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Sample records for zap-70-negative chronic lymphocytic

  1. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia/Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma (CLL/SLL)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Impact Support LRF Subscribe About Lymphoma Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Home » About Lymphoma » Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia/Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma Chronic lymphocytic leukemia Disease generally ...

  2. Ofatumumab, Pentostatin, and Cyclophosphamide in Treating Patients With Untreated Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-10-30

    Hematopoietic/Lymphoid Cancer; B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage 0 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  3. miR-150 influences B-cell receptor signaling in chronic lymphocytic leukemia by regulating expression of GAB1 and FOXP1.

    PubMed

    Mraz, Marek; Chen, Liguang; Rassenti, Laura Z; Ghia, Emanuela M; Li, Hongying; Jepsen, Kristen; Smith, Erin N; Messer, Karen; Frazer, Kelly A; Kipps, Thomas J

    2014-07-03

    We examined the microRNAs (miRNAs) expressed in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and identified miR-150 as the most abundant, but with leukemia cell expression levels that varied among patients. CLL cells that expressed ζ-chain-associated protein of 70 kDa (ZAP-70) or that used unmutated immunoglobulin heavy chain variable (IGHV) genes, each had a median expression level of miR-150 that was significantly lower than that of ZAP-70-negative CLL cells or those that used mutated IGHV genes. In samples stratified for expression of miR-150, CLL cells with low-level miR-150 expressed relatively higher levels of forkhead box P1 (FOXP1) and GRB2-associated binding protein 1 (GAB1), genes with 3' untranslated regions having evolutionary-conserved binding sites for miR-150. High-level expression of miR-150 could repress expression of these genes, which encode proteins that enhance B-cell receptor signaling, a putative CLL-growth/survival signal. Also, high-level expression of miR-150 was a significant independent predictor of longer treatment-free survival or overall survival, whereas an inverse association was observed for high-level expression of GAB1 or FOXP1 for overall survival. This study demonstrates that expression of miR-150 can influence the relative expression of GAB1 and FOXP1 and the signaling potential of the B-cell receptor, thereby possibly accounting for the noted association of expression of miR-150 and disease outcome. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.

  4. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Kipps, Thomas J.; Stevenson, Freda K.; Wu, Catherine J.; Croce, Carlo M.; Packham, Graham; Wierda, William G.; O’Brien, Susan; Gribben, John; Rai, Kanti

    2017-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is a malignancy of CD5+ B cells that is characterized by the accumulation of small, mature-appearing lymphocytes in the blood, marrow and lymphoid tissues. Signalling via surface immunoglobulin, which constitutes the major part of the B cell receptor, and several genetic alterations play a part in CLL pathogenesis, in addition to interactions between CLL cells and other cell types, such as stromal cells, T cells and nurse-like cells in the lymph nodes. The clinical progression of CLL is heterogeneous and ranges from patients who require treatment soon after diagnosis to others who do not require therapy for many years, if at all. Several factors, including the immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region gene (IGHV) mutational status, genomic changes, patient age and the presence of comorbidities, should be considered when defining the optimal management strategies, which include chemotherapy, chemoimmunotherapy and/or drugs targeting B cell receptor signalling or inhibitors of apoptosis, such as BCL-2. Research on the biology of CLL has profoundly enhanced our ability to identify patients who are at higher risk for disease progression and our capacity to treat patients with drugs that selectively target distinctive phenotypic or physiological features of CLL. How these and other advances have shaped our current understanding and treatment of patients with CLL is the subject of this Primer. PMID:28102226

  5. Alvocidib in Treating Patients With B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-07-01

    B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  6. Apolizumab in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-07-15

    Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  7. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kay, Neil E; Hamblin, Terry J; Jelinek, Diane F; Dewald, Gordon W; Byrd, John C; Farag, Sherif; Lucas, Margaret; Lin, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    This update of early stage B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) embraces current information on the diagnosis, biology, and intervention required to more fully develop algorithms for management of this disease. Emphasis on early stage is based on the rapid advancement in our understanding of the disease parameters and our increasing ability to predict for a given early stage patient whether there is a need for more aggressive management. In Section I, Dr. Terry Hamblin addresses the nature of the disease, accurate diagnostic procedures, evidence for an early "preclinical" phase, the use of newer prognostic features to distinguish who will be likely to progress or not, and whether it is best to watch or treat early stage disease. In Section II, Dr. Neil Kay and colleagues address the biologic aspects of the disease and how they may relate to disease progression. Review of the newer insights into gene expression, recurring genetic defects, role of cytokines/autocrine pathways, and the interaction of the CLL B cell with the microenvironment are emphasized. The relationship of these events to both trigger disease progression and as opportunities for future therapeutic intervention even in early stage disease is also considered. In Section III, Dr. John Byrd and colleagues review the historical and now current approaches to management of the previously untreated progressive B-CLL patient. They discuss what decision tree could be used in the initial decision to treat a given patient. The use of single agents versus newer combination approaches such as chemoimmunotherapy are discussed here. In addition, the place of marrow transplant and some of the newer antibodies available for treatment of B-CLL are considered. Finally, a challenge to utilize our growing knowledge of the biology of B-CLL in the early stage B-CLL is proffered.

  8. [Chronic lymphocytic leukemia].

    PubMed

    Maurer, C; Hallek, M

    2013-10-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a lymphoproliferative disorder that accounts for approximately 30 % of adult leukemias and 25 % of Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). It is the most common form of leukemia in the western world (incidence 3-5/100 000). Elderly people are mainly affected, median age at diagnosis is around 70 years and there is a slight predominance in men. The etiology of the disease is unknown. The initial symptoms are nonspecific. Cervical lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly followed by general fatigue are seen most commonly. Other possible symptoms include night sweats, fever, loss of weight (so-called B symptoms) and frequent infections. Several patients develop autoimmune complications as autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) or immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). To confirm the diagnosis more than 5000 B-lymphocytes/µl need to be present. The expression of the typical surface markers CD5, CD19, and CD23 has to be confirmed by flow cytometry. Imaging studies as X-ray of the chest, ultrasound of the abdomen, or CT scan are used to assess the degree of lymphadenopathy or organomegaly. A bone marrow biopsy is not mandatory for the diagnosis. According to the European Binet staging system, CLL is divided into 3 stages (A, B and C). Patients in Binet stage A have 0 to 2 areas of node or organ enlargement with normal levels of hemoglobin and platelets. Binet stage B patients have 3 to 5 areas of node or organ enlargement and normal or slightly decreased levels of hemoglobin and platelets. Binet stage C patients have anemia (hemoglobin < 10 g/dl) and/or thrombocytopenia (platelet counts < 100 000/µl), with or without lymphadenopathy or organomegaly. As there is no survival benefit associated with early intervention, asymptomatic patients with early stage CLL (Binet stage A and B) are usually not treated but are followed on a "watch and wait" principle. Treatment indications include stage Binet C or signs of an active disease as rapidly progressive

  9. Cyclophosphamide, Alvocidib, and Rituximab in Treating Patients With High Risk B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-11-10

    Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  10. General Information about Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Go to Health Professional ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  11. Tositumomab and Iodine I 131 Tositumomab in Treating Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma in First Remission

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-10-10

    Lymphoid Leukemia in Remission; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  12. What's New in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) About Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia What's New in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Research and Treatment? Research ... help researchers learn more about how CLL develops. New drugs for chronic lymphocytic leukemia Dozens of new ...

  13. Curcumin and Cholecalciferol in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage 0-II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-01-26

    Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage 0 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

  14. Obatoclax, Fludarabine, and Rituximab in Treating Patients With Previously Treated Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-09-27

    B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Leukemia; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

  15. Vorinostat, Fludarabine Phosphate, Cyclophosphamide, and Rituximab in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-01-12

    Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  16. ZAP-70 compared with immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene mutation status as a predictor of disease progression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Rassenti, Laura Z; Huynh, Lang; Toy, Tracy L; Chen, Liguang; Keating, Michael J; Gribben, John G; Neuberg, Donna S; Flinn, Ian W; Rai, Kanti R; Byrd, John C; Kay, Neil E; Greaves, Andrew; Weiss, Arthur; Kipps, Thomas J

    2004-08-26

    The course of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is variable. In aggressive disease, the CLL cells usually express an unmutated immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable-region gene (IgV(H)) and the 70-kD zeta-associated protein (ZAP-70), whereas in indolent disease, the CLL cells usually express mutated IgV(H) but lack expression of ZAP-70. We evaluated the CLL B cells from 307 patients with CLL for ZAP-70 and mutations in the rearranged IgV(H) gene. We then investigated the association between the results and the time from diagnosis to initial therapy. We found that ZAP-70 was expressed above a defined threshold level in 117 of the 164 patients with an unmutated IgV(H) gene (71 percent), but in only 24 of the 143 patients with a mutated IgV(H) gene (17 percent, P<0.001). Among the patients with ZAP-70-positive CLL cells, the median time from diagnosis to initial therapy in those who had an unmutated IgV(H) gene (2.8 years) was not significantly different from the median time in those who had a mutated IgV(H) gene (4.2 years, P=0.07). However, the median time from diagnosis to initial treatment in each of these groups was significantly shorter than the time in patients with ZAP-70-negative CLL cells who had either mutated or unmutated IgV(H) genes (P<0.001). The median time from diagnosis to initial therapy among patients who did not have ZAP-70 was 11.0 years in those with a mutated IgV(H) gene and 7.1 years in those with an unmutated IgV(H) gene (P<0.001). Although the presence of an unmutated IgV(H) gene is strongly associated with the expression of ZAP-70, ZAP-70 is a stronger predictor of the need for treatment in B-cell CLL. Copyright 2004 Massachusetts Medical Society

  17. Lenalidomide, Ibrutinib, and Rituximab in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma That Is Metastatic or Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-04-13

    Ann Arbor Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Ann Arbor Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Recurrent Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

  18. [Morphometric analysis of lymphocyte nuclei in chronic lymphocytic leukemia].

    PubMed

    Ostapenko, V A; Kruchinskiĭ, N G; Smirnova, L A; Cherednik, A B; Nesterov, V N; Tepliakov, A I

    1994-01-01

    This work is dedicated to the study of use of quantitative analysis of cell nucleus structure for the analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. The structure of lymphocytic nuclei of healthy donors was evaluated by means of staining by toluidine blue purified cell suspensions smears. The preparations were analysed on the television measuring system "omnicon" with measurements of the following parameters: square of the nucleus, euchromatin, heterochromatin, and the ratio of heterochromatin and euchromatin squares. Actuarial analysis and nuclei classification of the previously mentioned parameters showed, that in peripheral blood of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia a large amount of atypical lymphocytes is present with reduced nucleus sizes. Atypical cells retain the ratio of structural components of chromatine, characteristic to normal cells, which show their low proliferative activity.

  19. [Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: current management].

    PubMed

    Aurran-Schleinitz, T; Arnoulet, C; Ivanov, V; Coso, D; Rey, J; Schiano, J-M; Stoppa, A-M; Bouabdallah, R; Gastaut, J-A

    2008-05-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common leukaemia in the Western world. Recent advancement in the aetiology, pathophysiology and the development of new therapeutics tools have significantly modified the current management of CLL. The cellular origin of CLL is still unknown. The current main hypothesis will be first briefly described. This review will then focus on the newly defined prognostic factors and the development and use of new drugs for the treatment of CLL. To describe the modern and practical management of CLL, we will compare classical and new prognostic markers. Then, we will discuss the various therapeutic options including chemotherapy and immunotherapy (monoclonal antibodies, allogenic transplantation), and define their current respective indications. These new diagnostic and prognostic markers will allow the characterization of new prognostic subgroups of patients. This will lead to a targeted and individualized therapeutic approach. We will present the first results of clinical trials and the on-going studies conducted in this disease.

  20. Management of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Stilgenbauer, Stephan; Furman, Richard R; Zent, Clive S

    2015-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL) is usually diagnosed in asymptomatic patients with early-stage disease. The standard management approach is careful observation, irrespective of risk factors unless patients meet the International Workshop on CLL (IWCLL) criteria for "active disease," which requires treatment. The initial standard therapy for most patients combines an anti-CD20 antibody (such as rituximab, ofatumumab, or obinutuzumab) with chemotherapy (fludarabine/cyclophosphamide [FC], bendamustine, or chlorambucil) depending on multiple factors including the physical fitness of the patient. However, patients with very high-risk CLL because of a 17p13 deletion (17p-) with or without mutation of TP53 (17p-/TP53mut) have poor responses to chemoimmunotherapy and require alternative treatment regimens containing B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathway inhibitors. The BCR signaling pathway inhibitors (ibrutinib targeting Bruton's tyrosine kinase [BTK] and idelalisib targeting phosphatidyl-inositol 3-kinase delta [PI3K-delta], respectively) are currently approved for the treatment of relapsed/refractory CLL and all patients with 17p- (ibrutinib), and in combination with rituximab for relapsed/refractory patients (idelalisib). These agents offer great efficacy, even in chemotherapy refractory CLL, with increased tolerability, safety, and survival. Ongoing studies aim to determine the best therapy combinations with the goal of achieving long-term disease control and the possibility of developing a curative regimen for some patients. CLL is associated with a wide range of infectious, autoimmune, and malignant complications. These complications result in considerable morbidity and mortality that can be minimized by early detection and aggressive management. This active monitoring requires ongoing patient education, provider vigilance, and a team approach to patient care.

  1. Leukemia -- Chronic T-Cell Lymphocytic

    MedlinePlus

    ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Leukemia - Chronic T-Cell Lymphocytic Introduction Statistics Risk Factors Symptoms and Signs Diagnosis Stages Treatment Options About Clinical Trials Latest Research ...

  2. Prognosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia from infrared spectra of lymphocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Christian P.; Liu, Kan-Zhi; Johnston, James B.; Mantsch, Henry H.

    1997-06-01

    Peripheral mononuclear cells obtained from blood of normal individuals and from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) were investigated by infrared spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis. Not only are the spectra of CLL cells different from those of normal cells, but hierarchical clustering also separated the CLL cells into a number of subclusters, based on their different DNA content, a fact which may provide a useful diagnostic tool for staging (progression of the disease) and multiple clone detection. Moreover, there is evidence for a correlation between the increased amount of DNA in the CLL cells and the in-vivo doubling time of the lymphocytes in a given patient.

  3. Fludarabine Phosphate and Total-Body Irradiation Before Donor Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-12-05

    B-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; T-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia

  4. Fludarabine Phosphate, Radiation Therapy, and Rituximab in Treating Patients Who Are Undergoing Donor Stem Cell Transplant Followed by Rituximab for High-Risk Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-03-26

    Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; T-Cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia

  5. Brick mortar exposure and chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Markovic-Denic, L; Jankovic, S; Marinkovic, J; Radovanovic, Z

    1995-01-01

    A case-control study of 130 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and 130 controls matched with respect to sex, age (2 years), type of residence (urban-rural) and area of residence (according to the national per capita income) was carried out. Conditional logistic regression analysis showed that, apart of four risk factors already described in the literature (work in a hazardous industry, hair dye use, family history of leukemia and exposure to electromagnetic radiation), brick mortar exposure was also significantly related to CLL.

  6. Ibrutinib (PCI-32765) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Jain, Nitin; O'Brien, Susan

    2013-08-01

    B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling is essential for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cell survival. Many kinases in the BCR signaling pathway are being studied as potential therapeutic targets. Ibrutinib (PCI-32765) is a novel first-in-class selective inhibitor of Bruton tyrosine kinase. Preclinical evidence suggests that ibrutinib inhibits CLL cell survival and proliferation and affects CLL cell migration and homing. Early clinical data in patients with CLL and non-Hodgkin lymphoma is encouraging. It is likely that ibrutinib and other drugs targeting the BCR pathway will become an integral component of CLL therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Immunotherapy in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia (CLL).

    PubMed

    Freeman, Ciara L; Gribben, John G

    2016-02-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is well known to generate impaired immune responses in the host, with the malignant clone residing in well-vascularized tissues and circulating in peripheral blood but also in close proximity to effector cells that are capable, if activated appropriately, of eliciting a cytotoxic response. These, combined with the fact that this is frequently a condition affecting older patients with co-morbidities often unfit for many "traditional" cytotoxic agents with their significant associated toxicities, make CLL an ideal candidate for the development of immunotherapy. The impressive results seen with the addition of a monoclonal antibody, rituximab, to a chemotherapy backbone, for example, is testament to how effective harnessing an immune-mediated response in CLL can be. This review serves to outline the available arsenal of immunotherapies-past and present-demonstrated to have potential in CLL with some perspectives on how the landscape in this disease may evolve in the future.

  8. Minimal residual disease in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    García Vela, José Antonio; García Marco, José Antonio

    2018-02-23

    Minimal residual disease (MRD) assessment is an important endpoint in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). It is highly predictive of prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival and could be considered a surrogate for PFS in the context of chemoimmunotherapy based treatment. Evaluation of MRD level by flow cytometry or molecular techniques in the era of the new BCR and Bcl-2 targeted inhibitors could identify the most cost-effective and durable treatment sequencing. A therapeutic approach guided by the level of MRD might also determine which patients would benefit from an early stop or consolidation therapy. In this review, we discuss the different MRD methods of analysis, which source of tumour samples must be analysed, the future role of the detection of circulating tumour DNA, and the potential role of MRD negativity in clinical practice in the modern era of CLL therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Entospletinib and Obinutuzumab in Treating Patients With Relapsed Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma, or Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-03-05

    Anemia; B-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Fatigue; Fever; Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Grade 3a Follicular Lymphoma; Hairy Cell Leukemia; Lymphadenopathy; Lymphocytosis; Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma; Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Night Sweats; Recurrent Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Richter Syndrome; Splenomegaly; Thrombocytopenia; Weight Loss

  10. ZAP-70 staining in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Villamor, Neus

    2005-05-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common chronic leukemia in Western countries. The disease has an extremely variable clinical course, and several prognostic features have been identified to assess individual risk. The configuration of the immunoglobulin variable heavy-chain gene (IgV(H)) is a strong predictor of the outcome. CLL patients with unmutated IgV(H) status have an aggressive clinical course and a short survival. Unfortunately, analysis of IgV(H) gene configuration is not available in most clinical laboratories. A small number of genes are differentially expressed between unmutated IgV(H) and mutated IgV(H) clinical forms of CLL. One of these genes is ZAP-70, which is detected in leukemic cells from patients with the unmutated IgV(H) form of CLL. Flow cytometry presents advantages over other methods to detect ZAP-70, and its quantification by flow cytometry has proved its predictive value. This unit focuses on protocols to quantify ZAP-70 by flow cytometry in CLL.

  11. Ibrutinib: A Review in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Deeks, Emma D

    2017-02-01

    Ibrutinib (Imbruvica ® ) is an oral irreversible inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase, a B-cell receptor (BCR) signalling kinase expressed by various haematopoietic cells, B-cell lymphomas and leukaemias. The drug is indicated for the treatment of certain haematological malignancies, including chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL)/small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL), which are the focus of this review. In phase III CLL/SLL trials, ibrutinib monotherapy was more effective than chlorambucil in the first-line treatment of elderly patients (RESONATE-2) and more effective than ofatumumab in previously-treated adults (RESONATE). Likewise, a combination of ibrutinib, bendamustine and rituximab was more effective in previously-treated adults than bendamustine plus rituximab in a phase III placebo-controlled study (HELIOS). These ibrutinib regimens were associated with significantly better progression-free survival, overall response rates, and overall survival than the comparators (in protocol-specified or planned analyses), with ibrutinib therapy providing benefit regardless of adverse prognostic factors, such as del(17p)/TP53 mutation and del(11q). Ibrutinib has an acceptable tolerability profile, although certain adverse events (e.g. bleeding and atrial fibrillation) require consideration. Redistribution lymphocytosis can occur, but is not indicative of disease progression. Although longer-term data would be beneficial, ibrutinib is a welcome treatment option for patients with CLL, including those who have higher-risk disease or are less physically fit. Indeed, current EU and US guidelines recommend/prefer the drug for the first- and/or subsequent-line treatment of certain patients, including those with del(17p)/TP53 mutation.

  12. Cytogenetic investigations of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Wren, Catherine; Moriarty, Helen; Marsden, Katherine; Tegg, Elizabeth

    2010-04-15

    This study aimed to determine which culture method would yield the highest culture success rate, mitotic index, banding resolution, and abnormality rate in investigation of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). A range of culture techniques for conventional cytogenetic (CC) analyses was compared: 24-hour unstimulated, 72 hours incubation with additional fetal calf serum, 72 hours stimulation with interleukin 4, 72 hours stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), 72 hours stimulation with TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate), and 72 hours stimulation with CpG-oligonucleotide DSP30 + Interleukin-2 (IL-2). CC abnormality rates were also compared to fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) results using probes for CLL (LSI D13S319/13q34/CEP 12: LSI ATM/p53). Forty-five samples from 24 patients (consisting of 11 newly diagnosed and 13 previously diagnosed patients) were included. For CC, a 100.0% culture success rate was achieved (n = 45) by means of an EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) peripheral blood sample with an associated 62.5% CC abnormality rate (n = 24). FISH detected an abnormality rate of 75.0% (n = 24). The combined CC and FISH abnormality rate was 87.5% (n = 24). This study demonstrates that CC that uses TPA and DSP30 + IL-2 on EDTA peripheral blood is effective in the investigation of CLL and may be used as a supplement to FISH studies. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Ibrutinib (PCI-32765) in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Nitin; O’Brien, Susan

    2015-01-01

    SYNOPSIS B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling is essential for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cell survival. Many kinases in the BCR signaling pathway are currently being studied as potential therapeutic targets. These include Lyn, Syk, PI3 and Bruton tyrosine (BTK). Ibrutinib (PCI-32765) is a novel first-in-class selective inhibitor of BTK. Preclinical evidence suggests that ibrutinib inhibits CLL cell survival and proliferation. In addition, it also affects CLL cell migration and homing. Early clinical data in CLL and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma patients is very encouraging. In relapsed-refractory patients with CLL, a 67% response rate was observed (420mg dose cohort) with single-agent ibrutinib. Long-term follow-up of these studies and other ongoing/planned studies of ibrutinib either as single-agent or in combination with monoclonal antibodies and chemoimmunotherapy is eagerly awaited. It is likely that ibrutinib and other drugs targeting the BCR pathway will become an integral component of CLL therapy. PMID:23915749

  14. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) treatment options can include observation, steroids, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and/or stem cell transplant. Get detailed information about newly diagnosed and recurrent CLL and available treatment modalities in this summary for clinicians.

  15. Current Treatment of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Jamroziak, Krzysztof; Puła, Bartosz; Walewski, Jan

    2017-01-01

    A number of new treatment options have recently emerged for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients, including the Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor ibrutinib, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) delta isoform inhibitor idelalisib combined with rituximab, the Bcl-2 antagonist venetoclax, and the new anti-CD20 antibodies obinutuzumab and ofatumumab. Most of these agents are already included into treatment algorithms defined by international practice guidelines, but more clinical investigations are needed to answer still remaining questions. Ibrutinib was proven as a primary choice for patients with the TP53 gene deletion/mutation, who otherwise have no active treatment available. Idelalisib with rituximab is also an active therapy, but due to increased risk of serious infections, its use in first-line treatment is limited to patients for whom ibrutinib is not an option. A new indication for ibrutinib was recently approved for older patients with comorbidities, as an alternative to the already existing indication for chlorambucil with obinutuzumab. The use of kinase inhibitors is already well established in recurrent/refractory disease. Immunochemotherapy with fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, rituximab (FCR) remains a major first-line option for many CLL patients without the TP53 gene deletion/mutation, and who have no significant comorbidities or history of infections, and is particularly effective in patients with favorable features including mutated IGHV status. There are a number of issues regarding novel therapies for CLL that need further investigation such as optimum duration of treatment with kinase inhibitors, appropriate sequencing of novel agents, mechanisms of resistance to inhibitors and response to class switching after treatment failure, along with the potential role of combinations of targeted agents.

  16. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia in Chornobyl Cleanup Workers.

    PubMed

    Bazyka, Dimitry; Gudzenko, Natalya; Dyagil, Iryna; Goroh, Eugeny; Polyschuk, Oksana; Trotsuk, Natalya; Babkina, Nataly; Romanenko, Anatoly

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes the chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) incidence in a cohort of 110,645 (enlarged later to 152,520) male Ukrainian cleanup workers of the Chornobyl (Chernobyl) accident who were exposed to a range of radiation doses over the 1986-1990 time period. The standardized incidence rates are presented for a 27-y period after the exposure. For 2007-2012 period, the authors have identified the incident CLL cases in an enlarged cohort of 152,520 persons by linkage of the cohort file with the Ukrainian National Cancer Registry (NCRU). CLL data for the previous period (1987-2006) were identified in a frame of the Ukrainian-American leukemia study in the original cohort of 110,645 male clean-up workers. A significant CLL incidence excess was shown for the entire study period 1987-2012, with more prominent levels for the earliest years (1987-1996) when the standardized incidence rate (SIR) value was estimated to be 3.61 with 95% confidence interval from 2.32 to 4.91. In 2007-2012, the CLL incidence decreased substantially but still exceeded the national level although not significantly. In parallel, the several studies were performed at the National Research Center for Radiation Medicine (NRCRM) to explore if any clinical and cytogenetic features of CLL existed in the clean-up workers. The clinical study included 80 exposed and 70 unexposed CLL cases. Among the major clinical differences of the CLL course in the clean-up workers were a shorter period of white blood cells (WBC) doubling (10.7 vs. 18.0; p<0.001), frequent infectious episodes, lymphoadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly (37 vs. 16), higher expression for CD38, and lower expression for ZAP-70 antigen.

  17. Ibrutinib for treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Vela, Cory M; McBride, Ali; Jaglowski, Samantha M; Andritsos, Leslie A

    2016-03-15

    The pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, clinical efficacy, and safety of ibrutinib are described. Ibrutinib is a first-in-class oral inhibitor of Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) approved for treatment of relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Ibrutinib blocks downstream signaling of the B-cell receptor, disrupting stromal microenvironment interactions and B-cell cytokine signaling. BTK inhibition has been shown to be effective in relapsed or refractory CLL. A recent Phase III study evaluated ibrutinib (420 mg daily) versus ofatumumab (consistent with labeling) in relapsed or refractory CLL with a primary endpoint of progression free survival (PFS, n = 391). After a median follow-up period of 9.4 months, a PFS was not attained in ibrutinib-treated individuals with and without deletion 17p. In contrast, ofatumumab-treated individuals experienced a PFS of 8.1 months and those with deletion 17p experienced a PFS of 5.8 months. Major hemorrhage was reported in 2 (1%) patients treated with ibrutinib, and a total of 8 (4%) patients discontinued treatment due to toxicity or adverse reactions. Partial response or partial response with lymphocytosis was achieved in 63% of ibrutinib-treated individuals as determined by independent assessments. Overall, ibrutinib reduced the rate of mortality by 57%. Ibrutinib is a first-in-class, orally active, irreversible BTK inhibitor with a novel mechanism of action. This unique mechanism of action and high overall response rates observed in clinical trials make ibrutinib an attractive second-line option in patients who have disease progression while receiving monoclonal antibody therapy or chemoimmunotherapy. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Monoclonal Antibody Therapy in Treating Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, Lymphocytic Lymphoma, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, or Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-03

    Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage III Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  19. Safety and Tolerability Study of PCI-32765 in B Cell Lymphoma and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-04-03

    B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Diffuse Well-differentiated Lymphocytic Lymphoma; B Cell Lymphoma; Follicular Lymphoma; Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia; Burkitt Lymphoma; B-Cell Diffuse Lymphoma

  20. Natural History Study of Monoclonal B Cell Lymphocytosis (MBL), Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia/Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma (CLL/SLL), Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma (LPL)/Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia (WM), and Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma (SMZL)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-06-27

    B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Monoclonal B-Cell Lymphocytosis; Lymhoma, Small Lymphocytic; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma

  1. Invasive aspergillosis related to ibrutinib therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Arthurs, Benjamin; Wunderle, Kathy; Hsu, Maylee; Kim, Suil

    2017-01-01

    We report a case of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in a patient taking ibrutinib, a Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor used to treat refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia. We hypothesize that ibrutinib promoted this infection by suppressing innate immune responses against Aspergillus . Clinicians should be aware of potential Aspergillus infections in patients treated with this drug.

  2. Metformin Hydrochloride and Ritonavir in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Multiple Myeloma or Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-03-22

    Anemia; Fatigue; Fever; Lymphadenopathy; Lymphocytosis; Night Sweats; Recurrent Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Plasma Cell Myeloma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Plasma Cell Myeloma; Splenomegaly; Thrombocytopenia; Weight Loss

  3. Metabolism pathways in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Rozovski, Uri; Hazan-Halevy, Inbal; Barzilay, Merav; Keating, Michael J.; Estrov, Zeev

    2016-01-01

    Alterations in CLL cell metabolism have been studied by several investigators. Unlike normal B lymphocytes or other leukemia cells, CLL cells, like adipocytes, store lipids and utilize free fatty acids (FFA) to produce chemical energy. None of the recently identified mutations in CLL directly affects metabolic pathways, suggesting that genetic alterations do not directly contribute to CLL cells’ metabolic reprogramming. Conversely, recent data suggest that activation of STAT3 or downregulation of microRNA-125 levels plays a crucial role in the utilization of FFA to meet CLL cells’ metabolic needs. STAT3, known to be constitutively activated in CLL, increases the levels of lipoprotein lipase that mediates lipoprotein uptake and shifts CLL cells’ metabolism towards utilization of FFA. Herein we review the evidence for altered lipid metabolism, increased mitochondrial activity, and formation of reactive oxygen species in CLL cells, and discuss possible therapeutic strategies to inhibit lipid metabolism pathways in patient with CLL. PMID:26643954

  4. Further characterization of the circulating cell in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    SciT

    Schutz, E.F.; Davis, S.; Rubin, A.D.

    Peripheral lymphocytes from normal individuals and from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) were cultured in vitro for 1-7 days. The growth response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) was quantitated by the incorporation of tritiated uridine into RNA nucleotide during a 2-hr pulse with the radioisotope. While the maximum response in PHA-stimulated normal cultures appeared at 2-3 days, CLL cultures required 5-7 days to develop their maximal response, which was 50 percent-60 percent of the normal magnitude. Dilution of the number of normally reactive lymphocytes by culturing them with totally unreactive, mitomycin-treated cells produced a normal 72-hr maximal response, no matter whatmore » proportion of unreactive cells was included in the PHA-stimulated cultures. In addition, the response of peripheral lymphocytes from patients with myeloblastic leukemia, where large numbers of unreactive myeloblasts diluted the normal small lymphocytes, a depressed reaction occurred at the anticipated 2-3 days. Nylon fiber-adherent lymphocytes consisting of 85 percent immunoglobulin (Ig)-bearing cells responded minimally to PHA, but showed no evidence of a delay. When isolated from CLL patients, both fiber-adherent cells (ig-bearing) as well as non-fiber-adherent (sheep erythrocyte-rosetting) cells responded to PHA in a delayed fashion. Similarly, a case of CLL, in which 93.5 percent of the circulating lymphocytes bore sheep red blood cell receptors, showed its peak response to PHA at 7 days. Therefore, using surface marker criteria considered characteristic of normal T cells and B cells, the delayed response to PHA on the part of CLL lymphocytes was independent of thymic or nonthymic origin.« less

  5. Hyperkalemia complicating splenic irradiation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    SciT

    Kurlander, R.; Stein, R.S.; Roth, D.

    1975-09-01

    Hyperkalemia is an infrequent complication of the therapy of malignant disease. In previously reported cases, hyperkalemia following the institution of chemotherapy has been associated with acute renal failure. In this report, we present a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia who developed hyperkalemia following splenic irradiation. Necrosis of tumor cells, either as direct or an abscopal effect appears to be implicated as a cause of hyperkalemia. It seems appropriate to monitor potassium levels when therapy of a responsive tumor is instituted. (auth)

  6. To the nucleolar bodies (nucleoli) in cells of the lymphocytic lineage in patients suffering from B - chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Smetana, K; Karban, J; Trneny, M

    2010-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to provide more information on nucleoli in lymphocytes of B - chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The computer assisted nucleolar and cytoplasmic RNA image densitometry, reflecting the nucleolar and cytoplasmic RNA concentration at the single cell level, demonstrated a remarkable stability during the differentiation and maturation of B- lymphocytes. In contrast, as it was expected, the nucleolar diameter during the lymphocytic development markedly decreased. Thus the nucleolar RNA content of leukemic B-lymphocytes was apparently related to the nucleolar size. In both immature and mature lymphocytes, the cytostatic treatment increased the incidence of micronucleoli, which represent the "inactive" type of nucleoli. However, the decreased values of the nucleolar diameter were statistically significant only in mature lymphocytes of treated patients. On the other hand, despite such observation, it must be mentioned that "large active" and "ring shaped resting" nucleoli were still present in immature and mature lymphocytes after the cytostatic therapy and such cells might represent a potential pool of proliferating cells. As it is generally accepted "large active nucleoli" with multiple fibrillar centers are known to be characteristic for proliferating cells. "Ring shaped resting nucleoli" are present in sleeping cells, which may be stimulated to return to the cell cycle and to proliferate again. In addition, the nucleolar RNA distribution also indicated that Gumprecht ghosts mostly originated from mature lymphocytes. Increased ratio of the nucleolar to cytoplasmic RNA density in Gumprecht ghosts or apoptotic cells and apoptotic bodies of the lymphocytic origin was related to the decreased cytoplasmic RNA concentration. The increased nucleolar size together with the markedly decreased cytoplasmic RNA concentration characteristic for Gumprecht ghosts just reflected the spreading of lymphocytes during smear preparations. In apoptotic cells or

  7. NCCN Guidelines Insights: Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia/Small Lymphocytic Leukemia, Version 1.2017.

    PubMed

    Wierda, William G; Zelenetz, Andrew D; Gordon, Leo I; Abramson, Jeremy S; Advani, Ranjana H; Andreadis, C Babis; Bartlett, Nancy; Byrd, John C; Caimi, Paolo; Fayad, Luis E; Fisher, Richard I; Glenn, Martha J; Habermann, Thomas M; Harris, Nancy Lee; Hernandez-Ilizaliturri, Francisco; Hoppe, Richard T; Horwitz, Steven M; Kaminski, Mark S; Kelsey, Christopher R; Kim, Youn H; Krivacic, Susan; LaCasce, Ann S; Martin, Michael G; Nademanee, Auayporn; Porcu, Pierluigi; Press, Oliver; Rabinovitch, Rachel; Reddy, Nishitha; Reid, Erin; Roberts, Kenneth; Saad, Ayman A; Snyder, Erin D; Sokol, Lubomir; Swinnen, Lode J; Vose, Julie M; Yahalom, Joachim; Dwyer, Mary A; Sundar, Hema

    2017-03-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) are different manifestations of the same disease and managed in much the same way. The advent of novel CD20 monoclonal antibodies led to the development of effective chemoimmunotherapy regimens. More recently, small molecule inhibitors targeting kinases involved in a number of critical signaling pathways and a small molecule inhibitor of the BCL-2 family of proteins have demonstrated activity for the treatment of patients with CLL/SLL. These NCCN Guidelines Insights highlight important updates to the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for CLL/SLL for the treatment of patients with newly diagnosed or relapsed/refractory CLL/SLL. Copyright © 2017 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  8. Ibrutinib Improves Survival in Patients with Previously Treated Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Cancer.gov

    A summary of results from an international phase III trial that compared ibrutinib (Imbruvica®) and ofatumumab (Arzerra®) for the treatment of relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) or small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL).

  9. Morphologic identification of atypical chronic lymphocytic leukemia by digital microscopy.

    PubMed

    Marionneaux, S; Maslak, P; Keohane, E M

    2014-08-01

    Atypical chronic lymphocytic leukemia (aCLL) is a morphologic variant found in approximately 25% of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Although aCLL has a more aggressive course compared to typical CLL (tCLL), it is not usually reported. This retrospective study used digital microscopy to morphologically classify CLL patients as aCLL or tCLL, and determined the prevalence of prognostic markers in each group. CellaVision AB (Lund, Sweden) was used to evaluate lymphocyte morphology on archived blood films of 97 CLL patients, and results of their prognostic marker analysis at diagnosis were obtained. The unpaired t-test, Chi-square, or Fisher's Exact test were used for statistical analysis. 27% of CLL cases were morphologically classified as aCLL. The aCLL group had a higher prevalence of trisomy 12, unmutated IgVH, and CD38 expression (markers associated with poor prognosis), and a lower prevalence of 13q14 deletions compared to tCLL; this was statistically significant. Using digital imaging to identify aCLL is feasible, economical, and may provide clinically relevant prognostic information at diagnosis and during periodic monitoring. Further study of a larger number of patients is needed to assess the clinical utility of reporting aCLL morphology. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. T cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia with suppressor phenotype.

    PubMed Central

    Hofman, F M; Smith, D; Hocking, W

    1982-01-01

    The peripheral blood cells from a patient with T cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia were examined for surface marker and functional characteristics. Eighty-91% of the peripheral blood cells formed SRBC rosettes and 22-49% possessed Fc receptors; 73% of the peripheral blood cells were reactive with the OKT8 antiserum and 61% expressed DR antigens. Response to PHA stimulation was markedly reduced, whereas allogeneic responsiveness in mixed leucocyte culture was intact. The ability of Con A-stimulated peripheral blood cells to generate suppressor activity in a mixed leucocyte reaction was deficient, whereas suppression of in vitro immunoglobulin synthesis was greater than normal. The leukaemic peripheral blood cell population expressed a T suppressor phenotype. Functional studies suggest that these cells were derived from the subset of T lymphocytes with regulatory activity for immunoglobulin synthesis as opposed to mitogenic responsiveness. PMID:6215199

  11. Two rare diagnoses during chronic lymphocytic leukaemia follow-up: Kaposi's sarcoma and Merkel cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dogu, Mehmet H; Sari, Ismail; Hacioglu, Sibel; Degirmencioglu, Serkan; Şen, Nilay; Keskin, Ali

    2016-02-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia often has a clinical presentation characterised by increased neoplastic lymphocytes which are mostly mature looking due to B lymphocytes. Increased secondary cancer prevalence has been detected among patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia diagnosis. In this report, we present three chronic lymphocytic leukaemia patients who developed secondary rare cancers during their follow-up at our clinic. Case 1: A 54-year-old female patient was diagnosed with stage I chronic lymphocytic leukaemia in 2003 and was diagnosed with Merkel cell carcinoma in February 2013. Case 2: A 66-year-old male patient was diagnosed with stage II chronic lymphocytic leukaemia in 2009 and was diagnosed with Kaposi's sarcoma in March 2013. Case 3: A 77-year-old male patient was diagnosed with stage I chronic lymphocytic leukaemia in 2006 and was diagnosed with Kaposi's sarcoma in 2011. In conclusion, secondary cancers are observed in patients diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Therefore, follow-up of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia requires additional attention in this context. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. AID protein expression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma is associated with poor prognosis and complex genetic alterations.

    PubMed

    Leuenberger, Mona; Frigerio, Simona; Wild, Peter J; Noetzli, Franziska; Korol, Dimitri; Zimmermann, Dieter R; Gengler, Carole; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M; Moch, Holger; Tinguely, Marianne

    2010-02-01

    The biological behavior of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and small lymphocytic lymphoma is unpredictable. Nonetheless, non-mutated IgV(H) gene rearrangement, ATM (11q22-23) and p53 (17p13) deletion are recognized as unfavorable prognosticators in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The mRNA expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), an enzyme indispensable for somatic hypermutation processes, was claimed to be predictive of non-mutated chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells in blood. Here, we evaluated AID protein expression compared with known molecular and immunohistochemical prognostic indicators in 71 chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma patients using a tissue microarray approach. We found AID heterogeneously expressed in tumor cells as shown by colocalization analysis for CD5 and CD23. Ki-67 positive paraimmunoblasts of the proliferation centers displayed the highest expression. This observation is reflected by a significant association of AID positivity with a high proliferation rate (P=0.012). ATM deletion was detected in 10% (6/63) of patients and p53 deletion in 19% (13/67) of patients. Moreover, both ATM (P=0.002) and p53 deletion (P=0.004) were significantly associated with AID. IgV(H) gene mutation was seen in 45% (27/60) of patients. Twenty-five percent (17/69) of patients with AID-positive chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma displayed a shorter survival than AID-negative chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma patients (61 vs 130 months, P=0.001). Although there was a trend, we could not show an association with the IgV(H) gene mutation status. Taken together, our study shows that AID expression is an indicator of an unfavorable prognosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma patients, although it is not a surrogate marker for the IgV(H) status. Furthermore, the microenvironment of proliferation centers seems to influence AID regulation and might be an initiating factor

  13. Hypercalcaemia associated with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia in a Giant Schnauzer.

    PubMed

    Kleiter, M; Hirt, R; Kirtz, G; Day, M J

    2001-05-01

    A 7-year-old male Giant Schnauzer was referred with a history of severe vomiting, lethargy, weight loss, polydipsia and polyuria. Detailed investigations revealed leucocytosis with a marked lymphocytosis, mild non-regenerative anaemia, thrombocytopenia, hypercalcaemia and azotaemia. Circulating lymphocytes were small and well-differentiated, and the same lymphoid population was present in bone marrow. Chronic lymphocyctic leukaemia with associated paraneoplastic hypercalcaemia was diagnosed. Immunohistochemical staining of a bone marrow biopsy revealed a neoplastic B-cell line expressing CD79. The dog responded to therapy with prednisolone and chlorambucil for a period of 8 months.

  14. [Prognostic value of absolute monocyte count in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia].

    PubMed

    Szerafin, László; Jakó, János; Riskó, Ferenc

    2015-04-01

    The low peripheral absolute lymphocyte and high monocyte count have been reported to correlate with poor clinical outcome in various lymphomas and other cancers. However, a few data known about the prognostic value of absolute monocyte count in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. The aim of the authors was to investigate the impact of absolute monocyte count measured at the time of diagnosis in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia on the time to treatment and overal survival. Between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2012, 223 patients with newly-diagnosed chronic lymphocytic leukaemia were included. The rate of patients needing treatment, time to treatment, overal survival and causes of mortality based on Rai stages, CD38, ZAP-70 positivity and absolute monocyte count were analyzed. Therapy was necessary in 21.1%, 57.4%, 88.9%, 88.9% and 100% of patients in Rai stage 0, I, II, III an IV, respectively; in 61.9% and 60.8% of patients exhibiting CD38 and ZAP-70 positivity, respectively; and in 76.9%, 21.2% and 66.2% of patients if the absolute monocyte count was <0.25 G/l, between 0.25-0.75 G/l and >0.75 G/l, respectively. The median time to treatment and the median overal survival were 19.5, 65, and 35.5 months; and 41.5, 65, and 49.5 months according to the three groups of monocyte counts. The relative risk of beginning the therapy was 1.62 (p<0.01) in patients with absolute monocyte count <0.25 G/l or >0.75 G/l, as compared to those with 0.25-0.75 G/l, and the risk of overal survival was 2.41 (p<0.01) in patients with absolute monocyte count lower than 0.25 G/l as compared to those with higher than 0.25 G/l. The relative risks remained significant in Rai 0 patients, too. The leading causes of mortality were infections (41.7%) and the chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (58.3%) in patients with low monocyte count, while tumours (25.9-35.3%) and other events (48.1 and 11.8%) occurred in patients with medium or high monocyte counts. Patients with low and high monocyte

  15. Defective immunoregulatory T-cell function in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    SciT

    Han, T.; Ozer, H.; Henderson, E.S.

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) of B-cell origin results in the malignant proliferation of small immunoglobulin-bearing lymphocytes. There is currently a controversy in the literature regarding both the ability of this leukemic population to differentiate into mature plasma cells, as well as the ability of apparently normal T cells from these patients to regulate allogeneic B-cell differentiation. In the present study we have examined the lymphocytes of CLL patients in various clinical stages of their disease and with different surface phenotypes of their leukemic B-cell population. Our results show that leukemic CLL B cells from all 20 patients (including one patientmore » with a monoclonal IgM paraprotein and another with a monoclonal IgG paraprotein) are incapable of further differentiation even in the absence of suppressor T cells and the presence of helper T lymphocytes. This lack of capacity to differentiate is unaffected by clinical stage, by therapy, or by the phenotype of the malignant population. Since the leukemic B population did not suppress normal allogeneic B-cell differentiation, the maturation deficit is evidently intrinsic to the leukemic clone rather than a result of activity of non-T suppressor cells. T helper function was also variably depressed in the blood of some patients with CLL, and this depression did not correlate with clinical stage, with therapy, or with the degree of lymphocytosis. Dysfunction of radiosensitive T suppressor cells was found to be the most consistent regulatory deficit of CLL T cells. Each of 11 patients whose leukemic cell population was of the ..mu..delta, ..mu cap alpha.., or ..mu.. phenotype had both helper and suppressor cell defects.« less

  16. Chronic Lymphocytic Inflammation Specifies the Organ Tropism of Prions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heikenwalder, Mathias; Zeller, Nicolas; Seeger, Harald; Prinz, Marco; Klöhn, Peter-Christian; Schwarz, Petra; Ruddle, Nancy H.; Weissmann, Charles; Aguzzi, Adriano

    2005-02-01

    Prions typically accumulate in nervous and lymphoid tissues. Because proinflammatory cytokines and immune cells are required for lymphoid prion replication, we tested whether inflammatory conditions affect prion pathogenesis. We administered prions to mice with five inflammatory diseases of the kidney, pancreas, or liver. In all cases, chronic lymphocytic inflammation enabled prion accumulation in otherwise prion-free organs. Inflammatory foci consistently correlated with lymphotoxin up-regulation and ectopic induction of FDC-M1+ cells expressing the normal cellular prion protein PrPC. By contrast, inflamed organs of mice lacking lymphotoxin-α or its receptor did not accumulate the abnormal isoform PrPSc, nor did they display infectivity upon prion inoculation. By expanding the tissue distribution of prions, chronic inflammatory conditions may act as modifiers of natural and iatrogenic prion transmission.

  17. Presentation of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia/Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma in a Warthin Tumor: Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Jawad, Hadeel; McCarthy, Peter; O'Leary, Gerard; Heffron, Cynthia C

    2018-05-01

    Warthin tumor is the second most common salivary gland neoplasm. It occurs more commonly in males than in females. Malignant transformation in Warthin tumor is a rare but well-recognized phenomenon; however, the development or presentation of lymphoma in a Warthin tumor is rare. An 80-year-old man presented with painless mass of the right parotid gland of 2 years duration with recent ulceration of the overlying skin and right cervical lymphadenopathy underwent a surgical resection of parotid mass and biopsy of the periglandular lymph nodes. The histological diagnosis was malignant lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma, present within the stroma of a Warthin tumor, and also present within the adjacent lymph node. This case is the third reported case describing a collision of Warthin tumor and chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma. It also emphasizes the importance of careful examination of the lymphoid stroma of these tumors.

  18. Prevalence and characteristics of central nervous system involvement by chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Strati, Paolo; Uhm, Joon H; Kaufmann, Timothy J; Nabhan, Chadi; Parikh, Sameer A; Hanson, Curtis A; Chaffee, Kari G; Call, Timothy G; Shanafelt, Tait D

    2016-04-01

    Abroad array of conditions can lead to neurological symptoms in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients and distinguishing between clinically significant involvement of the central nervous system by chronic lymphocytic leukemia and symptoms due to other etiologies can be challenging. Between January 1999 and November 2014, 172 (4%) of the 4174 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia followed at our center had a magnetic resonance imaging of the central nervous system and/or a lumbar puncture to evaluate neurological symptoms. After comprehensive evaluation, the etiology of neurological symptoms was: central nervous system chronic lymphocytic leukemia in 18 patients (10% evaluated by imaging and/or lumbar puncture, 0.4% overall cohort); central nervous system Richter Syndrome in 15 (9% evaluated, 0.3% overall); infection in 40 (23% evaluated, 1% overall); autoimmune/inflammatory conditions in 28 (16% evaluated, 0.7% overall); other cancer in 8 (5% evaluated, 0.2% overall); and another etiology in 63 (37% evaluated, 1.5% overall). Although the sensitivity of cerebrospinal fluid analysis to detect central nervous system disease was 89%, the specificity was only 42% due to the frequent presence of leukemic cells in the cerebrospinal fluid in other conditions. No parameter on cerebrospinal fluid analysis (e.g. total nucleated cells, total lymphocyte count, chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell percentage) were able to offer a reliable discrimination between patients whose neurological symptoms were due to clinically significant central nervous system involvement by chronic lymphocytic leukemia and another etiology. Median overall survival among patients with clinically significant central nervous system chronic lymphocytic leukemia and Richter syndrome was 12 and 11 months, respectively. In conclusion, clinically significant central nervous system involvement by chronic lymphocytic leukemia is a rare condition, and neurological symptoms in patients with chronic lymphocytic

  19. Extracts of chronic lymphocytic leukemia lymphocytes have a high level of DNA repair activity for O/sup 6/-methylguanine

    SciT

    Waldstein, E.A.; Cao, E.H.; Miller, M.E.

    Extracts of peripheral lymphocytes from six individuals with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) were assayed for the ability to remove O/sup 6/-methylguanine (O/sup 6/MeGua) from exogenous DNA. The O/sup 6/MeGua-removing activity in CLL lymphocytes, predominantly B cells, was approximately 7-fold higher than in B lymphocytes of normal individuals and about 2-fold higher than in the unstimulated T type cells of normal persons. The activity measured in extracts of lymphocytes from three blood relatives was in the upper range of the normal distribution. Over 80% of the removal of O/sup 6/MeGua was accomplished by the transfer of the methyl group to cysteinemore » moieties of acceptor proteins in a stoichiometric reaction. If one assumes one acceptor group per acceptor protein, the calculated number of acceptor molecules per CLL lymphocyte falls between 91,000 and 220,000. Thus CLL lymphocytes do not show lower O/sup 6/MeGua-removing activity, in contrast to many tumor cell strains or transformed cell lines, which are reported to have a deficient methyl excision repair phenotype (Mer/sup -/). Instead, the CLL lymphocytes act as if they have a super-Mer/sup +/ phenotype.« less

  20. Targeting BTK with ibrutinib in relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Byrd, John C; Furman, Richard R; Coutre, Steven E; Flinn, Ian W; Burger, Jan A; Blum, Kristie A; Grant, Barbara; Sharman, Jeff P; Coleman, Morton; Wierda, William G; Jones, Jeffrey A; Zhao, Weiqiang; Heerema, Nyla A; Johnson, Amy J; Sukbuntherng, Juthamas; Chang, Betty Y; Clow, Fong; Hedrick, Eric; Buggy, Joseph J; James, Danelle F; O'Brien, Susan

    2013-07-04

    The treatment of relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has resulted in few durable remissions. Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), an essential component of B-cell-receptor signaling, mediates interactions with the tumor microenvironment and promotes the survival and proliferation of CLL cells. We conducted a phase 1b-2 multicenter study to assess the safety, efficacy, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of ibrutinib (PCI-32765), a first-in-class, oral covalent inhibitor of BTK designed for treatment of B-cell cancers, in patients with relapsed or refractory CLL or small lymphocytic lymphoma. A total of 85 patients, the majority of whom were considered to have high-risk disease, received ibrutinib orally once daily; 51 received 420 mg, and 34 received 840 mg. Toxic effects were predominantly grade 1 or 2 and included transient diarrhea, fatigue, and upper respiratory tract infection; thus, patients could receive extended treatment with minimal hematologic toxic effects. The overall response rate was the same in the group that received 420 mg and the group that received 840 mg (71%), and an additional 20% and 15% of patients in the respective groups had a partial response with lymphocytosis. The response was independent of clinical and genomic risk factors present before treatment, including advanced-stage disease, the number of previous therapies, and the 17p13.1 deletion. At 26 months, the estimated progression-free survival rate was 75% and the rate of overall survival was 83%. Ibrutinib was associated with a high frequency of durable remissions in patients with relapsed or refractory CLL and small lymphocytic lymphoma, including patients with high-risk genetic lesions. (Funded by Pharmacyclics and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01105247.).

  1. Targeting BTK with Ibrutinib in Relapsed Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, John C.; Furman, Richard R.; Coutre, Steven E.; Flinn, Ian W.; Burger, Jan A.; Blum, Kristie A.; Grant, Barbara; Sharman, Jeff P.; Coleman, Morton; Wierda, William G.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Zhao, Weiqiang; Heerema, Nyla A.; Johnson, Amy J.; Sukbuntherng, Juthamas; Chang, Betty Y.; Clow, Fong; Hedrick, Eric; Buggy, Joseph J.; James, Danelle F.; O'Brien, Susan

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The treatment of relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has resulted in few durable remissions. Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), an essential component of B-cell–receptor signaling, mediates interactions with the tumor microenvironment and promotes the survival and proliferation of CLL cells. METHODS We conducted a phase 1b–2 multicenter study to assess the safety, efficacy, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of ibrutinib (PCI-32765), a first-in-class, oral covalent inhibitor of BTK designed for treatment of B-cell cancers, in patients with relapsed or refractory CLL or small lymphocytic lymphoma. A total of 85 patients, the majority of whom were considered to have high-risk disease, received ibrutinib orally once daily; 51 received 420 mg, and 34 received 840 mg. RESULTS Toxic effects were predominantly grade 1 or 2 and included transient diarrhea, fatigue, and upper respiratory tract infection; thus, patients could receive extended treatment with minimal hematologic toxic effects. The overall response rate was the same in the group that received 420 mg and the group that received 840 mg (71%), and an additional 20% and 15% of patients in the respective groups had a partial response with lymphocytosis. The response was independent of clinical and genomic risk factors present before treatment, including advanced-stage disease, the number of previous therapies, and the 17p13.1 deletion. At 26 months, the estimated progression-free survival rate was 75% and the rate of overall survival was 83%. CONCLUSIONS Ibrutinib was associated with a high frequency of durable remissions in patients with relapsed or refractory CLL and small lymphocytic lymphoma, including patients with high-risk genetic lesions. (Funded by Pharmacyclics and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01105247.) PMID:23782158

  2. Venetoclax in Patients with Previously Treated Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Andrew W; Stilgenbauer, Stephan; Seymour, John F; Huang, David C S

    2017-08-15

    Venetoclax is the first BCL2 inhibitor to enter routine clinical practice. It is an orally bioavailable small molecule that binds BCL2 very specifically. Acting as a pharmacologic mimic of the proteins that initiate apoptosis (a so-called BH3 mimetic), venetoclax rapidly induces apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells, which express high levels of BCL2 and rely on it to maintain their survival. As a single agent, daily venetoclax treatment induced durable responses in 79% of patients with relapsed or refractory CLL or small lymphocytic lymphoma in a phase I study, including complete remissions in 20% of patients. Its use was approved by the FDA in April 2016 for patients with previously treated del(17p) CLL on the basis of a single-arm phase II trial demonstrating a 79% response rate and an estimated 1-year progression-free survival of 72% with 400 mg/day continuous therapy. This review focuses on venetoclax, its mechanism of action, pharmacology, and clinical trial data and seeks to place it in the context of rapid advances in therapy for patients with relapsed CLL, especially those with del(17p) CLL. Clin Cancer Res; 23(16); 4527-33. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Prognostic relevance of oxidative stress measurement in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    D'Arena, Giovanni; Vitale, Candida; Perbellini, Omar; Coscia, Marta; La Rocca, Francesco; Ruggieri, Vitalba; Visco, Carlo; Di Minno, Nicola Matteo Dario; Innocenti, Idanna; Pizza, Vincenzo; Deaglio, Silvia; Di Minno, Giovanni; Giudice, Aldo; Calapai, Gioacchino; Musto, Pellegrino; Laurenti, Luca; Iorio, Eugenio Luigi

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the prognostic significance of oxidative stress (OS) and antioxidant defence status measurement in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). d-ROMs test and BAP test were evaluated at diagnosis of 165 patients with CLL and correlated with clinical-biological features and prognosis. An increased oxidative damage (d-ROMs test) and a reduced antioxidant potential (BAP test) were found in CLL patients than normal controls (P<.0001). CLL patients with higher d-ROMs values had higher number of circulating white blood cells and lymphocytes, and higher values of β 2 -microglobulin. Higher d-ROMs values were found in female (P=.0003), in patients with unmutated IgVH (P=.04), unfavourable cytogenetics (P=.002) and more advanced clinical stage (P=.002). Higher BAP test values were found in patients expressing CD49d (P=.01) and with more advanced clinical stage (P=.004). At a median follow-up of 48 months, CLL patients with d-ROMs ≥418 CARR U were found to have a shorter time to first treatment (TFT) (P=.0002), and a reduced survival (P=.006) than others. CLL patients with BAP test values ≥2155 μmol/L had a shorter TFT (P=.008) and a shorter survival (P=.003). OS can affect CLL patients by concomitantly increasing reactive oxygen metabolites production and decreasing antioxidant defences. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. CARs in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia – Ready to Drive

    PubMed Central

    Wierda, William; Jena, Bipulendu; Cooper, Laurence J. N.; Shpall, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of antigen-specific T cells has been adapted by investigators for treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). To overcome issues of immune tolerance which limits the endogenous adaptive immune response to tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), robust systems for the genetic modification and characterization of T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) to redirect specificity have been produced. Refinements with regards to persistence and trafficking of the genetically modified T cells are underway to help improve potency. Clinical trials utilizing this technology demonstrate feasibility, and increasingly, these early-phase trials are demonstrating impressive anti-tumor effects, particularly for CLL patients, paving the way for multi-center trials to establish the efficacy of CAR+ T cell therapy. PMID:23225251

  5. The potential of venetoclax (ABT-199) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Itchaki, Gilad; Brown, Jennifer R

    2016-10-01

    Venetoclax (VEN, ABT-199/GDC-0199) is an orally bioavailable BH3-mimetic that specifically inhibits the anti-apoptotic B-cell lymphoma/leukemia 2 (BCL2) protein. Although BCL2 overexpression is not genetically driven in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), it is nearly universal and represents a highly important and prevalent mechanism of apoptosis evasion, making it an attractive therapeutic target. This review summarizes the role of BCL2 in CLL pathogenesis, the development path targeting its inhibition prior to VEN, and the preclinical and clinical data regarding the effectiveness and safety of VEN. We further strive to contextualize VEN in the current CLL treatment landscape and discuss potential mechanisms of resistance.

  6. Update on signal inhibitors in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Boddu, Prajwal; Jain, Nitin

    2018-04-01

    The last decade has seen major progress in our understanding of the pathobiology of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and the identification of potential new therapeutic targets. As a result, researchers have developed novel targeted therapies, several of which are already approved and many of which are in advanced stages of clinical development. These new agents are much less toxic than chemoimmunotherapy and may be preferred for their superior efficacy in patients with certain high-risk features, such as del(17p). The place of these therapies in CLL management is becoming better defined, and they are gradually replacing traditional forms of chemoimmunotherapy. This review provides an update on the clinical data regarding various signal transduction inhibitors in CLL.

  7. Tetrasomy 8 in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Fábio Morato; Brandão, Renata Amorim; Leite-Cueva, Sabrina Dias; de Paula Careta, Francisco; Simões, Belinda Pinto; Rego, Eduardo Magalhães; Falcão, Roberto Passetto

    2010-04-15

    We report a case of a 47-year-old man diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with two extra copies of chromosome 8. Classical cytogenetic analysis by the immunostimulatory combination of DSP30 and interleukin 2 showed tetrasomy of chromosome 8 in 60% of the metaphase cells (48,XY,+8,+8[12]/46,XY[8]). Spectral karyotype analysis confirmed the abnormality previously seen by G banding. Additionally, interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization using an LSI CEP 8 probe performed on peripheral blood cells without any stimulant agent showed tetrasomy of chromosome 8 in 54% of analyzed cells (108 of 200). To our knowledge, tetrasomy 8 as the sole chromosomal abnormality in CLL has not been previously described. The prognostic significance of tetrasomy 8 in CLL remains to be elucidated. However, the patient has been followed up in the outpatient hospital since 2004 without any therapeutic intervention and has so far remained stable. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Methylation status regulates lipoprotein lipase expression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Cecilia; Moreno, Pilar; Palacios, Florencia; Borge, Mercedes; Morande, Pablo; Landoni, Ana Inés; Gabus, Raul; Dighiero, Guillermo; Giordano, Mirta; Gamberale, Romina; Oppezzo, Pablo

    2013-08-01

    Among different prognostic factors in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), we previously demonstrated that lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is associated with an unmutated immunoglobulin profile and clinical poor outcome. Despite the usefulness of LPL for CLL prognosis, its functional role and the molecular mechanism regulating its expression are still open questions. Interaction of CLL B-cells with the tissue microenvironment favors disease progression by promoting malignant B-cell growth. Since tissue methylation can be altered by environmental factors, we investigated the methylation status of the LPL gene and the possibility that overexpression could be associated with microenvironment signals. Our results show that a demethylated state of the LPL gene is responsible for its anomalous expression in unmutated CLL cases and that this expression is dependent on microenvironment signals. Overall, this work proposes that an epigenetic mechanism, triggered by the microenvironment, regulates LPL expression in CLL disease.

  9. [Advances in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia].

    PubMed

    Mozas, Pablo; Delgado, Julio

    2016-11-18

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), a proliferation of mature B cells, is one of the most prevalent haematological malignancies. Progress has been made in its treatment during the last few decades, and chemoimmunotherapy based on fludarabine, cyclophosphamide and rituximab is considered the treatment of choice for patients with standard-risk CLL and good performance status. However, due to the characterization of high-risk biological subgroups and its presentation in elderly patients and/or with comorbidities, targeted therapies, such as B-cell receptor inhibitors, have been developed and approved during the last few years. The current review examines traditional therapeutic strategies and focuses on new small molecules that already represent promising elements of the CLL treatment landscape. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Immunological changes with kinase inhibitor therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Pleyer, Christopher; Wiestner, Adrian; Sun, Clare

    2018-05-15

    Ibrutinib and idelalisib are kinase inhibitors that have revolutionized the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Capable of inducing durable remissions, these agents also modulate the immune system. Both ibrutinib and idelalisib abrogate the tumor-supporting microenvironment by disrupting cell-cell interactions, modulating the T-cell compartment, and altering the cytokine milieu. Ibrutinib also partially restores T-cell and myeloid defects associated with CLL. In contrast, immune-related adverse effects, including pneumonitis, colitis, hepatotoxicity, and infections are of particular concern with idelalisib. While opportunistic infections and viral reactivations occur with both ibrutinib and idelalisib, these complications are less common and less severe with ibrutinib, especially when used as monotherapy without additional immunosuppressive agents. This review discusses the impact of ibrutinib and idelalisib on the immune system, including infectious and auto-immune complications as well as their specific effects on the B-cell, T-cell, and myeloid compartment.

  11. The clinical safety of ibrutinib in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Molica, Stefano

    2015-10-01

    Ibrutinib , a targeted inhibitor of B-cell receptor signaling, achieved impressive clinical results for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). These results allowed the approval of ibrutinib for the treatment of patients with CLL who have received at least one prior therapy and those with a 17p deletion regardless of line of therapy. Comprehensive data from either Phase I-II or randomized Phase III studies are analyzed in this article. In addition, we reviewed data on the prevalence and the clinical management of some peculiar toxicities ibrutinib related such as lymphocytosis, major bleeding and atrial fibrillation. Ibrutinib has radically changed the scenery of relapsed/refractory CLL treatment and established an important paradigm in the molecularly targeted approach of this disease. Discontinuation of ibrutinib is rarely due to adverse events related to the drug. Patients who discontinue treatment represent a challenge to the physicians because treatment options are very limited.

  12. Ibrutinib as Initial Therapy for Patients with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Jan A.; Tedeschi, Alessandra; Barr, Paul M.; Robak, Tadeusz; Owen, Carolyn; Ghia, Paolo; Bairey, Osnat; Hillmen, Peter; Bartlett, Nancy L.; Li, Jianyong; Simpson, David; Grosicki, Sebastian; Devereux, Stephen; McCarthy, Helen; Coutre, Steven; Quach, Hang; Gaidano, Gianluca; Maslyak, Zvenyslava; Stevens, Don A.; Janssens, Ann; Offner, Fritz; Mayer, Jiří; O'Dwyer, Michael; Hellmann, Andrzej; Schuh, Anna; Siddiqi, Tanya; Polliack, Aaron; Tam, Constantine S.; Suri, Deepali; Cheng, Mei; Clow, Fong; Styles, Lori; James, Danelle F.; Kipps, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) primarily affects older persons who often have coexisting conditions in addition to disease-related immunosuppression and myelosuppression. We conducted an international, open-label, randomized phase 3 trial to compare two oral agents, ibrutinib and chlorambucil, in previously untreated older patients with CLL or small lymphocytic lymphoma. METHODS We randomly assigned 269 previously untreated patients who were 65 years of age or older and had CLL or small lymphocytic lymphoma to receive ibrutinib or chlorambucil. The primary end point was progression-free survival as assessed by an independent review committee. RESULTS The median age of the patients was 73 years. During a median follow-up period of 18.4 months, ibrutinib resulted in significantly longer progression-free survival than did chlorambucil (median, not reached vs. 18.9 months), with a risk of progression or death that was 84% lower with ibrutinib than that with chlorambucil (hazard ratio, 0.16; P<0.001). Ibrutinib significantly prolonged overall survival; the estimated survival rate at 24 months was 98% with ibrutinib versus 85% with chlorambucil, with a relative risk of death that was 84% lower in the ibrutinib group than in the chlorambucil group (hazard ratio, 0.16; P=0.001). The overall response rate was higher with ibrutinib than with chlorambucil (86% vs. 35%, P<0.001). The rates of sustained increases from baseline values in the hemoglobin and platelet levels were higher with ibrutinib. Adverse events of any grade that occurred in at least 20% of the patients receiving ibrutinib included diarrhea, fatigue, cough, and nausea; adverse events occurring in at least 20% of those receiving chlorambucil included nausea, fatigue, neutropenia, anemia, and vomiting. In the ibrutinib group, four patients had a grade 3 hemorrhage and one had a grade 4 hemorrhage. A total of 87% of the patients in the ibrutinib group are continuing to take ibrutinib. CONCLUSIONS

  13. Ibrutinib as Initial Therapy for Patients with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Burger, Jan A; Tedeschi, Alessandra; Barr, Paul M; Robak, Tadeusz; Owen, Carolyn; Ghia, Paolo; Bairey, Osnat; Hillmen, Peter; Bartlett, Nancy L; Li, Jianyong; Simpson, David; Grosicki, Sebastian; Devereux, Stephen; McCarthy, Helen; Coutre, Steven; Quach, Hang; Gaidano, Gianluca; Maslyak, Zvenyslava; Stevens, Don A; Janssens, Ann; Offner, Fritz; Mayer, Jiří; O'Dwyer, Michael; Hellmann, Andrzej; Schuh, Anna; Siddiqi, Tanya; Polliack, Aaron; Tam, Constantine S; Suri, Deepali; Cheng, Mei; Clow, Fong; Styles, Lori; James, Danelle F; Kipps, Thomas J

    2015-12-17

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) primarily affects older persons who often have coexisting conditions in addition to disease-related immunosuppression and myelosuppression. We conducted an international, open-label, randomized phase 3 trial to compare two oral agents, ibrutinib and chlorambucil, in previously untreated older patients with CLL or small lymphocytic lymphoma. We randomly assigned 269 previously untreated patients who were 65 years of age or older and had CLL or small lymphocytic lymphoma to receive ibrutinib or chlorambucil. The primary end point was progression-free survival as assessed by an independent review committee. The median age of the patients was 73 years. During a median follow-up period of 18.4 months, ibrutinib resulted in significantly longer progression-free survival than did chlorambucil (median, not reached vs. 18.9 months), with a risk of progression or death that was 84% lower with ibrutinib than that with chlorambucil (hazard ratio, 0.16; P<0.001). Ibrutinib significantly prolonged overall survival; the estimated survival rate at 24 months was 98% with ibrutinib versus 85% with chlorambucil, with a relative risk of death that was 84% lower in the ibrutinib group than in the chlorambucil group (hazard ratio, 0.16; P=0.001). The overall response rate was higher with ibrutinib than with chlorambucil (86% vs. 35%, P<0.001). The rates of sustained increases from baseline values in the hemoglobin and platelet levels were higher with ibrutinib. Adverse events of any grade that occurred in at least 20% of the patients receiving ibrutinib included diarrhea, fatigue, cough, and nausea; adverse events occurring in at least 20% of those receiving chlorambucil included nausea, fatigue, neutropenia, anemia, and vomiting. In the ibrutinib group, four patients had a grade 3 hemorrhage and one had a grade 4 hemorrhage. A total of 87% of the patients in the ibrutinib group are continuing to take ibrutinib. Ibrutinib was superior to chlorambucil

  14. Selective toxicity of persian gulf sea cucumber holothuria parva on human chronic lymphocytic leukemia b lymphocytes by direct mitochondrial targeting.

    PubMed

    Salimi, Ahmad; Motallebi, Abbasali; Ayatollahi, Maryam; Seydi, Enayatollah; Mohseni, Ali Reza; Nazemi, Melika; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2017-04-01

    Natural products isolated from marine environment are well known for their pharmacodynamic potential in diversity of disease treatments such as cancer or inflammatory conditions. Sea cucumbers are one of the marine animals of the phylum Echinoderm. Many studies have shown that the sea cucumber contains antioxidants and anti-cancer compounds. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a disease characterized by the relentless accumulation of CD5 + B lymphocytes. CLL is the most common leukemia in adults, about 25-30% of all leukemias. In this study B lymphocytes and their mitochondria (cancerous and non-cancerous) were obtained from peripheral blood of human subjects and B lymphocyte cytotoxicity assay, and caspase 3 activation along with mitochondrial upstream events of apoptosis signaling including reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and mitochondrial swelling were determined following the addition of Holothuria parva extract to both cancerous and non-cancerous B lymphocytes and their mitochondria. Our in vitro finding showed that mitochondrial ROS formation, MMP collapse, and mitochondrial swelling and cytochrome c release were significantly (P < 0.05) increased after addition of different concentrations of H. parva only in cancerous BUT NOT normal non-cancerous mitochondria. Consistently, different concentrations of H. parva significantly (P < 0.05) increased cytotoxicity and caspase 3 activation only in cancerous BUT NOT normal non-cancerous B lymphocytes. These results showed that H. parva methanolic extract has a selective mitochondria mediated apoptotic effect on chronic lymphocytic leukemia B lymphocytes hence may be promising in the future anticancer drug development for treatment of CLL. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 1158-1169, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Lenalidomide interferes with tumor-promoting properties of nurse-like cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Fiorcari, Stefania; Martinelli, Silvia; Bulgarelli, Jenny; Audrito, Valentina; Zucchini, Patrizia; Colaci, Elisabetta; Potenza, Leonardo; Narni, Franco; Luppi, Mario; Deaglio, Silvia; Marasca, Roberto; Maffei, Rossana

    2015-01-01

    Lenalidomide is an immunomodulatory agent clinically active in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients. The specific mechanism of action is still undefined, but includes modulation of the microenvironment. In chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients, nurse-like cells differentiate from CD14+ mononuclear cells and protect chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells from apoptosis. Nurse-like cells resemble M2 macrophages with potent immunosuppressive functions. Here, we examined the effect of lenalidomide on the monocyte/macrophage population in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients. We found that lenalidomide induces high actin polymerization on CD14+ monocytes through activation of small GTPases, RhoA, Rac1 and Rap1 that correlated with increased adhesion and impaired monocyte migration in response to CCL2, CCL3 and CXCL12. We observed that lenalidomide increases the number of nurse-like cells that lost the ability to nurture chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells, acquired properties of phagocytosis and promoted T-cell proliferation. Gene expression signature, induced by lenalidomide in nurse-like cells, indicated a reduction of pivotal pro-survival signals for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, such as CCL2, IGF1, CXCL12, HGF1, and supported a modulation towards M1 phenotype with high IL2 and low IL10, IL8 and CD163. Our data provide new insights into the mechanism of action of lenalidomide that mediates a pro-inflammatory switch of nurse-like cells affecting the protective microenvironment generated by chronic lymphocytic leukemia into tissues. PMID:25398834

  16. Appearance and Disappearance of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) in Patient with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL).

    PubMed

    Payandeh, Mehrdad; Sadeghi, Edris; Khodarahmi, Reza; Sadeghi, Masoud

    2014-10-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) are the most common leukemias of the elderly (>43 year). However, the sequential occurrence of CML followed by CLL in the same patient is extremely rare. In our report, a 52-year-old female was diagnosed with CLL (type of bone marrow (BM) infiltration was nodular and interstitial) and was treated with chlorambucil. 64 months after the diagnosis of CLL, she developed CML. She was treated with imatinib (400mg/day). After a few months, signs of CML were disappeared and CLL became dominant. This is first reported case.

  17. Immunological aspects in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) development.

    PubMed

    García-Muñoz, Ricardo; Galiacho, Verónica Roldan; Llorente, Luis

    2012-07-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is unique among B cell malignancies in that the malignant clones can be featured either somatically mutated or unmutated IGVH genes. CLL cells that express unmutated immunoglobulin variable domains likely underwent final development prior to their entry into the germinal center, whereas those that express mutated variable domains likely transited through the germinal center and then underwent final development. Regardless, the cellular origin of CLL remains unknown. The aim of this review is to summarize immunological aspects involved in this process and to provide insights about the complex biology and pathogenesis of this disease. We propose a mechanistic hypothesis to explain the origin of B-CLL clones into our current picture of normal B cell development. In particular, we suggest that unmutated CLL arises from normal B cells with self-reactivity for apoptotic bodies that have undergone receptor editing, CD5 expression, and anergic processes in the bone marrow. Similarly, mutated CLL would arise from cells that, while acquiring self-reactivity for autoantigens-including apoptotic bodies-in germinal centers, are also still subject to tolerization mechanisms, including receptor editing and anergy. We believe that CLL is a proliferation of B lymphocytes selected during clonal expansion through multiple encounters with (auto)antigens, despite the fact that they differ in their state of activation and maturation. Autoantigens and microbial pathogens activate BCR signaling and promote tolerogenic mechanisms such as receptor editing/revision, anergy, CD5+ expression, and somatic hypermutation in CLL B cells. The result of these tolerogenic mechanisms is the survival of CLL B cell clones with similar surface markers and homogeneous gene expression signatures. We suggest that both immunophenotypic surface markers and homogenous gene expression might represent the evidence of several attempts to re-educate self-reactive B cells.

  18. Venetoclax-Rituximab in Relapsed or Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Seymour, John F; Kipps, Thomas J; Eichhorst, Barbara; Hillmen, Peter; D'Rozario, James; Assouline, Sarit; Owen, Carolyn; Gerecitano, John; Robak, Tadeusz; De la Serna, Javier; Jaeger, Ulrich; Cartron, Guillaume; Montillo, Marco; Humerickhouse, Rod; Punnoose, Elizabeth A; Li, Yan; Boyer, Michelle; Humphrey, Kathryn; Mobasher, Mehrdad; Kater, Arnon P

    2018-03-22

    Venetoclax inhibits BCL2, an antiapoptotic protein that is pathologically overexpressed and that is central to the survival of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells. We evaluated the efficacy of venetoclax in combination with rituximab in patients with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia. In this randomized, open-label, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned 389 patients to receive venetoclax for up to 2 years (from day 1 of cycle 1) plus rituximab for the first 6 months (venetoclax-rituximab group) or bendamustine plus rituximab for 6 months (bendamustine-rituximab group). The trial design did not include crossover to venetoclax plus rituximab for patients in the bendamustine-rituximab group in whom progression occurred. The primary end point was investigator-assessed progression-free survival. After a median follow-up period of 23.8 months, the rate of investigator-assessed progression-free survival was significantly higher in the venetoclax-rituximab group (32 events of progression or death in 194 patients) than in the bendamustine-rituximab group (114 events in 195 patients); the 2-year rates of progression-free survival were 84.9% and 36.3%, respectively (hazard ratio for progression or death, 0.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.11 to 0.25; P<0.001 by the stratified log-rank test). The benefit was maintained across all clinical and biologic subgroups, including the subgroup of patients with chromosome 17p deletion; the 2-year rate of progression-free survival among patients with chromosome 17p deletion was 81.5% in the venetoclax-rituximab group versus 27.8% in the bendamustine-rituximab group (hazard ratio, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.29), and the 2-year rate among those without chromosome 17p deletion was 85.9% versus 41.0% (hazard ratio, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.12 to 0.32). The benefit of venetoclax plus rituximab over bendamustine plus rituximab was confirmed by an independent review committee assessment of progression-free survival and other secondary

  19. Extracellular adenosine triphosphate increases cation permeability of chronic lymphocytic leukemic lymphocytes

    SciT

    Wiley, J.S.; Dubyak, G.R.

    Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is known to reversibly increase the cation permeability of a variety of freshly isolated and cultured cell types. In this study the effects of extracellular ATP were studied using peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) isolated from both normal subjects and from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Changes in the permeability to Na+, Rb+, and Li+ ions were measured using conventional isotope and flame photometry techniques. In addition, changes in cytosolic (Ca2+) were fluorimetrically monitored to assess possible changes in net Ca2+ influx. ATP produced a 12-fold increase in 22Na+ influx into CLL cells but only amore » 3.5-fold increase in this flux in PBL cells. A maximal response was produced by 0.1 mmol/L ATP in the absence of Mg2+, while a twofold molar excess of Mg2+ over ATP abolished the response. ATP had no effect on the passive (ouabain-insensitive) 86Rb+ influx into PBL cells but stimulated this flux by fivefold in the CLL cells. Li+ influx into CLL cells was also stimulated threefold by ATP. Under these same conditions ATP also produced a net increase in total cell Na and a decrease in total cell K in the CLL cells. Exclusion of two normally impermeable dyes, trypan blue and ethidium bromide, was not altered in the ATP-treated CLL cells. Finally, extracellular ATP (3 mmol/L) produced no significant change in the cytosolic (Ca2+) of normal, monocyte-depleted populations of PBL. Conversely, this same concentration of ATP produced a very rapid and a significant (an average threefold peak change) increase in the cytosolic (Ca2+) of cell preparations derived from five out of nine CLL patients. In these latter CLL cells, the ATP-induced elevation in cytosolic (Ca2+) appeared to be due to a net increase in Ca2+ influx, since no elevations were observed when the extracellular (Ca2+) was reduced to less than 0.1 mmol/L.« less

  20. Comparison of Rai and Binet Classifications in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Zengin, N; Kars, A; Kansu, E; Özdemir, O; Barişta, İ; Güllü, İ; Güler, N; Özişik, Y; Dündar, S; Firat, D

    1997-01-01

    Staging systems are essential for understanding disease, in predicting the outcome, and therapeutic decision making in any tumor as well as chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). In this study, we compared the clinical correlation of the Rai and Binet classification systems in 133 CLL patients. The distribution of 133 patients according to the Rai system was as follows, stage 0:17, I:13, II:45, III:30, IV:28, and in the Binet system stage A:35, B:40, C:58 patients. Median survival of patients according to the Rai staging system was >67.0, >91.0, 63.8, 20.9 and 9.8 months, and >91.0, 63.4, 16.0 months according to Binet, respectively. Although no difference was found between Rai stages 0, I, II (p > 0.05) in terms of median survival, the difference between these stages and stages III and IV was statistically significant (p < 0.05). In the Binet staging system statistically significant survival difference was found between all stages (p < 0.05). We concluded that although both systems are comparable in terms of staging and predicting the outcome of patients with CLL, the Rai staging system appears to have an advantage over the Binet system by defining a subset of patients with excellent prognosis (stage 0) which is included within stage A of the latter.

  1. The changing paradigm of chronic lymphocytic leukemia management.

    PubMed

    Lobetti-Bodoni, Chiara; Bertoni, Francesco; Stussi, Georg; Cavalli, Franco; Zucca, Emanuele

    2013-07-01

    B cell-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), the commonest adult leukemia in western world, is today most often diagnosed at early-stage, following the accidental detection of lymphocytosis during a routine blood analysis. Moreover, the expectations of CLL patients have dramatically changed in the past decade and for the first time a significant overall survival improvement has been demonstrated in the disease--at least in the younger and fit patients--with the use of the FCR regimen, which combines rituximab fludarabine and cyclophosphamide. New drugs and new regimens are currently being developed for the relapsed patients and for those too old or too frail to receive aggressive treatments. Some of these promising compounds will likely be part of the future front-line treatments. Additionally, the increasing knowledge on the molecular features that predict the clinical outcome may soon result in a molecular classification of the disease. These acquisitions are producing a migration from palliative care to a curative and individually-tailored approach. In this review we tried to summarize the advances achieved in the past decade and help the specialists in internal medicine and the general practitioners to understand the completely changed scenario in which the disease should nowadays be managed. Copyright © 2013 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Lenalidomide in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Massimo; Recchia, Anna Grazia; Vigna, Ernesto; Mazzone, Carla; Lucia, Eugenio; Gigliotti, Vincenzo; Bossio, Sabrina; Madeo, Antonio; Morabito, Lucio; Servillo, Pasquale; Franzese, Stefania; Caruso, Nadia; De Stefano, Laura; Bisconte, Maria Grazia; Gentile, Carlo; Morabito, Fortunato

    2011-02-01

    insights into the role of the tumor microenvironment and of immune dysfunction in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have opened the way for further augmenting the therapeutic armamentarium for CLL patients. In this respect, lenalidomide represents an exciting drug since it is able to eliminate CLL cells without immunosuppression. mechanism of action and clinical trials of lenalidomide in CLL, and suggestions for its future utilization are reviewed. The most relevant papers and the meeting abstracts published up to July 2010 were used as sources for this review. This review will help readers understand the mechanism of action of lenalidomide and will provide a comprehensive summary regarding efficacy and safety of this drug in CLL patients. lenalidomide shows good activity against CLL. However, the toxicity profile is significant and can result in serious and potentially life-threatening side effects. Definitive data from ongoing trials will aid better definition of its status in CLL therapy. Moreover, clarification of the exact mechanism(s) of action in CLL will allow more precise use of lenalidomide and design of more efficacious combination therapies.

  3. Targeting BTK through microRNA in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Bottoni, Arianna; Rizzotto, Lara; Lai, Tzung-Huei; Liu, Chaomei; Smith, Lisa L.; Mantel, Rose; Reiff, Sean; El-Gamal, Dalia; Larkin, Karilyn; Johnson, Amy J.; Lapalombella, Rosa; Lehman, Amy; Plunkett, William; Byrd, John C.; Blachly, James S.; Woyach, Jennifer A.

    2016-01-01

    Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) is a critical mediator of survival in B-cell neoplasms. Although BTK inhibitors have transformed therapy in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), patients with high-risk genetics are at risk for relapse and have a poor prognosis. Identification of novel therapeutic strategies for this group of patients is an urgent unmet clinical need, and therapies that target BTK via alternative mechanisms may fill this niche. Herein, we identify a set of microRNAs (miRs) that target BTK in primary CLL cells and show that the histone deacetylase (HDAC) repressor complex is recruited to these miR promoters to silence their expression. Targeting the HDACs by using either RNA interference against HDAC1 in CLL or a small molecule inhibitor (HDACi) in CLL and mantle cell lymphoma restored the expression of the BTK-targeting miRs with loss of BTK protein and downstream signaling and consequent cell death. We have also made the novel and clinically relevant discovery that inhibition of HDAC induces the BTK-targeting miRs in ibrutinib-sensitive and resistant CLL to effectively reduce both wild-type and C481S-mutant BTK. This finding identifies a novel strategy that may be promising as a therapeutic modality to eliminate the C481S-mutant BTK clone that drives resistance to ibrutinib and provides the rationale for a combination strategy that includes ibrutinib to dually target BTK to suppress its prosurvival signaling. PMID:27756747

  4. How I manage ibrutinib-refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of the Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor ibrutinib has dramatically changed the management of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Although responses have been durable in the majority of patients, relapses do occur, especially in the high-risk patient population. Most relapses occur as the result of acquired mutations in BTK and PLCG2, which may facilitate success with alternative targeted therapies. As outcomes after ibrutinib relapse have been reported to be poor, specific strategies are needed for this patient population. Here, I discuss the diagnosis and management of ibrutinib-refractory CLL. The focus will be on common clinical scenarios that can be mistaken for relapse and how to accurately determine which patients are relapsing. Because there is no established standard of care, I discuss currently available options for standard therapy and existing clinical data. I also discuss new agents with the potential to be effective in patients refractory to ibrutinib. Finally, I discuss strategies for long-term disease control in this patient population. PMID:28096090

  5. Venetoclax for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Massimo; Petrungaro, Annamaria; Uccello, Giuseppina; Vigna, Ernesto; Recchia, Anna Grazia; Caruso, Nadia; Bossio, Sabrina; De Stefano, Laura; Palummo, Angela; Storino, Francesca; Martino, Massimo; Morabito, Fortunato

    2017-11-01

    Venetoclax, an orally bioavailable inhibitor of BCL-2, was approved in 2016 by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients with 17p deletion [del(17p)], who have received at least one prior therapy. Areas covered: We focus on the mechanism of action of venetoclax and on the clinical trial data that led to the approval of venetoclax for CLL patients. We also review the studies in which this drug has being explored in combination with other anti-CLL drugs. Expert opinion: Data from early clinical trials have shown that venetoclax, as a single agent, is highly effective for relapsed/refractory CLL patients, including those cases with high-risk features. Furthermore, venetoclax seems to be an appropriate option for patients who progress on B-cell receptor (BCR) pathway kinase inhibitors. Venetoclax is also safe, with the most common serious adverse events being neutropenia. The risk of tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) can be reduced by a slow dose ramp-up, careful monitoring, and adequate prophylaxis. Ongoing trials will further clarify the safety and efficacy of venetoclax in combination with other drugs in both relapsed/refractory and untreated CLL patients.

  6. Venetoclax for the treatment of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Crombie, Jennifer; Davids, Matthew S

    2017-06-01

    Venetoclax is a potent, selective inhibitor of BCL-2, a key regulator of the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. In preclinical studies, venetoclax bound to BCL-2 with high affinity and rapidly induced apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. In early-phase clinical trials in CLL, venetoclax treatment led to tumor lysis syndrome in some patients with a large tumor burden, but this risk was subsequently mitigated by a revised study design that included lower initial dosing with intrapatient dose ramp up and close tumor lysis syndrome monitoring and prophylaxis. Other toxicities, such as neutropenia and gastrointestinal adverse events, were manageable. Venetoclax monotherapy resulted in durable and deep responses in patients with relapsed, refractory CLL, including for those with deletion 17p, leading to the approval of venetoclax by the US FDA for relapsed or refractory deletion 17p CLL, and recently to additional approvals in Europe and Canada. Trials also suggest that venetoclax induces deeper and more durable responses when used in combination with rituximab, and combination studies with other agents are ongoing. Phase III trials are also underway, and will provide data on the efficacy and safety of venetoclax in combination with monoclonal antibodies and targeted therapies in larger patient populations.

  7. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Gladstone, Douglas E; Fuchs, Ephraim

    2012-03-01

    Although hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the treatment of choice for many aggressive hematologic malignancies, the role of HSCT in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has remained controversial. Now in the era of improved conventional treatment and better prognostication of long-term outcome, a review of autologous and allogeneic HSCT in CLL treatment is warranted. Despite an improved disease-free survival in some patients, multiple, prospective, randomized autologous HSCT CLL trials fail to demonstrate an overall survival benefit as compared to conventional therapy. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, although limited by donor availability, can successfully eradicate CLL with adverse prognostic features. In the older CLL patients, nonmyeloablative allogeneic transplants are better tolerated than myeloablative transplants. Nonmyeloablative allogeneic transplants are less effective in heavily diseased burdened patients. Outside of a clinical protocol, autologous HSCT for CLL cannot be justified. Nonmyeloablative allogeneic transplantation should be considered in high-risk populations early in the disease process, when disease burden is most easily controlled. Alternative donor selection using haploidentical donors and posttransplantation cyclophosphamide has the potential to vastly increase the availability of curative therapy in CLL while retaining a low treatment-related toxicity.

  8. Non-coding recurrent mutations in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Puente, Xose S; Beà, Silvia; Valdés-Mas, Rafael; Villamor, Neus; Gutiérrez-Abril, Jesús; Martín-Subero, José I; Munar, Marta; Rubio-Pérez, Carlota; Jares, Pedro; Aymerich, Marta; Baumann, Tycho; Beekman, Renée; Belver, Laura; Carrio, Anna; Castellano, Giancarlo; Clot, Guillem; Colado, Enrique; Colomer, Dolors; Costa, Dolors; Delgado, Julio; Enjuanes, Anna; Estivill, Xavier; Ferrando, Adolfo A; Gelpí, Josep L; González, Blanca; González, Santiago; González, Marcos; Gut, Marta; Hernández-Rivas, Jesús M; López-Guerra, Mónica; Martín-García, David; Navarro, Alba; Nicolás, Pilar; Orozco, Modesto; Payer, Ángel R; Pinyol, Magda; Pisano, David G; Puente, Diana A; Queirós, Ana C; Quesada, Víctor; Romeo-Casabona, Carlos M; Royo, Cristina; Royo, Romina; Rozman, María; Russiñol, Nuria; Salaverría, Itziar; Stamatopoulos, Kostas; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G; Tamborero, David; Terol, María J; Valencia, Alfonso; López-Bigas, Nuria; Torrents, David; Gut, Ivo; López-Guillermo, Armando; López-Otín, Carlos; Campo, Elías

    2015-10-22

    Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is a frequent disease in which the genetic alterations determining the clinicobiological behaviour are not fully understood. Here we describe a comprehensive evaluation of the genomic landscape of 452 CLL cases and 54 patients with monoclonal B-lymphocytosis, a precursor disorder. We extend the number of CLL driver alterations, including changes in ZNF292, ZMYM3, ARID1A and PTPN11. We also identify novel recurrent mutations in non-coding regions, including the 3' region of NOTCH1, which cause aberrant splicing events, increase NOTCH1 activity and result in a more aggressive disease. In addition, mutations in an enhancer located on chromosome 9p13 result in reduced expression of the B-cell-specific transcription factor PAX5. The accumulative number of driver alterations (0 to ≥4) discriminated between patients with differences in clinical behaviour. This study provides an integrated portrait of the CLL genomic landscape, identifies new recurrent driver mutations of the disease, and suggests clinical interventions that may improve the management of this neoplasia.

  9. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia therapy: new targeted therapies on the way

    PubMed Central

    Vitale, Candida; Burger, Jan A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The critical role of the tissue microenvironment and B cell receptor (BCR) signaling in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) pathogenesis, and the clinical success of targeted agents that disrupt BCR signaling are currently changing the CLL landscape. Three new drugs were recently approved for CLL therapy, and other agents are in late development. Areas covered In this review, we summarize data on promising new targeted drugs for CLL. The heterogeneous mechanisms of actions of these molecules are described, such as the inhibition of BCR signaling, direct targeting of CD20 molecules on the CLL cell surface, and BCL-2 inhibition. We present preclinical and clinical data from phase I to III studies in order to describe efficacy and side effect profile of these new drugs. Data are derived from peer-reviewed articles indexed in PubMed and from abstracts presented at major international meetings. Expert opinion Ibrutinib and idelalisib are challenging the role of chemo-immunotherapy in CLL therapy in the frontline and relapsed disease settings. High-risk CLL patients particularly benefit from these new agents. Venetoclax and obinutuzumab are other effective agents added to our therapeutic armamentarium. Studies to better define the optimal use of these drugs, alone, or rather in combination or sequenced are underway. PMID:26988407

  10. Increased mitogenic response in lymphocytes from chronically centrifuged mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Otfried; Hunzinger, E.; Cogoli, Augusto; Bechler, B.; Lee, J.; Moore, J.; Duke, J.

    1990-01-01

    The effects upon the mitogenic response of splenic lymphocytes when exposing mice to prolonged hypergravity conditions (3.5 G for 1 year) were studied. Cultures of splenic lymphocytes isolated from both centrifuged and control (1 G) animals were stimulated with Concanavalin A and the response measured using both morphological and biochemical means. Lymphocytes obtained from centrifuged mice exhibited much higher activation rates (as measured by the incorporation of H-3 thymidine) and larger cell aggregates consisting of more lymphoblasts and mitotic figures than those observed in non centrifuged control animals. Isolated splenic lymphocytes thus appear to have been conditioned by hypergravity state.

  11. Targeting BCL2 with Venetoclax in Relapsed Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Andrew W; Davids, Matthew S; Pagel, John M; Kahl, Brad S; Puvvada, Soham D; Gerecitano, John F; Kipps, Thomas J; Anderson, Mary Ann; Brown, Jennifer R; Gressick, Lori; Wong, Shekman; Dunbar, Martin; Zhu, Ming; Desai, Monali B; Cerri, Elisa; Heitner Enschede, Sari; Humerickhouse, Rod A; Wierda, William G; Seymour, John F

    2016-01-28

    New treatments have improved outcomes for patients with relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), but complete remissions remain uncommon. Venetoclax has a distinct mechanism of action; it targets BCL2, a protein central to the survival of CLL cells. We conducted a phase 1 dose-escalation study of daily oral venetoclax in patients with relapsed or refractory CLL or small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) to assess safety, pharmacokinetic profile, and efficacy. In the dose-escalation phase, 56 patients received active treatment in one of eight dose groups that ranged from 150 to 1200 mg per day. In an expansion cohort, 60 additional patients were treated with a weekly stepwise ramp-up in doses as high as 400 mg per day. The majority of the study patients had received multiple previous treatments, and 89% had poor prognostic clinical or genetic features. Venetoclax was active at all dose levels. Clinical tumor lysis syndrome occurred in 3 of 56 patients in the dose-escalation cohort, with one death. After adjustments to the dose-escalation schedule, clinical tumor lysis syndrome did not occur in any of the 60 patients in the expansion cohort. Other toxic effects included mild diarrhea (in 52% of the patients), upper respiratory tract infection (in 48%), nausea (in 47%), and grade 3 or 4 neutropenia (in 41%). A maximum tolerated dose was not identified. Among the 116 patients who received venetoclax, 92 (79%) had a response. Response rates ranged from 71 to 79% among patients in subgroups with an adverse prognosis, including those with resistance to fludarabine, those with chromosome 17p deletions (deletion 17p CLL), and those with unmutated IGHV. Complete remissions occurred in 20% of the patients, including 5% who had no minimal residual disease on flow cytometry. The 15-month progression-free survival estimate for the 400-mg dose groups was 69%. Selective targeting of BCL2 with venetoclax had a manageable safety profile and induced substantial responses in patients

  12. Targeting BTK through microRNA in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Bottoni, Arianna; Rizzotto, Lara; Lai, Tzung-Huei; Liu, Chaomei; Smith, Lisa L; Mantel, Rose; Reiff, Sean; El-Gamal, Dalia; Larkin, Karilyn; Johnson, Amy J; Lapalombella, Rosa; Lehman, Amy; Plunkett, William; Byrd, John C; Blachly, James S; Woyach, Jennifer A; Sampath, Deepa

    2016-12-29

    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) is a critical mediator of survival in B-cell neoplasms. Although BTK inhibitors have transformed therapy in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), patients with high-risk genetics are at risk for relapse and have a poor prognosis. Identification of novel therapeutic strategies for this group of patients is an urgent unmet clinical need, and therapies that target BTK via alternative mechanisms may fill this niche. Herein, we identify a set of microRNAs (miRs) that target BTK in primary CLL cells and show that the histone deacetylase (HDAC) repressor complex is recruited to these miR promoters to silence their expression. Targeting the HDACs by using either RNA interference against HDAC1 in CLL or a small molecule inhibitor (HDACi) in CLL and mantle cell lymphoma restored the expression of the BTK-targeting miRs with loss of BTK protein and downstream signaling and consequent cell death. We have also made the novel and clinically relevant discovery that inhibition of HDAC induces the BTK-targeting miRs in ibrutinib-sensitive and resistant CLL to effectively reduce both wild-type and C481S-mutant BTK. This finding identifies a novel strategy that may be promising as a therapeutic modality to eliminate the C481S-mutant BTK clone that drives resistance to ibrutinib and provides the rationale for a combination strategy that includes ibrutinib to dually target BTK to suppress its prosurvival signaling. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  13. Epigenetic deregulation in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: Clinical and biological impact.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Larry; Wierzbinska, Justyna Anna; Plass, Christoph; Rosenquist, Richard

    2018-02-07

    Deregulated transcriptional control caused by aberrant DNA methylation and/or histone modifications is a hallmark of cancer cells. In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), the most common adult leukemia, the epigenetic 'landscape' has added a new layer of complexity to our understanding of this clinically and biologically heterogeneous disease. Early studies identified aberrant DNA methylation, often based on single gene promoter analysis with both biological and clinical impact. Subsequent genome-wide profiling studies revealed differential DNA methylation between CLLs and controls and in prognostics subgroups of the disease. From these studies, it became apparent that DNA methylation in regions outside of promoters, such as enhancers, is important for the regulation of coding genes as well as for the regulation of non-coding RNAs. Although DNA methylation profiles are reportedly stable over time and in relation to therapy, a higher epigenetic heterogeneity or 'burden' is seen in more aggressive CLL subgroups, albeit as non-recurrent 'passenger' events. More recently, DNA methylation profiles in CLL analyzed in relation to differentiating normal B-cell populations revealed that the majority of the CLL epigenome reflects the epigenomes present in the cell of origin and that only a small fraction of the epigenetic alterations represents truly CLL-specific changes. Furthermore, CLL patients can be grouped into at least three clinically relevant epigenetic subgroups, potentially originating from different cells at various stages of differentiation and associated with distinct outcomes. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the DNA methylome in CLL, the role of histone modifying enzymes, highlight insights derived from animal models and attempts made to target epigenetic regulators in CLL along with the future directions of this rapidly advancing field. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia-Derived IL-10 Suppresses Antitumor Immunity.

    PubMed

    Alhakeem, Sara S; McKenna, Mary K; Oben, Karine Z; Noothi, Sunil K; Rivas, Jacqueline R; Hildebrandt, Gerhard C; Fleischman, Roger A; Rangnekar, Vivek M; Muthusamy, Natarajan; Bondada, Subbarao

    2018-04-30

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients progressively develop an immunosuppressive state. CLL patients have more plasma IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, than healthy controls. In vitro human CLL cells produce IL-10 in response to BCR cross-linking. We used the transgenic Eμ-T cell leukemia oncogene-1 ( TCL1 ) mouse CLL model to study the role of IL-10 in CLL associated immunosuppression. Eμ-TCL mice spontaneously develop CLL because of a B cell-specific expression of the oncogene, TCL1. Eμ- TCL1 mouse CLL cells constitutively produce IL-10, which is further enhanced by BCR cross-linking, CLL-derived IL-10 did not directly affect survival of murine or human CLL cells in vitro. We tested the hypothesis that the CLL-derived IL-10 has a critical role in CLL disease in part by suppressing the host immune response to the CLL cells. In IL-10R -/- mice, wherein the host immune cells are unresponsive to IL-10-mediated suppressive effects, there was a significant reduction in CLL cell growth compared with wild type mice. IL-10 reduced the generation of effector CD4 and CD8 T cells. We also found that activation of BCR signaling regulated the production of IL-10 by both murine and human CLL cells. We identified the transcription factor, Sp1, as a novel regulator of IL-10 production by CLL cells and that it is regulated by BCR signaling via the Syk/MAPK pathway. Our results suggest that incorporation of IL-10 blocking agents may enhance current therapeutic regimens for CLL by potentiating host antitumor immune response. Copyright © 2018 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  15. Novel treatments for chronic lymphocytic leukemia and moving forward.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jennifer R; Porter, David L; O'Brien, Susan M

    2014-01-01

    The last several years have seen an explosion of novel therapies for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). These include the antibody obintutuzumab (GA-101), as well as small-molecule inhibitors of key pathways involved in the pathogenesis of CLL, specifically the B-cell receptor (BCR) pathway (especially Bruton's tyrosine kinase [BTK] and P13K), and the antiapoptotic pathway (especially BCL-2). We will consider each in turn, focusing on the molecules most advanced in clinical development. There has also been extensive development in rewiring the patient's own immune system to treat CLL. This has been done through modifying autologous T cells to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR). Thus far all CAR-T preparations have targeted the CD19 antigen. This is a good rational for B-cell malignancies as CD19 expression is limited to B-cell malignancies and normal B cells. The in vivo amplification of the transduced T cells relies on signaling and co-signaling domains and provides significant killing of CLL cells. As exciting as these novel agents and approaches are, they obviously beg the question, will chemotherapy as a treatment for CLL soon be obsolete? Although chemotherapy is associated with known short-term toxicities, it has the advantage of being completed in a short period of time and being relatively inexpensive in comparison to novel therapies. In addition, long-term follow-up of results with chemoimmunotherapy have now identified a group of patients whose remissions are maintained for more than 10 years. An important question that will arise going forward is how to incorporate novel agents without eliminating the long term benefits possible with chemoimmunotherapy in a subset of patients with CLL.

  16. Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibition in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Maddocks, Kami; Jones, Jeffrey A

    2016-04-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common adult leukemia and remains incurable outside of the setting of allogeneic stem cell transplant. While the standard therapy for both initial and relapsed CLL has traditionally included monoclonal antibody therapy in combination with chemotherapy, there are patients with high-risk disease features including unmutated IgVH, del(11q22) and del(17p13) that are associated with poor overall responses to these therapies with short time to relapse and shortened overall survival. Additionally, many of these therapies have a high rate of infectious toxicity in a population already at increased risk. Targeting the B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathway has emerged as a promising therapeutic advance in a variety of B-cell malignancies, including CLL. Bruton agammaglobulinemia tyrosine kinase (Btk) is a tyrosine kinase in the BCR pathway critical to the survival of both normal and malignant B cells and inhibition of this kinase has shown to block the progression of CLL. Ibrutinib, a first in class oral inhibitor of Btk, has shown promise as a very effective agent in the treatment of CLL-in both relapsed and upfront therapy, alone and in combination with other therapies, and in patients of all-risk disease-which has led to its approval in relapsed CLL and as frontline therapy in patients with the high-risk del(17p13) disease. Several studies are ongoing to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ibrutinib in combination with chemotherapy as frontline treatment for CLL and investigation into newer-generation Btk inhibitors is also underway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Pevonedistat and Ibrutinib in Treating Participants With Relapsed or Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-03-20

    B-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Follicular Lymphoma; Refractory Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma; Refractory Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Refractory Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Richter Syndrome

  18. Increased Prevalence of Chronic Lymphocytic Thyroiditis in Korean Patients with Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Chang-Mo; Park, Sohee; Lee, Joo Young; Won, Young-Joo; Shin, Aesun; Kong, Hyun-Joo; Choi, Kui-Sun; Lee, You Jin; Chung, Ki- Wook; Jung, Kyu-Won

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years, some reports have suggested that papillary thyroid cancers are more frequently associated with lymphocytic thyroiditis or Hashimoto's thyroiditis. This study investigated a potential increase in the prevalence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis among papillary thyroid cancer patients. Materials and Methods We used national epidemiological survey data on thyroid cancer patients diagnosed in 1999, 2005, and 2008. A retrospective medical record survey was conducted by representative sampling of a national cancer incidence database. The analysis included 5,378 papillary thyroid cancer patients aged 20–79 years. We calculated the age-standardized prevalence and age-adjusted prevalence ratios using a binomial regression model with a log link for the prevalence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis among papillary thyroid cancer patients by sex for each year. Results The prevalence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis among papillary thyroid cancer patients was 4.0% and 12.8% for men and women in 1999, 6.5% and 24.6% in 2005, and 10.7% and 27.6% in 2008, respectively. Between 1999 and 2008, the age-standardized prevalence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis increased 4.1-fold in male patients and 2.0-fold in female patients with papillary thyroid cancer. The prevalence of other thyroid diseases, however, did not increase in either gender. Conclusions Among Korean papillary thyroid cancer patients, the prevalence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis increased between 1999 and 2008, whereas the prevalence of other thyroid disorders did not change. PMID:24927027

  19. A novel adoptive transfer model of chronic lymphocytic leukemia suggests a key role for T lymphocytes in the disease

    PubMed Central

    Bagnara, Davide; Kaufman, Matthew S.; Calissano, Carlo; Marsilio, Sonia; Patten, Piers E. M.; Simone, Rita; Chum, Philip; Yan, Xiao-Jie; Allen, Steven L.; Kolitz, Jonathan E.; Baskar, Sivasubramanian; Rader, Christoph; Mellstedt, Hakan; Rabbani, Hodjattallah; Lee, Annette; Gregersen, Peter K.; Rai, Kanti R.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is an incurable adult disease of unknown etiology. Understanding the biology of CLL cells, particularly cell maturation and growth in vivo, has been impeded by lack of a reproducible adoptive transfer model. We report a simple, reproducible system in which primary CLL cells proliferate in nonobese diabetes/severe combined immunodeficiency/γcnull mice under the influence of activated CLL-derived T lymphocytes. By cotransferring autologous T lymphocytes, activated in vivo by alloantigens, the survival and growth of primary CFSE-labeled CLL cells in vivo is achieved and quantified. Using this approach, we have identified key roles for CD4+ T cells in CLL expansion, a direct link between CD38 expression by leukemic B cells and their activation, and support for CLL cells preferentially proliferating in secondary lymphoid tissues. The model should simplify analyzing kinetics of CLL cells in vivo, deciphering involvement of nonleukemic elements and nongenetic factors promoting CLL cell growth, identifying and characterizing potential leukemic stem cells, and permitting preclinical studies of novel therapeutics. Because autologous activated T lymphocytes are 2-edged swords, generating unwanted graph-versus-host and possibly autologous antitumor reactions, the model may also facilitate analyses of T-cell populations involved in immune surveillance relevant to hematopoietic transplantation and tumor cytoxicity. PMID:21385850

  20. Cardiac Surgery Outcomes in Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yuanjia; Toth, Andrew J; Lowry, Ashley M; Blackstone, Eugene H; Hill, Brian T; Mick, Stephanie L

    2018-04-01

    Surgical outcomes of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) undergoing cardiac surgery are limited. Our objectives were to investigate hospital morbidity and mortality after open cardiac surgery in CLL versus non-CLL patients. From May 1995 to May 2015, 157 patients with CLL and 55,917 without and older than 47 years underwent elective cardiac surgery at Cleveland Clinic. By Rai criteria, 79 CLL patients (56%) were low risk (class 0), 13 (9.1%) intermediate risk (classes I and II), and 38 (27%) high risk (classes III and IV); 12 (8.5%) were in remission. Mean age of CLL patients was 72 ± 9.0 years, and 18% were women. CLL patients were propensity-score matched to 3 non-CLL patients to compare surgical outcomes. High-risk CLL patients received more blood products than matched non-CLL patients (33/38 [87%] versus 74/114 [65%], p = 0.01), but were less likely to receive cryoprecipitate (0% versus 15/114 [13%], p = .02). Intermediate-risk CLL patients received more platelet units, mean 12 versus 4.6 (p = 0.008). Occurrence of deep sternal wound infection (0% versus 5/471 [1.1%]), septicemia (5/157 [3.2%] versus 14/471 [3.0%]), and hospital mortality (4/157 [2.5%] versus 14/471 [3.0%]) were similar (p > 0.3), independent of prior chemotherapy treatment for CLL. Although CLL patients did not have higher hospital mortality than non-CLL patients, high-risk CLL patients were more likely to receive blood products. Risks associated with transfusion should be considered when evaluating CLL patients for elective cardiac surgery. Appropriate preoperative management, such as blood product transfusions, and alternative treatment options that decrease blood loss, should be considered for high-risk patients. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio in Turkish patients with chronic plaque psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Polat, Mualla; Bugdayci, Güler; Kaya, Hatice; Oğuzman, Hamdi

    2017-12-01

    This study evaluates the relationship between disease activity and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in patients with chronic plaque psoriasis. Clinical and biochemical data were retrieved through retrospective examination of patients' and healthy subjects' medical records. NLR and PLR values were calculated from the hemogram results. This study included 46 patients (25 males, 21 females; 36.58 ± 9.82 years) diagnosed with chronic plaque psoriasis and a control group of 46 healthy volunteers (21 males, 25 females; 34.02 ± 8.41 years). NLR and PLR were significantly elevated in patients with chronic plaque psoriasis (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.003, respectively). PASI was positively correlated with NLR, PLR, and serum CRP levels (r = 0.313, p = 0.034; r = 0.394, p = 0.017; r = 0.359, p = 0.014, respectively). NLR and PLR are low-cost tests that can be used to determine the severity of current systemic inflammation in patients with chronic plaque psoriasis.

  2. Positive regulation of deoxycytidine kinase activity by phosphorylation of Ser-74 in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Smal, Caroline; Van Den Neste, Eric; Maerevoet, Marie; Poiré, Xavier; Théate, Ivan; Bontemps, Françoise

    2007-08-08

    Deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) activates several antileukaemic nucleoside analogues. We have recently reported that the activity of dCK, overexpressed in HEK 293T cells, correlates with its phosphorylation level on Ser-74. Here, we show that dCK from B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL) lymphocytes can be detected by an anti-phospho-Ser-74 antibody and that interindividual variability in dCK activity is related to its phosphorylation level on Ser-74. Moreover, pharmacological intervention modified Ser-74 phosphorylation, in close parallel with changes in dCK activity. These results suggest that activation of dCK via phosphorylation of Ser-74 might constitute a new therapeutic strategy to enhance activation and efficacy of nucleoside analogues.

  3. Recurrent skin eruption in patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and lymphocytic infiltrates of the dermis resembling Sweet's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wawrzycki, B; Chodorowska, G; Pietrzak, A; Krasowska, D W; Wąsik, Sz; Dybiec, E; Lotti, T; Hercegova, J

    2011-12-01

    Sweet's syndrome (acute febrile dermatosis) is characterized by fever, peripheral neutrophil leukocytosis, acute onset of tender erythematous skin lesions (papules, nodules or plaques), and histological findings of a dense infiltrate consisting predominantly of mature neutrophils. Malignancy-associated Sweet's syndrome constitutes approximately 21% of patients, the majority of whom suffer from hematologic disorder. We report the case of patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia with recurrent eruptions of tender, pseudovesiculated nodules and plaques with good response to corticosteroid therapy, resembling Sweet's syndrome. However, histological examination revealed lymphocytic infiltrate in the dermis, which made impossible to establish diagnosis of acute febrile dermatosis according to diagnostic criteria. Association of the skin eruptions with leukemia was implied by improvement of skin lesions after chemotherapy. We present review of the literature reporting cases with atypical histopathological presentations which preceded classical histological appearances, that were mainly associated with hematological malignancies and discuss them in the context of our patient.

  4. Mechanisms of Idelalisib-Associated Diarrhea in Patients With Relapsed Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, Indolent Non-hodgkin Lymphoma, or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-10-11

    Absence of Signs or Symptoms; B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Digestive System Signs and Symptoms; Indolent Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Indolent Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  5. Decreased membrane potassium permeability and transport in human chronic leukemic and tonsillar lymphocytes

    SciT

    Segel, G.B.; Lichtman, M.A.

    Human blood T-lymphocytes increase their potassium (K/sup +/) permeability and active K/sup +/ transport following lectin or antigen stimulation. We have studied the permeability and active transport of K/sup +/ by lymphocytes in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) to determine if their membrane K/sup +/ transport was similar to resting or lectin-stimulated normal blood lymphocytes. K/sup +/ transport was assessed both by the rate of isotopic /sup 42/K/sup +/ uptake and by the rate of change in cell K/sup +/ concentration after inhibition of the K/sup +/ transport system with ouabain. CLL lymphocytes had a marked decrease in membrane K/sup +/more » permeability and active transport of K/sup +/ when compared to blood T lymphocytes. K/sup +/ transport in five subjects with CLL (10 mmol . 1 cell water/sup -1/ . h/sup -1/) was half that in normal blood T-lymphocytes (20 mmol . 1 cell water/sup -1/ h/sup -1/). Phytohemagglutinin (PHA) treatment of CLL lymphocytes did not increase significantly their active K/sup +/ transport, whereas K/sup +/ transport by normal T-lymphocytes increased by 100%. Since there were 73% T-lymphocytes in normal blood and 14% in CLL blood, the difference in membrane K/sup +/ turnover could be related either to neoplasia or to the proposed B-lymphocyte origin of CLL. We studied human tonsillar lymphocytes which contained a mean of 34% T-cells. In five studies of tonsils, K/sup +/ transport was 14 mmol . 1 cell water/sup -1/ . h/sup -1/ and treatment with PHA increased K/sup +/ transport only 30%. The intermediate values for basal K/sup +/ transport and K/sup +/ transport in response to PHA in tonsillar lymphocytes were consistent with the proportion of T-lymphocytes present. These data sugges t that B-lymphocytes have reduced membrane permeability and active transport of K/sup +/. Thus the marked decrease in CLL lymphocyte membrane K/sup +/ permeability and transport may be a reflection of its presumed B-cell origin, rather than a membrane

  6. Unperturbed Cytotoxic Lymphocyte Phenotype and Function in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Patients

    PubMed Central

    Theorell, Jakob; Bileviciute-Ljungar, Indre; Tesi, Bianca; Schlums, Heinrich; Johnsgaard, Mette Sophie; Asadi-Azarbaijani, Babak; Bolle Strand, Elin; Bryceson, Yenan T.

    2017-01-01

    Myalgic encephalomyelitis or chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a debilitating disorder linked to diverse intracellular infections as well as physiological stress. Cytotoxic lymphocytes combat intracellular infections. Their function is attenuated by stress. Despite numerous studies, the role of cytotoxic lymphocytes in ME/CFS remains unclear. Prompted by advances in the understanding of defects in lymphocyte cytotoxicity, the discovery of adaptive natural killer (NK) cell subsets associated with certain viral infections, and compelling links between stress, adrenaline, and cytotoxic lymphocyte function, we reassessed the role of cytotoxic lymphocytes in ME/CFS. Forty-eight patients from two independent cohorts fulfilling the Canada 2003 criteria for ME/CFS were evaluated with respect to cytotoxic lymphocyte phenotype and function. Results were compared to values from matched healthy controls. Reproducible differences between patients and controls were not found in cytotoxic lymphocyte numbers, cytotoxic granule content, activation status, exocytotic capacity, target cell killing, or cytokine production. One patient expressed low levels of perforin, explained by homozygosity for the PRF1 p.A91V variant. However, overall, this variant was present in a heterozygous state at the expected population frequency among ME/CFS patients. No single patient displayed any pathological patterns of cellular responses. Increased expansions of adaptive NK cells or deviant cytotoxic lymphocyte adrenaline-mediated inhibition were not observed. In addition, supervised dimensionality reduction analyses of the full, multidimensional datasets did not reveal any reproducible patient/control discriminators. In summary, employing sensitive assays and analyses for quantification of cytotoxic lymphocyte differentiation and function, cytotoxicity lymphocyte aberrances were not found among ME/CFS patients. These assessments of cytotoxic lymphocytes therefore do not provide useful biomarkers

  7. Progressive trichodysplasia spinulosa in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia in remission.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joyce S-S; Frederiksen, Peter; Kossard, Steven

    2008-02-01

    A 70-year old Caucasian man with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia developed trichodysplasia spinulosa 2 months after ceasing chemotherapy. Histological features characteristic to this condition include dilated and enlarged hair follicles, hyperplastic hair bulbs, hyperplasia of inner root sheath cells with numerous large, eosinophilic, trichohyaline granules, and hypercornification. Although he was in remission for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, lesions were slowly progressive 15 months after cessation of chemotherapy. We also describe a painless pull-test where spicules can be easily plucked and assessed microscopically for inner root sheath keratinization, or observed with surface microscopy in a clinic setting.

  8. T-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia in a double yellow-headed Amazon parrot (Amazona ochrocephala oratrix).

    PubMed

    Osofsky, Anna; Hawkins, Michelle G; Foreman, Oded; Kent, Michael S; Vernau, William; Lowenstine, Linda J

    2011-12-01

    An adult, male double yellow-headed Amazon parrot (Amazona ochrocephala oratrix) was diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukemia based on results of a complete blood cell count and cytologic examination of a bone marrow aspirate. Treatment with oral chlorambucil was attempted, but no response was evident after 40 days. The bird was euthanatized, and the diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia was confirmed on gross and microscopic examination of tissues. Neoplastic lymphocytes were found in the bone marrow, liver, kidney, testes, and blood vessels. Based on CD3-positive immunocytochemical and immunohistochemical immunophenotyping, the chronic lymphocytic leukemia was determined to be of T-cell origin.

  9. Effect of Smoking on Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte Subsets of Patients With Chronic Renal Failure.

    PubMed

    Düvenci Birben, Özlem; Akçay, Şule; Sezer, Siren; Şirvan, Şale; Haberal, Mehmet

    2016-11-01

    Smoking is known to suppress the immune system. It is also known that chronic renal failure affects the immune system. However, the number of studies investigating the effects of chronic renal failure and smoking together is limited. In our study, we examined whether smoking affects the diminished response of the immune system in patients with chronic renal failure. We compared peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in smoking and nonsmoking patients with chronic renal failure. We also used the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence to evaluate its correlation with the lymphocyte subset count in patients who are current smokers. Our study included 126 patients with chronic renal failure. According to their smoking habits, patients were divided into 2 groups: smokers and nonsmokers. The average age of patients who were smokers was 53.2 ± 1.5 years, with average age of nonsmokers being 59.2 ± 2.2 years. The average duration of smoking in smokers was 30.7 ± 2.7 packyears. We found that the percentage of cluster of differentiation 16-56 cells (natural killer cells) and lymphocyte percentage were significantly lower among smokers in our study (P < .05). We compared the lymphocyte subset panel to pack-years and found that the rate of cluster of differentiation 16-56 cells decreased as smoking duration increased. Our study revealed that smoking suppresses the immune system, as measured by lymphocyte subsets, in patients with chronic renal failure, similar to that shown in healthy smokers. According to our findings, patients with chronic renal failure, where infection is the primary reason for mortality and morbidity, must be questioned for smoking and referred to smoking cessation clinics. Because of its immunosuppressive effects, smoking behaviors must be solved preoperatively in transplant candidates.

  10. Lymphocyte and macrophage phenotypes in chronic hepatitis C infection. Correlation with disease activity.

    PubMed Central

    Khakoo, S. I.; Soni, P. N.; Savage, K.; Brown, D.; Dhillon, A. P.; Poulter, L. W.; Dusheiko, G. M.

    1997-01-01

    The pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis C and the mechanisms underlying progressive liver disease in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection are poorly understood. To demonstrate which inflammatory cells might be responsible for the necroinflammatory damage in chronic hepatitis C infection, we have correlated the phenotype of the intrahepatic lymphocytes and macrophages with histological activity in liver biopsy and explant specimens from 19 patients with chronic hepatitis C infection. In all stages of disease, more CD8+ than CD4+ lymphocytes were found. However, histologically active versus histologically mild hepatitis was associated with a trend toward greater parenchymal concentrations of CD4+ lymphocytes (0.71 +/- 0.27 per 10(4) microns 2 versus 0.35 +/- 0.15; not significant), significantly less parenchymal CD8+ lymphocytes (0.90 +/- 0.1 versus 1.70 +/- 0.3; t = 2.32, P = 0.03) and a greater parenchymal CD4/CD8 ratio (4.1 +/- 2.8 versus 0.91 +/- 0.3; t = 1.65, P = 0.07). No difference was found in the number of cells containing cytotoxic granules between the two groups. Greater numbers of CD4+ lymphocytes were found in liver biopsy specimens with little or no staining for hepatitis C virus antigen (1.47 +/- 0.88 versus 0.27 +/- 0.27; t = 2.28, P < 0.05). No significant differences were found in the macrophage subsets between the three stages of disease. Our data suggest that active histological disease in chronic hepatitis C infection may be associated with an increase in CD4+ lymphocytes and suggest that CD4+ T cells may play an important role in the hepatic injury in these patients. Images Figure 2 PMID:9060834

  11. Laboratory Treated T Cells in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, or Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-10-24

    CD19-Positive Neoplastic Cells Present; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  12. Simultaneous presence of two hematological malignancies: chronic lymphocytic leukemia and myelofibrosis in a patient.

    PubMed

    Palta, Anshu; Garg, Shailja; Chauhan, Sandeep; Varma, Neelam

    2011-03-01

    Coexistence of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with myelofibrosis is a rare association with only isolated case reports in the literature. We report an unusual case of CLL in which the cause of anemia was coexistent myelofibrosis. In a case of CLL presenting with refractory anemia, besides common causes like autoimmune hemolytic anemia and marrow infiltration, other causes like myelofibrosis should be searched for.

  13. Cryptochrome-1 expression: a new prognostic marker in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Lewintre, Eloisa Jantus; Martín, Cristina Reinoso; Ballesteros, Carlos García; Montaner, David; Rivera, Rosa Farrás; Mayans, José Ramón; García-Conde, Javier

    2009-02-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is an adult-onset leukemia with a heterogeneous clinical behavior. When chronic lymphocytic leukemia cases were divided on the basis of IgV(H) mutational status, widely differing clinical courses were revealed. Since IgV(H) sequencing is difficult to perform in a routine diagnostic laboratory, finding a surrogate for IgV(H) mutational status seems an important priority. In the present study, we proposed the use of Cryptochrome-1 as a new prognostic marker in early-stage chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Seventy patients (Binet stage A, without treatment) were included in the study. We correlated Cryptochrome-1 mRNA with well established prognostic markers such as IgV(H) mutations, ZAP70, LPL or CD38 expression and chromosomal abnormalities. High Cryptochrome-1 expression correlated with IgV(H) unmutated samples. In addition, Cryptochrome-1 was a valuable predictor of disease progression in early-stage chronic lymphocytic leukemia, therefore it can be introduced in clinical practice with the advantage of a simplified method of quantification.

  14. Phenotype study with monoclonal antibodies of T lymphocyte colonies in normal individuals and in patients with chronic OKT8+ lymphocytic leukaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Andre, C; Farcet, J P; Oudhriri, N; Gourdin, M F; Bouguet, J; Reyes, F

    1983-01-01

    The lymphocyte colony forming capacity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from normal controls and from two patients with chronic OKT8+ lymphocytic leukaemia was determined in agar culture under PHA stimulation. The number and size of the colonies in patients were reduced compared to normal. The lymphocytic phenotype of colony cells was studied with monoclonal antibodies in colonies harvested from agar culture and in colonies expanded in liquid culture in the presence of TCGF. This study was performed in individual colonies and in pooled colonies. Colonies from normal controls contained a mixture of the OKT4+ and OKT8+ lymphocyte subsets. In contrast, colonies from the two patients contained essentially OKT4+ lymphocytes. The data indicate that, in the patients, progenitors of the OKT8+ subset are unresponsive to normal proliferative and/or differentiative stimuli under the present culture conditions. PMID:6606509

  15. Protective effects of FTY720 on chronic allograft nephropathy by reducing late lymphocytic infiltration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Minghui; Liu, Shanying; Ouyang, Nengtai; Song, Erwei; Lutz, Jens; Heemann, Uwe

    2004-09-01

    Lymphocytic infiltration is obvious throughout early and late stages of chronic allograft nephropathy. Early infiltrating lymphocytes are involved in initial insults to kidney allografts, but the contribution of late infiltration to long-term allograft attrition is still controversial. Early application of FTY720 reduced the number of graft infiltrating lymphocytes, and inhibited acute rejection. The present study investigated the potential of FTY720 to reduce the number of infiltrating lymphocytes even at a late stage, and, thus, slow the pace of chronic allograft nephropathy. Fisher (F344) rat kidneys were orthotopically transplanted into Lewis recipients with an initial 10-day course of cyclosporine A (1.5 mg/kg/day). FTY720, at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg/day, or vehicle was administered to recipients either from weeks 12 to 24 or from 20 to 24 after transplantation. Animals were harvested 24 weeks after transplantation for histologic, immunohistologic, and molecular analysis. FTY720, either initiated at 12 or 20 weeks after transplantation, reduced urinary protein excretion, and significantly ameliorated glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis, tubular atrophy, and intimal proliferation of graft arteries at 24 weeks after transplantation. Furthermore FTY720 markedly suppressed lymphocyte infiltration and decreased mRNA levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), and platelet-derived growth factor-B (PDGF-B) but enhanced the number of apoptotic cells in grafts. FTY720 ameliorated chronic allograft nephropathy even at advanced stages. Furthermore, our data suggest that this effect was achieved by a reduction of graft infiltrating lymphocytes.

  16. Ibrutinib (Imbruvica). Relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and mantle cell lymphoma: uncertain impact on survival.

    PubMed

    January

    2016-04-01

    codynamic interactions are also likely in view of its adverse effect profile. There is no consensus on the treatment of patients with refractory or relapsed mantle cell lymphoma, or for patients with relapsed or possibly refractory chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Ibrutinib inhibits an enzyme involved in regulating B lymphocyte activity. It has been authorised in the European Union for these conditions. Clinical evaluation of ibrutinib in mantle cell lymphoma is based on a single non-comparative trial in 111 patients, in which the median overall survival time was 22.5 months. Clinical evaluation of ibrutinib in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia is based on two randomised trials. One unblinded trial compared ibrutinib versus ofatumumab and involved 391 patients, most of whom were sufficiently fit to receive anticancer combination therapy. Ibrutinib was more effective than ofatumumab, but the choice of this comparator might not have been appropriate for most of the patients who received it. The other double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involved 578 patients with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Ibrutinib was added to the bendamustine + rituximab combination. No significant difference in mortality was observed between the two groups. The main adverse effects of ibrutinib were: gastrointestinal disorders such as diarrhoea; life-threatening infections and bleeding disorders; and cardiac disorders, including atrial fibrillation. Ibrutinib carries a risk of multiple pharmacokinetic interactions. Pharmacodynamic interactions are also likely in view of its adverse effect profile.

  17. Deregulation of Apoptosis - Is it Still an Important Issue in Pathogenesis of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia?

    PubMed

    Podhorecka, Monika; Macheta, Arkadiusz; Bozko, Maria; Bozko, Andrzej; Malek, Nisar P; Bozko, Przemyslaw

    2016-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), a clonal expansion of B CD5+ cells, is the most common type of adult leukemia in western countries. The accumulation of neoplastic B-cells is primarily caused by prolonged life-span of these cells due to deregulation of apoptosis, and only marginally due to a higher proliferation rate. In spite of numerous reports characterizing particular mechanisms of B-CLL cell apoptosis, still relatively little is known about the complex regulation of this process. Therefore, more detailed research is required to understand the complicated mechanisms and regulatory processes of apoptosis in neoplastic B lymphocytes.

  18. T cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia display dysregulated expression of immune checkpoints and activation markers.

    PubMed

    Palma, Marzia; Gentilcore, Giusy; Heimersson, Kia; Mozaffari, Fariba; Näsman-Glaser, Barbro; Young, Emma; Rosenquist, Richard; Hansson, Lotta; Österborg, Anders; Mellstedt, Håkan

    2017-03-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is characterized by impaired immune functions largely due to profound T-cell defects. T-cell functions also depend on co-signaling receptors, inhibitory or stimulatory, known as immune checkpoints, including cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death-1 (PD-1). Here we analyzed the T-cell phenotype focusing on immune checkpoints and activation markers in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients (n=80) with different clinical characteristics and compared them to healthy controls. In general, patients had higher absolute numbers of CD3 + cells and the CD8 + subset was particularly expanded in previously treated patients. Progressive patients had higher numbers of CD4 + and CD8 + cells expressing PD-1 compared to healthy controls, which was more pronounced in previously treated patients ( P =0.0003 and P =0.001, respectively). A significant increase in antigen-experienced T cells was observed in patients within both the CD4 + and CD8 + subsets, with a significantly higher PD-1 expression. Higher numbers of CD4 + and CD8 + cells with intracellular CTLA-4 were observed in patients, as well as high numbers of proliferating (Ki67 + ) and activated (CD69 + ) CD4 + and CD8 + cells, more pronounced in patients with active disease. The numbers of Th1, Th2, Th17 and regulatory T cells were substantially increased in patients compared to controls ( P <0.05), albeit decreasing to low levels in pre-treated patients. In conclusion, chronic lymphocytic leukemia T cells display increased expression of immune checkpoints, abnormal subset distribution, and a higher proportion of proliferating cells compared to healthy T cells. Disease activity and previous treatment shape the T-cell profile of chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients in different ways. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  19. Characterization of T-lymphocytes in the anterior uvea of eyes with chronic equine recurrent uveitis.

    PubMed

    Gilger, B C; Malok, E; Cutter, K V; Stewart, T; Horohov, D W; Allen, J B

    1999-10-01

    Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU), a chronic, recurrent inflammation primarily of the anterior uveal tract, is the most common cause of blindness in horses. Recently, T-lymphocytes have been found to be the most numerous cell type to infiltrate the anterior uveal of horses with ERU. In the present study, we characterized the T-lymphocyte population in the anterior uveal tract of eyes of horses with chronic ERU by evaluating the microscopic appearance (histopathologic features), the T-lymphocyte subsets, and the relative levels and amounts of T-lymphocyte cytokine mRNA in the anterior uvea. Seven inflamed eyes (from six horses with chronic ERU) and 5 normal eyes (from five horses with nonocular problems) were studied. After clinical examination, the eyes were removed, ocular fluids were aspirated, and anterior uveal tissues (iris and ciliary body) were processed for histologic and molecular (RNA isolation) analyses. Histologic examination by hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) staining and immunohistochemistry evaluating T-lymphocyte subsets (anti-CD4, CD8, CD5) were performed for each sample. RNA samples were analyzed for levels of messenger (m) RNA specific for interleukin (IL)-2, 4, and interferon-gamma (IFNgamma) by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR). Eyes with ERU exhibited characteristic clinical signs, including corneal edema, aqueous flare, posterior synechia, corpora nigra degeneration, and cataract formation. Histologically, infiltration of the uveal tract with lymphocytes, plasma cells, and macrophages was most evident in the ciliary body and base of the iris. Loss of tissue structure (destruction) was most evident in the ciliary processes. Infiltrating lymphocytes were predominantly CD4+ T-cells (e.g. 48% CD4+ and 18% CD8+ in the ciliary body stroma), as determined by immunohistochemistry. Few inflammatory cells were observed in the normal eyes. The QRT-PCR results revealed increased transcription of IL-2 and IFNgamma and low

  20. Diagnosis and treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia in a bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis).

    PubMed

    Nevitt, Benjamin N; Langan, Jennifer N; Adkesson, Michael J; Landolfi, Jennifer A; Wilson, Rand

    2014-12-15

    Severe lymphocytosis and leukocytosis were detected during examination of a 10-year-old sexually intact male bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis) with regionally extensive alopecia. A CBC revealed severe leukocytosis (39,100 leukocytes/μL) and marked lymphocytosis (90%). A blood smear consisted predominantly of intermediate-sized lymphocytes and few large lymphocytes, with mild to moderate nuclear atypia. These findings were highly suggestive of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Cytologic evaluation of bone marrow aspirates revealed no evidence of overt malignancy, with 10% of all cells identified as small to intermediate-sized mature lymphocytes. Treatment with chlorambucil and prednisone administered orally over a 1.8-year period decreased the leukocyte and lymphocyte counts to within reference intervals with no adverse effects. Although repeated flow cytometry revealed evidence of residual disease, the fox remained free of clinical disease, and WBC counts were within reference intervals for this species. At 22 months after initial evaluation, the fox was euthanized because of debilitating arthritis. No evidence of CLL was detected grossly or histologically during necropsy. To the authors' knowledge, this was the first report of CLL in a bat-eared fox and first successful treatment in a nondomestic carnivore. Treatment in accordance with a chemotherapeutic protocol successfully resolved the leukocytosis and lymphocytosis with no serious adverse effects. Description of this fox and the treatment protocol should provide a valuable reference for future cases in this and other nondomestic canine species.

  1. Remarkably similar antigen receptors among a subset of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Ghiotto, Fabio; Fais, Franco; Valetto, Angelo; Albesiano, Emilia; Hashimoto, Shiori; Dono, Mariella; Ikematsu, Hideyuki; Allen, Steven L.; Kolitz, Jonathan; Rai, Kanti R.; Nardini, Marco; Tramontano, Anna; Ferrarini, Manlio; Chiorazzi, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    Studies of B cell antigen receptors (BCRs) expressed by leukemic lymphocytes from patients with B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) suggest that B lymphocytes with some level of BCR structural restriction become transformed. While analyzing rearranged VHDJH and VLJL genes of 25 non–IgM-producing B-CLL cases, we found five IgG+ cases that display strikingly similar BCRs (use of the same H- and L-chain V gene segments with unique, shared heavy chain third complementarity-determining region [HCDR3] and light chain third complementarity-determining region [LCDR3] motifs). These H- and L-chain characteristics were not identified in other B-CLL cases or in normal B lymphocytes whose sequences are available in the public databases. Three-dimensional modeling studies suggest that these BCRs could bind the same antigenic epitope. The structural features of the B-CLL BCRs resemble those of mAb’s reactive with carbohydrate determinants of bacterial capsules or viral coats and with certain autoantigens. These findings suggest that the B lymphocytes that gave rise to these IgG+ B-CLL cells were selected for this unique BCR structure. This selection could have occurred because the precursors of the B-CLL cells were chosen for their antigen-binding capabilities by antigen(s) of restricted nature and structure, or because the precursors derived from a B cell subpopulation with limited BCR heterogeneity, or both. PMID:15057307

  2. Case report: Concomitant Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia and Cytogenetically Normal de novo Acute Leukaemia in a Patient.

    PubMed

    Kajtár, Béla; Rajnics, Péter; Egyed, Miklós; Alizadeh, Hussain

    2015-01-01

    The simultaneous occurrence of acute myeloid leukaemia with untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia is extremely rare. We report a case of a 74-year-old man who was evaluated for macrocytic anaemia. Based on the morphology and immunophenotyping analysis of peripheral blood, a diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia was established. Subsequently, the bone marrow examination revealed the presence of two distinct, coexisting CLL and AML clones. Cytogenetic and molecular genetic analysis detected deletion 13q14.3 and unmutated immunoglobulin variable heavy-chain in the CLL clone, only. The AML and CLL clones did not share clonality, and the AML did not involve the peripheral blood. A diagnosis of cytogenetically normal de novo AML occurring concurrently with untreated CLL has not been reported previously in English literature. © 2015 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  3. Electrochemotherapy treatment of a recalcitrant earlobe keloid scar with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia infiltration.

    PubMed

    Sainsbury, D C G; Allison, K P; Muir, T

    2010-10-01

    Electrochemotherapy, a tumour ablation modality, which facilitates intracellular delivery of poorly-permeable cytotoxic drugs, such as bleomycin, has shown promising results in the treatment of cutaneous and subcutaneous melanomatous and non-melanomatous metastases. We report the case of a 52-year-old Caucasian gentleman with a keloid scar to his left earlobe that developed following a piercing. Despite multiple intralesional steroidal injections, five intralesional excisions and a course of superficial radiotherapy the keloid scar remained over nine years later. For 15 years the patient had also suffered chronic lymphocytic leukaemia with no nodal disease or systemic involvement. However, histological analysis of the final surgical excision specimen showed chronic lymphocytic leukaemia infiltration of the keloid scar. Further surgical excision seemed unwise considering the recalcitrance of the keloid scar. Additionally, no systemic chemotherapy treatment options were feasible. Electrochemotherapy was performed under local anaesthesia with the aim of eradicating the chronic lymphocytic leukaemia deposit within the keloid lesion. Four sessions of electrochemotherapy using bleomycin were deployed over 11 months. A deep core biopsy of the treated keloid performed three months following the last electrochemotherapy session showed no evidence of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Serendipitously, following the initial electrochemotherapy treatment no further growth of the keloid scar was observed. Furthermore, subsequent electrochemotherapy led to a substantial reduction in size of the keloid sustained for 14 months at last follow-up. This report highlights the exciting potential of electrochemotherapy and bleomycin in the treatment of recalcitrant scars. Larger, well-designed clinical and in-vitro studies are required to further elucidate the exact role, mechanism and cost-effectiveness of electrochemotherapy in this area. Copyright 2010 British Association of Plastic

  4. Prior history of non-melanoma skin cancer is associated with increased mortality in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Toro, Jorge R.; Blake, Patrick W.; Björkholm, Magnus; Kristinsson, Sigurdur Y.; Wang, Zhuoqiao; Landgren, Ola

    2009-01-01

    We investigated whether a previous diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer among chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients is a predictor of poor outcome. Using the Swedish Cancer Registry, we conducted a population-based study to evaluate the survival patterns among chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with and without non-melanoma skin cancer. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used and Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed. Of a total of 12,041 chronic lymphocytic leukemia cases identified, 236 cases, including 111 squamous cell cancer, had a prior history of non-melanoma skin cancer. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with a prior history of non-melanoma skin cancer had a 1.29-fold (95% CI 1.10–1.52; p=0.0024) increased risk of dying; and those with a history of squamous cell cancer had a further elevated 1.86-fold (95% CI 1.46–2.36; p<0.0001) risk of dying. Kaplan-Meier plots showed that patients with a history of non-melanoma skin cancer, particularly those with squamous cell cancer, had significantly poorer survival than chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients without non-melanoma skin cancer (p<0.0001; log-rank test). Non-melanoma skin cancer may be a novel clinical predictor of worse chronic lymphocytic leukemia outcome. PMID:19794092

  5. CCI-779 in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Refractory B-Cell Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma or Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-05-07

    B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Malignant Neoplasm; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  6. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia skin infiltration mimicking an ICD pocket infection: a case report.

    PubMed

    Snorek, M; Bulava, A; Vonke, I

    2017-03-24

    We are presenting a case report on an unreported and unusual cutaneous manifestation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia in a patient with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). A 65-year-old man with a history of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), previously treated with chlorambucil, was referred in October 2013 for extraction of a single chamber ICD due to a suspected device-related infection in the pulse generator area (left-hand side of Fig. 1). The ICD system (Current VR, St. Jude Medical, USA) had been implanted in November 2009. The patient complained of painless erythema with pruritus in the pocket area. Inflammatory blood parameters were C-reactive protein 17.3 mg/L and leucocytes 29.0 × 10 9 /L. Due to the atypical appearance of the pocket area we did not extract the device. Instead, we created an exploratory excision in the skin induration, which had been present for approximately 6 weeks, and conducted a microbiological and histological examination. All cultivation examinations were negative. However, we did histologically show skin infiltration by CD-5 positive low-grade B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (B-CLL/SLL). Re-initiation of chemotherapy was not necessary and the skin induration completely disappeared within 2 months (right-hand side of Fig. 1). Complete removal of an ICD system carries considerable risk. In patients with a history of hematological disease, it is crucial to exclude cutaneous manifestations of the disease prior to device removal.

  7. AR-42 in Treating Patients With Advanced or Relapsed Multiple Myeloma, Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, or Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-21

    Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Multiple Myeloma; Stage III Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage III Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage III Multiple Myeloma; Stage III Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Large

  8. Ibrutinib as initial therapy for elderly patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma: an open-label, multicentre, phase 1b/2 trial.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Susan; Furman, Richard R; Coutre, Steven E; Sharman, Jeff P; Burger, Jan A; Blum, Kristie A; Grant, Barbara; Richards, Donald A; Coleman, Morton; Wierda, William G; Jones, Jeffrey A; Zhao, Weiqiang; Heerema, Nyla A; Johnson, Amy J; Izumi, Raquel; Hamdy, Ahmed; Chang, Betty Y; Graef, Thorsten; Clow, Fong; Buggy, Joseph J; James, Danelle F; Byrd, John C

    2014-01-01

    Chemoimmunotherapy has led to improved numbers of patients achieving disease response, and longer overall survival in young patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia; however, its application in elderly patients has been restricted by substantial myelosuppression and infection. We aimed to assess safety and activity of ibrutinib, an orally administered covalent inhibitor of Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK), in treatment-naive patients aged 65 years and older with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. In our open-label phase 1b/2 trial, we enrolled previously untreated patients at clinical sites in the USA. Eligible patients were aged at least 65 years, and had symptomatic chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma requiring therapy. Patients received 28 day cycles of once-daily ibrutinib 420 mg or ibrutinib 840 mg. The 840 mg dose was discontinued after enrolment had begun because comparable activity of the doses has been shown. The primary endpoint was the safety of the dose-fixed regimen in terms of frequency and severity of adverse events for all patients who received treatment. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01105247. Between May 20, 2010, and Dec 18, 2012, we enrolled 29 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and two patients with small lymphocytic lymphoma. Median age was 71 years (range 65-84), and 23 (74%) patients were at least 70 years old. Toxicity was mainly of mild-to-moderate severity (grade 1-2). 21 (68%) patients had diarrhoea (grade 1 in 14 [45%] patients, grade 2 in three [10%] patients, and grade 3 in four [13%] patients). 15 (48%) patients developed nausea (grade 1 in 12 [39%] patients and grade 2 in three [10%] patients). Ten (32%) patients developed fatigue (grade 1 in five [16%] patients, grade 2 in four [13%] patients, and grade 3 in one [3%] patient). Three (10%) patients developed grade 3 infections, although no grade 4 or 5 infections occurred. One patient developed grade 3 neutropenia, and one

  9. Pharmacovigilance during ibrutinib therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)/small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) in routine clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Finnes, Heidi D; Chaffee, Kari G; Call, Timothy G; Ding, Wei; Kenderian, Saad S; Bowen, Deborah A; Conte, Michael; McCullough, Kristen B; Merten, Julianna A; Bartoo, Gabriel T; Smith, Matthew D; Leis, Jose; Chanan-Khan, Asher; Schwager, Susan M; Slager, Susan L; Kay, Neil E; Shanafelt, Tait D; Parikh, Sameer A

    2017-06-01

    Due to Cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) metabolism, clinical trials of ibrutinib-treated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients prohibited concurrent medications metabolized by CYP3A. We evaluated concomitant medication use in 118 ibrutinib-treated CLL patients outside the context of clinical trials. Seventy-five (64%) patients were on medications that could increase ibrutinib toxicity and 4 (3%) were on drugs that could decrease ibrutinib efficacy. Nineteen (16%) patients were on concomitant CYP3A inhibitors (11 moderate, 8 strong), and 4 (3%) were on CYP3A inducers (two patients were on both CYP3A inhibitors and inducers). Although the ibrutinib starting dose was changed in 18 patients on CYP3A interacting medications, no difference in 18-month progression-free survival or rate of ibrutinib discontinuation was observed in patients who were not. In routine clinical practice, 2 of 3 CLL patients commencing ibrutinib are on a concomitant medication with potential to influence ibrutinib metabolism. Formal medication review by a pharmacist should be considered in all patients initiating ibrutinib.

  10. Circulating tumour DNA reflects treatment response and clonal evolution in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Paul; Hunter, Tane; Sinha, Devbarna; Ftouni, Sarah; Wallach, Elise; Jiang, Damian; Chan, Yih-Chih; Wong, Stephen Q; Silva, Maria Joao; Vedururu, Ravikiran; Doig, Kenneth; Lam, Enid; Arnau, Gisela Mir; Semple, Timothy; Wall, Meaghan; Zivanovic, Andjelija; Agarwal, Rishu; Petrone, Pasquale; Jones, Kate; Westerman, David; Blombery, Piers; Seymour, John F; Papenfuss, Anthony T; Dawson, Mark A; Tam, Constantine S; Dawson, Sarah-Jane

    2017-03-17

    Several novel therapeutics are poised to change the natural history of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) and the increasing use of these therapies has highlighted limitations of traditional disease monitoring methods. Here we demonstrate that circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) is readily detectable in patients with CLL. Importantly, ctDNA does not simply mirror the genomic information contained within circulating malignant lymphocytes but instead parallels changes across different disease compartments following treatment with novel therapies. Serial ctDNA analysis allows clonal dynamics to be monitored over time and identifies the emergence of genomic changes associated with Richter's syndrome (RS). In addition to conventional disease monitoring, ctDNA provides a unique opportunity for non-invasive serial analysis of CLL for molecular disease monitoring.

  11. Distinct homotypic B-cell receptor interactions shape the outcome of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Minici, Claudia; Gounari, Maria; Übelhart, Rudolf; Scarfò, Lydia; Dühren-von Minden, Marcus; Schneider, Dunja; Tasdogan, Alpaslan; Alkhatib, Alabbas; Agathangelidis, Andreas; Ntoufa, Stavroula; Chiorazzi, Nicholas; Jumaa, Hassan; Stamatopoulos, Kostas; Ghia, Paolo; Degano, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Cell-autonomous B-cell receptor (BcR)-mediated signalling is a hallmark feature of the neoplastic B lymphocytes in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). Here we elucidate the structural basis of autonomous activation of CLL B cells, showing that BcR immunoglobulins initiate intracellular signalling through homotypic interactions between epitopes that are specific for each subgroup of patients with homogeneous clinicobiological profiles. The molecular details of the BcR–BcR interactions apparently dictate the clinical course of disease, with stronger affinities and longer half-lives in indolent cases, and weaker, short-lived contacts mediating the aggressive ones. The diversity of homotypic BcR contacts leading to cell-autonomous signalling reconciles the existence of a shared pathogenic mechanism with the biological and clinical heterogeneity of CLL and offers opportunities for innovative treatment strategies. PMID:28598442

  12. Improving Therapy of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) with Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fraietta, Joseph A.; Schwab, Robert D.; Maus, Marcela V.

    2016-01-01

    Adoptive cell immunotherapy for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has heralded a new era of synthetic biology. The infusion of genetically-engineered, autologous chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells directed against CD19 expressed by normal and malignant B cells represents a novel approach to cancer therapy. The results of recent clinical trials of CAR T cells in relapsed and refractory CLL have demonstrated long-term disease-free remissions, underscoring the power of harnessing and re-directing the immune system against cancer. This review will briefly summarize T cell therapies in development for CLL disease. We discuss the role of T cell function and phenotype, T cell culture optimization, CAR design, and approaches to potentiate the survival and anti-tumor effects of infused lymphocytes. Future efforts will focus on improving the efficacy of CAR T cells for the treatment of CLL and incorporating adoptive cell immunotherapy into standard medical management of CLL. PMID:27040708

  13. Spotlight on ibrutinib and its potential in frontline treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Maliha; Gibbons, Jamie L; Ferrajoli, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most prevalent leukemia in the adult population. Current efforts are focused on better understanding the intricate pathophysiology of the disease to develop successful targeted therapies. Ibrutinib is emerging as an important agent in this new age of targeted treatment for CLL. As a Bruton’s tyrosine kinase inhibitor, it blocks the signaling pathway that malignant B-lymphocytes need for growth and maturation. Ibrutinib’s role in therapy was further expanded recently when the US Food and Drug Administration approved its use in both frontline and salvage treatment for patients with CLL. This review assesses the effectiveness of ibrutinib in the frontline setting, its efficacy in various types of patients with CLL, and its safety and tolerability. PMID:28408842

  14. Infections in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: Mitigating risk in the era of targeted therapies.

    PubMed

    Teh, Benjamin W; Tam, Constantine S; Handunnetti, Sasanka; Worth, Leon J; Slavin, Monica A

    2018-04-23

    Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is the most common leukaemia with infections a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Recently there has been a paradigm shift from the use of chemo-immunotherapies to agents targeting specific B-lymphocyte pathways. These agents include ibrutinib, idelalisib and venetoclax. In this review, the risks and timing of infections associated with these agents are described, taking into account disease and treatment status. Treatment with ibrutinib as monotherapy or in combination with chemo-immunotherapies is not associated with additional risk for infection. In contrast, the use of idelalisib is associated with a 2-fold risk for severe infection and opportunistic infections. Venetoclax does not appear to be associated with additional infection risk. The evolving spectrum of pathogens responsible infections in CLL patients, especially those with relapsed and refractory disease are described, and prevention strategies (prophylaxis, monitoring and vaccination) are proposed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hemorrhagic pericardial effusion as the debut of acquired hemophilia in a chronic lymphocytic leukemia patient

    PubMed Central

    Bastida, José María; Cano-Mozo, María Teresa; Lopez-Cadenas, Felix; Vallejo, Victor Eduardo; Merchán, Soraya; Santos-Montón, Cecilia; González-Calle, David; Carrillo, Javier; Martín, Ana Africa; Torres-Hernández, Jose Angel; González, Marcos; Martín-Herrero, Francisco; Pabón, Pedro; González-Porras, Jose Ramon

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Acquired hemophilia A (AHA) is a rare bleeding disease caused by autoantibodies against factor VIII. Spontaneous bleeding symptoms usually affect the skin and muscle, while pericardial effusion is an extremely rare manifestation. In the elderly, anticoagulant treatment is frequent and bleeding symptoms are usually associated with this. Clinical findings: We report a hemorrhagic pericardial effusion as the AHA debut in a patient with untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia and anticoagulated with apixaban for atrial fibrillation and chronic arterial ischemia. The patient was treated with recombinant activated factor VII to control the active bleeding and corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide to eradicate the inhibitor. In addition, a briefly review of hematological malignancies associated to acquired hemophilia was performed. Particularities: a) anticoagulant treatment may confuse the suspicion of AHA and its diagnosis; b) hemorrhagic pericardial effusion is an extremely rare presentation; c) bypassing agents raise the risk of thromboembolism; d) hematological malignancies rarely cause AHA (<20% of cases). Conclusion: A multidisciplinary team is needed to diagnose and manage AHA effectively. The use of anticoagulants may lead to the misdiagnosis of clinical symptoms. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is one of the main causes of hematological malignancies associated. The specific treatment of CLL is still recommended in the event of active disease. PMID:29381944

  16. Efficacy of DSP30-IL2/TPA for detection of cytogenetic abnormalities in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Holmes, P J; Peiper, S C; Uppal, G K; Gong, J Z; Wang, Z-X; Bajaj, R

    2016-10-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is the most prevalent leukaemia in the Western Hemisphere. Cytogenetic abnormalities in CLL are used for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. However, detecting these is difficult because mature B cells do not readily divide in culture. Here, we present data on two mitogen cocktails: CpG-oligonucleotide DSP30/Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and DSP30/IL-2 in combination with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). We analysed 165 cases of CLL with FISH and cytogenetics from January 2011 to June 2013. In 2011, three cultures were set-up: unstimulated, DSP30/IL-2-stimulated and TPA-stimulated. In 2012-2013, two cultures were set-up: unstimulated and stimulated with TPA/DSP30/IL-2. In 2011, FISH had a detection rate of 91% and cytogenetics using DSP30/IL2 had a detection rate of 91% (n = 22). In 2012-2013, FISH had a detection rate of 79% and cytogenetics using TPA/DSP30/IL-2 had a detection rate of 98% (n = 40). The percentage of cases with normal FISH but abnormal cytogenetics increased from 9% in 2011 to 21% in 2012-2013. The TPA/DSP30/IL-2 cultures in 2012-2013 detected more novel abnormalities (n = 5) as compared to DSP30/IL-2 alone (n = 3). TPA/DSP30/IL2 was as good as or better than DSP30/IL2 alone. TPA/DSP30/IL-2 offers a high detection rate for CLL abnormalities with a single stimulated culture and may increase detection of clinically significant abnormalities. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. BTK inhibitors in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a glimpse to the future.

    PubMed

    Spaargaren, M; de Rooij, M F M; Kater, A P; Eldering, E

    2015-05-07

    The treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with inhibitors targeting B cell receptor signaling and other survival mechanisms holds great promise. Especially the early clinical success of Ibrutinib, an irreversible inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), has received widespread attention. In this review we will focus on the fundamental and clinical aspects of BTK inhibitors in CLL, with emphasis on Ibrutinib as the best studied of this class of drugs. Furthermore, we summarize recent laboratory as well as clinical findings relating to the first cases of Ibrutinib resistance. Finally, we address combination strategies with Ibrutinib, and attempt to extrapolate its current status to the near future in the clinic.

  18. Clonal dynamics towards the development of venetoclax resistance in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Herling, Carmen D; Abedpour, Nima; Weiss, Jonathan; Schmitt, Anna; Jachimowicz, Ron Daniel; Merkel, Olaf; Cartolano, Maria; Oberbeck, Sebastian; Mayer, Petra; Berg, Valeska; Thomalla, Daniel; Kutsch, Nadine; Stiefelhagen, Marius; Cramer, Paula; Wendtner, Clemens-Martin; Persigehl, Thorsten; Saleh, Andreas; Altmüller, Janine; Nürnberg, Peter; Pallasch, Christian; Achter, Viktor; Lang, Ulrich; Eichhorst, Barbara; Castiglione, Roberta; Schäfer, Stephan C; Büttner, Reinhard; Kreuzer, Karl-Anton; Reinhardt, Hans Christian; Hallek, Michael; Frenzel, Lukas P; Peifer, Martin

    2018-02-20

    Deciphering the evolution of cancer cells under therapeutic pressure is a crucial step to understand the mechanisms that lead to treatment resistance. To this end, we analyzed whole-exome sequencing data of eight chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients that developed resistance upon BCL2-inhibition by venetoclax. Here, we report recurrent mutations in BTG1 (2 patients) and homozygous deletions affecting CDKN2A/B (3 patients) that developed during treatment, as well as a mutation in BRAF and a high-level focal amplification of CD274 (PD-L1) that might pinpoint molecular aberrations offering structures for further therapeutic interventions.

  19. Have we been wrong about ionizing radiation and chronic lymphocytic leukemia?

    PubMed

    Hamblin, Terry J

    2008-04-01

    It is almost axiomatic that chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is not caused by ionizing radiation. This assumption has been challenged recently by a critical re-appraisal of existing data. A recent paper implicated radon exposure in Czech uranium miners as a possible cause of CLL and in this issue of Leukemia Research the first paper examining the incidence of CLL among those exposed to radiation from the accident at the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl is published. It suggests that CLL occurring among the clean-up workers was of a more aggressive form than is normally seen in the community.

  20. Apparent feline leukemia virus-induced chronic lymphocytic leukemia and response to treatment.

    PubMed

    Kyle, Kristy N; Wright, Zachary

    2010-04-01

    Chylothorax secondary to chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was diagnosed in a feline leukemia virus (FeLV)-positive 8-year-old castrated male domestic shorthair feline. The leukemia resolved following therapy with chlorambucil, prednisone, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and lomustine. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of CLL in an FeLV-positive cat. Although a causative relationship cannot be proven, patients diagnosed with either disease may benefit from diagnostics to rule out the presence of the other concurrent condition. Copyright 2009 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Role of the B-cell receptor in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: where do we stand?

    PubMed

    Fais, Franco; Bruno, Silvia; Ghiotto, Fabio

    2010-01-01

    The past 15 years have witnessed an enormous effort in studying B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia. A great number of researches brought significant novel information and a better understanding of the natural history of this disease. This mini review will focus on the studies related to the Immunoglobulin variable (IgV) genes rearrangements that compose the B-cell receptor (BcR) of the leukemic clones. These studies have defined a role for the antigen(s) in the paths that lead to leukemic clone generation/expansion and underscore the informative value represented by BcR analyses.

  2. "Surgical" abdomen in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a case of acquired angioedema.

    PubMed

    Jung, Moonjung; Rice, Lawrence

    2011-12-01

    Acquired angioedema (AAE), an acquired deficiency of C1esterase inhibitor, is a medically treatable condition which can cause severe abdominal pain mimicking an acute surgical abdomen. This disorder is strongly associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and other indolent lymphoplasmacytic disorders. We describe a patient with known CLL who developed incapacitating, recurrent severe abdominal pains, culminating in partial bowel resection. Signs, symptoms, laboratory and pathologic findings demonstrated AAE. Wider appreciation of the possibility of AAE, particularly in patients with lymphoproliferative disorders, could lead to preventive therapy and spare unnecessary surgery. This is more important now that more effective medical therapies are available.

  3. Interesting coincidence of atypical TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Bolanowski, Marek; Zieliński, Grzegorz; Jawiarczyk-Przybyłowska, Aleksandra; Maksymowicz, Maria; Potoczek, Stanisław; Syrycka, Joanna; Podgórski, Jan K

    2014-01-01

    Thyrotropin-secreting adenomas (TSH-oma) are very rare pituitary tumours. They are macroadenomas usually presenting with signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism, and mass effects. They can co-secrete other hormones such as growth hormone or prolactin. Different malignancies, including haematological ones, are reported in patients with pituitary diseases. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) occurs mostly in older patients, more often in males. CLL is associated with increased risk of second malignancies such as other blood neoplasms, skin and solid tumours. We present a successful neurosurgical outcome in a patient with an interesting coincidence of atypical TSH-oma and asymptomatic CLL.

  4. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia as an Unusual Cause of Rapid Airway Compromise

    PubMed Central

    Ezzell, Erin E.; Renshaw, John S.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) is the most prevalent form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in Western countries predominantly affecting adults over the age of 65. CLL is commonly indolent in nature but can present locally and aggressively at extranodal sites. Although CLL may commonly present with cervical lymphadenopathy, manifestation in nonlymphoid regions of the head and neck is not well described. CLL causing upper airway obstruction is even more uncommon. We describe a case of a patient with known history of CLL and stable lymphocytosis that developed an enlarging lymphoid base of tongue (BOT) mass resulting in rapid airway compromise. PMID:28396813

  5. JAK2 V617F positive essential thrombocythemia developing in a patient with CD5⁻ chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ju; Wang, Chun; Qin, You-Wen; Zhu, Jun; Gao, Yang-Rong; Cai, Qi; Yan, Shi-Ke

    2012-06-01

    Coexistence of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and essential thrombocythemia (ET) in a patient is extremely rare, with only 10 cases reported thus far in literature. This paper describes a 94-year-old male having atypical B-CLL with CD5⁻ (CD5⁻) phenotype and ET. In this patient, we performed interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis which revealed 13q14.3 deletion in 31% of B-lymphocyte nuclei and RB1 deletion in 27% of B-lymphocyte nuclei, but not in neutrophils and T-lymphocytes. Furthermore, we identified JAK2 V617F mutation in the peripheral blood nucleated cells and neutrophils, but not in the B- and T-lymphocyte populations. Therefore, it was concluded that the occurrence of CD5− B-CLL and ET in this patient was pathogenically independent.

  6. Metformin inhibits cell cycle progression of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Silvia; Ledda, Bernardetta; Tenca, Claudya; Ravera, Silvia; Orengo, Anna Maria; Mazzarello, Andrea Nicola; Pesenti, Elisa; Casciaro, Salvatore; Racchi, Omar; Ghiotto, Fabio; Marini, Cecilia; Sambuceti, Gianmario; DeCensi, Andrea; Fais, Franco

    2015-09-08

    B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was believed to result from clonal accumulation of resting apoptosis-resistant malignant B lymphocytes. However, it became increasingly clear that CLL cells undergo, during their life, iterative cycles of re-activation and subsequent clonal expansion. Drugs interfering with CLL cell cycle entry would be greatly beneficial in the treatment of this disease. 1, 1-Dimethylbiguanide hydrochloride (metformin), the most widely prescribed oral hypoglycemic agent, inexpensive and well tolerated, has recently received increased attention for its potential antitumor activity. We wondered whether metformin has apoptotic and anti-proliferative activity on leukemic cells derived from CLL patients. Metformin was administered in vitro either to quiescent cells or during CLL cell activation stimuli, provided by classical co-culturing with CD40L-expressing fibroblasts. At doses that were totally ineffective on normal lymphocytes, metformin induced apoptosis of quiescent CLL cells and inhibition of cell cycle entry when CLL were stimulated by CD40-CD40L ligation. This cytostatic effect was accompanied by decreased expression of survival- and proliferation-associated proteins, inhibition of signaling pathways involved in CLL disease progression and decreased intracellular glucose available for glycolysis. In drug combination experiments, metformin lowered the apoptotic threshold and potentiated the cytotoxic effects of classical and novel antitumor molecules. Our results indicate that, while CLL cells after stimulation are in the process of building their full survival and cycling armamentarium, the presence of metformin affects this process.

  7. Graded versus Intermittent Exercise Effects on Lymphocytes in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, Suzanne; Coutts, Rosanne

    2016-09-01

    There is increasing evidence of immune system dysfunction in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), but little is known of the regular exercise effects on immune cell parameters. This pilot study investigated the effects of graded and intermittent exercise on CD4 lymphocyte subset counts and activation compared with usual care. Twenty-four CFS patients (50.2 ± 10 yr) were randomized to graded exercise (GE), intermittent exercise (IE), or usual care (UC) groups; 18 sedentary non-CFS participants (50.6 ± 10 yr) were controls (CTL) for blood and immunological comparisons. Outcome measures were pre- and postintervention flow cytometric analyses of circulating lymphocyte subset cell counts; expression of CD3, CD4, CD25, and CD134; full blood counts; and V˙O2peak. Preintervention, CD3 cell counts, and expression of CD4, CD25, CD134, and CD4CD25CD134 were significantly lower in GE, IE, and UC compared with CTL (P < 0.05). Total lymphocyte concentration was significantly lower in GE and IE groups compared with CTL. There were significant postintervention increases in i) expression of CD4 and CD4CD25CD134 for GE and IE, but CD25 and CD134 for IE only; ii) circulating counts of CD3 and CD4 for GE, and CD3, CD4, CD8, CD3CD4CD8, CD3CD16CD56, CD19, and CD45 for IE; iii) neutrophil concentration for GE; and iv) V˙O2peak and elapsed test time for IE and GE, V˙Epeak for IE. Twelve weeks of GE and IE training significantly improved CD4 lymphocyte activation and aerobic capacity without exacerbating CFS symptoms. IE may be a more effective exercise modality with regard to enhanced CD4 activation in CFS patients.

  8. Involvements of γδT Lymphocytes in Acute and Chronic Skin Wound Repair.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng; Fu, Xiujun; Xiao, Nin; Guo, Yuanyuan; Pei, Qing; Peng, Yinbo; Zhang, Yifan; Yao, Min

    2017-08-01

    Wound healing involves three stages including inflammation, proliferation, and tissue remodeling. The underlying mechanisms remain to be further elucidated. The inflammation is characterized by spatially and temporally changing patterns of various leukocyte subsets. It is regarded as the most crucial stage since the inflammatory response is instrumental to supplying various factors and cytokines that orchestrate healing events. As a subtype of T lymphocytes, γδ T cells play an important role in skin homeostasis, tumor immunosurveillance, and wound repair. However, either the dynamics of γδ T cells in healing process or the anticipated association of γδ T cells with chronic or refractory wounds were not well understood. In this study, we determine the dynamics of γδ T cells and γδ T cell-produced effectors during acute and chronic wound repair by establishing a third-degree burn model in mice skin or human skin from diabetic patients. Our data show that the involvement of γδ T cells in acute and chronic skin wound healing. The protein levels and mRNA expressions of γδ T cell-produced effectors were increased in acute healing model, whereas those effectors were decreased in chronic repair, suggesting γδ T cells are essential for wound repair. This study probes into the significant relevance of γδ T cells with effective wound repair and provides new enlightenments for the mechanisms of the formation of chronic and/or refractory wounds.

  9. An immunophenotypic and molecular diagnosis of composite hairy cell leukaemia and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Liptrot, Stuart; O' Brien, David; Langabeer, Stephen E; Quinn, Fiona; Mackarel, A Jill; Elder, Patrick; Vandenberghe, Elisabeth; Hayden, Patrick J

    2013-12-01

    Hairy cell leukaemia (HCL) and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) are distinct clinicopathological B cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders (B-CLPD). Both diseases have characteristic immunophenotypic and molecular features. The co-existence of two B-CLPD is perhaps more common than previously thought but a composite HCL and CLL has been rarely documented. A case is reported in which the morphology, integrated with an extensive immunophenotyping panel, and incorporation of the recently described HCL-associated BRAF V600E mutation, enabled the prompt diagnosis of composite HCL and CLL thus allowing appropriate treatment selection. This case serves to highlight the benefit of a multidisciplinary approach to the diagnosis of bi-clonal B-CLPD.

  10. Atypical Lymphocytes and Cellular Cannibalism: A Phenomenon, First of its Kind to be Discovered in Chronic Periapical Lesions.

    PubMed

    Kalele, Ketki P; Patil, Kaustubh P; Nayyar, Abhishek Singh; Sasane, Rutuparna S

    2016-04-01

    Lymphocytes are often termed to be isomorphic, having a monotonous light microscopic appearance. Morphological aspects of lymphocytes in tissue sections thereby are not routinely taken notice of as their morphology seems to vary only in case of lymphoid malignancies, hematological malignancies apart from certain viral infections. Atypical lymphocytes are the lymphocytes with unusual shape, size or overall structure. These are more commonly known as reactive lymphocytes. The unusual histomorphological feature of these cells include larger size than normal lymphocytes; in some cells the size exceeds even 30 microns. The large size is the result of antigenic stimulation of the cell. Alongwith these, the other rare feature which is recently coming under light is "Cellular Cannibalism" which is defined as a large cell enclosing a slightly smaller one within its cytoplasm. Previously, this feature was noted only in cases of malignant tumors. The objectives of this study were to determine the proportion of atypical lymphocytes in chronic periapical granulomas and cysts; to determine the proportionate cellular cannibalism in these periapical lesions. This was a descriptive, observational study conducted in the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology and Oral Pathology and Microbiology. Haematoxylin and eosin stained 30 slides of chronic periapical granulomas and 20 slides of cysts reported in the year 2014-15 and the clinical proformas of the patients were retrieved from the files of the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology and Oral Pathology and Microbiology. These slides were evaluated by 3 experts from the specialization of Oral Pathology and Microbiology to determine the presence of atypical lymphocytes and cellular cannibalism under high power magnification (400X). Out of the 30 slides of chronic periapical granulomas, about 12 slides (40%) revealed presence of atypical lymphocytes. In case of slides of chronic periapical cysts, however, only 4 out of the 20

  11. Prevalence of ZAP-70 and CD 38 in Indian chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients.

    PubMed

    Gogia, A; Sharma, A; Raina, V; Kumar, L; Gupta, R; Kumar, R

    2013-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common chronic lympho-proliferative disorder. This study was undertaken to know the prevalence of ZAP-70 and CD 38 in the treatment naive patients of CLL seen at a tertiary care centre of north India. ZAP-70 and CD 38 were tested by flow cytometry on peripheral blood samples. ZAP-70 positive and CD 38 positivity was defined as positive expression on 20% and 30% of CLL cells, respectively. Clinico-hematological profile and its correlation with ZAP-70 and CD 38 were assessed in consecutive 80 CLL patients. There were 64 males and median age of the group was 58 years. Sixteen patients (20%) were asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally. Median total lymphocyte count (TLC) at presentation was 62 × 10 9 /L. Rai stage distribution was: Stage 0-6, stage I-20, stage II-36, stage III-5, and stage IV-13. ZAP-70 and CD 38 positivity were detected in 20 patients (25%) and 29 patients (36%), respectively. Eleven patients were positive and 34 were negative for both ZAP-70 and CD 38 yielding a concordance rate of 56%. There was no statistically significant difference between ZAP-70 and CD 38 positivity and negativity with regard to age, sex, Lymphocyte count, lymphadenopathy, organomegaly, and Rai staging. ZAP-70 and CD 38 positivity were detected 25% and 36%, respectively, with concordance rate of 56%, which is higher than Western literature. There was no correlation of ZAP-70 and CD 38 positivity with age, sex, lymphadenopathy, organomegaly, and Rai staging.

  12. The top ten clues to understand the origin of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).

    PubMed

    García-Muñoz, Ricardo; Feliu, Jesús; Llorente, Luis

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental task of the immune system is to protect the individual from infectious organisms without serious injury to self. The essence of acquired immunity is molecular self/non self discrimination. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is characterized by a global failure of immune system that begins with the failure of immunological tolerance mechanisms (autoimmunity) and finish with the incapacity to response to non-self antigens (immunodeficiency). Immunological tolerance mechanisms are involved in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) development. During B cell development some self-reactive B cells acquire a special BCR that recognize their own BCR. This self-autoantibody-self BCR interaction promotes survival, differentiation and proliferation of self-reactive B cells. Continuous self-autoantibody-self BCR interaction cross-linking induces an increased rate of surface BCR elimination, CD5+ expression, receptor editing and anergy. Unfortunately, some times this mechanisms increase genomic instability and promote additional genetic damage that immortalize self-reactive B cells and convert them into CLL like clones with the capability of clonal evolution and transformed CLL B cells. This review summarizes the immunological effects of continuous self-autoantibody-self BCR interaction cross-linking in the surface of self-reactive B cells and their role in CLL development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Role of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis in central node metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Paulson, Lorien M; Shindo, Maisie L; Schuff, Kathryn G

    2012-09-01

    (1) To investigate the role of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) in central node metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and (2) to evaluate the presence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis according to PTC-specific molecular markers. Historical cohort study. Academic medical center. All patients who underwent total thyroidectomy with central neck dissection for PTC at Oregon Health & Science University between 2005 and 2010 were screened for the presence of CLT and reviewed for clinical prognostic factors. Patients with inadequate central neck dissections were excluded. Molecular markers for PTC were analyzed on archived tumor samples. A total of 139 patients met selection criteria. The rate of CLT was 43.8%. The rate of central node positivity was 63%. Presence of CLT was associated with a significantly lower proportion of central node metastases (49% vs 74%, P = .003) and angiolymphatic invasion (31% vs 15%, P = .03). There was no significant difference in mean age, tumor size, and extracapsular extension. Molecular genotyping did not reveal a significant difference in the types of mutations found in both groups. The data indicate a lower incidence of central compartment lymph node metastasis in those with CLT in this patient population, suggesting a potential protective role in tumor spread. The equal distribution of tumor mutations between the carcinomas with and without evidence of CLT argues against a mutation-specific antigen as the immunologic stimulus. Further research is needed to characterize the role of autoimmunity in thyroid cancer.

  14. Multiple productive immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangements in chronic lymphocytic leukemia are mostly derived from independent clones

    PubMed Central

    Plevova, Karla; Francova, Hana Skuhrova; Burckova, Katerina; Brychtova, Yvona; Doubek, Michael; Pavlova, Sarka; Malcikova, Jitka; Mayer, Jiri; Tichy, Boris; Pospisilova, Sarka

    2014-01-01

    In chronic lymphocytic leukemia, usually a monoclonal disease, multiple productive immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangements are identified sporadically. Prognostication of such cases based on immunoglobulin heavy variable gene mutational status can be problematic, especially if the different rearrangements have discordant mutational status. To gain insight into the possible biological mechanisms underlying the origin of the multiple rearrangements, we performed a comprehensive immunogenetic and immunophenotypic characterization of 31 cases with the multiple rearrangements identified in a cohort of 1147 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. For the majority of cases (25/31), we provide evidence of the co-existence of at least two B lymphocyte clones with a chronic lymphocytic leukemia phenotype. We also identified clonal drifts in serial samples, likely driven by selection forces. More specifically, higher immunoglobulin variable gene identity to germline and longer complementarity determining region 3 were preferred in persistent or newly appearing clones, a phenomenon more pronounced in patients with stereotyped B-cell receptors. Finally, we report that other factors, such as TP53 gene defects and therapy administration, influence clonal selection. Our findings are relevant to clonal evolution in the context of antigen stimulation and transition of monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis to chronic lymphocytic leukemia. PMID:24038023

  15. Ibrutinib as initial therapy for elderly patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma: an open-label, multicentre, phase 1b/2 trial

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Susan; Furman, Richard R; Coutre, Steven E; Sharman, Jeff P; Burger, Jan A; Blum, Kristie A; Grant, Barbara; Richards, Donald A; Coleman, Morton; Wierda, William G; Jones, Jeffrey A; Zhao, Weiqiang; Heerema, Nyla A; Johnson, Amy J; Izumi, Raquel; Hamdy, Ahmed; Chang, Betty Y; Graef, Thorsten; Clow, Fong; Buggy, Joseph J; James, Danelle F; Byrd, John C

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Chemoimmunotherapy has led to improved numbers of patients achieving disease response, and longer overall survival in young patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia; however, its application in elderly patients has been restricted by substantial myelosuppression and infection. We aimed to assess safety and activity of ibrutinib, an orally administered covalent inhibitor of Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK), in treatment-naive patients aged 65 years and older with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Methods In our open-label phase 1b/2 trial, we enrolled previously untreated patients at clinical sites in the USA. Eligible patients were aged at least 65 years, and had symptomatic chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma requiring therapy. Patients received 28 day cycles of once-daily ibrutinib 420 mg or ibrutinib 840 mg. The 840 mg dose was discontinued after enrolment had begun because comparable activity of the doses has been shown. The primary endpoint was the safety of the dose-fixed regimen in terms of frequency and severity of adverse events for all patients who received treatment. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01105247. Findings Between May 20, 2010, and Dec 18, 2012, we enrolled 29 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and two patients with small lymphocytic lymphoma. Median age was 71 years (range 65–84), and 23 (74%) patients were at least 70 years old. Toxicity was mainly of mild-to-moderate severity (grade 1–2). 21 (68%) patients had diarrhoea (grade 1 in 14 [45%] patients, grade 2 in three [10%] patients, and grade 3 in four [13%] patients). 15 (48%) patients developed nausea (grade 1 in 12 [39%] patients and grade 2 in three [10%] patients). Ten (32%) patients developed fatigue (grade 1 in five [16%] patients, grade 2 in four [13%] patients, and grade 3 in one [3%] patient). Three (10%) patients developed grade 3 infections, although no grade 4 or 5 infections occurred. One patient

  16. Coexistence of chronic myeloid leukemia and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with antecedent chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Abuelgasim, Khadega A; Rehan, Hinna; Alsubaie, Maha; Al Atwi, Nasser; Al Balwi, Mohammed; Alshieban, Saeed; Almughairi, Areej

    2018-03-11

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia and chronic myeloid leukemia are the most common types of adult leukemia. However, it is rare for the same patient to suffer from both. Richter's transformation to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is frequently observed in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Purine analog therapy and the presence of trisomy 12, and CCND1 gene rearrangement have been linked to increased risk of Richter's transformation. The coexistence of chronic myeloid leukemia and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in the same patient is extremely rare, with only nine reported cases. Here, we describe the first reported case of concurrent chronic myeloid leukemia and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in a background of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. A 60-year-old Saudi man known to have diabetes, hypertension, and chronic active hepatitis B was diagnosed as having Rai stage II chronic lymphocytic leukemia, with trisomy 12 and rearrangement of the CCND1 gene in December 2012. He required no therapy until January 2016 when he developed significant anemia, thrombocytopenia, and constitutional symptoms. He received six cycles of fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab, after which he achieved complete remission. One month later, he presented with progressive leukocytosis (mostly neutrophilia) and splenomegaly. Fluorescence in situ hybridization from bone marrow aspirate was positive for translocation (9;22) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction detected BCR-ABL fusion gene consistent with chronic myeloid leukemia. He had no morphologic or immunophenotypic evidence of chronic lymphocytic leukemia at the time. Imatinib, a first-line tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was started. Eight months later, a screening imaging revealed new liver lesions, which were confirmed to be diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. In chronic lymphocytic leukemia, progressive leukocytosis and splenomegaly caused by emerging chronic myeloid leukemia can be easily overlooked. It is unlikely that chronic myeloid

  17. More intensive CMV-infection in chronic heart failure patients contributes to higher T-lymphocyte differentiation degree.

    PubMed

    Moro-García, Marco Antonio; López-Iglesias, Fernando; Marcos-Fernández, Raquel; Bueno-García, Eva; Díaz-Molina, Beatriz; Lambert, José Luis; Suárez-García, Francisco Manuel; Morís de la Tassa, Cesar; Alonso-Arias, Rebeca

    2018-03-30

    Immunosenescence in chronic heart failure (CHF) is characterized by a high frequency of differentiated T-lymphocytes, contributing to an inflammatory status and a deficient ability to generate immunocompetent responses. CMV is the best known inducer of T-lymphocyte differentiation, and is associated with the phenomenon of immunosenescence. In this study, we included 58 elderly chronic heart failure patients (ECHF), 60 healthy elderly controls (HEC), 40 young chronic heart failure patients (YCHF) and 40 healthy young controls (HYC). High differentiation of CD8+ T-lymphocytes was found in CMV-seropositive patients; however, the differentiation of CD4+ T-lymphocytes was increased in CMV-seropositive but also in CHF patients. Anti-CMV antibody titers showed positive correlation with more differentiated CD4+ and CD8+ subsets and inverse correlation with CD4/CD8 ratio. Immunosenescence found in CHF patients is mainly due to the dynamics of CMV-infection, since the differentiation of T-lymphocyte subsets is related not only to CMV-infection, but also to anti-CMV antibody titers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Rituximab for the treatment of relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Dretzke, J; Barton, P; Kaambwa, B; Connock, M; Uthman, O; Bayliss, S; Meads, C

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents a summary of the evidence review group (ERG) report on the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of rituximab with chemotherapy compared to chemotherapy only for the treatment of relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) based on the manufacturer's submission to the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) as part of the single technology appraisal (STA) process. Evidence was available in the form of one open-label, ongoing, unpublished randomised controlled trial (RCT), REACH (Rituximab in the Study of Relapsed Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia), conducted by the manufacturer, which compared rituximab with a fludarabine and cyclophosphamide combination (R-FC) to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide (FC) only. REACH was scheduled to run for 8 years; however, the data provided were immature, with a median observation time at the time of data analysis of 2.1 years. REACH provided evidence of prolonged progression free survival with R-FC compared to FC (10 months, investigators' data), but no evidence of an overall survival benefit with R-FC. Patients refractory to fludarabine and with prior rituximab exposure were excluded from REACH and no controlled studies were identified by the ERG for these patient groups. The ERG had concerns about the structure of the economic model submitted by the manufacturer, which did not allow improvement in quality of life from treatment while in a progressed state. The manufacturer's model further assumed a divergence in cumulative deaths between the R-FC and FC treatment arms from the outset, which did not accord with observed data from REACH. When the survival advantage was removed, the manufacturer's base-case incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) changed from 15,593 pounds to between 40,000 pounds and 42,000 pounds per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). With no survival advantage, the ICER became sensitive to changes in utility. There was no good empirical evidence on the

  19. High Mitochondrial DNA Stability in B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Cerezo, María; Bandelt, Hans-Jürgen; Martín-Guerrero, Idoia; Ardanaz, Maite; Vega, Ana; Carracedo, Ángel; García-Orad, África; Salas, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Background Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) leads to progressive accumulation of lymphocytes in the blood, bone marrow, and lymphatic tissues. Previous findings have suggested that the mtDNA could play an important role in CLL. Methodology/Principal Findings The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control-region was analyzed in lymphocyte cell DNA extracts and compared with their granulocyte counterpart extract of 146 patients suffering from B-Cell CLL; B-CLL (all recruited from the Basque country). Major efforts were undertaken to rule out methodological artefacts that would render a high false positive rate for mtDNA instabilities and thus lead to erroneous interpretation of sequence instabilities. Only twenty instabilities were finally confirmed, most of them affecting the homopolymeric stretch located in the second hypervariable segment (HVS-II) around position 310, which is well known to constitute an extreme mutational hotspot of length polymorphism, as these mutations are frequently observed in the general human population. A critical revision of the findings in previous studies indicates a lack of proper methodological standards, which eventually led to an overinterpretation of the role of the mtDNA in CLL tumorigenesis. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that mtDNA instability is not the primary causal factor in B-CLL. A secondary role of mtDNA mutations cannot be fully ruled out under the hypothesis that the progressive accumulation of mtDNA instabilities could finally contribute to the tumoral process. Recommendations are given that would help to minimize erroneous interpretation of sequencing results in mtDNA studies in tumorigenesis. PMID:19924307

  20. The association between thyroid malignancy and chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis: should it alter the surgical approach?

    PubMed

    Büyükaşık, Oktay; Hasdemir, Ahmet Oğuz; Yalçın, Erol; Celep, Bahadır; Sengül, Serkan; Yandakçı, Kemal; Tunç, Gündüz; Küçükpınar, Tevfik; Alkoy, Seval; Cöl, Cavit

    2011-01-01

    The relation between thyroid neoplasms and chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) is controversial. While it is accepted that focal lymphocytic thyroiditis develops secondarily to malignancy, it is not clear whether diffuse lymphocytic thyroiditis has a tendency to develop into thyroid cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between CLT and malignant tumours of the thyroid and evaluate the surgical approach to CLT cases. In this study, 917 patients operated on for thyroid diseases were investigated retrospectively. Seventy-seven (8.4%) patients histopathologically diagnosed as having CLT (either non-specific or Hashimoto's thyroiditis) were investigated for any concurrent malignant neoplasm. Fifteen patients in whom CLT and thyroid malignancy were coexisting were included in the study. In the pathological evaluation of 917 cases, malignancy in the thyroid was found in 97 (10.6%) cases. Seventy-seven cases were categorised as CLT. Of these 77, 16 (20.8%) were Hashimoto's thyroiditis (specific CLT) and the other 61 (79.2%) were non-specific CLT. In 15 cases, thyroid malignancy was found to be concurrent with CLT. Of the malignities, nine (60%) were papillary carcinoma, three (20%) medullar carcinoma, one (6.6%) follicular carcinoma, one (6.6%) Hurthle cell carcinoma, and one (6.6%) lymphoma. In our series, the rate of the development of malignancy against the background of CLT was 19.48%, while the rate in the groups without CLT was 9.76%, with a statistically significant difference between the groups (p = 0.008). CLT cases should be evaluated more carefully in terms of malignancy. If a nodule is detected on thyroiditis, the minimal surgical intervention should be lobectomy. Total thyroidectomy should be considered as preferable to subtotal thyroidectomy because of its many advantages such as controlling thyroiditis, removing the probability of reoperation, and hormonal stability.

  1. Comparison of acalabrutinib, a selective Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor, with ibrutinib in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Viralkumar; Balakrishnan, Kumudha; Bibikova, Elena; Ayres, Mary; Keating, Michael J.; Wierda, William G.; Gandhi, Varsha

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Ibrutinib inhibits Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) by irreversibly binding to the Cys-481 residue in the enzyme. However, ibrutinib also inhibits several other enzymes that contain cysteine residues homologous to Cys-481 in BTK. Patients with relapsed/refractory or previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) demonstrate a high overall response rate to ibrutinib with prolonged survival. Acalabrutinib, a selective BTK inhibitor developed to minimize off-target activity, has shown promising overall response rates in patients with relapsed/refractory CLL. A head-to-head comparison of ibrutinib and acalabrutinib in CLL cell cultures and healthy T cells is needed to understand preclinical biologic and molecular effects. Experimental Design Using samples from patients with CLL, we compared the effects of both BTK inhibitors on biologic activity, chemokine production, cell migration, BTK phosphorylation, and downstream signaling in primary CLL lymphocytes and on normal T-cell signaling to determine effects on other kinases. Results Both BTK inhibitors induced modest cell death accompanied by cleavage of PARP and caspase 3. Production of CCL3 and CCL4 chemokines and pseudoemperipolesis were inhibited by both drugs to a similar degree. These drugs also showed similar inhibitory effects on phosphorylation of BTK and downstream S6 and ERK kinases. By contrast, off-target effects on SRC-family kinases were more pronounced with ibrutinib than acalabrutinib in healthy T lymphocytes. Conclusion Both BTK inhibitors show similar biological and molecular profile in primary CLL cells but appear different on their effect on normal T-cells. PMID:28034907

  2. Pre-malignant lymphoid cells arise from hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kikushige, Yoshikane; Miyamoto, Toshihiro

    2015-11-01

    Human malignancies progress through a multistep process that includes the development of critical somatic mutations over the clinical course. Recent novel findings have indicated that hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which have the potential to self-renew and differentiate into multilineage hematopoietic cells, are an important cellular target for the accumulation of critical somatic mutations in hematological malignancies and play a central role in myeloid malignancy development. In contrast to myeloid malignancies, mature lymphoid malignancies, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), are thought to originate directly from differentiated mature lymphocytes; however, recent compelling data have shown that primitive HSCs and hematopoietic progenitor cells contribute to the pathogenesis of mature lymphoid malignancies. Several representative mutations of hematological malignancies have been identified within the HSCs of CLL and lymphoma patients, indicating that the self-renewing long-lived fraction of HSCs can serve as a reservoir for the development of oncogenic events. Novel mice models have been established as human mature lymphoma models, in which specific oncogenic events target the HSCs and immature progenitor cells. These data collectively suggest that HSCs can be the cellular target involved in the accumulation of oncogenic events in the pathogenesis of mature lymphoid and myeloid malignancies.

  3. Prolonging microtubule dysruption enhances the immunogenicity of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Shaha, S P; Tomic, J; Shi, Y; Pham, T; Mero, P; White, D; He, L; Baryza, J L; Wender, P A; Booth, J W; Spaner, D E

    2009-01-01

    Cytotoxic chemotherapies do not usually mediate the expression of an immunogenic gene programme in tumours, despite activating many of the signalling pathways employed by highly immunogenic cells. Concomitant use of agents that modulate and complement stress-signalling pathways activated by chemotherapeutic agents may then enhance the immunogenicity of cancer cells, increase their susceptibility to T cell-mediated controls and lead to higher clinical remission rates. Consistent with this hypothesis, the microtubule inhibitor, vincristine, caused chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) cells to die rapidly, without increasing their immunogenicity. Protein kinase C (PKC) agonists (such as bryostatin) delayed the death of vincristine-treated CLL cells and made them highly immunogenic, with increased stimulatory abilities in mixed lymphocyte responses, production of proinflammatory cytokines, expression of co-stimulatory molecules and activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signalling pathways. This phenotype was similar to the result of activating CLL cells through Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which communicate ‘danger’ signals from infectious pathogens. Use of PKC agonists and microtubule inhibitors to mimic TLR-signalling, and increase the immunogenicity of CLL cells, has implications for the design of chemo-immunotherapeutic strategies. PMID:19737143

  4. Murine genetically engineered and human xenograft models of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shih-Shih; Chiorazzi, Nicholas

    2014-07-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a genetically complex disease, with multiple factors having an impact on onset, progression, and response to therapy. Genetic differences/abnormalities have been found in hematopoietic stem cells from patients, as well as in B lymphocytes of individuals with monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis who may develop the disease. Furthermore, after the onset of CLL, additional genetic alterations occur over time, often causing disease worsening and altering patient outcomes. Therefore, being able to genetically engineer mouse models that mimic CLL or at least certain aspects of the disease will help us understand disease mechanisms and improve treatments. This notwithstanding, because neither the genetic aberrations responsible for leukemogenesis and progression nor the promoting factors that support these are likely identical in character or influences for all patients, genetically engineered mouse models will only completely mimic CLL when all of these factors are precisely defined. In addition, multiple genetically engineered models may be required because of the heterogeneity in susceptibility genes among patients that can have an effect on genetic and environmental characteristics influencing disease development and outcome. For these reasons, we review the major murine genetically engineered and human xenograft models in use at the present time, aiming to report the advantages and disadvantages of each. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia antibodies with a common stereotypic rearrangement recognize nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA

    PubMed Central

    Catera, Rosa; Hatzi, Katerina; Yan, Xiao-Jie; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Xiao Bo; Fales, Henry M.; Allen, Steven L.; Kolitz, Jonathan E.; Rai, Kanti R.; Chiorazzi, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    Leukemic B lymphocytes of a large group of unrelated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients express an unmutated heavy chain immunoglobulin variable (V) region encoded by IGHV1-69, IGHD3-16, and IGHJ3 with nearly identical heavy and light chain complementarity-determining region 3 sequences. The likelihood that these patients developed CLL clones with identical antibody V regions randomly is highly improbable and suggests selection by a common antigen. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from this stereotypic subset strongly bind cytoplasmic structures in HEp-2 cells. Therefore, HEp-2 cell extracts were immunoprecipitated with recombinant stereotypic subset-specific CLL mAbs, revealing a major protein band at approximately 225 kDa that was identified by mass spectrometry as nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA (MYHIIA). Reactivity of the stereotypic mAbs with MYHIIA was confirmed by Western blot and immunofluorescence colocalization with anti-MYHIIA antibody. Treatments that alter MYHIIA amounts and cytoplasmic localization resulted in a corresponding change in binding to these mAbs. The appearance of MYHIIA on the surface of cells undergoing stress or apoptosis suggests that CLL mAb may generally bind molecules exposed as a consequence of these events. Binding of CLL mAb to MYHIIA could promote the development, survival, and expansion of these leukemic cells. PMID:18812466

  6. Improving therapy of chronic lymphocytic leukemia with chimeric antigen receptor T cells.

    PubMed

    Fraietta, Joseph A; Schwab, Robert D; Maus, Marcela V

    2016-04-01

    Adoptive cell immunotherapy for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has heralded a new era of synthetic biology. The infusion of genetically engineered, autologous chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells directed against CD19 expressed by normal and malignant B cells represents a novel approach to cancer therapy. The results of recent clinical trials of CAR T cells in relapsed and refractory CLL have demonstrated long-term disease-free remissions, underscoring the power of harnessing and redirecting the immune system against cancer. This review will briefly summarize T-cell therapies in development for CLL disease. We discuss the role of T-cell function and phenotype, T-cell culture optimization, CAR design, and approaches to potentiate the survival and anti-tumor effects of infused lymphocytes. Future efforts will focus on improving the efficacy of CAR T cells for the treatment of CLL and incorporating adoptive cell immunotherapy into standard medical management of CLL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. First reported association of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and interstitial granulomatous dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Riaz, Irbaz Bin; Kamal, Muhammad Umar; Segal, Robert J; Anwer, Faiz

    2016-05-18

    Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis (IGD), a rare disease, is well known to be associated with connective tissue disorders, malignancies and several drugs. We describe this first case of IGD in association with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL). A 66-year-old woman with a 6-year history of untreated CLL/SLL, presented with a 2-month history of progressively worsening eruption of the left thigh, along with fatigue, lymphadenopathy and night sweats. Skin biopsy showed findings consistent with IGD and infiltration of CLL. The eruption was non-responsive to treatment with antibiotics and local steroids. There was a significant improvement in the rash after an initial cycle of chemotherapy (combination therapy with bendamustine and rituximab) and complete resolution by the third cycle, for the treatment of her CLL. We suggest that the possibility of an underlying haematological malignancy should be investigated in patients with a skin rash non-responsive to conventional therapy. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  8. Familial chronic lymphocytic leukemia in Israel: A disproportionate distribution among Ashkenazi Jews.

    PubMed

    Zada, Mor; Lerner, Daniele; Piltz, Yuval; Perry, Chava; Avivi, Irit; Herishanu, Yair

    2017-07-01

    Relatives of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) are at increased risk of developing CLL. Familial CLL is defined as more than one case of CLL among blood relatives, a phenomenon reported in approximately 5%-10% of all CLL patients. Given the known predisposition of CLL among Ashkenazi Jews, we studied the features of familial CLL in an Israeli population. This is a retrospective study, in which we reviewed the demographics, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of a total of 332 patients with CLL/small lymphocytic lymphoma. Familial CLL was recorded in 41 cases (12.3%) of the patients. The age at diagnosis was younger in patients with familial CLL (by almost 3.5 years). Familial CLL was strongly associated with Ashkenazi Jewish origin. Patients with familial CLL more commonly presented with higher hemoglobin and lower serum β-2-microglobulin levels. No significant differences were detected between sporadic and familial CLL in disease stage, time to treatment, second cancers, or overall survival. Familial cases of CLL in an Israeli population show a disproportionate ethnic distribution toward Jews of Ashkenazi origin. The clinical characteristics and the overall outcome are not substantially different from sporadic cases. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Autologous and allogeneic stem cell transplantations for poor-risk chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Gribben, John G.; Zahrieh, David; Stephans, Katherine; Bartlett-Pandite, Lini; Alyea, Edwin P.; Fisher, David C.; Freedman, Arnold S.; Mauch, Peter; Schlossman, Robert; Sequist, Lecia V.; Soiffer, Robert J.; Marshall, Blossom; Neuberg, Donna; Ritz, Jerome; Nadler, Lee M.

    2005-01-01

    We report here on the long-term follow-up on 162 patients with high-risk chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) who have undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) at a single center from 1989 to 1999. Twenty-five patients with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched sibling donors underwent T-cell-depleted allogeneic SCT, and 137 patients without HLA-matched sibling donors underwent autologous SCT. The 100-day mortality was 4% for both groups, but later morbidity and mortality were negatively affected on outcome. Progression-free survival was significantly longer following autologous than allogeneic SCT, but there was no difference in overall survival and no difference in the cumulative incidence of disease recurrence or deaths without recurrence between the 2 groups. At a median follow-up of 6.5 years there is no evidence of a plateau of progression-free survival. The majority of patients treated with donor lymphocyte infusions after relapse responded, demonstrating a significant graft-versus-leukemia effect in CLL. From these findings we have altered our approach for patients with high-risk CLL and are currently exploring the role of related and unrelated allogeneic SCT following reduced-intensity conditioning regimens. PMID:16131571

  10. Ibrutinib as an antitumor immunomodulator in patients with refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Cubillos-Zapata, Carolina; Avendaño-Ortiz, Jose; Córdoba, Raúl; Hernández-Jiménez, Enrique; Toledano, Victor; Pérez de Diego, Rebeca; López-Collazo, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Ibrutinib has emerged as a promising therapy for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) who are nonresponsive to standard therapies. The refractory state of monocytes and T-cell exhaustion in patients with CLL could explain the morbidity and mortality reported in these patients. We studied the effect of ibrutinib on the immune response of four relapsed patients with CLL during the first treatment cycle. We observed the ability to recover the standard response against bacterial stimulus in CD14 + cells, improving levels of phospho-Erk1/2 and antigen presentation. Meanwhile, ibrutinib drove Th1-selective pressure in T lymphocytes, thus, reducing the PD-1 and PDL-1 expression. Our data suggest the impact of BTK inhibition along with immunomodulation on the innate immune response and a switch to the specific adaptive immune response, which might help to decrease infectious complications. The potential effect of ibrutinib on CLL patient outcomes is worthy of further study, because infections could be reduced with the use of ibrutinib.

  11. [Significance of the alteration of Th17 cells in patients with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis].

    PubMed

    Song, Jin-Zhan; Wu, Han-Ni; Qian, Wei

    2009-10-01

    To investigate the alteration and its significance of T help 17 cells (Th17) in patients with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT). Patients were divided into 3 groups: CLT patients with euthyroidism (n=15), CLT patients with hypothyroidism (n=30) and healthy control group (n=20). The ratio of Th17 lymphocytes subpopulations in the peripheral blood were evaluated by technique of flow cytometry. Production of thyroid autoantibody (TPO-Ab, TG-Ab) were measured by electro-chemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA). Compared with the healthy control group, in CLT group: The frequencies of Th17 in peripheral blood were found to be significantly higher in patients with CLT than healthy control group (P<0.01); Production of TPO-Ab and TG-Ab markedly increased in CLT patients than healthy control group (P<0.01). There was significant correlation between the positive expression of thyroid autoantibody and the changes of Th17 subpopulations (r=0.50, r=0.43 respectively; P<0.01). The frequencies of Th17 cell increased in patients with CLT which may suggest a potential role for Th17 in the progression and happen of CLT.

  12. Concurrent chronic lymphocytic leukemia cutis and acute myelogenous leukemia cutis in a patient with untreated CLL.

    PubMed

    Miller, M K; Strauchen, J A; Nichols, K T; Phelps, R G

    2001-08-01

    Patients who have chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) are known to have a high frequency of second malignant neoplasms. However, acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) occurring concurrent with or after a diagnosis of CLL is extremely rare. In this article we report a case of AML developing in a 55-year-old male with a 6-year history of untreated CLL. The diagnosis was facilitated by touch preparation of a skin punch biopsy specimen. The patient presented with a two-week history of fever, weakness, anasarca, and a skin rash. Physical examination revealed pink to skin-colored firm papules, which coalesced into indurated plaques on his trunk, upper extremities, and face. The lesions, in combination with generalized edema, produced a leonine facies. Touch prep of the biopsy showed medium to large blasts, large monocytoid cells, and numerous small mature lymphocytes, providing the preliminary diagnosis of a second, previously undiagnosed myelomonocytic malignancy in this patient. The initial diagnosis was subsequently confirmed by histologic, cytochemical, immunohistochemical and flow cytometry studies. This is the first reported case of CLL with concurrent AML in which rapid touch prep of a skin punch biopsy facilitated diagnosis.

  13. Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) has a positive prognostic value in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) patients: the potential key role of Foxp3+ T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Pilli, T; Toti, P; Occhini, R; Castagna, M G; Cantara, S; Caselli, M; Cardinale, S; Barbagli, L; Pacini, F

    2018-06-01

    An impact of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) on papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) outcome has long been advocated but it is still controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of CLT in a retrospective cohort of PTC patients and to characterize the lymphocytic subpopulations and infiltrate (LI). We assessed 375 PTC patients, aged 45.2 ± 16.4 years, and treated with thyroidectomy and radioiodine remnant ablation, with a mean follow-up of 6.28 ± 3.86 years. In a subgroup of patients (n = 81) tissue sections were reviewed for the presence of CLT or lymphocytes associated with tumor in absence of background thyroiditis (TAL); cytotoxic CD8+/regulatory Foxp3+ T lymphocyte (CD8+/Foxp3+) ratio was characterized by immunohistochemistry: a low ratio is suggestive of a less effective anti tumor immune response. Seventy-five/375 patients (20%) had a histological diagnosis of CLT and showed at the last follow-up a significantly better outcome compared to those with no CLT (cure rate: 91.8 versus 76.3%, p = 0.003). LI was characterized in 81 PTC patients (24 with CLT and 57 with TAL): the peri-tumoral CD8+/Foxp3+ ratio was lower in patients not cured at the final evaluation. Our data suggest that concurrent CLT has a protective effect on PTC outcome and that the imbalance between cytotoxic and regulatory T lymphocytes in the peri-tumoral TAL may affect the tumor-specific immune response favoring a more aggressive behavior of cancer.

  14. Integrated single-cell genetic and transcriptional analysis suggests novel drivers of chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lili; Fan, Jean; Francis, Joshua M.; Georghiou, George; Hergert, Sarah; Li, Shuqiang; Gambe, Rutendo; Zhou, Chensheng W.; Yang, Chunxiao; Xiao, Sheng; Cin, Paola Dal; Bowden, Michaela; Kotliar, Dylan; Shukla, Sachet A.; Brown, Jennifer R.; Neuberg, Donna; Alessi, Dario R.; Zhang, Cheng-Zhong; Kharchenko, Peter V.; Livak, Kenneth J.; Wu, Catherine J.

    2017-01-01

    Intra-tumoral genetic heterogeneity has been characterized across cancers by genome sequencing of bulk tumors, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). In order to more accurately identify subclones, define phylogenetic relationships, and probe genotype–phenotype relationships, we developed methods for targeted mutation detection in DNA and RNA isolated from thousands of single cells from five CLL samples. By clearly resolving phylogenic relationships, we uncovered mutated LCP1 and WNK1 as novel CLL drivers, supported by functional evidence demonstrating their impact on CLL pathways. Integrative analysis of somatic mutations with transcriptional states prompts the idea that convergent evolution generates phenotypically similar cells in distinct genetic branches, thus creating a cohesive expression profile in each CLL sample despite the presence of genetic heterogeneity. Our study highlights the potential for single-cell RNA-based targeted analysis to sensitively determine transcriptional and mutational profiles of individual cancer cells, leading to increased understanding of driving events in malignancy. PMID:28679620

  15. Antibody persistence after pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Vesa; Aittoniemi, Janne; Salmenniemi, Urpu; Käyhty, Helena; Huhtala, Heini; Itälä-Remes, Maija; Sinisalo, Marjatta

    2018-02-08

    Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) are at a high risk for infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. A pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) can induce a significant antibody response for some CLL patients. In this study we investigated antibody persistence after PCV7 in patients with CLL. The study material comprised 24 patients with CLL and 8 immunocompetent controls. The median antibody concentrations five years after PCV7 were lower for six pneumococcal serotypes in patients with CLL compared to controls, but the difference was not statistically significant. Depending on the serotype, the percentage of the CLL patients with antibody levels suggested to provide protection against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) varied from 29 to 71% five years after vaccination. This data suggests that PCV could result in antibody persistence at least five years in CLL patients.

  16. A dose escalation feasibility study of lenalidomide for treatment of symptomatic, relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia☆

    PubMed Central

    Maddocks, Kami; Ruppert, Amy S.; Browning, Rebekah; Jones, Jeffrey; Flynn, Joseph; Kefauver, Cheryl; Gao, Yue; Jiang, Yao; Rozewski, Darlene M.; Poi, Ming; Phelps, Mitch A.; Harper, Erica; Johnson, Amy J.; Byrd, John C.; Andritsos, Leslie A.

    2015-01-01

    Adequate dosing of lenalidomide in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) remains unclear. This study determined maximum tolerated dose (MTD) in relapsed CLL patients (Cohort A) and patients achieving a partial response (PR) or better to recent therapy (Cohort B). Thirty-seven patients were enrolled. MTD was 2.5 mg followed by 5.0 mg continuous. In Cohort A, tumor flare grade 1–2 occurred in 15 patients (50%) and grade 3 in 1 patient (3%). Cohort A had 19 of 23 evaluable (83%) patients, 4 PR (17%) and 15 (65%) stable disease (SD), Cohort B had 6 of 7 patients (86%) with SD. Despite overall response rate not being high, many patients remained on therapy several months with SD. PMID:25082342

  17. [Chronic active EB virus infection and granular lymphocytes proliferative disorders in Japan].

    PubMed

    Ishihara, S; Hara, J; Tawa, A; Kawa, K

    1996-04-01

    To clarify the characteristics of chronic active EB virus infection (CAEBV) in Japan, and to investigate the relation between granular lymphocytes proliferative disorder (GLPD) and EB virus, we conducted a survey through a questionnaire conducted throughout Japan. Among 17 registered patients with CAEBV, 9 developed various types of lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs), and 6 patients died of LPD. Among 72 cases of GLPD, 43 were CD3-positive and 27 were CD3-negative. EB viral DNA was detected in the peripheral mononuclear cells in 6 of 7 CD3-negative and 1 of 4 CD3-positive cases. These data suggest that EB virus-associated LPDs frequently derive from patients with CAEBV. However, some GLPD patients without CAEBV, especially for CD3-negative GLPD, are associated with EB virus infection. Therefore detection of EB viral DNA is very important to understand the pathogenesis of GLPD.

  18. Tumor evolutionary directed graphs and the history of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiguang; Khiabanian, Hossein; Rossi, Davide; Fabbri, Giulia; Gattei, Valter; Forconi, Francesco; Laurenti, Luca; Marasca, Roberto; Del Poeta, Giovanni; Foà, Robin; Pasqualucci, Laura; Gaidano, Gianluca; Rabadan, Raul

    2014-12-11

    Cancer is a clonal evolutionary process, caused by successive accumulation of genetic alterations providing milestones of tumor initiation, progression, dissemination, and/or resistance to certain therapeutic regimes. To unravel these milestones we propose a framework, tumor evolutionary directed graphs (TEDG), which is able to characterize the history of genetic alterations by integrating longitudinal and cross-sectional genomic data. We applied TEDG to a chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cohort of 70 patients spanning 12 years and show that: (a) the evolution of CLL follows a time-ordered process represented as a global flow in TEDG that proceeds from initiating events to late events; (b) there are two distinct and mutually exclusive evolutionary paths of CLL evolution; (c) higher fitness clones are present in later stages of the disease, indicating a progressive clonal replacement with more aggressive clones. Our results suggest that TEDG may constitute an effective framework to recapitulate the evolutionary history of tumors.

  19. Angiogenic factors in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL): Where do we stand?

    PubMed

    Aguirre Palma, Luis Mario; Gehrke, Iris; Kreuzer, Karl-Anton

    2015-03-01

    The role of angiogenesis in haematological malignancies such as chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is difficult to envision, because leukaemia cells are not dependent on a network of blood vessels to support basic physiological requirements. Regardless, CLL cells secrete high levels of major angiogenic factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and platelet derived growth factor (PDGF). Nonetheless, it remains unclear how most angiogenic factors regulate accumulation and delayed apoptosis of CLL cells. Angiogenic factors such as leptin, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), follistatin, angiopoietin-1 (Ang1), angiogenin (ANG), midkine (MK), pleiotrophin (PTN), progranulin (PGRN), proliferin (PLF), placental growth factor (PIGF), and endothelial locus-1 (Del-1), represent novel therapeutic targets of future CLL research but have remained widely overlooked. This review aims to outline our current understanding of angiogenic growth factors and their relationship with CLL, a still uncured haematopoietic malignancy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cryptococcal infections in two patients receiving ibrutinib therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Stankowicz, Matthew; Banaszynski, Megan; Crawford, Russell

    2018-01-01

    Cryptococcal infections are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Reports of these infections in patients on small molecular kinase inhibitors have not been widely reported in clinical trials. We describe one case of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis and one case of cryptococcal pneumonia in two patients who were receiving ibrutinib for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Despite different sites of cryptococcal infection, both patients had similar presentations of acute illness. Patient 1 was worked up for health care-associated pneumonia, as well as acute sinusitis prior to the diagnosis of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis. He also had a more complex past medical history than patient 2. Patient 2 developed atrial fibrillation from ibrutinib prior to admission for presumed health care-associated pneumonia. Cryptococcal antigen testing was done sooner in this patient due to patient receiving high-dose steroids for the treatment of underlying hemolytic anemia. We conclude that patients who develop acute illness while receiving ibrutinib should be considered for cryptococcal antigen testing.

  1. Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Considerations in the Treatment of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Ibrutinib, Idelalisib, and Venetoclax.

    PubMed

    Waldron, Madeline; Winter, Allison; Hill, Brian T

    2017-11-01

    Management of chronic lymphocytic leukemia has changed markedly over the last several years with the emergence of several novel oral agents targeting B-cell receptor and Bcl-2 signaling pathways. For patients requiring treatment, ibrutinib, idelalisib, and venetoclax offer unique clinical benefits with a different set of therapeutic considerations compared with traditional parenteral therapy. Despite the conveniences afforded by oral therapy, these agents also carry unique logistical obstacles. Drug interactions with agents that are metabolized via the cytochrome P450 3A4 pathway are possible with all three agents. Unique treatment-related adverse events including bleeding and atrial fibrillation with ibrutinib, hepatotoxicity with idelalisib, and tumor lysis syndrome with venetoclax can be severe and dose limiting. Furthermore, dose adjustments for organ dysfunction may also be warranted. Here, we review the available literature on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of these novel agents to guide the reader in the appropriate use of ibrutinib, idelalisib, and venetoclax.

  2. Venetoclax: Bcl-2 inhibition for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Del Poeta, G; Postorino, M; Pupo, L; Del Principe, M I; Dal Bo, M; Bittolo, T; Buccisano, F; Mariotti, B; Iannella, E; Maurillo, L; Venditti, A; Gattei, V; de Fabritiis, P; Cantonetti, M; Amadori, S

    2016-04-01

    Venetoclax (ABT-199) is a small-molecule selective oral inhibitor of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 that promotes programmed cell death of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells regulating the release of proapoptotic factors, such as Smac/Diablo, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and cytochrome c. In April 2016, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted accelerated approval to venetoclax for patients diagnosed with CLL with 17p deletion, as detected by an FDA-approved test, who have received at least one prior therapy. This review will focus on the mechanism of action, preclinical studies and clinical development of venetoclax both as a monotherapy and in combination with other drugs for CLL in the current milieu of therapy dominated by novel tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as ibrutinib and idelalisib. Copyright 2016 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  3. NOTCH1 Is Aberrantly Activated in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Hematopoietic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Di Ianni, Mauro; Baldoni, Stefano; Del Papa, Beatrice; Aureli, Patrizia; Dorillo, Erica; De Falco, Filomena; Albi, Elisa; Varasano, Emanuela; Di Tommaso, Ambra; Giancola, Raffaella; Accorsi, Patrizia; Rotta, Gianluca; Rompietti, Chiara; Silva Barcelos, Estevão Carlos; Campese, Antonio Francesco; Di Bartolomeo, Paolo; Screpanti, Isabella; Rosati, Emanuela; Falzetti, Franca; Sportoletti, Paolo

    2018-01-01

    To investigate chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)-initiating cells, we assessed NOTCH1 mutation/expression in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). In NOTCH1- mutated CLL, we detected subclonal mutations in 57% CD34+/CD38- HSCs. NOTCH1 mutation was present in 66% CD34+/CD38+ progenitor cells displaying an increased mutational burden compared to HSCs. Flow cytometric analysis revealed significantly higher NOTCH1 activation in CD34+/CD38- and CD34+/CD38+ cells from CLL patients, regardless NOTCH1 mutation compared to healthy donors. Activated NOTCH1 resulted in overexpression of the NOTCH1 target c-MYC. We conclude that activated NOTCH1 is an early event in CLL that may contribute to aberrant HSCs in this disease.

  4. [CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide stimulation improves the success for karyotypic analysis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells].

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiong; Xu, Wei; Qiu, Hai-rong; Wang, Rong; Yu, Hui; Fan, Lei; Miao, Kou-rong; Li, Jian-yong

    2009-09-01

    To explore the effect of CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) in chromosome study of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Blood or bone marrow cells of 70 CLL patients were cultured for 72 h with PHA, CpG-ODN and CpG-ODN combined with IL-2, respectively. Routine karyotype analysis with R banding technique and interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were performed. The metaphase number>or=20 was considered as successful stimulation, which in PHA, CpG-ODN and CpG-ODN combined IL-2 groups were 90.0%, 68.6% and 68.6%, respectively, and the detection rates of chromosome aberrations were 3.2%, 43.6% and 43.6%, respectively. The aberrations rates detected by interphase FISH with a panel of probes was 64.3%. CpG-ODN DSP30 can effectively raise the detection rate of chromosome aberrations in CLL patients.

  5. County level incidence rates of chronic lymphocytic leukemia are associated with residential radon levels.

    PubMed

    Oancea, S Cristina; Rundquist, Bradley C; Simon, Isaac; Swartz, Sami; Zheng, Yun; Zhou, Xudong; Sens, Mary Ann; Schwartz, Gary G

    2017-09-01

    We previously reported that incidence rates for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) among US states are significantly correlated with levels of residential radon (RR). Because these correlations could be influenced by confounding and/or misclassification among large geographic units, we reinvestigated them using smaller geographic units that better reflect exposure and disease at the individual level. We examined the relationships between CLL and RR per county in 478 counties with publicly-available data. After adjustment for ultraviolet radiation, a possible risk factor for CLL, county rates for CLL and RR were significantly correlated among males and females both together and separately (p < 0.0001). CLL is significantly associated with RR at the county level.

  6. Is chronic lymphocytic leukemia a contraindication for radon and thermotherapy?--a case report.

    PubMed

    Falkenbach, A; Jäger, U

    2001-01-15

    A growing number of patients presenting for radon-thermotherapy have a history of malignant disease. The question as to whether malignancies in general are a contraindication for radon treatment or mild hyperthermia during spa therapy is still a subject of controversy. We report a patient with osteoarthritis and a frozen shoulder who repeatedly underwent speleotherapeutic radon and hyperthermia treatment in the gallery of the Gasteiner Heilstollen, Austria, despite concomitant chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL, Rai stage 0). After nine courses of radon-thermotherapy over eight years, no apparent negative impact on CLL was noted. The purpose of this case report is to encourage discussion as to whether CLL or other past or present malignancies must be considered a contraindication for spa treatment such as radon-thermotherapy.

  7. Incidence rates of chronic lymphocytic leukemia in US states are associated with residential radon levels.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Gary G; Klug, Marilyn G

    2016-01-01

    Environmental risk factors for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have not been consistently identified. An etiologic role for ionizing radiation in CLL is controversial. Because most of the ionizing radiation to which individuals are exposed comes from radon at home, we examined CLL incidence rates in relation to residential radon levels. We used population-based rates for CLL for US states from 2007 to 2011 and measurements of residential radon made by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Incidence rates for CLL were significantly correlated with residential radon levels among whites (both genders together and each gender separately; p < 0.005) and among blacks (p < 0.05). We speculate that radon increases CLL risk and that the mechanisms may be similar to those by which radon causes lung cancer.

  8. Progress in BCL2 inhibition for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Tam, Constantine S; Seymour, John F; Roberts, Andrew W

    2016-04-01

    The prosurvival protein BCL2 is uniformly expressed in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and enables leukemia cell survival in the face of cytotoxic treatment and increasing genomic, metabolic, and oxidative stresses. The therapeutic potential of BCL2 inhibition was first observed in the clinic following BCL2 antisense therapy. Subsequently, a number of small molecule inhibitors were developed to mimic the function of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only proteins (BH3-mimetics). These molecules are now in late-phase clinical trials and demonstrate potent activity, including the occurrence of acute tumor lysis syndrome in subjects with multiply relapsed, chemorefractory CLL. In this review, we discuss the history and summarize current knowledge regarding BCL2 inhibition as therapy of CLL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Computational Identification Of CDR3 Sequence Archetypes Among Immunoglobulin Sequences in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Messmer, Bradley T; Raphael, Benjamin J; Aerni, Sarah J; Widhopf, George F; Rassenti, Laura Z; Gribben, John G; Kay, Neil E; Kipps, Thomas J

    2009-01-01

    The leukemia cells of unrelated patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) display a restricted repertoire of immunoglobulin (Ig) gene rearrangements with preferential usage of certain Ig gene segments. We developed a computational method to rigorously quantify biases in Ig sequence similarity in large patient databases and to identify groups of patients with unusual levels of sequence similarity. We applied our method to sequences from 1577 CLL patients through the CLL Research Consortium (CRC), and identified 67 similarity groups into which roughly 20% of all patients could be assigned. Immunoglobulin light chain class was highly correlated within all groups and light chain gene usage was similar within sets. Surprisingly, over 40% of the identified groups were composed of somatically mutated genes. This study significantly expands the evidence that antigen selection shapes the Ig repertoire in CLL. PMID:18640719

  10. Computational identification of CDR3 sequence archetypes among immunoglobulin sequences in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Messmer, Bradley T; Raphael, Benjamin J; Aerni, Sarah J; Widhopf, George F; Rassenti, Laura Z; Gribben, John G; Kay, Neil E; Kipps, Thomas J

    2009-03-01

    The leukemia cells of unrelated patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) display a restricted repertoire of immunoglobulin (Ig) gene rearrangements with preferential usage of certain Ig gene segments. We developed a computational method to rigorously quantify biases in Ig sequence similarity in large patient databases and to identify groups of patients with unusual levels of sequence similarity. We applied our method to sequences from 1577 CLL patients through the CLL Research Consortium (CRC), and identified 67 similarity groups into which roughly 20% of all patients could be assigned. Immunoglobulin light chain class was highly correlated within all groups and light chain gene usage was similar within sets. Surprisingly, over 40% of the identified groups were composed of somatically mutated genes. This study significantly expands the evidence that antigen selection shapes the Ig repertoire in CLL.

  11. Regulatory T-Cells in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    D’Arena, Giovanni; Rossi, Giovanni; Vannata, Barbara; Deaglio, Silvia; Mansueto, Giovanna; D’Auria, Fiorella; Statuto, Teodora; Simeon, Vittorio; De Martino, Laura; Marandino, Aurelio; Del Poeta8, Giovanni; De Feo, Vincenzo; Musto, Pellegrino

    2012-01-01

    Regulatory T-cells (Tregs) constitute a small subset of cells that are actively involved in maintaining self-tolerance, in immune homeostasis and in antitumor immunity. They are thought to play a significant role in the progression of cancer and are generally increased in patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Their number correlates with more aggressive disease status and is predictive of the time to treatment, as well. Moreover, it is now clear that dysregulation in Tregs cell frequency and/or function may result in a plethora of autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes mellitus, myasthenia gravis, systemic lupus erythematosus, autoimmune lymphoproliferative disorders, rheumatoid arthritis, and psoriasis. Efforts are made aiming to develop approaches to deplete Tregs or inhibit their function in cancer and autoimmune disorders, as well. PMID:22973497

  12. The genomic landscape of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: biological and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Strefford, Jonathan C

    2015-04-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) remains at the forefront of the genetic analysis of human tumours, principally due its prevalence, protracted natural history and accessibility to suitable material for analysis. With the application of high-throughput genetic technologies, we have an unbridled view of the architecture of the CLL genome, including a comprehensive description of the copy number and mutational landscape of the disease, a detailed picture of clonal evolution during pathogenesis, and the molecular mechanisms that drive genomic instability and therapeutic resistance. This work has nuanced the prognostic importance of established copy number alterations, and identified novel prognostically relevant gene mutations that function within biological pathways that are attractive treatment targets. Herein, an overview of recent genomic discoveries will be reviewed, with associated biological and clinical implications, and a view into how clinical implementation may be facilitated. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Locally disordered methylation forms the basis of intratumor methylome variation in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Landau, Dan A; Clement, Kendell; Ziller, Michael J; Boyle, Patrick; Fan, Jean; Gu, Hongcang; Stevenson, Kristen; Sougnez, Carrie; Wang, Lili; Li, Shuqiang; Kotliar, Dylan; Zhang, Wandi; Ghandi, Mahmoud; Garraway, Levi; Fernandes, Stacey M; Livak, Kenneth J; Gabriel, Stacey; Gnirke, Andreas; Lander, Eric S; Brown, Jennifer R; Neuberg, Donna; Kharchenko, Peter V; Hacohen, Nir; Getz, Gad; Meissner, Alexander; Wu, Catherine J

    2014-12-08

    Intratumoral heterogeneity plays a critical role in tumor evolution. To define the contribution of DNA methylation to heterogeneity within tumors, we performed genome-scale bisulfite sequencing of 104 primary chronic lymphocytic leukemias (CLLs). Compared with 26 normal B cell samples, CLLs consistently displayed higher intrasample variability of DNA methylation patterns across the genome, which appears to arise from stochastically disordered methylation in malignant cells. Transcriptome analysis of bulk and single CLL cells revealed that methylation disorder was linked to low-level expression. Disordered methylation was further associated with adverse clinical outcome. We therefore propose that disordered methylation plays a similar role to that of genetic instability, enhancing the ability of cancer cells to search for superior evolutionary trajectories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Locally disordered methylation forms the basis of intra-tumor methylome variation in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Landau, Dan A.; Clement, Kendell; Ziller, Michael J.; Boyle, Patrick; Fan, Jean; Gu, Hongcang; Stevenson, Kristen; Sougnez, Carrie; Wang, Lili; Li, Shuqiang; Kotliar, Dylan; Zhang, Wandi; Ghandi, Mahmoud; Garraway, Levi; Fernandes, Stacey M.; Livak, Kenneth J.; Gabriel, Stacey; Gnirke, Andreas; Lander, Eric S.; Brown, Jennifer R.; Neuberg, Donna; Kharchenko, Peter V.; Hacohen, Nir; Getz, Gad; Meissner, Alexander; Wu, Catherine J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Intra-tumoral heterogeneity plays a critical role in tumor evolution. To define the contribution of DNA methylation to heterogeneity within tumors, we performed genome-scale bisulfite sequencing of 104 primary chronic lymphocytic leukemias (CLL). Compared to 26 normal B cell samples, CLLs consistently displayed higher intra-sample variability of DNA methylation patterns across the genome, which appears to arise from stochastically disordered methylation in malignant cells. Transcriptome analysis of bulk and single CLL cells revealed that methylation disorder was linked to low-level expression. Disordered methylation was further associated with adverse clinical outcome. We therefore propose that disordered methylation plays a similar role to genetic instability, enhancing the ability of cancer cells to search for superior evolutionary trajectories. PMID:25490447

  15. Cutaneous Mucormycosis Following a Bullous Pemphigoid Flare in a Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Patient on Ibrutinib.

    PubMed

    Stein, Matthew K; Karri, Saradasri; Reynolds, Jackson; Owsley, Jeff; Wise, Austin; Martin, Mike G; Zare, Fereshteh

    2018-04-01

    While the recent development of novel therapeutics in oncology, such as small molecule kinase inhibitors (SMKIs), has enabled our ability to target disease-specific molecular pathways, the prolonged impact of these agents on the immune system and infectious risk remains to be seen. We present a 68-year-old male with refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) on ibrutinib monotherapy for 3 years who developed extensive cutaneous mucormycosis following a severe bullous pemphigoid (BP) flare. He received amphotericin B for 4 weeks and was continued on posaconazole with resolution of his mucormycosis infection. Consistent with a growing evidence of literature identifying opportunistic fungal infections in patients on ibrutinib therapy, providers should be cognizant of medical comorbidities that may predispose to such infections and explore methods of prevention before starting ibrutinib and other SMKIs.

  16. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia and infection risk in the era of targeted therapies: Linking mechanisms with infections.

    PubMed

    Hilal, Talal; Gea Banacloche, Juan C; Leis, Jose F

    2018-03-16

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common adult leukemia in the world. Patient with CLL are at particular risk for infections due to inherent disease-related immune dysfunction in addition to the effect of certain systemic therapies on the immune system. The advent of B-cell receptor (BCR) inhibitors such as ibrutinib and idelalisib has led to a practice change that utilizes these targeted agents in the treatment of CLL, either in place of chemoimmunotherapy (CIT) or in later line settings. In this paper, we review the pathophysiology of immune dysfunction in CLL, the spectrum of immunodeficiency with the various therapeutic agents along with prevention strategies with a focus on targeted therapies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Romidepsin in Treating Patients With Lymphoma, Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, or Solid Tumors With Liver Dysfunction

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-04-02

    Glioma; Lymphoma; Metastatic Malignant Solid Neoplasm; Neuroendocrine Neoplasm; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Bladder Carcinoma; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Colorectal Carcinoma; Recurrent Head and Neck Carcinoma; Recurrent Lung Carcinoma; Recurrent Malignant Solid Neoplasm; Recurrent Melanoma; Recurrent Pancreatic Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Cutaneous T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Prostate Carcinoma; Recurrent Renal Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Mature T-Cell and NK-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Primary Cutaneous T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage III Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage III Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage III Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7; Stage III Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage III Prostate Cancer AJCC v7; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer AJCC v7; Stage III Soft Tissue Sarcoma AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7; Stage IV Breast Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IV Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IV Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IV Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IV Prostate Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IV Soft Tissue Sarcoma AJCC v7; Stage IVA Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVB Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Unresectable Solid Neoplasm

  18. CK2 and PI3K are direct molecular targets of quercetin in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Russo, Maria; Milito, Alfonsina; Spagnuolo, Carmela; Carbone, Virginia; Rosén, Anders; Minasi, Paola; Lauria, Fabio; Russo, Gian Luigi

    2017-06-27

    Despite the encouraging results of the innovative therapeutic treatments, complete remission is uncommon in patients affected by chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, which remains an essentially incurable disease. Recently, clinical trials based on BH3-mimetic drugs showed positive outcomes in subjects with poor prognostic features. However, resistance to treatments occurs in a significant number of patients. We previously reported that the multi-kinase inhibitor quercetin, a natural flavonol, restores sensitivity to ABT-737, a BH3-mimetic compound, in both leukemic cell lines and B-cells isolated from patients. To identify the molecular target of quercetin, we employed a new cell line, HG3, obtained by immortalization of B-cells from a chronic lymphocytic leukaemia patient at the later stage of disease. We confirmed that quercetin in association with ABT-737 synergistically enhances apoptosis in HG3 (combination index < 1 for all fractions affected). We also reported that the cellular uptake of quercetin is extremely rapid, with an intracellular concentration of about 38.5 ng/106 cells, after treatment with 25 μM for 5 min. We demonstrated that the activity of protein kinase CK2, which positively triggers PI3K/Akt pathway by inactivating PTEN phosphatase, is inhibited by quercetin immediately after its addition to HG3 cells (0-2 min). PI3K activity was also inhibited by quercetin within 60 min from the treatment. The combined inhibition of CK2 and PI3K kinase activities by quercetin restored ABT-737 sensitivity and increased lethality in human leukemia cells.

  19. BTKC481S-Mediated Resistance to Ibrutinib in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Ruppert, Amy S.; Guinn, Daphne; Lehman, Amy; Blachly, James S.; Lozanski, Arletta; Heerema, Nyla A.; Zhao, Weiqiang; Coleman, Joshua; Jones, Daniel; Abruzzo, Lynne; Gordon, Amber; Mantel, Rose; Smith, Lisa L.; McWhorter, Samantha; Davis, Melanie; Doong, Tzyy-Jye; Ny, Fan; Lucas, Margaret; Chase, Weihong; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Flynn, Joseph M.; Maddocks, Kami; Rogers, Kerry; Jaglowski, Samantha; Andritsos, Leslie A.; Awan, Farrukh T.; Blum, Kristie A.; Grever, Michael R.; Lozanski, Gerard; Johnson, Amy J.; Byrd, John C.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Therapeutic targeting of Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) with ibrutinib in chronic lymphocytic leukemia has led to a paradigm shift in therapy, and relapse has been uncommon with current follow-up. Acquired mutations in BTK and PLCG2 can cause relapse, but data regarding the prevalence and natural history of these mutations are limited. Patients and Methods Patients accrued to four sequential studies of ibrutinib were included in these analyses. Deep sequencing for BTK and PLCG2 was performed retrospectively on patients who experienced relapse and prospectively on a screening population. Results With a median follow-up time of 3.4 years, the estimated cumulative incidence of progression at 4 years is 19% (95% CI, 14% to 24%). Baseline karyotypic complexity, presence of del(17)(p13.1), and age less than 65 years were risk factors for progression. Among patients who experienced relapse, acquired mutations of BTK or PLCG2 were found in 85% (95% CI, 71% to 94%), and these mutations were detected an estimated median of 9.3 months (95% CI, 7.6 to 11.7 months) before relapse. Of a group of 112 patients examined prospectively, eight patients have experienced relapse, and all of these patients had acquired resistance mutations before relapse. A resistance mutation was detected in an additional eight patients who have not yet met criteria for clinical relapse. Conclusion Relapse of chronic lymphocytic leukemia after ibrutinib is an issue of increasing clinical significance. We show that mutations in BTK and PLCG2 appear early and have the potential to be used as a biomarker for future relapse, suggesting an opportunity for intervention. PMID:28418267

  20. Potentiation of luteolin cytotoxicity by flavonols fisetin and quercetin in human chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell lines.

    PubMed

    Sak, Katrin; Kasemaa, Kristi; Everaus, Hele

    2016-09-14

    Despite numerous studies chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) still remains an incurable disease. Therefore, all new compounds and novel strategies which are able to eradicate CLL cells should be considered as valuable clues for a potential future remedy against this malignancy. In the present study, the cytotoxic profiles of natural flavonoids were described in two human CLL cell lines, HG-3 and EHEB, indicating the flavone luteolin as the most potent flavonoid with half-maximal inhibitory constants (IC50) of 37 μM and 26 μM, respectively. Luteolin significantly increased the apoptotic cell population in both cell lines by increasing the activities of caspases-3 and -9 and triggering the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Two flavonols, fisetin and quercetin, were somewhat less efficient in suppressing cellular viability, whereas baicalein, chrysin, (+)-catechin and hesperetin exerted only a small or no response at doses as high as 100 μM. Both fisetin and quercetin were able to augment the cytotoxic activity of luteolin in both cell lines by reducing the IC50 values up to four fold. As a result of this, luteolin displayed cytotoxicity activity already at low micromolar concentrations that could potentially be physiologically achievable through oral ingestion. No other tested flavonoids were capable of sensitizing CLL cells to luteolin pointing to a specific binding of fisetin and quercetin to the cellular targets which interfere with the signaling pathways induced by luteolin. Although further molecular studies to unravel this potentiating mechanism are certainly needed, this phenomenon could contribute to future remedies for prevention and treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

  1. CK2 and PI3K are direct molecular targets of quercetin in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Maria; Milito, Alfonsina; Spagnuolo, Carmela; Carbone, Virginia; Rosén, Anders; Minasi, Paola; Lauria, Fabio; Russo, Gian Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Despite the encouraging results of the innovative therapeutic treatments, complete remission is uncommon in patients affected by chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, which remains an essentially incurable disease. Recently, clinical trials based on BH3-mimetic drugs showed positive outcomes in subjects with poor prognostic features. However, resistance to treatments occurs in a significant number of patients. We previously reported that the multi-kinase inhibitor quercetin, a natural flavonol, restores sensitivity to ABT-737, a BH3-mimetic compound, in both leukemic cell lines and B-cells isolated from patients. To identify the molecular target of quercetin, we employed a new cell line, HG3, obtained by immortalization of B-cells from a chronic lymphocytic leukaemia patient at the later stage of disease. We confirmed that quercetin in association with ABT-737 synergistically enhances apoptosis in HG3 (combination index < 1 for all fractions affected). We also reported that the cellular uptake of quercetin is extremely rapid, with an intracellular concentration of about 38.5 ng/106 cells, after treatment with 25 μM for 5 min. We demonstrated that the activity of protein kinase CK2, which positively triggers PI3K/Akt pathway by inactivating PTEN phosphatase, is inhibited by quercetin immediately after its addition to HG3 cells (0–2 min). PI3K activity was also inhibited by quercetin within 60 min from the treatment. The combined inhibition of CK2 and PI3K kinase activities by quercetin restored ABT-737 sensitivity and increased lethality in human leukemia cells. PMID:28489572

  2. Chronically inflamed human tissues are infiltrated by highly differentiated Th17 lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Pène, Jérôme; Chevalier, Sylvie; Preisser, Laurence; Vénéreau, Emilie; Guilleux, Marie-Hélène; Ghannam, Soufiane; Molès, Jean-Pierre; Danger, Yannic; Ravon, Elisa; Lesaux, Sabine; Yssel, Hans; Gascan, Hugues

    2008-06-01

    Chronic inflammatory diseases are characterized by local tissue injury caused by immunocompetent cells, in particular CD4(+) T lymphocytes, that are involved in the pathogenesis of these disorders via the production of distinctive sets of cytokines. Here, we have characterized single CD4(+) T cells that infiltrate inflamed tissue taken from patients with psoriasis, Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, or allergic asthma. Results from a cytokine production and gene profile analysis identified a population of in vivo differentiatedretinoid-related orphan receptor gamma-expressing T cells, producing high levels of IL-17, that can represent up to 30% of infiltrating T lymphocytes. Activated Th17 cells produced IL-26, TNF-alpha, lymphotoxin-beta, and IL-22. IL-17 and IL-22 concentrations secreted by tissue infiltrating Th17 cells could reach up to 100 nM and were inversely correlated with the production of Th1- and Th2-associated cytokines. In addition, tissue-infiltrating Th17 cells are also characterized by high cell surface expression of CCR6, a chemokine receptor that was not expressed by Th1 and Th2 cells, isolated from the same lesions, and by the production of CCL20/MIP3alpha, a CCR6 ligand, associated with tissue infiltration. Culture supernatants of activated Th17 cells, isolated from psoriatic lesions, induced the expression of gene products associated with inflammation and abnormal keratinocyte differentiation in an IL-17 and IL-22-dependent manner. These results show that tissue-infiltrating Th17 cells contribute to human chronic inflammatory disease via the production of several inflammatory cytokines and the creation of an environment contributing to their migration and sequestration at sites of inflammation.

  3. Del(20q) in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a therapy-related abnormality involving lymphoid or myeloid cells.

    PubMed

    Yin, C Cameron; Tang, Guilin; Lu, Gary; Feng, Xiaoli; Keating, Michael J; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Abruzzo, Lynne V

    2015-08-01

    Deletion 20q (Del(20q)), a common cytogenetic abnormality in myeloid neoplasms, is rare in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. We report 64 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and del(20q), as the sole abnormality in 40, a stemline abnormality in 21, and a secondary abnormality in 3 cases. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed an additional high-risk abnormality, del(11q) or del(17p), in 25/64 (39%) cases. In most cases, the leukemic cells showed atypical cytologic features, unmutated IGHV (immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region) genes, and ZAP70 positivity. The del(20q) was detected only after chemotherapy in all 27 cases with initial karyotypes available. With a median follow-up of 90 months, 30 patients (47%) died, most as a direct consequence of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Eight patients developed a therapy-related myeloid neoplasm, seven with a complex karyotype. Combined morphologic and FISH analysis for del(20q) performed in 12 cases without morphologic evidence of a myeloid neoplasm localized the del(20q) to the chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells in 5 (42%) cases, and to myeloid/erythroid cells in 7 (58)% cases. The del(20q) was detected in myeloid cells in all 4 cases of myelodysplastic syndrome. In aggregate, these data indicate that chronic lymphocytic leukemia with del(20q) acquired after therapy is heterogeneous. In cases with morphologic evidence of dysplasia, the del(20q) likely resides in the myeloid lineage. However, in cases without morphologic evidence of dysplasia, the del(20q) may represent clonal evolution and disease progression. Combining morphologic analysis with FISH for del(20q) or performing FISH on immunomagnetically selected sub-populations to localize the cell population with this abnormality may help guide patient management.

  4. Del(20q) in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia: A therapy-related abnormality involving lymphoid or myeloid cells

    PubMed Central

    Yin, C. Cameron; Tang, Guilin; Lu, Gary; Feng, Xiaoli; Keating, Michael J.; Medeiros, L. Jeffrey; Abruzzo, Lynne V.

    2015-01-01

    Del(20q), a common cytogenetic abnormality in myeloid neoplasms, is rare in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. We report 64 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and del(20q), as the sole abnormality in 40, a stemline abnormality in 21, and a secondary abnormality in 3 cases. FISH analysis revealed an additional high-risk abnormality, del(11q) or del(17p), in 27/64 (42%) cases. In most cases, the leukemic cells showed atypical cytologic features, unmutated IGHV genes and ZAP70 positivity. The del(20q) was detected only after chemotherapy in all 27 cases with initial karyotypes available. With a median follow-up of 90 months, 30 patients (47%) died, most as a direct consequence of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Eight patients developed a therapy-related myeloid neoplasm, seven with a complex karyotype. Combined morphologic and FISH analysis for del(20q) performed in 12 cases without morphologic evidence of a myeloid neoplasm localized the del(20q) to the chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells in 5 (42%) cases, and to myeloid/erythroid cells in 7 (58)% cases. The del(20q) was detected in myeloid cells in all 4 cases of myelodysplastic syndrome. In aggregate, these data indicate that chronic lymphocytic leukemia with del(20q) acquired after therapy is heterogeneous. In cases with morphologic evidence of dysplasia, the del(20q) likely resides in the myeloid lineage. However, in cases without morphologic evidence of dysplasia, the del(20q) may represent clonal evolution and disease progression. Combining morphologic analysis with FISH for del(20q) or performing FISH on immunomagnetically-selected subpopulations to localize the cell population with this abnormality may help guide patient management. PMID:25953391

  5. Venetoclax plus rituximab in relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: a phase 1b study

    PubMed Central

    Seymour, John F; Ma, Shuo; Brander, Danielle M; Choi, Michael Y; Barrientos, Jacqueline; Davids, Matthew S; Anderson, Mary Ann; Beaven, Anne W; Rosen, Steven T; Tam, Constantine S; Prine, Betty; Agarwal, Suresh K; Munasinghe, Wijith; Zhu, Ming; Lash, L Leanne; Desai, Monali; Cerri, Elisa; Verdugo, Maria; Kim, Su Young; Humerickhouse, Rod A; Gordon, Gary B; Kipps, Thomas J; Roberts, Andrew W

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Selective BCL2 inhibition with venetoclax has substantial activity in patients with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Combination therapy with rituximab enhanced activity in preclinical models. The aim of this study was to assess the safety, pharmacokinetics, and activity of venetoclax in combination with rituximab. Methods Adult patients with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (according to the 2008 Modified International Workshop on CLL guidelines) or small lymphocytic lymphoma were eligible for this phase 1b, dose-escalation trial. The primary outcomes were to assess the safety profile, to determine the maximum tolerated dose, and to establish the recommended phase 2 dose of venetoclax when given in combination with rituximab. Secondary outcomes were to assess the pharmacokinetic profile and analyse efficacy, including overall response, duration of response, and time to tumour progression. Minimal residual disease was a protocol-specified exploratory objective. Central review of the endpoints was not done. Venetoclax was dosed daily using a stepwise escalation to target doses (200–600 mg) and then monthly rituximab commenced (375 mg/m2 in month 1 and 500 mg/m2 in months 2–6). Adverse events were graded according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for adverse events version 4.0. Protocol-guided drug cessation was allowed for patients who achieved complete response (including complete response with incomplete marrow recovery) or negative bone marrow minimal residual disease. Analyses were done per protocol for all patients who commenced drug and included all patients who received at least one dose of venetoclax. Data were pooled across dose cohorts. Patients are still receiving therapy and follow-up is ongoing. The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01682616. Findings Between Aug 6, 2012, and May 28, 2014, we enrolled 49 patients. Common grade 1–2 toxicities

  6. Real-world results of ibrutinib in patients with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia: data from 95 consecutive patients treated in a compassionate use program. A study from the Swedish Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Group

    PubMed Central

    Winqvist, Maria; Asklid, Anna; Andersson, PO; Karlsson, Karin; Karlsson, Claes; Lauri, Birgitta; Lundin, Jeanette; Mattsson, Mattias; Norin, Stefan; Sandstedt, Anna; Hansson, Lotta; Österborg, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Ibrutinib, a Bruton’s tyrosine kinase inhibitor is approved for relapsed/refractory and del(17p)/TP53 mutated chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Discrepancies between clinical trials and routine health-care are commonly observed in oncology. Herein we report real-world results for 95 poor prognosis Swedish patients treated with ibrutinib in a compassionate use program. Ninety-five consecutive patients (93 chronic lymphocytic leukemia, 2 small lymphocytic leukemia) were included in the study between May 2014 and May 2015. The median age was 69 years. 63% had del(17p)/TP53 mutation, 65% had Rai stage III/IV, 28% had lymphadenopathy ≥10cm. Patients received ibrutinib 420 mg once daily until progression. At a median follow-up of 10.2 months, the overall response rate was 84% (consistent among subgroups) and 77% remained progression-free. Progression-free survival and overall survival were significantly shorter in patients with del(17p)/TP53 mutation (P=0.017 and P=0.027, log-rank test); no other factor was significant in Cox proportional regression hazards model. Ibrutinib was well tolerated. Hematomas occurred in 46% of patients without any major bleeding. Seven patients had Richter’s transformation. This real-world analysis on consecutive chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients from a well-defined geographical region shows the efficacy and safety of ibrutinib to be similar to that of pivotal trials. Yet, del(17p)/TP53 mutation remains a therapeutic challenge. Since not more than half of our patients would have qualified for the pivotal ibrutinib trial (RESONATE), our study emphasizes that real-world results should be carefully considered in future with regards to new agents and new indications in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. PMID:27198718

  7. Real-world results of ibrutinib in patients with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia: data from 95 consecutive patients treated in a compassionate use program. A study from the Swedish Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Group.

    PubMed

    Winqvist, Maria; Asklid, Anna; Andersson, P O; Karlsson, Karin; Karlsson, Claes; Lauri, Birgitta; Lundin, Jeanette; Mattsson, Mattias; Norin, Stefan; Sandstedt, Anna; Hansson, Lotta; Österborg, Anders

    2016-12-01

    Ibrutinib, a Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor is approved for relapsed/refractory and del(17p)/TP53 mutated chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Discrepancies between clinical trials and routine health-care are commonly observed in oncology. Herein we report real-world results for 95 poor prognosis Swedish patients treated with ibrutinib in a compassionate use program. Ninety-five consecutive patients (93 chronic lymphocytic leukemia, 2 small lymphocytic leukemia) were included in the study between May 2014 and May 2015. The median age was 69 years. 63% had del(17p)/TP53 mutation, 65% had Rai stage III/IV, 28% had lymphadenopathy ≥10cm. Patients received ibrutinib 420 mg once daily until progression. At a median follow-up of 10.2 months, the overall response rate was 84% (consistent among subgroups) and 77% remained progression-free. Progression-free survival and overall survival were significantly shorter in patients with del(17p)/TP53 mutation (P=0.017 and P=0.027, log-rank test); no other factor was significant in Cox proportional regression hazards model. Ibrutinib was well tolerated. Hematomas occurred in 46% of patients without any major bleeding. Seven patients had Richter's transformation. This real-world analysis on consecutive chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients from a well-defined geographical region shows the efficacy and safety of ibrutinib to be similar to that of pivotal trials. Yet, del(17p)/TP53 mutation remains a therapeutic challenge. Since not more than half of our patients would have qualified for the pivotal ibrutinib trial (RESONATE), our study emphasizes that real-world results should be carefully considered in future with regards to new agents and new indications in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  8. Chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS): A lymphocytic reactive response of the central nervous system? A case report.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaolin; Huang, Dehui; Huang, Xusheng; Zhang, Jiatang; Ran, Ye; Lou, Xin; Gui, Qiuping; Yu, Shengyuan

    2017-04-15

    Chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroid (CLIPPERS) was first described in 2010. The characteristic clinical picture, radiological distribution and steroid response have been well-described in previous reports. However, the underlying pathogenesis and nosological position of CLIPPERS in the CNS require further investigation for the primary CNS lymphoma have been identified by autopsy subsequently. Here, we report a 51-year-old woman who was diagnosed with CLIPPERS but progressed to primary CNS lymphomatoid granulomatosis, which supports that CLIPPERS is not just an inflammatory CNS disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Possible role of CD22, CD79b and CD20 expression in distinguishing small lymphocytic lymphoma from chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Jovanovic, Danijela; Djurdjevic, Predrag; Andjelkovic, Nebojsa; Zivic, Ljubica

    2014-01-01

    Flow cytometry has an important role in diagnosis and classification of B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (BCLPDs). However, in distinguishing chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) from small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) only clinical criteria are available so far. Aim of the study was to determine differences in the expression of common B cell markers (CD22, CD79b and CD20) on the malignant lymphocytes in the peripheral blood samples of CLL and SLL patients. Peripheral blood samples of 56 CLL and 11 SLL patients were analyzed by 5-color flow cytometry on the CD45/CD19/CD5 gate for CD22, CD79b and CD20. In the samples collected from the CLL patients, CD22 expression was detected in only 20% of patients in the low pattern, while in SLL patients the expression was medium and present in 90.9% of patients (p < 0.0001). For CD79b expression, statistical significance is reached both in the expression pattern, which was low/medium for CLL and high for SLL, and expression level (p = 0.006). The expression of CD20 was counted as the CD20/CD19 ratio. The average ratio was 0.512 in the CLL patients vs. 0.931 in the SLL patients (p = 0.0001). The pattern of expression and expression level of CD22, CD79b and CD20 in peripheral blood could be used for distinguishing SLL from CLL patients.

  10. Association of Helicobacter pylori and iNOS production by macrophages and lymphocytes in the gastric mucosa in chronic gastritis.

    PubMed

    Cherdantseva, Lilia A; Potapova, Oksana V; Sharkova, Tatyana V; Belyaeva, Yana Yu; Shkurupiy, Vyacheslav A

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common causes of chronic gastritis. With the development of the disease cellular inflammatory infiltrates composed of lymphocytes, plasma cells, and macrophages are formed in epithelium and lamina propria of the stomach. These cells are capable of secreting a number of active substances, including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). We examined the relationship between H. pylori and secretion of iNOS by cells of inflammatory infiltrates in chronic gastritis by light microscopy and immunohistochemistry. The data obtained indicate that stimulation of H. pylori immune system cells of the host organism during development of chronic gastritis causes increase in number of macrophages and lymphocytes in the inflammatory infiltrate of the gastric mucosa. This is accompanied with increased expression of inducible NO-synthase with excess free radicals in the tissues, which leads to secondary alterations and exacerbates the inflammation with impaired regeneration processes.

  11. Infection of autoreactive B lymphocytes with EBV, causing chronic autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Pender, Michael P

    2003-11-01

    I hypothesize that human chronic autoimmune diseases are based on infection of autoreactive B lymphocytes by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), in the following proposed scenario. During primary infection, autoreactive B cells are infected by EBV, proliferate and become latently infected memory B cells, which are resistant to the apoptosis that occurs during normal B-cell homeostasis because they express virus-encoded anti-apoptotic molecules. Genetic susceptibility to the effects of B-cell infection by EBV leads to an increased number of latently infected autoreactive memory B cells, which lodge in organs where their target antigen is expressed, and act there as antigen-presenting cells. When CD4(+) T cells that recognize antigens within the target organ are activated in lymphoid organs by cross-reactivity with infectious agents, they migrate to the target organ but fail to undergo activation-induced apoptosis because they receive a co-stimulatory survival signal from the infected B cells. The autoreactive T cells proliferate and produce cytokines, which recruit other inflammatory cells, with resultant target organ damage and chronic autoimmune disease.

  12. Second Malignancy Risks After Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Differences by Lymphoma Subtype

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Lindsay M.; Curtis, Rochelle E.; Linet, Martha S.; Bluhm, Elizabeth C.; Tucker, Margaret A.; Caporaso, Neil; Ries, Lynn A.G.; Fraumeni, Joseph F.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies have shown increased risks of second malignancies after non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL); however, no earlier investigation has quantified differences in risk of new malignancy by lymphoma subtype. Patients and Methods We evaluated second cancer and leukemia risks among 43,145 1-year survivors of CLL/small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), or follicular lymphoma (FL) from 11 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) population-based registries during 1992 to 2006. Results Among patients without HIV/AIDS–related lymphoma, lung cancer risks were significantly elevated after CLL/SLL and FL but not after DLBCL (standardized incidence ratio [SIR], CLL/SLL = 1.42, FL = 1.28, DLBCL = 1.00; Poisson regression P for difference among subtypes, PDiff = .001). A similar pattern was observed for risk of cutaneous melanoma (SIR: CLL/SLL = 1.92, FL = 1.60, DLBCL = 1.06; PDiff = .004). Acute nonlymphocytic leukemia risks were significantly elevated after FL and DLBCL, particularly among patients receiving initial chemotherapy, but not after CLL/SLL (SIR: CLL/SLL = 1.13, FL = 5.96, DLBCL = 4.96; PDiff < .001). Patients with HIV/AIDS–related lymphoma (n = 932) were predominantly diagnosed with DLBCL and had significantly and substantially elevated risks for second anal cancer (SIR = 120.50) and Kaposi's sarcoma (SIR = 138.90). Conclusion Our findings suggest that differing immunologic alterations, treatments (eg, alkylating agent chemotherapy), genetic susceptibilities, and other risk factors (eg, viral infections, tobacco use) among lymphoma subtypes contribute to the patterns of second malignancy risk. Elucidating these patterns may provide etiologic clues to lymphoma as well as to the second malignancies. PMID:20940199

  13. Diagnostic criteria for chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS).

    PubMed

    Tobin, W Oliver; Guo, Yong; Krecke, Karl N; Parisi, Joseph E; Lucchinetti, Claudia F; Pittock, Sean J; Mandrekar, Jay; Dubey, Divyanshu; Debruyne, Jan; Keegan, B Mark

    2017-09-01

    Chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS) is a central nervous system inflammatory syndrome predominantly affecting the brainstem, cerebellum, and spinal cord. Following its initial description, the salient features of CLIPPERS have been confirmed and expanded upon, but the lack of formalized diagnostic criteria has led to reports of patients with dissimilar features purported to have CLIPPERS. We evaluated clinical, radiological and pathological features of patients referred for suspected CLIPPERS and propose diagnostic criteria to discriminate CLIPPERS from non-CLIPPERS aetiologies. Thirty-five patients were evaluated for suspected CLIPPERS. Clinical and neuroimaging data were reviewed by three neurologists to confirm CLIPPERS by consensus agreement. Neuroimaging and neuropathology were reviewed by experienced neuroradiologists and neuropathologists, respectively, both of whom were blinded to the clinical data. CLIPPERS was diagnosed in 23 patients (18 male and five female) and 12 patients had a non-CLIPPERS diagnosis. CLIPPERS patients' median age of onset was 58 years (interquartile range, 24-72) and were followed a median of 44 months (interquartile range 38-63). Non-CLIPPERS patients' median age of onset was 52 years (interquartile range, 39-59) and were followed a median of 27 months (interquartile range, 14-47). Clinical symptoms of gait ataxia, diplopia, cognitive impairment, and facial paraesthesia did not discriminate CLIPPERS from non-CLIPPERS. Marked clinical and radiological corticosteroid responsiveness was observed in CLIPPERS (23/23), and clinical worsening occurred in all 12 CLIPPERS cases when corticosteroids were discontinued. Corticosteroid responsiveness was common but not universal in non-CLIPPERS [clinical improvement (8/12); radiological improvement (2/12); clinical worsening on discontinuation (3/8)]. CLIPPERS patients had brainstem predominant perivascular gadolinium enhancing

  14. Glutathione-S-transferases pi, alpha, mu and mdr1 mRNA expression in normal lymphocytes and chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Marie, J P; Simonin, G; Legrand, O; Delmer, A; Faussat, A M; Lewis, A D; Sikic, B I; Zittoun, R

    1995-10-01

    Chronic B cell lymphoproliferative disorders are frequently sensitive to alkylating agents. To assess the glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) gene expression in B tumoral lymphocytes, possibly responsible for this sensitivity, we developed a sensitive RT-PCR assay for the three isoenzymes GST pi, GST mu and GST alpha mRNA. Normal B and T lymphocytes from 11 blood donors were separated by magnetic beads and tested with this assay. The GST pi was the most abundant transferase, and was detected in all B and T cell samples. GST mu was undetectable ('null' phenotype) in 6/11 normal donors, either in B or T cells. GST alpha was very stable from donor to donor, and was highly correlated between B and T cells of the same individual (P < 0.0001). There is no correlation between the three isoenzymes, and between each isoenzyme and mdr1 gene expression. Twenty-three B lymphoproliferative disorders (20 B-CLL, 3 CD5- chronic lymphoproliferative syndromes) were tested with the same technique. An average decrease of 57% of the GST pi expression was noted in the mononuclear cells of these patients (P < 0.02), with no differences between the untreated and treated cases. The GST alpha and mdr1 mRNA levels did not differ from normal B lymphocytes, but the proportion of patients with no detectable expression of GST mu is lower than in the control (13%). Interestingly, the low content of GST pi in B-CLL could explain the frequent sensitivity of this disease to alkylating agents.

  15. Tumor Lysis Syndrome in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia with Novel Targeted Agents.

    PubMed

    Cheson, Bruce D; Heitner Enschede, Sari; Cerri, Elisa; Desai, Monali; Potluri, Jalaja; Lamanna, Nicole; Tam, Constantine

    2017-11-01

    Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is an uncommon but potentially life-threatening complication associated with the treatment of some cancers. If left untreated, TLS may result in acute renal failure, cardiac dysrhythmia, neurologic complications, seizures, or death. Tumor lysis syndrome is most commonly observed in patients with hematologic malignancies with a high proliferation rate undergoing treatment with very effective therapies. In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), historically, TLS has been observed less often, owing to a low proliferation rate and slow response to chemotherapy. New targeted therapies have recently been approved in the treatment of CLL, including the oral kinase inhibitors, idelalisib and ibrutinib, and the B-cell lymphoma-2 protein inhibitor, venetoclax. Several others are also under development, and combination strategies of these agents are being explored. This review examines the diagnosis, prevention, and management of TLS and summarizes the TLS experience in CLL clinical trials with newer targeted agents. Overall, the risk of TLS is small, but the consequences may be fatal; therefore, patients should be monitored carefully. Therapies capable of eliciting rapid response and combination regimens are increasingly being evaluated for treatment of CLL, which may pose a higher risk of TLS. For optimal management, patients at risk for TLS require prophylaxis and close monitoring with appropriate tests and appropriate management to correct laboratory abnormalities, which allows for safe and effective disease control. Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is a potentially fatal condition observed with hematologic malignancies, caused by release of cellular components in the bloodstream from rapidly dying tumor cells. The frequency and severity of TLS is partly dependent upon the biology of the disease and type of therapy administered. Novel targeted agents highly effective at inducing rapid cell death in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) may pose a risk for

  16. Venetoclax in relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukaemia with 17p deletion: a multicentre, open-label, phase 2 study.

    PubMed

    Stilgenbauer, Stephan; Eichhorst, Barbara; Schetelig, Johannes; Coutre, Steven; Seymour, John F; Munir, Talha; Puvvada, Soham D; Wendtner, Clemens-Martin; Roberts, Andrew W; Jurczak, Wojciech; Mulligan, Stephen P; Böttcher, Sebastian; Mobasher, Mehrdad; Zhu, Ming; Desai, Monali; Chyla, Brenda; Verdugo, Maria; Enschede, Sari Heitner; Cerri, Elisa; Humerickhouse, Rod; Gordon, Gary; Hallek, Michael; Wierda, William G

    2016-06-01

    Deletion of chromosome 17p (del[17p]) in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia confers very poor prognosis when treated with standard chemo-immunotherapy. Venetoclax is an oral small-molecule BCL2 inhibitor that induces chronic lymphocytic leukaemia cell apoptosis. In a previous first-in-human study of venetoclax, 77% of patients with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukaemia achieved an overall response. Here we aimed to assess the activity and safety of venetoclax monotherapy in patients with relapsed or refractory del(17p) chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. In this phase 2, single-arm, multicentre study, we recruited patients aged 18 years and older with del(17p) relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (as defined by 2008 Modified International Workshop on Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia guidelines) from 31 centres in the USA, Canada, UK, Germany, Poland, and Australia. Patients started once daily venetoclax with a weekly dose ramp-up schedule (20, 50, 100, 200, 400 mg) over 4-5 weeks. Patients were then given daily 400 mg continuous dosing until disease progression or discontinuation for another reason. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients achieving an overall response, assessed by an independent review committee. Activity and safety analyses included all patients who received at least one dose of study drug (per protocol). This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01889186. Follow-up is ongoing, and patients are still receiving treatment. Between May 27, 2013, and June 27, 2014, 107 patients were enrolled into the study. At a median follow-up of 12·1 months (IQR 10·1-14·2), an overall response by independent review was achieved in 85 (79·4%; 95% CI 70·5-86·6) of 107 patients. The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were neutropenia (43 [40%]), infection (21 [20%]), anaemia (19 [18%]), and thrombocytopenia (16 [15%]). Serious adverse events occurred in 59 (55%) patients, irrespective of their

  17. CLL2-BXX Phase II trials: sequential, targeted treatment for eradication of minimal residual disease in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Paula; von Tresckow, Julia; Bahlo, Jasmin; Engelke, Anja; Langerbeins, Petra; Fink, Anna-Maria; Fischer, Kirsten; Wendtner, Clemens-Martin; Kreuzer, Karl-Anton; Stilgenbauer, Stephan; Böttcher, Sebastian; Eichhorst, Barbara; Hallek, Michael

    2018-03-01

    Four Phase II trials (clinical trials numbers: NCT02345863, NCT02401503, NCT02445131 and NCT02689141) evaluate a different combination of targeted agents in an all-comer population of approximately 60 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia irrespective of prior treatment, physical fitness and genetic risk factors. Patients with a higher tumor load start with a debulking treatment with bendamustine. The subsequent induction and maintenance treatment with an anti-CD20 antibody (obinutuzumab or ofatumumab) and a targeted oral agent (ibrutinib, idelalisib or venetoclax) are continued until achievement of a complete response and minimal residual disease negativity. This strategy represents a new era of chronic lymphocytic leukemia therapy where chemotherapy is increasingly replaced by targeted agents and treatment duration is tailored to the patient's individual tumor load and response.

  18. Is the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio associated with liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B?

    PubMed

    Kekilli, Murat; Tanoglu, Alpaslan; Sakin, Yusuf Serdar; Kurt, Mevlut; Ocal, Serkan; Bagci, Sait

    2015-05-14

    To determine the association between the neutrophil to lymphocyte (N/L) ratio and the degree of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection. Between December 2011 and February 2013, 129 consecutive CHB patients who were admitted to the study hospitals for histological evaluation of chronic hepatitis B-related liver fibrosis were included in this retrospective study. The patients were divided into two groups based on the fibrosis score: individuals with a fibrosis score of F0 or F1 were included in the "no/minimal liver fibrosis" group, whereas patients with a fibrosis score of F2, F3, or F4 were included in the "advanced liver fibrosis" group. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences 18.0 for Windows was used to analyze the data. A P value of < 0.05 was accepted as statistically significant. Three experienced and blinded pathologists evaluated the fibrotic status and inflammatory activity of 129 liver biopsy samples from the CHB patients. Following histopathological examination, the "no/minimal fibrosis" group included 79 individuals, while the "advanced fibrosis" group included 50 individuals. Mean (N/L) ratio levels were notably lower in patients with advanced fibrosis when compared with patients with no/minimal fibrosis. The mean value of the aspartate aminotransferase-platelet ratio index was markedly higher in cases with advanced fibrosis compared to those with no/minimal fibrosis. Reduced levels of the peripheral blood N/L ratio were found to give high sensitivity, specificity and predictive values in CHB patients with significant fibrosis. The prominent finding of our research suggests that the N/L ratio can be used as a novel noninvasive marker of fibrosis in patients with CHB.

  19. CD38 is a signaling molecule in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Deaglio, Silvia; Capobianco, Andrea; Bergui, Luciana; Dürig, Jan; Morabito, Fortunato; Dührsen, Ulrich; Malavasi, Fabio

    2003-09-15

    The prognosis for patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) is generally less favorable for those expressing CD38. Our working hypothesis is that CD38 is not merely a marker in B-CLL, but that it plays a receptor role with pathogenetic potential ruling the proliferation of the malignant clone. CD38 levels were generally low in the patients examined and monoclonal antibody (mAb) ligation was inefficient in signaling. Other cellular models indicated that molecular density and surface organization are critical for CD38 functionality. Interleukin 2 (IL-2) induced a marked up-modulation and surface rearrangement of CD38 in all the patients studied. On reaching a specific expression threshold, CD38 becomes an efficient receptor in purified B-CLL cells. Indeed, mAb ligation is followed by Ca2+ fluxes and by a markedly increased proliferation. The unsuitability of CD38 to perform as a receptor is obviated through close interaction with the B-cell-receptor (BCR) complex and CD19. On mAb binding, CD38 translocates to the membrane lipid microdomains, as shown by a colocalization with the GM1 ganglioside and with CD81, a raft-resident protein. Finally, CD38 signaling in IL-2-treated B-CLL cells prolonged survival and induced the appearance of plasmablasts, providing a pathogenetic hypothesis for the occurrence of Richter syndrome.

  20. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies discovers multiple loci for chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Berndt, Sonja I.; Camp, Nicola J.; Skibola, Christine F.; Vijai, Joseph; Wang, Zhaoming; Gu, Jian; Nieters, Alexandra; Kelly, Rachel S.; Smedby, Karin E.; Monnereau, Alain; Cozen, Wendy; Cox, Angela; Wang, Sophia S.; Lan, Qing; Teras, Lauren R.; Machado, Moara; Yeager, Meredith; Brooks-Wilson, Angela R.; Hartge, Patricia; Purdue, Mark P.; Birmann, Brenda M.; Vajdic, Claire M.; Cocco, Pierluigi; Zhang, Yawei; Giles, Graham G.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Lawrence, Charles; Montalvan, Rebecca; Burdett, Laurie; Hutchinson, Amy; Ye, Yuanqing; Call, Timothy G.; Shanafelt, Tait D.; Novak, Anne J.; Kay, Neil E.; Liebow, Mark; Cunningham, Julie M.; Allmer, Cristine; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Adami, Hans-Olov; Melbye, Mads; Glimelius, Bengt; Chang, Ellen T.; Glenn, Martha; Curtin, Karen; Cannon-Albright, Lisa A.; Diver, W Ryan; Link, Brian K.; Weiner, George J.; Conde, Lucia; Bracci, Paige M.; Riby, Jacques; Arnett, Donna K.; Zhi, Degui; Leach, Justin M.; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Tinker, Lesley F.; Benavente, Yolanda; Sala, Núria; Casabonne, Delphine; Becker, Nikolaus; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Foretova, Lenka; Maynadie, Marc; McKay, James; Staines, Anthony; Chaffee, Kari G.; Achenbach, Sara J.; Vachon, Celine M.; Goldin, Lynn R.; Strom, Sara S.; Leis, Jose F.; Weinberg, J. Brice; Caporaso, Neil E.; Norman, Aaron D.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Morton, Lindsay M.; Severson, Richard K.; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo; Kaaks, Rudolph; Masala, Giovanna; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Chirlaque, María- Dolores; Vermeulen, Roel C. H.; Travis, Ruth C.; Southey, Melissa C.; Milne, Roger L.; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie; Clavel, Jacqueline; Zheng, Tongzhang; Holford, Theodore R.; Villano, Danylo J.; Maria, Ann; Spinelli, John J.; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Connors, Joseph M.; Bertrand, Kimberly A.; Giovannucci, Edward; Kraft, Peter; Kricker, Anne; Turner, Jenny; Ennas, Maria Grazia; Ferri, Giovanni M.; Miligi, Lucia; Liang, Liming; Ma, Baoshan; Huang, Jinyan; Crouch, Simon; Park, Ju-Hyun; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; North, Kari E.; Snowden, John A.; Wright, Josh; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Offit, Kenneth; Wu, Xifeng; de Sanjose, Silvia; Cerhan, James R.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Slager, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a common lymphoid malignancy with strong heritability. To further understand the genetic susceptibility for CLL and identify common loci associated with risk, we conducted a meta-analysis of four genome-wide association studies (GWAS) composed of 3,100 cases and 7,667 controls with follow-up replication in 1,958 cases and 5,530 controls. Here we report three new loci at 3p24.1 (rs9880772, EOMES, P=2.55 × 10−11), 6p25.2 (rs73718779, SERPINB6, P=1.97 × 10−8) and 3q28 (rs9815073, LPP, P=3.62 × 10−8), as well as a new independent SNP at the known 2q13 locus (rs9308731, BCL2L11, P=1.00 × 10−11) in the combined analysis. We find suggestive evidence (P<5 × 10−7) for two additional new loci at 4q24 (rs10028805, BANK1, P=7.19 × 10−8) and 3p22.2 (rs1274963, CSRNP1, P=2.12 × 10−7). Pathway analyses of new and known CLL loci consistently show a strong role for apoptosis, providing further evidence for the importance of this biological pathway in CLL susceptibility. PMID:26956414

  1. Development of acute myeloid leukemia in patients with untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Ito, Shoko; Fujiwara, Shin-Ichiro; Mashima, Kiyomi; Umino, Kento; Minakata, Daisuke; Nakano, Hirofumi; Yamasaki, Ryoko; Kawasaki, Yasufumi; Sugimoto, Miyuki; Ashizawa, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Chihiro; Hatano, Kaoru; Okazuka, Kiyoshi; Sato, Kazuya; Oh, Iekuni; Ohmine, Ken; Suzuki, Takahiro; Muroi, Kazuo; Kanda, Yoshinobu

    2017-05-01

    The development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in patients with untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is rare. We experienced a 65-year-old man who developed AML with aberrant CD7 expression and monoallelic CEBPA mutation during watchful waiting for CLL. He failed to achieve complete response (CR) by standard induction therapy for AML. We retrospectively reviewed 27 patients who developed AML with untreated CLL published between 1973 and 2016. The median age at diagnosis of AML was 68 years, and the median duration between the diagnoses of AML and CLL was 4.2 years. Diagnosis of AML and CLL was made simultaneously in 16 patients. The CR rate of AML was 42.9%, and the median survival was only 1.5 months after the diagnosis of AML. Patients who achieved CR tended to survive longer than those who did not. Our results demonstrated that the development of AML in patients with untreated CLL was associated with a poor response to chemotherapy and an extremely poor prognosis.

  2. Venetoclax for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia who progressed during or after idelalisib therapy

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Michael; Furman, Richard R.; Eradat, Herbert; Heffner, Leonard; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Chyla, Brenda; Zhou, Lang; Agarwal, Suresh; Waskiewicz, Tina; Verdugo, Maria; Humerickhouse, Rod A.; Potluri, Jalaja; Wierda, William G.; Davids, Matthew S.

    2018-01-01

    B-cell receptor pathway inhibitors (BCRis) have transformed treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL); however, the efficacy of therapies for patients whose disease is refractory to/relapses after (R/R) BCRis is unknown. Venetoclax is a selective, orally bioavailable BCL-2 inhibitor with activity in patients with CLL, including those who are heavily pretreated or have 17p deletion. This phase 2 study prospectively evaluated venetoclax in patients with R/R CLL after ibrutinib or idelalisib; here we report on patients who received idelalisib as the last BCRi before enrollment. Venetoclax was initiated at 20 mg daily, followed by intrapatient ramp-up to 400 mg daily. Primary objectives included efficacy (objective response rate [ORR]) and safety of venetoclax. The study enrolled 36 patients who previously received idelalisib (ORR, 67% [24/36]); 2 patients achieved complete remission, and 1 had complete remission with incomplete bone marrow recovery. Median progression-free survival (PFS) has not yet been reached; estimated 12-month PFS was 79%. The most common adverse events (AEs; all grades) were neutropenia (56%), diarrhea (42%), upper respiratory tract infection (39%), thrombocytopenia (36%), nausea (31%), fatigue (28%), cough (22%), rash (22%), and anemia (22%). Grade 3 or 4 AEs were primarily hematologic (neutropenia [50%], thrombocytopenia [25%], and anemia [17%]). No patients experienced tumor lysis syndrome. Venetoclax demonstrated promising clinical activity and favorable tolerability in patients with CLL whose disease progressed during or after idelalisib therapy. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02141282. PMID:29305552

  3. MicroRNA profiling reveals distinct signatures in B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemias

    PubMed Central

    Calin, George Adrian; Liu, Chang-Gong; Sevignani, Cinzia; Ferracin, Manuela; Felli, Nadia; Dumitru, Calin Dan; Shimizu, Masayoshi; Cimmino, Amelia; Zupo, Simona; Dono, Mariella; Dell'Aquila, Marie L.; Alder, Hansjuerg; Rassenti, Laura; Kipps, Thomas J.; Bullrich, Florencia; Negrini, Massimo; Croce, Carlo M.

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about the expression levels or function of micro-RNAs (miRNAs) in normal and neoplastic cells, although it is becoming clear that miRNAs play important roles in the regulation of gene expression during development [Ambros, V. (2003) Cell 113, 673–676; McManus, M. T. (2003) Semin. Cancer Biol. 13, 253–258]. We now report the genomewide expression profiling of miRNAs in human B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) by using a microarray containing hundreds of human precursor and mature miRNA oligonucleotide probes. This approach allowed us to identify significant differences in miRNome expression between CLL samples and normal CD5+ B cells; data were confirmed by Northern blot analyses and real-time RT-PCR. At least two distinct clusters of CLL samples can be identified that were associated with the presence or absence of Zap-70 expression, a predictor of early disease progression. Two miRNA signatures were associated with the presence or absence of mutations in the expressed Ig variableregion genes or with deletions at 13q14, respectively. These data suggest that miRNA expression patterns have relevance to the biological and clinical behavior of this leukemia. PMID:15284443

  4. Are BTK and PLCG2 mutations necessary and sufficient for ibrutinib resistance in chronic lymphocytic leukemia?

    PubMed

    Lampson, Benjamin L; Brown, Jennifer R

    2018-03-01

    Ibrutinib is the first BTK inhibitor to show efficacy in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and is also the first BTK inhibitor to which patients have developed resistance. Mutations in BTK and PLCG2 are found in ≈80% of CLL patients with acquired resistance to ibrutinib, but it remains unclear if these mutations are merely associated with disease relapse or directly cause it. Areas covered: Unique properties of both CLL and ibrutinib that complicate attempts to definitively conclude whether BTK/PLCG2 mutations are passengers or drivers of ibrutinib-resistant disease are reviewed. Characteristics of mutations that drive drug resistance are summarized and whether BTK/PLCG2 mutations possess these is discussed. These characteristics include (1) identification in multiple patients with acquired resistance, (2) in vitro validation of drug-resistant properties, (3) mutual exclusivity with one another, (4) increasing frequency over time on drug, and (5) high frequency at the time and site of clinical relapse. Expert commentary: While BTK/PLCG2 mutations have characteristics suggesting that they can drive ibrutinib resistance, this conclusion remains formally unproven until specific inhibition of such mutations is shown to cause regression of ibrutinib-resistant CLL. Data suggest that alternative mechanisms of resistance do exist in some patients.

  5. Targeting cholesterol synthesis increases chemoimmuno-sensitivity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cholesterol plays an important role in cancer development, drug resistance and chemoimmuno-sensitivity. Statins, cholesterol lowering drugs, can induce apoptosis, but also negatively interfere with CD-20 and rituximab-mediated activity. Our goal is to identify the alternative targets that could reduce cholesterol levels but do not interfere with CD-20 in chemo immunotherapy of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Methods MEC-2 cells, a CLL cell line, and the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from CLL patients were treated with cholesterol lowering agents, and analyzed the effect of these agents on cholesterol levels, CD-20 expression and distribution, and cell viability in the presence or absence of fludarabine, rituximab or their combinations. Results We found that MEC-2 cells treated with cholesterol lowering agents (BIBB-515, YM-53601 or TAK-475) reduced 20% of total cellular cholesterol levels, but also significantly promoted CD-20 surface expression. Furthermore, treatment of cells with fludarabine, rituximab or their combinations in the presence of BIBB-515, YM-53601 or TAK-475 enhanced MEC-2 cell chemoimmuno-sensitivity measured by cell viability. More importantly, these cholesterol lowering agents also significantly enhanced chemoimmuno-sensitivity of the PBMCs from CLL patients. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that BIBB-515, YM53601 and TAK-475 render chemoimmuno-therapy resistant MEC-2 cells sensitive to chemoimmuno-therapy and enhance CLL cell chemoimmuno-sensitivity without CD-20 epitope presentation or its downstream signaling. These results provide a novel strategy which could be applied to CLL treatment. PMID:25401046

  6. Targeting cholesterol synthesis increases chemoimmuno-sensitivity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Benakanakere, Indira; Johnson, Tyler; Sleightholm, Richard; Villeda, Virgilio; Arya, Monika; Bobba, Ravi; Freter, Carl; Huang, Chunfa

    2014-01-01

    Cholesterol plays an important role in cancer development, drug resistance and chemoimmuno-sensitivity. Statins, cholesterol lowering drugs, can induce apoptosis, but also negatively interfere with CD-20 and rituximab-mediated activity. Our goal is to identify the alternative targets that could reduce cholesterol levels but do not interfere with CD-20 in chemo immunotherapy of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). MEC-2 cells, a CLL cell line, and the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from CLL patients were treated with cholesterol lowering agents, and analyzed the effect of these agents on cholesterol levels, CD-20 expression and distribution, and cell viability in the presence or absence of fludarabine, rituximab or their combinations. We found that MEC-2 cells treated with cholesterol lowering agents (BIBB-515, YM-53601 or TAK-475) reduced 20% of total cellular cholesterol levels, but also significantly promoted CD-20 surface expression. Furthermore, treatment of cells with fludarabine, rituximab or their combinations in the presence of BIBB-515, YM-53601 or TAK-475 enhanced MEC-2 cell chemoimmuno-sensitivity measured by cell viability. More importantly, these cholesterol lowering agents also significantly enhanced chemoimmuno-sensitivity of the PBMCs from CLL patients. Our data demonstrate that BIBB-515, YM53601 and TAK-475 render chemoimmuno-therapy resistant MEC-2 cells sensitive to chemoimmuno-therapy and enhance CLL cell chemoimmuno-sensitivity without CD-20 epitope presentation or its downstream signaling. These results provide a novel strategy which could be applied to CLL treatment.

  7. The relation of illness perceptions to stress, depression, and fatigue in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, Travis D; Maddocks, Kami; Andersen, Barbara L

    2016-07-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is the most prevalent adult leukaemia and is incurable. The course and treatment of CLL is unique and characterised by repeated cycles of treatment, stable disease and relapse. Utilising a Self-Regulatory Model framework, we examined the relationship between patients' illness perceptions and cancer-specific stress, depressive symptoms and fatigue. Our aim was to test illness perceptions as predictors of these outcomes when variance due to disease and treatment variables was controlled. Data were collected on 147 patients with relapsed/refractory CLL as they entered a phase II clinical trial of an investigational medication at a university affiliated, National Cancer Institute designated comprehensive cancer center. Cancer-specific stress, depressive symptoms and fatigue interference. . Hierarchical multiple regression was used. Consequences and emotional representation were related to all outcomes (ps < .01). Illness concern was related to cancer-specific stress (p < .01), and identity was related to fatigue interference (p < .01). All relationships were observed while controlling for number of previous CLL therapies received. Illness perceptions are related to cancer-specific stress, depressive symptoms and fatigue interference in relapsed/refractory CLL. Interventions targeted at restructuring maladaptive illness perceptions may have clinical benefit in this population.

  8. Comprehensive characterization of immunoglobulin gene rearrangements in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    René, Céline; Prat, Nathalie; Thuizat, Audrey; Broctawik, Mélanie; Avinens, Odile; Eliaou, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested a geographical pattern of immunoglobulin rearrangement in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), which could be as a result of a genetic background or an environmental antigen. However, the characteristics of Ig rearrangements in the population from the South of France have not yet been established. Here, we studied CLL B-cell repertoire and mutational pattern in a Southern French cohort of patients using an in-house protocol for whole sequencing of the rearranged immunoglobulin heavy-chain genes. Described biased usage of variable, diversity and joining genes between the mutated and unmutated groups was found in our population. However, variable gene frequencies are more in accordance with those observed in the Mediterranean patients. We found that the third complementary-determining region (CDR) length was higher in unmutated sequences, because of bias in the diversity and joining genes usage and not due to the N diversity. Mutations found in CLL followed the features of canonical somatic hypermutation mechanism: preference of targeting for activation-induced cytidine deaminase and polymerase motifs, base change bias for transitions and more replacement mutations occurring in CDRs than in framework regions. Surprisingly, localization of activation-induced cytidine deaminase motifs onto the variable gene showed a preference for framework regions. The study of the characteristics at the age of diagnosis showed no difference in clinical outcome, but suggested a tendency of increased replacement and transition-over-transversion mutations and a longer third CDR length in older patients. PMID:24725733

  9. State-of-the-Art Treatment and Novel Agents in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Paula; Hallek, Michael; Eichhorst, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Chemoimmunotherapy is the established first-line treatment of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) who do not display the high-risk genetic features del(17p) and/or TP53 mutation: Physically fit patients without or with only mild comorbidities should receive fludarabine, cyclophosphamide and rituximab, while bendamustine and rituximab can be considered in fit elderly patients of over 65 years and in patients with a higher risk of infections. Patients with relevant coexisting conditions should receive chlorambucil with a CD20 antibody, preferably obinutuzumab. Patients with a del(17p) and/or TP53 mutation respond poorly to conventional chemo(immuno)therapies. However, the recently approved BTK and PI3K inhibitors ibrutinib and idelalisib have the best efficacy ever documented in patients with these high-risk genomic alterations and/or refractory CLL. The choice between ibrutinib and idelalisib should be based on the patients' comorbidities and concomitant medications since both agents have a distinct toxicity profile, although they are generally well tolerated in the majority of patients. For treatment of patients with a late relapse, chemoimmunotherapy instead of kinase inhibitors is still a reasonable approach, but has to be determined for every patient individually. Further targeted drugs and their combinations are currently being evaluated in clinical trials and have the potential to eradicate all residual CLL cells and thus lead to a cure of CLL. © 2016 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  10. The Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib with chemoimmunotherapy in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Barrientos, Jacqueline C.; Barr, Paul M.; Flinn, Ian W.; Burger, Jan A.; Tran, Anh; Clow, Fong; James, Danelle F.; Graef, Thorsten; Friedberg, Jonathan W.; Rai, Kanti; O’Brien, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The safety and efficacy of ibrutinib, an oral inhibitor of Bruton tyrosine kinase, were evaluated with chemoimmunotherapy (CIT) in a multicenter phase 1b study. Patients with relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia received bendamustine and rituximab (BR) or fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab (FCR) for up to 6 cycles with daily ibrutinib (420 mg) until progressive disease or unacceptable toxicity. Enrollment to FCR-ibrutinib closed early due to a lack of fludarabine-naïve previously treated patients. No patients treated with BR-ibrutinib (n = 30) or FCR-ibrutinib (n = 3) experienced prolonged hematologic toxicity in cycle 1 (primary end point). Tolerability was as expected with either CIT or single-agent ibrutinib. The overall response rate (ORR) with BR-ibrutinib was 93.3%, including 16.7% complete responses (CRs) initially, which increased to 40% with the extension period. Including 1 patient with partial response with lymphocytosis, the best ORR was 96.7%. Sixteen of 21 patients with baseline cytopenias had sustained hematologic improvement. At 12 and 36 months, 86.3% and 70.3% remained progression-free, respectively. All 3 patients treated with ibrutinib-FCR achieved CR. Ibrutinib may enhance CIT efficacy without additive toxicities, providing the rationale for studying this combination in an ongoing phase 3 trial. The study is registered to www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01292135. PMID:25755291

  11. Ibrutinib: a new frontier in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia by Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Dias, Ajoy Lawrence; Jain, Dharamvir

    2013-12-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is characterized by progressive accumulation of nonfunctional mature B cells in blood, bone marrow and lymphoid tissues. In the last decade, our understanding of CLL and consequently our diagnostic and therapeutic approaches have changed dramatically. Conventional fludarabine based chemotherapy has led to improved disease response and longer survival in young patients with CLL. However its application in elderly patients has been restricted by substantial myelosuppression and infection. Treatment of CLL is now moving towards targeted therapy. The success of new class of agents such as monoclonal antibodies, proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory derivatives has sparked further search for treatment agents with novel targets to inhibit. The B cell receptor activating pathway involving the Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) is crucial in B cell production and maintenance and is an attractive therapeutic target. Ibrutinib is an oral covalent inhibitor of the BTK pathway that induces apoptosis of B cells. Early phase studies with Ibrutinib either as a single agent or in combination regimens have shown promising results with an excellent safety profile in patients with high-risk, refractory or relapsed CLL and elderly treatment-naïve patients. This review summarizes the current knowledge of Ibrutinib in the treatment of CLL.

  12. Experience with ibrutinib for first-line use in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Itchaki, Gilad; Brown, Jennifer R

    2018-01-01

    Ibrutinib is the first in-class, orally administered, Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor that abrogates the critical signaling downstream of the B-cell receptor (BCR). This signaling is required for B-cell survival, proliferation and interaction with the microenvironment. Ibrutinib proved active in preclinical models of lymphoproliferative diseases and achieved impressive response rates in heavily pretreated relapsed and refractory (R/R) patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Ibrutinib prolonged survival compared to standard therapy and mitigated the effect of most poor prognostic factors in CLL, thus becoming the main therapeutic option in high-risk populations. Moreover, compared with standard chemoimmunotherapy (CIT) for adults, ibrutinib causes fewer cytopenias and infections, while having its own unique toxicity profile. Its efficacy in relapsed patients as well as its tolerability have led to its increased use in previously untreated patients, especially in those with poor prognostic markers and/or the elderly. This review elaborates on ibrutinib's unique toxicity profile and the mechanisms of acquired resistance leading to progression on ibrutinib, since both are critical for understanding the obstacles to its first-line use. We will further evaluate the data from ongoing clinical trials in this setting and explore future options for combination therapy.

  13. Ibrutinib Therapy Increases T Cell Repertoire Diversity in Patients with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Yin, Qingsong; Sivina, Mariela; Robins, Harlan; Yusko, Erik; Vignali, Marissa; O'Brien, Susan; Keating, Michael J; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Estrov, Zeev; Jain, Nitin; Wierda, William G; Burger, Jan A

    2017-02-15

    The Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib is a highly effective, new targeted therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) that thwarts leukemia cell survival, growth, and tissue homing. The effects of ibrutinib treatment on the T cell compartment, which is clonally expanded and thought to support the growth of malignant B cells in CLL, are not fully characterized. Using next-generation sequencing technology, we characterized the diversity of TCRβ-chains in peripheral blood T cells from 15 CLL patients before and after 1 y of ibrutinib therapy. We noted elevated CD4 + and CD8 + T cell numbers and a restricted TCRβ repertoire in all pretreatment samples. After 1 y of ibrutinib therapy, elevated peripheral blood T cell numbers and T cell-related cytokine levels had normalized, and T cell repertoire diversity increased significantly. Dominant TCRβ clones in pretreatment samples declined or became undetectable, and the number of productive unique clones increased significantly during ibrutinib therapy, with the emergence of large numbers of low-frequency TCRβ clones. Importantly, broader TCR repertoire diversity was associated with clinical efficacy and lower rates of infections during ibrutinib therapy. These data demonstrate that ibrutinib therapy increases diversification of the T cell compartment in CLL patients, which contributes to cellular immune reconstitution. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  14. The Next Generation of Targeted Molecules for the Treatment of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Jeyakumar, Deepa; O'Brien, Susan

    2016-11-15

    With the recent approval of several new targeted therapies for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), there are now multiple options for its treatment. Inhibitors of Bruton tyrosine kinase (with ibrutinib being the first-in-class US Food and Drug Administration-approved agent) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (with idelalisib as the first-in-class approved agent) are promising because they are generally well tolerated and highly effective against this malignancy. These agents may be particularly important in the treatment of older patients who are less able to tolerate the myelosuppression (and subsequent infections) associated with chemoimmunotherapy. As a class of medications, B-cell receptor inhibitors have some unique side effects, including redistribution lymphocytosis. Toxicities associated specifically with ibrutinib include increased risk for bleeding and atrial fibrillation. Idelalisib also has some unique toxicities: transaminitis, colitis, and pneumonitis. Targeted therapies recently approved for use in CLL include the novel anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies obinutuzumab and ofatumumab, and the B-cell lymphoma 2 inhibitor venetoclax. This article describes the clinical data that led to approval of these B-cell receptor inhibitors for the treatment of CLL, and highlights newer agents in clinical development that target the same kinases as the currently available therapies.

  15. Genome-wide association analysis implicates dysregulation of immunity genes in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Law, Philip J.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Speedy, Helen E.; Camp, Nicola J.; Sava, Georgina P.; Skibola, Christine F.; Holroyd, Amy; Joseph, Vijai; Sunter, Nicola J.; Nieters, Alexandra; Bea, Silvia; Monnereau, Alain; Martin-Garcia, David; Goldin, Lynn R.; Clot, Guillem; Teras, Lauren R.; Quintela, Inés; Birmann, Brenda M.; Jayne, Sandrine; Cozen, Wendy; Majid, Aneela; Smedby, Karin E.; Lan, Qing; Dearden, Claire; Brooks-Wilson, Angela R.; Hall, Andrew G.; Purdue, Mark P.; Mainou-Fowler, Tryfonia; Vajdic, Claire M.; Jackson, Graham H.; Cocco, Pierluigi; Marr, Helen; Zhang, Yawei; Zheng, Tongzhang; Giles, Graham G.; Lawrence, Charles; Call, Timothy G.; Liebow, Mark; Melbye, Mads; Glimelius, Bengt; Mansouri, Larry; Glenn, Martha; Curtin, Karen; Diver, W Ryan; Link, Brian K.; Conde, Lucia; Bracci, Paige M.; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Tinker, Lesley F.; Benavente, Yolanda; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Maynadie, Marc; McKay, James; Albanes, Demetrius; Weinstein, Stephanie; Wang, Zhaoming; Caporaso, Neil E.; Morton, Lindsay M.; Severson, Richard K.; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo; Vermeulen, Roel C. H.; Southey, Melissa C.; Milne, Roger L.; Clavel, Jacqueline; Topka, Sabine; Spinelli, John J.; Kraft, Peter; Ennas, Maria Grazia; Summerfield, Geoffrey; Ferri, Giovanni M.; Harris, Robert J.; Miligi, Lucia; Pettitt, Andrew R.; North, Kari E.; Allsup, David J.; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Bailey, James R.; Offit, Kenneth; Pratt, Guy; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Pepper, Chris; Chanock, Stephen J.; Fegan, Chris; Rosenquist, Richard; de Sanjose, Silvia; Carracedo, Angel; Dyer, Martin J. S.; Catovsky, Daniel; Campo, Elias; Cerhan, James R.; Allan, James M.; Rothman, Nathanial; Houlston, Richard; Slager, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Several chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) susceptibility loci have been reported; however, much of the heritable risk remains unidentified. Here we perform a meta-analysis of six genome-wide association studies, imputed using a merged reference panel of 1,000 Genomes and UK10K data, totalling 6,200 cases and 17,598 controls after replication. We identify nine risk loci at 1p36.11 (rs34676223, P=5.04 × 10−13), 1q42.13 (rs41271473, P=1.06 × 10−10), 4q24 (rs71597109, P=1.37 × 10−10), 4q35.1 (rs57214277, P=3.69 × 10−8), 6p21.31 (rs3800461, P=1.97 × 10−8), 11q23.2 (rs61904987, P=2.64 × 10−11), 18q21.1 (rs1036935, P=3.27 × 10−8), 19p13.3 (rs7254272, P=4.67 × 10−8) and 22q13.33 (rs140522, P=2.70 × 10−9). These new and established risk loci map to areas of active chromatin and show an over-representation of transcription factor binding for the key determinants of B-cell development and immune response. PMID:28165464

  16. Venetoclax: Management and Care for Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
.

    PubMed

    Brumbaugh Paradis, Heather; Alter, Debbie; Llerandi, Diane

    2017-10-01

    Venetoclax (Venclexta™) is a potent, selective, orally available, small-molecule B-cell lymphoma 2 inhibitor that achieves response rates of about 80% and has an acceptable safety profile for patients with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
. The aim was to describe treatment management considerations when caring for patients using venetoclax.
. A review was done of safety and management considerations based on current clinical practice and 240 patients with CLL who received venetoclax monotherapy on clinical trials from 2011-2016.
. Common adverse events were neutropenia, diarrhea, nausea, anemia, upper respiratory tract infection, thrombocytopenia, and fatigue. Because of rapid tumor reduction with venetoclax, nurses should be aware of the potential for tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) and the need to educate patients on steps to minimize risks, including gradual dose ramp-up, adequate hydration, and use of prophylactic antihyperuricemia agents. Following implementation of these risk-reducing measures, no clinical TLS events were reported in ongoing trials.

  17. The Development and Current Use of BCL-2 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Lampson, Benjamin L.; Davids, Matthew S.

    2017-01-01

    The BCL-2 family of proteins integrates pro- and anti-apoptotic signals within the cell and is responsible for initiation of caspase-dependent apoptosis. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells are particularly dependent on the anti-apoptotic protein BCL-2 for their survival, making this an attractive therapeutic target in CLL. Several early efforts to create inhibitors of the anti-apoptotic family members faced significant challenges, but eventually the BCL-2 specific inhibitor venetoclax moved forward in CLL. Overall and complete response rates to venetoclax monotherapy in relapsed, refractory CLL are approximately 80% and 20%, respectively, even in patients with high risk 17p deletion. Toxicities have been manageable and include neutropenia, diarrhea, and nausea. The risk of tumor lysis syndrome (TLS), seen in early experience with the drug, has been mitigated by the use of appropriate TLS risk assessment, prophylaxis, and management. Future studies of venetoclax will focus on combination approaches, predictive biomarker discovery, and mechanisms of resistance. PMID:28116634

  18. New insights into hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a 2015 perspective.

    PubMed

    McClanahan, Fabienne; Gribben, John

    2015-09-01

    A considerable body of evidence demonstrates that allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) offers the only potentially curative treatment option for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). However, this approach is suitable for only a minority of CLL patients, owing to its significant treatment-related mortality and morbidity. Until recently, internationally accepted guidelines suggested that HSCT should be considered in physically fit CLL patients who carry poor-risk features, such as TP53 abnormalities, or who had a short response to previous immunochemotherapy. However, several new agents and alternative treatment strategies are available that demonstrate impressive and durable responses, even in CLL patients who previously might have been candidates for transplant. The decision about which patients merit HSCT therefore remains important, and HSCT must now be considered in light of other less toxic therapies. Until data on the long-term efficacy of novel treatment approaches mature, the choice of HSCT vs alternative strategies must be assessed on a patient-by-patient basis, and treatment in the setting of randomized clinical trials should be pursued whenever possible.

  19. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Diagnosis and Treatment of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Kersting, Sabina; Neppelenbroek, Suzanne I M; Visser, Hein P J; van Gelder, Michel; Levin, Mark-David; Mous, Rogier; Posthuma, Ward; van der Straaten, Hanneke M; Kater, Arnon P

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, considerable progress has been made in the treatment of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and new potent drugs have become available. Therefore, the CLL working party revised the Dutch guidelines. Not only efficacy but also quality of life and socio-economic impact were taken into account in the formulation of treatment recommendations. The working party discussed a set of questions regarding diagnostic tests and treatment and wrote the draft guideline. This was evidence-based whenever possible, but in cases of low evidence, an expert-based recommendation was formulated with input of the entire working party. The draft guideline was sent to all hematologists in the Netherlands for comment and was subsequently approved. Recommendations were formulated on diagnostic tests and work-up before treatment. Also, recommendations were made for treatment with fludarabine-cyclophosphamide-rituximab, bendamustine-rituximab, chlorambucil with anti-CD20 antibody, ibrutinib, idelalisib-rituximab, venetoclax, and allogeneic stem cell transplantation. In the revised Dutch CLL guidelines, chemo-immunotherapy is still the cornerstone of CLL treatment with novel targeted drugs for specific risk groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Where does allogeneic stem cell transplantation fit in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia?

    PubMed

    Dreger, Peter; Montserrat, Emili

    2015-03-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) has been considered as the treatment of choice for patients with high-risk chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) (i.e., refractory to purine analogs, short response (<24 months) to intensive treatments, and/or presence of 17p/TP53 abnormalities). Currently, new and highly effective therapeutic agents targeting BCR-mediated intracellular signal transduction have been incorporated into the CLL treatment armamentarium. These signal transduction inhibitors (STI) will change the algorithms of high-risk CLL (HR-CLL) management. Despite the limited body of evidence, there is sufficient rationale for withholding alloHSCT in patients with 17p-/TP53mut CLL in first remission. In contrast, the perspectives of patients with relapsed 17p-/TP53mut CLL remain uncertain even if responding to STI. The same accounts for patients with HR-CLL progressing under STI. In both scenarios, it is reasonable to consider alloHSCT, ideally after response to alternative STI regimens.

  1. Novel therapies and their integration into allogeneic stem cell transplant for chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Jaglowski, Samantha M; Byrd, John C

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, numerous advances have been made in elucidating the biology of and improving treatment for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). These studies have led to identification of select CLL patient groups that generally have short survival dating from time of treatment or initial disease relapse who benefit from more aggressive therapeutic interventions. Allogeneic transplantation represents the only potentially curative option for CLL, but fully ablative regimens applied in the past have been associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Reduced-intensity preparative regimens has made application of allogeneic transplant to CLL patients much more feasible and increased the number of patients proceeding to this modality. Arising from this has been establishment of guidelines where allogeneic stem cell transplantation should be considered in CLL. Introduction of new targeted therapies with less morbidity, which can produce durable remissions has the potential to redefine where transplantation is initiated in CLL. This review briefly summarizes the field of allogeneic stem cell transplant in CLL and the interface of new therapeutics with this modality. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Vincristine activates c-Jun N-terminal kinase in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Darcy J P; Lewis, Lionel D; Eastman, Alan; Danilov, Alexey V

    2015-01-01

    Aims The authors’ aim was to conduct a proof-of-principle study to test whether c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation and Noxa induction occur in peripheral blood chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) cells in patients receiving a vincristine infusion. Methods Patients with CLL received 2 mg vincristine by a 5-min intravenous infusion. Blood samples were collected at baseline and up to 6 h after the vincristine infusion, and assayed for JNK activation, Noxa induction and vincristine plasma concentrations. Results Ex vivo treated peripheral CLL cells activated JNK in response to 10–100 nM vincristine in 6 h. Noxa protein expression, while variable, was also observed over this time frame. In CLL patients, vincristine infusion led to rapid (<1 h) JNK phosphorylation in peripheral blood CLL cells which was sustained for at least 4–6 h after the vincristine infusion. Noxa protein expression was not observed in response to vincristine infusion. Conclusions This study confirmed that vincristine can activate JNK but not induce Noxa in CLL cells in vivo. The results suggest that novel JNK-dependent drug combinations with vincristine warrant further investigation. PMID:25753324

  3. Whole-genome sequencing identifies recurrent mutations in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Puente, Xose S.; Pinyol, Magda; Quesada, Víctor; Conde, Laura; Ordóñez, Gonzalo R.; Villamor, Neus; Escaramis, Georgia; Jares, Pedro; Beà, Sílvia; González-Díaz, Marcos; Bassaganyas, Laia; Baumann, Tycho; Juan, Manel; López-Guerra, Mónica; Colomer, Dolors; Tubío, José M. C.; López, Cristina; Navarro, Alba; Tornador, Cristian; Aymerich, Marta; Rozman, María; Hernández, Jesús M.; Puente, Diana A.; Freije, José M. P.; Velasco, Gloria; Gutiérrez-Fernández, Ana; Costa, Dolors; Carrió, Anna; Guijarro, Sara; Enjuanes, Anna; Hernández, Lluís; Yagüe, Jordi; Nicolás, Pilar; Romeo-Casabona, Carlos M.; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Castillo, Ester; Dohm, Juliane C.; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Piris, Miguel A.; de Alava, Enrique; Miguel, Jesús San; Royo, Romina; Gelpí, Josep L.; Torrents, David; Orozco, Modesto; Pisano, David G.; Valencia, Alfonso; Guigó, Roderic; Bayés, Mónica; Heath, Simon; Gut, Marta; Klatt, Peter; Marshall, John; Raine, Keiran; Stebbings, Lucy A.; Futreal, P. Andrew; Stratton, Michael R.; Campbell, Peter J.; Gut, Ivo; López-Guillermo, Armando; Estivill, Xavier; Montserrat, Emili; López-Otín, Carlos; Campo, Elías

    2012-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), the most frequent leukaemia in adults in Western countries, is a heterogeneous disease with variable clinical presentation and evolution1,2. Two major molecular subtypes can be distinguished, characterized respectively by a high or low number of somatic hypermutations in the variable region of immunoglobulin genes3,4. The molecular changes leading to the pathogenesis of the disease are still poorly understood. Here we performed whole-genome sequencing of four cases of CLL and identified 46 somatic mutations that potentially affect gene function. Further analysis of these mutations in 363 patients with CLL identified four genes that are recurrently mutated: notch 1 (NOTCH1), exportin 1 (XPO1), myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MYD88) and kelch-like 6 (KLHL6). Mutations in MYD88 and KLHL6 are predominant in cases of CLL with mutated immunoglobulin genes, whereas NOTCH1 and XPO1 mutations are mainly detected in patients with unmutated immunoglobulins. The patterns of somatic mutation, supported by functional and clinical analyses, strongly indicate that the recurrent NOTCH1, MYD88 and XPO1 mutations are oncogenic changes that contribute to the clinical evolution of the disease. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive analysis of CLL combining whole-genome sequencing with clinical characteristics and clinical outcomes. It highlights the usefulness of this approach for the identification of clinically relevant mutations in cancer. PMID:21642962

  4. Genome-wide association analysis implicates dysregulation of immunity genes in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Law, Philip J; Berndt, Sonja I; Speedy, Helen E; Camp, Nicola J; Sava, Georgina P; Skibola, Christine F; Holroyd, Amy; Joseph, Vijai; Sunter, Nicola J; Nieters, Alexandra; Bea, Silvia; Monnereau, Alain; Martin-Garcia, David; Goldin, Lynn R; Clot, Guillem; Teras, Lauren R; Quintela, Inés; Birmann, Brenda M; Jayne, Sandrine; Cozen, Wendy; Majid, Aneela; Smedby, Karin E; Lan, Qing; Dearden, Claire; Brooks-Wilson, Angela R; Hall, Andrew G; Purdue, Mark P; Mainou-Fowler, Tryfonia; Vajdic, Claire M; Jackson, Graham H; Cocco, Pierluigi; Marr, Helen; Zhang, Yawei; Zheng, Tongzhang; Giles, Graham G; Lawrence, Charles; Call, Timothy G; Liebow, Mark; Melbye, Mads; Glimelius, Bengt; Mansouri, Larry; Glenn, Martha; Curtin, Karen; Diver, W Ryan; Link, Brian K; Conde, Lucia; Bracci, Paige M; Holly, Elizabeth A; Jackson, Rebecca D; Tinker, Lesley F; Benavente, Yolanda; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Maynadie, Marc; McKay, James; Albanes, Demetrius; Weinstein, Stephanie; Wang, Zhaoming; Caporaso, Neil E; Morton, Lindsay M; Severson, Richard K; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Southey, Melissa C; Milne, Roger L; Clavel, Jacqueline; Topka, Sabine; Spinelli, John J; Kraft, Peter; Ennas, Maria Grazia; Summerfield, Geoffrey; Ferri, Giovanni M; Harris, Robert J; Miligi, Lucia; Pettitt, Andrew R; North, Kari E; Allsup, David J; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Bailey, James R; Offit, Kenneth; Pratt, Guy; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Pepper, Chris; Chanock, Stephen J; Fegan, Chris; Rosenquist, Richard; de Sanjose, Silvia; Carracedo, Angel; Dyer, Martin J S; Catovsky, Daniel; Campo, Elias; Cerhan, James R; Allan, James M; Rothman, Nathanial; Houlston, Richard; Slager, Susan

    2017-02-06

    Several chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) susceptibility loci have been reported; however, much of the heritable risk remains unidentified. Here we perform a meta-analysis of six genome-wide association studies, imputed using a merged reference panel of 1,000 Genomes and UK10K data, totalling 6,200 cases and 17,598 controls after replication. We identify nine risk loci at 1p36.11 (rs34676223, P=5.04 × 10 -13 ), 1q42.13 (rs41271473, P=1.06 × 10 -10 ), 4q24 (rs71597109, P=1.37 × 10 -10 ), 4q35.1 (rs57214277, P=3.69 × 10 -8 ), 6p21.31 (rs3800461, P=1.97 × 10 -8 ), 11q23.2 (rs61904987, P=2.64 × 10 -11 ), 18q21.1 (rs1036935, P=3.27 × 10 -8 ), 19p13.3 (rs7254272, P=4.67 × 10 -8 ) and 22q13.33 (rs140522, P=2.70 × 10 -9 ). These new and established risk loci map to areas of active chromatin and show an over-representation of transcription factor binding for the key determinants of B-cell development and immune response.

  5. The histone methyltransferase EZH2 as a novel prosurvival factor in clinically aggressive chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Papakonstantinou, Nikos; Ntoufa, Stavroula; Chartomatsidou, Elisavet; Kotta, Konstantia; Agathangelidis, Andreas; Giassafaki, Lefki; Karamanli, Tzeni; Bele, Panagiota; Moysiadis, Theodoros; Baliakas, Panagiotis; Sutton, Lesley Ann; Stavroyianni, Niki; Anagnostopoulos, Achilles; Makris, Antonios M; Ghia, Paolo; Rosenquist, Richard; Stamatopoulos, Kostas

    2016-06-14

    The histone methyltransferase EZH2 induces gene repression through trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27me3). EZH2 overexpression has been reported in many types of cancer and associated with poor prognosis. Here we investigated the expression and functionality of EZH2 in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Aggressive cases with unmutated IGHV genes (U-CLL) displayed significantly higher EZH2 expression compared to indolent CLL cases with mutated IGHV genes (M-CLL); furthermore, in U-CLL EZH2 expression was upregulated with disease progression. Within U-CLL, EZH2high cases harbored significantly fewer (p = 0.033) TP53 gene abnormalities compared to EZH2low cases. EZH2high cases displayed high H3K27me3 levels and increased viability suggesting that EZH2 is functional and likely confers a survival advantage to CLL cells. This argument was further supported by siRNA-mediated downmodulation of EZH2 which resulted in increased apoptosis. Notably, at the intraclonal level, cell proliferation was significantly associated with EZH2 expression. Treatment of primary CLL cells with EZH2 inhibitors induced downregulation of H3K27me3 levels leading to increased cell apoptosis. In conclusion, EZH2 is overexpressed in adverse-prognosis CLL and associated with increased cell survival and proliferation. Pharmacologic inhibition of EZH2 catalytic activity promotes apoptosis, highlighting EZH2 as a novel potential therapeutic target for specific subgroups of patients with CLL.

  6. The histone methyltransferase EZH2 as a novel prosurvival factor in clinically aggressive chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Chartomatsidou, Elisavet; Kotta, Konstantia; Agathangelidis, Andreas; Giassafaki, Lefki; Karamanli, Tzeni; Bele, Panagiota; Moysiadis, Theodoros; Baliakas, Panagiotis; Sutton, Lesley Ann; Stavroyianni, Niki; Anagnostopoulos, Achilles; Makris, Antonios M.; Ghia, Paolo; Rosenquist, Richard; Stamatopoulos, Kostas

    2016-01-01

    The histone methyltransferase EZH2 induces gene repression through trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27me3). EZH2 overexpression has been reported in many types of cancer and associated with poor prognosis. Here we investigated the expression and functionality of EZH2 in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Aggressive cases with unmutated IGHV genes (U-CLL) displayed significantly higher EZH2 expression compared to indolent CLL cases with mutated IGHV genes (M-CLL); furthermore, in U-CLL EZH2 expression was upregulated with disease progression. Within U-CLL, EZH2high cases harbored significantly fewer (p = 0.033) TP53 gene abnormalities compared to EZH2low cases. EZH2high cases displayed high H3K27me3 levels and increased viability suggesting that EZH2 is functional and likely confers a survival advantage to CLL cells. This argument was further supported by siRNA-mediated downmodulation of EZH2 which resulted in increased apoptosis. Notably, at the intraclonal level, cell proliferation was significantly associated with EZH2 expression. Treatment of primary CLL cells with EZH2 inhibitors induced downregulation of H3K27me3 levels leading to increased cell apoptosis. In conclusion, EZH2 is overexpressed in adverse-prognosis CLL and associated with increased cell survival and proliferation. Pharmacologic inhibition of EZH2 catalytic activity promotes apoptosis, highlighting EZH2 as a novel potential therapeutic target for specific subgroups of patients with CLL. PMID:27191993

  7. Clinical and Biological Relevance of Genomic Heterogeneity in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Daphne R.; Lucas, Joseph E.; Weinberg, J. Brice

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is typically regarded as an indolent B-cell malignancy. However, there is wide variability with regards to need for therapy, time to progressive disease, and treatment response. This clinical variability is due, in part, to biological heterogeneity between individual patients’ leukemias. While much has been learned about this biological variation using genomic approaches, it is unclear whether such efforts have sufficiently evaluated biological and clinical heterogeneity in CLL. Methods To study the extent of genomic variability in CLL and the biological and clinical attributes of genomic classification in CLL, we evaluated 893 unique CLL samples from fifteen publicly available gene expression profiling datasets. We used unsupervised approaches to divide the data into subgroups, evaluated the biological pathways and genetic aberrations that were associated with the subgroups, and compared prognostic and clinical outcome data between the subgroups. Results Using an unsupervised approach, we determined that approximately 600 CLL samples are needed to define the spectrum of diversity in CLL genomic expression. We identified seven genomically-defined CLL subgroups that have distinct biological properties, are associated with specific chromosomal deletions and amplifications, and have marked differences in molecular prognostic markers and clinical outcomes. Conclusions Our results indicate that investigations focusing on small numbers of patient samples likely provide a biased outlook on CLL biology. These findings may have important implications in identifying patients who should be treated with specific targeted therapies, which could have efficacy against CLL cells that rely on specific biological pathways. PMID:23468975

  8. Overexpression of nucleolin in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells induces stabilization of bcl2 mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Otake, Yoko; Soundararajan, Sridharan; Sengupta, Tapas K.; Kio, Ebenezer A.; Smith, James C.; Pineda-Roman, Mauricio; Stuart, Robert K.; Spicer, Eleanor K.

    2007-01-01

    B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is characterized by the accumulation of clonal B cells that are resistant to apoptosis as a result of bcl2 oncogene overexpression. Studies were done to determine the mechanism for the up-regulation of bcl-2 protein observed in CD19+ CLL cells compared with CD19+ B cells from healthy volunteers. The 11-fold higher level of bcl-2 protein in CLL cells was positively correlated with a 26-fold elevation in the cytosolic level of nucleolin, a bcl2 mRNA–stabilizing protein. Measurements of the bcl2 heterogeneous nuclear/bcl2 mRNA (hnRNA)/mRNA ratios and the rates of bcl2 mRNA decay in cell extracts indicated that the 3-fold higher steady-state level of bcl2 mRNA in CLL cells was the result of increased bcl2 mRNA stability. Nucleolin was present throughout the nucleus and cytoplasm of CLL cells, whereas in normal B cells nucleolin was only detected in the nucleus. The addition of recombinant human nucleolin to extracts of normal B cells markedly slowed the rate of bcl2 mRNA decay. SiRNA knockdown of nucleolin in MCF-7 cells resulted in decreased levels of bcl2 mRNA and protein but no change in β-actin. These results indicate that bcl-2 overexpression in CLL cells is related to stabilization of bcl2 mRNA by nucleolin. PMID:17179226

  9. STAT3-activated CD36 facilitates fatty acid uptake in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Rozovski, Uri; Harris, David M.; Li, Ping; Liu, Zhiming; Jain, Preetesh; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Burger, Jan; Thompson, Phillip; Jain, Nitin; Wierda, William; Keating, Michael J.; Estrov, Zeev

    2018-01-01

    Although several studies established that unlike normal B cells chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells metabolize fatty acids (FA), how CLL cells internalize FA is poorly understood. Because in various cell types CD36 facilitates FA uptake, we wondered whether a similar mechanism is operative CLL. We found that CD36 levels are higher in CLL cells than in normal B cells, and that small interfering RNA, CD36 neutralizing antibodies or sulfosuccinimidyl oleate (SSO) that inhibits CD36 significantly reduced the oxygen consumption of CLL cells incubated with FA. Because CD36 is oeverexpressed and STAT3 is constitutively activated in CLL cells, we wondered whether STAT3 induces CD36 expression. Sequence analysis identified putative STAT3 binding sites in the CD36 gene promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and an electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed that STAT3 binds to the CD36 gene promoter. A luciferase assay and STAT3-small hairpin RNA, that significantly decreased the levels of CD36 in CLL cells, established that STAT3 activates the transcription of the CD36 gene. Furthermore, SSO induced a dose-dependent apoptosis of CLL cells. Taken together, our data suggest that STAT3 activates CD36 and that CD36 facilitates FA uptake in CLL cells. Whether CD36 inhibition would provide clinical benefits in CLL remains to be determined. PMID:29765537

  10. Chimeric antigen receptor T cells persist and induce sustained remissions in relapsed refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Porter, David L.; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Frey, Noelle V.; Lacey, Simon F.; Shaw, Pamela A.; Loren, Alison W.; Bagg, Adam; Marcucci, Katherine T.; Shen, Angela; Gonzalez, Vanessa; Ambrose, David; Grupp, Stephan A.; Chew, Anne; Zheng, Zhaohui; Milone, Michael C.; Levine, Bruce L.; Melenhorst, Jan J.; June, Carl H.

    2018-01-01

    Patients with multiply relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have a poor prognosis. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)–modified T cells targeting CD19 have the potential to improve on the low complete response rates with conventional therapies by inducing sustained remissions in patients with refractory B cell malignancies. We previously reported preliminary results on three patients with refractory CLL. We report the mature results from our initial trial using CAR-modified T cells to treat 14 patients with relapsed and refractory CLL. Autologous T cells transduced with a CD19-directed CAR (CTL019) lentiviral vector were infused into patients with relapsed/refractory CLL at doses of 0.14 × 108 to 11 × 108 CTL019 cells (median, 1.6 × 108 cells). Patients were monitored for toxicity, response, expansion, and persistence of circulating CTL019 T cells. The overall response rate in these heavily pretreated CLL patients was 8 of 14 (57%), with 4 complete remissions (CR) and 4 partial remissions (PR). The in vivo expansion of the CAR T cells correlated with clinical responses, and the CAR T cells persisted and remained functional beyond 4 years in the first two patients achieving CR. No patient in CR has relapsed. All responding patients developed B cell aplasia and experienced cytokine release syndrome, coincident with T cell proliferation. Minimal residual disease was not detectable in patients who achieved CR, suggesting that disease eradication may be possible in some patients with advanced CLL. PMID:26333935

  11. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia with 17p deletion: a retrospective analysis of prognostic factors and therapy results.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Julio; Espinet, Blanca; Oliveira, Ana C; Abrisqueta, Pau; de la Serna, Javier; Collado, Rosa; Loscertales, Javier; Lopez, Montserrat; Hernandez-Rivas, Jose A; Ferra, Christelle; Ramirez, Angel; Roncero, Josep M; Lopez, Cristina; Aventin, Anna; Puiggros, Anna; Abella, Eugenia; Carbonell, Felix; Costa, Dolors; Carrio, Anna; Gonzalez, Marcos

    2012-04-01

    Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) whose tumour cells harbour a 17p deletion (17p-) are universally considered to have a poor prognosis. The deletion can be detected at diagnosis or during the evolution of the disease, particularly in patients who have received chemotherapy. We sought to evaluate the natural history of patients with 17p- CLL, identify predictive factors within this prognostic subgroup, and evaluate the results of different therapeutic approaches. Data from 294 patients with 17p- CLL followed up at 20 different institutions was retrospectively collected and analysed. Median age was 68 (range 27-98) years at the time of fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. After 17p- documentation, 52% received treatment, achieving an overall response rate of 50%. Median overall survival was 41 months, and was significantly shorter in patients with elevated beta(2)-microglobulin concentration (P < 0·001), B symptoms (P = 0·016), higher percentage of cells with deletion (P < 0·001), and acquired deletions (P = 0·012). These findings suggest that patients with 17p- CLL have a variable prognosis that can be refined using simple clinical and laboratory features, including 17p- clone size, beta2-microglobulin concentration, presence of B symptoms and type of deletion (de novo versus acquired). © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Molecular characterization of neoplastic and normal "sister" lymphoblastoid B-cell lines from chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Lanemo Myhrinder, Anna; Hellqvist, Eva; Bergh, Ann-Charlotte; Jansson, Mattias; Nilsson, Kenneth; Hultman, Per; Jonasson, Jon; Buhl, Anne Mette; Bredo Pedersen, Lone; Jurlander, Jesper; Klein, Eva; Weit, Nicole; Herling, Marco; Rosenquist, Richard; Rosén, Anders

    2013-08-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) B-cells resemble self-renewing CD5 + B-cells carrying auto/xeno-antigen-reactive B-cell receptors (BCRs) and multiple innate pattern-recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors and scavenger receptors. Integration of signals from BCRs with multiple surface membrane receptors determines whether the cells will be proliferating, anergic or apoptotic. To better understand the role of antigen in leukemogenesis, CLL cell lines producing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) will facilitate structural analysis of antigens and supply DNA for genetic studies. We present here a comprehensive genotypic and phenotypic characterization of available CLL and normal B-cell-derived lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from the same individuals (n = 17). Authenticity and verification studies of CLL-patient origin were done by IGHV sequencing, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and DNA/short tandem repeat (STR) fingerprinting. Innate B-cell features, i.e. natural Ab production and CD5 receptors, were present in most CLL cell lines, but in none of the normal LCLs. This panel of immortalized CLL-derived cell lines is a valuable reference representing a renewable source of authentic Abs and DNA.

  13. Igs expressed by chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells show limited binding-site structure variability.

    PubMed

    Marcatili, Paolo; Ghiotto, Fabio; Tenca, Claudya; Chailyan, Anna; Mazzarello, Andrea N; Yan, Xiao-Jie; Colombo, Monica; Albesiano, Emilia; Bagnara, Davide; Cutrona, Giovanna; Morabito, Fortunato; Bruno, Silvia; Ferrarini, Manlio; Chiorazzi, Nicholas; Tramontano, Anna; Fais, Franco

    2013-06-01

    Ag selection has been suggested to play a role in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) pathogenesis, but no large-scale analysis has been performed so far on the structure of the Ag-binding sites (ABSs) of leukemic cell Igs. We sequenced both H and L chain V(D)J rearrangements from 366 CLL patients and modeled their three-dimensional structures. The resulting ABS structures were clustered into a small number of discrete sets, each containing ABSs with similar shapes and physicochemical properties. This structural classification correlates well with other known prognostic factors such as Ig mutation status and recurrent (stereotyped) receptors, but it shows a better prognostic value, at least in the case of one structural cluster for which clinical data were available. These findings suggest, for the first time, to our knowledge, on the basis of a structural analysis of the Ab-binding sites, that selection by a finite quota of antigenic structures operates on most CLL cases, whether mutated or unmutated.

  14. IgV gene intraclonal diversification and clonal evolution in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Bagnara, Davide; Callea, Vincenzo; Stelitano, Caterina; Morabito, Fortunato; Fabris, Sonia; Neri, Antonino; Zanardi, Sabrina; Ghiotto, Fabio; Ciccone, Ermanno; Grossi, Carlo Enrico; Fais, Franco

    2006-04-01

    Intraclonal diversification of immunoglobulin (Ig) variable (V) genes was evaluated in leukaemic cells from a B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL) case over a 2-year period at four time points. Intraclonal heterogeneity was analysed by sequencing 305 molecular clones derived from polymerase chain reaction amplification of B-CLL cell IgV heavy (H) and light (C) chain gene rearrangements. Sequences were compared with evaluating intraclonal variation and the nature of somatic mutations. Although IgV intraclonal variation was detected at all time points, its level decreased with time and a parallel emergence of two more represented V(H)DJ(H) clones was observed. They differed by nine nucleotide substitutions one of which only caused a conservative replacement aminoacid change. In addition, one V(L)J(L) rearrangement became more represented over time. Analyses of somatic mutations suggest antigen selection and impairment of negative selection of neoplastic cells. In addition, a genealogical tree representing a model of clonal evolution of the neoplastic cells was created. It is of note that, during the period of study, the patient showed clinical progression of disease. We conclude that antigen stimulation and somatic hypermutation may participate in disease progression through the selection and expansion of neoplastic subclone(s).

  15. AID induces intraclonal diversity and genomic damage in CD86+ chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Huemer, Michael; Rebhandl, Stefan; Zaborsky, Nadja; Gassner, Franz J; Hainzl, Stefan; Weiss, Lukas; Hebenstreit, Daniel; Greil, Richard; Geisberger, Roland

    2014-01-01

    The activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) mediates somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination of the Ig genes by directly deaminating cytosines to uracils. As AID causes a substantial amount of off-target mutations, its activity has been associated with lymphomagenesis and clonal evolution of B-cell malignancies. Although it has been shown that AID is expressed in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), a clear analysis of in vivo AID activity in this B-cell malignancy remained elusive. In this study performed on primary human CLL samples, we report that, despite the presence of a dominant VDJ heavy chain region, a substantial intraclonal diversity was observed at VDJ as well as at IgM switch regions (Sμ), showing ongoing AID activity in vivo during disease progression. This AID-mediated heterogeneity was higher in CLL subclones expressing CD86, which we identified as the proliferative CLL fraction. Finally, CD86 expression correlated with shortened time to first treatment and increased γ-H2AX focus formation. Our data demonstrate that AID is active in CLL in vivo and thus, AID likely contributes to clonal evolution of CLL. PMID:25179679

  16. Multidetector computed tomography analysis of benign and malignant nodules in patients with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, CAISONG; LIU, WEI; YANG, JUN; YANG, JING; SHAO, KANGWEI; YUAN, LIXIN; CHEN, HAIRONG; LU, WEI; ZHU, YING

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) features of benign and malignant nodules in patients with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT). MDCT findings, including the size, solid percentage, calcification, margin, capsule, anteroposterior-transverse diameter ratio as well as the mode and the degree of enhancement of 137 thyroid nodules in 127 CLT cases were retrospectively analyzed. Furthermore, the correlation between MDCT findings and pathological results combined with the CT perfusion imaging was analyzed for the differences between benign and malignant nodules. A total of 77.5% (31/40) of malignant nodules were completely solid, and 33% (32/97) of benign nodules were predominantly cystic. Compared with the benign nodules, micro-calcification and internal calcification were more frequently observed in the malignant nodules (P<0.05). MDCT features such as ill-defined margin, absence of capsule or incomplete capsule or homogeneous enhancement were more likely to be present in the malignant nodules (P<0.05). Nevertheless, no significant difference was observed in the enhancement degree at arterial or venous phase between benign and malignant nodules (P>0.05). MDCT features are useful in differentiating the benign and malignant nodules in CLT patients, and it may be essential for a radiologist to review the MDCT characteristics of nodules in the clinical practice. PMID:27347131

  17. Multidetector computed tomography analysis of benign and malignant nodules in patients with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Caisong; Liu, Wei; Yang, Jun; Yang, Jing; Shao, Kangwei; Yuan, Lixin; Chen, Hairong; Lu, Wei; Zhu, Ying

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) features of benign and malignant nodules in patients with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT). MDCT findings, including the size, solid percentage, calcification, margin, capsule, anteroposterior-transverse diameter ratio as well as the mode and the degree of enhancement of 137 thyroid nodules in 127 CLT cases were retrospectively analyzed. Furthermore, the correlation between MDCT findings and pathological results combined with the CT perfusion imaging was analyzed for the differences between benign and malignant nodules. A total of 77.5% (31/40) of malignant nodules were completely solid, and 33% (32/97) of benign nodules were predominantly cystic. Compared with the benign nodules, micro-calcification and internal calcification were more frequently observed in the malignant nodules (P<0.05). MDCT features such as ill-defined margin, absence of capsule or incomplete capsule or homogeneous enhancement were more likely to be present in the malignant nodules (P<0.05). Nevertheless, no significant difference was observed in the enhancement degree at arterial or venous phase between benign and malignant nodules (P>0.05). MDCT features are useful in differentiating the benign and malignant nodules in CLT patients, and it may be essential for a radiologist to review the MDCT characteristics of nodules in the clinical practice.

  18. Overexpressed BAG3 is a potential therapeutic target in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huayuan; Wu, Wei; Fu, Yuan; Shen, Wenyi; Miao, Kourong; Hong, Min; Xu, Wei; Young, Ken H; Liu, Peng; Li, Jianyong

    2014-03-01

    Bcl-2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3), a member of BAG family, is shown to sustain cell survival and underlie resistance to chemotherapy in human neoplastic cells. We aimed to determine the exact role and underlying mechanisms of BAG3 in human chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). One hundred human CLL samples and 20 normal B-cell samples from healthy controls were collected. We measured the BAG3 expression in these cells and explored its relationship with known prognostic factors for CLL. The roles of BAG3 in cell apoptosis and migration were evaluated by small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of BAG3 in primary CLL cells. We showed that BAG3 expression level was increased in CLL cells compared with normal B cells. Moreover, BAG3 expression was particularly upregulated in CD38 positive, unmutated immunoglobulin heavy-chain patients and those with lymphadenopathy and/or splenomegaly. Importantly, patients with increased BAG3 expression level have poor overall survival in subgroups with positive ZAP-70 or those without any "p53 abnormality". In addition, knocking down of BAG3 expression resulted in increased apoptotic ratio and decreased migration in primary CLL cells. Our data indicate that BAG3 is a marker of poor prognostic in specific subgroups of CLL patients and may be a potential therapeutic target for this disease.

  19. Alterations of mitochondrial biogenesis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells with loss of p53

    PubMed Central

    Ogasawara, Marcia A.; Liu, Jinyun; Pelicano, Helene; Hammoudi, Naima; Croce, Carlo M.; Keating, Michael J.; Huang, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Deletion of chromosome 17p with a loss of p53 is an unfavorable cytogenetic change in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with poor clinical outcome. Since p53 affects mitochondrial function and integrity, we examined possible mitochondrial changes in CLL mice with TCL1-Tg/p53−/− and TCL1-Tg/p53+/+ genotypes and in primary leukemia cells from CLL patients with or without 17p-deletion. Although the expression of mitochondrial COX1, ND2, and ND6 decreased in p53−/−CLL cells, there was an increase in mitochondrial biogenesis as evidenced by higher mitochondrial mass and mtDNA copy number associated with an elevated expression of TFAM and PGC-1α. Surprisingly, the overall mitochondrial respiratory activity and maximum reserved capacity increased in p53−/− CLL cells. Our study suggests that leukemia cells lacking p53 seem able to maintain respiratory function by compensatory increase in mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:27650502

  20. A Novel Assay for the Identification of NOTCH1 PEST Domain Mutations in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Petroni, Roberta Cardoso; Muto, Nair Hideko; Sitnik, Roberta; de Carvalho, Flavia Pereira; Bacal, Nydia Strachman; Velloso, Elvira Deolinda Rodrigues Pereira; Oliveira, Gislaine Borba; Pinho, João Renato Rebello; Torres, Davi Coe; Mansur, Marcela Braga; Hassan, Rocio; Lorand-Metze, Irene Gyongyvér Heidemarie; Chiattone, Carlos Sérgio; Hamerschlak, Nelson; Mangueira, Cristovão Luis Pitangueira

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To develop a fast and robust DNA-based assay to detect insertions and deletions mutations in exon 34 that encodes the PEST domain of NOTCH1 in order to evaluate patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Methods. We designed a multiplexed allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) combined with a fragment analysis assay to detect specifically the mutation c.7544_7545delCT and possibly other insertions and deletions in exon 34 of NOTCH1. Results. We evaluated our assay in peripheral blood samples from two cohorts of patients with CLL. The frequency of NOTCH1 mutations was 8.4% in the first cohort of 71 unselected CLL patients. We then evaluated a second cohort of 26 CLL patients with known cytogenetic abnormalities that were enriched for patients with trisomy 12. NOTCH1 mutations were detected in 43.7% of the patients with trisomy 12. Conclusions. We have developed a fast and robust assay combining allele-specific PCR and fragment analysis able to detect NOTCH1 PEST domain insertions and deletions. PMID:28074183

  1. Adoptive cellular therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia and B cell malignancies. CARs and more.

    PubMed

    Castro, Januario E; Kipps, Thomas J

    2016-03-01

    Treatment of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and other B cell malignancies is evolving very rapidly. We have observed the quick transition during the last couple of years, from chemo-immunotherapy based treatments to oral targeted therapies based on B cell receptor signaling and Bcl-2 inhibitors, as well as the increasing use of second generation glyco-engineered antibodies. The next wave of revolution in the treatment for this conditions is approaching and it will be based on strategies that harness the power of the immune system to fight cancer. In the center of this biotechnological revolution is cellular engineering, the field that had made possible to redirect the immune system effector cells to achieve a more effective and targeted adoptive cellular therapy. In this chapter, we will review the historical context of these scientific developments, the most recent basic and clinical research in the field and some opinions regarding the future of adoptive cellular therapy in CLL and other B cell malignancies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Automatic detection of axillary lymphadenopathy on CT scans of untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiamin; Hua, Jeremy; Chellappa, Vivek; Petrick, Nicholas; Sahiner, Berkman; Farooqui, Mohammed; Marti, Gerald; Wiestner, Adrian; Summers, Ronald M.

    2012-03-01

    Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have an increased frequency of axillary lymphadenopathy. Pretreatment CT scans can be used to upstage patients at the time of presentation and post-treatment CT scans can reduce the number of complete responses. In the current clinical workflow, the detection and diagnosis of lymph nodes is usually performed manually by examining all slices of CT images, which can be time consuming and highly dependent on the observer's experience. A system for automatic lymph node detection and measurement is desired. We propose a computer aided detection (CAD) system for axillary lymph nodes on CT scans in CLL patients. The lung is first automatically segmented and the patient's body in lung region is extracted to set the search region for lymph nodes. Multi-scale Hessian based blob detection is then applied to detect potential lymph nodes within the search region. Next, the detected potential candidates are segmented by fast level set method. Finally, features are calculated from the segmented candidates and support vector machine (SVM) classification is utilized for false positive reduction. Two blobness features, Frangi's and Li's, are tested and their free-response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) curves are generated to assess system performance. We applied our detection system to 12 patients with 168 axillary lymph nodes measuring greater than 10 mm. All lymph nodes are manually labeled as ground truth. The system achieved sensitivities of 81% and 85% at 2 false positives per patient for Frangi's and Li's blobness, respectively.

  3. CD200 is a useful diagnostic marker for identifying atypical chronic lymphocytic leukemia by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Ting, Y S; Smith, S A B C; Brown, D A; Dodds, A J; Fay, K C; Ma, D D F; Milliken, S; Moore, J J; Sewell, W A

    2018-05-27

    Immunophenotyping by flow cytometry is routinely employed in distinguishing between chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Inclusion of CD200 has been reported to contribute to more reliable differentiation between CLL and MCL. We investigated the value of CD200 in assessment of atypical CLL cases. CD200 expression on mature B cell neoplasms was studied by eight-color flow cytometry in combination with a conventional panel of flow cytometry markers. The study included 70 control samples, 63 samples with CLL or atypical CLL phenotype, 6 MCL samples, and 40 samples of other mature B cell neoplasms. All CLL samples were positive for CD200, whereas MCL samples were dim or negative for CD200. Of the CLL samples, 7 were atypical by conventional flow cytometry, with Matutes scores ≤3. These cases were tested for evidence of a t(11;14) translocation, characteristic of MCL, and all were negative, consistent with their classification as atypical CLL. All these atypical CLL samples were strongly positive for CD200. CD200 proved to be a useful marker for differentiation between CLL and MCL by flow cytometry. In particular, CD200 was useful in distinguishing CLL samples with atypical immunophenotypes from MCL. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Cost-effectiveness of obinutuzumab for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Blommestein, Hedwig M; de Groot, Saskia; Aarts, Mieke J; Vemer, Pepijn; de Vries, Robin; van Abeelen, Annet F M; Posthuma, E F M Ward; Uyl-de Groot, Carin A

    2016-11-01

    Obinutuzumab combined with chlorambucil (GClb) has shown to be superior to rituximab combined with chlorambucil (RClb) and chlorambucil (Clb) in newly diagnosed patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). This study evaluates the cost-effectiveness per life-year and quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) of GClb compared to RClb, Clb, and ofatumumab plus chlorambucil (OClb) in The Netherlands. A Markov model was developed to assess the cost-effectiveness of GClb, RClb, Clb and other treatments in the United Kingdom. A country adaptation was made to estimate the cost-effectiveness of these therapies in The Netherlands using Dutch unit costs and Dutch data sources for background mortality and post-progression survival. An incremental gain of 1.06 and 0.64 QALYs was estimated for GClb compared to Clb and RClb respectively, at additional costs of €23,208 and €7254 per patient. Corresponding incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were €21,823 and €11,344 per QALY. Indirect treatment comparisons showed an incremental gain varying from 0.44 to 0.77 QALYs for GClb compared to OClb and additional costs varying from €7041 to €5028 per patient. The ICER varied from €6556 to €16,180 per QALY. Sensitivity analyses showed the robustness of the results. GClb appeared to be a cost-effective treatment strategy compared to RClb, OClb and Clb. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Novel role of prostate apoptosis response-4 tumor suppressor in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Mary K; Noothi, Sunil K; Alhakeem, Sara S; Oben, Karine Z; Greene, Joseph T; Mani, Rajeswaran; Perry, Kathryn L; Collard, James P; Rivas, Jacqueline R; Hildebrandt, Gerhard; Fleischman, Roger; Durbin, Eric B; Byrd, John C; Wang, Chi; Muthusamy, Natarajan; Rangnekar, Vivek M; Bondada, Subbarao

    2018-04-25

    Prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4), a pro-apoptotic tumor suppressor protein, is down regulated in many cancers including renal cell carcinoma, glioblastoma, endometrial and breast cancer. Par-4 induces apoptosis selectively in various types of cancer cells but not normal cells. We found that chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells from human patients and from the Eµ-Tcl1 mice constitutively express Par-4 in greater amounts than normal B-1 or B-2 cells. Interestingly, knockdown of Par-4 in human CLL derived Mec-1 cells results in a robust increase in p21/WAF1 expression and decreased growth due to delayed G1 to S cell cycle transition. Lack of Par-4 also increased the expression of p21 and delayed CLL growth in Eμ-Tcl1 mice. Par-4 expression in CLL cells required constitutively active B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling, as inhibition of BCR signaling with FDA approved drugs caused a decrease in Par-4 mRNA and protein, and an increase in apoptosis. In particular, activities of Lyn, a Src family kinase, spleen tyrosine kinase and Bruton's tyrosine kinase are required for Par-4 expression in CLL cells, suggesting a novel regulation of Par-4 through BCR signaling. Together, these results suggest that Par-4 may play a novel pro-growth rather than pro-apoptotic role in CLL and could be targeted to enhance the therapeutic effects of BCR signaling inhibitors. Copyright © 2018 American Society of Hematology.

  6. Rapid and efficient nonviral gene delivery of CD154 to primary chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Li, L H; Biagi, E; Allen, C; Shivakumar, R; Weiss, J M; Feller, S; Yvon, E; Fratantoni, J C; Liu, L N

    2006-02-01

    Interactions between CD40 and CD40 ligand (CD154) are essential in the regulation of both humoral and cellular immune responses. Forced expression of human CD154 in B chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) cells can upregulate costimulatory and adhesion molecules and restore antigen-presenting capacity. Unfortunately, B-CLL cells are resistant to direct gene manipulation with most currently available gene transfer systems. In this report, we describe the use of a nonviral, clinical-grade, electroporation-based gene delivery system and a standard plasmid carrying CD154 cDNA, which achieved efficient (64+/-15%) and rapid (within 3 h) transfection of primary B-CLL cells. Consistent results were obtained from multiple human donors. Transfection of CD154 was functional in that it led to upregulated expression of CD80, CD86, ICAM-I and MHC class II (HLA-DR) on the B-CLL cells and induction of allogeneic immune responses in MLR assays. Furthermore, sustained transgene expression was demonstrated in long-term cryopreserved transfected cells. This simple and rapid gene delivery technology has been validated under the current Good Manufacturing Practice conditions, and multiple doses of CD154-expressing cells were prepared for CLL patients from one DNA transfection. Vaccination strategies using autologous tumor cells manipulated ex vivo for patients with B-CLL and perhaps with other hematopoietic malignancies could be practically implemented using this rapid and efficient nonviral gene delivery system.

  7. Peripheral T-Cell lymphoma manifested as gingival enlargement in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Buddula, Aravind; Assad, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common form of leukemia in adults and is associated with increased risk of malignancy. T-cell lymphoma associated with CLL has never been reported. The case report presents a unique case of peripheral T-cell lymphoma on the gingiva of a patient with CLL. A 66-year-old man with a history of CLL was referred to the Mayo Clinic, Department of Dental Specialties, for evaluation of swelling in the upper left posterior sextant. An intraoral examination revealed a soft tissue swelling in the area of teeth number 13 and 15, including the present edentulous ridge between number 13 and 15. An incisional biopsy was performed on the palatal aspect of tooth No. 15 and submitted for histologic evaluation. The histopathology revealed proliferation of large atypical cells beneath the epithelium, positive for antigens CD2, CD3, Beta-F1, TIA-1, and Granzyme B consistent for a diagnosis of a peripheral T-cell lymphoma. A team approach including the hematologist, general dentist and periodontist resulted in timely referrals leading to an early diagnosis and early intervention and treatment.

  8. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and acute renal failure in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia: Response to obinutuzumab.

    PubMed

    Jain, Punit; Kanagal-Shamanna, Rashmi; Wierda, William; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Keating, Michael; Jain, Nitin

    2017-09-01

    Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is a common extramedullary renal presentation in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and can present with either a frank renal failure or proteinuria. One of its etiologies has been attributed to a paraneoplastic, immune complex phenomenon occurring in CLL. Although there is no standard of care in such patients, use of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies like rituximab have been used before in such patients with variable responses. Obinutuzumab is a novel, type II, immunoglobulin-G1 monoclonal antibody with a higher efficacy than rituximab and has an established safely profile in patients with comorbidities and poor renal functions. There are no such reported cases of MPGN in CLL being treated with obinutuzumab. We used the standard doses of obinutuzumab in our elderly patient (78-year-old woman) with high-risk CLL due to an underlying TP53 mutation, along with a MPGN-related acute renal failure. The patient achieved complete remission after six cycles of obinutuzumab; however, she remained positive for minimal residual disease on flow cytometry. Her renal function improved completely, suggesting a complete response of her underlying MPGN. Obinutuzumab has an established safety profile in patients with CLL, but our case is the first reported case of a paraneoplastic, immune complex-mediated MPGN in CLL being treated with obinutuzumab. Obinutuzumab should be explored as a potential option in patients with CLL and MPGN. Copyright © 2016 King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Non-codingRNA sequence variations in human chronic lymphocytic leukemia and colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Wojcik, Sylwia E; Rossi, Simona; Shimizu, Masayoshi; Nicoloso, Milena S; Cimmino, Amelia; Alder, Hansjuerg; Herlea, Vlad; Rassenti, Laura Z; Rai, Kanti R; Kipps, Thomas J; Keating, Michael J; Croce, Carlo M; Calin, George A

    2010-02-01

    Cancer is a genetic disease in which the interplay between alterations in protein-coding genes and non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) plays a fundamental role. In recent years, the full coding component of the human genome was sequenced in various cancers, whereas such attempts related to ncRNAs are still fragmentary. We screened genomic DNAs for sequence variations in 148 microRNAs (miRNAs) and ultraconserved regions (UCRs) loci in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) or colorectal cancer (CRC) by Sanger technique and further tried to elucidate the functional consequences of some of these variations. We found sequence variations in miRNAs in both sporadic and familial CLL cases, mutations of UCRs in CLLs and CRCs and, in certain instances, detected functional effects of these variations. Furthermore, by integrating our data with previously published data on miRNA sequence variations, we have created a catalog of DNA sequence variations in miRNAs/ultraconserved genes in human cancers. These findings argue that ncRNAs are targeted by both germ line and somatic mutations as well as by single-nucleotide polymorphisms with functional significance for human tumorigenesis. Sequence variations in ncRNA loci are frequent and some have functional and biological significance. Such information can be exploited to further investigate on a genome-wide scale the frequency of genetic variations in ncRNAs and their functional meaning, as well as for the development of new diagnostic and prognostic markers for leukemias and carcinomas.

  10. Interferon regulatory factor 4 attenuates Notch signaling to suppress the development of chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Vipul; Shukla, Ashima; Joshi, Shantaram S.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular pathogenesis of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) is not fully elucidated. Genome wide association studies have linked Interferon Regulatory Factor 4 (IRF4) to the development of CLL. We recently established a causal relationship between low levels of IRF4 and development of CLL. However, the molecular mechanism through which IRF4 suppresses CLL development remains unclear. Deregulation of Notch signaling pathway has been identified as one of the most recurrent molecular anomalies in the pathogenesis of CLL. Yet, the role of Notch signaling as well as its regulation during CLL development remains poorly understood. Previously, we demonstrated that IRF4 deficient mice expressing immunoglobulin heavy chain Vh11 (IRF4−/−Vh11) developed spontaneous CLL with complete penetrance. In this study, we show that elevated Notch2 expression and the resulting hyperactivation of Notch signaling are common features of IRF4−/−Vh11 CLL cells. Our studies further reveal that Notch signaling is indispensable for CLL development in the IRF4−/−Vh11 mice. Moreover, we identify E3 ubiquitin ligase Nedd4, which targets Notch for degradation, as a direct target of IRF4 in CLL cells and their precursors. Collectively, our studies provide the first in vivo evidence for an essential role of Notch signaling in the development of CLL and establish IRF4 as a critical regulator of Notch signaling during CLL development. PMID:27232759

  11. Interphase cytogenetics of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia by FISH-technique

    SciT

    Peddanna, N.; Gogineni, S.K.; Rosenthal, C.J.

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia [CLL] accounts for about 30% of all lymphoproliferative disorders. In over 95% of these cases, the leukemia is caused by B-cells, rarely T-cells. Fifty percent of B-CLL have chromosomal aberrations and of such cases, one-third have trisomy 12. Malignant B-cells have a very low mitotic index and those metaphases that can be analyzed usually represent the normal T-cell population. Retrospectively, we decided to identify the additional chromosome 12 (trisomy 12) directly at interphase by the FISH-technique using centrometric 12 specific alphoid probe (Oncor, Gaithersburg, MD). Preparations were made from 9 patients with B-CLL. All cultures except onemore » failed to produce metaphases for conventional karyotyping. Eighty percent of the cells have two dots (normal cells) over the interphase nuclei while the remaining 20% have three dots (trisomy 12). The clinical implication of trisomy 12 in the pathogenesis of CLL including age, staging and duration of disease, differentials and immunological markers are correlated with interphase cytogenetic data. The loss and/or gain of specific chromosomes in human neoplasia is common and rapid evaluation of such cases should be considered as a routine approach.« less

  12. Pim kinase inhibitor, SGI-1776, induces apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lisa S; Redkar, Sanjeev; Bearss, David; Wierda, William G; Gandhi, Varsha

    2009-11-05

    Pim kinases are involved in B-cell development and are overexpressed in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We hypothesized that Pim kinase inhibition would affect B-cell survival. Identified from a screen of imidazo[1,2-b]pyridazine compounds, SGI-1776 inhibits Pim-1, Pim-2, and Pim-3. Treatment of CLL cells with SGI-1776 results in a concentration-dependent induction of apoptosis. To elucidate its mechanism of action, we evaluated the effect of SGI-1776 on Pim kinase function. Unlike in replicating cells, phosphorylation of traditional Pim-1 kinase targets, phospho-Bad (Ser112) and histone H3 (Ser10), and cell-cycle proteins were unaffected by SGI-1776, suggesting an alternative mechanism in CLL. Protein levels of total c-Myc as well as phospho-c-Myc(Ser62), a Pim-1 target site, were decreased after SGI-1776 treatment. Levels of antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-X(L), XIAP, and proapoptotic Bak and Bax were unchanged; however, a significant reduction in Mcl-1 was observed that was not caused by caspase-mediated cleavage of Mcl-1 protein. The mechanism of decline in Mcl-1 was at the RNA level and was correlated with inhibition of global RNA synthesis. Consistent with a decline in new RNA synthesis, MCL-1 transcript levels were decreased after treatment with SGI-1776. These data suggest that SGI-1776 induces apoptosis in CLL and that the mechanism involves Mcl-1 reduction.

  13. Pim kinase inhibitor, SGI-1776, induces apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lisa S.; Redkar, Sanjeev; Bearss, David; Wierda, William G.

    2009-01-01

    Pim kinases are involved in B-cell development and are overexpressed in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We hypothesized that Pim kinase inhibition would affect B-cell survival. Identified from a screen of imidazo[1,2-b]pyridazine compounds, SGI-1776 inhibits Pim-1, Pim-2, and Pim-3. Treatment of CLL cells with SGI-1776 results in a concentration-dependent induction of apoptosis. To elucidate its mechanism of action, we evaluated the effect of SGI-1776 on Pim kinase function. Unlike in replicating cells, phosphorylation of traditional Pim-1 kinase targets, phospho-Bad (Ser112) and histone H3 (Ser10), and cell-cycle proteins were unaffected by SGI-1776, suggesting an alternative mechanism in CLL. Protein levels of total c-Myc as well as phospho-c-Myc(Ser62), a Pim-1 target site, were decreased after SGI-1776 treatment. Levels of antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, XIAP, and proapoptotic Bak and Bax were unchanged; however, a significant reduction in Mcl-1 was observed that was not caused by caspase-mediated cleavage of Mcl-1 protein. The mechanism of decline in Mcl-1 was at the RNA level and was correlated with inhibition of global RNA synthesis. Consistent with a decline in new RNA synthesis, MCL-1 transcript levels were decreased after treatment with SGI-1776. These data suggest that SGI-1776 induces apoptosis in CLL and that the mechanism involves Mcl-1 reduction. PMID:19734450

  14. Clinical and biological relevance of genomic heterogeneity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Daphne R; Lucas, Joseph E; Weinberg, J Brice

    2013-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is typically regarded as an indolent B-cell malignancy. However, there is wide variability with regards to need for therapy, time to progressive disease, and treatment response. This clinical variability is due, in part, to biological heterogeneity between individual patients' leukemias. While much has been learned about this biological variation using genomic approaches, it is unclear whether such efforts have sufficiently evaluated biological and clinical heterogeneity in CLL. To study the extent of genomic variability in CLL and the biological and clinical attributes of genomic classification in CLL, we evaluated 893 unique CLL samples from fifteen publicly available gene expression profiling datasets. We used unsupervised approaches to divide the data into subgroups, evaluated the biological pathways and genetic aberrations that were associated with the subgroups, and compared prognostic and clinical outcome data between the subgroups. Using an unsupervised approach, we determined that approximately 600 CLL samples are needed to define the spectrum of diversity in CLL genomic expression. We identified seven genomically-defined CLL subgroups that have distinct biological properties, are associated with specific chromosomal deletions and amplifications, and have marked differences in molecular prognostic markers and clinical outcomes. Our results indicate that investigations focusing on small numbers of patient samples likely provide a biased outlook on CLL biology. These findings may have important implications in identifying patients who should be treated with specific targeted therapies, which could have efficacy against CLL cells that rely on specific biological pathways.

  15. Characterizing patients with multiple chromosomal aberrations detected by FISH in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    González-Gascón Y Marín, Isabel; Hernández-Sanchez, María; Rodríguez-Vicente, Ana Eugenia; Puiggros, Anna; Collado, Rosa; Luño, Elisa; González, Teresa; Ruiz-Xivillé, Neus; Ortega, Margarita; Gimeno, Eva; Muñoz, Carolina; Infante, Maria Stefania; Delgado, Julio; Vargas, María Teresa; González, Marcos; Bosch, Francesc; Espinet, Blanca; Hernández-Rivas, Jesús María; Hernández, José Ángel

    2018-03-01

    We analyzed the features of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with multiple abnormalities (MA) detected by FISH. A local database including 2095 CLL cases was used and 323 with MA (15.4%) were selected. MA was defined by the presence of two or more alterations (deletions of 13q14 (13q-), 11q22 (11q-), 17p13 (17p-) or trisomy 12 (+12)). The combination of 13q- with 11q- and 13q- with 17p-, accounted for 58.2% of the series, in contrast to 11q- with 17p- (3.7%). Patients carrying MA since diagnosis presented a short time to first therapy(TTFT) (27 months) and overall survival (OS) (76 months). The combinations including 17p- had a shorter OS (58 months) than the ones without 17p- (not reached, p = .002). Patients with a complex-FISH were the ones with worse OS (34 months). MA imply poor prognosis when they emerge at diagnosis, probably due to the high incidence of bad prognosis markers, which may be a reflection of a more complex karyotype.

  16. A unique proteomic profile on surface IgM ligation in unmutated chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Perrot, Aurore; Pionneau, Cédric; Nadaud, Sophie; Davi, Frédéric; Leblond, Véronique; Jacob, Frédéric; Merle-Béral, Hélène; Herbrecht, Raoul; Béné, Marie-Christine; Gribben, John G.; Vallat, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is characterized by a highly variable clinical course with 2 extreme subsets: indolent, ZAP70− and mutated immunoglobulin heavy chain gene (M-CLL); and aggressive, ZAP70+ and unmutated immunoglobulin heavy chain (UM-CLL). Given the long-term suspicion of antigenic stimulation as a primum movens in the disease, the role of the B-cell receptor has been extensively studied in various experimental settings; albeit scarcely in a comparative dynamic proteomic approach. Here we use a quantitative 2-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis technology to compare 48 proteomic profiles of the 2 CLL subsets before and after anti-IgM ligation. Differentially expressed proteins were subsequently identified by mass spectrometry. We show that unstimulated M- and UM-CLL cells display distinct proteomic profiles. Furthermore, anti-IgM stimulation induces a specific proteomic response, more pronounced in the more aggressive CLL. Statistical analyses demonstrate several significant protein variations according to stimulation conditions. Finally, we identify an intermediate form of M-CLL cells, with an indolent profile (ZAP70−) but sharing aggressive proteomic profiles alike UM-CLL cells. Collectively, this first quantitative and dynamic proteome analysis of CLL further dissects the complex molecular pathway after B-cell receptor stimulation and depicts distinct proteomic profiles, which could lead to novel molecular stratification of the disease. PMID:21602524

  17. Targeting Stereotyped B Cell Receptors from Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Patients with Synthetic Antigen Surrogates.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Mohosin; Liu, Yun; Qi, Junpeng; Peng, Haiyong; Morimoto, Jumpei; Rader, Christoph; Chiorazzi, Nicholas; Kodadek, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a disease in which a single B-cell clone proliferates relentlessly in peripheral lymphoid organs, bone marrow, and blood. DNA sequencing experiments have shown that about 30% of CLL patients have stereotyped antigen-specific B-cell receptors (BCRs) with a high level of sequence homology in the variable domains of the heavy and light chains. These include many of the most aggressive cases that haveIGHV-unmutated BCRs whose sequences have not diverged significantly from the germ line. This suggests a personalized therapy strategy in which a toxin or immune effector function is delivered selectively to the pathogenic B-cells but not to healthy B-cells. To execute this strategy, serum-stable, drug-like compounds able to target the antigen-binding sites of most or all patients in a stereotyped subset are required. We demonstrate here the feasibility of this approach with the discovery of selective, high affinity ligands for CLL BCRs of the aggressive, stereotyped subset 7P that cross-react with the BCRs of several CLL patients in subset 7p, but not with BCRs from patients outside this subset. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Clinical roundtable monograph: unmet needs in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia: integrating a targeted approach.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Susan M; Furman, Richard R; Byrd, John C; Smith, Ashbel

    2014-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most frequently diagnosed hematologic malignancy in the United States. Although several features can be useful in the diagnosis of CLL, the most important is the immunophenotype.Two staging systems--the Binet system and the Rai classification--are used to assess risk. After diagnosis, the first major therapeutic decision is when to initiate therapy, as a watchful waiting approach is often appropriate for patients with asymptomatic disease. Once a patient has met the criteria for treatment, the choice of therapy is the next major decision. Younger patients (<65 years) often receive more aggressive treatment that typically consists of cytotoxic chemotherapy. There is a great unmet need concerning treatment of older patients with CLL, who often present with more comorbid conditions that can decrease their ability to tolerate particular regimens. The current standard of care for older patients with CLL is rituximab plus chlorambucil. The concept of targeted agents is currently an area of intense interest in CLL. The Bruton’s tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib is the targeted agent that is furthest along in clinical development. It is associated with an overall survival rate of 83%. Idelalisib targets the phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase and is under evaluation in pivotal trials. Targeted agents offer much promise in terms of efficacy, toxicity, and oral availability. They will change the management of patients with CLL.

  19. Ibrutinib therapy increases T cell repertoire diversity in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Qingsong; Sivina, Mariela; Robins, Harlan; Yusko, Erik; Vignali, Marissa; O’Brien, Susan; Keating, Michael J.; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Estrov, Zeev; Jain, Nitin; Wierda, William G.; Burger, Jan A.

    2017-01-01

    The BTK inhibitor ibrutinib is a highly effective, new targeted therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) that thwarts leukemia cell survival, growth, and tissue homing. The effects of ibrutinib treatment on the T cell compartment, which is clonally expanded and thought to support the growth of the malignant B cells in CLL, are not fully characterized. Using next-generation sequencing technology we characterized the diversity of TCRβ chains in peripheral blood T cells from 15 CLL patients before and after one year of ibrutinib therapy. We noted elevated CD4+ and CD8+ T cell numbers and a restricted TCRβ repertoire in all pretreatment samples. After one year of ibrutinib therapy, elevated PB T cell numbers and T-cell related cytokine levels had normalized and T cell repertoire diversity significantly increased. Dominant TCRβ clones in pretreatment samples declined or became undetectable, and the number of productive unique clones significantly increased during ibrutinib therapy, with the emergence of large numbers of low-frequency TCRβ clones. Importantly, broader TCR repertoire diversity was associated with clinical efficacy and lower rates of infections during ibrutinib therapy. These data demonstrate that ibrutinib therapy increases diversification of the T cell compartment in CLL patients, which contributes to cellular immune reconstitution. PMID:28077600

  20. Disseminated Cryptococcal Disease in a Patient with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia on Ibrutinib.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Koh; Proia, Laurie A; Demarais, Patricia L

    2016-01-01

    Cryptococcus is a unique environmental fungus that can cause disease most often in immunocompromised individuals with defective cell-mediated immunity. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is not known to be a risk factor for cryptococcal disease although cases have been described mainly in patients treated with agents that suppress cell-mediated immunity. Ibrutinib is a new biologic agent used for treatment of CLL, mantle cell lymphoma, and Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia. It acts by inhibiting Bruton's tyrosine kinase, a kinase downstream of the B-cell receptor critical for B-cell survival and proliferation. Ibrutinib use has not been associated previously with cryptococcal disease. However, recent evidence suggested that treatments aimed at blocking the function of Bruton's tyrosine kinase could pose a higher risk for cryptococcal infection in a mice model. Here, we report the first case of disseminated cryptococcal disease in a patient with CLL treated with ibrutinib. When evaluating possible infection in CLL patients receiving ibrutinib, cryptococcal disease, which could be life threatening if overlooked, could be considered.

  1. A critical appraisal of ibrutinib in the treatment of mantle cell lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, David L; Rule, Simon A

    2015-01-01

    Although chemo-immunotherapy remains at the forefront of first-line treatment for mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), small molecules, such as ibrutinib, are beginning to play a significant role, particularly in patients with multiply relapsed or chemotherapy-refractory disease and where toxicity is an overriding concern. Ibrutinib is a first-in-class, oral inhibitor of Bruton’s tyrosine kinase, which functions by irreversible inhibition of the downstream signaling pathway of the B-cell receptor, which normally promotes cell survival and proliferation. Early clinical trials have demonstrated excellent tolerability and a modest side-effect profile even in elderly and multiply pretreated patient cohorts. Although the majority of disease responses tend to be partial, efficacy data have also been encouraging with more than two-thirds of patients with CLL and MCL demonstrating a durable response, even in the high-risk disease setting. Resistance mechanisms are only partially understood and appear to be multifactorial, including the binding site mutation C481S, and escape through other common cell-signaling pathways. This article appraises the currently available data on safety and efficacy from clinical trials of ibrutinib in the management of MCL and CLL, both as a single agent and in combination with other therapies, and considers how this drug is likely to be used in future clinical practice. PMID:26150724

  2. The clinicopathologic differences in papillary thyroid carcinoma with or without co-existing chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Yeo-Hoon; Kim, Hak Joon; Lee, Jin Woo; Kim, Jin Man; Koo, Bon Seok

    2012-03-01

    The goal of this study is to determine the clinicopathologic differences in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) with or without chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT). We reviewed the medical records of 195 consecutive PTC patients who underwent total thyroidectomy and bilateral central lymph node dissection from April 2008 to March 2010. The differences in clinicopathologic factors, such as age, gender, size of primary tumor, perithyroidal invasion, lymphovascular invasion, capsular invasion, and central lymph node (CLN) metastasis, were analyzed in PTC patients with or without CLT. Among 195 patients, 56 (28.7%) had co-existing CLT. Patients with CLT had the following characteristics as compared to patients without CLT: significantly younger, female predominance, smaller tumor size, and lower incidence of capsular invasion (p = 0.038, 0.006, 0.037, and 0.026, respectively). Also, patients with CLT (12.5%) had a significantly lower incidence of CLN metastases than patients without CLT (28.1%; p = 0.025) based on univariate analysis. Moreover, multivariate analysis showed that younger age (p = 0.042, odds ratio = 1.033) and female gender (p = 0.012, odds ratio = 6.865) are independent clinical factors in patients with CLT compared to patients without CLT. CLT was shown to be commonly associated with PTC. Compared to patients with PTC without CLT, patients with CLT were younger with a female predominance, which are the most important and well-known prognostic variables for thyroid cancer mortality.

  3. Coexistence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis with papillary thyroid carcinoma: clinical manifestation and prognostic outcome.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jun Soo; Kim, Hyun Ki; Lee, Cho-Rok; Park, Seulkee; Park, Jae Hyun; Kang, Sang-Wook; Jeong, Jong Ju; Nam, Kee-Hyun; Chung, Woong Youn; Park, Cheong Soo

    2012-08-01

    The study aimed to identify the clinical characteristics of coexisting chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and to evaluate the influence on prognosis. A total of 1,357 patients who underwent thyroid surgery for PTC were included. The clinicopathological characteristics were identified. Patients who underwent total thyroidectomy (n = 597) were studied to evaluate the influence of coexistent CLT on prognosis. Among the total 1,357 patients, 359 (26.5%) had coexistent CLT. In the CLT group, the prevalence of females was higher than in the control group without CLT (P < 0.001). Mean tumor size and mean age in the patients with CLT were smaller than without CLT (P = 0.040, P = 0.047, respectively). Extrathyroidal extension in the patients with CLT was significantly lower than without CLT (P = 0.016). Among the subset of 597 patients, disease-free survival rate in the patients with CLT was significantly higher than without CLT (P = 0.042). However, the multivariate analysis did not reveal a negative association between CLT coexistence and recurrence. Patients with CLT display a greater female preponderance, smaller size, younger and lower extrathyroidal extension. CLT is not a significant independent negative predictive factor for recurrence, although presence of CLT indicates a reduced risk of recurrence.

  4. Coexistence of Chronic Lymphocytic Thyroiditis with Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: Clinical Manifestation and Prognostic Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jun Soo; Kim, Hyun Ki; Lee, Cho-Rok; Park, Seulkee; Park, Jae Hyun; Kang, Sang-Wook; Nam, Kee-Hyun; Chung, Woong Youn; Park, Cheong Soo

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to identify the clinical characteristics of coexisting chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and to evaluate the influence on prognosis. A total of 1,357 patients who underwent thyroid surgery for PTC were included. The clinicopathological characteristics were identified. Patients who underwent total thyroidectomy (n = 597) were studied to evaluate the influence of coexistent CLT on prognosis. Among the total 1,357 patients, 359 (26.5%) had coexistent CLT. In the CLT group, the prevalence of females was higher than in the control group without CLT (P < 0.001). Mean tumor size and mean age in the patients with CLT were smaller than without CLT (P = 0.040, P = 0.047, respectively). Extrathyroidal extension in the patients with CLT was significantly lower than without CLT (P = 0.016). Among the subset of 597 patients, disease-free survival rate in the patients with CLT was significantly higher than without CLT (P = 0.042). However, the multivariate analysis did not reveal a negative association between CLT coexistence and recurrence. Patients with CLT display a greater female preponderance, smaller size, younger and lower extrathyroidal extension. CLT is not a significant independent negative predictive factor for recurrence, although presence of CLT indicates a reduced risk of recurrence. PMID:22876054

  5. Oral exposure to dibutyl phthalate exacerbates chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis through oxidative stress in female Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yang; Li, Jinquan; Yan, Biao; Zhu, Yuqing; Liu, Xudong; Chen, Mingqing; Li, Dai; Lee, Ching-Chang; Yang, Xu; Ma, Ping

    2017-11-13

    Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) is a common autoimmune disorder. The possible pathogenic role and mechanism of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) in CLT is still controversial. Experiments were conducted after 35-days of oral exposure to the three concentrations of DBP or saline, and three immunizations with thyroglobulin (TG). Healthy female Wistar rats were randomly divided into ten exposure groups (n = 8 each): (A) saline control, (B) 0.5 mg/kg/d DBP, (C) 5 mg/kg/d DBP, (D) 50 mg/kg/d DBP, (E) TG-immunized group, (F) TG- combined with 0.5 mg/kg/d DBP, (G) TG- combined with 5 mg/kg/d DBP, (H) TG- combined with 50 mg/kg/d DBP, (I) TG- combined with 50 mg/kg/d DBP plus 100 mg/kg/d vitamin C; (J) 100 mg/kg/d vitamin C. We showed that oral exposure DBP can aggravate CLT in rats. This deterioration was concomitant with increased thyroid auto antibodies, Th1/Th2 imbalance and Th17 immune response, activated pro-inflammatory and apoptosis pathways, and increased thyroid dysfunction in rats. Our results also suggested that DBP could promote oxidative damage. The study also found that vitamin C reduced the levels of oxidative stress and alleviated CLT. In short, the study showed that DBP exacerbated CLT through oxidative stress.

  6. Clinical implications of the BRAF mutation in papillary thyroid carcinoma and chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woon Won; Ha, Tae Kwun; Bae, Sung Kwon

    2018-01-09

    The purpose of this study was to examine the possible prognostics and clinicopathologic characteristics underlying the BRAFV600E mutation and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) coexisting or in absence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT). This study was conducted on 172 patients who had undergone total thyroidectomy or unilateral total thyroidectomy for PTC; the patients were then examined for the BRAFV600E mutation using specimens obtained after their surgery from January 2013 to August 2015. BRAF mutations were found in 130 of 172 patients (75.6%). CLT was present in 27.9% of patients (48/172). The incidence of the BRAFV600E mutation was significantly increased in the group with no CLT (P = 0.001). The findings of the multivariate analysis pertaining to the coexistence of CLT and PTC showed no significant correlation other than the BRAFV600E mutation. No significant difference was noted in the clinicopathologic factors between the two groups based on the coexistence of CLT in univariate and multivariate analyses. The BRAFV600E mutation is less frequent in PTC coexisting with CLT presumably because CLT and the BRAFV600E mutation operate independently in the formation and progression of thyroid cancer.

  7. Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis is associated with invasive characteristics of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Iliadou, Paschalia K; Effraimidis, Grigoris; Konstantinos, Michalakis; Grigorios, Panagiotou; Mitsakis, Periklis; Patakiouta, Frideriki; Pazaitou-Panayiotou, Kalliopi

    2015-12-01

    The association between chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) and thyroid cancer is an interesting topic. The aim of the present study was to evaluate if demographic and histological characteristics as well as the long-term outcome of thyroid cancer was different in children and adolescents with and without CLT. The medical records of children and adolescents (≤21 years old) were reviewed. The following data were recorded: gender, year and age at diagnosis, family history of thyroid cancer, history of external radiation therapy, histological type (papillary and variants, follicular and variants), tumour size, multifocality, infiltration of thyroid parenchyma or surrounding soft tissues, vascular invasion, presence of lymph node and distant metastases. Information about the presence of TgAb and TPOAb was also collected. One hundred eight children and adolescents (median age 19.0, interquartile range 4.0 years) were diagnosed with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC); 31 patients (28.7%) presented histological characteristics compatible with CLT. Infiltration of thyroid parenchyma was more frequent in patients with CLT compared to patients without (74.2% vs 48.1% respectively, P=0.024). Familial papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) was more frequent in patients with CLT compared to those without CLT (20.7% vs 2.8% respectively, P=0.009). There was no better outcome with respect to the presence of CLT or not. Children and adolescents with CLT present more frequently familial PTC as well as thyroid cancer with invasive characteristics. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  8. Effects of Chronic Lymphocytic Thyroiditis on the Clinicopathological Features of Papillary Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Babli, Saleha; Payne, Richard J; Mitmaker, Elliot; Rivera, Juan

    2018-03-01

    The effects of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) on the presentation and outcome of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) have long been a topic of controversy. To evaluate the effect of coexistent CLT on the clinicopathological features of PTC. Retrospective study. All patients with PTC who had been followed by the 2 co-investigators (Juan Rivera and Richard J. Payne) between 2006 and 2011 were included. CLT was present in 35% (166) of the included patients and was associated with a higher proportion of patients with TNM stage I ( p = 0.027) and fewer patients with persistent disease ( p = 0.014) in comparison with the PTC-only group. Analysis of the data based on age (<45 or >45 years) revealed that in the older group, the presence of CLT was associated with fewer patients with persistent disease ( p = 0.03) and capsular invasion ( p = 0.05). However, in patients <45 years of age, the presence of CLT was associated with more capsular invasion ( p = 0.003) and extrathyroidal extension ( p = 0.004) compared with the PTC-only group. CLT in patients with PTC was associated with lower-stage disease and less disease persistence in patients >45 years of age. In patients <45 years, the presence of CLT appeared to be associated with unfavorable pathological features.

  9. Diagnosis of Richter transformation in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: histology tips the scales.

    PubMed

    Federmann, Birgit; Mueller, Martin R; Steinhilber, Julia; Horger, Marius S; Fend, Falko

    2018-06-12

    Development of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in chronic lymphocytic leukemia, so-called Richter transformation (RT), occurs in 2-5% of patients and is associated with poor outcome. The clinical features of RT are fairly non-specific and unable to discriminate transformation from other mimics. In case of clinically suspected RT, a CT/MRT is recommended, and FDG-PET/CT may help to select the site of biopsy. Radiological features suggestive of RT have been defined, but there are only limited data about their predictive value, and histological confirmation is still considered the gold standard for RT diagnosis. We retrospectively analyzed 34 patients with clinically suspected RT and available radiological and histological data. A histopathological diagnosis of RT with concordant clinical and radiological findings was obtained in 13 patients. In 18 patients, CT did not show features of transformation, concordant with lack of RT in the biopsy. Of interest, a distinct lymphoma other than DLBCL was identified in two of these cases. A false-positive radiological diagnosis of RT was rendered in two patients, including a case of Herpes simplex virus lymphadenitis. In conclusion, our findings confirm the central role of tissue biopsy in the diagnostic work up in case of clinically suspected RT.

  10. FcγRIIb expression in early stage chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Rosa; Mora, Alba; Vicente, Eva Puy; Ferrer, Gerardo; Jansà, Sonia; Damle, Rajendra; Gorlatov, Sergey; Rai, Kanti; Montserrat, Emili; Nomdedeu, Josep; Pratcorona, Marta; Blanco, Laura; Saavedra, Silvana; Garrido, Ana; Esquirol, Albert; Garcia, Irene; Granell, Miquel; Martino, Rodrigo; Delgado, Julio; Sierra, Jorge; Chiorazzi, Nicholas; Moreno, Carol

    2017-11-01

    In normal B-cells, B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) signaling can be negatively regulated by the low-affinity receptor FcγRIIb (CD32b). To better understand the role of FcγRIIb in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), we correlated its expression on 155 samples from newly-diagnosed Binet A patients with clinical characteristics and outcome. FcγRIIb expression was similar in normal B-cells and leukemic cells, this being heterogenous among patients and within CLL clones. FcγRIIb expression did not correlate with well known prognostic markers [disease stage, serum beta-2 microglobulin (B2M), IGHV mutational status, expression of ZAP-70 and CD38, and cytogenetics] except for a weak concordance with CD49d. Moreover, patients with low FcγRIIb expression (69/155, 44.5%) required therapy earlier than those with high FcγRIIb expression (86/155, 55.5%) (median 151.4 months vs. not reached; p=.071). These results encourage further investigation on the role of FcγRIIb in CLL biology and prognostic significance in larger series of patients.

  11. Clonal evolution in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia developing resistance to BTK inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Jan A.; Landau, Dan A.; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Bozic, Ivana; Zhang, Huidan; Sarosiek, Kristopher; Wang, Lili; Stewart, Chip; Fan, Jean; Hoellenriegel, Julia; Sivina, Mariela; Dubuc, Adrian M.; Fraser, Cameron; Han, Yulong; Li, Shuqiang; Livak, Kenneth J.; Zou, Lihua; Wan, Youzhong; Konoplev, Sergej; Sougnez, Carrie; Brown, Jennifer R.; Abruzzo, Lynne V.; Carter, Scott L.; Keating, Michael J.; Davids, Matthew S.; Wierda, William G.; Cibulskis, Kristian; Zenz, Thorsten; Werner, Lillian; Cin, Paola Dal; Kharchencko, Peter; Neuberg, Donna; Kantarjian, Hagop; Lander, Eric; Gabriel, Stacey; O'Brien, Susan; Letai, Anthony; Weitz, David A.; Nowak, Martin A.; Getz, Gad; Wu, Catherine J.

    2016-01-01

    Resistance to the Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor ibrutinib has been attributed solely to mutations in BTK and related pathway molecules. Using whole-exome and deep-targeted sequencing, we dissect evolution of ibrutinib resistance in serial samples from five chronic lymphocytic leukaemia patients. In two patients, we detect BTK-C481S mutation or multiple PLCG2 mutations. The other three patients exhibit an expansion of clones harbouring del(8p) with additional driver mutations (EP300, MLL2 and EIF2A), with one patient developing trans-differentiation into CD19-negative histiocytic sarcoma. Using droplet-microfluidic technology and growth kinetic analyses, we demonstrate the presence of ibrutinib-resistant subclones and estimate subclone size before treatment initiation. Haploinsufficiency of TRAIL-R, a consequence of del(8p), results in TRAIL insensitivity, which may contribute to ibrutinib resistance. These findings demonstrate that the ibrutinib therapy favours selection and expansion of rare subclones already present before ibrutinib treatment, and provide insight into the heterogeneity of genetic changes associated with ibrutinib resistance. PMID:27199251

  12. Ibrutinib modifies the function of monocyte/macrophage population in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Audrito, Valentina; Martinelli, Silvia; Hacken, Elisa ten; Zucchini, Patrizia; Grisendi, Giulia; Potenza, Leonardo; Luppi, Mario; Burger, Jan A.; Deaglio, Silvia; Marasca, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    In lymphoid organs, nurse-like cells (NLCs) show properties of tumor-associated macrophages, playing a crucial role in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cell survival. Ibrutinib, a potent inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), is able to counteract pro-survival signals in CLL cells. Since the effects on CLL cells have been studied in the last years, less is known about the influence of ibrutinib on NLCs properties. We sought to determine how ibrutinib modifies NLCs functions focusing on the balance between immunosuppressive and inflammatory features. Our data show that ibrutinib targets BTK expressed by NLCs modifying their phenotype and function. Treatment with ibrutinib reduces the phagocytic ability and increases the immunosuppressive profile of NLCs exacerbating the expression of M2 markers. Accordingly, ibrutinib hampers LPS-mediated signaling, decreasing STAT1 phosphorylation, while allows IL-4-mediated STAT6 phosphorylation. In addition, NLCs treated with ibrutinib are able to protect CLL cells from drug-induced apoptosis partially through the secretion of IL-10. Results from patient samples obtained prior and after 1 month of treatment with ibrutinib show an accentuation of CD206, CD11b and Tie2 in the monocytic population in the peripheral blood. Our study provides new insights into the immunomodulatory action of ibrutinib on monocyte/macrophage population in CLL. PMID:27602755

  13. The Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib with chemoimmunotherapy in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jennifer R; Barrientos, Jacqueline C; Barr, Paul M; Flinn, Ian W; Burger, Jan A; Tran, Anh; Clow, Fong; James, Danelle F; Graef, Thorsten; Friedberg, Jonathan W; Rai, Kanti; O'Brien, Susan

    2015-05-07

    The safety and efficacy of ibrutinib, an oral inhibitor of Bruton tyrosine kinase, were evaluated with chemoimmunotherapy (CIT) in a multicenter phase 1b study. Patients with relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia received bendamustine and rituximab (BR) or fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab (FCR) for up to 6 cycles with daily ibrutinib (420 mg) until progressive disease or unacceptable toxicity. Enrollment to FCR-ibrutinib closed early due to a lack of fludarabine-naïve previously treated patients. No patients treated with BR-ibrutinib (n = 30) or FCR-ibrutinib (n = 3) experienced prolonged hematologic toxicity in cycle 1 (primary end point). Tolerability was as expected with either CIT or single-agent ibrutinib. The overall response rate (ORR) with BR-ibrutinib was 93.3%, including 16.7% complete responses (CRs) initially, which increased to 40% with the extension period. Including 1 patient with partial response with lymphocytosis, the best ORR was 96.7%. Sixteen of 21 patients with baseline cytopenias had sustained hematologic improvement. At 12 and 36 months, 86.3% and 70.3% remained progression-free, respectively. All 3 patients treated with ibrutinib-FCR achieved CR. Ibrutinib may enhance CIT efficacy without additive toxicities, providing the rationale for studying this combination in an ongoing phase 3 trial. The study is registered to www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01292135. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  14. Ibrutinib modifies the function of monocyte/macrophage population in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Fiorcari, Stefania; Maffei, Rossana; Audrito, Valentina; Martinelli, Silvia; Ten Hacken, Elisa; Zucchini, Patrizia; Grisendi, Giulia; Potenza, Leonardo; Luppi, Mario; Burger, Jan A; Deaglio, Silvia; Marasca, Roberto

    2016-10-04

    In lymphoid organs, nurse-like cells (NLCs) show properties of tumor-associated macrophages, playing a crucial role in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cell survival. Ibrutinib, a potent inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), is able to counteract pro-survival signals in CLL cells. Since the effects on CLL cells have been studied in the last years, less is known about the influence of ibrutinib on NLCs properties. We sought to determine how ibrutinib modifies NLCs functions focusing on the balance between immunosuppressive and inflammatory features. Our data show that ibrutinib targets BTK expressed by NLCs modifying their phenotype and function. Treatment with ibrutinib reduces the phagocytic ability and increases the immunosuppressive profile of NLCs exacerbating the expression of M2 markers. Accordingly, ibrutinib hampers LPS-mediated signaling, decreasing STAT1 phosphorylation, while allows IL-4-mediated STAT6 phosphorylation. In addition, NLCs treated with ibrutinib are able to protect CLL cells from drug-induced apoptosis partially through the secretion of IL-10. Results from patient samples obtained prior and after 1 month of treatment with ibrutinib show an accentuation of CD206, CD11b and Tie2 in the monocytic population in the peripheral blood. Our study provides new insights into the immunomodulatory action of ibrutinib on monocyte/macrophage population in CLL.

  15. Selinexor is effective in acquired resistance to ibrutinib and synergizes with ibrutinib in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Hing, Zachary A; Mantel, Rose; Beckwith, Kyle A; Guinn, Daphne; Williams, Erich; Smith, Lisa L; Williams, Katie; Johnson, Amy J; Lehman, Amy M; Byrd, John C; Woyach, Jennifer A; Lapalombella, Rosa

    2015-05-14

    Despite the therapeutic efficacy of ibrutinib in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), complete responses are infrequent, and acquired resistance to Bruton agammaglobulinemia tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibition is being observed in an increasing number of patients. Combination regimens that increase frequency of complete remissions, accelerate time to remission, and overcome single agent resistance are of considerable interest. We previously showed that the XPO1 inhibitor selinexor is proapoptotic in CLL cells and disrupts B-cell receptor signaling via BTK depletion. Herein we show the combination of selinexor and ibrutinib elicits a synergistic cytotoxic effect in primary CLL cells and increases overall survival compared with ibrutinib alone in a mouse model of CLL. Selinexor is effective in cells isolated from patients with prolonged lymphocytosis following ibrutinib therapy. Finally, selinexor is effective in ibrutinib-refractory mice and in a cell line harboring the BTK C481S mutation. This is the first report describing the combined activity of ibrutinib and selinexor in CLL, which represents a new treatment paradigm and warrants further evaluation in clinical trials of CLL patients including those with acquired ibrutinib resistance. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  16. Incidence and description of autoimmune cytopenias during treatment with ibrutinib for chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Rogers, K A; Ruppert, A S; Bingman, A; Andritsos, L A; Awan, F T; Blum, K A; Flynn, J M; Jaglowski, S M; Lozanski, G; Maddocks, K J; Byrd, J C; Woyach, J A; Jones, J A

    2016-02-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is frequently complicated by secondary autoimmune cytopenias (AICs). Ibrutinib is an irreversible inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase approved for the treatment of relapsed CLL and CLL with del(17p). The effect of ibrutinib treatment on the incidence of AIC is currently unknown. We reviewed medical records of 301 patients treated with ibrutinib, as participants in therapeutic clinical trials at The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center between July 2010 and July 2014. Subjects were reviewed with respect to past history of AIC, and treatment-emergent AIC cases were identified. Before starting ibrutinib treatment, 26% of patients had experienced AIC. Information was available for a total of 468 patient-years of ibrutinib exposure, during which there were six cases of treatment-emergent AIC. This corresponds to an estimated incidence rate of 13 episodes for every 1000 patient-years of ibrutinib treatment. We further identified 22 patients receiving therapy for AIC at the time ibrutinib was started. Of these 22 patients, 19 were able to discontinue AIC therapy. We found that ibrutinib treatment is associated with a low rate of treatment-emergent AIC. Patients with an existing AIC have been successfully treated with ibrutinib and subsequently discontinued AIC therapy.

  17. Real world outcomes and management strategies for venetoclax-treated chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mato, Anthony R; Thompson, Meghan; Allan, John N; Brander, Danielle M; Pagel, John M; Ujjani, Chaitra S; Hill, Brian T; Lamanna, Nicole; Lansigan, Frederick; Jacobs, Ryan; Shadman, Mazyar; Skarbnik, Alan P; Pu, Jeffrey J; Barr, Paul M; Sehgal, Alison R; Cheson, Bruce D; Zent, Clive S; Tuncer, Hande H; Schuster, Stephen J; Pickens, Peter V; Shah, Nirav N; Goy, Andre; Winter, Allison M; Garcia, Christine; Kennard, Kaitlin; Isaac, Krista; Dorsey, Colleen; Gashonia, Lisa M; Singavi, Arun K; Roeker, Lindsey E; Zelenetz, Andrew; Williams, Annalynn; Howlett, Christina; Weissbrot, Hanna; Ali, Naveed; Khajavian, Sirin; Sitlinger, Andrea; Tranchito, Eve; Rhodes, Joanna; Felsenfeld, Joshua; Bailey, Neil; Patel, Bhavisha; Burns, Timothy F; Yacur, Melissa; Malhotra, Mansi; Svoboda, Jakub; Furman, Richard R; Nabhan, Chadi

    2018-06-07

    Venetoclax is a BCL2 inhibitor approved for 17p-deleted relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia with activity following kinase inhibitors. We conducted a multicenter retrospective cohort analysis of patients with CLL treated with venetoclax to describe outcomes, toxicities, and treatment selection following venetoclax discontinuation. A total of 141 chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients were included (98% relapsed/refractory). Median age at venetoclax initiation was 67 years (range 37-91), median prior therapies was 3 (0-11), 81% unmutated IGHV, 45% del(17p), and 26.8% complex karyotype (≥ 3 abnormalities). Prior to venetoclax initiation, 89% received a B-cell receptor antagonist. For tumor lysis syndrome prophylaxis, 93% received allopurinol, 92% normal saline, and 45% rasburicase. Dose escalation to the maximum recommended dose of 400 mg daily was achieved in 85% of patients. Adverse events of interest included neutropenia in 47.4%, thrombocytopenia in 36%, tumor lysis syndrome in 13.4%, neutropenic fever in 11.6%, and diarrhea in 7.3%. The overall response rate to venetoclax was 72% (19.4% complete remission). With a median follow up of 7 months, median progression free survival and overall survival for the entire cohort have not been reached. To date, 41 venetoclax treated patients have discontinued therapy and 24 have received a subsequent therapy, most commonly ibrutinib. In the largest clinical experience of venetoclax-treated chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients , the majority successfully completed and maintained a maximum recommended dose. Response rates and duration of response appear comparable to clinical trial data. Venetoclax was active in patients with mutations known to confer ibrutinib resistance. Optimal sequencing of newer chronic lymphocytic leukemia therapies requires further study. Copyright © 2018, Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  18. Study of Safety,Efficacy and Pharmacokinetics of CT-1530 in Patients With Relapsed or Refractory B Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, and Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-07-18

    Relapsed or Refractory B Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia; Mantle Zone Lymphoma Refractory/Recurrent; Follicle Centre Lymphoma Diffuse; Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma

  19. Venetoclax: A novel B-cell lymphoma-2 inhibitor for chronic lymphocytic leukemia and other hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Olin, Jacqueline L; Griffiths, Carrie L; Smith, Morgan B

    2017-01-01

    Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia with the 17p deletion have a poor prognosis and treatment options are limited. Venetoclax, a novel B-cell lymphoma-2 inhibitor, has been approved for treatment-experienced chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with the 17p deletion. A phase 1 dose-escalation study to 400 mg daily showed overall response rates across all doses of 79% with a complete response achieved in 20%. A phase 2 multicenter open-label study demonstrated overall response rate of 79.4% of patients (95% confidence interval 70.5-86.6) with median duration of follow-up of 12.1 months (IQR 10.1-14.2). Tumor lysis syndrome has been observed during initiation and titration. Assessing risk of tumor lysis syndrome prior to therapy initiation is essential to provide appropriate prophylactic medications. Neutropenia, potentially warranting dose reduction or discontinuation, has been observed. Venetoclax has demonstrated activity in other leukemias, multiple myeloma, and lymphomas. Venetoclax has shown response, and is well tolerated in patients with highly resistant chronic lymphocytic leukemia. It has the potential to be part of the treatment armamentarium for other malignancies.

  20. Chromosome aberrations detected by conventional karyotyping using novel mitogens in chronic lymphocytic leukemia with "normal" FISH: correlations with clinicobiologic parameters.

    PubMed

    Rigolin, Gian Matteo; Cibien, Francesca; Martinelli, Sara; Formigaro, Luca; Rizzotto, Lara; Tammiso, Elisa; Saccenti, Elena; Bardi, Antonella; Cavazzini, Francesco; Ciccone, Maria; Nichele, Ilaria; Pizzolo, Giovanni; Zaja, Francesco; Fanin, Renato; Galieni, Piero; Dalsass, Alessia; Mestichelli, Francesca; Testa, Nicoletta; Negrini, Massimo; Cuneo, Antonio

    2012-03-08

    It is unclear whether karyotype aberrations that occur in regions uncovered by the standard fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) panel have prognostic relevance in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We evaluated the significance of karyotypic aberrations in a learning cohort (LC; n = 64) and a validation cohort (VC; n = 84) of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia with "normal" FISH. An abnormal karyotype was found in 21.5% and 35.7% of cases in the LC and VC, respectively, and was associated with a lower immunophenotypic score (P = .030 in the LC, P = .035 in the VC), advanced stage (P = .040 in the VC), and need for treatment (P = .002 in the LC, P = < .0001 in the VC). The abnormal karyotype correlated with shorter time to first treatment and shorter survival in both the LC and the VC, representing the strongest prognostic parameter. In patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia with normal FISH, karyotypic aberrations by conventional cytogenetics with novel mitogens identify a subset of cases with adverse prognostic features.

  1. [Chromosome banding analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes stimulated with IL2 and CpG oligonucleotide DSP30 in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia].

    PubMed

    Stěpanovská, K; Vaňková, G; Némethová, V; Tomášiková, L; Smuhařová, P; Divíšková, E; Vallová, V; Kuglík, P; Plevová, K; Oltová, A; Doubek, M; Pospíšilová, S; Mayer, J

    2013-01-01

    Chromosomal aberrations play an important role as prognostic factors in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). These aberrations are mostly detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), as chromosomal banding analysis has been scarce due to low proliferative activity of malignant B-lymphocytes in vitro. In 2006, a new method using stimulation with IL-2 and CpG oligonucleotide DSP30 for metaphase generation in CLL was published [1]. The objective of our study was to verify the efficacy of stimulation and to evaluate if the method is suitable for routine diagnostics. In total, peripheral blood samples of 369 CLL patients were analyzed in parallel by chromosomal banding analysis and by FISH probes for 13q14, 11q22-23, CEP12 and 17p13. Out of 369 patients, 307 (83%) were successfully stimulated for metaphase generation. Chromosomal aberrations were detected in 243 (79%) out of 307 patients evaluated by chromosomal banding analysis. Other aberrations that are not included into standard FISH panel were detected in patients karyotypes, e.g. del(6q), del(14q), t(14;18)(q32;q21), t(11;14)(q13;q32) and t(18;22)(q21;q11). One hundred and three (42%) patients showed complex aberrant karyotype not detected by FISH analysis. Stimulation with IL-2 and oligonucleotide DSP30 is an efficient method how to induce proliferation of malignant B-lymphocytes and allows detection of a substantial number of chromosomal aberrations in addition to those detected by standard FISH panel. Using this method in routine diagnostics is helpful particularly in identification of patients with complex aberrant karyotype.

  2. Venetoclax for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia progressing after ibrutinib: an interim analysis of a multicentre, open-label, phase 2 trial.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jeffrey A; Mato, Anthony R; Wierda, William G; Davids, Matthew S; Choi, Michael; Cheson, Bruce D; Furman, Richard R; Lamanna, Nicole; Barr, Paul M; Zhou, Lang; Chyla, Brenda; Salem, Ahmed Hamed; Verdugo, Maria; Humerickhouse, Rod A; Potluri, Jalaja; Coutre, Steven; Woyach, Jennifer; Byrd, John C

    2018-01-01

    Therapy targeting Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) with ibrutinib has transformed the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. However, patients who are refractory to or relapse after ibrutinib therapy have poor outcomes. Venetoclax is a selective, orally bioavailable inhibitor of BCL-2 active in previously treated patients with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. In this study, we assessed the activity and safety of venetoclax in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia who are refractory to or relapse during or after ibrutinib therapy. In this interim analysis of a multicentre, open-label, non-randomised, phase 2 trial, we enrolled patients aged 18 years or older with a documented diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia according to the 2008 International Workshop on Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (IWCLL) criteria and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance score of 2 or lower. All patients had relapsed or refractory disease after previous treatment with a BCR signalling pathway inhibitor. All patients were screened for Richter's transformation and cases confirmed by biopsy were excluded. Eligible patients received oral venetoclax, starting at 20 mg per day with stepwise dose ramp-up over 5 weeks to 400 mg per day. Patients with rapidly progressing disease received an accelerated dosing schedule (to 400 mg per day by week 3). The primary endpoint was overall response, defined as the proportion of patients with an overall response per investigator's assessment according to IWCLL criteria. All patients who received at least one dose of venetoclax were included in the activity and safety analyses. This study is ongoing; data for this interim analysis were collected per regulatory agencies' request as of June 30, 2017. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02141282. Between September, 2014, and November, 2016, 127 previously treated patients with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukaemia were enrolled

  3. Venetoclax plus rituximab in relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: a phase 1b study.

    PubMed

    Seymour, John F; Ma, Shuo; Brander, Danielle M; Choi, Michael Y; Barrientos, Jacqueline; Davids, Matthew S; Anderson, Mary Ann; Beaven, Anne W; Rosen, Steven T; Tam, Constantine S; Prine, Betty; Agarwal, Suresh K; Munasinghe, Wijith; Zhu, Ming; Lash, L Leanne; Desai, Monali; Cerri, Elisa; Verdugo, Maria; Kim, Su Young; Humerickhouse, Rod A; Gordon, Gary B; Kipps, Thomas J; Roberts, Andrew W

    2017-02-01

    Selective BCL2 inhibition with venetoclax has substantial activity in patients with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Combination therapy with rituximab enhanced activity in preclinical models. The aim of this study was to assess the safety, pharmacokinetics, and activity of venetoclax in combination with rituximab. Adult patients with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (according to the 2008 Modified International Workshop on CLL guidelines) or small lymphocytic lymphoma were eligible for this phase 1b, dose-escalation trial. The primary outcomes were to assess the safety profile, to determine the maximum tolerated dose, and to establish the recommended phase 2 dose of venetoclax when given in combination with rituximab. Secondary outcomes were to assess the pharmacokinetic profile and analyse efficacy, including overall response, duration of response, and time to tumour progression. Minimal residual disease was a protocol-specified exploratory objective. Central review of the endpoints was not done. Venetoclax was dosed daily using a stepwise escalation to target doses (200-600 mg) and then monthly rituximab commenced (375 mg/m 2 in month 1 and 500 mg/m 2 in months 2-6). Adverse events were graded according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for adverse events version 4.0. Protocol-guided drug cessation was allowed for patients who achieved complete response (including complete response with incomplete marrow recovery) or negative bone marrow minimal residual disease. Analyses were done per protocol for all patients who commenced drug and included all patients who received at least one dose of venetoclax. Data were pooled across dose cohorts. Patients are still receiving therapy and follow-up is ongoing. The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01682616. Between Aug 6, 2012, and May 28, 2014, we enrolled 49 patients. Common grade 1-2 toxicities included upper respiratory tract

  4. Sensitization of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells to recombinant immunotoxin by immunostimulatory phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides.

    PubMed

    Decker, Thomas; Hipp, Susanne; Kreitman, Robert J; Pastan, Ira; Peschel, Christian; Licht, Thomas

    2002-02-15

    A recombinant anti-CD25 immunotoxin, LMB-2, has shown clinical efficacy in hairy cell leukemia and T-cell neoplasms. Its activity in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) is inferior but might be improved if B-CLL cells expressed higher numbers of CD25 binding sites. It was recently reported that DSP30, a phosphorothioate CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG-ODN) induces immunogenicity of B-CLL cells by up-regulation of CD25 and other antigens. The present study investigated the antitumor activity of LMB-2 in the presence of DSP30. To this end, B-CLL cells from peripheral blood of patients were isolated immunomagnetically to more than 98% purity. Incubation with DSP30 for 48 hours augmented CD25 expression in 14 of 15 B-CLL samples, as assessed by flow cytometry. DSP30 increased LMB-2 cytotoxicity dose dependently whereas a control ODN with no CpG motif did not. LMB-2 displayed no antitumor cell activity in the absence of CpG-ODN as determined colorimetrically with an (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt (MTS) assay. In contrast, B-CLL growth was inhibited in 12 of 13 samples with 50% inhibition concentrations (IC(50)) in the range of LMB-2 plasma levels achieved in clinical studies. Two samples were not evaluable because of spontaneous B-CLL cell death in the presence of DSP30. Control experiments with an immunotoxin that does not recognize hematopoietic cells, and an anti-CD22 immunotoxin, confirmed that sensitization to LMB-2 was specifically due to up-regulation of CD25. LMB-2 was much less toxic to normal B and T lymphocytes compared with B-CLL cells. In summary, immunostimulatory CpG-ODNs efficiently sensitize B-CLL cells to a recombinant immunotoxin by modulation of its target. This new treatment strategy deserves further attention.

  5. Vitamin D insufficiency predicts time to first treatment (TFT) in early chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).

    PubMed

    Molica, Stefano; Digiesi, Giovanna; Antenucci, Anna; Levato, Luciano; Mirabelli, Rosanna; Molica, Matteo; Gentile, Massimo; Giannarelli, Diana; Sperduti, Isabella; Morabito, Fortunato; Conti, Laura

    2012-04-01

    Although vitamin D insufficiency is related to inferior prognosis in some cancers, limited data exist in hematologic malignancies. We evaluated the relationship between 25(OH)D serum levels and time to first treatment (TFT), a disease-specific end point, in 130 previously untreated Binet stage A chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients. Measurement of 25(OH)D was performed by means of a direct, competitive chemiluminescence immunoassay using the DiaSorin LIAISON 25(OH)D TOTAL assay (DiaSorin, Inc., Stillwater, Minnesota). Overall, 41 patients (31.5%) had severe vitamin D insufficiency (<10 ng/mL), 66 (50.7%) had mild to moderate insufficiency (10-24 ng/mL), and 23 (17.6%) had 25(OH)D levels within the optimal range (25-80 ng/mL), with no relationship with between the season of sample collection and 25(OH)D level (P=0.188). A patient stratification according to these 3 groups led to significant difference in terms of TFT, with vitamin D insufficient patients having the shortest TFT (P=0.02). With respect to continuous 25(OH)D levels and clinical outcome, TFT was shorter as 25(OH)D decreased until a value of 13.5 ng/mL at which point the association of 25(OH)D and TFT remained constant. As a matter of fact, the 25(OH)D value of 13.5 ng/mL identified two patients subsets with different TFT risk (HR=1.91; 95% CI=1.06-3.44; P=0.03). In multivariate analysis the variable entering the model at a significant level were mutational status of IgVH (P<0.0001), serum thymidine kinase (P=0.02) and absolute lymphocyte count (P=0.03). Thus confirming the Mayo clinic experience, our data provide further evidence that 25(OH)D levels may be an important host factor influencing TFT of Binet stage A patients. Whether normalizing vitamin D levels may delay disease-progression of patients with early disease will require testing in future trials. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL) in Shanghai, China: molecular and cytogenetic characteristics, IgV gene restriction and hypermutation patterns.

    PubMed

    Irons, Richard D; Le, Anh; Bao, Liming; Zhu, Xiongzeng; Ryder, John; Wang, Xiao Qin; Ji, Meirong; Chen, Yan; Wu, Xichun; Lin, Guowei

    2009-12-01

    The clinical, cytogenetic and molecular features of chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL), a disease previously considered to be rare in Asia, were examined in consecutive series of 70 cases diagnosed by our laboratory over a 30-month period. Clonal abnormalities were observed in 80% of CLL/SLL cases using a combination of conventional cytogenetic and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. Those involving 14q32/IGH were the most frequent (24 cases), followed by trisomy 12 and 11q abnormalities. IgV(H) gene usage was non-random with over-representation of V(H)4-34, V(H)3-23 and a previously unreported increase in V(H)3-48 gene use. Somatic hypermutation (SHM) of IgV(H) germline sequences was observed in 56.5% of cases with stereotyped patterns of SHM observed in V(H)4-34 heavy chain complimentary-determining (HCDR1) and framework region CFR2 sequences. These findings in a Chinese population suggest subtle geographical differences in IgV(H) gene usage while the remarkably specific pattern of SHM suggest that a relatively limited set of antigens may be involved in the development of this disease worldwide. IgV(H) gene mutation status was a significant predictor of initial survival in CLL/SLL. However, an influence of karyotype on prognosis was not observed.

  7. Increased frequency of micronuclei in the lymphocytes of patients chronically infected with hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    Leite, Samantha Therezinha Almeida Pereira; Silva, Marilene Borges da; Pepato, Marco Andrey; Souto, Francisco José Dutra; Santos, Raquel Alves dos; Bassi-Branco, Carmen Lucia

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we analysed the frequency of micronuclei (MN), nucleoplasmic bridges (NPBs) and nuclear buds (NBUDs) and evaluated mutagen-induced sensitivity in the lymphocytes of patients chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV). In total, 49 patients with chronic viral hepatitis (28 HBV-infected and 21 HCV-infected patients) and 33 healthy, non-infected blood donor controls were investigated. The frequencies (‰) of MN, NPBs and NBUDs in the controls were 4.41 ± 2.15, 1.15 ± 0.97 and 2.98 ± 1.31, respectively. The frequencies of MN and NPBs were significantly increased (p < 0.0001) in the patient group (7.01 ± 3.23 and 2.76 ± 2.08, respectively) compared with the control group. When considered separately, the HBV-infected patients (7.18 ± 3.57) and HCV-infected patients (3.27 ± 2.40) each had greater numbers of MN than did the controls (p < 0.0001). The HCV-infected patients displayed high numbers of NPBs (2.09 ± 1.33) and NBUDs (4.38 ± 3.28), but only the HBV-infected patients exhibited a significant difference (NPBs = 3.27 ± 2.40, p < 0.0001 and NBUDs = 4.71 ± 2.79, p = 0.03) in comparison with the controls. Similar results were obtained for males, but not for females, when all patients or the HBV-infected group was compared with the controls. The lymphocytes of the infected patients did not exhibit sensitivity to mutagen in comparison with the lymphocytes of the controls (p = 0.06). These results showed that the lymphocytes of patients who were chronically infected with HBV or HCV presented greater chromosomal instability.

  8. The ibrutinib B-cell proliferation inhibition is potentiated in vitro by dexamethasone: Application to chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Manzoni, Delphine; Catallo, Régine; Chebel, Amel; Baseggio, Lucile; Michallet, Anne-Sophie; Roualdes, Olivier; Magaud, Jean-Pierre; Salles, Gilles; Ffrench, Martine

    2016-08-01

    New B-cell receptor-targeted therapies such as ibrutinib, a Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor, are now proposed for lymphoid pathologies. The putative benefits of its combination with glucocorticoids were evaluated here. We compared the effects of dexamethasone (DXM), ibrutinib and their in vitro combination on proliferation and metabolic stress markers in stimulated normal B-lymphocytes and in malignant lymphocytes from chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients. In both cellular models, cell cycle progression was globally inhibited by DXM and/or ibrutinib. This inhibition was significantly amplified by DXM addition to ibrutinib and was related to a significant decrease in the expression of the cell cycle regulatory proteins CDK4 and cyclin E. Apoptosis increased especially with DXM/ibrutinib combination and was associated with a significant decrease in Mcl-1 expression. Treatment effects on metabolic stress were evaluated by DNA damage recognition after 53BP1 foci labeling. The percentage of cells with more than five 53BP1 foci decreased significantly with ibrutinib in normal and CLL lymphocytes. This decrease was strongly reinforced, in CLL, by DXM addition. Our data indicated that, in vitro, DXM potentiated antiproliferative effects of ibrutinib and decreased DNA damage in lymphoid B-cells. Thus their combination may be proposed for CLL treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mutation Pattern of Paired Immunoglobulin Heavy and Light Variable Domains in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia B Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ghiotto, Fabio; Marcatili, Paolo; Tenca, Claudya; Calevo, Maria Grazia; Yan, Xiao-Jie; Albesiano, Emilia; Bagnara, Davide; Colombo, Monica; Cutrona, Giovanna; Chu, Charles C; Morabito, Fortunato; Bruno, Silvia; Ferrarini, Manlio; Tramontano, Anna; Fais, Franco; Chiorazzi, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients display leukemic clones bearing either germline or somatically mutated immunoglobulin heavy variable (IGHV ) genes. Most information on CLL immunoglobulins (Igs), such as the definition of stereotyped B-cell receptors (BCRs), was derived from germline unmutated Igs. In particular, detailed studies on the distribution and nature of mutations in paired heavy- and light-chain domains of CLL clones bearing mutated Igs are lacking. To address the somatic hyper-mutation dynamics of CLL Igs, we analyzed the mutation pattern of paired IGHV–diversity-joining (IGHV-D-J ) and immunoglobulin kappa/lambda variable-joining (IGK/LV-J ) rearrangements of 193 leukemic clones that displayed ≥2% mutations in at least one of the two immunoglobulin variable (IGV ) genes (IGHV and/or IGK/LV ). The relationship between the mutation frequency in IGHV and IGK/LV complementarity determining regions (CDRs) and framework regions (FRs) was evaluated by correlation analysis. Replacement (R) mutation frequency within IGK/LV chain CDRs correlated significantly with mutation frequency of paired IGHV CDRs in λ but not κ isotype CLL clones. CDRs of IGKV-J rearrangements displayed a lower percentage of R mutations than IGHVs. The frequency/pattern of mutations in kappa CLL Igs differed also from that in κ-expressing normal B cells described in the literature. Instead, the mutation frequency within the FRs of IGHV and either IGKV or IGLV was correlated. Notably, the amount of diversity introduced by replaced amino acids was comparable between IGHVs and IGKVs. The data indicate a different mutation pattern between κ and λ isotype CLL clones and suggest an antigenic selection that, in κ samples, operates against CDR variation. PMID:21785810

  10. Intraclonal Cell Expansion and Selection Driven by B Cell Receptor in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Monica; Cutrona, Giovanna; Reverberi, Daniele; Fabris, Sonia; Neri, Antonino; Fabbi, Marina; Quintana, Giovanni; Quarta, Giovanni; Ghiotto, Fabio; Fais, Franco; Ferrarini, Manlio

    2011-01-01

    The mutational status of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region (IGHV) genes utilized by chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) clones defines two disease subgroups. Patients with unmutated IGHV have a more aggressive disease and a worse outcome than patients with cells having somatic IGHV gene mutations. Moreover, up to 30% of the unmutated CLL clones exhibit very similar or identical B cell receptors (BcR), often encoded by the same IG genes. These “stereotyped” BcRs have been classified into defined subsets. The presence of an IGHV gene somatic mutation and the utilization of a skewed gene repertoire compared with normal B cells together with the expression of stereotyped receptors by unmutated CLL clones may indicate stimulation/selection by antigenic epitopes. This antigenic stimulation may occur prior to or during neoplastic transformation, but it is unknown whether this stimulation/selection continues after leukemogenesis has ceased. In this study, we focused on seven CLL cases with stereotyped BcR Subset #8 found among a cohort of 700 patients; in six, the cells expressed IgG and utilized IGHV4-39 and IGKV1-39/IGKV1D-39 genes, as reported for Subset #8 BcR. One case exhibited special features, including expression of IgM or IgG by different subclones consequent to an isotype switch, allelic inclusion at the IGH locus in the IgM-expressing cells and a particular pattern of cytogenetic lesions. Collectively, the data indicate a process of antigenic stimulation/selection of the fully transformed CLL cells leading to the expansion of the Subset #8 IgG-bearing subclone. PMID:21541442

  11. A phase 1 clinical trial of flavopiridol consolidation in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients following chemoimmunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Awan, Farrukh T.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Maddocks, Kami; Poi, Ming; Grever, Michael R.; Johnson, Amy; Byrd, John C.; Andritsos, Leslie A.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) who receive chemoimmunotherapy and do not achieve complete remission experience significantly shortened progression-free interval (PFS). Additionally, the majority of patients treated for relapsed disease demonstrate evidence of measurable disease. Eradication of minimal residual disease (MRD) results in improved PFS and overall survival. Maintenance therapy might result in eradication of MRD and improve response duration but might be associated with an increase in incidence of infectious complications. Flavopiridol is a broad cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor with established safety and efficacy in patients with relapsed CLL, particularly patients with high-risk cytogenetic features. A pharmacologically derived schedule was utilized as consolidation therapy in this phase I study to assess the safety and feasibility of outpatient therapy with flavopiridol in patients with low tumor burden. Flavopiridol was administered as a 30-min loading dose of 30 mg/m2 followed by a 4-h infusion of 30 mg/ m2 once weekly for 3 weeks every 5 weeks (1 cycle) for planned 2 cycles in ten patients. Therapy was extremely well tolerated and no patient developed acute tumor lysis syndrome. The most common toxicities were gastrointestinal. Of the patients, 22 % improved their response from a PR to CR. Eighty-eight percent experienced a reduction in tumor burden as measured by extent of bone marrow involvement including patients with del17p and complex karyotype. The study establishes the safety and efficacy of flavopiridol as consolidation therapy after chemoimmunotherapy for patients with CLL. Further evaluation is required in larger trials for the utility of CDK inhibitors as consolidation or maintenance strategies. Registration number at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00377104. PMID:27118540

  12. Night shift work and chronic lymphocytic leukemia in the MCC-Spain case-control study.

    PubMed

    Costas, Laura; Benavente, Yolanda; Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Casabonne, Delphine; Robles, Claudia; Gonzalez-Barca, Eva-Maria; de la Banda, Esmeralda; Alonso, Esther; Aymerich, Marta; Tardón, Adonina; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Gimeno-Vázquez, Eva; Gómez-Acebo, Inés; Papantoniou, Kyriaki; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Aragonés, Nuria; Pollán, Marina; Kogevinas, Manolis; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2016-11-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has few known modifiable risk factors. Recently, circadian disruption has been proposed as a potential contributor to lymphoid neoplasms' etiology. Serum melatonin levels have been found to be significantly lower in CLL subjects compared with healthy controls, and also, CLL prognosis has been related to alterations in the circadian molecular signaling. We performed the first investigation of an association between night shift work and CLL in 321 incident CLL cases and 1728 population-based controls in five areas of Spain. Participants were interviewed face-to-face by trained interviewers to collect information on sociodemographic factors, familial, medical and occupational history, including work shifts and other lifestyle factors. We used logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Seventy-nine cases (25%) and 339 controls (20%) had performed night work. Overall, working in night shifts was not associated with CLL (OR = 1.06; 95% CI = 0.78-1.45, compared with day work). However, long-term night shift (>20 years) was positively associated with CLL (OR(tertile 3 vs . day-work)  = 1.77; 95% = 1.14-2.74), although no linear trend was observed (P trend = 0.18). This association was observed among those with rotating (OR(tertile 3 vs . day-work)  = 2.29; 95% CI = 1.33-3.92; P trend = 0.07), but not permanent night shifts (OR(tertile 3 vs . day-work) = 1.16; 95% CI = 0.60-2.25; P trend = 0.86). The association between CLL and long-term rotating night shift warrants further investigation. © 2016 UICC.

  13. Activated Allogeneic NK Cells Preferentially Kill Poor Prognosis B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Martínez, Diego; Lanuza, Pilar M; Gómez, Natalia; Muntasell, Aura; Cisneros, Elisa; Moraru, Manuela; Azaceta, Gemma; Anel, Alberto; Martínez-Lostao, Luis; Villalba, Martin; Palomera, Luis; Vilches, Carlos; García Marco, José A; Pardo, Julián

    2016-01-01

    Mutational status of TP53 together with expression of wild-type (wt) IGHV represents the most widely accepted biomarkers, establishing a very poor prognosis in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) patients. Adoptive cell therapy using allogeneic HLA-mismatched Natural killer (NK) cells has emerged as an effective and safe alternative in the treatment of acute myeloid and lymphoid leukemias that do not respond to traditional therapies. We have described that allogeneic activated NK cells eliminate hematological cancer cell lines with multidrug resistance acquired by mutations in the apoptotic machinery. This effect depends on the activation protocol, being B-lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) the most effective stimulus to activate NK cells. Here, we have further analyzed the molecular determinants involved in allogeneic NK cell recognition and elimination of B-CLL cells, including the expression of ligands of the main NK cell-activating receptors (NKG2D and NCRs) and HLA mismatch. We present preliminary data suggesting that B-CLL susceptibility significantly correlates with HLA mismatch between NK cell donor and B-CLL patient. Moreover, we show that the sensitivity of B-CLL cells to NK cells depends on the prognosis based on TP53 and IGHV mutational status. Cells from patients with worse prognosis (mutated TP53 and wt IGHV ) are the most susceptible to activated NK cells. Hence, B-CLL prognosis may predict the efficacy of allogenic activated NK cells, and, thus, NK cell transfer represents a good alternative to treat poor prognosis B-CLL patients who present a very short life expectancy due to lack of effective treatments.

  14. The use of inexpensive broad spectrum lower toxicity therapeutics in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Marjanovic, Goran

    2017-01-01

    The use of new and highly efficient targeted therapies for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is costly and out of reach for many health care systems. On the other hand, in recent years, few inexpensive, broad-spectrum low-toxicity therapeutics have proven to be effective both in the preclinical and clinical settings. In early-stage CLL, the use of 2000 mg of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) from the green tea extract twice a day was able to reduce the absolute leukocyte count. Supplementation of >2000 IU/day of Vitamin D in early low-risk CLL patients is able to delay disease progression and postpone the moment of initiation of the first treatment. The doses of both vitamin D and EGCG were shown to be safe in older patients. Vitamin D, EGCG and Curcumin, either as monotherapy or in combination, have additive and synergistic effects with conventional chemotherapy. Further observations have identified the improvement of response to rituximab-fludarabine-cyclophosphamide (R-FC) therapy with concomitant administration of statin and aspirin combination in relapsed/refractory CLL. Finally, high dose dexamethasone with 40mg/m 2 /day for 4 days, every 28 days, either alone or with monoclonal antibody, might be used as a salvage therapy or for debulking before transplantation in refractory/resistant cases. Dexamethasone therapy is followed by transient response and high rate of infections, but fluid retention and other toxicities are lower compared to high dose methylprednisolone schedules. The low cost therapeutics discussed in this review could not be a substitute for the more effective targeted therapies, but their use in every day practice might postpone the need for early implementation of new and costly medications.

  15. Progranulin Is a Novel Independent Predictor of Disease Progression and Overall Survival in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Göbel, Maria; Eisele, Lewin; Möllmann, Michael; Hüttmann, Andreas; Johansson, Patricia; Scholtysik, René; Bergmann, Manuela; Busch, Raymonde; Döhner, Hartmut; Hallek, Michael; Seiler, Till; Stilgenbauer, Stephan; Klein-Hitpass, Ludger; Dührsen, Ulrich; Dürig, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Progranulin (Pgrn) is a 88 kDa secreted protein with pleiotropic functions including regulation of cell cycle progression, cell motility, wound repair and tumorigenesis. Using microarray based gene expression profiling we have recently demonstrated that the gene for Pgrn, granulin (GRN), is significantly higher expressed in aggressive CD38+ZAP-70+ as compared to indolent CD38−ZAP-70− chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cases. Here, we measured Pgrn plasma concentrations by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the Essen CLL cohort of 131 patients and examined Pgrn for association with established prognostic markers and clinical outcome. We found that high Pgrn plasma levels were strongly associated with adverse risk factors including unmutated IGHV status, expression of CD38 and ZAP-70, poor risk cytogenetics (11q-, 17p-) as detected by flourescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and high Binet stage. Pgrn as well as the aforementioned risk factors were prognostic for time to first treatment and overall survival in this series. Importantly, these results could be confirmed in the independent multicentric CLL1 cohort of untreated Binet stage A patients (n = 163). Here, multivariate analysis of time to first treatment revealed that high risk Pgrn (HR = 2.06, 95%-CI = 1.13–3.76, p = 0.018), unmutated IGHV status (HR = 5.63, 95%-CI = 3.05–10.38, p<0.001), high risk as defined by the study protocol (HR = 2.06, 95%-CI = 1.09–3.89, p = 0.026) but not poor risk cytogenetics were independent prognostic markers. In summary our results suggest that Pgrn is a novel, robust and independent prognostic marker in CLL that can be easily measured by ELISA. PMID:24009671

  16. Progranulin is a novel independent predictor of disease progression and overall survival in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Göbel, Maria; Eisele, Lewin; Möllmann, Michael; Hüttmann, Andreas; Johansson, Patricia; Scholtysik, René; Bergmann, Manuela; Busch, Raymonde; Döhner, Hartmut; Hallek, Michael; Seiler, Till; Stilgenbauer, Stephan; Klein-Hitpass, Ludger; Dührsen, Ulrich; Dürig, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Progranulin (Pgrn) is a 88 kDa secreted protein with pleiotropic functions including regulation of cell cycle progression, cell motility, wound repair and tumorigenesis. Using microarray based gene expression profiling we have recently demonstrated that the gene for Pgrn, granulin (GRN), is significantly higher expressed in aggressive CD38(+)ZAP-70(+) as compared to indolent CD38(-)ZAP-70(-) chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cases. Here, we measured Pgrn plasma concentrations by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the Essen CLL cohort of 131 patients and examined Pgrn for association with established prognostic markers and clinical outcome. We found that high Pgrn plasma levels were strongly associated with adverse risk factors including unmutated IGHV status, expression of CD38 and ZAP-70, poor risk cytogenetics (11q-, 17p-) as detected by flourescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and high Binet stage. Pgrn as well as the aforementioned risk factors were prognostic for time to first treatment and overall survival in this series. Importantly, these results could be confirmed in the independent multicentric CLL1 cohort of untreated Binet stage A patients (n = 163). Here, multivariate analysis of time to first treatment revealed that high risk Pgrn (HR = 2.06, 95%-CI = 1.13-3.76, p = 0.018), unmutated IGHV status (HR = 5.63, 95%-CI = 3.05-10.38, p<0.001), high risk as defined by the study protocol (HR = 2.06, 95%-CI = 1.09-3.89, p = 0.026) but not poor risk cytogenetics were independent prognostic markers. In summary our results suggest that Pgrn is a novel, robust and independent prognostic marker in CLL that can be easily measured by ELISA.

  17. Ibrutinib efficacy and tolerability in patients with relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia following allogeneic HCT

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Christine E.; Sahaf, Bita; Logan, Aaron C.; O’Brien, Susan; Byrd, John C.; Hillmen, Peter; Brown, Jennifer R.; Dyer, Martin J. S.; Mato, Anthony R.; Keating, Michael J.; Jaglowski, Samantha; Clow, Fong; Rezvani, Andrew R.; Styles, Lori; Coutre, Steven E.

    2016-01-01

    Ibrutinib, a potent and irreversible small-molecule inhibitor of both Bruton’s tyrosine kinase and interleukin-2 inducible kinase (ITK), has been used to treat relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with prolongation of progression-free and overall survival. Here, we present 27 patients with relapsed CLL following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) who subsequently received ibrutinib salvage therapy. Sixteen of these patients were part of multi-institutional clinical trials and achieved an overall response rate of 87.5%. An additional 11 patients were treated at Stanford University following US Food and Drug Administration approval of ibrutinib; 7 (64%) achieved a complete response, and 3 (27%) achieved a partial response. Of the 9 patients treated at Stanford who had mixed chimerism–associated CLL relapse, 4 (44%) converted to full donor chimerism following ibrutinib initiation, in association with disease response. Four of 11 (36%) patients evaluated by ClonoSeq achieved minimal residual disease negativity with CLL <1/10 000 white blood cells, which persisted even after ibrutinib was discontinued, in 1 case even after 26 months. None of the 27 patients developed graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) following ibrutinib initiation. We postulate that ibrutinib augments the graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) benefit through a T-cell–mediated effect, most likely due to ITK inhibition. To investigate the immune modulatory effects of ibrutinib, we completed comprehensive immune phenotype characterization of peripheral B and T cells from treated patients. Our results show that ibrutinib selectively targets pre–germinal B cells and depletes Th2 helper cells. Furthermore, these effects persisted after drug discontinuation. In total, our results provide evidence that ibrutinib effectively augments GVL without causing GVHD. PMID:27802969

  18. Venetoclax for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia who progressed during or after idelalisib therapy.

    PubMed

    Coutre, Steven; Choi, Michael; Furman, Richard R; Eradat, Herbert; Heffner, Leonard; Jones, Jeffrey A; Chyla, Brenda; Zhou, Lang; Agarwal, Suresh; Waskiewicz, Tina; Verdugo, Maria; Humerickhouse, Rod A; Potluri, Jalaja; Wierda, William G; Davids, Matthew S

    2018-04-12

    B-cell receptor pathway inhibitors (BCRis) have transformed treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL); however, the efficacy of therapies for patients whose disease is refractory to/relapses after (R/R) BCRis is unknown. Venetoclax is a selective, orally bioavailable BCL-2 inhibitor with activity in patients with CLL, including those who are heavily pretreated or have 17p deletion. This phase 2 study prospectively evaluated venetoclax in patients with R/R CLL after ibrutinib or idelalisib; here we report on patients who received idelalisib as the last BCRi before enrollment. Venetoclax was initiated at 20 mg daily, followed by intrapatient ramp-up to 400 mg daily. Primary objectives included efficacy (objective response rate [ORR]) and safety of venetoclax. The study enrolled 36 patients who previously received idelalisib (ORR, 67% [24/36]); 2 patients achieved complete remission, and 1 had complete remission with incomplete bone marrow recovery. Median progression-free survival (PFS) has not yet been reached; estimated 12-month PFS was 79%. The most common adverse events (AEs; all grades) were neutropenia (56%), diarrhea (42%), upper respiratory tract infection (39%), thrombocytopenia (36%), nausea (31%), fatigue (28%), cough (22%), rash (22%), and anemia (22%). Grade 3 or 4 AEs were primarily hematologic (neutropenia [50%], thrombocytopenia [25%], and anemia [17%]). No patients experienced tumor lysis syndrome. Venetoclax demonstrated promising clinical activity and favorable tolerability in patients with CLL whose disease progressed during or after idelalisib therapy. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02141282. © 2018 by The American Society of Hematology.

  19. Pharmacokinetics of venetoclax in patients with 17p deletion chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Salem, Ahmed Hamed; Dunbar, Martin; Agarwal, Suresh K

    2017-09-01

    Venetoclax is a first-in-class orally available, B-cell lymphoma (BCL)-2 inhibitor indicated for the treatment of patients with relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) harboring the 17p deletion. We used a novel approach for evaluating venetoclax pharmacokinetics using only sparse sampling in 155 patients enrolled in a phase 2, multicenter, open-label study in CLL patients with the 17p deletion. Patients received venetoclax doses within 30 min after the completion of breakfast or the first meal of the day, with no specific recommendations for the fat content in the meal. Blood samples for venetoclax assay were collected during the ramp-up period and on day 1 of weeks 8, 12, 16, 24, and every 12 weeks thereafter. The mean postdose (8 h) plasma venetoclax concentrations increased with increasing weekly venetoclax dose during the ramp-up period to reach 1.89 µg/ml on week 5 day 1 at the 400 mg dose. The mean predose concentration at the 400 mg dose ranged between 0.69 and 0.99 µg/ml across visits between weeks 8 and 120. Repeated-measures analysis detected no statistical significance (P≥0.05) for the mean predose concentrations at any of the times tested from weeks 8 to 24. The study shows that the pharmacokinetic profile of venetoclax in CLL patients with the 17p deletion is comparable to the overall CLL as well as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patient populations. Furthermore, no specific recommendation in terms of fat content in the meal is needed for the intake of venetoclax in patients with CLL.

  20. Comprehensive Safety Analysis of Venetoclax Monotherapy for Patients with Relapsed/Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Davids, Matthew S; Hallek, Michael; Wierda, William; Roberts, Andrew W; Stilgenbauer, Stephan; Jones, Jeffrey A; Gerecitano, John F; Kim, Su Young; Potluri, Jalaja; Busman, Todd; Best, Andrea; Verdugo, Maria E; Cerri, Elisa; Desai, Monali; Hillmen, Peter; Seymour, John F

    2018-06-12

    The oral BCL-2 inhibitor venetoclax is an effective therapy for patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), including disease with high-risk genomic features such as chromosome 17p deletion (del[17p]) or progressive disease following B-cell receptor pathway inhibitors. We conducted a comprehensive analysis of the safety of 400mg daily venetoclax monotherapy in 350 patients with CLL using an integrated dataset from three phase-I/II studies. Median age was 66 years and 60% had del(17p). Patients had received a median of three prior therapies (range: 0-15); 42% previously received ibrutinib or idelalisib. Median duration of exposure to venetoclax was 16 months (0-56). In the pooled analysis, the most common adverse events (AEs) of any grade were diarrhea (41%), neutropenia (40%), nausea (39%), anemia (31%), fatigue (28%), and upper respiratory tract infection (25%). The most common grade 3/4 AEs were neutropenia (37%), anemia (17%), and thrombocytopenia (14%). With the current 5-week ramp-up dosing, the incidence of laboratory TLS was 1.4% (2/166), none had clinical sequelae, and all of these patients were able to ramp-up to a daily dose of 400mg. Grade 3/4 neutropenia was manageable with growth-factor support and dose adjustments; the incidence of serious infections in these patients was 15%. Ten percent of patients discontinued venetoclax due to AEs and 8% died while on study, with the majority of deaths in the setting of disease progression. Venetoclax as a long-term continuous therapy is generally well-tolerated in patients with R/R CLL when initiated with the current treatment algorithm. Copyright ©2018, American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Normal serum protein electrophoresis and mutated IGHV genes detect very slowly evolving chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients.

    PubMed

    Chauzeix, Jasmine; Laforêt, Marie-Pierre; Deveza, Mélanie; Crowther, Liam; Marcellaud, Elodie; Derouault, Paco; Lia, Anne-Sophie; Boyer, François; Bargues, Nicolas; Olombel, Guillaume; Jaccard, Arnaud; Feuillard, Jean; Gachard, Nathalie; Rizzo, David

    2018-05-09

    More than 35 years after the Binet classification, there is still a need for simple prognostic markers in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Here, we studied the treatment-free survival (TFS) impact of normal serum protein electrophoresis (SPE) at diagnosis. One hundred twelve patients with CLL were analyzed. The main prognostic factors (Binet stage; lymphocytosis; IGHV mutation status; TP53, SF3B1, NOTCH1, and BIRC3 mutations; and cytogenetic abnormalities) were studied. The frequencies of IGHV mutation status, cytogenetic abnormalities, and TP53, SF3B1, NOTCH1, and BIRC3 mutations were not significantly different between normal and abnormal SPE. Normal SPE was associated with Binet stage A, nonprogressive disease for 6 months, lymphocytosis below 30 G/L, and the absence of the IGHV3-21 gene rearrangement which is associated with poor prognosis. The TFS of patients with normal SPE was significantly longer than that of patients with abnormal SPE (log-rank test: P = 0.0015, with 51% untreated patients at 5.6 years and a perfect plateau afterward vs. a median TFS at 2.64 years for abnormal SPE with no plateau). Multivariate analysis using two different Cox models and bootstrapping showed that normal SPE was an independent good prognostic marker for either Binet stage, lymphocytosis, or IGHV mutation status. TFS was further increased when both normal SPE and mutated IGHV were present (log-rank test: P = 0.008, median not reached, plateau at 5.6 years and 66% untreated patients). A comparison with other prognostic markers suggested that normal SPE could reflect slowly advancing CLL disease. Altogether, our results show that a combination of normal SPE and mutated IGHV genes defines a subgroup of patients with CLL who evolve very slowly and who might never need treatment. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Near-tetraploidy is associated with Richter transformation in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients receiving ibrutinib.

    PubMed

    Miller, Cecelia R; Ruppert, Amy S; Heerema, Nyla A; Maddocks, Kami J; Labanowska, Jadwiga; Breidenbach, Heather; Lozanski, Gerard; Zhao, Weiqiang; Gordon, Amber L; Jones, Jeffrey A; Flynn, Joseph M; Jaglowski, Samantha M; Andritsos, Leslie A; Blum, Kristie A; T Awan, Farrukh; Rogers, Kerry A; Grever, Michael R; Johnson, Amy J; Abruzzo, Lynne V; Hertlein, Erin K; Blachly, James S; Woyach, Jennifer A; Byrd, John C

    2017-08-22

    Ibrutinib is a highly effective targeted therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). However, ibrutinib must be discontinued in a subset of patients due to progressive CLL or transformation to aggressive lymphoma (Richter transformation). Transformation occurs early in the course of therapy and has an extremely poor prognosis. Thus, identification of prognostic markers associated with transformation is of utmost importance. Near-tetraploidy (4 copies of most chromosomes within a cell) has been reported in various lymphomas, but its incidence and significance in CLL has not been described. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, we detected near-tetraploidy in 9 of 297 patients with CLL prior to beginning ibrutinib treatment on 1 of 4 clinical trials (3.0%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4%-5.7%). Near-tetraploidy was associated with aggressive disease characteristics: Rai stage 3/4 ( P = .03), deletion 17p ( P = .03), and complex karyotype ( P = .01). Near-tetraploidy was also associated with ibrutinib discontinuation due to Richter transformation ( P < .0001), but not due to progressive CLL ( P = .41). Of the 9 patients with near-tetraploidy, 6 had Richter transformation with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. In a multivariable model, near-tetraploidy (hazard ratio [HR], 8.66; 95% CI, 3.83-19.59; P < .0001) and complex karyotype (HR, 4.77; 95% CI, 1.42-15.94; P = .01) were independent risk factors for discontinuing ibrutinib due to transformation. Our results suggest that near-tetraploidy is a potential prognostic marker for Richter transformation to assess in patients going on ibrutinib.

  3. Functional evaluation of the role of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Schliep, Stefan; Decker, Thomas; Schneller, Folker; Wagner, Hermann; Häcker, Georg

    2004-06-01

    The slow accumulation of malignant cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) suggests a defect in the induction of apoptosis in these cells. Previous studies have found sporadic alterations in the apoptotic apparatus in CLL cells, but a widespread defect has not been detected until now. A crucial checkpoint in the progression of apoptosis is the activity of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAP) that control the activity of caspases upon the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of IAP in the regulation of apoptosis in CLL cells. Lysates from CLL cells were prepared, and the regular function of components of the cytochrome c-dependent caspase-activating machinery (the apoptosome) was investigated. The effect of IAP in caspase-inhibition was tested using a peptide derived from the mitochondrial IAP antagonist Smac/DIABLO. Regulation of expression as well as inhibitory function of the X-linked IAP (XIAP) by cytokines was analyzed. The apoptosome was found to be structurally and functionally competent in CLL. XIAP expression was enhanced by culture in the presence of cytokines. Smac/DIABLO was easily detectable in CLL cells and was released into the cytosol during apoptosis. No inhibitory effect of IAP was detected in CLL, irrespective of XIAP levels and culture conditions. Although XIAP is present in CLL cells and is up-regulated in conditions where apoptosis is prevented, no caspase-inhibiting anti-apoptotic effect of IAP is detectable. This is likely due to the high expression of Smac/DIABLO in CLL cells that is sufficient to overcome the caspase-inhibiting effect of IAP.

  4. Genomic characterization of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in radiation-exposed Chornobyl cleanup workers.

    PubMed

    Ojha, Juhi; Dyagil, Iryna; Finch, Stuart C; Reiss, Robert F; de Smith, Adam J; Gonseth, Semira; Zhou, Mi; Hansen, Helen M; Sherborne, Amy L; Nakamura, Jean; Bracci, Paige M; Gudzenko, Nataliya; Hatch, Maureen; Babkina, Nataliya; Little, Mark P; Chumak, Vadim V; Walsh, Kyle M; Bazyka, Dimitry; Wiemels, Joseph L; Zablotska, Lydia B

    2018-05-02

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was the predominant leukemia in a recent study of Chornobyl cleanup workers from Ukraine exposed to radiation (UR-CLL). Radiation risks of CLL significantly increased with increasing bone marrow radiation doses. Current analysis aimed to clarify whether the increased risks were due to radiation or to genetic mutations in the Ukrainian population. A detailed characterization of the genomic landscape was performed in a unique sample of 16 UR-CLL patients and age- and sex-matched unexposed general population Ukrainian-CLL (UN-CLL) and Western-CLL (W-CLL) patients (n = 28 and 100, respectively). Mutations in telomere-maintenance pathway genes POT1 and ATM were more frequent in UR-CLL compared to UN-CLL and W-CLL (both p < 0.05). No significant enrichment in copy-number abnormalities at del13q14, del11q, del17p or trisomy12 was identified in UR-CLL compared to other groups. Type of work performed in the Chornobyl zone, age at exposure and at diagnosis, calendar time, and Rai stage were significant predictors of total genetic lesions (all p < 0.05). Tumor telomere length was significantly longer in UR-CLL than in UN-CLL (p = 0.009) and was associated with the POT1 mutation and survival. No significant enrichment in copy-number abnormalities at CLL-associated genes was identified in UR-CLL compared to other groups. The novel associations between radiation exposure, telomere maintenance and CLL prognosis identified in this unique case series provide suggestive, though limited data and merit further investigation.

  5. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia B-Cell Normal Cellular Counterpart: Clues From a Functional Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Darwiche, Walaa; Gubler, Brigitte; Marolleau, Jean-Pierre; Ghamlouch, Hussein

    2018-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is characterized by the clonal expansion of small mature-looking CD19+ CD23+ CD5+ B-cells that accumulate in the blood, bone marrow, and lymphoid organs. To date, no consensus has been reached concerning the normal cellular counterpart of CLL B-cells and several B-cell types have been proposed. CLL B-cells have remarkable phenotypic and gene expression profile homogeneity. In recent years, the molecular and cellular biology of CLL has been enriched by seminal insights that are leading to a better understanding of the natural history of the disease. Immunophenotypic and molecular approaches (including immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable gene mutational status, transcriptional and epigenetic profiling) comparing the normal B-cell subset and CLL B-cells provide some new insights into the normal cellular counterpart. Functional characteristics (including activation requirements and propensity for plasma cell differentiation) of CLL B-cells have now been investigated for 50 years. B-cell subsets differ substantially in terms of their functional features. Analysis of shared functional characteristics may reveal similarities between normal B-cell subsets and CLL B-cells, allowing speculative assignment of a normal cellular counterpart for CLL B-cells. In this review, we summarize current data regarding peripheral B-cell differentiation and human B-cell subsets and suggest possibilities for a normal cellular counterpart based on the functional characteristics of CLL B-cells. However, a definitive normal cellular counterpart cannot be attributed on the basis of the available data. We discuss the functional characteristics required for a cell to be logically considered to be the normal counterpart of CLL B-cells. PMID:29670635

  6. Effect of interleukins on the proliferation and survival of B cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia cells.

    PubMed Central

    Mainou-Fowler, T; Copplestone, J A; Prentice, A G

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To investigate the effects of interleukin (IL) 1, 2, 4, and 5 on the proliferation and survival of peripheral blood B cells from patients with B chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL) and compare them with the effects on normal peripheral blood B cells. METHODS--The proliferation and survival of pokeweed mitogen (PWM) activated B cells from B-CLL (n = 12) and normal peripheral blood (n = 5) were studied in vitro in response to IL-1, IL-2 IL-4, and IL-5. Survival of cells in cultures with or without added interleukins was studied by microscopic examination of cells and DNA agarose gel electrophoresis. RESULTS--Proliferation was observed in both B-CLL and normal peripheral blood cells on culture with IL-2 alone and also in some, but not all, B-CLL and normal peripheral blood cells with IL-1 and IL-4. However, there was greater variability in B-CLL cell responses than in normal peripheral blood cells. Il-5 did not affect normal peripheral blood cell proliferation but it increased proliferation in two B-CLL cases. Synergistic effects of these cytokines were not detected. IL-4 inhibited normal peripheral blood and B-CLL cell proliferation after the addition of IL-2. Inhibition of B-CLL cell responses to IL-2 was also observed with IL-5 and Il-1. Survival of B-CLL cells in cultures was enhanced with IL-4 not by an increase in proliferation but by reduced apoptosis. No such effect was seen in normal peripheral blood cells. IL-2 had a less noticeable antiapoptotic effect; IL-5 enhanced apoptosis in B-CLL cells. CONCLUSIONS--B-CLL and normal peripheral blood cells proliferated equally well in response to IL-2. IL-4 had a much lower effect on B-CLL cell proliferation, but had noticeable antiapoptotic activity. IL-5 enhanced cell death by apoptosis. Images PMID:7629299

  7. Droplet digital PCR analysis of NOTCH1 gene mutations in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Minervini, Angela; Francesco Minervini, Crescenzio; Anelli, Luisa; Zagaria, Antonella; Casieri, Paola; Coccaro, Nicoletta; Cumbo, Cosimo; Tota, Giuseppina; Impera, Luciana; Orsini, Paola; Brunetti, Claudia; Giordano, Annamaria; Specchia, Giorgina; Albano, Francesco

    2016-12-27

    In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), NOTCH1 gene mutations (NOTCH1mut) have been associated with adverse prognostic features but the independence of these as a prognostic factor is still controversial. In our study we validated a c.7541-7542delCT NOTCH1 mutation assay based on droplet digital PCR (ddPCR); we also analyzed the NOTCH1mut allelic burden, expressed as fractional abundance (FA), in 88 CLL patients at diagnosis to assess its prognostic role and made a longitudinal ddPCR analysis in 10 cases harboring NOTCH1mut to verify the FA variation over time. Our data revealed that with the ddPCR approach the incidence of NOTCH1mut in CLL was much higher (53.4%) than expected. However, longitudinal ddPCR analysis of CLL cases showed a statistically significant reduction of the NOTCH1mut FA detected at diagnosis after treatment (median FA 11.67 % vs 0.09 %, respectively, p = 0.01); the same difference, in terms of NOTCH1mut FA, was observed in the relapsed cases compared to the NOTCH1mut allelic fraction observed in patients in complete or partial remission (median FA 4.75% vs 0.43%, respectively, p = 0.007). Our study demonstrated a much higher incidence of NOTCH1mut in CLL than has previously been reported, and showed that the NOTCH1mut allelic burden evaluation by ddPCR might identify patients in need of a closer clinical follow-up during the "watch and wait" interval and after standard chemotherapy.

  8. Analysis of Expressed and Non-Expressed IGK Locus Rearrangements in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Belessi, Chrysoula; Stamatopoulos, Kostas; Hadzidimitriou, Anastasia; Hatzi, Katerina; Smilevska, Tatjana; Stavroyianni, Niki; Marantidou, Fotini; Paterakis, George; Fassas, Athanasios; Anagnostopoulos, Achilles; Laoutaris, Nikolaos

    2005-01-01

    Immunoglobulin κ (IGK) locus rearrangements were analyzed in parallel on cDNA/genomic DNA in 188 κ- and 103 λ-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cases. IGKV-KDE and IGKJ-C-intron-KDE rearrangements were also analyzed on genomic DNA. In κ-CLL, only 3 of 188 cases carried double in-frame IGKV-J transcripts: in such cases, the possibility that leukemic cells expressed more than one κ chain cannot be excluded. Twenty-eight κ-CLL cases also carried nonexpressed (nontranscribed and/or out-of-frame) IGKV-J rearrangements. Taking IGKV-J, IGKV-KDE, and IGKJ-C-intron-KDE rearrangements together, 38% of κ-CLL cases carried biallelic IGK locus rearrangements. In λ-CLL, 69 IGKV-J rearrangements were detected in 64 of 103 cases (62%); 24 rearrangements (38.2%) were in-frame. Four cases carried in-frame IGKV-J transcripts but retained monotypic light-chain expression, suggesting posttranscriptional regulation of allelic exclusion. In all, taking IGKV-J, IGKV-KDE, and IGKJ-C-intron-KDE rearrangements together, 97% of λ-CLL cases had at least 1 rearranged IGK allele, in keeping with normal cells. IG repertoire comparisons in κ- versus λ-CLL revealed that CLL precursor cells tried many rearrangements on the same IGK allele before they became λ producers. Thirteen of 28 and 26 of 69 non-expressed sequences in, respectively, κ- or λ-CLL had < 100% homology to germline. This finding might be considered as evidence for secondary rearrangements occurring after the onset of somatic hypermutation, at least in some cases. The inactivation of potentially functional IGKV-J joints by secondary rearrangements indicates active receptor editing in CLL and provides further evidence for the role of antigen in CLL immunopathogenesis. PMID:16622520

  9. Ongoing In Vivo Immunoglobulin Class Switch DNA Recombination in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia B Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Cerutti, Andrea; Zan, Hong; Kim, Edmund C.; Shah, Shefali; Schattner, Elaine J.; Schaffer, András; Casali, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) results from the expansion of malignant CD5+ B cells that usually express IgD and IgM. These leukemic cells can give rise in vivo to clonally related IgG+ or IgA+ elements. The requirements and modalities of this process remain elusive. Here we show that leukemic B cells from 14 of 20 CLLs contain the hallmarks of ongoing Ig class switch DNA recombination (CSR), including extrachromosomal switch circular DNAs and circle transcripts generated by direct Sμ→Sγ, Sμ→Sα, and Sμ→Sε as well as sequential Sγ→Sα and Sγ→Sε CSR. Similar CLL B cells express transcripts for activation-induced cytidine deaminase, a critical component of the CSR machinery, and contain germline IH-CH and mature VHDJH-CH transcripts encoded by multiple Cγ, Cα, and Cε genes. Ongoing CSR occurs in only a fraction of the CLL clone, as only small proportions of CD5+CD19+ cells express surface IgG or IgA and lack IgM and IgD. In vivo class-switching CLL B cells down-regulate switch circles and circle transcripts in vitro unless exposed to exogenous CD40 ligand and IL-4. In addition, CLL B cells that do not class switch in vivo activate the CSR machinery and secrete IgG, IgA, or IgE upon in vitro exposure to CD40 ligand and IL-4. These findings indicate that in CLL at least some members of the malignant clone actively differentiate in vivo along a pathway that induces CSR. They also suggest that this process is elicited by external stimuli, including CD40 ligand and IL-4, provided by bystander immune cells. PMID:12444172

  10. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia-associated chromosomal abnormalities and miRNA deregulation.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, Yvonne; Schulte, Christoph; Tiemann, Markus; Bullerdiek, Joern

    2012-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is the most common leukemia in adults. By cytogenetic investigations major subgroups of the disease can be identified that reflect different routes of tumor development. Of these chromosomal deviations, trisomy 12 and deletions of parts of either the long arm of chromosome 13, the long arm of chromosome 11, or the short arm of chromosome 17 are most commonly detected. In some of these aberrations the molecular target has been identified as eg, ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) in case of deletions of chromosomal region 11q22~23 and the genes encoding microRNAs miR-15a/16-1 as likely targets of deletions of chromosomal band 13q14.3. Of note, these aberrations do not characterize independent subgroups but often coexist within the metaphases of one tumor. Generally, complex aberrations are associated with a worse prognosis than simple karyotypic alterations. Due to smaller sizes of the missing segment the detection of recurrent deletions is not always possible by means of classical cytogenetics but requires more advanced techniques as in particular fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Nevertheless, at this time it is not recommended to replace classical cytogenetics by FISH because this would miss additional information given by complex or secondary karyotypic alterations. However, the results of cytogenetic analyses allow the stratification of prognostic and predictive groups of the disease. Of these, the group characterized by deletions involving TP53 is clinically most relevant. In the future refined methods as eg, array-based comparative genomic hybridization will supplement the existing techniques to characterize CLL.

  11. Screened selection design for randomised phase II oncology trials: an example in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background As there are limited patients for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia trials, it is important that statistical methodologies in Phase II efficiently select regimens for subsequent evaluation in larger-scale Phase III trials. Methods We propose the screened selection design (SSD), which is a practical multi-stage, randomised Phase II design for two experimental arms. Activity is first evaluated by applying Simon’s two-stage design (1989) on each arm. If both are active, the play-the-winner selection strategy proposed by Simon, Wittes and Ellenberg (SWE) (1985) is applied to select the superior arm. A variant of the design, Modified SSD, also allows the arm with the higher response rates to be recommended only if its activity rate is greater by a clinically-relevant value. The operating characteristics are explored via a simulation study and compared to a Bayesian Selection approach. Results Simulations showed that with the proposed SSD, it is possible to retain the sample size as required in SWE and obtain similar probabilities of selecting the correct superior arm of at least 90%; with the additional attractive benefit of reducing the probability of selecting ineffective arms. This approach is comparable to a Bayesian Selection Strategy. The Modified SSD performs substantially better than the other designs in selecting neither arm if the underlying rates for both arms are desirable but equivalent, allowing for other factors to be considered in the decision making process. Though its probability of correctly selecting a superior arm might be reduced, it still performs reasonably well. It also reduces the probability of selecting an inferior arm. Conclusions SSD provides an easy to implement randomised Phase II design that selects the most promising treatment that has shown sufficient evidence of activity, with available R codes to evaluate its operating characteristics. PMID:23819695

  12. Clinical and molecular predictors of disease severity and survival in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, J Brice; Volkheimer, Alicia D; Chen, Youwei; Beasley, Bethany E; Jiang, Ning; Lanasa, Mark C; Friedman, Daphne; Vaccaro, Gina; Rehder, Catherine W; Decastro, Carlos M; Rizzieri, David A; Diehl, Louis F; Gockerman, Jon P; Moore, Joseph O; Goodman, Barbara K; Levesque, Marc C

    2007-12-01

    Several parameters may predict disease severity and overall survival in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The purpose of our study of 190 CLL patients was to compare immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region (IgV(H)) mutation status, cytogenetic abnormalities, and leukemia cell CD38 and Zap-70 to older, traditional parameters. We also wanted to construct a simple, inexpensive prognosis score that would significantly predict TTT and survival in patients at the time of diagnosis and help practicing clinicians. In univariate analyses, patients with higher clinical stage, higher leukocyte count at diagnosis, shorter leukocyte doubling time, elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), unmutated immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region (IgV(H)) genes, and higher CD38 had a shorter overall survival and time-to-treatment (TTT). CLL cell Zap-70 expression was higher in patients with unmutated IgV(H), and those with higher Zap-70 tended to have shorter survival. IgV(H)4-34 or IgV(H)1-69 was the most common IgV(H) genes used (16 and 12%, respectively). Of those with IgV(H)1-69, 86% had unmutated IgV(H) and had a significantly shorter TTT. A cytogenetic abnormality was noted in 71% of the patients tested. Patients with 11q22 del and 17p13 del or complex abnormalities were significantly more likely to have unmutated IgV(H). We found that a prognostic score constructed using modified Rai stage, cellular CD38, and serum LDH (parameters easily obtained clinically) significantly predicted TTT and survival in patients at the time of diagnosis and performed as well or better than models using the newer markers.

  13. Screened selection design for randomised phase II oncology trials: an example in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Yap, Christina; Pettitt, Andrew; Billingham, Lucinda

    2013-07-03

    As there are limited patients for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia trials, it is important that statistical methodologies in Phase II efficiently select regimens for subsequent evaluation in larger-scale Phase III trials. We propose the screened selection design (SSD), which is a practical multi-stage, randomised Phase II design for two experimental arms. Activity is first evaluated by applying Simon's two-stage design (1989) on each arm. If both are active, the play-the-winner selection strategy proposed by Simon, Wittes and Ellenberg (SWE) (1985) is applied to select the superior arm. A variant of the design, Modified SSD, also allows the arm with the higher response rates to be recommended only if its activity rate is greater by a clinically-relevant value. The operating characteristics are explored via a simulation study and compared to a Bayesian Selection approach. Simulations showed that with the proposed SSD, it is possible to retain the sample size as required in SWE and obtain similar probabilities of selecting the correct superior arm of at least 90%; with the additional attractive benefit of reducing the probability of selecting ineffective arms. This approach is comparable to a Bayesian Selection Strategy. The Modified SSD performs substantially better than the other designs in selecting neither arm if the underlying rates for both arms are desirable but equivalent, allowing for other factors to be considered in the decision making process. Though its probability of correctly selecting a superior arm might be reduced, it still performs reasonably well. It also reduces the probability of selecting an inferior arm. SSD provides an easy to implement randomised Phase II design that selects the most promising treatment that has shown sufficient evidence of activity, with available R codes to evaluate its operating characteristics.

  14. Analysis of alterations of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed Central

    Gaidano, G.; Newcomb, E. W.; Gong, J. Z.; Tassi, V.; Neri, A.; Cortelezzi, A.; Calori, R.; Baldini, L.; Dalla-Favera, R.

    1994-01-01

    B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) represents the most frequent adult leukemia in the Western world. The molecular pathogenesis of B-CLL is largely unknown. Although initial reports on small panels of cases had suggested a role for Bcl-1 and Bcl-2 oncogene activation in B-CLL, later investigations failed to confirm these data. Among tumor suppressor genes, p53 mutations have been reported in a fraction of cases. In this study, we have attempted a conclusive definition of the involvement of dominantly acting oncogenes (Bcl-1 and Bcl-2) and tumor suppressor loci (p53, 6q-) in 100 cases of B-CLL selected for their CD5 positivity and Rai's stage (0 to IV). Rearrangements of Bcl-1 and Bcl-2 and deletions of 6q and 17p were analyzed by Southern blot using multiple probes. Mutational analysis (single strand conformation polymorphism and polymerase chain reaction direct sequencing) was used to assay p53 inactivation. No alterations of Bcl-1 or Bcl-2 were detected in the 100 cases tested. Mutations of p53 were found in 10/100 cases without any significant association with clinical stage. Deletions of 6q were present in 4/100 cases. Overall, our data indicate that: 1) contrary to previous reports, Bcl-1 and Bcl-2 rearrangements are not involved in CD5+ B-CLL pathogenesis and 2) p53 mutations are present in 10% of cases at all stages of the disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8203469

  15. Concept Elicitation Within Patient-Powered Research Networks: A Feasibility Study in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    McCarrier, Kelly P; Bull, Scott; Fleming, Sarah; Simacek, Kristina; Wicks, Paul; Cella, David; Pierson, Renee

    2016-01-01

    To explore the feasibility of using social media-based patient networks to gather qualitative data on patient-reported outcome (PRO) concepts relevant to chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Between August and November 2013, US-residing members of the PatientsLikeMe online CLL patient community completed open-ended web-based surveys designed to elicit descriptions of CLL symptoms, impacts, and treatment-related perceptions. Qualitative telephone follow-up interviews were conducted with a subsample of respondents. Survey responses and interview transcripts were coded for qualitative analysis using Atlas.ti. Fifty survey responses were included in the analyses. Participants were age 60.5 ± 6.9 years, 54% female, and 96% white. When surveyed, 20% were receiving current treatment, 16% were in remission, and 64% were treatment-naïve. Among respondents, 369 descriptions of CLL symptoms were coded. Fatigue-related symptoms were expressed most frequently, with 54% reporting "fatigue," "tiredness," or both in their responses. These concepts were followed by night sweats (38%), swollen lymph nodes (32%), and frequent infections (28%). Among impacts of CLL, worry and fear (66% of respondents), depressed feelings (52%), and work limitations (50%) were noted most frequently. Survey results identified constitutional symptoms of CLL included in existing PRO instruments and the literature. Although the findings suggest that qualitative data obtained through social media applications can be potentially useful in supporting concept identification for newly developed PRO instruments, they also indicate that online approaches alone may not be sufficient to achieve efficient and exhaustive concept elicitation. Further research is needed to identify whether the results can support content validity in the same way as established qualitative research methods. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Role of BAFF and APRIL in human B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Haiat, Stéphanie; Billard, Christian; Quiney, Claire; Ajchenbaum-Cymbalista, Florence; Kolb, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL) is the most prevalent leukaemia in Western countries and is characterized by the gradual accumulation in patients of small mature B cells. Since the vast majority of tumoral cells are quiescent, the accumulation mostly results from deficient apoptosis rather than from acute proliferation. Although the phenomenon is relevant in vivo, B-CLL cells die rapidly in vitro as a consequence of apoptosis, suggesting a lack of essential growth factors in the culture medium. Indeed, the rate of B-CLL cell death in vitro is modulated by different cytokines, some favouring the apoptotic process, others counteracting it. Two related members of the tumour necrosis factor family, BAFF (B-cell activating factor of the TNF family) and APRIL (a proliferation-inducing ligand), already known for their crucial role in normal B-cell survival, differentiation and apoptosis, were recently shown to be expressed by B-CLL cells. These molecules are able to protect the leukaemic cells against spontaneous and drug-induced apoptosis via autocrine and/or paracrine pathways. This review will focus on the role of BAFF and APRIL in the survival of tumoral cells. It will discuss the expression of these molecules by B-CLL cells, their regulation, transduction pathways and their effects on leukaemic cells. The design of reagents able to counteract the effects of these molecules seems to be a new promising therapeutic approach for B-CLL and is already currently developed in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. PMID:16827889

  17. Hypogammaglobulinemia in newly diagnosed chronic lymphocytic leukemia: Natural history, clinical correlates, and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Sameer A; Leis, Jose F; Chaffee, Kari G; Call, Timothy G; Hanson, Curtis A; Ding, Wei; Chanan-Khan, Asher A; Bowen, Deborah; Conte, Michael; Schwager, Susan; Slager, Susan L; Van Dyke, Daniel L; Jelinek, Diane F; Kay, Neil E; Shanafelt, Tait D

    2015-09-01

    Although hypogammaglobulinemia is a well recognized complication in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), its prevalence at the time of CLL diagnosis, and association with novel prognostic markers and clinical outcome is not well understood. All patients at the Mayo Clinic between January 1999 and July 2013 who had newly diagnosed CLL and had a baseline assessment of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) were included. The relation between hypogammaglobulinemia at diagnosis and the novel prognostic parameters time to first treatment (TFT) and overall survival (OS) were evaluated. Of 1485 patients who met the eligibility criteria, 382 (26%) had hypogammaglobulinemia (median IgG, 624 mg/dL), whereas the remaining 1103 patients (74%) had normal serum IgG levels (median IgG, 1040 mg/dL). Patients who had hypogammaglobulinemia at diagnosis were more likely to have advanced Rai stage (III-IV; P = .001) and higher expression of CD49d (P < .001) compared with patients who had normal IgG levels. Although the median TFT for patients who had hypogammaglobulinemia was shorter compared with that for patients who had normal IgG levels (3.8 years vs 7.4 years; P < .001), on multivariable analysis, there was no difference in OS between these 2 groups (12.8 years vs 11.3 years, respectively; P = .73). Of 1103 patients who had CLL with normal IgG levels at diagnosis and who did not receive CLL therapy, the risk of acquired hypogammaglobulinemia was 11% at 5 years and 23% at 10 years. Hypogammaglobulinemia is present in 25% of patients with newly diagnosed CLL. Approximately 25% of patients who have CLL with normal IgG levels at diagnosis will subsequently develop hypogammaglobulinemia on long-term follow-up. The presence of hypogammaglobulinemia does not appear to impact overall survival. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  18. Incidence of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in a New Zealand population of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia patients.

    PubMed

    Hock, B D; McIntosh, N D; McKenzie, J L; Pearson, J F; Simcock, J W; MacPherson, S A

    2016-12-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is associated with an increased incidence and aggressiveness of skin cancers, particularly cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC), but little is known about cSCC incidence in Australasian CLL patients. In this retrospective study, we analysed the incidence of cSCC in patients seen at a tertiary hospital in New Zealand (NZ). We retrospectively assessed the clinical history and histology data of CLL patients (n = 371) who presented to the Haematology Department, Christchurch Hospital, NZ during the period 1996-2015. Baseline characteristics, incidence of second cancers, treatment details and overall survival were analysed. During follow-up (median = 11.8 years), 221 second cancers were recorded in 88 patients. Of these cancers, 185 were cSCC, removed from 61 patients. In 56% of these patients, >1 cSCC was removed, and the majority of cSCC occurred following the treatment for CLL. The cumulative incidence of a first cSCC was 11% at 5 years, whereas the cumulative incidence of a subsequent cSCC was 88% at 5 years. The incidence of cSCC in male patients was threefold higher than that reported for the general NZ population. NZ CLL patients have a high incidence of cSCC relative to the levels observed in the general population, which are themselves among the highest in the world. The careful monitoring of CLL patients is warranted, particularly those who have a progressive disease or have had a first cSCC removed. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  19. Non-codingRNA sequence variations in human chronic lymphocytic leukemia and colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wojcik, Sylwia E.; Rossi, Simona; Shimizu, Masayoshi; Nicoloso, Milena S.; Cimmino, Amelia; Alder, Hansjuerg; Herlea, Vlad; Rassenti, Laura Z.; Rai, Kanti R.; Kipps, Thomas J.; Keating, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Cancer is a genetic disease in which the interplay between alterations in protein-coding genes and non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) plays a fundamental role. In recent years, the full coding component of the human genome was sequenced in various cancers, whereas such attempts related to ncRNAs are still fragmentary. We screened genomic DNAs for sequence variations in 148 microRNAs (miRNAs) and ultraconserved regions (UCRs) loci in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) or colorectal cancer (CRC) by Sanger technique and further tried to elucidate the functional consequences of some of these variations. We found sequence variations in miRNAs in both sporadic and familial CLL cases, mutations of UCRs in CLLs and CRCs and, in certain instances, detected functional effects of these variations. Furthermore, by integrating our data with previously published data on miRNA sequence variations, we have created a catalog of DNA sequence variations in miRNAs/ultraconserved genes in human cancers. These findings argue that ncRNAs are targeted by both germ line and somatic mutations as well as by single-nucleotide polymorphisms with functional significance for human tumorigenesis. Sequence variations in ncRNA loci are frequent and some have functional and biological significance. Such information can be exploited to further investigate on a genome-wide scale the frequency of genetic variations in ncRNAs and their functional meaning, as well as for the development of new diagnostic and prognostic markers for leukemias and carcinomas. PMID:19926640

  20. The analysis with monoclonal antibodies of the heterogeneity of Ia glycoproteins on chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells

    SciT

    Addis, J.B.; Tisch, R.; Falk, J.A.

    The accessible Ia molecules on the surface of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells were quantitated in the cellular radioimmunoassay with saturating concentrations of monoclonal antibodies. Monoclonal antibody 21w4, like DA/2 antibody, recognizes monomorphic determinants of human Ia antigens.The amount of 21w4 or DA/2 bound to CLL cells derived from eight patients (varying from 2.6 to 13.9 x 10/sup 5/ molecules/cell) appears to be the maximum observed with the antibodies studied. Two other antibodies, 18d5 and 21r5, although also directed at nonpolymorphic Ia determinants, bind differentially to CLL cells, with the ratios of 21r5/21w4 and 18d5/21w4 varying from 0.08 to 0.90.more » Sequential immunoprecipitation studies have established that the four epitopes 18d5, 21r5, 21w4, and DA/2 were present on the same molecules. All Ia molecules express 21w4 and DA/2 epitopes, whereas only certain subsets of Ia molecules carry accessible 21r5 or 18d5 epitopes. Competitive binding studies showed that the epitopes recognized by the four monoclonal antibodies were different. Monoclonal antibodies 21r5 and 21w4 did not inhibit each other's binding. Furthermore, binding of 21w4 to CLL cells potentiated the binding of /sup 125/I-21r5 IgG to the same cells, suggesting that binding of 21w4 antibody induces a conformational change in the molecule that renders 21r5 epitopes more accessible.« less

  1. Cost Effectiveness of Ofatumumab Plus Chlorambucil in First-Line Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia in Canada.

    PubMed

    Herring, William; Pearson, Isobel; Purser, Molly; Nakhaipour, Hamid Reza; Haiderali, Amin; Wolowacz, Sorrel; Jayasundara, Kavisha

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to estimate the cost effectiveness of ofatumumab plus chlorambucil (OChl) versus chlorambucil in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia for whom fludarabine-based therapies are considered inappropriate from the perspective of the publicly funded healthcare system in Canada. A semi-Markov model (3-month cycle length) used survival curves to govern progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Efficacy and safety data and health-state utility values were estimated from the COMPLEMENT-1 trial. Post-progression treatment patterns were based on clinical guidelines, Canadian treatment practices and published literature. Total and incremental expected lifetime costs (in Canadian dollars [$Can], year 2013 values), life-years and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were computed. Uncertainty was assessed via deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. The discounted lifetime health and economic outcomes estimated by the model showed that, compared with chlorambucil, first-line treatment with OChl led to an increase in QALYs (0.41) and total costs ($Can27,866) and to an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $Can68,647 per QALY gained. In deterministic sensitivity analyses, the ICER was most sensitive to the modelling time horizon and to the extrapolation of OS treatment effects beyond the trial duration. In probabilistic sensitivity analysis, the probability of cost effectiveness at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $Can100,000 per QALY gained was 59 %. Base-case results indicated that improved overall response and PFS for OChl compared with chlorambucil translated to improved quality-adjusted life expectancy. Sensitivity analysis suggested that OChl is likely to be cost effective subject to uncertainty associated with the presence of any long-term OS benefit and the model time horizon.

  2. Low T3 syndrome as a predictor of poor prognosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Gao, Rui; Chen, Rui-Ze; Xia, Yi; Liang, Jin-Hua; Wang, Li; Zhu, Hua-Yuan; Zhu Wu, Jia-; Fan, Lei; Li, Jian-Yong; Yang, Tao; Xu, Wei

    2018-02-19

    Low triiodothyronine (T3) state is associated with poor prognosis in critical acute and prolonged illness. However, the information on thyroid dysfunction and cancer is limited. The aim of our study was to evaluate the prognostic value of low T3 syndrome in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Two hundred and fifty-eight patients with detailed thyroid hormone profile at CLL diagnosis were enrolled. Low T3 syndrome was defined by low free T3 (FT3) level accompanied by normal-to-low free tetraiodothyronine (FT4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. A propensity score-matched method was performed to balance the baseline characteristics. Multivariate Cox regression analyses screened the independent prognostic factors related to time-to-first-treatment (TTFT) and cancer-specific survival (CSS). Area under the curve (AUC) assessed the predictive accuracy of CLL-International Prognostic Index (IPI) together with low T3 syndrome. The results showed that 37 (14.34%) patients had low T3 syndrome, which was significantly associated with unfavorable TTFT and CSS in the propensity-matched cohort, and it was an independent prognostic indicator for both TTFT and CSS. Serum FT3 level was positively related to protein metabolism and anemia, and inversely related to inflammatory state. Patients with only low FT3 demonstrated better survival than those with synchronously low FT3 and FT4, while those with synchronously low FT3, FT4 and TSH had the worst clinical outcome. Low T3 syndrome together with CLL-IPI had larger AUCs compared with CLL-IPI alone in TTFT and CSS prediction. In conclusion, low T3 syndrome may be a good candidate for predicting prognosis in future clinical practice of CLL. © 2018 UICC.

  3. Entering the Era of Targeted Therapy for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Impact on the Practicing Clinician

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, John C.; Jones, Jeffrey J.; Woyach, Jennifer A.; Johnson, Amy J.; Flynn, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Chemoimmunotherapy has been the standard of care for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). However, the introduction of B-cell receptor (BCR) kinase inhibitors such as ibrutinib has the potential to eliminate the role of chemotherapy in the treatment of CLL. How to best incorporate old and new therapies for CLL in this landscape is increasingly complex. Methods This article reviews current data available to clinicians and integrates these data to provide a strategy that can be used to approach the treatment of CLL in the era of BCR signaling inhibitors. Results Current strategies separate patients based on age or functional status as well as genetics [presence or absence of del(17)(p13.1)]. In the era of targeted therapy, this will likely continue based on current available data. Phase III studies support chemoimmunotherapy as the initial standard therapy for patients without del(17)(p13.1). Choice of chemotherapy (fludarabine plus cyclophosphamide, bendamustine, or chlorambucil) and anti-CD20 antibody (rituximab, ofatumumab, or obinutuzumab) varies based on regimen and patient status. For patients with del(17)(p13.1), no standard initial therapy exists, although several options supported by phase II clinical trials (methylprednisolone plus alemtuzumab or ibrutinib) seem better than chemoimmunotherapy. Treatment of relapsed CLL seems to be best supported by ibrutinib-based therapy. Completion of trials with ibrutinib and other new agents in the near future will offer opportunity for chemotherapy-free treatment across all groups of CLL. Conclusion Therapy for CLL has evolved significantly over the past decade with introduction of targeted therapy for CLL. This has the potential to completely transform how CLL is treated in the future. PMID:25049322

  4. The effect of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis on patients with thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Ma, Xiao-Peng; Deng, Fu-Sheng; Liu, Zheng-Rong; Wei, Hou-Qing; Wang, Xi-Hong; Chen, Hao

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) and malignant tumors of the thyroid. A retrospective review of 647 patients who underwent thyroid surgery at the Department of Breast and Thyroid Surgery in Anhui Provincial Hospital, China in 2012 was performed. The clinicopathological characteristics of patients with thyroid malignancies and CLT were collected. CLT was diagnosed by histopathological method. Among 647 patients, 144 patients had thyroid malignancies and 108 patients had been diagnosed with CLT. Moreover, in total, 44 patients had thyroid malignancies coexistent with CLT: forty-one (93.2%) patients had been diagnosed with the papillary thyroid cancer (PTC); two (4.5%) patients suffered from medullary carcinoma; and one (2.3%) patient suffered from lymphoma. The morbidity of thyroid malignancies in patients with CLT was significantly higher than that in patients without CLT (40.7% versus 18.6%; P <0.001). A female preponderance was observed in the patients with CLT compared with those without CLT (P <0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in the tumor size (P = 0.073), multifocality (P = 0.0871), neck lymph node metastasis (P = 0.350), age (P = 0.316), microcarcinoma (P = 0.983) and tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage (P = 0.949) between the patients of thyroid malignancies with CLT and without CLT. Female predominance was observed in patients with CLT. CLT may have no effect on the progression of thyroid malignant tumor. Nevertheless, the influences of CLT on the prognosis of the thyroid carcinoma still need to be investigated with a larger sample size.

  5. Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis and BRAF V600E in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seo Ki; Woo, Jung-Woo; Lee, Jun Ho; Park, Inhye; Choe, Jun-Ho; Kim, Jung-Han; Kim, Jee Soo

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) is less associated with extrathyroidal extension (ETE), advanced tumor stage and lymph node (LN) metastasis. Other studies have suggested that concurrent CLT could antagonize PTC progression, even in BRAF-positive patients. Since the clinical significance of the BRAF mutation has been particularly associated with conventional PTC, the purpose of this study was to determine the clinical significance of CLT according to BRAF mutation status in conventional PTC patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 3332 conventional PTC patients who underwent total thyroidectomy with bilateral central neck dissection at the Thyroid Cancer Center of Samsung Medical Center between January 2008 and June 2015. In this study, the prevalence of BRAF mutation was significantly less frequent in conventional PTC patients with CLT (76.9% vs 86.6%). CLT was an independent predictor for low prevalence of ETE in both BRAF-negative (OR=0.662, P=0.023) and BRAF-positive (OR=0.817, P=0.027) conventional PTC patients. In addition, CLT was an independent predictor for low prevalence of CLNM in both BRAF-negative (OR=0.675, P=0.044) and BRAF-positive (OR=0.817, P=0.030) conventional PTC patients. In conclusion, BRAF mutation was significantly less frequent in conventional PTC patients with CLT. However, CLT was an independent predictor for less aggressiveness in conventional PTC patients regardless of BRAF mutation status. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  6. Coexistence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma. Impact on presentation, management, and outcome.

    PubMed

    Dobrinja, C; Makovac, P; Pastoricchio, M; Cipolat Mis, T; Bernardi, S; Fabris, B; Piscopello, L; de Manzini, N

    2016-04-01

    The association between chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) has been investigated for several years from different perspectives. In spite of that, there were only few attempts to design a common frame of references to understand the complex mutual interactions between the various pathways of inflammatory response and of thyroid tumor induction and progression. This study compares two independent groups of patients aiming to determine the frequency and the prognostic significance of CLT in patients with PTC. From January 2005 to September 2013, we conducted a retrospective study on 160 patients with PTC who underwent thyroidectomy. CLT was diagnosed histopathologically. Age, sex, tumor features (dimensions, angioinvasion, capsular infiltration, mono/multifocality and lymph node metastases) pathologic findings and outcome were considered. Mean follow-up (metastasis, completeness-of-resection, serum thyroglobulin levels, tumor recurrence) period was 61 months (ranged from 18 to 132 months). A p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Patients were divided in 2 groups. In group A there were 90 patients affected by PTC alone, and in group B there were 70 patients affected with PTC associated with CLT. Our data showed that the presence of CLT correlate with a lower grade of PTC (p < 0.05). Considering the sex of the patients there were a statistically significant correlation (p < 0.02) and the presence of CLT associated with PTC was most representative in female patients. The presence of CLT in patients with PTC correlated with a lower grade of PTC, but it does not affect the overall survival of papillary thyroid cancers. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Decreased staging of differentiated thyroid cancer in patients with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Borowczyk, M; Janicki, A; Dworacki, G; Szczepanek-Parulska, E; Danieluk, M; Barnett, J; Antonik, M; Kałużna, M; Bromińska, B; Czepczyński, R; Bączyk, M; Ziemnicka, K; Ruchała, M

    2018-04-04

    The biological association between chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) and differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) has not been elucidated yet. The aim of the study was to assess whether the presence of CLT exerts any influence on clinical or histological presentation of DTC. Nine hundred and seven consecutive patients with DTC treated in the years 1998-2016 were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of concomitant CLT. The statistical differences were analysed. Out of 907 patients included in the study, 331 were diagnosed with DTC and CLT (studied group), while 576 patients with DTC but without CLT constituted a control group. The distribution of papillary and follicular thyroid cancer did not differ. In CLT group, the prevalence of pT1 was greater than for pT2-pT4 DTC (P = 0.0003; OR = 1.69, 95% CI 1.27-2.24) compared to controls (68.3 vs. 56.1%, respectively). The presence of multifocal lesions was similar. The thyroid capsule infiltration without extrathyroidal invasion (P < 0.0001; OR = 0.21, 95% CI 0.14-0.31) was more frequent in the studied group, unlike extracapsular invasion, which was significantly more often present in patients with DTC but without CLT (P = 0.004; OR = 1.66; 95% CI 1.17-2.34) as well as nodal involvement (P = 0.048; OR = 0.65, 95% CI 0.42-0.99). The collected data indicate a protective role of CLT in preventing the spread of the DTC. The presence of CLT might limit tumour growth to the primary site.

  8. Hair and Nail Changes During Long-term Therapy With Ibrutinib for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Bitar, Carole; Farooqui, Mohammed Z H; Valdez, Janet; Saba, Nakhle S; Soto, Susan; Bray, Amanda; Marti, Gerald; Wiestner, Adrian; Cowen, Edward W

    2016-06-01

    Ibrutinib, a Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is a new targeted agent approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), mantle cell lymphoma, and Waldenström macroglobulinemia. Ibrutinib is overall well tolerated but long-term treatment is required until disease progression or intolerable toxic effects occur. Little is known regarding its cutaneous adverse effects. To describe the hair and nail manifestations associated with the long-term use of ibrutinib for the treatment of CLL. Prospective study of 66 patients with CLL enrolled in a single-arm phase 2 clinical trial of ibrutinib for CLL between March 2014 and October 2015 at the National Institutes of Health. The primary outcome, nail and hair changes associated with ibrutinib therapy, was assessed by an 11-question survey. In addition, the severity of nail changes was determined from a 0 to 3 rating scale for both onychoschizia and onychorrhexis. Among 66 patients (43 men and 23 women with ages ranging from 55 to 85 years), 44 (67%) reported brittle fingernails at a median of 6.5 (95% CI, 6-12) months after starting ibrutinib therapy. Fifteen patients (23%) developed brittle toenails after a median of 9 (95% CI, 6-15) months of ibrutinib therapy. Textural hair changes were reported in 17 patients (26%), at a median of 9 (95% CI, 6-12) months of ibrutinib treatment. Hair and nail abnormalities are commonly associated with ibrutinib and appear several months after initiating therapy. Ibrutinib inhibits Bruton tyrosine kinase by covalently binding to cysteine 481. Whether ibrutinib affects the hair and nails by binding and altering cysteine-rich proteins of hair and nails or by means of another mechanism remains unknown. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01500733.

  9. Ibrutinib synergizes with MDM-2 inhibitors in promoting cytotoxicity in B chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Voltan, Rebecca; Rimondi, Erika; Melloni, Elisabetta; Rigolin, Gian Matteo; Casciano, Fabio; Arcidiacono, Maria Vittoria; Celeghini, Claudio; Cuneo, Antonio; Zauli, Giorgio; Secchiero, Paola

    2016-10-25

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-leukemic activity of the Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor Ibrutinib in combination with the small molecule MDM-2 inhibitor Nutlin-3 in preclinical models. The potential efficacy of the Ibrutinib/Nutlin-3 combination was evaluated in vitro in a panel of B leukemic cell lines (EHEB, JVM-2, JVM-3, MEC-1, MEC-2) and in primary B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) patient samples, by assessing cell viability, cell cycle profile, apoptosis and intracellular pathway modulations. Validation of the combination therapy was assessed in a B leukemic xenograft mouse model. Ibrutinib exhibited variable anti-leukemic activity in vitro and the combination with Nutlin-3 synergistically enhanced the induction of apoptosis independently from the p53 status. Indeed, the Ibrutinib/Nutlin-3 combination was effective in promoting cytotoxicity also in primary B-CLL samples carrying 17p13 deletion and/or TP53 mutations, already in therapy with Ibrutinib. Molecular analyses performed on both B-leukemic cell lines as well as on primary B-CLL samples, while confirming the switch-off of the MAPK and PI3K pro-survival pathways by Ibrutinib, indicated that the synergism of action with Nutlin-3 was independent by p53 pathway and was accompanied by the activation of the DNA damage cascade signaling through the phosphorylation of the histone protein H2A.X. This observation was confirmed also in the JVM-2 B leukemic xenograft mouse model. Taken together, our data emphasize that the Ibrutinib/Nutlin-3 combination merits to be further evaluated as a therapeutic option for B-CLL.

  10. Ibrutinib efficacy and tolerability in patients with relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia following allogeneic HCT.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Christine E; Sahaf, Bita; Logan, Aaron C; O'Brien, Susan; Byrd, John C; Hillmen, Peter; Brown, Jennifer R; Dyer, Martin J S; Mato, Anthony R; Keating, Michael J; Jaglowski, Samantha; Clow, Fong; Rezvani, Andrew R; Styles, Lori; Coutre, Steven E; Miklos, David B

    2016-12-22

    Ibrutinib, a potent and irreversible small-molecule inhibitor of both Bruton's tyrosine kinase and interleukin-2 inducible kinase (ITK), has been used to treat relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with prolongation of progression-free and overall survival. Here, we present 27 patients with relapsed CLL following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) who subsequently received ibrutinib salvage therapy. Sixteen of these patients were part of multi-institutional clinical trials and achieved an overall response rate of 87.5%. An additional 11 patients were treated at Stanford University following US Food and Drug Administration approval of ibrutinib; 7 (64%) achieved a complete response, and 3 (27%) achieved a partial response. Of the 9 patients treated at Stanford who had mixed chimerism-associated CLL relapse, 4 (44%) converted to full donor chimerism following ibrutinib initiation, in association with disease response. Four of 11 (36%) patients evaluated by ClonoSeq achieved minimal residual disease negativity with CLL <1/10 000 white blood cells, which persisted even after ibrutinib was discontinued, in 1 case even after 26 months. None of the 27 patients developed graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) following ibrutinib initiation. We postulate that ibrutinib augments the graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) benefit through a T-cell-mediated effect, most likely due to ITK inhibition. To investigate the immune modulatory effects of ibrutinib, we completed comprehensive immune phenotype characterization of peripheral B and T cells from treated patients. Our results show that ibrutinib selectively targets pre-germinal B cells and depletes Th2 helper cells. Furthermore, these effects persisted after drug discontinuation. In total, our results provide evidence that ibrutinib effectively augments GVL without causing GVHD. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  11. Cell-Intrinsic Determinants of Ibrutinib-Induced Apoptosis in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Amin, Nisar A; Balasubramanian, Sriram; Saiya-Cork, Kamlai; Shedden, Kerby; Hu, Nan; Malek, Sami N

    2017-02-15

    Purpose: Ibrutinib, a Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor, is approved for the treatment of relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and CLL with del17p. Mechanistically, ibrutinib interferes with B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling as well as multiple CLL cell-to-microenvironment interactions. Given the importance of ibrutinib in the management of CLL, a deeper understanding of factors governing sensitivity and resistance is warranted. Experimental Design: We studied 48 longitudinally sampled paired CLL samples, 42 of which were procured before and after standard CLL chemotherapies, and characterized them for well-studied CLL molecular traits as well as by whole-exome sequencing and SNP 6.0 array profiling. We exposed these samples to 0.25 to 5 μmol/L of ibrutinib ex vivo and measured apoptosis fractions as well as BCR signaling by immunoblotting. We disrupted TP53 in HG3, PGA1, and PG-EBV cell lines and measured BCR signaling and ibrutinib responses. Results: CLL samples demonstrated a surprisingly wide range of ex vivo sensitivities to ibrutinib, with IC 50 values ranging from 0.4 to 9.7 μmol/L. Unmutated IGVH status, elevated ZAP70 expression, and trisomy 12 were associated with heightened sensitivity to ibrutinib treatment. Five CLL samples were substantially more resistant to ibrutinib following relapse from chemotherapy; of these, three had acquired a del17p/ TP53 -mutated status. A validation sample of 15 CLL carrying TP53 mutations, of which 13 carried both del17p and a TP53 mutation, confirmed substantially less sensitivity to ibrutinib-induced apoptosis. Conclusions: This study identifies that CLL harboring del17p/ TP53 -mutated cells are substantially less sensitive to ibrutinib-induced apoptosis than del17p/ TP53 wild-type cells. Clin Cancer Res; 23(4); 1049-59. ©2016 AACR . ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Ibrutinib synergizes with MDM-2 inhibitors in promoting cytotoxicity in B chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Melloni, Elisabetta; Rigolin, Gian Matteo; Casciano, Fabio; Arcidiacono, Maria Vittoria; Celeghini, Claudio; Cuneo, Antonio; Zauli, Giorgio; Secchiero, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-leukemic activity of the Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor Ibrutinib in combination with the small molecule MDM-2 inhibitor Nutlin-3 in preclinical models. Methods The potential efficacy of the Ibrutinib/Nutlin-3 combination was evaluated in vitro in a panel of B leukemic cell lines (EHEB, JVM-2, JVM-3, MEC-1, MEC-2) and in primary B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) patient samples, by assessing cell viability, cell cycle profile, apoptosis and intracellular pathway modulations. Validation of the combination therapy was assessed in a B leukemic xenograft mouse model. Results Ibrutinib exhibited variable anti-leukemic activity in vitro and the combination with Nutlin-3 synergistically enhanced the induction of apoptosis independently from the p53 status. Indeed, the Ibrutinib/Nutlin-3 combination was effective in promoting cytotoxicity also in primary B-CLL samples carrying 17p13 deletion and/or TP53 mutations, already in therapy with Ibrutinib. Molecular analyses performed on both B-leukemic cell lines as well as on primary B-CLL samples, while confirming the switch-off of the MAPK and PI3K pro-survival pathways by Ibrutinib, indicated that the synergism of action with Nutlin-3 was independent by p53 pathway and was accompanied by the activation of the DNA damage cascade signaling through the phosphorylation of the histone protein H2A.X. This observation was confirmed also in the JVM-2 B leukemic xenograft mouse model. Conclusions Taken together, our data emphasize that the Ibrutinib/Nutlin-3 combination merits to be further evaluated as a therapeutic option for B-CLL. PMID:27661115

  13. Long-term outcomes for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia who discontinue ibrutinib.

    PubMed

    Jain, Preetesh; Thompson, Philip A; Keating, Michael; Estrov, Zeev; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Jain, Nitin; Kantarjian, Hagop; Burger, Jan A; O'Brien, Susan; Wierda, William G

    2017-06-15

    Ibrutinib is a Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor and is approved for the treatment of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in frontline and relapsed/refractory settings. The authors previously reported poor outcomes for patients who discontinued ibrutinib; however, long-term outcomes were not reported. Data from 320 patients who received ibrutinib on clinical studies between 2010 and 2015 at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center were retrospectively analyzed. Long-term outcomes among patients with CLL after they discontinued ibrutinib were analyzed. Ninety of 320 patients (28%) who were treated on ibrutinib-based regimens discontinued ibrutinib. Of these, 80 had relapsed/refractory disease, and 10 were treatment-naive. The median time to discontinuation was 15 months (range, 1.2-54 months). After a median follow-up of 38 months after starting ibrutinib, 40 patients (44%) remained alive. Major reasons for ibrutinib discontinuation were intolerance (n = 29; 32%), miscellaneous (n = 28; 31%), progression (n = 19; 21%), and Richter transformation (RT) (n = 9; 10%). The median survival according to the reason for discontinuation was 33 months for ibrutinib intolerance, 11 months for miscellaneous causes, 16 months for progressive CLL, and 2 months for RT. Among the 19 patients who had progressive CLL, 42% responded to subsequent therapy. Ibrutinib discontinuation was observed during therapy. Patients with CLL who had disease transformation had especially poor outcomes, whereas those who developed progressive disease during ibrutinib therapy had a median survival of <1.5 years. Survival was associated with the reason for discontinuation; patients who had progressive CLL had better survival compared with those who had disease transformation. Effective salvage strategies for patients with CLL who progress on ibrutinib therapy is of critical importance. Cancer 2017;123:2268-2273. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  14. Can Serum Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio Be a Predictive Biomarker to Help Differentiate Active Chronic Otitis Media From Inactive Chronic Otitis Media?

    PubMed

    Tansuker, Hasan Deniz; Eroğlu, Sinan; Yenigün, Alper; Taşkin, Ümit; Oktay, Mehmet Faruk

    2017-05-01

    The authors' aim was to investigate whether serum neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio might be used as a predictive biomarker to help differentiate active from inactive chronic otitis media (COM). Two hundred fifty-nine patients having inactive COM received tympanoplasty without mastoidectomy and were identified as Group 1. On the other hand, 254 patients having active COM received tympanoplasty with mastoidectomy and were identified as Group 2. Routine hemogram tests were performed preoperatively for both the groups. By performing a chart review, white blood cell count, red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelet, and mean platelet volume values were compared between the groups in an age-matched and sex-matched manner. A total of 513 COM patients with age range of 7 to 65 years were included in the study. Two hundred seventy-five patients (53.6%) were male, 238 were (46.4%) female. Preoperatively both serum neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were significantly higher in Group 2 (P = 0.015 and P = 0.004, respectively). However, the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios between the groups were not significantly different (P = 0.511). No statistically significant differences were identified from preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios between patients having active COM and inactive COM. Level NA.

  15. Impact of Venetoclax Exposure on Clinical Efficacy and Safety in Patients with Relapsed or Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Freise, Kevin J; Jones, Aksana K; Eckert, Doerthe; Mensing, Sven; Wong, Shekman L; Humerickhouse, Rod A; Awni, Walid M; Salem, Ahmed Hamed

    2017-05-01

    Venetoclax is a selective, potent, first-in-class B-cell lymphoma-2 inhibitor that restores apoptosis in cancer cells and has demonstrated efficacy in a variety of hematological malignancies. The objective of this research was to characterize the relationship between venetoclax exposures and efficacy and safety in patients with relapsed or refractory (R/R) chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)/small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL). A total of 272 and 338 patients from four clinical studies were pooled for the exposure-efficacy and exposure-safety analyses, respectively. Demographics, baseline disease characteristics, and select co-medications were evaluated for their impact on efficacy (lymphocytes, tumor size, objective response [OR]) and safety (neutropenia and infection). Higher venetoclax concentrations led to a more rapid decrease in lymphocyte counts and tumor size, which translated into patients more rapidly achieving OR. The 17p deletion somatic mutation was not identified, in any of the analyses, to affect the responsiveness of patients to venetoclax. Model-based simulations of lymphocyte counts and tumor size estimated an OR rate (ORR) of 84.8 % (95 % confidence interval 81.5-88.0 %) at a venetoclax dosage of 400 mg daily, with minimal increase in ORR at higher doses. The safety analyses of the adverse events (grade 3 or higher) of neutropenia and infection indicated that higher average venetoclax concentrations were not associated with an increase in adverse events. The exposure-response analyses indicated that a venetoclax dosage regimen of 400 mg daily results in a high (>80 %) probability of achieving OR in R/R CLL/SLL patients, with minimal probability of increasing neutropenia or infection with higher exposures.

  16. Intestinal lymphocyte subsets and turnover are affected by chronic alcohol consumption: implications for SIV/HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Poonia, Bhawna; Nelson, Steve; Bagby, Greg J; Veazey, Ronald S

    2006-04-15

    We recently demonstrated that simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) viral loads were significantly higher in the plasma of rhesus macaques consuming alcohol compared with controls following intrarectal SIV infection. To understand the possible reasons behind increased viral replication, here we assessed the effects of chronic alcohol consumption on distribution and cycling of various lymphocyte subsets in the intestine. Macaques were administered alcohol (n = 11) or sucrose (n = 12), and percentages of memory and naive and activated lymphocyte subsets were compared in the blood, lymph nodes, and intestines. Although minimal differences were detected in blood or lymph nodes, there were significantly higher percentages of central memory (CD95+CD28+) CD4+ lymphocytes in the intestines from alcohol-receiving animals before infection compared with controls. In addition, higher percentages of naive (CD45RA+CD95-) as well as CXCR4+CD4 cells were detected in intestines of alcohol-treated macaques. Moreover, alcohol consumption resulted in significantly lower percentages of effector memory (CD95+CD28-) CD8 lymphocytes as well as activated Ki67+CD8 cells in the intestines. A subset (7 receiving alcohol and 8 receiving sucrose) were then intrarectally inoculated with SIV(mac251). Viral RNA was compared in different tissues using real-time PCR and in situ hybridization. Higher levels of SIV replication were observed in tissues from alcohol-consuming macaques compared with controls. Central memory CD4 lymphocytes were significantly depleted in intestines and mesenteric lymph nodes from all alcohol animals at 8 weeks postinfection. Thus, changes in the mucosal immune compartment (intestines) in response to alcohol are likely the major reasons behind higher replication of SIV observed in these animals.

  17. 14q deletions are associated with trisomy 12, NOTCH1 mutations and unmutated IGHV genes in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and small lymphocytic lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Cosson, Adrien; Chapiro, Elise; Belhouachi, Nabila; Cung, Hong-Anh; Keren, Boris; Damm, Frederik; Algrin, Caroline; Lefebvre, Christine; Fert-Ferrer, Sandra; Luquet, Isabelle; Gachard, Nathalie; Mugneret, Francine; Terre, Christine; Collonge-Rame, Marie-Agnes; Michaux, Lucienne; Rafdord-Weiss, Isabelle; Talmant, Pascaline; Veronese, Lauren; Nadal, Nathalie; Struski, Stephanie; Barin, Carole; Helias, Catherine; Lafage, Marina; Lippert, Eric; Auger, Nathalie; Eclache, Virginie; Roos-Weil, Damien; Leblond, Veronique; Settegrana, Catherine; Maloum, Karim; Davi, Frederic; Merle-Beral, Helene; Lesty, Claude; Nguyen-Khac, Florence

    2014-08-01

    Deletions of the long arm of chromosome 14 [del(14q)] are rare but recurrently observed in mature B-cell neoplasms, particularly in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). To further characterize this aberration, we studied 81 cases with del(14q): 54 of CLL and 27 of small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL), the largest reported series to date. Using karyotype and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), the most frequent additional abnormality was trisomy 12 (tri12), observed in 28/79 (35%) cases, followed by del13q14 (12/79, 15%), delTP53 (11/80, 14%) delATM (5/79, 6%), and del6q21 (3/76, 4%). IGHV genes were unmutated in 41/53 (77%) patients, with a high frequency of IGHV1-69 (21/52, 40%). NOTCH1 gene was mutated in 14/45 (31%) patients. There was no significant difference in cytogenetic and molecular abnormalities between CLL and SLL. Investigations using FISH and SNP-array demonstrated the heterogeneous size of the 14q deletions. However, a group with the same del(14)(q24.1q32.33) was identified in 48% of cases. In this group, tri12 (P = 0.004) and NOTCH1 mutations (P = 0.02) were significantly more frequent than in the other patients. In CLL patients with del(14q), median treatment-free survival (TFS) was 27 months. In conclusion, del(14q) is associated with tri12 and with pejorative prognostic factors: unmutated IGHV genes (with over-representation of the IGHV1-69 repertoire), NOTCH1 mutations, and a short TFS. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Time to Second-line Treatment and Subsequent Relative Survival in Older Patients With Relapsed Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia/Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Ammann, Eric M; Shanafelt, Tait D; Larson, Melissa C; Wright, Kara B; McDowell, Bradley D; Link, Brian K; Chrischilles, Elizabeth A

    2017-12-01

    Novel targeted therapies offer excellent short-term outcomes in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL). However, there is disagreement over how widely these therapies should be used in place of standard chemo-immunotherapy (CIT). We investigated whether stratification on the length of the interval between first-line (T1) and second-line (T2) treatments could identify a subgroup of older patients with relapsed CLL/SLL with an expectation of normal overall survival, and for whom CIT could be an acceptable treatment choice. Patients with relapsed CLL/SLL who received T2 were identified from the SEER-Medicare Linked Database. Five-year relative survival (RS5; ie, the ratio of observed survival to expected survival based on population life tables) was assessed after stratifying patients on the interval between T1 and T2. We then validated our findings in the Mayo Clinic CLL Database. Among 1974 SEER-Medicare patients (median age = 77 years) who received T2 for relapsed CLL/SLL, longer time-to-retreatment was associated with a modestly improved prognosis (P = .01). However, even among those retreated ≥ 3 years after T1, survival was poor compared with the general population (RS5 = 0.50 or lower in SEER-Medicare). Similar patterns were observed in the younger Mayo validation cohort, although prognosis was better overall among the Mayo patients, and patients with favorable fluorescence in situ hybridization retreated ≥ 3 years after T1 had close to normal expected survival (RS5 = 0.87). Further research is needed to quantify the degree to which targeted therapies provide meaningful improvements over CIT in long-term outcomes for older patients with relapsed CLL/SLL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Medical history, lifestyle, family history, and occupational risk factors for chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma: the InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project.

    PubMed

    Slager, Susan L; Benavente, Yolanda; Blair, Aaron; Vermeulen, Roel; Cerhan, James R; Costantini, Adele Seniori; Monnereau, Alain; Nieters, Alexandra; Clavel, Jacqueline; Call, Timothy G; Maynadié, Marc; Lan, Qing; Clarke, Christina A; Lightfoot, Tracy; Norman, Aaron D; Sampson, Joshua N; Casabonne, Delphine; Cocco, Pierluigi; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2014-08-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) are two subtypes of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. A number of studies have evaluated associations between risk factors and CLL/SLL risk. However, these associations remain inconsistent or lacked confirmation. This may be due, in part, to the inadequate sample size of CLL/SLL cases. We performed a pooled analysis of 2440 CLL/SLL cases and 15186 controls from 13 case-control studies from Europe, North America, and Australia. We evaluated associations of medical history, family history, lifestyle, and occupational risk factors with CLL/SLL risk. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We confirmed prior inverse associations with any atopic condition and recreational sun exposure. We also confirmed prior elevated associations with usual adult height, hepatitis C virus seropositivity, living or working on a farm, and family history of any hematological malignancy. Novel associations were identified with hairdresser occupation (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.05 to 2.98) and blood transfusion history (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.66 to 0.94). We also found smoking to have modest protective effect (OR = 0.9, 95% CI = 0.81 to 0.99). All exposures showed evidence of independent effects. We have identified or confirmed several independent risk factors for CLL/SLL supporting a role for genetics (through family history), immune function (through allergy and sun), infection (through hepatitis C virus), and height, and other pathways of immune response. Given that CLL/SLL has more than 30 susceptibility loci identified to date, studies evaluating the interaction among genetic and nongenetic factors are warranted. Published by Oxford University Press 2014.

  20. Monoclonal B lymphocytes with the characteristics of "indolent" chronic lymphocytic leukemia are present in 3.5% of adults with normal blood counts.

    PubMed

    Rawstron, Andy C; Green, Michael J; Kuzmicki, Anita; Kennedy, Ben; Fenton, James A L; Evans, Paul A S; O'Connor, Sheila J M; Richards, Stephen J; Morgan, Gareth J; Jack, Andrew S; Hillmen, Peter

    2002-07-15

    Molecular and cellular markers associated with malignant disease are frequently identified in healthy individuals. The relationship between these markers and clinical disease is not clear, except where a neoplastic cell population can be identified as in myeloma/monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance (MGUS). We have used the distinctive phenotype of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells to determine whether low levels of these cells can be identified in individuals with normal complete blood counts. CLL cells were identified by 4-color flow cytometric analysis of CD19/CD5/CD79b/CD20 expression in 910 outpatients over 40 years old. These outpatients were age- and sex-matched to the general population with normal hematologic parameters and no evident history of malignant disease. CLL phenotype cells were detectable in 3.5% of individuals at low level (median, 0.013; range, 0.002- 1.458 x 10(9) cells/L), and represented a minority of B lymphocytes (median, 11%; range, 3%-95%). Monoclonality was demonstrated by immunoglobulin light-chain restriction in all cases with CLL phenotype cells present and confirmed in a subset of cases by consensus-primer IgH-polymerase chain reaction. As in clinical disease, CLL phenotype cells were detected with a higher frequency in men (male-to-female ratio, 1.9:1) and elderly individuals (2.1% of 40- to 59-year-olds versus 5.0% of 60- to 89-year-olds, P =.01). The neoplastic cells were identical to good-prognosis CLL, being CD5+23+20(wk)79b(wk)11a(-)22(wk)sIg(wk)CD38-, and where assessed had a high degree (4.8%-6.6%) of IgH somatic hypermutation. The monoclonal CLL phenotype cells present in otherwise healthy individuals may represent a very early stage of indolent CLL and should be useful in elucidating the mechanisms of leukemogenesis.

  1. Extended Treatment with Single-Agent Ibrutinib at the 420 mg Dose Leads to Durable Responses in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia/Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Coutré, Steven E; Furman, Richard R; Flinn, Ian W; Burger, Jan A; Blum, Kristie; Sharman, Jeff; Jones, Jeffrey; Wierda, William; Zhao, Weiqiang; Heerema, Nyla A; Johnson, Amy J; Tran, Anh; Zhou, Cathy; Bilotti, Elizabeth; James, Danelle F; Byrd, John C; O'Brien, Susan

    2017-03-01

    Purpose: Ibrutinib, a first-in-class, once-daily, oral inhibitor of Bruton tyrosine kinase, promotes apoptosis, and inhibits B-cell proliferation, adhesion, and migration. Ibrutinib has demonstrated single-agent efficacy and acceptable tolerability at doses of 420 and 840 mg in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL) who were treatment-naïve (TN) or had relapsed/refractory (R/R) CLL after ≥1 prior therapy in a phase Ib/II study (PCYC-1102). Subsequently, the ibrutinib 420 mg dose was approved in CLL. Experimental Design: We report data with 44 months of follow-up on 94 patients with TN and R/R CLL/SLL receiving ibrutinib 420 mg once-daily in PCYC-1102 and the long-term extension study PCYC-1103. Results: Ninety-four CLL/SLL patients (27 TN, 67 R/R) were treated with ibrutinib (420 mg/day). Patients with R/R disease had received a median of four prior therapies (range, 1-12). Responses were rapid and durable and median duration of response was not reached. Best overall response was 91% [85% TN (complete response, CR 26%) and 94% R/R (9% CR)]. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was not reached in either group. The 30-month PFS rate was 96% and 76% for TN and R/R patients, respectively. Ibrutinib was well tolerated with extended follow-up; rates of grade ≥3 cytopenias and fatigue, as well as discontinuations due to toxicities decreased over time. Conclusions: Single-agent ibrutinib at 420 mg once-daily resulted in durable responses and was well tolerated with up to 44 months follow-up in patients with TN and R/R CLL/SLL. Currently, 66% of patients continue on ibrutinib. Clin Cancer Res; 23(5); 1149-55. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. LPL is the strongest prognostic factor in a comparative analysis of RNA-based markers in early chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kaderi, Mohd Arifin; Kanduri, Meena; Buhl, Anne Mette; Sevov, Marie; Cahill, Nicola; Gunnarsson, Rebeqa; Jansson, Mattias; Smedby, Karin Ekström; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Jurlander, Jesper; Juliusson, Gunnar; Mansouri, Larry; Rosenquist, Richard

    2011-08-01

    The expression levels of LPL, ZAP70, TCL1A, CLLU1 and MCL1 have recently been proposed as prognostic factors in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. However, few studies have systematically compared these different RNA-based markers. Using real-time quantitative PCR, we measured the mRNA expression levels of these genes in unsorted samples from 252 newly diagnosed chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients and correlated our data with established prognostic markers (for example Binet stage, CD38, IGHV gene mutational status and genomic aberrations) and clinical outcome. High expression levels of all RNA-based markers, except MCL1, predicted shorter overall survival and time to treatment, with LPL being the most significant. In multivariate analysis including the RNA-based markers, LPL expression was the only independent prognostic marker for overall survival and time to treatment. When studying LPL expression and the established markers, LPL expression retained its independent prognostic strength for overall survival. All of the RNA-based markers, albeit with varying ability, added prognostic information to established markers, with LPL expression giving the most significant results. Notably, high LPL expression predicted a worse outcome in good-prognosis subgroups, such as patients with mutated IGHV genes, Binet stage A, CD38 negativity or favorable cytogenetics. In particular, the combination of LPL expression and CD38 could further stratify Binet stage A patients. LPL expression is the strongest RNA-based prognostic marker in chronic lymphocytic leukemia that could potentially be applied to predict outcome in the clinical setting, particularly in the large group of patients with favorable prognosis.

  3. Incidence and risk factors of bleeding-related adverse events in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia treated with ibrutinib.

    PubMed

    Lipsky, Andrew H; Farooqui, Mohammed Z H; Tian, Xin; Martyr, Sabrina; Cullinane, Ann M; Nghiem, Khanh; Sun, Clare; Valdez, Janet; Niemann, Carsten U; Herman, Sarah E M; Saba, Nakhle; Soto, Susan; Marti, Gerald; Uzel, Gulbu; Holland, Steve M; Lozier, Jay N; Wiestner, Adrian

    2015-12-01

    Ibrutinib is associated with bleeding-related adverse events of grade ≤ 2 in severity, and infrequently with grade ≥ 3 events. To investigate the mechanisms of bleeding and identify patients at risk, we prospectively assessed platelet function and coagulation factors in our investigator-initiated trial of single-agent ibrutinib for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. At a median follow-up of 24 months we recorded grade ≤ 2 bleeding-related adverse events in 55% of 85 patients. No grade ≥ 3 events occurred. Median time to event was 49 days. The cumulative incidence of an event plateaued by 6 months, suggesting that the risk of bleeding decreases with continued therapy. At baseline, von Willebrand factor and factor VIII levels were often high and normalized on treatment. Platelet function measured via the platelet function analyzer (PFA-100™) was impaired in 22 patients at baseline and in an additional 19 patients on ibrutinib (often transiently). Collagen and adenosine diphosphate induced platelet aggregation was tested using whole blood aggregometry. Compared to normal controls, response to both agonists was decreased in all patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, whether on ibrutinib or not. Compared to untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients, response to collagen showed a mild further decrement on ibrutinib, while response to adenosine diphosphate improved. All parameters associated with a significantly increased risk of bleeding-related events were present at baseline, including prolonged epinephrine closure time (HR 2.74, P=0.012), lower levels of von Willebrand factor activity (HR 2.73, P=0.009) and factor VIII (HR 3.73, P=0.0004). In conclusion, both disease and treatment-related factors influence the risk of bleeding. Patients at greater risk for bleeding of grade ≤ 2 can be identified by clinical laboratory tests and counseled to avoid aspirin, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and fish oils. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01500733

  4. Incidence and risk factors of bleeding-related adverse events in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia treated with ibrutinib

    PubMed Central

    Lipsky, Andrew H.; Farooqui, Mohammed Z.H.; Tian, Xin; Martyr, Sabrina; Cullinane, Ann M.; Nghiem, Khanh; Sun, Clare; Valdez, Janet; Niemann, Carsten U.; Herman, Sarah E. M.; Saba, Nakhle; Soto, Susan; Marti, Gerald; Uzel, Gulbu; Holland, Steve M.; Lozier, Jay N.; Wiestner, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Ibrutinib is associated with bleeding-related adverse events of grade ≤2 in severity, and infrequently with grade ≥3 events. To investigate the mechanisms of bleeding and identify patients at risk, we prospectively assessed platelet function and coagulation factors in our investigator-initiated trial of single-agent ibrutinib for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. At a median follow-up of 24 months we recorded grade ≤2 bleeding-related adverse events in 55% of 85 patients. No grade ≥3 events occurred. Median time to event was 49 days. The cumulative incidence of an event plateaued by 6 months, suggesting that the risk of bleeding decreases with continued therapy. At baseline, von Willebrand factor and factor VIII levels were often high and normalized on treatment. Platelet function measured via the platelet function analyzer (PFA-100™) was impaired in 22 patients at baseline and in an additional 19 patients on ibrutinib (often transiently). Collagen and adenosine diphosphate induced platelet aggregation was tested using whole blood aggregometry. Compared to normal controls, response to both agonists was decreased in all patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, whether on ibrutinib or not. Compared to untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients, response to collagen showed a mild further decrement on ibrutinib, while response to adenosine diphosphate improved. All parameters associated with a significantly increased risk of bleeding-related events were present at baseline, including prolonged epinephrine closure time (HR 2.74, P=0.012), lower levels of von Willebrand factor activity (HR 2.73, P=0.009) and factor VIII (HR 3.73, P=0.0004). In conclusion, both disease and treatment-related factors influence the risk of bleeding. Patients at greater risk for bleeding of grade ≤2 can be identified by clinical laboratory tests and counseled to avoid aspirin, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and fish oils. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01500733 PMID

  5. Gene expression and splicing alterations analyzed by high throughput RNA sequencing of chronic lymphocytic leukemia specimens.

    PubMed

    Liao, Wei; Jordaan, Gwen; Nham, Phillipp; Phan, Ryan T; Pelegrini, Matteo; Sharma, Sanjai

    2015-10-16

    To determine differentially expressed and spliced RNA transcripts in chronic lymphocytic leukemia specimens a high throughput RNA-sequencing (HTS RNA-seq) analysis was performed. Ten CLL specimens and five normal peripheral blood CD19+ B cells were analyzed by HTS RNA-seq. The library preparation was performed with Illumina TrueSeq RNA kit and analyzed by Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing system. An average of 48.5 million reads for B cells, and 50.6 million reads for CLL specimens were obtained with 10396 and 10448 assembled transcripts for normal B cells and primary CLL specimens respectively. With the Cuffdiff analysis, 2091 differentially expressed genes (DEG) between B cells and CLL specimens based on FPKM (fragments per kilobase of transcript per million reads and false discovery rate, FDR q < 0.05, fold change >2) were identified. Expression of selected DEGs (n = 32) with up regulated and down regulated expression in CLL from RNA-seq data were also analyzed by qRT-PCR in a test cohort of CLL specimens. Even though there was a variation in fold expression of DEG genes between RNA-seq and qRT-PCR; more than 90 % of analyzed genes were validated by qRT-PCR analysis. Analysis of RNA-seq data for splicing alterations in CLL and B cells was performed by Multivariate Analysis of Transcript Splicing (MATS analysis). Skipped exon was the most frequent splicing alteration in CLL specimens with 128 significant events (P-value <0.05, minimum inclusion level difference >0.1). The RNA-seq analysis of CLL specimens identifies novel DEG and alternatively spliced genes that are potential prognostic markers and therapeutic targets. High level of validation by qRT-PCR for a number of DEG genes supports the accuracy of this analysis. Global comparison of transcriptomes of B cells, IGVH non-mutated CLL (U-CLL) and mutated CLL specimens (M-CLL) with multidimensional scaling analysis was able to segregate CLL and B cell transcriptomes but the M-CLL and U-CLL transcriptomes

  6. Clonal diversity analysis using SNP microarray: a new prognostic tool for chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linsheng; Znoyko, Iya; Costa, Luciano J; Conlin, Laura K; Daber, Robert D; Self, Sally E; Wolff, Daynna J

    2011-12-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a clinically heterogeneous disease. The methods currently used for monitoring CLL and determining conditions for treatment are limited in their ability to predict disease progression, patient survival, and response to therapy. Although clonal diversity and the acquisition of new chromosomal abnormalities during the disease course (clonal evolution) have been associated with disease progression, their prognostic potential has been underappreciated because cytogenetic and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies have a restricted ability to detect genomic abnormalities and clonal evolution. We hypothesized that whole genome analysis using high resolution single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarrays would be useful to detect diversity and infer clonal evolution to offer prognostic information. In this study, we used the Infinium Omni1 BeadChip (Illumina, San Diego, CA) array for the analysis of genetic variation and percent mosaicism in 25 non-selected CLL patients to explore the prognostic value of the assessment of clonal diversity in patients with CLL. We calculated the percentage of mosaicism for each abnormality by applying a mathematical algorithm to the genotype frequency data and by manual determination using the Simulated DNA Copy Number (SiDCoN) tool, which was developed from a computer model of mosaicism. At least one genetic abnormality was identified in each case, and the SNP data was 98% concordant with FISH results. Clonal diversity, defined as the presence of two or more genetic abnormalities with differing percentages of mosaicism, was observed in 12 patients (48%), and the diversity correlated with the disease stage. Clonal diversity was present in most cases of advanced disease (Rai stages III and IV) or those with previous treatment, whereas 9 of 13 patients without detected clonal diversity were asymptomatic or clinically stable. In conclusion, SNP microarray studies with simultaneous evaluation

  7. Detection of chromothripsis‐like patterns with a custom array platform for chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Salaverria, Itziar; Martín‐Garcia, David; López, Cristina; Clot, Guillem; García‐Aragonés, Manel; Navarro, Alba; Delgado, Julio; Baumann, Tycho; Pinyol, Magda; Martin‐Guerrero, Idoia; Carrió, Ana; Costa, Dolors; Queirós, Ana C.; Jayne, Sandrine; Aymerich, Marta; Villamor, Neus; Colomer, Dolors; González, Marcos; López‐Guillermo, Armando; Campo, Elías; Dyer, Martin J. S.; Siebert, Reiner; Armengol, Lluís

    2015-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a common disease with highly variable clinical course. Several recurrent chromosomal alterations are associated with prognosis and may guide risk‐adapted therapy. We have developed a targeted genome‐wide array to provide a robust tool for ascertaining abnormalities in CLL and to overcome limitations of the 4‐marker fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). DNA from 180 CLL patients were hybridized to the qChip®Hemo array with a high density of probes covering commonly altered loci in CLL (11q22‐q23, 13q14, and 17p13), nine focal regions (2p15‐p16.1, 2p24.3, 2q13, 2q36.3‐q37.1, 3p21.31, 8q24.21, 9p21.3, 10q24.32, and 18q21.32‐q21.33) and two larger regions (6q14.1‐q22.31 and 7q31.33‐q33). Overall, 86% of the cases presented copy number alterations (CNA) by array. There was a high concordance of array findings with FISH (84% sensitivity, 100% specificity); all discrepancies corresponded to subclonal alterations detected only by FISH. A chromothripsis‐like pattern was detected in eight cases. Three showed concomitant shattered 5p with gain of TERT along with isochromosome 17q. Presence of 11q loss was associated with shorter time to first treatment (P = 0.003), whereas 17p loss, increased genomic complexity, and chromothripsis were associated with shorter overall survival (P < 0.001, P = 0.001, and P = 0.02, respectively). In conclusion, we have validated a targeted array for the diagnosis of CLL that accurately detects, in a single experiment, all relevant CNAs, genomic complexity, chromothripsis, copy number neutral loss of heterozygosity, and CNAs not covered by the FISH panel. This test may be used as a practical tool to stratify CLL patients for routine diagnostics or clinical trials. © 2015 The Authors. Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26305789

  8. Dysregulation of H/ACA ribonucleoprotein components in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Patricia Carolina; Panero, Julieta; Stanganelli, Carmen; Palau Nagore, Virginia; Stella, Flavia; Bezares, Raimundo; Slavutsky, Irma

    2017-01-01

    Telomeres are protective repeats of TTAGGG sequences located at the end of human chromosomes. They are essential to maintain chromosomal integrity and genome stability. Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein complex containing an internal RNA template (hTR) and a catalytic subunit (hTERT). The human hTR gene consists of three major domains; among them the H/ACA domain is essential for telomere biogenesis. H/ACA ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex is composed of four evolutionary conserved proteins, including dyskerin (encoded by DKC1 gene), NOP10, NHP2 and GAR1. In this study, we have evaluated the expression profile of the H/ACA RNP complex genes: DKC1, NOP10, NHP2 and GAR1, as well as hTERT and hTR mRNA levels, in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Results were correlated with the number and type of genetic alteration detected by conventional cytogenetics and FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization), IGHV (immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region) mutational status, telomere length (TL) and clinico-pathological characteristics of patients. Our results showed significant decreased expression of GAR1, NOP10, DKC1 and hTR, as well as increased mRNA levels of hTERT in patients compared to controls (p≤0.04). A positive correlation between the expression of GAR1-NHP2, GAR1-NOP10, and NOP10-NHP2 (p<0.0001), were observed. The analysis taking into account prognostic factors showed a significant increased expression of hTERT gene in unmutated-IGHV cases compared to mutated-CLL patients (p = 0.0185). The comparisons among FISH groups exhibited increased expression of DKC1 in cases with two or more alterations with respect to no abnormalities, trisomy 12 and del13q14, and of NHP2 and NOP10 compared to those with del13q14 (p = 0.03). The analysis according to TL showed a significant increased expression of hTERT (p = 0.0074) and DKC1 (p = 0.0036) in patients with short telomeres compared to those with long TL. No association between gene expression and clinical

  9. Soy isoflavones inducing overt hypothyroidism in a patient with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yuya; Ohsawa, Isao; Goto, Yoshikazu; Tsuji, Mayumi; Oguchi, Tatsunori; Sato, Naoki; Kiuchi, Yuji; Fukumura, Motonori; Inagaki, Masahiro; Gotoh, Hiromichi

    2017-09-05

    Many people have thyroid conditions that make them susceptible to hypothyroidism. If the foods they eat may interfere with the production of thyroid hormone, which can lead to development of serious hypothyroidism. The danger of health drinks should always be noted. A 72-year-old Japanese woman was previously diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis caused by a goiter and had an elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone level (6.56 μIU/ml), a high anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody level (>600 IU/ml), and a high antithyroglobulin level (> 4000 IU/ml) but normal levels of free triiodothyronine (3.08 pg/ml) and thyroxine (1.18 ng/ml). She presented to our hospital with sudden-onset general malaise, edema, and hoarseness with an elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (373.3 μIU/ml) level and very low triiodothyronine (< 0.26 pg/ml) and thyroxine (0.10 ng/ml) levels. It was determined that for 6 months she had been consuming a processed, solved health drink ("barley young leaf") in amounts of 9 g/day, which included soybean and kale powder extract. Hypothyroidism might be affected by ingredients of health drinks. She discontinued consumption of the health drink immediately and began taking 12.5 μg of levothyroxine. The amount of levothyroxine was gradually increased every 3 days up to 100 μg. At day 61, her thyroid-stimulating hormone level had decreased (6.12 μIU/ml), her free triiodothyronine (2.69 pg/ml) and thyroxine (1.56 ng/ml) levels had increased, and her general condition was improved. Among risky foods lowering thyroid function, some experimental studies have revealed that isoflavones reduce thyroid function. Therefore, we measured the presence of isoflavones in the patient's frozen serum with thin-layer chromatography. After she discontinued consumption of the health drink, two components quickly disappeared, and the other three components gradually decreased. On the basis of developing solvent composition and a positive ferric chloride

  10. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 is involved in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell response to fludarabine and arsenic trioxide.

    PubMed

    Amigo-Jiménez, Irene; Bailón, Elvira; Ugarte-Berzal, Estefanía; Aguilera-Montilla, Noemí; García-Marco, José A; García-Pardo, Angeles

    2014-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) contributes to chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) pathology by regulating cell migration and preventing spontaneous apoptosis. It is not known if MMP-9 is involved in CLL cell response to chemotherapy and we address this in the present study, using arsenic trioxide (ATO) and fludarabine as examples of cytotoxic drugs. We used primary cells from the peripheral blood of CLL patients and MEC-1 cells stably transfected with an empty vector or a vector containing MMP-9. The effect of ATO and fludarabine was determined by flow cytometry and by the MTT assay. Expression of mRNA was measured by RT-PCR and qPCR. Secreted and cell-bound MMP-9 was analyzed by gelatin zymography and flow cytometry, respectively. Protein expression was analyzed by Western blotting and immunoprecipitation. Statistical analyses were performed using the two-tailed Student's t-test. In response to ATO or fludarabine, CLL cells transcriptionally upregulated MMP-9, preceding the onset of apoptosis. Upregulated MMP-9 primarily localized to the membrane of early apoptotic cells and blocking apoptosis with Z-VAD prevented MMP-9 upregulation, thus linking MMP-9 to the apoptotic process. Culturing CLL cells on MMP-9 or stromal cells induced drug resistance, which was overcome by anti-MMP-9 antibodies. Accordingly, MMP-9-MEC-1 transfectants showed higher viability upon drug treatment than Mock-MEC-1 cells, and this effect was blocked by silencing MMP-9 with specific siRNAs. Following drug exposure, expression of anti-apoptotic proteins (Mcl-1, Bcl-xL, Bcl-2) and the Mcl-1/Bim, Mcl-1/Noxa, Bcl-2/Bax ratios were higher in MMP-9-cells than in Mock-cells. Similar results were obtained upon culturing primary CLL cells on MMP-9. Our study describes for the first time that MMP-9 induces drug resistance by modulating proteins of the Bcl-2 family and upregulating the corresponding anti-apoptotic/pro-apoptotic ratios. This is a novel role for MMP-9 contributing to CLL progression

  11. Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Is Involved in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cell Response to Fludarabine and Arsenic Trioxide

    PubMed Central

    Amigo-Jiménez, Irene; Bailón, Elvira; Ugarte-Berzal, Estefanía; Aguilera-Montilla, Noemí; García-Marco, José A.; García-Pardo, Angeles

    2014-01-01

    Background Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) contributes to chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) pathology by regulating cell migration and preventing spontaneous apoptosis. It is not known if MMP-9 is involved in CLL cell response to chemotherapy and we address this in the present study, using arsenic trioxide (ATO) and fludarabine as examples of cytotoxic drugs. Methods We used primary cells from the peripheral blood of CLL patients and MEC-1 cells stably transfected with an empty vector or a vector containing MMP-9. The effect of ATO and fludarabine was determined by flow cytometry and by the MTT assay. Expression of mRNA was measured by RT-PCR and qPCR. Secreted and cell-bound MMP-9 was analyzed by gelatin zymography and flow cytometry, respectively. Protein expression was analyzed by Western blotting and immunoprecipitation. Statistical analyses were performed using the two-tailed Student's t-test. Results In response to ATO or fludarabine, CLL cells transcriptionally upregulated MMP-9, preceding the onset of apoptosis. Upregulated MMP-9 primarily localized to the membrane of early apoptotic cells and blocking apoptosis with Z-VAD prevented MMP-9 upregulation, thus linking MMP-9 to the apoptotic process. Culturing CLL cells on MMP-9 or stromal cells induced drug resistance, which was overcome by anti-MMP-9 antibodies. Accordingly, MMP-9-MEC-1 transfectants showed higher viability upon drug treatment than Mock-MEC-1 cells, and this effect was blocked by silencing MMP-9 with specific siRNAs. Following drug exposure, expression of anti-apoptotic proteins (Mcl-1, Bcl-xL, Bcl-2) and the Mcl-1/Bim, Mcl-1/Noxa, Bcl-2/Bax ratios were higher in MMP-9-cells than in Mock-cells. Similar results were obtained upon culturing primary CLL cells on MMP-9. Conclusions Our study describes for the first time that MMP-9 induces drug resistance by modulating proteins of the Bcl-2 family and upregulating the corresponding anti-apoptotic/pro-apoptotic ratios. This is a novel role for

  12. Etiology of Ibrutinib Discontinuation and Outcomes in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Maddocks, Kami J.; Ruppert, Amy S.; Lozanski, Gerard; Heerema, Nyla A.; Zhao, Weiqiang; Abruzzo, Lynne; Lozanski, Arletta; Davis, Melanie; Gordon, Amber; Smith, Lisa L.; Mantel, Rose; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Flynn, Joseph M.; Jaglowski, Samantha M.; Andritsos, Leslie A.; Awan, Farrukh; Blum, Kristie A.; Grever, Michael R.; Johnson, Amy J.; Byrd, John C.; Woyach, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Importance The Bruton’s Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor ibrutinib is effective in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Reasons for discontinuation from this drug and outcomes following discontinuation have not been evaluated outside of clinical trials with relatively short follow-up. Objective To determine features associated with discontinuation of ibrutinib and outcomes. Design 308 patients participating in four sequential trials of ibrutinib were included. These trials accrued patients included in this analysis from May 2010 until April 2014, and data were locked in June 2014. Setting The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center Participants Patients with CLL enrolled on 4 sequential clinical trials. Main Outcome Measure Patients were evaluated for time to discontinuation, reasons for discontinuation, and survival following discontinuation. For patients who discontinued due to progression, targeted deep sequencing was performed in samples at baseline and relapse. Results With a median follow-up of 20 months, 232 patients remain on therapy, 31 have discontinued because of progression, and 45 have discontinued for other reasons. Disease progression includes Richter’s transformation or progressive CLL. Richter’s appeared to occur early and CLL progressions later (cumulative incidence at 12 months: 4.5% (95% CI: 2.0% to 7.0%) and 0.3% (95% CI: 0% to 1.0%), respectively). Median survival following Richter’s transformation was 3.5 months (95% CI: 0.3–6.0), and 17.6 months (95% CI: 4.7-not reached) following CLL progression. Sequencing on peripheral blood from 8 patients with Richter’s transformation revealed 2 with mutations in BTK, and a lymph node sample showed no mutations in BTK or PLCγ2. Deep sequencing on 11 patients with CLL progression revealed BTK or PLCγ2 mutations in all. These mutations were not identified pre-treatment in any patient. Conclusions and Relevance This single institution experience with ibrutinib confirms it to

  13. Oncocytic follicular nodules of the thyroid with or without chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis: An institutional experience.

    PubMed

    Canberk, Sule; Griffin, A Carruth; Goyal, Abha; Wang, He; Montone, Kathleen; Livolsi, Virginia; Baloch, Zubair

    2013-01-01

    Oncocytic follicular (OF) cells can be a prominent component of fine needle aspiration (FNA) specimens from neoplasms (adenomas and carcinomas) and nodules arising in multinodular goiter and chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT). Because OF cells can be present in non-neoplastic and neoplastic thyroid lesions it can be challenging to differentiate between these two in FNA specimens. The aims of this study were to determine the risk of malignancy in cases diagnosed as either oncocytic follicular neoplasm (OFN) or hyperplastic/adenomatoid nodule with OF on FNA and to identify clinicopathologic features that may help in predicting malignancy in such cases, especially the presence or absence of CLT. We retrospectively searched the computerized laboratory information system at our institution between 1998 and 2009 for thyroid US guided FNA specimens in which the term "oncocytic/oncocytes" was mentioned in the final cytopathologic diagnosis. A total of 340 cases were selected for this study. The following data points were collected: Patient demographics, site of thyroid biopsy, size of lesion, FNA diagnosis, histopathologic follow-up and presence of CLT. Surgical pathology follow-up (SPFU) was available in 269 (79%) cases. Two hundred and sixty patients were females and 80 males (average age 53 years). The lesion size was <3.0 cm in 241 (71%) and ≥ 3.0 cm in 99 (29%) cases. Cytologic diagnoses included: Follicular neoplasm with oncocytic features (FNOF) 321 and suggestive of FNOF 19 cases; a secondary cytologic diagnosis of CLT was made in 20 cases. SPFU was available in 269 (79%) cases; it was benign in 213 (213/267 = 79%) and malignant in 56 (56/269 = 21%) cases. The background thyroid showed CLT in 67 (25%) cases; 24% (48/196) neoplasms occurred with versus 76% (147/196) without CLT. The rate of malignancy was lower in nodules measuring less than 3.0 cm as compared to those equal or greater than 3.0 cm in size (17% vs. 28% respectively). The presence of CLT did not

  14. 2-Phenylacetylenesulfonamide (PAS) induces p53-independent apoptotic killing of B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells.

    PubMed

    Steele, Andrew J; Prentice, Archibald G; Hoffbrand, A Victor; Yogashangary, Birunthini C; Hart, Stephen M; Lowdell, Mark W; Samuel, Edward R; North, Janet M; Nacheva, Elisabeth P; Chanalaris, Anastasios; Kottaridis, Panagiotis; Cwynarski, Kate; Wickremasinghe, R Gitendra

    2009-08-06

    We studied the actions of 2-phenylacetylenesulfonamide (PAS) on B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. PAS (5-20 microM) initiated apoptosis within 24 hours, with maximal death at 48 hours asassessed by morphology, cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), caspase 3 activation, and annexin V staining. PAS treatment induced Bax proapoptotic conformational change, Bax movement from the cytosol to the mitochondria, and cytochrome c release, indicating that PAS induced apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway. PAS induced approximately 3-fold up-regulation of proapoptotic Noxa protein and mRNA levels. In addition, Noxa was found unexpectedly to be bound to Bcl-2 in PAS-treated cells. PAS treatment of CLL cells failed to up-regulate p53, suggesting that PAS induced apoptosis independently of p53. Furthermore, PAS induced apoptosis in CLL isolates with p53 gene deletion in more than 97% of cells. Normal B lymphocytes were as sensitive to PAS-induced Noxa up-regulation and apoptosis as were CLL cells. However, both T lymphocytes and bone marrow hematopoietic progenitor cells were relatively resistant to PAS. Our data suggest that PAS may represent a novel class of drug that induces apoptosis in CLL cells independently of p53 status by a mechanism involving Noxa up-regulation.

  15. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): neutrophils, macrophages and lymphocytes in patients with anterior tuberculosis compared to tobacco related COPD.

    PubMed

    Guiedem, Elise; Ikomey, George Mondinde; Nkenfou, Céline; Walter, Pefura-Yone Eric; Mesembe, Martha; Chegou, Novel Njweipi; Jacobs, Graeme Brendon; Okomo Assoumou, Marie Claire

    2018-03-27

    The inflammatory profile of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) related to tobacco is known in certain studies while that of the post tuberculosis form is not yet known. This study aimed to evaluate the levels of neutrophils, macrophages and lymphocytes cells in sputum of COPD patients with history of smoking or anterior tuberculosis. Enumeration of cells in samples was analyzed using standard microscopy. We enrolled 92 participants, 46 (50%) were COPD subjects comprising 22 (47.83%) smokers and 24 (52.17%) with anterior tuberculosis while 46 (50%) healthy persons constituted the control group. The levels of neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes were statistically higher in COPD patients compared to the control group with p-values of 0.0001 respectively. Neutrophils levels were higher in COPD patients with history of tobacco than in COPD patients with anterior tuberculosis with a mean rate of 4.72 × 10 6 /ml and 2.48 × 10 6 /ml respectively (p = 0.04). The monocytes and lymphocytes levels were not statistically different between the two sub-groups of COPD patients with p-value of 0.052 and 0.91 respectively. Neutrophils are the only inflammatory cells that were significantly higher in COPD patients with history of smoking as compared to COPD patients with anterior tuberculosis.

  16. Chronic Consumption of Sweeteners and Its Effect on Glycaemia, Cytokines, Hormones, and Lymphocytes of GALT in CD1 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Durán, Ninfa

    2018-01-01

    Background The consumption of sweeteners has increased in recent years, being used to control body weight and blood glucose. However, they can cause increased appetite, modification of immune function, and secretion of hormones in the GALT. Objective To assess the effect of chronic sweetener consumption on glycaemia, cytokines, hormones, and GALT lymphocytes in CD1 mice. Material and Methods 72 CD1 mice divided into 3 groups were used: (a) baseline, (b) middle, and (c) final. Groups (b) and (c) were divided into 4 subgroups: (i) Control, (ii) Sucrose, (iii) Sucralose, and (iv) Stevia. The following were determined: body weight, hormones (GIP, insulin, and leptin), lymphocytes CD3+T cells and CD19+B cells, IgA+ plasma cells, and cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IFN-γ, and TNF-α). Results Sucralose reduces secretion of GIP and glycaemia but does not modify insulin concentration, increases body weight, and reduces food intake. Stevia increases the secretion of GIP, insulin, leptin, body weight, and glycaemia but keeps food consumption normal. Sucralose and Stevia showed a higher percentage of CD3+T cells, CD19+B cells, and IgA+ plasma cells in Peyer's patches, but only Stevia in lamina propria. Conclusion Sweeteners modulate the hormonal response of cytokines and the proliferation of lymphocytes in the intestinal mucosa. PMID:29854725

  17. Bortezomib and Fludarabine With or Without Rituximab in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Indolent Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma or Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-09-27

    Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hematopoietic/Lymphoid Cancer; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  18. High-frequency expression of a conserved kappa light-chain variable-region gene in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    SciT

    Kipps, T.J.; Fong, S.; Tomhave, E.

    Malignant B lymphocytes from several patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) were examined for reactivity with murine monoclonal antibody 17.109. This antibody, prepared against the rheumatoid factor (RF) paraprotein Sie, recognizes a cross reactive idiotype on 48% of human IgM RF paraproteins, but does not react with IgM paraproteins without RF activity or substantially with normal pooled immunoglobulin. The 17.109-reactive idiotype is a marker for a kappa III variable-region gene, designated V/sub kappa/RF, that is conserved in outbred human populations. In a limited study of 31 CLL patients, the leukemic cells from 5 of 20 patients with kappa light chain-expressingmore » CLL were recognized by the 17.109 monoclonal antibody. Despite having malignant cells specifically reactive with this antibody, patients with 17.109-positive CLL did not have elevated serum levels of circulating antibody bearing 17.109-reactive determinants. Total RNAs isolated from the CLL B lymphocytes, or from hybridomas produced by fusing the CLL cells with the WI-L2-729-HF/sub 2/ cell line, were fractionated electrophoretically and examined by blot hybridization. Under stringent hybridization conditions capable of discerning a single base-pair mismatch, RNA from the 17.109-idiotype-positive CLL cells hybridized to synthetic oligonucleotide probes corresponding to framework and complementary-determining regions in the V/sub kappa/RF gene. The high frequency of the 17.109-associated idiotype and the V/sub kappa/RF gene in CLL suggests that the disease may arise from B lymphocytes that express a restricted set of inherited immunoglobulin variable-region genes with little or no somatic mutation.« less

  19. Detection of chromosomal changes in chronic lymphocytic leukemia using classical cytogenetic methods and FISH: application of rich mitogen mixtures for lymphocyte cultures.

    PubMed

    Koczkodaj, Dorota; Popek, Sylwia; Zmorzyński, Szymon; Wąsik-Szczepanek, Ewa; Filip, Agata A

    2016-04-01

    One of the research methods of prognostic value in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is cytogenetic analysis. This method requires the presence of appropriate B-cell mitogens in cultures in order to obtain a high mitotic index. The aim of our research was to determine the most effective methods of in vitro B-cell stimulation to maximize the number of metaphases from peripheral blood cells of patients with CLL for classical cytogenetic examination, and then to correlate the results with those obtained using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The study group involved 50 consecutive patients with CLL. Cell cultures were maintained with the basic composition of culture medium and addition of respective stimulators. We used the following stimulators: Pokeweed Mitogen (PWM), 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA), ionophore, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and CpG-oligonucleotide DSP30. We received the highest mitotic index when using the mixture of PWM+TPA+I+DSP30. With classical cytogenetic tests using banding techniques, numerical and structural aberrations of chromosomes were detected in 46 patients, and no change was found in only four patients. Test results clearly confirmed the legitimacy of using cell cultures enriched with the mixture of cell stimulators and combining classical cytogenetic techniques with the FISH technique in later patient diagnosing. Copyright © 2016 American Federation for Medical Research.

  20. Immunoglobulin heavy chain V-D-J gene rearrangement and mutational status in Uruguayan patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Sergio; Moreno, Pilar; Landoni, Ana Inés; Naya, Hugo; Oppezzo, Pablo; Dighiero, Guillermo; Gabús, Raúl; Pritsch, Otto

    2010-11-01

    B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is characterized by the accumulation of long-lived circulating clonal leukemic B-cells, although the etiopathogenesis remains unclear. The incidence of CLL is variable in different regions around the world. While it is the most frequent chronic leukemia in Western countries, it has a low incidence in Asia. In this work we have investigated the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangements and mutational status in 80 Uruguayan patients with CLL, and compared these results with those obtained in other geographic regions. Our results demonstrate that Uruguayan patients with CLL display an IGHV gene usage which resembles that observed in Mediterranean countries and exhibits certain differences compared with Brazilian and Asian series, as expected, considering the ethnic basis of the Uruguayan population. This suggests that genetic influences could be important in the development and etiopathogenesis of CLL, but larger studies are necessary to substantiate this possibility.

  1. [Chromosome study on chronic lymphocytic leukemia using CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide as immunostimulant agent].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yafang; Xue, Yongquan; Chen, Suning; Yao, Li; Jiang, Hui; Zhang, Jun; Shen, Juan; Pan, Jinlan; Wang, Yong; Bai, Shuxiao

    2010-02-01

    To investigate whether CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG-ODN) can improve the detection rate of the karyotypic abnormalities in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The bone marrow (BM) or peripheral blood (PB) cells from 57 cases of CLL were collected and cultured with CpG-ODN DSP30+interleukin-2 (IL-2), phytohemagglutinin (PHA), pokeweed (PWM) or IL-2, respectively. Five days later cells were harvested for chromosome preparation. Karyotypic analysis was done using R banding technique. Panel fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was carried out on 19 cases of CLL with normal karyotypes using the following probes: Cen12, D13S25, Rb1, ATM, p53, MYB and IgH. Genomic DNA from 21 cases of them was extracted from BM or PB leukocytes. The immunoglobulin variable heavy chain (IgVH) was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced. CD38 and ZAP70 expressions in the leukemic cells were determined by flow cytometry (FCM). The detection rate of karyotypic abnormalities in the CpG-ODN+IL-2 group (43.85%) was obviously higher than that in the PHA (15.09%), PWM (17.31%) and IL-2 (3.13%) groups (P<0.01). Fifty-two types of karyotypic abnormalities were found. Among them, trisomy12 (+12) or +12 with other abnormalities were the most common, while translocations were the most frequent structural abnormalities including 3 unbalanced and 11 balanced translocations, among them 7 had rearrangements involving 14q32. Thirteen cases showed one or more abnormalities on FISH including trisomy 12 and p53 deletion each in one case, IgH rearrangement and partial deletion each in one case, 13q14.3 deletion in 11 cases of which 5 cases also had Rb1 deletion, 1 case had Rb1 partial deletion. No case with ATM or MYB deletions was found. PCR detected IgVH mutations in 10/21 cases. FCM showed 10/45 cases were CD38 positive, but 35 /45 were CD38 negative, 11/27 cases expressed ZAP70, but 16/27 did not. Among the 26 cases examined for CD38 and ZAP70 expressions simultaneously, 5 cases

  2. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia: economic burden and quality of life: literature review.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Jennifer M; Gramegna, Paola; Laskin, Benjamin; Botteman, Marc F; Pashos, Chris L

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this review was answer 2 main questions: what is the impact of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) on the patient's quality of life and how great is the economic burden of this disease on the health care payers and providers. Patients with CLL typically do not receive any treatment soon after the initial diagnosis. Although there is no known cure for CLL yet, when treated, the patients receive aggressive and expensive therapies (eg, chemotherapy or bone marrow transplantation). A rigorous and systematic literature review was performed of English-language articles published in 1990-2002. It was supplemented with additional articles published before 1990 for completeness and additional references to fill the gaps identified in the published medical literature. The literature on the quality of life (QOL) of CLL patients is very limited. We identified only 8 articles, and none of them analyzed the QOL in untreated CLL patients. Because CLL is a disease affecting adults, especially the elderly, all 8 studies measured the QOL in the adult population. QOL difficulties include fear of death and disability, problems gaining employment or health insurance, and fatigue. No specific leukemia or CLL instruments but general QOL instruments (eg, I-HRQL) were identified and some cancer-specific ones (eg, EORTC QLQ-C30, FACT-G, FACT Anemia, FACT-Fatigue). Interestingly, a FACT-Bone Marrow Transplant instrument exists, although we found no study on CLL that used it. Even the literature on the economic burden of CLL is very limited. We identified 13 studies on the cost of CLL: Most of them were cost-identification or cost-comparison studies, and 5 dealt with the cost-effectiveness of medical interventions to treat CLL. Cost drivers identified for CLL were the chemotherapy costs, intravenous immunoglobulin costs, transplantation costs, and costs associated with the differential staining cytotoxicity assay. We identified very few articles on the QOL of CLL patients and

  3. A Case of Complete and Durable Molecular Remission of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Following Treatment with Epigallocatechin-3-gallate, an Extract of Green Tea

    PubMed Central

    Block, Keith I; Kressel, Bruce R; Sukhatme, Vikas P; White, Jeffrey D

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 48-year-old man who achieved a complete molecular remission 20 years after a diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia while using epigallicatechin-3-gallate, an extract of green tea. The patient presented at age 28 with lymphocytosis, mild anemia, mild thrombocytopenia, and massive splenomegaly, for which a splenectomy was performed. He was then followed expectantly. Over the next two decades, he suffered two symptomatic chronic lymphocytic leukemia-related events. The first occurred twelve years after diagnosis (at age 40) when the patient developed fevers, night sweats, and moderate anemia. He was diagnosed with autoimmune hemolytic anemia secondary to chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The patient declined conventional therapy in favor of a diet, exercise, and supplement regimen, and recovered from the autoimmune hemolytic anemia though the underlying chronic lymphocytic leukemia remained evident. This is the first published case report of "spontaneous" recovery from secondary autoimmune hemolytic anemia in an adult.  Over the second decade following chronic lymphocytic leukemia diagnosis, serial bone marrow biopsies demonstrated increasing lymphocytosis, with minimal peripheral lymphocytosis. However, twenty years after diagnosis, peripheral lymphocytosis accelerated, with white blood cell counts rising to 55,000/µL. Because the patient continued to refuse conventional therapy, he was treated instead with a supplement regimen that included high doses of epigallocatechin-3-gallate, a green tea extract. Peripheral lymphocytosis resolved. More remarkably, a bone marrow examination, including flow cytometry, showed no evidence of a malignant clone. Two years later (at age 51), the peripheral blood and bone marrow were without molecular evidence of chronic lymphocytic leukemia or any malignancy. The patient remains well at age 52.  PMID:26858922

  4. [Characteristics of peripheral blood lymphocyte immune subsets in patients with chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection].

    PubMed

    Xing, Yan; Song, Hong-mei; Li, Tai-sheng; Qiu, Zhi-feng; Wu, Xiao-yan; Wang, Wei; Wei, Min

    2009-06-01

    To study the characteristics of the peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in pediatric patients with chronic active EBV (CAEBV) infection. Flow cytometry was used to detect the peripheral blood NK, B, T lymphocyte subsets and the functional, regulatory, naïve, memory and activatory subsets of T lymphocytes in 10 pediatric patients with CAEBV infection, 13 pediatric patients with acute Epstein-Barr virus infection (AEBV) and 12 healthy children in our hospital between March 2004 and April 2008. Compared with AEBV group, the number of white blood cells [3325 x 10(6)/L (median, just the same as the following)], lymphocytes (1078 x 10(6)/L), NK cells (68 x 10(6)/L), B cells (84 x 10(6)/L), total T cells (684 x 10(6)/L), CD4+ T cells (406 x 10(6)/L) and CD8+ T cells (295 x 10(6)/L) in CAEBV patients were lower (P<0.05). The functional subset of the CD4+ T cells in CAEBV group (94.5%) was lower than those of the healthy control group (98.7%) (P<0.05), but was still higher than those of AEBV group (74.0%) (P<0.05). While the functional subset of the CD8+ T cells in CAEBV (40.7%) was not dramatically different from the healthy control group (48.3%), but was still higher than that of AEBV group (21.0%) (P<0.05). Although the regulatory subset in CAEBV group (5.0%) was higher than the health control group (4.6%) (P<0.05), but lower than AEBV group (5.8%) (P<0.05). In CAEBV, the proportion of CD4+/CD8+ naïve T cells (32.3%/37.5%) was lower than that of normal group (58.3%/56.6%) (P<0.05), but the proportion of CD4+/CD8+ effective memory T cells in CAEBV group (23.9%/15.1%) was lower than that in AEBV group (36.5%/69.8%) (P<0.05), while the proportion of CD8+ fake naïve T cells in CAEBV (17.5%) was higher than the other 2 groups (P<0.05). The CD8+ activatory subset in CAEBV group (84.4%/34.0%) was higher than that of the healthy control group (44.1%/16.7%) (P<0.05), but still lower than AEBV group (96%/95%) (P<0.05). There is an imbalance in lymphocyte subsets and disturbance

  5. Assessment of fludarabine plus cyclophosphamide for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (the LRF CLL4 Trial): a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Catovsky, D; Richards, S; Matutes, E; Oscier, D; Dyer, M J S; Bezares, R F; Pettitt, A R; Hamblin, T; Milligan, D W; Child, J A; Hamilton, M S; Dearden, C E; Smith, A G; Bosanquet, A G; Davis, Z; Brito-Babapulle, V; Else, M; Wade, R; Hillmen, P

    2007-07-21

    Previous studies of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia reported high response rates to fludarabine combined with cyclophosphamide. We aimed to establish whether this treatment combination provided greater survival benefit than did chlorambucil or fludarabine. 777 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia requiring treatment were randomly assigned to fludarabine (n=194) or fludarabine plus cyclophosphamide (196) for six courses, or chlorambucil (387) for 12 courses. The primary endpoint was overall survival, with secondary endpoints of response rates, progression-free survival, toxic effects, and quality of life. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered as an International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial, number NCT 58585610. There was no significant difference in overall survival between patients given fludarabine plus cyclophosphamide, fludarabine, or chlorambucil. Complete and overall response rates were better with fludarabine plus cyclophosphamide than with fludarabine (complete response rate 38%vs 15%, respectively; overall response rate 94%vs 80%, respectively; p<0.0001 for both comparisons), which were in turn better than with chlorambucil (complete response rate 7%, overall response rate 72%; p=0.006 and 0.04, respectively). Progression-free survival at 5 years was significantly better with fludarabine plus cyclophosphamide (36%) than with fludarabine (10%) or chlorambucil (10%; p<0.00005). Fludarabine plus cyclophosphamide was the best combination for all ages, including patients older than 70 years, and in prognostic groups defined by immunoglobulin heavy chain gene (V(H)) mutation status and cytogenetics, which were tested in 533 and 579 cases, respectively. Patients had more neutropenia and days in hospital with fludarabine plus cyclophosphamide, or fludarabine, than with chlorambucil. There was less haemolytic anaemia with fludarabine plus cyclophosphamide (5%) than with fludarabine (11%) or chlorambucil (12

  6. Clinical effect of stereotyped B-cell receptor immunoglobulins in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: a retrospective multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Baliakas, Panagiotis; Hadzidimitriou, Anastasia; Sutton, Lesley-Ann; Minga, Eva; Agathangelidis, Andreas; Nichelatti, Michele; Tsanousa, Athina; Scarfò, Lydia; Davis, Zadie; Yan, Xiao-Jie; Shanafelt, Tait; Plevova, Karla; Sandberg, Yorick; Vojdeman, Fie Juhl; Boudjogra, Myriam; Tzenou, Tatiana; Chatzouli, Maria; Chu, Charles C; Veronese, Silvio; Gardiner, Anne; Mansouri, Larry; Smedby, Karin E; Pedersen, Lone Bredo; van Lom, Kirsten; Giudicelli, Véronique; Francova, Hana Skuhrova; Nguyen-Khac, Florence; Panagiotidis, Panagiotis; Juliusson, Gunnar; Angelis, Lefteris; Anagnostopoulos, Achilles; Lefranc, Marie-Paule; Facco, Monica; Trentin, Livio; Catherwood, Mark; Montillo, Marco; Geisler, Christian H; Langerak, Anton W; Pospisilova, Sarka; Chiorazzi, Nicholas; Oscier, David; Jelinek, Diane F; Darzentas, Nikos; Belessi, Chrysoula; Davi, Frederic; Rosenquist, Richard; Ghia, Paolo; Stamatopoulos, Kostas

    2014-11-01

    About 30% of cases of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) carry quasi-identical B-cell receptor immunoglobulins and can be assigned to distinct stereotyped subsets. Although preliminary evidence suggests that B-cell receptor immunoglobulin stereotypy is relevant from a clinical viewpoint, this aspect has never been explored in a systematic manner or in a cohort of adequate size that would enable clinical conclusions to be drawn. For this retrospective, multicentre study, we analysed 8593 patients with CLL for whom immunogenetic data were available. These patients were followed up in 15 academic institutions throughout Europe (in Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Greece, Italy, Netherlands, Sweden, and the UK) and the USA, and data were collected between June 1, 2012, and June 7, 2013. We retrospectively assessed the clinical implications of CLL B-cell receptor immunoglobulin stereotypy, with a particular focus on 14 major stereotyped subsets comprising cases expressing unmutated (U-CLL) or mutated (M-CLL) immunoglobulin heavy chain variable genes. The primary outcome of our analysis was time to first treatment, defined as the time between diagnosis and date of first treatment. 2878 patients were assigned to a stereotyped subset, of which 1122 patients belonged to one of 14 major subsets. Stereotyped subsets showed significant differences in terms of age, sex, disease burden at diagnosis, CD38 expression, and cytogenetic aberrations of prognostic significance. Patients within a specific subset generally followed the same clinical course, whereas patients in different stereotyped subsets-despite having the same immunoglobulin heavy variable gene and displaying similar immunoglobulin mutational status-showed substantially different times to first treatment. By integrating B-cell receptor immunoglobulin stereotypy (for subsets 1, 2, and 4) into the well established Döhner cytogenetic prognostic model, we showed these, which collectively account for around 7% of all

  7. A high proportion of cells carrying trisomy 12 is associated with a worse outcome in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    González-Gascón Y Marín, Isabel; Hernández-Sánchez, María; Rodríguez-Vicente, Ana-Eugenia; Sanzo, Carmen; Aventín, Anna; Puiggros, Anna; Collado, Rosa; Heras, Cecilia; Muñoz, Carolina; Delgado, Julio; Ortega, Margarita; González, María-Teresa; Marugán, Isabel; de la Fuente, Ignacio; Recio, Isabel; Bosch, Francesc; Espinet, Blanca; González, Marcos; Hernández-Rivas, Jesús-María; Hernández, José-Ángel

    2016-06-01

    The prognosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients displaying trisomy 12 (+12) remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed the influence of the proportion of cells with +12, and other clinical and biologic factors, in time to first therapy (TTFT) and overall survival (OS), in 289 patients diagnosed with CLL carrying +12. Median OS was 129 months. One hundred seventy-four patients (60.2%) presented +12 in <60% of cells. TTFT and OS for this subgroup were longer than for the subgroup with +12 in ≥60% of cells, with a median TTFT of 49 months (CI95%, 39-58) vs 30 months (CI95%, 22-38) (P = 0.001); and a median OS of 159 months (CI95%, 119-182), vs 96 months (CI95%, 58-134) (P = 0.015). Other factors associated with a shorter TTFT were: Binet stage, B symptoms, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, high lymphocyte count, 11q-, high β2 microglobulin, and high LDH. In the multivariate analysis, clinical stage, +12 in ≥60% of cells, high lymphocyte count, B symptoms, and 11q- in addition, resulted of significance in predicting shorter TTFT. Significant variables for OS were: Binet stage, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, high LDH, high β2 microglobulin, 11q-, and CD38. In the multivariate analysis, only Binet stage, 11q-, and high β2microglobulin significantly predicted shorter OS. CLL with +12 entails a heterogeneous group with intermediate prognosis. However, a high proportion of cells carrying +12 separates a subgroup of patients with poor outcome. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Prognostic Factors for Complete Response to Ibrutinib in Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: A Pooled Analysis of 2 Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Susan M; Jaglowski, Samantha; Byrd, John C; Bannerji, Rajat; Blum, Kristie A; Fox, Christopher P; Furman, Richard R; Hillmen, Peter; Kipps, Thomas J; Montillo, Marco; Sharman, Jeff; Suzuki, Sam; James, Danelle F; Chu, Alvina D; Coutre, Steven E

    2018-05-01

    Ibrutinib, a first-in-class Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor taken once daily, is approved in the United States for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma and allows for treatment without chemotherapy. Extended treatment with ibrutinib has demonstrated increased complete response (CR) rates over time. To analyze baseline factors that predict CR in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma treated with ibrutinib. Univariate and multivariate analyses of pooled data from 2 clinical trials were used to assess the prognostic value of baseline factors associated with CR in 327 patients from the PCYC-1102 and PCYC-1112 studies treated with single-agent ibrutinib. Participants were followed up in academic and community medical centers in the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, France, Italy, Ireland, Poland, Spain, and Austria. Odds ratio (OR) of CR rate. The 327 patients included in this analysis had a median age of 67 years (range, 30-86 years) and 227 (69.4%) were male. At baseline, 185 patients (56.6%) had bulky disease (lymph node ≥5 cm), 184 (56.3%) had advanced-stage disease, and 182 (55.7%) had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 1 or higher. Thirty-one patients (9.5%) were in the first-line setting; 38 (11.6%) had undergone 1 previous therapy, 81 (24.8%) had undergone 2, and 177 (54.1%) had undergone 3 or more; patients with relapsed/refractory disease had undergone a median of 3 (range, 0-12) previous therapies. Median time on study was 26.4 months (range, 0.3-55.6 months). Thirty-two of the 327 patients (9.8%) treated with ibrutinib had a CR (PCYC-1102: relapsed/refractory, 12 of 101 [11.9%]; treatment-naive, 8 of 31 [25.8%]; and PCYC-1112: 12 of 195 [6.2%]). The median time to CR for these patients was 14.7 months (range, 4.6-47.1 months). Univariate analysis of baseline factors showed that bulky disease, clinical stage, number of previous therapies, and β2

  9. Microenvironment interactions and B-cell receptor signaling in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: implications for disease pathogenesis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    ten Hacken, Elisa; Burger, Jan A.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) is a malignancy of mature B lymphocytes which are highly dependent on interactions with the tissue microenvironment for their survival and proliferation. Critical components of the microenvironment are monocyte-derived nurselike cells (NLCs), mesenchymal stromal cells, T cells and NK cells, which communicate with CLL cells through a complex network of adhesion molecules, chemokine receptors, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family members, and soluble factors. (Auto-) antigens and/or autonomous mechanisms activate the B-cell receptor (BCR) and its downstream signaling cascade in secondary lymphatic tissues, playing a central pathogenetic role in CLL. Novel small molecule inhibitors, including the Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor ibrutinib and the phosphoinositide-3-kinase delta (PI3Kδ) inhibitor idelalisib, target BCR signaling and have become the most successful new therapeutics in this disease. We here review the cellular and molecular characteristics of CLL cells, and discuss the cellular components and key pathways involved in the cross-talk with their microenvironment. We also highlight the relevant novel treatment strategies, focusing on immunomodulatory agents and BCR signaling inhibitors and how these treatments disrupt CLL-microenvironment interactions. PMID:26193078

  10. Safety and activity of BTK inhibitor ibrutinib combined with ofatumumab in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a phase 1b/2 study.

    PubMed

    Jaglowski, Samantha M; Jones, Jeffrey A; Nagar, Veena; Flynn, Joseph M; Andritsos, Leslie A; Maddocks, Kami J; Woyach, Jennifer A; Blum, Kristie A; Grever, Michael R; Smucker, Kelly; Ruppert, Amy S; Heerema, Nyla A; Lozanski, Gerard; Stefanos, Mona; Munneke, Brian; West, Jamie-Sue; Neuenburg, Jutta K; James, Danelle F; Hall, Nathan; Johnson, Amy J; Byrd, John C

    2015-08-13

    Ibrutinib represents a therapeutic advance in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) but as monotherapy produces few complete remissions in previously treated patients. Anti-CD20 antibodies have improved response and progression-free survival (PFS) when combined with chemotherapy. We evaluated the safety and activity of adding ofatumumab to ibrutinib in 3 different administration sequences. Patients with CLL/small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL), prolymphocytic leukemia, or Richter's transformation who failed ≥2 prior therapies were enrolled. Patients received ibrutinib 420 mg daily and 12 doses of ofatumumab 300/2000 mg in 3 schedules: ibrutinib lead-in (group 1; n = 27), concurrent start (group 2; n = 20), or ofatumumab lead-in (group 3; n = 24). Seventy-one patients were treated; most had high-risk disease including del(17)(p13.1) (44%) or del(11)(q22.3) (31%). The most frequent adverse events (any grade) were diarrhea (70%), infusion-related reaction (45%), and peripheral sensory neuropathy (44%). Overall response rates in CLL/SLL patients (n = 66) were 100%, 79%, and 71% in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Estimated 12-month PFSs for all patients were 89%, 85%, and 75%, respectively. Four patients in group 3 progressed prior to receiving ibrutinib. This study demonstrates the tolerability and clinical activity of this combination with quicker time to best response than single-agent ibrutinib and with durable responses. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01217749. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  11. Safety and activity of BTK inhibitor ibrutinib combined with ofatumumab in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a phase 1b/2 study

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jeffrey A.; Nagar, Veena; Flynn, Joseph M.; Andritsos, Leslie A.; Maddocks, Kami J.; Woyach, Jennifer A.; Blum, Kristie A.; Grever, Michael R.; Smucker, Kelly; Ruppert, Amy S.; Heerema, Nyla A.; Lozanski, Gerard; Stefanos, Mona; Munneke, Brian; West, Jamie-Sue; Neuenburg, Jutta K.; James, Danelle F.; Hall, Nathan; Johnson, Amy J.; Byrd, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Ibrutinib represents a therapeutic advance in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) but as monotherapy produces few complete remissions in previously treated patients. Anti-CD20 antibodies have improved response and progression-free survival (PFS) when combined with chemotherapy. We evaluated the safety and activity of adding ofatumumab to ibrutinib in 3 different administration sequences. Patients with CLL/small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL), prolymphocytic leukemia, or Richter’s transformation who failed ≥2 prior therapies were enrolled. Patients received ibrutinib 420 mg daily and 12 doses of ofatumumab 300/2000 mg in 3 schedules: ibrutinib lead-in (group 1; n = 27), concurrent start (group 2; n = 20), or ofatumumab lead-in (group 3; n = 24). Seventy-one patients were treated; most had high-risk disease including del(17)(p13.1) (44%) or del(11)(q22.3) (31%). The most frequent adverse events (any grade) were diarrhea (70%), infusion-related reaction (45%), and peripheral sensory neuropathy (44%). Overall response rates in CLL/SLL patients (n = 66) were 100%, 79%, and 71% in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Estimated 12-month PFSs for all patients were 89%, 85%, and 75%, respectively. Four patients in group 3 progressed prior to receiving ibrutinib. This study demonstrates the tolerability and clinical activity of this combination with quicker time to best response than single-agent ibrutinib and with durable responses. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01217749. PMID:26116658

  12. Analysis of the risk of infection in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia in the era of novel therapies.

    PubMed

    Williams, AnnaLynn M; Baran, Andrea M; Meacham, Philip J; Feldman, Megan M; Valencia, Hugo E; Newsom-Stewart, Catherine; Gupta, Nealansh; Janelsins, Michelle C; Barr, Paul M; Zent, Clive S

    2018-03-01

    We studied the risk of infections in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL). Major infections were defined as requiring hospital admission or intravenous antimicrobial treatment. Incidence rate (IR) ratios (IRR) were used to compare infection rates. Of 263 CLL patients followed for 936.9 person-years, 60% required treatment for progressive CLL (66 received ibrutinib). Infections occurred in 71.9% patients (IR 92.4/100 person-years) with 31.9% having major infections (IR 20.3/100 person-years) and infections causing 37.5% of deaths. CLL treatment was associated with significantly higher risk of major (IRR 3.31, 95% CI 2.10, 5.21) and minor (IRR 1.78, 95% CI 1.43, 2.22) infections. Compared to their previous chemoimmunotherapy patients receiving salvage ibrutinib therapy (n = 47) had a significantly increased risk of a major infection (IRR 2.35 95% CI 1.27, 4.34). The risk of infection in CLL patients remains high even with use of less immunosuppressive therapies.

  13. Symptomatic Hypercalcemia in a Patient with B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia - A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Koutroumpakis, Efstratios; Lobe, Montgomery; McCarthy, Lezah; Mehdi, Syed

    Hypercalcemia due to malignancy is well described in the literature and a common paraneoplastic finding in certain solid tumors. Hematologic malignancies, however, are less frequently associated with hypercalcemia with the exception of myelomas and T-cell lymphomas. This case report describes a patient with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) who developed symptomatic hypercalcemia. None of the pathogenetic mechanisms of malignancy-associated hypercalcemia already described in the literature could explain the pathogenesis of hypercalcemia in our patient. Calcium levels were normalized after initial treatment and remained within normal limits following treatment of the underlying B-CLL. The follow-up period was 26 months. The normalization of calcium levels was closely associated with the drop in the absolute lymphocyte count. Symptomatic hypercalcemia in B-CLL is exceedingly rare and only documented a few times in the literature. Hypercalcemia, in the present case, was not caused by any of the mechanisms already described in the literature and responded well to treatment of the underlying B-CLL. Copyright © 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of platelet lymphocyte ratio and 90-day mortality in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Praneel; Law, Stephanie; Sriram, Krishna B

    2017-06-01

    Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) have high mortality and health care costs. The platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) is a marker of inflammation and has been reported to be elevated in patients with AECOPD compared to stable state. In this study, we sought to evaluate the association of the PLR in patients with AECOPD with 90-day mortality. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted to our institution with a primary diagnosis of AECOPD between January 2014 and July 2014. Blood test results on admission were recorded. The primary outcomes were 90-day mortality. One hundred and eighty-one AECOPD patients were considered for the study. Death had occurred in 16 (9%) patients within 90 days of hospital discharge. Univariable analysis identified age, haemoglobin, neutrophil count, and urea level, neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and PLR as being associated with increased 90-day mortality. Multivariable logistic regression analysis variables demonstrated that only PLR (P=0.03) was significantly associated with death at 90 days. Receiver operator characteristic analysis identified PLR ≥235 had a sensitivity of 63% and specificity of 74% in predicting 90-day mortality. PLR was ≥235 was also associated with worse survival (days) [mean ± standard deviation (SD): PLR ≥235 vs. PLR <235: 512±358 vs. 626±346, P=0.004]. A PLR ≥235 was significantly associated with 90-day mortality, which may provide prognostic guidance to clinicians.

  15. Outpatient-Based Therapy of Oral Fludarabine and Subcutaneous Alemtuzumab for Asian Patients with Relapsed/Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, William Y. K.; Dearden, Claire; Loh, Yvonne S. M.; Linn, Yeh C.; Tien, Sim L.; Teoh, Gerrard K. H.; How, Gee F.; Heng, Kee K.; Goh, Yeow T.; Lee, Lai H.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Intravenous alemtuzumab and fludarabine are effective in combination for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), but require hospital visits for intravenous injection. We performed a pilot study to assess the safety and efficacy of outpatient-based oral fludarabine with subcutaneous alemtuzumab (OFSA) for the treatment of relapsed/refractory CLL. Results. Depending on their response, patients were given two to six 28-day cycles of subcutaneous alemtuzumab 30 mg on days 1,3, and 5 and oral fludarabine 40 mg/m2/day for 5 days. Median patient age was 74. The lymphocyte counts of all five patients fell after the 1st cycle of treatment and reached normal/low levels on completion of 2 to 6 cycles of therapy. Platelet counts and hemoglobin were unaffected. All five patients achieved complete hematological remission, while two attained minimal residual disease negativity on 4-color flow cytometry. Conclusions. Our OFSA regimen was effective in elderly Asian patients with relapsed/refractory CLL, and it should be investigated further. PMID:19960058

  16. Polymer-coated surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) gold nanoparticles for multiplexed labeling of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLaughlin, Christina M.; Parker, Edward P. K.; Walker, Gilbert C.; Wang, Chen

    2012-01-01

    The ease and flexibility of functionalization and inherent light scattering properties of plasmonic nanoparticles make them suitable contrast agents for measurement of cell surface markers. Immunophenotyping of lymphoproliferative disorders is traditionally undertaken using fluorescence detection methods which have a number of limitations. Herein, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) gold nanoparticles conjugated to monoclonal antibodies are used for the selective targeting of CD molecules on the surface of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. Raman-active reporters were physisorbed on to the surface of 60 nm spherical Au nanoparticles, the particles were coated with 5kDa polyethylene glycol (PEG) including functionalities for conjugation to monoclonal IgG1 antibodies. A novel method for quantifying the number of antibodies bound to SERS probes on an individual basis as opposed to obtaining averages from solution was demonstrated using metal dots in transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The specificity of the interaction between SERS probes and surface CD molecules of CLL cells was assessed using Raman spectroscopy and dark field microscopy. An in-depth study of SERS probe targeting to B lymphocyte marker CD20 was undertaken, and proof-of-concept targeting using different SERS nanoparticle dyes specific for cell surface CD19, CD45 and CD5 demonstrated using SERS spectroscopy.

  17. A phase 2 study of idelalisib plus rituximab in treatment-naïve older patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Lamanna, Nicole; Kipps, Thomas J.; Flinn, Ian; Zelenetz, Andrew D.; Burger, Jan A.; Keating, Michael; Mitra, Siddhartha; Holes, Leanne; Yu, Albert S.; Johnson, David M.; Miller, Langdon L.; Kim, Yeonhee; Dansey, Roger D.; Dubowy, Ronald L.; Coutre, Steven E.

    2015-01-01

    Idelalisib is a first-in-class oral inhibitor of PI3Kδ that has shown substantial activity in patients with relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). To evaluate idelalisib as initial therapy, 64 treatment-naïve older patients with CLL or small lymphocytic leukemia (median age, 71 years; range, 65-90) were treated with rituximab 375 mg/m2 weekly ×8 and idelalisib 150 mg twice daily continuously for 48 weeks. Patients completing 48 weeks without progression could continue to receive idelalisib on an extension study. The median time on treatment was 22.4 months (range, 0.8-45.8+). The overall response rate (ORR) was 97%, including 19% complete responses. The ORR was 100% in patients with del(17p)/TP53 mutations and 97% in those with unmutated IGHV. Progression-free survival was 83% at 36 months. The most frequent (>30%) adverse events (any grade) were diarrhea (including colitis) (64%), rash (58%), pyrexia (42%), nausea (38%), chills (36%), cough (33%), and fatigue (31%). Elevated alanine transaminase/aspartate transaminase was seen in 67% of patients (23% grade ≥3). The combination of idelalisib and rituximab was highly active, resulting in durable disease control in treatment-naïve older patients with CLL. These results support the further development of idelalisib as initial treatment of CLL. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as #NCT01203930. PMID:26472751

  18. PARP1 expression, activity and ex vivo sensitivity to the PARP inhibitor, talazoparib (BMN 673), in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Herriott, Ashleigh; Tudhope, Susan J.; Junge, Gesa; Rodrigues, Natalie; Patterson, Miranda J.; Woodhouse, Laura; Lunec, John; Hunter, Jill E.; Mulligan, Evan A.; Cole, Michael; Allinson, Lisa M.; Wallis, Jonathan P.; Marshall, Scott; Wang, Evelyn; Curtin, Nicola J.; Willmore, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), mutation and loss of p53 and ATM abrogate DNA damage signalling and predict poorer response and shorter survival. We hypothesised that poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activity, which is crucial for repair of DNA breaks induced by oxidative stress or chemotherapy, may be an additional predictive biomarker and a target for therapy with PARP inhibitors. We measured PARP activity in 109 patient-derived CLL samples, which varied widely (192 – 190052 pmol PAR/106 cells) compared to that seen in healthy volunteer lymphocytes (2451 – 7519 pmol PAR/106 cells). PARP activity was associated with PARP1 protein expression and endogenous PAR levels. PARP activity was not associated with p53 or ATM loss, Binet stage, IGHV mutational status or survival, but correlated with Bcl-2 and Rel A (an NF-kB subunit). Levels of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine in DNA (a marker of oxidative damage) were not associated with PAR levels or PARP activity. The potent PARP inhibitor, talazoparib (BMN 673), inhibited CD40L-stimulated proliferation of CLL cells at nM concentrations, independently of Binet stage or p53/ATM function. PARP activity is highly variable in CLL and correlates with stress-induced proteins. Proliferating CLL cells (including those with p53 or ATM loss) are highly sensitive to the PARP inhibitor talazoparib. PMID:26539646

  19. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor CEP-8983 synergizes with bendamustine in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Dilley, Robert L.; Poh, Weijie; Gladstone, Douglas E.; Herman, James G.; Showel, Margaret M.; Karp, Judith E.; McDevitt, Michael A.; Pratz, Keith W.

    2014-01-01

    DNA repair aberrations and associated chromosomal instability is a feature of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). To evaluate if DNA repair insufficiencies are related to methylation changes, we examined the methylation of nine promoter regions of DNA repair proteins by bisulfide sequencing in 26 CLL primary samples and performed quantitative PCR on a subset of samples to examine BRCA1 expression. We also investigated if changes in cytogenetic or expression level of DNA repair proteins led to changes in sensitivity to a novel PARP inhibitor, CEP-8983, alone and in combination with bendamustine. No changes in promoter methylation were identified in BRCA1, BRCA2, FANC-C, FANC-F, FANC-L, ATM, MGMT, hMLH1 and H2AX except for two cases of minor BRCA1 hypermethylation. CLL samples appeared to have reduced BRCA1 mRNA expression uniformly in comparison to non-malignant lymphocytes irrespective of promoter hypermethylation. CEP-8983 displayed single agent cytotoxicity and the combination with bendamustine demonstrated synergistic cytotoxicity in the majority of CLL samples. These results were consistent across cytogenetic subgroups, including 17p deleted and previously treated patients. Our results provide rationale for further exploration of the combination of a PARP inhibitor and DNA damaging agents as a novel therapeutic strategy in CLL. PMID:24439051

  20. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor CEP-8983 synergizes with bendamustine in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Dilley, Robert L; Poh, Weijie; Gladstone, Douglas E; Herman, James G; Showel, Margaret M; Karp, Judith E; McDevitt, Michael A; Pratz, Keith W

    2014-03-01

    DNA repair aberrations and associated chromosomal instability is a feature of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). To evaluate if DNA repair insufficiencies are related to methylation changes, we examined the methylation of nine promoter regions of DNA repair proteins by bisulfide sequencing in 26 CLL primary samples and performed quantitative PCR on a subset of samples to examine BRCA1 expression. We also investigated if changes in cytogenetic or expression level of DNA repair proteins led to changes in sensitivity to a novel PARP inhibitor, CEP-8983, alone and in combination with bendamustine. No changes in promoter methylation were identified in BRCA1, BRCA2, FANC-C, FANC-F, FANC-L, ATM, MGMT, hMLH1 and H2AX except for two cases of minor BRCA1 hypermethylation. CLL samples appeared to have reduced BRCA1 mRNA expression uniformly in comparison to non-malignant lymphocytes irrespective of promoter hypermethylation. CEP-8983 displayed single agent cytotoxicity and the combination with bendamustine demonstrated synergistic cytotoxicity in the majority of CLL samples. These results were consistent across cytogenetic subgroups, including 17p deleted and previously treated patients. Our results provide rationale for further exploration of the combination of a PARP inhibitor and DNA damaging agents as a novel therapeutic strategy in CLL. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. MALT1 Inhibition Is Efficacious in Both Naïve and Ibrutinib-Resistant Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Saba, Nakhle S; Wong, Deanna H; Tanios, Georges; Iyer, Jessica R; Lobelle-Rich, Patricia; Dadashian, Eman L; Liu, Delong; Fontan, Lorena; Flemington, Erik K; Nichols, Cydney M; Underbayev, Chingiz; Safah, Hana; Melnick, Ari; Wiestner, Adrian; Herman, Sarah E M

    2017-12-15

    The clinical efficacy displayed by ibrutinib in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has been challenged by the frequent emergence of resistant clones. The ibrutinib target, Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), is essential for B-cell receptor signaling, and most resistant cases carry mutations in BTK or PLCG2 , a downstream effector target of BTK. Recent findings show that MI-2, a small molecule inhibitor of the para-caspase MALT1, is effective in preclinical models of another type of BCR pathway-dependent lymphoma. We therefore studied the activity of MI-2 against CLL and ibrutinib-resistant CLL. Treatment of CLL cells in vitro with MI-2 inhibited MALT1 proteolytic activity reduced BCR and NF-κB signaling, inhibited nuclear translocation of RelB and p50, and decreased Bcl-xL levels. MI-2 selectively induced dose and time-dependent apoptosis in CLL cells, sparing normal B lymphocytes. Furthermore, MI-2 abrogated survival signals provided by stromal cells and BCR cross-linking and was effective against CLL cells harboring features associated with poor outcomes, including 17p deletion and unmutated IGHV Notably, MI-2 was effective against CLL cells collected from patients harboring mutations conferring resistance to ibrutinib. Overall, our findings provide a preclinical rationale for the clinical development of MALT1 inhibitors in CLL, in particular for ibrutinib-resistant forms of this disease. Cancer Res; 77(24); 7038-48. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. CD151 supports VCAM-1-mediated lymphocyte adhesion to liver endothelium and is upregulated in chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wadkin, James C R; Patten, Daniel A; Kamarajah, Sivesh K; Shepherd, Emma L; Novitskaya, Vera; Berditchevski, Fedor; Adams, David H; Weston, Chris J; Shetty, Shishir

    2017-08-01

    CD151, a member of the tetraspanin family of receptors, is a lateral organizer and modulator of activity of several families of transmembrane proteins. It has been implicated in the development and progression of several cancers, but its role in chronic inflammatory disease is less well understood. Here we show that CD151 is upregulated by distinct microenvironmental signals in a range of chronic inflammatory liver diseases and in primary liver cancer, in which it supports lymphocyte recruitment. CD151 was highly expressed in endothelial cells of the hepatic sinusoids and neovessels developing in fibrotic septa and tumor margins. Primary cultures of human hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (HSECs) expressed CD151 at the cell membrane and in intracellular vesicles. CD151 was upregulated by VEGF and HepG2 conditioned media but not by proinflammatory cytokines. Confocal microscopy confirmed that CD151 colocalized with the endothelial adhesion molecule/immunoglobulin superfamily member, VCAM-1. Functional flow-based adhesion assays with primary human lymphocytes and HSECs demonstrated a 40% reduction of lymphocyte adhesion with CD151 blockade. Inhibition of lymphocyte adhesion was similar between VCAM-1 blockade and a combination of CD151/VCAM-1 blockade, suggesting a collaborative role between the two receptors. These studies demonstrate that CD151 is upregulated within the liver during chronic inflammation, where it supports lymphocyte recruitment via liver endothelium. We propose that CD151 regulates the activity of VCAM-1 during lymphocyte recruitment to the human liver and could be a novel anti-inflammatory target in chronic liver disease and hepatocellular cancer prevention. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Chronic hepatitis is characterized by lymphocyte accumulation in liver tissue, which drives fibrosis and carcinogenesis. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that the tetraspanin CD151 supports lymphocyte adhesion to liver endothelium. We show that CD151 is upregulated

  3. CD151 supports VCAM-1-mediated lymphocyte adhesion to liver endothelium and is upregulated in chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wadkin, James C. R.; Patten, Daniel A.; Kamarajah, Sivesh K.; Shepherd, Emma L.; Novitskaya, Vera; Berditchevski, Fedor; Adams, David H.; Weston, Chris J.

    2017-01-01

    CD151, a member of the tetraspanin family of receptors, is a lateral organizer and modulator of activity of several families of transmembrane proteins. It has been implicated in the development and progression of several cancers, but its role in chronic inflammatory disease is less well understood. Here we show that CD151 is upregulated by distinct microenvironmental signals in a range of chronic inflammatory liver diseases and in primary liver cancer, in which it supports lymphocyte recruitment. CD151 was highly expressed in endothelial cells of the hepatic sinusoids and neovessels developing in fibrotic septa and tumor margins. Primary cultures of human hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (HSECs) expressed CD151 at the cell membrane and in intracellular vesicles. CD151 was upregulated by VEGF and HepG2 conditioned media but not by proinflammatory cytokines. Confocal microscopy confirmed that CD151 colocalized with the endothelial adhesion molecule/immunoglobulin superfamily member, VCAM-1. Functional flow-based adhesion assays with primary human lymphocytes and HSECs demonstrated a 40% reduction of lymphocyte adhesion with CD151 blockade. Inhibition of lymphocyte adhesion was similar between VCAM-1 blockade and a combination of CD151/VCAM-1 blockade, suggesting a collaborative role between the two receptors. These studies demonstrate that CD151 is upregulated within the liver during chronic inflammation, where it supports lymphocyte recruitment via liver endothelium. We propose that CD151 regulates the activity of VCAM-1 during lymphocyte recruitment to the human liver and could be a novel anti-inflammatory target in chronic liver disease and hepatocellular cancer prevention. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Chronic hepatitis is characterized by lymphocyte accumulation in liver tissue, which drives fibrosis and carcinogenesis. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that the tetraspanin CD151 supports lymphocyte adhesion to liver endothelium. We show that CD151 is upregulated

  4. Assessment of bone marrow lymphocytic status during tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy and its relation to therapy response in chronic myeloid leukaemia.

    PubMed

    El Missiry, Mohamed; Adnan Awad, Shady; Rajala, Hanna L; Al-Samadi, Ahmed; Ekblom, Marja; Markevän, Berit; Åstrand-Grundström, Ingbritt; Wold, Maren; Svedahl, Ellen Rabben; Juhl, Birgitte Ravn; Bjerrum, Ole Weis; Haulin, Inger; Porkka, Kimmo; Olsson-Strömberg, Ulla; Hjorth-Hansen, Henrik; Mustjoki, Satu

    2016-05-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) used in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukaemia have been reported to induce immunomodulatory effects. We aimed to assess peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) lymphocyte status at the diagnosis and during different TKI therapies and correlate it with treatment responses. BM and PB samples were acquired from 105 first-line TKI-treated patients. Relative number of BM lymphocytes was evaluated from MGG-stained BM aspirates, and immunophenotypic analyses were performed with multicolour flow cytometry. Early 3-month expansion of BM lymphocytes was found during all different TKIs (imatinib n = 71, 20 %; dasatinib n = 25, 21 %; nilotinib n = 9, 22 %; healthy controls n = 14, 12 %, p < 0.0001). Increased PB lymphocyte count was only observed during dasatinib therapy. The BM lymphocyte expansion was associated with early molecular response; patients with 3-month BCR-ABL1 <10 % showed higher lymphocyte counts than patients with BCR-ABL1 >10 % (23 vs. 17 %, p < 0.05). Detailed phenotypic analysis showed that BM lymphocyte expansion consisted of various lymphocyte subclasses, but especially the proportion of CD19+ B cells and CD3negCD16/56+ NK cells increased from diagnostic values. During dasatinib treatment, the lymphocyte balance in both BM and PB was shifted more to cytotoxic direction (increased CD8+CD57+ and CD8+HLA-DR+ cells, and low T regulatory cells), whereas no major immunophenotypic differences were observed between imatinib and nilotinib patients. Early BM lymphocytosis occurs with all current first-line TKIs and is associated with better treatment responses. PB and BM immunoprofile during dasatinib treatment markedly differs from both imatinib- and nilotinib-treated patients.

  5. From a 2DE-gel spot to protein function: lesson learned from HS1 in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Apollonio, Benedetta; Bertilaccio, Maria Teresa Sabrina; Restuccia, Umberto; Ranghetti, Pamela; Barbaglio, Federica; Ghia, Paolo; Caligaris-Cappio, Federico; Scielzo, Cristina

    2014-10-19

    The identification of molecules involved in tumor initiation and progression is fundamental for understanding disease's biology and, as a consequence, for the clinical management of patients. In the present work we will describe an optimized proteomic approach for the identification of molecules involved in the progression of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL). In detail, leukemic cell lysates are resolved by 2-dimensional Electrophoresis (2DE) and visualized as "spots" on the 2DE gels. Comparative analysis of proteomic maps allows the identification of differentially expressed proteins (in terms of abundance and post-translational modifications) that are picked, isolated and identified by Mass Spectrometry (MS). The biological function of the identified candidates can be tested by different assays (i.e. migration, adhesion and F-actin polymerization), that we have optimized for primary leukemic cells.

  6. Persistently high Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) loads in peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with chronic active EBV infection.

    PubMed

    Maeda, A; Wakiguchi, H; Yokoyama, W; Hisakawa, H; Tomoda, T; Kurashige, T

    1999-04-01

    Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection (CAEBV) is a severe illness with unusual EBV activation that persists for years, and its pathogenesis is largely unknown. After the creation of an accurate and reproducible polymerase chain reaction system to quantify EBV DNA, virus loads in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) were determined in 54 children: 15 with CAEBV, 16 with infectious mononucleosis (IM), and 23 healthy children. Children with CAEBV and those with IM had high virus loads. Lower loads were detected in 47% of seropositive healthy donors. There were two distinct differences between children with CAEBV and those with IM: The former had greater viral replication (10(3)-10(7) copies/2.5x10(5) PBL) than those with IM, and viral replication declined in children with IM whereas active replication persisted for years in subjects with CAEBV. Persisting high virus loads are a possible diagnostic criterion for CAEBV. EBV loads may enable classification and prognosis of EBV infections.

  7. Recognition of Antigen-Specific B Cell Receptors From Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Patients By Synthetic Antigen Surrogates

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Mohosin; Liu, Yun; Morimoto, Jumpei; Peng, Haiyong; Aquino, Claudio; Rader, Christoph; Chiorazzi, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    In patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), a single neoplastic antigen-specific B cell accumulates and overgrows other B cells, leading to immune deficiency. CLL is often treated with drugs that ablate all B cells, leading to further weakening of humoral immunity, and a more focused therapeutic strategy capable of targeting only the pathogenic B cells would represent a significant advance. One approach to this would be to develop synthetic surrogates of the CLL antigens allowing differentiation of the CLL cells and healthy B cells in a patient. Here, we describe discovery of non-peptidic molecules capable of targeting antigen-specific B cell receptors with good affinity and selectivity using a combinatorial library screen. We demonstrate that our hit compounds act as synthetic antigen surrogates and recognize CLL cells and not healthy B cells. Additionally, we argue that the technology we developed can be used for discovery of other classes of antigen surrogates. PMID:25467125

  8. Recognition of antigen-specific B-cell receptors from chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients by synthetic antigen surrogates.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Mohosin; Liu, Yun; Morimoto, Jumpei; Peng, Haiyong; Aquino, Claudio; Rader, Christoph; Chiorazzi, Nicholas; Kodadek, Thomas

    2014-12-18

    In patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), a single neoplastic antigen-specific B cell accumulates and overgrows other B cells, leading to immune deficiency. CLL is often treated with drugs that ablate all B cells, leading to further weakening of humoral immunity, and a more focused therapeutic strategy capable of targeting only the pathogenic B cells would represent a significant advance. One approach to this would be to develop synthetic surrogates of the CLL antigens allowing differentiation of the CLL cells and healthy B cells in a patient. Here, we describe nonpeptidic molecules capable of targeting antigen-specific B cell receptors with good affinity and selectivity using a combinatorial library screen. We demonstrate that our hit compounds act as synthetic antigen surrogates and recognize CLL cells and not healthy B cells. Additionally, we argue that the technology we developed can be used to identify other classes of antigen surrogates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Efficacy and Safety of Bendamustine and Ibrutinib in Previously Untreated Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Indirect Comparison.

    PubMed

    Andrasiak, Iga; Rybka, Justyna; Knopinska-Posluszny, Wanda; Wrobel, Tomasz

    2017-05-01

    Bendamustine and ibrutinib are commonly used in the treatment of patients suffering from chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). In this study we compare efficacy and safety bendamustine versus ibrutinib therapy in previously untreated patients with CLL. Because there are no head-to-head comparisons between bendamustine and ibrutinib, we performed indirect comparison using Bucher method. A systematic literature review was performed and 2 studies published before June 2016 were taken into analysis. Treatment with ibrutinib significantly improves PFS determined by investigator (HR of 0.3; P = .01) and OS (HR of 0.21; P < .001. Our study indicates that ibrutinib therapy improves PFS, OS and is superior in terms of safety comparing with bendamustine therapy in CLL patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Rituximab plus bendamustine or chlorambucil for chronic lymphocytic leukemia: primary analysis of the randomized, open-label MABLE study

    PubMed Central

    Michallet, Anne-Sophie; Aktan, Melih; Hiddemann, Wolfgang; Ilhan, Osman; Johansson, Peter; Laribi, Kamel; Meddeb, Balkis; Moreno, Carol; Raposo, João; Schuh, Anna; Ünal, Ali; Widenius, Tom; Bernhardt, Alf; Kellershohn, Kerstin; Messeri, Dimitri; Osborne, Stuart; Leblond, Véronique

    2018-01-01

    MABLE investigated the efficacy and safety of rituximab plus bendamustine or rituximab plus chlorambucil in fludarabine-ineligible patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Patients received rituximab plus bendamustine or rituximab plus chlorambucil every four weeks for six cycles. Rituximab plus chlorambucil-treated patients without a complete response after Cycle 6 received chlorambucil monotherapy for at least six additional cycles or until complete response. The primary endpoint was complete response rate (confirmed by bone marrow biopsy) after Cycle 6 in first-line patients. Secondary endpoints included progression-free survival, overall survival, minimal residual disease, and safety. Overall, 357 patients were randomized (rituximab plus bendamustine, n=178; rituximab plus chlorambucil, n=179; intent-to-treat population), including 241 first-line patients (n=121 and n=120, respectively); 355 patients received treatment (n=177 and n=178, respectively; safety population). In first-line patients, complete response rate after Cycle 6 (rituximab plus bendamustine, 24%; rituximab plus chlorambucil, 9%; P=0.002) and median progression-free survival (rituximab plus bendamustine, 40 months; rituximab plus chlorambucil, 30 months; P=0.003) were higher with rituximab plus bendamustine than rituximab plus chlorambucil. Overall response rate and overall survival were not different. In first-line patients with a complete response, minimal residual disease-negativity was higher with rituximab plus bendamustine than rituximab plus chlorambucil (66% vs. 36%). Overall adverse event incidence was similar (rituximab plus bendamustine, 98%; rituximab plus chlorambucil, 97%). Rituximab plus bendamustine may be a valuable first-line option for fludarabine-ineligible patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. PMID:29419437

  11. Inhibition of maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase with OTSSP167 displays potent anti-leukemic effects in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya; Zhou, Xiangxiang; Li, Ying; Xu, Yangyang; Lu, Kang; Li, Peipei; Wang, Xin

    2018-06-12

    TP53 pathway defects contributed to therapy resistance and adverse clinical outcome in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), which represents an unmet clinical need with few therapeutic options. Maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) is a novel oncogene, which plays crucial roles in mitotic progression and stem cell maintenance. OTSSP167, an orally administrated inhibitor targeting MELK, is currently in a phase I/II clinical trial in patients with advanced breast cancer and acute myeloid leukemia. Yet, no investigation has been elucidated to date regarding the oncogenic role of MELK and effects of OTSSP167 in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Previous studies confirmed MELK inhibition abrogated cancer cell survival via p53 signaling pathway. Thus, we aimed to determine the biological function of MELK and therapeutic potential of OTSSP167 in CLL. Herein, MELK over-expression was observed in CLL cells, and correlated with higher WBC count, advanced stage, elevated LDH, increased β2-MG level, unmutated IGHV, positive ZAP-70, deletion of 17p13 and inferior prognosis of CLL patients. In accordance with functional enrichment analyses in gene expression profiling, CLL cells with depletion or inhibition of MELK exhibited impaired cell proliferation, enhanced fast-onset apoptosis, induced G2/M arrest, attenuated cell chemotaxis and promoted sensitivity to fludarabine and ibrutinib. However, gain-of-function assay showed increased cell proliferation and cell chemotaxis. In addition, OTSSP167 treatment reduced phosphorylation of AKT and ERK1/2. It decreased FoxM1 phosphorylation, expression of FoxM1, cyclin B1 and CDK1, while up-regulating p53 and p21 expression. Taken together, MELK served as a candidate of therapeutic target in CLL. OTSSP167 exhibits potent anti-tumor activities in CLL cells, highlighting a novel molecule-based strategy for leukemic interventions.

  12. Adult advanced chronic lymphocytic leukemia: computational analysis of whole-body CT documents a bone structure alteration.

    PubMed

    Fiz, Francesco; Marini, Cecilia; Piva, Roberta; Miglino, Maurizio; Massollo, Michela; Bongioanni, Francesca; Morbelli, Silvia; Bottoni, Gianluca; Campi, Cristina; Bacigalupo, Andrea; Bruzzi, Paolo; Frassoni, Francesco; Piana, Michele; Sambuceti, Gianmario

    2014-06-01

    To assess the presence of alteration of bone structure and bone marrow metabolism in adult patients who were suspected of having advanced chronic lymphocytic leukemia (ACLL) by using a computational prognostic model that was based on computational analysis of positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) images. In this retrospective study, all patients signed written informed consent as a requisite to undergo PET/CT examination. However, due to its observational nature, approval from the ethical committee was not deemed necessary. Twenty-two previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients underwent PET/CT for disease progression. PET/CT images were analyzed by using dedicated software, capable of recognizing an external 2-pixel bone ring whose Hounsfield coefficient served as cutoff to recognize trabecular and compact bone. PET/CT data from 22 age- and sex-matched control subjects were used as comparison. All data are reported as means ± standard deviations. The Student t test, log-rank, or Cox proportional hazards model were used as appropriate, considering a difference with a P value of less than .05 as significant. Trabecular bone was expanded in ACLL patients and occupied a larger fraction of the skeleton with respect to control subjects (mean, 39% ± 5 [standard deviation] vs 31% ± 7; ie, 32 of 81 mL/kg of ideal body weight vs 27 of 86 mL/kg of ideal body weight, respectively; P < .001). After stratification according to median value, patients with a ratio of trabecular to skeletal bone volume of more than 37.3% showed an actuarial 2-year survival of 18%, compared with 82% for those with a ratio of less than 37.3% (P < .001), independent from age, sex, biological markers, and disease duration. These data suggest that computational assessment of skeletal alterations might represent a new window for prediction of the clinical course of the disease.

  13. Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis does not influence the risk of recurrence in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma and excellent response to initial therapy.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Marina S; Rosario, Pedro W; Mourão, Gabriela F; Calsolari, Maria R

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluated the recurrence in patients with papillary thyroid cancer and an excellent response to initial therapy, comparing those with and without chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis. This was a prospective study. Patients who met the following criteria were selected: diagnosis of papillary thyroid cancer; submitted to total thyroidectomy followed or not by ablation with 131 I; and neck ultrasonography without abnormalities, nonstimulated thyroglobulina (Tg) ≤0.2 ng/ml, and undetectable antithyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb) 12-18 months after initial therapy. The patients were divided into two groups: group A, with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis on histology; group B, without chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis on histology. Groups A and B were similar in terms of sex and age of the patients, characteristics of the tumor, tumor-node-metastase stage and risk category. The time of follow-up ranged from 24 to 120 months (median 66 months). During follow-up, 5 patients of group A (2.6 %) and 9 patients of group B (2 %) developed recurrence (p = 0.77). Patients with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis were more likely to progress to persistently borderline TgAb. No patient had positive TgAb (above the reference value) during follow-up. Recurrences occurred in 12/588 patients (2 %) with undetectable TgAb in all measurements, in 1/32 (3.1 %) with detectable TgAb on some occasion but that returned to undetectable spontaneously, and in 1/13 (7.7 %) with persistently borderline TgAb. These rates did not differ significantly (p = 0.25). The results of the present study showed the absence of an association between chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis and recurrence risk at least in patients with an excellent response to initial therapy.

  14. National trends in incidence and survival of chronic lymphocytic leukemia in Norway for 1953-2012: a systematic analysis of population-based data.

    PubMed

    Lenartova, Andrea; Johannesen, Tom Børge; Tjønnfjord, Geir Erland

    2016-12-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is a disease of the elderly, and despite major advances in treatment, remains incurable. The Cancer Registry of Norway has registered data on patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia since 1953. We aimed to analyze trends in incidence and survival of chronic lymphocytic leukemia in Norway. We identified 7664 patients reported with chronic lymphocytic leukemia to the registry between 1953 and 2012. We gathered information on sex, age at diagnosis, date of death and basis for diagnosis. The age-standardized incidence increased from 0.6/100.000 person-years in 1953 to 3.1/100,000 person-years in 2012. We found a significant decrease in median age between 1993-2002 and 2003-2012 (75 vs. 72 years, 95%CI: 2.52-3.98, P < 0.001). Men were diagnosed at a significantly younger age than women. Immunophenotyping has become the most important diagnostic method after 2002. Median observed survival increased from 3 years in 1952-1963 to 8.5 years in 2003-2012. Five- and 10-year age-standardized net survival increased throughout the whole period across age groups and reached 79% and 57%, respectively. Median observed survival was significantly shorter in men than in women in 1993-2002 (4.9 vs. 6.1 years, P < 0.001). The gap between survival rates for men and women was diminishing in 2003-2012 in patients younger than 60 years while it remained considerable in older patients. Despite an aging Norwegian population, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients become younger at diagnosis. A fourfold increase in incidence, a prolonged survival, and major changes in diagnostic methods in Norway were observed. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Pembrolizumab Alone or With Idelalisib or Ibrutinib in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Other Low-Grade B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-06-30

    Recurrent Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Extranodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Nodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Recurrent Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Extranodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue; Refractory Follicular Lymphoma; Refractory Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma; Refractory Nodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Refractory Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Richter Syndrome; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia

  16. Autologous Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant Followed by Donor Bone Marrow Transplant in Treating Patients With High-Risk Hodgkin Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, Multiple Myeloma, or Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-12-26

    B-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Hypodiploidy; Loss of Chromosome 17p; Plasma Cell Leukemia; Progression of Multiple Myeloma or Plasma Cell Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Plasma Cell Myeloma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Plasma Cell Myeloma; Refractory Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; t(14;16); t(4;14); T-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia

  17. The prohibitin-binding compound fluorizoline induces apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells through the upregulation of NOXA and synergizes with ibrutinib, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside or venetoclax.

    PubMed

    Cosialls, Ana M; Pomares, Helena; Iglesias-Serret, Daniel; Saura-Esteller, José; Núñez-Vázquez, Sonia; González-Gironès, Diana M; de la Banda, Esmeralda; Preciado, Sara; Albericio, Fernando; Lavilla, Rodolfo; Pons, Gabriel; González-Barca, Eva M; Gil, Joan

    2017-09-01

    Fluorizoline is a new synthetic molecule that induces apoptosis by selectively targeting prohibitins. In the study herein, the pro-apoptotic effect of fluorizoline was assessed in 34 primary samples from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Fluorizoline induced apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells at concentrations in the low micromolar range. All primary samples were sensitive to fluorizoline irrespective of patients' clinical or genetic features, whereas normal T lymphocytes were less sensitive. Fluorizoline increased the protein levels of the pro-apoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 family member NOXA in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells. Furthermore, fluorizoline synergized with ibrutinib, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside or venetoclax to induce apoptosis. These results suggest that targeting prohibitins could be a new therapeutic strategy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Copyright© 2017 Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  18. The prohibitin-binding compound fluorizoline induces apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells through the upregulation of NOXA and synergizes with ibrutinib, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside or venetoclax

    PubMed Central

    Cosialls, Ana M.; Pomares, Helena; Iglesias-Serret, Daniel; Saura-Esteller, José; Núñez-Vázquez, Sonia; González-Gironès, Diana M.; de la Banda, Esmeralda; Preciado, Sara; Albericio, Fernando; Lavilla, Rodolfo; Pons, Gabriel; González-Barca, Eva M.; Gil, Joan

    2017-01-01

    Fluorizoline is a new synthetic molecule that induces apoptosis by selectively targeting prohibitins. In the study herein, the pro-apoptotic effect of fluorizoline was assessed in 34 primary samples from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Fluorizoline induced apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells at concentrations in the low micromolar range. All primary samples were sensitive to fluorizoline irrespective of patients’ clinical or genetic features, whereas normal T lymphocytes were less sensitive. Fluorizoline increased the protein levels of the pro-apoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 family member NOXA in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells. Furthermore, fluorizoline synergized with ibrutinib, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside or venetoclax to induce apoptosis. These results suggest that targeting prohibitins could be a new therapeutic strategy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. PMID:28619845

  19. Cellular and humoral immune reactions in chronic active liver disease. II. Lymphocyte subsets and viral antigens in liver biopsies of patients with acute and chronic hepatitis B.

    PubMed Central

    Eggink, H F; Houthoff, H J; Huitema, S; Wolters, G; Poppema, S; Gips, C H

    1984-01-01

    The characteristics and distribution of the inflammatory infiltrate in liver biopsies of 25 patients with hepatitis B viral (HBV) infection were studied in relation to the distribution and expression of HBV antigens. Mononuclear subsets were characterized with monoclonal (OKT, OKM, Leu) antibodies to surface antigens. For the demonstration of viral antigens directly conjugated antibodies to surface (HBsAg), core (HBcAg) and 'e' (HBeAg) antigen were used. For the study of mutual relations all methods were performed on serial cut tissue sections. In chronic active hepatitis B (CAH-B, n = 12) OKT8+ lymphocytes of T cell origin were the only cell type present in areas with liver cell degeneration and T cell cytotoxicity appears to be the only immune mechanism. In chronic persistent hepatitis B (CPH-B, n = 7) the only conspicuous feature was the presence of many Leu 3+ lymphocytes of the helper/inducer population in the portal tracts. In acute hepatitis B (AHB, n = 6) OKT8+ cells of non-T origin (OKT1-,3-) and Leu 7+ cells of presumed natural killer (NK) potential predominated in the areas with liver cell necrosis, and non-T cell cytotoxicity appears to be the predominant immune mechanism. In none of these disease entities a positive spatial relation could be established between the cytotoxic cells and the demonstrable expression of HBV antigens in hepatocytes. It is concluded that differences in immunological reaction pattern may explain the different course in the three forms of HBV infection studied. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6713726

  20. Cellular Immunotherapy Following Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Recurrent Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas, Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or B-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-04-20

    Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; B-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; B-Cell Lymphoma, Unclassifiable, With Features Intermediate Between Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma and Burkitt Lymphoma; B-Cell Lymphoma, Unclassifiable, With Features Intermediate Between Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma and Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma

  1. [Adoptive transfer of Epstein-Barr virus-specific T-lymphocytes in chronic active Epstein-Barr infection].

    PubMed

    Babel, N; Hammer, M H; Reinke, P

    2003-03-14

    A 27-year-old man was admitted because of intermittent fever, fatigue, lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly for 20 years. Chronic administration of 6 - 8 g aspirin per day (self-prescribed) resulted in limited control of symptoms and in the development of analgesic nephropathy. The patient had prominent splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy without histological signs of malignancy. Monocytosis and T-lymphopenia were also present. Infectious disease testing revealed IgG+/IgM- EBV serology and EA-EBV-mRNA nested PCR clearly demonstrated the presence of lytic EBV-proteins in PBMCs. As chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection (CAEBV) was highly probable, treatment with aciclovir, gancilovir and steroids was started. Because treatment failed adoptive T-cell transfer with autologous EBV-specific T-cells was performed. After three consecutive infusions the patient responded with a complete remission of fever, fatigue, lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly without adverse effects. Retrospective real-time PCR analysis showed a decrease in viral load from 62847 copies/ microg DNA to 45 - 250 copies after treatment. The patient remains in stable remission without signs of CAEBV (> 4 years). Adoptive transfer of autologous, EBV-specific T-lymphocytes is a promising treatment in CAEBV.

  2. Pharmacological and protein profiling suggest venetoclax (ABT-199) as optimal partner with ibrutinib in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Cervantes-Gomez, Fabiola; Lamothe, Betty; Woyach, Jennifer A.; Wierda, William G.; Keating, Michael J.; Balakrishnan, Kumudha; Gandhi, Varsha

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) is a critical enzyme in the B-cell receptor pathway and is inhibited by ibrutinib due to covalent binding to the kinase domain. Though ibrutinib results in impressive clinical activity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), most patients achieve only partial remission due to residual disease. We performed a pharmacologic profiling of residual circulating CLL cells from patients receiving ibrutinib to identify optimal agents that could induce cell death of these lymphocytes. Experimental design Ex vivo serial samples of CLL cells from patients on ibrutinib were obtained prior and after (weeks 2, 4, and 12) the start of treatment. These cells were incubated with PI3K inhibitors (idelalisib or IPI-145), bendamustine, additional ibrutinib, or BCL-2 antagonists (ABT-737 or ABT-199) and cell death was measured. In vitro investigations complemented ex vivo studies. Immunoblots for BTK signaling pathway and antiapoptotic proteins were performed. Results The BCL-2 antagonists, especially ABT-199, induced high cell death during ex vivo incubations. In concert with the ex vivo data, in vitro combinations also resulted highly cytotoxicity. Serial samples of CLL cells obtained before and 2, 4, 12, or 36 weeks after the start of ibrutinib showed inhibition of BTK activity and sensitivity to ABTs. Among the three BCL-2 family anti-apoptotic proteins that are overexpressed in CLL, levels of MCL-1 and BCL-XL were decreased after ibrutinib while ABT-199 selectively antagonizes BCL-2. Conclusions Our biological and molecular results suggest that ibrutinib and ABT-199 combination should be tested clinically against CLL. PMID:25829398

  3. Assessment of Impact of HLA Type on Outcomes of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Hill, Brian T; Ahn, Kwang Woo; Hu, Zhen-Huan; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Beitinjaneh, Amer; Cahn, Jean-Yves; Cerny, Jan; Kharfan-Dabaja, Mohamed A; Ganguly, Siddhartha; Ghosh, Nilanjan; Grunwald, Michael R; Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Kindwall-Keller, Tamila; Nishihori, Taiga; Olsson, Richard F; Saad, Ayman; Seftel, Matthew; Seo, Sachiko; Szer, Jeffrey; Tallman, Martin; Ustun, Celalettin; Wiernik, Peter H; Maziarz, Richard T; Kalaycio, Matt; Alyea, Edwin; Popat, Uday; Sobecks, Ronald; Saber, Wael

    2018-03-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a common hematologic malignancy with many highly effective therapies. Chemorefractory disease, often characterized by deletion of chromosome 17p, has historically been associated with very poor outcomes, leading to the application of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT) for medically fit patients. Although the use of allo-HCT has declined since the introduction of novel targeted therapy for the treatment of CLL, there remains significant interest in understanding factors that may influence the efficacy of allo-HCT, the only known curative treatment for CLL. The potential benefit of transplantation is most likely due to the presence of alloreactive donor T cells that mediate the graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect. The recognition of potentially tumor-specific antigens in the context of class I and II major histocompatibility complex on malignant B lymphocytes by donor T cells may be influenced by subtle differences in the highly polymorphic HLA locus. Given previous reports of specific HLA alleles impacting the incidence of CLL and the clinical outcomes of allo-HCT for CLL, we sought to study the overall survival and progression-free survival of a large cohort of patients with CLL who underwent allo-HCT from fully HLA-matched related and unrelated donors at Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research transplantation centers. We found no statistically significant association of allo-HCT outcomes in CLL based on previously reported HLA combinations. Additional study is needed to further define the immunologic features that portend a more favorable GVL effect after allo-HCT for CLL. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Richter transformation driven by Epstein-Barr virus reactivation during therapy-related immunosuppression in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    García-Barchino, Maria J; Sarasquete, Maria E; Panizo, Carlos; Morscio, Julie; Martinez, Antonio; Alcoceba, Miguel; Fresquet, Vicente; Gonzalez-Farre, Blanca; Paiva, Bruno; Young, Ken H; Robles, Eloy F; Roa, Sergio; Celay, Jon; Larrayoz, Marta; Rossi, Davide; Gaidano, Gianluca; Montes-Moreno, Santiago; Piris, Miguel A; Balanzategui, Ana; Jimenez, Cristina; Rodriguez, Idoia; Calasanz, Maria J; Larrayoz, Maria J; Segura, Victor; Garcia-Muñoz, Ricardo; Rabasa, Maria P; Yi, Shuhua; Li, Jianyong; Zhang, Mingzhi; Xu-Monette, Zijun Y; Puig-Moron, Noemi; Orfao, Alberto; Böttcher, Sebastian; Hernandez-Rivas, Jesus M; Miguel, Jesus San; Prosper, Felipe; Tousseyn, Thomas; Sagaert, Xavier; Gonzalez, Marcos; Martinez-Climent, Jose A

    2018-05-01

    The increased risk of Richter transformation (RT) in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) due to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation during immunosuppressive therapy with fludarabine other targeted agents remains controversial. Among 31 RT cases classified as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), seven (23%) showed EBV expression. In contrast to EBV - tumours, EBV + DLBCLs derived predominantly from IGVH-hypermutated CLL, and they also showed CLL-unrelated IGVH sequences more frequently. Intriguingly, despite having different cellular origins, clonally related and unrelated EBV + DLBCLs shared a previous history of immunosuppressive chemo-immunotherapy, a non-germinal centre DLBCL phenotype, EBV latency programme type II or III, and very short survival. These data suggested that EBV reactivation during therapy-related immunosuppression can transform either CLL cells or non-tumoural B lymphocytes into EBV + DLBCL. To investigate this hypothesis, xenogeneic transplantation of blood cells from 31 patients with CLL and monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) was performed in Rag2 -/- IL2γc -/- mice. Remarkably, the recipients' impaired immunosurveillance favoured the spontaneous outgrowth of EBV + B-cell clones from 95% of CLL and 64% of MBL patients samples, but not from healthy donors. Eventually, these cells generated monoclonal tumours (mostly CLL-unrelated but also CLL-related), recapitulating the principal features of EBV + DLBCL in patients. Accordingly, clonally related and unrelated EBV + DLBCL xenografts showed indistinguishable cellular, virological and molecular features, and synergistically responded to combined inhibition of EBV replication with ganciclovir and B-cell receptor signalling with ibrutinib in vivo. Our study underscores the risk of RT driven by EBV in CLL patients receiving immunosuppressive therapies, and provides the scientific rationale for testing ganciclovir and ibrutinib in EBV + DLBCL. Copyright © 2018 Pathological

  5. Peripheral lymphocyte subsets in chronic hepatitis C: Effects of 12 weeks of antiviral treatment with interferon-alpha plus ribavirin.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Isabela S; Carvalho, Lucas P; Schinoni, Maria Isabel; Paraná, Raymundo; Atta, Ajax M; Atta, Maria Luiza B Sousa

    2016-02-01

    Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes a quantitative and functional alteration in innate and adaptative immunity. In the present work, we determined by flow-cytometry the profile of blood lymphocyte of untreated HCV patients and in subjects of this group that achieved or not an early virologic response at 12-weeks of treatment with interferon-α plus ribavirin. Twenty-six untreated HCV patients and 20 control healthy individuals were enrolled in the study. Untreated HCV patients had a higher proportion of B cell and a lower proportion of CD8(+) T cell and NK cells than healthy individuals did, but the proportions of CD4(+) T cells and Treg cells (CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+)) were similar in these patients and controls. Untreated HCV patients presenting cryoglobulinemia had a lower proportion of Treg cells and a lower Treg/NK cell ratio when compared with those without cryoglobulins. Nineteen out of 26 untreated HCV patients remained in the study and were treated with Interferon-α plus ribavirin. At 12-weeks of treatment, 10 of them achieved early virologic response (EVR), whereas 9 were non-responders (NR). EVR patients differed from NR patients in the increase of their proportion of NK cells at 12 weeks of treatment. In conclusion, untreated HCV patients exhibit an altered profile of blood lymphocyte subsets, including a reduction in the proportion of CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+)T regulatory cells in patients that present cryoglobulinemia. An early virological response at 12-weeks of treatment with IFN-α plus ribavirin seems to be associated a significant improvement in the proportion of NK cells of HCV treated patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pharmacological and Protein Profiling Suggests Venetoclax (ABT-199) as Optimal Partner with Ibrutinib in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Cervantes-Gomez, Fabiola; Lamothe, Betty; Woyach, Jennifer A; Wierda, William G; Keating, Michael J; Balakrishnan, Kumudha; Gandhi, Varsha

    2015-08-15

    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) is a critical enzyme in the B-cell receptor pathway and is inhibited by ibrutinib due to covalent binding to the kinase domain. Though ibrutinib results in impressive clinical activity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), most patients achieve only partial remission due to residual disease. We performed a pharmacologic profiling of residual circulating CLL cells from patients receiving ibrutinib to identify optimal agents that could induce cell death of these lymphocytes. Ex vivo serial samples of CLL cells from patients on ibrutinib were obtained prior and after (weeks 2, 4, and 12) the start of treatment. These cells were incubated with PI3K inhibitors (idelalisib or IPI-145), bendamustine, additional ibrutinib, or BCL-2 antagonists (ABT-737 or ABT-199), and cell death was measured. In vitro investigations complemented ex vivo studies. Immunoblots for BTK signaling pathway and antiapoptotic proteins were performed. The BCL-2 antagonists, especially ABT-199, induced high cell death during ex vivo incubations. In concert with the ex vivo data, in vitro combinations also resulted in high cytotoxicity. Serial samples of CLL cells obtained before and 2, 4, 12, or 36 weeks after the start of ibrutinib showed inhibition of BTK activity and sensitivity to ABTs. Among the three BCL-2 family antiapoptotic proteins that are overexpressed in CLL, levels of MCL-1 and BCL-XL were decreased after ibrutinib while ABT-199 selectively antagonizes BCL-2. Our biologic and molecular results suggest that ibrutinib and ABT-199 combination should be tested clinically against CLL. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Cost-effectiveness of adding rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide for treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Mandrik, Olena; Corro Ramos, Isaac; Knies, Saskia; Al, Maiwenn; Severens, Johan L

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness, from a health care perspective, of adding rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide scheme (FCR versus FC) for treatment-naïve and refractory/relapsed Ukrainian patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. A decision-analytic Markov cohort model with three health states and 1-month cycle time was developed and run within a life time horizon. Data from two multinational, prospective, open-label Phase 3 studies were used to assess patients' survival. While utilities were generalized from UK data, local resource utilization and disease-associated treatment, hospitalization, and side effect costs were applied. The alternative scenario was performed to assess the impact of lower life expectancy of the general population in Ukraine on the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for treatment-naïve patients. One-way, two-way, and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the robustness of the results. The ICER (in US dollars) of treating chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with FCR versus FC is US$8,704 per quality-adjusted life year gained for treatment-naïve patients and US$11,056 for refractory/relapsed patients. When survival data were modified to the lower life expectancy of the general population in Ukraine, the ICER for treatment-naïve patients was higher than US$13,000. This value is higher than three times the current gross domestic product per capita in Ukraine. Sensitivity analyses have shown a high impact of rituximab costs and a moderate impact of differences in utilities on the ICER. Furthermore, probabilistic sensitivity analyses have shown that for refractory/relapsed patients the probability of FCR being cost-effective is higher than for treatment-naïve patients and is close to one if the threshold is higher than US$15,000. State coverage of rituximab treatment may be considered a cost-effective treatment for the Ukrainian population under conditions of economic

  8. Concurrent classical Hodgkin lymphoma and plasmablastic lymphoma in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma treated with fludarabine: a dimorphic presentation of iatrogenic immunodeficiency-associated lymphoproliferative disorder with evidence suggestive of multiclonal transformability of B cells by Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed

    Foo, Wen-Chi; Huang, Qin; Sebastian, Siby; Hutchinson, Charles B; Burchette, Jim; Wang, Endi

    2010-12-01

    A small fraction of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma develop Epstein-Barr virus-positive B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. These Epstein-Barr virus-B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders are thought to be related to immune suppression induced by fludarabine/other chemotherapeutic regimens. As in other immunodeficiency-associated lymphoproliferative disorders, these disorders demonstrate a heterogeneous histological spectrum that ranges from polymorphic to monomorphic to classical Hodgkin lymphoma-like lesions. We report a case of concurrent classical Hodgkin lymphoma and plasmablastic lymphoma in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma treated with fludarabine. Both classical Hodgkin lymphoma and plasmablastic lymphoma were positive for Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA, whereas classical Hodgkin lymphoma was also positive for Epstein-Barr virus- latent membrane protein 1, suggesting a different viral latency. Immunoglobulin gene rearrangement studies demonstrated distinct clones in the plasmablastic lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma. These findings suggest biclonal secondary lymphomas associated with iatrogenic immunodeficiency. Epstein-Barr virus-B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders in the setting of chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma, in particular those arising after chemotherapy, should be separated from true Richter's transformation, and be categorized as (iatrogenic) immunodeficiency-associated lymphoproliferative disorder. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Clonal evolution in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: analysis of correlations with IGHV mutational status, NOTCH1 mutations and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    López, Cristina; Delgado, Julio; Costa, Dolors; Villamor, Neus; Navarro, Alba; Cazorla, Maite; Gómez, Cándida; Arias, Amparo; Muñoz, Concha; Cabezas, Sandra; Baumann, Tycho; Rozman, María; Aymerich, Marta; Colomer, Dolors; Pereira, Arturo; Cobo, Francesc; López-Guillermo, Armando; Campo, Elías; Carrió, Ana

    2013-10-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a lymphoproliferative disorder characterized with highly variable clinical course. The most common chromosomal abnormalities in CLL, using conventional and molecular cytogenetics, are trisomy 12, del(13)(q14), del(11)(q22-23), del(17)(p13), and del(6)(q21). Whereas the prognostic marker such as IGHV mutational status remains stable during course of the diseases, chromosomal aberrations may be acquired over time. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence, and biological significance of clonal evolution (CE) using conventional and molecular cytogenetics and its relationship with prognostic markers such as CD38, ZAP70, and the mutational status of IGHV and NOTCH1. One hundred and forty-three untreated CLL patients were included in the study. The median time interval between analyses was 32 months (range 6-156 months). Forty-seven patients (33%) had CE as evidenced by detection of new cytogenetic abnormalities during follow-up. CE was not correlated with high expression of ZAP70, unmutated IGHV genes or NOTCH1 mutations. Multivariate analysis revealed that CE and IGHV mutation status had a significant impact on TFS. The combination of conventional and molecular cytogenetics increased the detection of CE, this phenomenon probably being a reflection of genomic instability and conferring a more aggressive clinical course. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Idelalisib, an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase p110δ, for relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, John C.; Coutre, Steven E.; Benson, Don M.; Flinn, Ian W.; Wagner-Johnston, Nina D.; Spurgeon, Stephen E.; Kahl, Brad S.; Bello, Celeste; Webb, Heather K.; Johnson, Dave M.; Peterman, Sissy; Li, Daniel; Jahn, Thomas M.; Lannutti, Brian J.; Ulrich, Roger G.; Yu, Albert S.; Miller, Langdon L.; Furman, Richard R.

    2014-01-01

    In a phase 1 trial, idelalisib (GS-1101, CAL-101), a selective inhibitor of the lipid kinase PI3Kδ, was evaluated in 54 patients with relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with adverse characteristics including bulky lymphadenopathy (80%), extensive prior therapy (median 5 [range 2-14] prior regimens), treatment-refractory disease (70%), unmutated IGHV (91%), and del17p and/or TP53 mutations (24%). Patients were treated at 6 dose levels of oral idelalisib (range 50-350 mg once or twice daily) and remained on continuous therapy while deriving clinical benefit. Idelalisib-mediated inhibition of PI3Kδ led to abrogation of Akt phosphorylation in patient CLL cells and significantly reduced serum levels of CLL-related chemokines. The most commonly observed grade ≥3 adverse events were pneumonia (20%), neutropenic fever (11%), and diarrhea (6%). Idelalisib treatment resulted in nodal responses in 81% of patients. The overall response rate was 72%, with 39% of patients meeting the criteria for partial response per IWCLL 2008 and 33% meeting the recently updated criteria of PR with treatment-induced lymphocytosis.1,2 The median progression-free survival for all patients was 15.8 months. This study demonstrates the clinical utility of inhibiting the PI3Kδ pathway with idelalisib. Our findings support the further development of idelalisib in patients with CLL. These trials were registered at clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00710528 and #NCT01090414. PMID:24615777

  11. Auranofin Induces Lethal Oxidative and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Exerts Potent Preclinical Activity against Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Fiskus, Warren; Saba, Nakhle; Shen, Min; Ghias, Mondana; Liu, Jinyun; Gupta, Soumyasri Das; Chauhan, Lata; Rao, Rekha; Gunewardena, Sumedha; Schorno, Kevin; Austin, Christopher P.; Maddocks, Kami; Byrd, John; Melnick, Ari; Huang, Peng; Wiestner, Adrian; Bhalla, Kapil N.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) exhibits high remission rates after initial chemoimmunotherapy, but with relapses with treatment, refractory disease is the most common outcome, especially in CLL with the deletion of chromosome 11q or 17p. In addressing the need of treatments for relapsed disease, we report the identification of an existing U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved small-molecule drug to repurpose for CLL treatment. Auranofin (Ridaura) is approved for use in treating rheumatoid arthritis, but it exhibited preclinical efficacy in CLL cells. By inhibiting thioredoxin reductase activity and increasing intracellular reactive oxygen species levels, auranofin induced a lethal endoplasmic reticulum stress response in cultured and primary CLL cells. In addition, auranofin displayed synergistic lethality with heme oxygenase-1 and glutamate-cysteine ligase inhibitors against CLL cells. Auranofin overcame apoptosis resistance mediated by protective stromal cells, and it also killed primary CLL cells with deletion of chromosome 11q or 17p. In TCL-1 transgenic mice, an in vivo model of CLL, auranofin treatment markedly reduced tumor cell burden and improved mouse survival. Our results provide a rationale to reposition the approved drug auranofin for clinical evaluation in the therapy of CLL. PMID:24599128

  12. Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) function is important to the development and expansion of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).

    PubMed

    Woyach, Jennifer A; Bojnik, Engin; Ruppert, Amy S; Stefanovski, Matthew R; Goettl, Virginia M; Smucker, Kelly A; Smith, Lisa L; Dubovsky, Jason A; Towns, William H; MacMurray, Jessica; Harrington, Bonnie K; Davis, Melanie E; Gobessi, Stefania; Laurenti, Luca; Chang, Betty Y; Buggy, Joseph J; Efremov, Dimitar G; Byrd, John C; Johnson, Amy J

    2014-02-20

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is characterized by constitutive activation of the B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathway, but variable responsiveness of the BCR to antigen ligation. Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) shows constitutive activity in CLL and is the target of irreversible inhibition by ibrutinib, an orally bioavailable kinase inhibitor that has shown outstanding activity in CLL. Early clinical results in CLL with other reversible and irreversible BTK inhibitors have been less promising, however, raising the question of whether BTK kinase activity is an important target of ibrutinib and also in CLL. To determine the role of BTK in CLL, we used patient samples and the Eμ-TCL1 (TCL1) transgenic mouse model of CLL, which results in spontaneous leukemia development. Inhibition of BTK in primary human CLL cells by small interfering RNA promotes apoptosis. Inhibition of BTK kinase activity through either targeted genetic inactivation or ibrutinib in the TCL1 mouse significantly delays the development of CLL, demonstrating that BTK is a critical kinase for CLL development and expansion and thus an important target of ibrutinib. Collectively, our data confirm the importance of kinase-functional BTK in CLL.

  13. Leukemia cell proliferation and death in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients on therapy with the BTK inhibitor ibrutinib.

    PubMed

    Burger, Jan A; Li, Kelvin W; Keating, Michael J; Sivina, Mariela; Amer, Ahmed M; Garg, Naveen; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Huang, Xuelin; Kantarjian, Hagop; Wierda, William G; O'Brien, Susan; Hellerstein, Marc K; Turner, Scott M; Emson, Claire L; Chen, Shih-Shih; Yan, Xiao-Jie; Wodarz, Dominik; Chiorazzi, Nicholas

    2017-01-26

    BACKGROUND. Ibrutinib is an effective targeted therapy for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) that inhibits Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), a kinase involved in B cell receptor signaling. METHODS. We used stable isotopic labeling with deuterated water ( 2 H 2 O) to measure directly the effects of ibrutinib on leukemia cell proliferation and death in 30 patients with CLL. RESULTS. The measured average CLL cell proliferation ("birth") rate before ibrutinib therapy was 0.39% of the clone per day (range 0.17%-1.04%); this decreased to 0.05% per day (range 0%-0.36%) with treatment. Death rates of blood CLL cells increased from 0.18% per day (average, range 0%-0.7%) prior to treatment to 1.5% per day (range 0%-3.0%) during ibrutinib therapy, and they were even higher in tissue compartments. CONCLUSIONS. This study provides the first direct in vivo measurements to our knowledge of ibrutinib's antileukemia actions, demonstrating profound and immediate inhibition of CLL cell proliferation and promotion of high rates of CLL cell death. TRIAL REGISTRATION. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01752426). FUNDING. This study was supported by a Cancer Center Support Grant (National Cancer Institute grant P30 CA016672), an NIH grant (CA081554) from the National Cancer Institute, MD Anderson's Moon Shots Program in CLL, and Pharmacyclics, an AbbVie company.

  14. BTK inhibition results in impaired CXCR4 chemokine receptor surface expression, signaling and function in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Chen, S-S; Chang, B Y; Chang, S; Tong, T; Ham, S; Sherry, B; Burger, J A; Rai, K R; Chiorazzi, N

    2016-04-01

    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) is involved in the regulation of B-cell growth, migration and adhesion. The importance of BTK in cell trafficking is emphasized by the clonal contraction proceeded by lymphocytosis typical for the enzyme inhibitor, ibrutinib, in B-cell malignancies, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Here, we investigated BTK regulation of leukemic B-cell trafficking in a mouse model of aggressive TCL1 CLL-like disease. Inhibiting BTK by ibrutinib reduced surface membrane (sm) levels of CXCR4 but not CXCR5, CD49d and other adhesion/homing receptors. Decreased smCXCR4 levels resulted from blocking receptor signal transduction, which in turn aborted cycling from and to the membrane. This resulted in rapid re-distribution of CLL cells from spleens and lymph nodes into the circulation. CLL cells with impaired smCXCR4 from BTK inhibition failed to home to spleens. These functional changes mainly resulted from inhibition of CXCR4 phosphorylation at Ser339, mediated directly by blocking BTK enzymatic activity and indirectly by affecting the function of downstream targets PLCγ2 and PKCμ, and eventually synthesis of PIM-1 and BTK itself. Our data identify CXCR4 as a key regulator in BTK-mediated CLL-cell retention and have elucidated a complex set of not previously described mechanisms responsible for these effects.

  15. Ibrutinib: A New Frontier in the Treatment of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia by Bruton’s Tyrosine Kinase Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Ajoy Lawrence; Jain, Dharamvir

    2013-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is characterized by progressive accumulation of nonfunctional mature B cells in blood, bone marrow and lymphoid tissues. In the last decade, our understanding of CLL and consequently our diagnostic and therapeutic approaches have changed dramatically. Conventional fludarabine based chemotherapy has led to improved disease response and longer survival in young patients with CLL. However its application in elderly patients has been restricted by substantial myelosuppression and infection. Treatment of CLL is now moving towards targeted therapy. The success of new class of agents such as monoclonal antibodies, proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory derivatives has sparked further search for treatment agents with novel targets to inhibit. The B cell receptor activating pathway involving the Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) is crucial in B cell production and maintenance and is an attractive therapeutic target. Ibrutinib is an oral covalent inhibitor of the BTK pathway that induces apoptosis of B cells. Early phase studies with Ibrutinib either as a single agent or in combination regimens have shown promising results with an excellent safety profile in patients with high-risk, refractory or relapsed CLL and elderly treatment-naïve patients. This review summarizes the current knowledge of Ibrutinib in the treatment of CLL. PMID:24433470

  16. FDA Approval: Ibrutinib for Patients with Previously Treated Mantle Cell Lymphoma and Previously Treated Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    de Claro, R Angelo; McGinn, Karen M; Verdun, Nicole; Lee, Shwu-Luan; Chiu, Haw-Jyh; Saber, Haleh; Brower, Margaret E; Chang, C J George; Pfuma, Elimika; Habtemariam, Bahru; Bullock, Julie; Wang, Yun; Nie, Lei; Chen, Xiao-Hong; Lu, Donghao Robert; Al-Hakim, Ali; Kane, Robert C; Kaminskas, Edvardas; Justice, Robert; Farrell, Ann T; Pazdur, Richard

    2015-08-15

    On November 13, 2013, the FDA granted accelerated approval to ibrutinib (IMBRUVICA capsules; Pharmacyclics, Inc.) for the treatment of patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) who have received at least one prior therapy. On February 12, 2014, the FDA granted accelerated approval for the treatment of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) who have received at least one prior therapy. Ibrutinib is a first-in-class Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor that received all four expedited programs of the FDA: Fast-Track designation, Breakthrough Therapy designation, Priority Review, and Accelerated Approval. Both approvals were based on overall response rate (ORR) and duration of response (DOR) in single-arm clinical trials in patients with prior treatment. In MCL (N = 111), the complete and partial response rates were 17.1% and 48.6%, respectively, for an ORR of 65.8% [95% confidence interval (CI), 56.2%-74.5%]. The median DOR was 17.5 months (95% CI, 15.8-not reached). In CLL (N = 48), the ORR was 58.3% (95% CI, 43.2%-72.4%), and the DOR ranged from 5.6 to 24.2 months. The most common adverse reactions (≥ 30% in either trial) were thrombocytopenia, diarrhea, neutropenia, bruising, upper respiratory tract infection, anemia, fatigue, musculoskeletal pain, peripheral edema, and nausea. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibition increases BCL-2 dependence and enhances sensitivity to venetoclax in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Deng, J; Isik, E; Fernandes, S M; Brown, J R; Letai, A; Davids, M S

    2017-10-01

    Although the BTK inhibitor ibrutinib has transformed the management of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), it does not induce substantial apoptosis in vitro, and as such the mechanisms underlying its ability to kill CLL cells are not well understood. Acalabrutinib, a more specific BTK inhibitor now in development, also appears to be highly effective in CLL, but the connection of its mechanism with CLL cell death is also unclear. Using dynamic BH3 profiling, we analyzed alterations in the function of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway induced by ibrutinib and acalabrutinib. We studied CLL patient samples treated ex vivo with both drugs, as well as primary samples from CLL patients on clinical trials of both drugs. We found that BTK inhibition enhances mitochondrial BCL-2 dependence without significantly altering overall mitochondrial priming. Enhancement of BCL-2 dependence was accompanied by an increase in the pro-apoptotic protein BIM. In contrast, treatment with the selective BCL-2 inhibitor venetoclax enhanced overall mitochondrial priming without increasing BCL-2 dependence. Pre-treatment of CLL cells with either BTK inhibitor, whether ex vivo or in vivo in patients, enhanced killing by venetoclax. Our data suggest that BTK inhibition enhances mitochondrial BCL-2 dependence, supporting the ongoing development of clinical trials combining BTK and BCL-2 inhibition.

  18. Targeting the IL-17/IL-6 axis can alter growth of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia in vivo/in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fang; McCaw, Lindsay; Spaner, David E; Gorczynski, Reginald M

    2018-03-01

    The tumor microenvironment (TME) is critical to the longevity of tumor B cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) and the cytokines they produce including IL-6 are important components of the TME in CLL. We found BMMSCs supported the survival of CLL cells in vitro through an IL-6 dependent mechanism. IL-17 which induces IL-6 generation in a variety of cells increased production of IL-6 both in CLL cells and BMMSCs in vitro. In a xenograft CLL mouse model, BMMSCs and the culture supernatant of BMMSCs increased engraftment of CLL cells through an IL-6 mediated mechanism with human recombinant IL-6 showing similar effects in vivo. Human recombinant IL-17 treatment also increased CLL engraftment in mice through an IL-6 mediated mechanism. Plasma of CLL patients showed elevated levels of both IL-6 and IL-17 by ELISA compared with healthy controls, with levels of IL-6 linearly correlated with IL-17 levels. CLL patients requiring fludarabine based chemotherapy expressed higher levels of IL-6 and IL-17, while CLL patients with the lowest levels of IgA/IgM had higher levels of IL-6, but not IL-17. These data imply an important role for the IL-17/IL-6 axis in CLL which could be therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia with del(7q) following untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    DeFilipp, Zachariah; Huynh, Donny V; Fazal, Salman; Sahovic, Entezam

    2012-01-01

    The development of hematologic malignancy in the presence of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is rare. We present a case of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with del(7q) occurring in a patient with a 4-year history of untreated CLL. Application of flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry allowed for characterization of two distinct coexisting malignant cell populations. After undergoing induction and consolidation chemotherapy, the patient achieved complete remission of AML with the persistence of CLL. Allogeneic transplantation was pursued given his unfavorable cytogenetics. Subsequent matched unrelated donor allogeneic stem cell transplantation resulted in full engraftment and complete remission, with no evidence of AML or CLL. Due to a scarcity of reported cases, insight into treatment and prognosis in cases of concurrent AML and CLL is limited. However, prognosis seems dependent on the chemosensitivity of AML. CLL did not have a detrimental effect on treatment or transplant outcome in our case. This is the first reported case of concomitant de novo AML and CLL to undergo allogeneic transplantation. The patient remained in complete hematologic and cytogenetic remission of both malignancies over a year after transplantation.

  20. Lck is a relevant target in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia cells whose expression variance is unrelated to disease outcome.

    PubMed

    Till, Kathleen J; Allen, John C; Talab, Fatima; Lin, Ke; Allsup, David; Cawkwell, Lynn; Bentley, Alison; Ringshausen, Ingo; Duckworth, Andrew D; Pettitt, Andrew R; Kalakonda, Nagesh; Slupsky, Joseph R

    2017-12-01

    Pathogenesis of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is contingent upon antigen receptor (BCR) expressed by malignant cells of this disease. Studies on somatic hypermutation of the antigen binding region, receptor expression levels and signal capacity have all linked BCR on CLL cells to disease prognosis. Our previous work showed that the src-family kinase Lck is a targetable mediator of BCR signalling in CLL cells, and that variance in Lck expression associated with ability of BCR to induce signal upon engagement. This latter finding makes Lck similar to ZAP70, another T-cell kinase whose aberrant expression in CLL cells also associates with BCR signalling capacity, but also different because ZAP70 is not easily pharmacologically targetable. Here we describe a robust method of measuring Lck expression in CLL cells using flow cytometry. However, unlike ZAP70 whose expression in CLL cells predicts prognosis, we find Lck expression and disease outcome in CLL are unrelated despite observations that its inhibition produces effects that biologically resemble the egress phenotype taken on by CLL cells treated with idelalisib. Taken together, our findings provide insight into the pathobiology of CLL to suggest a more complex relationship between expression of molecules within the BCR signalling pathway and disease outcome.

  1. Ionizing radiation exposures in treatments of solid neoplasms are not associated with subsequent increased risks of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Radivoyevitch, Tomas; Sachs, Rainer K; Gale, Robert Peter; Smith, Mitchell R; Hill, Brian T

    2016-04-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation is not thought to cause chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Challenging this notion are recent data suggesting CLL incidence may be increased by radiation exposure from the atomic bombs (after many decades), uranium mining and nuclear power facility accidents. To assess the effects of therapeutic ionizing radiation for the treatment of solid neoplasms we studied CLL risks in data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program. Specifically, we compared the risks of developing CLL in persons with a 1(st) non-hematologic cancer treated with or without ionizing radiation. We controlled for early detection effects on CLL risk induced by surveillance after 1(st) cancer diagnoses by forming all-time cumulative CLL relative risks (RR). We estimate such CLL RR to be 1.20 (95% confidence interval, 1.17, 1.23) for persons whose 1(st) cancer was not treated with ionizing radiation and 1.00 (0.96, 1.05) for persons whose 1(st) cancer was treated with ionizing radiations. These results imply that diagnosis of a solid neoplasm is associated with an increased risk of developing CLL only in persons whose 1(st) cancer was not treated with radiation therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.