was therefore conducted on (90) volunteer patients; comprising (30) patients with malaria only, (30) with typhoid only and (30) with malaria-typhoid co-infection randomly selected from Abia State University Teaching Hospital, Aba, Abia State, Nigeria and (20) healthy individuals were used as control. Blood samples collected from these subjects were screened for malaria parasite and Staphylococcus typhi using standard methods. Mean serum levels of ALP (112.55±84.23), AST (31.33±12.80), ALT (23.10±11.84), TB (19.43±5.02), CB (5.91±3.03) and ALP (116.69±48.68), AST (28.33±11.72), ALT (22.8±5.94), TB (19.31±5.84),CB (5.60±2.50) were obtained for those subjects with malaria and typhoid respectively and subjects with malaria-typhoid co-infection recorded the following; ALP (134.33±56.62), AST (33.97±8.43), ALT (24.40±4.37),TB (21.27±2.96),CB (6.58±3.10) while the control subjects had mean serum levels ofALP (71.05±18.18), AST (16.65±7.45), ALT (13.85±6.09), TB (10.05±4.85) and CB (3.00±1.67). These mean values were subjected to a statistical test using students t-test which revealed a significant increase (p<0.05).The results suggest that malaria, typhoid and malaria-typhoid co-infection can elevate ALP, AST, ALT, TB and CB serum levels and can lead to liver damage if not properly treated.

  3. Sexual risk history and condom use among people living with HIV/AIDS in Ogun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Amoran, Olorunfemi; Ladi-Akinyemi, Temitope

    2012-04-01

    The majority of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are acquired through unprotected sex between partners; only male or female condoms can reduce the chances of infection with HIV during a sexual act. This study was therefore designed to describe sexual risk history and identify factors associated with condom use among people living with HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (PLWHAs) in Ogun State, Nigeria. Main outcome measures are sexual and HIV risk history, safe sex practices, and condom use. This study is an analytical cross-sectional study. A total sample of all people living with HIV/AIDS attending secondary health facilities in Ogun State were recruited into the study. A total of 637 were interviewed; median age at first sexual intercourse among the study participants was 19 years (mean age = 18.95, standard deviation [SD] = 4.148) with a median of two lifetime sexual partners (mean = 3.22, SD = 3.57). Majority (71.4%) of the respondents had not been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection other than HIV. Precisely 47.7% of men and 52.3% of women had two or more sexual partners in the last 6 months. Men were statistically significantly more likely to have multiple sexual partners when compared with women (P = 0.00). Significantly more women (69.8%) than men (30%) had sexual partners whose HIV status they did not know (P = 0.006). Predictors of condom use were individuals who had multiple sexual partners (odds ratio [OR] = 1.41, confidence interval [CI] = 1.05-1.83) and married (OR = 3.13, CI = 1.15-8.51) with higher level of education (OR = 2.78, CI = 1.39-5.79), with knowledge of partner's serostatus (OR = 2.53, CI = 1.50-4.28), and awareness of reinfection (OR = 1.90, CI = 1.22-2.95). The study indicates that the establishment of effective safe sex practices and condom use behavior among PLWHAs in low-income countries such as the study population requires adequate

  4. Nigeria's youth at risk.

    PubMed

    Igwe, S A

    1992-05-01

    Improved family and community support would prevent many youth in Nigeria from risk behavior including drinking alcohol, smoking, and using illicit drugs. In Rivers State, 70% of secondary students have had at least 1 alcoholic drink. Further, in Bendel State, 13% of 15-19 year olds in the coastal region drink alcohol compared with 75% of those in the hinterland. Since alcohol affects good judgment skills, this behavior is especially risky during rituals and social activities and causes accidents. Youth who drink are likely to have unplanned and unprotected sexual intercourse. Drinking during pregnancy is associated with miscarriages, low birth weight, and birth defects. Despite the problems with youth and drinking, Nigeria does not have law restricting sales of alcohol to youth. In Nigeria smoking was once predominantly a male habit but is now increasing quickly among women. Most smokers 1st begin their habit when 18 years old. Even thought he Nigerian government has restricted smoking in public places, it has not yet been effective. Smoking has numerous negative effects such as lung cancer, other cancers, shorter life spans, low birth weight, prematurity, higher perinatal mortality, and more labor complications. Moreover the tobacco and alcohol companies advertise widely using ingenious and persuasive promotions. Youth are especially vulnerable to these slick promotions. Cannabis remains the most common illegal drug. Heroin use is growing among urban adolescents in Nigeria, however. Nigeria also serves as a transhipment point for drugs to the US as well as a consumption point. Drug use results in rising numbers of patients in mental hospitals and treatment centers. A particular concern of drug use is transmission of HIV and hepatitis B via needles. Smokers and alcohol drinkers are likely to also be drug users. Families, government, and community organizations need to collaborate to prevent these risk behaviors among youth.

  5. ITN utilization among pregnant women attending ANC in Etsako West Lga, Edo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Wagbatsoma, V A; Aigbe, E E

    2010-06-01

    To determine the factors affecting utilization of ITN by pregnant women in Etsako West LGA, Edo State. A descriptive cross-sectional study design was employed. Using a systematic sampling method, a total of 385 respondents were selected from all ANC facilities in the LGA following a verbally obtained consent. Tool for data collection was a semi-structured, researcher administered questionnaire. The respondents' knowledge of cause of malaria was good, as 269 (69%) had good knowledge but only 9 (2.3%) knew its effects on the foetus. Meanwhile, ownership of ITN and its use were very low, 36 (9.3%) and 31 (8.0) respectively. The main factor affecting the use of the commodity in the LGA was unavailability of ITNs. Other factors included belief of the women on the effectiveness of the commodity, level of education, marital status and family sizes ofrespondents. Use of Insecticide treated bed net has been hampered by unavailability of the commodity. It is therefore recommended that efforts should be made to make the commodity available to reduce morbidity and mortality among this vulnerable group.

  6. Sexual behavior of in-school adolescents in Osun State, Southwest Nigeria: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Sabageh, Adedayo O; Fatusi, Adesegun O; Sabageh, Donatus; Aluko, Joel A

    2014-01-01

    The sexual and reproductive health of adolescents is of utmost importance in many nations (especially in developing countries). Sexual behavior varies from location to location and the outcome (when negative) creates great concerns mainly due to the consequential impact on health and development. This study aimed at comparing sexual behavior of in-school adolescents in rural and urban areas of Osun state. A comparative cross sectional study was conducted. A total of 760 in-school adolescents were recruited using multistage sampling technique. Pre-tested questionnaires were administered after ethical considerations. Data were analysed and p-value was placed at 0.05. A total of 380 rural and 380 urban adolescents participated in this study with a mean age of 14.90 ± 2.44 and 14.34 ± 2.31 years, respectively. About one-fifth (20.1%) had experienced their first sex (66% of rural and 34% of urban). The mean age at first sex was 14.05 years ± 2.3 years (13.89 ± 2.3 years for rural and 14.37 ± 2.3 years for urban). Only 76 (49.7%) sexually experienced respondents had used condom in the past (45.5% of rural, 57.7% of urban). Half of the urban respondents used condom during their first sex while only a quarter of their rural counterparts had done so (p=0.003). Sexual behavior was commoner among the rural respondents than their urban counterpart. There is an urgent need for sexuality education especially among rural adolescents in the study area.

  7. Treatment compliance and challenges among tuberculosis patients across selected health facilities in Osun State Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ajao, K O; Ogundun, O A; Afolabi, O T; Ojo, T O; Atiba, B P; Oguntunase, D O

    2014-12-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem in the world and Africa has approximately one quarter of the world's cases. One of the greatest challenges facing most TB programmes is the non-compliance to TB treatment among TB patients. This study aimed at determining the challenges of management of tuberculosis (TB) across selected Osun State health facilities. The study employed a descriptive cross-sectional design. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 102 TB patients in the health facilities. The instrument measured socio-demographic variables, patient related factors, socio-economic variables, health care system related factors to TB disease and treatment. Data were analysed and summarized using descriptive and inferential statistics. Statistical significance was placed at p < 0.05. TB patients who had no formal education (χ2 = 12.941, p < 0.05), who were smoking during treatment (χ2 = 13.194, p < 0.001), who consumed alcohol during TB treatment (χ2 = 6.371, p < 0.05) and those who were HIV positive (χ2 = 23.039, p < 0.001) significantly failed to comply with TB treatment. TB patients who waited for one hour or more at heath facilities (χ2 = 21.761, p < 0.001), who reported that TB treatment should be stopped before six month (χ2 = 9.804, p < 0.05) or when patient felt better (χ2 = 35.185, p < 0.001) and travelled for 10 km or more (χ2 = 13.610, p < 0.001) significantly failed to comply with TB treatment. This study concluded that non-compliance rate to tuberculosis treatment among TB patients in this study is high. Both health facility and patient-related factors were largely responsible.

  8. Lessons from the implementation of LLIN distribution campaign in Ilorin Kwara State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Obembe, Abiodun; Anyaele, Okorie Okogbue; Oduola, Adedayo Olatunbosun

    2014-05-28

    Studies implemented to evaluate the success of Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) distribution campaigns are often limited to ownership and utilization rates, neglecting other factors that directly affect the efficacy of the tool in malaria control. This study investigates sleeping habits and net maintenance behaviour in addition to LLIN ownership, utilization and the challenges associated with LLIN use among residents in Ilorin City where the tool has been massively distributed. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using pre-tested interviewer-administered questionnaire to obtain information from randomly selected household respondents in Ilorin, the Kwara State Capital. The study was conducted in July 2012, about sixteen months after the March 2011 distribution of LLIN in the locality. The results were analyzed using the EPI INFO 2007 version. LLIN ownership (85%) and utilization (37%) rates improved compared to earlier reports, though 29% of net users have noticed holes in the nets even as 26% claimed to have actually experienced mosquito bites under it. Most (92%) of the respondents who slept under LLIN the previous night before the study spent the first five hours of the night (19.00-23.00 hr) outdoors while 88% also engage in inappropriate net washing practices. All the LLIN users claimed to have experienced at least one malaria episode while 43% have had two or more episodes within the past twelve months. The use of LLIN among the respondents in this study was accompanied by chancy sleeping habits, inappropriate net maintenance practices and repeated experience of mosquito bites under the nets. This shows the need to sustain the will and confidence of LLIN users in this area through frequent monitoring and surveillance visits targeted at enlightening the people on habits that increase malaria exposure risks as well as proper use and maintenance of LLIN for maximum malaria vector control benefits.

  9. A retrospective study of bovine tuberculosis at the municipal abattoir of Bauchi State, Northeastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Jajere, Saleh Mohammed; Atsanda, Naphtali Nayamanda; Bitrus, Asinamai Athliamai; Hamisu, Tasiu Mallam; Goni, Mohammed Dauda

    2018-01-01

    Background and Aim: Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) still remains a major zoonotic bacterial disease affecting livestock and humans worldwide. The disease remains a poorly managed tropical disease in most developing countries of the world; where in addition to productivity losses and significance in international trade, it posed a major public health threat to both humans and animals. A retrospective study was designed to investigate the occurrence of bTB lesions at Bauchi municipal abattoir. Materials and Methods: The study utilized abattoir records spanning a period of 10 years (2004-2013). The records indicated that a total of 1,08,638 heads of cattle comprising n = 56,070 males and n = 52,570 females were slaughtered at the municipal abattoir during the study period. Result: Of these heads, n = 1230 (1.13%) (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07, 1.19) had tuberculous lesions. The annual occurrence during the study period varied significantly (p<0.001) from 0.53% (95% CI: 0.40, 0.67) to 1.87% (95% CI: 1.66, 2.10) in 2010 and 2012, respectively. Females had a significantly higher (p<0.001) prevalence of 2.10% (95% CI: 1.98, 2.23) compared with the males 0.23% (95% CI: 0.19, 0.27). The distribution of suspected gross bTB lesions in different organs showed 11.87% in the lungs, 5.93% in the liver, 1.14% in the heart, and 0.49% accounted for generalized bTB. However, none was observed on the lymph nodes and intestines. Conclusion: It can be concluded that bTB persists in Bauchi State with annual variations during the study period. This study highlights the importance of meat inspection as an important tool for detecting the presence of bTB lesions.

  10. Blood Pressure Gradients and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Urban and Rural Populations in Abia State South Eastern Nigeria Using the WHO STEPwise Approach

    PubMed Central

    Okpechi, Ikechi Gareth; Chukwuonye, Innocent Ijezie; Tiffin, Nicki; Madukwe, Okechukwu Ojoemelam; Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu Uchenna; Umeizudike, Theophilus Ifeanyichukwu; Ogah, Okechukwu Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Background Developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) face a double burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and communicable diseases. As high blood pressure (BP) is a common global cardiovascular (CV) disorder associated with high morbidity and mortality, the relationship between gradients of BP and other CV risk factors was assessed in Abia State, Nigeria. Methods Using the WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance of chronic disease risk factors, we conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey in Abia state, Nigeria from August 2011 to March 2012. Data collected at various steps included: demographic and behavioral risk factors (Step 1); BP and anthropometric measurements (Step 2), and fasting blood cholesterol and glucose (Step 3). Results Of the 2983 subjects with complete data for analysis, 52.1% were females and 53.2% were rural dwellers. Overall, the distribution of selected CV disease risk factors was diabetes (3.6%), hypertension (31.4%), cigarette smoking (13.3%), use of smokeless tobacco (4.8%), physical inactivity (64.2%) and being overweight or obese (33.7%). Presence of hypertension, excessive intake of alcohol, smoking (cigarette and smokeless tobacco) and physical inactivity occurred more frequently in males than in females (p<0.05); while low income, lack of any formal education and use of smokeless tobacco were seen more frequently in rural dwellers than in those living in urban areas (p<0.05). The frequency of selected CV risk factors increased as BP was graded from optimal, normal to hypertension; and high BP correlated with age, gender, smokeless tobacco, overweight or obesity, annual income and level of education. Conclusion Given the high prevalence of hypertension in this part of Nigeria, there is an urgent need to focus on the reduction of preventable CV risk factors we have observed to be associated with hypertension, in order to effectively reduce the burden of NCDs in Africa. PMID:24039932

  11. Blood pressure gradients and cardiovascular risk factors in urban and rural populations in Abia State South Eastern Nigeria using the WHO STEPwise approach.

    PubMed

    Okpechi, Ikechi Gareth; Chukwuonye, Innocent Ijezie; Tiffin, Nicki; Madukwe, Okechukwu Ojoemelam; Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu Uchenna; Umeizudike, Theophilus Ifeanyichukwu; Ogah, Okechukwu Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) face a double burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and communicable diseases. As high blood pressure (BP) is a common global cardiovascular (CV) disorder associated with high morbidity and mortality, the relationship between gradients of BP and other CV risk factors was assessed in Abia State, Nigeria. Using the WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance of chronic disease risk factors, we conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey in Abia state, Nigeria from August 2011 to March 2012. Data collected at various steps included: demographic and behavioral risk factors (Step 1); BP and anthropometric measurements (Step 2), and fasting blood cholesterol and glucose (Step 3). Of the 2983 subjects with complete data for analysis, 52.1% were females and 53.2% were rural dwellers. Overall, the distribution of selected CV disease risk factors was diabetes (3.6%), hypertension (31.4%), cigarette smoking (13.3%), use of smokeless tobacco (4.8%), physical inactivity (64.2%) and being overweight or obese (33.7%). Presence of hypertension, excessive intake of alcohol, smoking (cigarette and smokeless tobacco) and physical inactivity occurred more frequently in males than in females (p<0.05); while low income, lack of any formal education and use of smokeless tobacco were seen more frequently in rural dwellers than in those living in urban areas (p<0.05). The frequency of selected CV risk factors increased as BP was graded from optimal, normal to hypertension; and high BP correlated with age, gender, smokeless tobacco, overweight or obesity, annual income and level of education. Given the high prevalence of hypertension in this part of Nigeria, there is an urgent need to focus on the reduction of preventable CV risk factors we have observed to be associated with hypertension, in order to effectively reduce the burden of NCDs in Africa.

  12. Perception of HIV/AIDS among the Igbo of Anambra State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Muoghalu, Caroline Okumdi; Jegede, Samuel Ayodele

    2013-03-01

    Perception is fundamental in the fight against stigmatization of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). Perception generally influences discriminatory attitudes towards PLHIV which exacerbates their problems and quickens the degeneration of the disease from HIV to AIDS. This study examined the Anambra people's perception and knowledge of HIV/AIDS with the goal of creating knowledge on these issues in order to design effective intervention programmes towards the reduction of social stigmatization associated with the pandemic. The study was carried out in Idemmili North and Oyi local government areas of Anambra State. Qualitative and quantitative methodologies were used to elicit information from respondents who were adult males and females of 18 years and above. The research instruments were questionnaires and in-depth interview schedule. Questionnaires were administered on 1000 respondents while 13 people were interviewed in-depth. Analysis of quantitative data were conducted by using the Statistical package for Social Sciences. Univariate analysis in the form of frequencies were conducted which generated the distribution of respondents across the research variables. Furthermore, multivariate analysis were conducted to test the hypotheses and sought for relationships among variables. The qualitative data were reported in themes based on the research objectives and were analysed jointly with the quantitative data. The findings were that majority of the respondents viewed HIV/AIDS as a disease that afflict immoral people and as a punishment from God. Only a handful of them saw the disease as a disease that could afflict anybody. Also, many of the respondents said that AIDS is real but showed a low level of knowledge. It was further indicated that there were significant relationships between educational level, sex, occupation, income influence perception and peoples' reactions to HIV positive status of a relative while there were no significant relationships between

  13. Perception of HIV/AIDS among the Igbo of Anambra State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Muoghalu, Caroline Okumdi; Jegede, Samuel Ayodele

    2013-01-01

    Perception is fundamental in the fight against stigmatization of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). Perception generally influences discriminatory attitudes towards PLHIV which exacerbates their problems and quickens the degeneration of the disease from HIV to AIDS. This study examined the Anambra people's perception and knowledge of HIV/AIDS with the goal of creating knowledge on these issues in order to design effective intervention programmes towards the reduction of social stigmatization associated with the pandemic. The study was carried out in Idemmili North and Oyi local government areas of Anambra State. Qualitative and quantitative methodologies were used to elicit information from respondents who were adult males and females of 18 years and above. The research instruments were questionnaires and in-depth interview schedule. Questionnaires were administered on 1000 respondents while 13 people were interviewed in-depth. Analysis of quantitative data were conducted by using the Statistical package for Social Sciences. Univariate analysis in the form of frequencies were conducted which generated the distribution of respondents across the research variables. Furthermore, multivariate analysis were conducted to test the hypotheses and sought for relationships among variables. The qualitative data were reported in themes based on the research objectives and were analysed jointly with the quantitative data. The findings were that majority of the respondents viewed HIV/AIDS as a disease that afflict immoral people and as a punishment from God. Only a handful of them saw the disease as a disease that could afflict anybody. Also, many of the respondents said that AIDS is real but showed a low level of knowledge. It was further indicated that there were significant relationships between educational level, sex, occupation, income influence perception and peoples' reactions to HIV positive status of a relative while there were no significant relationships between

  14. Determinants of cord care practices among mothers in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Abhulimhen-Iyoha, B I; Ibadin, M O

    2012-01-01

    Mothers care for their infants' umbilical cord stump in various ways. Different cord care practices have been documented; some are beneficial while others are harmful. Who and what influence the cord care practiced by mothers have, however, not been fully explored particularly in the study locale. The objective of this study was to determine the factors that influence cord care practices among mothers in Benin City. The study subjects included 497 mothers who brought their babies to Well Baby/Immunization Clinic at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH), Benin City, Edo State, between July and August 2009. A structured questionnaire served as an instrument to extract information on their biodata and possible determinants of cord care practices. Significantly older women (P=0.023), educated mothers (P=0.029), and those who had male babies (P=0.013) practiced beneficial cord stump care practices. Beneficial cord care practice increased with increasing maternal educational status. The best predictors of beneficial cord care practices are maternal level of education (P=0.029) and infant's sex (P=0.013). The use of harmful cord care practices was more common among mothers who delivered outside the Teaching hospitals. Most (71.2%) of the mothers were aware of hygienic/beneficial cord care. The choices of cord care methods eventually practiced by mothers were influenced mainly by the disposition of nurses (51.3%), participants' mothers (32.0%), and their mothers-in-law (5.8%). There was no significant relationship between cord care practice on one hand and maternal parity, tribe, and socioeconomic classes on the other. The need for female education is again emphasized. The current findings strongly justify the need for public enlightenment programs, using the mass media and health talks in health facilities, targeting not only women of reproductive age but also secondary audience like their mothers, mothers-in-law, nurses, and attendants at health facilities

  15. Technical quality of delivery care in private- and public-sector health facilities in Enugu and Lagos States, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Atsumi; Yisa, Ibrahim O; Aminu, Amina; Afolabi, Nathanael; Olasunmbo, Makinde; Oluka, George; Muhammad, Khalilu; Hussein, Julia

    2018-06-01

    Private-sector providers are increasingly being recognized as important contributors to the delivery of healthcare. Countries with high disease burdens and limited public-sector resources are considering using the private sector to achieve universal health coverage. However, evidence for the technical quality of private-sector care is lacking. This study assesses the technical quality of maternal healthcare during delivery in public- and private-sector facilities in resource-limited settings, from a systems and programmatic perspective. A summary index (the skilled attendance index, SAI), was used. Two-staged cluster sampling with stratification was used to select representative samples of case records in public- and private-sector facilities in Enugu and Lagos States, Nigeria. Information to assess criteria was extracted, and the SAI calculated. Linear regression models examined the relationship between SAI and the private and public sectors, controlling for confounders. The median SAI was 54.8% in Enugu and 85.7% in Lagos. The private for-profit sector's SAI was lower than and the private not-for-profit sector's SAI was higher than the public sector in Enugu [coefficient = -3.6 (P = 0.018) and 12.6 (P < 0.001), respectively]. In Lagos, the private for-profit sector's SAI was higher and the private not-for-profit sector's SAI was lower than the public sector [3.71 (P = 0.005) and -3.92 (P < 0.001)]. Results indicate that the technical quality of private for-profit providers' care was poorer than public providers where the public provision of care was weak, while private for-profit facilities provided better technical quality care than public facilities where the public sector was strong and there was a relatively strong regulatory body. Our findings raise important considerations relating to the quality of maternity care, the public-private mix and needs for regulation in global efforts to achieve universal healthcare.

  16. Maternal and child under-nutrition in rural and urban communities of Lagos state, Nigeria: the relationship and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Poor nutritional status of mothers has a direct and indirect consequence on their own health and that of their children. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between nutritional status of mothers and their children and the risk factors for under-nutrition among mothers and children in rural and urban communities of Lagos State, Nigeria. Methods This was a cross sectional survey conducted using the multistage random sampling technique. A total of 300 mother-child pairs were studied, consisting of 150 each from rural and urban communities. Under-nutrition in mothers and children was determined using standard criteria. Results The prevalence of under-nutrition among mothers was significantly higher in rural than urban communities (10.7% vs. 2.7%, p = 0.014). The prevalences of underweight and stunted children were also significantly higher in rural than urban communities (19.4% vs. 9.3%, p < 0.001) and (43.3% vs. 12.6%, p < 0.001) respectively. In rural communities, the risk of stunted mothers having children with stunting was about 7 times higher than those who were not (OR 6.7, 95% CI = 1.4-32.0, p = 0.007). In urban communities, undernourished mothers have about 11 and 12 times risk of having children with underweight and wasting respectively (OR 11.2, 95% CI = 1.4-86.5, p = 0.005) and (OR 12.3, 95% CI = 1.6-95.7, p = 0.003) respectively. The identified risk factors for maternal and child under nutrition differs across rural and urban communities. Conclusions The prevalence of maternal and child under-nutrition is high in both communities although higher in rural communities. Efforts at reducing the vicious cycle of under-nutrition among mothers and children should concentrate on addressing risk factors specific for each community. PMID:23880121

  17. Service readiness, health facility management practices, and delivery care utilization in five states of Nigeria: a cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Gage, Anastasia J; Ilombu, Onyebuchi; Akinyemi, Akanni Ibukun

    2016-10-06

    Existing studies of delivery care in Nigeria have identified socioeconomic and cultural factors as the primary determinants of health facility delivery. However, no study has investigated the association between supply-side factors and health facility delivery. Our study analyzed the role of supply-side factors, particularly health facility readiness and management practices for provision of quality maternal health services. Using linked data from the 2005 and 2009 health facility and household surveys in the five states in which the Community Participation for Action in the Social Sector (COMPASS) project was implemented, indices of health service readiness and management were developed based on World Health Organization guidelines. Multilevel logistic regression models were run to determine the association between these indices and health facility delivery among 2710 women aged 15-49 years whose last child was born within the five years preceding the surveys and who lived in 51 COMPASS LGAs. The health facility delivery rate increased from 25.4 % in 2005 to 44.1 % in 2009. Basic amenities for antenatal care provision, readiness to deliver basic emergency obstetric and newborn care, and management practices supportive of quality maternal health services were suboptimal in health facilities surveyed and did not change significantly between 2005 and 2009. The LGA mean index of basic amenities for antenatal care provision was more positively associated with the odds of health facility delivery in 2009 than in 2005, and in rural than in urban areas. The LGA mean index of management practices was associated with significantly lower odds of health facility delivery in rural than in urban areas. The LGA mean index of facility readiness to deliver basic emergency obstetric and neonatal care declined slightly from 5.16 in 2005 to 3.98 in 2009 and was unrelated to the odds of health facility delivery. Supply-side factors appeared to play a role in health facility delivery

  18. 75 FR 56509 - Multi-Sector Trade Mission to Nigeria

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Multi-Sector Trade Mission to Nigeria...: Multi-Sector Trade Mission to Nigeria, March 8-10, 2011 I. Mission Description The United States... Mission to Nigeria March 8-10, 2011, to help U.S. firms find business partners and sell equipment and...

  19. Nigeria: Current Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-12

    Hausa-Fulani, the southwestern Yoruba , and the southeastern Ibo have traditionally been the most politically active and dominant. Almost half of the...Adamawa State in the January elections, was chosen by the PDP as the running mate of Obasanjo, a Yoruba from southwestern Nigeria. The APP and AD...nominated Chief Olu Falae, a Yoruba , as their joint candidate for president. A former Nigerian security chief and a northerner, Chief Umaru Shinakfi, was

  20. Concerns about the knowledge and attitude of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis among health care workers and patients in Delta State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Isara, A R; Akpodiete, A

    2015-01-01

    Inadequate knowledge and wrong perception of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) by Health Care Workers (HCWs) and patients are detrimental to tuberculosis control programs. The aim was to assess the knowledge and attitudes of HCWs and TB patients about MDR-TB in Delta State, Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was carried out among HCWs and TB patients in Delta State, Nigeria. Data were collected using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire and analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics version 20. Ninety-six HCWs and 114 TB patients were studied. The HCWs (mean age 43.0 ± 10.1 years) were older than the patients (mean age 41.7 ± 16.9 years). A higher proportion (54.2%) of HCWs had tertiary education, but only 15% of the patients had above secondary education. Eight (8.3%) HCWs and majority (60.5%) of the patients had no knowledge about of MDR-TB. Only 18.4% of patients compared to 61.5% of HCWs had good knowledge of MDR-TB. Both groups demonstrated a positive attitude toward MDR-TB. The knowledge of MDR-TB was poor among the TB patients studied as well as among HCWs with low educational status. MDR-TB training program for both HCWs and patients need to be re-structured to allow for greater gain in MDR-TB knowledge among both groups, which in turn may help improve compliance and treatment outcomes among patients.

  1. Complementary Feeding Knowledge, Practices, and Dietary Diversity among Mothers of Under-Five Children in an Urban Community in Lagos State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Olatona, Foluke Adenike; Adenihun, Jesupelumi Oreoluwa; Aderibigbe, Sunday Adedeji; Adeniyi, Oluwafunmilayo Funke

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Inappropriate complementary feeding is a major cause of child malnutrition and death. This study determined the complementary feeding knowledge, practices, minimum dietary diversity, and acceptable diet among mothers of under-five children in an urban Local Government Area of Lagos State, Southwest Nigeria. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Eti-Osa area of Lagos State, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling technique was employed to select 355 mothers and infants. Data was collected using a pre-tested interviewer administered questionnaire and 24-hour diet recall was used to assess dietary diversity. Data was analyzed using Epi-Info. Results: Knowledge of complementary feeding was low (14.9%) and was associated with older mothers’ age, being married, and higher level of education. The prevalence of timely initiation of complementary feeding (47.9%), dietary diversity (16.0%) and minimum acceptable diet for children between 6 and 9 months (16%) were low. Overall, appropriate complementary feeding practice was low (47.0%) and associated with higher level of mothers’ education and occupation. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Complementary feeding knowledge and practices were poor among mothers of under-5 especially the non-literate. Reduction of child malnutrition through appropriate complementary feeding remains an important global health goal. Complementary feeding education targeting behavioral change especially among young, single and uneducated mothers in developing countries is important to reduce child morbidity and mortality. PMID:28798893

  2. Seroprevalence of parvovirus B19 IgG and IgM antibodies among pregnant women in Oyo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Abiodun, Iyanda; Opaleye, Oluyinka Oladele; Ojurongbe, Olusola; Fagbami, Ademola Hezekiah

    2013-12-15

    Human parvovirus B19 causes a wide range of complications in pregnant women including abortion, severe fetal anemia, non-immune hydrops fetalis, and even intrauterine fetal death. However, there is a dearth of information on the prevalence of the virus among pregnant women in southwestern Nigeria. Blood samples were collected from 231 pregnant women and screened for antibodies to human parvovirus B19 IgM and IgG using an enzyme immunosorbent assay kits. Of the 231 women, 31 were in their first trimester, 146 were in their second trimester, and 54 were in their third trimester. Forty-five (20%) were positive for parvovirus B19 IgG antibodies, 10 (4%) were positive for parvovirus B19 IgM antibodies, and 176 (76%) had no detectable parvovirus B19 antibodies. Twenty-eight (19%) of the 146 pregnant women in their second trimester were positive for parvovirus B19 IgG antibody while three (2%) of the 146 were positive for parvovirus B19 IgM antibody. It is evident that there is a high prevalence of human parvovirus B19 among pregnant women in south-western Nigeria. This suggests that there is an active transmission of the virus in the community; it is therefore necessary to conduct more studies on the virus in pregnant women in Nigeria to ascertain its effect on the fetus.

  3. An innovation for improving maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) service delivery in Jigawa State, northern Nigeria: a qualitative study of stakeholders' perceptions about clinical mentoring.

    PubMed

    Okereke, Ekechi; Tukur, Jamilu; Aminu, Amina; Butera, Jean; Mohammed, Bello; Tanko, Mustapha; Yisa, Ibrahim; Obonyo, Benson; Egboh, Mike

    2015-02-15

    An effective capacity building process for healthcare workers is required for the delivery of quality health care services. Work-based training can be applied for the capacity building of health care workers while causing minimum disruption to service delivery within health facilities. In 2012, clinical mentoring was introduced into the Jigawa State Health System through collaboration between the Jigawa State Ministry of Health and the Partnership for Transforming Health Systems Phase 2 (PATHS2). This study evaluates the perceptions of different stakeholders about clinical mentoring as a strategy for improving maternal, newborn and child health service delivery in Jigawa State, northern Nigeria. Interviews were conducted in February 2013 with different stakeholders within Jigawa State in Northern Nigeria. There were semi-structured interviews with 33 mentored health care workers as well as the health facility departmental heads for Obstetrics and Pediatrics in the selected clinical mentoring health facilities. In-depth interviews were also conducted with the clinical mentors and two senior government health officials working within the Jigawa State Ministry of Health. The qualitative data were audio-recorded; transcribed and thematically analysed. The study findings suggest that clinical mentoring improved service delivery within the clinical mentoring health facilities. Significant improvements in the professional capacity of mentored health workers were observed by clinical mentors, heads of departments and the mentored health workers. Best practices were introduced with the support of the clinical mentors such as appropriate baseline investigations for pediatric patients, the use of magnesium sulphate and misoprostol for the management of eclampsia and post-partum hemorrhage respectively. Government health officials indicate that clinical mentoring has led to more emphasis on the need for the provision of better quality health services. Stakeholders report that

  4. Knowledge, determinants and unmet needs for postpartum family planning use among women attending immunization clinic at Bowen University Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Idowu, A; Ogunsola, O O; Ogunlaja, O

    2015-03-01

    Most women in extended post partum period often have desire to use family planning. Disappointedly, majority of such women end up having unplanned or unwanted children. Little is currently known about factors responsible for such unmet family planning need among Nigerian women. To assess the prevalence and determinants of unmet need for post partum family planning (PPFP) among women in Oyo State, south- west, Nigeria. This cross-sectional analytic study was carried out using systematic sampling technique among 444 women attending immunization clinic in Ogbomoso, Nigeria. A pre-tested questionnaire was used for data collection and data analysis. was done using SPSS version 17. Chi-square test and binary logistic regression were used for analysis. The mean age of the respondents was 36?9. Majority (65.7%) of the respondents demonstrated poor knowledge on PPFP. More than half (54.0%) of them had unmet need for limiting while 46.0% had unmet need for spacing. Fear of side effects was the commonest reason for lack of PPFP use (17.4%). Unmet need was significantly associated with marital status, educational status and level of awareness about PPFP. Level of awareness was the only significant predictor of unmet need among our study participants (OR; 2.973, 95% C.I; 0.119-0.459). Our study shows a high unmet need for PPFP among women in Ogbomoso, thus there is need for a more programmatic focus on women in their extended post partum periods. There is need for more awareness program on PPFP to increase contraceptive uptake in Nigeria.

  5. Incidence of Avian Influenza in Adamawa State, Nigeria: The Epidemiology, Economic Losses and the Possible Role of Wild Birds in the Transmission of the Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ja`Afar-Furo, M. R.; Balla, H. G.; Tahir, A. S.; Haskainu, C.

    Reducing the huge economic losses due to diseases in poultry as the second largest industry in Nigeria after oil means improving the protein intake of the majority. Similarly, this will also promotes a steady income for the teeming farmers. This study investigated the incidence of the lethal avian influenza in Adamawa State, Nigeria, with particular emphasis on the socio-economic and cultural activities of the poultry farmers, economic losses and the possible role of wild birds in the transmission of the disease. Data were collected from 316 and 458 direct and indirect respondents, respectively, from 6 affected villages and a town in 2 Local Government Areas (LGAs): Girei and Yola-North. Results revealed that a larger (25.71%) proportion of the respondents fell within the age range of 31-40 years, with majority (54.91%) as females. While the bulk (54.65%) of the respondents were illiterates, 95.47% of the direct respondents derived their incomes from crop production, whereas 59.17% of the indirect respondents from livestock rearing. About 26,049 birds worth N13, 454,800.00 was cumulative economic loss incurred by the poultry farmers, whereas that of the government was put at N1, 119,781.10. Of the mortalities experienced in the wildlife before the outbreak of the disease, Bubulcus ibis (64.29) and Tadarida nigeriae (86.36) were the highest. The study recommends a massive rural extension on Poultry Production with absolute biosecurity, involving all stakeholders (Veterinary Surgeons, Animal Scientists/health workers, wildlife specialists, Agricultural Economists, Information Officers etc.) in a collaborative form for high synergistic effects.

  6. Oil Politics and National Security in Nigeria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    Oil Transparency in the Niger Delta: Improving Public Sector Oil Derived Resource Flows and Utilization in Abia State, Nigeria,” Economies of...against the nine states officially recognized i.e. they exclude Ondo, Abia , and Imo states from being part of the Delta region (figure 1). 125 BBC...Peterside Sofiri Dr, “Oil Transparency in the Niger Delta: Improving Public Sector Oil Derived Resource Flows and Utilization in Abia State, Nigeria

  7. Application of remote-sensing data to groundwater exploration: A case study of the Cross River State, southeastern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edet, A. E.; Okereke, C. S.; Teme, S. C.; Esu, E. O.

    The Cross River State, Nigeria, is underlain by the Precambrian-age crystalline basement complex and by rocks of Cretaceous to Tertiary age. The exploration for groundwater in this area requires a systematic technique in order to obtain optimum results, but the non-availability of funds and facilities has made it extremely difficult to carry out site investigations prior to the drilling of water wells. Therefore, the failure rate is as high as 80%. In order to delineate areas that are expected to be suitable for future groundwater development, black and white radar imagery and aerial photographs were used to define some hydrological and hydrogeological features in parts of the study area. Lineament and drainage patterns were analysed using length density and frequency. Lineament-length density ranges from 0.04-1.52 lineament frequency is 0.11-5.09 drainage-length density is 0.17-0.94, and the drainage frequency is 0.16-1.53. These range of values reflect the differences in the probability of groundwater potentials. Results were then used to delineate areas of high, medium, and low groundwater potential. Study results also indicate that correlations exist between lineament and drainage patterns, lithology, water temperature, water conductivity, well yield, transmissivity, longitudinal conductance, and the occurrence of groundwater. Résumé La géologie de l'Etat de Cross River (Nigéria) est constituée d'un socle cristallin d'âge précambrien et de roches datées du Crétacé au Tertiaire. Dans cette région, l'exploration des eaux souterraines nécessite une analyse systématique pour obtenir les meilleurs résultats ; cependant le manque de moyens a rendu particulièrement difficile les recherches de sites de forage destinés au captage de l'eau. C'est pourquoi le taux d'échec a atteint 80%. Afin de délimiter les zones susceptibles de permettre la future mise en valeur des eaux souterraines, des images radar et des photos aériennes en noir et blanc ont

  8. Prevalence of Cytomegalovirus IgG Antibodies among Pregnant Women Visiting Antenatal Clinic, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital in Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akende, Oluwatosin; Akanbi, Olusola Anuoluwapo; Oluremi, Adeolu Sunday; Okonko, Iheanyi Omezuruike; Opaleye, Oluyinka Oladele

    2016-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is one of the predominant viral infections that lead to congenital diseases and teratogenic risks during the perinatal stage. There is paucity of seroepidemiological data on anti-CMV IgG antibody in pregnant women in Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria. This study was aimed at determining the seroprevalence of Cytomegalovirus IgG antibody among pregnant women visiting antenatal clinic, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria. One hundred and seventy-four sera from the pregnant women were screened by Enzyme linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgG antibody. Data analysis was done using SPSS software. In this study, 105 of the 174 pregnant women were seropositive for CMV IgG antibodies giving an antibody prevalence of 60%. There was no association found between CMV IgG seropositivity and the subjects' demographic characteristics, however, the 60.0% prevalence of CMV-IgG antibody observed amongst pregnant women in this study demands for vaccines and regular testing for the presence of CMV and its related risk factors in antenatal clinic.

  9. Seroprevalence of fowl pox antibody in indigenous chickens in jos north and South council areas of plateau state, Nigeria: implication for vector vaccine.

    PubMed

    Adebajo, Meseko Clement; Ademola, Shittu Ismail; Oluwaseun, Akinyede

    2012-01-01

    Fowl pox is a viral disease of domestic and wild birds. The large size of the genome makes it a useful vector for recombinant DNA technology. Although the disease has been described in both commercial and indigenous chickens in Nigeria, data are limited on seroprevalence in free range chickens. Such data are, however, important in the design and implementation of fowl pox virus vector vaccine. We surveyed current antibody status to fowl pox virus in free range chickens by testing 229 sera collected from 10 villages in Jos North and Jos South LGA of Plateau State Nigeria. Sera were analyzed by AGID against standard fowl pox antigen. Fifty-two of the 229 (23%) tested sera were positive for fowl pox virus antibody, and the log titre in all positive specimen was >2. Thirty (21%) and twenty-two (27%) of the samples from Jos South and Jos North, respectively, tested positive. This was, however, not statistically significant (P = 0.30). Generally the study showed a significant level of antibody to fowl pox virus in the study area. This observation may hinder effective use of fowl pox vectored viral vaccine. Fowl pox control is recommended to reduce natural burden of the disease.

  10. Seroprevalence of Fowl Pox Antibody in Indigenous Chickens in Jos North and South Council Areas of Plateau State, Nigeria: Implication for Vector Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Adebajo, Meseko Clement; Ademola, Shittu Ismail; Oluwaseun, Akinyede

    2012-01-01

    Fowl pox is a viral disease of domestic and wild birds. The large size of the genome makes it a useful vector for recombinant DNA technology. Although the disease has been described in both commercial and indigenous chickens in Nigeria, data are limited on seroprevalence in free range chickens. Such data are, however, important in the design and implementation of fowl pox virus vector vaccine. We surveyed current antibody status to fowl pox virus in free range chickens by testing 229 sera collected from 10 villages in Jos North and Jos South LGA of Plateau State Nigeria. Sera were analyzed by AGID against standard fowl pox antigen. Fifty-two of the 229 (23%) tested sera were positive for fowl pox virus antibody, and the log titre in all positive specimen was >2. Thirty (21%) and twenty-two (27%) of the samples from Jos South and Jos North, respectively, tested positive. This was, however, not statistically significant (P = 0.30). Generally the study showed a significant level of antibody to fowl pox virus in the study area. This observation may hinder effective use of fowl pox vectored viral vaccine. Fowl pox control is recommended to reduce natural burden of the disease. PMID:23762578

  11. Improving Maternal Care through a State-Wide Health Insurance Program: A Cost and Cost-Effectiveness Study in Rural Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Gabriela B; Foster, Nicola; Brals, Daniella; Nelissen, Heleen E; Bolarinwa, Oladimeji A; Hendriks, Marleen E; Boers, Alexander C; van Eck, Diederik; Rosendaal, Nicole; Adenusi, Peju; Agbede, Kayode; Akande, Tanimola M; Boele van Hensbroek, Michael; Wit, Ferdinand W; Hankins, Catherine A; Schultsz, Constance

    2015-01-01

    While the Nigerian government has made progress towards the Millennium Development Goals, further investments are needed to achieve the targets of post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals, including Universal Health Coverage. Economic evaluations of innovative interventions can help inform investment decisions in resource-constrained settings. We aim to assess the cost and cost-effectiveness of maternal care provided within the new Kwara State Health Insurance program (KSHI) in rural Nigeria. We used a decision analytic model to simulate a cohort of pregnant women. The primary outcome is the incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) of the KSHI scenario compared to the current standard of care. Intervention cost from a healthcare provider perspective included service delivery costs and above-service level costs; these were evaluated in a participating hospital and using financial records from the managing organisations, respectively. Standard of care costs from a provider perspective were derived from the literature using an ingredient approach. We generated 95% credibility intervals around the primary outcome through probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) based on a Monte Carlo simulation. We conducted one-way sensitivity analyses across key model parameters and assessed the sensitivity of our results to the performance of the base case separately through a scenario analysis. Finally, we assessed the sustainability and feasibility of this program's scale up within the State's healthcare financing structure through a budget impact analysis. The KSHI scenario results in a health benefit to patients at a higher cost compared to the base case. The mean ICER (US$46.4/disability-adjusted life year averted) is considered very cost-effective compared to a willingness-to-pay threshold of one gross domestic product per capita (Nigeria, US$ 2012, 2,730). Our conclusion was robust to uncertainty in parameters estimates (PSA: median US$49.1, 95% credible interval 21

  12. The development and state of health and safety in the workplace in west Africa: perspectives from Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Asuzu, M C

    1996-01-01

    Occupational health practice originated in Europe following the systematic work of Bernadino Ramazzini in Italy at the turn of the 17th century. It grew mostly under the notion of Industrial health, concentrating on the chemical, mechanical and social conditions of labourers as well as the work of the arts and trades, until the work of Charles Turner Thackrah in Britain broadened its understanding to include the professions and certain civic ways of living. In West Africa, as in most of the developing world, occupational health and safety practice came to us mostly as side products of the colonial company health work, in their attempt to fulfil the requirements of their national health laws to their citizens here. The first organised effort to boost occupational health and practice for the Africans among the Africans, and involving mainly Africans, came in the 1960s with the first African Conference on Occupational health in Africa in Lagos in 1968. This process has gone on now, albeit rather slowly, until the citing of a Chair of Occupational health at the University of Ibadan by the Society of Occupational Health Physicians of Nigeria in the 1992/93 academic year. The health and safety in industries in Nigeria have however not been in anyway adequate from studies in that area, especially among the indigenous small and medium sized companies. This paper reviews these developments and proposes some suggestions on how to improve on the speed and accuracy of these developments, specifically in Nigeria; and by extrapolation, for the West Africa sub-region as well.

  13. The Influence of In-Service Training, Seminars and Workshops Attendance by Social Studies Teachers on Academic Performance of Students in Junior Secondary Schools In Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essien, Ekpenyong Essien; Akpan, Okon Edem; Obot, Imo Martin

    2016-01-01

    This research examined the influence of in-service training, seminar and workshop attendance by social studies teachers on students' academic performance in Cross River State, Nigeria. To achieve the purpose of this study, one hypothesis was formulated to direct the study. Ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study. A sample of five…

  14. Childhood Malnutrition is Associated with Maternal Care During Pregnancy and Childbirth: A Cross-Sectional Study in Bauchi and Cross River States, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Hamel, Candyce; Enne, Joseph; Omer, Khalid; Ayara, Ndem; Yarima, Yahaya; Cockcroft, Anne; Andersson, Neil

    2015-02-20

    Malnutrition remains an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality; the levels of childhood malnutrition in Nigeria are among the highest in the world. The literature supports many direct and indirect causes of malnutrition, but few studies have examined the link between maternal care during pregnancy and childbirth and childhood malnutrition. This study examines this potential link in Bauchi and Cross River states in Nigeria. In 2011, a household survey collected information about children under four years old and their mothers' last pregnancy. Trained fieldworkers measured mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) of children aged 6-47 months. We examined associations with childhood malnutrition in bivariate and multivariate analysis. Some 4.4% of 3643 children in Cross River, and 14.7% of 2706 in Bauchi were malnourished (MUAC z-score). In both states, a child whose mother had fewer than four government antenatal care visits was more likely to be malnourished (Cross River: OR 1.85, 95%CIca 1.33-2.55; Bauchi: OR 1.29, 95%CIca 1.02-1.63). In Bauchi, a child whose mother who rarely or never discussed pregnancy and childbirth with her husband (OR 1.34, 95%CIca 1.07-1.68), and who did not have her last delivery attended by a skilled health worker was more likely to be malnourished (OR 1.50, 95%CIca 1.09-2.07). These findings, if confirmed in other studies, suggest that poor care of women in pregnancy and childbirth could pose a longer term risk to the health of the child, as well as increasing immediate risks for both mother and child. Significance for public healthChildhood malnutrition is a public health priority, accounting for almost 1/5 of global disease burden among children under five years old. Many studies have examined risk factors for childhood malnutrition, but few have examined the link between maternal care during pregnancy and childbirth and childhood malnutrition. This study, albeit a cross-sectional design, provides evidence of a link between poor

  15. Improving Maternal Care through a State-Wide Health Insurance Program: A Cost and Cost-Effectiveness Study in Rural Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Gabriela B.; Foster, Nicola; Brals, Daniella; Nelissen, Heleen E.; Bolarinwa, Oladimeji A.; Hendriks, Marleen E.; Boers, Alexander C.; van Eck, Diederik; Rosendaal, Nicole; Adenusi, Peju; Agbede, Kayode; Akande, Tanimola M.; Boele van Hensbroek, Michael; Wit, Ferdinand W.; Hankins, Catherine A.; Schultsz, Constance

    2015-01-01

    Background While the Nigerian government has made progress towards the Millennium Development Goals, further investments are needed to achieve the targets of post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals, including Universal Health Coverage. Economic evaluations of innovative interventions can help inform investment decisions in resource-constrained settings. We aim to assess the cost and cost-effectiveness of maternal care provided within the new Kwara State Health Insurance program (KSHI) in rural Nigeria. Methods and Findings We used a decision analytic model to simulate a cohort of pregnant women. The primary outcome is the incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) of the KSHI scenario compared to the current standard of care. Intervention cost from a healthcare provider perspective included service delivery costs and above-service level costs; these were evaluated in a participating hospital and using financial records from the managing organisations, respectively. Standard of care costs from a provider perspective were derived from the literature using an ingredient approach. We generated 95% credibility intervals around the primary outcome through probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) based on a Monte Carlo simulation. We conducted one-way sensitivity analyses across key model parameters and assessed the sensitivity of our results to the performance of the base case separately through a scenario analysis. Finally, we assessed the sustainability and feasibility of this program’s scale up within the State’s healthcare financing structure through a budget impact analysis. The KSHI scenario results in a health benefit to patients at a higher cost compared to the base case. The mean ICER (US$46.4/disability-adjusted life year averted) is considered very cost-effective compared to a willingness-to-pay threshold of one gross domestic product per capita (Nigeria, US$ 2012, 2,730). Our conclusion was robust to uncertainty in parameters estimates (PSA: median US$49

  16. Detection of Mycobacterium bovis in Organs of Slaughtered Cattle by DNA-Based Polymerase Chain Reaction and Ziehl-Neelsen Techniques in Bauchi State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Sa'idu, A. S.; Okolocha, E. C.; Dzikwi, A. A.; Kwaga, J. K. P.; Gamawa, A. A.; Usman, A.; Maigari, S. A.; Ibrahim, S.

    2015-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic, infectious, and contagious zoonotic disease of domestic animals, wild animals, and humans. It also poses a public health threat and economic losses. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in slaughtered cattle, based on PM meat inspection, Ziehl-Neelsen staining, and PCR techniques in Bauchi State, Nigeria. A Prospective study was conducted on 800 cattle slaughtered in the three Zonal abattoirs of Bauchi State, Nigeria. One hundred and twenty (15%) tissues from different organs had suspected bTB lesions at PM. Out of the samples examined 35 (29.2%) were AFB positive by ZN and 10 (8.3%) were confirmed positive for M. bovis by PCR, with an overall prevalence of 29.16% and 8.33%, respectively. Female had a higher prevalence rate than male cattle at 16.66% and 12.5 % by ZN and 5.00% and 3.33% by PCR, respectively (P>0.05, χ 2 = 0.218). However, there was a statistically significant association (P<0.05, χ 2 = 7.002) between detection of bTB and the age of cattle. ZN revealed that cattle aged 6 years and above had the highest number of positive bTB cases 67.9%, while cattle aged 3–5 years had the lowest 14.81%. PCR technique revealed that the cattle aged 6 and above years also had the highest percentage positive M. bovis cases of 22.84%, whereas cattle aged 3–5 years had the lowest and the overall prevalence rate of 8.33%. The study found a high infection rate of bTB among cattle and majority of the lesions 54.2% were from lungs. The prevalence of bTB was higher in Bauchi metropolitan abattoir which supplies larger population of the state with beef. PMID:26464955

  17. Co-endemicity of Plasmodium falciparum and Intestinal Helminths Infection in School Age Children in Rural Communities of Kwara State Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adedoja, Ayodele; Tijani, Bukola Deborah; Akanbi, Ajibola A.; Ojurongbe, Taiwo A.; Adeyeba, Oluwaseyi A.; Ojurongbe, Olusola

    2015-01-01

    Background Malaria and intestinal helminths co-infection are major public health problems particularly among school age children in Nigeria. However the magnitude and possible interactions of these infections remain poorly understood. This study determined the prevalence, impact and possible interaction of Plasmodium falciparum and intestinal helminths co-infection among school children in rural communities of Kwara State, Nigeria. Methods Blood, urine and stool samples were collected from 1017 primary school pupils of ages 4–15 years. Stool samples were processed using both Kato-Katz and formol-ether concentration techniques and microscopically examined for intestinal helminths infection. Urine samples were analyzed using sedimentation method for Schistosoma haematobium. Plasmodium falciparum was confirmed by microscopy using thick and thin blood films methods and packed cell volume (PCV) was determined using hematocrit reader. Univariate analysis and chi-square statistical tests were used to analyze the data. Results Overall, 61.2% of all school children had at least an infection of either P. falciparum, S. haematobium, or intestinal helminth. S. haematobium accounted for the largest proportion (44.4%) of a single infection followed by P. falciparum (20.6%). The prevalence of malaria and helminth co-infection in the study was 14.4%. Four species of intestinal helminths were recovered from the stool samples and these were hookworm (22.5%), Hymenolepis species (9.8%), Schistosoma mansoni (2.9%) and Enterobius vermicularis (0.6%). The mean densities of P. falciparum in children co-infected with S. haematobium and hookworm were higher compared to those infected with P. falciparum only though not statistically significant (p = 0.062). The age distribution of both S. haematobium (p = 0.049) and hookworm (p = 0.034) infected children were statistically significant with the older age group (10–15 years) recording the highest prevalence of 47.2% and 25% respectively

  18. Plasmodium falciparum malaria in pregnancy: prevalence of peripheral parasitaemia, anaemia and malaria care-seeking behaviour among pregnant women attending two antenatal clinics in Edo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Enato, E F O; Mens, P F; Okhamafe, A O; Okpere, E E; Pogoson, E; Schallig, H D F H

    2009-05-01

    This study evaluated malaria care-seeking behaviour, as well as the prevalence of parasitaemia and anaemia among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics of two tertiary healthcare facilities in Edo State, Nigeria. Malaria was highly prevalent in the study group (20% by microscopy and estimated 25% by PCR), but parasitaemia and incidence decreased with increasing number of pregnancies. Although the level of education of the study participants was relatively high, antimalarial control measures during pregnancy were found to be poorly utilised by the women and malaria care-seeking was often delayed. A minority of the interviewed pregnant women said they had received sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine-based intermittent preventive therapy (IPT) during current pregnancy. Moreover, the use of inferior antimalaria treatment (e.g. chloroquine) was frequent. The majority of the pregnant women, mainly primigravidae, were anaemic. Efforts to improve antimalaria healthcare must be intensified, targeting pregnant women, particularly the primigravidae and secundigravidae and the healthcare providers.

  19. Isolation, purification, toxicity and some physicochemical properties of mycotoxins produced by aspergillus quadrilineatus isolated from acha (Digitaria exilis stapf) in Plateau State of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Gbodi, T A

    1993-06-01

    Some physico-chemical and toxicological studies were carried out on mycotoxins elaborated by Aspergillus quadrilineatus isolated from a grain foodstuff, acha (Digitaria exilis) in the Plateau State of Nigeria. The mycotoxins produced by A quadrilineatus were extractable from rice culture by chloroform. Column chromatographic separations of the crude extract in silica gel using different elution solvents and biological tests showed that the mycotoxins came off in the diethylether, chloroform and mostly in the ethyl acetate fractions. Use of different available mycotoxin standards on silica gel G coated chromatoplates revealed that 1 of the mycotoxins produced by A quadrilineatus was sterigmatocystin. Two other more toxic mycotoxins were isolated and purified from the crude chloroform extract; their column, preparative thin-layer chromatographic, infrared and UV-spectrophotometric characteristics were established. The infrared spectra of the 2 purified mycotoxins suggested that the carbonyl group of their structures were similar to that of aflatoxin.

  20. Modeling the impact of novel male contraceptive methods on reductions in unintended pregnancies in Nigeria, South Africa, and the United States.

    PubMed

    Dorman, Emily; Perry, Brian; Polis, Chelsea B; Campo-Engelstein, Lisa; Shattuck, Dominick; Hamlin, Aaron; Aiken, Abigail; Trussell, James; Sokal, David

    2018-01-01

    We modeled the potential impact of novel male contraceptive methods on averting unintended pregnancies in the United States, South Africa, and Nigeria. We used an established methodology for calculating the number of couple-years of protection provided by a given contraceptive method mix. We compared a "current scenario" (reflecting current use of existing methods in each country) against "future scenarios," (reflecting whether a male oral pill or a reversible vas occlusion was introduced) in order to estimate the impact on unintended pregnancies averted. Where possible, we based our assumptions on acceptability data from studies on uptake of novel male contraceptive methods. Assuming that only 10% of interested men would take up a novel male method and that users would comprise both switchers (from existing methods) and brand-new users of contraception, the model estimated that introducing the male pill or reversible vas occlusion would decrease unintended pregnancies by 3.5% to 5.2% in the United States, by 3.2% to 5% in South Africa, and by 30.4% to 38% in Nigeria. Alternative model scenarios are presented assuming uptake as high as 15% and as low as 5% in each location. Model results were sensitive to assumptions regarding novel method uptake and proportion of switchers vs. new users. Even under conservative assumptions, the introduction of a male pill or temporary vas occlusion could meaningfully contribute to averting unintended pregnancies in a variety of contexts, especially in settings where current use of contraception is low. Novel male contraceptives could play a meaningful role in averting unintended pregnancies in a variety of contexts. The potential impact is especially great in settings where current use of contraception is low and if novel methods can attract new contraceptive users. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Complementary and alternative medicine use: Results from a descriptive study of pregnant women in Udi local Government area of Enugu state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Onyiapat, Jane-Lovena; Okafor, Chinyelu; Okoronkwo, Ijeoma; Anarado, Agnes; Chukwukelu, Ekene; Nwaneri, Ada; Okpala, Pat

    2017-04-04

    The use of CAM by pregnant women is very popular in developed countries. The trend is increasing globally and lack of evidence of safety particularly when used during pregnancy may lead to complications. Pregnancy is a vulnerable period especially during the first trimester. There is scarcity of empirical evidence on CAM use particularly among women in Udi LGA of Enugu State and South East Nigeria. Moreover, studies carried out in Nigeria have been limited to herbal medicine use, which is one aspect of CAM. This study was designed to obtain information on the use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine among pregnant women. The study was a cross sectional descriptive survey of 396 pregnant women systematically drawn from twenty political wards in Udi Local Government Area (LGA) of Enugu State. Interviewer administered questionnaire developed by the researchers was used for data collection. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Majority (82.1%) of the pregnant women in Udi LGA used CAM during pregnancy out of which 53.8% had used CAM in previous pregnancies. CAM used ranges from one single type to sixteen different types with biological products eg, herbal tea, herbal mixture being the most commonly used CAM. Whereas most (89.5%) of the CAM used by pregnant women was consumed orally, approximately half of the pregnant women used CAM together with conventional medicine. The use of CAM by women during pregnancy was high in Udi LGA. Therefore, maternity care providers especially midwives need to elicit CAM commonly used by women during pregnancy and counsel them appropriately for best care and safety. Researchers should focus on establishing the efficacy of CAM products.

  2. Prevalence of depression and associated clinical and socio-demographic factors in people living with lymphatic filariasis in Plateau State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Obindo, James; Abdulmalik, Jibril; Nwefoh, Emeka; Agbir, Michael; Nwoga, Charles; Armiya'u, Aishatu; Davou, Francis; Maigida, Kurkat; Otache, Emmanuel; Ebiloma, Ajuma; Dakwak, Samuel; Umaru, John; Samuel, Elisha; Ogoshi, Christopher; Eaton, Julian

    2017-06-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is a chronic, disabling and often disfiguring condition that principally impacts the world's poorest people. In addition to the well-recognised physical disability associated with lymphedema and hydrocele, affected people often experience rejection, stigma and discrimination. The resulting emotional consequences are known to impact on the quality of life and the functioning of the affected individuals. However, the management of this condition has focused on prevention and treatment through mass drug administration, with scant attention paid to the emotional impact of the condition on affected individuals. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and severity of depression among individuals with physical disfigurement from lymphatic filariasis in Plateau State, Nigeria. A cross-sectional 2-stage convenience study was conducted at 5 designated treatment centers across Plateau State, Nigeria. All available and consenting clients with clearly visible physical disfigurement were recruited. A semi-structured socio-demographic questionnaire, Rosenberg Self-esteem and a 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) were administered at the first stage. Those who screened positive (with a PHQ-9 score of five and above) were further interviewed using the Depression module of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Ninety-eight individuals met the criteria and provided consent. Twenty percent of the respondents met criteria for depression, with the following proportions based on severity: Mild (42.1%), Moderate (31.6%) and Severe (26.3%). History of mental illness (OR 40.83, p = 0.008); Median duration of the illness was 17 years (IQR 7.0-30 years) and being unemployed (OR 12.71, p = 0.003) were predictive of depression. High self-esteem was negatively correlated (OR 0.09, p<0.004). Prevalence of depression is high among individuals with lymphatic filariasis and depression in sufferers is associated with low self-esteem and low levels

  3. Reproductive health knowledge and practices among junior secondary school grade one students in Enugu State: threat to achieving millennium development goals in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nwaorgu, Obioma C; Onyeneho, Nkechi G; Okolo, May; Obadike, Ebele; Enibe, Gloria

    2008-08-01

    This was designed to provide background information for the implementation of family life and HIV/AIDS education in post primary schools in the Enugu State. A cross sectional survey of the reproductive health knowledge and practices of 412 junior secondary school pupils from 12 schools in Enugu State, Nigeria was undertaken using a uniform set of structured self-administered questionnaire. The results revealed that while the pupils demonstrated fair knowledge of human biology, they lacked knowledge of self-protective mechanisms as it related to sexual health. About (50%) of the participants reported that they have had sex, at the age of less than 11 years when they must have been in the primary school and most (89.3%) at age 11-14 years. Half (50.9%) of the respondents hold the belief that a girl would not get pregnant in her first sexual encounter. Statistically more of those who have ever had sex were betrayed this ignorance (p = 0.004). The boys were less certain about what constitutes the wrong ideas about reproductive health systems than the girls (p = 0.042). In the same vein, there was a difference (p < 0.0001) in the proportion of the rural residents, vis-a-vis their urban counterparts that could correctly identify the wrong ideas about human reproduction. This situation urgently calls for concerted efforts at addressing the poor reproductive health knowledge of these sexually active young people, for the millennium development goals (MDGs) target to be realized in Nigeria.

  4. Factors influencing motivation and retention of primary healthcare workers in the rural areas of Oyo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Jegede, Ayodele S; Adejumo, Prisca; Ushie, Boniface Ayanbekongshie

    2013-01-01

    Limited data exist on retention of primary healthcare (PHC) staff in rural areas, crippling the already fragile healthcare systems in Nigeria. This study investigated why PHC staff would or would not want to work in rural areas and how they could be retained. Four hundred and twelve (412) health workers and caregivers, and 21 key informants were interviewed in Ona-Ara LGA. Logistic regression statistics was used to analyse quantitative data and narrative for qualitative data. There was no significant factor influencing health workers' unwillingness to work in rural areas and, relationship between their demographic characteristics and perceived reasons to do so. Combined factors influencing PHC workers' willingness to work in rural areas influenced use of PHC. Financial and non-financial incentives are responsible for workers' motivation to work in rural areas. The mal-distribution of health facilities and health workers between urban and rural areas must be addressed. Copyright © 2013 Longwoods Publishing.

  5. Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of clients seeking assisted conception at Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adewunmi, Adeniyi A; Ottun, Tawakwalit A; Abiara, Tayo; Chukwuma, Jane-Frances; Okorie, Lauretta

    2017-10-01

    The socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of 246 consecutive couples seeking assisted conception in a university teaching hospital in Nigeria from inception in 2011 till 2014 were reviewed restrospectively. Eighty-five (34.5%) were in the 35-40 years age group. The body mass index of the women showed that 111 (45.1%) were overweight. One hundred and ninety five (88%) were referred on account of secondary infertility. The mean duration of infertility was 9.6 ± 4.8 years. Major factors identified were male factor 128 (52%), ovarian/age-related decline in fertility 107 (43.5%), tubal 83 (33.7%) and combined male/female factor 71 (28.9%). One hundred and ninety (77.2%) clients seeking assisted conception were Christians at advanced age (greater than 35 years) with a longstanding duration of infertility of more than 10 years. Government, private and religious organisations need to raise public awareness about the availability of in-vitro fertilisation services as well as encourage early resort to assisted reproductive technologies. Impact statement What we already know: Secondary infertility due mainly to tubal factor is reported to be the commonest cause of infertility in developing countries like Nigeria and clients affected seek assisted reproductive techniques late. What the results of this study add: Male factor infertility is more common amongst infertile couples seeking in vitro fertilisation in LASUTH. The implications of the findings for practice and/or further research: A thorough examination of the male partner followed by investigation is vital at the initial visit so that they can be referred early for assisted conception.

  6. Care related and transit neuronal injuries after cervical spine trauma: state of care and practice in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Mezue, Wilfred C; Onyia, Ephraim; Illoabachie, Izuchukwu C; Chikani, Mark C; Ohaegbulam, Samuel C

    2013-09-15

    Suboptimal care during extraction and transfer after spinal trauma predisposes patients to additional spinal cord injury. This study examines the factors that contribute to care related and transit injuries and suggests steps to improve standard of care in spinal trauma patients in Nigeria. It is a questionnaire-based prospective study of patients admitted with cervical cord injury to two neurosurgical centers in Enugu, Nigeria, between March 2008 and October 2010. Demography, mechanism of injury, mode of extraction from the scene and transportation to first visited hospital, precautions taken during transportation, and treatment received before arriving at the neurosurgical unit were analyzed. There were 53 (77.9%) males, the mean age was 33.9 years, and 23.5% had concomitant head injury. Average delay was 3.5 h between trauma and presentation to initial care and 10.4 days before presentation to definitive care. Only 26.5% presented primarily to tertiary centers with trauma services. About 94.1% were extracted by passersby. None of the patients received cervical spine protection either during extrication or in the course of transportation to initial care, and 35.3% were sitting in a motor vehicle or supported on a motorbike during transport. Of the 43 patients transported lying down, 41.9% were in the back seat of a sedan, and only 11.8% were transported in an ambulance. Neurological dysfunction was first noticed after removal from the scene by 41.2% of patients, while 7.4% noticed it on the way to or during initial care. During subsequent transfer to definitive centers, only 36% had cervical support, although 78% were transported in ambulances. Ignorance of pre-hospital management of cervically injured patients exists in the general population and even among medical personnel and results in preventable injuries. There is need for urgent training, provision of paramedical services, and public enlightenment.

  7. Barriers to and determinants of the use of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy in Cross River State, Nigeria: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ameh, Soter; Owoaje, Eme; Oyo-Ita, Angela; Kabiru, Caroline W; Akpet, Obaji E O; Etokidem, Aniekan; Enembe, Okokon; Ekpenyong, Nnette

    2016-05-04

    Malaria in pregnancy (MIP) has serious consequences for the woman, unborn child and newborn. The use of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for the intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (SP-IPTp) is low in malaria endemic areas, including some regions of Nigeria. However, little is known about pregnant women's compliance with the SP-IPTp national guidelines in primary health care (PHC) facilities in the south-south region of Nigeria. The aim of this study was to identify the barriers to and determinants of the use of SP-IPTp among pregnant women attending ANC in PHC facilities in Cross River State, south-south region of Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2011 among 400 ANC attendees aged 15-49 years recruited through multistage sampling. Binary logistic regression was used to determine the factors associated with the use of SP-IPTp in the study population. Use of SP-IPTp was self-reported by 41% of the total respondents. Lack of autonomy in the households to receive sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) during ANC was the main barrier to use of IPTp (83%). Other barriers were stock-outs of free SP (33%) and poor supervision of SP ingestion by directly observed treatment among those who obtained SP from ANC clinics (36/110 = 33%). In the multivariate logistic regression, the odds of using SP-IPTp was increased by the knowledge of the use of insecticide treated nets (ITNs) (OR = 2.13, 95% CI: 1.70-3.73) and SP (OR = 22.13, 95% CI: 8.10-43.20) for the prevention of MIP. Use of ITNs also increased the odds of using SP-IPTp (OR = 2.38, 95% CI: 1.24-12.31). Use of SP-IPTp was low and was associated with knowledge of the use of ITNs and SP as well as the use of ITNs for the prevention of MIP. There is a need to strengthen PHC systems and address barriers to the usage of SP-IPTp in order to reduce the burden of MIP.

  8. Community health workers' knowledge and practice in relation to pre-eclampsia in Ogun State, Nigeria: an essential bridge to maternal survival.

    PubMed

    Sotunsa, J O; Vidler, M; Akeju, D O; Osiberu, M O; Orenuga, E O; Oladapo, O T; Qureshi, R; Sawchuck, D; Adetoro, O O; von Dadelszen, P; Dada, O A

    2016-09-30

    Pre-eclampsia is a leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Early detection and treatment have been instrumental in reducing case fatality in high-income countries. To achieve this in a low-income country, like Nigeria, community health workers who man primary health centres must have adequate knowledge and skills to identify and provide emergency care for women with pre-eclampsia. This study aimed to determine community health workers' knowledge and practice in the identification and treatment of pre-eclampsia, as they are essential providers of maternal care services in Nigeria. This study was part of a multi-country evaluation of community treatment of pre-eclampsia. Qualitative data were obtained from four Local Government Areas of Ogun State, in south western Nigeria by focus group discussions (N = 15) and in-depth interviews (N = 19). Participants included a variety of community-based health care providers - traditional birth attendants, community health extension workers, nurses and midwives, chief nursing officers, medical officers - and health administrators. Data were transcribed and validated with field notes and analysed with NVivo 10.0. Community-based health care providers proved to be aware that pre-eclampsia was due to the development of hypertension and proteinuria in pregnant women. They had a good understanding of the features of the condition and were capable of identifying women at risk, initiating care, and referring women with this condition. However, some were not comfortable managing the condition because of the limitation in their 'Standing Order'; these guidelines do not explicitly authorize community health extension workers to treat pre-eclampsia in the community. Community-based health care providers were capable of identifying and initiating appropriate care for women with pre-eclampsia. These competencies combined with training and equipment availability could improve maternal health in the rural

  9. The use and misuse of mass distributed free insecticide-treated bed nets in a semi-urban community in Rivers State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ordinioha, Best

    2012-01-01

    Insecticide-treated bed net (ITN) is currently distributed free of charge to vulnerable groups in Nigeria, for malaria control. Consistent use of the nets is required for maximum effectiveness; but studies indicate that the nets are often jettisoned in periods of low mosquito activity and high night time temperature. The objective of this study has been to assess the use of mass distributed nets in a semi-urban community in Rivers State, south-south Nigeria, during the late dry season, when mosquito activity is at the lowest in the community. The study was carried out in Ishiodu - Emohua, using a cross-sectional study design. The data was collected using a structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire, administered to female head of households in the community, with under-five children. A total of 170 respondents were studied; they had an average age of 34.3 ± 7.6 years, most were married (86.5%), and had secondary school education (68.2%). All the households owned at least one ITN, and an average of 1.7 nets, with 75.3% of the households owning two or more ITNs. Almost all the nets (99.4%) were obtained free of charge. Of the 170 households that received the nets, 71.8% had hanged the nets as at the time of the survey; 83.6% of these hanged the nets over a bed, while 10.7% used the nets as window curtain. Of the 102 ITNs that were properly deployed, only 27.5% were occupied the night before the survey, by an average of 2.5 persons, mainly under-five children (37.7%). The distribution of free ITNs has resulted in universal household ownership, but the use of the nets is still very poor. Proper health education is required to encourage the consistent use of the nets, even in hot night, with low mosquito activity.

  10. Determinants of health system delay at public and private directly observed treatment, short course facilities in Lagos State, Nigeria: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Adejumo, Olusola Adedeji; Daniel, Olusoji James; Otesanya, Andrew Folarin; Adejumo, Esther Ngozi

    2016-09-01

    Despite several studies on health system delay (HSD) among tuberculosis (TB) patients in Nigeria, no study has compared HSD in private and public health facilities. This study assessed the determinants of HSD in public and private health facilities offering the directly observed treatment, short course (DOTS). A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 470 new smear-positive TB patients aged 14years and older were consecutively recruited between October 1, 2012, and December 31, 2012, from 34 (23 public and 11 private) DOTS facilities that offered treatment and microscopy services. Mann-Whitney U test and logistic regression were used to assess the determinants of HSD. The median HSD was longer at public DOTS facilities (14days; interquartile range [IQR] 10-21days) than private DOTS facilities (12.5days; IQR 10.0-14.0days, p=.002). Age and human immunodeficiency virus status were determinants of HSD at the public DOTS facilities, whereas sex and income were determinants of HSD at the private DOTS facilities. TB patients who first visited a nonhospital facility were over four times more likely (odds ratio 4.12; 95% confidence interval 2.25-7.54) to have prolonged HSD than those who first visited the government hospital when they first developed the symptoms of TB after controlling for other factors in the model. Determinants of HSD at the public and private DOTS facilities vary. Strategies to reduce HSD at both public and private DOTS facilities in Lagos State, Nigeria, are urgently needed. Copyright © 2016 Asian-African Society for Mycobacteriology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Child marriage and maternal health risks among young mothers in Gombi, Adamawa State, Nigeria: implications for mortality, entitlements and freedoms.

    PubMed

    Adedokun, Olaide; Adeyemi, Oluwagbemiga; Dauda, Cholli

    2016-12-01

    Efforts toward liberation of the girl-child from the shackles of early marriage have continued to be resisted through tradition, culture and religion in some parts of Nigeria. This study therefore examines the maternal health implications of early marriage on young mothers in the study area. Multistage sampling technique was employed to obtained data from 200 young mothers aged 15-24 years who married before aged 16 years. The study reveals that more than 60% had only primary education while more than 70% had experienced complications before or after childbirth. Age at first marriage, current age, level of education and household decision-making significantly influence (P<0.005) maternal health risks in the study area. The study establishes that respondents in age group 15-19 years are 1.234 times more likely to experience complications when compared with the reference category 20-24 years. Entitlements and freedom that are highly relevant to reduction of maternal mortality, provided by international treaties are inaccessible to young women in the study area. Strategies to end child marriage in the study area should include mass and compulsory education of girls, provision of other options to early marriage and childbearing and involvement of fathers in preventing and ending the practice.

  12. Mouthpart deformities in Chironomidae (Diptera) as bioindicators of heavy metals pollution in Shiroro Lake, Niger State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Arimoro, Francis O; Auta, Yohanna I; Odume, Oghenekaro N; Keke, Unique N; Mohammed, Adamu Z

    2018-03-01

    In this study, mouthpart deformities in Chironomid larvae (Diptera) were investigated in relation to sediment contamination in the Shiroro Lake in Nigeria. Metals and chironomids were sampled monthly at three stations (A-C) between August 2013 and January 2014. Across the stations, zinc ranged (3.9-75mg/g), manganese (1.29-1.65mg/g), lead (0.00-0.10mg/g), iron (101-168mg/g) and copper (0.13-0.17mg/g). The metal ions did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) between the sampling stations. However, zinc and iron ions were significantly different between the sampling seasons (P < 0.05). Thirteen chironomid species were recorded, with Chironomus sp., Polypedilum sp. and Ablabesmyia sp. dominating the assemblage structure. Mouthpart deformities were significantly higher at Station A compared with Station C, and seasonally significantly higher during dry season compared with wet season. Elevated incidences of deformity were recorded in Chironomus spp larvae as compared to other genera therefore for further studies in this region assessments should be based solely on Chironomus species and ignoring the rest. Strategies need to be developed to reduce the contaminations and the biological effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Clinical characteristics and outcome of management of Fournier's gangrene at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Omisanjo, Olufunmilade A; Bioku, M J; Ikuerowo, S O; Sule, G A; Esho, J O

    2014-01-01

    Fournier's gangrene (FG) though a rare condition can be associated with significant mortality. There are few reports in our environment documenting the outcome of management of the condition. The aim of the following study was to describe the clinical characteristics and outcome of management of patients with FG in a tertiary hospital in Southwest Nigeria. The clinical records of patients who presented with FG at a tertriary hospital over a 5 year period were reviewed. A total of 11 cases were reviewed and all patients were male. The scrotum alone was the most common site of involvement (54.5%). Late presentation was common with 9.6 days (range 1-21 days) being the average duration between the onset of symptoms and presentation at the hospital. Most of the patients (63.6%) did not have any identifiable systemic predisposing factor. There was no mortality or testicular loss recorded. Patients with FG still present late in our environment. However, appropriate aggressive treatment can help ameliorate the associated mortality and morbidity even in a resource poor setting.

  14. Urban-Rural Differences in Health-Care-Seeking Pattern of Residents of Abia State, Nigeria, and the Implication in the Control of NCDs.

    PubMed

    Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu U; Ogah, Okechukwu S; Ukegbu, Andrew U; Chukwuonye, Innocent I; Madukwe, Okechukwu O; Moses, Akhimiem O

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the differences in care-seeking pattern is key in designing interventions aimed at improving health-care service delivery, including prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases. The aim of this study was to identify the differences and determinants of care-seeking patterns of urban and rural residents in Abia State in southeast Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional, community-based, study involving 2999 respondents aged 18 years and above. Data were collected using the modified World Health Organization's STEPS questionnaire, including data on care seeking following the onset of illness. Descriptive statistics and logistic regressions were used to analyze care-seeking behavior and to identify differences among those seeking care in urban and rural areas. In both urban and rural areas, patent medicine vendors (73.0%) were the most common sources of primary care following the onset of illness, while only 20.0% of the participants used formal care. Significant predictors of difference in care-seeking practices between residents in urban and rural communities were educational status, income, occupation, and body mass index. Efforts should be made to reduce barriers to formal health-care service utilization in the state by increasing health insurance coverage, strengthening the health-care system, and increasing the role of patent medicine vendors in the formal health-care delivery system.

  15. Urban–Rural Differences in Health-Care-Seeking Pattern of Residents of Abia State, Nigeria, and the Implication in the Control of NCDs

    PubMed Central

    Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu U.; Ogah, Okechukwu S.; Ukegbu, Andrew U.; Chukwuonye, Innocent I.; Madukwe, Okechukwu O.; Moses, Akhimiem O.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Understanding the differences in care-seeking pattern is key in designing interventions aimed at improving health-care service delivery, including prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases. The aim of this study was to identify the differences and determinants of care-seeking patterns of urban and rural residents in Abia State in southeast Nigeria. METHODS This was a cross-sectional, community-based, study involving 2999 respondents aged 18 years and above. Data were collected using the modified World Health Organization’s STEPS questionnaire, including data on care seeking following the onset of illness. Descriptive statistics and logistic regressions were used to analyze care-seeking behavior and to identify differences among those seeking care in urban and rural areas. RESULTS In both urban and rural areas, patent medicine vendors (73.0%) were the most common sources of primary care following the onset of illness, while only 20.0% of the participants used formal care. Significant predictors of difference in care-seeking practices between residents in urban and rural communities were educational status, income, occupation, and body mass index. CONCLUSIONS Efforts should be made to reduce barriers to formal health-care service utilization in the state by increasing health insurance coverage, strengthening the health-care system, and increasing the role of patent medicine vendors in the formal health-care delivery system. PMID:27721654

  16. Participatory Epidemiology of Ethnoveterinary Practices Fulani Pastoralists Used to Manage Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia and Other Cattle Ailments in Niger State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Alhaji, N. B.; Babalobi, O. O.

    2015-01-01

    Ethnoveterinary practices are locally available and affordable to Fulani pastoralists in Niger State, Nigeria, to whom conventional veterinary services are often not readily available and are relatively expensive. This study was designed to identify and document medicinal plant and nonplant materials used by this group in the management of cattle diseases. Participatory rural appraisal tools of checklist, semistructured interview, probing, transect, and triangulations were used to assess Fulani pastoralists existing knowledge on traditional veterinary practices in nine pastoral communities spread across the state. Fifty medicinal materials and seven traditional preventive practices are in use against CBPP and other cattle disease conditions. Of these, 38 (76.0%) are medicinal plants and 12 (24.0%) are nonplant materials (edible earth materials and minerals). Family Fabaceae was most commonly mentioned while leaves were the most common parts used. Most of these materials are administered by drenching with few others mixed with feed. Proportions of plant parts used include leaves (47.4%), barks (31.6%), roots (10.6%), and 2.6% of each of rhizomes, fruits, seeds, and whole plants. Of recently used ingredients are kerosene and spent engine oil. Further research into the active ingredients of ethnoveterinary materials and dosages is necessary to guide their usage. PMID:26464953

  17. Occurrence and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. in retail raw table eggs sold for human consumption in Enugu state, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Okorie-Kanu, O. Josephine; Ezenduka, E. Vivienne; Okorie-Kanu, C. Onwuchokwe; Ugwu, L. Chinweokwu; Nnamani, U. John

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to investigate the occurrence of pathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella species in retail raw table eggs sold for human consumption in Enugu State and to determine the resistance of these pathogens to antimicrobials commonly used in human and veterinary practices in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 340 raw table eggs comprising 68 composite samples (5 eggs per composite sample) were collected from five selected farms (13 composite samples from the farms) and 10 retail outlets (55 composite samples from the retail outlets) in the study area over a period of 4-month (March-June, 2014). The eggs were screened for pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella species following standard procedures within 24 h of sample collection. Isolates obtained were subjected to in-vitro antimicrobial susceptibility test with 15 commonly used antimicrobials using the disk diffusion method. Results: About 37 (54.4%) and 7 (10.3%) of the 68 composite samples were positive for pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella species, respectively. The shells showed significantly higher (p<0.05) contaminations than the contents for both microorganisms. The eggs from the farms showed higher contamination with pathogenic E. coli than eggs from the retail outlets while the reverse was the case for Salmonella species even though they were not significant (p>0.05). The organisms obtained showed a multiple drug resistance. They were completely resistant to nitrofurantoin, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, penicillin G and oxacillin. In addition to these, Salmonella spp. also showed 100% resistance to tetracycline. The pathogenic E. coli isolates obtained were 100% susceptible to gentamicin, neomycin, ciprofloxacin, and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid while Salmonella spp. showed 100% susceptibility to erythromycin, neomycin, and rifampicin. Both organisms showed varying degrees of resistance to streptomycin, amoxicillin, vancomycin, and doxycycline. Conclusion: From the results of

  18. Occurrence and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. in retail raw table eggs sold for human consumption in Enugu state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okorie-Kanu, O Josephine; Ezenduka, E Vivienne; Okorie-Kanu, C Onwuchokwe; Ugwu, L Chinweokwu; Nnamani, U John

    2016-11-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the occurrence of pathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella species in retail raw table eggs sold for human consumption in Enugu State and to determine the resistance of these pathogens to antimicrobials commonly used in human and veterinary practices in Nigeria. A total of 340 raw table eggs comprising 68 composite samples (5 eggs per composite sample) were collected from five selected farms (13 composite samples from the farms) and 10 retail outlets (55 composite samples from the retail outlets) in the study area over a period of 4-month (March-June, 2014). The eggs were screened for pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella species following standard procedures within 24 h of sample collection. Isolates obtained were subjected to in-vitro antimicrobial susceptibility test with 15 commonly used antimicrobials using the disk diffusion method. About 37 (54.4%) and 7 (10.3%) of the 68 composite samples were positive for pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella species, respectively. The shells showed significantly higher (p<0.05) contaminations than the contents for both microorganisms. The eggs from the farms showed higher contamination with pathogenic E. coli than eggs from the retail outlets while the reverse was the case for Salmonella species even though they were not significant (p>0.05). The organisms obtained showed a multiple drug resistance. They were completely resistant to nitrofurantoin, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, penicillin G and oxacillin. In addition to these, Salmonella spp. also showed 100% resistance to tetracycline. The pathogenic E. coli isolates obtained were 100% susceptible to gentamicin, neomycin, ciprofloxacin, and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid while Salmonella spp. showed 100% susceptibility to erythromycin, neomycin, and rifampicin. Both organisms showed varying degrees of resistance to streptomycin, amoxicillin, vancomycin, and doxycycline. From the results of the study, it can be concluded that the raw table

  19. Gender differences in the use of insecticide-treated nets after a universal free distribution campaign in Kano State, Nigeria: post-campaign survey results.

    PubMed

    Garley, Ashley E; Ivanovich, Elizabeth; Eckert, Erin; Negroustoueva, Svetlana; Ye, Yazoume

    2013-04-10

    Recent expansion in insecticide-treated net (ITN) distribution strategies range from targeting pregnant women and children under five and distributing ITN at antenatal care and immunization programmes, to providing free distribution campaigns to cover an entire population. These changes in strategy raise issues of disparities, such as equity of access and equality in ITN use among different groups, including females and males. Analysis is needed to assess the effects of gender on uptake of key malaria control interventions. A recent post-universal free ITN distribution campaign survey in Kano State, Nigeria offered an opportunity to look at gender effects on ITN use. A post-campaign survey was conducted three to five months after the campaign in Kano State, Nigeria from 19 October to 4 November, 2009, on a random sample of 4,602 individuals. The survey was carried out using a questionnaire adapted from the Malaria Indicator Survey. Using binary logistic regression, controlling for several covariates, the authors assessed gender effects on ITN use among individuals living in households with at least one ITN. The survey showed that household ITN ownership increased more than 10-fold, from 6% before to 71% after the campaign. There was no significant difference between the proportion of females and males living in households with at least one ITN. However, a higher percentage of females used ITNs compared to males (57.2% vs 48.8%). After controlling for several covariates, females remained more likely to use ITNs compared to males (OR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.3-1.7). Adolescent boys remained the least likely group to use an ITN. This study reveals gender disparity in ITN use, with males less likely to use ITNs particularly among ages 15-25 years. The uptake of the intervention among the most at-risk group (females) is higher than males, which may be reflective of earlier strategies for malaria interventions. Further research is needed to identify whether gender disparities

  20. Who benefits from the Obio Community Health Insurance Scheme in Rivers State, Nigeria? A benefit incidence analysis.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Kelsey; Akwataghibe, Ngozi; Fakunle, Babatunde; Wolmarans, Liezel

    2016-11-01

    A key aspect of monitoring and evaluating health programs is ensuring that benefits are reaching their target population. We conducted a benefit incidence analysis (BIA) of a Shell-sponsored community health insurance scheme in Nigeria to determine the extent to which the target group (the poor) was benefitting. We examined a sample of 616 patients' hospital attendance, financial and administrative records from 2012-2013. We estimated annual utilization rates and average unit costs for inpatient and outpatient services. We multiplied the two to produce a total cost per patient, then deducted annual out-of-pocket expenditures to estimate the total community-based health insurance scheme benefit per person. Benefits were multiplied by the total number of persons in each socioeconomic group to aggregate benefits. We used concentration curves and dominance tests to determine statistical significance at 5% and 10% levels of significance. Collectively, the poorest 20% of the population received 12% of benefits while the richest quintile received the largest share (23%). Inpatient and outpatient benefits are weakly regressive (pro-rich), statistically significant at a 10% level of significance. Although the poor were found to benefit, this BIA revealed a tendency towards pro-rich distributions. Removing co-payments for the poorest, reducing long wait and visit times and using community volunteers to help increase access to health services may improve benefits for the poor. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Evaluation of directly observed treatment short courses at a secondary health institution in Ibadan, Oyo State, Southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adegoke, Olajire A; Orokotan, Olalekan A

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the success rate of tuberculosis intervention programme at a specialist hospital in Ibadan, Nigeria through a retrospective study as well as carry out physicochemical evaluation of anti-tuberculous agents as a way of eliminating drug-related failure. The retrospective study involved the use of quarterly tuberculosis central register at the Government Chest Hospital, Ibadan between 1st quarter (2003) to 4th quarter (2009). Relevant data were extracted from these register with the aid of data collection forms. The basic physicochemical analyses of the drugs given to the patients were also carried out using the International Pharmacopoeia methods. All the drugs examined for their physicochemical properties passed the International Pharmacopeia recommended tests. A total number of 1 260 patients enrolled at the hospital were assessed through case notes. This comprises of 59.4% males of which 69.23% new cases were also males. There was a significant (P<0.05) patient enrollment across the quarters for the seven years. An overall 80.24% cure rate over the 7-period was obtained which is less than the WHO target of 85%. Cure rates were better in females than males. Failure treatment outcomes such as positive (1.51%), deaths (8.73%), defaulted (3.33%) and transferred out (5.95%) were recorded though not statistically significant (P>0.05). Failure rates in all categories were higher in males than females (P>0.05). More enlightenment and counseling is still required to meet up with the target for TB control. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Seroprevalence of venereal disease among pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC) in Onitsha, Anambra State, Southeast, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Mbamara, S U; Obiechina, N J A

    2011-01-01

    Venereal Syphilis if not properly and timely treated has been noted to have devastating effects on the fetus and baby. Of all the sexually transmitted infections, however, venereal syphilis is one of the most commonly screened among antenatal women. This screening is usually limited to the tertiary institutions thereby leaving the women who attend private hospitals to a disadvantage. This current research is to determine the seroprevalence of venereal disease among women attending ANC in an Onitsha specialist private hospital and to ascertain the acceptability, and the feasibility of conducting the screening in a private setup. This cross sectional prospective study was conducted among women, who were on their first ANC visit at Grace Specialist Hospital, Nkpor, Southeast Nigeria. They were offered VDRL test by ELISA method and TPHA confirmation test to those who were seropositive to VDRL test. Two thousand nine hundred and ninety six women attended antenatal care during the study period but 1393 women took part in this study giving an uptake rate of 46.5%. The seroprevalence rate to venereal syphilis was 0.6%. Three out of the 8 seropositive results were confirmed with TPHA test. This gives a TPHA/VDRL ratio of 0.43. The highest range of occurrence was 25 29years. There was neither a significant association between age distribution and VDRL screening result (chi2 = 1.13; df =5; p = 0.951) nor between parity distribution and VDRL screening result (chi2 = 6.2; df = 6; p = 0.4007). Although the seroprevalence of venereal syphilis is low but routine universal screening of Venereal syphilis is possible in private hospitals and its establishment should be encouraged.

  3. Sexual behavior and risk of HIV/AIDS among adolescents in public secondary schools in Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Bamidele, James Olusegun; Abodunrin, Olugbemiga Lanre; Adebimpe, Wasiu Olalekan

    2009-01-01

    Young people are particularly vulnerable to unplanned sexual activities. This study sought to identify the sexual behaviors and risk of HIV among public secondary schools students in Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey of 521 students in eight randomly selected public secondary schools. Respondents were selected by a multistage sampling technique from amongst the study population. Using a self-administered, semi-structured, pre-tested questionnaire, data were obtained concerning their sexual behaviors and influencing factors. Most respondents (n = 387, 74.3%) were in late adolescence. Many knew the consequences of premarital sex as unplanned pregnancy, STI/HIV/AIDS, incomplete schooling, and guilt feelings. About 40% of the respondents had been involved in sexual activities with partners who were classmates, neighbors, 'sugar daddies', teachers, or strangers (party-mates or prostitutes). Heterosexual, oral, and anal forms of sex were practiced respectively by 78.1%, 13.3%, and 12.4% of those who were sexually active. Sexual debut was 15.2 +/- 1.62 years. About 36% of those sexually active had more than one partner, and about 14.8% were aware that their partners had other partners. Only 8.6% used a condom on a consistent basis, whereas 41.9% had never used a condom at all. More than half the sexual activities were not pre-planned. The reasons given for engaging in such practices were peer influence, financial reward, drug influence, fun, or experimentation. Despite their 'above average' level of knowledge of the consequences, the students were still involved in risky sexual behaviors. Behavioral change communications should be intensified among these adolescents.

  4. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections and their Association with Nutritional Status of Rural and Urban Pre-School Children in Benue State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Tyoalumun, Kpurkpur; Abubakar, Sani; Christopher, Nongu

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are highly prevalent in developing countries, contributing to high incidence of malnutrition and morbidity. This study aimed to find the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and their association with nutritional status of children in Benue State, Nigeria. A cross sectional study conducted from January-June 2016, among 418 school children under-5 years of age. Anthropometric data, height-for-age, weight-for-height, and weight-for-age Z-scores from each child and fecal samples were collected and screened for intestinal parasites using standard laboratory methods. Among the intestinal parasitic infections detected, the prevalence of E. histolytica was higher (51.0% and 29.0%) than all other parasites encountered in rural and urban pupils (P<0.05). Other parasites were Hookworm (46.2% and 24.8%); G. lamblia (11.5% and 8.6%); and T. trichiura (2.4% and 5.2%). The prevalence of stunting (HAZ<-2), in rural and urban pupils were 43.8% and 32.9%; 64.4% and 39.0% rural and urban pupils were underweight (WAZ<-2), while 30.3% and 24.3% were wasted (WHZ<-2). Infected children had significantly (P<0.05) higher z-scores than the uninfected children. Benue State is among the Nigerian states with the highest burden of tropical diseases with a current plan of elimination implemented through mass drug administration. This study identify/evaluate some essential information that will support the planning and implementation of the State's ongoing efforts.

  5. Analysis of Principals' Managerial Competencies for Effective Management of School Resources in Secondary Schools in Anambra State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Victor, Akinfolarin Akinwale

    2017-01-01

    This study analyses principals' managerial competencies for effective management of school resources in secondary schools in Anambra State. The study was conducted in Anambra State. The study population comprised 257 principals in public secondary schools in the State. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. A 24 items researcher developed…

  6. Scaling-up strategic purchasing: analysis of health system governance imperatives for strategic purchasing in a free maternal and child healthcare programme in Enugu State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogbuabor, Daniel Chukwuemeka; Onwujekwe, Obinna Emmanuel

    2018-04-05

    Significant knowledge gaps exist in the functioning of institutional designs and organisational practices in purchasing within free healthcare schemes in low resource countries. The study provides evidence of the governance requirements to scale up strategic purchasing in free healthcare policies in Nigeria and other low-resource settings facing similar approaches. The study was conducted at the Ministry of Health and in two health districts in Enugu State, Nigeria, using a qualitative case study design. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 44 key health system actors (16 policymakers, 16 providers and 12 health facility committee leaders) purposively selected from the Ministry of Health and the two health districts. Data collection and analysis were guided by Siddiqi and colleagues' health system governance framework. Data were analysed using a framework approach. The key findings show that supportive governance practices in purchasing included systems to verify questionable provider claims, pay providers directly for services, compel providers to procure drugs centrally and track transfer of funds to providers. However, strategic vision was undermined by institutional conflicts, absence of purchaser-provider split and lack of selective contracting of providers. Benefit design was not based on stakeholder involvement. Rule of law was limited by delays in provider payment. Benefits and obligations to users were not transparent. The criteria and procedure for resource allocation were unclear. Some target beneficiaries seemed excluded from the scheme. Effectiveness and efficiency was constrained by poor adherence to purchasing rules. Accountability of purchasers and providers to users was weak. Intelligence and information is constrained by paper-based system. Rationing of free services by providers and users' non-adherence to primary gate-keeping role hindered ethics. Weak governance of purchasing function limits potential of FMCHP to contribute towards

  7. Magnitude and treatment outcomes of pulmonary tuberculosis patients in a poor urban slum of Abia State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogbudebe, Chidubem L; Izuogu, Sam; Abu, Charity E

    2016-06-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the deadliest infectious diseases worldwide, with a disproportionate number of those affected living in slum areas. We assessed the magnitude of pulmonary cases among tuberculosis patients in an urban slum in southeast Nigeria, their demographic and clinical characteristics and any associations with treatment outcomes. A retrospective cohort study of patients registered under the National TB Programme (NTP) from 1 January to 31 December 2012 was carried out. Data were extracted from TB treatment cards and registers. Of 647 new TB patients registered, 555 (85.8%) were pulmonary TB (PTB) with a mean age of 34.5years, and a male/female ratio of 1.3. Among these, 468 (84.3%) were smear-positive, while 87 (15.7%) were smear-negative cases. Twenty-one (3.8%) were children younger than 15years old. TB/HIV co-infection rate was 16.9%; 57.4% received antiretroviral therapy (ART) and 88.3% received cotrimoxazole preventive therapy (CPT). Female patients were significantly younger compared to male patients (p=0.003), had higher proportions of smear-negative TB (p=0.001) and HIV-positive status (p⩽0.001). Treatment success rate was 88.5% among smear-positive patients and 79.3% among smear-negative patients. More patients with smear-negative TB were lost to follow up compared with smear-positive TB patients (p<0.02). HIV co-infection was associated with unfavourable treatment outcomes (OR 0.2, CI 0.1-0.4, p⩽0.001). Among them, those who received ART had better outcomes. The study revealed high proportion of PTB, mostly smear-positive TB with HIV-associated outcomes and underlines the need to ensure early TB diagnosis and improved access to HIV care for HIV co-infected patients in this setting. Copyright © 2016 Asian-African Society for Mycobacteriology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The High Cost of Free Tuberculosis Services: Patient and Household Costs Associated with Tuberculosis Care in Ebonyi State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ukwaja, Kingsley N.; Alobu, Isaac; lgwenyi, Chika; Hopewell, Philip C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Poverty is both a cause and consequence of tuberculosis. The objective of this study is to quantify patient/household costs for an episode of tuberculosis (TB), its relationships with household impoverishment, and the strategies used to cope with the costs by TB patients in a resource-limited high TB/HIV setting. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in three rural hospitals in southeast Nigeria. Consecutive adults with newly diagnosed pulmonary TB were interviewed to determine the costs each incurred in their care-seeking pathway using a standardised questionnaire. We defined direct costs as out-of-pocket payments, and indirect costs as lost income. Results Of 452 patients enrolled, majority were male 55% (249), and rural residents 79% (356), with a mean age of 34 (±11.6) years. Median direct pre-diagnosis/diagnosis cost was $49 per patient. Median direct treatment cost was $36 per patient. Indirect pre-diagnostic and treatment costs were $416, or 79% of total patient costs, $528. The median total cost of TB care per household was $592; corresponding to 37% of median annual household income pre-TB. Most patients reported having to borrow money 212(47%), sell assets 42(9%), or both 144(32%) to cope with the cost of care. Following an episode of TB, household income reduced increasing the proportion of households classified as poor from 54% to 79%. Before TB illness, independent predictors of household poverty were; rural residence (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.8), HIV-positive status (aOR 4.8), and care-seeking at a private facility (aOR 5.1). After TB care, independent determinants of household poverty were; younger age (≤35 years; aOR 2.4), male gender (aOR 2.1), and HIV-positive status (aOR 2.5). Conclusion Patient and household costs for TB care are potentially catastrophic even where services are provided free-of-charge. There is an urgent need to implement strategies for TB care that are affordable for the poor. PMID:24015293

  9. The high cost of free tuberculosis services: patient and household costs associated with tuberculosis care in Ebonyi State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ukwaja, Kingsley N; Alobu, Isaac; Lgwenyi, Chika; Hopewell, Philip C