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Sample records for zao ural turbine

  1. Using the CAE technologies of engineering analysis for designing steam turbines at ZAO Ural Turbine Works

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goloshumova, V. N.; Kortenko, V. V.; Pokhoriler, V. L.; Kultyshev, A. Yu.; Ivanovskii, A. A.

    2008-08-01

    We describe the experience ZAO Ural Turbine Works specialists gained from mastering the series of CAD/CAE/CAM/PDM technologies, which are modern software tools of computer-aided engineering. We also present the results obtained from mathematical simulation of the process through which high-and intermediate-pressure rotors are heated for revealing the most thermally stressed zones, as well as the results from mathematical simulation of a new design of turbine cylinder shells for improving the maneuverability of these turbines.

  2. Experience gained at the Ural Turbine Works with retrofitting steam turbine units for thermal power stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valamin, A. E.; Kultyshev, A. Yu.; Gol'dberg, A. A.; Shibaev, T. L.; Paneque Aguilera, H. C.

    2013-08-01

    Examples of projects on retrofitting, modernizing, and renovating steam turbine units at thermal power stations implemented with participation of the Ural Turbine Works are given. Advanced construction and layout solutions were used in implementing these projects both on the territory of Russia and abroad.

  3. Ural Mountains, Russia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-10-06

    This image from NASA Terra spacecraft shows the Ural Mountains, which run 2500 km north-south through western Russia, and form the boundary between Europe and Asia. Since the 17th century, the mountains were exploited for their deposits of iron, copper, gold, coal, oil, mica and gemstones. The Urals are among the world's oldest existing mountain ranges, having been formed about 275 million years ago due to the collision of the Laurussia supercontinent with the continent of Kazakhstania. The image was acquired July 13, 2011, covers an area of 39 by 62 km, and is located near 65.5 degrees north, 59.9 degrees east. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19795

  4. Experimental investigation on photoelectric properties of ZAO thin film deposited on flexible substrate by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Ming; Liu, Kun; Liu, Xinghua; Wang, Dongyang; Ba, Dechun; Xie, Yuanhua; Du, Guangyu; Ba, Yaoshuai

    2016-12-01

    Transparent conductive ZAO (Zinc Aluminum Oxide) films on flexible substrates have a great potential for low-cost mass-production solar cells. ZAO thin films were achieved on flexible PET (polyethylene terephthalate) substrates by RF magnetron sputtering technology. The surface morphology and element content, the transmittance and the sheet resistance of the films were measured to determine the optical process parameters. The results show that the ZAO thin film shows the best parameters in terms of photoelectric performance including sputtering power, working pressure, sputtering time, substrate temperature (100 W, 1.5 Pa, 60 min, 125 °C). The sheet resistance of 510 Ω and transmittance in visible region of 92% were obtained after characterization. Surface morphology was uniform and compact with a good crystal grain.

  5. The Chelyabinsk Meteorite Hits an Anomalous Zone in the Urals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2013-09-01

    The Chelyabinsk meteorite is "strange" because it hits an area in the Urals where anomalous events are observed: shining skies, light balls, UFOs, electrphonic bolids. The area tectonically occurs at the intersection of two fold belts: Urals and Timan.

  6. Observation of Snow cover glide on Sub-Alpine Coniferous Forests in Mount Zao, Northeastern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, A.; Suzuki, K.

    2017-12-01

    This is the study to clarify the snow cover glide behavior in the sub-alpine coniferous forests on Mount Zao, Northeastern Japan, in the winter of 2014-2015. We installed the glide-meter which is sled type, and measured the glide motion on the slope of Abies mariesii forest and its surrounding slope. In addition, we observed the air temperature, snow depth, density of snow, and snow temperature to discuss relationship between weather conditions and glide occurrence. The snow cover of the 2014-15 winter started on November 13th and disappeared on April 21st. The maximum snow depth was 242 cm thick, it was recorded at February 1st. The snow cover glide in the surrounding slope was occurred first at February 10th, although maximum snow depth recorded on February 1st. The glide motion in the surrounding slope is continuing and its velocity was 0.4 cm per day. The glide in the surrounding slope stopped at March 16th. The cumulative amount of the glide was 21.1 cm. The snow cover glide in the A. mariesii forest was even later occurred first at February 21st. The glide motion of it was intermittent and extremely small. On sub-alpine zone of Mount Zao, snow cover glide intensity is estimated to be 289 kg/m2 on March when snow water equivalent is maximum. At same period, maximum snow cover glide intensity is estimated to be about 1000 kg/m2 at very steep slopes where the slope angle is about 35 degree. Although potential of snow cover glide is enough high, the snow cover glide is suppressed by stem of A. mariesii trees, in the sub-alpine coniferous forest.

  7. The Astronomical Instruments from the Tomb of Xiahou Zao (? - 165BCE) Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yunli

    2012-09-01

    In 1977, archaeologists unearthed a piece of lacquerware from the tomb of Xiahou Zao (?--165BCE), the 2nd Marquis of Ruyin of the Western Han dynasty (206BCE--24ACE). It has been named ``A Lacquerware Article of Unkown Name" for no one understands its function. Our analysis shows that the article is actually a gnomon for the determination of 4 major seasons in ancient Chinese calendar, viz. Spring Equinox, Summer Solstice, Autumn Equinox and Winter Solstice, and the size and function of the article coincide quite well with those of the ``Earth Gnomon-Scale" as described in the Rites of Zhou, a Confucian Classic appeared in the middle of the 2nd century BCE. This is the earliest example of its kind that we have hitherto seen in a complete form. Moreover, the "Disks with 28 Lunar Lodges" from the same tomb have caused a lasting dispute over their possible function. While some scholars believe it to be a pure astrological instrument, others guess that it was an instrument for the measurement of celestial coordinates. Our analysis shows that, with the so-called ``Supporting Frame for the Cosmic Boards" unearthed from the same tomb, the disks can actually be mounted onto the plane of the celestial equator and thus form the earliest and definitely dated example of an equatorial device for astronomical observation that still can be seen in the world.

  8. Audio-frequency magnetotelluric, and total magnetic intensity observations in 2014-2016, at Zao volcano, NE Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichiki, M.; Moriyama, T.; Kaida, T.; Kanda, W.; Demachi, T.; Hirahara, S.; Miura, S.; Nakayama, T.; Ogawa, Y.; Seki, K.; Akutagawa, M.; Ushioda, M.; Kobayashi, T.; Uyeshima, M.; Yamamoto, M.; Matsu'ura, S.; Omori, S.; Ono, K.; Seki, S.

    2017-12-01

    Zao volcano is situated at a distance of about 40 km SW from Sendai in NE Japan. There exists the crater lake, Okama, with about 360 m diameter and about 30 m depth, in the summit area. The seismicity of the low frequency earthquakes deeper than 20 km depth beneath Zao volcano has turned active since middle of 2012. We have also observed shallow (˜5 km) volcanic earthquakes beneath Zao volcano in 2013 to 2017. In the historical records, fumaroles, degassing and phreato-magmatic eruptions occurred close to Okama in 1867 to 1943. Since 1940, fumaroles have observed in about 1 to 1.5 km NE of Okama. Subsurface hydrotherm distribution and geotherm variation are the key feature to forecast future phreatic or phreato-magmatic eruption. In this presentation, we report electrical resistivity distribution and demagnetized region beneath Zao volcano.We observed total magnetic intensity variation of a demagnetized spatial pattern between June and October in 2014. To model a demagnetized region, we carried out a global optimized inversion of grid search assuming ellipsoidal shape and 5 A/m demagnetization intensity. The estimated demagnetized body located in 800 m northeastern side of the center of Okama, and the top surface is 330 m depth. The principal axis length is 500, 425, 190 m, respectively. The demagnetized region locates at the middle points between the recent fumarole region and Okama.AMT data were acquired at 24 sites in the area of 2 km by 2 km. The observation sites do not cover over the demagnetized region described above. We obtained the AMT response of 10 kHz to 0.1 Hz and calculated a 3-D electrical conductivity model beneath around Okama. The conductor (1-30 Ohm-m) is embedded in 200-600 m depth beneath Okama and the lateral dimension is up to 400 m. The conductor is isolated and neither expands in deeper parts nor tends to elongate to the demagnetized region. We interpret the conductor as a hydrothermal alteration zone of the past volcanic activities

  9. URSEIS peeks under Urals for mountain-building clues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    Just three weeks out of the field, a team of geologists, geophysicists, and seismologists from four nations announced on December 11 that they have used seismic reflection techniques to see what appears to be the base of the lithosphere beneath Russia's Ural Mountains. Working on Project URSEIS Urals Reflection Seismic Experiment and Integrated Studies), the team of scientists from Spain, Germany, Russia, and the United States has produced a seismic profile of the southern Urals extending as far as 150-185 km beneath the Earth's skin. The group presented its preliminary findings at the AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco.

  10. Simultaneous determination of multiple active components in rat plasma using ultra-fast liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry and application to a comparative pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of Suan-Zao-Ren decoction and Suan-Zao-Ren granule.

    PubMed

    Du, Yiyang; He, Bosai; Li, Qing; He, Jiao; Wang, Di; Bi, Kaishun

    2017-05-01

    Suan-Zao-Ren decoction has been used to treat insomnia for many years. In this work, a rapid and sensitive ultra-fast liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was first developed and fully validated for the simultaneous quantification of seven main active components, spinosin, mangiferin, neomangiferin, ferulic acid, liquiritin, isoliquiritin, and liquiritin apioside in rat plasma. The method was also successfully applied to compare the pharmacokinetics of these active ingredients after oral administration of Suan-Zao-Ren decoction and Suan-Zao-Ren granule. The separation was achieved on a Venusil MP C 18 column and the detection was conducted by the multiple reaction monitoring mode using negative ion mode. Each calibration curve had good linearity over a wide concentration range. The precision of intra- and interday were all within 15%, and the extraction recoveries at different analyte concentrations were all above 82.0%. The established method was successfully applied to compare the pharmacokinetic profiles of the analytes between Suan-Zao-Ren decoction and Suan-Zao-Ren granule groups. The results indicated that all the analytes had similar mean concentration-time curves trend between two groups. No significant differences were observed in pharmacokinetic parameters of mangiferin, while the others had significant differences. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. [Hygienic evaluation of transboundary pollution of the Ural River basin].

    PubMed

    Iskakov, A Zh; Lestsova, N A; Zasorin, B V; Boev, M V

    2009-01-01

    The anthropogenic pollution of the Ural River and its tributaries is the most important problem of the Ural-Caspian basin. Transboundary inflow from Kazakhstan to Russian is 30.9 km3/year. The border Ilek river pollution was hygienically evaluated and the contribution of pollution sources was ascertained, with the seasonal variations and hydrochemical background being kept in mind, from 2002 to 2007. The monitoring data on the content of priority pollutants of the surface waters of the basin of the Ilek River, a tributary of the Ural River, which come from the Republic of Kazakhstan, are given. Semiquantitative spectral estimation and the atomic absorption method were used to study the chemical composition of bottom sediments in the Ilek River and its tributaries. The magnitude and sources of influence of man-caused pollution on the quality of the river water were established.

  12. Improving Energy Efficiency of Buildings in the Urals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyanets, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    The article is devoted to the results of studies of energy efficiency improvements of the buildings which are constructed under the climatic conditions of the Ural Federal District of the Russian Federation. The relevance of the stated problem is corroborated. The requirements of the existing regulatory legal acts of the Russian Federation on energy conservation and energy efficiency in construction are given. The article specifies that energy efficiency in construction refers to a set of measures aimed at the reduction of energy resources which are consumed by buildings and are necessary to maintain the required microclimate parameters indoors. The main modern measures for improving the energy efficiency of buildings are presented, and their application under the climatic conditions of the Urals are analyzed and calculated. Each of the proposed methods is evaluated. Basing on the research results, it is concluded that most of the currently known measures for improving the energy efficiency of buildings are significantly limited in the Ural Federal District due to the small economic effect connected with the complexity and high cost of their implementation and operation, the peculiarities of climatic conditions and the conditions of the population density of the territories or significant ineffectiveness of the measures themselves; the most promising measures for improving the energy efficiency of buildings under the climatic and economic conditions of the Urals are the measures for reducing heat loss through the building envelopes (for improving the heat-insulation characteristics of the applied materials and structures).

  13. Quintinite-1 M from the Mariinsky Deposit, Ural Emerald Mines, Central Urals, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhitova, E. S.; Popov, M. P.; Krivovichev, S. V.; Zaitsev, A. N.; Vlasenko, N. S.

    2017-12-01

    The paper describes the first finding of quintinite [Mg4Al2(OH)12][(CO3)(H2O)3] at the Mariinsky deposit in the Central Urals, Russia. The mineral occurs as white tabular crystals in cavities within altered gabbro in association with prehnite, calcite, and a chlorite-group mineral. Quintinite is the probable result of late hydrothermal alteration of primary mafic and ultramafic rocks hosting emerald-bearing glimmerite. According to electron microprobe data, the Mg: Al ratio is 2: 1. IR spectroscopy has revealed hydroxyl and carbonate groups and H2O molecules in the mineral. According to single crystal XRD data, quintinite is monoclinic, space group C2/ m, a =5.233(1), b = 9.051(2), c = 7.711(2) Å, β = 103.09(3)°, V = 355.7(2) Å3. Based on structure refinement, the polytype of quintinite should be denoted as 1M. This is the third approved occurrence of quintinite-1M in the world after the Kovdor complex and Bazhenovsky chrysotile-asbestos deposit.

  14. Estimation of food consumption from pellets cast by captive Ural Owls (Strix uralensis)

    Treesearch

    Aki Higuchi; Manabu T. Abe

    1997-01-01

    There is considerable data in the literature on the diet of the Ural Owl (Strix uralensis) based on pellet analysis. Though it is possible to identify prey items by this method, the volume of food consumption is still unknown. The population of Ural Owls in Japan is declining due to the reduction of old-growth forest and the concurrent loss of...

  15. Modern Church Construction in Urals. Problems and Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surin, D. N.; Tereshina, O. B.

    2017-11-01

    The article analyzes the problems of the modern Orthodox church architecture in Russia, special attention is paid to the problems of the Ural region. It justifies the importance of addressing to this issue connected with the Orthodox traditions revival in Russia over the last decades and the need to compensate for tens of thousands of the churches destroyed in the Soviet period. The works on the theory and history of the Russian architecture and art, studies of the architectural heritage and the art of building of the Ural craftsmen are used as a scientific and methodological base for the church architecture development. The article discloses the historically formed architectural features of the Russian Orthodox churches the artistic image of which is designed to create a certain religious and aesthetic experience. It is stated that the restoration of the Russian church construction tradition is possible on the background of architectural heritage. It sets the tendencies and vital tasks in church construction and outlines a complex of measures to solve these tasks at the public and regional levels.

  16. [Gypsy moth Lymantria dispar L. in the South Urals: Patterns in population dynamics and modelling].

    PubMed

    Soukhovolsky, V G; Ponomarev, V I; Sokolov, G I; Tarasova, O V; Krasnoperova, P A

    2015-01-01

    The analysis is conducted on population dynamics of gypsy moth from different habitats of the South Urals. The pattern of cyclic changes in population density is examined, the assessment of temporal conjugation in time series of gypsy moth population dynamics from separate habitats of the South Urals is carried out, the relationships between population density and weather conditions are studied. Based on the results obtained, a statistical model of gypsy moth population dynamics in the South Urals is designed, and estimations are given of regulatory and modifying factors effects on the population dynamics.

  17. International Field School on Permafrost, Polar Urals, 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streletskiy, D. A.; Grebenets, V.; Ivanov, M.; Sheinkman, V.; Shiklomanov, N. I.; Shmelev, D.

    2012-12-01

    The international field school on permafrost was held in the Polar Urals region from June, 30 to July 9, 2012 right after the Tenth International Conference on Permafrost which was held in Salekhard, Russia. The travel and accommodation support generously provided by government of Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Region allowed participation of 150 permafrost young research scientists, out of which 35 students from seven countries participated in the field school. The field school was organized under umbrella of International Permafrost Association and Permafrost Young Research Network. The students represented diverse educational backgrounds including hydrologists, engineers, geologists, soil scientists, geocryologists, glaciologists and geomorphologists. The base school camp was located near the Harp settlement in the vicinity of Polar Urals foothills. This unique location presented an opportunity to study a diversity of cryogenic processes and permafrost conditions characteristic for mountain and plain regions as well as transition between glacial and periglacial environments. A series of excursions was organized according to the following topics: structural geology of the Polar Urals and West Siberian Plain (Chromite mine "Centralnaya" and Core Storage in Labitnangy city); quaternary geomorphology (investigation of moraine complexes and glacial conditions of Ronamantikov and Topographov glaciers); principles of construction and maintains of structures built on permafrost (Labitnangy city and Obskaya-Bovanenkovo Railroad); methods of temperature and active-layer monitoring in tundra and forest-tundra; cryosols and soil formation in diverse landscape condition; periglacial geomorphology; types of ground ice, etc. Every evening students and professors gave a series of presentations on climate, vegetation, hydrology, soil conditions, permafrost and cryogenic processes of the region as well as on history, economic development, endogenous population of the Siberia and the

  18. Identification and analysis of chemical constituents and rat serum metabolites in Suan-Zao-Ren granule using ultra high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry combined with multiple data processing approaches.

    PubMed

    Du, Yiyang; He, Bosai; Li, Qing; He, Jiao; Wang, Di; Bi, Kaishun

    2017-07-01

    Suan-Zao-Ren granule is widely used to treat insomnia in China. However, because of the complexity and diversity of the chemical compositions in traditional Chinese medicine formula, the comprehensive analysis of constituents in vitro and in vivo is rather difficult. In our study, an ultra high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and the PeakView® software, which uses multiple data processing approaches including product ion filter, neutral loss filter, and mass defect filter, method was developed to characterize the ingredients and rat serum metabolites in Suan-Zao-Ren granule. A total of 101 constituents were detected in vitro. Under the same analysis conditions, 68 constituents were characterized in rat serum, including 35 prototype components and 33 metabolites. The metabolic pathways of main components were also illustrated. Among them, the metabolic pathways of timosaponin AI were firstly revealed. The bioactive compounds mainly underwent the phase I metabolic pathways including hydroxylation, oxidation, hydrolysis, and phase II metabolic pathways including sulfate conjugation, glucuronide conjugation, cysteine conjugation, acetycysteine conjugation, and glutathione conjugation. In conclusion, our results showed that this analysis approach was extremely useful for the in-depth pharmacological research of Suan-Zao-Ren granule and provided a chemical basis for its rational. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Radiological medical data preservation in the Southern Urals

    SciTech Connect

    Melamed, E.

    2000-07-01

    Information is being microfilmed and scanned in the Southern Urals to ensure the archival preservation of the unique, important and irreplaceable records documenting chromic low-level radiation exposure to workers and neighboring populations of the Mayak Production Association (MAYAK), as well as health effects. The records include dosimetric and epidemiologic information maintained on workers and neighboring populations located at facilities in Ozyorsk and Chelyabinsk. Microfilming is being done in Ozyorsk, and on a more limited basis in Chelyabinsk, where a scanning project has also recently been initiated. Over 1,800 rolls of film have been produced as of the fall of 1999.more » This article describes the background and results of this data preservation effort and includes brief summary tables describing the types of records being preserved. Researchers interested in access to these records should contact Paul Seligman, Deputy Assistant Secretary for the Office of Health Studies at the Department of Energy (DOE) for more information.« less

  20. Gold in Accessory Zircon (the Kozhim Massif, Subpolar Urals)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisova, Yuliya; Pystin, Aleksandr

    2017-12-01

    The crystals of zircon due to their resistance to external impact of various processes can reveal information about the environment of their formation and the inclusions observed of them. Zircon contains different mineral inclusions: biotite, plagioclase, quartz, apatite, etc. However, there is no information about gold inclusions in the zircons from granites of the Sudpolar Urals. The study results of the inclusions of gold in accessory zircon of the Kozhim granitic massif are presented in this paper. The studied mineral is a dark-brown translucent short-prismatic crystal containing the inclusion of gold and the allocations of quartz. According to studies, the inclusion of gold formed during the growth of zircon and it is the gold covered with a thin film of oxide gold. It was confirmed that the crystallization of the studied zircon occurred at a temperature of 800°C and above on the stage of formation of granites of Kozhim massif. The assumption is made about the additional temperature in the course of which was caused by decreasing of temperature up to 700° C and below during postmagmatic stage.

  1. Management and recovery options for Ural river beluga sturgeon.

    PubMed

    Doukakis, Phaedra; Babcock, Elizabeth A; Pikitch, Ellen K; Sharov, Alexei R; Baimukhanov, Mirgaly; Erbulekov, Sagiden; Bokova, Yelena; Nimatov, Akhat

    2010-06-01

    Management of declining fisheries of anadromous species sometimes relies heavily on supplementation of populations with captive breeding, despite evidence that captive breeding can have negative consequences and may not address the root cause of decline. The beluga sturgeon (Huso huso), a species threatened by the market for black caviar and reductions in habitat quality, is managed through harvest control and hatchery supplementation, with an emphasis on the latter. We used yield per recruit and elasticity analyses to evaluate the population status and current levels of fishing and to identify the life-history stages that are the best targets for conservation of beluga of the Ural River. Harvest rates in recent years were four to five times higher than rates that would sustain population abundance. Sustainable rates of fishing mortality are similar to those for other long-lived marine species such as sharks and mammals. Yield per recruit, which is maximized if fish are first harvested at age 31 years, would be greatly enhanced by raising minimum size limits or reducing illegal take of subadults. Improving the survival of subadult and adult females would increase population productivity by 10 times that achieved by improving fecundity and survival from egg to age 1 year (i.e., hatchery supplementation). These results suggest that reducing mortality of subadults and adult wild fish is a more effective conservation strategy than hatchery supplementation. Because genetics is not factored into hatchery management practices, supplementation may even reduce the viability of the beluga sturgeon.

  2. Ordovician volcanic and plutonic complexes of the Sakmara allochthon in the southern Urals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryazantsev, A. V.; Tolmacheva, T. Yu.

    2016-11-01

    The Ordovician terrigenous, volcanic-sedimentary and volcanic sequences that formed in rifts of the active continental margin and igneous complexes of intraoceanic suprasubduction settings structurally related to ophiolites are closely spaced in allochthons of the Sakmara Zone in the southern Urals. The stratigraphic relationships of the Ordovician sequences have been established. Their age and facies features have been specified on the basis of biostratigraphic and geochronological data. The gabbro-tonalite-trondhjemite complex and the basalt-andesite-rhyolite sequence with massive sulfide mineralization make up a volcanic-plutonic association. These rock complexes vary in age from Late Ordovician to Early Silurian in certain structural units of the Sakmara Allochthon and to the east in the southern Urals. The proposed geodynamic model for the Ordovician in Paleozoides of the southern Urals reconstructs the active continental margin, whose complexes formed under extension settings, and the intraoceanic suprasubduction structures. The intraoceanic complexes display the evolution of a volcanic arc, back-, or interarc trough.

  3. Structural evolution of the Ural-Tian Shan junction: A view from Karatau ridge, South Kazakhstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeiev, Dmitriy V.; Cook, Harry E.; Buvtyshkin, Vasiliy M.; Golub, Lyudmila Y.

    2009-02-01

    The deformation history of the Late Palaeozoic Ural-Tian Shan junction is discussed for the example of the Karatau ridge in southern Kazakhstan. Three deformation events are recognized. The Late Carboniferous D1 event is characterized by Laramide-style thrust-and-fold structures on the southern margin of Kazakhstan with shortening in a NE-SW direction. The Latest Permian and Triassic D2 event is controlled by compression in an east-west direction, which reflects collisional deformation in the Urals. The main structures are submeridional folds and north-west-striking sinistral strike-slip faults. The Triassic D3 event with shortening in a north-south direction reflects collision of the Turan microcontinent against the southern margin of Kazakhstan. The main structures are north-west-striking dextral strike-slip faults. Our new data provides important clues for the reconstruction of pre-Cretaceous structures between the Urals and the Tian Shan.

  4. Treeline advances along the Urals mountain range - driven by improved winter conditions?

    PubMed

    Hagedorn, Frank; Shiyatov, Stepan G; Mazepa, Valeriy S; Devi, Nadezhda M; Grigor'ev, Andrey A; Bartysh, Alexandr A; Fomin, Valeriy V; Kapralov, Denis S; Terent'ev, Maxim; Bugman, Harald; Rigling, Andreas; Moiseev, Pavel A

    2014-11-01

    High-altitude treelines are temperature-limited vegetation boundaries, but little quantitative evidence exists about the impact of climate change on treelines in untouched areas of Russia. Here, we estimated how forest-tundra ecotones have changed during the last century along the Ural mountains. In the South, North, Sub-Polar, and Polar Urals, we compared 450 historical and recent photographs and determined the ages of 11,100 trees along 16 altitudinal gradients. In these four regions, boundaries of open and closed forests (crown covers above 20% and 40%) expanded upwards by 4 to 8 m in altitude per decade. Results strongly suggest that snow was an important driver for these forest advances: (i) Winter precipitation has increased substantially throughout the Urals (~7 mm decade(-1) ), which corresponds to almost a doubling in the Polar Urals, while summer temperatures have only changed slightly (~0.05°C decade(-1) ). (ii) There was a positive correlation between canopy cover, snow height and soil temperatures, suggesting that an increasing canopy cover promotes snow accumulation and, hence, a more favorable microclimate. (iii) Tree age analysis showed that forest expansion mainly began around the year 1900 on concave wind-sheltered slopes with thick snow covers, while it started in the 1950s and 1970s on slopes with shallower snow covers. (iv) During the 20th century, dominant growth forms of trees have changed from multistemmed trees, resulting from harsh winter conditions, to single-stemmed trees. While 87%, 31%, and 93% of stems appearing before 1950 were from multistemmed trees in the South, North and Polar Urals, more than 95% of the younger trees had a single stem. Currently, there is a high density of seedlings and saplings in the forest-tundra ecotone, indicating that forest expansion is ongoing and that alpine tundra vegetation will disappear from most mountains of the South and North Urals where treeline is already close to the highest peaks. © 2014

  5. The Hirnantian δ13C Positive Excursion in the Nabiullino Section (South Urals)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakupov, R. R.; Mavrinskaya, T. M.; Smoleva, I. V.

    2018-02-01

    The upper Sandbian, Katian, and Hirnantian complexes of conodonts in the upper Ordovician section of the western slope of the Southern Urals near the village of Nabiullino were studied. The δ13C positive excursion with a maximum of 3.3‰ associated with the global Hirnantian isotopic event, HICE, was fixed for the first time. This excursion shows the beginning of the Hirnantian stage in the terrigenous-carbonate section of the upper Ordovician in the Southern Urals. It coincides with the first occurrence of the Hirnantian conodont species of Gamachignathus ensifer and the conodonts of shallow-water biophacies, Aphelognathus-Ozarkodina, reflecting the global glacio-eustatic event.

  6. The Ural-Herirud transcontinental postcollisional strike-slip fault and its role in the formation of the Earth's crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonov, Yu. G.; Volozh, Yu. A.; Antipov, M. P.; Kheraskova, T. N.

    2015-11-01

    The paper considers the morphology, deep structure, and geodynamic features of the Ural-Herirud postorogenic strike-slip fault (UH fault), along which the Moho (the "M") shifts along the entire axial zone of the Ural Orogen, then further to the south across the Scythian-Turan Plate to the Herirud sublatitudinal fault in Afghanistan. The postcollisional character of dextral displacements along the Ural-Herirud fault and its Triassic-Jurassic age are proven. We have estimated the scale of displacements and made an attempt to make a paleoreconstruction, illustrating the relationship between the Variscides of the Urals and the Tien Shan before tectonic displacements. The analysis of new data includes the latest generation of 1: 200000 geological maps and the regional seismic profiling data obtained in the most elevated part of the Urals (from the seismic profile of the Middle Urals in the north to the Uralseis seismic profile in the south), as well as within the sedimentary cover of the Turan Plate, from Mugodzhary to the southern boundaries of the former water area of the Aral Sea. General typomorphic signs of transcontinental strike-slip fault systems are considered and the structural model of the Ural-Herirud postcollisional strike-slip fault is presented.

  7. Steam Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Turbonetics Energy, Inc.'s steam turbines are used as power generating systems in the oil and gas, chemical, pharmaceuticals, metals and mining, and pulp and paper industries. The Turbonetics line benefited from use of NASA research data on radial inflow steam turbines and from company contact with personnel of Lewis Research Center, also use of Lewis-developed computer programs to determine performance characteristics of turbines.

  8. The reconstruction of Lymantria dispar outbreaks by dendrochronological methods in the South Urals

    Treesearch

    Sergei Kucherov

    1991-01-01

    Interest in investigating the influence of extreme ecological factors on the radial growth of oak (Quercus robur L.) is bound up with oak dieback in the South Urals during the last decade. Factors contributing to this problem in the study area are hard winter frosts, late spring frosts, and Lymantria dispar L. outbreaks. To...

  9. Developing the mechatronics and robotics at Nizhny Tagil Technological Institute of Ural Federal University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goman, V. V.; Fedoreev, S. A.

    2018-02-01

    This report concerns the development trends of education in the field of the Mechatronics and Robotics at Nizhny Tagil Technological Institute (branch of Ural Federal University). The paper considers new teaching technologies, experience in upgrade of the laboratory facilities and some results of development Mechatronics and Robotics educational courses.

  10. Turbine system

    DOEpatents

    McMahan, Kevin Weston; Dillard, Daniel Jackson

    2016-05-03

    A turbine system is disclosed. The turbine system includes a transition duct having an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The turbine system further includes a turbine section connected to the transition duct. The turbine section includes a plurality of shroud blocks at least partially defining a hot gas path, a plurality of buckets at least partially disposed in the hot gas path, and a plurality of nozzles at least partially disposed in the hot gas path. At least one of a shroud block, a bucket, or a nozzle includes means for withstanding high temperatures.

  11. Long-term weather predictability: Ural case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubyshen, Alexander; Shopin, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    The accuracy of the state-of-the-art long-term meteorological forecast (at the seasonal level) is still low. Here it is presented approach (RAMES method) realizing different forecasting methodology. It provides prediction horizon of up to 19-22 years under equal probabilities of determination of parameters in every analyzed period [1]. Basic statements of the method are the following. 1. Long-term forecast on the basis of numerical modeling of the global meteorological process is principally impossible. Extension of long-term prediction horizon could be obtained only by the revealing and using a periodicity of meteorological situations at one point of observation. 2. Conventional calendar is unsuitable for generalization of meteorological data and revealing of cyclicity of meteorological processes. RAMES method uses natural time intervals: one day, synodic month and one year. It was developed a set of special calendars using these natural periods and the Metonic cycle. 3. Long-term time series of meteorological data is not a uniform universal set, it is a sequence of 28 universal sets appropriately superseding each other in time. The specifics of the method are: 1. Usage of the original research toolkit consisting of - a set of calendars based on the Metonic cycle; - a set of charts (coordinate systems) for the construction of sequence diagrams (of daily variability of a meteorological parameter during the analyzed year; of daily variability of a meteorological parameter using long-term dynamical time series of periods-analogues; of monthly and yearly variability of accumulated value of meteorological parameter). 2. Identification and usage of new virtual meteorological objects having several degrees of generalization appropriately located in the used coordinate systems. 3. All calculations are integrated into the single technological scheme providing comparison and mutual verification of calculation results. During the prolonged testing in the Ural region, it was

  12. Turbine Manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The machinery pictured is a set of Turbodyne steam turbines which power a sugar mill at Bell Glade, Florida. A NASA-developed computer program called NASTRAN aided development of these and other turbines manufactured by Turbodyne Corporation's Steam Turbine Division, Wellsville, New York. An acronym for NASA Structural Analysis Program, NASTRAN is a predictive tool which advises development teams how a structural design will perform under service use conditions. Turbodyne uses NASTRAN to analyze the dynamic behavior of steam turbine components, achieving substantial savings in development costs. One of the most widely used spinoffs, NASTRAN is made available to private industry through NASA's Computer Software Management Information Center (COSMIC) at the University of Georgia.

  13. Turbinate surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... with sedation, so you are asleep and pain-free during surgery. Radiofrequency or laser ablation: A thin probe is placed into the nose. Laser light or radiofrequency energy goes through this tube and shrinks the turbinate ...

  14. Parkerite and bismutohauchecornite in chromitites of the Urals: Example of the Uralian Emerald Mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koroteev, V. A.; Popov, M. P.; Erokhin, Yu. V.; Khiller, V. V.

    2017-04-01

    An unusual ore mineralization represented by parkerite, millerite, bismutohauchecornite, bismuthinite, and nickeline was registered in altered chromitite from the Mariinsk emerald-beryllium deposit. Such mineralization is typical of Cu-Ni sulfide ores and hydrothermal veins from the five-element formation. This mineral assemblage was not registered in ophiolitic ultrabasic rocks and related chromitites. The find of bismutohauchecornite is the first in the Urals; the find of parkerite is the third.

  15. Structural evolution of the Ural-Tian Shan junction: A view from Karatau ridge, South Kazakhstan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexeiev, D.V.; Cook, H.E.; Buvtyshkin, V.M.; Golub, L.Y.

    2009-01-01

    The deformation history of the Late Palaeozoic Ural-Tian Shan junction is discussed for the example of the Karatau ridge in southern Kazakhstan. Three deformation events are recognized. The Late Carboniferous D1 event is characterized by Laramide-style thrust-and-fold structures on the southern margin of Kazakhstan with shortening in a NE-SW direction. The Latest Permian and Triassic D2 event is controlled by compression in an east-west direction, which reflects collisional deformation in the Urals. The main structures are submeridional folds and north-west-striking sinistral strike-slip faults. The Triassic D3 event with shortening in a north-south direction reflects collision of the Turan microcontinent against the southern margin of Kazakhstan. The main structures are north-west-striking dextral strike-slip faults. Our new data provides important clues for the reconstruction of pre-Cretaceous structures between the Urals and the Tian Shan. ?? 2008 Acad??mie des sciences.

  16. Assessment of Inhalation Risk to Public Health in the Southern Ural

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrikh, D. V.; Ivanova, S. V.; Riabchikova, I. A.

    2017-11-01

    A large number of iron and steel companies in the Southern Ural cause severe air pollution in the towns of Karabash (Chelyabinsk region), Sibay (Republic of Bashkortostan), Gai (Orenburg region). The article aims to assess the inhalation effects of hazardous substances on the Southern Ural population. The analysis focused on cancer and non-cancer risks to public health that arise from the surface air pollution caused by the metallurgical industry emissions. The assessment was carried out on the basis of methodological guidelines R 2.1.10.1920-04 using modern sanitary and hygienic standards. We analysed the level of ambient air pollution in the impact area of the metallurgical industry of Karabash, Sibay and Gai over the past eleven years. We established that the ambient air of all the studied towns contain carcinogenic substances that cause unacceptable cancer risks. Formaldehyde has the main share in this risk. We calculated the hazard quotients HQ for the identified priority pollutants and the total hazard indices HI. It is shown that the non-cancer inhalation risk to the Southern Ural population exceeds the safe level manyfold. Sulfur dioxide has the main share in this risk. The conducted assessment showed that in 2006-2016, there was a continuous inhalation exposure of the population to hazardous substances. Sanitary and technological solutions that will allow a reduction of risk to acceptable values are required.

  17. Renewable Energy Sources in Formation of South Urals Modern Urban Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khudyakov, A. Ju; Shabiev, S. G.

    2017-11-01

    The article considers the vital problems of renewable energy sources using by the example of the South Urals as a part of a general energy system of the Russian Federation, makes a forecast and gives recommendations on the application of specific technologies: solar energy, wind energy, deep heat energy and geothermal energy. It also considers the influence of the climatology on selection of the development pattern for the alternative energy industry. The article contains an example of wind energy used as a driver of the Karabash company town development in the Chelyabinsk region. The development of the economic energy sector is extremely important for the Russian Federation, both from the point of view of strategic security and from the point of view of integration into a modern development on the principles of Sustainable Development. To provide a full understanding of the role of alternative energy in the energy sector of the country, the article presents the materials illustrating the regional potential in terms of alternative energy sources use. This article is a part of the global research on the settlement system evolution in the South Urals. The authors studied the historical, geographical, demographic, economic characteristics of the region. Finally, a forecast for development at the regional level was made. Some of the aforementioned results were obtained due to the testing research in the learning process of the students from the South Ural State University (national research university).

  18. Turbine design review text

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Three-volume publication covers theoretical, design, and performance aspects of turbines. Volumes cover thermodynamic and fluid-dynamic concepts, velocity diagram design, turbine blade aerodynamic design, turbine energy losses, supersonic turbines, radial-inflow turbines, turbine cooling, and aerodynamic performance testing.

  19. Natural and anthropogenic influences on depositional architecture of the Ural Delta, Kazakhstan, northern Caspian Sea, during the past 70 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarelli, Frederico M.; Cantelli, Luigi; Barboza, Eduardo G.; Gabbianelli, Giovanni

    2017-05-01

    This paper focuses on the Ural Delta in the northern zone of the Caspian Sea, an area with particular characteristics, where intense influence from anthropogenic and natural factors exists, which acts on the fragile delta system. We built a database to integrate the data from the published sources, bathymetric survey, and recent images in the geographical information system (GIS) environment. The results were linked to the Caspian Sea level (CSL) curve, which had many variations, changing the Ural Delta system's dynamics and in its architecture. In addition, the anthropogenic changes contribute to shaping the actual Ural Delta architecture. Through the link between the results and CSL, we reconstructed an evolution model for the Ural Delta system for the last century and identified three different architectures for the Ural Delta, determined by the energy that acted on the system in the last century and by the anthropogenic changes. This work identifies six different delta phases, which are shaped by CSL changes during the last 70 years and by anthropogenic changes. The delta phases recognized are: i) a Lobate Delta phase, shaped during high CSL before 1935; ii) Natural Elongate Delta 1935-1950 formed during rapid CSL fall; iii) Anthropogenic Elongate Delta 1950-1966, formed during rapid CSL fall and after the Ural-Caspian Sea canal construction, which modified the sedimentary deposition on the delta; iv) Anthropogenic Elongate Delta 1966-1982 shaped during low CSL phase; v) Anthropogenic Elongate Delta 1982-1996 formed during a rapid CSL rise phase; and vi) Anthropogenic Elongate Delta 1996-2009 shaped during high CSL that represent the last phase and actual Ural Delta architecture.

  20. Petroleum geology and resources of the Volga-Ural province, U.S.S.R.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, James A.; Clarke, James W.

    1983-01-01

    The Volga-Ural petroleum province is, in general, coincident with the Volga-Ural regional high, a broad upwarp of the east-central part of the Russian (East European) Platform. The central part of the province is occupied by the Tatar arch, which contains the major share of the oilfields of the province. The Komi-Perm arch forms the northeastern part of the regional high, and the Zhigulevsko-Pugachev and Orenburg arches make up the southern part. These arches are separated from one another by elongate downwarps. The platform cover overlies an Archean crystalline basement and consists of seven main sedimentation cycles. (1) Riphean (lower Bavly) continental sandstone, shale, and conglomerate beds, from 500 to 5,000 m thick, were deposited in aulacogens. (2) Vendian (upper Bavly) continental and marine shale and sandstone are up to 3,000 m thick. (3) Middle Devonian-Tournaisian transgressive deposits, which are sandstone, siltstone, and shale in the lower part and carbonates and abundant reefs in the upper part, range from 300 to 1,000 m in thickness. The upper carbonate part includes the Kamsko-Kinel trough system, which consists of narrow, interconnected, deepwater troughs. (4) The Visean-Namurian-Bashkirian cycle began with deposition of Visean clastic deposits, which draped over reefs of the previous cycle and filled in an erosional relief that had formed in some places on the sediments of the previous cycle. The Visean clastic deposits are overlain by marine carbonate beds. The cycle is from 50 to 800 m thick. (5) The lower Moscovian-Lower Permian cycle consists of 1,000 to 3,000 m of terrigenous clastic deposits and marine carbonate beds. (6) The upper Lower Permian-Upper Permian cycle reflects the maximum growth of the Ural Mountains and the associated Ural foredeep. Evaporite deposits were first laid down, followed by marine limestones and dolomites, which intertongue eastward with clastic sediments from the Ural Mountains. (7) Continental red beds of

  1. Wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Cheney, Jr., Marvin C.

    1982-01-01

    A wind turbine of the type having an airfoil blade (15) mounted on a flexible beam (20) and a pitch governor (55) which selectively, torsionally twists the flexible beam in response to wind turbine speed thereby setting blade pitch, is provided with a limiter (85) which restricts unwanted pitch change at operating speeds due to torsional creep of the flexible beam. The limiter allows twisting of the beam by the governor under excessive wind velocity conditions to orient the blades in stall pitch positions, thereby preventing overspeed operation of the turbine. In the preferred embodiment, the pitch governor comprises a pendulum (65,70) which responds to changing rotor speed by pivotal movement, the limiter comprising a resilient member (90) which engages an end of the pendulum to restrict further movement thereof, and in turn restrict beam creep and unwanted blade pitch misadjustment.

  2. Traditional Chinese medicine compound ShengJinRunZaoYangXue granules for treatment of primary Sjögren's syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wei; Qian, Xian; Guo, Feng; Zhang, Miaojia; Lyu, Chengyin; Tao, Juan; Gao, Zhong'en; Zhou, Zhengqiu

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medical treatment of primary Sjögren's syndrome has advantages over Western medicine in terms of fewer side effects and improved patient conditions. This study was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of the efficacy and safety of ShengJinRunZaoYangXue granules for the treatment of primary Sjögren's syndrome, including the symptoms of dry mouth and dry eye. We undertook a 6-week, double-blind, randomized trial involving 240 patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome at five centers in East China. A computer-generated randomization schedule assigned patients at a 2:1 ratio to receive either ShengJinRunZaoYangXue granules or placebo once daily. Patients and investigators were blinded to treatment allocation. The primary endpoints were the salivary flow rate, Schirmer test results, and sugar test results. Intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses were performed. All 240 patients were randomly allocated to either the treatment group (n = 160, ShengJinRunZaoYangXue granules) or placebo group (n = 80) and were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. After program violation and loss to follow-up, a total of 199 patients were included in the per-protocol analysis. At six week, intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses of the left-eye Schirmer I test results showed an improved difference of 1.36 mm/5 min (95% CI: 0.03 to 2.69 mm/5 min) and 1.35 mm/5 min (95% CI: 0.04 to 2.73 mm/5 min), respectively, and those of the right-eye Schirmer I test results showed an improved difference of 1.12 mm/5 min (95% CI: 0.02 to 2.22 mm/5 min) and 1.12 mm/5 min (95% CI: -0.02 to 2.27 mm/5 min), respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups before treatment. After treatment, the between-group and within-group before-and-after paired comparison results were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses showed an improved salivary flow rate by 0.04 ml/15 min (95

  3. Turbine engine

    SciTech Connect

    Greer, D.

    1988-02-16

    In a turbine propulsion engine, an elongated motor is described including a power means and having a drive shaft projecting therefrom. A first compressor includes an elongated rotatable first casing coaxially mounted upon the motor having a fuel inlet for pressure feeding of fuel lengthwise of the first compressor. A second compressor includes a casing coaxially mounted upon and along the first compressor casing secured to the motor having an air inlet at its forward end for feeding high velocity compressed air lengthwise of the second compressor casing. An intermediate diverging casing at one end is peripherally connected to themore » second compressor casing having inner and outer diffusor chambers communicating respectively with the compressor for receiving high velocity vaporized fuel and compressed air. A turbine casing at one end is peripherally connected to the intermediate casing and at its other end having a converging exhaust outlet. An elongated combustion chamber of circular cross-section rotatably mounted and spaced within and journaled upon the turbine casing; an engine shaft extending axially through the combustion chamber, journaled upon the turbine casing and axially connected to the drive shaft.« less

  4. Reconstruction of radionuclide intakes for the residents of East Urals Radioactive Trace (1957–2011)

    SciTech Connect

    Tolstykh, Evgenia I.; Peremyslova, Lyudmila M.; Degteva, Marina O.

    The East Urals Radioactive Trace (EURT) was formed after a chemical explosion in the radioactive waste-storage facility of the Mayak Production Association in 1957 (Southern Urals, Russia) and resulted in an activity dispersion of 7.4 × 10 16 Bq into the atmosphere. Internal exposure due to ingestion of radionuclides with local foodstuffs was the main factor of public exposure at the EURT. The EURT cohort, combining residents of most contaminated settlements, was formed for epidemiological study at the Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Russia (URCRM). For the purpose of improvement of radionuclide intake estimates for cohort members, the followingmore » data sets collected in URCRM were used: (1) Total β-activity and radiochemical measurements of 90Sr in local foodstuffs over all of the period of interest (1958–2011; n = 2200), which were used for relative 90Sr intake estimations. (2) 90Sr measurements in human bones and whole body ( n = 338); these data were used for average 90Sr intake derivations using an age- and gender-dependent Sr-biokinetic model. Non-strontium radionuclide intakes were evaluated on the basis of 90Sr intake data and the radionuclide composition of contaminated foodstuffs. Validation of radionuclide intakes during the first years after the accident was first carried out using measurements of the feces β-activity of EURT residents ( n = 148). The comparison of experimental and reconstructed values of feces β-activity shows good agreement. 90Sr intakes for residents of settlements evacuated 7–14 days after the accident were also obtained from 90Sr measurements in human bone and whole body. Furthermore, the results of radionuclide intake reconstruction will be used to estimate the internal doses for the members of the EURT cohort.« less

  5. Reconstruction of radionuclide intakes for the residents of East Urals Radioactive Trace (1957–2011)

    DOE PAGES

    Tolstykh, Evgenia I.; Peremyslova, Lyudmila M.; Degteva, Marina O.; ...

    2017-01-19

    The East Urals Radioactive Trace (EURT) was formed after a chemical explosion in the radioactive waste-storage facility of the Mayak Production Association in 1957 (Southern Urals, Russia) and resulted in an activity dispersion of 7.4 × 10 16 Bq into the atmosphere. Internal exposure due to ingestion of radionuclides with local foodstuffs was the main factor of public exposure at the EURT. The EURT cohort, combining residents of most contaminated settlements, was formed for epidemiological study at the Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Russia (URCRM). For the purpose of improvement of radionuclide intake estimates for cohort members, the followingmore » data sets collected in URCRM were used: (1) Total β-activity and radiochemical measurements of 90Sr in local foodstuffs over all of the period of interest (1958–2011; n = 2200), which were used for relative 90Sr intake estimations. (2) 90Sr measurements in human bones and whole body ( n = 338); these data were used for average 90Sr intake derivations using an age- and gender-dependent Sr-biokinetic model. Non-strontium radionuclide intakes were evaluated on the basis of 90Sr intake data and the radionuclide composition of contaminated foodstuffs. Validation of radionuclide intakes during the first years after the accident was first carried out using measurements of the feces β-activity of EURT residents ( n = 148). The comparison of experimental and reconstructed values of feces β-activity shows good agreement. 90Sr intakes for residents of settlements evacuated 7–14 days after the accident were also obtained from 90Sr measurements in human bone and whole body. Furthermore, the results of radionuclide intake reconstruction will be used to estimate the internal doses for the members of the EURT cohort.« less

  6. Magnetic Characterization of Proposed Tektite-like Objects (Urengoites, South-Ural Glass) from Siberia, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezaeva, N. S.; Rochette, P.; Masaitis, V. L.; Badyukov, D. D.; Kosterov, A.

    2017-12-01

    Urengoites and South-Ural glass are proposed `tektite-like' objects from Western Siberia (Russia), previously described in [1-3]. Urengoites (U-1, U-2, U-3; 24 Ma [1]) were discovered near the West-Siberian town of Novy Urengoi [1-2]. Total recovered mass: 21.65 g. The only recovered South-Ural glass A-1 was found near Magnitogorsk ( 90 g) [3]. In spite of previous works [1-3], the magnetic properties of urengoites and South-Ural glass remain unknown. Here we present a comprehensive magnetic characterization for all three currently known urengoite specimens and the only discovered South-Ural glass. Rock magnetic investigations revealed the presence of ferrimagnetic minerals in all samples. Low-temperature magnetometry (ZFC-FC dataset) points out to magnetite, which was detected in the most magnetic urengoite sample (U-3) via its characteristic Verwey transition at 120K (<1 ppm). Contrary to previous investigations [2], we could measure NRM for all samples and acquire alternating field demagnetization spectra for the biggest samples (U-1 and A-1). The following SIRM values were recorded: 4.33 μAm2/kg (U-1). 13.20 μAm2/kg (U-2), 62.40 μAm2/kg (U-3) and 9.36 μAm2/kg (A-1). The obtained χ0 values for all four samples (U-1 to U-3: from 9.98 to 19.90·10-9 m3/kg; A-1: 4.66·10-9 m3/kg) are close to those for Libyan glassed (see Table 1 in [4]). Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) measurements for A-1 sample revealed 28% of anisotropy. SIRM values and non-isotropic susceptibility demonstrate a composite ferrimagnetic and paramagnetic origin of susceptibility. U-1 and A-1 do not demonstrate any field nor frequency dependence of χ0, which likely indicates the absence of superparamagnetic grains of nanometric size. Acknowledgements: The work is supported by Act 211 Government of the Russian Federation, agreement № 02.A03.21.0006 and is performed according to the Russian Government Program of Competitive Growth of Kazan Federal University. This research has

  7. Phytomining Perspectives in Rehabilitation of Mining and Industrial Areas of South Ural

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeeva, S. S.; Ulrikh, D. V.; Timofeev, S. S.

    2017-05-01

    The ability of midland hawthorn (Crataegus laevigata (Poir)), common barberry (Berberis vulgaris), red elder (Sambucus racemosa), cinnamon rose (Rosa cinnamomea L.), couch grass (Elytrigia repens), crested wheat grass (Agropyron cristatum), meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis) and meadow grass (Poa pratensis) for phytoextraction of heavy metals from technogenic soil is proved in the article. The possibility of effective phytoextraction with the use of hawthorn and elder is shown. Maximum accumulation of zinc takes place in the surface mass of couch grass and meadow fescue. In regard to the conditions of South Ural, planting of elder and hawthorn with seeding of couch grass and meadow fescue is recommended for phytomining purposes.

  8. Climate change-driven treeline advances in the Urals alter soil microbial communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djukic, Ika; Moiseev, Pavel; Hagedorn, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Climatic warming may affect microbial communities and their functions either directly through increased temperatures or indirectly by changes in vegetation. Treelines are temperature-limited vegetation boundaries from tundra to forests. In unmanaged regions of the Ural mountains, there is evidence that the forest-tundra ecotone has shifted upward in response to climate warming during the 20th century. Little is known about the effects of the treeline advances on the microbial structure and function and hence they feedbacks on the belowground carbon and nitrogen cycling In our study, we aimed to estimate how ongoing upward shifts of the treeline ecotone might affect soil biodiversity and its function and hence soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics in the Southern and Polar Ural mountains. Along altitudinal gradients reaching from the tundra to forests, we determined the soil microbial community composition (using Phospholipid Fatty Acids method) and quantified the activity of several extracellular enzymes involved in the C and nutrient cycling. In addition, we measured C pools in biomass and soils and quantified C and N mineralization. The results for the top soils, both in South Urals and in the Polar Ural, indicate a close link between climate change driven vegetation changes and soil microbial communities. The observed changes in microbial structure are induced through the resulting more favorable conditions than due to a shift in litter quality. The activities of chitinase were significantly higher under trees than under herbaceous plants, while activities of cellulase and protease declined with altitude from the tundra to the closed forest. In contrast to enzymatic activities, soil carbon stocks did not change significantly with altitude very likely as a result of a balancing out of increased C inputs from vegetation by an enhanced C output through mineralization with forest expansion. The accelerated organic matter turnover in the forest than in the tundra

  9. Single Rotor Turbine

    DOEpatents

    Platts, David A.

    2004-10-26

    A rotor for use in turbine applications has a centrifugal compressor having axially disposed spaced apart fins forming passages and an axial turbine having hollow turbine blades interleaved with the fins and through which fluid from the centrifugal compressor flows.

  10. Lead Isotope Characteristics of the Mindyak Gold Deposit, Southern Urals: Evidence for the Source of Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chugaev, A. V.; Znamensky, S. E.

    2018-01-01

    The isotopic composition of Pb in pyrite of the Mindyak orogenic gold deposit located in the Main Ural Fault Zone, the Southern Urals, has been studied by the high-precision MC-ICP-MS method. Orebodies at the deposit are composed of early pyrite and late polysulfide-carbonate-quartz mineral assemblages. The orebodies are localized in olistostrome with carbonaceous clayey-cherty cement. Pyrites from early and late mineral assemblages are close in Pb isotope ratios. For early pyrite 206Pb/204Pb = 18.250-18.336, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.645-15.653, 208Pb/204Pb = 38.179-38.461; while for late pyrite 206Pb/204Pb = 18.102-18.378, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.635-15.646, 208Pb/204Pb = 38.149-38.320. The model parameters μ2 (238U/204Pb = 9.91 ± 2), ω2 (232Th/204Pb = 38.5 ± 4), and 232Th/238U = 3.88 ± 3 indicate that an upper crustal Pb source played a leading role in ore formation. Carbonaceous shale as an olistostrome cement and syngenetic sulfide mineralization are considered to be the main Pb sources of both early and late mineral assemblages. An additional recept in apparently magmatic lead is suggested for the late veinlet mineralization. The involvement of lead from several sources in ore formation is consistent with the genetic model, which assumes a two-stage formation of orebodies at the Mindyak deposit.

  11. Oil and gas reserve growth-a model for the Volga-Ural Province, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verma, M.K.; Ulmishek, G.F.; Gilbershtein, A.P.

    2000-01-01

    An understanding of reserve growth in known oil and gas fields has become a critical component of energy resource analysis. Significant statistical studies of reserve growth have been published in the U.S., whereas little information is available on other regions of the world. It may be expected that in many countries the magnitude of reserve growth is different from that in the U.S. because of differences in reporting systems and in exploration and production practices. This paper describes the results of a reserve growth study in a group of largest oil and gas fields of the Volga-Ural petroleum province, Russia. The dynamics of reserve growth in these fields shows rapid reserve additions during the first 5 years of field exploration and development, which results from intensive step-out and delineation drilling. Later reserve growth is slow and is related to improvements in recovery technologies and discoveries of new pools and extensions. These two stages of reserve growth are described by two different groups of empirical models. A comparison of these models with the models developed for the lower 48 states and Gulf Coast offshore of the U.S. demonstrates that the reserve growth in the Volga-Ural province is significantly lower than in the U.S. The proposed models may be used for assessment of future reserve additions in known fields of countries that presently have or recently had a centrally-planned economic system.

  12. Geochemistry of Thorium and Uranium in Soils of the Southern Urals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asylbaev, I. G.; Khabirov, I. K.; Gabbasova, I. M.; Rafikov, B. V.; Lukmanov, N. A.

    2017-12-01

    Specific features of the horizontal and vertical distribution of uranium and thorium in soils and parent materials of the Southern Urals within the Bashkortostan Republic have been studied with the use of mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. The dependence of distribution patterns of these elements on the local environmental conditions is shown. A scale for soil evaluation according to the concentrations of uranium and thorium (mg/kg) is suggested: the low level, up to 3; medium, up to 9; high, up to 15; and very high, above 15 mg/kg. On the basis of to this scale, the ecological state of the soils is evaluated, and the schematic geochemical map of the region is compiled. The territory of Bashkortostan is subdivided into two parts according to the contents of radioactive elements in soils: the western part with distinct accumulation of uranium and the eastern part with predominant thorium accumulation. This finding supports the charriage (thrust fault) nature of the fault zone of the Southern Urals. The vertical distribution patterns of uranium and thorium in soils of the region are of the same character. The dependence between the contents of these two elements and rare-earth elements has been established. The results of this study are applied for assessing the ecological state of soils in the region.

  13. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Volga-Ural Region Province, Russia and Kazakhstan, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Cook, Troy A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of technically recoverable, conventional, undiscovered petroleum resources at 1.4 billion barrels of crude oil, 2.4 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 85 million barrels of natural gas liquids for the Volga-Ural Region Province, using a geology-based assessment methodology.

  14. Occurrence modes of As, Sb, Te, Bi, Ag in sulfide assemblages of gold deposits of the Urals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vikent'eva, O.; Vikentev, I.

    2016-04-01

    Review of occurrence modes of trace toxic elements ("potential pollutants") in ores from large gold deposits (the Urals) of different genetic types is presented. Mineral forms of these elements as well as their presence in main minerals from gold-bearing sulfide assemblages according to SEM, EPMA, INAA, ICP-MS and LA-ICP-MS are demonstrated.

  15. Morphological and molecular observations on the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera filipjevi from the Volga and South Ural regions of Russia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During 2010-2012, a survey was conducted to determine the distribution and species diversity of the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera filipjevi within the Volga and South Ural regions of the Russian Federation. A total of 270 soil samples were collected. Seven populations of CCN were found in the rhiz...

  16. Plan Turbines 3 & 4, Side View Turbines ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Plan - Turbines 3 & 4, Side View - Turbines 3 & 4, Section A-A - American Falls Water, Power & Light Company, Island Power Plant, Snake River, below American Falls Dam, American Falls, Power County, ID

  17. Substantiation of the cogeneration turbine unit selection for reconstruction of power units with a T-250/300-23.5 turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valamin, A. E.; Kultyshev, A. Yu.; Shibaev, T. L.; Gol'dberg, A. A.; Sakhnin, Yu. A.; Stepanov, M. Yu.; Bilan, V. N.; Kadkina, I. V.

    2016-11-01

    The selection of a cogeneration steam turbine unit (STU) for the reconstruction of power units with a T-250/300-23.5 turbine is substantiated by the example of power unit no. 9 at the cogeneration power station no. 22 (TETs-22) of Mosenergo Company. Series T-250 steam turbines have been developed for combined heat and power generation. A total of 31 turbines were manufactured. By the end of 2015, the total operation time of prototype power units with the T-250/300-23.5 turbine exceeded 290000 hours. Considering the expiry of the service life, the decision was made that the reconstruction of the power unit at st. no. 9 of TETs-22 should be the first priority. The main issues that arose in developing this project—the customer's requirements and the request for the reconstruction, the view on certain problems of Ural Turbine Works (UTZ) as the manufacturer of the main power unit equipment, and the opinions of other project parties—are examined. The decisions were made with account taken of the experience in operation of all Series T-250 turbines and the results of long-term discussions of pressing problems at scientific and technical councils, meetings, and negotiations. For the new power unit, the following parameters have been set: a live steam pressure of 23.5 MPa and live steam/reheat temperature of 565/565°C. Considering that the boiler equipment will be upgraded, the live steam flow is increased up to 1030 t/h. The reconstruction activities involving the replacement of the existing turbine with a new one will yield a service life of 250000 hours for turbine parts exposed to a temperature of 450°C or higher and 200000 hours for pipeline components. Hence, the decision has been made to reuse the arrangement of the existing turbine: a four-cylinder turbine unit comprising a high-pressure cylinder (HPC), two intermediate pressure cylinders (IPC-1 & 2), and a low-pressure cylinder (LPC). The flow path in the new turbine will have active blading in LPC and IPC-1

  18. Upper Permian vertebrates and their sedimentological context in the South Urals, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tverdokhlebov, Valentin P.; Tverdokhlebova, Galina I.; Minikh, Alla V.; Surkov, Mikhail V.; Benton, Michael J.

    2005-02-01

    Fossil fishes and tetrapods (amphibians and reptiles) have been discovered at 81 localities in the Upper Permian of the Southern Urals area of European Russia. The first sites were found in the 1940s, and subsequent surveys have revealed many more. Broad-scale stratigraphic schemes have been published, but full documentation of the rich tetrapod faunas has not been presented before. The area of richest deposits covers some 900,000 km 2 of territory between Samara on the River Volga in the NW, and Orenburg and Sakmara in the SW. A continental succession, some 3 km thick, of mudstones, siltstones, and sandstones, deposited on mudflats and in small rivers flowing off the Ural Mountain chain, span the last two stages of the Permian (Kazanian, Tatarian). The succession is divided into seven successive units of Kazanian (Kalinovskaya, Osinovskaya, and Belebey svitas, in succession) and Tatarian age, which is further subdivided into the early Tatatian Urzhumian Gorizont (Bolshekinelskaya and Amanakskaya svitas, in succession), and the late Tatarian Severodvinian (Vyazovskaya and Malokinelskaya svitas, of equivalent age) and Vyatkian gorizonts (Kulchumovskaya and Kutulukskaya svitas, of equivalent age). This succession documents major climatic changes, with increasing aridity through the Late Permian. The climate changes are manifested in changing sedimentation and the spread of dryland plants, and peak aridity was achieved right at the Permo-Triassic (PTr) boundary, coincident with global warming. Uplift of the Urals and extinction of land plants led to stripping of soils and massive run-off from the mountains; these phenomena have been identified at the PTr boundary elsewhere (South Africa, Australia) and this may be a key part of the end-Permian mass extinction. The succession of Late Permian fish and tetrapod faunas in Russia documents their richness and diversity before the mass extinction. The terminal Permian Kulchomovskaya and Kutulukskaya svitas have yielded

  19. Turbine system and adapter

    SciTech Connect

    Hogberg, Nicholas Alvin; Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    A turbine system and adapter are disclosed. The adapter includes a turbine attachment portion having a first geometry arranged to receive a corresponding geometry of a wheelpost of a turbine rotor, and a bucket attachment portion having a second geometry arranged to receive a corresponding geometry of a root portion of a non-metallic turbine bucket. Another adapter includes a turbine attachment portion arranged to receive a plurality of wheelposts of a turbine rotor, and a bucket attachment portion arranged to receive a plurality of non-metallic turbine buckets having single dovetail configuration root portions. The turbine system includes a turbine rotormore » wheel configured to receive metal buckets, at least one adapter secured to at least one wheelpost on the turbine rotor wheel, and at least one non-metallic bucket secured to the at least one adapter.« less

  20. Rotating housing turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Allouche, Erez; Jaganathan, Arun P.

    The invention is a new turbine structure having a housing that rotates. The housing has a sidewall, and turbine blades are attached to a sidewall portion. The turbine may be completely open in the center, allowing space for solids and debris to be directed out of the turbine without jamming the spinning blades/sidewall. The turbine may be placed in a generator for generation of electrical current.

  1. Lower Carboniferous Siderites: A Product of Bottom Seeps and Bacterial Metanogenesis (Subpolar Urals)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoshkina, A. I.; Ryabinkina, N. N.

    2018-02-01

    Complex modern micro- and spectroscopic methods for study of siderite concretions in the Lower Carboniferous terrigenous strata on the Kozhym River (Subpolar Urals) have shown that its formation was caused by destruction of clay minerals due to the activity of bacterial communities. The abundance of these bacteria was caused by gas-fluid seeps and bacterial methanogenesis processes in bottom deposits. In basins with normal marine fauna, this led to local desalination, hydrogen sulfide contamination, mass collapse of primary organisms, and the development of element-specific bacteria. The occurrence of these bacteria caused the formation of specific authigenic mineralization in the concretion of sideritic bacteriolites: the framboidal pyrite, sphalerite, galenite, barite, sulfoselenides, and tellurides.

  2. The Ural train-gas pipeline catastrophe: the report of the IDF medical corps assistance.

    PubMed

    Benmeir, P; Levine, I; Shostak, A; Oz, V; Shemer, J; Sokolova, T

    1991-08-01

    Following the destruction of two trains in the Urals 2000 km east of Moscow, as a consequence of the conflagration caused by an explosion from a leaking natural gas pipeline, 3000 people were injured;* most of them (2200) died* immediately and the others (about 800) were badly burned. At the request of the Soviet Union Government a medical military delegation was sent to give assistance to the injured people. This report describes the treatment given by the delegation to 40 patients with burns of between 40 and 90 per cent TBSA during a period of 10 days. An insight into a Soviet Union Trauma Center is given and the good treatment given by the Soviet colleagues is emphasized.

  3. Uranium-Bearing Srilankite from High-Pressure Garnetites of the Southern Urals: First Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottman, I. A.; Pushkarev, E. V.; Khiller, V. V.

    2018-04-01

    This work presents the results of studying srilankite, a rare zirconium titanate (ZrTi2O6), associated with ilmenite, rutile, zircon, uraninite, and other minerals discovered in high-pressure garnetites of the lherzolite Mindyak massif (Southern Urals). Srilankite occurs as inclusions in ilmenite and rutile of up to several tens of microns in size. It was established for the first time that srilankite contains a significant UO2 admixture (up to 20%). The negative correlation between Zr and U is evidence of isomorphism in the srilankite-brannerite system. The association of srilankite with high-Zr rutile indicates that formation of these minerals occurred at T > 850°C.

  4. Effects of Herbal Medicine (Gan Mai Da Zao Decoction) on Several Types of Neuropsychiatric Disorders in an Animal Model: A Systematic Review: Herbal medicine for animal studies of neuropsychiatric diseases.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Ran; Lee, Hye Won; Jun, Ji Hee; Ko, Byoung-Seob

    2017-03-01

    Gan Mai Da Zao (GMDZ) decoction is widely used for the treatment of various diseases of the internal organ and of the central nervous system. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of GMDZ decoction on neuropsychiatric disorders in an animal model. We searched seven databases for randomized animal studies published until April 2015: Pubmed, four Korean databases (DBpia, Oriental Medicine Advanced Searching Integrated System, Korean Studies Information Service System, and Research Information Sharing Service), and one Chinese database (China National Knowledge Infrastructure). The randomized animal studies were included if the effects of GMDZ decoction were tested on neuropsychiatric disorders. All articles were read in full and extracted predefined criteria by two independent reviewers. From a total of 258 hits, six randomized controlled animal studies were included. Five studies used a Sprague Dawley rat model for acute psychological stress, post-traumatic stress disorders, and unpredictable mild stress depression whereas one study used a Kunming mouse model for prenatal depression. The results of the studies showed that GMDZ decoction improved the related outcomes. Regardless of the dose and concentration used, GMDZ decoction significantly improved neuropsychiatric disease-related outcomes in animal models. However, additional systematic and extensive studies should be conducted to establish a strong conclusion.

  5. The swirl turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haluza, M.; Pochylý, F.; Rudolf, P.

    2012-11-01

    In the article is introduced the new type of the turbine - swirl turbine. This turbine is based on opposite principle than Kaplan turbine. Euler equation is satisfied in the form gHηh = -u2vu2. From this equation is seen, that inflow of liquid into the runner is without rotation and on the outflow is a rotation of liquid opposite of rotation of runner. This turbine is suitable for small head and large discharge. Some constructional variants of this turbine are introduced in the article and theoretical aspects regarding losses in the draft tube. The theory is followed by computational simulations in Fluent and experiments using laser Doppler anemometry.

  6. [Genetic structure of people from the Volga-Ural region and Central Asia from data of Alu-polymorphism].

    PubMed

    Khusainova, R I; Akhmetova, V L; Kutuev, I A; Salimova, A Z; Korshunova, T Iu; Lebedev, Iu B; Khusnutdinova, E K

    2004-04-01

    Nine Alu loci (Ya5NBC5, Ya5NBC27, Ya5NBC148, Ya5NBC182, YA5NBC361, ACE, ApoA1, PV92, TPA25) were analyzed in six ethnic populations (Trans-Ural Bashkirs, Tatars-Mishars, Mordovians-Moksha, Mountain Maris, Udmurts, and Komi-Permyaks) of the Volga-Ural region and in three Central Asian populations (Uzbeks, Kazakhs, and Uigurs). All Alu insertions analyzed appeared to be polymorphic in all populations examined. The frequency of insertion varied from 0.110 in Mountain Maris at the Ya5NBC5 locus to 0.914 in Tatars at the ApoA1 locus. The data on the allele frequency distribution at nine loci point to the existence of substantial genetic diversity in the populations examined. The value of the observed heterozygosity averaged over nine Alu insertions varied from 0.326 in Mountain Maris to 0.445 in Kazakhs and Uigurs. The level of the interpopulation genetic differences for the Volga-Ural population (Fst = 0.061) was higher than for the populations of Central Asia (Fst = 0.024), Europe (Fst = 0.02), and Southeastern Asia (Fst = 0.018). The populations examined were highly differentiated both in respect of linguistic characteristics and the geographical position. The data obtained confirmed the effectiveness of the marker system used for the assessment of genetic differentiation and the relationships between the ethnic groups.

  7. Septoplasty and Turbinate Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... RESOURCES Medical Societies Patient Education About this Website Font Size + - Home > TREATMENTS > Septoplasty & Turbinate Surgery Nasal/Sinus ... they are too large. There are several different types of turbinates in the nose. The ones that ...

  8. Wind Turbines Benefit Crops

    ScienceCinema

    Takle, Gene

    2018-05-16

    Ames Laboratory associate scientist Gene Takle talks about research into the effect of wind turbines on nearby crops. Preliminary results show the turbines may have a positive effect by cooling and drying the crops and assisting with carbon dioxide uptake.

  9. Seismic wide-angle constraints on the crust of the southern Urals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbonell, R.; Gallart, J.; PéRez-Estaún, A.; Diaz, J.; Kashubin, S.; Mechie, J.; Wenzel, F.; Knapp, J.

    2000-06-01

    A wide-angle seismic reflection/refraction data set was acquired during spring 1995 across the southern Urals to characterize the lithosphere beneath this Paleozoic orogen. The wide-angle reflectivity features a strong frequency dependence. While the lower crustal reflectivity is in the range of 6-15 Hz, the PmP is characterized by frequencies below 6 Hz. After detailed frequency filtering, the seismic phases constrain a new average P wave velocity crustal model that consists of an upper layer of 5.0-6.0 km/s, which correlates with the surface geology; 5-7 km depths at which the velocities increase to 6.2-6.3 km/s; 10-30 km depths at which, on average, the crust is characterized by velocities of 6.6 km/s; and finally, the lower crust, from 30-35 km down to the Moho, which has velocities ranging from 6.8 to 7.4 km/s. Two different S wave velocity models, one for the N-S and one for the E-W, were derived from the analysis of the horizontal component recordings. Crustal sections of Poisson's ratio and anisotropy were calculated from the velocity models. The Poisson's ratio increases in the lower crust at both sides of the root zone. A localized 2-3% anisotropy zone is imaged within the lower crust beneath the terranes east of the root. This feature is supported by time differences in the SmS phase and by the particle motion diagrams, which reveal two polarized directions of motion. Velocities are higher in the central part of the orogen than for the Siberian and eastern plates. These seismic recordings support a 50-56 km crustal thickness beneath the central part of the orogen in contrast to Moho depths of ≈ 45 km documented at the edges of the transect. The lateral variation of the PmP phase in frequency content and in waveform can be taken as evidence of different genetic origins of the Moho in the southern Urals.

  10. Diamond and Unusual Minerals Discovered from the Chromitite in Polar Ural: A First Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Bai, W.; Fang, Q.; Meng, F.; Chen, S.; Zhang, Z.

    2007-12-01

    Ultrahigh pressure (UHP) minerals, such as diamond, coesite, and pseudomorphs of octahedral olivine, and as well as about 80 other mineral species have been recovered from podiform chromitites of the Luobusa ophiolite, southern Tibet, and a new mineral, Luobusaite (Fe0.82Si2), has been approved recently by CNMMN. The UHP minerals from Luobusa are controversial because they have not found in situ and because ophiolites are currently believed to form at shallow levels above oceanic spreading centers. More detailed study and experimental work are needed to understand the origin and significance of these unusual minerals and investigations of other ophiolites are needed to determine if such minerals occur elsewhere. For this purpose, we collected about 1500 kg of chromitite from two orebodies in an ultramafic body in the Polar Urals. Thus far, more than 60 different mineral species have been separated from these ores. The most exciting discovery is the common occurrence of diamond, a typical UHP mineral in the Luobusa chromitites. Diamonds from Ural chromitite are clear, colorless, well-developed crystals with octahedral morphology, generally 0.2-0.3 mm in size. Attached with the diamonds and perhaps also occurring as inclusions within them are many minerals as chromite, MnNiCrFe alloy, native Si and Ta, corundum, zircon, feldspar, garnet, moissanite, confirming their natural origin and suggesting a long residence time in the mantle. Other mineral group include: (1) native elements: Cr, W, Ni, Co, Si, Al and Ta; (2) carbides: SiC and WC; (3) alloys: Cr-Fe, Si-Al-Fe, Ni-Cu, Ag-Au, Ag-Sn, Fe-Si, Fe-P, and Ag-Zn-Sn; (4) oxides: NiCrFe, PbSn, REE, rutile and Si- bearing rutile, ilmenite, corundum, chromite, MgO, and SnO2; (5) silicates: kyanite, pseudomorphs of octahedral olivine, zircon, garnet, feldspar, and quartz,; (6) sulfides of Fe, Ni, Cu, Mo, Pb, Ab, AsFe, FeNi, CuZn, and CoFeNi; and (7) iron groups: native Fe, FeO, and Fe2O3. These minerals are very similar in

  11. Body Potassium Content and Radiation Dose from 40K for the Urals Population (Russia)

    PubMed Central

    Tolstykh, Evgenia I.; Degteva, Marina O.; Bougrov, Nikolay G.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2016-01-01

    Long-term whole-body monitoring of radionuclides in residents of the Urals Region has been performed at the Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine (URCRM, Chelyabinsk). Quantification of 40K was achieved by measuring the 40K photopeak with four phoswich detectors in whole body counter SICH-9.1M. The current study presents the results of 40K measurements in 3,651 women and 1,961 t-test; U-test men aged 11–90; measurements were performed in 2006–2014. The residents belonged to two ethnic groups, Turkic (Tatar, Bashkir) and Slavs (mainly Russian). The levels of 40K-body contents depend upon gender, age, and body mass. Significant ethnic-differences were not found in 40K-body contents and 40K concentrations in terms of Bq per kg of body weight (in groups homogenous by age and gender). Both 40K-body contents and concentrations were significantly higher in men than in women in all age-groups; the difference was about 25%. The measured 40K-body content in men of 20–50 years was about 4200 Bq (134 g of K) and about 3000 Bq (95 g of K) in women. By the age of 80 these values decreased to 3200 Bq (102 g of K) in men and 2500 Bq (80 g of K) in women. Annual dose rates were maximal in the age group of 20–30 years– 0.16 mGy/y for men and 0.13 mGy/y for women. Further, the dose-rates decreased with age and in the groups of 60–80 years were 0.13 mGy/y for men and 0.10 mGy/y for women. Within groups homogeneous by age and gender, individual dose rates are described by a normal statistical distribution. The coefficient of variation ranges from 9 to 14%, and on the average is 12.5%. Doses from naturally occurring 40K accumulated over 70 years were found to be 9.9 mGy for men and 8.3 mGy for women; over 90 years - 12.5 and 10.4 mGy. PMID:27111330

  12. Large wind turbine generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. L.; Donovon, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    The development associated with large wind turbine systems is briefly described. The scope of this activity includes the development of several large wind turbines ranging in size from 100 kW to several megawatt levels. A description of the wind turbine systems, their programmatic status and a summary of their potential costs is included.

  13. Sliding vane geometry turbines

    DOEpatents

    Sun, Harold Huimin; Zhang, Jizhong; Hu, Liangjun; Hanna, Dave R

    2014-12-30

    Various systems and methods are described for a variable geometry turbine. In one example, a turbine nozzle comprises a central axis and a nozzle vane. The nozzle vane includes a stationary vane and a sliding vane. The sliding vane is positioned to slide in a direction substantially tangent to an inner circumference of the turbine nozzle and in contact with the stationary vane.

  14. Geology of the Volga-Ural petroleum province and detailed description of the Ramashkino and Arlan oil fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, James A.; Clarke, James W.

    1983-01-01

    The Volga-Ural petroleum province is in general coincident with the Volga-Ural regional high, a broad upwarp of the east-central part of the Russian (East European) platform. The central part of the province is occupied by the Tatar arch, which contains the major share of the oil fields of the province. The Perm-Bashkir arch forms the northeastern part of the regional high, and the Zhigulevsko-Orenburg arch makes up the southern part. These arches are separated from one another by elongate downwarps. The platform cover overlies an Archean crystalline basement and consists of seven main sedimentation cycles as follows: 1) Riphean (lower Bavly) continental sandstone, shale, and conglomerate beds from 500 to 5,000 m thick deposited in aulacogens. 2) Vendian (upper Bavly) continental and marine shale and sandstone up to 3,000 m thick. 3) Middle Devonian-Tournaisian transgressive deposits, which are sandstone, siltstone, and shale in the lower part and carbonates with abundant reefs in the upper; thickness is 300-1,000 m. In the upper carbonate part is the Kamsko-Kinel trough system, which consists of narrow interconnected deep-water troughs. 4) The Visean-Namurian-Bashkirian cycle, which began with deposition of Visean clastics that draped over reefs of the previous cycle and filled in an erosional relief that had formed in some places on the sediments of the previous cycle. The Visean clastics are overlain by marine carbonates. Thickness of the cycle is 50-800 m. 5) Early Moscovian-Early Permian terrigenous clastic deposits and marine carbonate beds 1,000-3,000 m thick. 6) The late Early Permian-Late Permian cycle, which reflects maximum growth of the Ural Mountains and associated Ural foredeep. Evaporites were first deposited, then marine limestones and dolomites, which intertongue eastward with clastic sediments from the Ural Mountains. 7) Continental redbeds of Triassic age and mixed continental and marine elastic beds of Jurassic and Cretaceous age, which were

  15. Turbine component, turbine blade, and turbine component fabrication process

    SciTech Connect

    Delvaux, John McConnell; Cairo, Ronald Ralph; Parolini, Jason Robert

    A turbine component, a turbine blade, and a turbine component fabrication process are disclosed. The turbine component includes ceramic matrix composite plies and a feature configured for preventing interlaminar tension of the ceramic matrix composite plies. The feature is selected from the group consisting of ceramic matrix composite tows or precast insert tows extending through at least a portion of the ceramic matrix composite plies, a woven fabric having fiber tows or a precast insert preventing contact between a first set of the ceramic matrix composite plies and a second set of the ceramic matrix composite plies, and combinations thereof.more » The process includes laying up ceramic matrix composite plies in a preselected arrangement and securing a feature configured for interlaminar tension.« less

  16. The U.S.-Russian radiation health effects research program in the Southern Urals

    SciTech Connect

    Seligman, P.J.

    2000-07-01

    The Joint Coordinating Committee for Radiation Effects Research (JCCRER) was established through a bilateral US-Russian agreement to support research and exchange information on radiation health effects. The U.S. member agencies include the Department of Energy (DOE), Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), Department of Defense (DoD), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The Russians are represented by the Ministries of Emergencies (EMERCOM), the Atomic Energy (MINATOM) and Health (MINZDRAV), and the Russian Academy of Sciences (IBRAE). The focus of this research is on the workers from the Mayak Production Associationmore » (MAYAK) in the Southern Urals and on the neighboring populations along the Techa River exposed to contamination from the plant. The goal of the program is to better define the relationship between the health effects and the chronic low dose and dose-rate exposure, these data being essential to validate current radiation protection standards and practices. The current primary areas of JCCRER research include dose reconstruction, epidemiologic health studies, molecular epidemiology/biodosimetry, and the creation of tissue banks. The organization of the ongoing research conducted under the aegis of the JCCRER and the rationale for this work are described.« less

  17. Cultural and climatic changes shape the evolutionary history of the Uralic languages.

    PubMed

    Honkola, T; Vesakoski, O; Korhonen, K; Lehtinen, J; Syrjänen, K; Wahlberg, N

    2013-06-01

    Quantitative phylogenetic methods have been used to study the evolutionary relationships and divergence times of biological species, and recently, these have also been applied to linguistic data to elucidate the evolutionary history of language families. In biology, the factors driving macroevolutionary processes are assumed to be either mainly biotic (the Red Queen model) or mainly abiotic (the Court Jester model) or a combination of both. The applicability of these models is assumed to depend on the temporal and spatial scale observed as biotic factors act on species divergence faster and in smaller spatial scale than the abiotic factors. Here, we used the Uralic language family to investigate whether both 'biotic' interactions (i.e. cultural interactions) and abiotic changes (i.e. climatic fluctuations) are also connected to language diversification. We estimated the times of divergence using Bayesian phylogenetics with a relaxed-clock method and related our results to climatic, historical and archaeological information. Our timing results paralleled the previous linguistic studies but suggested a later divergence of Finno-Ugric, Finnic and Saami languages. Some of the divergences co-occurred with climatic fluctuation and some with cultural interaction and migrations of populations. Thus, we suggest that both 'biotic' and abiotic factors contribute either directly or indirectly to the diversification of languages and that both models can be applied when studying language evolution. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  18. Chemical and boron isotopic composition of tourmaline from the Mariinsky emerald deposit, Central Urals, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baksheev, Ivan A.; Trumbull, Robert B.; Popov, Mikhail P.; Erokhin, Yuri V.; Kudryavtseva, Olesya E.; Yapaskurt, Vasily O.; Khiller, Vera V.; Vovna, Galina M.; Kiselev, Vladimir I.

    2018-04-01

    Tourmaline is abundant at the Mariinsky schist-hosted emerald deposit in the Central Urals, Russia, both in emerald-bearing phlogopite veins (type 1) and later, emerald-free pockets, lenses, and veinlets cutting the phlogopite veins (type 2). The Ca content in tourmaline is influenced by the host rocks (ultramafic and mafic rocks), associated minerals, and minerals crystallized before tourmaline (amphibole, fluorite, margarite). The Na concentration in tourmaline depends on the presence or absence of paragonite, and the association with micas also strongly influences the contents of Li, Zn, Ni, and Co in tourmaline. Type 1 tourmalines associated with phlogopite are relatively depleted in these elements, whereas type 2 tourmalines associated with margarite or paragonite are enriched. Some differences in isomorphic substitutions along with the trace element composition (Zn, V, Sr, Co, REE) may have value in exploration of emerald-bearing and emerald-free veins in schist-hosted emerald deposits. The δ11B values in tourmaline of all types fall in a narrow total range from -11.3 to -8.4‰. These values, combined with a mineralization temperature of 420-360 °C, yield an estimated δ11B fluid composition of -7.4 to -6.8‰ suggesting a mixed source of boron, likely dominated from the granitic rocks surrounding the emerald belt. The narrow range of B-isotope compositions in tourmaline from throughout the Mariinsky deposit suggests a well-mixed hydrothermal system.

  19. Ecohydrologic Changes due to Tree Expansion into Tundra in the Polar Urals, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, V. Y.; Wang, J.; El Sharif, H. A.; Liu, D.; Sheshukov, A. Y.; Mazepa, V.; Shiyatov, S.; Sokolov, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Arctic has been warming at an accelerating rate over the last several decades and the changing climate has caused the invasion of trees and shrubs into tundra across the polar regions of Alaska, Canada, and Russia. These vegetation changes may have the potential to impact regional hydrology and climate. This study aims to develop mechanistic and quantitative understanding of implications of forest encroachment into tundra. Specifically, for several areas with well-documented larch and spruce expansion in the Polar Urals and southern Yamal Peninsula of Russia over 1960-2010s, we hypothesize that the encroachment process alters the seasonality of energy budget characterized by enhanced total evapotranspiration and concomitant subsurface warming. We are collecting a comprehensive set of field observational data on micrometeorology, snow conditions, radiative fluxes, tree sap flows, soil temperature, moisture, and heat fluxes, and active layer thickness. A novel model of maximum entropy production (MEP) is used to derive the surface energy budgets as the partition of radiative fluxes into turbulent and conductive heat fluxes across the ecotone interface. We are presenting preliminary findings that illustrate the identified differences of seasonal snow and heat budget regimes for two contrasting sites: one of which has experienced a recent tree encroachment, while for the other this process has not yet occurred. Observed and modeled heat fluxes are used to inform a comprehensive physical model to study the impact of vegetation encroachment process on the permafrost dynamics.

  20. The U.S.-Russian radiation health effects research program in the Southern Urals.

    PubMed

    Seligman, P J

    2000-07-01

    The Joint Coordinating Committee for Radiation Effects Research (JCCRER) was established through a bilateral U.S.-Russian agreement to support research and exchange information on radiation health effects. The U.S. member agencies include the Department of Energy (DOE), Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), Department of Defense (DoD), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The Russians are represented by the Ministries of Emergencies (EMERCOM), Atomic Energy (MINATOM) and Health (MINZDRAV), and the Russian Academy of Sciences (IBRAE). The focus of this research is on the workers from the Mayak Production Association (MAYAK) in the Southern Urals and on the neighboring populations along the Techa River exposed to contamination from the plant. The goal of the program is to better define the relationship between the health effects and the chronic low dose and dose-rate exposure, these data being essential to validate current radiation protection standards and practices. The current primary areas of JCCRER research include dose reconstruction, epidemiologic health studies, molecular epidemiology/biodosimetry, and the creation of tissue banks. The organization of the ongoing research conducted under the aegis of the JCCRER and the rationale for this work are described.

  1. Rhenium in ores of the Mikheevskoe porphyry Cu-Mo deposit, South Urals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotinskaya, O. Yu.; Grabezhev, A. I.; Seltmann, R.

    2015-03-01

    The distribution of Re in ores of the Mikheevskoe Mo-Cu deposit in the South Urals is studied. It is established that the grade of Re in the ores usually does not exceed 0.5 g/t. A positive correlation between concentrations of Re and Mo (correlation coefficient 0.94), and Re and Cu (correlation coefficient 0.52) is found. EMPA of individual flakes of molybdenite showed that a Re content higher than the detection limit has been measured in most flakes studied, as a rule as high as 0.4-0.5 wt %, but occasionally reaching 1.34 wt %. Re within flakes of molybdenite is irregularly distributed. Patchy, linear, and concentric-zoned patterns of zones with elevated Re content (usually 0.5-1 wt % Re, sometimes higher) are found against the lower content (up to 0.2 wt % Re) that is regularly distributed within the flake. Later hydrothermal processes and mechanical deformation of flakes result in epigenetic Re redistribution in molybdenite that leads to homogenization of molybdenite composition and smoothing of primary pattern, or removal of Re from molybdenite.

  2. Climate and Vegetation Changes over the Past 7000 Years in the Cis-Ural Steppe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khokhlova, O. S.; Morgunova, N. L.; Khokhlov, A. A.; Gol'eva, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    A multilayered archaeological site Turganik Settlement in the valley of the Tok River in the Cis- Ural steppe (Orenburg oblast) was examined with the use of paleopedological and microbiomorph methods. Ancient people inhabited this area in the Latest Neolithic (Eneolithic) (5th millennium BC) and Early Bronze (4th millennium BC) ages. It was found that cultural layers dating back to the Atlantic period of the Holocene had been formed under conditions of a predominance of grassy-forb vegetation with a small portion of tree species and dry climate; the ancient settlement was not affected by floods and was suitable for permanent living. It is probable that soils of the chestnut type with salinization and solonetzic features were developed in that time. The final stages of the accumulation of cultural layers were marked by strong shortterm floods, whose sediments partly masked the features of the previous long arid epoch. The highest degree of aridity was at the end of the Atlantic period. In the Subboreal and Subatlantic periods, soils of the meadowchernozemic type were formed; the spore-pollen spectra of these periods are characterized by a higher portion of tree species and by the presence of phytoliths of meadow grasses. The climatic conditions were generally colder and more humid, though some short-term aridization stages could take place. Some of these stages are recorded in the thickness of the studied sediments.

  3. Microfossils in cherts from the Middle Riphean (Mesoproterozoic) Avzyan Formation, southern Ural Mountains, Russian Federation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sergeev, V. N.; Knoll, A. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    A diverse assemblage of well-preserved microorganisms has been detected in black cherts from the approximately 1200 Ma-old Avzyan Formation (Suite) of the southern Ural Mountains, Russian Federation. The lower Kataskin Member contains a diverse, abundant microbiota dominated by mat-forming filamentous cyanobacteria, several types of colonial unicells, and morphologically distinctive stalked cyanobacteria. The upper Revet Member contains a less diverse biota dominated by unicellular cyanobacteria. Palaeoecological evidence indicates that the microbial community of the Kataskin Member inhabited a shallow water, presumably marine, carbonate environment. Revet microorganisms possibly lived in restricted peritidal environments. The biostratigraphic significance of the Avzyan microbiota is limited. Many of the taxa are long-ranging; they were already abundant in Palaeoproterozoic successions and continue into the Neoproterozoic. Nevertheless, in many respects, the Kataskin assemblage is comparable to those reported from the Middle-Late Riphean deposits of Northern America, Australia and Eurasia. The following taxa are here described: Chroococcaceae-Eogloeocapsa avzyanica Sergeev, Gloeodiniopsis lamellosa Schopf emend. Knoll et Golubic; Entophysalidaceae-Eoentophysalis belcherensis Hofmann; Dermocarpaceae-Polybessurus bipartitus Fairchild ex Green et al.; Nostocaceae-Eosphaeronostoc kataskinicum Sergeev; Nostocaceae or Oscillatoriaceae-Siphonophycus robustum (Schopf) emend. Knoll et Golubic emend. Knoll et al., Siphonophycus sp.; Incertae sedis-Eosynechococcus amadeus Knoll et Golubic.

  4. In utero exposure to radiation and haematological malignancies: pooled analysis of Southern Urals cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Schüz, Joachim; Deltour, Isabelle; Krestinina, Lyudmila Y; Tsareva, Yulia V; Tolstykh, Evgenia I; Sokolnikov, Mikhail E; Akleyev, Alexander V

    2017-01-01

    Background: It is scientifically uncertain whether in utero exposure to low-dose ionising radiation increases the lifetime risk of haematological malignancies. Methods: We pooled two cohorts from the Southern Urals comprising offspring of female workers of a large nuclear facility (the Mayak Production Association) and of women living in areas along the Techa River contaminated by nuclear accidents/waste from the same facility, with detailed dosimetry. Results: The combined cohort totalled 19 536 subjects with 700 504 person-years at risk over the period of incidence follow-up, and slightly more over the period of mortality follow-up, yielding 58 incident cases and 36 deaths up to age 61 years. Risk was increased in subjects who received in utero doses of ⩾80 mGy (excess relative risk (ERR): 1.27; 95% confidence interval (CI): −0.20 to 4.71), and the risk increased consistently per 100 mGy of continuous exposure in utero (ERR: 0.77; CI: 0.02 to 2.56). No association was apparent in mortality-based analyses. Results for leukaemia and lymphoma were similar. A very weak positive association was observed between incidence and postnatal exposure. Conclusions: In summary, the results suggest a positive association between in utero exposure to ionising radiation and risk of haematological malignancies, but the small number of outcomes and inconsistent incidence and mortality findings preclude firm conclusions. PMID:27855443

  5. Ankaramite: A New Type of High-Magnesium and High-Calcium Primitive Melt in the Magnitogorsk Island-Arc Zone (Southern Urals)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushkarev, E. V.; Ryazancev, A. V.; Gottman, I. A.; Degtyarev, K. E.; Kamenetsky, V. S.

    2018-04-01

    This work describes the geological position, mineral and chemical composition of high-Mg effusive ankaramites occurring as dykes and lava flows. They were found in the mélange zone of the western margin of the Magnitogorsk island arc zone in the Southern Urals. Data on the liquidus association of phenocrysts and on the composition of the matrix of effusives are given. According to the data obtained, the conclusion was drawn that the ankaramites studied can be attributed to the primary island arc melts, which were not subject to essential differentiation. This type of effusives has not been distinguished previously among island arc volcanogenic formations of the Urals. It is shown that ankaramites can be considered to be primary melts parental for dunite-clinopyroxenites-gabbro complexes of Ural-Alaskan type. The occurrence of ankaramites in the Paleozoic island arc formations of the Urals indicates the wehrlite composition of the mantle as the reason for the extremely wide development of wehrlites and clinopyroxenites in different mafic-ultramafic complexes of the Urals.

  6. Coalescing Wind Turbine Wakes

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, S.; Churchfield, M.; Sirnivas, S.; ...

    2015-06-18

    A team of researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Statoil used large-eddy simulations to numerically investigate the merging wakes from upstream offshore wind turbines. Merging wakes are typical phenomena in wind farm flows in which neighboring turbine wakes consolidate to form complex flow patterns that are as yet not well understood. In the present study, three 6-MW turbines in a row were subjected to a neutrally stable atmospheric boundary layer flow. As a result, the wake from the farthest upstream turbine conjoined the downstream wake, which significantly altered the subsequent velocity deficit structures, turbulence intensity, and the globalmore » meandering behavior. The complexity increased even more when the combined wakes from the two upstream turbines mixed with the wake generated by the last turbine, thereby forming a "triplet" structure. Although the influence of the wake generated by the first turbine decayed with downstream distance, the mutated wakes from the second turbine continued to influence the downstream wake. Two mirror-image angles of wind directions that yielded partial wakes impinging on the downstream turbines yielded asymmetric wake profiles that could be attributed to the changing flow directions in the rotor plane induced by the Coriolis force. In conclusion, the turbine wakes persisted for extended distances in the present study, which is a result of low aerodynamic surface roughness typically found in offshore conditions« less

  7. 30. VICTOR WATER TURBINE, STILWELLBIERCE CO., DAYTON, OHIO. SIMILAR TURBINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. VICTOR WATER TURBINE, STILWELL-BIERCE CO., DAYTON, OHIO. SIMILAR TURBINE TO LEFT (DOUBLE TURBINE SYSTEM), PHOTO TAKEN FROM PENSTOCK. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  8. The Ufa indenter: stratigraphic and geophysic evidences for an actual indentation of the Southern Urals by the East European craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefort, Jean-Pierre; Danukalova, Guzel

    2014-07-01

    Study of the altitudes of the lowest part of the Upper Cretaceous-Eocene and Aktschagylian-Quaternary stratigraphic ensembles known on the western slope of the Southern Urals evidences the existence of an East-West elongated dome which follows the N53° latitude. This ridge is superimposed at depth with the remnants of the Sernovodsk-Abdulino Aulacogen and with the Belaya tear fault, which support the existence of a recent rejuvenation of these old structures. North of these disruptions the Southern Urals display a clear bent towards the East. Detailed microstructural studies show that this curvature is associated with a typical stress pattern which suggests the existence of an indentation of the fold belt by the East European craton. The hypothesis of an Ufa indenter is not supported by an equivalent East-West deep fault north of the bend. However, a long N100° magnetic anomaly, interpreted as a shear zone, suggests that the indenter is a reality. Quaternary uplift and crustal thickening at its front as well as seismological data support our interpretation. It is not stressed that the curvature of the Urals observed at 56° latitude results solely from this recent indentation. It is only assumed that the actual indentation is rejuvenating a former unevenness which existed before in the East European craton. Study of the inner part of the indenter shows that this type of structure is not necessarily rigid and undeformed. Some of the structures described on the URSEIS deep seismic line could be much younger than previously expected.

  9. Mechanisms of formation of mantle section pyroxenites of Voykar Ophiolite, Polar Urals, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belousov, Ivan; Batanova, Valentina; Sobolev, Alexander; Savelieva, Galina

    2010-05-01

    Ural Mountains mark a major mid Paleozoic collision event, which resulted in the closure of an ocean basin separating the Siberian and European plates. Voykar Ophiolite is located in the Northern part of Uralian Ophiolite Belt. Ophiolitic sequence rocks of Polar Urals are usually considered as giant fragments of mantle and MORB-type crust formed in back-arc settings (e.g. Savelieva et al., 1987). Mantle section of Voykar Ophiolite comprises most of the ophiolitic sequence. It is up to 8 km thick and consists mostly of spinel harzburgites with multiple dunitic bodies and pyroxenitic veins representing pathways for different melts/fluids. While it is generally accepted that dunites in mantle sections are formed by melt-rock reaction and mark melt pathways (e.g. Kelemen et al., 1995), formation of pyroxenites is a subject of debate. Often pyroxenites from mantle sections of ophiolites (Varfalvy et al., 1997), as well as pyroxenites from mantle wedge xenoliths (Arai et al., 2006, Bali et al., 2007, Gregoire et al., 2008) are interpreted as interaction products between high-SiO2 melts and mantle peridotites. Such melts are believed to be widespread in SSZ mantle: boninites, high-MgO andesites and adakites. However, some researchers (e.g. Berly et al., 2006, Halama et al., 2009) propose pyroxenite formation in metasomatic reaction with fluid from subducting plate. Moreover, some pyroxenites could be formed by the melt crystallization in hydrous conditions (Muntener et al., 2001). We present comprehensive study of mineral major and trace element compositions from the mantle section rocks of Voykar Ophiolite in order to determine mechanism of formation of pyroxenites in ophiolitic mantle sections. Compositions of clinopyroxene and olivine from pyroxenites were compared to their compositions in harzburgites and dunites. Furthermore, compositions of clinopyroxene and magmatic amphibole from mantle section pyroxenites were used to calculate equilibrium melts. Geochemical data

  10. Paleohydrology of the Polar Urals from the Last Glacial Maximum Through the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowling, O.; Thomas, E.; Svendsen, J. I.; Haflidason, H.

    2017-12-01

    Paleohydrologic records provide important information concerning the past response of local hydrology to abrupt temperature changes. Arctic hydrology is particularly sensitive to temperature due to feedbacks involving sea ice and ice sheets. The most recent deglacial interval contains multiple abrupt temperature changes, which provide opportunities to study the relationship between temperature, ice sheets, and hydrology. We present a lacustrine δ2Hwax record from Bolshoye Schuchye, in the Polar Ural Mountains, spanning 24.5- 1.3 ka, and interpret hydroclimate conditions at a multi-centennial scale from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) through the Holocene. Bolshoye Schuchye's position beyond the reach of local glaciers during the LGM makes it a unique site, since lacustrine paleoclimate records from the Arctic rarely span this entire interval, so Bolshoye Schuchye helps to cover a gap in understanding of paleoclimate. Compound specific analysis of leaf wax hydrogen isotopes (δ2Hwax) is a hydroclimate proxy that can be used to infer moisture source area, transport history, and local aridity. Inferences based on δ2Hwax rely on mechanistic understanding of the process by which hydrogen from meteoric water is incorporated into waxes, and subsequently deposited in lake sediments. The δ2Hwax value of a sample reflects the isotopic composition of precipitation, while also incorporating fractionation that occurs between precipitation and uptake by plants, and biosynthetic fractionation during wax synthesis. Comparisons between different chain length waxes can be used to infer the isotopic composition of terrestrial and aquatic waxes, as terrestrial plants tend to produce longer chain lengths than aquatic macrophytes. The offset between terrestrial and aquatic δ2Hwax, expressed as ɛt-a, indicates differences between the precipitation used by terrestrial plants, and the lake water used by aquatic plants. Significant changes in ɛt-a can represent shifts in local aridity

  11. South Ural State University Campus: Architectural Development Concept in Accordance with International Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabiev, S. G.

    2017-11-01

    The article deals with the vital problem of the implementation of the Program to enhance the competitiveness of the South Ural State University (SUSU) among other scientific and educational centers, which defines the main objective - to form a world-class university. According to the set objective, the most important task is to build a landscaped campus, which can be efficiently solved by the architectural means. The solution of this task is based on the scientific methods of the territorial and architectural improvement of the main university building complex development in the northern academic area and the architectural and aesthetic improvement of the space structural arrangement of the buildings. The author analyzes the global practice of modern campuses in Russia and abroad based on the Internet resources. The author carried out some additional on-site surveys of foreign campuses in Australia, Canada and China. The essence of the architectural concept of the first university campus development stage lies in the science-based achievement of a harmonious architectural and space unity of solid and plane elements of the site development, landscape arrangement of the main building’s courtyard and the adjacent territories with an efficient use of the relief, water areas and planting, allotment of additional spaces for landscaped areas due to a split-level arrangement, including a landscaped platform, increase of the underground space utilization share with the arrangement of an underground car parking and an underground walkway considering the environmental requirements. Further, it is planned to use the author’s methodological approach for the southern academic and the northern residential university areas, which will allow to create a duly completed landscaped SUSU campus with a developed infrastructure according to the international standards.

  12. The first Lu-Hf zircon isotope data for gabbro-diorite-tonalite associations of the Urals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronkin, Yu. L.; Smirnov, V. N.; Ivanov, K. S.; Gerdes, A.

    2017-01-01

    The Lu-Hf isotope systematics of zircon from the gabbro-plagiogranite association (gabbro, diorite, tonalite, and plagiogranite), which is one of the most typical associations of igneous rocks in the Urals, was studied for the first time. The isotope study yielded a unified age limit of 433 Ma, which corresponds to the time of formation of this rock association. The younger "rejuvenated" ages characterize superimposed thermal impact events, induced by the volcanic arc activity, as well as collisional and postcollisional processes. Here, the initial 176Hf/177Hf( t) ratio in the studied zircon from gabbro and plagiogranite corresponds in fact to a highly LILE-depleted (DM) mantle.

  13. Direct drive wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Bywaters, Garrett Lee; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Stowell, Jesse; Costin, Daniel

    2006-09-19

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  14. Direct drive wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Bywaters, Garrett; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Jesse, Stowell; Costin, Daniel

    2006-10-10

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  15. Direct drive wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Bywaters, Garrett; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Stowell, Jesse; Costin, Daniel

    2006-07-11

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  16. Direct drive wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Bywaters, Garrett; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Jesse, Stowell; Costin, Daniel

    2007-02-27

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  17. Wind Turbine Structural Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, D. R. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    A workshop on wind turbine structural dynamics was held to review and document current United States work on the dynamic behavior of large wind turbines, primarily of the horizontal-axis type, and to identify and discuss other wind turbine configurations that may have lower cost and weight. Information was exchanged on the following topics: (1) Methods for calculating dynamic loads; (2) Aeroelasticity stability (3) Wind loads, both steady and transient; (4) Critical design conditions; (5) Drive train dynamics; and (6) Behavior of operating wind turbines.

  18. Hermetic turbine generator

    DOEpatents

    Meacher, John S.; Ruscitto, David E.

    1982-01-01

    A Rankine cycle turbine drives an electric generator and a feed pump, all on a single shaft, and all enclosed within a hermetically sealed case. The shaft is vertically oriented with the turbine exhaust directed downward and the shaft is supported on hydrodynamic fluid film bearings using the process fluid as lubricant and coolant. The selection of process fluid, type of turbine, operating speed, system power rating, and cycle state points are uniquely coordinated to achieve high turbine efficiency at the temperature levels imposed by the recovery of waste heat from the more prevalent industrial processes.

  19. Wind turbines acoustic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trematerra, Amelia; Iannace, Gino

    2017-07-01

    The importance of wind turbines has increased over the last few years throughout the European Community. The European energy policy guidelines state that for the year 2020 20% of all energy must be produced by alternative energy sources. Wind turbines are an important type of energy production without petrol. A wind speed in a range from 2.5 m/s to 25.0 m/s is needed. One of the obstacles to the widespread diffusion of wind turbine is noise generation. This work presents some noise measurements of wind turbines in the South of Italy, and discusses the noise problems for the people living near wind farms.

  20. EXPLORATORY PLASMA BIOCHEMISTRY REFERENCE INTERVALS FOR URAL OWLS (STRIX URALENSIS, PALLAS 1771) FROM THE AUSTRIAN REINTRODUCTION PROJECT.

    PubMed

    Scope, Alexandra; Schwendenwein, Ilse; Stanclova, Gabriela; Vobornik, Angela; Zink, Richard

    2016-06-01

    The Ural owl (Strix uralensis) is the biggest forest-living owl in Austria; however, it became extinct in Austria through poaching and habitat loss more than half a century ago. The birds examined in the present study were breeding pairs from the reintroduction project with the aim of determining exploratory plasma biochemistry reference intervals in Ural owls and evaluating the amount of biological variation between seasons, sexes, and ages. A total of 45 birds were sampled, including 13 adult males, 14 adult females, and 18 juvenile birds. Remarkably, almost all of the analytes showed significant differences between the subgroups, primarily between seasons, followed by age and sex. Only creatinkinase, glucose, lactatdehydrogenase, and triglycerides did not show any significant variations. Despite partitioning of reference values into subgroups according to biological variation diminishing the number of reference individuals in the respective groups, the resulting smaller reference intervals will improve medical assessment. The results of the present study once again demonstrate that significant seasonal fluctuations must be expected and considered in the interpretation. It can be assumed that these differences are probably even greater in free-range birds with considerable changes in food quantity and quality during and between years.

  1. Turbine disc sealing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Diakunchak, Ihor S.

    2013-03-05

    A disc seal assembly for use in a turbine engine. The disc seal assembly includes a plurality of outwardly extending sealing flange members that define a plurality of fluid pockets. The sealing flange members define a labyrinth flow path therebetween to limit leakage between a hot gas path and a disc cavity in the turbine engine.

  2. Single rotor turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Platts, David A.

    2002-01-01

    There has been invented a turbine engine with a single rotor which cools the engine, functions as a radial compressor, pushes air through the engine to the ignition point, and acts as an axial turbine for powering the compressor. The invention engine is designed to use a simple scheme of conventional passage shapes to provide both a radial and axial flow pattern through the single rotor, thereby allowing the radial intake air flow to cool the turbine blades and turbine exhaust gases in an axial flow to be used for energy transfer. In an alternative embodiment, an electric generator is incorporated in the engine to specifically adapt the invention for power generation. Magnets are embedded in the exhaust face of the single rotor proximate to a ring of stationary magnetic cores with windings to provide for the generation of electricity. In this alternative embodiment, the turbine is a radial inflow turbine rather than an axial turbine as used in the first embodiment. Radial inflow passages of conventional design are interleaved with radial compressor passages to allow the intake air to cool the turbine blades.

  3. Turbine blade processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Space processing of directionally solidified eutectic-alloy type turbine blades is envisioned as a simple remelt operations in which precast blades are remelted in a preformed mold. Process systems based on induction melting, continuous resistance furnaces, and batch resistance furnaces were evaluated. The batch resistance furnace type process using a multiblade mold is considered to offer the best possibility for turbine blade processing.

  4. Ceramic turbine nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Shaffer, James E.; Norton, Paul F.

    1996-01-01

    A turbine nozzle and shroud assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and being attached to conventional metallic components. The metallic components having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the turbine nozzle vane assembly. The turbine nozzle vane assembly includes a plurality of segmented vane defining a first vane segment and a second vane segment. Each of the first and second vane segments having a vertical portion. Each of the first vane segments and the second vane segments being positioned in functional relationship one to another within a recess formed within an outer shroud and an inner shroud. The turbine nozzle and shroud assembly provides an economical, reliable and effective ceramic component having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being less than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the other component.

  5. Ceramic turbine nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Shaffer, J.E.; Norton, P.F.

    1996-12-17

    A turbine nozzle and shroud assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and being attached to conventional metallic components. The metallic components have a preestablished rate of thermal expansion greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the turbine nozzle vane assembly. The turbine nozzle vane assembly includes a plurality of segmented vane defining a first vane segment and a second vane segment, each of the first and second vane segments having a vertical portion, and each of the first vane segments and the second vane segments being positioned in functional relationship one to another within a recess formed within an outer shroud and an inner shroud. The turbine nozzle and shroud assembly provides an economical, reliable and effective ceramic component having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being less than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the other component. 4 figs.

  6. RLV Turbine Performance Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Lisa W.; Dorney, Daniel J.

    2001-01-01

    A task was developed at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to improve turbine aerodynamic performance through the application of advanced design and analysis tools. There are four major objectives of this task: 1) to develop, enhance, and integrate advanced turbine aerodynamic design and analysis tools; 2) to develop the methodology for application of the analytical techniques; 3) to demonstrate the benefits of the advanced turbine design procedure through its application to a relevant turbine design point; and 4) to verify the optimized design and analysis with testing. Final results of the preliminary design and the results of the two-dimensional (2D) detailed design of the first-stage vane of a supersonic turbine suitable for a reusable launch vehicle (R-LV) are presented. Analytical techniques for obtaining the results are also discussed.

  7. Ceramic Cerami Turbine Nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Boyd, Gary L.

    1997-04-01

    A turbine nozzle vane assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and being attached to conventional metallic components. The metallic components having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the turbine nozzle vane assembly. The turbine nozzle vane assembly includes an outer shroud and an inner shroud having a plurality of horizontally segmented vanes therebetween being positioned by a connecting member positioning segmented vanes in functional relationship one to another. The turbine nozzle vane assembly provides an economical, reliable and effective ceramic component having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the other component.

  8. Graphene in turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, D. K.; Swain, P. K.; Sahoo, S.

    2016-07-01

    Graphene, the two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterial, draws interest of several researchers due to its many superior properties. It has extensive applications in numerous fields. A turbine is a hydraulic machine which extracts energy from a fluid and converts it into useful work. Recently, Gudukeya and Madanhire have tried to increase the efficiency of Pelton turbine. Beucher et al. have also tried the same by reducing friction between fluid and turbine blades. In this paper, we study the advantages of using graphene as a coating on Pelton turbine blades. It is found that the efficiency of turbines increases, running and maintenance cost is reduced with more power output. By the application of graphene in pipes, cavitation will be reduced, durability of pipes will increase, operation and maintenance cost of water power plants will be less.

  9. Metamorphism of eclogites from the UHP Maksyutov Complex, south Ural Mountains, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlick, T. D.; Leech, M. L.

    2013-12-01

    The Maksyutov Complex is a mid- to late Paleozoic ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) subduction terrane in the south Ural Mountains of Russia. Radial fractures around quartz inclusions in garnet, omphacite, and glaucophane interpreted as pre-existing coesite; and microdiamond aggregates in garnet identified by Raman spectroscopy demonstrate Maksyutov rocks were subducted to UHP conditions (>2.8 GPa for coesite and >3.0 GPa for diamond at 600°C). Peak UHP eclogite-facies metamorphism (Grt+Omp+Ph+Coe+Rt ×Ttn) took place at c. 385 M and Maksyutov rocks were exhumed through retrograde blueschist-facies metamorphism (Grt+Gln+Ph+Qz×Chl×Ep) by 360 Ma. Pseudosections were constructed to constrain the P-T conditions recorded by the equilibrium mineral assemblanges in eclogites and their retrograded equivalents using bulk rock XRF analysis in the system Na2O-CaO-K2O-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O-TiO2 and the suite of free energy minimization programs, Perple_X 6.6.8 [Connolly 2009] with the internally consistent end-member thermodynamic database from Holland and Powell [1998] (mod 2004); solution models for omphacite (Holland and Powell, 1996), clinoamphibole (Dale et al. 2005), white mica (Coggon & Holland 2002, Auzanneau et al 2010), chlorite and garnet (Holland and Powell 1998; Powell and Holland 1999), and feldspar (Thompson and Hovis 1979; Newton et al. 1980) were used with H2O as a saturated component. Both conventional thermometry, using microprobe analyses and Grt-Cpx cation exchange as well as pseudosection modeling result in higher peak equilibrium temperatures than has been previously been reported in the Maksyutov. Pseudosection modeling gives minimum P-T conditions of 625°-675°C and 2.8-3.1 GPa for peak assemblages from the least retrogressed eclogites, while Fe-Mg exchange thermometry yields temperatures of 775°C × 25°C for pressures ranging from 2.5 to 3.5 GPa.

  10. Ural Eye and Medical Study: description of study design and methodology.

    PubMed

    Bikbov, Mukharram; Fayzrakhmanov, Rinat R; Kazakbaeva, Gyulli; Jonas, Jost B

    2018-06-01

    Since there is a scarcity on population-based health information available for Russia, we conducted this project to assess the prevalence of major ocular and systemic disorders and their associated risk factors. A population-based cross-sectional study (Ural Eye and Medical Study (UEMS)) was performed in Bashkortostan 1300 km east of Moscow. The sampling frame consisted of all inhabitants aged over 40 years and living in an urban study area in the capital city Ufa and a rural region at 65 km outside of Ufa. The target sample size was 2500 individuals for the urban region and 2500 persons for the rural region. The study participants underwent a detailed interview, a detailed ophthalmologic examination including biometry and optical coherence tomography, and clinical examination including assessment of electrocardiography, hearing test, blood sampling, spirometry, and hand grip dynamometry. After a first study period, the study population included 4254 individuals with a mean age of 60.3 ± 11.1 years (range: 40-94 years), mean body weight of 74.8 ± 14.4 kg (range: 31-170 kg), body height of 163.6 ± 8.9 cm (range: 112-196), body mass index of 28.0 ± 5.1 kg/m 2 (range: 13.96-60.96 kg/m 2 ), mean systolic blood pressure of 133.7 ± 21.0 mmHg (range: 84-232 mmHg), and mean diastolic blood pressure of 81.2 ± 10.6 mmHg (range: 40-134 mmHg). Mean refractive error was -0.21 ± 1.94 D and mean intraocular pressure was 13.6 ± 3.9 mmHg. The UEMS provides population-based normative data for a Russian region on the quantitative traits such as axial length, quality of life and lifestyle including smoking and alcohol consumption, and prevalence and risk factors of ocular and systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and depression.

  11. The Role of Nutrition in the Biological Adaptation of the Medieval Population of the Cis-Ural Perm Region (Archeological and Anthropological Evidence)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krylasova, Natalya B.; Brykhova, Natalya G.; Burova, Natalya D.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to reconstruct the nutrition system of the medieval inhabitants of the Perm Territory located in the western foothills of the Ural mountain range. The investigation is built on a comprehensive analysis of archaeological sources available and on the basis if anthropological materials with involvement of radioactive tracer…

  12. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Domanik-type formations of the Volga-Ural Region Province, Russia, 2017

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Finn, Thomas M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Marra, Kristen R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2018-02-27

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable continuous resources of 2.8 billion barrels of oil and 34 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Domanik-type formations of the Volga-Ural Region Province, Russia.

  13. Automotive gas turbine fuel control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, H. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A fuel control system is reported for automotive-type gas turbines and particulary advanced gas turbines utilizing variable geometry components to improve mileage and reduce pollution emission. The fuel control system compensates for fuel density variations, inlet temperature variations, turbine vane actuation, acceleration, and turbine braking. These parameters are utilized to control various orifices, spool valves and pistons.

  14. Cooled snubber structure for turbine blades

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, Clinton A.; Campbell, Christian X.; Whalley, Andrew; Marra, John J.

    2014-04-01

    A turbine blade assembly in a turbine engine. The turbine blade assembly includes a turbine blade and a first snubber structure. The turbine blade includes an internal cooling passage containing cooling air. The first snubber structure extends outwardly from a sidewall of the turbine blade and includes a hollow interior portion that receives cooling air from the internal cooling passage of the turbine blade.

  15. Porphyry-Style Petropavlovskoe Gold Deposit, the Polar Urals: Geological Position, Mineralogy, and Formation Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vikentyev, I. V.; Mansurov, R. Kh.; Ivanova, Yu. N.; Tyukova, E. E.; Sobolev, I. D.; Abramova, V. D.; Vykhristenko, R. I.; Trofimov, A. P.; Khubanov, V. B.; Groznova, E. O.; Dvurechenskaya, S. S.; Kryazhev, S. G.

    2017-11-01

    Geological and structural conditions of localization, hydrothermal metasomatic alteration, and mineralization of the Petropavlovskoe gold deposit (Novogodnenskoe ore field) situated in the northern part of the Lesser Ural volcanic-plutonic belt, which is a constituent of the Middle Paleozoic island-arc system of the Polar Urals, are discussed. The porphyritic diorite bodies pertaining to the late phase of the intrusive Sob Complex play an ore-controlling role. The large-volume orebodies are related to the upper parts of these intrusions. Two types of stringer-disseminated ores have been revealed: (1) predominant gold-sulfide and (2) superimposed low-sulfide-gold-quartz ore markedly enriched in Au. Taken together, they make up complicated flattened isometric orebodies transitory to linear stockworks. The gold potential of the deposit is controlled by pyrite-(chlorite)-albite metasomatic rock of the main productive stage, which mainly develops in a volcanic-sedimentary sequence especially close to the contacts with porphyritic diorite. The relationships between intrusive and subvolcanic bodies and dating of individual zircon crystals corroborate a multistage evolution of the ore field, which predetermines its complex hydrothermal history. Magmatic activity of mature island-arc plagiogranite of the Sob Complex and monzonite of the Kongor Complex initiated development of skarn and beresite alterations accompanied by crystallization of hydrothermal sulfides. In the Early Devonian, due to emplacement of the Sob Complex at a depth of approximately 2 km, skarn magnetite ore with subordinate sulfides was formed. At the onset of the Middle Devonian, the large-volume gold porphyry Au-Ag-Te-W ± Mo,Cu stockworks related to quartz diorite porphyry—the final phase of the Sob Complex— were formed. In the Late Devonian, a part of sulfide mineralization was redistributed with the formation of linear low-sulfide quartz vein zones. Isotopic geochemical study has shown that the

  16. Geochemical Aspects of Formation of Large Oil Deposits in the Volga-Ural Sedimentary Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotnikova, I.; Nosova, F.; Pronin, N.; Nosova, J.; Budkevich, T.

    2012-04-01

    The study of the rocks domanikoid type in the territory of the Ural-Volga region has an almost century-long history, beginning with the first studies of A.D. Archangelsky in the late 20's of last century. But nevertheless the question of the source of oil that formed the industrial deposits of Volga-Ural oil and gas province (OGP), where Romashkinskoye oil field occupies a special place, remains unresolved and topical. According to the sedimentary-migration theory of origin of oil and gas, it is supposed that the primary source of hydrocarbons in this area are the deposits of domanikoid type that contain a large ammount of sapropel organic matter (OM). Semiluki (domanik) horizon of srednefranski substage of the Upper Devonian is considered to be a typical domanikoid stratum. Investigation of the OM of the rocks and oils of the sedimentary cover on the basis of chromato-mass spectrometry method allows us to study the correlations between rock and oil and to assess the location (or absence) of the sources of hydrocarbons in the Paleozoic sedimentary cover. The results of geochemical study of dispersed organic matter (DOM) of rocks from Semiluksky horizon of the Upper Devonian and of the oil from Pashiysky horizon of the Middle Devonian form the basis of this paper. The objectives of this study were the following: to determine the original organic matter of the rocks, which would indicate the conditions of sedimentation of the supposed rock-oil sources; the study of chemofossils (biomarkers) in oil from Pashiyskiy horizon; and the identification of genetic association of DOM rocks from Semiluksky horizon with this oil on the basis of the oil-DOM correlation. The study of biomarkers was carried out with the help of chromato-mass spectrometry in the Laboratory of Geochemistry of Fossil Fuels (Kazan Federal University). In this study we used several informative parameters characterizing the depositional environment, the type of source OM and its maturity: STER / PENT, h

  17. Thermal Response Turbine Shroud.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    AD-AO82 754. GENERAL ELECTRIC CO CINCINNATI OH AIRCRAFT ENGINE GROUP F/G 21/5 THERMAL RESPONSE TURBINE SHROUO.(UI NOV 79 C N GAY F33615-7B-C-2071...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES IS. IEV WORDS (C..tIam. ON guinea 80410 Itf08M 8". 1~0 &VU~ b lma n-M-) Clearance Shroud Clearance Control Turbine Shroud engine / aircrafte ...compressor Active Clearance Control Systems (ACC) de-signed for aircraft gas turbine engine applications. The study vas conducted by personnel of the

  18. Turbine blade vibration dampening

    DOEpatents

    Cornelius, C.C.; Pytanowski, G.P.; Vendituoli, J.S.

    1997-07-08

    The present turbine wheel assembly increases component life and turbine engine longevity. The combination of the strap and the opening combined with the preestablished area of the outer surface of the opening and the preestablished area of the outer circumferential surface of the strap and the friction between the strap and the opening increases the life and longevity of the turbine wheel assembly. Furthermore, the mass ``M`` or combined mass ``CM`` of the strap or straps and the centrifugal force assist in controlling vibrations and damping characteristics. 5 figs.

  19. Turbine blade vibration dampening

    DOEpatents

    Cornelius, Charles C.; Pytanowski, Gregory P.; Vendituoli, Jonathan S.

    1997-07-08

    The present turbine wheel assembly increases component life and turbine engine longevity. The combination of the strap and the opening combined with the preestablished area of the outer surface of the opening and the preestablished area of the outer circumferential surface of the strap and the friction between the strap and the opening increases the life and longevity of the turbine wheel assembly. Furthermore, the mass "M" or combined mass "CM" of the strap or straps and the centrifugal force assist in controlling vibrations and damping characteristics.

  20. Gas turbine combustor transition

    DOEpatents

    Coslow, Billy Joe; Whidden, Graydon Lane

    1999-01-01

    A method of converting a steam cooled transition to an air cooled transition in a gas turbine having a compressor in fluid communication with a combustor, a turbine section in fluid communication with the combustor, the transition disposed in a combustor shell and having a cooling circuit connecting a steam outlet and a steam inlet and wherein hot gas flows from the combustor through the transition and to the turbine section, includes forming an air outlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit and providing for an air inlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit.

  1. Gas turbine combustor transition

    DOEpatents

    Coslow, B.J.; Whidden, G.L.

    1999-05-25

    A method is described for converting a steam cooled transition to an air cooled transition in a gas turbine having a compressor in fluid communication with a combustor, a turbine section in fluid communication with the combustor, the transition disposed in a combustor shell and having a cooling circuit connecting a steam outlet and a steam inlet and wherein hot gas flows from the combustor through the transition and to the turbine section, includes forming an air outlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit and providing for an air inlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit. 7 figs.

  2. Composite turbine bucket assembly

    DOEpatents

    Liotta, Gary Charles; Garcia-Crespo, Andres

    2014-05-20

    A composite turbine blade assembly includes a ceramic blade including an airfoil portion, a shank portion and an attachment portion; and a transition assembly adapted to attach the ceramic blade to a turbine disk or rotor, the transition assembly including first and second transition components clamped together, trapping said ceramic airfoil therebetween. Interior surfaces of the first and second transition portions are formed to mate with the shank portion and the attachment portion of the ceramic blade, and exterior surfaces of said first and second transition components are formed to include an attachment feature enabling the transition assembly to be attached to the turbine rotor or disk.

  3. Wind turbine acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, Harvey H.; Shepherd, Kevin P.

    1990-01-01

    Available information on the physical characteristics of the noise generated by wind turbines is summarized, with example sound pressure time histories, narrow- and broadband frequency spectra, and noise radiation patterns. Reviewed are noise measurement standards, analysis technology, and a method of characterizing wind turbine noise. Prediction methods are given for both low-frequency rotational harmonics and broadband noise components. Also included are atmospheric propagation data showing the effects of distance and refraction by wind shear. Human perception thresholds, based on laboratory and field tests, are given. Building vibration analysis methods are summarized. The bibliography of this report lists technical publications on all aspects of wind turbine acoustics.

  4. Granitoids of the Ufalei block (South Urals): Sr-Nd isotope systematics, geodynamic position and genetic reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronkin, Yu. L.; Shardakova, G. Yu.; Maslov, A. V.; Shagalov, E. S.; Lepikhina, O. P.

    2009-04-01

    Petrogeochemical and isotopic-geochronological signatures in granitoids developed in structures with complex geological history represent an important feature for reconstructing paleogeodynamic settings. Granitoids are widespread in the western slope of the Urals, where the Uralian Orogen contacts via a collage of different-age blocks of the east European Platform. The Ufalei block located in the Central Urals megazone at the junction between the South and Middle Urals’ segments represents one such boundary structure with multistage geological evolution. The isotopic ages obtained by different methods for acid igneous rocks range from 1290 to 245 Ma. We determined close Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd ages (317 Ma) for granites of the Nizhnii Ufalei Massif. By their petrochemical parameters, granitoids and host granite-gneisses differ principally from each other: the former are close to subduction-related, while the latter, to continental-riftogenic varieties. The primary ratio (87Sr/86Sr)0 = 0.70428 and ɛNd ≈ +4 values indicate significant contribution of oceanic (island-arc?) material to the substrate, which served as a source for granites of the Nizhnii Ufalei Massif. Model Nd ages of granites vary from 641 to 550 Ma. Distinct oceanic rocks and varieties with such ages are missing from the surrounding structures. New isotopic dates obtained for ultramafic and mafic rocks from different zones of the Urals related to the Cadomian cycle imply development of unexposed Upper Riphean-Vendian “oceanic” rocks in the central part of the Ufalei block, which played a substantial role in the formation of the Nizhnii Ufalei granitoids. Such rocks could be represented, for example, by fragments of the Precambrian Timanide-type ophiolite association. The analysis of original materials combined with published data point to the heterogeneous composition and structure of the Ufalei block and a significant part of the western segment of the Central Uralian Uplift and extremely complex

  5. Main consistent patterns of Stromatoporoid Development in the Late Ordovician and Silurian in the North Urals Palaeobasin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antropova, E.

    2009-04-01

    In the history of the Earth there have been no basins with similar characteristics. The North Urals palaeobasin had its own unique features. The dominant benthic organisms of basin ecosystem during the Ordovician and Silurian were stromatoporoids, corals, and brachiopods. This fauna is vitally important for the aims of stratigraphy so long as conodonts are extremely rare in sections of the Northern Urals area. The most complete ordering of stromatoporoid complexes has been established and made it possible to estimate rates and measures of extinction at a level of the province. It was also found out that stromatoporoids were organisms responsive to subtle changes of environment and that they accommodated differently to those changing conditions. The evolution of stromatoporoids was accompanied by phylogenetic reorganization and formation of endemic communities in the Late Ordovician and Early Silurian. In the Late Silurian taxonomical diversity of stromatoporoids was mainly controlled by migration processes and cosmopolites with wide palaeogeographic links prevailed in the palaeobasin. Therefore palaeobasin at that time was open to stromatoporoid fauna migration which is confirmed by the occurrence of genera and species that disperse in coeval deposits of many areas, for example, Baltic States, Sweden, Ukraine (Podolia), Western Siberia, Arctic islands of Russia, Mongolia, Canada (islands). The evolution of stromatoporoid communities in the Ordovician-Silurian was intermitted by biotic crises. The analysis of stromatoporoid development helps to define crucial points of ecosystem's reorganizations coinciding with critical geological and biotic events in the history of the North Urals palaeobasin existence, as well as global events during the Ordovician and Silurian (Hirnantian Event, Ireviken Event, Lau Event). The analysis of crises indicates local dependence of stromatoporoid biodiversity on depositional environments. Large local biocenos reorganizations and biotic

  6. Monitoring of wind turbines

    DOEpatents

    White, Jonathan R.; Adams, Douglas E.; Paquette, Josh

    2017-07-25

    Method and apparatus for determining the deflection or curvature of a rotating blade, such as a wind turbine blade or a helicopter blade. Also, methods and apparatus for establishing an inertial reference system on a rotating blade.

  7. Turbine instabilities: Case histories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laws, C. W.

    1985-01-01

    Several possible causes of turbine rotor instability are discussed and the related design features of a wide range of turbomachinery types and sizes are considered. The instrumentation options available for detecting rotor instability and assessing its severity are also discussed.

  8. Turbine nozzle positioning system

    DOEpatents

    Norton, Paul F.; Shaffer, James E.

    1996-01-30

    A nozzle guide vane assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and being attached to conventional metallic components. The nozzle guide vane assembly includes an outer shroud having a mounting leg with an opening defined therein, a tip shoe ring having a mounting member with an opening defined therein, a nozzle support ring having a plurality of holes therein and a pin positioned in the corresponding opening in the outer shroud, opening in the tip shoe ring and the hole in the nozzle support ring. A rolling joint is provided between metallic components of the gas turbine engine and the nozzle guide vane assembly. The nozzle guide vane assembly is positioned radially about a central axis of the gas turbine engine and axially aligned with a combustor of the gas turbine engine.

  9. Turbine nozzle positioning system

    DOEpatents

    Norton, P.F.; Shaffer, J.E.

    1996-01-30

    A nozzle guide vane assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and being attached to conventional metallic components. The nozzle guide vane assembly includes an outer shroud having a mounting leg with an opening defined therein, a tip shoe ring having a mounting member with an opening defined therein, a nozzle support ring having a plurality of holes therein and a pin positioned in the corresponding opening in the outer shroud, opening in the tip shoe ring and the hole in the nozzle support ring. A rolling joint is provided between metallic components of the gas turbine engine and the nozzle guide vane assembly. The nozzle guide vane assembly is positioned radially about a central axis of the gas turbine engine and axially aligned with a combustor of the gas turbine engine. 9 figs.

  10. Gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Lawlor, Shawn P.; Roberts, II, William Byron

    2016-03-08

    A gas turbine engine with a compressor rotor having compressor impulse blades that delivers gas at supersonic conditions to a stator. The stator includes a one or more aerodynamic ducts that each have a converging portion and a diverging portion for deceleration of the selected gas to subsonic conditions and to deliver a high pressure oxidant containing gas to flameholders. The flameholders may be provided as trapped vortex combustors, for combustion of a fuel to produce hot pressurized combustion gases. The hot pressurized combustion gases are choked before passing out of an aerodynamic duct to a turbine. Work is recovered in a turbine by expanding the combustion gases through impulse blades. By balancing the axial loading on compressor impulse blades and turbine impulse blades, asymmetrical thrust is minimized or avoided.

  11. Radial turbine cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roelke, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    Radial turbines have been used extensively in many applications including small ground based electrical power generators, automotive engine turbochargers and aircraft auxiliary power units. In all of these applications the turbine inlet temperature is limited to a value commensurate with the material strength limitations and life requirements of uncooled metal rotors. To take advantage of all the benefits that higher temperatures offer, such as increased turbine specific power output or higher cycle thermal efficiency, requires improved high temperature materials and/or blade cooling. Extensive research is on-going to advance the material properties of high temperature superalloys as well as composite materials including ceramics. The use of ceramics with their high temperature potential and low cost is particularly appealing for radial turbines. However until these programs reach fruition the only way to make significant step increases beyond the present material temperature barriers is to cool the radial blading.

  12. Radial turbine cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roelke, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    The technology of high temperature cooled radial turbines is reviewed. Aerodynamic performance considerations are described. Heat transfer and structural analysis are addressed, and in doing so the following topics are covered: cooling considerations, hot side convection, coolant side convection, and rotor mechanical analysis. Cooled rotor concepts and fabrication are described, and the following are covered in this context: internally cooled rotor, hot isostatic pressure bonded rotor, laminated rotor, split blade rotor, and the NASA radial turbine program.

  13. Wingtip vortex turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, James C., Jr. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A means for extracting rotational energy from the vortex created at aircraft wing tips which consists of a turbine with blades located in the crossflow of the vortex and attached downstream of the wingtip. The turbine has blades attached to a core. When the aircraft is in motion, rotation of a core transmits energy to a centrally attached shaft. The rotational energy thus generated may be put to use within the airfoil or aircraft fuselage.

  14. Frequency and Associated Factors of Bone Fractures in Russians: The Ural Eye and Medical Study.

    PubMed

    Bikbov, Mukharram M; Fayzrakhmanov, Rinat R; Kazakbaeva, Gyulli M; Zainullin, Rinat M; Salavatova, Venera F; Gilmanshin, Timur R; Arslangareeva, Inga I; Nikitin, Nikolai A; Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra; Mukhamadieva, Svetlana R; Yakupova, Dilya F; Khikmatullin, Renat I; Aminev, Said K; Nuriev, Ildar F; Zaynetdinov, Artur F; Uzianbaeva, Yulia V; Jonas, Jost B

    2018-05-10

    With information about frequency of bone fractures in Russia mostly missing, we assessed the frequency of previous bone fractures in a Russian population. The population-based study Ural Eye and Medical Study included 5899 (80.5%) out of 7328 eligible individuals (mean age: 59.0 ± 10.7 years; range: 40-94 years). The history of previous bone fractures was assessed in a standardized interview for 5397 (91.5%) individuals. Mean frequency of any previous bone fracture was 1650/5397 (30.6%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 29, 3, 31.8). In multivariate analysis, higher frequency of bone fractures was associated with male sex (P < 0.001; odds ratio (OR): 1.67; 95% CI: 1.41, 2.00), urban region (P < 0.001; OR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.23, 1.72), higher prevalence of vigorous activity during leisure (P < 0.001; OR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.20, 1.68), current smoking (P = 0.001; OR: 1.46; 95% CI: 1.16, 1.82) and higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease (P = 0.007; OR: 1.29; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.56), low blood pressure episodes with hospital admission (P = 0.001; OR: 2.08; 95% CI: 1.37, 3.16), tumbling (P < 0.001; OR: 2.58; 95% CI: 1.37, 3.16) and thoracic spine pain (P < 0.001; OR: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.18, 1.73). In women, menopause (P < 0.001; OR: 2.17; 95% CI: 1.47, 3.22) was additionally associated. The most common single-bone fractures involved leg and knee (229/5397; 4.2%), hand in general (n = 169; 3.1%) or hand wrist only (n = 97; 1.8%), arm (n = 94; 1.7%) and ankle (n = 67; 1.2%). Severe fractures included spine (n = 35; 0.6%), os sacrum (n = 10; 0.2%), skull (n = 6; 0.1%), pelvis (n = 5; 0.1%) and hip (n = 22; 0.4%). Most frequent combined fractures included as most important part the leg (n = 90; 1.7%), spine (n = 18; 0.3%), and hip (n = 18; 0.3). These data give hints on the epidemiology of bone fractures in Russia.

  15. Petrophysical, Lithological and Mineralogical Characteristics of the Shale Strata of the Volga- Ural Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, Vladimir P.; Plotnikova, Irina N.; Pronin, Nikita V.; Nosova, Fidania F.; Pronina, Nailya R.

    2014-05-01

    The objects of the study are Upper Devonian carbonate rocks in the territory of South-Tatar arch and Melekess basin in the Volga- Urals region. We studied core material of Domanicoid facies from the sediments of Mendymski and Domanik horizons of middle substage of Frasnian stage of the Upper Devonian. Basic analytical research methods included the following: study of the composition, structural and textural features of the rocks, the structure of their voids, filter and reservoir properties and composition of the fluid. The complex research consisted of macroscopic description of the core material, optical microscopy analysis, radiographical analysis, thermal analysis, x-ray tomography, electron microscopy, gas-liquid chromatography, chromate-mass spectrometry, light hydrocarbons analysis using paraphase assay, adsorbed gases analysis, and thermal vacuum degassing method. In addition, we performed isotopic studies of hydrocarbons saturating shale rocks. Shale strata are mainly represented by carbonate-chert rocks. They consist mainly of calcite and quartz. The ratio of these rock-forming minerals varies widely - from 25 to 75 percent. Pyrite, muscovite, albite, and microcline are the most common inclusions. Calcareous and ferruginous dolomite (ankerite), as well as magnesian calcite are tracked down as secondary minerals. While performing the tests we found out that the walls of open fractures filled with oil are stacked by secondary dolomite, which should be considered as an indication moveable oil presence in the open-cut. Electron microscopy data indicate that all the studied samples have porosity - both carbonates and carbonate-siliceous rocks. Idiomorphism of the rock-forming grains and pores that are visible under a microscope bring us to that conclusion. The analysis of the images indicates that the type of reservoir is either porous or granular. The pores are distributed evenly in the volume of rock. Their size is very unstable and varies from 0.5 microns

  16. New technology in turbine aerodynamics.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassman, A. J.; Moffitt, T. P.

    1972-01-01

    Cursory review of some recent work that has been done in turbine aerodynamic research. Topics discussed include the aerodynamic effect of turbine coolant, high work-factor (ratio of stage work to square of blade speed) turbines, and computer methods for turbine design and performance prediction. Experimental cooled-turbine aerodynamics programs using two-dimensional cascades, full annular cascades, and cold rotating turbine stage tests are discussed with some typical results presented. Analytically predicted results for cooled blade performance are compared to experimental results. The problems and some of the current programs associated with the use of very high work factors for fan-drive turbines of high-bypass-ratio engines are discussed. Computer programs have been developed for turbine design-point performance, off-design performance, supersonic blade profile design, and the calculation of channel velocities for subsonic and transonic flowfields. The use of these programs for the design and analysis of axial and radial turbines is discussed.

  17. Wind Turbine Wakes

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, Christopher Lee; Maniaci, David Charles; Resor, Brian R.

    2015-10-01

    The total energy produced by a wind farm depends on the complex interaction of many wind turbines operating in proximity with the turbulent atmosphere. Sometimes, the unsteady forces associated with wind negatively influence power production, causing damage and increasing the cost of producing energy associated with wind power. Wakes and the motion of air generated by rotating blades need to be better understood. Predicting wakes and other wind forces could lead to more effective wind turbine designs and farm layouts, thereby reducing the cost of energy, allowing the United States to increase the installed capacity of wind energy. The Windmore » Energy Technologies Department at Sandia has collaborated with the University of Minnesota to simulate the interaction of multiple wind turbines. By combining the validated, large-eddy simulation code with Sandia’s HPC capability, this consortium has improved its ability to predict unsteady forces and the electrical power generated by an array of wind turbines. The array of wind turbines simulated were specifically those at the Sandia Scaled Wind Farm Testbed (SWiFT) site which aided the design of new wind turbine blades being manufactured as part of the National Rotor Testbed project with the Department of Energy.« less

  18. Turbine Design and Application, Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassman, A. J. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    Turbine technology concepts for thermodynamic and fluid dynamics are presented along with velocity diagrams, losses, mechanical design, operation and performance. Designs discussed include: supersonic turbines, radial-inflow turbines, and turbine cooling.

  19. 40. VIEW OF TURBINE HALL LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT WESTINGHOUSEPARSONS TURBINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. VIEW OF TURBINE HALL LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT WESTINGHOUSE-PARSONS TURBINE NUMBER 2. THIS UNIT WAS INSTALLED IN 1925. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  20. 76. TURBINE HALL, UNIT 2 SHOWING BOTH TURBINE AND CONDENSER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    76. TURBINE HALL, UNIT 2 SHOWING BOTH TURBINE AND CONDENSER (SEE ALSO, DRAWING No. 12 OF 13) - Delaware County Electric Company, Chester Station, Delaware River at South end of Ward Street, Chester, Delaware County, PA

  1. Next Generation Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Cheraghi, S. Hossein; Madden, Frank

    The goal of this collaborative effort between Western New England University's College of Engineering and FloDesign Wind Turbine (FDWT) Corporation to wok on a novel areodynamic concept that could potentially lead to the next generation of wind turbines. Analytical studies and early scale model tests of FDWT's Mixer/Ejector Wind Turbine (MEWT) concept, which exploits jet-age advanced fluid dynamics, indicate that the concept has the potential to significantly reduce the cost of electricity over conventional Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines while reducing land usage. This project involved the design, fabrication, and wind tunnel testing of components of MEWT to provide the researchmore » and engineering data necessary to validate the design iterations and optimize system performance. Based on these tests, a scale model prototype called Briza was designed, fabricated, installed and tested on a portable tower to investigate and improve the design system in real world conditions. The results of these scale prototype efforts were very promising and have contributed significantly to FDWT's ongoing development of a product scale wind turbine for deployment in multiple locations around the U.S. This research was mutually beneficial to Western New England University, FDWT, and the DOE by utilizing over 30 student interns and a number of faculty in all efforts. It brought real-world wind turbine experience into the classroom to further enhance the Green Engineering Program at WNEU. It also provided on-the-job training to many students, improving their future employment opportunities, while also providing valuable information to further advance FDWT's mixer-ejector wind turbine technology, creating opportunities for future project innovation and job creation.« less

  2. Turbine inner shroud and turbine assembly containing such inner shroud

    DOEpatents

    Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran; Corman, Gregory Scot; Dean, Anthony John; DiMascio, Paul Stephen; Mirdamadi, Massoud

    2001-01-01

    A turbine inner shroud and a turbine assembly. The turbine assembly includes a turbine stator having a longitudinal axis and having an outer shroud block with opposing and longitudinally outward facing first and second sides having open slots. A ceramic inner shroud has longitudinally inward facing hook portions which can longitudinally and radially surround a portion of the sides of the outer shroud block. In one attachment, the hook portions are engageable with, and are positioned within, the open slots.

  3. Floating wind turbine system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, Larry A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A floating wind turbine system with a tower structure that includes at least one stability arm extending therefrom and that is anchored to the sea floor with a rotatable position retention device that facilitates deep water installations. Variable buoyancy for the wind turbine system is provided by buoyancy chambers that are integral to the tower itself as well as the stability arm. Pumps are included for adjusting the buoyancy as an aid in system transport, installation, repair and removal. The wind turbine rotor is located downwind of the tower structure to allow the wind turbine to follow the wind direction without an active yaw drive system. The support tower and stability arm structure is designed to balance tension in the tether with buoyancy, gravity and wind forces in such a way that the top of the support tower leans downwind, providing a large clearance between the support tower and the rotor blade tips. This large clearance facilitates the use of articulated rotor hubs to reduced damaging structural dynamic loads. Major components of the turbine can be assembled at the shore and transported to an offshore installation site.

  4. Results of in vivo measurements of strontium-90 body-burden in Urals residents: analyses of data obtained 2006-2012

    SciTech Connect

    Tolstykh, E. I.; Bougrov, N. G.; Krivoshchapov, Victor A.

    2012-06-01

    A part of the Urals territory was contaminated with 90Sr and 137Cs in the 1950s as a result of accidents at the "Mayak" Production Association. The paper describes the analysis of in vivo 90Sr measurements in Urals residents. The measurements were performed with the use of whole-body-counter SICH-9.1M in 2006-2012. Totally 5840 measurements for 4876 persons were performed from 2006 to 2012; maximal measured value was 24 kBq. Earlier, similar measurements were performed with SICH-9.1 (1974-1997). Comparison of the results obtained with SICH-9.1 and SICH-9.1M has shown a good agreement of the two data sets.

  5. Turbine Engine Flowpath Averaging Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    u~%x AEDC- TMR- 8 I-G 1 • R. P TURBINE ENGINE FLOWPATH AVERAGING TECHNIQUES T. W. Skiles ARO, Inc. October 1980 Final Report for Period...COVERED 00-01-1980 to 00-10-1980 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Turbine Engine Flowpath Averaging Techniques 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...property for gas turbine engines were investigated. The investigation consisted of a literature review and review of turbine engine current flowpath

  6. The Cooling of Turbine Blades,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-11

    aviation gas turbine engine , everyone has ceaselessly come up with ways of raising the temperature of gases in a turbine before combustion. The reason for...temperature of the blade concerned by approximately 200 degrees. Jet -type cooling. When the surface of a turbine blade is at a temperature which is...the blade and multiplying the drop in the temperature of the blade . Figure 3 is a cross-section diagram of a turbine blade cooled by the jet

  7. Eutectic Composite Turbine Blade Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-11-01

    turbine blades for aircraft engines . An MC carbide fiber reinforced eutectic alloy, NiTaC-13...composites in turbine blades for aircraft engines . An MC carbide fiber reinforced eutectic alloy, NiTaC-13 and the low pressure turbine blade of the...identified that appeared to have potential for application to aircraft engine turbine blade hardware. The potential benefits offered by these materials

  8. Braconid wasps of subfamily Alysiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) as endoparasitoids of Selachops flavocinctus Wahlberg, 1844 (Diptera: Agromyzidae) in the Central Urals, Russia.

    PubMed

    Kostromina, Tatiana S; Timokhov, Alexander V; Belokobylskij, Sergey A

    2016-11-29

    The Agromyzidae fly Selachops flavocinctus Wahlberg, 1844 as host of the Alysiinae genera Asyntactus Marshall, 1898 (Alysiini) and Protochorebus Perepechaenko, 1997 (Dacnusini) is recorded for the first time. A new species from Central Urals, Protochorebus pervushini sp. nov., is described and illustrated. The new material for Asyntactus rhogaleus Marshall, 1898 is studied. A key to Protochorebus species is provided. Description of puparium of Selachops flavocinctus and new data on its life history are published for the first time.

  9. New data concerning the age and specific features of magmatism of timanides in the southern part of the Lyapin structure (Northern Urals)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, G. A.; Ronkin, Yu. L.; Gerdes, A.; Maslov, A. V.

    2017-10-01

    New data on composition and age of Precambrian granites and volcanic rocks in the southern part of the Lyapin structure (Northern Urals) are considered. The geochemical features of the igneous rocks are similar to those of the rocks formed in both divergent and convergent environments. In the Late Precambrian (583-553 Ma), the investigated area is assumed to have been a part of the active margin above the mantle plume.

  10. Predicting Noise From Wind Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosveld, Ferdinand W.

    1990-01-01

    Computer program WINDY predicts broadband noise spectra of horizontal-axis wind-turbine generators. Enables adequate assessment of impact of broadband wind-turbine noise. Effects of turbulence, trailing-edge wakes, and bluntness taken into account. Program has practical application in design and siting of wind-turbine machines acceptable to community. Written in GW-Basic.

  11. Wind Turbine With Concentric Ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muhonen, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    Wind Turbine device is relatively compact and efficient. Converging inner and outer ducts increase pressure difference across blades of wind turbine. Turbine shaft drives alternator housed inside exit cone. Suitable for installation on such existing structures as water towers, barns, houses, and commercial buildings.

  12. Variable stator radial turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogo, C.; Hajek, T.; Chen, A. G.

    1984-01-01

    A radial turbine stage with a variable area nozzle was investigated. A high work capacity turbine design with a known high performance base was modified to accept a fixed vane stagger angle moveable sidewall nozzle. The nozzle area was varied by moving the forward and rearward sidewalls. Diffusing and accelerating rotor inlet ramps were evaluated in combinations with hub and shroud rotor exit rings. Performance of contoured sidewalls and the location of the sidewall split line with respect to the rotor inlet was compared to the baseline. Performance and rotor exit survey data are presented for 31 different geometries. Detail survey data at the nozzle exit are given in contour plot format for five configurations. A data base is provided for a variable geometry concept that is a viable alternative to the more common pivoted vane variable geometry radial turbine.

  13. Wind turbine spoiler

    DOEpatents

    Sullivan, W.N.

    An aerodynamic spoiler system for a vertical axis wind turbine includes spoilers on the blades initially stored near the rotor axis to minimize drag. A solenoid latch adjacent the central support tower releases the spoilers and centrifugal force causes the spoilers to move up the turbine blades away from the rotor axis, thereby producing a braking effect and actual slowing of the associated wind turbine, if desired. The spoiler system can also be used as an infinitely variable power control by regulated movement of the spoilers on the blades over the range between the undeployed and fully deployed positions. This is done by the use of a suitable powered reel and cable located at the rotor tower to move the spoilers.

  14. Wind turbine spoiler

    DOEpatents

    Sullivan, William N.

    1985-01-01

    An aerodynamic spoiler system for a vertical axis wind turbine includes spoilers on the blades initially stored near the rotor axis to minimize drag. A solenoid latch adjacent the central support tower releases the spoilers and centrifugal force causes the spoilers to move up the turbine blades away from the rotor axis, thereby producing a braking effect and actual slowing of the associated wind turbine, if desired. The spoiler system can also be used as an infinitely variable power control by regulated movement of the spoilers on the blades over the range between the undeployed and fully deployed positions. This is done by the use of a suitable powered reel and cable located at the rotor tower to move the spoilers.

  15. Turbine nozzle attachment system

    DOEpatents

    Norton, Paul F.; Shaffer, James E.

    1995-01-01

    A nozzle guide vane assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and being attached to conventional metallic components. The nozzle guide vane assembly includes a pair of legs extending radially outwardly from an outer shroud and a pair of mounting legs extending radially inwardly from an inner shroud. Each of the pair of legs and mounting legs have a pair of holes therein. A plurality of members attached to the gas turbine engine have a plurality of bores therein which axially align with corresponding ones of the pair of holes in the legs. A plurality of pins are positioned within the corresponding holes and bores radially positioning the nozzle guide vane assembly about a central axis of the gas turbine engine.

  16. Turbine nozzle attachment system

    DOEpatents

    Norton, P.F.; Shaffer, J.E.

    1995-10-24

    A nozzle guide vane assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and is attached to conventional metallic components. The nozzle guide vane assembly includes a pair of legs extending radially outwardly from an outer shroud and a pair of mounting legs extending radially inwardly from an inner shroud. Each of the pair of legs and mounting legs have a pair of holes therein. A plurality of members attached to the gas turbine engine have a plurality of bores therein which axially align with corresponding ones of the pair of holes in the legs. A plurality of pins are positioned within the corresponding holes and bores radially positioning the nozzle guide vane assembly about a central axis of the gas turbine engine. 3 figs.

  17. Gas turbine sealing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Wiebe, David J; Wessell, Brian J; Ebert, Todd; Beeck, Alexander; Liang, George; Marussich, Walter H

    2013-02-19

    A gas turbine includes forward and aft rows of rotatable blades, a row of stationary vanes between the forward and aft rows of rotatable blades, an annular intermediate disc, and a seal housing apparatus. The forward and aft rows of rotatable blades are coupled to respective first and second portions of a disc/rotor assembly. The annular intermediate disc is coupled to the disc/rotor assembly so as to be rotatable with the disc/rotor assembly during operation of the gas turbine. The annular intermediate disc includes a forward side coupled to the first portion of the disc/rotor assembly and an aft side coupled to the second portion of the disc/rotor assembly. The seal housing apparatus is coupled to the annular intermediate disc so as to be rotatable with the annular intermediate disc and the disc/rotor assembly during operation of the gas turbine.

  18. Wind Turbine Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, Harvey H.; Shepherd, Kevin P.

    2009-01-01

    Wind turbine generators, ranging in size from a few kilowatts to several megawatts, are producing electricity both singly and in wind power stations that encompass hundreds of machines. Many installations are in uninhabited areas far from established residences, and therefore there are no apparent environmental impacts in terms of noise. There is, however, the potential for situations in which the radiated noise can be heard by residents of adjacent neighborhoods, particularly those neighborhoods with low ambient noise levels. A widely publicized incident of this nature occurred with the operation of the experimental Mod-1 2-MW wind turbine, which is described in detail elsewhere. Pioneering studies which were conducted at the Mod-1 site on the causes and remedies of noise from wind turbines form the foundation of much of the technology described in this chapter.

  19. Multiple piece turbine airfoil

    DOEpatents

    Kimmel, Keith D; Wilson, Jr., Jack W.

    2010-11-02

    A turbine airfoil, such as a rotor blade or a stator vane, for a gas turbine engine, the airfoil formed as a shell and spar construction with a plurality of dog bone struts each mounted within openings formed within the shell and spar to allow for relative motion between the spar and shell in the airfoil chordwise direction while also forming a seal between adjacent cooling channels. The struts provide the seal as well as prevent bulging of the shell from the spar due to the cooling air pressure.

  20. Ceramic gas turbine shroud

    DOEpatents

    Shi, Jun; Green, Kevin E.

    2014-07-22

    An example gas turbine engine shroud includes a first annular ceramic wall having an inner side for resisting high temperature turbine engine gasses and an outer side with a plurality of radial slots. A second annular metallic wall is positioned radially outwardly of and enclosing the first annular ceramic wall and has a plurality of tabs in communication with the slot of the first annular ceramic wall. The tabs of the second annular metallic wall and slots of the first annular ceramic wall are in communication such that the first annular ceramic wall and second annular metallic wall are affixed.

  1. Velocity pump reaction turbine

    DOEpatents

    House, P.A.

    An expanding hydraulic/two-phase velocity pump reaction turbine including a dual concentric rotor configuration with an inter-rotor annular flow channel in which the inner rotor is mechanically driven by the outer rotor. In another embodiment, the inner rotor is immobilized and provided with gas recovery ports on its outer surface by means of which gas in solution may be recovered. This velocity pump reaction turbine configuration is capable of potential energy conversion efficiencies of up to 70%, and is particularly suited for geothermal applications.

  2. Velocity pump reaction turbine

    DOEpatents

    House, Palmer A.

    1982-01-01

    An expanding hydraulic/two-phase velocity pump reaction turbine including a dual concentric rotor configuration with an inter-rotor annular flow channel in which the inner rotor is mechanically driven by the outer rotor. In another embodiment, the inner rotor is immobilized and provided with gas recovery ports on its outer surface by means of which gas in solution may be recovered. This velocity pump reaction turbine configuration is capable of potential energy conversion efficiencies of up to 70%, and is particularly suited for geothermal applications.

  3. Velocity pump reaction turbine

    DOEpatents

    House, Palmer A.

    1984-01-01

    An expanding hydraulic/two-phase velocity pump reaction turbine including a dual concentric rotor configuration with an inter-rotor annular flow channel in which the inner rotor is mechanically driven by the outer rotor. In another embodiment, the inner rotor is immobilized and provided with gas recovery ports on its outer surface by means of which gas in solution may be recovered. This velocity pump reaction turbine configuration is capable of potential energy conversion efficiencies of up to 70%, and is particularly suited for geothermal applications.

  4. Vertical axis wind turbines

    DOEpatents

    Krivcov, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Krivospitski, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Maksimov, Vasili [Miass, RU; Halstead, Richard [Rohnert Park, CA; Grahov, Jurij [Miass, RU

    2011-03-08

    A vertical axis wind turbine is described. The wind turbine can include a top ring, a middle ring and a lower ring, wherein a plurality of vertical airfoils are disposed between the rings. For example, three vertical airfoils can be attached between the upper ring and the middle ring. In addition, three more vertical airfoils can be attached between the lower ring and the middle ring. When wind contacts the vertically arranged airfoils the rings begin to spin. By connecting the rings to a center pole which spins an alternator, electricity can be generated from wind.

  5. Advanced wind turbine design

    SciTech Connect

    Jamieson, P.M.; Jaffrey, A.

    1995-09-01

    Garrad Hassan have a project in progress funded by the UK Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) to assess the prospects and cost benefits of advanced wind turbine design. In the course of this work, a new concept, the coned rotor design, has been developed. This enables a wind turbine system to operate in effect with variable rotor diameter augmenting energy capture in light winds and shedding loads in storm conditions. Comparisons with conventional design suggest that a major benefit in reduced cost of wind generated electricity may be possible.

  6. Advanced wind turbine design

    SciTech Connect

    Jamieson, P.M.; Jaffrey, A.

    1997-11-01

    Garrad Hassan have a project in progress funded by the U.K. Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) to assess the prospects and cost benefits of advanced wind turbine design. In the course of this work, a new concept, the coned rotor design, has been developed. This enables a wind turbine system to operate in effect with variable rotor diameter augmenting energy capture in light winds and shedding loads in storm conditions. Comparisons with conventional design suggest that a major benefit in reduced cost of wind-generated electricity may be possible.

  7. Advanced turbine study. [airfoil coling in rocket turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Experiments to determine the available increase in turbine horsepower achieved by increasing turbine inlet temperature over a range of 1800 to 2600 R, while applying current gas turbine airfoil cling technology are discussed. Four cases of rocket turbine operating conditions were investigated. Two of the cases used O2/H2 propellant, one with a fuel flowrate of 160 pps, the other 80 pps. Two cases used O2/CH4 propellant, each having different fuel flowrates, pressure ratios, and inlet pressures. Film cooling was found to be the required scheme for these rocket turbine applications because of the high heat flux environments. Conventional convective or impingement cooling, used in jet engines, is inadequate in a rocket turbine environment because of the resulting high temperature gradients in the airfoil wall, causing high strains and low cyclic life. The hydrogen-rich turbine environment experienced a loss, or no gain, in delivered horsepower as turbine inlet temperature was increased at constant airfoil life. The effects of film cooling with regard to reduced flow available for turbine work, dilution of mainstream gas temperature and cooling reentry losses, offset the relatively low specific work capability of hydrogen when increasing turbine inlet temperature over the 1800 to 2600 R range. However, the methane-rich environment experienced an increase in delivered horsepower as turbine inlet temperature was increased at constant airfoil life. The results of a materials survey and heat transfer and durability analysis are discussed.

  8. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The development and progress of the Advanced Gas Turbine engine program is examined. An analysis of the role of ceramics in the design and major engine components is included. Projected fuel economy, emissions and performance standards, and versatility in fuel use are also discussed.

  9. Small hydraulic turbine drives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rostafinski, W. A.

    1970-01-01

    Turbine, driven by the fluid being pumped, requires no external controls, is completely integrated into the flow system, and has bearings which utilize the main fluid for lubrication and cooling. Torque capabilities compare favorably with those developed by positive displacement hydraulic motors.

  10. Crescentic ramp turbine stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ching-Pang (Inventor); Tam, Anna (Inventor); Kirtley, Kevin Richard (Inventor); Lamson, Scott Henry (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A turbine stage includes a row of airfoils joined to corresponding platforms to define flow passages therebetween. Each airfoil includes opposite pressure and suction sides and extends in chord between opposite leading and trailing edges. Each platform includes a crescentic ramp increasing in height from the leading and trailing edges toward the midchord of the airfoil along the pressure side thereof.

  11. Liquid rocket engine turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Criteria for the design and development of turbines for rocket engines to meet specific performance, and installation requirements are summarized. The total design problem, and design elements are identified, and the current technology pertaining to these elements is described. Recommended practices for achieving a successful design are included.

  12. Piezoelectric wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishore, Ravi Anant; Priya, Shashank

    2013-03-01

    In past few years, there has been significant focus towards developing small scale renewable energy based power sources for powering wireless sensor nodes in remote locations such as highways and bridges to conduct continuous health monitoring. These prior efforts have led to the development of micro-scale solar modules, hydrogen fuel cells and various vibration based energy harvesters. However, the cost effectiveness, reliability, and practicality of these solutions remain a concern. Harvesting the wind energy using micro-to-small scale wind turbines can be an excellent solution in variety of outdoor scenarios provided they can operate at few miles per hour of wind speed. The conventional electromagnetic generator used in the wind mills always has some cogging torque which restricts their operation above certain cut-in wind speed. This study aims to develop a novel piezoelectric wind turbine that utilizes bimorph actuators for electro-mechanical energy conversion. This device utilizes a Savonius rotor that is connected to a disk having magnets at the periphery. The piezoelectric actuators arranged circumferentially around the disk also have magnets at the tip which interacts with the magnetic field of the rotating disk and produces cyclical deflection. The wind tunnel experiments were conducted between 2-12 mph of wind speeds to characterize and optimize the power output of the wind turbine. Further, testing was conducted in the open environment to quantify the response to random wind gusts. An attempt was made towards integration of the piezoelectric wind turbine with the wireless sensor node.

  13. Alcoa wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ai, D. K.

    1979-01-01

    An overview of Alcoa's wind energy program is given with emphasis on the the development of a low cost, reliable Darrieus Vertical Axis Wind Turbine System. The design layouts and drawings for fabrication are now complete, while fabrication and installation to utilize the design are expected to begin shortly.

  14. Turbine vane structure

    DOEpatents

    Irwin, John A.

    1980-08-19

    A liquid cooled stator blade assembly for a gas turbine engine includes an outer shroud having a pair of liquid inlets and a pair of liquid outlets supplied through a header and wherein means including tubes support the header radially outwardly of the shroud and also couple the header with the pair of liquid inlets and outlets. A pair of turbine vanes extend radially between the shroud and a vane platform to define a gas turbine motive fluid passage therebetween; and each of the vanes is cooled by an internal body casting of super alloy material with a grooved layer of highly heat conductive material that includes spaced apart flat surface trailing edges in alignment with a flat trailing edge of the casting joined to wall segments of the liner which are juxtaposed with respect to the internal casting to form an array of parallel liquid inlet passages on one side of the vane and a second plurality of parallel liquid return passages on the opposite side of the vane; and a superalloy heat and wear resistant imperforate skin covers the outer surface of the composite blade including the internal casting and the heat conductive layer; a separate trailing edge section includes an internal casting and an outer skin butt connected to the end surfaces of the internal casting and the heat conductive layer to form an easily assembled liquid cooled trailing edge section in the turbine vane.

  15. Turbine blade tip gap reduction system

    DOEpatents

    Diakunchak, Ihor S.

    2012-09-11

    A turbine blade sealing system for reducing a gap between a tip of a turbine blade and a stationary shroud of a turbine engine. The sealing system includes a plurality of flexible seal strips extending from a pressure side of a turbine blade generally orthogonal to the turbine blade. During operation of the turbine engine, the flexible seal strips flex radially outward extending towards the stationary shroud of the turbine engine, thereby reducing the leakage of air past the turbine blades and increasing the efficiency of the turbine engine.

  16. Dose reconstruction for the Urals population. Joint Coordinating Committee on Radiation Effects Research, Project 1.1 -- Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Degteva, M.O.; Drozhko, E.; Anspaugh, L.R.

    1996-02-01

    This work is being carried out as a feasibility study to determine if a long-term course of work can be implemented to assess the long-term risks of radiation exposure delivered at low to moderate dose rates to the populations living in the vicinity of the Mayak Industrial Association (MIA). This work was authorized and conducted under the auspices of the US-Russian Joint Coordinating Committee on Radiation Effects Research (JCCRER) and its Executive Committee (EC). The MIA was the first Russian site for the production and separation of plutonium. This plant began operation in 1948, and during its early days theremore » were technological failures that resulted in the release of large amounts of waste into the rather small Techa River. There were also gaseous releases of radioiodines and other radionuclides during the early days of operation. In addition, there was an accidental explosion in a waste storage tank in 1957 that resulted in a significant release. The Techa River Cohort has been studied for several years by scientists from the Urals Research Centre for Radiation Medicine and an increase in both leukemia and solid tumors has been noted.« less

  17. Cyclic variation in seasonal recruitment and the evolution of the seasonal decline in Ural owl clutch size.

    PubMed Central

    Brommer, Jon E; Pietiäinen, Hannu; Kokko, Hanna

    2002-01-01

    Plastic life-history traits can be viewed as adaptive responses to environmental conditions, described by a reaction norm. In birds, the decline in clutch size with advancing laying date has been viewed as a reaction norm in response to the parent's own (somatic or local environmental) condition and the seasonal decline in its offspring's reproductive value. Theory predicts that differences in the seasonal recruitment are mirrored in the seasonal decrease in clutch size. We tested this prediction in the Ural owl. The owl's main prey, voles, show a cycle of low, increase and peak phases. Recruitment probability had a humped distribution in both increase and peak phases. Average recruitment probability was two to three times higher in the increase phase and declined faster in the latter part of the season when compared with the peak phase. Clutch size decreased twice as steep in the peak (0.1 eggs day-1) as in the increase phase (0.05 eggs day-1). This result appears to refute theoretical predictions of seasonal clutch size declines. However, a re-examination of current theory shows that the predictions of modelling are less robust to details of seasonal condition accumulation in birds than originally thought. The observed pattern can be predicted, assuming specifically shaped seasonal increases in condition across individuals. PMID:11916482

  18. Water turbine technology for small power stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salovaara, T.

    1980-02-01

    The paper examines hydro-power stations and the efficiency and costs of using water turbines to run them. Attention is given to different turbine types emphasizing the use of Kaplan-turbines and runners. Hydraulic characteristics and mechanical properties of low head turbines and small turbines, constructed of fully fabricated steel plate structures, are presented.

  19. New technology in turbine aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassman, A. J.; Moffitt, T. P.

    1972-01-01

    A cursory review is presented of some of the recent work that has been done in turbine aerodynamic research at NASA-Lewis Research Center. Topics discussed include the aerodynamic effect of turbine coolant, high work-factor (ratio of stage work to square of blade speed) turbines, and computer methods for turbine design and performance prediction. An extensive bibliography is included. Experimental cooled-turbine aerodynamics programs using two-dimensional cascades, full annular cascades, and cold rotating turbine stage tests are discussed with some typical results presented. Analytically predicted results for cooled blade performance are compared to experimental results. The problems and some of the current programs associated with the use of very high work factors for fan-drive turbines of high-bypass-ratio engines are discussed. Turbines currently being investigated make use of advanced blading concepts designed to maintain high efficiency under conditions of high aerodynamic loading. Computer programs have been developed for turbine design-point performance, off-design performance, supersonic blade profile design, and the calculation of channel velocities for subsonic and transonic flow fields. The use of these programs for the design and analysis of axial and radial turbines is discussed.

  20. Turbine repair process, repaired coating, and repaired turbine component

    DOEpatents

    Das, Rupak; Delvaux, John McConnell; Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2015-11-03

    A turbine repair process, a repaired coating, and a repaired turbine component are disclosed. The turbine repair process includes providing a turbine component having a higher-pressure region and a lower-pressure region, introducing particles into the higher-pressure region, and at least partially repairing an opening between the higher-pressure region and the lower-pressure region with at least one of the particles to form a repaired turbine component. The repaired coating includes a silicon material, a ceramic matrix composite material, and a repaired region having the silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material. The repaired turbine component a ceramic matrix composite layer and a repaired region having silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material.

  1. Turbine seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Little, David A.

    2013-04-16

    A seal assembly that limits gas leakage from a hot gas path to one or more disc cavities in a turbine engine. The seal assembly includes a seal apparatus that limits gas leakage from the hot gas path to a respective one of the disc cavities. The seal apparatus comprises a plurality of blade members rotatable with a blade structure. The blade members are associated with the blade structure and extend toward adjacent stationary components. Each blade member includes a leading edge and a trailing edge, the leading edge of each blade member being located circumferentially in front of the blade member's corresponding trailing edge in a direction of rotation of the turbine rotor. The blade members are arranged such that a space having a component in a circumferential direction is defined between adjacent circumferentially spaced blade members.

  2. Turbine heat transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohde, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Objectives and approaches to research in turbine heat transfer are discussed. Generally, improvements in the method of determining the hot gas flow through the turbine passage is one area of concern, as is the cooling air flow inside the airfoil, and the methods of predicting the heat transfer rates on the hot gas side and on the coolant side of the airfoil. More specific areas of research are: (1) local hot gas recovery temperatures along the airfoil surfaces; (2) local airfoil wall temperature; (3) local hot gas side heat transfer coefficients on the airfoil surfaces; (4) local coolant side heat transfer coefficients inside the airfoils; (5) local hot gas flow velocities and secondary flows at real engine conditions; and (6) local delta strain range of the airfoil walls.

  3. Advanced turbine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castro, J. H.

    1985-01-01

    The feasibility of an advanced convective cooling concept applied to rocket turbine airfoils which operate in a high pressure hydrogen and methane environment was investigated. The concept consists of a central structural member in which grooves are machined. The grooves are temporarily filled with a removable filler and the entire airfoil is covered with a layer of electroformed nickel, or nickel base alloy. After removal of the filler, the low thermal resistance of the nickel closure causes the wall temperature to be reduced by heat transfer to the coolant. The program is divided in the following tasks: (1) turbine performance appraisal; (2) coolant geometry evaluation; (3) test hardware design and analysis; and (4) test airfoil fabrication.

  4. Turbine Chemistry Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Nan-Suey; Wey, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    Many of the engine exhaust species resulting in significant environmental impact exist in trace amounts. Recent research, e.g., conducted at MIT-AM, has pointed to the intra-engine environment as a possible site for important trace chemistry activity. In addition, the key processes affecting the trace species activity occurring downstream in the air passages of the turbine and exhaust nozzle are not well understood. Most recently, an effort has been initiated at NASA Glenn Research Center under the UEET Program to evaluate and further develop CFD-based technology for modeling and simulation of intra-engine trace chemical changes relevant to atmospheric effects of pollutant emissions from aircraft engines. This presentation will describe the current effort conducted at Glenn; some preliminary results relevant to the trace species chemistry in a turbine passage will also be presented to indicate the progress to date.

  5. Gas turbine sealing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Marra, John Joseph; Wessell, Brian J.; Liang, George

    2013-03-05

    A sealing apparatus in a gas turbine. The sealing apparatus includes a seal housing apparatus coupled to a disc/rotor assembly so as to be rotatable therewith during operation of the gas turbine. The seal housing apparatus comprises a base member, a first leg portion, a second leg portion, and spanning structure. The base member extends generally axially between forward and aft rows of rotatable blades and is positioned adjacent to a row of stationary vanes. The first leg portion extends radially inwardly from the base member and is coupled to the disc/rotor assembly. The second leg portion is axially spaced from the first leg portion, extends radially inwardly from the base member, and is coupled to the disc/rotor assembly. The spanning structure extends between and is rigidly coupled to each of the base member, the first leg portion, and the second leg portion.

  6. Gas turbine cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Bancalari, Eduardo E.

    2001-01-01

    A gas turbine engine (10) having a closed-loop cooling circuit (39) for transferring heat from the hot turbine section (16) to the compressed air (24) produced by the compressor section (12). The closed-loop cooling system (39) includes a heat exchanger (40) disposed in the flow path of the compressed air (24) between the outlet of the compressor section (12) and the inlet of the combustor (14). A cooling fluid (50) may be driven by a pump (52) located outside of the engine casing (53) or a pump (54) mounted on the rotor shaft (17). The cooling circuit (39) may include an orifice (60) for causing the cooling fluid (50) to change from a liquid state to a gaseous state, thereby increasing the heat transfer capacity of the cooling circuit (39).

  7. Multiple piece turbine airfoil

    DOEpatents

    Kimmel, Keith D

    2010-11-09

    A turbine airfoil, such as a rotor blade or a stator vane, for a gas turbine engine, the airfoil formed as a shell and spar construction with a plurality of hook shaped struts each mounted within channels extending in a spanwise direction of the spar and the shell to allow for relative motion between the spar and shell in the airfoil chordwise direction while also fanning a seal between adjacent cooling channels. The struts provide the seal as well as prevent bulging of the shell from the spar due to the cooling air pressure. The hook struts have a hooked shaped end and a rounded shaped end in order to insert the struts into the spar.

  8. Snubber assembly for turbine blades

    DOEpatents

    Marra, John J

    2013-09-03

    A snubber associated with a rotatable turbine blade in a turbine engine, the turbine blade including a pressure sidewall and a suction sidewall opposed from the pressure wall. The snubber assembly includes a first snubber structure associated with the pressure sidewall of the turbine blade, a second snubber structure associated with the suction sidewall of the turbine blade, and a support structure. The support structure extends through the blade and is rigidly coupled at a first end portion thereof to the first snubber structure and at a second end portion thereof to the second snubber structure. Centrifugal loads exerted by the first and second snubber structures caused by rotation thereof during operation of the engine are at least partially transferred to the support structure, such that centrifugal loads exerted on the pressure and suctions sidewalls of the turbine blade by the first and second snubber structures are reduced.

  9. Airfoils for wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Tangler, James L.; Somers, Dan M.

    1996-01-01

    Airfoils for the blade of a wind turbine wherein each airfoil is characterized by a thickness in a range from 16%-24% and a maximum lift coefficient designed to be largely insensitive to roughness effects. The airfoils include a family of airfoils for a blade 15 to 25 meters in length, a family of airfoils for a blade 1 to 5 meters in length, and a family of airfoils for a blade 5 to 10 meters in length.

  10. Airfoils for wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Tangler, J.L.; Somers, D.M.

    1996-10-08

    Airfoils are disclosed for the blade of a wind turbine wherein each airfoil is characterized by a thickness in a range from 16%-24% and a maximum lift coefficient designed to be largely insensitive to roughness effects. The airfoils include a family of airfoils for a blade 15 to 25 meters in length, a family of airfoils for a blade 1 to 5 meters in length, and a family of airfoils for a blade 5 to 10 meters in length. 10 figs.

  11. Superconducting wind turbine generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahamsen, A. B.; Mijatovic, N.; Seiler, E.; Zirngibl, T.; Træholt, C.; Nørgård, P. B.; Pedersen, N. F.; Andersen, N. H.; Østergård, J.

    2010-03-01

    We have examined the potential of 10 MW superconducting direct drive generators to enter the European offshore wind power market and estimated that the production of about 1200 superconducting turbines until 2030 would correspond to 10% of the EU offshore market. The expected properties of future offshore turbines of 8 and 10 MW have been determined from an up-scaling of an existing 5 MW turbine and the necessary properties of the superconducting drive train are discussed. We have found that the absence of the gear box is the main benefit and the reduced weight and size is secondary. However, the main challenge of the superconducting direct drive technology is to prove that the reliability is superior to the alternative drive trains based on gearboxes or permanent magnets. A strategy of successive testing of superconducting direct drive trains in real wind turbines of 10 kW, 100 kW, 1 MW and 10 MW is suggested to secure the accumulation of reliability experience. Finally, the quantities of high temperature superconducting tape needed for a 10 kW and an extreme high field 10 MW generator are found to be 7.5 km and 1500 km, respectively. A more realistic estimate is 200-300 km of tape per 10 MW generator and it is concluded that the present production capacity of coated conductors must be increased by a factor of 36 by 2020, resulting in a ten times lower price of the tape in order to reach a realistic price level for the superconducting drive train.

  12. Gas turbine premixing systems

    DOEpatents

    Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Varatharajan, Balachandar; Evulet, Andrei Tristan; Yilmaz, Ertan; Lacy, Benjamin Paul

    2013-12-31

    Methods and systems are provided for premixing combustion fuel and air within gas turbines. In one embodiment, a combustor includes an upstream mixing panel configured to direct compressed air and combustion fuel through premixing zone to form a fuel-air mixture. The combustor includes a downstream mixing panel configured to mix additional combustion fuel with the fule-air mixture to form a combustion mixture.

  13. Transition in Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The concept of a large disturbance bypass mechanism for the initiation of transition is reviewed and studied. This mechanism, or some manifestation thereof, is suspected to be at work in the boundary layers present in a turbine flow passage. Discussion is presented on four relevant subtopics: (1) the effect of upstream disturbances and wakes on transition; (2) transition prediction models, code development, and verification; (3) transition and turbulence measurement techniques; and (4) the hydrodynamic condition of low Reynolds number boundary layers.

  14. Turbine Blade Illusion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Rob

    2017-01-01

    In January 2017, a large wind turbine blade was installed temporarily in a city square as a public artwork. At first sight, media photographs of the installation appeared to be fakes – the blade looks like it could not really be part of the scene. Close inspection of the object shows that its paradoxical visual appearance can be attributed to unconscious assumptions about object shape and light source direction. PMID:28596821

  15. Smoother Turbine Blades Resist Thermal Shock Better

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czerniak, Paul; Longenecker, Kent; Paulus, Don; Ullman, Zane

    1991-01-01

    Surface treatment increases resistance of turbine blades to low-cycle fatigue. Smoothing removes small flaws where cracks start. Intended for blades in turbines subject to thermal shock of rapid starting. No recrystallization occurs at rocket-turbine operating temperatures.

  16. Turbine Engine Mathematical Model Validation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-12-01

    AEDC-TR-76-90 ~Ec i ? Z985 TURBINE ENGINE MATHEMATICAL MODEL VALIDATION ENGINE TEST FACILITY ARNOLD ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT CENTER AIR FORCE...i f n e c e s e a ~ ~ d i den t i f y by b l ock number) YJI01-GE-100 engine turbine engines mathematical models computations mathematical...report presents and discusses the results of an investigation to develop a rationale and technique for the validation of turbine engine steady-state

  17. Power turbine ventilation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakeman, Thomas G. (Inventor); Brown, Richard W. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Air control mechanism within a power turbine section of a gas turbine engine. The power turbine section includes a rotor and at least one variable pitch propulsor blade. The propulsor blade is coupled to and extends radially outwardly of the rotor. A first annular fairing is rotatable with the propulsor blade and interposed between the propulsor blade and the rotor. A second fairing is located longitudinally adjacent to the first fairing. The first fairing and the second fairing are differentially rotatable. The air control mechanism includes a platform fixedly coupled to a radially inner end of the propulsor blade. The platform is generally positioned in a first opening and a first fairing. The platform and the first fairing define an outer space. In a first position corresponding with a first propulsor blade pitch, the platform is substantially conformal with the first fairing. In a second position corresponding with the second propulsor blade pitch, an edge portion of the platform is displaced radially outwardly from the first fairing. When the blades are in the second position and rotating about the engine axis, the displacement of the edge portion with respect to the first fairing allows air to flow from the outer space to the annular cavity.

  18. Tornado type wind turbines

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Cheng-Ting

    1984-01-01

    A tornado type wind turbine has a vertically disposed wind collecting tower with spaced apart inner and outer walls and a central bore. The upper end of the tower is open while the lower end of the structure is in communication with a wind intake chamber. An opening in the wind chamber is positioned over a turbine which is in driving communication with an electrical generator. An opening between the inner and outer walls at the lower end of the tower permits radially flowing air to enter the space between the inner and outer walls while a vertically disposed opening in the wind collecting tower permits tangentially flowing air to enter the central bore. A porous portion of the inner wall permits the radially flowing air to interact with the tangentially flowing air so as to create an intensified vortex flow which exits out of the top opening of the tower so as to create a low pressure core and thus draw air through the opening of the wind intake chamber so as to drive the turbine.

  19. Airship-floated wind turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, W. K.

    1985-01-01

    A wind turbine, by use of a tethered airship for support, may be designed for the economical recovery of power at heights of 2,000 feet or more above ground, at which height power density in the wind is typically three times the power density available to a conventionally supported wind turbine. Means can be added to such an airship-floated wind turbine which will permit its generators to be used to meet load demand even during periods of little or no wind. Described to this end is a wind turbine system which combines, among other novel features: a novel tether linemore » system which provides access for men and materials to the supporting airship while in active service, a novel system for providing additional buoyant lift at the nose of the turbine-supporting airship to offset the vertical component of tension induced in the tether line by the downwind force exerted by the turbine blades, a novel bearing assembly at the nose of the supporting airship which permits the airship to rotate as a unit with the turbine it supports without causing a similar rotation of the tether line, a novel turbine airship structure which handles concentrated loads from the turbine efficiently and also permits the safe use of hydrogen for buoyancy, a novel ''space frame'' structure which supports the turbine blades and greatly reduces blade weight, a novel system for controlling turbine blade angle of incidence and for varying blade incidene in synchrony with blade angular position abut the turbine axis to provide greater control over airship movement, a novel system for locating propellor-driven generators out at the wind turbine perimeter and for using lightweight, high-RPM generators to produce electrical energy at a power line frequency, which greatly reduces the weight required to convert turbine blade torque into useful power, and a novel system for incorporating compressed air storage and combustion turbine components into the wind turbine's generator drive systems.« less

  20. MOD-2 wind turbine development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, L. H.; Andrews, J. S.; Zimmerman, D. K.

    1983-01-01

    The development of the Mod-2 turbine, designed to achieve a cost of electricity for the 100th production unit that will be competitive with conventional electric power generation is discussed. The Mod-2 wind turbine system (WTS) background, project flow, and a chronology of events and problem areas leading to Mod-2 acceptance are addressed. The role of the participating utility during site preparation, turbine erection and testing, remote operation, and routine operation and maintenance activity is reviewed. The technical areas discussed pertain to system performance, loads, and controls. Research and technical development of multimegawatt turbines is summarized.

  1. Wind Turbine Control Systems | Wind | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    Turbine Control Systems Wind Turbine Control Systems Advanced wind turbine controls can reduce the loads on wind turbine components while capturing more wind energy and converting it into electricity turbines. A photo of a wind turbine against blue sky with white blades on their sides in the foreground

  2. Axial pico turbine - construction and experimental research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peczkis, G.; Goryca, Z.; Korczak, A.

    2017-08-01

    The paper concerns axial water turbine of power equal to 1 kW. The example of axial water turbine constructional calculations was provided, as well as turbine rotor construction with NACA profile blades. The laboratory test rig designed and built to perform measurements on pico turbine was described. The turbine drove three-phase electrical generator. On the basis of highest efficiency parameters, pico turbine basic characteristics were elaborated. The experimental research results indicated that pico turbine can achieve maximum efficiency close to the values of larger water turbines.

  3. Accessory and rock forming minerals monitoring the evolution of zoned mafic ultramafic complexes in the Central Ural Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, J.; Brügmann, G. E.; Pushkarev, E. V.

    2007-04-01

    This study describes major and trace element compositions of accessory and rock forming minerals from three Uralian-Alaskan-type complexes in the Ural Mountains (Kytlym, Svetley Bor, Nizhnii Tagil) for the purpose of constraining the origin, evolution and composition of their parental melts. The mafic-ultramafic complexes in the Urals are aligned along a narrow, 900 km long belt. They consist of a central dunite body grading outward into clinopyroxenite and gabbro lithologies. Several of these dunite bodies have chromitites with platinum group element mineralization. High Fo contents in olivine (Fo 92-93) and high Cr/(Cr + Al) in spinel (0.67-0.84) suggest a MgO-rich (> 15 wt.%) and Al 2O 3-poor ultramafic parental magma. During its early stages the magma crystallized dominantly olivine, spinel and clinopyroxene forming cumulates of dunite, wehrlite and clinopyroxenite. This stage is monitored by a common decrease in the MgO content in olivine (Fo 93-86) and the Cr/(Cr + Al) value of coexisting accessory chromite (0.81-0.70). Subsequently, at subsolidus conditions, the chromite equilibrated with the surrounding silicates producing Fe-rich spinel while Al-rich spinel exsolved chromian picotite and chromian titanomagnetite. This generated the wide compositional ranges typical for spinel from Uralian-Alaskan-type complexes world wide. Laser ablation analyses (LA-ICPMS) reveal that clinopyroxene from dunites and clinopyroxenite from all three complexes have similar REE patterns with an enrichment of LREE (0.5-5.2 prim. mantle) and other highly incompatible elements (U, Th, Ba, Rb) relative to the HREE (0.25-2.0 prim. mantle). This large concentration range implies the extensive crystallization of olivine and clinopyroxene together with spinel from a continuously replenished, tapped and crystallizing magma chamber. Final crystallization of the melt in the pore spaces of the cooling cumulate pile explains the large variation in REE concentrations on the scale of a thin

  4. Joint US/Russian Studies of Population Exposures Resulting from Nuclear Production Activities in the Southern Urals

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    Beginning in 1948, the Soviet Union initiated a program for production of nuclear materials for a weapons program. The first facility for production of plutonium was constructed in the central portion of the country east of the southern Ural Mountains, about halfway between the major industrial cities of Ekaterinburg and Chelyabinsk. The facility now known as the Mayak Production Association and its associated town, now known as Ozersk, were built to irradiate uranium in reactors, separate the resulting plutonium in reprocessing plants, and prepare plutonium metal. The rush to production, coupled with inexperience in handling radioactive materials, lead to largemore » radiation exposures, not only to the workers in the facilities, but also to the surrounding public. Fuel processing started with no controls on releases, and fuel dissolution and accidents in reactors resulted in release of about 37 PBq (1015 Bq) of 131I between 1948 and 1967. Designed disposals of low- and intermediate-level liquid radioactive wastes, and accidental releases via cooling water from tank farms of high-level liquid radioactive wastes, into the small Techa River caused significant contamination and exposures to residents of numerous small riverside villages downstream of the site. Discovery of the magnitude of the aquatic contamination in late 1951 caused revisions to the waste handling regimes, but not before over 200 PBq of radionuclides (with large contributions of 90Sr and 137Cs) were released. Liquid wastes were diverted to tiny Lake Karachay (which today holds over 4 EBq); cooling water was stopped in the tank farms. In 1957, one of the tanks in the tank farm overheated and exploded; over 70 PBq, disproportionately 90Sr, was blown over a large area to the northeast of the site; a large area was contaminated and many villages evacuated. This area today is known as the East Urals Radioactive Trace (EURT). Each of these releases was significant; together they have created a group of

  5. Efficiency of natural self-purification of ecosystems vs. countermeasures applied at the East-Ural Radioactive Trace (EURT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molchanova, I.; Pozolotina, V.; Mikhailovskaya, L.; Antonova, E.

    2012-04-01

    As a result of the radiation accident in 1957 at the Production Association "Mayak" (Russia, the Urals) a fast area (23000 km^2), later named the East-Ural radioactive trace, was contaminated. Accidental emission presented by the long-living radionuclides was found to be dominated by Sr-90. In 1967 the EURT area was subjected to a secondary contamination resulting from radioactive sediments transport by wind from "Mayak" technological reservoir, Karachay Lake. Currently, the stock of Sr-90, Cs-137 and Pu-239,240 in the EURT's soil cover consist of 640•10^12 Bq. This study is aimed to compare an efficiency of the countermeasures adopted at the EURT and natural processes responsible for self-purification of contaminated ecosystems. With concern to the principle of ranging the contaminated areas two zones were established: impact and buffer ones. The impact zone is situated near the accident epicenter, i.e. within 2-30 km from of the Trace central axis. After accident this zone was removed from agricultural utilization. The buffer zone has permanent anthropogenic pressure. The native, undisturbed during the reclamation operations, flow adjacent of landscape sites were chosen within the impact and buffer zones. They included of a watershed area and bank area of the lakes. The impact zone demonstrated the lowest concentration of the radionuclides around the frequently flooded lake shore. Absence of anthropogenic pressure, the high density of the plant cover and deficit of the soil moisture in summer time are the main reasons for decreasing the intensity of the water runoff from watershed. As a result the self-purification processes are dominated around the shoreline soils. The buffer zone is characterized by an opposite regularity appeared in increasing of the Sr-90 content in the soils of the lake shore. In this case, the intensive agricultural utilization of the flat watersheds leads to increase of erosion and degradation processes and, as consequently, to the

  6. 44. KNIGHT WATER IMPULSE TURBINES 12'. THESE TWO TURBINES ARE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. KNIGHT WATER IMPULSE TURBINES 12'. THESE TWO TURBINES ARE SIMILAR TO THOSE THAT POWER THE FOUNDRY AND ENABLE PRODUCTION OF CAST MACHINERY PARTS SUCH AS THOSE IN THE BACKGROUND, RECENTLY MADE FOR RESTORING RAILROAD TURNTABLES IN CAMINO, FOLSOM, PLACERVILLE, AND PARIS, CALIFORNIA. - Knight Foundry, 13 Eureka Street, Sutter Creek, Amador County, CA

  7. 63. VIEW OF TYPICAL TURBINE IN TURBINE WELL IN POWERHOUSE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. VIEW OF TYPICAL TURBINE IN TURBINE WELL IN POWERHOUSE, LOOKING DOWN THE SHAFT FROM JUST ABOVE NORMAL WATER LEVEL. LADDER IS ON DOWNSTREAM WALL. PHOTOGRAPHER STOOD ON DECK SHOWN IN LOWER LEFT CORNER - Swan Falls Dam, Snake River, Kuna, Ada County, ID

  8. Fretting in aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. L.; Bill, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    The problem of fretting in aircraft turbine engines is discussed. Critical fretting can occur on fan, compressor, and turbine blade mountings, as well as on splines, rolling element bearing races, and secondary sealing elements of face type seals. Structural fatigue failures have been shown to occur at fretted areas on component parts. Methods used by designers to reduce the effects of fretting are given.

  9. Taking advantage of modern turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thresher, Robert

    2018-06-01

    Wind facilities have generally deployed turbines of the same power and height in regular uniform arrays. Now, the modern generation of turbines, with customer-selectable tower heights and larger rotors, can significantly increase wind energy's economic potential using less land to generate cheaper electricity.

  10. Kshara application for turbinate hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Kotrannavar, Vijay Kumar S; Angadi, Savita S

    2013-10-01

    Nasapratinaha (nasal obstruction) is a commonly encountered disease in clinical practice. It is one of the nasal disorders, explained in Ayurveda, having nasal obstruction leading to difficulty in breathing as the main cardinal feature. In contemporary science, this condition can be correlated with various diseases such as turbinate hypertrophy, deviated nasal septum, nasal mass, mucosal congestion, allergic rhinitis, and others; among which turbinate hypertrophy is a common cause. Turbinate hypertrophy can be treated with surgical and medical methods. The medical treatment has limitation for prolonged use because of health purpose, surgical approaches too have failed to achieve desired results in turbinate hypertrophy due to complications and high recurrence rate. The medical and surgical managements have their own limitations, merits, and demerits like synechiae formation, rhinitis sicca, severe bleeding, or osteonecrosis of the turbinate bone A parasurgical treatment explained in Ayurveda, known as kshara pratisarana, which is a minimal invasive and precise procedure for this ailment, tried to overcome this problem. 'Kshara Karma' is a popular treatment modality in Ayurveda, which has been advocated in disorders of nose like arbuda (tumor) and adhimamsa (muscular growth). Clinical observation has shown its effectiveness in the management of turbinate hypertrophy. A case report of 45-year-old male who presented with complaints of frequent nasal obstruction, nasal discharge, discomfort in nose, and headache; and diagnosed as turbinate hypertrophy has been presented here. The patient was treated with one application of Kshara over the turbinates. The treatment was effective and no recurrence was noticed in the follow up.

  11. Taking advantage of modern turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Thresher, Robert

    Here, wind facilities have generally deployed turbines of the same power and height in regular uniform arrays. Now, the modern generation of turbines, with customer-selectable tower heights and larger rotors, can significantly increase wind energy's economic potential using less land to generate cheaper electricity.

  12. Taking advantage of modern turbines

    DOE PAGES

    Thresher, Robert

    2018-05-14

    Here, wind facilities have generally deployed turbines of the same power and height in regular uniform arrays. Now, the modern generation of turbines, with customer-selectable tower heights and larger rotors, can significantly increase wind energy's economic potential using less land to generate cheaper electricity.

  13. Ceramic technology for automotive turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclean, A. F.

    1982-01-01

    The paper presents an update on ceramic technology for automotive turbines. Progress in research and development of improved ceramics is reviewed, including approaches for assessing time-dependent strength characteristics. Processes for making shapes are discussed, and the design and testing of selected ceramic turbine components are reviewed.

  14. Turbine with radial acting seal

    DOEpatents

    Eng, Darryl S; Ebert, Todd A

    2016-11-22

    A floating brush seal in a rim cavity of a turbine in a gas turbine engine, where the floating brush seal includes a seal holder in which the floating brush seal floats, and a expandable seal that fits within two radial extending seal slots that maintains a seal with radial displacement of the floating brush seal and the seal holder.

  15. Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development

    SciTech Connect

    Joesph Fadok

    2008-01-01

    Siemens has developed a roadmap to achieve the DOE goals for efficiency, cost reduction, and emissions through innovative approaches and novel technologies which build upon worldwide IGCC operational experience, platform technology, and extensive experience in G-class operating conditions. In Phase 1, the technologies and concepts necessary to achieve the program goals were identified for the gas turbine components and supporting technology areas and testing plans were developed to mitigate identified risks. Multiple studies were conducted to evaluate the impact in plant performance of different gas turbine and plant technologies. 2015 gas turbine technologies showed a significant improvement in IGCC plantmore » efficiency, however, a severe performance penalty was calculated for high carbon capture cases. Thermodynamic calculations showed that the DOE 2010 and 2015 efficiency targets can be met with a two step approach. A risk management process was instituted in Phase 1 to identify risk and develop mitigation plans. For the risks identified, testing and development programs are in place and the risks will be revisited periodically to determine if changes to the plan are necessary. A compressor performance prediction has shown that the design of the compressor for the engine can be achieved with additional stages added to the rear of the compressor. Tip clearance effects were studied as well as a range of flow and pressure ratios to evaluate the impacts to both performance and stability. Considerable data was obtained on the four candidate combustion systems: diffusion, catalytic, premix, and distributed combustion. Based on the results of Phase 1, the premixed combustion system and the distributed combustion system were chosen as having the most potential and will be the focus of Phase 2 of the program. Significant progress was also made in obtaining combustion kinetics data for high hydrogen fuels. The Phase 1 turbine studies indicate initial feasibility of

  16. Wind Turbine Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thresher, R. W. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    Recent progress in the analysis and prediction of the dynamic behavior of wind turbine generators is discussed. The following areas were addressed: (1) the adequacy of state of the art analysis tools for designing the next generation of wind power systems; (2) the use of state of the art analysis tools designers; and (3) verifications of theory which might be lacking or inadequate. Summaries of these informative discussions as well as the questions and answers which followed each paper are documented in the proceedings.

  17. Ceramic Parts for Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. D.; Carpenter, Harry W.; Tellier, Jim; Rollins, Clark; Stormo, Jerry

    1987-01-01

    Abilities of ceramics to serve as turbine blades, stator vanes, and other elements in hot-gas flow of rocket engines discussed in report. Ceramics prime candidates, because of resistance to heat, low density, and tolerance of hostile environments. Ceramics considered in report are silicon nitride, silicon carbide, and new generation of such ceramic composites as transformation-toughened zirconia and alumina and particulate- or whisker-reinforced matrices. Report predicts properly designed ceramic components viable in advanced high-temperature rocket engines and recommends future work.

  18. Alternative aviation turbine fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1977-01-01

    The efficient utilization of fossil fuels by future jet aircraft may necessitate the broadening of current aviation turbine fuel specifications. The most significant changes in specifications would be an increased aromatics content and a higher final boiling point in order to minimize refinery energy consumption and costs. These changes would increase the freezing point and might lower the thermal stability of the fuel and could cause increased pollutant emissions, increased smoke and carbon formation, increased combustor liner temperatures, and poorer ignition characteristics. This paper discusses the effects that broadened specification fuels may have on present-day jet aircraft and engine components and the technology required to use fuels with broadened specifications.

  19. Calculation of gas turbine characteristic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamaev, B. I.; Murashko, V. L.

    2016-04-01

    The reasons and regularities of vapor flow and turbine parameter variation depending on the total pressure drop rate π* and rotor rotation frequency n are studied, as exemplified by a two-stage compressor turbine of a power-generating gas turbine installation. The turbine characteristic is calculated in a wide range of mode parameters using the method in which analytical dependences provide high accuracy for the calculated flow output angle and different types of gas dynamic losses are determined with account of the influence of blade row geometry, blade surface roughness, angles, compressibility, Reynolds number, and flow turbulence. The method provides satisfactory agreement of results of calculation and turbine testing. In the design mode, the operation conditions for the blade rows are favorable, the flow output velocities are close to the optimal ones, the angles of incidence are small, and the flow "choking" modes (with respect to consumption) in the rows are absent. High performance and a nearly axial flow behind the turbine are obtained. Reduction of the rotor rotation frequency and variation of the pressure drop change the flow parameters, the parameters of the stages and the turbine, as well as the form of the characteristic. In particular, for decreased n, nonmonotonic variation of the second stage reactivity with increasing π* is observed. It is demonstrated that the turbine characteristic is mainly determined by the influence of the angles of incidence and the velocity at the output of the rows on the losses and the flow output angle. The account of the growing flow output angle due to the positive angle of incidence for decreased rotation frequencies results in a considerable change of the characteristic: poorer performance, redistribution of the pressure drop at the stages, and change of reactivities, growth of the turbine capacity, and change of the angle and flow velocity behind the turbine.

  20. TURBINE COOLING FLOW AND THE RESULTING DECREASE IN TURBINE EFFICIENCY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gauntner, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    This algorithm has been developed for calculating both the quantity of compressor bleed flow required to cool a turbine and the resulting decrease in efficiency due to cooling air injected into the gas stream. Because of the trend toward higher turbine inlet temperatures, it is important to accurately predict the required cooling flow. This program is intended for use with axial flow, air-breathing jet propulsion engines with a variety of airfoil cooling configurations. The algorithm results have compared extremely well with figures given by major engine manufacturers for given bulk metal temperatures and cooling configurations. The program calculates the required cooling flow and corresponding decrease in stage efficiency for each row of airfoils throughout the turbine. These values are combined with the thermodynamic efficiency of the uncooled turbine to predict the total bleed airflow required and the altered turbine efficiency. There are ten airfoil cooling configurations and the algorithm allows a different option for each row of cooled airfoils. Materials technology is incorporated and requires the date of the first year of service for the turbine stator vane and rotor blade. The user must specify pressure, temperatures, and gas flows into the turbine. This program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on an IBM 3080 series computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 61K of 8 bit bytes. This program was developed in 1980.

  1. Methods for Ensuring High Quality of Coding of Cause of Death. The Mortality Register to Follow Southern Urals Populations Exposed to Radiation.

    PubMed

    Startsev, N; Dimov, P; Grosche, B; Tretyakov, F; Schüz, J; Akleyev, A

    2015-01-01

    To follow up populations exposed to several radiation accidents in the Southern Urals, a cause-of-death registry was established at the Urals Center capturing deaths in the Chelyabinsk, Kurgan and Sverdlovsk region since 1950. When registering deaths over such a long time period, quality measures need to be in place to maintain quality and reduce the impact of individual coders as well as quality changes in death certificates. To ensure the uniformity of coding, a method for semi-automatic coding was developed, which is described here. Briefly, the method is based on a dynamic thesaurus, database-supported coding and parallel coding by two different individuals. A comparison of the proposed method for organizing the coding process with the common procedure of coding showed good agreement, with, at the end of the coding process, 70  - 90% agreement for the three-digit ICD -9 rubrics. The semi-automatic method ensures a sufficiently high quality of coding by at the same time providing an opportunity to reduce the labor intensity inherent in the creation of large-volume cause-of-death registries.

  2. Cogeneration steam turbines from Siemens: New solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasilov, V. F.; Kholodkov, S. V.

    2017-03-01

    The Enhanced Platform system intended for the design and manufacture of Siemens AG turbines is presented. It combines organizational and production measures allowing the production of various types of steam-turbine units with a power of up to 250 MWel from standard components. The Enhanced Platform designs feature higher efficiency, improved reliability, better flexibility, longer overhaul intervals, and lower production costs. The design features of SST-700 and SST-900 steam turbines are outlined. The SST-700 turbine is used in backpressure steam-turbine units (STU) or as a high-pressure cylinder in a two-cylinder condensing turbine with steam reheat. The design of an SST-700 single-cylinder turbine with a casing without horizontal split featuring better flexibility of the turbine unit is presented. An SST-900 turbine can be used as a combined IP and LP cylinder (IPLPC) in steam-turbine or combined-cycle power units with steam reheat. The arrangements of a turbine unit based on a combination of SST-700 and SST-900 turbines or SST-500 and SST-800 turbines are presented. Examples of this combination include, respectively, PGU-410 combinedcycle units (CCU) with a condensing turbine and PGU-420 CCUs with a cogeneration turbine. The main equipment items of a PGU-410 CCU comprise an SGT5-4000F gas-turbine unit (GTU) and STU consisting of SST-700 and SST-900RH steam turbines. The steam-turbine section of a PGU-420 cogeneration power unit has a single-shaft turbine unit with two SST-800 turbines and one SST-500 turbine giving a power output of N el. STU = 150 MW under condensing conditions.

  3. Towers for Offshore Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurian, V. J.; Narayanan, S. P.; Ganapathy, C.

    2010-06-01

    Increasing energy demand coupled with pollution free production of energy has found a viable solution in wind energy. Land based windmills have been utilized for power generation for more than two thousand years. In modern times wind generated power has become popular in many countries. Offshore wind turbines are being used in a number of countries to tap the energy from wind over the oceans and convert to electric energy. The advantages of offshore wind turbines as compared to land are that offshore winds flow at higher speed than onshore winds and the more available space. In some land based settings, for better efficiency, turbines are separated as much as 10 rotor diameters from each other. In offshore applications where only two wind directions are likely to predominate, the distances between the turbines arranged in a line can be shortened to as little as two or four rotor diameters. Today, more than a dozen offshore European wind facilities with turbine ratings of 450 kw to 3.6 MW exist offshore in very shallow waters of 5 to 12 m. Compared to onshore wind turbines, offshore wind turbines are bigger and the tower height in offshore are in the range of 60 to 80 m. The water depths in oceans where offshore turbines can be located are within 30 m. However as the distance from land increases, the costs of building and maintaining the turbines and transmitting the power back to shore also increase sharply. The objective of this paper is to review the parameters of design for the maximum efficiency of offshore wind turbines and to develop types offshore towers to support the wind turbines. The methodology of design of offshore towers to support the wind turbine would be given and the environmental loads for the design of the towers would be calculated for specific cases. The marine corrosion on the towers and the methods to control the corrosion also would be briefly presented. As the wind speeds tend to increase with distance from the shore, turbines build father

  4. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Technical work on the design and effort leading to the testing of a 74.5 kW (100 hp) automotive gas turbine engine is reviewed. Development of the engine compressor, gasifier turbine, power turbine, combustor, regenerator, and secondary system is discussed. Ceramic materials development and the application of such materials in the gas turbine engine components is described.

  5. Wind Turbine Research Validation | Wind | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    Wind Turbine Research Validation Wind Turbine Research Validation Photo of a large wind turbine operators with turbine and component research validation that ensures performance and reliability. Prototype research is especially important to capture manufacturing flaws. The NWTC staff conducts research on

  6. Turbine Engine Hot Section Technology, 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The Turbine Engine Section Technology (HOST) Project Office of the Lewis Research Center sponsored a workshop to discuss current research pertinent to turbine engine hot section durability problems. Presentations were made concerning hot section environment and the behavior of combustion liners, turbine blades, and turbine vanes.

  7. Turbine and method for reducing shock losses in a turbine

    DOEpatents

    Ristau, Neil

    2015-09-01

    A turbine includes a rotor and a casing that circumferentially surrounds at least a portion of the rotor. The rotor and the casing at least partially define a gas path through the turbine. A last stage of rotating blades is circumferentially arranged around the rotor and includes a downstream swept portion radially outward from the rotor. A method for reducing shock losses in a turbine includes removing a last stage of rotating blades circumferentially arranged around a rotor and replacing the last stage of rotating blades with rotating blades having a downstream swept portion radially outward from the rotor.

  8. Two stage turbine for rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veres, Joseph P.

    1993-01-01

    The aerodynamic design and rig test evaluation of a small counter-rotating turbine system is described. The advanced turbine airfoils were designed and tested by Pratt & Whitney. The technology represented by this turbine is being developed for a turbopump to be used in an advanced upper stage rocket engine. The advanced engine will use a hydrogen expander cycle and achieve high performance through efficient combustion of hydrogen/oxygen propellants, high combustion pressure, and high area ratio exhaust nozzle expansion. Engine performance goals require that the turbopump drive turbines achieve high efficiency at low gas flow rates. The low mass flow rates and high operating pressures result in very small airfoil heights and diameters. The high efficiency and small size requirements present a challenging turbine design problem. The shrouded axial turbine blades are 50 percent reaction with a maximum thickness to chord ratio near 1. At 6 deg from the tangential direction, the nozzle and blade exit flow angles are well below the traditional design minimum limits. The blade turning angle of 160 deg also exceeds the maximum limits used in traditional turbine designs.

  9. A candidate for the Global Stratotype Section and Point at the base of the Serpukhovian in the South Urals, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, B. C.; Nikolaeva, S. V.; Kulagina, E. I.; Alekseev, A. S.; Gorozhanina, E. N.; Gorozhanin, V. M.; Konovalova, V. A.; Goreva, N. V.; Joachimski, M. M.; Gatovsky, Y. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Verkhnyaya Kardailovka section is one of the best candidates for the GSSP (Global Stratotype Section and Point) at the base of the Stage (Mississippian). For boundary definition, the first appearance of the conodont Lochriea ziegleri Nemirovskaya, Perret et Meischner, 1994 in the lineage Lochriea nodosa (Bischoff, 1957)- L. ziegleri is used. L. ziegleri appears in the Venevian Substage somewhat below the base of the Serpukhovian in the Moscow Basin. The position of the FAD of L. ziegleri within the Hypergoniatites- Ferganoceras Genozone is confirmed and lies between 19.53 and 19.63 m above the section's base. Before 2010, deep-water stylonodular limestone containing the boundary in unnamed formation C at Kardailovka was well exposed but only 3 m of Viséan strata cropped out immediately below. Recent trenching exposed another 10 m of underlying Viséan carbonates in formation C and older Viséan siliciclastics and volcanics in unnamed formation B. The contact between formation B and underlying crinoidal limestones in unnamed formation A representing the middle Viséan Zhukovian (Tulian) regional Substage was excavated. The boundary succession, situated in the Magnitogorsk tectonic zone above the Devonian Magnitogorsk arc and Mississippian magmatic and sedimentary rift succession, was deposited west of the Kazakhstanian continent during closure of the Ural Ocean. In the lower part of the section, Viséan tuffaceous siliciclastics and volcanics of formation B record rapid deepening after deposition of neritic middle Viséan crinoid lime grainstone of formation A and subsequent subaerial exposure. The overlying condensed upper Viséan to Serpukhovian succession in formation C comprises deep-water limestone deposited in a sediment-starved basin recording minor turbidite influx and carbonate-mound development. The δ13Ccarb plot shows a positive shift of 1‰ V-PDB (from +2 to +3‰) between 17.0 and 17.75 m (3.05 and 1.97 m below FAD L. ziegleri). The δ18Oapatite

  10. Invisible and microscopic gold in pyrite: Methods and new data for massive sulfide ores of the Urals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vikentyev, I. V.

    2015-07-01

    Au speciation in sulfides (including "invisible" Au), which mostly controls the loss of Au during ore dressing, is discussed. Modern methods of analysis of Au speciation, with discussion of limitations by locality and sensitivity, are reviewed. The results of sulfide investigation by the methods of scanning and transmission electron microscopy, mass spectrometric analysis with laser ablation (LA-ICP-MS), the thermochemical method (study of ionic Au speciation), and automated "quantitative mineralogy," are demonstrated for weakly metamorphosed VHMS deposits of the Urals (Galkinsk and Uchaly). Significant content of Au is scattered in sulfides, such as pyrite, chalcopyrite, and sphalerite, with quantitative predomination of pyrite. The portion of such "invisible" gold ranges from <10% (Galkinsk deposit) to 85% (Uchaly deposit). Major part of "invisible" gold occurs as micron- to nanoscale particles of Au minerals. The portion of gold structurally bound in pyrite lattice (from the bulk concentration of Au in pyrite) is estimated to be from few % (the Galkinsk deposit) to 20-25% (the Uchaly deposit). The presence of As and Sb in pyrite and sphalerite, as well as other trace elements (Te, Co, Mn, Cu, Hg, and Ag in both as well as Fe in sphalerite) stimulates the incorporation of Au in sulfide, but mostly in defect-associated, not isomorphic form. Micron particles of Ag sulfosalts (pyrargyrite, freibergite, stephanite, polybasite, pyrostilpnite, argentotetrahedrite, pearceite, proustite), Au-Ag alloys (from gold of high fineness to küstelite), Ag and Au-Ag tellurides (hessite, empressite, calaverite), and occasional Au-Ag sulfides (petrovskaite, uytenbogaardtite) were registered in the areas of Au enrichment of both deposits; selenotelluride (kurilite) particles were found on the Galkinsk deposit. Nanoscale (1-50 nm) native gold (spherical and disk-shaped particles, flakes) with a monocrystal diffraction pattern of some particles and a ring diffraction pattern of other

  11. Nitrogen fixation activity in biological soil crusts dominated by cyanobacteria in the Subpolar Urals (European North-East Russia).

    PubMed

    Patova, Elena; Sivkov, Michail; Patova, Anna

    2016-09-01

    The nitrogen fixation by biological soil crusts with a dominance of cyanobacteria was studied using the acetylene reduction assay in the territory of the Subpolar Urals (65°11' N, 60°18' E), Russia. The field measurements of nitrogen fixation activity were conducted in situ for two different types of soil crusts dominated by Stigonema (V1 type) and Nostoc with Scytonema (V2 type). The nitrogen fixation process had similar dynamics in both crusts but nitrogen fixation rates were different. The crusts of the V2 type showed a significantly higher acetylene reduction activity, with ethylene production rate of 1.76 ± 0.49 g C2H4 m(-2) h(-1) at 15°C, compared with V1-type soil crusts, with a rate of 0.53 ± 0.21 mg C2H4 m(-2) h(-1) at 15°C. The daily value of acetylene reduction activity in V2-type soil crusts was 32.7 ± 6.2 mg C2H4 m(-2) d(-1) and in V1-type crusts, 12.3 ± 1.8 mg C2H4 m(-2) d(-1) After recalculation for N, the daily values of nitrogen fixation were in the range 3.3-22.3 mg N m(-2) d(-1), which is a few times higher than the values of N input from the precipitation to the soil in the studied regions. The dependence of nitrogen-fixation activity on temperature and light intensity of biological soil crusts was investigated. On the basis of temperature models obtained from the dependence, the nitrogen balance was calculated for the growing season (approximately 120 days). The crusts dominated by Stigonema species were fixing 0.3 g N m(-2) (ethylene production rate, 1.10 g C2H4 m(-2)) and crusts dominated by Nostoc and Scytonema were fixing 1.3 g N m(-2) (4.10 g C2H4 m(-2)). © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. ON THE PROBLEM OF CORRECTING TWISTED TURBINE BLADES,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    TURBINE BLADES , DESIGN), GAS TURBINES , STEAM TURBINES , BLADE AIRFOILS , ASPECT RATIO, FLUID DYNAMICS, SECONDARY FLOW, ANGLE OF ATTACK, INLET GUIDE VANES , CORRECTIONS, PERFORMANCE( ENGINEERING ), OPTIMIZATION, USSR

  13. Turbine blade tip durability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcknight, R. L.; Laflen, J. H.; Spamer, G. T.

    1981-01-01

    An air-cooled turbine blade from an aircraft gas turbine engine chosen for its history of cracking was subjected to advanced analytical and life-prediction techniques. The utility of advanced structural analysis techniques and advanced life-prediction techniques in the life assessment of hot section components are verified. Three dimensional heat transfer and stress analyses were applied to the turbine blade mission cycle and the results were input into advanced life-prediction theories. Shortcut analytical techniques were developed. The proposed life-prediction theories are evaluated.

  14. 11. Power room, view of Westinghouse steam turbine: turbine RPM6,000, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Power room, view of Westinghouse steam turbine: turbine RPM-6,000, governor RPM-1017, turbine number 8695, manufactured by Westinghouse Electric Manufacturing company, East Pittsburg, Pennsylvania - Norfolk Manufacturing Company Cotton Mill, 90 Milton Street, Dedham, Norfolk County, MA

  15. Mechanical power efficiency of modified turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmud, Syahir; Sampebatu, Limbran; Kwang, Suendy Ciayadi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract-The problem of energy crisis has become one of the unsolved issues until today. Indonesia has a lot of non-conventional energy sources that does not utilized effectively yet. For that the available resources must utilized efficiently due to the energy crisis and the growing energy needs. Among the abundant resources of energy, one potential source of energy is hydroelectric energy. This research compares the mechanical power efficiency generated by the Darrieus turbine, Savonius turbine and the Darrieus-Savonius turbine. The comparation of the mechanical power amongst the three turbine starts from the measurement of the water flow rate, water temperature, turbine rotation and force on the shaft on each type of turbine. The comparison will show the mechanical power efficiency of each turbine to find the most efficient turbine that can work optimally. The results show that with 0.637m/s flow velocity and 44.827 Watt of water flow power, the Darrieus-Savonius turbine can generate power equal to 29.927 Watt and shaft force around by 17 N. The Darrieus-Savonius turbine provides around 66.76% efficiency betwen the three turbines; Darrieus turbine, Savonius turbine and the Darrieus-Savonius turbine. Overall, the Darrieus Savonius turbine has the ability to work optimally at the research location.

  16. Pump for spawning channels includes a turbine and motor. Turbine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pump for spawning channels includes a turbine and motor. Turbine is Berkeley H-17500, model 8C2PH, Serial No. 2889, B.M. No. 4886 - Berkeley Pump Co. The Motor is G.E. Induction Motor, model 5K4256XA3YI, serial no. GAJ728337, Tri-Clad. View looking northeast. - Prairie Creek Fish Hatchery, Hwy. 101, Orick, Humboldt County, CA

  17. Turbine blade cooling

    DOEpatents

    Staub, F.W.; Willett, F.T.

    1999-07-20

    A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number. 13 figs.

  18. Wind turbine rotor aileron

    DOEpatents

    Coleman, Clint; Kurth, William T.

    1994-06-14

    A wind turbine has a rotor with at least one blade which has an aileron which is adjusted by an actuator. A hinge has two portions, one for mounting a stationary hinge arm to the blade, the other for coupling to the aileron actuator. Several types of hinges can be used, along with different actuators. The aileron is designed so that it has a constant chord with a number of identical sub-assemblies. The leading edge of the aileron has at least one curved portion so that the aileron does not vent over a certain range of angles, but vents if the position is outside the range. A cyclic actuator can be mounted to the aileron to adjust the position periodically. Generally, the aileron will be adjusted over a range related to the rotational position of the blade. A method for operating the cyclic assembly is also described.

  19. Turbine blade cooling

    DOEpatents

    Staub, Fred Wolf; Willett, Fred Thomas

    1999-07-20

    A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number.

  20. Turbine blade cooling

    DOEpatents

    Staub, Fred Wolf; Willett, Fred Thomas

    2000-01-01

    A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number.

  1. Sprayed skin turbine component

    DOEpatents

    Allen, David B

    2013-06-04

    Fabricating a turbine component (50) by casting a core structure (30), forming an array of pits (24) in an outer surface (32) of the core structure, depositing a transient liquid phase (TLP) material (40) on the outer surface of the core structure, the TLP containing a melting-point depressant, depositing a skin (42) on the outer surface of the core structure over the TLP material, and heating the assembly, thus forming both a diffusion bond and a mechanical interlock between the skin and the core structure. The heating diffuses the melting-point depressant away from the interface. Subsurface cooling channels (35) may be formed by forming grooves (34) in the outer surface of the core structure, filling the grooves with a fugitive filler (36), depositing and bonding the skin (42), then removing the fugitive material.

  2. Gas turbine combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burd, Steven W. (Inventor); Cheung, Albert K. (Inventor); Dempsey, Dae K. (Inventor); Hoke, James B. (Inventor); Kramer, Stephen K. (Inventor); Ols, John T. (Inventor); Smith, Reid Dyer Curtis (Inventor); Sowa, William A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A gas turbine engine has a combustor module including an annular combustor having a liner assembly that defines an annular combustion chamber having a length, L. The liner assembly includes a radially inner liner, a radially outer liner that circumscribes the inner liner, and a bulkhead, having a height, H1, which extends between the respective forward ends of the inner liner and the outer liner. The combustor has an exit height, H3, at the respective aft ends of the inner liner and the outer liner interior. The annular combustor has a ratio H1/H3 having a value less than or equal to 1.7. The annular combustor may also have a ration L/H3 having a value less than or equal to 6.0.

  3. Multiple piece turbine blade

    DOEpatents

    Kimmel, Keith D [Jupiter, FL

    2012-05-29

    A turbine rotor blade with a spar and shell construction, the spar including an internal cooling supply channel extending from an inlet end on a root section and ending near the tip end, and a plurality of external cooling channels formed on both side of the spar, where a middle external cooling channel is connected to the internal cooling supply channels through a row of holes located at a middle section of the channels. The spar and the shell are held together by hooks that define serpentine flow passages for the cooling air and include an upper serpentine flow circuit and a lower serpentine flow circuit. the serpentine flow circuits all discharge into a leading edge passage or a trailing edge passage.

  4. Integrated Turbine Tip Clearance and Gas Turbine Engine Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, Jeffryes W.; Kratz, Jonathan; Guo, Ten-Huei; Litt, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Gas turbine compressor and turbine blade tip clearance (i.e., the radial distance between the blade tip of an axial compressor or turbine and the containment structure) is a major contributing factor to gas path sealing, and can significantly affect engine efficiency and operational temperature. This paper details the creation of a generic but realistic high pressure turbine tip clearance model that may be used to facilitate active tip clearance control system research. This model uses a first principles approach to approximate thermal and mechanical deformations of the turbine system, taking into account the rotor, shroud, and blade tip components. Validation of the tip clearance model shows that the results are realistic and reflect values found in literature. In addition, this model has been integrated with a gas turbine engine simulation, creating a platform to explore engine performance as tip clearance is adjusted. Results from the integrated model explore the effects of tip clearance on engine operation and highlight advantages of tip clearance management.

  5. PREDICTING TURBINE STAGE PERFORMANCE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    This program was developed to predict turbine stage performance taking into account the effects of complex passage geometries. The method uses a quasi-3D inviscid-flow analysis iteratively coupled to calculated losses so that changes in losses result in changes in the flow distribution. In this manner the effects of both the geometry on the flow distribution and the flow distribution on losses are accounted for. The flow may be subsonic or shock-free transonic. The blade row may be fixed or rotating, and the blades may be twisted and leaned. This program has been applied to axial and radial turbines, and is helpful in the analysis of mixed flow machines. This program is a combination of the flow analysis programs MERIDL and TSONIC coupled to the boundary layer program BLAYER. The subsonic flow solution is obtained by a finite difference, stream function analysis. Transonic blade-to-blade solutions are obtained using information from the finite difference, stream function solution with a reduced flow factor. Upstream and downstream flow variables may vary from hub to shroud and provision is made to correct for loss of stagnation pressure. Boundary layer analyses are made to determine profile and end-wall friction losses. Empirical loss models are used to account for incidence, secondary flow, disc windage, and clearance losses. The total losses are then used to calculate stator, rotor, and stage efficiency. This program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on an IBM 370/3033 under TSS with a central memory requirement of approximately 4.5 Megs of 8 bit bytes. This program was developed in 1985.

  6. Gas Turbine Engine Having Fan Rotor Driven by Turbine Exhaust and with a Bypass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suciu, Gabriel L. (Inventor); Chandler, Jesse M. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A gas turbine engine has a core engine incorporating a core engine turbine. A fan rotor is driven by a fan rotor turbine. The fan rotor turbine is in the path of gases downstream from the core engine turbine. A bypass door is moveable from a closed position at which the gases from the core engine turbine pass over the fan rotor turbine, and moveable to a bypass position at which the gases are directed away from the fan rotor turbine. An aircraft is also disclosed.

  7. Improved automobile gas turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kofskey, M. G.; Katsanis, T.; Roelke, R. J.; Mclallin, K. L.; Wong, R. Y.; Schumann, L. F.; Galvas, M. R.

    1976-01-01

    Upgraded engine delivers 100 hp in 3500 lb vehicle. Improved fuel economy is due to combined effects of reduced weight, reduced power-to-weight ratio, increased turbine inlet pressure, and improved component efficiencies at part power.

  8. Turbine Performance Optimization Task Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Lisa W.; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Capability to optimize for turbine performance and accurately predict unsteady loads will allow for increased reliability, Isp, and thrust-to-weight. The development of a fast, accurate aerodynamic design, analysis, and optimization system is required.

  9. High-efficiency wind turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hein, L. A.; Myers, W. N.

    1980-01-01

    Vertical axis wind turbine incorporates several unique features to extract more energy from wind increasing efficiency 20% over conventional propeller driven units. System also features devices that utilize solar energy or chimney effluents during periods of no wind.

  10. Kshara application for turbinate hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Kotrannavar, Vijay Kumar S.; Angadi, Savita S.

    2013-01-01

    Nasapratinaha (nasal obstruction) is a commonly encountered disease in clinical practice. It is one of the nasal disorders, explained in Ayurveda, having nasal obstruction leading to difficulty in breathing as the main cardinal feature. In contemporary science, this condition can be correlated with various diseases such as turbinate hypertrophy, deviated nasal septum, nasal mass, mucosal congestion, allergic rhinitis, and others; among which turbinate hypertrophy is a common cause. Turbinate hypertrophy can be treated with surgical and medical methods. The medical treatment has limitation for prolonged use because of health purpose, surgical approaches too have failed to achieve desired results in turbinate hypertrophy due to complications and high recurrence rate. The medical and surgical managements have their own limitations, merits, and demerits like synechiae formation, rhinitis sicca, severe bleeding, or osteonecrosis of the turbinate bone A parasurgical treatment explained in Ayurveda, known as kshara pratisarana, which is a minimal invasive and precise procedure for this ailment, tried to overcome this problem. ‘Kshara Karma’ is a popular treatment modality in Ayurveda, which has been advocated in disorders of nose like arbuda (tumor) and adhimamsa (muscular growth). Clinical observation has shown its effectiveness in the management of turbinate hypertrophy. A case report of 45-year-old male who presented with complaints of frequent nasal obstruction, nasal discharge, discomfort in nose, and headache; and diagnosed as turbinate hypertrophy has been presented here. The patient was treated with one application of Kshara over the turbinates. The treatment was effective and no recurrence was noticed in the follow up. PMID:24459392

  11. Boiler-turbine life extension

    SciTech Connect

    Natzkov, S.; Nikolov, M.

    1995-12-01

    The design life of the main power equipment-boilers and turbines is about 105 working hours. The possibilities for life extension are after normatively regulated control tests. The diagnostics and methodology for Boilers and Turbines Elements Remaining Life Assessment using up to date computer programs, destructive and nondestructive control of metal of key elements of units equipment, metal creep and low cycle fatigue calculations. As well as data for most common damages and some technical decisions for elements life extension are presented.

  12. High temperature turbine engine structure

    DOEpatents

    Carruthers, William D.; Boyd, Gary L.

    1994-01-01

    A high temperature ceramic/metallic turbine engine includes a metallic housing which journals a rotor member of the turbine engine. A ceramic disk-like shroud portion of the engine is supported on the metallic housing portion and maintains a close running clearance with the rotor member. A ceramic spacer assembly maintains the close running clearance of the shroud portion and rotor member despite differential thermal movements between the shroud portion and metallic housing portion.

  13. High temperature turbine engine structure

    DOEpatents

    Carruthers, William D.; Boyd, Gary L.

    1992-01-01

    A high temperature ceramic/metallic turbine engine includes a metallic housing which journals a rotor member of the turbine engine. A ceramic disk-like shroud portion of the engine is supported on the metallic housing portion and maintains a close running clearance with the rotor member. A ceramic spacer assembly maintains the close running clearance of the shroud portion and rotor member despite differential thermal movements between the shroud portion and metallic housing portion.

  14. High temperature turbine engine structure

    DOEpatents

    Carruthers, William D.; Boyd, Gary L.

    1993-01-01

    A high temperature ceramic/metallic turbine engine includes a metallic housing which journals a rotor member of the turbine engine. A ceramic disk-like shroud portion of the engine is supported on the metallic housing portion and maintains a close running clearance with the rotor member. A ceramic spacer assembly maintains the close running clearance of the shroud portion and rotor member despite differential thermal movements between the shroud portion and metallic housing portion.

  15. Rim seal for turbine wheel

    DOEpatents

    Glezer, Boris; Boyd, Gary L.; Norton, Paul F.

    1996-01-01

    A turbine wheel assembly includes a disk having a plurality of blades therearound. A ceramic ring is mounted to the housing of the turbine wheel assembly. A labyrinth rim seal mounted on the disk cooperates with the ceramic ring to seal the hot gases acting on the blades from the disk. The ceramic ring permits a tighter clearance between the labyrinth rim seal and the ceramic ring.

  16. CFD analysis of a Darrieus wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niculescu, M. L.; Cojocaru, M. G.; Pricop, M. V.; Pepelea, D.; Dumitrache, A.; Crunteanu, D. E.

    2017-07-01

    The Darrieus wind turbine has some advantages over the horizontal-axis wind turbine. Firstly, its tip speed ratio is lower than that of the horizontal-axis wind turbine and, therefore, its noise is smaller, privileging their placement near populated areas. Secondly, the Darrieus wind turbine does needs no orientation mechanism with respect to wind direction in contrast to the horizontal-axis wind turbine. However, the efficiency of the Darrieus wind turbine is lower than that of the horizontal-axis wind turbine since its aerodynamics is much more complex. With the advances in computational fluids and computers, it is possible to simulate the Darrieus wind turbine more accurately to understand better its aerodynamics. For these reasons, the present papers deals with the computational aerodynamics of a Darrieus wind turbine applying the state of the art of CFD methods (anisotropic turbulence models, transition from laminar to turbulent, scale adaptive simulation) to better understand its unsteady behavior.

  17. Variable Pitch Darrieus Water Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirke, Brian; Lazauskas, Leo

    In recent years the Darrieus wind turbine concept has been adapted for use in water, either as a hydrokinetic turbine converting the kinetic energy of a moving fluid in open flow like an underwater wind turbine, or in a low head or ducted arrangement where flow is confined, streamtube expansion is controlled and efficiency is not subject to the Betz limit. Conventional fixed pitch Darrieus turbines suffer from two drawbacks, (i) low starting torque and (ii) shaking due to cyclical variations in blade angle of attack. Ventilation and cavitation can also cause problems in water turbines when blade velocities are high. Shaking can be largely overcome by the use of helical blades, but these do not produce large starting torque. Variable pitch can produce high starting torque and high efficiency, and by suitable choice of pitch regime, shaking can be minimized but not entirely eliminated. Ventilation can be prevented by avoiding operation close to a free surface, and cavitation can be prevented by limiting blade velocities. This paper summarizes recent developments in Darrieus water turbines, some problems and some possible solutions.

  18. ABB's advanced steam turbine program

    SciTech Connect

    Chellini, R.

    Demand for industrial steam turbines for combined-cycle applications and cogeneration plants has influenced turbine manufacturers to standardize their machines to reduce delivery time and cost. ABB, also a supplier of turnkey plants, manufactures steam turbines in Finspong, Sweden, at the former ASEA Stal facilities and in Nuernberg, Germany, at the former AEG facilities. The companies have joined forces, setting up the advanced Steam Turbine Program (ATP) that, once completed, will cover a power range from two to 100 MW. The company decided to use two criteria as a starting point, the high efficiency design of the Swedish turbines and themore » high reliability of the German machines. Thus, the main task was combining the two designs in standard machines that could be assembled quickly into predefined packages to meet specific needs of combined-cycle and cogeneration plants specified by customers. In carrying out this project, emphasis was put on cost reduction as one of the main goals. The first results of the ATP program, presented by ABB Turbinen Nuernberg, is the range of 2-30 MW turbines covered by two frame sizes comprising standard components supporting the thermodynamic module. An important feature is the standardization of the speed reduction gearbox.« less

  19. Collecting Currents with Water Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, J.; Allen, S.

    2017-12-01

    Our science poster is inspired by Florida Atlantic University's recent program to develop three types of renewable energy. They are using water turbines and the Gulf Stream Current to produce a renewable energy source. Wave, tidal and current driven energy. Our poster is called "Collecting Currents with Water Turbines". In our science poster, the purpose was to see which turbine design could produce the most power. We tested three different variables, the number of blades (four, six, and eight), the material of the blades and the shape of the blades. To test which number of blades produced the most power we cut slits into a cork. We used plastic from a soda bottle to make the blades and then we put the blades in the cork to make the turbines. We observed each blade and how much time it took for the water turbines to pull up 5 pennies. Currently water turbines are used in dams to make hydroelectric energy. But with FAU we could understand how to harness the Gulf Stream current off Florida's coast we could soon have new forms of renewable energy.

  20. MOD-2 wind turbine farm stability study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinrichsen, E. N.

    1980-01-01

    The dynamics of single and multiple 2.5 ME, Boeing MOD-2 wind turbine generators (WTGs) connected to utility power systems were investigated. The analysis was based on digital simulation. Both time response and frequency response methods were used. The dynamics of this type of WTG are characterized by two torsional modes, a low frequency 'shaft' mode below 1 Hz and an 'electrical' mode at 3-5 Hz. High turbine inertia and low torsional stiffness between turbine and generator are inherent features. Turbine control is based on electrical power, not turbine speed as in conventional utility turbine generators. Multi-machine dynamics differ very little from single machine dynamics.

  1. Wind turbines and human health.

    PubMed

    Knopper, Loren D; Ollson, Christopher A; McCallum, Lindsay C; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L; Berger, Robert G; Souweine, Kathleen; McDaniel, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The association between wind turbines and health effects is highly debated. Some argue that reported health effects are related to wind turbine operation [electromagnetic fields (EMF), shadow flicker, audible noise, low-frequency noise, infrasound]. Others suggest that when turbines are sited correctly, effects are more likely attributable to a number of subjective variables that result in an annoyed/stressed state. In this review, we provide a bibliographic-like summary and analysis of the science around this issue specifically in terms of noise (including audible, low-frequency noise, and infrasound), EMF, and shadow flicker. Now there are roughly 60 scientific peer-reviewed articles on this issue. The available scientific evidence suggests that EMF, shadow flicker, low-frequency noise, and infrasound from wind turbines are not likely to affect human health; some studies have found that audible noise from wind turbines can be annoying to some. Annoyance may be associated with some self-reported health effects (e.g., sleep disturbance) especially at sound pressure levels >40 dB(A). Because environmental noise above certain levels is a recognized factor in a number of health issues, siting restrictions have been implemented in many jurisdictions to limit noise exposure. These setbacks should help alleviate annoyance from noise. Subjective variables (attitudes and expectations) are also linked to annoyance and have the potential to facilitate other health complaints via the nocebo effect. Therefore, it is possible that a segment of the population may remain annoyed (or report other health impacts) even when noise limits are enforced. Based on the findings and scientific merit of the available studies, the weight of evidence suggests that when sited properly, wind turbines are not related to adverse health. Stemming from this review, we provide a number of recommended best practices for wind turbine development in the context of human health.

  2. Wind Turbines and Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Knopper, Loren D.; Ollson, Christopher A.; McCallum, Lindsay C.; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L.; Berger, Robert G.; Souweine, Kathleen; McDaniel, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The association between wind turbines and health effects is highly debated. Some argue that reported health effects are related to wind turbine operation [electromagnetic fields (EMF), shadow flicker, audible noise, low-frequency noise, infrasound]. Others suggest that when turbines are sited correctly, effects are more likely attributable to a number of subjective variables that result in an annoyed/stressed state. In this review, we provide a bibliographic-like summary and analysis of the science around this issue specifically in terms of noise (including audible, low-frequency noise, and infrasound), EMF, and shadow flicker. Now there are roughly 60 scientific peer-reviewed articles on this issue. The available scientific evidence suggests that EMF, shadow flicker, low-frequency noise, and infrasound from wind turbines are not likely to affect human health; some studies have found that audible noise from wind turbines can be annoying to some. Annoyance may be associated with some self-reported health effects (e.g., sleep disturbance) especially at sound pressure levels >40 dB(A). Because environmental noise above certain levels is a recognized factor in a number of health issues, siting restrictions have been implemented in many jurisdictions to limit noise exposure. These setbacks should help alleviate annoyance from noise. Subjective variables (attitudes and expectations) are also linked to annoyance and have the potential to facilitate other health complaints via the nocebo effect. Therefore, it is possible that a segment of the population may remain annoyed (or report other health impacts) even when noise limits are enforced. Based on the findings and scientific merit of the available studies, the weight of evidence suggests that when sited properly, wind turbines are not related to adverse health. Stemming from this review, we provide a number of recommended best practices for wind turbine development in the context of human health. PMID:24995266

  3. Comparative analysis of the roles of Ixodes persulcatus and I. trianguliceps ticks in natural foci of ixodid tick-borne borrelioses in the Middle Urals, Russia.

    PubMed

    Korenberg, Edward I; Kovalevskii, Yurii V; Gorelova, Natalya B; Nefedova, Valentina V

    2015-04-01

    Long-term studies on natural foci of ixodid tick-borne borrelioses (ITBB) have been performed in Chusovskoi district of Perm region, the Middle Urals, where the vectors of these infections are represented by two ixodid tick species: the taiga tick Ixodes persulcatus and many times less abundant vole tick I. trianguliceps. Over 10 years, more than 6000 half-engorged ticks were collected from small forest mammals using the standard procedure, and 1027 I. persulcatus and 1142 I. trianguliceps ticks, individually or in pools, were used to inoculate BSK-2 medium. As a result, 199 Borrelia isolates were obtained. Among them, 177 isolates were identified, and the rrf(5S)-rrl(23S) intergenic spacer sequence was determined in 57 isolates. The prevalence of Borrelia infection in I. persulcatus larvae and nymphs averaged 31.0 and 53.3%, while that in I. trianguliceps larvae, nymphs, and adult ticks was five to ten times lower: 2.6, 10.2, and 8.1%, respectively. Each of the two tick species was found to carry both ITBB agents circulating in the Middle Ural foci (Borrelia garinii and B. afzelii), but the set of genogroups and genovariants of these spirochetes in I. trianguliceps proved to be far less diverse. According to the available data, this tick, compared to I. persulcatus, is generally less susceptible to Borrelia infection (especially by B. afzelii). Taking into account of its relatively low abundance, it appears that I. trianguliceps cannot seriously influence the course of epizootic process in ITBB foci of the study region, whereas highly abundant I. persulcatus with the high level of Borrelia infection is obviously a key component of these parasitic systems. A similar situation may well be typical for the entire geographic range shared by the two tick species. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  4. Treeline advances and associated shifts in the ground vegetation alter fine root dynamics and mycelia production in the South and Polar Urals.

    PubMed

    Solly, Emily F; Djukic, Ika; Moiseev, Pavel A; Andreyashkina, Nelly I; Devi, Nadezhda M; Göransson, Hans; Mazepa, Valeriy S; Shiyatov, Stepan G; Trubina, Marina R; Schweingruber, Fritz H; Wilmking, Martin; Hagedorn, Frank

    2017-02-01

    Climate warming is shifting the elevational boundary between forests and tundra upwards, but the related belowground responses are poorly understood. In the pristine South and Polar Urals with shifts of the treeline ecotone documented by historical photographs, we investigated fine root dynamics and production of extramatrical mycorrhizal mycelia (EMM) along four elevational transects reaching from the closed forest to the treeless tundra. In addition, we analysed elevational differences in climate and vegetation structure, and excavated trees to estimate related changes in the partitioning between below- and aboveground biomass. Fine root biomass of trees (<2 mm) increased by 13-79% with elevation, paralleled by a 35-72% increase in ground vegetation fine roots from the closed forest to the tundra. During the first year of decomposition, mass loss of fine root litter from different vegetation types was greater at lower elevations in the forest-tundra ecotone. The ratio between fine roots of trees and stem biomass largely increased with elevation in both regions, but these increases were not accompanied by a distinct production of EMM. Production of EMM, however, increased with the presence of ectomycorrhizal trees at the transition from the tundra to the forest. Our results imply that the recorded upward expansion of forest into former tundra in the Ural Mountains by 4-8 m per decade is decreasing the partitioning of plant biomass to fine roots. They further suggest that climate-driven forest advances will alter EMM production rates with potential feedbacks on soil carbon and nutrient cycling in these ecosystems.

  5. Sub-fossil beetle assemblages associated with the "mammoth fauna" in the Late Pleistocene localities of the Ural Mountains and West Siberia.

    PubMed

    Zinovyev, Evgeniy

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of beetles at the end of the Middle Pleninglacial (=terminal Quaternary) was examined based on sub-fossil material from the Ural Mountains and Western Siberia, Russia. All relevant localities of fossil insects have similar radiocarbon dates, ranging between 33,000 and 22,000 C14 years ago. Being situated across the vast territory from the southern Ural Mountains in the South to the middle Yamal Peninsula in the North, they allow latitudinal changes in beetle assemblages of that time to be traced. These beetles lived simultaneously with mammals of the so-called "mammoth fauna" with mammoth, bison, and wooly rhinoceros, the often co-occurring mega-mammalian bones at some of the sites being evidence of this. The beetle assemblages found between 59° and 57°N appear to be the most interesting. Their bulk is referred to as a "mixed" type, one which includes a characteristic combination of arcto-boreal, boreal, steppe and polyzonal species showing no analogues among recent insect complexes. These peculiar faunas seem to have represented a particular zonal type, which disappeared since the end of the Last Glaciation to arrive here with the extinction of the mammoth biota. In contrast, on the sites lying north of 60°N, the beetle communities were similar to modern sub-arctic and arctic faunas, yet with the participation of some sub-boreal steppe components, such as Poecilus ravus Lutshnik and Carabus sibiricus Fischer-Waldheim. This information, when compared with our knowledge of synchronous insect faunas from other regions of northern Eurasia, suggests that the former distribution of beetles in this region could be accounted for both by palaeo-environmental conditions and the impact of grazing by large ruminant mammals across the so-called "mammoth savannas".

  6. Hybrid Turbine Electric Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    Hybrid electric power trains may revolutionize today's ground passenger vehicles by significantly improving fuel economy and decreasing emissions. The NASA Lewis Research Center is working with industry, universities, and Government to develop and demonstrate a hybrid electric vehicle. Our partners include Bowling Green State University, the Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, Lincoln Electric Motor Division, the State of Ohio's Department of Development, and Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. The vehicle will be a heavy class urban transit bus offering double the fuel economy of today's buses and emissions that are reduced to 1/10th of the Environmental Protection Agency's standards. At the heart of the vehicle's drive train is a natural-gas-fueled engine. Initially, a small automotive engine will be tested as a baseline. This will be followed by the introduction of an advanced gas turbine developed from an aircraft jet engine. The engine turns a high-speed generator, producing electricity. Power from both the generator and an onboard energy storage system is then provided to a variable-speed electric motor attached to the rear drive axle. An intelligent power-control system determines the most efficient operation of the engine and energy storage system.

  7. Airfoils for wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Tangler, James L.; Somers, Dan M.

    2000-01-01

    Airfoils for the tip and mid-span regions of a wind turbine blade have upper surface and lower surface shapes and contours between a leading edge and a trailing edge that minimize roughness effects of the airfoil and provide maximum lift coefficients that are largely insensitive to roughness effects. The airfoil in one embodiment is shaped and contoured to have a thickness in a range of about fourteen to seventeen percent, a Reynolds number in a range of about 1,500,000 to 2,000,000, and a maximum lift coefficient in a range of about 1.4 to 1.5. In another embodiment, the airfoil is shaped and contoured to have a thickness in a range of about fourteen percent to sixteen percent, a Reynolds number in a range of about 1,500,000 to 3,000,000, and a maximum lift coefficient in a range of about 0.7 to 1.5. Another embodiment of the airfoil is shaped and contoured to have a Reynolds in a range of about 1,500,000 to 4,000,000, and a maximum lift coefficient in a range of about 1.0 to 1.5.

  8. Turbines in the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, F. G. W.; Charlier, R. H.

    1981-10-01

    It is noted that the relatively high-speed ocean currents flowing northward along the east coast of the U.S. may be able to supply a significant proportion of the future electric power requirements of urban areas. The Gulf Stream core lies only about 20 miles east of Miami; here its near-surface water reaches velocities of 4.3 miles per hour. Attention is called to the estimate that the energy available in the current of the Gulf Stream adjacent to Florida is approximately equivalent to that generated by 25 1,000-megawatt power plants. It is also contended that this power could be produced at competitive prices during the 1980s using large turbines moored below the ocean surface near the center of the Stream. Assuming an average ocean-current speed between 4 and 5 knots at the current core, the power density of a hydroturbine could reach 410 watts per square foot, about 100 times that of a wind-driven device of similar scale operating in an airflow of approximately 11 knots.

  9. Cooling of Gas Turbines. 6 - Computed Temperature Distribution through Cross Section of Water-Cooled Turbine Blade

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1947-05-01

    AERONAUTICS Figure 7. - Cross section of water-cooleä turbine blade showing location and size of seven coolant...Power Plants.~ Jet and~ Turbine ($) [SECTION. Turbines (I3) [CROSS DEFERENCES. Turbine blades - Thermal measurements (95350); Turbine blades ...section of water-cooled turbine blade FORG’N. TITLE: v.. ’V, ORIGINATING AGENCY. TRANSLATION. National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics

  10. Miniature cryogenic expansion turbines - A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sixsmith, H.

    Lord Rayleigh (1898) has first suggested the use of a turbine instead of a piston expander for the liquification of air. The development of expansion turbines is discussed, taking into account the first successful commercial application for cryogenic expansion turbines in Germany, Kapitza's turbine, work on much smaller turbines conducted in England, the development of a helium expansion turbine at the National Bureau of Standards, the development of small turboexpanders in Switzerland, the development of gas bearing expansion turbines, and the development of a small turboexpander similar to designs developed at the National Bureau of Standards. The reliability of cryogenic expansion turbines is discussed. It is found that applications for helium refrigerators and the demand for them would greatly increase if the reliability of these devices could be improved. Such a development would be crucial for the adoption of superconducting machinery by industry.

  11. A reference Pelton turbine design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solemslie, B. W.; Dahlhaug, O. G.

    2012-09-01

    The designs of hydraulic turbines are usually close kept corporation secrets. Therefore, the possibility of innovation and co-operation between different academic institutions regarding a specific turbine geometry is difficult. A Ph.D.-project at the Waterpower Laboratory, NTNU, aim to design several model Pelton turbines where all measurements, simulations, the design strategy, design software in addition to the physical model will be available to the public. In the following paper a short description of the methods and the test rig that are to be utilized in the project are described. The design will be based on empirical data and NURBS will be used as the descriptive method for the turbine geometry. In addition CFX and SPH simulations will be included in the design process. Each turbine designed and produced in connection to this project will be based on the experience and knowledge gained from the previous designs. The first design will be based on the philosophy to keep a near constant relative velocity through the bucket.

  12. Foundations for offshore wind turbines.

    PubMed

    Byrne, B W; Houlsby, G T

    2003-12-15

    An important engineering challenge of today, and a vital one for the future, is to develop and harvest alternative sources of energy. This is a firm priority in the UK, with the government setting a target of 10% of electricity from renewable sources by 2010. A component central to this commitment will be to harvest electrical power from the vast energy reserves offshore, through wind turbines or current or wave power generators. The most mature of these technologies is that of wind, as much technology transfer can be gained from onshore experience. Onshore wind farms, although supplying 'green energy', tend to provoke some objections on aesthetic grounds. These objections can be countered by locating the turbines offshore, where it will also be possible to install larger capacity turbines, thus maximizing the potential of each wind farm location. This paper explores some civil-engineering problems encountered for offshore wind turbines. A critical component is the connection of the structure to the ground, and in particular how the load applied to the structure is transferred safely to the surrounding soil. We review previous work on the design of offshore foundations, and then present some simple design calculations for sizing foundations and structures appropriate to the wind-turbine problem. We examine the deficiencies in the current design approaches, and the research currently under way to overcome these deficiencies. Designs must be improved so that these alternative energy sources can compete economically with traditional energy suppliers.

  13. Optimization of Turbine Rim Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, J. H.; Tew, D. E.; Stetson, G. M.; Sabnis, J. S.

    2006-01-01

    Experiments are being conducted to gain an understanding of the physics of rim scale cavity ingestion in a turbine stage with the high-work, single-stage characteristics envisioned for Advanced Subsonic Transport (AST) aircraft gas turbine engines fo the early 21st century. Initial experimental measurements to be presented include time-averaged turbine rim cavity and main gas path static pressure measurements for rim seal coolant to main gas path mass flow ratios between 0 and 0.02. The ultimate objective of this work is develop improved rim seal design concepts for use in modern high-work, single sage turbines n order to minimize the use of secondary coolant flow. Toward this objective the time averaged and unsteady data to be obtained in these experiments will be used to 1) Quantify the impact of the rim cavity cooling air on the ingestion process. 2) Quantify the film cooling benefits of the rim cavity purge flow in the main gas path. 3) Quantify the impact of the cooling air on turbine efficiency. 4) Develop/evaluate both 3D CFD and analytical models of the ingestion/cooling process.

  14. Materials for Wind Turbine Blades: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Mishnaevsky, Leon; Branner, Kim; Petersen, Helga Nørgaard; Beauson, Justine; McGugan, Malcolm; Sørensen, Bent F

    2017-11-09

    A short overview of composite materials for wind turbine applications is presented here. Requirements toward the wind turbine materials, loads, as well as available materials are reviewed. Apart from the traditional composites for wind turbine blades (glass fibers/epoxy matrix composites), natural composites, hybrid and nanoengineered composites are discussed. Manufacturing technologies for wind turbine composites, as well their testing and modelling approaches are reviewed.

  15. Materials for Wind Turbine Blades: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Branner, Kim; Petersen, Helga Nørgaard; Beauson, Justine; McGugan, Malcolm; Sørensen, Bent F.

    2017-01-01

    A short overview of composite materials for wind turbine applications is presented here. Requirements toward the wind turbine materials, loads, as well as available materials are reviewed. Apart from the traditional composites for wind turbine blades (glass fibers/epoxy matrix composites), natural composites, hybrid and nanoengineered composites are discussed. Manufacturing technologies for wind turbine composites, as well their testing and modelling approaches are reviewed. PMID:29120396

  16. Dynamics and stability of wind turbine generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinrichsen, E. N.; Nolan, P. J.

    1981-01-01

    Synchronous and induction generators are considered. A comparison is made between wind turbines, steam, and hydro units. The unusual phenomena associated with wind turbines are emphasized. The general control requirements are discussed, as well as various schemes for torsional damping such as speed sensitive stabilizer and blade pitch control. Integration between adjacent wind turbines in a wind farm is also considered.

  17. Microprocessor control of a wind turbine generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnecco, A. J.; Whitehead, G. T.

    1978-01-01

    A microprocessor based system was used to control the unattended operation of a wind turbine generator. The turbine and its microcomputer system are fully described with special emphasis on the wide variety of tasks performed by the microprocessor for the safe and efficient operation of the turbine. The flexibility, cost and reliability of the microprocessor were major factors in its selection.

  18. Radial-radial single rotor turbine

    DOEpatents

    Platts, David A [Los Alamos, NM

    2006-05-16

    A rotor for use in turbine applications has a radial compressor/pump having radially disposed spaced apart fins forming passages and a radial turbine having hollow turbine blades interleaved with the fins and through which fluid from the radial compressor/pump flows. The rotor can, in some applications, be used to produce electrical power.

  19. Tail Shape Design of Boat Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singamsitty, Venkatesh

    Wind energy is a standout among the most generally utilized sustainable power source assets. A great deal of research and improvements have been happening in the wind energy field. Wind turbines are mechanical devices that convert kinetic energy into electrical power. Boat wind turbines are for the small-scale generation of electric power. In order to catch wind energy effectively, boat wind turbines need to face wind direction. Tails are used in boat wind turbines to alter the wind turbine direction and receive the variation of the incoming direction of wind. Tails are used to change the performance of boat wind turbines in an effective way. They are required to generate a quick and steady response as per change in wind direction. Tails can have various shapes, and their effects on boat wind turbines are different. However, the effects of tail shapes on the performance of boat wind turbines are not thoroughly studied yet. In this thesis, five tail shapes were studied. Their effects on boat wind turbines were investigated. The power extracted by the turbines from the air and the force acting on the boat wind turbine tail were analyzed. The results of this thesis provide a guideline of tail shape design for boat wind turbines.

  20. 77 FR 3514 - Protection Against Turbine Missiles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-24

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2009-0481] Protection Against Turbine Missiles AGENCY: Nuclear... (NRC or Commission) is issuing a revision to Regulatory Guide 1.115, ``Protection Against Turbine... structures, systems, and components against missiles resulting from turbine failure by the appropriate...

  1. Turbine Engine Hot Section Technology, 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Presentations were made concerning the development of design analysis tools for combustor liners, turbine vanes, and turbine blades. Presentations were divided into six sections: instrumentation, combustion, turbine heat transfer, structural analysis, fatigue and fracture, surface protective coatings, constitutive behavior of materials, stress-strain response and life prediction methods.

  2. Vertical axis wind turbine airfoil

    DOEpatents

    Krivcov, Vladimir; Krivospitski, Vladimir; Maksimov, Vasili; Halstead, Richard; Grahov, Jurij Vasiljevich

    2012-12-18

    A vertical axis wind turbine airfoil is described. The wind turbine airfoil can include a leading edge, a trailing edge, an upper curved surface, a lower curved surface, and a centerline running between the upper surface and the lower surface and from the leading edge to the trailing edge. The airfoil can be configured so that the distance between the centerline and the upper surface is the same as the distance between the centerline and the lower surface at all points along the length of the airfoil. A plurality of such airfoils can be included in a vertical axis wind turbine. These airfoils can be vertically disposed and can rotate about a vertical axis.

  3. Heat Transfer in Gas Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Vijay K.

    2001-01-01

    The turbine gas path is a very complex flow field. This is due to a variety of flow and heat transfer phenomena encountered in turbine passages. This manuscript provides an overview of the current work in this field at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Also, based on the author's preference, more emphasis is on the computational work. There is much more experimental work in progress at GRC than that reported here. While much has been achieved, more needs to be done in terms of validating the predictions against experimental data. More experimental data, especially on film cooled and rough turbine blades, are required for code validation. Also, the combined film cooling and internal cooling flow computation for a real blade is yet to be performed. While most computational work to date has assumed steady state conditions, the flow is clearly unsteady due to the presence of wakes. All this points to a long road ahead. However, we are well on course.

  4. Ceramic applications in turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helms, H. E.; Heitman, P. W.; Lindgren, L. C.; Thrasher, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    The application of ceramic components to demonstrate improved cycle efficiency by raising the operating temperature of the existing Allison IGI 404 vehicular gas turbine engine is discussed. This effort was called the Ceramic Applications in Turbine Engines (CATE) program and has successfully demonstrated ceramic components. Among these components are two design configurations featuring stationary and rotating caramic components in the IGT 404 engine. A complete discussion of all phases of the program, design, materials development, fabrication of ceramic components, and testing-including rig, engine, and vehicle demonstation test are presented. During the CATE program, a ceramic technology base was established that is now being applied to automotive and other gas turbine engine programs. This technology base is outlined and also provides a description of the CATE program accomplishments.

  5. Wind and solar powered turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, I. D.; Koh, J. L.; Holmes, M. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A power generating station having a generator driven by solar heat assisted ambient wind is described. A first plurality of radially extendng air passages direct ambient wind to a radial flow wind turbine disposed in a centrally located opening in a substantially disc-shaped structure. A solar radiation collecting surface having black bodies is disposed above the fist plurality of air passages and in communication with a second plurality of radial air passages. A cover plate enclosing the second plurality of radial air passages is transparent so as to permit solar radiation to effectively reach the black bodies. The second plurality of air passages direct ambient wind and thermal updrafts generated by the black bodies to an axial flow turbine. The rotating shaft of the turbines drive the generator. The solar and wind drien power generating system operates in electrical cogeneration mode with a fuel powered prime mover.

  6. Spin test of turbine rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vavra, M. H.; Hammer, J. E.; Bell, L. E.

    1972-01-01

    Experimental data are presented for the tangential and radial stresses in the disks of the 36,000 horsepower, 4000 rpm turbine for the M-1 engine oxidizer turbopump. The two-stage Curtis turbine is a special light-weight design utilizing thin conical disks with hollow sheet metal blades attached by electron-beam welding techniques. The turbine was fabricated from Inconel 718, a nickel-chromium alloy. The stresses were obtained by strain-gage measurements using a slip-ring assembly to transmit the electrical signals. Measurements were made at different rotative speeds and different thermal loads. In addition to presenting test data, the report describes test equipment, design of associated hardware, test procedures, instrumentation, and tests for the selection and calibration of strain gages.

  7. Losses in radial inflow turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khalil, I. M.; Tabakoff, W.; Hamed, A.

    1976-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine experimentally and theoretically the losses in radial inflow turbine nozzles. Extensive experimental data was obtained to investigate the flow behavior in a full-scale radial turbine stator annulus. A theoretical model to predict the losses in both the vaned and vaneless regions of the nozzle was developed. In this analysis, the interaction effects between the stator and the rotor are not considered. It was found that the losses incurred due to the end wall boundary layers can be significant, especially if they are characterized by a strong crossflow. The losses estimated using the analytical study are compared with the experimentally determined values.

  8. Improved high pressure turbine shroud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bessen, I. I.; Rigney, D. V.; Schwab, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    A new high pressure turbine shroud material has been developed from the consolidation of prealloyed powders of Ni, Cr, Al and Y. The new material, a filler for cast turbine shroud body segments, is called Genaseal. The development followed the identification of oxidation resistance as the primary cause of prior shroud deterioration, since conversion to oxides reduces erosion resistance and increases spalling under thermal cycled engine conditions. The NICrAlY composition was selected in preference to NIAL and FeCRALY alloys, and was formulated to a prescribed density range that offers suitable erosion resistance, thermal conductivity and elastic modulus for improved behavior as a shroud.

  9. TMF design considerations in turbine airfoils of advanced turbine engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Date, C. G.; Zamrik, S. Y.; Adams, J. H.; Frani, N. E.

    A review of thermal-mechanicalfatigue (TMF) in advanced turbine engines is presented. The review includes examples of typical thermal-mechnical loadings encountered in the design of hot section blades and vanes. Specific issues related to TMF behavior are presented and the associated impact on component life analysis and design is discussed.

  10. Turbine-Driven Pipe-Cleaning Brush

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werlink, Rudy J.; Rowell, David E.

    1994-01-01

    Simple pipe-cleaning device includes small turbine wheel axially connected, by standoff, to circular brush. Turbine wheel turns on hub bearing attached to end of upstream cable. Turbine-and-brush assembly inserted in pipe with cable trailing upstream and brush facing downstream. Water or cleaning solution pumped through pipe. Cable held at upstream end, so it holds turbine and brush in pipe at location to be cleaned. Flow in pipe turns turbine, which turns wheel, producing desired cleaning action. In addition to brushing action, device provides even mixing of cleaning solution in pipe.

  11. Coordinated Control of Cross-Flow Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strom, Benjamin; Brunton, Steven; Polagye, Brian

    2016-11-01

    Cross-flow turbines, also known as vertical-axis turbines, have several advantages over axial-flow turbines for a number of applications including urban wind power, high-density arrays, and marine or fluvial currents. By controlling the angular velocity applied to the turbine as a function of angular blade position, we have demonstrated a 79 percent increase in cross-flow turbine efficiency over constant-velocity control. This strategy uses the downhill simplex method to optimize control parameter profiles during operation of a model turbine in a recirculating water flume. This optimization method is extended to a set of two turbines, where the blade motions and position of the downstream turbine are optimized to beneficially interact with the coherent structures in the wake of the upstream turbine. This control scheme has the potential to enable high-density arrays of cross-flow turbines to operate at cost-effective efficiency. Turbine wake and force measurements are analyzed for insight into the effect of a coordinated control strategy.

  12. Gas turbine engine control system

    SciTech Connect

    Idelchik, M.S.

    1991-02-19

    This paper describes a method for controlling a gas turbine engine. It includes receiving an error signal and processing the error signal to form a primary control signal; receiving at least one anticipatory demand signal and processing the signal to form an anticipatory fuel control signal.

  13. High temperature turbine engine structure

    DOEpatents

    Boyd, Gary L.

    1990-01-01

    A high temperature turbine engine includes a hybrid ceramic/metallic rotor member having ceramic/metal joint structure. The disclosed joint is able to endure higher temperatures than previously possible, and aids in controlling heat transfer in the rotor member.

  14. High temperature turbine engine structure

    DOEpatents

    Boyd, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    A high temperature turbine engine includes a rotor portion having axially stacked adjacent ceramic rotor parts. A ceramic/ceramic joint structure transmits torque between the rotor parts while maintaining coaxial alignment and axially spaced mutually parallel relation thereof despite thermal and centrifugal cycling.

  15. Climate-driven shift of the tree-line ecotone in the Polar Urals and impacts on land-surface properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, V. Y.; Shiyatov, S.; Mazepa, V.

    2013-12-01

    Warming of the Arctic climate has triggered a number of changes in terrestrial physical and biogeochemical systems. One of the eloquent expressions of such changes is an expansion of trees and shrubs into tundra areas. There is an emerging need to understand how changes of land-surface thermal, hydrological, and biogeochemical regimes will impact ecosystems in future as well as the associated feedback mechanisms. This study focuses on the area that has undergone one of the rapidest changes in the forest-tundra alpine areas of the Polar Urals, Russia (66.7N, 65.4E). The prevailing species of this forest-tundra ecotone underlain by continuous permafrost is larch (L. sibirica), a predominant species of the Russian Arctic. Open larch and mixed forests with Siberian spruce (P. obovata) and birch (B. tortuosa) are abundant in the downslope, valley areas. Average frost-free period is 64 days with growing season lasting between mid-June to early August. Based on meteorological record at a station in Salekhard, over the period of 1920-2004, the mean summer temperatures have increased by 0.9 deg. and the mean winter temperatures by 1.2 deg., as compared to the 1883-1920 period. The mean summer precipitation has increased from 146 to 178 mm, while as winter precipitation has grown from 67 to 113 mm. This has resulted in 80-100 m altitudinal expansion of single trees and forest that was accompanied by a marked increase in the vertical and radial tree growth, crown density, and productivity of tree stands. Eleven altitudinal transects 300-1100 m long and 20-80 m wide have been developed for long-term monitoring of spatiotemporal dynamics of communities starting in early 1960s. In order to quantitatively assess changes in the composition, structure, and spatial distribution of the forest-tundra communities, census campaigns of 1960-62, 1999, and 2011 produced detailed mappings of locations of all alive and dead trees, and measurements of their essential allometric

  16. Feasibility Study for a Practical High Rotor Tip Clearance Turbine.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    GAS TURBINE BLADES ), (* TURBINE BLADES , TOLERANCES(MECHANICS)), (* TURBOFAN ENGINES , GAS TURBINES , AXIAL FLOW TURBINES , AXIAL FLOW TURBINE ROTORS...AERODYNAMIC CONFIGURATIONS, LEAKAGE(FLUID), MEASUREMENT, TEST METHODS, PERFORMANCE( ENGINEERING ), MATHEMATICAL PREDICTION, REDUCTION, PRESSURE, PREDICTIONS, NOZZLE GAS FLOW, COMBUSTION CHAMBER GASES, GAS FLOW.

  17. Airfoil for a turbine of a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Liang, George

    2010-12-21

    An airfoil for a turbine of a gas turbine engine is provided. The airfoil comprises a main body comprising a wall structure defining an inner cavity adapted to receive a cooling air. The wall structure includes a first diffusion region and at least one first metering opening extending from the inner cavity to the first diffusion region. The wall structure further comprises at least one cooling circuit comprising a second diffusion region and at least one second metering opening extending from the first diffusion region to the second diffusion region. The at least one cooling circuit may further comprise at least one third metering opening, at least one third diffusion region and a fourth diffusion region.

  18. The Influence of Edaphic and Orographic Factors on Algal Diversity in Biological Soil Crusts on Bare Spots in the Polar and Subpolar Urals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patova, E. N.; Novakovskaya, I. V.; Deneva, S. V.

    2018-03-01

    The influence of edaphic and orographic factors on the formation of algal diversity in biological soil crusts was studied in mountain tundras of the Polar and Subpolar Urals. Bare spots developed in the soils on different parent materials and overgrown to different extents were investigated. Overall, 221 algal species from six divisions were identified. Among them, eighty-eight taxa were new for the region studied. The Stigonema minutum, S. ocellatum, Nostoc commune, Gloeocapsopsis magma, Scytonema hofmannii, Leptolyngbya foveolarum, Pseudococcomyxa simplex, Sporotetras polydermatica species and species of the Cylindrocystis, Elliptochloris, Fischerella, Leptosira, Leptolyngbya, Myrmecia, Mesotaenium, Phormidium, Schizothrix genera were permanent components of biological soil crusts. The basis of the algal cenoses in soil crusts was composed of cosmopolitan cyanoprokaryotes, multicellular green algae with thickened covers and abundant mucus. The share of nitrogen fixers was high. The physicochemical properties of primary soils forming under the crusts of spots are described. The more important factors affecting the species composition of algae in the crusts are the elevation gradient, temperature, soil moisture, and the contents of Ca, Mg, mobile phosphorus, and total nitrogen.

  19. Chemical composition and osmium-isotope systematics of primary and secondary PGM assemblages from high-Mg chromitite of the Nurali lherzolite massif, the South Urals, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malitch, K. N.; Anikina, E. V.; Badanina, I. Yu.; Belousova, E. A.; Pushkarev, E. V.; Khiller, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    The isotopic and geochemical characteristics of PGE mineralization in high-Mg chromitite from the banded dunite-wehrlite-clinopyroxenite complex of the Nurali lherzolite massif, the South Urals, Russia is characterized for the first time. Electron microprobe analysis and LA MC-ICP-MS mass spectrometry are used for studying Cr-spinel and platinum-group minerals (PGM). Two processes synchronously develop in high-Mg chromitite subject to metamorphism: (1) the replacement of Mg-Al-rich Cr-spinel, orthopyroxene, and diopside by chromite, Cr-amphibole, chlorite, and garnet; (2) the formation of a secondary mineral assemblage consisting of finely dispersed ruthenium or Ru-hexaferrum aggregate and silicate-oxide or silicate matter on the location of primary Ru-Os-sulfides of the laurite-erlichmanite solid solution series. Similar variations of Os-isotopic composition in both primary and secondary PGM assemblages are evidence for the high stability of the Os isotope system in PGM and for the possibility of using model 187Os/188Os ages in geodynamic reconstructions.

  20. Temporal variability of the quality of Taraxacum officinale seed progeny from the East-Ural radioactive trace: is there an interaction between low level radiation and weather conditions?

    PubMed

    Pozolotina, Vera N; Antonova, Elena V

    2017-03-01

    The multiple stressors, in different combinations, may impact differently upon seed quality, and low-level doses of radiation may enhance synergistic or antagonistic effects. During 1991-2014 we investigated the quality of the dandelion (Taraxacum officinale s.l.) seed progeny growing under low-level radiation exposure at the East-Ural Radioactive Trace (EURT) area (result of the Kyshtym accident, Russia), and in plants from areas exposed to background radiation. The viability of the dandelion seed progeny was assessed according to chronic radiation exposure, accounting for the variability of weather conditions among years. Environmental factors (temperature, precipitation, and their ratio in different months) can modify the radiobiological effects. We found a wide range of possible responses to multiple stressors: inhibition, stimulation, and indifferent effects in different seasons. The intraspecific variability of the quality of dandelion seed progeny was greatly increased under conditions of low doses of chronic irradiation. Temperature was the most significant factor for seed progeny formation in the EURT zone, whereas the sums of precipitation and ratios of precipitation to temperature dominantly affected organisms from the background population.

  1. Application of the soil-ecological multiplicative index to assess suitability of Cis-Ural chernozems for cultivation with due account for economic parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levykin, S. V.; Chibilev, A. A.; Kazachkov, G. V.; Petrishchev, V. P.

    2017-02-01

    The evolution of Russian concepts concerning the assessment of soil suitability for cultivation in relation to several campaigns on large-scale plowing of virgin steppe soils is examined. The major problems of agricultural land use in steppe areas—preservation of rainfed farming in the regions with increasing climatic risks, underestimation of the potential of arable lands in land cadaster assessments, and much lower factual yields in comparison with potential yields—are considered. It is suggested that the assessments of arable lands should be performed on the basis of the soil-ecological index (SEI) developed by I. Karmanov with further conversion of SEI values into nominal monetary values. Under conditions of land reforms and economic reforms, it is important to determine suitability of steppe chernozems for plowing and economic feasibility of their use for crop growing in dependence on macroeconomic parameters. This should support decisions on optimization of land use in the steppe zone on the basis of the principles suggested by V. Dokuchaev. The developed approach for assessing soil suitability for cultivation was tested in the subzone of herbaceous-fescue-feather grass steppes in the Cis-Ural part of Orenburg oblast and used for the assessment of soil suitability for cultivation in the southern and southeastern regions of Orenburg oblast.

  2. Turbine-99 unsteady simulations - Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervantes, M. J.; Andersson, U.; Lövgren, H. M.

    2010-08-01

    The Turbine-99 test case, a Kaplan draft tube model, aimed to determine the state of the art within draft tube simulation. Three workshops were organized on the matter in 1999, 2001 and 2005 where the geometry and experimental data were provided as boundary conditions to the participants. Since the last workshop, computational power and flow modelling have been developed and the available data completed with unsteady pressure measurements and phase resolved velocity measurements in the cone. Such new set of data together with the corresponding phase resolved velocity boundary conditions offer new possibilities to validate unsteady numerical simulations in Kaplan draft tube. The present work presents simulation of the Turbine-99 test case with time dependent angular resolved inlet velocity boundary conditions. Different grids and time steps are investigated. The results are compared to experimental time dependent pressure and velocity measurements.

  3. Lightning protection of wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodd, C. W.

    1982-01-01

    Possible damages to wind turbine components due to lightning strikes are discussed and means to prevent the damage are presented. A low resistance path to the ground is noted to be essential for any turbine system, including metal paths on nonmetal blades to conduct the strike. Surge arrestors are necessary to protect against overvoltages both from utility lines in normal operation and against lightning damage to control equipment and contactors in the generator. MOS structures are susceptible to static discharge injury, as are other semiconductor devices, and must be protected by the presence of static protection circuitry. It is recommended that the electronics be analyzed for the circuit transient response to a lightning waveform, to induced and dc current injection, that input/output leads be shielded, everything be grounded, and lightning-resistant components be chosen early in the design phase.

  4. Lightning protection of wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodd, C. W.

    1982-05-01

    Possible damages to wind turbine components due to lightning strikes are discussed and means to prevent the damage are presented. A low resistance path to the ground is noted to be essential for any turbine system, including metal paths on nonmetal blades to conduct the strike. Surge arrestors are necessary to protect against overvoltages both from utility lines in normal operation and against lightning damage to control equipment and contactors in the generator. MOS structures are susceptible to static discharge injury, as are other semiconductor devices, and must be protected by the presence of static protection circuitry. It is recommended that the electronics be analyzed for the circuit transient response to a lightning waveform, to induced and dc current injection, that input/output leads be shielded, everything be grounded, and lightning-resistant components be chosen early in the design phase.

  5. Variable flow gas turbine engine

    SciTech Connect

    Stroem, S.

    1986-11-25

    This patent describes a variable flow gas turbine engine of the type having a combustor for generating combustion gases and a turbine rotor for receiving and expanding the hot combustion gases, comprising: duct means for defining a channel for directing the flow of combustion gases from the combustor to the rotor; vane means in the channel forming at least one throat; means for varying the effective flow area for combustion gases flowing through the throat and impinging on the rotor. The varying means includes winglet means fixedly mounted in the throat for separating the gases flowing through the throat intomore » first and second streams; and means for injecting high pressure fluid into the throat for varying the flow of combustion gases in one of the streams.« less

  6. Gas turbine vane platform element

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Christian X [Oviedo, FL; Schiavo, Anthony L [Oviedo, FL; Morrison, Jay A [Oviedo, FL

    2012-08-28

    A gas turbine CMC shroud plate (48A) with a vane-receiving opening (79) that matches a cross-section profile of a turbine vane airfoil (22). The shroud plate (48A) has first and second curved circumferential sides (73A, 74A) that generally follow the curves of respective first and second curved sides (81, 82) of the vane-receiving opening. Walls (75A, 76A, 77A, 78A, 80, 88) extend perpendicularly from the shroud plate forming a cross-bracing structure for the shroud plate. A vane (22) may be attached to the shroud plate by pins (83) or by hoop-tension rings (106) that clamp tabs (103) of the shroud plate against bosses (105) of the vane. A circular array (20) of shroud plates (48A) may be assembled to form a vane shroud ring in which adjacent shroud plates are separated by compressible ceramic seals (93).

  7. Large, horizontal-axis wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linscott, B. S.; Perkins, P.; Dennett, J. T.

    1984-01-01

    Development of the technology for safe, reliable, environmentally acceptable large wind turbines that have the potential to generate a significant amount of electricity at costs competitive with conventional electric generating systems are presented. In addition, these large wind turbines must be fully compatible with electric utility operations and interface requirements. There are several ongoing large wind system development projects and applied research efforts directed toward meeting the technology requirements for utility applications. Detailed information on these projects is provided. The Mod-O research facility and current applied research effort in aerodynamics, structural dynamics and aeroelasticity, composite and hybrid composite materials, and multiple system interaction are described. A chronology of component research and technology development for large, horizontal axis wind turbines is presented. Wind characteristics, wind turbine economics, and the impact of wind turbines on the environment are reported. The need for continued wind turbine research and technology development is explored. Over 40 references are sited and a bibliography is included.

  8. Cooling scheme for turbine hot parts

    DOEpatents

    Hultgren, Kent Goran; Owen, Brian Charles; Dowman, Steven Wayne; Nordlund, Raymond Scott; Smith, Ricky Lee

    2000-01-01

    A closed-loop cooling scheme for cooling stationary combustion turbine components, such as vanes, ring segments and transitions, is provided. The cooling scheme comprises: (1) an annular coolant inlet chamber, situated between the cylinder and blade ring of a turbine, for housing coolant before being distributed to the turbine components; (2) an annular coolant exhaust chamber, situated between the cylinder and the blade ring and proximate the annular coolant inlet chamber, for collecting coolant exhaust from the turbine components; (3) a coolant inlet conduit for supplying the coolant to said coolant inlet chamber; (4) a coolant exhaust conduit for directing coolant from said coolant exhaust chamber; and (5) a piping arrangement for distributing the coolant to and directing coolant exhaust from the turbine components. In preferred embodiments of the invention, the cooling scheme further comprises static seals for sealing the blade ring to the cylinder and flexible joints for attaching the blade ring to the turbine components.

  9. Brush Seals for Improved Steam Turbine Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turnquist, Norman; Chupp, Ray; Baily, Fred; Burnett, Mark; Rivas, Flor; Bowsher, Aaron; Crudgington, Peter

    2006-01-01

    GE Energy has retrofitted brush seals into more than 19 operating steam turbines. Brush seals offer superior leakage control compared to labyrinth seals, owing to their compliant nature and ability to maintain very tight clearances to the rotating shaft. Seal designs have been established for steam turbines ranging in size from 12 MW to over 1200 MW, including fossil, nuclear, combined-cycle and industrial applications. Steam turbines present unique design challenges that must be addressed to ensure that the potential performance benefits of brush seals are realized. Brush seals can have important effects on the overall turbine system that must be taken into account to assure reliable operation. Subscale rig tests are instrumental to understanding seal behavior under simulated steam-turbine operating conditions, prior to installing brush seals in the field. This presentation discusses the technical challenges of designing brush seals for steam turbines; subscale testing; performance benefits of brush seals; overall system effects; and field applications.

  10. Computing Cooling Flows in Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gauntner, J.

    1986-01-01

    Algorithm developed for calculating both quantity of compressor bleed flow required to cool turbine and resulting decrease in efficiency due to cooling air injected into gas stream. Program intended for use with axial-flow, air-breathing, jet-propulsion engines with variety of airfoil-cooling configurations. Algorithm results compared extremely well with figures given by major engine manufacturers for given bulk-metal temperatures and cooling configurations. Program written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution.

  11. Influence of wind turbine foundation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, S. T.

    1978-01-01

    The 200 kW Mod-0A wind turbine was modeled using a 3 lumped mass-spring system for the superstructure and a rotational spring for the foundation and supporting soil. Natural frequencies were calculated using soil elastic moduli varying from 3000 to 22,400 p.s.i. The reduction in natural frequencies from the rigid foundation case ranged up to 20 percent.

  12. Acoustic Liners for Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Michael G (Inventor); Grady, Joseph E (Inventor); Heidmann, James D. (Inventor); Kiser, James D. (Inventor); Miller, Christopher (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An improved acoustic liner for turbine engines is disclosed. The acoustic liner may include a straight cell section including a plurality of cells with straight chambers. The acoustic liner may also include a bent cell section including one or more cells that are bent to extend chamber length without increasing the overall height of the acoustic liner by the entire chamber length. In some cases, holes are placed between cell chambers in addition to bending the cells, or instead of bending the cells.

  13. Spiral inlets for steam turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Škach, Radek; Uher, Jan

    2017-09-01

    This paper deals with the design process of special nozzle blades for spiral inlets. Spiral inlets are used for the first stages of high pressure and intermediate pressure steam turbines with both reaction and impulse blades when throttling or sliding pressure control is applied. They improve the steam flow uniformity from the inlet pipe and thus decrease the aerodynamic losses. The proposed evaluation of the inlet angle is based on the free vortex law.

  14. Gas turbine engine fuel control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, H. S. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A variable orifice system is described that is responsive to compressor inlet pressure and temperature, compressor discharge pressure and rotational speed of a gas-turbine engine. It is incorporated into a hydraulic circuit that includes a zero gradient pump driven at a speed proportional to the speed of the engine. The resulting system provides control of fuel rate for starting, steady running, acceleration and deceleration under varying altitudes and flight speeds.

  15. Receiver For Solar Air Turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kofal, A.; Shannon, R.; Zimmerman, D. K.

    1985-01-01

    Solar receiver heats air to temperature high enough to drive gas turbine. Receiver has thermal output of about 70 kilowatts. Pointing downward at focal position of solar reflector, proposed receiver accepts intense concentrated sunlight. Although temperatures in receiver may rise to 1,500 degrees F (816 degrees C) or more, calculations show receiver loses less than 10 percent of insolation by convection through aperture. Receiver designed for 30-year life without scheduled maintenance or replacement.

  16. Turbine Fuel Alternatives (Near Term)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    liability for the contents or use thereof. The United States Government does not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear...VERSUS CORRECTED TURBINE OUTLET TEMPERATURE A-7 200, -T ’go-I 190 170- ETA oix 15X ETANOL ! ¶,0-1 1 20- S 110j 1. 001 9 0 I 7 0 10 zo 460 500 540 580

  17. Simulation of multistage turbine flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamczyk, John J.; Mulac, Richard A.

    1987-01-01

    A flow model has been developed for analyzing multistage turbomachinery flows. This model, referred to as the average passage flow model, describes the time-averaged flow field with a typical passage of a blade row embedded within a multistage configuration. Computer resource requirements, supporting empirical modeling, formulation code development, and multitasking and storage are discussed. Illustrations from simulations of the space shuttle main engine (SSME) fuel turbine performed to date are given.

  18. Method and apparatus for wind turbine braking

    DOEpatents

    Barbu, Corneliu [Laguna Hills, CA; Teichmann, Ralph [Nishkayuna, NY; Avagliano, Aaron [Houston, TX; Kammer, Leonardo Cesar [Niskayuna, NY; Pierce, Kirk Gee [Simpsonville, SC; Pesetsky, David Samuel [Greenville, SC; Gauchel, Peter [Muenster, DE

    2009-02-10

    A method for braking a wind turbine including at least one rotor blade coupled to a rotor. The method includes selectively controlling an angle of pitch of the at least one rotor blade with respect to a wind direction based on a design parameter of a component of the wind turbine to facilitate reducing a force induced into the wind turbine component as a result of braking.

  19. Lightning protection system for a wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Costin, Daniel P [Chelsea, VT; Petter, Jeffrey K [Williston, VT

    2008-05-27

    In a wind turbine (104, 500, 704) having a plurality of blades (132, 404, 516, 744) and a blade rotor hub (120, 712), a lightning protection system (100, 504, 700) for conducting lightning strikes to any one of the blades and the region surrounding the blade hub along a path around the blade hub and critical components of the wind turbine, such as the generator (112, 716), gearbox (708) and main turbine bearings (176, 724).

  20. Small Wind Research Turbine: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Corbus, D.; Meadors, M.

    2005-10-01

    The Small Wind Research Turbine (SWRT) project was initiated to provide reliable test data for model validation of furling wind turbines and to help understand small wind turbine loads. This report will familiarize the user with the scope of the SWRT test and support the use of these data. In addition to describing all the testing details and results, the report presents an analysis of the test data and compares the SWRT test data to simulation results from the FAST aeroelastic simulation model.

  1. Turbulent Flow over Rough Turbine Airfoils.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-01

    SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB. GR. Turbine blades ’ vanes ; surface roughness...turbulent boundary layer over rough turbine vanes or blades is developed. A new formulation of the mixing length model, expressed in the velocity-space...A-163 005 TURBULENT FLOW OVER ROUGH TURBINE AIRFOILS (U) OHIO 1/ STATE UNIV RESEARCH FOUNDATION COLUMBUS L S HAN AUG B5 OSURF-76357/?i4467 AFWL-TR-95

  2. Basic investigation of turbine erosion phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pouchot, W. D.; Kothmann, R. E.; Fentress, W. K.; Heymann, F. J.; Varljen, T. C.; Chi, J. W. H.; Milton, J. D.; Glassmire, C. M.; Kyslinger, J. A.; Desai, K. A.

    1971-01-01

    An analytical-empirical model is presented of turbine erosion that fits and explains experience in both steam and metal vapor turbines. Because of the complexities involved in analyzing turbine problems, in a pure scientific sense, it is obvious that this goal can be only partially realized. Therefore, emphasis is placed on providing a useful model for preliminary erosion estimates for given configurations, fluids, and flow conditions.

  3. Advanced gas turbine systems program

    SciTech Connect

    Zeh, C.M.

    1995-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring a program to develop fuel-efficient gas turbine-based power systems with low emissions. DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy (DOE/FE) and Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DOE/EE) have initiated an 8-year program to develop high-efficiency, natural gas-fired advanced gas turbine power systems. The Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program will support full-scale prototype demonstration of both industrial- and utility-scale systems that will provide commercial marketplace entries by the year 2000. When the program targets are met, power system emissions will be lower than from the best technology in use today. Efficiency of themore » utility-scale units will be greater than 60 percent on a lower heating value basis, and emissions of carbon dioxide will be reduced inversely with this increase. Industrial systems will also see an improvement of at least 15 percent in efficiency. Nitrogen oxides will be reduced by at least 10 percent, and carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions will each be kept below 20 parts per million, for both utility and industrial systems.« less

  4. Exhaust turbine and jet propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leist, Karl; Knornschild, Eugen

    1951-01-01

    DVL experimental and analytical work on the cooling of turbine blades by using ram air as the working fluid over a sector or sectors of the turbine annulus area is summarized. The subsonic performance of ram-jet, turbo-jet, and turbine-propeller engines with both constant pressure and pulsating-flow combustion is investigated. Comparison is made with the performance of a reciprocating engine and the advantages of the gas turbine and jet-propulsion engines are analyzed. Nacelle installation methods and power-level control are discussed.

  5. Jet spoiler arrangement for wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyrus, J. D.; Kablec, E. G.; Klimas, P. C.

    1983-09-01

    An air jet spoiler arrangement is provided for a Darrieus-type vertical axis wind-powered turbine. Air is drawn into hollow turbine blades through air inlets at the end thereof and is ejected in the form of air jets through small holes or openings provided along the lengths of the blades. The air jets create flow separation at the surfaces of the turbine blades, thereby including stal conditions and reducing the output power. A feedback control unit senses the power output of the turbine and controls the amount of air drawn into the air inlets accordingly.

  6. Jet spoiler arrangement for wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Cyrus, J.D.; Kadlec, E.G.; Klimas, P.C.

    1983-09-15

    An air jet spoiler arrangement is provided for a Darrieus-type vertical axis wind-powered turbine. Air is drawn into hollow turbine blades through air inlets at the end thereof and is ejected in the form of air jets through small holes or openings provided along the lengths of the blades. The air jets create flow separation at the surfaces of the turbine blades, thereby including stall conditions and reducing the output power. A feedback control unit senses the power output of the turbine and controls the amount of air drawn into the air inlets accordingly.

  7. Jet spoiler arrangement for wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Cyrus, Jack D.; Kadlec, Emil G.; Klimas, Paul C.

    1985-01-01

    An air jet spoiler arrangement is provided for a Darrieus-type vertical axis wind-powered turbine. Air is drawn into hollow turbine blades through air inlets at the ends thereof and is ejected in the form of air jets through small holes or openings provided along the lengths of the blades. The air jets create flow separation at the surfaces of the turbine blades, thereby inducing stall conditions and reducing the output power. A feedback control unit senses the power output of the turbine and controls the amount of air drawn into the air inlets accordingly.

  8. An integrated modeling method for wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadaeinedjad, Roohollah

    To study the interaction of the electrical, mechanical, and aerodynamic aspects of a wind turbine, a detailed model that considers all these aspects must be used. A drawback of many studies in the area of wind turbine simulation is that either a very simple mechanical model is used with a detailed electrical model, or vice versa. Hence the interactions between electrical and mechanical aspects of wind turbine operation are not accurately taken into account. In this research, it will be shown that a combination of different simulation packages, namely TurbSim, FAST, and Simulink can be used to model the aerodynamic, mechanical, and electrical aspects of a wind turbine in detail. In this thesis, after a review of some wind turbine concepts and software tools, a simulation structure is proposed for studying wind turbines that integrates the mechanical and electrical components of a wind energy conversion device. Based on the simulation structure, a comprehensive model for a three-bladed variable speed wind turbine with doubly-fed induction generator is developed. Using the model, the impact of a voltage sag on the wind turbine tower vibration is investigated under various operating conditions such as power system short circuit level, mechanical parameters, and wind turbine operating conditions. It is shown how an electrical disturbance can cause more sustainable tower vibrations under high speed and turbulent wind conditions, which may disrupt the operation of pitch control system. A similar simulation structure is used to model a two-bladed fixed speed wind turbine with an induction generator. An extension of the concept is introduced by adding a diesel generator system. The model is utilized to study the impact of the aeroelastic aspects of wind turbine (i.e. tower shadow, wind shears, yaw error, turbulence, and mechanical vibrations) on the power quality of a stand-alone wind-diesel system. Furthermore, an IEEE standard flickermeter model is implemented in a

  9. AGT 100 automotive gas turbine system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helms, H. E. G.

    1982-01-01

    General Motors is developing an automotive gas turbine system that can be an alternate powerplant for future automobiles. Work sponsored by DOE and administered by NASA Lewis Research Center is emphasizing small component aerodynamics and high-temperature structural ceramics. Reliability requirements of the AGT 100 turbine system include chemical and structural ceramic component stability in the gas turbine environment. The power train system, its configuration and schedule are presented, and its performance tested. The aerodynamic component development is reviewed with discussions on the compressor, turbine, regenerator, interturbine duct and scroll, and combustor. Ceramic component development is also reviewed, and production cost and required capital investment are taken into consideration.

  10. Turbine bucket natural frequency tuning rib

    DOEpatents

    Wang, John Zhiqiang; Norton, Paul Francis; Barb, Kevin Joseph; Jacala, Ariel Caesar-Prepena

    2002-01-01

    A tuning rib is added preferably in the aft cavity of a cored turbine bucket to alter the bucket's natural frequencies. The tuning rib may be a solid rib or a segmented rib and is particularly suited for altering high order frequency modes such as 2T, 4F and 1-3S. As such, detrimental crossings of natural bucket frequencies and gas turbine stimuli can be avoided to thereby improve the reliability of a gas turbine without impacting other features of the bucket that are important to the performance of the gas turbine.

  11. Modeling Smart Structure of Wind Turbine Blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Yin-hu; Han, Jiang; Zhang, Chun-yan; Chen, Jie-ping

    2012-06-01

    With the increasing size of wind turbine blades, the need for more sophisticated load control techniques has induced the interest for aerodynamic control systems with build-in intelligence on the blades. The paper aims to provide a way for modeling the adaptive wind turbine blades and analyze its ability for vibration suppress. It consists of the modeling of the adaptive wind turbine blades with the wire of piezoelectric material embedded in blade matrix, and smart sandwich structure of wind turbine blade. By using this model, an active vibration method which effectively suppresses the vibrations of the smart blade is designed.

  12. Aviation turbine fuels: An assessment of alternatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The general outlook for aviation turbine fuels, the effect that broadening permissible aviation turbine fuel properties could have on the overall availability of such fuels, the fuel properties most likely to be affected by use of lower grade petroleum crudes, and the research and technology required to ensure that aviation turbine fuels and engines can function satisfactorily with fuels having a range of fuel properties differing from those of current specification fuel are assessed. Views of industry representatives on alternative aviation turbine fuels are presented.

  13. Water turbine system and method of operation

    DOEpatents

    Costin, Daniel P [Montpelier, VT

    2011-05-10

    A system for providing electrical power from a current turbine is provided. The system includes a floatation device and a mooring. A water turbine structure is provided having an upper and lower portion wherein the lower portion includes a water fillable chamber. A plurality of cables are used to couple the system where a first cable couples the water turbine to the mooring and a second cable couples the floatation device to the first cable. The system is arranged to allow the turbine structure to be deployed and retrieved for service, repair, maintenance and redeployment.

  14. Water turbine system and method of operation

    DOEpatents

    Costin, Daniel P [Montpelier, VT

    2009-02-10

    A system for providing electrical power from a current turbine is provided. The system includes a floatation device and a mooring. A water turbine structure is provided having an upper and lower portion wherein the lower portion includes a water fillable chamber. A plurality of cables are used to couple the system where a first cable couples the water turbine to the mooring and a second cable couples the floatation device to the first cable. The system is arranged to allow the turbine structure to be deployed and retrieved for service, repair, maintenance and redeployment.

  15. Water turbine system and method of operation

    DOEpatents

    Costin, Daniel P.

    2010-06-15

    A system for providing electrical power from a current turbine is provided. The system includes a floatation device and a mooring. A water turbine structure is provided having an upper and lower portion wherein the lower portion includes a water fillable chamber. A plurality of cables are used to couple the system where a first cable couples the water turbine to the mooring and a second cable couples the floatation device to the first cable. The system is arranged to allow the turbine structure to be deployed and retrieved for service, repair, maintenance and redeployment.

  16. Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Advanced Turbine Technology Application Project (ATTAP) activities during the past year were highlighted by test-bed engine design and development activities; ceramic component design; materials and component characterization; ceramic component process development and fabrication; component rig testing; and test-bed engine fabrication and testing. Although substantial technical challenges remain, all areas exhibited progress. Test-bed engine design and development activity included engine mechanical design, power turbine flow-path design and mechanical layout, and engine system integration aimed at upgrading the AGT-5 from a 1038 C metal engine to a durable 1371 C structural ceramic component test-bed engine. ATTAP-defined ceramic and associated ceramic/metal component design activities include: the ceramic combustor body, the ceramic gasifier turbine static structure, the ceramic gasifier turbine rotor, the ceramic/metal power turbine static structure, and the ceramic power turbine rotors. The materials and component characterization efforts included the testing and evaluation of several candidate ceramic materials and components being developed for use in the ATTAP. Ceramic component process development and fabrication activities are being conducted for the gasifier turbine rotor, gasifier turbine vanes, gasifier turbine scroll, extruded regenerator disks, and thermal insulation. Component rig testing activities include the development of the necessary test procedures and conduction of rig testing of the ceramic components and assemblies. Four-hundred hours of hot gasifier rig test time were accumulated with turbine inlet temperatures exceeding 1204 C at 100 percent design gasifier speed. A total of 348.6 test hours were achieved on a single ceramic rotor without failure and a second ceramic rotor was retired in engine-ready condition at 364.9 test hours. Test-bed engine fabrication, testing, and development supported improvements in ceramic component technology

  17. Aircraft engine with inter-turbine engine frame supported counter rotating low pressure turbine rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seda, Jorge F. (Inventor); Dunbar, Lawrence W. (Inventor); Gliebe, Philip R. (Inventor); Szucs, Peter N. (Inventor); Brauer, John C. (Inventor); Johnson, James E. (Inventor); Moniz, Thomas (Inventor); Steinmetz, Gregory T. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An aircraft gas turbine engine assembly includes an inter-turbine frame axially located between high and low pressure turbines. Low pressure turbine has counter rotating low pressure inner and outer rotors with low pressure inner and outer shafts which are at least in part rotatably disposed co-axially within a high pressure rotor. Inter-turbine frame includes radially spaced apart radially outer first and inner second structural rings disposed co-axially about a centerline and connected by a plurality of circumferentially spaced apart struts. Forward and aft sump members having forward and aft central bores are fixedly joined to axially spaced apart forward and aft portions of the inter-turbine frame. Low pressure inner and outer rotors are rotatably supported by a second turbine frame bearing mounted in aft central bore of aft sump member. A mount for connecting the engine to an aircraft is located on first structural ring.

  18. Analysis of turbine-grid interaction of grid-connected wind turbine using HHT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, A.; Wu, W.; Miao, J.; Xie, D.

    2018-05-01

    This paper processes the output power of the grid-connected wind turbine with the denoising and extracting method based on Hilbert Huang transform (HHT) to discuss the turbine-grid interaction. At first, the detailed Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) and the Hilbert Transform (HT) are introduced. Then, on the premise of decomposing the output power of the grid-connected wind turbine into a series of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs), energy ratio and power volatility are calculated to detect the unessential components. Meanwhile, combined with vibration function of turbine-grid interaction, data fitting of instantaneous amplitude and phase of each IMF is implemented to extract characteristic parameters of different interactions. Finally, utilizing measured data of actual parallel-operated wind turbines in China, this work accurately obtains the characteristic parameters of turbine-grid interaction of grid-connected wind turbine.

  19. Method of making an aero-derivative gas turbine engine

    SciTech Connect

    Wiebe, David J.

    A method of making an aero-derivative gas turbine engine (100) is provided. A combustor outer casing (68) is removed from an existing aero gas turbine engine (60). An annular combustor (84) is removed from the existing aero gas turbine engine. A first row of turbine vanes (38) is removed from the existing aero gas turbine engine. A can annular combustor assembly (122) is installed within the existing aero gas turbine engine. The can annular combustor assembly is configured to accelerate and orient combustion gasses directly onto a first row of turbine blades of the existing aero gas turbine engine. Amore » can annular combustor assembly outer casing (108) is installed to produce the aero-derivative gas turbine engine (100). The can annular combustor assembly is installed within an axial span (85) of the existing aero gas turbine engine vacated by the annular combustor and the first row of turbine vanes.« less

  20. Turbine Engine Hot Section Technology (HOST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Research and plans concerning aircraft gas turbine engine hot section durability problems were discussed. Under the topics of structural analysis, fatigue and fracture, surface protective coatings, combustion, turbine heat transfer, and instrumentation specific points addressed were the thermal and fluid environment around liners, blades, and vanes, material coatings, constitutive behavior, stress-strain response, and life prediction methods for the three components.

  1. Energy 101: Wind Turbines - 2014 Update

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2018-05-11

    See how wind turbines generate clean electricity from the power of wind. The video highlights the basic principles at work in wind turbines, and illustrates how the various components work to capture and convert wind energy to electricity. This updated version also includes information on the Energy Department's efforts to advance offshore wind power. Offshore wind energy footage courtesy of Vestas.

  2. Design evolution of large wind turbine generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spera, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    During the past five years, the goals of economy and reliability have led to a significant evolution in the basic design--both external and internal--of large wind turbine systems. To show the scope and nature of recent changes in wind turbine designs, development of three types are described: (1) system configuration developments; (2) computer code developments; and (3) blade technology developments.

  3. Turbine design using complex modes and substructuring

    SciTech Connect

    Olausson, H.L.; Torby, B.J.

    1988-10-01

    A complex modal-analysis method for studying the behavior of a turbine near its design speed is presented. The modal calculations account for gyroscopic moments as well as nonsymmetric bearing effects. Results of calculations performed for a 650 MW ASEA STAL turbine installation are presented. 12 references.

  4. Modal testing of a rotating wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carne, T. G.; Nord, A. R.

    1982-11-01

    A testing technique was developed to measure the modes of vibration of a rotating vertical-axis wind turbine. This technique was applied to the Sandia Two-Meter Turbine, where the changes in individual modal frequencies as a function of the rotational speed were tracked from 0 rpm (parked) to 600 rpm. During rotational testing, the structural response was measured using a combination of strain gages and accelerometers, passing the signals through slip rings. Excitation of the turbine structure was provided by a scheme which suddenly released a pretensioned cable, thus plucking the turbine as it was rotating at a set speed. In addition to calculating the real modes of the parked turbine, the modes of the rotating turbine were also determined at several rotational speeds. The modes of the rotating system proved to be complex due to centrifugal and Coriolis effects. The modal data for the parked turbine were used to update a finite-element model. Also, the measured modal parameters for the rotating turbine were compared to the analytical results, thus verifying the analytical procedures used to incorporate the effects of the rotating coordinate system.

  5. The Electromagnetic Impact of Wind Turbines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-06

    Applied Project 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE THE ELECTROMAGNETIC IMPACT OF WIND TURBINES 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Gregory Sasarita and Charles R...DISTRIBUTION CODE A 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) The objective of this project was to investigate the impact that a wind turbine can have on

  6. Centaur boost pump turbine icing investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rollbuhler, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine if ice formation in the Centaur vehicle liquid oxygen boost pump turbine could prevent rotation of the pump and whether or not this phenomenon could have been the failure mechanism for the Titan/Centaur vehicle TC-1. The investigation consisted of a series of tests done in the LeRC Space Power Chamber Facility to evaluate evaporative cooling behavior patterns in a turbine as a function of the quantity of water trapped in the turbine and as a function of the vehicle ascent pressure profile. It was found that evaporative freezing of water in the turbine housing, due to rapid depressurization within the turbine during vehicle ascent, could result in the formation of ice that would block the turbine and prevent rotation of the boost pump. But for such icing conditions to exist it would be necessary to have significant quantities of water in the turbine and/or its components, and the turbine housing temperature would have to be colder than 40 F at vehicle liftoff.

  7. Method for detecting gas turbine engine flashback

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Kapil Kumar; Varatharajan, Balachandar; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Yilmaz, Ertan; Lacy, Benjamin Paul

    2012-09-04

    A method for monitoring and controlling a gas turbine, comprises predicting frequencies of combustion dynamics in a combustor using operating conditions of a gas turbine, receiving a signal from a sensor that is indicative of combustion dynamics in the combustor, and detecting a flashback if a frequency of the received signal does not correspond to the predicted frequencies.

  8. Design criteria monograph on axial flow turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Monograph provides guidelines for predicting turbine performance, sizing gas-path elements, and avoiding problems associated with mechanical design and development. Material in monograph is organized along lines of design and development effort necessary to produce turbine that satisfies requirements imposed on it.

  9. Wind-turbine-performance assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vachon, W. A.

    1982-06-01

    An updated summary of recent test data and experiences is reported from both federally and privately funded large wind turbine (WT) development and test programs, and from key WT programs in Europe. Progress and experiences on both the cluster of three MOD-2 2.5-MW WT's, the MOD-1 2-MW WT, and other WT installations are described. An examination of recent test experiences and plans from approximately five privately funded large WT programs in the United States indicates that, during machine checkout and startup, technical problems are identified, which require and startup, a number of technical problems are identified, which will require design changes and create program delays.

  10. Gas turbine engine control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Idelchik, Michael S. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A control system and method of controlling a gas turbine engine. The control system receives an error signal and processes the error signal to form a primary fuel control signal. The control system also receives at least one anticipatory demand signal and processes the signal to form an anticipatory fuel control signal. The control system adjusts the value of the anticipatory fuel control signal based on the value of the error signal to form an adjusted anticipatory signal and then the adjusted anticipatory fuel control signal and the primary fuel control signal are combined to form a fuel command signal.

  11. Aeroacoustics of large wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, Harvey H.; Shepherd, Kevin P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews published information on aerodynamically generated noise from large horizontal axis wind turbines operated for electric power generation. Methods are presented for predicting both the discrete frequency rotational noise components and the broadband noise components, and results are compared with measurements. Refraction effects that result in the formation of high-frequency shadow zones in the upwind direction and channeling effects for the low frequencies in the downwind direction are illustrated. Special topics such as distributed source effects in prediction and the role of building dynamics in perception are also included.

  12. Blade for a gas turbine

    DOEpatents

    Liang, George

    2010-10-26

    A blade is provided for a gas turbine. The blade comprises a main body comprising a cooling fluid entrance channel; a cooling fluid collector in communication with the cooling fluid entrance channel; a plurality of side channels extending through an outer wall of the main body and communicating with the cooling fluid collector and a cooling fluid cavity; a cooling fluid exit channel communicating with the cooling fluid cavity; and a plurality of exit bores extending from the cooling fluid exit channel through the main body outer wall.

  13. Braking System for Wind Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krysiak, J. E.; Webb, F. E.

    1987-01-01

    Operating turbine stopped smoothly by fail-safe mechanism. Windturbine braking systems improved by system consisting of two large steel-alloy disks mounted on high-speed shaft of gear box, and brakepad assembly mounted on bracket fastened to top of gear box. Lever arms (with brake pads) actuated by spring-powered, pneumatic cylinders connected to these arms. Springs give specific spring-loading constant and exert predetermined load onto brake pads through lever arms. Pneumatic cylinders actuated positively to compress springs and disengage brake pads from disks. During power failure, brakes automatically lock onto disks, producing highly reliable, fail-safe stops. System doubles as stopping brake and "parking" brake.

  14. Multiple piece turbine rotor blade

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Russell B; Fedock, John A

    2013-05-21

    A multiple piece turbine rotor blade with a shell having an airfoil shape and secured between a spar and a platform with the spar including a tip end piece. a snap ring fits around the spar and abuts against the spar tip end piece on a top side and abuts against a shell on the bottom side so that the centrifugal loads from the shell is passed through the snap ring and into the spar and not through a tip cap dovetail slot and projection structure.

  15. Low thermal stress ceramic turbine nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Glezer, Boris; Bagheri, Hamid; Fierstein, Aaron R.

    1996-01-01

    A turbine nozzle vane assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and being attached to conventional metallic components. The metallic components having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the turbine nozzle vane assembly. The turbine nozzle vane assembly includes an outer shroud and an inner shroud having a plurality of vanes therebetween. Each of the plurality of vanes have a device for heating and cooling a portion of each of the plurality of vanes. Furthermore, the inner shroud has a plurality of bosses attached thereto. A cylindrical member has a plurality of grooves formed therein and each of the plurality of bosses are positioned in corresponding ones of the plurality of grooves. The turbine nozzle vane assembly provides an economical, reliable and effective ceramic component having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the other component.

  16. 'Wind turbine syndrome': fact or fiction?

    PubMed

    Farboud, A; Crunkhorn, R; Trinidade, A

    2013-03-01

    Symptoms, including tinnitus, ear pain and vertigo, have been reported following exposure to wind turbine noise. This review addresses the effects of infrasound and low frequency noise and questions the existence of 'wind turbine syndrome'. This review is based on a search for articles published within the last 10 years, conducted using the PubMed database and Google Scholar search engine, which included in their title or abstract the terms 'wind turbine', 'infrasound' or 'low frequency noise'. There is evidence that infrasound has a physiological effect on the ear. Until this effect is fully understood, it is impossible to conclude that wind turbine noise does not cause any of the symptoms described. However, many believe that these symptoms are related largely to the stress caused by unwanted noise exposure. There is some evidence of symptoms in patients exposed to wind turbine noise. The effects of infrasound require further investigation.

  17. The AGT 101 advanced automotive gas turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rackley, R. A.; Kidwell, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    A development program is described whose goal is the accumulation of the technology base needed by the U.S. automotive industry for the production of automotive gas turbine powertrains. Such gas turbine designs must exhibit reduced fuel consumption, a multi-fuel capability, and low exhaust emissions. The AGT101 powertrain described is a 74.6 kW, regenerated single-shaft gas turbine, operating at a maximum inlet temperature of 1644 K and coupled to a split differential gearbox and automatic overdrive transmission. The engine's single stage centrifugal compressor and single stage radial inflow turbine are mounted on a common shaft, and will operate at a maximum rotor speed of 100,000 rpm. All high temperature components, including the turbine rotor, are ceramic.

  18. Turbine Engine Hot Section Technology 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The Turbine Engine Hot Section Technology (HOST) Project of the NASA Lewis Research Center sponsored a workshop to discuss current research pertinent to turbine engine durability problems. Presentations were made concerning the hot section environment and the behavior of combustion liners, turbine blades, and turbine vanes. The presentations were divided into six sessions: Instrumentation, Combustion, Turbine Heat Transfer, Structural Analysis, Fatigue and Fracture, and Surface Protection. Topics discussed included modeling of thermal and fluid-flow phenomena, structural analysis, fatigue and fracture, surface protective coatings, constitutive behavior of materials, stress-strain response, and life-prediction methods. Researchers from industry, academia, and government presented results of their work sponsored by the HOST project.

  19. Recent Rapid Decline of the Arctic Winter Sea Ice in the Barents-Kara Seas Owing to Combined Effects of the Ural Blocking and SST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Binhe; Yao, Yao

    2018-04-01

    This study investigates why the Arctic winter sea ice loss over the Barents-Kara Seas (BKS) is accelerated in the recent decade. We first divide 1979-2013 into two time periods: 1979-2000 (P1) and 2001-13 (P2), with a focus on P2 and the difference between P1 and P2. The results show that during P2, the rapid decline of the sea ice over the BKS is related not only to the high sea surface temperature (SST) over the BKS, but also to the increased frequency, duration, and quasi-stationarity of the Ural blocking (UB) events. Observational analysis reveals that during P2, the UB tends to become quasi stationary and its frequency tends to increase due to the weakening (strengthening) of zonal winds over the Eurasia (North Atlantic) when the surface air temperature (SAT) anomaly over the BKS is positive probably because of the high SST. Strong downward infrared (IR) radiation is seen to occur together with the quasi-stationary and persistent UB because of the accumulation of more water vapor over the BKS. Such downward IR favors the sea ice decline over the BKS, although the high SST over the BKS plays a major role. But for P1, the UB becomes westward traveling due to the opposite distribution of zonal winds relative to P2, resulting in weak downward IR over the BKS. This may lead to a weak decline of the sea ice over the BKS. Thus, it is likely that the rapid decline of the sea ice over the BKS during P2 is attributed to the joint effects of the high SST over the BKS and the quasi-stationary and long-lived UB events.

  20. Effect of rainfall intensity and slope steepness on the development of soil erosion in the Southern Cis-Ural region (A model experiment)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobol, N. V.; Gabbasova, I. M.; Komissarov, M. A.

    2017-09-01

    The effect of rainfall intensity on the erosion of residual calcareous agrogray soils and clay-illuvial agrochernozems in the Southern Cis-Ural region on slopes of different inclination and vegetation type has been studied by simulating with a small-size sprinkler. It has been shown that soil loss linearly depends on rainfall intensity (2, 4, and 6 mm/min) and slope inclination (3° and 7°). When the rainfall intensity and duration, and the slope inclination increase, soil loss by erosion from agrogray soils increases higher than from agrochernozems. On the plowland with a slope of 3°, runoff begins 12, 10, and 5 min, on the average, after the beginning of rains at these intensities. When the slope increases to 7°, runoff begins earlier by 7, 6, and 4 min, respectively. After the beginning of runoff and with its increase by 1 mm, the soil loss from slopes of 3° and 7° reaches 4.2 and 25.7 t/ha on agrogray soils and 1.4 and 4.7 t/ha on agrochernozems, respectively. Fallow soils have higher erosion resistance, and the soil loss little depends on the slope gradient: it gradually increases to 0.3-1.0 t/ha per 1 mm of runoff with increasing rainfall intensity and duration. The content of physical clay in eroded material is higher than in the original soils. Fine fractions prevail in this material, which increases their humus content. The increase in rainfall intensity and duration to 4 and 6 mm/min results in the entrapment of coarse silt and sand by runoff.

  1. Alteration and chemical U-Th-total Pb dating of heterogeneous high-uranium zircon from a pegmatite from the Aduiskii massif, middle Urals, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamyatin, Dmitry A.; Shchapova, Yuliya V.; Votyakov, Sergey L.; Nasdala, Lutz; Lenz, Christoph

    2017-09-01

    The U-Th-Pb isotope system in the accessory mineral zircon may be disturbed, as for instance by the secondary loss of radiogenic lead. The recognition of such alteration is crucial for the sound interpretation of geochronology results, in particular for chemical dating by means of an electron probe micro-analyser (EPMA). Here we present the example of high-U zircon samples from a granite pegmatite from the Aduiskii Massif, Middle Urals, Russia. The structural and chemical heterogeneity of samples was characterised by EPMA, including joint probability distribution (JPD) analysis of back-scattered electrons (BSE), cathodoluminescence (CL) and U M β images, and by Raman and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. We found a high-U interior region (U up to 11.4 wt%) without any obvious indication of alteration. This domain has stoichiometric composition, and its Raman spectrum is similar to that of amorphous ZrSiO4. In addition, altered lower-U regions are present that are non-stoichiometric and contain non-formula elements such as Ca, Al, Fe, and water up to several wt%. Their Raman spectra yielded a band near 760-810 cm-1 which is not related to any ZrSiO4 vibration; we assign it tentatively to the symmetric stretching of (UO2)2+ groups. This assignment is supported by the observation of a fairly intense PL phenomenon whose spectral position and vibrational-coupling structure strongly indicates a uranyl-related emission. Altered zones were formed by both fluid-driven diffusion reaction and coupled dissolution-reprecipitation processes. The variation of BSE and CL intensities in amorphous high-U zircon is controlled by its chemical composition and the presence of water and uranyl groups. We have determined a weighted mean EPMA age of 246 ± 2 Ma, which agrees reasonably well with previous dating results for the Aduiskii Massif.

  2. Model testing of radioactive contamination by 90Sr, 137Cs and 239,240Pu of water and bottom sediments in the Techa River (Southern Urals, Russia).

    PubMed

    Kryshev, I I; Boyer, P; Monte, L; Brittain, J E; Dzyuba, N N; Krylov, A L; Kryshev, A I; Nosov, A V; Sanina, K D; Zheleznyak, M I

    2009-03-15

    This paper presents results of testing models for the radioactive contamination of river water and bottom sediments by (90)Sr, (137)Cs and (239,240)Pu. The scenario for the model testing was based on data from the Techa River (Southern Urals, Russia), which was contaminated as a result of discharges of liquid radioactive waste into the river. The endpoints of the scenario were model predictions of the activity concentrations of (90)Sr, (137)Cs and (239,240)Pu in water and bottom sediments along the Techa River in 1996. Calculations for the Techa scenario were performed by six participant teams from France (model CASTEAUR), Italy (model MARTE), Russia (models TRANSFER-2, CASSANDRA, GIDRO-W) and Ukraine (model RIVTOX), all using different models. As a whole, the radionuclide predictions for (90)Sr in water for all considered models, (137)Cs for MARTE and TRANSFER-2, and (239,240)Pu for TRANSFER-2 and CASSANDRA can be considered sufficiently reliable, whereas the prediction for sediments should be considered cautiously. At the same time the CASTEAUR and RIVTOX models estimate the activity concentrations of (137)Cs and (239,240)Pu in water more reliably than in bottom sediments. The models MARTE ((239,240)Pu) and CASSANDRA ((137)Cs) evaluated the activity concentrations of radionuclides in sediments with about the same agreement with observations as for water. For (90)Sr and (137)Cs the agreement between empirical data and model predictions was good, but not for all the observations of (239,240)Pu in the river water-bottom sediment system. The modelling of (239,240)Pu distribution proved difficult because, in contrast to (137)Cs and (90)Sr, most of models have not been previously tested or validated for plutonium.

  3. Nickel Base Superalloy Turbine Disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabb, Timothy P. (Inventor); Gauda, John (Inventor); Telesman, Ignacy (Inventor); Kantzos, Pete T. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A low solvus, high refractory alloy having unusually versatile processing mechanical property capabilities for advanced disks and rotors in gas turbine engines. The nickel base superalloy has a composition consisting essentially of, in weight percent, 3.0-4.0 N, 0.02-0.04 B, 0.02-0.05 C, 12.0-14.0 Cr, 19.0-22.0 Co, 2.0-3.5 Mo, greater than 1.0 to 2.1 Nb, 1.3 to 2.1 Ta,3.04.OTi,4.1 to 5.0 W, 0.03-0.06 Zr, and balance essentially Ni and incidental impurities. The superalloy combines ease of processing with high temperature capabilities to be suitable for use in various turbine engine disk, impeller, and shaft applications. The Co and Cr levels of the superalloy can provide low solvus temperature for high processing versatility. The W, Mo, Ta, and Nb refractory element levels of the superalloy can provide sustained strength, creep, and dwell crack growth resistance at high temperatures.

  4. Coal fired air turbine cogeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster-Pegg, R. W.

    Fuel options and generator configurations for installation of cogenerator equipment are reviewed, noting that the use of oil or gas may be precluded by cost or legislation within the lifetime of any cogeneration equipment yet to be installed. A coal fueled air turbine cogenerator plant is described, which uses external combustion in a limestone bed at atmospheric pressure and in which air tubes are sunk to gain heat for a gas turbine. The limestone in the 26 MW unit absorbs sulfur from the coal, and can be replaced by other sorbents depending on types of coal available and stringency of local environmental regulations. Low temperature combustion reduces NOx formation and release of alkali salts and corrosion. The air heat is exhausted through a heat recovery boiler to produce process steam, then can be refed into the combustion chamber to satisfy preheat requirements. All parts of the cogenerator are designed to withstand full combustion temperature (1500 F) in the event of air flow stoppage. Costs are compared with those of a coal fired boiler and purchased power, and it is shown that the increased capital requirements for cogenerator apparatus will yield a 2.8 year payback. Detailed flow charts, diagrams and costs schedules are included.

  5. Small gas turbine engine technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedzwiecki, Richard W.; Meitner, Peter L.

    1988-01-01

    Performance of small gas turbine engines in the 250 to 1,000 horsepower size range is significantly lower than that of large engines. Engines of this size are typically used in rotorcraft, commutercraft, general aviation, and cruise missile applications. Principal reasons for the lower efficiencies of a smaller engine are well known: component efficients are lower by as much as 8 to 10 percentage points because of size effects. Small engines are designed for lower cycle pressures and temperatures because of smaller blading and cooling limitations. The highly developed analytical and manufacturing techniques evolved for large engines are not directly transferrable to small engines. Thus, it was recognized that a focused effort addressing technologies for small engies was needed and could significantly impact their performance. Recently, in-house and contract studies were undertaken at the NASA Lewis Research Center to identify advanced engine cycle and component requirements for substantial performance improvement of small gas turbines for projected year 2000 applications. The results of both in-house research and contract studies are presented. In summary, projected fuel savings of 22 to 42 percent could be obtained. Accompanying direct operating cost reductions of 11 to 17 percent, depending on fuel cost, were also estimated. High payoff technologies are identified for all engine applications, and recent results of experimental research to evolve the high payoff technologies are described.

  6. AGT-102 automotive gas turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Development of a gas turbine powertrain with a 30% fuel economy improvement over a comparable S1 reciprocating engine, operation within 0.41 HC, 3.4 CO, and 0.40 NOx grams per mile emissions levels, and ability to use a variety of alternate fuels is summarized. The powertrain concept consists of a single-shaft engine with a ceramic inner shell for containment of hot gasses and support of twin regenerators. It uses a fixed-geometry, lean, premixed, prevaporized combustor, and a ceramic radial turbine rotor supported by an air-lubricated journal bearing. The engine is coupled to the vehicle through a widerange continuously variable transmission, which utilizes gearing and a variable-ratio metal compression belt. A response assist flywheel is used to achieve acceptable levels of engine response. The package offers a 100 lb weight advantage in a Chrysler K Car front-wheel-drive installation. Initial layout studies, preliminary transient thermal analysis, ceramic inner housing structural analysis, and detailed performance analysis were carried out for the basic engine.

  7. Combustion Sensors: Gas Turbine Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Human, Mel

    2002-01-01

    This report documents efforts to survey the current research directions in sensor technology for gas turbine systems. The work is driven by the current and future requirements on system performance and optimization. Accurate real time measurements of velocities, pressure, temperatures, and species concentrations will be required for objectives such as combustion instability attenuation, pollutant reduction, engine health management, exhaust profile control via active control, etc. Changing combustor conditions - engine aging, flow path slagging, or rapid maneuvering - will require adaptive responses; the effectiveness of such will be only as good as the dynamic information available for processing. All of these issues point toward the importance of continued sensor development. For adequate control of the combustion process, sensor data must include information about the above mentioned quantities along with equivalence ratios and radical concentrations, and also include both temporal and spatial velocity resolution. Ultimately these devices must transfer from the laboratory to field installations, and thus must become low weight and cost, reliable and maintainable. A primary conclusion from this study is that the optics-based sensor science will be the primary diagnostic in future gas turbine technologies.

  8. Turbine blade tip flow discouragers

    DOEpatents

    Bunker, Ronald Scott

    2000-01-01

    A turbine assembly comprises a plurality of rotating blade portions in a spaced relation with a stationery shroud. The rotating blade portions comprise a root section, a tip portion and an airfoil. The tip portion has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall. A number of flow discouragers are disposed on the blade tip portion. In one embodiment, the flow discouragers extend circumferentially from the pressure side wall to the suction side wall so as to be aligned generally parallel to the direction of rotation. In an alternative embodiment, the flow discouragers extend circumferentially from the pressure side wall to the suction side wall so as to be aligned at an angle in the range between about 0.degree. to about 60.degree. with respect to a reference axis aligned generally parallel to the direction of rotation. The flow discouragers increase the flow resistance and thus reduce the flow of hot gas flow leakage for a given pressure differential across the blade tip portion so as to improve overall turbine efficiency.

  9. Ceramic applications in turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrd, J. A.; Janovicz, M. A.; Thrasher, S. R.

    1981-01-01

    Development testing activities on the 1900 F-configuration ceramic parts were completed, 2070 F-configuration ceramic component rig and engine testing was initiated, and the conceptual design for the 2265 F-configuration engine was identified. Fabrication of the 2070 F-configuration ceramic parts continued, along with burner rig development testing of the 2070 F-configuration metal combustor in preparation for 1132 C (2070 F) qualification test conditions. Shakedown testing of the hot engine simulator (HES) rig was also completed in preparation for testing of a spin rig-qualified ceramic-bladed rotor assembly at 1132 C (2070 F) test conditions. Concurrently, ceramics from new sources and alternate materials continued to be evaluated, and fabrication of 2070 F-configuration ceramic component from these new sources continued. Cold spin testing of the critical 2070 F-configuration blade continued in the spin test rig to qualify a set of ceramic blades at 117% engine speed for the gasifier turbine rotor. Rig testing of the ceramic-bladed gasifier turbine rotor assembly at 108% engine speed was also performed, which resulted in the failure of one blade. The new three-piece hot seal with the nickel oxide/calcium fluoride wearface composition was qualified in the regenerator rig and introduced to engine operation wiwth marginal success.

  10. 14 CFR 29.939 - Turbine engine operating characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Turbine engine operating characteristics....939 Turbine engine operating characteristics. (a) Turbine engine operating characteristics must be... limitations of the rotorcraft and of the engine. (b) The turbine engine air inlet system may not, as a result...

  11. 14 CFR 27.939 - Turbine engine operating characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Turbine engine operating characteristics....939 Turbine engine operating characteristics. (a) Turbine engine operating characteristics must be... limitations of the rotorcraft and of the engine. (b) The turbine engine air inlet system may not, as a result...

  12. 14 CFR 27.939 - Turbine engine operating characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Turbine engine operating characteristics....939 Turbine engine operating characteristics. (a) Turbine engine operating characteristics must be... limitations of the rotorcraft and of the engine. (b) The turbine engine air inlet system may not, as a result...

  13. 14 CFR 29.939 - Turbine engine operating characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Turbine engine operating characteristics....939 Turbine engine operating characteristics. (a) Turbine engine operating characteristics must be... limitations of the rotorcraft and of the engine. (b) The turbine engine air inlet system may not, as a result...

  14. Cost Effective Repair Techniques for Turbine Airfoils. Volume I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-11-01

    Turbine blades and vanes in current engines are subjected to the most hostile environment...payoff potential in turbine vanes / blades . The criteria used included: • Incidence of damage - Scrapped or damaged turbine airfoils at the ALC centers...Corporate Author: GENERAL ELECTRIC CO CINCINNATI OHIO AIRCRAFT ENGINE GROUP Unclassified Title: (U) Cost Effective Repair Techniques for Turbine

  15. 14 CFR 27.939 - Turbine engine operating characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Turbine engine operating characteristics....939 Turbine engine operating characteristics. (a) Turbine engine operating characteristics must be... limitations of the rotorcraft and of the engine. (b) The turbine engine air inlet system may not, as a result...

  16. 14 CFR 27.939 - Turbine engine operating characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Turbine engine operating characteristics....939 Turbine engine operating characteristics. (a) Turbine engine operating characteristics must be... limitations of the rotorcraft and of the engine. (b) The turbine engine air inlet system may not, as a result...

  17. 14 CFR 27.939 - Turbine engine operating characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Turbine engine operating characteristics....939 Turbine engine operating characteristics. (a) Turbine engine operating characteristics must be... limitations of the rotorcraft and of the engine. (b) The turbine engine air inlet system may not, as a result...

  18. 14 CFR 29.939 - Turbine engine operating characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Turbine engine operating characteristics....939 Turbine engine operating characteristics. (a) Turbine engine operating characteristics must be... limitations of the rotorcraft and of the engine. (b) The turbine engine air inlet system may not, as a result...

  19. 14 CFR 29.939 - Turbine engine operating characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Turbine engine operating characteristics....939 Turbine engine operating characteristics. (a) Turbine engine operating characteristics must be... limitations of the rotorcraft and of the engine. (b) The turbine engine air inlet system may not, as a result...

  20. 14 CFR 29.939 - Turbine engine operating characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Turbine engine operating characteristics....939 Turbine engine operating characteristics. (a) Turbine engine operating characteristics must be... limitations of the rotorcraft and of the engine. (b) The turbine engine air inlet system may not, as a result...

  1. Advanced Thermoplastic Resins for Manufacturing Wind Turbine Blades |

    Science.gov Websites

    Turbine Blades Advanced Thermoplastic Resins for Manufacturing Wind Turbine Blades At its Composites Arkema's Elium liquid thermoplastic resin. Photo of men working on turbine blades in a dome-shaped building composite structures of wind turbine blades. Capabilities Learn more about NREL's IACMI projects and its

  2. Method and apparatus for preventing overspeed in a gas turbine

    DOEpatents

    Walker, William E.

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus for preventing overspeed in a gas turbine in response to the rapid loss of applied load is disclosed. The method involves diverting gas from the inlet of the turbine, bypassing the same around the turbine and thereafter injecting the diverted gas at the turbine exit in a direction toward or opposing the flow of gas through the turbine. The injected gas is mixed with the gas exiting the turbine to thereby minimize the thermal shock upon equipment downstream of the turbine exit.

  3. LIST/BMI Turbines Instrumentation and Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    JONES,PERRY L.; SUTHERLAND,HERBERT J.; NEAL,BYRON A.

    2001-06-01

    In support of two major SNL programs, the Long-term Inflow and Structural Test (LIST) program and the Blade Manufacturing Initiative (BMI), three Micon 65/13M wind turbines have been erected at the USDA Agriculture Research Service (ARS) center in Bushland, Texas. The inflow and structural response of these turbines are being monitored with an array of 60 instruments: 34 to characterize the inflow, 19 to characterize structural response and 7 to characterize the time-varying state of the turbine. The primary characterization of the inflow into the LIST turbine relies upon an array of five sonic anemometers. Primary characterization of the structuralmore » response of the turbine uses several sets of strain gauges to measure bending loads on the blades and the tower and two accelerometers to measure the motion of the nacelle. Data are sampled at a rate of 30 Hz using a newly developed data acquisition system. The system features a time-synchronized continuous data stream and telemetered data from the turbine rotor. This paper documents the instruments and infrastructure that have been developed to monitor these turbines and their inflow.« less

  4. Computational Tools to Assess Turbine Biological Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, Marshall C.; Serkowski, John A.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.

    2014-07-24

    Public Utility District No. 2 of Grant County (GCPUD) operates the Priest Rapids Dam (PRD), a hydroelectric facility on the Columbia River in Washington State. The dam contains 10 Kaplan-type turbine units that are now more than 50 years old. Plans are underway to refit these aging turbines with new runners. The Columbia River at PRD is a migratory pathway for several species of juvenile and adult salmonids, so passage of fish through the dam is a major consideration when upgrading the turbines. In this paper, a method for turbine biological performance assessment (BioPA) is demonstrated. Using this method, amore » suite of biological performance indicators is computed based on simulated data from a CFD model of a proposed turbine design. Each performance indicator is a measure of the probability of exposure to a certain dose of an injury mechanism. Using known relationships between the dose of an injury mechanism and frequency of injury (dose–response) from laboratory or field studies, the likelihood of fish injury for a turbine design can be computed from the performance indicator. By comparing the values of the indicators from proposed designs, the engineer can identify the more-promising alternatives. We present an application of the BioPA method for baseline risk assessment calculations for the existing Kaplan turbines at PRD that will be used as the minimum biological performance that a proposed new design must achieve.« less

  5. Large-scale wind turbine structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spera, David A.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to show how structural technology was applied in the design of modern wind turbines, which were recently brought to an advanced stage of development as sources of renewable power. Wind turbine structures present many difficult problems because they are relatively slender and flexible; subject to vibration and aeroelastic instabilities; acted upon by loads which are often nondeterministic; operated continuously with little maintenance in all weather; and dominated by life-cycle cost considerations. Progress in horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT) development was paced by progress in the understanding of structural loads, modeling of structural dynamic response, and designing of innovative structural response. During the past 15 years a series of large HAWTs was developed. This has culminated in the recent completion of the world's largest operating wind turbine, the 3.2 MW Mod-5B power plane installed on the island of Oahu, Hawaii. Some of the applications of structures technology to wind turbine will be illustrated by referring to the Mod-5B design. First, a video overview will be presented to provide familiarization with the Mod-5B project and the important components of the wind turbine system. Next, the structural requirements for large-scale wind turbines will be discussed, emphasizing the difficult fatigue-life requirements. Finally, the procedures used to design the structure will be presented, including the use of the fracture mechanics approach for determining allowable fatigue stresses.

  6. Chapter 15: Reliability of Wind Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Shuangwen; O'Connor, Ryan

    The global wind industry has witnessed exciting developments in recent years. The future will be even brighter with further reductions in capital and operation and maintenance costs, which can be accomplished with improved turbine reliability, especially when turbines are installed offshore. One opportunity for the industry to improve wind turbine reliability is through the exploration of reliability engineering life data analysis based on readily available data or maintenance records collected at typical wind plants. If adopted and conducted appropriately, these analyses can quickly save operation and maintenance costs in a potentially impactful manner. This chapter discusses wind turbine reliability bymore » highlighting the methodology of reliability engineering life data analysis. It first briefly discusses fundamentals for wind turbine reliability and the current industry status. Then, the reliability engineering method for life analysis, including data collection, model development, and forecasting, is presented in detail and illustrated through two case studies. The chapter concludes with some remarks on potential opportunities to improve wind turbine reliability. An owner and operator's perspective is taken and mechanical components are used to exemplify the potential benefits of reliability engineering analysis to improve wind turbine reliability and availability.« less

  7. Behavior of bats at wind turbines.

    PubMed

    Cryan, Paul M; Gorresen, P Marcos; Hein, Cris D; Schirmacher, Michael R; Diehl, Robert H; Huso, Manuela M; Hayman, David T S; Fricker, Paul D; Bonaccorso, Frank J; Johnson, Douglas H; Heist, Kevin; Dalton, David C

    2014-10-21

    Wind turbines are causing unprecedented numbers of bat fatalities. Many fatalities involve tree-roosting bats, but reasons for this higher susceptibility remain unknown. To better understand behaviors associated with risk, we monitored bats at three experimentally manipulated wind turbines in Indiana, United States, from July 29 to October 1, 2012, using thermal cameras and other methods. We observed bats on 993 occasions and saw many behaviors, including close approaches, flight loops and dives, hovering, and chases. Most bats altered course toward turbines during observation. Based on these new observations, we tested the hypotheses that wind speed and blade rotation speed influenced the way that bats interacted with turbines. We found that bats were detected more frequently at lower wind speeds and typically approached turbines on the leeward (downwind) side. The proportion of leeward approaches increased with wind speed when blades were prevented from turning, yet decreased when blades could turn. Bats were observed more frequently at turbines on moonlit nights. Taken together, these observations suggest that bats may orient toward turbines by sensing air currents and using vision, and that air turbulence caused by fast-moving blades creates conditions that are less attractive to bats passing in close proximity. Tree bats may respond to streams of air flowing downwind from trees at night while searching for roosts, conspecifics, and nocturnal insect prey that could accumulate in such flows. Fatalities of tree bats at turbines may be the consequence of behaviors that evolved to provide selective advantages when elicited by tall trees, but are now maladaptive when elicited by wind turbines.

  8. Behavior of bats at wind turbines

    PubMed Central

    Cryan, Paul. M.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Hein, Cris D.; Schirmacher, Michael R.; Diehl, Robert H.; Huso, Manuela M.; Hayman, David T. S.; Fricker, Paul D.; Bonaccorso, Frank J.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Heist, Kevin; Dalton, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Wind turbines are causing unprecedented numbers of bat fatalities. Many fatalities involve tree-roosting bats, but reasons for this higher susceptibility remain unknown. To better understand behaviors associated with risk, we monitored bats at three experimentally manipulated wind turbines in Indiana, United States, from July 29 to October 1, 2012, using thermal cameras and other methods. We observed bats on 993 occasions and saw many behaviors, including close approaches, flight loops and dives, hovering, and chases. Most bats altered course toward turbines during observation. Based on these new observations, we tested the hypotheses that wind speed and blade rotation speed influenced the way that bats interacted with turbines. We found that bats were detected more frequently at lower wind speeds and typically approached turbines on the leeward (downwind) side. The proportion of leeward approaches increased with wind speed when blades were prevented from turning, yet decreased when blades could turn. Bats were observed more frequently at turbines on moonlit nights. Taken together, these observations suggest that bats may orient toward turbines by sensing air currents and using vision, and that air turbulence caused by fast-moving blades creates conditions that are less attractive to bats passing in close proximity. Tree bats may respond to streams of air flowing downwind from trees at night while searching for roosts, conspecifics, and nocturnal insect prey that could accumulate in such flows. Fatalities of tree bats at turbines may be the consequence of behaviors that evolved to provide selective advantages when elicited by tall trees, but are now maladaptive when elicited by wind turbines. PMID:25267628

  9. Behavior of bats at wind turbines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cryan, Paul M.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Hine, Cris D.; Schirmacher, Michael; Diehl, Robert H.; Huso, Manuela M.; Hayman, David T.S.; Fricker, Paul D.; Bonaccorso, Frank J.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Heist, Kevin W.; Dalton, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Wind turbines are causing unprecedented numbers of bat fatalities. Many fatalities involve tree-roosting bats, but reasons for this higher susceptibility remain unknown. To better understand behaviors associated with risk, we monitored bats at three experimentally manipulated wind turbines in Indiana, United States, from July 29 to October 1, 2012, using thermal cameras and other methods. We observed bats on 993 occasions and saw many behaviors, including close approaches, flight loops and dives, hovering, and chases. Most bats altered course toward turbines during observation. Based on these new observations, we tested the hypotheses that wind speed and blade rotation speed influenced the way that bats interacted with turbines. We found that bats were detected more frequently at lower wind speeds and typically approached turbines on the leeward (downwind) side. The proportion of leeward approaches increased with wind speed when blades were prevented from turning, yet decreased when blades could turn. Bats were observed more frequently at turbines on moonlit nights. Taken together, these observations suggest that bats may orient toward turbines by sensing air currents and using vision, and that air turbulence caused by fast-moving blades creates conditions that are less attractive to bats passing in close proximity. Tree bats may respond to streams of air flowing downwind from trees at night while searching for roosts, conspecifics, and nocturnal insect prey that could accumulate in such flows. Fatalities of tree bats at turbines may be the consequence of behaviors that evolved to provide selective advantages when elicited by tall trees, but are now maladaptive when elicited by wind turbines.

  10. Development and Analysis of a Bi-Directional Tidal Turbine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    commercial CFD software ANSYS CFX was utilized to build a turbine map. The basic turbine map was developed for a 25 blade bi-axial turbine under...directional turbine created for this purpose. In the present study, the commercial CFD software ANSYS CFX was utilized to build a turbine map. The...sheath C. PROBLEM SPECIFICATIONS AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS The simulation definition was created using ANSYS CFX -Pre. The best measurements to determine

  11. Review of fluid and control technology of hydraulic wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Maolin; Wang, Yixuan; Jiao, Zongxia; Shi, Yan

    2017-09-01

    This study examines the development of the fluid and control technology of hydraulic wind turbines. The current state of hydraulic wind turbines as a new technology is described, and its basic fluid model and typical control method are expounded by comparing various study results. Finally, the advantages of hydraulic wind turbines are enumerated. Hydraulic wind turbines are expected to become the main development direction of wind turbines.

  12. Effects of Pulsing on Film Cooling of Gas Turbine Airfoils

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-09

    turbine engine . 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 70 14. SUBJECT TERMS: Turbine blade ; Film cooling ; Pulsed jet 16. PRICE CODE 17...with additional research, ultimately allowing for an increased efficiency in a gas turbine engine . 2 Keywords Turbine blade Film cooling Pulsed jet ... engine for aircraft propulsion…………………. 11 Figure 2: Thermodynamic cycle of a general turbine engine . ………………………..…… 11

  13. New airfoil sections for straight bladed turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boumaza, B.

    1987-07-01

    A theoretical investigation of aerodynamic performance for vertical axis Darrieus wind turbine with new airfoils sections is carried out. The blade section aerodynamics characteristics are determined from turbomachines cascade model. The model is also adapted to the vertical Darrieus turbine for the performance prediction of the machine. In order to choose appropriate value of zero-lift-drag coefficient in calculation, an analytical expression is introduced as function of chord-radius ratio and Reynolds numbers. New airfoils sections are proposed and analyzed for straight-bladed turbine.

  14. Forced pitch motion of wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leble, V.; Barakos, G.

    2016-09-01

    The possibility of a wind turbine entering vortex ring state during pitching oscillations is explored in this paper. The aerodynamic performance of the rotor was computed using the Helicopter Multi-Block flow solver. This code solves the Navier-Stokes equations in integral form using the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation for time-dependent domains with moving boundaries. A 10-MW wind turbine was put to perform yawing and pitching oscillations suggesting the partial vortex ring state during pitching motion. The results also show the strong effect of the frequency and amplitude of oscillations on the wind turbine performance.

  15. Gas turbine bucket wall thickness control

    DOEpatents

    Stathopoulos, Dimitrios; Xu, Liming; Lewis, Doyle C.

    2002-01-01

    A core for use in casting a turbine bucket including serpentine cooling passages is divided into two pieces including a leading edge core section and a trailing edge core section. Wall thicknesses at the leading edge and the trailing edge of the turbine bucket can be controlled independent of each other by separately positioning the leading edge core section and the trailing edge core section in the casting die. The controlled leading and trailing edge thicknesses can thus be optimized for efficient cooling, resulting in more efficient turbine operation.

  16. Baseline automotive gas turbine engine development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, C. E. (Editor); Pampreen, R. C. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Tests results on a baseline engine are presented to document the automotive gas turbine state-of-the-art at the start of the program. The performance characteristics of the engine and of a vehicle powered by this engine are defined. Component improvement concepts in the baseline engine were evaluated on engine dynamometer tests in the complete vehicle on a chassis dynamometer and on road tests. The concepts included advanced combustors, ceramic regenerators, an integrated control system, low cost turbine material, a continuously variable transmission, power-turbine-driven accessories, power augmentation, and linerless insulation in the engine housing.

  17. Wind Farm Turbine Type and Placement Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Peter; Dykes, Katherine; Scott, George; Fields, Jason; Lunacek, Monte; Quick, Julian; Rethore, Pierre-Elouan

    2016-09-01

    The layout of turbines in a wind farm is already a challenging nonlinear, nonconvex, nonlinearly constrained continuous global optimization problem. Here we begin to address the next generation of wind farm optimization problems by adding the complexity that there is more than one turbine type to choose from. The optimization becomes a nonlinear constrained mixed integer problem, which is a very difficult class of problems to solve. This document briefly summarizes the algorithm and code we have developed, the code validation steps we have performed, and the initial results for multi-turbine type and placement optimization (TTP_OPT) we have run.

  18. Wind farm turbine type and placement optimization

    DOE PAGES

    Graf, Peter; Dykes, Katherine; Scott, George; ...

    2016-10-03

    The layout of turbines in a wind farm is already a challenging nonlinear, nonconvex, nonlinearly constrained continuous global optimization problem. Here we begin to address the next generation of wind farm optimization problems by adding the complexity that there is more than one turbine type to choose from. The optimization becomes a nonlinear constrained mixed integer problem, which is a very difficult class of problems to solve. Furthermore, this document briefly summarizes the algorithm and code we have developed, the code validation steps we have performed, and the initial results for multi-turbine type and placement optimization (TTP_OPT) we have run.

  19. Gas turbine engines with particle traps

    DOEpatents

    Boyd, Gary L.; Sumner, D. Warren; Sheoran, Yogendra; Judd, Z. Daniel

    1992-01-01

    A gas turbine engine (10) incorporates a particle trap (46) that forms an entrapment region (73) in a plenum (24) which extends from within the combustor (18) to the inlet (32) of a radial-inflow turbine (52, 54). The engine (10) is thereby adapted to entrap particles that originate downstream from the compressor (14) and are otherwise propelled by combustion gas (22) into the turbine (52, 54). Carbonaceous particles that are dislodged from the inner wall (50) of the combustor (18) are incinerated within the entrapment region (73) during operation of the engine (10).

  20. Stabilization of gas turbine unit power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolotovskii, I.; Larin, E.

    2017-11-01

    We propose a new cycle air preparation unit which helps increasing energy power of gas turbine units (GTU) operating as a part of combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) units of thermal power stations and energy and water supply systems of industrial enterprises as well as reducing power loss of gas turbine engines of process blowers resulting from variable ambient air temperatures. Installation of GTU power stabilizer at CCGT unit with electric and thermal power of 192 and 163 MW, respectively, has resulted in reduction of produced electrical energy production costs by 2.4% and thermal energy production costs by 1.6% while capital expenditures after installation of this equipment increased insignificantly.

  1. Aircraft gas turbine materials and processes.

    PubMed

    Kear, B H; Thompson, E R

    1980-05-23

    Materials and processing innovations that have been incorporated into the manufacture of critical components for high-performance aircraft gas turbine engines are described. The materials of interest are the nickel- and cobalt-base superalloys for turbine and burner sections of the engine, and titanium alloys and composites for compressor and fan sections of the engine. Advanced processing methods considered include directional solidification, hot isostatic pressing, superplastic foring, directional recrystallization, and diffusion brazing. Future trends in gas turbine technology are discussed in terms of materials availability, substitution, and further advances in air-cooled hardware.

  2. Air cooling of disk of a solid integrally cast turbine rotor for an automotive gas turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gladden, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    A thermal analysis is made of surface cooling of a solid, integrally cast turbine rotor disk for an automotive gas turbine engine. Air purge and impingement cooling schemes are considered and compared with an uncooled reference case. Substantial reductions in blade temperature are predicted with each of the cooling schemes studied. It is shown that air cooling can result in a substantial gain in the stress-rupture life of the blade. Alternatively, increases in the turbine inlet temperature are possible.

  3. Mapping of Vegetation with the Geoinformation System and Determining of Carrying Capacity of the Pre-Urals Steppe area for a Newly Establishing Population of the Przewalski Horse Equus ferus przewalskii at the Orenburg State Nature Reserve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, N. I.; Mikhailenko, O. I.; Zharkikh, T. L.; Bakirova, R. T.

    2018-01-01

    Mapping of the vegetation (1:25000) of the Pre-Urals Steppe area at the Orenburg State Nature Reserve was completed in 2016. A map created with the geoinformation system contains 1931 simple and complex polygons for 25 types of vegetation. In a drought year, the average stock of palatable vegetation of the whole area is estimated at 8380 tons dry weight. The estimation is based on the size of areas covered by different types of vegetation, their grass production, the correction coefficients for decreasing of pasture forage stocks in winter and decreasing of production of grass communities in dry years. Based on pasture forage stocks the area could tolerate the maximum population size of 1769 individuals of the Przewalski horse, their average density could be 0.11 horse per ha. Yet, as watering places for animals are limited in Pre-Urals Steppe, grazing pressures on the vegetation next to the water sources may increase in dry years. That is why the above-mentioned calculated maximum population size and density must be reduced at least by half until some additional watering places are established and monitoring of the grazing effect on the vegetation next to the places is carried out regularly. Thus, the maximum size of the population is estimated at 800 to 900 individuals, which is almost 1.5 times more than necessary to establish a self-sustained population of the Przewalski horse.

  4. Effect of steam sterilization inside the turbine chambers of dental turbines.

    PubMed

    Andersen, H K; Fiehn, N E; Larsen, T

    1999-02-01

    It has been demonstrated that contamination of the insides of high-speed dental turbines occurs and that bacteria as well as viruses may remain infectious when expelled from such turbines during subsequent use. Consequently, it has been widely recommended that a high-speed turbine be sterilized after each patient. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of steam autoclaving on a high-speed dental turbine with a contaminated turbine chamber. Streptococcus salivarius and endospores of Bacillus stearothermophilus were used as test organisms to determine the effectiveness of 4 different small non-vacuum autoclaves and one vacuum autoclave. The study demonstrated different efficiencies among the small non-vacuum autoclaves, the best showing close to a 6 log reduction of the test organisms inside the turbine chamber. When cleaning and lubrication of the high-speed dental turbine was carried out before autoclaving, this level of reduction was observed for all the examined non-vacuum autoclaves. It is concluded that cleaning before sterilization is essential for safe use of high-speed dental turbines and that small non-vacuum autoclaves should be carefully evaluated before being used for the reprocessing of hollow instruments such as high-speed turbines.

  5. Turbine Inlet Air Cooling for Industrial and Aero-derivative Gas Turbine in Malaysia Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordin, A.; Salim, D. A.; Othoman, M. A.; Kamal, S. N. Omar; Tam, Danny; Yusof, M. KY

    2017-12-01

    The performance of a gas turbine is dependent on the ambient temperature. A higher temperature results in a reduction of the gas turbine’s power output and an increase in heat rate. The warm and humid climate in Malaysia with its high ambient air temperature has an adverse effect on the performance of gas turbine generators. In this paper, the expected effect of turbine inlet air cooling technology on the annual performance of an aero-derivative gas turbine (GE LM6000PD) is compared against that of an industrial gas turbine (GEFr6B.03) using GT Pro software. This study investigated the annual net energy output and the annual net electrical efficiency of a plant with and without turbine inlet air cooling technology. The results show that the aero-derivative gas turbine responds more favorably to turbine inlet air cooling technology, thereby yielding higher annual net energy output and higher net electrical efficiency when compared to the industrial gas turbine.

  6. Numerical simulation of turbulence flow in a Kaplan turbine -Evaluation on turbine performance prediction accuracy-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, P.; Kurosawa, S.

    2014-03-01

    The understanding and accurate prediction of the flow behaviour related to cavitation and pressure fluctuation in a Kaplan turbine are important to the design work enhancing the turbine performance including the elongation of the operation life span and the improvement of turbine efficiency. In this paper, high accuracy turbine and cavitation performance prediction method based on entire flow passage for a Kaplan turbine is presented and evaluated. Two-phase flow field is predicted by solving Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations expressed by volume of fluid method tracking the free surface and combined with Reynolds Stress model. The growth and collapse of cavitation bubbles are modelled by the modified Rayleigh-Plesset equation. The prediction accuracy is evaluated by comparing with the model test results of Ns 400 Kaplan model turbine. As a result that the experimentally measured data including turbine efficiency, cavitation performance, and pressure fluctuation are accurately predicted. Furthermore, the cavitation occurrence on the runner blade surface and the influence to the hydraulic loss of the flow passage are discussed. Evaluated prediction method for the turbine flow and performance is introduced to facilitate the future design and research works on Kaplan type turbine.

  7. Second Stage Turbine Bucket Airfoil.

    DOEpatents

    Xu, Liming; Ahmadi, Majid; Humanchuk, David John; Moretto, Nicholas; Delehanty, Richard Edward

    2003-05-06

    The second-stage buckets have airfoil profiles substantially in accordance with Cartesian coordinate values of X, Y and Z set forth in inches in Table I wherein Z is a perpendicular distance from a plane normal to a radius of the turbine centerline and containing the X and Y values with the Z value commencing at zero in the X, Y plane at the radially innermost aerodynamic section of the airfoil and X and Y are coordinate values defining the airfoil profile at each distance Z. The X, Y and Z values may be scaled as a function of the same constant or number to provide a scaled-up or scaled-down airfoil section for the bucket.

  8. Airfoil for a gas turbine

    DOEpatents

    Liang, George [Palm City, FL

    2011-01-18

    An airfoil is provided for a gas turbine comprising an outer structure comprising a first wall, an inner structure comprising a second wall spaced relative to the first wall such that a cooling gap is defined between at least portions of the first and second walls, and seal structure provided within the cooling gap between the first and second walls for separating the cooling gap into first and second cooling fluid impingement gaps. An inner surface of the second wall may define an inner cavity. The inner structure may further comprise a separating member for separating the inner cavity of the inner structure into a cooling fluid supply cavity and a cooling fluid collector cavity. The second wall may comprise at least one first impingement passage, at least one second impingement passage, and at least one bleed passage.

  9. Cooled turbine vane with endcaps

    DOEpatents

    Cunha, Frank J.; Schiavo, Jr., Anthony L.; Nordlund, Raymond Scott; Malow, Thomas; McKinley, Barry L.

    2002-01-01

    A turbine vane assembly which includes an outer endcap having a plurality of generally straight passages and passage segments therethrough, an inner endcap having a plurality of passages and passage segments therethrough, and a vane assembly having an outer shroud, an airfoil body, and an inner shroud. The outer shroud, airfoil body and inner shroud each have a plurality of generally straight passages and passage segments therethrough as well. The outer endcap is coupled to the outer shroud so that outer endcap passages and said outer shroud passages form a fluid circuit. The inner endcap is coupled to the inner shroud so that the inner end cap passages and the inner shroud passages from a fluid circuit. Passages in the vane casting are in fluid communication with both the outer shroud passages and the inner shroud passages. Passages in the outer endcap may be coupled to a cooling system that supplies a coolant and takes away the heated exhaust.

  10. Integrated circuit cooled turbine blade

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Jiang, Nan; Um, Jae Y.

    A turbine rotor blade includes at least two integrated cooling circuits that are formed within the blade that include a leading edge circuit having a first cavity and a second cavity and a trailing edge circuit that includes at least a third cavity located aft of the second cavity. The trailing edge circuit flows aft with at least two substantially 180-degree turns at the tip end and the root end of the blade providing at least a penultimate cavity and a last cavity. The last cavity is located along a trailing edge of the blade. A tip axial cooling channelmore » connects to the first cavity of the leading edge circuit and the penultimate cavity of the trailing edge circuit. At least one crossover hole connects the penultimate cavity to the last cavity substantially near the tip end of the blade.« less

  11. Regenerator for gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Lewakowski, John J.

    1979-01-01

    A rotary disc-type counterflow regenerator for a gas turbine engine includes a disc-shaped ceramic core surrounded by a metal rim which carries a coaxial annular ring gear. Bonding of the metal rim to the ceramic core is accomplished by constructing the metal rim in three integral portions: a driving portion disposed adjacent the ceramic core which carries the ring gear, a bonding portion disposed further away from the ceramic core and which is bonded thereto by elastomeric pads, and a connecting portion connecting the bonding portion to the driving portion. The elastomeric pads are bonded to radially flexible mounts formed as part of the metal rim by circumferential slots in the transition portion and lateral slots extending from one end of the circumferential slots across the bonding portion of the rim.

  12. Design Mining Interacting Wind Turbines.

    PubMed

    Preen, Richard J; Bull, Larry

    2016-01-01

    An initial study has recently been presented of surrogate-assisted evolutionary algorithms used to design vertical-axis wind turbines wherein candidate prototypes are evaluated under fan-generated wind conditions after being physically instantiated by a 3D printer. Unlike other approaches, such as computational fluid dynamics simulations, no mathematical formulations were used and no model assumptions were made. This paper extends that work by exploring alternative surrogate modelling and evolutionary techniques. The accuracy of various modelling algorithms used to estimate the fitness of evaluated individuals from the initial experiments is compared. The effect of temporally windowing surrogate model training samples is explored. A surrogate-assisted approach based on an enhanced local search is introduced; and alternative coevolution collaboration schemes are examined.

  13. Separated Flow over Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, David; Lewalle, Jacques

    2015-11-01

    The motion of the separation point on an airfoil under unsteady flow can affect its performance and longevity. Of interest is to understand and control the performance decrease in wind turbines subject to turbulent flow. We examine flow separation on an airfoil at a 19 degree angle of attack under unsteady flow conditions. We are using a DU-96-W180 airfoil of chord length 242 mm. The unsteadiness is generated by a cylinder with diameter 203 mm located 7 diameters upstream of the airfoil's leading edge. The data comes from twenty surface pressure sensors located on the top and bottom of the airfoil as well as on the upstream cylinder. Methods of analysis include Mexican hat transforms, Morlet wavelet transforms, power spectra, and various cross correlations. With this study I will explore how the differences of signals on the pressure and suction sides of an airfoil are related to the motion of the separation point.

  14. Static seal for turbine engine

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, Santiago; Gisch, Andrew

    2014-04-01

    A seal structure for a gas turbine engine, the seal structure including first and second components located adjacent to each other and forming a barrier between high and low pressure zones. A seal cavity is defined in the first and second components, the seal cavity extending to either side of an elongated gap extending generally in a first direction between the first and second components. A seal member is positioned within the seal cavity and spans across the elongated gap. The seal member includes first and second side edges extending into each of the components in a second direction transversemore » to the first direction, and opposing longitudinal edges extending between the side edges generally parallel to the first direction. The side edges include a groove formed therein for effecting a reduction of gas flow around the seal member at the side edges.« less

  15. Turbine airfoil to shround attachment

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Christian X; Morrison, Jay A; James, Allister W; Snider, Raymond G; Eshak, Daniel M; Marra, John J; Wessell, Brian J

    2014-05-06

    A turbine airfoil (31) with an end portion (42) that tapers (44) toward the end (43) of the airfoil. A ridge (46) extends around the end portion. It has proximal (66) and distal (67) sides. A shroud platform (50) is bi-cast onto the end portion around the ridge without bonding. Cooling shrinks the platform into compression (62) on the end portion (42) of the airfoil. Gaps between the airfoil and platform are formed using a fugitive material (56) in the bi-casting stage. These gaps are designed in combination with the taper angle (44) to accommodate differential thermal expansion while maintaining a gas seal along the contact surfaces. The taper angle (44) may vary from lesser on the pressure side (36) to greater on the suction side (38) of the airfoil. A collar portion (52) of the platform provides sufficient contact area for connection stability.

  16. Multiple piece turbine rotor blade

    DOEpatents

    Kimmel, Keith D.; Plank, William L.

    2016-07-19

    A spar and shell turbine rotor blade with a spar and a tip cap formed as a single piece, the spar includes a bottom end with dovetail or fir tree slots that engage with slots on a top end of a root section, and a platform includes an opening on a top surface for insertion of the spar in which a shell made from an exotic high temperature resistant material is secured between the tip cap and the platform. The spar is tapered to form thinner walls at the tip end to further reduce the weight and therefore a pulling force due to blade rotation. The spar and tip cap piece is made from a NiAL material to further reduce the weight and the pulling force.

  17. Probabilistic Analysis of Gas Turbine Field Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorla, Rama S. R.; Pai, Shantaram S.; Rusick, Jeffrey J.

    2002-01-01

    A gas turbine thermodynamic cycle was computationally simulated and probabilistically evaluated in view of the several uncertainties in the performance parameters, which are indices of gas turbine health. Cumulative distribution functions and sensitivity factors were computed for the overall thermal efficiency and net specific power output due to the thermodynamic random variables. These results can be used to quickly identify the most critical design variables in order to optimize the design, enhance performance, increase system availability and make it cost effective. The analysis leads to the selection of the appropriate measurements to be used in the gas turbine health determination and to the identification of both the most critical measurements and parameters. Probabilistic analysis aims at unifying and improving the control and health monitoring of gas turbine aero-engines by increasing the quality and quantity of information available about the engine's health and performance.

  18. Turbine adapted maps for turbocharger engine matching

    SciTech Connect

    Tancrez, M.; Galindo, J.; Guardiola, C.

    2011-01-15

    This paper presents a new representation of the turbine performance maps oriented for turbocharger characterization. The aim of this plot is to provide a more compact and suited form to implement in engine simulation models and to interpolate data from turbocharger test bench. The new map is based on the use of conservative parameters as turbocharger power and turbine mass flow to describe the turbine performance in all VGT positions. The curves obtained are accurately fitted with quadratic polynomials and simple interpolation techniques give reliable results. Two turbochargers characterized in an steady flow rig were used for illustrating the representation.more » After being implemented in a turbocharger submodel, the results obtained with the model have been compared with success against turbine performance evaluated in engine tests cells. A practical application in turbocharger matching is also provided to show how this new map can be directly employed in engine design. (author)« less

  19. Structural analysis considerations for wind turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spera, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    Approaches to the structural analysis of wind turbine blade designs are reviewed. Specifications and materials data are discussed along with the analysis of vibrations, loads, stresses, and failure modes.

  20. Improved diffuser for augmenting a wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Foreman, K.M.; Gilbert, B.L.

    A diffuser for augmenting a wind turbine having means for energizing the boundary layer at several locations along the diffuser walls is improved by the addition of a short collar extending radially outward from the outlet of the diffuser.

  1. Diffuser for augmenting a wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Foreman, Kenneth M.; Gilbert, Barry L.

    1984-01-01

    A diffuser for augmenting a wind turbine having means for energizing the boundary layer at several locations along the diffuser walls is improved by the addition of a short collar extending radially outward from the outlet of the diffuser.

  2. Development of Pelton turbine using numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, K.; Patel, B.; Yadav, M.; Foggia, T.

    2010-08-01

    This paper describes recent research and development activities in the field of Pelton turbine design. Flow inside Pelton turbine is most complex due to multiphase (mixture of air and water) and free surface in nature. Numerical calculation is useful to understand flow physics as well as effect of geometry on flow. The optimized design is obtained using in-house special optimization loop. Either single phase or two phase unsteady numerical calculation could be performed. Numerical results are used to visualize the flow pattern in the water passage and to predict performance of Pelton turbine at full load as well as at part load. Model tests are conducted to determine performance of turbine and it shows good agreement with numerically predicted performance.

  3. Investigation on installation of offshore wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Bai, Yong

    2010-06-01

    Wind power has made rapid progress and should gain significance as an energy resource, given growing interest in renewable energy and clean energy. Offshore wind energy resources have attracted significant attention, as, compared with land-based wind energy resources, offshore wind energy resources are more promising candidates for development. Sea winds are generally stronger and more reliable and with improvements in technology, the sea has become a hot spot for new designs and installation methods for wind turbines. In the present paper, based on experience building offshore wind farms, recommended foundation styles have been examined. Furthermore, wave effects have been investigated. The split installation and overall installation have been illustrated. Methods appropriate when installing a small number of turbines as well as those useful when installing large numbers of turbines were analyzed. This investigation of installation methods for wind turbines should provide practical technical guidance for their installation.

  4. An analytical method of estimating turbine performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kochendorfer, Fred D; Nettles, J Cary

    1949-01-01

    A method is developed by which the performance of a turbine over a range of operating conditions can be analytically estimated from the blade angles and flow areas. In order to use the method, certain coefficients that determine the weight flow and the friction losses must be approximated. The method is used to calculate the performance of the single-stage turbine of a commercial aircraft gas-turbine engine and the calculated performance is compared with the performance indicated by experimental data. For the turbine of the typical example, the assumed pressure losses and the tuning angles give a calculated performance that represents the trends of the experimental performance with reasonable accuracy. The exact agreement between analytical performance and experimental performance is contingent upon the proper selection of a blading-loss parameter.

  5. Gas turbine engine active clearance control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deveau, Paul J. (Inventor); Greenberg, Paul B. (Inventor); Paolillo, Roger E. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Method for controlling the clearance between rotating and stationary components of a gas turbine engine are disclosed. Techniques for achieving close correspondence between the radial position of rotor blade tips and the circumscribing outer air seals are disclosed. In one embodiment turbine case temperature modifying air is provided in flow rate, pressure and temperature varied as a function of engine operating condition. The modifying air is scheduled from a modulating and mixing valve supplied with dual source compressor air. One source supplies relatively low pressure, low temperature air and the other source supplies relatively high pressure, high temperature air. After the air has been used for the active clearance control (cooling the high pressure turbine case) it is then used for cooling the structure that supports the outer air seal and other high pressure turbine component parts.

  6. On the wake of a Darrieus turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Base, T. E.; Phillips, P.; Robertson, G.; Nowak, E. S.

    1981-01-01

    The theory and experimental measurements on the aerodynamic decay of a wake from high performance vertical axis wind turbine are discussed. In the initial experimental study, the wake downstream of a model Darrieus rotor, 28 cm diameter and a height of 45.5 cm, was measured in a Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel. The wind turbine was run at the design tip speed ratio of 5.5. It was found that the wake decayed at a slower rate with distance downstream of the turbine, than a wake from a screen with similar troposkein shape and drag force characteristics as the Darrieus rotor. The initial wind tunnel results indicated that the vertical axis wind turbines should be spaced at least forty diameters apart to avoid mutual power depreciation greater than ten per cent.

  7. Tangential RIF turbine with particle removing means

    SciTech Connect

    Linhardt, H.D.

    1980-12-02

    A radial inflow turbine is disclosed utilizing a star wheel type of blade and wherein the inlet nozzles are located along the sides or lateral of the blade tips rather than located radially beyond the blade tips. The side approach enables the turbine to include an annular chamber outside of the moving blades and where small particles are centrifuged during operation and collected. The incoming hot gases, that propel the blades, pass through approximately a 90/sup 0/ turn and continue radially inwardly. The large particles hit the turbine blades and are projected outwardly into the annular chamber for collection andmore » subsequent removal while the smaller particles may be centrifuged in the stream of gas and immediately thrown outwardly. The turbine is capable of removing particles to as small as 2-3 microns (..mu..m).« less

  8. Collected Papers on Wind Turbine Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spera, David A. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    R and D projects on electricity generating wind turbines were conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center from 1973 to 1988. Most projects were sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), a major element of its Federal Wind Energy Program. Another large wind turbine project was by the Bureau of Reclamation of the U.S. Department of Interior (DOI). From 1988 to 1995, NASA wind energy activities have been directed toward the transfer of technology to commercial and academic organizations. As part of these technology transfer activities, previously unpublished manuscripts have been assembled and presented here to share the wind turbine research results with the wind energy community. A variety of wind turbine technology topics are discussed: Wind and wake models; Airfoil properties; Structural analysis and testing; Control systems; Variable speed generators; and acoustic noise. Experimental and theoretical results are discussed.

  9. HOST turbine heat transfer program summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gladden, Herbert J.; Simoneau, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    The objectives of the HOST Turbine Heat Transfer subproject were to obtain a better understanding of the physics of the aerothermodynamic phenomena and to assess and improve the analytical methods used to predict the flow and heat transfer in high temperature gas turbines. At the time the HOST project was initiated, an across-the-board improvement in turbine design technology was needed. A building-block approach was utilized and the research ranged from the study of fundamental phenomena and modeling to experiments in simulated real engine environments. Experimental research accounted for approximately 75 percent of the funding with the remainder going to analytical efforts. A healthy government/industry/university partnership, with industry providing almost half of the research, was created to advance the turbine heat transfer design technology base.

  10. ? stability of wind turbine switching control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palejiya, Dushyant; Shaltout, Mohamed; Yan, Zeyu; Chen, Dongmei

    2015-01-01

    In order to maximise the wind energy capture, wind turbines are operated at variable speeds. Depending on the wind speed, a turbine switches between two operating modes: a low wind speed mode and a high wind speed mode. During the low wind speed mode, the control objective is to maximise wind energy capture by controlling both the blade pitch angle and the electrical generator torque. During the high wind speed mode, the control goal is to maintain the rated power generation by only adjusting the blade pitch angle. This paper establishes the stability criteria for the switching operation of wind turbines using ? gain under the nonlinear control framework. Also, the performance of the wind turbine system is analysed by using the step response, a well-known measure for second-order linear systems.

  11. The 200-kilowatt wind turbine project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The three 200 kilowatt wind turbines described, compose the first of three separate systems. Proposed wind turbines of the two other systems, although similar in design, are larger in both physical size and rated power generation. The overall objective of the project is to obtain early operation and performance data while gaining initial experience in the operation of large, horizontal-axis wind turbines in typical utility environments. Several of the key issues addressed include the following: (1) impact of the variable power output (due to varying wind speeds) on the utility grid (2) compatibility with utility requirements (voltage and frequency control of generated power) (3) demonstration of unattended, fail-safe operation (4) reliability of the wind turbine system (5) required maintenance and (6) initial public reaction and acceptance.

  12. Horizontal wind powered reaction turbine electrical generator

    SciTech Connect

    de Geus, A.M.

    1980-05-27

    A horizontal wind powered electrical generator is disclosed in which a horizontal reaction turbine is disposed within an augmentor cowling which extends downwind of the turbine. First stage curved stator blades interconnect the augmentor with the turbine cowling, and secondary stator blades are spaced downwind from said primary stator blades to extend inwardly from the augmentor to terminate short of the turbine cowling. These secondary stator blades have a greater angle of departure than the primary stator blades to increase the rotational velocity of the air at the expense of its axial velocity while permitting the axial velocity of themore » air moving inwardly of the secondary stator blades to be undiminished. A venturi-structured diffusor is carried by said augmentor in a downwind position to lower the pressure generally and assist the action of the secondary stator blades.« less

  13. A MEMS turbine prototype for respiration harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goreke, U.; Habibiabad, S.; Azgin, K.; Beyaz, M. I.

    2015-12-01

    The design, manufacturing, and performance characterization of a MEMS-scale turbine prototype is reported. The turbine is designed for integration into a respiration harvester that can convert normal human breathing into electrical power through electromagnetic induction. The device measures 10 mm in radius, and employs 12 blades located around the turbine periphery along with ball bearings around the center. Finite element simulations showed that an average torque of 3.07 μNm is induced at 12 lpm airflow rate, which lies in normal breathing levels. The turbine and a test package were manufactured using CNC milling on PMMA. Tests were performed at respiration flow rates between 5-25 lpm. The highest rotational speed was measured to be 9.84 krpm at 25 lpm, resulting in 8.96 mbar pressure drop across the device and 370 mW actuation power.

  14. AGT101 automotive gas turbine system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rackley, R. A.; Kidwell, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    The AGT101 automotive gas turbine system consisting of a 74.6 kw regenerated single-shaft gas turbine engine, is presented. The development and testing of the system is reviewed, and results for aerothermodynamic components indicate that compressor and turbine performance levels are within one percent of projected levels. Ceramic turbine rotor development is encouraging with successful cold spin testing of simulated rotors to speeds over 12,043 rad/sec. Spin test results demonstrate that ceramic materials having the required strength levels can be fabricated by net shape techniques to the thick hub cross section, which verifies the feasibility of the single-stage radial rotor in single-shaft engines.

  15. Passively cooled direct drive wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Costin, Daniel P [Chelsea, VT

    2008-03-18

    A wind turbine is provided that passively cools an electrical generator. The wind turbine includes a plurality of fins arranged peripherally around a generator house. Each of the fins being oriented at an angle greater than zero degrees to allow parallel flow of air over the fin. The fin is further tapered to allow a constant portion of the fin to extend beyond the air stream boundary layer. Turbulence initiators on the nose cone further enhance heat transfer at the fins.

  16. Airfoil seal system for gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    None, None

    2013-06-25

    A turbine airfoil seal system of a turbine engine having a seal base with a plurality of seal strips extending therefrom for sealing gaps between rotational airfoils and adjacent stationary components. The seal strips may overlap each other and may be generally aligned with each other. The seal strips may flex during operation to further reduce the gap between the rotational airfoils and adjacent stationary components.

  17. Corrosion and corrosion prevention in gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mom, A. J. A.; Kolkman, H. J.

    1985-01-01

    The conditions governing the corrosion behavior in gas turbines are surveyed. Factors such as temperature, relative humidity, the presence of sulfur and nitrogen dioxide, and fuel quality are discussed. Electromechanical corrosion at relatively low temperature in compressors; oxidation; and hot corrosion (sulfidation) at high temperature in turbines are considered. Corrosion prevention by washing and rinsing, fueld additives, and corrosion resistant materials and coatings are reviewed.

  18. Wind Turbine Modeling Overview for Control Engineers

    SciTech Connect

    Moriarty, P. J.; Butterfield, S. B.

    2009-01-01

    Accurate modeling of wind turbine systems is of paramount importance for controls engineers seeking to reduce loads and optimize energy capture of operating turbines in the field. When designing control systems, engineers often employ a series of models developed in the different disciplines of wind energy. The limitations and coupling of each of these models is explained to highlight how these models might influence control system design.

  19. Wind flow through shrouded wind turbines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-01

    were so patient with me during this process, sometimes spending hours in the wind tunnel room with me while I performed what seemed like endless runs ...disorderly wind velocities that result from the rotating turbine blades . In 2011, a study conducted by the White House Office of Science and...targets, and scattering target returns” [4]. Furthermore, the shadowing effects from spinning wind turbine blades can adversely impact air-traffic

  20. Turbine Engine Hot Section Technology, 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Presentations were made concerning the hot section environment and behavior of combustion liners, turbine blades, and waves. The presentations were divided into six sessions: instrumentation, combustion, turbine heat transfer, structural analysis, fatigue and fracture, and surface properties. The principal objective of each session was to disseminate research results to date, along with future plans. Topics discussed included modeling of thermal and fluid flow phenomena, structural analysis, fatigue and fracture, surface protective coatings, constitutive behavior, stress-strain response, and life prediction methods.

  1. Retrofitting Steam Turbines with Expired Service Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrovskii, V. G.; Zubov, A. P.; Koshelev, S. A.; Babiev, A. N.; Kremer, V. L.

    2018-06-01

    Many pieces of equipment installed at thermal power stations (TPS) have an expired service life or are close to expiry and are obsolete. In addition, the structure of heat consumption by end users has changed. Among the ways for solving the problem of aging equipment is the retrofitting of turbines that allows for service life recovery and improvement of their performance to the modern level. The service life is recovered through replacement of high-temperature assemblies and parts of a turbine, and the performance is improved by retrofitting and major overhaul of low-temperature assemblies. Implementation of modern engineering solutions and numerical methods in designing upgraded flow paths of steam turbines considerably improves the turbine effectiveness. New flow paths include sabre-like guide vanes, integrally-machined shrouds, and effective honeycomb or axial-radial seals. The flow paths are designed using optimization and hydraulic simulation methods as well as approaches for improving the performance on the turbine blading and internal steam flow paths. Retrofitting of turbines should be performed to meet the customers' needs. The feasibility of implementation of one or another alternative must be determined on a case-by-case basis depending on the turbine conditions, the availability of reserves for generating live steam and supplying circulation water, and the demands and capacities for generation and delivery of power and heat. The main principle of retrofitting is to retain the foundation and the auxiliary and heat-exchange equipment that is fit for further operation. With the example of PT-60-130 and T-100-130, the experience is presented of a comprehensive approach to retrofitting considering the customer's current needs and the actual equipment conditions. Due to the use of modern engineering solutions and procedures, retrofitting yields updating and upgrading of the turbine at a relatively low cost.

  2. General Aviation Turbine Engine (GATE) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baerst, C. F.; Furst, D. G.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of turbine engines for the smaller general aviation aircraft was investigated and a technology program for developing the necessary technology was identified. Major results included the definition of the 1988 general aviation market, the identification of turboprop and turboshaft engines that meet the requirements of the aircraft studies, a benefit analysis showing the superiority of gas turbine engines for portions of the market studied, and detailed plans for the development of the necessary technology.

  3. Development of Advanced Seals for Industrial Turbine Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chupp, Raymond E.; Aksit, Mahmut F.; Ghasripoor, Farshad; Turnquist, Norman A.; Dinc, Saim; Mortzheim, Jason; Demiroglu, Mehmet

    2002-10-01

    A critical area being addressed to improve industrial turbine performance is reducing the parasitic leakage flows through the various static and dynamic seals. Implementation of advanced seals into General Electric (GE) industrial turbines has progressed well over the last few years with significant operating performance gains achieved. Advanced static seals have been placed in gas turbine hot gas-path junctions and steam turbine packing ring segment end gaps. Brush seals have significantly decreased labyrinth seal leakages in gas turbine compressors and turbine interstages, steam turbine interstage and end packings, industrial compressor shaft seals, and generator seals. Abradable seals are being developed for blade-tip locations in various turbine locations. This presentation summarizes the status of advanced seal development for industrial turbines at GE.

  4. Wingtip vortex turbine investigation for vortex energy recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abeyounis, William K.; Patterson, James C., Jr.; Stough, H. P., III; Wunschel, Alfred J.; Curran, Patrick D.

    1990-01-01

    A flight test investigation has been conducted to determine the performance of wingtip vortex turbines and their effect on aircraft performance. The turbines were designed to recover part of the large energy loss (induced drag) caused by the wingtip vortex. The turbine, driven by the vortex flow, reduces the strength of the vortex, resulting in an associated induced drag reduction. A four-blade turbine was mounted on each wingtip of a single-engine, T-tail, general aviation airplane. Two sets of turbine blades were tested, one with a 15' twist (washin) and one with no twist. Th power recovered by the turbine and the installed drag increment were measured. A trade-off between turbine power and induced drag reduction was found to be a function of turbine blade incidence angle. This test has demonstrated that the wingtip vortex turbine is an attractive alternate, as well as an emergency, power source.

  5. The methodology of the gas turbine efficiency calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotowicz, Janusz; Job, Marcin; Brzęczek, Mateusz; Nawrat, Krzysztof; Mędrych, Janusz

    2016-12-01

    In the paper a calculation methodology of isentropic efficiency of a compressor and turbine in a gas turbine installation on the basis of polytropic efficiency characteristics is presented. A gas turbine model is developed into software for power plant simulation. There are shown the calculation algorithms based on iterative model for isentropic efficiency of the compressor and for isentropic efficiency of the turbine based on the turbine inlet temperature. The isentropic efficiency characteristics of the compressor and the turbine are developed by means of the above mentioned algorithms. The gas turbine development for the high compressor ratios was the main driving force for this analysis. The obtained gas turbine electric efficiency characteristics show that an increase of pressure ratio above 50 is not justified due to the slight increase in the efficiency with a significant increase of turbine inlet combustor outlet and temperature.

  6. Wind Turbine Contingency Control Through Generator De-Rating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Susan; Goebel, Kai; Balas, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Maximizing turbine up-time and reducing maintenance costs are key technology drivers for wind turbine operators. Components within wind turbines are subject to considerable stresses due to unpredictable environmental conditions resulting from rapidly changing local dynamics. In that context, systems health management has the aim to assess the state-of-health of components within a wind turbine, to estimate remaining life, and to aid in autonomous decision-making to minimize damage to the turbine. Advanced contingency control is one way to enable autonomous decision-making by providing the mechanism to enable safe and efficient turbine operation. The work reported herein explores the integration of condition monitoring of wind turbines with contingency control to balance the trade-offs between maintaining system health and energy capture. The contingency control involves de-rating the generator operating point to achieve reduced loads on the wind turbine. Results are demonstrated using a high fidelity simulator of a utility-scale wind turbine.

  7. An optimal tuning strategy for tidal turbines.

    PubMed

    Vennell, Ross

    2016-11-01

    Tuning wind and tidal turbines is critical to maximizing their power output. Adopting a wind turbine tuning strategy of maximizing the output at any given time is shown to be an extremely poor strategy for large arrays of tidal turbines in channels. This 'impatient-tuning strategy' results in far lower power output, much higher structural loads and greater environmental impacts due to flow reduction than an existing 'patient-tuning strategy' which maximizes the power output averaged over the tidal cycle. This paper presents a 'smart patient tuning strategy', which can increase array output by up to 35% over the existing strategy. This smart strategy forgoes some power generation early in the half tidal cycle in order to allow stronger flows to develop later in the cycle. It extracts enough power from these stronger flows to produce more power from the cycle as a whole than the existing strategy. Surprisingly, the smart strategy can often extract more power without increasing maximum structural loads on the turbines, while also maintaining stronger flows along the channel. This paper also shows that, counterintuitively, for some tuning strategies imposing a cap on turbine power output to limit loads can increase a turbine's average power output.

  8. Smart structure for small wind turbine blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supeni, E. E.; Epaarachchi, J. A.; Islam, M. M.; Lau, K. T.

    2013-08-01

    Wind energy is seen as a viable alternative energy option for future energy demand. The blades of wind turbines are generally regarded as the most critical component of the wind turbine system. Ultimately, the blades act as the prime mover of the whole system which interacts with the wind flow during the production of energy. During wind turbine operation the wind loading cause the deflection of the wind turbine blade which can be significant and affect the turbine efficiency. Such a deflection in wind blade not only will result in lower performance in electrical power generation but also increase of material degradation due high fatigue life and can significantly shorten the longevity for the wind turbine material. In harnessing stiffness of the blade will contribute massive weight factor and consequently excessive bending moment. To overcome this excessive deflection due to wind loading on the blade, it is feasible to use shape memory alloy (SMA) wires which has ability take the blade back to its optimal operational shape. This paper details analytical and experimental work being carried out to minimize blade flapping deflection using SMA.

  9. An optimal tuning strategy for tidal turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vennell, Ross

    2016-11-01

    Tuning wind and tidal turbines is critical to maximizing their power output. Adopting a wind turbine tuning strategy of maximizing the output at any given time is shown to be an extremely poor strategy for large arrays of tidal turbines in channels. This `impatient-tuning strategy' results in far lower power output, much higher structural loads and greater environmental impacts due to flow reduction than an existing `patient-tuning strategy' which maximizes the power output averaged over the tidal cycle. This paper presents a `smart patient tuning strategy', which can increase array output by up to 35% over the existing strategy. This smart strategy forgoes some power generation early in the half tidal cycle in order to allow stronger flows to develop later in the cycle. It extracts enough power from these stronger flows to produce more power from the cycle as a whole than the existing strategy. Surprisingly, the smart strategy can often extract more power without increasing maximum structural loads on the turbines, while also maintaining stronger flows along the channel. This paper also shows that, counterintuitively, for some tuning strategies imposing a cap on turbine power output to limit loads can increase a turbine's average power output.

  10. Effective solidity in vertical axis wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Colin M.; Leftwich, Megan C.

    2016-11-01

    The flow surrounding vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) is investigated using particle imaging velocimetry (PIV). This is done in a low-speed wind tunnel with a scale model that closely matches geometric and dynamic properties tip-speed ratio and Reynolds number of a full size turbine. Previous results have shown a strong dependance on the tip-speed ratio on the wake structure of the spinning turbine. However, it is not clear whether this is a speed or solidity effect. To determine this, we have measured the wakes of three turbines with different chord-to-diameter ratios, and a solid cylinder. The flow is visualized at the horizontal mid-plane as well as the vertical mid-plane behind the turbine. The results are both ensemble averaged and phase averaged by syncing the PIV system with the rotation of the turbine. By keeping the Reynolds number constant with both chord and diameter, we can determine how each effects the wake structure. As these parameters are varied there are distinct changes in the mean flow of the wake. Additionally, by looking at the vorticity in the phase averaged profiles we can see structural changes to the overall wake pattern.

  11. Wind turbine remote control using Android devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rat, C. L.; Panoiu, M.

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes the remote control of a wind turbine system over the internet using an Android device, namely a tablet or a smartphone. The wind turbine workstation contains a LabVIEW program which monitors the entire wind turbine energy conversion system (WECS). The Android device connects to the LabVIEW application, working as a remote interface to the wind turbine. The communication between the devices needs to be secured because it takes place over the internet. Hence, the data are encrypted before being sent through the network. The scope was the design of remote control software capable of visualizing real-time wind turbine data through a secure connection. Since the WECS is fully automated and no full-time human operator exists, unattended access to the turbine workstation is needed. Therefore the device must not require any confirmation or permission from the computer operator in order to control it. Another condition is that Android application does not have any root requirements.

  12. Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Turbine Technologies Application Project (ATTAP) is in the fifth year of a multiyear development program to bring the automotive gas turbine engine to a state at which industry can make commercialization decisions. Activities during the past year included reference powertrain design updates, test-bed engine design and development, ceramic component design, materials and component characterization, ceramic component process development and fabrication, ceramic component rig testing, and test-bed engine fabrication and testing. Engine design and development included mechanical design, combustion system development, alternate aerodynamic flow testing, and controls development. Design activities included development of the ceramic gasifier turbine static structure, the ceramic gasifier rotor, and the ceramic power turbine rotor. Material characterization efforts included the testing and evaluation of five candidate high temperature ceramic materials. Ceramic component process development and fabrication, with the objective of approaching automotive volumes and costs, continued for the gasifier turbine rotor, gasifier turbine scroll, extruded regenerator disks, and thermal insulation. Engine and rig fabrication, testing, and development supported improvements in ceramic component technology. Total test time in 1992 amounted to 599 hours, of which 147 hours were engine testing and 452 were hot rig testing.

  13. Trace element partitioning in rock forming minerals of co-genetic, subduction-related alkaline and tholeiitic mafic rocks in the Ural Mountains, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, J.; Brügmann, G. E.; Pushkarev, E. V.

    2009-04-01

    The partitioning of trace elements between rock forming minerals in igneous rocks is largely controlled by physical and chemical parameters e.g. temperature, pressure and chemical composition of the minerals and the coexisting melt. In the present study partition coefficients for REE between hornblende, orthopyroxene, feldspars, apatite and clinopyroxene in a suite of co-genetic alkaline and tholeiitic mafic rocks from the Ural Mountains (Russia) were calculated. The results give insights to the influence of the chemical composition of the parental melt on the partitioning behaviour of the REE. Nepheline-bearing, alkaline melanogabbros (tilaites) are assumed to represent the most fractionated products of the melt that formed the ultramafic cumulates in zoned mafic-ultramafic complexes in the Ural Mountains. Co-genetic with the latter is a suite of olivine gabbros, gabbronorites and hornblende gabbros formed from a tholeiitic parental melt. Negative anomalies for the HFSE along with low Nb and Ta contents and a positive Sr anomaly indicate a subduction related origin of all parental melts. The nepheline gabbros consist predominantly of coarse-grained clinopyroxene phenocrysts in a matrix of fine grained clinopyroxene, olivine, plagioclase, K-feldspar and nepheline with accessory apatite. The tholeiitic gabbros have equigranular to porphyric textures with phenocrysts of olivine, pyroxene and hornblende in a plagioclase rich matrix with olivine hornblende, pyroxene and accessory apatite. Element concentrations of adjacent matrix grains and rims of phenochrysts were measured with LA-ICPMS. The distribution of REE between hornblende and clinopyroxene in the tholeiitic rocks is similar for most of the elements (DHbl•Cpx(La-Tm) = 2.7-2.8, decreasing to 2.6 and 2.4 for Yb and Lu, respectively). These values are about two times higher than published data (e.g. Ionov et al. 1997). Partition coefficients for orthopyroxene/clinopyroxene systematically decrease from the HREE

  14. Closed loop air cooling system for combustion turbines

    DOEpatents

    Huber, David John; Briesch, Michael Scot

    1998-01-01

    Convective cooling of turbine hot parts using a closed loop system is disclosed. Preferably, the present invention is applied to cooling the hot parts of combustion turbine power plants, and the cooling provided permits an increase in the inlet temperature and the concomitant benefits of increased efficiency and output. In preferred embodiments, methods and apparatus are disclosed wherein air is removed from the combustion turbine compressor and delivered to passages internal to one or more of a combustor and turbine hot parts. The air cools the combustor and turbine hot parts via convection and heat is transferred through the surfaces of the combustor and turbine hot parts.

  15. Closed loop air cooling system for combustion turbines

    DOEpatents

    Huber, D.J.; Briesch, M.S.

    1998-07-21

    Convective cooling of turbine hot parts using a closed loop system is disclosed. Preferably, the present invention is applied to cooling the hot parts of combustion turbine power plants, and the cooling provided permits an increase in the inlet temperature and the concomitant benefits of increased efficiency and output. In preferred embodiments, methods and apparatus are disclosed wherein air is removed from the combustion turbine compressor and delivered to passages internal to one or more of a combustor and turbine hot parts. The air cools the combustor and turbine hot parts via convection and heat is transferred through the surfaces of the combustor and turbine hot parts. 1 fig.

  16. Steam Turbine Flow Path Seals (a Review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuimin, V. M.

    2018-03-01

    Various types of shroud, diaphragm, and end seals preventing idle leak of working steam are installed in the flow paths of steam turbine cylinders for improving their efficiency. Widely known labyrinth seals are most extensively used in the Russian turbine construction industry. The category of labyrinth seals also includes seals with honeycomb inserts. The developers of seals with honeycomb inserts state that the use of such seals makes it possible to achieve certain gain due to smaller leaks of working fluid and more reliable operation of the system under the conditions in which the rotor rotating parts may rub against the stator elements. However, a positive effect can only be achieved if the optimal design parameters of the honeycomb structure are fulfilled with due regard to the specific features of its manufacturing technology and provided that this structure is applied in a goal-seeking manner in the seals of steam and gas turbines and compressors without degrading their vibration stability. Calculated and preliminary assessments made by experts testify that the replacement of conventional labyrinth seals by seals with honeycomb inserts alone, due to which the radial gaps in the shroud seal can be decreased from 1.5 to 0.5 mm, allows the turbine cylinder efficiency to be increased at the initial stage by approximately 1% with the corresponding gain in the turbine set power output. The use of rectangular-cellular seals may result, according to estimates made by their developers, in a further improvement of turbine efficiency by 0.5-1.0%. The labor input required to fabricate such seals is six to eight times smaller than that to fabricate labyrinth seals with honeycomb inserts. Recent years have seen the turbine construction companies of the United States and Germany advertising the use of abradable (sealing) coatings (borrowed from the gas turbine construction technology) in the turbine designs instead of labyrinth seals. The most efficient performance of

  17. Very Low Head Turbine Deployment in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, P.; Williams, C.; Sasseville, Remi; Anderson, N.

    2014-03-01

    The Very Low Head (VLH) turbine is a recent turbine technology developed in Europe for low head sites in the 1.4 - 4.2 m range. The VLH turbine is primarily targeted for installation at existing hydraulic structures to provide a low impact, low cost, yet highly efficient solution. Over 35 VLH turbines have been successfully installed in Europe and the first VLH deployment for North America is underway at Wasdell Falls in Ontario, Canada. Deployment opportunities abound in Canada with an estimated 80,000 existing structures within North America for possible low-head hydro development. There are several new considerations and challenges for the deployment of the VLH turbine technology in Canada in adapting to the hydraulic, environmental, electrical and social requirements. Several studies were completed to determine suitable approaches and design modifications to mitigate risk and confirm turbine performance. Diverse types of existing weirs and spillways pose certain hydraulic design challenges. Physical and numerical modelling of the VLH deployment alternatives provided for performance optimization. For this application, studies characterizing the influence of upstream obstacles using water tunnel model testing as well as full-scale prototype flow dynamics testing were completed. A Cold Climate Adaptation Package (CCA) was developed to allow year-round turbine operation in ice covered rivers. The CCA package facilitates turbine extraction and accommodates ice forces, frazil ice, ad-freezing and cold temperatures that are not present at the European sites. The Permanent Magnet Generator (PMG) presents some unique challenges in meeting Canadian utility interconnection requirements. Specific attention to the frequency driver control and protection requirements resulted in a driver design with greater over-voltage capability for the PMG as well as other key attributes. Environmental studies in Europe included fish friendliness testing comprised of multiple in

  18. Mixer-Ejector Wind Turbine: Breakthrough High Efficiency Shrouded Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2010-02-22

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: FloDesign Wind Turbine’s innovative wind turbine, inspired by the design of jet engines, could deliver 300% more power than existing wind turbines of the same rotor diameter by extracting more energy over a larger area. FloDesign Wind Turbine’s unique shrouded design expands the wind capture area, and the mixing vortex downstream allows more energy to flow through the rotor without stalling the turbine. The unique rotor and shrouded design also provide significant opportunity for mass production and simplified assembly, enabling mid-scale turbines (approximately 100 kW) to produce power at a cost that is comparable tomore » larger-scale conventional turbines.« less

  19. Design Tools to Assess Hydro-Turbine Biological Performance: Priest Rapids Dam Turbine Replacement Project

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, Marshall C.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Serkowski, John A.

    2013-06-25

    Over the past two decades, there have been many studies describing injury mechanisms associated with turbine passage, the response of various fish species to these mechanisms, and the probability of survival through dams. Although developing tools to design turbines that improve passage survival has been difficult and slow, a more robust quantification of the turbine environment has emerged through integrating physical model data, fish survival data, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies. Grant County Public Utility District (GCPUD) operates the Priest Rapids Dam (PRD), a hydroelectric facility on the Columbia River in Washington State. The dam contains 10 Kaplan-type turbinemore » units that are now almost 50 years old. The Utility District plans to refit all of these aging turbines with new turbines. The Columbia River at PRD is a migratory pathway for several species of juvenile and adult salmonids, so passage of fish through the dam is a major consideration when replacing the turbines. In this presentation, a method for turbine biological performance assessment (BioPA) is introduced. Using this method, a suite of biological performance indicators is computed based on simulated data from a CFD model of a proposed turbine design. Each performance indicator is a measure of the probability of exposure to a certain dose of an injury mechanism. Using known relationships between the dose of an injury mechanism and frequency of injury (dose–response) from laboratory or field studies, the likelihood of fish injury for a turbine design can be computed from the performance indicator. By comparing the values of the indicators from proposed designs, the engineer can identify the more-promising alternatives. We will present application of the BioPA method for baseline risk assessment calculations for the existing Kaplan turbines at PRD that will be used as the minimum biological performance that a proposed new design must achieve.« less

  20. Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    ATTAP activities during the past year were highlighted by an extensive materials assessment, execution of a reference powertrain design, test-bed engine design and development, ceramic component design, materials and component characterization, ceramic component process development and fabrication, component rig design and fabrication, test-bed engine fabrication, and hot gasifier rig and engine testing. Materials assessment activities entailed engine environment evaluation of domestically supplied radial gasifier turbine rotors that were available at the conclusion of the Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Development Project as well as an extensive survey of both domestic and foreign ceramic suppliers and Government laboratories performing ceramic materials research applicable to advanced heat engines. A reference powertrain design was executed to reflect the selection of the AGT-5 as the ceramic component test-bed engine for the ATTAP. Test-bed engine development activity focused on upgrading the AGT-5 from a 1038 C (1900 F) metal engine to a durable 1371 C (2500 F) structural ceramic component test-bed engine. Ceramic component design activities included the combustor, gasifier turbine static structure, and gasifier turbine rotor. The materials and component characterization efforts have included the testing and evaluation of several candidate ceramic materials and components being developed for use in the ATTAP. Ceramic component process development and fabrication activities were initiated for the gasifier turbine rotor, gasifier turbine vanes, gasifier turbine scroll, extruded regenerator disks, and thermal insulation. Component rig development activities included combustor, hot gasifier, and regenerator rigs. Test-bed engine fabrication activities consisted of the fabrication of an all-new AGT-5 durability test-bed engine and support of all engine test activities through instrumentation/build/repair. Hot gasifier rig and test-bed engine testing

  1. Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    ATTAP activities during the past year included test-bed engine design and development, ceramic component design, materials and component characterization, ceramic component process development and fabrication, ceramic component rig testing, and test-bed engine fabrication and testing. Significant technical challenges remain, but all areas exhibited progress. Test-bed engine design and development included engine mechanical design, combustion system design, alternate aerodynamic designs of gasifier scrolls, and engine system integration aimed at upgrading the AGT-5 from a 1038 C (1900 F) metal engine to a durable 1372 C (2500 F) structural ceramic component test-bed engine. ATTAP-defined ceramic and associated ceramic/metal component design activities completed include the ceramic gasifier turbine static structure, the ceramic gasifier turbine rotor, ceramic combustors, the ceramic regenerator disk, the ceramic power turbine rotors, and the ceramic/metal power turbine static structure. The material and component characterization efforts included the testing and evaluation of seven candidate materials and three development components. Ceramic component process development and fabrication proceeded for the gasifier turbine rotor, gasifier turbine scroll, gasifier turbine vanes and vane platform, extruded regenerator disks, and thermal insulation. Component rig activities included the development of both rigs and the necessary test procedures, and conduct of rig testing of the ceramic components and assemblies. Test-bed engine fabrication, testing, and development supported improvements in ceramic component technology that permit the achievement of both program performance and durability goals. Total test time in 1991 amounted to 847 hours, of which 128 hours were engine testing, and 719 were hot rig testing.

  2. Cold-air performance of compressor-drive turbine of department of energy upgraded automobile gas turbine engine. 3: Performance of redesigned turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roelke, R. J.; Haas, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of a redesigned compressor drive turbine of the gas turbine engine is determined in air at nominal inlet conditions of 325 K and 0.8 bar absolute. The turbine is designed with a lower flow factor, higher rotor reaction and a redesigned inlet volute compared to the first turbine. Comparisons between this turbine and the originally designed turbine show about 2.3 percentage points improvement in efficiency at the same rotor tip clearance. Two versions of the same rotor are tested: (1) an as cast rotor, and (2) the same rotor with reduced surface roughness. The effect of reducing surface roughness is about one half percentage point improvement in efficiency. Tests made to determine the effect of Reynolds number on the turbine performance show no effect for the range from 100,000 to 500,000.

  3. An experimental investigation on wind turbine aeromechanics and wake interferences among multiple wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozbay, Ahmet

    A comprehensive experimental study was conducted to investigate wind turbine aeromechanics and wake interferences among multiple wind turbines sited in onshore and offshore wind farms. The experiments were carried out in a large-scale Aerodynamic/Atmospheric Boundary Layer (AABL) Wind Tunnel available at Iowa State University. An array of scaled three-blade Horizontal Axial Wind Turbine (HAWT) models were placed in atmospheric boundary layer winds with different mean and turbulence characteristics to simulate the situations in onshore and offshore wind farms. The effects of the important design parameters for wind farm layout optimization, which include the mean and turbulence characteristics of the oncoming surface winds, the yaw angles of the turbines with respect to the oncoming surface winds, the array spacing and layout pattern, and the terrain topology of wind farms on the turbine performances (i.e., both power output and dynamic wind loadings) and the wake interferences among multiple wind turbines, were assessed in detail. The aeromechanic performance and near wake characteristics of a novel dual-rotor wind turbine (DRWT) design with co-rotating or counter-rotating configuration were also investigated, in comparison to a conventional single rotor wind turbine (SRWT). During the experiments, in addition to measuring dynamic wind loads (both forces and moments) and the power outputs of the scaled turbine models, a high-resolution Particle Image Velocity (PIV) system was used to conduct detailed flow field measurements (i.e., both free-run and phase-locked flow fields measurements) to reveal the transient behavior of the unsteady wake vortices and turbulent flow structures behind wind turbines and to quantify the characteristics of the wake interferences among the wind turbines sited in non-homogenous surface winds. A miniature cobra anemometer was also used to provide high-temporal-resolution data at points of interest to supplement the full field PIV

  4. Advanced IGCC/Hydrogen Gas Turbine Development

    SciTech Connect

    York, William; Hughes, Michael; Berry, Jonathan

    2015-07-30

    The objective of this program was to develop the technologies required for a fuel flexible (coal derived hydrogen or syngas) gas turbine for IGCC that met DOE turbine performance goals. The overall DOE Advanced Power System goal was to conduct the research and development (R&D) necessary to produce coal-based IGCC power systems with high efficiency, near-zero emissions, and competitive capital cost. To meet this goal, the DOE Fossil Energy Turbine Program had as an interim objective of 2 to 3 percentage points improvement in combined cycle (CC) efficiency. The final goal is 3 to 5 percentage points improvement in CCmore » efficiency above the state of the art for CC turbines in IGCC applications at the time the program started. The efficiency goals were for NOx emissions of less than 2 ppm NOx (@15 % O2). As a result of the technologies developed under this program, the DOE goals were exceeded with a projected 8 point efficiency improvement. In addition, a new combustion technology was conceived of and developed to overcome the challenges of burning hydrogen and achieving the DOE’s NOx goal. This report also covers the developments under the ARRA-funded portion of the program that include gas turbine technology advancements for improvement in the efficiency, emissions, and cost performance of gas turbines for industrial applications with carbon capture and sequestration. Example applications could be cement plants, chemical plants, refineries, steel and aluminum plants, manufacturing facilities, etc. The DOE’s goal for more than 5 percentage point improvement in efficiency was met with cycle analyses performed for representative IGCC Steel Mill and IGCC Refinery applications. Technologies were developed in this program under the following areas: combustion, larger latter stage buckets, CMC and EBC, advanced materials and coatings, advanced configurations to reduce cooling, sealing and rotor purge flows, turbine aerodynamics, advanced sensors, advancements in

  5. 18. TURBINE AND GENERATOR SHAFT IN CONCRETE HOUSING OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. TURBINE AND GENERATOR SHAFT IN CONCRETE HOUSING OF THE TURBINE FLUME. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  6. Calculating the Flow Field in a Radial Turbine Scroll

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baskharone, E.; Abdallah, S.; Hamed, A.; Tabaoff, W.

    1983-01-01

    Set of two computer programs calculates flow field in radial turbine scroll. Programs represent improvement in analyzing flow in radial turbine scrolls and provide designer with tools for designing better scrolls. Programs written in FORTRAN IV.

  7. 8. TURBINE DECK (UPPER FLOOR) INSIDE STEAM PLANT, SHOWING STEAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. TURBINE DECK (UPPER FLOOR) INSIDE STEAM PLANT, SHOWING STEAM TURBINES AND GENERATORS, LOOKING NORTH. November 13, 1990 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  8. 68. TURBINE HALL, LOOKING DOWN FROM THE CONTROL ROOM INTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. TURBINE HALL, LOOKING DOWN FROM THE CONTROL ROOM INTO TURBINE HALL AT UNITS 3, 5, AND 2) - Delaware County Electric Company, Chester Station, Delaware River at South end of Ward Street, Chester, Delaware County, PA

  9. View of turbine showing gears which turned the motion of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of turbine showing gears which turned the motion of the vertical turbine shafts to the horizontal for distribution to the mill and increased the speed. - Harmony Manufacturing Company, Mill Number 3, 100 North Mohawk Street, Cohoes, Albany County, NY

  10. WHEELROOM (TURBINE ROOM), LOOKING WEST TOWARD PENSTOCK FOR #2 AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WHEELROOM (TURBINE ROOM), LOOKING WEST TOWARD PENSTOCK FOR #2 AND #1 TURBINES. PHOTO BY JET LOWE, HAER, 1995. - Elwha River Hydroelectric System, Elwha Hydroelectric Dam & Plant, Port Angeles, Clallam County, WA

  11. 28. WWP, 28 June 1945 'NO. 4 TURBINE ASSEMBLY,' SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. WWP, 28 June 1945 'NO. 4 TURBINE ASSEMBLY,' SHOWING CUTAWAY ELEVATION OF THE TURBINE - Washington Water Power Company Monroe Street Plant, Units 4 & 5, South Bank Spokane River, below Monroe Street Bridge, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  12. OUT Success Stories: Advanced Airfoils for Wind Turbines

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Jones, J.; Green, B.

    2000-08-01

    New airfoils have substantially increased the aerodynamic efficiency of wind turbines. It is clear that these new airfoils substantially increased energy output from wind turbines. Virtually all new blades built in this country today use these advanced airfoil designs.

  13. Low thermal stress ceramic turbine nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Glezer, B.; Bagheri, H.; Fierstein, A.R.

    1996-02-27

    A turbine nozzle vane assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and is attached to conventional metallic components, the metallic components having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the turbine nozzle vane assembly. The turbine nozzle vane assembly includes an outer shroud and an inner shroud having a plurality of vanes there between. Each of the plurality of vanes have a device for heating and cooling a portion of each of the plurality of vanes. Furthermore, the inner shroud has a plurality of bosses attached thereto. A cylindrical member has a plurality of grooves formed therein and each of the plurality of bosses are positioned in corresponding ones of the plurality of grooves. The turbine nozzle vane assembly provides an economical, reliable and effective ceramic component having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the other component. 4 figs.

  14. Overview of Advanced Turbine Systems Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, H. A.; Bajura, R. A.

    The US Department of Energy initiated a program to develop advanced gas turbine systems to serve both central power and industrial power generation markets. The Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program will lead to commercial offerings by the private sector by 2002. ATS will be developed to fire natural gas but will be adaptable to coal and biomass firing. The systems will be: highly efficient (15 percent improvement over today's best systems); environmentally superior (10 percent reduction in nitrogen oxides over today's best systems); and cost competitive (10 percent reduction in cost of electricity). The ATS Program has five elements. Innovative cycle development will lead to the demonstration of systems with advanced gas turbine cycles using current gas turbine technology. High temperature development will lead to the increased firing temperatures needed to achieve ATS Program efficiency goals. Ceramic component development/demonstration will expand the current DOE/CE program to demonstrate industrial-scale turbines with ceramic components. Technology base will support the overall program by conducting research and development (R&D) on generic technology issues. Coal application studies will adapt technology developed in the ATS program to coal-fired systems being developed in other DOE programs.

  15. Flow interaction of diffuser augmented wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göltenbott, U.; Ohya, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Jamieson, P.

    2016-09-01

    Up-scaling of wind turbines has been a major trend in order to reduce the cost of energy generation from the wind. Recent studies however show that for a given technology, the cost always rises with upscaling, notably due to the increased mass of the system. To reach capacities beyond 10 MW, multi-rotor systems (MRS) have promising advantages. On the other hand, diffuser augmented wind turbines (DAWTs) can significantly increase the performance of the rotor. Up to now, diffuser augmentation has only been applied to single small wind turbines. In the present research, DAWTs are used in a multi-rotor system. In wind tunnel experiments, the aerodynamics of two and three DAWTs, spaced in close vicinity in the same plane normal to a uniform flow, have been analysed. Power increases of up to 5% and 9% for the two and three rotor configurations are respectively achieved in comparison to a stand-alone turbine. The physical dynamics of the flows are analysed on the basis of the results obtained with a stand-alone turbine.

  16. An optimal tuning strategy for tidal turbines

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Tuning wind and tidal turbines is critical to maximizing their power output. Adopting a wind turbine tuning strategy of maximizing the output at any given time is shown to be an extremely poor strategy for large arrays of tidal turbines in channels. This ‘impatient-tuning strategy’ results in far lower power output, much higher structural loads and greater environmental impacts due to flow reduction than an existing ‘patient-tuning strategy’ which maximizes the power output averaged over the tidal cycle. This paper presents a ‘smart patient tuning strategy’, which can increase array output by up to 35% over the existing strategy. This smart strategy forgoes some power generation early in the half tidal cycle in order to allow stronger flows to develop later in the cycle. It extracts enough power from these stronger flows to produce more power from the cycle as a whole than the existing strategy. Surprisingly, the smart strategy can often extract more power without increasing maximum structural loads on the turbines, while also maintaining stronger flows along the channel. This paper also shows that, counterintuitively, for some tuning strategies imposing a cap on turbine power output to limit loads can increase a turbine’s average power output. PMID:27956870

  17. Dual-Spool Turbine Facility Design Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giel, Paul; Pachlhofer, Pete

    2003-01-01

    The next generation of aircraft engines, both commercial and military, will attempt to capitalize on the benefits of close-coupled, vaneless, counter-rotating turbine systems. Experience has shown that significant risks and challenges are present with close-coupled systems in terms of efficiency and durability. The UEET program needs to demonstrate aerodynamic loading and efficiency goals for close-coupled, reduced-stage HP/LP turbine systems as a Level 1 Milestone for FY05. No research facility exists in the U.S. to provide risk reduction for successful development of close-coupled, high and low pressure turbine systems for the next generations of engines. To meet these objectives, the design, construction, and integrated systems testing of a Dual-Spool Turbine Facility (DSTF) facility has been initiated at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The facility will be a warm (-IOOO'F), continuous flow facility for overall aerodynamic performance and detailed flow field measurement acquisition. The facility will have state-of-the-art instrumentation to capture flow physics details. Accurate and reliable speed control will be achieved by utilizing the existing Variable Frequency Drive System. Utilization of this and other existing GRC centralized utilities will reduce the overall construction costs. The design allows for future installation of a turbine inlet combustor profile simulator. This presentation details the objectives of the facility and the concepts used in specifying its capabilities. Some preliminary design results will be presented along with a discussion of plans and schedules.

  18. Industrial wind turbines and adverse health effects.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, Roy D; Krogh, Carmen M E; Horner, Brett

    2014-01-01

    Some people living in the environs of industrial wind turbines (IWTs) report experiencing adverse health and socioeconomic effects. This review considers the hypothesis that annoyance from audible IWTs is the cause of these adverse health effects. We searched PubMed and Google Scholar for articles published since 2000 that included the terms "wind turbine health," "wind turbine infrasound," "wind turbine annoyance," "noise annoyance" or "low frequency noise" in the title or abstract. Industrial wind turbines produce sound that is perceived to be more annoying than other sources of sound. Reported effects from exposure to IWTs are consistent with well-known stress effects from persistent unwanted sound. If placed too close to residents, IWTs can negatively affect the physical, mental and social well-being of people. There is sufficient evidence to support the conclusion that noise from audible IWTs is a potential cause of health effects. Inaudible low-frequency noise and infrasound from IWTs cannot be ruled out as plausible causes of health effects.

  19. Why do Cross-Flow Turbines Stall?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavagnaro, Robert; Strom, Benjamin; Polagye, Brian

    2015-11-01

    Hydrokinetic turbines are prone to instability and stall near their peak operating points under torque control. Understanding the physics of turbine stall may help to mitigate this undesirable occurrence and improve the robustness of torque controllers. A laboratory-scale two-bladed cross-flow turbine operating at a chord-based Reynolds number ~ 3 ×104 is shown to stall at a critical tip-speed ratio. Experiments are conducting bringing the turbine to this critical speed in a recirculating current flume by increasing resistive torque and allowing the rotor to rapidly decelerate while monitoring inflow velocity, torque, and drag. The turbine stalls probabilistically with a distribution generated from hundreds of such events. A machine learning algorithm identifies stall events and indicates the effectiveness of available measurements or combinations of measurements as predictors. Bubble flow visualization and PIV are utilized to observe fluid conditions during stall events including the formation, separation, and advection of leading-edge vortices involved in the stall process.

  20. WindPACT Reference Wind Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Dykes, Katherine L; Rinker, Jennifer

    To fully understand how loads and turbine cost scale with turbine size, it is necessary to have identical turbine models that have been scaled to different rated powers. The report presents the WindPACT baseline models, which are a series of four baseline models that were designed to facilitate investigations into the scalings of loads and turbine cost with size. The models have four different rated powers (750 kW, 1.5 MW, 3.0 MW, and 5.0 MW), and each model was designed to its specified rated power using the same design methodology. The models were originally implemented in FAST_AD, the predecessor tomore » NREL's open-source wind turbine simulator FAST, but have yet to be implemented in FAST. This report contains the specifications for all four WindPACT baseline models - including structural, aerodynamic, and control specifications - along with the inherent assumptions and equations that were used to calculate the model parameters. It is hoped that these baseline models will serve as extremely useful resources for investigations into the scalings of costs, loads, or optimization routines.« less

  1. Mod-2 wind turbine field operations experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, L. H.

    1985-01-01

    The three-machine, 7.5 MW Goodnoe Hills located near Goldendale, Washington and is now in a research/experimental operations phase that offers a unique opportunity to study the effects of single and multiple wind turbines interacting with each other, the power grid; and the environment. Following a brief description of the turbine and project history, this paper addresses major problem areas and research and development test results. Field operations, both routine and nonroutine, are discussed. Routine operation to date has produced over 13,379,000 KWh of electrical energy during 11,064 hr of rotation. Nonroutine operation includes suspended activities caused by a crack in the low speed shaft that necessitated a redesign and reinstallation of this assembly on all three turbines. With the world's largest cluster back in full operation, two of the turbines will be operated over the next years to determine their value as energy producer. The third unit will be used primarily for conducting research tests requiring configuration changes to better understand the wind turbine technology. Technical areas summarized pertain to system performance and enhancements. Specific research tests relating to acoustics, TV interference, and wake effects conclude the paper.

  2. Modelling the failure behaviour of wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulstich, S.; Berkhout, V.; Mayer, J.; Siebenlist, D.

    2016-09-01

    Modelling the failure behaviour of wind turbines is an essential part of offshore wind farm simulation software as it leads to optimized decision making when specifying the necessary resources for the operation and maintenance of wind farms. In order to optimize O&M strategies, a thorough understanding of a wind turbine's failure behaviour is vital and is therefore being developed at Fraunhofer IWES. Within this article, first the failure models of existing offshore O&M tools are presented to show the state of the art and strengths and weaknesses of the respective models are briefly discussed. Then a conceptual framework for modelling different failure mechanisms of wind turbines is being presented. This framework takes into account the different wind turbine subsystems and structures as well as the failure modes of a component by applying several influencing factors representing wear and break failure mechanisms. A failure function is being set up for the rotor blade as exemplary component and simulation results have been compared to a constant failure rate and to empirical wind turbine fleet data as a reference. The comparison and the breakdown of specific failure categories demonstrate the overall plausibility of the model.

  3. Minimum fan turbine inlet temperature mode evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orme, John S.; Nobbs, Steven G.

    1995-01-01

    Measured reductions in turbine temperature which resulted from the application of the F-15 performance seeking control (PSC) minimum fan turbine inlet temperature (FTIT) mode during the dual-engine test phase is presented as a function of net propulsive force and flight condition. Data were collected at altitudes of 30,000 and 45,000 feet at military and partial afterburning power settings. The FTIT reductions for the supersonic tests are less than at subsonic Mach numbers because of the increased modeling and control complexity. In addition, the propulsion system was designed to be optimized at the mid supersonic Mach number range. Subsonically at military power, FTIT reductions were above 70 R for either the left or right engines, and repeatable for the right engine. At partial afterburner and supersonic conditions, the level of FTIT reductions were at least 25 R and as much as 55 R. Considering that the turbine operates at or very near its temperature limit at these high power settings, these seemingly small temperature reductions may significantly lengthen the life of the turbine. In general, the minimum FTIT mode has performed well, demonstrating significant temperature reductions at military and partial afterburner power. Decreases of over 100 R at cruise flight conditions were identified. Temperature reductions of this magnitude could significantly extend turbine life and reduce replacement costs.

  4. Sandia SWiFT Wind Turbine Manual.

    SciTech Connect

    White, Jonathan; LeBlanc, Bruce Philip; Berg, Jonathan Charles

    The Scaled Wind Farm Technology (SWiFT) facility, operated by Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind and Water Power Program, is a wind energy research site with multiple wind turbines scaled for the experimental study of wake dynamics, advanced rotor development, turbine control, and advanced sensing for production-scale wind farms. The SWiFT site currently includes three variable-speed, pitch-regulated, three-bladed wind turbines. The six volumes of this manual provide a detailed description of the SWiFT wind turbines, including their operation and user interfaces, electrical and mechanical systems, assembly and commissioning procedures, and safety systems. Further dissemination only asmore » authorized to U.S. Government agencies and their contractors; other requests shall be approved by the originating facility or higher DOE programmatic authority. 111 UNCLASSIFIED UNLIMITED RELEASE Sandia SWiFT Wind Turbine Manual (SAND2016-0746 ) approved by: Department Manager SWiFT Site Lead Dave Minster (6121) Date Jonathan White (6121) Date SWiFT Site Supervisor Dave Mitchell (6121) Date Note: Document revision logs are found after the title page of each volume of this manual. iv« less

  5. Tempest gas turbine extends EGT product line

    SciTech Connect

    Chellini, R.

    With the introduction of the 7.8 MW (mechanical output) Tempest gas turbine, ECT has extended the company`s line of its small industrial turbines. The new Tempest machine, featuring a 7.5 MW electric output and a 33% thermal efficiency, ranks above the company`s single-shaft Typhoon gas turbine, rated 3.2 and 4.9 MW, and the 6.3 MW Tornado gas turbine. All three machines are well-suited for use in combined heat and power (CHP) plants, as demonstrated by the fact that close to 50% of the 150 Typhoon units sold are for CHP applications. This experience has induced EGT, of Lincoln, England, tomore » announce the introduction of the new gas turbine prior to completion of the testing program. The present single-shaft machine is expected to be used mainly for industrial trial cogeneration. This market segment, covering the needs of paper mills, hospitals, chemical plants, ceramic industry, etc., is a typical local market. Cogeneration plants are engineered according to local needs and have to be assisted by local organizations. For this reason, to efficiently cover the world market, EGT has selected a number of associates that will receive from Lincoln completely engineered machine packages and will engineer the cogeneration system according to custom requirements. These partners will also assist the customer and dispose locally of the spares required for maintenance operations.« less

  6. Short-range forecast of Shershnevskoie (South Ural) water-storage algal blooms: preliminary results of predictors' choosing and membership functions' construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayazova, Anna; Abdullaev, Sanjar

    2014-05-01

    Short-range forecasting of algal blooms in drinking water reservoirs and other waterbodies is an actual element of water treatment system. Particularly, Shershnevskoie reservoir - the source of drinking water for Chelyabinsk city (South Ural region of Russia) - is exposed to interannual, seasonal and short-range fluctuations of blue-green alga Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and other dominant species abundance, which lead to technological problems and economic costs and adversely affect the water treatment quality. Whereas the composition, intensity and the period of blooms affected not only by meteorological seasonal conditions but also by ecological specificity of waterbody, that's important to develop object-oriented forecasting, particularly, search for an optimal number of predictors for such forecasting. Thereby, firstly fuzzy logic and fuzzy artificial neural network patterns for blue-green alga Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa) blooms prediction in nearby undrained Smolino lake were developed. These results subsequently served as the base to derive membership functions for Shernevskoie reservoir forecasting patterns. Time series with the total lenght about 138-159 days of dominant species seasonal abundance, water temperature, cloud cover, wind speed, mineralization, phosphate and nitrate concentrations were obtained through field observations held at Lake Smolino (Chelyabinsk) in the warm season of 2009 and 2011 with time resolution of 2-7 days. The cross-correlation analysis of the data revealed the potential predictors of M. aeruginosa abundance quasi-periodic oscillations: green alga Pediastrum duplex (P. duplex) abundance and mineralization for 2009, P. duplex abundance, water temperature and concentration of nitrates for 2011. According to the results of cross-correlation analysis one membership function "P. duplex abundance" and one rule linking M. aeruginosa and P. duplex abundances were set up for database of 2009. Analogically, for database of 2011

  7. Gas Turbine Engine with Air/Fuel Heat Exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krautheim, Michael Stephen (Inventor); Chouinard, Donald G. (Inventor); Donovan, Eric Sean (Inventor); Karam, Michael Abraham (Inventor); Vetters, Daniel Kent (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    One embodiment of the present invention is a unique aircraft propulsion gas turbine engine. Another embodiment is a unique gas turbine engine. Another embodiment is a unique gas turbine engine. Other embodiments include apparatuses, systems, devices, hardware, methods, and combinations for gas turbine engines with heat exchange systems. Further embodiments, forms, features, aspects, benefits, and advantages of the present application will become apparent from the description and figures provided herewith.

  8. Efficient, Low Pressure Ratio Propulsor for Gas Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, Edward J. (Inventor); Monzon, Byron R. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A gas turbine engine includes a spool, a turbine coupled to drive the spool, and a propulsor that is coupled to be driven by the turbine through the spool. A gear assembly is coupled between the propulsor and the spool such that rotation of the turbine drives the propulsor at a different speed than the spool. The propulsor includes a hub and a row of propulsor blades that extends from the hub. The row includes no more than 20 of the propulsor blades.

  9. Efficient, Low Pressure Ratio Propulsor for Gas Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monzon, Byron R. (Inventor); Gallagher, Edward J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A gas turbine engine includes a spool, a turbine coupled to drive the spool, and a propulsor that is coupled to be driven by the turbine through the spool. A gear assembly is coupled between the propulsor and the spool such that rotation of the turbine drives the propulsor at a different speed than the spool. The propulsor includes a hub and a row of propulsor blades that extends from the hub. The row includes no more than 20 of the propulsor blades.

  10. Closed-loop air cooling system for a turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    North, William Edward

    2000-01-01

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for providing a closed-loop air cooling system for a turbine engine. The method and apparatus provide for bleeding pressurized air from a gas turbine engine compressor for use in cooling the turbine components. The compressed air is cascaded through the various stages of the turbine. At each stage a portion of the compressed air is returned to the compressor where useful work is recovered.

  11. Onshore industrial wind turbine locations for the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Compton, Roger; Kramer, Louisa; Ancona, Zach; Norton, Donna

    2017-01-01

    This dataset provides industrial-scale onshore wind turbine locations in the United States, corresponding facility information, and turbine technical specifications. The database has wind turbine records that have been collected, digitized, locationally verified, and internally quality controlled. Turbines from the Federal Aviation Administration Digital Obstacles File, through product release date July 22, 2013, were used as the primary source of turbine data points. The dataset was subsequently revised and reposted as described in the revision histories for the report. Verification of the turbine positions was done by visual interpretation using high-resolution aerial imagery in Environmental Systems Research Institute (Esri) ArcGIS Desktop. Turbines without Federal Aviation Administration Obstacles Repository System numbers were visually identified and point locations were added to the collection. We estimated a locational error of plus or minus 10 meters for turbine locations. Wind farm facility names were identified from publicly available facility datasets. Facility names were then used in a Web search of additional industry publications and press releases to attribute additional turbine information (such as manufacturer, model, and technical specifications of wind turbines). Wind farm facility location data from various wind and energy industry sources were used to search for and digitize turbines not in existing databases. Technical specifications for turbines were assigned based on the wind turbine make and model as described in literature, specifications listed in the Federal Aviation Administration Digital Obstacles File, and information on the turbine manufacturer’s Web site. Some facility and turbine information on make and model did not exist or was difficult to obtain. Thus, uncertainty may exist for certain turbine specifications. That uncertainty was rated and a confidence was recorded for both location and attribution data quality.

  12. 30. VIEW DOWN INTO TURBINE PIT SHOWING WICKET GATE CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. VIEW DOWN INTO TURBINE PIT SHOWING WICKET GATE CONTROL MECHANISM AND MAIN SHAFT OF I. P. MORRIS TURBINE. TURBINE BUILT BY I. P. MORRIS & DE LA VERGNE, INC. OF PHILADELPHIA, PA, AND INSTALLED IN 1925. TURBINE RATED AT 18,000 HP AT 113.3 RPM UNDER 18.5 FEET OF HEAD. - Lake Lynn Hydroelectric Power House & Dam, Cheat River, Morgantown, Monongalia County, WV

  13. The Effect of Unsteady Wakes on Turbine Tip Gap Leakage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-10

    low speed wind tunnel. The turbine blade shape for the experiment was the GE E 3 high pressure turbine stage 1 blade (Halila et al. 1982). The E 3...DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER The Effect of Unsteady Wakes on Turbine Tip Gap Leakage...Gas turbines are found in military and civilian aircraft, ships, and power plants. Because of this widespread use, relatively small improvements

  14. First International Workshop on Grid Simulator Testing of Wind Turbine

    Science.gov Websites

    of Wind Turbine Drivetrains First International Workshop on Grid Simulator Testing of Wind Turbine Wind Turbine Drivetrains June 13-14, 2013, at the National Wind Technology Center near Boulder apparatuses involved in grid compliance testing of utility-scale wind turbine generators. This includes both

  15. Radar Cross Section (RCS) Simulation for Wind Turbines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    SECTION (RCS) SIMULATION FOR WIND TURBINES by Cuong Ton June 2013 Thesis Advisor: David C. Jenn Second Reader: Ric Romero THIS PAGE...TITLE AND SUBTITLE RADAR CROSS SECTION (RCS) SIMULATION FOR WIND TURBINES 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Cuong Ton 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) Wind - turbine power provides energy-independence and greenhouse-gas reduction benefits, but if wind turbines are built

  16. Fabrication of turbine components and properties of sintered silicon nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neil, J. T.; French, K. W.; Quackenbush, C. L.; Smith, J. T.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents a status report on the injection molding of sinterable silicon nitride at GTE Laboratories. The effort involves fabrication of single axial turbine blades and monolithic radial turbine rotors. The injection molding process is reviewed and the fabrication of the turbine components discussed. Oxidation resistance and strength results of current injection molded sintered silicon nitride as well as dimensional checks on sintered turbine blades demonstrate that this material is a viable candidate for high temperature structural applications.

  17. Methods and apparatus for rotor load control in wind turbines

    DOEpatents

    Moroz, Emilian Mieczyslaw

    2006-08-22

    A wind turbine having a rotor, at least one rotor blade, and a plurality of generators, of which a first generator is configured to provide power to an electric grid and a second generator is configured to provide power to the wind turbine during times of grid loss. The wind turbine is configured to utilize power provided by the second generator to reduce loads on the wind turbine during times of grid loss.

  18. Measurement of Turbine Engine Transient Airflow in Ground Test Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    REPORT NUMBER 12 GOVT ACCESSION NO. A E D C - T R - 8 0 - 2 1 L 6. T I T L E (aqd Subl l l |e ) MEASUREMENT OF TURBINE ENGINE TRANSIENT AIRFLOW IN...21 ILLUSTRATIONS Figure !. Direct-Connect Turbine Engine Test Cell Installation...26 3. Turbine Engine Transient Airflow Simulator (TETAS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 4

  19. New Hydrokinetic Turbine for Free Surface Gravitational Wave Transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berins, J.

    2017-12-01

    The present article deals with an alternative form of energy - the conversion of marine/ocean wave energy using an axial self-regulating blade (SB) hydrokinetic turbine (ASRBHK turbine). The article analyses the operation of the ASRBHK turbine and draws the resulting conclusions about the mechanism, in which the power transfer element is a self-regulating blade.

  20. 14 CFR 25.939 - Turbine engine operating characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Turbine engine operating characteristics... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.939 Turbine engine operating characteristics. (a) Turbine engine operating characteristics must be investigated in...