Science.gov

Sample records for zastosowanie nowego analogu

  1. Geopolymers in Construction / Zastosowanie Geopolimerów W Budownictwie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Błaszczyński, Tomasz Z.; Król, Maciej R.

    2015-03-01

    Within the framework of quests of supplementary and "healthier" binders to the production of concrete followed the development of geopolymers in construction. However the practical application of these materials is still very limited. The production of each ton of cement introduces one ton of CO2 into the atmosphere. According to various estimations, the synthesis of geopolymers absorbs 2-3 times less energy than the Portland cement and causes a generation of 4-8 times less of CO2. Geopolymeric concretes possess a high compressive strength, very small shrinkage and small creep, and they possess a high resistance to acid and sulphate corrosion. These concretes are also resistant to carbonate corrosion and possess a very high fire resistance and also a high resistance to UV radiation. W ramach poszukiwania zastępczych i "zdrowszych" spoiw do produkcji betonu nastąpił rozwój geopolimerów w budownictwie. Jednakże praktyczne zastosowanie tych materiałów jest jeszcze nadal bardzo ograniczone. Produkcja każdej tony cementu wprowadza do atmosfery tonę CO2. Według różnych szacunków, synteza geopolimerów pochłania 2-3 razy mniej energii, niż cementu portlandzkiego oraz powoduje wydzielenie 4-8 razy mniejszej ilości CO2. Do tego betony geopolimerowe posiadają wysoką wytrzymałość na ściskanie, bardzo mały skurcz i małe pełzanie oraz dają wysoką odporność na korozję kwasową i siarczanową. Betony te są także odporne na korozję węglanową i posiadają bardzo wysoką odporność ogniową, a także wysoką odporność na promieniowanie UV.

  2. Aspartame and Its Analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlova, L. A.; Komarova, T. V.; Davidovich, Yurii A.; Rogozhin, S. V.

    1981-04-01

    The results of studies on the biochemistry of the sweet taste are briefly reviewed. The methods of synthesis of "aspartame" — a sweet dipeptide — are considered, its structural analogues are described, and quantitative estimates are made of the degree of sweetness relative to sucrose. Attention is concentrated mainly on problems of the relation between the structure of the substance and its taste in the series of aspartyl derivatives. The bibliography includes 118 references.

  3. Dronedarone: an amiodarone analogue.

    PubMed

    Doggrell, Sheila A; Hancox, Jules C

    2004-04-01

    Of the antiarrhythmic drugs in current use, amiodarone is one of the most effective and is associated with a comparatively low risk of drug-induced pro-arrhythmia, probably due to its multiple pharmacological actions on cardiac ion channels and receptors. However, amiodarone is associated with significant extra-cardiac side effects and this has driven development of amiodarone analogues. These analogues include short acting analogues (e.g., AT-2001) with similar acute effects to amiodarone, the thyroid receptor antagonist KB-130015 and dronedarone. Dronedarone, (SR-33589; Sanofi-Synthelabo), is a non-iodinated amiodarone derivative that inhibits Na +, K + and Ca 2+ currents. It is a potent inhibitor of the acetylcholine-activated K + current from atrial and sinoatrial nodal tissue, and inhibits the rapid delayed rectifier more potently than slow and inward rectifier K + currents and inhibits L-type calcium current. Dronedarone is an antagonist at alpha- and beta-adrenoceptors and unlike amiodarone, has little effect at thyroid receptors. Dronedarone is more potent than amiodarone in inhibiting arrhythmias and death in animal models of ischaemia- and reperfusion-induced arrhythmias. In the Dronedarone Atrial Fibrillation Study After Electrical Cardioversion (DAFNE) clinical trial, dronedarone 800 mg/day appeared to be effective and safe for the prevention of atrial fibrillation relapses after cardioversion. The Antiarrhythmic Trial with Dronedarone in Moderate-to-Severe Congestive Heart Failure Evaluating Morbidity Decrease (ANDROMEDA) trial was stopped due to a potential increased risk of death in the dronedarone group. Trials of dronedarone in the maintenance of sinus rhythm in patients with atrial fibrillation and a safety and tolerability study in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator are ongoing. Further experimental and clinical studies are required before we have a definitive answer to whether dronedarone has advantages over amiodarone and

  4. Quantum analogue computing.

    PubMed

    Kendon, Vivien M; Nemoto, Kae; Munro, William J

    2010-08-13

    We briefly review what a quantum computer is, what it promises to do for us and why it is so hard to build one. Among the first applications anticipated to bear fruit is the quantum simulation of quantum systems. While most quantum computation is an extension of classical digital computation, quantum simulation differs fundamentally in how the data are encoded in the quantum computer. To perform a quantum simulation, the Hilbert space of the system to be simulated is mapped directly onto the Hilbert space of the (logical) qubits in the quantum computer. This type of direct correspondence is how data are encoded in a classical analogue computer. There is no binary encoding, and increasing precision becomes exponentially costly: an extra bit of precision doubles the size of the computer. This has important consequences for both the precision and error-correction requirements of quantum simulation, and significant open questions remain about its practicality. It also means that the quantum version of analogue computers, continuous-variable quantum computers, becomes an equally efficient architecture for quantum simulation. Lessons from past use of classical analogue computers can help us to build better quantum simulators in future.

  5. Structural Analogues of Selfotel.

    PubMed

    Dziuganowska, Zofia A; Ślepokura, Katarzyna; Volle, Jean-Noël; Virieux, David; Pirat, Jean-Luc; Kafarski, Paweł

    2016-06-17

    A small library of phosphonopiperidylcarboxylic acids, analogues of NMDA antagonist selfotel (CGS 19755), was synthesized. First, the series of aromatic esters was obtained via a palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction (Hirao coupling) of dialkyl phosphites with bromopyridinecarboxylates, followed by their hydrolysis. Then, hydrogenation of the resulting phosphonopyridylcarboxylic acids over PtO2 yielded the desired phosphonopiperidylcarboxylic acids. NMR studies indicated that the hydrogenation reaction proceeds predominantly by cis addition. Several compounds were obtained as monocrystal structures. Preliminary biological studies performed on cultures of neurons suggest that the obtained compounds possess promising activity toward NMDA receptors.

  6. Analysis of Suitability for Development of New Mining Field in Northern Part of Kosovo Lignite Basin - Sibovc / Analiza Możliwości Udostępnienia Nowego Obszaru Wybierania W Północnej Części Zagłębia Węgla Brunatnego Sibovc W Kosowie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cehlár, Michal; Rybár, Radim; Pinka, Ján; Haxhiu, Lorik; Beer, Martin

    2013-06-01

    This review describes the possibility of development a new lignite deposit in northern Kosovo lignite basin - Sibovc. Analysis of the initial state briefly evaluates Kosovo energy sector, geomorphological conditions and quality of lignite from Sibovc deposit. With using Dataminesoft it was created geological model and approximate calculation of lignite reserves in the deposit. The data obtained from Dataminesoft were used as starting points of the financial analysis of project. The result of the analysis is exactly describe the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of deposit Sibovc compared to other deposits in the area and creating of geological model with productive horizons deposit of lignite. Based on these data lignite deposit Sibovc was classified, according to the classification of deposits the UN, as economical. W pracy tej omówiono możliwości udostępnienia nowego obszaru wybierania złoża węgla brunatnego (lignitu) w północnej części zagłębia węgla brunatnego Sibovc w Kosowie. W analizie stanu początkowego krótko scharakteryzowano sektor energetyczny Kosowa, warunki geo-morfologiczne oraz parametry jakościowe węgla brunatnego z zagłębia Sibovc. Przy pomocy pakietu Dataminesoft stworzono model geologiczny i przeprowadzono przybliżone obliczenia zasobów węgla brunatnego w złożu. Dane uzyskane przy zastosowaniu pakietu Dataminesoft zostały następnie wykorzystane jako dane wejściowe do analizy finansowej przedsięwzięcia. Na podstawie wyników analizy uzyskuje się jakościową i ilościową charakterystykę złoża w odniesieniu do pozostałych złóż w regionie. Opracowano model geologiczny ze szczegółowym wskazaniem poziomów wybierania lignitu. W oparciu o te dane dokonano klasyfikacji złoża węgla brunatnego (lignitu) w Sibovc zgodnie z międzynarodowymi zasadami klasyfikacji wykazując, że złoże będzie ekonomiczne.

  7. NASA/ESMD Analogue Mission Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation exploring Earth and its analogues is shown. The topics include: 1) ESMD Goals for the Use of Earth Analogues; 2) Stakeholders Summary; 3) Issues with Current Analogue Situation; 4) Current state of Analogues; 5) External Implementation Plan (Second Step); 6) Recent Progress in Utilizing Analogues; 7) Website Layout Example-Home Page; 8) Website Layout Example-Analogue Site; 9) Website Layout Example-Analogue Mission; 10) Objectives of ARDIG Analog Initiatives; 11) Future Plans; 12) Example: Cold-Trap Sample Return; 13) Example: Site Characterization Matrix; 14) Integrated Analogue Studies-Prerequisites for Human Exploration; and 15) Rating Scale Definitions.

  8. Highly active anticancer curcumin analogues.

    PubMed

    Mosley, Cara A; Liotta, Dennis C; Snyder, James P

    2007-01-01

    Curcumin, a compound in the human food supply, represents a near-perfect starting point for drug discovery. Consequently, a number of research groups have taken the natural product as a starting point to prepare and biologically evaluate a wide variety of curcumin analogues. One widely used structural modification truncates the central conjugated beta-diketone in curcumin to the monocarbonyl dienone. A diverse array of the latter compounds exhibit cytotoxicities against an equally diverse set of cancer-related cell lines. Importantly, these compounds still retain toxicity profiles in rodents comparable to the parent natural product, whereas some analogues (e.g., EF-24, 41) exhibit good oral bioavailability and good pharmacokinetics in mice. Thiol conjugates of EF-24 analogues have been prepared that address stability and solubility issues while demonstrating cellular activities similar to the unmodified dienones. In parallel experiments, the factor VIIa-tissue factor complex (fVIIa-TF) has been exploited to develop a targeting strategy for the analogues. In particular, the EF24-FFRck-fVIIa protein conjugate is not only somewhat more effective relative to the drug alone against breast cancer and melanocyte cells. Both simple curcumin analogues and the protein conjugate evidence antiangiogenic activity in cell culture. The implication is that the fVIIa-TF targeting process, like the dienone drugs, permits a double-pronged attack with the potential to destroy a tumor directly by apoptosis.

  9. Desferrithiocin Analogue Uranium Decorporation Agents

    PubMed Central

    Bergeron, Raymond J.; Wiegand, Jan; Singh, Shailendra

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Previous systematic structure-activity studies of the desferrithiocin (DFT) platform have allowed the design and synthesis of analogues and derivatives of DFT that retain the exceptional iron-clearing activity of the parent, while eliminating its adverse effects. We hypothesized that a similar approach could be adopted to identify DFT-related analogues that could effectively decorporate uranium. Materials and Methods The decorporation properties of nine DFT-related analogues were determined in a bile duct-cannulated rat model. Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) served as a positive control. Selected ligands also underwent multiple and delayed dosing regimens. Uranium excretion in urine and bile or stool was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS); tissue levels of uranium were also assessed. Results The two best clinical candidates are (S)-4,5-dihydro-2-[2-hydroxy-4-(3,6,9-trioxadecyloxy)phenyl]-4-methyl-4-thiazolecarboxylic acid [(S)-4'-(HO)-DADFT-PE (9)], with a 57% reduction in kidney uranium levels on oral (p.o.) administration and (S)-4,5-dihydro-2-[2-hydroxy-3-(3,6,9-trioxadecyloxy)phenyl]-4-methyl-4-thiazolecarboxylic acid [(S)-3'-(HO)-DADFT-PE (10)], with a 62% renal reduction on p.o. administration. The majority of the metal excretion promoted by these analogues is in the bile, thus further reducing kidney actinide exposure. Conclusions While 9 administered p.o. or subcutaneously (s.c.) immediately post-metal is an effective decorporation agent, withholding the dose (s.c.) until 4 h reduced the activity of the compound. Conversion of 9 to its isopropyl ester may circumvent this issue. PMID:19399680

  10. Policy issues in space analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auger, Robin N.; Facktor, Debra D.

    Space mission planning is increasingly focusing on destinations beyond Earth orbit. Advancements in technology will inevitably be required to enable long-duration human spaceflight missions, and breakthroughs in the policy arena will also be needed to achieve success in such missions. By exploring how policy issues have been addressed in analogous extreme environments, policymakers can develop a framework for addressing these issues as they apply to long-term human spaceflight. Policy issues that need to be addressed include: crew selection, training, organization, and activities, medical testing, illness, injury, and death; communication; legal accountability and liability; mission safety and risk management; and environmental contamination. This paper outlines the approach of a study underway by The George Washington University and ANSER to examine how these policy issues have been addressed in several analogues and how the experiences of these analogues can help formulate policies for long-duration human spaceflight missions. Analogues being studied include Antarctic bases, submarine voyages, undersea stations, Biosphere 2, and the U.S. Skylab and Russian Mir space stations.

  11. FUNCTION GENERATOR FOR ANALOGUE COMPUTERS

    DOEpatents

    Skramstad, H.K.; Wright, J.H.; Taback, L.

    1961-12-12

    An improved analogue computer is designed which can be used to determine the final ground position of radioactive fallout particles in an atomic cloud. The computer determines the fallout pattern on the basis of known wind velocity and direction at various altitudes, and intensity of radioactivity in the mushroom cloud as a function of particle size and initial height in the cloud. The output is then displayed on a cathode-ray tube so that the average or total luminance of the tube screen at any point represents the intensity of radioactive fallout at the geographical location represented by that point. (AEC)

  12. Antimicrobial Evaluation of Mangiferin Analogues

    PubMed Central

    Singh, S. K.; Kumar, Y.; Kumar, S. Sadish; Sharma, V. K.; Dua, K.; Samad, A.

    2009-01-01

    The naturally occurring xanthone glycoside mangiferin has been isolated by column chromatography from the ethanol extract of stem bark of Mangifera indica. Mangiferin was further converted to 5-(N-phenylaminomethyleno)mangiferin, 5-(N-p-chlorophenylaminomethyleno) mangiferin, 5-(N-2-methylphenylaminomethyleno) mangiferin, 5-(N-p-methoxyphenylaminomethyleno) mangiferin, 5-(N, N-diphenylaminomethyleno) mangiferin, 5-(N--napthylaminomethyleno) mangiferin and 5-(N-4-methylphenylaminomethyleno) mangiferin. Mangiferin and its analogues were characterized by melting point and Rf value determination and through spectral technique like UV, IR, and NMR spectral analysis. The synthesized compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity. PMID:20490307

  13. ATP analogues at a glance.

    PubMed

    Bagshaw, C

    2001-02-01

    ATP has long been known to play a central role in the energetics of cells both in transduction mechanisms and in metabolic pathways, and is involved in regulation of enzyme, channel and receptor activities. Numerous ATP analogues have been synthesised to probe the role of ATP in biosystems (Yount, 1975; Jameson and Eccleston, 1997; Bagshaw, 1998). In general, two contrasting strategies are employed. Modifications may be introduced deliberately to change the properties of ATP (e.g. making it non-hydrolysable) so as to perturb the chemical steps involved in its action. Typically these involve modification of the phosphate chain. Alternatively, derivatives (e.g. fluorescent probes) are designed to report on the action of ATP but have a minimal effect on its properties. ATP-utilising systems vary enormously in their specificity; so what acts as a good analogue in one case may be very poor in another. The accompanying poster shows a representative selection of derivatives that have been synthesised and summarises their key properties.

  14. Continuous analogues of matrix factorizations

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Alex; Trefethen, Lloyd N.

    2015-01-01

    Analogues of singular value decomposition (SVD), QR, LU and Cholesky factorizations are presented for problems in which the usual discrete matrix is replaced by a ‘quasimatrix’, continuous in one dimension, or a ‘cmatrix’, continuous in both dimensions. Two challenges arise: the generalization of the notions of triangular structure and row and column pivoting to continuous variables (required in all cases except the SVD, and far from obvious), and the convergence of the infinite series that define the cmatrix factorizations. Our generalizations of triangularity and pivoting are based on a new notion of a ‘triangular quasimatrix’. Concerning convergence of the series, we prove theorems asserting convergence provided the functions involved are sufficiently smooth. PMID:25568618

  15. Phospholipid analogues of Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    PubMed

    Tavana, A M; Korachi, M; Boote, V; Hull, P S; Love, D N; Drucker, D B

    2000-05-01

    Porphyromonas has lipids containing hydroxy acids and C16:0 and iso-C15:0 major monocarboxylic acids among others. Nothing is known of its individual phospholipid molecular species. The aim of this study was to determine molecular weights and putative identities of individual phospholipid molecular species extracted from Porphyromonas gingivalis (seven strains), P. asaccharolytica (one strain) and P. endodontalis (two strains). Cultures on Blood-Fastidious Anaerobe Agar were harvested, washed and freeze-dried. Phospholipids were extracted and separated by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB MS) in negative-ion mode. Phospholipid classes were also separated by thin layer chromatography (TLC). The major anions in the range m/z 209-299 were consistent with the presence of the C13: 0, C15: 0, C16: 0 and C18: 3 mono-carboxylate anions. Major polar lipid anion peaks in the range m/z 618-961 were consistent with the presence of molecular species of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and with unidentified lipid analogues. Porphyromonas gingivalis differed from comparison strains of other species by having major anions with m/z 932, 946 and 960. Unusually, a feline strain of P. gingivalis had a major peak of m/z 736. Selected anions were studied by tandem FAB MS which revealed that peaks with m/z 653 and 946 did not correspond to commonly occurring classes of polar lipids. They were however, glycerophosphates. It is concluded that the polar lipid analogue profiles obtained with Porphyromonas are quite different from those of the genera Prevotella and Bacteroides but reveal heterogeneity within P. gingivalis.

  16. Synthesis and biological evaluation of febrifugine analogues.

    PubMed

    Mai, Huong Doan Thi; Thanh, Giang Vo; Tran, Van Hieu; Vu, Van Nam; Vu, Van Loi; Le, Cong Vinh; Nguyen, Thuy Linh; Phi, Thi Dao; Truong, Bich Ngan; Chau, Van Minh; Pham, Van Cuong

    2014-12-01

    A series of febrifugine analogues were designed and synthesized. Antimalarial activity evaluation of the synthetic compounds indicated that these derivatives had a strong inhibition against both chloroquine-sensitive and -resistant Plasmodium falciparum parasites. Many of them were found to be more active than febrifugine hydrochloride. The tested analogues had also a significant cytotoxicity against four cancer cell lines (KB, MCF7, LU1 and HepG2). Among the synthetic analogues, two compounds 17b and 17h displayed a moderate cytotoxicity while they exhibited a remarkable antimalarial activity.

  17. Condensed matter analogues of cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibble, Tom; Srivastava, Ajit

    2013-10-01

    It is always exciting when developments in one branch of physics turn out to have relevance in a quite different branch. It would be hard to find two branches farther apart in terms of energy scales than early-universe cosmology and low-temperature condensed matter physics. Nevertheless ideas about the formation of topological defects during rapid phase transitions that originated in the context of the very early universe have proved remarkably fruitful when applied to a variety of condensed matter systems. The mathematical frameworks for describing these systems can be very similar. This interconnection has led to a deeper understanding of the phenomena in condensed matter systems utilizing ideas from cosmology. At the same time, one can view these condensed matter analogues as providing, at least in a limited sense, experimental access to the phenomena of the early universe for which no direct probe is possible. As this special issue well illustrates, this remains a dynamic and exciting field. The basic idea is that when a system goes through a rapid symmetry-breaking phase transition from a symmetric phase into one with spontaneously broken symmetry, the order parameter may make different choices in different regions, creating domains that when they meet can trap defects. The scale of those domains, and hence the density of defects, is constrained by the rate at which the system goes through the transition and the speed with which order parameter information propagates. This is what has come to be known as the Kibble-Zurek mechanism. The resultant scaling laws have now been tested in a considerable variety of different systems. The earliest experiments illustrating the analogy between cosmology and condensed matter were in liquid crystals, in particular on the isotropic-to-nematic transition, primarily because it is very easy to induce the phase transition (typically at room temperature) and to image precisely what is going on. This field remains one of the

  18. Space analogue studies in Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lugg, D.; Shepanek, M.

    1999-01-01

    Medical research has been carried out on the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions (ANARE) for 50 years. As an extension of this program collaborative Australian/United States research on immunology, microbiology, psychology and remote medicine has produced important data and insight on how humans adapt to the stress of extreme isolation, confinement and the harsh environment of Antarctica. An outstanding analogue for the isolation and confinement of space missions (especially planetary outposts), ANARE has been used as an international research platform by Australia and the United States since 1993. Collaborative research has demonstrated a lowered responsiveness of the immune system under the isolation and confinement of Antarctic winter-over; a reduction of almost 50% in T cell proliferation to mitogen phytohaemogglutinin, as well as changes in latent herpesvirus states and the expansion of the polyclonal latent Epstein-Barr virus infected B cell populations. Although no clinically significant disease has been found to result from these immune changes, research is currently assessing the effects of psychological factors on the immune system. This and associated research performed to date and its relevance to both organisations is discussed, and comment made on possible extensions to the program in both medical and other fields.

  19. Space analogue studies in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugg, D.; Shepanek, M.

    1999-09-01

    Medical research has been carried out on the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions (ANARE) for 50 years. As an extension of this program collaborative Australian/United States research on immunology, microbiology, psychology and remote medicine has produced important data and insight on how humans adapt to the stress of extreme isolation, confinement and the harsh environment of Antarctica. An outstanding analogue for the isolation and confinement of space missions (especially planetary outposts), ANARE has been used as an international research platform by Australia and the United States since 1993. Collaborative research has demonstrated a lowered responsiveness of the immune system under the isolation and confinement of Antarctic winter-over; a reduction of almost 50% in T cell proliferation to mltogen phytohaemogglutinin, as well as changes in latent herpesvirus states and the expansion of the polyclonal latent Epstein-Barr virus infected B cell populations. Although no clinically significant disease has been found to result from these immune changes, research is currently assessing the effects of psychological factors on the immune system. This and associated research performed to date and its relevance to both organisations is discussed, and comment made on possible extensions to the program in both medical and other fields.

  20. Fallon, Nevada FORGE Analogue Outcrop Samples

    DOE Data Explorer

    Blankenship, Doug; Bauer, Steve J.; Barrow, P.; Robbins, A.; Hileman, M.

    2018-03-12

    Compilation of results for mechanical and fluid flow properties of analogue outcrop samples - experimental data for compressional and shear wave velocities, tensile strengths, and compressive strengths. Outcrop location and sample orientation data are documented in a separate csv file.

  1. The Planetary Terrestrial Analogues Library (PTAL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, S. C.; Dypvik, H.; Poulet, F.; Rull Perez, F.; Bibring, J.-P.; Bultel, B.; Casanova Roque, C.; Carter, J.; Cousin, A.; Guzman, A.; Hamm, V.; Hellevang, H.; Lantz, C.; Lopez-Reyes, G.; Manrique, J. A.; Maurice, S.; Medina Garcia, J.; Navarro, R.; Negro, J. I.; Neumann, E. R.; Pilorget, C.; Riu, L.; Sætre, C.; Sansano Caramazana, A.; Sanz Arranz, A.; Sobron Grañón, F.; Veneranda, M.; Viennet, J.-C.; PTAL Team

    2018-04-01

    The Planetary Terrestrial Analogues Library project aims to build and exploit a spectral data base for the characterisation of the mineralogical and geological evolution of terrestrial planets and small solar system bodies.

  2. Planetary habitability: lessons learned from terrestrial analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, Louisa J.; Dartnell, Lewis R.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial analogue studies underpin almost all planetary missions and their use is essential in the exploration of our Solar system and in assessing the habitability of other worlds. Their value relies on the similarity of the analogue to its target, either in terms of their mineralogical or geochemical context, or current physical or chemical environmental conditions. Such analogue sites offer critical ground-truthing for astrobiological studies on the habitability of different environmental parameter sets, the biological mechanisms for survival in extreme environments and the preservation potential and detectability of biosignatures. The 33 analogue sites discussed in this review have been selected on the basis of their congruence to particular extraterrestrial locations. Terrestrial field sites that have been used most often in the literature, as well as some lesser known ones which require greater study, are incorporated to inform on the astrobiological potential of Venus, Mars, Europa, Enceladus and Titan. For example, the possibility of an aerial habitable zone on Venus has been hypothesized based on studies of life at high-altitudes in the terrestrial atmosphere. We also demonstrate why many different terrestrial analogue sites are required to satisfactorily assess the habitability of the changing environmental conditions throughout Martian history, and recommend particular sites for different epochs or potential niches. Finally, habitable zones within the aqueous environments of the icy moons of Europa and Enceladus and potentially in the hydrocarbon lakes of Titan are discussed and suitable analogue sites proposed. It is clear from this review that a number of terrestrial analogue sites can be applied to multiple planetary bodies, thereby increasing their value for astrobiological exploration. For each analogue site considered here, we summarize the pertinent physiochemical environmental features they offer and critically assess the fidelity with which

  3. Insulin analogues with improved absorption characteristics.

    PubMed

    Brange, J; Hansen, J F; Langkjaer, L; Markussen, J; Ribel, U; Sørensen, A R

    1992-01-01

    The insulin preparations available today are not ideal for therapy as s.c. injection does not provide a physiological insulin profile. With the aim to improve the absorption properties recombinant DNA technology has been utilized to design novel insulin molecules with changed physico-chemical characteristics and hence altered subcutaneous absorption kinetics. Soluble, long-acting human insulin analogues in which the isoelectric point has been increased from 5.4 to approx. 7 are absorbed very slowly, providing a more constant basal insulin delivery with lower day-to-day variation than present protracted preparations. In addition they have better storage stability. Rapid-acting human insulin analogues with largely reduced self-association are absorbed substantially faster from subcutaneous tissue than current regular insulin and thus are better suited for bolus injection. The absorption kinetics of these analogues have been able to explain the mechanism behind the dose effect on insulin absorption rate.

  4. Therapeutic uses of vitamin D analogues.

    PubMed

    Brown, A J

    2001-11-01

    The vitamin D endocrine system has been implicated in numerous biological activities throughout the body. The breadth and magnitude of vitamin D activity suggest potential therapeutic applications for the treatment of several diseases and disorders, including hyperproliferative diseases, immune dysfunction, endocrine disorders, and metabolic bone diseases. However, therapy using natural vitamin D hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25[OH](2)D(3)) has been precluded in most cases because of the potent calcemic activity shown by this hormone. Newly developed vitamin D analogues with lower calcemic activity have been shown to retain many therapeutic properties of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). Molecular studies discussed in this article provide insights into the unique target cell specificity afforded by these analogues. In particular, the importance of the nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR), serum vitamin D-binding protein, 24-hydroxylase, and membrane receptor is noted because analogue selectivity, specificity, and potency are afforded through their molecular interactions. The nuclear VDR has been isolated from a variety of target cells and tissues, suggesting that vitamin D compounds may have therapeutic potential throughout several body systems. Five vitamin D analogues have been approved for use in patients: calcipotriol (Dovonex; Leo Pharmaceuticals, Copenhagen, Denmark) for the treatment of psoriasis, 19-nor-1,25(OH)(2)D(2) (Zemplar; Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL) for secondary hyperparathyroidism, doxercalciferol (Hectorol; Bone Care Int, Madison, WI) for reduction of elevated parathyroid hormone levels, 22-oxacalcitriol (Maxacalcitol; Chugai Pharmaceuticals, Tokyo, Japan), and alfacalcidol. Several other analogues are currently being tested in preclinical and clinical trials for the treatment of various types of cancer and osteoporosis, as well as immunosuppression. Understanding how analogues exert their selective actions may allow for the design of more effective

  5. Application of methods for area calculation of geodesic polygons on Polish administrative units / Zastosowanie metod obliczania pól powierzchni wieloboków geodezyjnych na przykładzie jednostek administracyjnych w Polsce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pędzich, Paweł; Kuźma, Marta

    2012-11-01

    The paper presents methods of area calculation, which may be applied for big geodesic polygons on the ellipsoid. Proposal developed by the authors of this paper is discussed. The proposed methods are compared with other, alternative methods of area calculation of such polygons. Test calculations are performed for administrative units in Poland. The obtained results are also compared with areas of those units registered in statistical annals. Utilisation of the equal-area map projections of the ellipsoid onto a plane seems to be the best solution for the discussed task. In the case of small distances between points we may expect accurate results of calculations, since the area size is influenced by the projection reductions only, which are small in such cases. In some cases their influence on results of calculations may be neglected. Then, only re-calculation of co-ordinates from the GRS80 ellipsoid to the cartographic, equal-area projection is required. Umiejętność obliczania pól wieloboków geodezyjnych, czyli takich, których bokami są odcinki linii geodezyjnych, ma istotne znaczenie w praktyce geodezyjnej i kartograficznej. Jednym z podstawowych zadań wykonywanych przez geodetów i kartografów jest obliczanie pól różnych obiektów powierzchniowych takich jak gmina, województwo, obszary użytków gruntowych itp. Jeżeli zadanie sprowadza się tylko do powierzchni kuli lub płaszczyzny to rozwiązanie jest stosunkowo łatwe. Zadanie komplikuje się, jeżeli za powierzchnię odniesienia fizycznej powierzchni Ziemi przyjmiemy elipsoidę obrotową, ponieważ nie ma ścisłych wzorów, które pozwalałyby na realizację takiego zadania; są jedynie wzory przybliżone mające zastosowanie dla niewielkich obszarów. Trudności pojawiają się szczególnie w przypadku dużych wieloboków zlokalizowanych na elipsoidzie obrotowej spłaszczonej. W artykule przedstawiono metody obliczania pól powierzchni, które mogą być stosowane dla dużych wielobok

  6. Synthesis and biological evaluation of manzamine analogues.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Jeffrey D; Londregan, Allyn T; Ragains, Justin R; Hamann, Mark T

    2006-07-20

    [Structure: see text] The synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of analogues of manzamine A, representing partial structures of the pentacyclic ABCDE diamine core, is described. All new compounds were screened against Plasmodium falciparum and demonstrated attenuated antimalarial activity relative to that of manzamine A.

  7. Analoguing Creativity & Culture: A Method for Metaphors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Timothy N.

    Adding to the benefits of using metaphors as tools, "analoguing" (a method of analysis that focuses on metaphors for meanings in use and meanings of metaphors in use) helps avoid excessive categorization and separation by looking for unities and patterns in phenomena rather than for divisions. Six months of observation of patterns of…

  8. Cholecystokinin octapeptide analogues stable to brain proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Knight, M; Barone, P; Tamminga, C A; Steardo, L; Chase, T N

    1985-01-01

    Based on recent findings identifying the initial degradative cleavage of CCK-8 at the Met3-Gly4 bond by a metalloendopeptidase, two analogues of CCK-8 with D-Ala and D-Trp substitutions at the Gly4 position were synthesized as stable analogues. Their stability to proteolysis by brain membranes and their binding potency at central CCK receptors were quantified. Both peptides are stable to degradation by peptidases in cortical synaptic membrane preparations. The analogues are nearly equipotent to CCK-8 in their affinities for inhibition of 125I-CCK-33 binding to guinea pig cortical membranes. L-Ala and L-Trp substituted peptides were synthesized for comparison. Both these peptides are degraded by synaptic membranes and the L-Trp substituted peptide possesses a greatly reduced affinity for central CCK receptors. Therefore, the structure of CCK due to the D conformation of Gly is more capable of interacting with brain CCK receptors. Further conformational analysis will establish whether the stabilized structure is a beta-bend or a beta-turn. Since these peptides are highly potent and stable to brain proteolysis they may be useful as stable CCK analogues for in vivo application.

  9. [Dmt(1)]DALDA analogues modified with tyrosine analogues at position 1.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yunxin; Lu, Dandan; Chen, Zhen; Ding, Yi; Chung, Nga N; Li, Tingyou; Schiller, Peter W

    2016-08-01

    Analogues of [Dmt(1)]DALDA (H-Dmt-d-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH2; Dmt=2',6'-dimethyltyrosine), a potent μ opioid agonist peptide with mitochondria-targeted antioxidant activity were prepared by replacing Dmt with various 2',6'-dialkylated Tyr analogues, including 2',4',6'-trimethyltyrosine (Tmt), 2'-ethyl-6'-methyltyrosine (Emt), 2'-isopropyl-6'-methyltyrosine (Imt) and 2',6'-diethyltyrosine (Det). All compounds were selective μ opioid agonists and the Tmt(1)-, Emt(1) and Det(1)-analogues showed subnanomolar μ opioid receptor binding affinities. The Tmt(1)- and Emt(1)-analogues showed improved antioxidant activity compared to the Dmt(1)-parent peptide in the DPPH radical-scavenging capacity assay, and thus are of interest as drug candidates for neuropathic pain treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A novel lunar bed rest analogue.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, Peter R; Rice, Andrea J; Licata, Angelo A; Kuklis, Matthew M; Novotny, Sara C; Genc, Kerim O; Englehaupt, Ricki K; Hanson, Andrea M

    2013-11-01

    Humans will eventually return to the Moon and thus there is a need for a ground-based analogue to enable the study of physiological adaptations to lunar gravity. An important unanswered question is whether or not living on the lunar surface will provide adequate loading of the musculoskeletal system to prevent or attenuate the bone loss that is seen in microgravity. Previous simulations have involved tilting subjects to an approximately 9.5 degrees angle to achieve a lunar gravity component parallel to the long-axis of the body. However, subjects in these earlier simulations were not weight-bearing, and thus these protocols did not provide an analogue for load on the musculoskeletal system. We present a novel analogue which includes the capability to simulate standing and sitting in a lunar loading environment. A bed oriented at a 9.5 degrees angle was mounted on six linear bearings and was free to travel with one degree of freedom along rails. This allowed approximately 1/6 body weight loading of the feet during standing. "Lunar" sitting was also successfully simulated. A feasibility study demonstrated that the analogue was tolerated by subjects for 6 d of continuous bed rest and that the reaction forces at the feet during periods of standing were a reasonable simulation of lunar standing. During the 6 d, mean change in the volume of the quadriceps muscles was -1.6% +/- 1.7%. The proposed analogue would appear to be an acceptable simulation of lunar gravity and deserves further exploration in studies of longer duration.

  11. Lead optimization of antimalarial propafenone analogues.

    PubMed

    Lowes, David; Pradhan, Anupam; Iyer, Lalitha V; Parman, Toufan; Gow, Jason; Zhu, Fangyi; Furimsky, Anna; Lemoff, Andrew; Guiguemde, W Armand; Sigal, Martina; Clark, Julie A; Wilson, Emily; Tang, Liang; Connelly, Michele C; Derisi, Joseph L; Kyle, Dennis E; Mirsalis, Jon; Guy, R Kiplin

    2012-07-12

    Previously reported studies identified analogues of propafenone that had potent antimalarial activity, reduced cardiac ion channel activity, and properties that suggested the potential for clinical development for malaria. Careful examination of the bioavailability, pharmacokinetics, toxicology, and efficacy of this series of compounds using rodent models revealed orally bioavailable compounds that are nontoxic and suppress parasitemia in vivo. Although these compounds possess potential for further preclinical development, they also carry some significant challenges.

  12. 'Peeling a comet': Layering of comet analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, E.; Hagermann, A.

    2017-09-01

    Using a simple comet analogue we investigate the influence of subsurface solar light absorption by dust. We found that a sample initially consisting of loose water ice grains and carbon particles becomes significantly harder after being irradiated with artificial sunlight for several hours. Further a drastic change of the sample surface could be observed. These results suggests that models should treat the nucleus surface as an interactive transitional zone to better represent cometary processes.

  13. Intestinal P-glycoprotein inhibitors, benzoxanthone analogues.

    PubMed

    Chae, Song Wha; Lee, Jaeok; Park, Jung Hyun; Kwon, Youngjoo; Na, Younghwa; Lee, Hwa Jeong

    2018-02-01

    The inhibitors of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) which limits an access of exogenous compounds in the luminal membrane of the intestine have been studied to enhance the intestinal P-gp-mediated absorption of anticancer drugs. Inhibition of the efflux pump by synthesized benzoxanthone derivatives was investigated in vitro and in vivo. MCF-7/ADR cell line was used for cytotoxicity assay and [ 3 H]-daunomycin (DNM) accumulation/efflux study. Eight benzoxanthone analogues were tested for their effects on DNM cytotoxicity. Among them, three analogues were selected for the accumulation/efflux and P-gp ATPase studies. Paclitaxel (PTX), a P-gp substrate anticancer drug, was orally administered to rats with/without compound 1 (8,10-bis(thiiran-2-ylmethoxy)-7H-benzo[c]xanthen-7-one). The pharmacokinetic parameters of PTX in the presence/absence of compound 1 were evaluated from the plasma concentration-time profiles. Compound 1 increased the DNA accumulation to 6.5-fold and decreased the DNM efflux to approximately 1/2 in the overexpressing P-gp cell line. Relative bioavailability (RB) of PTX in rats was significantly increased up to 3.2-fold by compound 1 (0.5 or 2 mg/kg). Benzoxanthone analogue, compound 1 is strongly suggested to be a promising inhibitor of P-gp to improve an oral absorption of compounds for cancer therapy. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  14. Instructional influences on analogue functional analysis outcomes.

    PubMed Central

    Northup, John; Kodak, Tiffany; Grow, Laura; Lee, Jennifer; Coyne, Amanda

    2004-01-01

    Analogue assessments were conducted with a common contingency (escape from tasks) that varied only by three different instructions describing the contingency. In one condition, the contingency was described as "taking a break," in another condition it was described as "time-out," and no description of the contingency was provided in a third condition. The participant was a typically developing 5-year-old child with a diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Rates of inappropriate behavior varied substantially across the three conditions as an apparent effect of the prior instructions. Some implications for conducting functional analyses with verbal children are discussed. PMID:15669409

  15. The Lehmer Matrix and Its Recursive Analogue

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    LU factorization of matrix A by considering det A = det U = ∏n i=1 2i−1 i2 . The nth Catalan number is given in terms of binomial coefficients by Cn...for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number . 1. REPORT DATE 2010 2. REPORT...TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Lehmer matrix and its recursive analogue 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  16. Conformationally restrained aromatic analogues of fosmidomycin and FR900098.

    PubMed

    Kurz, Thomas; Schlüter, Katrin; Pein, Miriam; Behrendt, Christoph; Bergmann, Bärbel; Walter, Rolf D

    2007-07-01

    The synthesis and in-vitro antimalarial activity of conformationally restrained bis(pivaloyloxymethyl) ester analogues of the natural product fosmidomycin is presented. In contrast to alpha-aryl-substituted analogues, conformationally restrained aromatic analogues exhibit only moderate in-vitro antimalarial activity against the chloroquine-sensitive strain 3D7 of Plasmodium falciparum. The most active derivative displays an IC(50) value of 47 microM.

  17. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission natural analogue research program

    SciTech Connect

    Kovach, L.A.; Ott, W.R.

    1995-09-01

    This article describes the natural analogue research program of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC). It contains information on the regulatory context and organizational structure of the high-level radioactive waste research program plan. It also includes information on the conditions and processes constraining selection of natural analogues, describes initiatives of the US NRC, and describes the role of analogues in the licensing process.

  18. Statistical analogues of thermodynamic extremum principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramshaw, John D.

    2018-05-01

    As shown by Jaynes, the canonical and grand canonical probability distributions of equilibrium statistical mechanics can be simply derived from the principle of maximum entropy, in which the statistical entropy S=- {k}{{B}}{\\sum }i{p}i{log}{p}i is maximised subject to constraints on the mean values of the energy E and/or number of particles N in a system of fixed volume V. The Lagrange multipliers associated with those constraints are then found to be simply related to the temperature T and chemical potential μ. Here we show that the constrained maximisation of S is equivalent to, and can therefore be replaced by, the essentially unconstrained minimisation of the obvious statistical analogues of the Helmholtz free energy F = E ‑ TS and the grand potential J = F ‑ μN. Those minimisations are more easily performed than the maximisation of S because they formally eliminate the constraints on the mean values of E and N and their associated Lagrange multipliers. This procedure significantly simplifies the derivation of the canonical and grand canonical probability distributions, and shows that the well known extremum principles for the various thermodynamic potentials possess natural statistical analogues which are equivalent to the constrained maximisation of S.

  19. Phosphatase-Resistant Analogues of Lysophosphatidic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Prestwich, Glenn D.; Gajewiak, Joanna; Zhang, Honglu; Xu, Xiaoyu; Yang, Guanghui; Serban, Monica

    2008-01-01

    Isoform-selective agonists and antagonists of the lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) have important potential applications in cell biology and therapy. LPA GPCRs regulate cancer cell proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and also biochemical resistance to chemotherapy- and radiotherapy-induced apoptosis. LPA and its analogues also are feedback inhibitors of the enzyme lysophospholipase D (lysoPLD, a.k.a., autotaxin, ATX), a central regulator of invasion and metastasis. For cancer therapy, the optimal therapeutic profile would be a metabolically stabilized, pan-LPA receptor antagonist that also inhibited lysoPLD. For protection of gastrointestinal mucosa and lymphocytes, LPA agonists would be desirable to minimize or reverse radiation or chemical-induced injury. Analogues of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) that are chemically modified to be less susceptible to phospholipases and phosphatases show activity as long-lived receptor-specific agonists and antagonists for LPA receptors, as well as inhibitors for the lysoPLD activity of ATX. PMID:18454946

  20. Long-term predictions using natural analogues

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, R.C.

    1995-09-01

    One of the unique and scientifically most challenging aspects of nuclear waste isolation is the extrapolation of short-term laboratory data (hours to years) to the long time periods (10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} years) required by regulatory agencies for performance assessment. The direct validation of these extrapolations is not possible, but methods must be developed to demonstrate compliance with government regulations and to satisfy the lay public that there is a demonstrable and reasonable basis for accepting the long-term extrapolations. Natural systems (e.g., {open_quotes}natural analogues{close_quotes}) provide perhaps the only means of partial {open_quotes}validation,{close_quotes} as well as data that may be used directlymore » in the models that are used in the extrapolation. Natural systems provide data on very large spatial (nm to km) and temporal (10{sup 3}-10{sup 8} years) scales and in highly complex terranes in which unknown synergisms may affect radionuclide migration. This paper reviews the application (and most importantly, the limitations) of data from natural analogue systems to the {open_quotes}validation{close_quotes} of performance assessments.« less

  1. Space Analogue Environments: Are the Populations Comparable?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandal, G. M.

    Background: Much of our present understanding about psychology in space is based on studies of groups operating in so-called analogue environments where personnel are exposed to many of the same stressors as those experienced by astronauts in space. One possible problem with extrapolating results is that personnel operating in various hazardous and confined environments might differ in characteristics influencing coping, interaction, and performance. The object of this study was to compare the psychological similarity of these populations in order to get a better understanding of whether this extrapolation is justifiable. The samples investigated include polar crossings (N= 22), personnel on Antarctic research stations (N= 183), several military occupations (N= 187), and participants in space simulation studies (N=20). Methods: Personnel in each of these environments were assessed using the Personality Characteristic Inventory (PCI) and Utrecht Coping List (UCL). The PCI is a multidimensional trait assessment battery that measures various aspects of achievement orientation and social competence. The UCL is a questionnaire designed to assess habitual coping strategies when encountering stressful or demanding situations. Results: Only minor differences in use of habitual coping strategies were evident across the different samples. In relation to personality scores, the military subjects and participants in space simulation studies indicated higher competitiveness and negative instrumentality compared to both the personnel on Antarctic research stations and participants in polar expedition. Among the personnel on Antarctic research stations, significant gender differences were found with women scoring lower on competitiveness, negative instrumentality and impatience/irritability. Compared to the other samples, the participants in polar expeditions were found to be more homogeneous in personality and no significant gender differences were evident on the traits that

  2. A simple analogue of lung mechanics.

    PubMed

    Sherman, T F

    1993-12-01

    A model of the chest and lungs can be easily constructed from a bottle of water, a balloon, a syringe, a rubber stopper, glass and rubber tubing, and clamps. The model is a more exact analogue of the body than the classic apparatus of Hering in two respects: 1) the pleurae and intrapleural fluid are represented by water rather than air, and 2) the subatmospheric "intrapleural" pressure is created by the elasticity of the "lung" (balloon) rather than by a vacuum pump. With this model, students can readily see how the lung is inflated and deflated by movements of the "diaphragm and chest" (syringe plunger) and how intrapleural pressures change as this is accomplished.

  3. Solution Processed PEDOT Analogues in Electrochemical Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Österholm, Anna M; Ponder, James F; Kerszulis, Justin A; Reynolds, John R

    2016-06-01

    We have designed fully soluble ProDOTx-EDOTy copolymers that are electrochemically equivalent to electropolymerized PEDOT without using any surfactants or dispersants. We show that these copolymers can be incorporated as active layers in solution processed thin film supercapacitors to demonstrate capacitance, stability, and voltage similar to the values of those that use electrodeposited PEDOT as the active material with the added advantage of the possibility for large scale, high-throughput processing. These Type I supercapacitors provide exceptional cell voltages (up to 1.6 V), highly symmetrical charge/discharge behavior, promising long-term stability exceeding 50 000 charge/discharge cycles, as well as energy (4-18 Wh/kg) and power densities (0.8-3.3 kW/kg) that are comparable to those of electrochemically synthesized analogues.

  4. Synthesis and Antiviral Evaluation of Pyrazofurin Analogues.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-18

    8217-deoxypyrazofurin (14). The preparation of 2-4 and progress towards 5-14 are reported herein. Body 1 . Pyrazofurin Amides (2) The synthesis of these analogues...gel column chromatography (hexane-AcOEt, 9: 1 ) to yield 2- indanone (0.33 g, 50%) as white needles: mp 52 C (lit.25 54-560 C); Rf= 0.25 (hexane AcOEt, 9: 1 ...Schneller DAMD17-89-C-9092 6/19/91 Annual Report Scheme 1 * Synthesis of Amnide 2a H 0 H 0 N He N N H~ BnOH2C N0 OH e H26 d- HOH2C 0\\ OH He 0 5%P0

  5. Mutasynthesis of a potent anticancer sibiromycin analogue.

    PubMed

    Yonemoto, Isaac T; Li, Wei; Khullar, Ankush; Reixach, Natàlia; Gerratana, Barbara

    2012-06-15

    Pursuit of the actinomycete pyrrolobenzodiazepine natural product sibiromycin as a chemotherapeutic agent has been limited by its cardiotoxicity. Among pyrrolobenzodiazepines, cardiotoxicity is associated with hydroxylation at position 9. Deletion of the methyltransferase gene sibL abolishes the production of sibiromycin. Supplementation of growth media with 4-methylanthranilic acid can substitute for its native 3-hydroxy congener. Cultures grown in this fashion yielded 9-deoxysibiromycin. In this study, we characterize the structure and biological activity of sibiromycin and 9-deoxysibiromycin methyl carbinolamines. Preliminary in vitro evidence suggests that 9-deoxysibiromycin exhibits reduced cardiotoxicity while gaining antitumor activity. These results strongly support further exploration of the production and evaluation of monomeric and dimeric glycosylated pyrrolobenzodiazepine analogues of sibiromycin.

  6. Template properties of mutagenic cytosine analogues in reverse transcription

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Tetsuya; Moriyama, Kei; Otsuka, Chie; Loakes, David; Negishi, Kazuo

    2006-01-01

    We have studied the mutagenic properties of ribonucleotide analogues by reverse transcription to understand their potential as antiretroviral agents by mutagenesis of the viral genome. The templating properties of nucleotide analogues including 6-(β-D-ribofuranosyl)-3,4-dihydro-8H-pyrimido[4,5-c](1,2)oxazin-7-one, N4-hydroxycytidine, N4-methoxycytidine, N4-methylcytidine and 4-semicarbazidocytidine, which have been reported to exhibit ambiguous base pairing properties, were examined. We have synthesized RNA templates using T3 RNA polymerase, and investigated the specificity of the incorporation of deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates opposite these cytidine analogues in RNA by HIV and AMV reverse transcriptases. Except for N4-methylcytidine, both enzymes incorporated both dAMP and dGMP opposite these analogues in RNA. This indicates that they would be highly mutagenic if present in viral RNA. To study the basis of the differences among the analogues in the incorporation ratios of dAMP to dGMP, we have carried out kinetic analysis of incorporation opposite the analogues at a defined position in RNA templates. In addition, we examined whether the triphosphates of these analogues were incorporated competitively into RNA by human RNA polymerase II. Our present data supports the view that these cytidine analogues are mutagenic when incorporated into RNA, and that they may therefore be considered as candidates for antiviral agents by causing mutations to the retroviral genome. PMID:17130163

  7. Terrestrial analogues for lunar impact melt flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neish, C. D.; Hamilton, C. W.; Hughes, S. S.; Nawotniak, S. Kobs; Garry, W. B.; Skok, J. R.; Elphic, R. C.; Schaefer, E.; Carter, L. M.; Bandfield, J. L.; Osinski, G. R.; Lim, D.; Heldmann, J. L.

    2017-01-01

    Lunar impact melt deposits have unique physical properties. They have among the highest observed radar returns at S-Band (12.6 cm wavelength), implying that they are rough at the decimeter scale. However, they are also observed in high-resolution optical imagery to be quite smooth at the meter scale. These characteristics distinguish them from well-studied terrestrial analogues, such as Hawaiian pāhoehoe and ´a´ā lava flows. The morphology of impact melt deposits can be related to their emplacement conditions, so understanding the origin of these unique surface properties will help to inform us as to the circumstances under which they were formed. In this work, we seek to find a terrestrial analogue for well-preserved lunar impact melt flows by examining fresh lava flows on Earth. We compare the radar return and high-resolution topographic variations of impact melt flows to terrestrial lava flows with a range of surface textures. The lava flows examined in this work range from smooth Hawaiian pāhoehoe to transitional basaltic flows at Craters of the Moon (COTM) National Monument and Preserve in Idaho to rubbly and spiny pāhoehoe-like flows at the recent eruption at Holuhraun in Iceland. The physical properties of lunar impact melt flows appear to differ from those of all the terrestrial lava flows studied in this work. This may be due to (a) differences in post-emplacement modification processes or (b) fundamental differences in the surface texture of the melt flows due to the melts' unique emplacement and/or cooling environment. Information about the surface properties of lunar impact melt deposits will be critical for future landed missions that wish to sample these materials.

  8. Current european regulatory perspectives on insulin analogues.

    PubMed

    Enzmann, Harald G; Weise, Martina

    2011-07-07

    Insulin analogues are increasingly considered as an alternative to human insulin in the therapy of diabetes mellitus. Insulin analogues (IAs) are chemically different from human insulin and may have different pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic properties. The significance of the modifications of the insulin molecule for the safety profile of IAs must be considered. This review describes the regulatory procedure and the expectations for the scientific content of European marketing authorization applications for innovative IAs submitted to the European Medicines Agency. Particular consideration is given to a potential cancer hazard. Specific regulatory guidance on how to address a possible carcinogenic or tumor promoting effect of innovative IAs in non-clinical studies is available. After marketing authorization, the factual access of patients to the new product will be determined to great extent by health technology assessment bodies, reimbursement decisions and the price. Whereas the marketing authorization is a European decision, pricing and reimbursement are national or regional responsibilities. The assessment of benefit and risk by the European Medicines Agency is expected to influence future decisions on price and reimbursement on a national or regional level. Collaborations between regulatory agencies and health technology assessment bodies have been initiated on European and national level to facilitate the use of the European Medicines Agency's benefit risk assessment as basis on which to build the subsequent health technology assessment. The option for combined or joint scientific advice procedures with regulators and health technology assessment bodies on European level or on a national level in several European Member States may help applicants to optimize their development program and dossier preparation in regard of both European marketing authorization application and reimbursement decisions.

  9. Evolving a polymerase for hydrophobic base analogues.

    PubMed

    Loakes, David; Gallego, José; Pinheiro, Vitor B; Kool, Eric T; Holliger, Philipp

    2009-10-21

    Hydrophobic base analogues (HBAs) have shown great promise for the expansion of the chemical and coding potential of nucleic acids but are generally poor polymerase substrates. While extensive synthetic efforts have yielded examples of HBAs with favorable substrate properties, their discovery has remained challenging. Here we describe a complementary strategy for improving HBA substrate properties by directed evolution of a dedicated polymerase using compartmentalized self-replication (CSR) with the archetypal HBA 5-nitroindole (d5NI) and its derivative 5-nitroindole-3-carboxamide (d5NIC) as selection substrates. Starting from a repertoire of chimeric polymerases generated by molecular breeding of DNA polymerase genes from the genus Thermus, we isolated a polymerase (5D4) with a generically enhanced ability to utilize HBAs. The selected polymerase. 5D4 was able to form and extend d5NI and d5NIC (d5NI(C)) self-pairs as well as d5NI(C) heteropairs with all four bases with efficiencies approaching, or exceeding, those of the cognate Watson-Crick pairs, despite significant distortions caused by the intercalation of the d5NI(C) heterocycles into the opposing strand base stack, as shown by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Unlike Taq polymerase, 5D4 was also able to extend HBA pairs such as Pyrene: varphi (abasic site), d5NI: varphi, and isocarbostyril (ICS): 7-azaindole (7AI), allowed bypass of a chemically diverse spectrum of HBAs, and enabled PCR amplification with primers comprising multiple d5NI(C)-substitutions, while maintaining high levels of catalytic activity and fidelity. The selected polymerase 5D4 promises to expand the range of nucleobase analogues amenable to replication and should find numerous applications, including the synthesis and replication of nucleic acid polymers with expanded chemical and functional diversity.

  10. Magnetic properties of Proxima Centauri b analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuluaga, Jorge I.; Bustamante, Sebastian

    2018-03-01

    The discovery of a planet around the closest star to our Sun, Proxima Centauri, represents a quantum leap in the testability of exoplanetary models. Unlike any other discovered exoplanet, models of Proxima b could be contrasted against near future telescopic observations and far future in-situ measurements. In this paper we aim at predicting the planetary radius and the magnetic properties (dynamo lifetime and magnetic dipole moment) of Proxima b analogues (solid planets with masses of ∼ 1 - 3M⊕ , rotation periods of several days and habitable conditions). For this purpose we build a grid of planetary models with a wide range of compositions and masses. For each point in the grid we run the planetary evolution model developed in Zuluaga et al. (2013). Our model assumes small orbital eccentricity, negligible tidal heating and earth-like radiogenic mantle elements abundances. We devise a statistical methodology to estimate the posterior distribution of the desired planetary properties assuming simple lprior distributions for the orbital inclination and bulk composition. Our model predicts that Proxima b would have a mass 1.3 ≤Mp ≤ 2.3M⊕ and a radius Rp =1.4-0.2+0.3R⊕ . In our simulations, most Proxima b analogues develop intrinsic dynamos that last for ≥4 Gyr (the estimated age of the host star). If alive, the dynamo of Proxima b have a dipole moment ℳdip >0.32÷2.9×2.3ℳdip , ⊕ . These results are not restricted to Proxima b but they also apply to earth-like planets having similar observed properties.

  11. Natural analogues of nuclear waste glass corrosion.

    SciTech Connect

    Abrajano, T.A. Jr.; Ebert, W.L.; Luo, J.S.

    1999-01-06

    This report reviews and summarizes studies performed to characterize the products and processes involved in the corrosion of natural glasses. Studies are also reviewed and evaluated on how well the corrosion of natural glasses in natural environments serves as an analogue for the corrosion of high-level radioactive waste glasses in an engineered geologic disposal system. A wide range of natural and experimental corrosion studies has been performed on three major groups of natural glasses: tektite, obsidian, and basalt. Studies of the corrosion of natural glass attempt to characterize both the nature of alteration products and the reaction kinetics. Information availablemore » on natural glass was then compared to corresponding information on the corrosion of nuclear waste glasses, specifically to resolve two key questions: (1) whether one or more natural glasses behave similarly to nuclear waste glasses in laboratory tests, and (2) how these similarities can be used to support projections of the long-term corrosion of nuclear waste glasses. The corrosion behavior of basaltic glasses was most similar to that of nuclear waste glasses, but the corrosion of tektite and obsidian glasses involves certain processes that also occur during the corrosion of nuclear waste glasses. The reactions and processes that control basalt glass dissolution are similar to those that are important in nuclear waste glass dissolution. The key reaction of the overall corrosion mechanism is network hydrolysis, which eventually breaks down the glass network structure that remains after the initial ion-exchange and diffusion processes. This review also highlights some unresolved issues related to the application of an analogue approach to predicting long-term behavior of nuclear waste glass corrosion, such as discrepancies between experimental and field-based estimates of kinetic parameters for basaltic glasses.« less

  12. Analogues of uracil nucleosides with intrinsic fluorescence (NIF-analogues): synthesis and photophysical properties.

    PubMed

    Segal, Meirav; Fischer, Bilha

    2012-02-28

    Uridine cannot be utilized as fluorescent probe due to its extremely low quantum yield. For improving the uracil fluorescence characteristics we extended the natural chromophore at the C5 position by coupling substituted aromatic rings directly or via an alkenyl or alkynyl linker to create fluorophores. Extension of the uracil base was achieved by treating 5-I-uridine with the appropriate boronic acid under the Suzuki coupling conditions. Analogues containing an alkynyl linker were obtained from 5-I-uridine and the suitable boronic acid in a Sonogashira coupling reaction. The uracil fluorescent analogues proposed here were designed to satisfy the following requirements: a minimal chemical modification at a position not involved in base-pairing, resulting in relatively long absorption and emission wavelengths and high quantum yield. 5-((4-Methoxy-phenyl)-trans-vinyl)-2'-deoxy-uridine, 6b, was found to be a promising fluorescent probe. Probe 6b exhibits a quantum yield that is 3000-fold larger than that of the natural chromophore (Φ 0.12), maximum emission (478 nm) which is 170 nm red shifted as compared to uridine, and a Stokes shift of 143 nm. In addition, since probe 6b adopts the anti conformation and S sugar puckering favored by B-DNA, it makes a promising nucleoside analogue to be incorporated in an oligonucleotide probe for detection of genetic material.

  13. Insulin analogues for type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Galli-Tsinopoulou, A; Stergidou, D

    2012-12-01

    Since insulin is the unique and life-long therapy in type 1 diabetes and classical insulin preparations have certain limitations due to their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, the new insulin analogues aim to eliminate these limitations. Five insulin analogues are commercially available and approved for individuals with type 1 diabetes: three rapid-acting (insulin lispro, insulin aspart and insulin glulisine) and two long-acting insulin analogues (insulin glargine and insulin detemir). According to several studies conducted in children with type 1 diabetes, insulin analogues, due to their structural alterations, offer flexibility, reduction of nocturnal hypoglycemic episodes and decrease in postprandial hyperglycemic events, resulting in improved quality of life for diabetic children and their families. However, diabetes control measured with glycosylated hemoglobin A1c has been reported to be similar to conventional insulin preparations. Evidence-based medical reports indicate that insulin analogues are safe and effective, and therefore approved for children even from the age of 2 years. Moreover, suspicions and reports on the association of insulin analogues with carcinogenesis have not been established, requiring further investigation. This review reports the properties and characteristics of insulin analogues, as well as the results of current studies concerning pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes. Copyright 2012 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  14. Recent developments in naturally derived antimalarials: cryptolepine analogues.

    PubMed

    Wright, Colin W

    2007-06-01

    Increasing resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to commonly used antimalarial drugs has made the need for new agents increasingly urgent. In this paper, the potential of cryptolepine, an alkaloid from the West African shrub Cryptolepis sanguinolenta, as a lead towards new antimalarial agents is discussed. Several cryptolepine analogues have been synthesized that have promising in-vitro and in-vivo antimalarial activity. Studies on the antimalarial modes of action of these analogues indicate that they may have different or additional modes of action to the parent compound. Elucidation of the mode of action may facilitate the development of more potent antimalarial cryptolepine analogues.

  15. [Therapeutic use of somatostatin analogues in endocrinology].

    PubMed

    Faglia, G; Arosio, M

    1992-11-01

    The recent availability of the long-acting somatostatin analogue, octreotide, has allowed its therapeutical use in a wide variety of human diseases, including some digestive, neoplastic and autoimmune disorders. This review focuses on the treatment of some endocrine disorders with octreotide. Evidence is accumulating that octreotide treatment is effective in improving the cure rate of pituitary surgery in acromegaly by shrinking the tumour size, and in lowering GH and IGF-I levels in the vaste majority of patients. Octreotide is also effective in ameliorating TSH-induced hyperthyroidism in patients with TSH-secreting adenomas. Moreover, octreotide has proved useful in the management of endocrine tumours of the gastroenteropancreatic tract (vipomas, glucagonomas, gastrinomas, insulinomas, and carcinoids) by reducing hormone levels and in some instances the size of the primary and/or metastatic lesions. Besides the above well-established indications there are some other potential indications (non-secreting pituitary tumours, medullary thyroid carcinoma, ectopic Cushing's syndrome, diabete mellitus, Graves' ophthalmopathy, tall children and polycystic ovary syndrome) that still await further investigation. Side-effects of octreotide, particularly the formation of gallstones, should be carefully monitored.

  16. Can stroke patients use visual analogue scales?

    PubMed

    Price, C I; Curless, R H; Rodgers, H

    1999-07-01

    Visual analogue scales (VAS) have been used for the subjective measurement of mood, pain, and health status after stroke. In this study we investigated how stroke-related impairments could alter the ability of subjects to answer accurately. Consent was obtained from 96 subjects with a clinical stroke (mean age, 72.5 years; 50 men) and 48 control subjects without cerebrovascular disease (mean age, 71.5 years; 29 men). Patients with reduced conscious level or severe dysphasia were excluded. Subjects were asked to rate the tightness that they could feel on the (unaffected) upper arm after 3 low-pressure inflations with a standard sphygmomanometer cuff, which followed a predetermined sequence (20 mm Hg, 40 mm Hg, 0 mm Hg). Immediately after each change, they rated the perceived tightness on 5 scales presented in a random order: 4-point rating scale (none, mild, moderate, severe), 0 to 10 numerical rating scale, mechanical VAS, horizontal VAS, and vertical VAS. Standard tests recorded deficits in language, cognition, and visuospatial awareness. Inability to complete scales with the correct pattern was associated with any stroke (P<0.001). There was a significant association between success using scales and milder clinical stroke subtype (P<0.01). Within the stroke group, logistic regression analysis identified significant associations (P<0.05) between impairments (cognitive and visuospatial) and inability to complete individual scales correctly. Many patients after a stroke are unable to successfully complete self-report measurement scales, including VAS.

  17. Piplartine Analogues and Cytotoxic Evaluation against Glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    da Nóbrega, Flávio Rogério; Ozdemir, Ozlem; Nascimento Sousa, Sheila Cristina S; Barboza, Joice Nascimento; Turkez, Hasan; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino

    2018-06-08

    Piplartine ( 1 ) is an alkamide extracted from plants of the genus Piper which shows several pharmacological properties, including antitumor activity. To improve this activity, a series of analogues based on 1 have been synthesized by esterification and amidation using the 3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamic acid-like starting material. During the study, the moieties 3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)acrylate and 3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)acrylamide were maintained on esters and amides respectively. Meanwhile, functional changes were exploited, and it was revealed that the presence of two aromatic rings in the side-chain was important to improve the cytotoxic activity against the U87MG cell line, such as the compound ( E )-benzhydryl 3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)acrylate ( 10 ), an ester that exhibited strong cytotoxicity and a similar level of potency to that of paclitaxel, a positive control. Compound 10 had a marked concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on the viability of the U87MG cell line with apoptotic and oxidative processes, showing good potential for altering main molecular pathways to prevent tumor development. Moreover, it has strong bioavailability with non-genotoxic and non-cytotoxic properties on human blood cells. In conclusion, the findings of the present study demonstrated that compound 10 is a promising agent that may find applications combatting diseases associated with oxidative stress and as a prototype for the development of novel drugs used in the treatment of glioblastoma.

  18. Synthesis and anticonvulsant evaluation of dimethylethanolamine analogues of valproic acid and its tetramethylcyclopropyl analogue.

    PubMed

    Shekh-Ahmad, Tawfeeq; Bialer, Meir; Yavin, Eylon

    2012-02-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is a major antiepileptic drug (AED) that is less potent than other AEDs. 2,2,3,3-Tetramethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid (TMCA) is an inactive cyclopropyl analogue of VPA that serves as a starting material for the synthesis of CNS-active compounds. New conjugation products between N,N'-dimethylethanolamine to VPA and TMCA to form N,N-dimethylethanolamine valproate (DEVA) and N,N-dimethylethanolamine 2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropionate were synthesized and their anticonvulsant activity was assessed in the maximal electroshock seizure (MES) and subcutaneous metrazol (scMet) seizure tests and the hippocampal kindling model in mice and/or rats. An amide analogue of DEVA (DEVAMIDE) was also synthesized and evaluated. The pharmacokinetics of DEVA and DEVAMIDE was comparatively evaluated in rats. In rats DEVA acted as a prodrug of VPA and had ED(50) values of 73 mg/kg and 158 mg/kg in the MES and the hippocampal kindling models, respectively. At these two anticonvulsant models DEVA was seven-times more potent than VPA. DEVAMIDE was active in the MES test at doses of 100 mg/kg (mice) and its rat-MES-ED(50)=38.6 mg/kg however, its protective index (PI=TD(50)/ED(50)) was twice lower than DEVA's PI. The TMCA analogues were inactive at the mice MES and scMet models. DEVA underwent rapid metabolic hydrolysis to VPA and consequently, in its pharmacokinetic analysis only VPA plasma levels were monitored. In contrast, DEVAMIDE was stable in whole blood. DEVA acts in rats as a prodrug of VPA yet shows a more potent anticonvulsant activity than VPA. DEVAMIDE acted as the drug on its own and was more potent than DEVA at the rat-MES test. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. From BPA to its analogues: Is it a safe journey?

    PubMed

    Usman, Afia; Ahmad, Masood

    2016-09-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) is one of the most abundant synthetic chemicals in the world due to its uses in plastics. Its widespread exposure vis-a-vis low dose effects led to a reduction in its safety dose and imposition of ban on its use in infant feeding bottles. This restriction paved the way for the gradual market entry of its analogues. However, their structural similarity to BPA has put them under surveillance for endocrine disrupting potential. The application of these analogues is increasing and so are the studies reporting their toxicity. This review highlights the reasons which led to the ban of BPA and also reports the exposure and toxicological data available on its analogues. Hence, this compilation is expected to answer in a better way whether the replacement of BPA by these analogues is safer or more harmful? Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. The Use of Terrestrial Analogues to Inform Mars Sample Return

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloutis, E. A.

    2018-04-01

    Terrestrial Mars analogue sites can provide insights into rover-based biosignature detection, types of biosignatures present in different Mars-relevant terrains, biosignature preservation, and location of biosignature hot spots.

  1. Mars Methane Analogue Mission (M3): Analytical Techniques and Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloutis, E.; Vrionis, H.; Qadi, A.; Bell, J. F.; Berard, G.; Boivin, A.; Ellery, A.; Jamroz, W.; Kruzelecky, R.; Mann, P.; Samson, C.; Stromberg, J.; Strong, K.; Tremblay, A.; Whyte, L.; Wing, B.

    2011-03-01

    The Mars Methane Analogue Mission (M3) project is designed to simulate a rover-based search for, and analysis of, methane sources on Mars at a serpentinite open pit mine in Quebec, using a variety of instruments.

  2. Synthesis and antiplatelet activity of thioaryloxyacids analogues of clofibric acid.

    PubMed

    Ammazzalorso, Alessandra; Amoroso, Rosa; Baraldi, Mario; Bettoni, Giancarlo; Braghiroli, Daniela; De Filippis, Barbara; Giampietro, Letizia; Tricca, Maria L; Vezzalini, Francesca

    2005-09-01

    The thiophene-, benzothiazole- and pyridine-thioaryloxyacids analogues of clofibric acid were synthesized and their antiplatelet activity was screened. Some compounds exhibited antiaggregating properties. The platelet-related haemostasis was measured on a PFA-100 analyzer using bull blood.

  3. Sulphur Spring: Busy Intersection and Possible Martian Analogue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nankivell, A.; Andre, N.; Thomas-Keprta, K.; Allen, C.; McKay, D.

    2000-01-01

    Life in extreme environments exhibiting conditions similar to early Earth and Mars, such as Sulphur Spring, may harbor microbiota serving as both relics from the past as well as present day Martian analogues.

  4. Analogue and digital linear modulation techniques for mobile satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmarsh, W. J.; Bateman, A.; Mcgeehan, J. P.

    1990-01-01

    The choice of modulation format for a mobile satellite service is complex. The subjective performance is summarized of candidate schemes and voice coder technologies. It is shown that good performance can be achieved with both analogue and digital voice systems, although the analogue system gives superior performance in fading. The results highlight the need for flexibility in the choice of signaling format. Linear transceiver technology capable of using many forms of narrowband modulation is described.

  5. Catalytic antioxidants: regenerable tellurium analogues of vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijay P; Poon, Jia-fei; Engman, Lars

    2013-12-20

    In an effort to improve the chain-breaking capacity of the natural antioxidants, an octyltelluro group was introduced next to the phenolic moiety in β- and δ-tocopherol. The new vitamin E analogues quenched peroxyl radicals more efficiently than α-tocopherol and were readily regenerable by aqueous N-acetylcysteine in a simple membrane model composed of a stirring chlorobenzene/water two-phase system. The novel tocopherol analogues could also mimic the action of the glutathione peroxidase enzymes.

  6. Molecular Biodynamers: Dynamic Covalent Analogues of Biopolymers

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Conspectus Constitutional dynamic chemistry (CDC) features the use of reversible linkages at both molecular and supramolecular levels, including reversible covalent bonds (dynamic covalent chemistry, DCC) and noncovalent interactions (dynamic noncovalent chemistry, DNCC). Due to its inherent reversibility and stimuli-responsiveness, CDC has been widely utilized as a powerful tool for the screening of bioactive compounds, the exploitation of receptors or substrates driven by molecular recognition, and the fabrication of constitutionally dynamic materials. Implementation of CDC in biopolymer science leads to the generation of constitutionally dynamic analogues of biopolymers, biodynamers, at the molecular level (molecular biodynamers) through DCC or at the supramolecular level (supramolecular biodynamers) via DNCC. Therefore, biodynamers are prepared by reversible covalent polymerization or noncovalent polyassociation of biorelevant monomers. In particular, molecular biodynamers, biodynamers of the covalent type whose monomeric units are connected by reversible covalent bonds, are generated by reversible polymerization of bio-based monomers and can be seen as a combination of biopolymers with DCC. Owing to the reversible covalent bonds used in DCC, molecular biodynamers can undergo continuous and spontaneous constitutional modifications via incorporation/decorporation and exchange of biorelevant monomers in response to internal or external stimuli. As a result, they behave as adaptive materials with novel properties, such as self-healing, stimuli-responsiveness, and tunable mechanical and optical character. More specifically, molecular biodynamers combine the biorelevant characters (e.g., biocompatibility, biodegradability, biofunctionality) of bioactive monomers with the dynamic features of reversible covalent bonds (e.g., changeable, tunable, controllable, self-healing, and stimuli-responsive capacities), to realize synergistic properties in one system. In addition

  7. Somatostatin Analogues for Receptor Targeted Photodynamic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kaščáková, Slávka; Hofland, Leo J.; De Bruijn, Henriette S.; Ye, Yunpeng; Achilefu, Samuel; van der Wansem, Katy; van der Ploeg-van den Heuvel, Angelique; van Koetsveld, Peter M.; Brugts, Michael P.; van der Lelij, Aart-Jan; Sterenborg, Henricus J. C. M.; ten Hagen, Timo L. M.; Robinson, Dominic J.; van Hagen, Martin P.

    2014-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an established treatment modality, used mainly for anticancer therapy that relies on the interaction of photosensitizer, light and oxygen. For the treatment of pathologies in certain anatomical sites, improved targeting of the photosensitizer is necessary to prevent damage to healthy tissue. We report on a novel dual approach of targeted PDT (vascular and cellular targeting) utilizing the expression of neuropeptide somatostatin receptor (sst2) on tumor and neovascular-endothelial cells. We synthesized two conjugates containing the somatostatin analogue [Tyr3]-octreotate and Chlorin e6 (Ce6): Ce6-K3-[Tyr3]-octreotate (1) and Ce6-[Tyr3]-octreotate-K3-[Tyr3]-octreotate (2). Investigation of the uptake and photodynamic activity of conjugates in-vitro in human erythroleukemic K562 cells showed that conjugation of [Tyr3]-octreotate with Ce6 in conjugate 1 enhances uptake (by a factor 2) in cells over-expressing sst2 compared to wild-type cells. Co-treatment with excess free Octreotide abrogated the phototoxicity of conjugate 1 indicative of a specific sst2-mediated effect. In contrast conjugate 2 showed no receptor-mediated effect due to its high hydrophobicity. When compared with un-conjugated Ce6, the PDT activity of conjugate 1 was lower. However, it showed higher photostability which may compensate for its lower phototoxicity. Intra-vital fluorescence pharmacokinetic studies of conjugate 1 in rat skin-fold observation chambers transplanted with sst2 + AR42J acinar pancreas tumors showed significantly different uptake profiles compared to free Ce6. Co-treatment with free Octreotide significantly reduced conjugate uptake in tumor tissue (by a factor 4) as well as in the chamber neo-vasculature. These results show that conjugate 1 might have potential as an in-vivo sst2 targeting photosensitizer conjugate. PMID:25111655

  8. Cladribine Analogues via O6-(Benzotriazolyl) Derivatives of Guanine Nucleosides

    PubMed Central

    Satishkumar, Sakilam; Vuram, Prasanna K.; Relangi, Siva Subrahmanyam; Gurram, Venkateshwarlu; Zhou, Hong; Kreitman, Robert J.; Montemayor, Michelle M. Martínez; Yang, Lijia; Kaliyaperumal, Muralidharan; Sharma, Somesh; Pottabathini, Narender; Lakshman, Mahesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Cladribine, 2-chloro-2′-deoxyadenosine, is a highly efficacious clinically used nucleoside for the treatment of hairy cell leukemia. It is also being evaluated against other lymphoid malignancies and has been a molecule of interest for well over half a century. In continuation of our interest on the amide bond-activation in purine nucleosides via the use of (benzotriazol-1yl-oxy)tris(dimethylamino)phosphonium hexafluorophosphate, we have evaluated the use of O6-(benzotriazol-1-yl)-2′-deoxyguanosine as a potential precursor to cladribine and its analogues. These compounds, after appropriate deprotection, were assessed for their biological activities and the data are presented herein. Against hairy cell leukemia (HCL), T-cell lymphoma (TCL), and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cladribine was the most active against all. The bromo analogue of cladribine showed comparable activity to the ribose analogue of cladribine against HCL, but was more active against TCL and CLL. The bromo ribo analogue of cladribine possessed activity, but was least active among the C6-NH2-containing compounds. Substitution with alkyl groups at the exocyclic amino group appears detrimental to activity, and only the C6 piperidinyl cladribine analogue demonstrated any activity. Against adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells, only cladribine and its ribose analogue were most active. PMID:26556315

  9. Cladribine Analogues via O⁶-(Benzotriazolyl) Derivatives of Guanine Nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Satishkumar, Sakilam; Vuram, Prasanna K; Relangi, Siva Subrahmanyam; Gurram, Venkateshwarlu; Zhou, Hong; Kreitman, Robert J; Montemayor, Michelle M Martínez; Yang, Lijia; Kaliyaperumal, Muralidharan; Sharma, Somesh; Pottabathini, Narender; Lakshman, Mahesh K

    2015-10-09

    Cladribine, 2-chloro-2'-deoxyadenosine, is a highly efficacious, clinically used nucleoside for the treatment of hairy cell leukemia. It is also being evaluated against other lymphoid malignancies and has been a molecule of interest for well over half a century. In continuation of our interest in the amide bond-activation in purine nucleosides via the use of (benzotriazol-1yl-oxy)tris(dimethylamino)phosphonium hexafluorophosphate, we have evaluated the use of O⁶-(benzotriazol-1-yl)-2'-deoxyguanosine as a potential precursor to cladribine and its analogues. These compounds, after appropriate deprotection, were assessed for their biological activities, and the data are presented herein. Against hairy cell leukemia (HCL), T-cell lymphoma (TCL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), cladribine was the most active against all. The bromo analogue of cladribine showed comparable activity to the ribose analogue of cladribine against HCL, but was more active against TCL and CLL. The bromo ribose analogue of cladribine showed activity, but was the least active among the C6-NH₂-containing compounds. Substitution with alkyl groups at the exocyclic amino group appears detrimental to activity, and only the C6 piperidinyl cladribine analogue demonstrated any activity. Against adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells, cladribine and its ribose analogue were most active.

  10. Habitability & Astrobiology Research in Mars Terrestrial Analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    We performed a series of field research campaigns (ILEWG EuroMoonMars) in the extreme Utah desert relevant to Mars environments, and in order to help in the interpretation of Mars missions measurements from orbit (MEX, MRO) or from the surface (MER, MSL), or Moon geochemistry (SMART-1, LRO). We shall give an update on the sample analysis in the context of habitability and astrobiology. Methods & Results: In the frame of ILEWG EuroMoonMars campaigns (2009 to 2013) we deployed at Mars Desert Research station, near Hanksville Utah, a suite of instruments and techniques [A, 1, 2, 9-11] including sample collection, context imaging from remote to local and microscale, drilling, spectrometers and life sensors. We analyzed how geological and geochemical evolution affected local parameters (mineralogy, organics content, environment variations) and the habitability and signature of organics and biota. Among the important findings are the diversity in the composition of soil samples even when collected in close proximity, the low abundances of detectable PAHs and amino acids and the presence of biota of all three domains of life with significant heterogeneity. An extraordinary variety of putative extremophiles was observed [3,4,9]. A dominant factor seems to be soil porosity and lower clay-sized particle content [6-8]. A protocol was developed for sterile sampling, contamination issues, and the diagnostics of biodiversity via PCR and DGGE analysis in soils and rocks samples [10, 11]. We compare the 2009 campaign results [1-9] to new measurements from 2010-2013 campaigns [10-12] relevant to: comparison between remote sensing and in-situ measurements; the study of minerals; the detection of organics and signs of life. Keywords: field analogue research, astrobiology, habitability, life detection, Earth-Moon-Mars, organics References [A] Foing, Stoker & Ehrenfreund (Editors, 2011) "Astrobiology field Research in Moon/Mars Analogue Environments", Special Issue of International

  11. Spectral analysis of lunar analogue samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offringa, Marloes; Foing, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    Analyses of samples derived from terrestrial analogue sites are used to study lunar processes in their geological context (Foing, Stoker, Ehrenfreund, 2011). For this study samples from the volcanic region of the Eifel, Germany collected during field campaigns (Foing et al., 2010), are analyzed with a variety of spectrometers. The aim is to obtain a database of analyzed samples that could be used as a reference for future in situ measurements. Equipment used in the laboratory consists of a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, an X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer, a Raman laser spectrometer, as well as UV-VIS and NIR reflectance spectrometers. The Raman, UV-VIS and NIR are also used in combination with the EXoGeoLab mock-up lander during field campaigns (Foing, Stoker, Ehrenfreund, 2011). Calibration of the UV-VIS and NIR reflectance spectrometers is the main focus of this research in order to obtain the clearest spectra. The calibration of the UV-VIS and NIR reflectance spectrometers requires the use of a good light source as well as suitable optical fibers to create a signal that covers the widest range in wavelengths available. To eliminate noise towards the edges of this range, multiple measurements are averaged and data is processed by dividing the signal by reference spectra. Calibration of the devices by creating a new dark and reference spectra has to take place after every sample measurement. In this way we take into account changes that occur in the signal due to the eating of the devices during the measurements. Moreover, the integration time is adjusted to obtain a clear signal without leading to oversaturation in the reflectance spectrum. The typical integration times for the UV-VIS reflectance spectrometer vary between 1 - 18 s, depending on the amount of daylight during experiments. For the NIR reflectance spectrometer the integration time resulting in the best signals is approximately 150 ms in combination with a broad spectrum light

  12. Controlling of N-alkylpolyamine analogue metabolism by selective deuteration.

    PubMed

    Ucal, Sebahat; Häkkinen, Merja R; Alanne, Aino-Liisa; Alhonen, Leena; Vepsäläinen, Jouko; Keinänen, Tuomo A; Hyvönen, Mervi T

    2018-02-14

    Replacing protium with deuterium is an efficient method to modulate drug metabolism. N -alkylated polyamine analogues are polyamine antimetabolites with proven anticancer efficacy. We have characterized earlier the preferred metabolic routes of N 1 , N 12 -diethylspermine (DESpm), N 1 -benzyl- N 12 -ethylspermine (BnEtSpm) and N 1 , N 12 -dibenzylspermine (DBSpm) by human recombinant spermine oxidase (SMOX) and acetylpolyamine oxidase (APAO). Here, we studied the above analogues, their variably deuterated counterparts and their metabolites as substrates and inhibitors of APAO, SMOX, semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO), diamine oxidase (DAO) and monoamine oxidases. We found that targeted deuteration efficiently redirected the preferable cleavage site and suppressed reaction rate by APAO and SMOX in vitro We found a three- to six-fold decline in V max with moderate variable effect on K m when deuterium was located at the preferred hydrogen abstraction site of the analogue. We also found some of the metabolites to be potent inhibitors of DAO and SSAO. Surprisingly, analogue deuteration did not markedly alter the anti-proliferative efficacy of the drugs in DU145 prostate cancer cells, while in mouse embryonic fibroblasts, which had higher basal APAO and SMOX activities, moderate effect was observed. Interestingly, the anti-proliferative efficacy of the analogues did not correlate with their ability to suppress polyamine biosynthetic enzymes, induce spermidine/spermine- N 1 -acetyltransferase or deplete intracellular polyamine levels, but correlated with their ability to induce SMOX. Our data show that selective deuteration of N -alkyl polyamine analogues enables metabolic switching, offering the means for selective generation of bioactive metabolites inhibiting, e.g. SSAO and DAO, thus setting a novel basis for in vivo studies of this class of analogues. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  13. Assessment of six dissimilarity metrics for climate analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenier, Patrick; Parent, Annie-Claude; Huard, David; Anctil, François; Chaumont, Diane

    2013-04-01

    Spatial analogue techniques consist in identifying locations whose recent-past climate is similar in some aspects to the future climate anticipated at a reference location. When identifying analogues, one key step is the quantification of the dissimilarity between two climates separated in time and space, which involves the choice of a metric. In this communication, spatial analogues and their usefulness are briefly discussed. Next, six metrics are presented (the standardized Euclidean distance, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic, the nearest-neighbor distance, the Zech-Aslan energy statistic, the Friedman-Rafsky runs statistic and the Kullback-Leibler divergence), along with a set of criteria used for their assessment. The related case study involves the use of numerical simulations performed with the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM-v4.2.3), from which three annual indicators (total precipitation, heating degree-days and cooling degree-days) are calculated over 30-year periods (1971-2000 and 2041-2070). Results indicate that the six metrics identify comparable analogue regions at a relatively large scale, but best analogues may differ substantially. For best analogues, it is also shown that the uncertainty stemming from the metric choice does generally not exceed that stemming from the simulation or model choice. A synthesis of the advantages and drawbacks of each metric is finally presented, in which the Zech-Aslan energy statistic stands out as the most recommended metric for analogue studies, whereas the Friedman-Rafsky runs statistic is the least recommended, based on this case study.

  14. Role of circulation in European heatwaves using flow analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jézéquel, Aglaé; Yiou, Pascal; Radanovics, Sabine

    2018-02-01

    The intensity of European heatwaves is connected to specific synoptic atmospheric circulation. Given the relatively small number of observations, estimates of the connection between the circulation and temperature require ad hoc statistical methods. This can be achieved through the use of analogue methods, which allow to determine a distribution of temperature conditioned to the circulation. The computation of analogues depends on a few parameters. In this article, we evaluate the influence of the variable representing the circulation, the size of the domain of computation, the length of the dataset, and the number of analogues on the reconstituted temperature anomalies. We tested the sensitivity of the reconstitution of temperature to these parameters for four emblematic recent heatwaves: June 2003, August 2003, July 2006 and July 2015. The paper provides general guidelines for the use of flow analogues to investigate European summer heatwaves. We found that Z500 is better suited than SLP to simulate temperature anomalies, and that rather small domains lead to better reconstitutions. The dataset length has an important influence on the uncertainty. We conclude by a set of recommendations for an optimal use of analogues to probe European heatwaves.

  15. Esterified Trehalose Analogues Protect Mammalian Cells from Heat Shock.

    PubMed

    Bragg, Jack T; D'Ambrosio, Hannah K; Smith, Timothy J; Gorka, Caroline A; Khan, Faraz A; Rose, Joshua T; Rouff, Andrew J; Fu, Terence S; Bisnett, Brittany J; Boyce, Michael; Khetan, Sudhir; Paulick, Margot G

    2017-09-19

    Trehalose is a disaccharide produced by many organisms to better enable them to survive environmental stresses, including heat, cold, desiccation, and reactive oxygen species. Mammalian cells do not naturally biosynthesize trehalose; however, when introduced into mammalian cells, trehalose provides protection from damage associated with freezing and drying. One of the major difficulties in using trehalose as a cellular protectant for mammalian cells is the delivery of this disaccharide into the intracellular environment; mammalian cell membranes are impermeable to the hydrophilic sugar trehalose. A panel of cell-permeable trehalose analogues, in which the hydrophilic hydroxyl groups of trehalose are masked as esters, have been synthesized and the ability of these analogues to load trehalose into mammalian cells has been evaluated. Two of these analogues deliver millimolar concentrations of free trehalose into a variety of mammalian cells. Critically, Jurkat cells incubated with these analogues show improved survival after heat shock, relative to untreated Jurkat cells. The method reported herein thus paves the way for the use of esterified analogues of trehalose as a facile means to deliver high concentrations of trehalose into mammalian cells for use as a cellular protectant. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Clinical study of a digital vs an analogue hearing aid.

    PubMed

    Bille, M; Jensen, A M; Kjaerbøl, E; Vesterager, V; Sibelle, P; Nielsen, H

    1999-01-01

    Digital signal processing in hearing instruments has brought new perspectives to the compensation of hearing impairment and may result in alleviation of the adverse effects of hearing problems. This study compares a commercially available digital signal processing hearing aid (HA) (Senso) with a modern analogue HA with programmable fitting (Logo). The HAs tested are identical in appearance and, in spite of a different mode of operation, the study design ensured blinding of the test subjects. Outcome parameters were: improvements in speech recognition score in noise (deltaSRSN) with the HAs; overall preference for HA; overall satisfaction; and various measures of HA performance evaluated by a self-assessment questionnaire. A total of 28 experienced HA users with sensorineural hearing impairment were included and 25 completed the trial. No significant differences were found in deltaSRSN between the two HAs. Eleven subjects indicated an overall preference for the digital HA, 10 preferred the analogue HA and 4 had no preference. Concerning overall satisfaction, 8 subjects rated the digital HA superior to the analogue one, whereas 7 indicated a superior rating for the analogue HA and 10 rated the HAs equal. Acceptability of noise from traffic was the only outcome parameter which gave a significant difference between the HAs in favour of the digital HA. It is concluded that there are no significant differences in outcome between the digital and analogue signal processing HAs tested by these experienced HA-users.

  17. Fungal growth inhibitory properties of new phytosphingolipid analogues.

    PubMed

    Mormeneo, D; Manresa, A; Casas, J; Llebaria, A; Delgado, A

    2008-04-01

    To study the growth inhibitory properties of a series of phytosphingosine (PHS) and phytoceramide (PHC) analogues. A panel of two yeast (Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and six moulds (Aspergillus repens, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium chrysogenum, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Arthroderma uncinatum and Penicillium funiculosum) has been used in this study. A series of new PHS and PHC analogues differing at the sphingoid backbone and the functional group at C1 position were synthesized. Among PHS analogues, 1-azido derivative 1c, bearing the natural D-ribo stereochemistry, showed a promising growth inhibitory profile. Among PHC analogues, compound 12, with a bulky N-pivaloyl group and a Z double bond at C3 position of the sphingoid chain, was the most active growth inhibitor. Minimal inhibitory concentration values were in the range of 23-48 micromol l(-1) for 1c and 44-87 micromol l(-1) for 12. Only scattered data on the antifungal activity of phytosphingolipids have been reported in the literature. This is the first time that a series of analogues of this kind are tested and compared to discern their structural requirements for antifungal activity.

  18. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Carbocyclic Analogues of Pachastrissamine

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Yongseok; Song, Jayoung; Bae, Hoon; Kim, Woo-Jung; Lee, Joo-Youn; Han, Geun-Hee; Lee, Sang Kook; Kim, Sanghee

    2015-01-01

    A series of carbocyclic analogues of naturally-occurring marine sphingolipid pachastrissamine were prepared and biologically evaluated. The analogues were efficiently synthesized via a tandem enyne/diene-ene metathesis reaction as a key step. We found that the analogue 4b exhibited comparable cytotoxicity and more potent inhibitory activity against sphingosine kinases, compared to pachastrissamine. Molecular modeling studies were conducted to provide more detailed insight into the binding mode of 4b in sphingosine kinase. In our docking model, pachastrissamine and 4b were able to effectively bind to the binding pocket of sphingosine kinase 1 as co-crystalized sphingosine. However, 4b showed a hydrophobic interaction with Phe192, which suggests that it contributes to its increased inhibitory activity against sphingosine kinase 1. PMID:25654428

  19. Cross-reactivity of insulin analogues with three insulin assays.

    PubMed

    Dayaldasani, A; Rodríguez Espinosa, M; Ocón Sánchez, P; Pérez Valero, V

    2015-05-01

    Immunometric assays have recently shown higher specificity in the detection of human insulin than radioimmunoassays with almost no cross-reaction with proinsulin or C peptide. The introduction of the new insulin analogues on the market, however, has raised the need to define their cross-reactivity in these assays. Several studies have been published in this regard with different results. The analogues studied were insulins lispro, aspart, glargine, detemir, and glulisine. Insulin concentrations were measured in Immulite(®) 2000 and Advia Centaur(®) XP (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics), and Elecsys(®) Modular Analytics E170 (Roche). All samples were processed 15 times in the same analytical run following a random sequence. Those samples which showed statistically and clinically significant changes in insulin concentration were reprocessed using increasing concentrations of analogue, and this was done twice, using two different serum pools, one with a low concentration of insulin and one with a high concentration of insulin. In the Elecsys(®) E170 analyser, glargine showed statistical changes (comparison of mean concentrations with p < 0.05) and clinically significant changes in measured insulin (percentage difference 986.2% > reference change value: 59.8%), and the interference increased with increasing concentrations of analogue; the differences were not significant in the case of the other analogues. In the Advia Centaur(®) and Immulite(®) 2000 only the results for glulisine did not present significance (percentage difference 44.7% < reference change value 103.5%). Increasing concentrations of aspart, glargine, and lispro showed increased interference in Immulite(®) 2000. In the Elecsys(®) E170 assay, relevant cross-reactivity was only detected with insulin glargine, whereas in the other analysers all analogues except glulisine showed significant interference. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  20. Synthesis and evaluation of heterocyclic analogues of bromoxynil.

    PubMed

    Cutulle, Matthew A; Armel, Gregory R; Brosnan, James T; Best, Michael D; Kopsell, Dean A; Bruce, Barry D; Bostic, Heidi E; Layton, Donovan S

    2014-01-15

    One attractive strategy to discover more active and/or crop-selective herbicides is to make structural changes to currently registered compounds. This strategy is especially appealing for those compounds with limited herbicide resistance and whose chemistry is accompanied with transgenic tools to enable herbicide tolerance in crop plants. Bromoxynil is a photosystem II (PSII) inhibitor registered for control of broadleaf weeds in several agronomic and specialty crops. Recently at the University of Tennessee-Knoxville several analogues of bromoxynil were synthesized including a previously synthesized pyridine (2,6-dibromo-5-hydroxypyridine-2-carbonitrile sodium salt), a novel pyrimidine (4,6-dibromo-5-hydroxypyrimidine-2-carbonitrile sodium salt), and a novel pyridine N-oxide (2,6-dibromo-1-oxidopyridin-1-ium-4-carbonitrile). These new analogues of bromoxynil were also evaluated for their herbicidal activity on soybean (Glycine max), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus), velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti), large crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis), and pitted morningglory ( Ipomoea lacunose ) when applied at 0.28 kg ha(-1). A second study was conducted on a glyphosate-resistant weed (Amaranthus palmeri) with the compounds being applied at 0.56 kg ha(-1). Although all compounds were believed to inhibit PSII by binding in the quinone binding pocket of D1, the pyridine and pyridine-N-oxide analogues were clearly more potent than bromoxynil on Amaranthus retroflexus. However, application of the pyrimidine herbicide resulted in the least injury to all species tested. These variations in efficacy were investigated using molecular docking simulations, which indicate that the pyridine analogue may form a stronger hydrogen bond in the pocket of the D1 protein than the original bromoxynil. A pyridine analogue was able to control the glyphosate-resistant Amaranthus palmeri with >80% efficacy. The pyridine analogues of bromoxynil showed potential

  1. Analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone containing cytotoxic groups.

    PubMed

    Janáky, T; Juhász, A; Bajusz, S; Csernus, V; Srkalovic, G; Bokser, L; Milovanovic, S; Redding, T W; Rékási, Z; Nagy, A

    1992-02-01

    In an attempt to produce better cytotoxic analogues, chemotherapeutic antineoplastic radicals including an alkylating nitrogen mustard derivative of D-phenylalanine (D-melphalan), reactive cyclopropane, anthraquinone derivatives [2-(hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone and the anticancer antibiotic doxorubicin], and an antimetabolite (methotrexate) were coupled to suitably modified agonists and antagonists of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH). Analogues with D-lysine6 and D-ornithine6 or N epsilon-(2,3-diaminopropionyl)-D-lysine and N delta-(2,3-diaminopropionyl)-D-ornithine were used as carriers for one or two cytotoxic moieties. The enhanced biological activities produced by the incorporation of D amino acids into position 6 of the agonistic analogues were further increased by the attachment of hydrophobic cytotoxic groups, resulting in compounds with 10-50 times higher activity than LH-RH. Most of the monosubstituted agonistic analogues showed high affinities for the membrane receptors of human breast cancer cells, while the receptor binding affinities of peptides containing two cytotoxic side chains were lower. Antagonistic carriers [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(4Cl)2,D-Trp3,Arg5,D-Lys6,D-Ala10] LH-RH [where Nal(2) is 3-(2-naphthyl)alanine], [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(4Cl)2,D-Trp3,Arg5,N epsilon-(2,3-diaminopropionyl)-D-Lys6,D-Ala10]LH-RH, and their D-Pal(3)3 homologs [Pal(3) is 3-(3-pyridyl)alanine] as well as [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(4Cl)2,D-Pal(3)3,Tyr5,N epsilon-(2,3-diamino-propionyl)-D-Lys6,D-Ala10]LH-RH were linked to cytotoxic compounds. The hybrid molecules inhibited ovulation in rats at doses of 10 micrograms and suppressed LH release in vitro. The receptor binding of cytotoxic analogues was decreased compared to the precursor peptides, although analogues with 2-(hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone hemiglutarate had high affinities. All of the cytotoxic analogues tested inhibited [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA in cultures of human breast and prostate cancer cell lines

  2. Analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone containing cytotoxic groups.

    PubMed Central

    Janáky, T; Juhász, A; Bajusz, S; Csernus, V; Srkalovic, G; Bokser, L; Milovanovic, S; Redding, T W; Rékási, Z; Nagy, A

    1992-01-01

    In an attempt to produce better cytotoxic analogues, chemotherapeutic antineoplastic radicals including an alkylating nitrogen mustard derivative of D-phenylalanine (D-melphalan), reactive cyclopropane, anthraquinone derivatives [2-(hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone and the anticancer antibiotic doxorubicin], and an antimetabolite (methotrexate) were coupled to suitably modified agonists and antagonists of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH). Analogues with D-lysine6 and D-ornithine6 or N epsilon-(2,3-diaminopropionyl)-D-lysine and N delta-(2,3-diaminopropionyl)-D-ornithine were used as carriers for one or two cytotoxic moieties. The enhanced biological activities produced by the incorporation of D amino acids into position 6 of the agonistic analogues were further increased by the attachment of hydrophobic cytotoxic groups, resulting in compounds with 10-50 times higher activity than LH-RH. Most of the monosubstituted agonistic analogues showed high affinities for the membrane receptors of human breast cancer cells, while the receptor binding affinities of peptides containing two cytotoxic side chains were lower. Antagonistic carriers [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(4Cl)2,D-Trp3,Arg5,D-Lys6,D-Ala10] LH-RH [where Nal(2) is 3-(2-naphthyl)alanine], [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(4Cl)2,D-Trp3,Arg5,N epsilon-(2,3-diaminopropionyl)-D-Lys6,D-Ala10]LH-RH, and their D-Pal(3)3 homologs [Pal(3) is 3-(3-pyridyl)alanine] as well as [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(4Cl)2,D-Pal(3)3,Tyr5,N epsilon-(2,3-diamino-propionyl)-D-Lys6,D-Ala10]LH-RH were linked to cytotoxic compounds. The hybrid molecules inhibited ovulation in rats at doses of 10 micrograms and suppressed LH release in vitro. The receptor binding of cytotoxic analogues was decreased compared to the precursor peptides, although analogues with 2-(hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone hemiglutarate had high affinities. All of the cytotoxic analogues tested inhibited [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA in cultures of human breast and prostate cancer cell lines

  3. Rotating black hole solutions in relativistic analogue gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacomelli, Luca; Liberati, Stefano

    2017-09-01

    Simulation and experimental realization of acoustic black holes in analogue gravity systems have lead to a novel understanding of relevant phenomena such as Hawking radiation or superradiance. We explore here the possibility of using relativistic systems for simulating rotating black hole solutions and possibly get an acoustic analogue of a Kerr black hole. In doing so, we demonstrate a precise relation between nonrelativistic and relativistic solutions and provide a new class of vortex solutions for relativistic systems. Such solutions might be used in the future as a test bed in numerical simulations as well as concrete experiments.

  4. Optimization of gefitinib analogues with potent anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Yin, Kai-Hao; Hsieh, Yi-Han; Sulake, Rohidas S; Wang, Su-Pei; Chao, Jui-I; Chen, Chinpiao

    2014-11-15

    The interactions of gefitinib (Iressa) in EGFR are hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces through quinazoline and aniline rings. However the morpholino group of gefitinib is poorly ordered due to its weak electron density. A series of novel piperazino analogues of gefitinib where morpholino group substituted with various piperazino groups were designed and synthesized. Most of them indicated significant anti-cancer activities against human cancer cell lines. In particular, compounds 52-54 showed excellent potency against cancer cells. Convergent synthetic approach has been developed for the synthesis of gefitinib intermediate which can lead to gefitinib as well as numerous analogues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cellular Cations Control Conformational Switching of Inositol Pyrophosphate Analogues

    PubMed Central

    Hager, Anastasia; Wu, Mingxuan; Wang, Huanchen; Brown, Nathaniel W.; Shears, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    The inositol pyrophosphate messengers (PP-InsPs) are emerging as an important class of cellular regulators. These molecules have been linked to numerous biological processes, including insulin secretion and cancer cell migration, but how they trigger such a wide range of cellular responses has remained unanswered in many cases. Here, we show that the PP-InsPs exhibit complex speciation behaviour and propose that a unique conformational switching mechanism could contribute to their multifunctional effects. We synthesised non-hydrolysable bisphosphonate analogues and crystallised the analogues in complex with mammalian PPIP5K2 kinase. Subsequently, the bisphosphonate analogues were used to investigate the protonation sequence, metal-coordination properties, and conformation in solution. Remarkably, the presence of potassium and magnesium ions enabled the analogues to adopt two different conformations near physiological pH. Understanding how the intrinsic chemical properties of the PP-InsPs can contribute to their complex signalling outputs will be essential to elucidate their regulatory functions. PMID:27460418

  6. [Synthesis and cytotoxicity of novel phosphorusless analogues of edelfosine].

    PubMed

    Romanova, S G; Shtil', A A; Serebrennikova, G A

    2008-01-01

    Modified series of phosphorusless edelfosine analogues bearing the polar heads of aliphatic bases, N,N-dimethylethanolamine and N,N,N(1),N(1)-tetramethylethylenediamine, were synthesized, with the length of the spacer varying from three to four methylene units. The cytotoxic characteristics of the compounds synthesized were studied.

  7. Synthesis and binding studies of some epibatidine analogues.

    PubMed

    Rádl, S; Hezký, P; Hafner, W; Budesínský, M; Hejnová, L

    2000-01-03

    A series of epibatidine analogues and their positional isomers bearing an 8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane moiety is described. Some of the compounds, especially those containing 8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-2-ene moiety show high affinity for the nicotinic cholinergic receptor.

  8. An Analysis of an Autoclitic Analogue in Pigeons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuroda, Toshikazu; Lattal, Kennon A.; García-Penagos, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Using a conditional discrimination procedure, pigeons were exposed to a nonverbal analogue of qualifying autoclitics such as "definitely" and "maybe." It has been suggested that these autoclitics are similar to tacts except that they are under the control of private discriminative stimuli. Instead of the conventional assumption…

  9. Mutasynthesis of fluorinated pactamycin analogues and their antimalarial activity.

    PubMed

    Almabruk, Khaled H; Lu, Wanli; Li, Yuexin; Abugreen, Mostafa; Kelly, Jane X; Mahmud, Taifo

    2013-04-05

    A mutasynthetic strategy has been used to generate fluorinated TM-025 and TM-026, two biosynthetically engineered pactamycin analogues produced by Streptomyces pactum ATCC 27456. The fluorinated compounds maintain excellent activity and selectivity toward chloroquine-sensitive and multidrug-resistant strains of malarial parasites as the parent compounds. The results also provide insights into the biosynthesis of 3-aminobenzoic acid in S. pactum.

  10. q-bosons and the q-analogue quantized field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Charles A.

    1995-01-01

    The q-analogue coherent states are used to identify physical signatures for the presence of a 1-analogue quantized radiation field in the q-CS classical limits where the absolute value of z is large. In this quantum-optics-like limit, the fractional uncertainties of most physical quantities (momentum, position, amplitude, phase) which characterize the quantum field are O(1). They only vanish as O(1/absolute value of z) when q = 1. However, for the number operator, N, and the N-Hamiltonian for a free q-boson gas, H(sub N) = h(omega)(N + 1/2), the fractional uncertainties do still approach zero. A signature for q-boson counting statistics is that (Delta N)(exp 2)/ (N) approaches 0 as the absolute value of z approaches infinity. Except for its O(1) fractional uncertainty, the q-generalization of the Hermitian phase operator of Pegg and Barnett, phi(sub q), still exhibits normal classical behavior. The standard number-phase uncertainty-relation, Delta(N) Delta phi(sub q) = 1/2, and the approximate commutation relation, (N, phi(sub q)) = i, still hold for the single-mode q-analogue quantized field. So, N and phi(sub q) are almost canonically conjugate operators in the q-CS classical limit. The q-analogue CS's minimize this uncertainty relation for moderate (absolute value of z)(exp 2).

  11. Trehalose Analogues: Latest Insights in Properties and Biocatalytic Production

    PubMed Central

    Walmagh, Maarten; Zhao, Renfei; Desmet, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Trehalose (α-d-glucopyranosyl α-d-glucopyranoside) is a non-reducing sugar with unique stabilizing properties due to its symmetrical, low energy structure consisting of two 1,1-anomerically bound glucose moieties. Many applications of this beneficial sugar have been reported in the novel food (nutricals), medical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Trehalose analogues, like lactotrehalose (α-d-glucopyranosyl α-d-galactopyranoside) or galactotrehalose (α-d-galactopyranosyl α-d-galactopyranoside), offer similar benefits as trehalose, but show additional features such as prebiotic or low-calorie sweetener due to their resistance against hydrolysis during digestion. Unfortunately, large-scale chemical production processes for trehalose analogues are not readily available at the moment due to the lack of efficient synthesis methods. Most of the procedures reported in literature suffer from low yields, elevated costs and are far from environmentally friendly. “Greener” alternatives found in the biocatalysis field, including galactosidases, trehalose phosphorylases and TreT-type trehalose synthases are suggested as primary candidates for trehalose analogue production instead. Significant progress has been made in the last decade to turn these into highly efficient biocatalysts and to broaden the variety of useful donor and acceptor sugars. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of the latest insights and future perspectives in trehalose analogue chemistry, applications and production pathways with emphasis on biocatalysis. PMID:26084050

  12. Synthesis of Novel Isochromen-1-one analogues of Etodolac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napoleon, A. A.; Sharma, Vijay; Aggile, Kadirappa

    2017-11-01

    In the present work, anti-inflammatory drug based novel isochromen-1-one, their thio and N-methylated analogues were synthesized from the etodolac bulk drug, 1. All the synthesized compounds were purified and successfully characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and Mass spectroscopy. All the derivatives procured are with remarkable yields from 67-72%.

  13. Thalidomide analogue CC-3052 reduces HIV+ neutrophil apoptosis in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Guckian, M; Dransfield, I; Hay, P; Dalgleish, A G

    2000-01-01

    Thalidomide has significant immunomodulatory properties and has been used successfully in the treatment of oral ulcers and wasting in HIV patients. However, its use is limited by its poor bioavailability due to low solubility and short half life in solution, and teratogenic and neurotoxic side-effects. Recently, water-soluble analogues of thalidomide with significantly greater immunomodulatory activity and reduced side-effects have become available. We examined the effect of thalidomide and one analogue, CC-3052, on neutrophil apoptosis following culture for 20 h in vitro. Apoptosis was assessed by reduced CD16 expression and Annexin V binding using flow cytometry. Thalidomide or CC-3052 alone had no effect on neutrophil apoptosis when used at physiological levels. However, when used together with prostaglandin E2 (10−7 m), a potent adenylate cyclase activator, CC-3052 but not thalidomide (both 10−5 m) reduced apoptosis in neutrophils from normal and HIV+ donors. The reduced apoptosis could not be attributed to the ability of CC-3052 to reduce tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) production, but may be due to its PDE4 inhibitor properties, as it increased [cAMP]i, and mimicked the effect of increasing [cAMP]i using dibutryl cAMP, a membrane-permeable analogue of cAMP. The results suggest a role for thalidomide analogue CC-3052 in reducing persistent activation of the TNF-α system in HIV without markedly impairing neutrophil viability. PMID:10971513

  14. Charged Analogues of Henning Knutsen Type Solutions in General Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Y. K.; Kumar, Sachin; Pratibha

    2011-11-01

    In the present article, we have found charged analogues of Henning Knutsen's interior solutions which join smoothly to the Reissner-Nordstrom metric at the pressure free interface. The solutions are singularity free and analyzed numerically with respect to pressure, energy-density and charge-density in details. The solutions so obtained also present the generalization of A.L. Mehra's solutions.

  15. A Macroscopic Analogue of the Nuclear Pairing Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    A macroscopic system involving permanent magnets is used as an analogue to nucleons in a nucleus to illustrate the significance of the pairing interaction. This illustrates that the view of the total nuclear energy based only on the nucleon occupancy of the energy levels can yield erroneous results and it is only when the pairing interaction is…

  16. Antimalarial and antileishmanial activities of phytophenolics and their synthetic analogues

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Thirty-seven phytophenolics and their synthetic analogues were evaluated for activity against two protozoal pathogens, Leishmania donovani and Plasmodium falciparum (D6 and W2 clone), respectively. 4,6-Dimethoxyaurone demonstrated the highest activity with IC50 values of 13.2 uM and 16.9 uM against ...

  17. Transition States and transition state analogue interactions with enzymes.

    PubMed

    Schramm, Vern L

    2015-04-21

    Enzymatic transition states have lifetimes of a few femtoseconds (fs). Computational analysis of enzyme motions leading to transition state formation suggests that local catalytic site motions on the fs time scale provide the mechanism to locate transition states. An experimental test of protein fs motion and its relation to transition state formation can be provided by isotopically heavy proteins. Heavy enzymes have predictable mass-altered bond vibration states without altered electrostatic properties, according to the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. On-enzyme chemistry is slowed in most heavy proteins, consistent with altered protein bond frequencies slowing the search for the transition state. In other heavy enzymes, structural changes involved in reactant binding and release are also influenced. Slow protein motions associated with substrate binding and catalytic site preorganization are essential to allow the subsequent fs motions to locate the transition state and to facilitate the efficient release of products. In the catalytically competent geometry, local groups move in stochastic atomic motion on the fs time scale, within transition state-accessible conformations created by slower protein motions. The fs time scale for the transition state motions does not permit thermodynamic equilibrium between the transition state and stable enzyme states. Isotopically heavy enzymes provide a diagnostic tool for fast coupled protein motions to transition state formation and mass-dependent conformational changes. The binding of transition state analogue inhibitors is the opposite in catalytic time scale to formation of the transition state but is related by similar geometries of the enzyme-transition state and enzyme-inhibitor interactions. While enzymatic transition states have lifetimes as short as 10(-15) s, transition state analogues can bind tightly to enzymes with release rates greater than 10(3) s. Tight-binding transition state analogues stabilize the rare but

  18. Non-robust numerical simulations of analogue extension experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naliboff, John; Buiter, Susanne

    2016-04-01

    Numerical and analogue models of lithospheric deformation provide significant insight into the tectonic processes that lead to specific structural and geophysical observations. As these two types of models contain distinct assumptions and tradeoffs, investigations drawing conclusions from both can reveal robust links between first-order processes and observations. Recent studies have focused on detailed comparisons between numerical and analogue experiments in both compressional and extensional tectonics, sometimes involving multiple lithospheric deformation codes and analogue setups. While such comparisons often show good agreement on first-order deformation styles, results frequently diverge on second-order structures, such as shear zone dip angles or spacing, and in certain cases even on first-order structures. Here, we present finite-element experiments that are designed to directly reproduce analogue "sandbox" extension experiments at the cm-scale. We use material properties and boundary conditions that are directly taken from analogue experiments and use a Drucker-Prager failure model to simulate shear zone formation in sand. We find that our numerical experiments are highly sensitive to numerous numerical parameters. For example, changes to the numerical resolution, velocity convergence parameters and elemental viscosity averaging commonly produce significant changes in first- and second-order structures accommodating deformation. The sensitivity of the numerical simulations to small parameter changes likely reflects a number of factors, including, but not limited to, high angles of internal friction assigned to sand, complex, unknown interactions between the brittle sand (used as an upper crust equivalent) and viscous silicone (lower crust), highly non-linear strain weakening processes and poor constraints on the cohesion of sand. Our numerical-analogue comparison is hampered by (a) an incomplete knowledge of the fine details of sand failure and sand

  19. Neurochemical binding profiles of novel indole and benzofuran MDMA analogues.

    PubMed

    Shimshoni, Jakob A; Winkler, Ilan; Golan, Ezekiel; Nutt, David

    2017-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in numerous clinical trials. In the present study, we have characterized the neurochemical binding profiles of three MDMA-benzofuran analogues (1-(benzofuran-5-yl)-propan-2-amine, 5-APB; 1-(benzofuran-6-yl)-N-methylpropan-2-amine, 6-MAPB; 1-(benzofuran-5-yl)-N-methylpropan-2-amine, 5-MAPB) and one MDMA-indole analogue (1-(1H-indol-5-yl)-2-methylamino-propan-1-ol, 5-IT). These compounds were screened as potential second-generation anti-PTSD drugs, against a battery of human and non-human receptors, transporters, and enzymes, and their potencies as 5-HT 2 receptor agonist and monoamine uptake inhibitors determined. All MDMA analogues displayed high binding affinities for 5-HT 2a,b,c and NE α2 receptors, as well as significant 5-HT, DA, and NE uptake inhibition. 5-APB revealed significant agonist activity at the 5-HT 2a,b,c receptors, while 6-MAPB, 5-MAPB, and 5-IT exhibited significant agonist activity at the 5-HT 2c receptor. There was a lack of correlation between the results of functional uptake and the monoamine transporter binding assay. MDMA analogues emerged as potent and selective monoamine oxidase A inhibitors. Based on 6-MAPB favorable pharmacological profile, it was further subjected to IC 50 determination for monoamine transporters. Overall, all MDMA analogues displayed higher monoamine receptor/transporter binding affinities and agonist activity at the 5-HT 2a,c receptors as compared to MDMA.

  20. Cysteine analogues potentiate glucose-induced insulin release in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Ammon, H.P.; Hehl, K.H.; Enz, G.

    1986-12-01

    In rat pancreatic islets, cysteine analogues, including glutathione, acetylcysteine, cysteamine, D-penicillamine, L-cysteine ethyl ester, and cysteine-potentiated glucose (11.1 mM) induced insulin secretion in a concentration-dependent manner. Their maximal effects were similar and occurred at approximately 0.05, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.0 mM, respectively. At substimulatory glucose levels (2.8 mM), insulin release was not affected by these compounds. In contrast, thiol compounds, structurally different from cysteine and its analogues, such as mesna, tiopronin, meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), dimercaprol (BAL), beta-thio-D-glucose, as well as those cysteine analogues that lack a free-thiol group, including L-cystine, cystamine, D-penicillamine disulfide, S-carbocysteine, and S-carbamoyl-L-cysteine, did not enhancemore » insulin release at stimulatory glucose levels (11.1 mM); cystine (5 mM) was inhibitory. These in vitro data indicate that among the thiols tested here, only cysteine and its analogues potentiate glucose-induced insulin secretion, whereas thiols that are structurally not related to cysteine do not. This suggests that a cysteine moiety in the molecule is necessary for the insulinotropic effect. For their synergistic action to glucose, the availability of a sulfhydryl group is also a prerequisite. The maximal synergistic action is similar for all cysteine analogues tested, whereas the potency of action is different, suggesting similarity in the mechanism of action but differences in the affinity to the secretory system.« less

  1. Metric optimisation for analogue forecasting by simulated annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bliefernicht, J.; Bárdossy, A.

    2009-04-01

    It is well known that weather patterns tend to recur from time to time. This property of the atmosphere is used by analogue forecasting techniques. They have a long history in weather forecasting and there are many applications predicting hydrological variables at the local scale for different lead times. The basic idea of the technique is to identify past weather situations which are similar (analogue) to the predicted one and to take the local conditions of the analogues as forecast. But the forecast performance of the analogue method depends on user-defined criteria like the choice of the distance function and the size of the predictor domain. In this study we propose a new methodology of optimising both criteria by minimising the forecast error with simulated annealing. The performance of the methodology is demonstrated for the probability forecast of daily areal precipitation. It is compared with a traditional analogue forecasting algorithm, which is used operational as an element of a hydrological forecasting system. The study is performed for several meso-scale catchments located in the Rhine basin in Germany. The methodology is validated by a jack-knife method in a perfect prognosis framework for a period of 48 years (1958-2005). The predictor variables are derived from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data set. The Brier skill score and the economic value are determined to evaluate the forecast skill and value of the technique. In this presentation we will present the concept of the optimisation algorithm and the outcome of the comparison. It will be also demonstrated how a decision maker should apply a probability forecast to maximise the economic benefit from it.

  2. Synthesis, antimycobacterial evaluation and pharmacophore modeling of analogues of the natural product formononetin.

    PubMed

    Mutai, Peggoty; Pavadai, Elumalai; Wiid, Ian; Ngwane, Andile; Baker, Bienyameen; Chibale, Kelly

    2015-06-15

    The synthesis and antimycobacterial activity of formononetin analogues is hereby reported. Formononetin and its analogue 11E showed 88% and 95% growth inhibition, respectively, against the H37Rv strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Pharmacophore modeling studies indicated that the presence of a hydroxyl group in formononetin and its analogues, is crucial for maintaining activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. An analogue conceptual rainfall-runoff model for educational purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrnegger, Mathew; Riedl, Michael; Schulz, Karsten

    2016-04-01

    Conceptual rainfall-runoff models, in which runoff processes are modelled with a series of connected linear and non-linear reservoirs, remain widely applied tools in science and practice. Additionally, the concept is appreciated in teaching due to its somewhat simplicity in explaining and exploring hydrological processes of catchments. However, when a series of reservoirs are used, the model system becomes highly parametrized and complex and the traceability of the model results becomes more difficult to explain to an audience not accustomed to numerical modelling. Since normally the simulations are performed with a not visible digital code, the results are also not easily comprehensible. This contribution therefore presents a liquid analogue model, in which a conceptual rainfall-runoff model is reproduced by a physical model. This consists of different acrylic glass containers representing different storage components within a catchment, e.g. soil water or groundwater storage. The containers are equipped and connected with pipes, in which water movement represents different flow processes, e.g. surface runoff, percolation or base flow. Water from a storage container is pumped to the upper part of the model and represents effective rainfall input. The water then flows by gravity through the different pipes and storages. Valves are used for controlling the flows within the analogue model, comparable to the parameterization procedure in numerical models. Additionally, an inexpensive microcontroller-based board and sensors are used to measure storage water levels, with online visualization of the states as time series data, building a bridge between the analogue and digital world. The ability to physically witness the different flows and water levels in the storages makes the analogue model attractive to the audience. Hands-on experiments can be performed with students, in which different scenarios or catchment types can be simulated, not only with the analogue but

  4. Synthesis and antioxidant activity of peptide-based ebselen analogues.

    PubMed

    Satheeshkumar, Kandhan; Mugesh, Govindasamy

    2011-04-18

    A series of di- and tripeptide-based ebselen analogues has been synthesized. The compounds were characterized by (1)H, (13)C, and (77)Se NMR spectroscopy and mass spectral techniques. The glutathione peroxidase (GPx)-like antioxidant activity has been studied by using H(2)O(2) , tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBuOOH), and cumene hydroperoxide (Cum-OOH) as substrates, and glutathione (GSH) as a cosubstrate. Although all the peptide-based compounds have a selenazole ring similar to that of ebselen, the GPx activity of these compounds highly depends on the nature of the peptide moiety attached to the nitrogen atom of the selenazole ring. It was observed that the introduction of a phenylalanine (Phe) amino acid residue in the N-terminal reduces the activity in all three peroxide systems. On the other hand, the introduction of aliphatic amino acid residues such as valine (Val) significantly enhances the GPx activity of the ebselen analogues. The difference in the catalytic activity of dipeptide-based ebselen derivatives can be ascribed mainly to the change in the reactivity of these compounds toward GSH and peroxide. Although the presence of the Val-Ala-CO(2) Me moiety facilitates the formation of a catalytically active selenol species, the reaction of ebselen analogues that has a Phe-Ile-CO(2) Me residue with GSH does not generate the corresponding selenol. To understand the antioxidant activity of the peptide-based ebselen analogues in the absence of GSH, these compounds were studied for their ability to inhibit peroxynitrite (PN)-mediated nitration of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and oxidation of dihydrorhodamine 123. In contrast to the GPx activity, the PN-scavenging activity of the Phe-based peptide analogues was found to be comparable to that of the Val-based compounds. However, the introduction of an additional Phe residue to the ebselen analogue that had a Val-Ala dipeptide significantly reduced the potency of the parent compound in PN-mediated nitration. Copyright

  5. Some fluorescence properties of dimethylaminochalcone and its novel cyclic analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomečková, Vladimíra; Poškrobová, Martina; Štefanišinová, Miroslava; Perjési, Pál

    2009-12-01

    This paper demonstrates the basic character (polarity, solubility, colour, absorption and fluorescence quantum yield) of synthetic dimethylaminochalcone ( 1) and its cyclic analogues measured in toluene, chloroform, dimethylsulfoxide and ethanol, which have been studied by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The biologically active dye 4'-dimethylaminochalcone ( 1b) and its less flexible analogues 4-dimethylaminoindanone ( 2b), -tetralone ( 3b), and -benzosuberone ( 4b) are lipophilic molecules that displayed the best solubility in toluene and chloroform. The highest fluorescence and quantum yields of compounds 1 and 2 have been obtained in DMSO and chloroform. Quenching effect of fluorescence compounds ( 1- 4) has been studied in the mixture of the most polar organic solvents DMSO and water. In the presence of water, fluorescence of compound 1 has been quenched the best from all studied chalcones and emission maxima of molecules 1- 4 have been shifted to the longer wavelengths. Quenching effect of fluorescence by water was in order 1 > 2 > 3 > 4.

  6. Aminopropyl carbazole analogues as potent enhancers of neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hye Jin; Kong, Sun-Young; Park, Min-Hye; Cho, Yongsung; Kim, Sung-Eun; Shin, Jae-Yeon; Jung, Sunghye; Lee, Jiyoun; Farhanullah; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Jeewoo

    2013-11-15

    Neural stem cells are multipotent and self-renewing cells that can differentiate into new neurons and hold great promise for treating various neurological disorders including multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. Small molecules that can trigger neurogenesis and neuroprotection are particularly useful not only because of their therapeutic implications but also because they can provide an invaluable tool to study the mechanisms of neurogenesis. In this report, we have developed and screened 25 aminopropyl carbazole derivatives that can enhance neurogenesis of cultured neural stem cells. Among these analogues, compound 9 demonstrated an excellent proneurogenic and neuroprotective activity with no apparent toxicity. We believe that compound 9 can serve as an excellent lead to develop various analogues and to study the underlying mechanisms of neurogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular modeling of GW 501516 analogues.

    PubMed

    Ciocoiu, Calin C; Ravna, Aina W; Sylte, Ingebrigt; Hansen, Trond Vidar

    2010-11-01

    Eleven analogues of GW 501516 (1) were prepared and subjected to biological testing in a semi-high throughput human skeletal muscle cell assay. The assay testing indicated that all analogues elicited oxidation of oleic acid. Among the most potent agonists, 2e (2-{2-ethyl-4-[(4-methyl-2-(4-trifluoromethylphenyl)thiazol-5-yl)methylthio]phenoxy}-2-methylpropanoic acid), was also subjected to a luciferase-based transfection assay, which showed that this compound is a potent agonist against PPARδ and a moderate agonist against PPARα. Docking of compound 2e into PPARδ revealed that it occupied the agonist binding site and exhibited key hydrogen bonding interactions with His323, His449, and Tyr473.

  8. Neurological Effects of Bisphenol A and its Analogues

    PubMed Central

    Inadera, Hidekuni

    2015-01-01

    The endocrine disrupting chemical bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. The use of BPA-containing products in daily life makes exposure ubiquitous, and the potential human health risks of this chemical are a major public health concern. Although numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have been published on the effects of BPA on biological systems, there is controversy as to whether ordinary levels of exposure can have adverse effects in humans. However, the increasing incidence of developmental disorders is of concern, and accumulating evidence indicates that BPA has detrimental effects on neurological development. Other bisphenol analogues, used as substitutes for BPA, are also suspected of having a broad range of biological actions. The objective of this review is to summarize our current understanding of the neurobiological effects of BPA and its analogues, and to discuss preventive strategies from a public health perspective. PMID:26664253

  9. Optical analogue of relativistic Dirac solitons in binary waveguide arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, Truong X., E-mail: truong.tran@mpl.mpg.de; Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Günther-Scharowsky str. 1, 91058 Erlangen; Longhi, Stefano

    2014-01-15

    We study analytically and numerically an optical analogue of Dirac solitons in binary waveguide arrays in the presence of Kerr nonlinearity. Pseudo-relativistic soliton solutions of the coupled-mode equations describing dynamics in the array are analytically derived. We demonstrate that with the found soliton solutions, the coupled mode equations can be converted into the nonlinear relativistic 1D Dirac equation. This paves the way for using binary waveguide arrays as a classical simulator of quantum nonlinear effects arising from the Dirac equation, something that is thought to be impossible to achieve in conventional (i.e. linear) quantum field theory. -- Highlights: •An opticalmore » analogue of Dirac solitons in nonlinear binary waveguide arrays is suggested. •Analytical solutions to pseudo-relativistic solitons are presented. •A correspondence of optical coupled-mode equations with the nonlinear relativistic Dirac equation is established.« less

  10. Frequency-agile electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Xu, Quan; Su, Xiaoqiang; Ouyang, Chunmei; Xu, Ningning; Cao, Wei; Zhang, Yuping; Li, Quan; Hu, Cong; Gu, Jianqiang; Tian, Zhen; Azad, Abul K; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili

    2016-10-01

    Recently reported active metamaterial analogues of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) are promising in developing novel optical components, such as active slow light devices. However, most of the previous works have focused on manipulating the EIT resonance strength at a fixed characteristic frequency and, therefore, realized on-to-off switching responses. To further extend the functionalities of the EIT effect, here we present a frequency tunable EIT analogue in the terahertz regime by integrating photoactive silicon into the metamaterial unit cell. A tuning range from 0.82 to 0.74 THz for the EIT resonance frequency is experimentally observed by optical pump-terahertz probe measurements, allowing a frequency tunable group delay of the terahertz pulses. This straightforward approach delivers frequency agility of the EIT resonance and may enable novel ultrafast tunable devices for integrated plasmonic circuits.

  11. Analogue Transformations in Physics and their Application to Acoustics

    PubMed Central

    García-Meca, C.; Carloni, S.; Barceló, C.; Jannes, G.; Sánchez-Dehesa, J.; Martínez, A.

    2013-01-01

    Transformation optics has shaped up a revolutionary electromagnetic design paradigm, enabling scientists to build astonishing devices such as invisibility cloaks. Unfortunately, the application of transformation techniques to other branches of physics is often constrained by the structure of the field equations. We develop here a complete transformation method using the idea of analogue spacetimes. The method is general and could be considered as a new paradigm for controlling waves in different branches of physics, from acoustics in quantum fluids to graphene electronics. As an application, we derive an “analogue transformation acoustics” formalism that naturally allows the use of transformations mixing space and time or involving moving fluids, both of which were impossible with the standard approach. To demonstrate the power of our method, we give explicit designs of a dynamic compressor, a spacetime cloak for acoustic waves and a carpet cloak for a moving aircraft. PMID:23774575

  12. Antifreeze glycopeptide analogues: microwave-enhanced synthesis and functional studies.

    PubMed

    Heggemann, Carolin; Budke, Carsten; Schomburg, Benjamin; Majer, Zsuzsa; Wissbrock, Marco; Koop, Thomas; Sewald, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    Antifreeze glycoproteins enable life at temperatures below the freezing point of physiological solutions. They usually consist of the repetitive tripeptide unit (-Ala-Ala-Thr-) with the disaccharide alpha-D-galactosyl-(1-3)-beta-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine attached to each hydroxyl group of threonine. Monoglycosylated analogues have been synthesized from the corresponding monoglycosylated threonine building block by microwave-assisted solid phase peptide synthesis. This method allows the preparation of analogues containing sequence variations which are not accessible by other synthetic methods. As antifreeze glycoproteins consist of numerous isoforms they are difficult to obtain in pure form from natural sources. The synthetic peptides have been structurally analyzed by CD and NMR spectroscopy in proton exchange experiments revealing a structure as flexible as reported for the native peptides. Microphysical recrystallization tests show an ice structuring influence and ice growth inhibition depending on the concentration, chain length and sequence of the peptides.

  13. Antimalarial activity of abietane ferruginol analogues possessing a phthalimide group.

    PubMed

    González, Miguel A; Clark, Julie; Connelly, Michele; Rivas, Fatima

    2014-11-15

    The abietane-type diterpenoid (+)-ferruginol, a bioactive compound isolated from New Zealand's Miro tree (Podocarpus ferruginea), displays relevant pharmacological properties, including antimicrobial, cardioprotective, anti-oxidative, anti-plasmodial, leishmanicidal, anti-ulcerogenic, anti-inflammatory and anticancer. Herein, we demonstrate that ferruginol (1) and some phthalimide containing analogues 2-12 have potential antimalarial activity. The compounds were evaluated against malaria strains 3D7 and K1, and cytotoxicity was measured against a mammalian cell line panel. A promising lead, compound 3, showed potent activity with an EC50 = 86 nM (3D7 strain), 201 nM (K1 strain) and low cytotoxicity in mammalian cells (SI>290). Some structure-activity relationships have been identified for the antimalarial activity in these abietane analogues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. STAT3 Inhibitory Activity of Structurally Simplified Withaferin A Analogues.

    PubMed

    Tahara, Teruyuki; Streit, Ursula; Pelish, Henry E; Shair, Matthew D

    2017-04-07

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a component of the JAK/STAT pathway. Therapeutic inhibition of STAT3 has been of high interest, as its aberrant activation has been linked to cancer, inflammation, and other human diseases. The withanolide family natural product withaferin A (1) inhibits STAT3 activation. We designed, synthesized, and evaluated simplified withanolide analogues SLW1 (3) and SLW2 (4), and found that SLW1 retained the STAT3 inhibitory activity of withaferin A.

  15. Evaluation of anti-HIV-1 mutagenic nucleoside analogues.

    PubMed

    Vivet-Boudou, Valérie; Isel, Catherine; El Safadi, Yazan; Smyth, Redmond P; Laumond, Géraldine; Moog, Christiane; Paillart, Jean-Christophe; Marquet, Roland

    2015-01-02

    Because of their high mutation rates, RNA viruses and retroviruses replicate close to the threshold of viability. Their existence as quasi-species has pioneered the concept of "lethal mutagenesis" that prompted us to synthesize pyrimidine nucleoside analogues with antiviral activity in cell culture consistent with an accumulation of deleterious mutations in the HIV-1 genome. However, testing all potentially mutagenic compounds in cell-based assays is tedious and costly. Here, we describe two simple in vitro biophysical/biochemical assays that allow prediction of the mutagenic potential of deoxyribonucleoside analogues. The first assay compares the thermal stabilities of matched and mismatched base pairs in DNA duplexes containing or not the nucleoside analogues as follows. A promising candidate should display a small destabilization of the matched base pair compared with the natural nucleoside and the smallest gap possible between the stabilities of the matched and mismatched base pairs. From this assay, we predicted that two of our compounds, 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxyuridine and 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxycytidine, should be mutagenic. The second in vitro reverse transcription assay assesses DNA synthesis opposite nucleoside analogues inserted into a template strand and subsequent extension of the newly synthesized base pairs. Once again, only 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxyuridine and 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxycytidine are predicted to be efficient mutagens. The predictive potential of our fast and easy first line screens was confirmed by detailed analysis of the mutation spectrum induced by the compounds in cell culture because only compounds 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxyuridine and 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxycytidine were found to increase the mutation frequency by 3.1- and 3.4-fold, respectively. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Imaging, biodistribution and therapy potential of halogenated tamoxifen analogues.

    PubMed

    Yang, D J; Li, C; Kuang, L R; Price, J E; Buzdar, A U; Tansey, W; Cherif, A; Gretzer, M; Kim, E E; Wallace, S

    1994-01-01

    Tamoxifen binds to estrogen receptors (ERs) and prevents breast cancer cell proliferation. This study is aimed at developing a ligand for imaging ER (+) breast tumors by positron emission tomography (PET) or single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). [18F]-Labeled tamoxifen analogue ([18F]FTX) was prepared in 30-40% yield and [131I]-labeled tamoxifen analogue ([131I]ITX) was prepared in 20-25% yield. In mammary tumor-bearing rats, the biodistribution of [18F]FTX at 2 h showed a tumor uptake value (% injected dose/gram tissue) of 0.41 +/- 0.07; when rats were pretreated with diethylstilbestrol (DES), the value changed to 0.24 +/- 0.017. [131I]ITX at 6 h showed a tumor uptake value of 0.26 +/- 0.166; when rats were pretreated with DES, the value changed to 0.22 +/- 0.044. Priming tumor-bearing rats with estradiol, a tumor uptake value for [131I]ITX was increased to 0.48 +/- 0.107 at 6 h. In the [3H]estradiol receptor assay, tumors had a mean estrogen receptor density of 7.5 fmol/mg of protein. In gamma scintigraphic imaging studies with [131I]ITX, the rabbit uterus uptake can be blocked by pretreatment with DES. Both iodo-tamoxifen and tamoxifen reduced ER(+) breast tumor growth at the dose of 50 micrograms in tumor-bearing mice. The findings indicate that tamoxifen analogue uptake in tumors occurs via an ER-mediated process. Both analogues should have potential for diagnosing functioning ER(+) breast cancer.

  17. Evaluation of Anti-HIV-1 Mutagenic Nucleoside Analogues*

    PubMed Central

    Vivet-Boudou, Valérie; Isel, Catherine; El Safadi, Yazan; Smyth, Redmond P.; Laumond, Géraldine; Moog, Christiane; Paillart, Jean-Christophe; Marquet, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Because of their high mutation rates, RNA viruses and retroviruses replicate close to the threshold of viability. Their existence as quasi-species has pioneered the concept of “lethal mutagenesis” that prompted us to synthesize pyrimidine nucleoside analogues with antiviral activity in cell culture consistent with an accumulation of deleterious mutations in the HIV-1 genome. However, testing all potentially mutagenic compounds in cell-based assays is tedious and costly. Here, we describe two simple in vitro biophysical/biochemical assays that allow prediction of the mutagenic potential of deoxyribonucleoside analogues. The first assay compares the thermal stabilities of matched and mismatched base pairs in DNA duplexes containing or not the nucleoside analogues as follows. A promising candidate should display a small destabilization of the matched base pair compared with the natural nucleoside and the smallest gap possible between the stabilities of the matched and mismatched base pairs. From this assay, we predicted that two of our compounds, 5-hydroxymethyl-2′-deoxyuridine and 5-hydroxymethyl-2′-deoxycytidine, should be mutagenic. The second in vitro reverse transcription assay assesses DNA synthesis opposite nucleoside analogues inserted into a template strand and subsequent extension of the newly synthesized base pairs. Once again, only 5-hydroxymethyl-2′-deoxyuridine and 5-hydroxymethyl-2′-deoxycytidine are predicted to be efficient mutagens. The predictive potential of our fast and easy first line screens was confirmed by detailed analysis of the mutation spectrum induced by the compounds in cell culture because only compounds 5-hydroxymethyl-2′-deoxyuridine and 5-hydroxymethyl-2′-deoxycytidine were found to increase the mutation frequency by 3.1- and 3.4-fold, respectively. PMID:25398876

  18. HPCO—A Phosphorus‐Containing Analogue of Isocyanic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Hinz, Alexander; Labbow, René; Rennick, Chris; Schulz, Axel

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We describe the isolation and spectroscopic characterization of the heavier phosphorus‐containing analogue of isocyanic acid (HPCO), and its isotopologue (DPCO). This fundamental small molecule, which has been postulated to exist in interstellar space, has thus far only been observed at low gas phase concentrations or in inert gas matrices. In this report we describe its synthesis, spectroscopic properties, and reactivity in solution. PMID:28252258

  19. Synthesis and preliminary antileukemic studies of cyclic mitoguazone analogues.

    PubMed

    Krezel, I; Graczyk, J

    1998-03-01

    Analogues of mitoguazone bearing a terminal amidino group as a part of the seven-membered ring of 1,3-diazepine and six-membered ring of pyrimidine were prepared in order to evaluate in vivo antileukemic action towards L1210 leukemia in mice. Preliminary pharmacological screening showed that the investigated compounds increase the life span (T/C%) of the treated mice in comparison with the untreated animals. The strongest antineoplastic effect was exhibited by compound 8.

  20. Cinnamoylated chloroquine analogues: A new structural class of antimalarial agents.

    PubMed

    Gayam, Venkatareddy; Ravi, Subban

    2017-07-28

    A novel series of cinnamoylated chloroquine hybrid analogues were synthesized and evaluated as antimalarial agents. The trans cinnamic acid derivatives (3-8) were synthesized by utilizing substituted aldehydes and malanoic acid in DMF catalysed by DABCO. The final cinnamoylated chloroquine analogues (9-14) were synthesized by utilizing DCC coupling reagent. The amido chloroquine (17) was prepared from acid (16) and compound 2 in benzene using SOCl 2 as chlorinating agent. The corresponding ester (15) was prepared from 2-hydroxy acetophenone and 2-bromoacetates in actonitrile in presence of K 2 CO 3  as base followed by basic hydrolysis. The preparation of amide based chloroquine-chalcone analogues (18-22), were obtained by the combination of amido chloroquine (17) and aldehydes in 10% aq. KOH in methanol at room temperature. Further we prepared epichlorohydrin based chloroquine-chalcone analogues (25-28), by reacting the epoxide (24a, 24b and 24c) with 2 and methelenedioxy aniline. In vitro antimalarial activity against chloroquine sensitive strain 3D7, chloroquine resistant strain K1 of P. falciparum and in vitro cytotoxicity of compounds using VERO cell line was carried out. The synthesized molecules showed significant in vitro antimalarial activity especially against CQ resistant strain (K1). Among tested compounds, 13, 9 and 10 were found to be the most potent compounds of the series with IC 50 value of 44.06, 48.04 and 59.37 nM against chloroquine resistant K1 strain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Do film soundtracks contain nonlinear analogues to influence emotion?

    PubMed

    Blumstein, Daniel T; Davitian, Richard; Kaye, Peter D

    2010-12-23

    A variety of vertebrates produce nonlinear vocalizations when they are under duress. By their very nature, vocalizations containing nonlinearities may sound harsh and are somewhat unpredictable; observations that are consistent with them being particularly evocative to those hearing them. We tested the hypothesis that humans capitalize on this seemingly widespread vertebrate response by creating nonlinear analogues in film soundtracks to evoke particular emotions. We used lists of highly regarded films to generate a set of highly ranked action/adventure, dramatic, horror and war films. We then scored the presence of a variety of nonlinear analogues in these film soundtracks. Dramatic films suppressed noise of all types, contained more abrupt frequency transitions and musical sidebands, and fewer noisy screams than expected. Horror films suppressed abrupt frequency transitions and musical sidebands, but had more non-musical sidebands, and noisy screams than expected. Adventure films had more male screams than expected. Together, our results suggest that film-makers manipulate sounds to create nonlinear analogues in order to manipulate our emotional responses.

  2. Synthetic Neurotensin Analogues Are Nontoxic Analgesics for the Rabbit Cornea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Charles; Barbut, Denise; Heinemann, Murk H.; Pasternak, Gavril; Rosenblatt, Mark I.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To characterize the analgesic potency and toxicity of topical synthetic neurotensin analogues, and localize neurotensin receptors in the cornea and trigeminal ganglion. Methods. Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometry was performed on the rabbit cornea to test the analgesic dose response and duration of effect for two synthetic neurotensin analogues: NT71 and NT72. Receptors for neurotensin were localized in the murine cornea and trigeminal ganglion using quantitative PCR (qPCR), Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. In vitro toxicity of NT71, NT72, and sodium channel blockers was evaluated using cytotoxicity, single-cell migration, and scratch closure assays performed on rabbit corneal epithelial cells. In vivo toxicity of these agents was assessed using a rabbit laser phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) model and histology. Results. NT71 and NT72 induced potent analgesic effects on the rabbit cornea at concentrations between 1.0 and 2.5 mg/mL, lasting up to 180 minutes. A site-specific distribution of neurotensin receptors was observed in the murine cornea and trigeminal ganglion. NT71 and NT72 did not cause any significant in vitro or in vivo toxicity, in contrast to sodium channel blockers. Conclusions. Synthetic neurotensin analogues are potent analgesics that avoid the toxicities associated with established topical analgesic agents. Receptors for neurotensin are present in both the cornea and trigeminal ganglion. PMID:24825106

  3. Synthetic neurotensin analogues are nontoxic analgesics for the rabbit cornea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Charles; Barbut, Denise; Heinemann, Murk H; Pasternak, Gavril; Rosenblatt, Mark I

    2014-05-13

    To characterize the analgesic potency and toxicity of topical synthetic neurotensin analogues, and localize neurotensin receptors in the cornea and trigeminal ganglion. Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometry was performed on the rabbit cornea to test the analgesic dose response and duration of effect for two synthetic neurotensin analogues: NT71 and NT72. Receptors for neurotensin were localized in the murine cornea and trigeminal ganglion using quantitative PCR (qPCR), Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. In vitro toxicity of NT71, NT72, and sodium channel blockers was evaluated using cytotoxicity, single-cell migration, and scratch closure assays performed on rabbit corneal epithelial cells. In vivo toxicity of these agents was assessed using a rabbit laser phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) model and histology. NT71 and NT72 induced potent analgesic effects on the rabbit cornea at concentrations between 1.0 and 2.5 mg/mL, lasting up to 180 minutes. A site-specific distribution of neurotensin receptors was observed in the murine cornea and trigeminal ganglion. NT71 and NT72 did not cause any significant in vitro or in vivo toxicity, in contrast to sodium channel blockers. Synthetic neurotensin analogues are potent analgesics that avoid the toxicities associated with established topical analgesic agents. Receptors for neurotensin are present in both the cornea and trigeminal ganglion. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  4. Synthesis and preliminary pharmacological evaluation of asymmetric chloroquine analogues.

    PubMed

    Witiak, D T; Grattan, D A; Heaslip, R J; Rahwan, R G

    1981-06-01

    Asymmetric chloroquine analogues (1-4) were prepared of known absolute configuration in order to assess stereochemical influences on selected biological activities. Since chloroquine has been shown to possess spasmolytic properties, analogues 1-4 were tested for similar pharmacological effects on smooth-muscle contraction. The (S)- and (R)-chlorochloroquine enantiomers (1 and 2, respectively) were more potent antispasmodics than the less lipophilic (S)- and (R)-hydroxychloroquines (3 and 4, respectively) when tested against KCl- or acetylcholine-induced contractions of the isolated mouse ileum. A membrane stabilizing mechanism of action for the chloroquine analogues is proposed since neither cellular toxicity nor calcium antagonism plays a role in the spasmolytic action of these compounds. Although compounds 1-4 also inhibited PGF2 alpha-induced contractions of the ileum, 1 was significantly more potent than 2; the latter in turn was equipotent to 3 and 4. It is tentatively proposed that 1 may possess stereoselective affinity for the PGF2 alpha receptor in the ileum. This observation may be further exploited to obtain more selective profiles of biological activity through molecular manipulation.

  5. Design and synthesis of biotin analogues reversibly binding with streptavidin.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tomohiro; Aoki, Kiyoshi; Sugiyama, Akira; Doi, Hirofumi; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Shimizu, Yohei; Kanai, Motomu

    2015-04-01

    Two new biotin analogues, biotin carbonate 5 and biotin carbamate 6, have been synthesized. These molecules were designed to reversibly bind with streptavidin by replacing the hydrogen-bond donor NH group(s) of biotin's cyclic urea moiety with oxygen. Biotin carbonate 5 was synthesized from L-arabinose (7), which furnishes the desired stereochemistry at the 3,4-cis-dihydroxy groups, in 11% overall yield (over 10 steps). Synthesis of biotin carbamate 6 was accomplished from L-cysteine-derived chiral aldehyde 33 in 11% overall yield (over 7 steps). Surface plasmon resonance analysis of water-soluble biotin carbonate analogue 46 and biotin carbamate analogue 47 revealed that KD values of these compounds for binding to streptavidin were 6.7×10(-6)  M and 1.7×10(-10)  M, respectively. These values were remarkably greater than that of biotin (KD =10(-15)  M), and thus indicate the importance of the nitrogen atoms for the strong binding between biotin and streptavidin. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Synthetic Cannabis Analogues and Suicidal Behavior: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Pedro Miguel Dos Santos; Morais, Ana Sofia Félix; Madeira, Nuno Gonçalo Gomes Fernandes

    Despite growing legal control, a wide range of synthetic cannabis analogues is currently used for recreational purposes, notwithstanding their well adverse outcomes, which appear to be more frequent and more serious than those associated with cannabis use. We present the case report of a patient with paranoid schizophrenia, who attempted suicide by serious bodily harm after a single use of "Shiva Ultra Strong," a compound of several synthetic cannabis analogues. A 32-year-old male patient with paranoid schizophrenia was brought to the emergency department presenting with a severe self-inflicted wound to the neck which lacerated the right jugular vein and ipsilateral airway, and narrowly missed the carotid bifurcation. On examination, the patient exhibited psychomotor agitation and anxiety. Laboratory tests, which included routine substance use screening, proved unremarkable. The patient was admitted to the ENT Department for surgical treatment, after which he was transferred to our Psychiatry Department, exhibiting consistent improvement with his usual antipsychotic regimen, to which he had good previous adherence. Later, after discharge, he admitted to having used a smartshop drug, so-called "Shiva Ultra Strong," shortly before the suicide attempt. Although current data on the suicide risk of synthetic cannabis analogues are limited, there is growing evidence of relevant psychiatric effects after their use. Patients with serious mental disorders could prove particularly vulnerable to these drugs, resulting in severe behavioral changes and self-harm.

  7. Oxyntomodulin analogue increases energy expenditure via the glucagon receptor.

    PubMed

    Scott, R; Minnion, J; Tan, T; Bloom, S R

    2018-06-01

    The gut hormone oxyntomodulin (OXM) causes weight loss by reducing appetite and increasing energy expenditure. Several analogues are being developed to treat obesity. Exactly how oxyntomodulin works, however, remains controversial. OXM can activate both glucagon and GLP-1 receptors but no specific receptor has been identified. It is thought that the anorectic effect occurs predominantly through GLP-1 receptor activation but, to date, it has not been formally confirmed which receptor is responsible for the increased energy expenditure. We developed OX-SR, a sustained-release OXM analogue. It produces a significant and sustained increase in energy expenditure in rats as measured by indirect calorimetry. We now show that this increase in energy expenditure occurs via activation of the glucagon receptor. Blockade of the GLP-1 receptor with Exendin 9-39 does not block the increase in oxygen consumption caused by OX-SR. However, when activity at the glucagon receptor is lost, there is no increase in energy expenditure. Glucagon receptor activity therefore appears to be essential for OX-SR's effects on energy expenditure. The development of future 'dual agonist' analogues will require careful balancing of GLP-1 and glucagon receptor activities to obtain optimal effects. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Natural analogue studies as supplements to biomineralization research

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, M.B.

    1995-09-01

    Chemical reactions can alter the chemistry and crystal structure of solid objects over archeological or geological times, while preserving external physical shapes. The reactions resulting in these structures offer natural analogues to laboratory experiments in biomineralization and to biologically influenced alteration of nuclear waste packages, and thus, they offer the only available way of validating models that purport waste package behavior over archaeological or geological times. Potential uses of such analogues in the construction and validation of hypothetical mechanisms of microbiological corrosion and biomineralization are reviewed. Evidence from such analogues suggests that biofilms can control materials alteration in ways usuallymore » overlooked. The newly hypothesized mechanisms involve control by biofilms of the cation flow near the solid surface and offer plausible mechanisms for the formation of mixed-cation minerals under conditions that would lead to dealloying in abiotic experiments; they also account for the formation of unusual minerals [such as posnjakite, Cu{sub 4}SO{sub 4}(OH){sub 6{center_dot}}H{sub 2}O] and mineral morphologies unusual in corrosion [malachite, Cu{sub 2}CO{sub 3}(OH){sub 2}, rarely forms botryoidally under corrosion conditions and its occasional presence on archaeological objects that appear to have undergone microbiological corrosion may be related to biofilm phenomena].« less

  9. Simulated Milky Way analogues: implications for dark matter direct searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozorgnia, Nassim; Calore, Francesca; Schaller, Matthieu; Lovell, Mark; Bertone, Gianfranco; Frenk, Carlos S.; Crain, Robert A.; Navarro, Julio F.; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom

    2016-05-01

    We study the implications of galaxy formation on dark matter direct detection using high resolution hydrodynamic simulations of Milky Way-like galaxies simulated within the EAGLE and APOSTLE projects. We identify Milky Way analogues that satisfy observational constraints on the Milky Way rotation curve and total stellar mass. We then extract the dark matter density and velocity distribution in the Solar neighbourhood for this set of Milky Way analogues, and use them to analyse the results of current direct detection experiments. For most Milky Way analogues, the event rates in direct detection experiments obtained from the best fit Maxwellian distribution (with peak speed of 223-289 km/s) are similar to those obtained directly from the simulations. As a consequence, the allowed regions and exclusion limits set by direct detection experiments in the dark matter mass and spin-independent cross section plane shift by a few GeV compared to the Standard Halo Model, at low dark matter masses. For each dark matter mass, the halo-to-halo variation of the local dark matter density results in an overall shift of the allowed regions and exclusion limits for the cross section. However, the compatibility of the possible hints for a dark matter signal from DAMA and CDMS-Si and null results from LUX and SuperCDMS is not improved.

  10. Metal ion interaction with phosphorylated tyrosine analogue monolayers on gold.

    PubMed

    Petoral, Rodrigo M; Björefors, Fredrik; Uvdal, Kajsa

    2006-11-23

    Phosphorylated tyrosine analogue molecules (pTyr-PT) were assembled onto gold substrates, and the resulting monolayers were used for metal ion interaction studies. The monolayers were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRAS), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), both prior to and after exposure to metal ions. XPS verified the elemental composition of the molecular adsorbate and the presence of metal ions coordinated to the phosphate groups. Both the angle-dependent XPS and IRAS results were consistent with the change in the structural orientation of the pTyr-PT monolayer upon exposure to metal ions. The differential capacitance of the monolayers upon coordination of the metal ions was evaluated using EIS. These metal ions were found to significantly change the capacitance of the pTyr-PT monolayers in contrast to the nonphosphorylated tyrosine analogue (TPT). CV results showed reduced electrochemical blocking capabilities of the phosphorylated analogue monolayer when exposed to metal ions, supporting the change in the structure of the monolayer observed by XPS and IRAS. The largest change in the structure and interfacial capacitance was observed for aluminum ions, compared to calcium, magnesium, and chromium ions. This type of monolayer shows an excellent capability to coordinate metal ions and has a high potential for use as sensing layers in biochip applications to monitor the presence of metal ions.

  11. Do film soundtracks contain nonlinear analogues to influence emotion?

    PubMed Central

    Blumstein, Daniel T.; Davitian, Richard; Kaye, Peter D.

    2010-01-01

    A variety of vertebrates produce nonlinear vocalizations when they are under duress. By their very nature, vocalizations containing nonlinearities may sound harsh and are somewhat unpredictable; observations that are consistent with them being particularly evocative to those hearing them. We tested the hypothesis that humans capitalize on this seemingly widespread vertebrate response by creating nonlinear analogues in film soundtracks to evoke particular emotions. We used lists of highly regarded films to generate a set of highly ranked action/adventure, dramatic, horror and war films. We then scored the presence of a variety of nonlinear analogues in these film soundtracks. Dramatic films suppressed noise of all types, contained more abrupt frequency transitions and musical sidebands, and fewer noisy screams than expected. Horror films suppressed abrupt frequency transitions and musical sidebands, but had more non-musical sidebands, and noisy screams than expected. Adventure films had more male screams than expected. Together, our results suggest that film-makers manipulate sounds to create nonlinear analogues in order to manipulate our emotional responses. PMID:20504815

  12. Simulated Milky Way analogues: implications for dark matter direct searches

    SciTech Connect

    Bozorgnia, Nassim; Calore, Francesca; Lovell, Mark

    2016-05-01

    We study the implications of galaxy formation on dark matter direct detection using high resolution hydrodynamic simulations of Milky Way-like galaxies simulated within the EAGLE and APOSTLE projects. We identify Milky Way analogues that satisfy observational constraints on the Milky Way rotation curve and total stellar mass. We then extract the dark matter density and velocity distribution in the Solar neighbourhood for this set of Milky Way analogues, and use them to analyse the results of current direct detection experiments. For most Milky Way analogues, the event rates in direct detection experiments obtained from the best fit Maxwellian distribution (withmore » peak speed of 223–289 km/s) are similar to those obtained directly from the simulations. As a consequence, the allowed regions and exclusion limits set by direct detection experiments in the dark matter mass and spin-independent cross section plane shift by a few GeV compared to the Standard Halo Model, at low dark matter masses. For each dark matter mass, the halo-to-halo variation of the local dark matter density results in an overall shift of the allowed regions and exclusion limits for the cross section. However, the compatibility of the possible hints for a dark matter signal from DAMA and CDMS-Si and null results from LUX and SuperCDMS is not improved.« less

  13. Development of Ion Chemosensors Based on Porphyrin Analogues.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yubin; Zhu, Wei-Hong; Xie, Yongshu

    2017-02-22

    Sensing of metal ions and anions is of great importance because of their widespread distribution in environmental systems and biological processes. Colorimetric and fluorescent chemosensors based on organic molecular species have been demonstrated to be effective for the detection of various ions and possess the significant advantages of low cost, high sensitivity, and convenient implementation. Of the available classes of organic molecules, porphyrin analogues possess inherently many advantageous features, making them suitable for the design of ion chemosensors, with the targeted sensing behavior achieved and easily modulated based on their following characteristics: (1) NH moieties properly disposed for binding of anions through cooperative hydrogen-bonding interactions; (2) multiple pyrrolic N atoms or other heteroatoms for selectively chelating metal ions; (3) variability of macrocycle size and peripheral substitution for modulation of ion selectivity and sensitivity; and (4) tunable near-infrared emission and good biocompatibility. In this Review, design strategies, sensing mechanisms, and sensing performance of ion chemosensors based on porphyrin analogues are described by use of extensive examples. Ion chemosensors based on normal porphyrins and linear oligopyrroles are also briefly described. This Review provides valuable information for researchers of related areas and thus may inspire the development of more practical and effective approaches for designing high-performance ion chemosensors based on porphyrin analogues and other relevant compounds.

  14. Numerical simulation of an experimental analogue of a planetary magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Andy Sha; Li, Shule; Hartigan, Patrick; Graham, Peter; Fiksel, Gennady; Frank, Adam; Foster, John; Kuranz, Carolyn

    2015-12-01

    Recent improvements to the Omega Laser Facility's magneto-inertial fusion electrical discharge system (MIFEDS) have made it possible to generate strong enough magnetic fields in the laboratory to begin to address the physics of magnetized astrophysical flows. Here, we adapt the MHD code AstroBEAR to create 2D numerical models of an experimental analogue of a planetary magnetosphere. We track the secular evolution of the magnetosphere analogue and we show that the magnetospheric components such as the magnetopause, magnetosheath, and bow shock, should all be observable in experimental optical band thermal bremsstrahlung emissivity maps, assuming equilibrium charge state distributions of the plasma. When the magnetosphere analogue nears the steady state, the mid-plane altitude of the magnetopause from the wire surface scales as the one-half power of the ratio of the magnetic pressure at the surface of the free wire to the ram pressure of an unobstructed wind; the mid-plane thickness of the magnetosheath is directly related to the radius of the magnetopause. This behavior conforms to Chapman and Ferraro's theory of planetary magnetospheres. Although the radial dependence of the magnetic field strength differs between the case of a current-carrying wire and a typical planetary object, the major morphological features that develop when a supersonic flow passes either system are identical. Hence, this experimental concept is an attractive one for studying the dynamics of planetary magnetospheres in a controlled environment.

  15. Thymidine analogue-sparing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).

    PubMed

    Nolan, David; Mallal, Simon

    2003-02-01

    The use of alternative nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) to the thymidine analogues stavudine (d4T) and zidovudine(ZDV) has been advocated as a means of limiting long-term NRTI-associated toxicity, particularly the development of lipoatrophy or fat wasting. This approach reflects an increasing knowledge of the distinct toxicity profiles of NRTI drugs. However, recent clinical trials have demonstrated that the use of thymidine analogue NRTIs and newer alternative backbone NRTIs, such as tenofovir (TNF) and abacavir (ABC), is associated with comparable short-term efficacy and tolerability. Given the importance of toxicity profile differences in determining clinical management, it is important to recognise that d4T and ZDV cary significantly different risks for long-term NRTI toxicity. Recognising that all NRTIs, including thymidine analogues, have individual toxicity profiles provides a more appropriate basis for selecting optimal antiretroviral therapy. The safety and efficacy of TNF and ABC are also reviewed here, although the available data provide only limited knowledge of the long-term effects of these drugs in terms of toxicity and antiviral durability.

  16. Conformationally Constrained Analogues of N'-(4-t-Butylbenzyl)-N-(4-Methylsulfonylaminobenzyl)Thiourea as TRPV1 Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, HyungChul; Lim, Ju-Ok; Kang, Dong Wook; Pearce, Larry V.; Tran, Richard; Toth, Attila; Lee, Jeewoo; Blumberg, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    A series of bicyclic analogues having indan and tetrahydronaphthalene templates in the A-region were designed as conformationally constrained analogues of our previously reported potent TRPV1 antagonists (1, 3). The activities for rat TRPV1 of the conformationally restricted analogues were moderately or markedly diminished, particularly in the case of the tetrahydronaphthalene analogues. The analysis indicated that steric constraints at the benzylic position in the bicyclic analogues were an important factor for their unfavorable interaction with the receptor. PMID:18406014

  17. Quantitative comparisons of analogue models of brittle wedge dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreurs, Guido

    2010-05-01

    Analogue model experiments are widely used to gain insights into the evolution of geological structures. In this study, we present a direct comparison of experimental results of 14 analogue modelling laboratories using prescribed set-ups. A quantitative analysis of the results will document the variability among models and will allow an appraisal of reproducibility and limits of interpretation. This has direct implications for comparisons between structures in analogue models and natural field examples. All laboratories used the same frictional analogue materials (quartz and corundum sand) and prescribed model-building techniques (sieving and levelling). Although each laboratory used its own experimental apparatus, the same type of self-adhesive foil was used to cover the base and all the walls of the experimental apparatus in order to guarantee identical boundary conditions (i.e. identical shear stresses at the base and walls). Three experimental set-ups using only brittle frictional materials were examined. In each of the three set-ups the model was shortened by a vertical wall, which moved with respect to the fixed base and the three remaining sidewalls. The minimum width of the model (dimension parallel to mobile wall) was also prescribed. In the first experimental set-up, a quartz sand wedge with a surface slope of ˜20° was pushed by a mobile wall. All models conformed to the critical taper theory, maintained a stable surface slope and did not show internal deformation. In the next two experimental set-ups, a horizontal sand pack consisting of alternating quartz sand and corundum sand layers was shortened from one side by the mobile wall. In one of the set-ups a thin rigid sheet covered part of the model base and was attached to the mobile wall (i.e. a basal velocity discontinuity distant from the mobile wall). In the other set-up a basal rigid sheet was absent and the basal velocity discontinuity was located at the mobile wall. In both types of experiments

  18. The runout of granular material: from analogue to numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longchamp, Celine; Caspar, Olivier; Gygax, Remo; Podladchikov, Yury; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2014-05-01

    Rock avalanches are catastrophic events in which important granular rock masses (>106 m3) travel at velocities up to ten meters per second. The mobilized rock mass travel long distances, which in exceptional cases can reach up to tens of kilometers. Those highly destructive and uncontrollable events, give important insight to understand the interactions between the displaced masses and landscape conditions. However, as those events are not frequent, analogue and numerical modelling plays a fundamental role to better understand their behaviour. The objective of the research is to explore the propagation of rock avalanches and to compare a simple numerical model with analogue modelling. The laboratory experiments investigate the fluidlike flow of a granular mass down a slope. The flow is unconfined, following a 45° slope and spreading freely on a horizontal depositional surface. Different grainsize of calibrate material (115, 545 and 2605 μm) and substratum roughness (simulate by aluminium and sandpapers with grainsize from 16 to 425 μm) were used in order to understand their influence on the motion of a granular mass. High speed movies are recorded to analyse the behaviour of the mass during the whole experiment. The numerical model is based on the continuum mechanics approach and solving the shallow water equations. The avalanche is described from an eulerian point of view within a continuum framework as single phase of incompressible granular material following Mohr-Coulomb friction law. The combination of the fluid dynamic equation with the frictional law enables the self-channelization of the mass without any topographic constraints or special border conditions. The results obtained with the numerical model are similar to those observed with the analogue. In both cases, based on similar initial condition (slope, volume, basal friction, height of fall and initial velocity), the runout of the mass is of comparable size and the shape of the deposit matches well

  19. Reactions of trimethylphosphine analogues of auranofin with bovine serum albumin

    SciTech Connect

    Isab, A.A.; Shaw, C.F. III; Hoeschele, J.D.

    1988-10-05

    The reactions of bovine serum albumin (BSA) with (trimethylphosphine)(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-1-thio-..beta..-D-glucopyranosato-S)gold(I), Me/sub 3/PAuSAtg, and its chloro analogue, Me/sub 3/PAuCl, were studied to develop insights into the role of the phosphine ligand in the serum chemistry of the related antiarthritic drug auranofin (triethylphosphine)(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-1-thio-..beta..-D-glucopyranosato-S)gold(I). /sup 31/P NMR spectroscopy, protein modification, and gel-exclusion chromatography methods were employed. Comparison of the reactions of the methyl derivatives to the previously reported reactions of auranofin and Et/sub 3/PAuCl with BSA demonstrated that similar chemical species are formed but revealed three major differences. Despite these differences, the results for the methyl analogues provide important confirmation for previously developed chemicalmore » models of auranofin reactions in serum. Me/sub 3/PO was not observed in reaction mixtures lacking tetraacetylthioglucose (AtgSH); this result affirms the role of AtgSH, displaced by the reaction of Me/sub 3/PAuSAtg at Cys-34, in the generation of the phosphine oxide (an important metabolite in vivo). The weak binding sites on albumin react with Me/sub 3/PAuCl, but not Me/sub 3/PAuSAtg, demonstrating the importance of the strength and reactivity of the anionic ligand-gold bond on the reactions of auranofin analogues. The gold binding capacity of albumin is enhanced after Me/sub 3/PO is formed, consistent with reductive cleavage of albumin disulfide bonds by trimethylphosphine. 24 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.« less

  20. Synthesis and evaluation of hydroxylated polyamine analogues as antiproliferatives.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, R J; Müller, R; Huang, G; McManis, J S; Algee, S E; Yao, H; Weimar, W R; Wiegand, J

    2001-07-19

    A new means of accessing N(1)-cyclopropylmethyl-N(11)-ethylnorspermine (CPMENSPM) and the first synthesis of (2R,10S)-N(1)-cyclopropylmethyl-2,10-dihydroxy-N(11)-ethylnorspermine [(2R,10S)-(HO)(2)CPMENSPM] are described. Both of these polyamine analogues are shown to be more active against L1210 murine leukemia cell growth than either N(1),N(11)-diethylnorspermine (DENSPM) or (2R,10R)-N(1),N(11)-diethyl-2,10-dihydroxynorspermine [(2R,10R)-(HO)(2)DENSPM] after 96 h of treatment; the activity was comparable to that of (2S,10S)-N(1),N(11)-diethyl-2,10-dihydroxynorspermine [(2S,10S)-(HO)(2)DENSPM] at 96 h. Both cyclopropyl compounds reduced putrescine and spermidine pools, but less effectively than did DENSPM and its derivatives. Only CPMENSPM, and not (2R,10S)-(HO)(2)CPMENSPM, lowered spermine pools. As with DENSPM and (2R,10R)-(HO)(2)DENSPM, both cyclopropyl analogues diminished ornithine decarboxylase and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase activity. Unlike the hydroxylated DENSPM compounds, both cyclopropyl norspermines substantially upregulated spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase. The most interesting effect of hydroxylating CPMENSPM is the profound reduction in toxicity compared with that of the parent drug. The same phenomenon had been observed for the DENSPM/(2R,10R)-(HO)(2)DENSPM pair. Thus, hydroxylation of norspermine analogues appears to be a way to maintain the compounds' antiproliferative activity while reducing their toxicity.

  1. Recombinant erythropoietin and analogues: a challenge for doping control.

    PubMed

    Pascual, J A; Belalcazar, V; de Bolos, C; Gutiérrez, R; Llop, E; Segura, J

    2004-04-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) increases the number of circulating erythrocytes and thus muscle oxygenation. The availability of the recombinant protein (rEPO) has increased the risk of its illegal use in sports, its detection being a difficult challenge. Five different hematopoietic parameters were initially chosen as indirect markers of rEPO abuse: concentration of serum EPO, concentration of serum-soluble transferrin receptors (sTFr), hematocrit, percentage of reticulocytes, and percentage of macrocytes. New models considering only hemoglobin, serum EPO concentration, and percentage of reticulocytes are simpler and seem to be more sensitive when low doses of rEPO are used. A more direct method of urine analysis (isoelectrofocusing, double blotting, and chemiluminescent detection) based on the charge differences between rEPO and endogenous EPO, related to their carbohydrate composition, provides proof of rEPO use. Furthermore, this approach permits the detection of darbepoetin, a direct analogue of EPO also known as NESP ("new erythropoiesis stimulating protein"). Recently a protein conjugate, "synthetic erythropoiesis protein" (SEP), containing precision-length, monodisperse, negatively charged polymers instead of oligosaccharides has been synthesized. Finally, EPO-mimetics are molecules capable of acting as EPO in dimerizing the EPO receptor. Two kinds of EPO-mimetics have been described: peptides and nonpeptides. The enhancement of oxygen availability to muscles by rEPO, analogues, and mimetics constitutes one of the main challenges to doping control. Major steps have already been developed for detection ofrEPO and some analogues. In the near future, the transfection to an athlete's body of genes that code for erythropoietin might be an emerging doping issue, and sports authorities have incorporated "gene doping" among the prohibited practices.

  2. 8-Aryl- and alkyloxycaffeine analogues as inhibitors of monoamine oxidase.

    PubMed

    Strydom, Belinda; Bergh, Jacobus J; Petzer, Jacobus P

    2011-08-01

    Recently it was reported that a series of 8-benzyloxycaffeine analogues are potent reversible inhibitors of human monoamine oxidase (MAO) A and B. In an attempt to discover additional C8 oxy substituents of caffeine that lead to potent MAO inhibition, a series of related 8-aryl- and alkyloxycaffeine analogues were synthesized and their MAO-A and -B inhibition potencies were compared to those of the 8-benzyloxycaffeines. The results document that while the 8-substituted-oxycaffeine analogues inhibited both human MAO isoforms, they displayed a high degree of selectivity for MAO-B. 8-(3-Phenylpropoxy)caffeine, 8-(2-phenoxyethoxy)caffeine and 8-[(5-methylhexyl)oxy]caffeine were found to be the especially potent MAO-B inhibitors with IC(50) values ranging from 0.38 to 0.62 μM. These inhibitors are therefore 2.5-4.6 fold more potent MAO-B inhibitors than is 8-benzyloxycaffeine (IC(50) = 1.77 μM). It is also demonstrated that, analogous to 8-benzyloxycaffeine, halogen substitution on the phenyl ring of the C8 substituent significantly enhances MAO binding affinity. For example, the most potent MAO-B inhibitor of the present series is 8-[2-(4-bromophenoxy)ethoxy]caffeine with an IC(50) value of 0.166 μM. This study also reports possible binding orientations of selected oxy caffeines within the active site cavities of MAO-A and MAO-B. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Intramolecular hydrogen bonding in malonaldehyde and its radical analogues.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chen; Kumar, Manoj; Finney, Brian A; Francisco, Joseph S

    2017-09-28

    High level Brueckner doubles with triples correction method-based ab initio calculations have been used to investigate the nature of intramolecular hydrogen bonding and intramolecular hydrogen atom transfer in cis-malonaldehyde (MA) and its radical analogues. The radicals considered here are the ones that correspond to the homolytic cleavage of C-H bonds in cis-MA. The results suggest that cis-MA and its radical analogues, cis-MA RS , and cis-MA RA , both exist in planar geometry. The calculated intramolecular O-H⋯O=C bond in cis-MA is shorter than that in the radical analogues. The intramolecular hydrogen bond in cis-MA is stronger than in its radicals by at least 3.0 kcal/mol. The stability of a cis-malonaldehyde radical correlates with the extent of electron spin delocalization; cis-MA RA , in which the radical spin is more delocalized, is the most stable MA radical, whereas cis-MA RS , in which the radical spin is strongly localized, is the least stable radical. The natural bond orbital analysis indicates that the intramolecular hydrogen bonding (O⋯H⋯O) in cis-malonaldehyde radicals is stabilized by the interaction between the lone pair orbitals of donor oxygen and the σ * orbital of acceptor O-H bond (n → σ * OH ). The calculated barriers indicate that the intramolecular proton transfer in cis-MA involves 2.2 kcal/mol lower barrier than that in cis-MA RS .

  4. Design of insulin analogues for meal-related therapy.

    PubMed

    Brange, J

    1993-01-01

    The human insulin in replacement therapy has a hexameric structure. Hexamerization of the insulin molecule facilitates biosynthesis and beta-cell storage of insulin, but is unnecessary for biologic activity and appears to contribute to delayed absorption of exogenous insulin from the subcutis. Insulin analogues with reduced self-association that are produced through recombinant DNA techniques have been shown to have in vivo activity comparable to that of human insulin and absorption kinetics characterized by higher and more constant rates of disappearance from the subcutaneous injection site. In preliminary studies in patients receiving insulin therapy, monomeric insulin analogues have been found to provide glycemic control in the postprandial period that is at least equivalent to that of human insulin. Findings in these studies suggest that the use of such analogues may provide meal-related insulin effects closer to those observed in the physiologic state by limiting excessive postprandial glucose excursions and decreasing the risk of late hypoglycemia. Banting and Best revolutionized diabetes therapy 70 years ago with the extraction of insulin from animal pancreas glands (J Lab Clin Med 7:464-472, 1922). Since that time, many refinements of the therapeutic properties of pharmaceutical preparations of the hormone have been introduced. Until recently, however, such advances have been limited to improvements in insulin purity, insulin species, and adjustment of the composition of the vehicle with respect to auxiliary substances and other additives. With the advent of recombinant DNA techniques, it has become possible to optimize the insulin molecule itself for purposes of replacement therapy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Phosphoryl Guanidines: A New Type of Nucleic Acid Analogues

    PubMed Central

    Kupryushkin, M. S.; Pyshnyi, D. V.; Stetsenko, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    A new type of nucleic acid analogues with a phosphoryl guanidine group is described. Oxidation of polymer-supported dinucleoside 2-cyanoethyl phosphite by iodine in the presence of 1,1,3,3-tetramethyl guanidine yields a dinucleotide with an internucleoside tetramethyl phosphoryl guanidine (Tmg) group as the main product. The Tmg group is stable under conditions of solid-phase DNA synthesis and subsequent cleavage and deprotection with ammonia. Oligonucleotides with one or more Tmg groups bind their complementary DNA or RNA with affinity similar to that of natural oligodeoxyribonucleotides. PMID:25558402

  6. Novel nicotine analogues with potential anti-mycobacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Paresh T; Athmaram, Thimmasandra Narayanappa; Arunkumar, Gundaiah Ramesh

    2016-04-15

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the second leading lethal infectious disease in the world after acquired immuno deficiency (AIDs). We have developed a series of twenty-five novel nicotine analogues with de-addiction property and tested them for their activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). In an effort to increase the specificity of action and directing nicotine analogues to target MTB, four promising compounds were further optimized via molecular docking studies against the Dihydrofolate reductase of MTB. After lead optimization, one nicotine analogue [3-(5-(3fluorophenyl)nicotinoyl)-1-methylpyrrolidin-2-one] exhibited minimum inhibitory concentration of 1 μg/mL (2.86 nM) against M. tuberculosis (H37Rv strain), a human pathogenic strain of clinically significant importance. Pharmacokinetic analysis of [3-(5-(3fluorophenyl)nicotinoyl)-1methylpyrrolidin-2-one] with lowest MIC value via oral route in Wistar rats revealed that at a dosage of 5 mg/kg body weight gave a maximum serum drug concentration (Cmax) of 2.86 μg/mL, Tmax of one hour and a half-life (T1/2) of more than 24 h and Volume of distribution (Vd) of 27.36 L. Whereas the parenteral (intra venous) route showed a Cmax of 3.37 μg/mL, Tmax of 0.05 h, T1/2 of 24 h and Vd equivalent to 23.18 L. The acute oral toxicity and repeated oral toxicity studies in female Wistar rats had an LD50>2000 mg/kg body weight. Our data suggests that nicotine derivatives developed in the present study has good metabolic stability with tunable pharmacokinetics (PK) with therapeutic potential to combat MTB. However, further in vivo studies for anti-tuberculosis activity and elucidation of mode of action could result in more promising novel drug for treating MTB. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report revealing the anti-mycobacterial potential of nicotine analogue at potential therapeutic concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Novel spirobicyclic artemisinin analogues (artemalogues): Synthesis and antitumor activities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Song, Shanshan; Shu, Shiqi; Miao, Zehong; Zhang, Ao; Ding, Chunyong

    2015-10-20

    The sesquiterpene lactone framework of artemisinin was used as a drug repositioning prototype for the development of novel antitumor drugs. Several series of novel artemisinin analogues (artemalogues) were designed and synthesized through 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of artemisitene with nitrile oxides or nitrones. The isoxazolidine-containing spirobicyclic artemalogue 11b turns out to be the most potent with low micromolar IC₅₀ values against all three tumor cells, which were at least 4- to 14-fold more potent than the parent artemisinin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Convenient synthesis and diversification of dehydroalaninyl phosphinic peptide analogues.

    PubMed

    Matziari, M; Georgiadis, D; Dive, V; Yiotakis, A

    2001-03-08

    [structure: see text]. Dehydroalaninyl phosphinic dipeptide analogues were synthesized, via an efficient tandem Arbuzov addition/allylic rearrangement, in high yields. The susceptibility of the conjugate system to 1,4 nucleophilic additions was investigated. C-Elongation of the dipeptides was performed, and the efficiency of 1,4 addition to the resulting acrylamidic moiety was evaluated. Derivatization of such phosphinic templates is a powerful approach for rapid access to large number of phosphinic pseudopeptides bearing various side chains in the P1' position.

  9. Pena blanca natural analogue project: summary of activities

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, Schon S; Goldstein, Steven J; Abdel - Fattah, Amr I

    2010-12-08

    The inactive Nopal I uranium mine in silicic tuff north of Chihuahua City, Chihuahua, Mexico, was studied as a natural analogue for an underground nuclear-waste repository in the unsaturated zone. Site stratigraphy was confirmed from new drill core. Datafrom site studies include chemical and isotopic compositions of saturated- and unsaturated-zone waters. A partial geochronology of uranium enrichment and mineralization was established. Evidence pertinent to uranium-series transport in the soil zone and changing redox conditions was collected. The investigations contributed to preliminary, scoping-level performance assessment modeling.

  10. Antineoplastic Efficacy of Novel Polyamine Analogues in Human Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    Davidson, N.E., and Casero, R.A.. Spermine oxidase SMO(PAOh1), not N1-acetylpolyamine oxidase (PAO) is the primary source of cytotoxic H2O2 in polyamine... spermine oxidase (PAOh1/SMO) mRNA and activity by a polyamine analogue in human breast cancer cell lines. The fourth Era of Hope meeting for the...SMO/PAOh1 Spermine Oxidase DFMO α-difluoromethylornithine BENSpm N1, N11-bis(ethyl)norspermine CHEMSpm N1-(cycloheptylmethyl)-N11-ethyl- 4,8

  11. B38: an all-boron fullerene analogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Jian; Wang, Yanchao; Zhu, Li; Ma, Yanming

    2014-09-01

    Fullerene-like structures formed by elements other than carbon have long been sought. Finding all-boron (B) fullerene-like structures is challenging due to the geometrical frustration arising from competitions among various structural motifs. We report here the prediction of a B38 fullerene analogue found through first-principles swarm structure searching calculations. The structure is highly symmetric and consists of 56 triangles and four hexagons, which provide an optimal void in the center of the cage. Energetically, it is more favorable than the planar and tubular structures, and possesses an unusually high chemical stability: a large energy gap (~2.25 eV) and a high double aromaticity, superior to those of most aromatic quasi-planar B12 and double-ring B20 clusters. Our findings represent a key step forward towards to the understanding of structures of medium-sized B clusters and map out the experimental direction of the synthesis of an all-B fullerene analogue.Fullerene-like structures formed by elements other than carbon have long been sought. Finding all-boron (B) fullerene-like structures is challenging due to the geometrical frustration arising from competitions among various structural motifs. We report here the prediction of a B38 fullerene analogue found through first-principles swarm structure searching calculations. The structure is highly symmetric and consists of 56 triangles and four hexagons, which provide an optimal void in the center of the cage. Energetically, it is more favorable than the planar and tubular structures, and possesses an unusually high chemical stability: a large energy gap (~2.25 eV) and a high double aromaticity, superior to those of most aromatic quasi-planar B12 and double-ring B20 clusters. Our findings represent a key step forward towards to the understanding of structures of medium-sized B clusters and map out the experimental direction of the synthesis of an all-B fullerene analogue. Electronic supplementary information

  12. Astrobiology Field Research in Moon/Mars Analogue Environments: Preface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foing, B. H.; Stoker, C.; Ehrenfreund, P.

    2011-01-01

    Extreme environments on Earth often provide similar terrain conditions to landing/operation sites on Moon and Mars. Several field campaigns (EuroGeoMars2009 and DOMMEX/ILEWG EuroMoonMars from November 2009 to March 2010) were conducted at the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) in Utah. Some of the key astrobiology results are presented in this special issue on Astrobiology field research in Moon/Mars analogue environments relevant to investigate the link between geology, minerals, organics and biota. Preliminary results from a multidisciplinary field campaign at Rio Tinto in Spain are presented.

  13. Classical analogues of two-photon quantum interference.

    PubMed

    Kaltenbaek, R; Lavoie, J; Resch, K J

    2009-06-19

    Chirped-pulse interferometry (CPI) captures the metrological advantages of quantum Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interferometry in a completely classical system. Modified HOM interferometers are the basis for a number of seminal quantum-interference effects. Here, the corresponding modifications to CPI allow for the first observation of classical analogues to the HOM peak and quantum beating. They also allow a new classical technique for generating phase super-resolution exhibiting a coherence length dramatically longer than that of the laser light, analogous to increased two-photon coherence lengths in entangled states.

  14. The Canadian space agency planetary analogue materials suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloutis, Edward A.; Mann, Paul; Izawa, Matthew R. M.; Applin, Daniel M.; Samson, Claire; Kruzelecky, Roman; Glotch, Timothy D.; Mertzman, Stanley A.; Mertzman, Karen R.; Haltigin, Timothy W.; Fry, Christopher

    2015-12-01

    The Canadian Space Agency (CSA) recently commissioned the development of a suite of over fifty well-characterized planetary analogue materials. These materials are terrestrial rocks and minerals that are similar to those known or suspected to occur on the lunar or martian surfaces. These include: Mars analogue sedimentary, hydrothermal, igneous and low-temperature alteration rock suites; lunar analogue basaltic and anorthositic rock suites; and a generic impactite rock suite from a variety of terrestrial impact structures. Representative thin sections of the materials have been characterized by optical microscopy and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Reflectance spectra have been collected in the ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared, covering 0.2-25 μm. Thermal infrared emission spectra were collected from 5 to 50 μm. Raman spectra with 532 nm excitation, and laser-induced fluorescence spectra with 405 nm excitation were also measured. Bulk chemical analysis was carried out using X-ray fluorescence, with Fe valence determined by wet chemistry. Chemical and mineralogical data were collected using a field-portable Terra XRD-XRF instrument similar to CheMin on the MSL Curiosity rover. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) data similar to those measured by ChemCam on MSL were collected for powdered samples, cut slab surfaces, and as depth profiles into weathered surfaces where present. Three-dimensional laser camera images of rock textures were collected for selected samples. The CSA intends to make available sample powders (<45 μm and 45-1000 μm grain sizes), thin sections, and bulk rock samples, and all analytical data collected in the initial characterisation study to the broader planetary science community. Aiming to complement existing planetary analogue rock and mineral libraries, the CSA suite represents a new resource for planetary scientists and engineers. We envision many potential applications for these materials in the

  15. Vacancy-driven magnetocaloric effect in Prussian blue analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evangelisti, Marco; Manuel, Espérança; Affronte, Marco; Okubo, Masashi; Train, Cyrille; Verdaguer, Michel

    2007-09-01

    We experimentally show that the magnetocaloric properties of molecule-based Prussian blue analogues can be adjusted by controlling during the synthesis the amount of intrinsic vacancies. For CsxNi4II[CrIII(CN)6], we find indeed that the ferromagnetic phase transition induces significantly large magnetic entropy changes, whose maxima shift from ˜68 to ˜95 K by varying the number of [CrIII(CN)6] vacancies, offering a unique tunability of the magnetocaloric effect in this complex.

  16. Biological activity of silylated amino acid containing substance P analogues.

    PubMed

    Cavelier, F; Marchand, D; Martinez, J; Sagan, S

    2004-03-01

    The need to replace natural amino acids in peptides with nonproteinogenic counterparts to obtain new medicinal agents has stimulated a great deal of innovation on synthetic methods. Here, we report the incorporation of non-natural silylated amino acids in substance P (SP), the binding affinity for the two hNK-1 binding sites and, the potency to stimulate phospholipase C (PLC) and adenylate cyclase of the resulting peptide. We also assess the improvement of their stability towards enzyme degradation. Altogether, we found that replacing glycine with silaproline (Sip) in position 9 of SP leads to a potent analogue exhibiting an increased resistance to angiotensin-converting enzyme hydrolysis.

  17. Isolation and structural identification of a novel minoxidil analogue in an illegal dietary supplement: triaminodil.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Park, Han Na; Park, Hyoung Joon; Kim, Nam Sook; Park, Sung-Kwan; Lee, Jongkook; Baek, Sun Young

    2018-01-01

    A new minoxidil analogue was detected in an illegal dietary supplement advertised as a hair-growth treatment. The analogue was identified using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HR-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The compound was structurally elucidated as a minoxidil analogue in which the piperidinyl group of minoxidil was replaced with a pyrrolidinyl group corresponding to a molecular formula of C 8 H 13 N 5 O. The new analogue has been named triaminodil. As this is the first report of the compound, there are no chemical, toxicology or pharmacological data available.

  18. Martian analogue test site - pilbara craton, western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, A.; Allwood, A.; Walter, M. R.; van Kranendonk, M.

    All exploration for life elsewhere depends on extrapolation from our knowledge of Earth. If the target is former microbial life, for example on Mars, there is no better analogue on Earth than the 3.5 billion year old rocks of the Pilbara region, Western Australia. This area is home to signs of the earliest life on Earth in the form of microbe, many famous stromatolitic horizons and carbon isotope biosignatures. These occur in a volcanic terrain, with weathering and hydrothermal alteration, which also has some similarity to Mars. The geology of this region is known in detail after decades of mapping and other studies. Current work includes studies to resolve disputes about the biogenicity of the microfossils and stromatolites. On balance, biological origins are most likely. In any event, problems of demonstrating biogenicity on other planets will be far more severe, and the work on the Pilbara materials will illuminate those problems. Also underway is mineral mapping of the volcanic, hydrothermal and fossiliferous units using both airborne and hand-held short-wave infrared spectrometers, We are able to map the fossiliferous units using this technique and contend that it would be a powerful exploration technique on Mars and elsewhere. Using the Pilbara as an analogue for other bodies in the Solar System can extend to using it as a place to test instrument packages under realistic conditions. The region has good air and road access, and good supporting infrastructure.

  19. Limonene hydroperoxide analogues show specific patch test reactions.

    PubMed

    Christensson, Johanna Bråred; Hellsén, Staffan; Börje, Anna; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2014-05-01

    The fragrance terpene R-limonene is a very weak sensitizer, but forms allergenic oxidation products upon contact with air. The primary oxidation products of oxidized limonene, the hydroperoxides, have an important impact on the sensitizing potency of the oxidation mixture. One analogue, limonene-1-hydroperoxide, was experimentally shown to be a significantly more potent sensitizer than limonene-2-hydroperoxide in the local lymph node assay with non-pooled lymph nodes. To investigate the pattern of reactivity among consecutive dermatitis patients to two structurally closely related limonene hydroperoxides, limonene-1-hydroperoxide and limonene-2-hydroperoxide. Limonene-1-hydroperoxide, limonene-2-hydroperoxide, at 0.5% in petrolatum, and oxidized limonene 3.0% pet. were tested in 763 consecutive dermatitis patients. Of the tested materials, limonene-1-hydroperoxide gave most reactions, with 2.4% of the patients showing positive patch test reactions. Limonene-2-hydroperoxide and oxidized R-limonene gave 1.7% and 1.2% positive patch test reactions, respectively. Concomitant positive patch test reactions to other fragrance markers in the baseline series were frequently noted. The results are in accordance with the experimental studies, as limonene-1-hydroperoxide gave more positive patch test reactions in the tested patients than limonene-2-hydroperoxide. Furthermore, the results support the specificity of the allergenic activity of the limonene hydroperoxide analogues and the importance of oxidized limonene as a cause of contact allergy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Mutnovsky and Gorely Volcanoes, Kamchatka as Planetary Analogue Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evdokimova, N.; Izbekov, P. E.; Krupskaya, V.; Muratov, A.

    2016-12-01

    Recent advances in Mars studies suggest that volcanic rocks, which dominated Martian surface in the past, have been exposed to alteration processes in a water-bearing environment during Noachian, before 3.7 Gy. Active volcanoes on Earth are natural laboratories, where volcanic processes and their associated products can be studied directly. This is particularly important for studying of alteration of juvenile volcanic products in aqueous environment because of the transient nature of some of the alteration products, as well as the environment itself. Terrestrial analogues help us to better understand processes on Mars; they are particularly useful as a test sites for preparation to future Mars missions. In this presentation we describe planetary analogue sites at Mutnovsky and Gorely Volcanoes in Kamchatka, which might be helpful for comparative studies and preparation to future Mars missions. Mutnovsky and Gorely Volcanoes are located 75 km south of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, in the southern part of the Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The modern volcanic landscape in the area was shaped in Holocene (recent 10,000 years) through intermittent eruption of magmas ranging in composition from basalts to dacites and rhyodacites, with basaltic andesite lavas dominating in the modern relief. Two localities could be of a particular interest: (1) Mutnovsky NW thermal field featuring processes of active hydrothermal alteration of lavas of basaltic andesite and (2) dry lake at the bottom of Gorely caldera featuring products of mechanical disintegration of basaltic andesite lavas by eolian processes with short seasonal sedimentation in aqueous environment.

  1. Structure-based design of potent histatin analogues.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Dyanne; Lajoie, Gilles

    2002-04-30

    Conformational studies of human salivary peptide, histatin 3 (Hst3), were performed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy in a membrane-mimicking environment. The structural information that was obtained was used in the design of peptide analogues with improved antifungal activity. In the presence of increasing concentrations of L-alpha-dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (L-alpha-DMPC) lipid vesicles, a dramatic increase in a minimum at 198 nm is observed in the CD spectra of Hst3. The NMR data of Hst3 in the presence of L-alpha-DMPC lipid vesicles reveal the proximity of residues Y(10) and S(20), indicating the existence of a more compact structure. Peptide analogues were designed on the basis of this observation, which incorporated a disulfide bond to stabilize an extended loop in this region of the sequence. One of these, peptide 4, was 100 times more potent than Hst5 against Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. Conformational analysis of peptide 4 revealed a looped structure with charged residues protruding on the outside surface, while a combination of aromatic residues and histidines are packed into an internal core.

  2. Proline analogue of nitrosourea as a new cytotoxic prodrug.

    PubMed

    Stankiewicz-Kranc, Anna; Bielawska, Anna; Bielawski, Krzysztof; Skrzydlewska, Elzbieta

    2009-11-01

    Carmustine is frequently used as anticancer drug. High toxicity and low selectivity reduces the application of this drug. Though, there is a necessity to find new compounds characterized by similar therapeutic effects but a higher selectivity and safety. As a result, the proline analogue of nitrosourea, N-[N'-(2-bromophenyl)-N'-nitrosocarbamoyl]proline (AC), has been synthesized. The aim of this study was to compare the influence of carmustine and the proline analogue of nitrosourea on the antioxidant abilities of fibroblasts and leukemia cells, MOLT4. It was shown that carmustine as well as AC cause an increase in hydrogen peroxide concentration in normal and neoplastic cells. Incubation with both compounds led to a diminution of the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and reductase. Changes in activity / level of antioxidant parameters were accompanied by augmentation of lipid and oxidative protein modifications. In conclusion, carmustine and AC cause changes in the antioxidative system of normal and MOLT4 cells and are a reason of oxidative stress formation.

  3. Historical space psychology: Early terrestrial explorations as Mars analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suedfeld, Peter

    2010-03-01

    The simulation and analogue environments used by psychologists to circumvent the difficulties of conducting research in space lack many of the unique characteristics of future explorations, especially the mission to Mars. This paper suggests that appropriate additional analogues would be the multi-year maritime and terrestrial explorations that mapped the surface of the Earth in previous centuries. These, like Mars, often involved a hazardous trek through unknown territory, flanked by extended, dangerous voyages to and from the exploration sites. Characteristic issues included interpersonal relationships under prolonged stress, stretches of boredom interspersed with intense work demands, the impossibility of rescue, resupply, or other help from home, chronic danger, physical discomfort and lack of privacy, and the crucial role of the leader. Illustrative examples of one important factor, leadership style, are discussed. The examination of such expeditions can help to identify the psychological stressors that are likely to be experienced by Mars explorers, and can also indicate countermeasures to reduce the damaging impact of those stressors.

  4. A low-dimensional analogue of holographic baryons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolognesi, Stefano; Sutcliffe, Paul

    2014-04-01

    Baryons in holographic QCD correspond to topological solitons in the bulk. The most prominent example is the Sakai-Sugimoto model, where the bulk soliton in the five-dimensional spacetime of AdS-type can be approximated by the flat space self-dual Yang-Mills instanton with a small size. Recently, the validity of this approximation has been verified by comparison with the numerical field theory solution. However, multi-solitons and solitons with finite density are currently beyond numerical field theory computations. Various approximations have been applied to investigate these important issues and have led to proposals for finite density configurations that include dyonic salt and baryonic popcorn. Here we introduce and investigate a low-dimensional analogue of the Sakai-Sugimoto model, in which the bulk soliton can be approximated by a flat space sigma model instanton. The bulk theory is a baby Skyrme model in a three-dimensional spacetime with negative curvature. The advantage of the lower-dimensional theory is that numerical simulations of multi-solitons and finite density solutions can be performed and compared with flat space instanton approximations. In particular, analogues of dyonic salt and baryonic popcorn configurations are found and analysed.

  5. Photophysical Study of Novel Perylene Analogues for Biophysical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palos-Chávez, Jorge; Penick, Mark; Negrete, George; Brancaleon, Lorenzo

    2011-03-01

    Perylene and perylene derivatives have been shown to be useful in a variety of photoinitiated applications, such as molecular dyes, organic solar cells, etc. Recently we started the characterization of novel 3,9-perylene analogues which could potentially lead to the synthesis of novel molecules with improved ability to separate charges. We have characterized the basic photophysical properties of these molecules, and we are currently investigating the photochemistry that leads to photoproducts in chlorinated compounds. Spectroscopic measurements show the substantial changes in photophysical parameters consistent with the conversion of the original compounds into photoproducts. SEM and AFM imaging show that these photoproducts form ordered particles. Mass spectrometry studies have confirmed the presence of these photoproducts as well. Additional studies are underway concerning the use of these novel perylene analogues in binding to biological structures such as proteins. It is hoped that these compounds will prove useful for biophysical applications, specifically in studying the manipulation of protein conformation via physical methods. Supported by NIH/NIGMS MBRS RISE GM-60655.

  6. B38: an all-boron fullerene analogue.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jian; Wang, Yanchao; Zhu, Li; Ma, Yanming

    2014-10-21

    Fullerene-like structures formed by elements other than carbon have long been sought. Finding all-boron (B) fullerene-like structures is challenging due to the geometrical frustration arising from competitions among various structural motifs. We report here the prediction of a B38 fullerene analogue found through first-principles swarm structure searching calculations. The structure is highly symmetric and consists of 56 triangles and four hexagons, which provide an optimal void in the center of the cage. Energetically, it is more favorable than the planar and tubular structures, and possesses an unusually high chemical stability: a large energy gap (∼2.25 eV) and a high double aromaticity, superior to those of most aromatic quasi-planar B12 and double-ring B20 clusters. Our findings represent a key step forward towards to the understanding of structures of medium-sized B clusters and map out the experimental direction of the synthesis of an all-B fullerene analogue.

  7. Analogue Hawking radiation in an exactly solvable model of BEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parola, Alberto; Tettamanti, Manuele; Cacciatori, Sergio L.

    2017-09-01

    Hawking radiation, the spontaneous emission of thermal photons from an event horizon, is one of the most intriguing and elusive predictions of field theory in curved spacetimes. A formally analogue phenomenon occurs at the supersonic transition of a fluid: in this respect, ultracold gases stand out among the most promising systems but the theoretical modelling of this effect has always been carried out in semiclassical approximation, borrowing part of the analysis from the gravitational analogy. Here we discuss the exact solution of a one-dimensional Bose gas flowing against an obstacle, showing that spontaneous phonon emission (the analogue of Hawking radiation) is predicted without reference to the gravitational analogy. Long after the creation of the obstacle, the fluid settles into a stationary state displaying the emission of sound waves (phonons) in the upstream direction. A careful analysis shows that a precise correspondence between this phenomenon and the spontaneous emission of radiation from an event horizon requires additional conditions to be met in future experiments aimed at identifying the occurrence of the Hawking-like mechanism in Bose-Einstein condensates.

  8. Emissive Synthetic Cofactors: An Isomorphic, Isofunctional, and Responsive NAD+ Analogue.

    PubMed

    Rovira, Alexander R; Fin, Andrea; Tor, Yitzhak

    2017-11-08

    The synthesis, photophysics, and biochemical utility of a fluorescent NAD + analogue based on an isothiazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidine core (N tz AD + ) are described. Enzymatic reactions, photophysically monitored in real time, show N tz AD + and N tz ADH to be substrates for yeast alcohol dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase, respectively, with reaction rates comparable to that of the native cofactors. A drop in fluorescence is seen as N tz AD + is converted to N tz ADH, reflecting a complementary photophysical behavior to that of the native NAD + /NADH. N tz AD + and N tz ADH serve as substrates for NADase, which selectively cleaves the nicotinamide's glycosidic bond yielding tz ADP-ribose. N tz AD + also serves as a substrate for ribosyl transferases, including human adenosine ribosyl transferase 5 (ART5) and Cholera toxin subunit A (CTA), which hydrolyze the nicotinamide and transfer tz ADP-ribose to an arginine analogue, respectively. These reactions can be monitored by fluorescence spectroscopy, in stark contrast to the corresponding processes with the nonemissive NAD + .

  9. Optical Dust Characterization in Manned Mars Analogue Research Stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bos, B. J.; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Martian dust has been identified as a potentially serious hazard to any manned Mars landing mission. NASA and other organizations realize this risk and continue to support Martian dust research through the Matador project led by researchers at the University of Arizona. The Mars Society can contribute to this work by beginning a regimen of monitoring and measuring dust properties at its Mars analogue research stations. These research facilities offer the unique opportunity to study the transport and distribution of dust particles within a crewed habitat supporting active geologic exploration. Information regarding the amount, location and size of dust particles that may accumulate in a Mars habitat will be required to design a real Mars habitat and habitat equipment. Beginning such an effort does not require a large outlay of equipment and can be accomplished using crewmembers experienced with station operations. Various optical techniques, such as dark-field illumination, coupled with image processing algorithms enable the collection of dust grain relative size and frequency information. Such approaches can be applied in several different zones within the research stations to evaluate the various dust reduction and isolation procedures implemented during a particular crew rotation. As the stations simulation fidelity increases, the applicability of such data to a functional Mars lander will increase. This presentation describes the optical equipment and procedures for measuring dust properties in Mars analogue research stations that can be implemented during the next field season.

  10. Parabolic flights as Earth analogue for surface processes on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2017-04-01

    The interpretation of landforms and environmental archives on Mars with regards to habitability and preservation of traces of life requires a quantitative understanding of the processes that shaped them. Commonly, qualitative similarities in sedimentary rocks between Earth and Mars are used as an analogue to reconstruct the environments in which they formed on Mars. However, flow hydraulics and sedimentation differ between Earth and Mars, requiring a recalibration of models describing runoff, erosion, transport and deposition. Simulation of these processes on Earth is limited because gravity cannot be changed and the trade-off between adjusting e.g. fluid or particle density generates other mismatches, such as fluid viscosity. Computational Fluid Dynamics offer an alternative, but would also require a certain degree of calibration or testing. Parabolic flights offer a possibility to amend the shortcomings of these approaches. Parabolas with reduced gravity last up to 30 seconds, which allows the simulation of sedimentation processes and the measurement of flow hydraulics. This study summarizes the experience gathered during four campaigns of parabolic flights, aimed at identifying potential and limitations of their use as an Earth analogue for surface processes on Mars.

  11. Polyamine analogue antidiarrheals: a structure-activity study.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, R J; Wiegand, J; McManis, J S; Weimar, W R; Smith, R E; Algee, S E; Fannin, T L; Slusher, M A; Snyder, P S

    2001-01-18

    The syntheses of a group of spermine polyamine analogues and their evaluation as antidiarrheals are described. Each compound was assessed in a rodent castor oil-induced diarrhea model for its ability to reduce stool output and weight loss in a dose-dependent manner. The spermine pharmacophore is shown to be an excellent platform from which to construct antidiarrheals. The activity of the compounds is very dependent on both the nature of the terminal alkyl groups and the geometry of the methylene spacers separating the nitrogens. The toxicity profile is also quite dependent on these same structural features. On the basis of subcutaneous dose-response data and toxicity profiles, two compounds, N(1),N(12)-diisopropylspermine and N(1),N(12)-diethylspermine, were taken forward into more complete evaluation. These measurements included formal acute and chronic toxicity trials, drug and metabolic tissue distribution studies, and assessment of the impact of these analogues on tissue polyamine pools. Finally, the remarkable activity of N,N'-bis[3-(ethylamino)propyl]-trans-1,4-cyclohexanediamine underscores the need to further explore this framework as a pharmacophore for the construction of other antidiarrheal agents.

  12. Backbone modified TBA analogues endowed with antiproliferative activity.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Veronica; Russo, Annapina; Amato, Teresa; Varra, Michela; Vellecco, Valentina; Bucci, Mariarosaria; Russo, Giulia; Virgilio, Antonella; Galeone, Aldo

    2017-05-01

    The thrombin binding aptamer (TBA) is endowed with antiproliferative properties but its potential development is counteracted by the concomitant anticoagulant activity. Five oligonucleotides (ODNs) based on TBA sequence (GGTTGGTGTGGTTGG) and containing l-residues or both l-residues and inversion of polarity sites have been investigated by NMR and CD techniques for their ability to form G-quadruplex structures. Furthermore, their anticoagulant (PT assay) and antiproliferative properties (MTT assay), and their resistance in fetal bovine serum have been tested. CD and NMR data suggest that the investigated ODNs are able to form right- and left-handed G-quadruplex structures. All ODNs do not retain the anticoagulant activity characteristic of TBA but are endowed with a significant antiproliferative activity against two cancerous cell lines. Their resistance in biological environment after six days is variable, depending on the ODN. A comparison between results and literature data suggests that the antiproliferative activity of the TBA analogues investigated could depends on two factors: a) biological pathways and targets different from those already identified or proposed for other antiproliferative G-quadruplex aptamers, and b) the contribution of the guanine-based degradation products. Modified TBA analogues containing l-residues and inversion of polarity sites lose the anticoagulant activity but gain antiproliferative properties against two cancer cell lines. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "G-quadruplex" Guest Editor: Dr. Concetta Giancola and Dr. Daniela Montesarchio. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Activation of Elongation Factor G by Phosphate Analogues

    PubMed Central

    Salsi, Enea; Farah, Elie

    2016-01-01

    EF-G is a universally conserved translational GTPase that promotes the translocation of tRNA and mRNA through the ribosome. EF-G binds to the ribosome in a GTP-bound form and subsequently catalyzes GTP hydrolysis. The contribution of the ribosome-stimulated GTP hydrolysis by EF-G to tRNA/mRNA translocation remains debated. Here, we show that while EF-G•GDP does not stably bind to the ribosome and induce translocation, EFG• GDP in complex with phosphate group analogues BeF3− and AlF4− promotes the translocation of tRNA and mRNA. Furthermore, the rates of mRNA translocation induced by EF-G in the presence of GTP and a non-hydrolysable analogue of GTP, GDP•BeF3−are similar. Our results are consistent with the model suggesting that GTP hydrolysis is not directly coupled to mRNA/tRNA translocation. Hence, GTP binding is required to induce the activated, translocation-competent conformation of EF-G while GTP hydrolysis triggers EF-G release from the ribosome. PMID:27063503

  14. The costal landslide from analogue experiments: perspectives and limitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Ventisette, C.; Nolesini, T.; Moretti, S.; Fanti, R.

    2010-12-01

    Understanding the triggering mechanism of coastal landslides (triggered and/or developed at air-water interface) and their evolution is fundamental to evaluate their hazard and, predicting the energy, the associated tsunami risk. The aim of this work is to verify the suitability of analogue modelling to understand the triggering mechanism and the evolution of landslide along the costal line. As a starting case study the Sciara del Fuoco (SdF), northwest flank of the volcanic island of Stromboli (Italy), was chosen. The analogue modelling technique has been proven to represent an useful tool to understand many geological processes, as it allows studying the progressive deformation, providing also useful indications about the role of distinct factors controlling the final deformation pattern. The models simulated at a first approximation the geological geometries observed at Stromboli, a composite volcano forming the northernmost island of the Aeolian Archipelago (Tyrrhenian Sea). The activity of Stromboli volcano is characterized by a persistent mild explosive activity at the summit craters sporadically interrupted by episodes of lava effusion and violent paroxysmal explosions as in 2002-2003 and in 2007. During the 2002 effusion a large landslide occurred on the SdF. The landslide caused a tsunami, which produced severe damages along the island shores. A series of analogue models was performed to investigate the influence of two different types of triggering mechanism and the behaviour of landslides both in air and air-water interface: 1) surface bulging due to the intrusion of a dike; 2) accumulation of material due to an uppermost landslide or due to opening of a new vent. The models, constructed in a Plexiglas tank, were scaled to the natural prototype following the geometrical, rheological, kinematical and dynamical similarities (e.g. Hubbert, 1937; Ramberg, 1981). The modelling material (Fontainbleau sand and rice) was sieved on a slope, inclination of which

  15. The challenges of numerically simulating analogue brittle thrust wedges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buiter, Susanne; Ellis, Susan

    2017-04-01

    Fold-and-thrust belts and accretionary wedges form when sedimentary and crustal rocks are compressed into thrusts and folds in the foreland of an orogen or at a subduction trench. For over a century, analogue models have been used to investigate the deformation characteristics of such brittle wedges. These models predict wedge shapes that agree with analytical critical taper theory and internal deformation structures that well resemble natural observations. In a series of comparison experiments for thrust wedges, called the GeoMod2004 (1,2) and GeoMod2008 (3,4) experiments, it was shown that different numerical solution methods successfully reproduce sandbox thrust wedges. However, the GeoMod2008 benchmark also pointed to the difficulties of representing frictional boundary conditions and sharp velocity discontinuities with continuum numerical methods, in addition to the well-known challenges of numerical plasticity. Here we show how details in the numerical implementation of boundary conditions can substantially impact numerical wedge deformation. We consider experiment 1 of the GeoMod2008 brittle thrust wedge benchmarks. This experiment examines a triangular thrust wedge in the stable field of critical taper theory that should remain stable, that is, without internal deformation, when sliding over a basal frictional surface. The thrust wedge is translated by lateral displacement of a rigid mobile wall. The corner between the mobile wall and the subsurface is a velocity discontinuity. Using our finite-element code SULEC, we show how different approaches to implementing boundary friction (boundary layer or contact elements) and the velocity discontinuity (various smoothing schemes) can cause the wedge to indeed translate in a stable manner or to undergo internal deformation (which is a fail). We recommend that numerical studies of sandbox setups not only report the details of their implementation of boundary conditions, but also document the modelling attempts that

  16. Synthesis and properties of dithymidine phosphate analogues containing 3'-thiothymidine.

    PubMed Central

    Cosstick, R; Vyle, J S

    1990-01-01

    Dithymidine-3'-S-phosphorothioate (d(TspT)) has been prepared from a 5'-O-monomethoxytritylthymidine-3'-S-phosphorothioamidite (7) by activation with 5-(p-nitrophenyl)tetrazole in the presence of 3'-O-acetylthymidine. The resulting dinucleoside phosphorothioite is readily oxidised to the corresponding 3'-S-phosphorothioate using either tetrabutylammonium (TBA) periodate or TBA oxone and has been deprotected under standard conditions to yield d(TspT). This dithymidine phosphate analogue is comparatively resistant to hydrolysis by nuclease P1, but the P-S bond is readily cleaved by aqueous solutions of either iodine or silver nitrate. Dithymidine-3'-S-phosphorodithioate (d[Tsp(s)T]) was prepared in an analogous fashion using sulphur to oxidise the intermediate dinucleoside phosphorothioite. Absolute stereochemistry has been assigned to the diastereoisomers of d[Tsp(s)T] by comparing their physical and chemical properties to those of the dinucleoside phosphorothioates. PMID:2315041

  17. Synthesis and antifungal evaluation of PCA amide analogues.

    PubMed

    Qin, Chuan; Yu, Di-Ya; Zhou, Xu-Dong; Zhang, Min; Wu, Qing-Lai; Li, Jun-Kai

    2018-04-18

    To improve the physical and chemical properties of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) and find higher antifungal compounds, a series of PCA amide analogues were designed and synthesized and their structures were confirmed by 1 H NMR, HRMS, and X-ray. Most compounds showed some antifungal activities in vitro. Particularly, compound 3d exhibited inhibition effect against Pyriculariaoryzac Cavgra with EC 50 value of 28.7 μM and compound 3q exhibited effect against Rhizoctonia solani with EC 50 value of 24.5 μM, more potently active than that of the positive control PCA with its EC 50 values of 37.3 μM (Pyriculariaoryzac Cavgra) and 33.2 μM (Rhizoctonia solani), respectively.

  18. Synthesis of an N-aminopyrazinonium analogue of cytidine.

    PubMed

    Lee, T C; Chello, P L; Chou, T C; Templeton, M A; Parham, J C

    1983-02-01

    An N-aminated pyrazine analogue of cytidine, in which the pyrimidine N(3) ring nitrogen and C(4) amino group were replaced by a C-amino and an N-amino function, respectively, was prepared as a potential deaminase-resistant cytidine antimetabolite. The nucleoside 1,2-diamino-4-beta-D-ribofuranosylpyrazin-2-onium chloride (6) was a mild cytostatic agent but was neither a substrate for nor an inhibitor of mouse kidney cytidine deaminase. It ionized with a lower pKa than expected. The anion did not undergo the dimerization usually observed with N-imino heterocyclic ylides but unerwent hydrolysis of the 2-amino group to yield a 1-aminopyrazine-2,3-dione nucleoside.

  19. Synthesis of chiral chloroquine and its analogues as antimalarial agents.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Manish; Dola, Vasanth R; Soni, Awakash; Agarwal, Pooja; Srivastava, Kumkum; Haq, Wahajul; Puri, Sunil K; Katti, Seturam B

    2014-11-01

    In this investigation, we describe a new approach to chiral synthesis of chloroquine and its analogues. All tested compounds displayed potent activity against chloroquine sensitive as well as chloroquine resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro and Plasmodium yoelii in vivo. Compounds S-13 b, S-13c, S-13 d and S-13 i displayed excellent in vitro antimalarial activity with an IC50 value of 56.82, 60.41, 21.82 and 7.94 nM, respectively, in the case of resistant strain. Furthermore, compounds S-13a, S-13c and S-13 d showed in vivo suppression of 100% parasitaemia on day 4 in the mouse model against Plasmodium yoelii when administered orally. These results underscore the application of synthetic methodology and need for further lead optimization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Synthesis and antimalarial evaluation of prodrugs of novel fosmidomycin analogues.

    PubMed

    Faísca Phillips, Ana Maria; Nogueira, Fátima; Murtinheira, Fernanda; Barros, Maria Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The continuous development of drug resistance by Plasmodium falciparum, the agent responsible for the most severe forms of malaria, creates the need for the development of novel drugs to fight this disease. Fosmidomycin is an effective antimalarial and potent antibiotic, known to act by inhibiting the enzyme 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR), essential for the synthesis of isoprenoids in eubacteria and plasmodia, but not in humans. In this study, novel constrained cyclic prodrug analogues of fosmidomycin were synthesized. One, in which the hydroxamate function is incorporated into a six-membered ring, was found have higher antimalarial activity than fosmidomycin against the chloroquine and mefloquine resistant P. falciparum Dd2 strain. In addition, it showed very low cytotoxicity against cultured human cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Low-cost SI-POF analogue TIA and equaliser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lope, Ignacio; García del Pozo, Jose Maria; Mateo, Javier; Urdangarín, Julen; Celma, Santiago

    2012-11-01

    This article proposes the two first blocks of an analogue front-end suitable for plastic optical fibre systems suitable for the standard IEEE 1394. These blocks consist of a preamplifier followed by an equaliser which employs low-cost commercial components and are designed with two different bipolar technologies. With a supply voltage of 3.3 V, the front-end consumes 396 mW. The total gain is 70 dBΩ and it operates at up to 800 Mb/s. At this bit rate, with fibre lengths of up to 30 m, the circuit has a BER ≤ 10-12 and a maximum jitter of 170 psrms.

  2. Investigating biological activity spectrum for novel quinoline analogues.

    PubMed

    Musiol, Robert; Jampilek, Josef; Kralova, Katarina; Richardson, Des R; Kalinowski, Danuta; Podeszwa, Barbara; Finster, Jacek; Niedbala, Halina; Palka, Anna; Polanski, Jaroslaw

    2007-02-01

    The lack of the wide spectrum of biological data is an important obstacle preventing the efficient molecular design. Quinoline derivatives are known to exhibit a variety of biological effects. In the current publication, we tested a series of novel quinoline analogues for their photosynthesis-inhibiting activity (the inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport in spinach chloroplasts (Spinacia oleracea L.) and the reduction of chlorophyll content in Chlorella vulgaris Beij.). Moreover, antiproliferative activity was measured using SK-N-MC neuroepithelioma cell line. We described the structure-activity relationships (SAR) between the chemical structure and biological effects of the synthesized compounds. We also measured the lipophilicity of the novel compounds by means of the RP-HPLC and illustrate the relationships between the RP-HPLC retention parameter logK (the logarithm of capacity factor K) and logP data calculated by available programs.

  3. Analogue of cosmological particle creation in an ion trap.

    PubMed

    Schützhold, Ralf; Uhlmann, Michael; Petersen, Lutz; Schmitz, Hector; Friedenauer, Axel; Schätz, Tobias

    2007-11-16

    We study phonons in a dynamical chain of ions confined by a trap with a time-dependent (axial) potential strength and demonstrate that they behave in the same way as quantum fields in an expanding or contracting Universe. Based on this analogy, we present a scheme for the detection of the analogue of cosmological particle creation which should be feasible with present day technology. In order to test the quantum nature of the particle creation mechanism and to distinguish it from classical effects such as heating, we propose to measure the two-phonon amplitude via the 2nd red sideband transition and to compare it with the one-phonon amplitude (1st red sideband).

  4. Two-dimensional inorganic analogues of graphene: transition metal dichalcogenides.

    PubMed

    Jana, Manoj K; Rao, C N R

    2016-09-13

    The discovery of graphene marks a major event in the physics and chemistry of materials. The amazing properties of this two-dimensional (2D) material have prompted research on other 2D layered materials, of which layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are important members. Single-layer and few-layer TMDCs have been synthesized and characterized. They possess a wide range of properties many of which have not been known hitherto. A typical example of such materials is MoS2 In this article, we briefly present various aspects of layered analogues of graphene as exemplified by TMDCs. The discussion includes not only synthesis and characterization, but also various properties and phenomena exhibited by the TMDCs.This article is part of the themed issue 'Fullerenes: past, present and future, celebrating the 30th anniversary of Buckminster Fullerene'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. Two-dimensional inorganic analogues of graphene: transition metal dichalcogenides

    PubMed Central

    Jana, Manoj K.; Rao, C. N. R.

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of graphene marks a major event in the physics and chemistry of materials. The amazing properties of this two-dimensional (2D) material have prompted research on other 2D layered materials, of which layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are important members. Single-layer and few-layer TMDCs have been synthesized and characterized. They possess a wide range of properties many of which have not been known hitherto. A typical example of such materials is MoS2. In this article, we briefly present various aspects of layered analogues of graphene as exemplified by TMDCs. The discussion includes not only synthesis and characterization, but also various properties and phenomena exhibited by the TMDCs. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Fullerenes: past, present and future, celebrating the 30th anniversary of Buckminster Fullerene’. PMID:27501969

  6. MA_MISS and terrestrial analogues for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Sanctis, M. C.; De Angelis, S.; Ammannito, E.; Di Iorio, T.; Carli, C.; Frigeri, A.; Boccaccini, A.; Battistelli, E.; Mugnolo, R.; MA MISS Team

    2012-09-01

    The MA_MISS instrument (Mars Multispectral Imager for Subsurface Studies) is a VIS-NIR spectrometer devoted to study the Martian subsoil within the ExoMars mission. This miniaturized spectrometer is integrated in drilling system of the ExoMars Pasteur Rover, and will investigate the Martian subsoil down to 2 m, in the spectral range 0.4 - 2.2 μm [1,2]. It will provide important information regarding the composition and mineralogy of the Martian subsoil, whose materials are expected to be less altered by erosion and other exogenous processes than surface rocks. With a view to doing laboratory spectroscopic measurements with the instrument breadboard, we performed preliminary laboratory measurements on Mars analogues using a spectrophotometer coupled with a goniometer.

  7. Thermal environment and sleep in winter shelter-analogue settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, Yosuke; Maeda, Kazuki; Nabeshima, Yuki; Tsuzuki, Kazuyo

    2017-10-01

    We aimed to examine sleep in shelter-analogue settings in winter to determine the sleep and environmental conditions in evacuation shelters. Twelve young healthy students took part in the sleep study of two nights for seven hours from 0 AM to 7 AM in a gymnasium. One night the subject used a pair of futons and on the other the subject used emergency supplies consisting of four blankets and a set of portable partitions. Air temperature, humidity were measured around the sleeping subjects through the night. Sleep parameters, skin temperature, microclimate temperature, rectal temperature, and heart rate of the subjects were continuously measured and recorded during the sleeping period. The subjects completed questionnaires relating to thermal comfort and subjective sleep before and after sleep. The sleep efficiency indices were lower when the subjects slept using the blankets. As the microclimate temperature between the human body and blanket was lower, mean skin temperature was significantly lower in the case of blankets.

  8. Measurement of stimulated Hawking emission in an analogue system.

    PubMed

    Weinfurtner, Silke; Tedford, Edmund W; Penrice, Matthew C J; Unruh, William G; Lawrence, Gregory A

    2011-01-14

    Hawking argued that black holes emit thermal radiation via a quantum spontaneous emission. To address this issue experimentally, we utilize the analogy between the propagation of fields around black holes and surface waves on moving water. By placing a streamlined obstacle into an open channel flow we create a region of high velocity over the obstacle that can include surface wave horizons. Long waves propagating upstream towards this region are blocked and converted into short (deep-water) waves. This is the analogue of the stimulated emission by a white hole (the time inverse of a black hole), and our measurements of the amplitudes of the converted waves demonstrate the thermal nature of the conversion process for this system. Given the close relationship between stimulated and spontaneous emission, our findings attest to the generality of the Hawking process.

  9. Synthesis and biological evaluations of a series of thaxtomin analogues.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongbo; Wang, Qingpeng; Ning, Xin; Hang, Hang; Ma, Jing; Yang, Xiande; Lu, Xiaolin; Zhang, Jiabao; Li, Yonghong; Niu, Congwei; Song, Haoran; Wang, Xin; Wang, Peng George

    2015-04-15

    Thaxtomins are a unique family of phytotoxins with unique 4-nitroindole and diketopiperazine fragments possessing potential herbicidal activities. This work presents the total synthesis of natural product thaxtomin C and its analogues. The extensive structure-activity relationship study screens four effective compounds, including thaxtomin A and thaxtomin C. It is indicated that 4-nitro indole fragment is essential for phytotoxicity, while benzyl and m-hydroxybenzyl substituents on the diketopiperazine ring are favorable for the efficacy. The N-methylations on indole and diketopiperazine show weak influence on the herbicidal activities. The four selected compounds show effective herbicidal activities against Brassica campestris, Amaranthus retroflexus, and Abutilon theophrasti, which are comparable or better than dichlobenil, even at a dosage of 187.5 g ha(-1). Moreover, these four compounds show good crop-selective properties to different crops and exhibit moderate protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO) enzyme inhibition. The antifungal results indicate that thaxtomin C displays inhibition to a wide range of fungi.

  10. Ultrafast intersystem crossings in Fe-Co Prussian blue analogues

    SciTech Connect

    van Veenendaal, Michel

    Ultrafast spincrossover is studied in Fe-Co Prussian blue analogues using a dissipative quantum-mechanical model of a cobalt ion coupled to a breathing mode. All electronic interactions are treated on an equal footing. It is theoretically demonstrated that the divalent cobalt ion reaches 90% of the S = 3/2 value within 20 fs after photoexciting a low-spin Co 3+ ion by an iron-to-cobalt charge transfer. The doublet-to-quartet spin crossover is significantly faster than the oscillation period of the breathing mode. The system relaxes to the lowest manifold of divalent cobalt ( 4T 1) in 150-200 fs. In conclusion, strong oscillations inmore » spin-orbit coupling and the involvement of higher-lying quartets are found.« less

  11. The Mojave vadose zone: a subsurface biosphere analogue for Mars.

    PubMed

    Abbey, William; Salas, Everett; Bhartia, Rohit; Beegle, Luther W

    2013-07-01

    If life ever evolved on the surface of Mars, it is unlikely that it would still survive there today, but as Mars evolved from a wet planet to an arid one, the subsurface environment may have presented a refuge from increasingly hostile surface conditions. Since the last glacial maximum, the Mojave Desert has experienced a similar shift from a wet to a dry environment, giving us the opportunity to study here on Earth how subsurface ecosystems in an arid environment adapt to increasingly barren surface conditions. In this paper, we advocate studying the vadose zone ecosystem of the Mojave Desert as an analogue for possible subsurface biospheres on Mars. We also describe several examples of Mars-like terrain found in the Mojave region and discuss ecological insights that might be gained by a thorough examination of the vadose zone in these specific terrains. Examples described include distributary fans (deltas, alluvial fans, etc.), paleosols overlain by basaltic lava flows, and evaporite deposits.

  12. Cytotoxicity of natural ginseng glycosides and semisynthetic analogues.

    PubMed

    Atopkina, L N; Malinovskaya, G V; Elyakov, G B; Uvarova, N I; Woerdenbag, H J; Koulman, A; Pras, N; Potier, P

    1999-02-01

    The cytotoxicity of natural glycosides from Ginseng, semisynthetic analogues and related triterpenes of the dammarane series, isolated from the leaves of the Far-East species of the genus Betula was studied in order to elucidate structure-activity relationships. Some of the compounds studied were active against the human lung carcinoma GLC4 and adenocarcinoma COLO 320 cell lines. The natural glycosides displayed the lowest cytotoxicity. The triterpenes of the dammarane series used as starting aglycones for semisynthetic derivatives were moderately cytotoxic. The dammarane triterpenes possessing keto groups and their semisynthetic glucosides were the most active compounds tested. Cytotoxic effects of the dammarane glucosides were inversely proportional both to the number of sugars attached to the aglycones and to the number of hydroxy groups of the aglycones. The type of side chain and the configuration of the hydroxy group at C-3 in aglycones did not have a significant influence on the cytotoxicity.

  13. Possible charge analogues of spin transfer torques in bulk superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garate, Ion

    2014-03-01

    Spin transfer torques (STT) occur when electric currents travel through inhomogeneously magnetized systems and are important for the motion of magnetic textures such as domain walls. Since superconductors are easy-plane ferromagnets in particle-hole (charge) space, it is natural to ask whether any charge duals of STT phenomena exist therein. We find that the superconducting analogue of the adiabatic STT vanishes in a bulk superconductor with a momentum-independent order parameter, while the superconducting counterpart of the nonadiabatic STT does not vanish. This nonvanishing superconducting torque is induced by heat (rather than charge) currents and acts on the charge (rather than spin) degree of freedom. It can become significant in the vicinity of the superconducting transition temperature, where it generates a net quasiparticle charge and alters the dispersion and linewidth of low-frequency collective modes. This work has been financially supported by Canada's NSERC.

  14. Ultrafast intersystem crossings in Fe-Co Prussian blue analogues

    DOE PAGES

    van Veenendaal, Michel

    2017-07-27

    Ultrafast spincrossover is studied in Fe-Co Prussian blue analogues using a dissipative quantum-mechanical model of a cobalt ion coupled to a breathing mode. All electronic interactions are treated on an equal footing. It is theoretically demonstrated that the divalent cobalt ion reaches 90% of the S = 3/2 value within 20 fs after photoexciting a low-spin Co 3+ ion by an iron-to-cobalt charge transfer. The doublet-to-quartet spin crossover is significantly faster than the oscillation period of the breathing mode. The system relaxes to the lowest manifold of divalent cobalt ( 4T 1) in 150-200 fs. In conclusion, strong oscillations inmore » spin-orbit coupling and the involvement of higher-lying quartets are found.« less

  15. A vasopressin analogue in treatment of diabetes insipidus

    PubMed Central

    Kauli, Rivka; Laron, Zvi

    1974-01-01

    Six children, 3 adolescents, and 3 adults with vasopressin-sensitive diabetes insipidus were treated with a vasopressin analogue, DDAVP (1-deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin), at a daily dose ranging from 5 to 20 μg administered twice a day intranasally. The period of follow-up of these patients has been from 3 months to 1 year. DDAVP was effective in maintaining normal diuresis and normal urine concentration during both day and night. No local or vasopressor side effects were observed. Compared to other antidiuretic drugs, such as nasal pitressin powder, lysine-vasopressin nasal spray, or pitressin tannate injections, used previously by the patients, DDAVP proved to be superior in the control of the diabetes insipidus and in the subjective feeling of the patients. It is concluded that DDAVP is the drug of choice in the treatment of vasopressinsensitive diabetes insipidus. PMID:4850356

  16. Vasopressin Analogue DDAVP in Diabetes Insipidus: Clinical and Laboratory Studies

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, C. R. W.; Kitau, M. J.; Chard, T.; Besser, G. M.

    1973-01-01

    In seven patients with cranial diabetes insipidus an analogue of vasopressin, DDAVP, produced an antidiuresis lasting up to 20 hours after a single intranasal dose. Lysine vasopressin (LVP) in the same dose produced a less potent antidiuresis which lasted for only three to four hours. The plasma half life of DDAVP was 7·8 and 75·5 min for the fast and slow phases, compared with 2·5 and 14·5 min for LVP. Radioiodine-labelled DDAVP was not destroyed by incubation with late pregnancy plasma, which contains an enzyme that inactivates vasopressin. The slow metabolic clearance of DDAVP, its absorption through the nasal mucosa, and its lack of side effects make this the ideal drug for the treatment of vasopressin-sensitive diabetes insipidus. Patients usually require 10 to 20 μg DDAVP given intranasally twice daily for good clinical control of their diabetes insipidus. PMID:4581079

  17. A computational study of open-chain epothilone analogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamel, Karol; Rusinska-Roszak, Danuta

    Molecular mechanics (MM/Ambers) calculations were applied to probe the conformational profile of open-chain epothilone analogue [Org Lett 2006, 8, 685], cytotoxic against some cell lines. Geometries of the most stable conformers were optimized at DFT level using the B3LYP functional and then compared to known both experimental and virtual conformers of epothilone. One of the most stable structures is III (1.47 kcal/mol above global minimum) which represents high similarity to the appropriate fragment of the Taylor's model of epothilone A, but two other conformers: XIV and XX, although they have almost the same conformation as the mother structure, are very unstable (6.7 and 12.4 kcal/mol above the global minimum).0

  18. Bespoke analogue space-times: meta-material mimics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Sebastian; Visser, Matt

    2018-06-01

    Modern meta-materials allow one to construct electromagnetic media with almost arbitrary bespoke permittivity, permeability, and magneto-electric tensors. If (and only if) the permittivity, permeability, and magneto-electric tensors satisfy certain stringent compatibility conditions, can the meta-material be fully described (at the wave optics level) in terms of an effective Lorentzian metric—an analogue spacetime. We shall consider some of the standard black-hole spacetimes of primary interest in general relativity, in various coordinate systems, and determine the equivalent meta-material susceptibility tensors in a laboratory setting. In static black hole spacetimes (Schwarzschild and the like) certain eigenvalues of the susceptibility tensors will be seen to diverge on the horizon. In stationary black hole spacetimes (Kerr and the like) certain eigenvalues of the susceptibility tensors will be seen to diverge on the ergo-surface.

  19. Stereoselective synthesis of conformationally constrained omega-amino acid analogues from pyroglutamic acid.

    PubMed

    Bentz, Emilie L; Goswami, Rajesh; Moloney, Mark G; Westaway, Susan M

    2005-08-07

    Bicyclic lactams derived from pyroglutamic acid provide a useful scaffold for synthesis of conformationally restricted analogues of lysine, ornithine and glutamine, as well as an Ala-Ala dipeptide analogue. Amino alcohol and carboxylic acid derivatives are accessible from a common intermediate. In this strategy, the bicyclic lactam system not only controls, but also facilitates the determination of the stereochemistry of the synthetic intermediates.

  20. Genie in a blotter: A comparative study of LSD and LSD analogues' effects and user profile.

    PubMed

    Coney, Leigh D; Maier, Larissa J; Ferris, Jason A; Winstock, Adam R; Barratt, Monica J

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to describe self-reported patterns of use and effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) analogues (AL-LAD, 1P-LSD, and ETH-LAD) and the characteristics of those who use them. An anonymous self-selected online survey of people who use drugs (Global Drug Survey 2016; N = 96,894), which measured perceived drug effects of LSD and its analogues. Most LSD analogue users (91%) had also tried LSD. The proportion of U.K. and U.S. respondents reporting LSD analogue use in the last 12 months was higher than for LSD only. LSD analogue users described the effects as psychedelic (93%), over half (55%) obtained it online, and almost all (99%) reported an oral route of administration. The modal duration (8 hr) and time to peak (2 hr) of LSD analogues were not significantly different from LSD. Ratings for pleasurable high, strength of effect, comedown, urge to use more drugs, value for money, and risk of harm following use were significantly lower for LSD analogues compared with LSD. LSD analogues were reported as similar in time to peak and duration as LSD but weaker in strength, pleasurable high, and comedown. Future studies should seek to replicate these findings with chemical confirmation and dose measurement. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Synthesis and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of several pyrimidone analogues of huperzine A

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlkowski, A.P.; Campiani, G.; Saxena, A.

    1995-12-31

    Synthesis of four new pyrimidone analogues of the acetyicholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor huperzine A are reported together with the inhibitory potendes of these compounds for foetal bovine calf serum AChE; t3-lactone formation followed by a thermal cycloreversion reaction serves as the key step for introduction of the ethylidene appendage of analogue 12 in the stereochemically correct form.

  2. Making Connections in Math: Activating a Prior Knowledge Analogue Matters for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidney, Pooja G.; Alibali, Martha W.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated analogical transfer of conceptual structure from a prior-knowledge domain to support learning in a new domain of mathematics: division by fractions. Before a procedural lesson on division by fractions, fifth and sixth graders practiced with a surface analogue (other operations on fractions) or a structural analogue (whole…

  3. How Analogue Research Can Advance Descriptive Evaluation Theory: Understanding (and Improving) Stakeholder Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Bernadette; Mark, Melvin M.

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation theories can be tested in various ways. One approach, the experimental analogue study, is described and illustrated in this article. The approach is presented as a method worthy to use in the pursuit of what Alkin and others have called descriptive evaluation theory. Drawing on analogue studies conducted by the first author, we…

  4. Design and synthesis of paracaseolide A analogues as selective protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jian-Peng; Tang, Chun-Lan; Gao, Li-Xin; Ma, Wei-Ping; Li, Jing-Ya; Li, Ying; Li, Jia; Nan, Fa-Jun

    2014-06-07

    A series of structurally related analogues of the natural product paracaseolide A were synthesized and identified as potent PTP1B inhibitors. Among these analogues, compound 10 in particular showed improved PTP1B enzyme inhibitory activity, high selectivity for PTP1B over TC-PTP, and improved cellular effects.

  5. Carbocyclic nucleoside analogues: classification, target enzymes, mechanisms of action and synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matyugina, E. S.; Khandazhinskaya, A. P.; Kochetkov, Sergei N.

    2012-08-01

    Key biological targets (S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase, telomerase, human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase, herpes virus DNA polymerase and hepatitis B virus DNA polymerase) and the mechanisms of action of carbocyclic nucleoside analogues are considered. Structural types of analogues are discussed. Methods of synthesis for the most promising compounds and the spectrum of their biological activities are described. The bibliography includes 126 references.

  6. Using analogues to quantify geological uncertainty in stochastic reserve modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, B.; Brown, I.

    1995-08-01

    The petroleum industry seeks to minimize exploration risk by employing the best possible expertise, methods and tools. Is it possible to quantify the success of this process of risk reduction? Due to inherent uncertainty in predicting geological reality and due to changing environments for hydrocarbon exploration, it is not enough simply to record the proportion of successful wells drilled; in various parts of the world it has been noted that pseudo-random drilling would apparently have been as successful as the actual drilling programme. How, then, should we judge the success of risk reduction? For many years the E&P industry hasmore » routinely used Monte Carlo modelling to generate a probability distribution for prospect reserves. One aspect of Monte Carlo modelling which has received insufficient attention, but which is essential for quantifying risk reduction, is the consistency and repeatability with which predictions can be made. Reducing the subjective element inherent in the specification of geological uncertainty allows better quantification of uncertainty in the prediction of reserves, in both exploration and appraisal. Building on work reported at the AAPG annual conventions in 1994 and 1995, the present paper incorporates analogue information with uncertainty modelling. Analogues provide a major step forward in the quantification of risk, but their significance is potentially greater still. The two principal contributors to uncertainty in field and prospect analysis are the hydrocarbon life-cycle and the geometry of the trap. These are usually treated separately. Combining them into a single model is a major contribution to the reduction risk. This work is based in part on a joint project with Oryx Energy UK Ltd., and thanks are due in particular to Richard Benmore and Mike Cooper.« less

  7. Highly potent metallopeptide analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone.

    PubMed Central

    Bajusz, S; Janaky, T; Csernus, V J; Bokser, L; Fekete, M; Srkalovic, G; Redding, T W; Schally, A V

    1989-01-01

    Metal complexes related to the cytotoxic complexes cisplatin [cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II)] and transbis(salicylaldoximato)copper(II) were incorporated into suitably modified luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) analogues containing D-lysine at position 6. Some of the metallopeptides thus obtained proved to be highly active LH-RH agonists or antagonists. For instance, SB-40, a PtCl2-containing metallopeptide in which platinum is coordinated to an N epsilon-(DL-2,3-diaminopropionyl)-D-lysine residue [D-Lys(DL-A2pr] at position 6, showed 50 times higher LH-releasing potency than the native hormone. SB-95, [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(pCl)2, D-Pal(3)2, Arg5,D-Lys[DL-A2pr(Sal2Cu)]6,D-Ala10]LH-RH, where Nal(2) is 3-(2-naphthyl)alanine, Pal(3) is 3-(3-pyridyl)alanine, and copper(II) is coordinated to the salicylideneimino moieties resulting from condensation of salicylaldehyde with D-Lys(DL-A2pr)6, caused 100% inhibition of ovulation at a dose of 3 micrograms in rats. Most metallopeptide analogues of LH-RH showed high affinities for the membrane receptors of rat pituitary and human breast cancer cells. Some of these metallopeptides had cytotoxic activity against human breast cancer and prostate cancer cell lines in vitro (this will be the subject of a separate paper on cytotoxicity evaluation). Such cytostatic metallopeptides could be envisioned as targeted chemotherapeutic agents in cancers that contain receptors for LH-RH-like peptides. PMID:2548206

  8. Highly potent metallopeptide analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone.

    PubMed

    Bajusz, S; Janaky, T; Csernus, V J; Bokser, L; Fekete, M; Srkalovic, G; Redding, T W; Schally, A V

    1989-08-01

    Metal complexes related to the cytotoxic complexes cisplatin [cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II)] and transbis(salicylaldoximato)copper(II) were incorporated into suitably modified luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) analogues containing D-lysine at position 6. Some of the metallopeptides thus obtained proved to be highly active LH-RH agonists or antagonists. For instance, SB-40, a PtCl2-containing metallopeptide in which platinum is coordinated to an N epsilon-(DL-2,3-diaminopropionyl)-D-lysine residue [D-Lys(DL-A2pr] at position 6, showed 50 times higher LH-releasing potency than the native hormone. SB-95, [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(pCl)2, D-Pal(3)2, Arg5,D-Lys[DL-A2pr(Sal2Cu)]6,D-Ala10]LH-RH, where Nal(2) is 3-(2-naphthyl)alanine, Pal(3) is 3-(3-pyridyl)alanine, and copper(II) is coordinated to the salicylideneimino moieties resulting from condensation of salicylaldehyde with D-Lys(DL-A2pr)6, caused 100% inhibition of ovulation at a dose of 3 micrograms in rats. Most metallopeptide analogues of LH-RH showed high affinities for the membrane receptors of rat pituitary and human breast cancer cells. Some of these metallopeptides had cytotoxic activity against human breast cancer and prostate cancer cell lines in vitro (this will be the subject of a separate paper on cytotoxicity evaluation). Such cytostatic metallopeptides could be envisioned as targeted chemotherapeutic agents in cancers that contain receptors for LH-RH-like peptides.

  9. Inhibition of ATP Synthase by Chlorinated Adenosine Analogue

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lisa S.; Nowak, Billie J.; Ayres, Mary L.; Krett, Nancy L.; Rosen, Steven T.; Zhang, Shuxing; Gandhi, Varsha

    2009-01-01

    8-Chloroadenosine (8-Cl-Ado) is a ribonucleoside analogue that is currently in clinical trial for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Based on the decline in cellular ATP pool following 8-Cl-Ado treatment, we hypothesized that 8-Cl-ADP and 8-Cl-ATP may interfere with ATP synthase, a key enzyme in ATP production. Mitochondrial ATP synthase is composed of two major parts; FO intermembrane base and F1 domain, containing α and β subunits. Crystal structures of both α and β subunits that bind to the substrate, ADP, are known in tight binding (αdpβdp) and loose binding (αtpβtp) states. Molecular docking demonstrated that 8-Cl-ADP/8-Cl-ATP occupied similar binding modes as ADP/ATP in the tight and loose binding sites of ATP synthase, respectively, suggesting that the chlorinated nucleotide metabolites may be functional substrates and inhibitors of the enzyme. The computational predictions were consistent with our whole cell biochemical results. Oligomycin, an established pharmacological inhibitor of ATP synthase, decreased both ATP and 8-Cl-ATP formation from exogenous substrates, however, did not affect pyrimidine nucleoside analogue triphosphate accumulation. Synthesis of ATP from ADP was inhibited in cells loaded with 8-Cl-ATP. These biochemical studies are in consent with the computational modeling; in the αtpβtp state 8-Cl-ATP occupies similar binding as ANP, a non-hydrolyzable ATP mimic that is a known inhibitor. Similarly, in the substrate binding site (αdpβdp) 8-Cl-ATP occupies a similar position as ATP mimic ADP-BeF3 −. Collectively, our current work suggests that 8-Cl-ADP may serve as a substrate and the 8-Cl-ATP may be an inhibitor of ATP synthase. PMID:19477165

  10. Prescription patterns of long-acting somatostatin analogues

    PubMed Central

    Machado-Alba, Jorge Enrique; Machado-Duque, Manuel Enrique

    2017-01-01

    Background: Acromegaly and endocrine tumors are uncommon morbidities that are currently treated with different drugs. Objective: To determine the prescription patterns of somatostatin analogues in patients affiliated with the Health System of Colombia. Methods: Retrospective cohort study of patients of any age and sex treated with octreotide or lanreotide between January 2011 and August 2015. Socio-demographic, clinical (indications) and pharmacological (comedications) variables were considered. Multivariate analysis was performed with SPSS 23.0. Results: We identified 289 patients, with a mean age of 56.6 ± 14.0 years and female predominance (59.5%), who underwent treatment during the 56 months of monitoring. Octreotide was used in 56.1% of cases, followed by lanreotide (43.9%), both at approved doses. We found that 4.5% of subjects changed from one drug to another over the course of therapy, which was associated with being diabetic and receiving insulin (odds ratio: 4.27; 95% confidence interval: 1.23–14.84; p = 0.014). The most common indications were acromegaly (52.2% of cases) followed by neuroendocrine tumors (15.9%). The most common comorbidities were hypertension (39.4% of cases), depression (27.3%), dyslipidemia (23.3%), diabetes mellitus (23.5%) and hypothyroidism (23.5%). Being male (odds ratio: 0.57; 95% confidence interval: 0.35–0.94; p = 0.029) and belonging to the age group between 45 and 65 years (odds ratio: 0.44; 95% confidence interval: 0.21–0.90; p = 0.024) were significantly associated with a lower risk of receiving comedications. Conclusion: Somatostatin analogues are being used at recommended doses, especially in patients with acromegaly and neuroendocrine tumors. Variables associated with change in therapy were identified. PMID:28540043

  11. Prescription patterns of long-acting somatostatin analogues.

    PubMed

    Machado-Alba, Jorge Enrique; Machado-Duque, Manuel Enrique

    2017-01-01

    Acromegaly and endocrine tumors are uncommon morbidities that are currently treated with different drugs. To determine the prescription patterns of somatostatin analogues in patients affiliated with the Health System of Colombia. Retrospective cohort study of patients of any age and sex treated with octreotide or lanreotide between January 2011 and August 2015. Socio-demographic, clinical (indications) and pharmacological (comedications) variables were considered. Multivariate analysis was performed with SPSS 23.0. We identified 289 patients, with a mean age of 56.6 ± 14.0 years and female predominance (59.5%), who underwent treatment during the 56 months of monitoring. Octreotide was used in 56.1% of cases, followed by lanreotide (43.9%), both at approved doses. We found that 4.5% of subjects changed from one drug to another over the course of therapy, which was associated with being diabetic and receiving insulin (odds ratio: 4.27; 95% confidence interval: 1.23-14.84; p = 0.014). The most common indications were acromegaly (52.2% of cases) followed by neuroendocrine tumors (15.9%). The most common comorbidities were hypertension (39.4% of cases), depression (27.3%), dyslipidemia (23.3%), diabetes mellitus (23.5%) and hypothyroidism (23.5%). Being male (odds ratio: 0.57; 95% confidence interval: 0.35-0.94; p = 0.029) and belonging to the age group between 45 and 65 years (odds ratio: 0.44; 95% confidence interval: 0.21-0.90; p = 0.024) were significantly associated with a lower risk of receiving comedications. Somatostatin analogues are being used at recommended doses, especially in patients with acromegaly and neuroendocrine tumors. Variables associated with change in therapy were identified.

  12. The uptake of HNO3 on meteoric smoke analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankland, Victoria L.; James, Alexander D.; Feng, Wuhu; Plane, John M. C.

    2015-05-01

    The uptake of HNO3, H2O, NO2 and NO was studied on meteoric smoke particle analogues using a low-pressure Knudsen cell operating at 295 K. The analogues used were olivine (MgFeSiO4) and a haematite/goethite (Fe2O3/FeO(OH)) mixture synthesised by the sol-gel process. For uptake on MgFeSiO4, the following uptake coefficients were obtained: γ(HNO3)=(1.8±0.3)×10-3, γ(H2O)=(4.0±1.3)×10-3, γ(NO2)=(5.7±0.2)×10-4 and γ(NO)<3×10-4. γ(HNO3) did not show a dependence on the mass of MgFeSiO4 in the Knudsen cell (when varied by a factor of 6) implying that, because of relatively efficient uptake, HNO3 is removed only by near-surface particles. This was corroborated by application of a surface uptake model. Saturating the MgFeSiO4 particles with water vapour before exposing them to NO2 increased γ(NO2) to (2.1±0.7)×10-3, but had a very small effect on γ(HNO3). For uptake on Fe2O3/FeO(OH), γ(HNO3)=(1.5±0.2)×10-3. These results were then included in a whole atmosphere chemistry-climate model, which shows that the heterogeneous removal on meteoric smoke particles in the winter polar vortex between 30 and 60 km appears to provide an important sink for HNO3.

  13. Coupled fluid and solid evolution in analogue volcanic vents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovitz, Stephen A.; Ogden, Darcy E.; Kim, Dave (Dae-Wook); Kim, Sang Young

    2014-07-01

    Volcanic eruptions emit rock particulates and gases at high speed and pressure, which change the shape of the surrounding rock. Simplified analytical solutions, field studies, and numerical models suggest that this process plays an important role in the behavior and hazards associated with explosive volcanic eruptions. Here we present results from a newly developed laboratory-scale apparatus designed to study this coupled process. The experiments used compressed air jets expanding into the laboratory through fabricated rock analogue material, which evolves through time during the experiment. The compressed air was injected at approximately 2.5 times atmospheric pressure. We fabricated rock analogues from sand and steel powder samples with a three-dimensional printing process. We studied the fluid development using phase-locked particle image velocimetry, while simultaneously observing the solid development via a video camera. We found that the fluid response was much more rapid than that of the solid, permitting a quasi-steady approximation. In most cases, the solid vent flared out rapidly, increasing its diameter by 20 to 100%. After the initial expansion, the vent and flow field achieved a near-steady condition for a long duration. The new expanded vent shapes permitted lower vent exit pressures and larger jet radii. In one experiment, after an initial vent shape development and establishment of steady flow behavior, rock failure occurred a second time, resulting in a new exit diameter and new steady state. This second failure was not precipitated by changes in the nozzle flow condition, and it radically changed the downstream flow dynamics. This experiment suggests that the brittle nature of volcanic host rock enables sudden vent expansion in the middle of an eruption without requiring a change in the conduit flow.

  14. Ring size of somatostatin analogues (ODT-8) modulates receptor selectivity and binding affinity

    PubMed Central

    Erchegyi, Judit; Grace, Christy Rani R.; Samant, Manoj; Cescato, Renzo; Piccand, Veronique; Riek, Roland; Reubi, Jean Claude; Rivier, Jean E.

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis, biological testing and NMR studies of several analogues of H-c[Cys3-Phe6-Phe7-dTrp8-Lys9-Thr10-Phe11-Cys14]-OH (ODT-8, a pan-somatostatin analogue) (1), have been performed to assess the effect of changing the stereochemistry and the number of the atoms in the disulfide bridge on binding affinity. Cysteine at positions 3 and/or 14 (SRIF numbering) were/was substituted with d-cysteine, Nor-cysteine, d-Nor-cysteine, Homo-cysteine and/or d-Homo-cysteine. The 3D structures of selected partially selective, bioactive analogues (3, 18, 19 and 21) were carried out in DMSO. Interestingly and not unexpectedly, the 3D structures of these analogues comprised the pharmacophore for which the analogues had the highest binding affinities (i.e., sst4 in all cases). PMID:18410084

  15. Novel DOTA-based prochelator for divalent peptide vectorization: synthesis of dimeric bombesin analogues for multimodality tumor imaging and therapy.

    PubMed

    Abiraj, Keelara; Jaccard, Hugues; Kretzschmar, Martin; Helm, Lothar; Maecke, Helmut R

    2008-07-28

    Dimeric peptidic vectors, obtained by the divalent grafting of bombesin analogues on a newly synthesized DOTA-based prochelator, showed improved qualities as tumor targeted imaging probes in comparison to their monomeric analogues.

  16. Rough Precipitation Forecasts based on Analogue Method: an Operational System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raffa, Mario; Mercogliano, Paola; Lacressonnière, Gwendoline; Guillaume, Bruno; Deandreis, Céline; Castanier, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    In the framework of the Climate KIC partnership, has been funded the project Wat-Ener-Cast (WEC), coordinated by ARIA Technologies, having the goal to adapt, through tailored weather-related forecast, the water and energy operations to the increased weather fluctuation and to climate change. The WEC products allow providing high quality forecast suited in risk and opportunities assessment dashboard for water and energy operational decisions and addressing the needs of sewage/water distribution operators, energy transport & distribution system operators, energy manager and wind energy producers. A common "energy water" web platform, able to interface with newest smart water-energy IT network have been developed. The main benefit by sharing resources through the "WEC platform" is the possibility to optimize the cost and the procedures of safety and maintenance team, in case of alerts and, finally to reduce overflows. Among the different services implemented on the WEC platform, ARIA have developed a product having the goal to support sewage/water distribution operators, based on a gradual forecast information system ( at 48hrs/24hrs/12hrs horizons) of heavy precipitation. For each fixed deadline different type of operation are implemented: 1) 48hour horizon, organisation of "on call team", 2) 24 hour horizon, update and confirm the "on call team", 3) 12 hour horizon, secure human resources and equipment (emptying storage basins, pipes manipulations …). More specifically CMCC have provided a statistical downscaling method in order to provide a "rough" daily local precipitation at 24 hours, especially when high precipitation values are expected. This statistical technique consists of an adaptation of analogue method based on ECMWF data (analysis and forecast at 24 hours). One of the most advantages of this technique concerns a lower computational burden and budget compared to running a Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) model, also if, of course it provides only this

  17. Analogue Models Of Volcanic Spreading At Mt. Vesuvius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Matteo, Ada; Castaldo, Raffaele; D'Auria, Luca; James, Michael; Lane, Steve; Massa, Bruno; Pepe, Susi; Tizzani, Pietro

    2015-04-01

    Somma-Vesuvius is a quiescent strato-volcano of the Neapolitan district, southern Italy, for which various geophysical and geological evidences (e.g. geodetic measurements, geological and structural data, seismic profiles interpretations and surface deformation analysis with Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR)) indicate ongoing spreading deformation. In this research we investigate the spreading deformation and associated surface deformation pattern by performing analogue experiments and comparing the results with actual ground deformation as measured using DInSAR data recorded between 1992 and 2010. Somma-Vesuvius consists of a volcanic cone (Gran Cono) lying within an asymmetric caldera (Somma). The Somma caldera is the result of at least 7 Plinian eruptions, the last of which was the 79 CE. Pompeii eruption. The current cone of Mt. Vesuvius grew within the caldera in the following centuries as the effect of continued explosive and effusive activity of the volcano. The volcano lies on a substratum consisting of a Mesozoic carbonatic basement, overlapped by Holocene clastic sediments and volcanic rocks. Our analogue models were built to simulate the shape of the Somma-Vesuvius top a scale of about 1:100000, emplaced on a sand layer (brittle behaviour) laid on a silicone layer (ductile behaviour). Models are based on the Fluid-dynamics Dimensionless Analysis (FDA), according to the Buckingham-Π theorem. In this context, we considered few dimensionless parameters that allowed the setting of a reliable scaled model. To represent the complex Somma-Vesuvius geometry, an asymmetric model was built by setting a truncated cone (mimicking the topography of Somma edifice) topped by another small cone (mimicking the Gran Cono) shifted off the axis of the main cone. Different experiments were carried out in which the thickness of the basal sand layer and of the silicone one were varied. To quantify the vertical and horizontal displacements the

  18. Uncovering mass segregation with galaxy analogues in dark-matter simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Gandhali D.; Parker, Laura C.; Wadsley, James

    2016-10-01

    We investigate mass segregation in group and cluster environments by identifying galaxy analogues in high-resolution dark-matter simulations. Subhaloes identified by the Amiga's Halo Finder (AHF) and ROCKSTAR halo finders have similar mass functions, independent of resolution, but different radial distributions due to significantly different subhalo hierarchies. We propose a simple way to classify subhaloes as galaxy analogues. The radial distributions of galaxy analogues agree well at large halocentric radii for both AHF and ROCKSTAR but disagree near parent halo centres where the phase-space information used by ROCKSTAR is essential. We see clear mass segregation at small radii (within 0.5 rvir) with average galaxy analogue mass decreasing with radius. Beyond the virial radius, we find a mild trend where the average galaxy analogue mass increases with radius. These mass segregation trends are strongest in small groups and dominated by the segregation of low-mass analogues. The lack of mass segregation in massive galaxy analogues suggests that the observed trends are driven by the complex accretion histories of the parent haloes rather than dynamical friction.

  19. Iodination and stability of somatostatin analogues: comparison of iodination techniques. A practical overview.

    PubMed

    de Blois, Erik; Chan, Ho Sze; Breeman, Wouter A P

    2012-01-01

    For iodination ((125/127)I) of tyrosine-containing peptides, chloramin-T, Pre-Coated Iodo-Gen(®) tubes and Iodo-Beads(®) (Pierce) are commonly used for in vitro radioligand investigations and there have been reliant vendors hereof for decades. However, commercial availability of these radio-iodinated peptides is decreasing. For continuation of our research in this field we investigated and optimized (radio-)iodination of somatostatin analogues. In literature, radioiodination using here described somatostatin analogues and iodination techniques are described separately. Here we present an overview, including High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) separation and characterisation by mass spectrometry, to obtain mono- and di-iodinated analogues. Reaction kinetics of (125/127)I iodinated somatostatin analogues were investigated as function of reaction time and concentration of reactants, including somatostatin analogues, iodine and oxidizing agent. To our knowledge, for the here described somatostatin analogues, no (127)I iodination and optimization are described. (Radio-)iodinated somatostatin analogues could be preserved with a >90% radiochemical purity for 1 month after reversed phase HPLC-purification.

  20. Large seismic source imaging from old analogue seismograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldeira, Bento; Buforn, Elisa; Borges, José; Bezzeghoud, Mourad

    2017-04-01

    In this work we present a procedure to recover the ground motions by a proper digital structure, from old seismograms in analogue physical support (paper or microfilm) to study the source rupture process, by application of modern finite source inversion tools. Despite the quality that the analog data and the digitizing technologies available may have, recover the ground motions with the accurate metrics from old seismograms, is often an intricate procedure. Frequently the general parameters of the analogue instruments response that allow recover the shape of the ground motions (free periods and damping) are known, but the magnification that allow recover the metric of these motions is dubious. It is in these situations that the procedure applies. The procedure is based on assign of the moment magnitude value to the integral of the apparent Source Time Function (STF), estimated by deconvolution of a synthetic elementary seismogram from the related observed seismogram, corrected with an instrument response affected by improper magnification. Two delicate issues in the process are 1) the calculus of the synthetic elementary seismograms that must consider later phases if applied to large earthquakes (the portions of signal should be 3 or 4 times larger than the rupture time) and 2) the deconvolution to calculate the apparent STF. In present version of the procedure was used the Direct Solution Method to compute the elementary seismograms and the deconvolution was processed in time domain by an iterative algorithm that allow constrains the STF to stay positive and time limited. The method was examined using synthetic data to test the accuracy and robustness. Finally, a set of 17 real old analog seismograms from the Santa Maria (Azores) 1939 earthquake (Mw=7.1) was used in order to recover the waveforms in the required digital structure, from which by inversion allows compute the finite source rupture model (slip distribution). Acknowledgements: This work is co

  1. Thalidomide analogue CC1069 inhibits development of rat adjuvant arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, S J; Freeman, S L; Corral, L G; Ocampo, C J; Kaplan, G

    1999-01-01

    The cytokine tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) has been implicated in the aetiology of rheumatoid arthritis in humans as well as of experimental arthritis in rodents. Thalidomide, and to a greater extent the new thalidomide analogue CC1069, inhibit monocyte TNF-α production both in vitro and in vivo. The aim of the present study is to establish whether these drugs block production of TNF-α as well as IL-2 by rat leucocytes and whether this inhibition affects the development of rat adjuvant arthritis (AA). Cultured splenocytes were stimulated with either lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or concanavalin A (Con A) in the presence of thalidomide, CC1069, or solvent, and the production of TNF-α and IL-2 were compared. Next, adjuvant was injected into the base of the tail of rats without or with daily intraperitoneal injections with 100–200 mg/kg per day thalidomide or 50–200 mg/kg per day CC1069. Disease activity, including ankle swelling, hind limb radiographic and histological changes, weight gain, and ankle joint cytokine mRNA levels, were monitored. CC1069, but not the parent drug thalidomide, inhibited in vitro production of TNF-α and IL-2 by stimulated splenocytes in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo, a dose-dependent suppression of AA disease activity occurred in the CC1069-treated animals. In contrast, thalidomide-treated rats experienced comparable arthritis severity to placebo-treated animals. There was also a reduction in TNF-α and IL-2 mRNA levels in the ankle joints of CC1069-treated rats compared with thalidomide- and placebo-treated arthritic rats. Early initiation of CC1069 treatment suppressed AA inflammation more efficiently than delayed treatment. We conclude that thalidomide, which did not suppress TNF-α or IL-2 production in vitro by Lewis rat cells, did not suppress development of rat AA. However, the development of rat AA can be blocked by the thalidomide analogue CC1069, which is an efficient inhibitor of TNF-α production and IL-2 in vitro

  2. Efficacy of Antimicrobials on Bacteria Cultured in a Spaceflight Analogue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickerson, CA; Wotring, Virginia; Barrila, Jennifer; Crabbe, Aurelie; Castro, Sarah; Davis, Richard; Rideout, April; McCarthy, Breanne; Ott, C. Mark

    2014-01-01

    As humans travel in space, they will interact with microbial flora from themselves, other crewmembers, their food, and the environment. While evaluations of microbial ecology aboard the Mir and ISS suggest a predominance of common environmental flora, the presence of (and potential for) infectious agents has been well documented. Likewise, pathogens have been detected during preflight monitoring of spaceflight food, resulting in the disqualification of that production lot from flight. These environmental and food organisms range from the obligate pathogen, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), which has been responsible for disqualification and removal of food destined for ISS and has previously been reported from Shuttle crew refuse, to the opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, isolated numerous times from ISS habitable compartments and the crew. Infectious disease events have affected spaceflight missions, including an upper respiratory infection that delayed the launch of STS-36 and an incapacitating Pseudomonas aeruginosa urinary tract infection of a crewmember during Apollo 13. These observations indicate that the crew has the potential to be exposed to obligate and opportunistic pathogens. This risk of exposure is expected to increase with longer mission durations and increased use of regenerative life support systems. As antibiotics are the primary countermeasure after infection, determining if their efficacy during spaceflight missions is comparable to terrestrial application is of critical importance. The NASA Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) culture system has been successfully used as a spaceflight culture analogue to identify potential alterations in several key microbial characteristics, such as virulence and gene regulation, in response to spaceflight culture. We hypothesized that bacteria cultured in the low fluid shear RWV environment would demonstrate changes in efficacy of antibiotics compared to higher fluid shear controls

  3. Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy (PRRT) of Medullary and Nonmedullary Thyroid Cancer Using Radiolabeled Somatostatin Analogues.

    PubMed

    Salavati, Ali; Puranik, Ameya; Kulkarni, Harshad R; Budiawan, Hendra; Baum, Richard P

    2016-05-01

    As therapeutic options in advanced medullary and non-iodine avid differentiated (nonmedullary) thyroid cancers are limited and associated with significant toxicity, targeting of somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) for internal radiation therapy provides a promising option. Theranostics (therapy and diagnosis) using radiolabeled somatostatin analogues has proved to be a milestone in the management of SSTR-expressing tumors. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy using (177)Lu-labeled or (90)Y-labeled somatostatin analogues may have a significant role in the management of medullary and nonmedullary thyroid cancers in those patients where PET/CT with (68)Ga-labeled somatostatin analogues demonstrates significant SSTR expression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. GnRH Analogues in the Prevention of Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Alama, Pilar; Bellver, Jose; Vidal, Carmen; Giles, Juan

    2013-01-01

    The GnRH analogue (agonist and antagonist GnRH) changed ovarian stimulation. On the one hand, it improved chances of pregnancy to obtain more oocytes and better embryos. This leads to an ovarian hyper-response, which can be complicated by the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). On the other hand, the GnRH analogue can prevent the incidence of OHSS: GnRH antagonist protocols, GnRH agonist for triggering final oocyte maturation, either together or separately, coasting, and the GnRH analogue may prove useful for avoiding OHSS in high-risk patients. We review these topics in this article. PMID:23825982

  5. Divergent strategy for the synthesis of alpha-aryl-substituted fosmidomycin analogues.

    PubMed

    Devreux, Vincent; Wiesner, Jochen; Jomaa, Hassan; Rozenski, Jef; Van der Eycken, Johan; Van Calenbergh, Serge

    2007-05-11

    Fosmidomycin is the first representative of a new class of antimalarial drugs acting through inhibition of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate (DOXP) reductoisomerase (DXR), an essential enzyme in the non-mevalonate pathway for the synthesis of isoprenoids. This work describes a divergent strategy for the synthesis of a series of alpha-aryl-substituted fosmidomycin analogues, featuring a palladium-catalyzed Stille coupling as the key step. An alpha-(4-cyanophenyl)fosmidomycin analogue emerged as the most potent analogue in the present series. Its antimalarial activity clearly surpasses that of the reference compound fosmidomycin.

  6. Hierarchically Superstructured Prussian Blue Analogues: Spontaneous Assembly Synthesis and Applications as Pseudocapacitive Materials

    DOE PAGES

    Yue, Yanfeng; Zhang, Zhiyong; Binder, Andrew J.; ...

    2014-11-10

    Hierarchically superstructured Prussian blue analogues (hexa- conventional hybrid graphene/MnO 2 nanostructured textiles. cyanoferrate, M = Ni II, Co II and Cu II) are synthesized through Because sodium or potassium ions are involved in energy stor- a spontaneous assembly technique. In sharp contrast to mac- age processes, more environmentally neutral electrolytes can roporous-only Prussian blue analogues, the hierarchically su- be utilized, making the superstructured porous Prussian blue perstructured porous Prussian blue materials are demonstrated analogues a great contender for applications as high-per- to possess a high capacitance, which is similar to those of the formance pseudocapacitors.

  7. The role of the "Casimir force analogue" at the microscopic processes of crystallization and melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuvildeev, V. N.; Semenycheva, A. V.

    2016-10-01

    Melting (crystallization), a phase transition from a crystalline solid to a liquid state, is a common phenomenon in nature. We suggest a new factor, "the Casimir force analogue", to describe mechanisms of melting and crystallization. The Casimir force analogue is a force occurring between the surfaces of solid and liquid phases of metals caused by different energy density of phonons of these phases. It explains abrupt changes in geometry and thermodynamic parameters at a melting point. "The Casimir force analogue" helps to estimate latent melting heat and to gain an insight into a solid-liquid transition problem.

  8. Novel Carbonyl Analogues of Tamoxifen: Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasiotis, Konstantinos M.; Lambrinidis, George; Fokialakis, Nikolas; Tzanetou, Evangelia N.; Mikros, Emmanuel; Haroutounian, Serkos A.

    2017-09-01

    Aim of this work was to provide tamoxifen analogues with enhanced estrogen receptor binding affinity. Hence, several derivatives were prepared using an efficient triarylethylenes synthetic protocol. The novel compounds bioactivity was evaluated through the determination of their receptor binding affinity and their agonist/antagonist activity against breast cancer tissue using a MCF-7 cell-based assay. Phenyl esters 6a,b and 8a,b exhibited binding affinity to both ERα and ERβ higher than 4-hydroxytamoxifen while compounds 13 and 14 have shown cellular antiestrogenic activity similar to 4-hydroxytamoxifen and the known estrogen receptor inhibitor ICI182,780. Theoretical calculations and molecular modelling were applied to investigate, support and explain the biological profile of the new compounds. The relevant data indicated an agreement between calculations and demonstrated biological activity allowing to extract useful structure-activity relationships. Results herein underline that modifications of tamoxifen structure still provide molecules with substantial activity, as portrayed in the inhibition of MCF-7 cells proliferation.

  9. Modern freshwater microbialite analogues for ancient dendritic reef structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laval, B.; Cady, S. L.; Pollack, J. C.; McKay, C. P.; Bird, J. S.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Ford, D. C.; Bohm, H. R.

    2000-01-01

    Microbialites are organosedimentary structures that can be constructed by a variety of metabolically distinct taxa. Consequently, microbialite structures abound in the fossil record, although the exact nature of the biogeochemical processes that produced them is often unknown. One such class of ancient calcareous structures, Epiphyton and Girvanella, appear in great abundance during the Early Cambrian. Together with Archeocyathids, stromatolites and thrombolites, they formed major Cambrian reef belts. To a large extent, Middle to Late Cambrian reefs are similar to Precambrian reefs, with the exception that the latter, including terminal Proterozoic reefs, do not contain Epiphyton or Girvanella. Here we report the discovery in Pavilion Lake, British Columbia, Canada, of a distinctive assemblage of freshwater calcite microbialites, some of which display microstructures similar to the fabrics displayed by Epiphyton and Girvanella. The morphologies of the modern microbialites vary with depth, and dendritic microstructures of the deep water (> 30 m) mounds indicate that they may be modern analogues for the ancient calcareous structures. These microbialites thus provide an opportunity to study the biogeochemical interactions that produce fabrics similar to those of some enigmatic Early Cambrian reef structures.

  10. Interactions of cisplatin analogues with lysozyme: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Giarita; De Benedictis, Ilaria; Malfitano, Annamaria; Morelli, Giancarlo; Novellino, Ettore; Marasco, Daniela

    2017-10-01

    The biophysical characterization of drug binding to proteins plays a key role in structural biology and in the discovery and optimization of drug discovery processes. The search for optimal combinations of biophysical techniques that can correctly and efficiently identify and quantify binding of metal-based drugs to their final target is challenging, due to the physicochemical properties of these agents. Different cisplatin derivatives have shown different citotoxicities in most common cancer lines, suggesting that they exert their biological activity via different mechanisms of action. Here we carried out a comparative analysis, by studying the behaviours of three Pt-compounds under the same experimental conditions and binding assays to properly deepen the determinants of the different MAOs. Indeed we compared the results obtained using surface plasmon resonance, isothermal titration calorimetry, fluorescence spectroscopy and thermal shift assays based on circular dichroism experiments in the characterization of the formation of adducts obtained upon reaction of cisplatin, carboplatin and iodinated analogue of cisplatin, cis-Pt (NH 3 ) 2 I 2 , with the model protein hen egg white lysozyme, both at neutral and acid pHs. Further we reasoned on the applicability of employed techniques for the study the thermodynamics and kinetics of the reaction of a metallodrug with a protein and to reveal which information can be obtained using a combination of these analyses. Data were discussed on the light of the existing structural data collected on the platinated protein.

  11. [Cyclic phosphatidic acids and their analogues--unique lipid mediators].

    PubMed

    Grzelczyk, Anna; Koziołkiewicz, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (1-acyl-2-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate; LPA) and its naturally occurring analog, cyclic phosphatidic acid (1-acyl-sn-glycerol-2,3-cyclic phosphate; cPA) belong to a group of bioactive glycerophospholipids, which attract attention of many scientists because of their biological functions. Among these two compounds LPA is known better; information about unique biological properties of cPA appeared for the first time in the 90's. The synthesis of various, chemically modified analogues of cPA was performed to highlight mechanisms of the compound actions. Both native cPA and its derivatives emerge into the limelight because of their anti-cancer activities. Knowledge about pathways of biosynthesis and biodegradation of LPA and cPA as well as understanding of mechanisms of their action are increasing gradually. Previous studies have shown that both the metabolism and signaling cascades of these compounds have numerous common points. What is even more interesting, LPA and cPA seem to induce opposite biological activities.

  12. Bead-Based Microfluidic Sediment Analogues: Fabrication and Colloid Transport.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yang; Huang, Jingwei; Xiao, Feng; Yin, Xiaolong; Chun, Jaehun; Um, Wooyong; Neeves, Keith B; Wu, Ning

    2016-09-13

    Mobile colloids can act as carriers for low-solubility contaminants in the environment. However, the dominant mechanism for this colloid-facilitated transport of chemicals is unclear. Therefore, we developed a bead-based microfluidic platform of sediment analogues and measured both single and population transport of model colloids. The porous medium is assembled through a bead-by-bead injection method. This approach has the versatility to build both electrostatically homogeneous and heterogeneous media at the pore scale. A T-junction at the exit also allowed for encapsulation and enumeration of colloids effluent at single particle resolution to give population dynamics. Tortuosity calculated from pore-scale trajectory analysis and its comparison with lattice Boltzmann simulations revealed that transport of colloids was influenced by the size exclusion effect. The porous media packed by positively and negatively charged beads into two layers showed distinctive colloidal particle retention and significant remobilization and re-adsorption of particles during water flushing. We demonstrated the potential of our method to fabricate porous media with surface heterogeneities at the pore scale. With both single and population dynamics measurement, our platform has the potential to connect pore-scale and macroscale colloid transport on a lab scale and to quantify the impact of grain surface heterogeneities that are natural in the subsurface environment.

  13. Influence of digital and analogue cellular telephones on implanted pacemakers.

    PubMed

    Altamura, G; Toscano, S; Gentilucci, G; Ammirati, F; Castro, A; Pandozi, C; Santini, M

    1997-10-01

    The aim of this study was to find out whether digital and analogue cellular 'phones affect patients with pacemakers. The study comprised continuous ECG monitoring of 200 pacemaker patients. During the monitoring certain conditions caused by interference created by the telephone were looked for: temporary or prolonged pacemaker inhibition; a shift to asynchronous mode caused by electromagnetic interference; an increase in ventricular pacing in dual chamber pacemakers, up to the programmed upper rate. The Global System for Mobile Communications system interfered with pacing 97 times in 43 patients (21.5%). During tests on Total Access of Communication System telephones, there were 60 cases of pacing interference in 35 patients (17.5%). There were 131 interference episodes during ringing vs 26 during the on/off phase; (P < 0.0001); 106 at maximum sensitivity level vs 51 at the 'base' value; P < 0.0001). Prolonged pacing inhibition (> 4 s) was seen at the pacemaker 'base' sensing value in six patients using the Global system but in only one patient using Total Access. Cellular 'phones may be dangerous for pacemaker patients. However, they can be used safely if patients do not carry the 'phone close to the pacemaker, which is the only place where high risk interference has been observed.

  14. Design and synthesis of novel stiripentol analogues as potential anticonvulsants.

    PubMed

    Aboul-Enein, Mohamed N; El-Azzouny, Aida A; Attia, Mohamed I; Maklad, Yousreya A; Amin, Kamilia M; Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed; El-Behairy, Mohammed F

    2012-01-01

    A series of stiripentol (STP) analogues namely, 2-[(1E)-1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-4,4-dimethylpent-1-en-3-ylidene]-N-(aryl/H)hydrazinecarboxamides 7a-h, (±)-(5RS)-N-(aryl/H)-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-3-tert-butyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-1-carboxamides (±)-8a-h, and (±)-[(5RS)-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-3-tert-butyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-1-yl](aryl)methanones (±)-13a-f was synthesized by adopting appropriate synthetic routes and was pharmacologically evaluated in the preliminary anticonvulsant screens. The selected bioactive new chemical entities were subjected to ED(50) determination and neurotoxicity evaluation. The most active congeners are 7h in MES screen and (±)-13b in scPTZ screen which displayed ED(50) values of 87 and 110 mg/kg, respectively, as compared to that of STP (ED(50) = 277.7 and 115 mg/kg in MES and scPTZ, respectively). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Muscarinic receptor subtype selectivity of novel heterocyclic QNB analogues

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgold, J.; Cohen, V.I.; Paek, R.

    1991-01-01

    In an effort at synthesizing centrally-active subtype-selective antimuscarinic agents, the authors derivatized QNB (quinuclidinyl benzilate), a potent muscarinic antagonist, by replacing one of the phenyl groups with less lipophilic heterocyclic moieties. The displacement of ({sup 3}H)-N-methyl scopolamine binding by these novel compounds to membranes from cells expressing ml - m4 receptor subtypes was determined. Most of the novel 4-bromo-QNB analogues were potent and slightly selective for ml receptors. The 2-thienyl derivative was the most potent, exhibiting a 2-fold greater potency than BrQNB at ml receptors, and a 4-fold greater potency than BrQNB at ml receptors, and a 4-fold greater potencymore » at m2 receptors. This compound was also considerably less lipophilic than BrQNB as determined from its retention time on C18 reverse phase HPLC. This compound may therefore be useful both for pharmacological studies and as a candidate for a radioiodinated SPECT imaging agent for ml muscarinic receptors in human brain.« less

  16. Upheaval Dome, An Analogue Site for Gale Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrad, P. G.; Eignebrode, J. L.

    2011-01-01

    We propose Upheaval Dome in southeastern Utah as an impact analogue site on Earth to Mars Science Laboratory candidate landing site Gale Crater. The genesis of Upheaval Dome was a mystery for some time--originally thought to be a salt dome. The 5 km crater was discovered to possess shocked quartz and other shock metamorphic features just a few years ago, compelling evidence that the crater was formed by impact, although the structural geology caused Shoemaker and Herkenhoff to speculate an impact origin some 25 years earlier. The lithology of the crater is sedimentary. The oldest rocks are exposed in the center of the dome, upper Permian sandstones, and progressively younger units are well exposed moving outward from the center. These are Triassic sandstones, siltstones and shales, which are intruded by clastic dikes. There are also other clay-rich strata down section, as is the case with Gale Crater. There is significant deformation in the center of the crater, with folding and steeply tilted beds, unlike the surrounding Canyonlands area, which is relatively undeformed. The rock units are well exposed at Upheaval Dome, and there are shatter cones, impactite fragments, shocked quartz grains and melt rocks present. The mineral shock features suggest that the grains were subjected to dynamic pressures> 10 GPa.

  17. Bioactive phenylpropanoid analogues from Piper betle L. var. birkoli leaves.

    PubMed

    Atiya, Akhtar; Sinha, Barij Nayan; Lal, Uma Ranjan

    2017-11-01

    Phytochemical analyses of the chloroform extract of Piper betle L. var. birkoli, Piperaceae, leaves led to the isolation of two new phenylpropanoid analogues: bis-chavicol dodecanoyl ester (2) and bis-hydroxychavicol dodecanoyl ester (3), along with one known compound: allyl-3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzene (1) on the basis of spectroscopic data 1D ( 1 H and 13 C) and 2D ( 1 H- 1 H COSY and HMBC) NMR, as well as ESI-MS, FT-IR, HR-ESI-MS and LC-ESI-MS. Compound 2 and 3 exhibited excellent antioxidant DPPH radical scavenging activity with IC 50 values of 12.67 μg/mL and 1.08 μg/mL compared to ascorbic acid as a standard antioxidant drug with IC 50 value of 6.60 μg/mL. Evaluation of cytotoxic activity against two human oral cancer cell lines (AW13516 and AW8507) showed significant effect with GI 50 values of 19.61 and 23.01 μg/mL for compound 2 and 10.25 and 13.12 μg/mL for compound 3, compared to Doxorubicin ® as a standard cytotoxic drug with GI 50 value of < 10 μg/mL.

  18. Chemistry of group 9 dimetallaborane analogues of octaborane(12).

    PubMed

    Barik, Subrat Kumar; Roy, Dipak Kumar; Ghosh, Sundargopal

    2015-01-14

    We report the synthesis, isolation and structural characterization of several moderately air stable nido-metallaboranes that represent boron rich open cage systems. The reaction of [Cp*CoCl]2, (Cp* = η(5)-C5Me5), with [BH3·thf] in toluene at ice cold temperature, followed by thermolysis in boiling toluene produced [(Cp*Co)B9H13], 1 [(Cp*Co)2B8H12], 2 and [(Cp*Co)2B6H10] 3. Building upon our earlier reactivity studies on rhodaboranes, we continue to explore the reactivity of dicobalt analogues of octaborane(12) cluster 3 with [Fe2(CO)9] and [Ru3(CO)12] at ambient conditions that yielded novel fused clusters [Fe2(CO)6(Cp*Co)2B6H10], 4 and [Ru4(CO)11(Cp*Co)2B3H3], 5 respectively. In an attempt to synthesize a heterometallic metallaborane compound we performed the reaction of [(Cp*Rh)2B6H10], 6 with [Cp*IrH4] that yielded a Ir-Ir double bonded compound [(Cp*Ir)2H3][B(OH)4], 7. All the new compounds have been characterized by IR, (1)H, (11)B, (13)C NMR spectroscopy, and the molecular structures were unambiguously established by X-ray diffraction analysis.

  19. Visual vertigo analogue scale: an assessment questionnaire for visual vertigo.

    PubMed

    Dannenbaum, Elizabeth; Chilingaryan, Gevorg; Fung, Joyce

    2011-01-01

    A common symptom for people with vestibulopathy is dizziness induced by dynamic visual input, known as visual vertigo (VV). The goal of this study is to present a novel method to assess VV, using a nine-item analog scale. The subjects rated the intensity of their dizziness on each item of the Visual Vertigo Analogue Scale (VVAS), which represented a daily situation typically inducing VV. The questionnaire was completed by participants with vestibulopathy (n=102) and by subjects receiving out-patient orthopaedic physiotherapy (n=102). The dizziness handicap inventory (DHI) was also completed by the vestibulopathic group. The Cronbach's Alpha index indicated the VVAS is internally consistent and reliable (Cronbach's Alpha=0.94). The study also found that the VVAS severity scores from vestibular and a non-vestibular population were significantly different (Wilcoxon-Mann Whitney test p < 0.0001). Spearman correlation analysis conducted between DHI and VVAS scores for the clients with vestibulopathy showed positive moderate correlations between the VVAS score and the total DHI score (r=0.67, p< 0.0001). This study showed that the VVAS scale may be useful in providing a quantitative evaluation scale of visual vertigo.

  20. Encoding complexity within supramolecular analogues of frustrated magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairns, Andrew B.; Cliffe, Matthew J.; Paddison, Joseph A. M.; Daisenberger, Dominik; Tucker, Matthew G.; Coudert, François-Xavier; Goodwin, Andrew L.

    2016-05-01

    The solid phases of gold(I) and/or silver(I) cyanides are supramolecular assemblies of inorganic polymer chains in which the key structural degrees of freedom—namely, the relative vertical shifts of neighbouring chains—are mathematically equivalent to the phase angles of rotating planar (‘XY’) spins. Here, we show how the supramolecular interactions between chains can be tuned to mimic different magnetic interactions. In this way, the structures of gold(I) and/or silver(I) cyanides reflect the phase behaviour of triangular XY magnets. Complex magnetic states predicted for this family of magnets—including collective spin-vortices of relevance to data storage applications—are realized in the structural chemistry of these cyanide polymers. Our results demonstrate how chemically simple inorganic materials can behave as structural analogues of otherwise inaccessible ‘toy’ spin models and also how the theoretical understanding of those models allows control over collective (‘emergent’) phenomena in supramolecular systems.

  1. Synthesis and biological evaluation of Santacruzamate-A based analogues.

    PubMed

    Randino, Rosario; Gazzerro, Patrizia; Mazitschek, Ralph; Rodriquez, Manuela

    2017-12-15

    Several derivatives of Santacruzamate-A, a natural product that is structurally related to SAHA, were synthesized to explore the potential of carbamates and oxalylamides as novel biasing element for targeting the catalytic site of zinc-dependent histone deacetylases (HDACs). An additional class of Santacruzamate-A derivatives was synthesized to investigate the influence of the cap group and the linker element on HDAC inhibitory activity. All compounds were evaluated in dose response for their in vitro cytotoxic activity in MTT assay in HCT116 cells. HDAC inhibitory activity was evaluated in vitro by western blot analysis for histone hyperacetylation assay and biochemically for representative human HDACs isoforms. Two novel compounds were identified to exhibit potent time dependent anti proliferative activity. However, unlike hydroxamic acid analogues, the tested Santacruzamate-A derivatives showed no noticeable HDAC inhibitory activity. The ethylcarbamate moiety as unusual zinc-binding group displayed no ability to coordinate the zinc ion and thus, presumably, was not able to reproduce known inhibitor-substrate zinc-binding group interactions with the HDAC catalytic site. This study confirmed that the accommodation of the zinc-binding group is deeply critical of the positioning of the linker and the projection of the cap group toward the different surface pockets of the enzyme. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Onboard Detection of Active Canadian Sulfur Springs: A Europa Analogue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castano, Rebecca; Wagstaff, Kiri; Gleeson, Damhnait; Pappalardo, Robert; Chien, Steve; Tran, Daniel; Scharenbroich, Lucas; Moghaddam, Baback; Tang, Benyang; Bue, Brian; hide

    2008-01-01

    We discuss a current, ongoing demonstration of insitu onboard detection in which the Earth Observing-1 spacecraft detects surface sulfur deposits that originate from underlying springs by distinguishing the sulfur from the ice-rich glacial background, a good analogue for the Europan surface. In this paper, we describe the process of developing the onboard classifier for detecting the presence of sulfur in a hyperspectral scene, including the use of a training/testing set that is not exhaustively labeled, i.e.not all true positives are marked, and the selection of 12, out of 242, Hyperion instrument wavelength bands to use in the onboard detector. This study aims to demonstrate the potential for future missions to capture short-lived science events, make decisions onboard, identify high priority data for downlink and perform onboard change detection. In the future, such capability could help maximize the science return of downlink bandwidth-limited missions, addressing a significant constraint in all deep-space missions.

  3. The degree of biogenicity of micrites and terrestrial Mars analogues .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Elia, M.; Blanco, A.; Orofino, V.; Fonti, S.; Mastandrea, A.; Guido, A.; Tosti, F.; Russo, F.

    A number of indications, as the past presence of water, a denser atmosphere and a mild climate on early Mars, suggest that environmental conditions favorable to the emergence of life must have been present on that planet in the first hundred million years, or even more recently. If life actually existed on Mars, biomarkers could be still preserved with some degree of degradation. In previous laboratory works we have investigated the infrared spectral modifications induced by thermal processing on different carbonate samples, in the form of recent shells and fossils of different ages, whose biogenic origin is indisputable. The goal was to develop a method able to discriminate carbonate biogenic samples from their abiogenic counterparts. The method has been successfully applied to microbialites, i.e. bio-induced carbonates deposits, and particularly to stromatolites, the laminated fabric of microbialites, some of which can be ascribed among the oldest traces of biological activity known on Earth. This result is of valuable importance since such carbonates are linked to primitive living organisms which can be considered as good analogues for putative Martian life forms. In this work we show that, studying different parts of the same carbonate rock sample, we are able to distinguish, on the base of the degree of biogenicity, the various micrite types (i.e. detrital vs autochthonous).

  4. Digitally Programmable Analogue Circuits for Sensor Conditioning Systems

    PubMed Central

    Zatorre, Guillermo; Medrano, Nicolás; Sanz, María Teresa; Aldea, Concepción; Calvo, Belén; Celma, Santiago

    2009-01-01

    This work presents two current-mode integrated circuits designed for sensor signal preprocessing in embedded systems. The proposed circuits have been designed to provide good signal transfer and fulfill their function, while minimizing the load effects due to building complex conditioning architectures. The processing architecture based on the proposed building blocks can be reconfigured through digital programmability. Thus, sensor useful range can be expanded, changes in the sensor operation can be compensated for and furthermore, undesirable effects such as device mismatching and undesired physical magnitudes sensor sensibilities are reduced. The circuits were integrated using a 0.35 μm standard CMOS process. Experimental measurements, load effects and a study of two different tuning strategies are presented. From these results, system performance is tested in an application which entails extending the linear range of a magneto-resistive sensor. Circuit area, average power consumption and programmability features allow these circuits to be included in embedded sensing systems as a part of the analogue conditioning components. PMID:22412331

  5. Detecting Pyrolysis Products from Bacteria in a Mars Soil Analogue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, D. P.; Cleaves, H. J.; Schubert, M.; Aubrey, A.; Buch, A.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Bada, J. L.

    2004-01-01

    One of the primary objectives of the 1976 Viking missions was to determine whether organic compounds, possibly of biological origin, were present in the Martian surface soils. The Viking gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) instruments found no evidence for any organic compounds of Martian origin above a few parts per billion in the upper 10 cm of surface soil, suggesting the absence of a widely distributed Martian biota. However, it is now known that key organic compounds important to biology, such as amino acids, carboxylic acids and nucleobases, would likely have been missed by the Viking GCMS instruments. In this study, a Mars soil analogue that was inoculated with approx. 10 billion Escherichia coli cells was heated at 500 C under Martian ambient pressure to release volatile organic compounds from the sample. The pyrolysis products were then analyzed for amino acids and nucleobases using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and GCMS. Our experimental results indicate that at the part per billion level, the degradation products generated from several million bacterial cells per gram of Martian soil would not have been detected by the Viking GCMS instruments. Upcoming strategies for Mars exploration will require in-situ analyses by instruments that can assess whether any organic compounds, especially those that might be associated with life, are present in Martian surface samples.

  6. Tocotrienols: The promising analogues of vitamin E for cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Sailo, Bethsebie Lalduhsaki; Banik, Kishore; Padmavathi, Ganesan; Javadi, Monisha; Bordoloi, Devivasha; Kunnumakkara, Ajaikumar B

    2018-04-01

    Despite the significant advancements in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, it still remains one of the most fatal diseases in the world due to the lack of sensitive diagnosis methods and effective drugs. Therefore, discovering novel therapies that are safe, efficacious and affordable are required for the better management of this disease. Tocotrienols, analogues of vitamin E have gained increased attention due to their safety and efficacy. Extensive research over the past several years has strongly indicated that tocotrienols can efficiently prevent/inhibit the growth of different cancers such as cancers of blood, brain, breast, cervical, colon, liver, lung, pancreas, prostate, skin, stomach etc. This is mainly accredited to their ability to modulate various molecular targets involved in cancer cell proliferation, survival, invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis such as NF-κB, STAT3, Akt/mTOR, etc. In addition, increasing lines of evidence has shown that tocotrienols can sensitize cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents such as celecoxib, doxorubicin, erlotinib, gefitinib, gemcitabine, paclitaxel, statin etc. Moreover, several clinical trials have confirmed the safety and tolerability of tocotrienols in humans. This review summarizes the potential of tocotrienols for the prevention and treatment of different cancers based on the available in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Fetal bovine serum influences the stability and bioactivity of resveratrol analogues: A polyphenol-protein interaction approach.

    PubMed

    Tang, Fen; Xie, Yixi; Cao, Hui; Yang, Hua; Chen, Xiaoqing; Xiao, Jianbo

    2017-03-15

    Fetal bovine serum (FBS) is a universal growth supplement of cell and tissue culture media. Herein, the influences of FBS on the stability and antioxidant activity of 21 resveratrol analogues were investigated using a polyphenol-protein interaction approach. The structure-stability relationships of resveratrol analogues in FBS showed a clear decrease in the stability of hydroxylated resveratrol analogues in the order: resorcinol-type>pyrogallol-type>catechol-type. The glycosylation and methoxylation of resveratrol analogues enhanced their stability. A linear relationship between the stability of resveratrol analogues in FBS and the affinity of resveratrol analogues-FBS interaction was found. The oxidation process is not the only factor governing the stability of resveratrol analogues in FBS. These results facilitated the insightful investigation of the role of polyphenol-protein interactions in serum, thereby providing some fundamental clues for future clinical research and pharmacological studies on natural small molecules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Synthesis and biological evaluation of asymmetric gramicidin S analogues containing modified D-phenylalanine residues.

    PubMed

    van der Knaap, Matthijs; Engels, Eefje; Busscher, Henk J; Otero, José M; Llamas-Saiz, Antonio L; van Raaij, Mark J; Mars-Groenendijk, Roos H; Noort, Daan; van der Marel, Gijsbert A; Overkleeft, Herman S; Overhand, Mark

    2009-09-01

    The synthesis of new analogues of the cationic antimicrobial peptide gramicidin S, having a modified D-phenylalanine residue, their antibacterial properties against several gram positive and negative strains, as well as their hemolytic activity is reported.

  9. Ugi-Smiles couplings of 4-substituted pyridine derivatives: a fast access to chloroquine analogues.

    PubMed

    El Kaïm, Laurent; Grimaud, Laurence; Pravin, Patil

    2012-01-20

    4-Hydroxy and mercapto pyridines were successfully tested in Ugi-Smiles couplings. Such multicomponent reactions applied to quinoline derivatives afford a very convenient and short synthesis of antimalarial analogues. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  10. Designed, synthetically accessible bryostatin analogues potently induce activation of latent HIV reservoirs in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dechristopher, Brian A.; Loy, Brian A.; Marsden, Matthew D.; Schrier, Adam J.; Zack, Jerome A.; Wender, Paul A.

    2012-09-01

    Bryostatin is a unique lead in the development of potentially transformative therapies for cancer, Alzheimer's disease and the eradication of HIV/AIDS. However, the clinical use of bryostatin has been hampered by its limited supply, difficulties in accessing clinically relevant derivatives, and side effects. Here, we address these problems through the step-economical syntheses of seven members of a new family of designed bryostatin analogues using a highly convergent Prins-macrocyclization strategy. We also demonstrate for the first time that such analogues effectively induce latent HIV activation in vitro with potencies similar to or better than bryostatin. Significantly, these analogues are up to 1,000-fold more potent in inducing latent HIV expression than prostratin, the current clinical candidate for latent virus induction. This study provides the first demonstration that designed, synthetically accessible bryostatin analogues could serve as superior candidates for the eradication of HIV/AIDS through induction of latent viral reservoirs in conjunction with current antiretroviral therapy.

  11. Interval-level measurement with visual analogue scales in Internet-based research: VAS Generator.

    PubMed

    Reips, Ulf-Dietrich; Funke, Frederik

    2008-08-01

    The present article describes VAS Generator (www.vasgenerator.net), a free Web service for creating a wide range of visual analogue scales that can be used as measurement devices in Web surveys and Web experimentation, as well as for local computerized assessment. A step-by-step example for creating and implementing a visual analogue scale with visual feedback is given. VAS Generator and the scales it generates work independently of platforms and use the underlying languages HTML and JavaScript. Results from a validation study with 355 participants are reported and show that the scales generated with VAS Generator approximate an interval-scale level. In light of previous research on visual analogue versus categorical (e.g., radio button) scales in Internet-based research, we conclude that categorical scales only reach ordinal-scale level, and thus visual analogue scales are to be preferred whenever possible.

  12. Downselection for Sample Return — Defining Sampling Strategies Using Lessons from Terrestrial Field Analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, A. H.; Gentry, D.; Amador, E.; Cable, M. L.; Cantrell, T.; Chaudry, N.; Cullen, T.; Duca, Z.; Jacobsen, M.; Kirby, J.; McCaig, H.; Murukesan, G.; Rader, E.; Rennie, V.; Schwieterman, E.; Sutton, S.; Tan, G.; Yin, C.; Cullen, D.; Geppert, W.; Stockton, A.

    2018-04-01

    We detail multi-year field investigations in Icelandic Mars analogue environments that have yielded results that can help inform strategies for sample selection and downselection for Mars Sample Return.

  13. Rheological and physical characteristics of crustal-scaled materials for centrifuge analogue modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waffle, Lindsay; Godin, Laurent; Harris, Lyal B.; Kontopoulou, M.

    2016-05-01

    We characterize a set of analogue materials used for centrifuge analogue modelling simulating deformation at different levels in the crust simultaneously. Specifically, we improve the rheological characterization in the linear viscoelastic region of materials for the lower and middle crust, and cohesive synthetic sands without petroleum-binding agents for the upper crust. Viscoelastic materials used in centrifuge analogue modelling demonstrate complex dynamic behaviour, so viscosity alone is insufficient to determine if a material will be an effective analogue. Two series of experiments were conducted using an oscillating bi-conical plate rheometer to measure the storage and loss moduli and complex viscosities of several modelling clays and silicone putties. Tested materials exhibited viscoelastic and shear-thinning behaviour. The silicone putties and some modelling clays demonstrated viscous-dominant behaviour and reached Newtonian plateaus at strain rates < 0.5 × 10-2 s-1, while other modelling clays demonstrated elastic-dominant power-law relationships. Based on these results, the elastic-dominant modelling clay is recommended as an analogue for basement cratons. Inherently cohesive synthetic sands produce fine-detailed fault and fracture patterns, and developed thrust, strike-slip, and extensional faults in simple centrifuge test models. These synthetic sands are recommended as analogues for the brittle upper crust. These new results increase the accuracy of scaling analogue models to prototype. Additionally, with the characterization of three new materials, we propose a complete lithospheric profile of analogue materials for centrifuge modelling, allowing future studies to replicate a broader range of crustal deformation behaviours.

  14. Synthesis of gallinamide A analogues as potent falcipain inhibitors and antimalarials.

    PubMed

    Conroy, Trent; Guo, Jin T; Elias, Nabiha; Cergol, Katie M; Gut, Jiri; Legac, Jennifer; Khatoon, Lubna; Liu, Yang; McGowan, Sheena; Rosenthal, Philip J; Hunt, Nicholas H; Payne, Richard J

    2014-12-26

    Analogues of the natural product gallinamide A were prepared to elucidate novel inhibitors of the falcipain cysteine proteases. Analogues exhibited potent inhibition of falcipain-2 (FP-2) and falcipain-3 (FP-3) and of the development of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. Several compounds were equipotent to chloroquine as inhibitors of the 3D7 strain of P. falciparum and maintained potent activity against the chloroquine-resistant Dd2 parasite. These compounds serve as promising leads for the development of novel antimalarial agents.

  15. Benzoheterocyclic amodiaquine analogues with potent antiplasmodial activity: synthesis and pharmacological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ongarora, Dennis S B; Gut, Jiri; Rosenthal, Philip J; Masimirembwa, Collen M; Chibale, Kelly

    2012-08-01

    The synthesis and evaluation of antiplasmodial activity of benzothiazole, benzimidazole, benzoxazole and pyridine analogues of amodiaquine is hereby reported. Benzothiazole and benzoxazole analogues with a protonatable tertiary nitrogen atom possessed excellent activity against the W2 and K1 chloroquine resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum, with IC(50)s ranging from 7 to 22 nM. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Analogue Hawking radiation in a dc-SQUID array transmission line.

    PubMed

    Nation, P D; Blencowe, M P; Rimberg, A J; Buks, E

    2009-08-21

    We propose the use of a superconducting transmission line formed from an array of direct-current superconducting quantum interference devices for investigating analogue Hawking radiation. Biasing the array with a space-time varying flux modifies the propagation velocity of the transmission line, leading to an effective metric with a horizon. Being a fundamentally quantum mechanical device, this setup allows for investigations of quantum effects such as backreaction and analogue space-time fluctuations on the Hawking process.

  17. Variation effect on the insecticide activity of DDT analogues. A chemometric approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, S.; Nagashima, U.

    2002-08-01

    We investigated a variation effect on the insecticide activity of DDT analogues by using the first principles electronic structure calculations and the neural network analysis. It has been found that the charge distribution at the specific atomic sites in the DDT molecule is related to their toxicity. This approach can contribute to designing a new insecticide and a new harmlessness process of the DDT analogues.

  18. In vitro and in vivo potency of insulin analogues designed for clinical use.

    PubMed

    Vølund, A; Brange, J; Drejer, K; Jensen, I; Markussen, J; Ribel, U; Sørensen, A R; Schlichtkrull, J

    1991-11-01

    Analogues of human insulin designed to have improved absorption properties after subcutaneous injection have been prepared by recombinant DNA technology. Five rapidly absorbed analogues, being predominantly in mono- or di-meric states in the pharmaceutical preparation, and a hexameric analogue with very low solubility at neutral pH and slow absorption, were studied. Receptor binding assays with HEP-G2 cells showed overall agreement with mouse free adipocyte assays. Two analogues, B28Asp and A21Gly + B27Arg + B30Thr-NH2, had nearly the same molar in vitro potency as human insulin. Another two showed increased adipocyte potency and receptor binding, B10Asp 194% and 333% and A8His + B4His + B10Glu + B27His 575% and 511%, while B9Asp + B27Glu showed 29% and 18% and the B25Asp analogue only 0.12% and 0.05% potency. Bioassays in mice or rabbits of the analogues except B25Asp showed that they had the same in vivo potency as human insulin 1.00 IU = 6.00 nmol. Thus the variation had the same in vivo potency as human insulin 1.00 IU = 6.00 nmol. Thus the variation in in vivo potency reflects the differences in receptor binding affinity. Relative to human insulin a low concentration is sufficient for a high affinity analogue to produce a given receptor complex formation and metabolic response. In conclusion, human insulin and analogues with markedly different in vitro potencies were equipotent in terms of hypoglycaemic effect. This is in agreement with the concept that elimination of insulin from blood and its subsequent degradation is mediated by insulin receptors.

  19. Paired Magmatic-Metallogenic Belts in Myanmar - an Andean Analogue?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardiner, Nicholas; Robb, Laurence; Searle, Michael; Morley, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    contrasting minerals endowment. The Mogok-Mandalay-Mergui (MMM) Belt hosts crustal-melt S-type granites with significant tin-tungsten mineralization, and contains the historically major tungsten deposit of Mawchi. The Wuntho-Popa Arc comprises I-type granites and granodiorites with porphyry-type copper-gold and epithermal gold mineralization, and includes the world-class Monywa copper mine. Recent U-Pb radiometric age dating has shown the potential for the two belts to be both active from the Late Cretaceous to Eocene. The spatial juxtaposition of these two sub-parallel belts, the implication of contemporary magmatism, and their distinct but consistent metallogenic endowment bears strong similarities to the metallogenic belts of the South American Cordillera. Here we investigate whether they together represent the magmatic and metallogenic expression of an Andean-type setting in Myanmar during the subduction of Neo-Tethys. In this analogue the Wuntho-Popa Arc represents a proximal I-type magmatic belt sited immediately above the eastwards-verging Neo-Tethys subduction zone. Exhibiting porphyry-type copper-gold and epithermal gold mineralization, this would therefore be the Myanmar equivalent of the Andean coastal copper belts. Conversely, the parallel MMM Belt, comprised of more distal crustal-melt S-type tin granites, would have an analogue in the Bolivian tin belt.

  20. Adriatic indentation of the Eastern Alps - nature vs. analogue models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favaro, S.; Scharf, A.; Schuster, R.; Handy, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    The Eastern Alps underwent late Oligocene-Miocene indentation by the Adriatic microplate, followed by rapid Miocene exhumation in the Tauern Window and orogen-parallel escape. Analogue models of indentation in the Eastern Alps indicate that exhumation of orogenic crust in front of the Adriatic indenter was coeval, with faults and post-nappe folds forming an asymmetrical conjugate pattern in front of the indenting block (Ratschbacher et al 1991, Rosenberg et al 2007). The amount and rate of exhumation is greatest at this location, but decrease laterally towards an unconfined boundary of the models that represents the retreating Carpathian subduction orogen. In nature, however, isotopic age patterns of deeply buried and exhumed basements rocks in the Tauern Window of the Eastern Alps indicate that cooling and possibly also exhumation were diachronous along strike of the orogen. In the westernmost Tauern Window, previous thermal modeling of fission-track ages (Fügenschuh et al 1997) revealed that rapid exhumation (≥ 1mm/a) lasted from 20-13 Ma and appears to have been triggered by sinistral transpression along the Guidicarie Belt beginning in Late Oligocene time. Rapid cooling (≥25°C/Ma) from 550 to 270°C lasted from 18-12 Ma (von Blanckenburg et al 1989; Fügenschuh et al 1997). In the easternmost part, however, rapid cooling from a similar peak temperature lasted from 23-20 Ma and ended no later than 17 Ma. Thus, rapid exhumation cannot have begun later than 23-21 Ma. Cooling patterns in the eastern central part of the Tauern Window are more complex and reflect the combined effects of doming and extensional exhumation. New Rb-Sr mica ages in post-nappe basement domes generally decrease from NW (muscovite: 26 Ma; biotite: 22 Ma) to SE (muscovite: 22 Ma; biotite: 18 Ma). We interpret these trends to show that doming began in the south-central part of the Tauern Window and then migrated to the SE while the entire basement nappe pile underwent orogen

  1. Laboratory and Field Spectroscopy of Moon analogue material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offringa, Marloes; Foing, Bernard H.

    2016-07-01

    Samples derived from terrestrial analogue sites are studied to gain insight into lunar processes in their geological context (Foing, Stoker, Ehrenfreund, 2011). For this study samples from the volcanic region of the Eifel, Germany collected during our latest field campaigns in November 2015 and February 2016 (Foing et al., 2010), are analyzed with a variety of spectrometers. The aim is to obtain a database of analyzed samples that could be used as a reference for future in situ measurements. We also use a documented set of Moon-Mars relevant minerals curated at VU Amsterdam. We are using systematically for all samples UV-VIS and NIR reflectance spectrometers, and sporadically a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, an X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer and a Raman laser spectrometer on control samples. Calibration of the UV-VIS and NIR reflectance spectrometers is the main focus of this research in order to obtain the clearest spectra. The calibration of the UV-VIS and NIR reflectance spectrometers requires the use of a good light source as well as suitable optical fibers to create a signal that covers the widest range in wavelengths available. To eliminate noise towards the edges of this range, multiple measurements are averaged and data is processed by dividing the signal by reference spectra. Obtained spectra can be tested for accuracy by comparing them with stationary laboratory spectrometers such as the FTIR spectrometer. The Raman, UV-VIS and NIR are also used in combination with the ExoGeoLab mock-up lander during field campaigns (Foing, Stoker, Ehrenfreund, 2011) also brought again to Eifel in February 2016, to prove the applicability of the equipment in the field. Acknowledgements: we thank Dominic Doyle for ESTEC optical lab support, Euan Monaghan (Leiden U) for FTIR measurement support, Wim van Westrenen for access to VU samples, Oscar Kamps (Utrecht U./ESTEC), Aidan Cowley (EAC) and Matthias Sperl (DLR) for support discussions

  2. Design of potent substrate-analogue inhibitors of canine renin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hui, K. Y.; Siragy, H. M.; Haber, E.

    1992-01-01

    Through a systematic study of structure-activity relationships, we designed potent renin inhibitors for use in dog models. In assays against dog plasma renin at neutral pH, we found that, as in previous studies of rat renin inhibitors, the structure at the P2 position appears to be important for potency. The substitution of Val for His at this position increases potency by one order of magnitude. At the P3 position, potency appears to depend on a hydrophobic side chain that does not necessarily have to be aromatic. Our results also support the approach of optimizing potency in a renin inhibitor by introducing a moiety that promotes aqueous solubility (an amino group) at the C-terminus of the substrate analogue. In the design of potent dog plasma renin inhibitors, the influence of the transition-state residue 4(S)-amino-3(S)-hydroxy-5-cyclohexylpentanoic acid (ACHPA)-commonly used as a substitute for the scissile-bond dipeptide to boost potency-is not obvious, and appears to be sequence dependent. The canine renin inhibitor Ac-paF-Pro-Phe-Val-statine-Leu-Phe-paF-NH2 (compound 15; IC50 of 1.7 nM against dog plasma renin at pH 7.4; statine, 4(S)-amino-3(S)-hydroxy-6-methylheptanoic acid; paF, para-aminophenylalanine) had a potent hypotensive effect when infused intravenously into conscious, sodium-depleted, normotensive dogs. Also, compound 15 concurrently inhibited plasma renin activity and had a profound diuretic effect.

  3. Inhibition of polyamine and spermine oxidases by polyamine analogues.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Marzia; Polticelli, Fabio; Ascenzi, Paolo; Botta, Maurizio; Federico, Rodolfo; Mariottini, Paolo; Cona, Alessandra

    2006-03-01

    Polyamine oxidase (PAO) and spermine oxidase (SMO) are involved in the catabolism of polyamines--basic regulators of cell growth and proliferation. The discovery of selective inhibitors of PAO and SMO represents an important tool in studying the involvement of these enzymes in polyamine homeostasis and a starting point for the development of novel antineoplastic drugs. Here, a comparative study on murine PAO (mPAO) and SMO (mSMO) inhibition by the polyamine analogues 1,8-diaminooctane, 1,12-diaminododecane, N-prenylagmatine (G3), guazatine and N,N1-bis(2,3-butadienyl)-1,4-butanediamine (MDL72527) is reported. Interestingly, 1,12-Diaminododecane and G3 behave as specific inhibitors of mPAO, values of K(i) for mPAO inhibition being lower than those for mSMO inactivation by several orders of magnitude. The analysis of molecular models of mPAO and mSMO indicates a significant reduction of the hydrophobic pocket located in maize PAO (MPAO) at the wider catalytic tunnel opening. This observation provides a rationale to explain the lower affinity displayed by G3, guazatine and MDL72527 for mPAO and mSMO as compared to MPAO. The different behaviour displayed by 1,12-diaminododecane towards mPAO and mSMO reveals the occurrence of basic differences in the ligand binding mode of the two enzymes, the first enzyme interacting mainly with substrate secondary amino groups and the second one with substrate primary amino groups. Thus, the data reported here provide the basis for the development of novel and selective inhibitors able to discriminate between mammalian SMO and PAO activities.

  4. A Modern Analogue for Proterozoic Inverse Carbon Isotope Signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, H. G.; Diefendorf, A. F.; Freeman, K. H.; Pearson, A.

    2008-12-01

    The carbon isotope distribution preserved in sedimentary lipids changes near the Neoproterozoic-Cambrian boundary. In older samples, n-alkyl lipids contain more 13C than both isoprenoid lipids and kerogen [1]. In younger samples, the opposite prevails. Although extreme heterotrophy has been invoked as a mechanism to explain the enrichment in 13C [2], here we suggest another explanation. The switch may reflect a fundamental transition from an oligotrophic ocean dominated by prokaryotic biomass, to an ocean in which carbon fixation is more intensive and burial is dominated by eukaryotic biomass. An analogue for Proterozoic ordering is found in the modern, oligotrophic Pacific Ocean, where n-alkyl lipids of picoplankton (0.2-0.5 μm particulate matter) contain excess 13C relative to the same lipids found in larger size classes (> 0.5 μm). Picoplanktonic lipids are heavier isotopically (-18 ‰) than both the sterols of eukaryotes (-23 ‰ to -26 ‰) and the total organic matter (-20 ‰; TOM). The 0.2-0.5 μm size class also has a distinct chain-length abundance profile. Although large particles must be the vehicle for total carbon export, paradoxically the lipid component of export production appears to be dominated by the 0.2-0.5 μm source. The picoplanktonic chain lengths and isotopic composition dominate lipids of TOM at 670 meters. When the ratio of prokaryotic to eukaryotic production is high, as in the modern central Pacific Ocean, it appears that exported material has an inverse carbon isotope signature similar to that preserved in Precambrian samples. [1] Logan, G. A. et al., Nature 376:53-56 (1995). [2] Rothman, D. H. et al., PNAS 100:8124-8129 (2003).

  5. Tear geometry at active STEPs: an analogue model approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broerse, Taco; Sokoutis, Dimitrios; Willingshofer, Ernst; Govers, Rob

    2017-04-01

    At the lateral end of a subduction zone, tearing of lithosphere is the result of subduction of oceanic lithosphere while adjacent buoyant continental lithosphere stays at the surface. The location of lithospheric tearing is called a Subduction-Transform-Edge-Propagator (STEP), which continuously extends the plate boundary between overriding plate and continental lithosphere. One of our areas of interest is the southern Caribbean where Atlantic lithosphere subducts below the Caribbean plate. Mantle tomography suggests a clear southern edge of the Lesser Antilles slab, which makes the boundary between the Caribbean and South America a clear STEP candidate. At the surface, the San Sebastián/El Pilar fault zone forms the plate boundary between the Caribbean and South America and the active STEP is located near Trinidad. For the deeper part of the damage/shear zone, some information is available from a recent 3D gravity study: significant lateral variability in densities of the lithospheric mantle to the south of the STEP fault zone. The low-density zone may result from higher sub-crustal temperatures, such as would arise from an asthenospheric window resulting from detachment. Interpreted in this way, the mantle part of the damage zone may be 200-250 km wide. So, while the location of the plate boundary at the surface is relatively well resolved, little is known about the deeper continuation of the active STEP in the mantle lithosphere. We study the evolution of the tearing process at a STEP using analogue models. In our models we use silicone putty (lithosphere) and glucose (asthenosphere). Solely gravitational forces resulting from density differences between oceanic lithosphere and asthenosphere drive our model. Lithospheric tearing commences after subduction has initiated. The geometry of the tear varies with the rheology of the lithosphere and asthenosphere, particularly Newtonian versus power-law. We investigate the dependence on model parameters of the width of

  6. Bisphenol Analogues Other Than BPA: Environmental Occurrence, Human Exposure, and Toxicity-A Review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Da; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Tan, Hongli; Zheng, Zhengui; Feng, Yong-Lai; Wu, Yan; Widelka, Margaret

    2016-06-07

    Numerous studies have investigated the environmental occurrence, human exposure, and toxicity of bisphenol A (BPA). Following stringent regulations on the production and usage of BPA, several bisphenol analogues have been produced as a replacement for BPA in various applications. The present review outlines the current state of knowledge on the occurrence of bisphenol analogues (other than BPA) in the environment, consumer products and foodstuffs, human exposure and biomonitoring, and toxicity. Whereas BPA was still the major bisphenol analogue found in most environmental monitoring studies, BPF and BPS were also frequently detected. Elevated concentrations of BPAF, BPF, and BPS (i.e., similar to or greater than that of BPA) have been reported in the abiotic environment and human urine from some regions. Many analogues exhibit endocrine disrupting effects, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, dioxin-like effects, and neurotoxicity in laboratory studies. BPAF, BPB, BPF, and BPS have been shown to exhibit estrogenic and/or antiandrogenic activities similar to or even greater than that of BPA. Knowledge gaps and research needs have been identified, which include the elucidation of environmental occurrences, persistence, and fate of bisphenol analogues (other than BPA), sources and pathways for human exposure, effects on reproductive systems and the mammary gland, mechanisms of toxicity from coexposure to multiple analogues, metabolic pathways and products, and the impact of metabolic modification on toxicity.

  7. Production of fumonisin B and C analogues by several fusarium species.

    PubMed

    Sewram, Vikash; Mshicileli, Ndumiso; Shephard, Gordon S; Vismer, Hester F; Rheeder, John P; Lee, Yin-Won; Leslie, John F; Marasas, Walter F O

    2005-06-15

    Six strains of Fusarium verticillioides, two of F. oxysporum, one strain of F. proliferatum, and a strain of an unidentified species were cultured on maize patties and rice and evaluated for their ability to simultaneously produce fumonisin B (FB) and C (FC) series analogues. Fumonisins were quantified by LC-MS-MS using positive ion electrospray ionization. FC1 provided characteristic fragment ions at m/z 690, 672, 654, 532, 514, and 338 corresponding to sequential loss of H2O and tricarboxylic acid moieties from the alkyl backbone, while FC3 and FC4 provided equivalent product ions 16 and 32 amu lower than the corresponding FC1 fragments, respectively. All isolates cultured on maize produced FC4. All isolates except for that of F. proliferatum also produced FC1, and three of the six strains of F. verticillioides produced FC3. All isolates except those of F. oxysporum produced detectable amounts of FB1, FB2, and FB3. Isolates that produced fumonisin B analogues produced at least 10 fold more of the B series analogues than they did of the C series analogues. The results confirm that at least some strains of F. oxysporum produce FC, but not FB, fumonisin analogues and also suggest that the genetics and physiological regulation of fumonisin production may be more complicated than previously envisaged since some strains of F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum as well as the strain of the unidentified species can simultaneously produce both FB and FC analogues.

  8. Evaluation of the incremental cost to the National Health Service of prescribing analogue insulin

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Sarah E; Poole, Chris D; Morgan, Christopher Ll

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Insulin analogues have become increasingly popular despite their greater cost compared with human insulin. The aim of this study was to calculate the incremental cost to the National Health Service (NHS) of prescribing analogue insulin preparations instead of their human insulin alternatives. Methods Open-source data from the four UK prescription pricing agencies from 2000 to 2009 were analysed. Cost was adjusted for inflation and reported in UK pounds at 2010 prices. Results Over the 10-year period, the NHS spent a total of £2732 million on insulin. The total annual cost increased from £156 million to £359 million, an increase of 130%. The annual cost of analogue insulin increased from £18.2 million (12% of total insulin cost) to £305 million (85% of total insulin cost), whereas the cost of human insulin decreased from £131 million (84% of total insulin cost) to £51 million (14% of total insulin cost). If it is assumed that all patients using insulin analogues could have received human insulin instead, the overall incremental cost of analogue insulin was £625 million. Conclusion Given the high marginal cost of analogue insulin, adherence to prescribing guidelines recommending the preferential use of human insulin would have resulted in considerable financial savings over the period. PMID:22021891

  9. Biomimetic synthesis, antimicrobial, antileishmanial and antimalarial activities of euglobals and their analogues.

    PubMed

    Bharate, Sandip B; Bhutani, Kamlesh K; Khan, Shabana I; Tekwani, Babu L; Jacob, Melissa R; Khan, Ikhlas A; Singh, Inder Pal

    2006-03-15

    In the present communication, naturally occurring phloroglucinol-monoterpene adducts, euglobals G1-G4 (3b/a and 4a/b) and 16 new analogues (13a/b-18a/b and 19-22) were synthesized by biomimetic approach. These synthetic compounds differ from natural euglobals in the nature of monoterpene and acyl functionality. All of these compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial, antifungal, antileishmanial and antimalarial activities. Analogue 17b possessed good antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, while analogues 19-22 possessed potent antifungal activity against Candida glabrata with IC50s ranging from 1.5 to 2.5 microg/mL. Euglobals along with all synthesized analogues exhibited antileishmanial activity. Amongst these, euglobal G2 (3a), G3 (4a) and analogues 13a and 14a showed potent antileishmanial activity with IC50s ranging from 2.8 to 3.9 microg/mL. Analogue 16a possessed antimalarial activity against chloroquine sensitive D6 clone of Plasmodium falciparum. None of the compounds showed toxicity against mammalian kidney fibroblasts (vero cells) upto the concentration of 4.76 microg/ml.

  10. Transport characteristics of endomorphin-2 analogues in brain capillary endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mallareddy, Jayapal Reddy; Tóth, Géza; Fazakas, Csilla; Molnár, Judit; Nagyőszi, Péter; Lipkowski, Andrzej W; Krizbai, István A; Wilhelm, Imola

    2012-04-01

    Because of their poor metabolic stability and limited blood-brain barrier permeability, endomorphins have a low analgesic efficacy when administered systemically. Therefore, it is of great importance to design analogues with improved peptidase resistance and better delivery to the central nervous system. Recently, novel endomorphin-2 analogues have been synthesized, which proved to bind with high affinity and selectivity to the μ-opioid receptors and showed proteolytic resistance. In this study, we have analysed the transport characteristics of endomorphin-2 and three of its analogues [Dmt-Pro-Phe-Phe-NH(2) , Tyr-(1S,2R)Acpc-Phe-Phe-NH(2) and Tyr-(1S,2R)Achc-Phe-Phe-NH(2) ] using an in vitro blood-brain barrier model. The lipophilicity of the analogues, as assessed by their octanol/water partition coefficients, was higher than that of endomorphin-2. The flux of all four peptides from the apical (blood) side to the basolateral (brain) side was not saturable in the 10nm-1mm concentration range, suggesting that a passive mechanism plays a major role in their transport. The permeability coefficient of the analogues was significantly higher than that of endomorphin-2, suggesting increased blood-brain barrier penetration properties. We conclude that because of their good peptidase resistance and improved transport through brain endothelial cells, these endomorphin-2 analogues will have better analgesic properties in vivo. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Synthesis of deuterium-labelled analogues of NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor MCC950.

    PubMed

    Salla, Manohar; Butler, Mark S; Massey, Nicholas L; Reid, Janet C; Cooper, Matthew A; Robertson, Avril A B

    2018-02-15

    This study describes the syntheses of di, tetra and hexa deuterated analogues of the NOD-like receptor pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome inhibitor MCC950. In di and tetra deuterated analogues, deuteriums were incorporated into the 1,2,3,5,6,7-hexahydro-s-indacene moiety, whereas in the hexa deuterated MCC950 deuteriums were incorporated into the 2-(furan-3-yl)propan-2-ol moiety. The di deuterated MCC950 analogue was synthesised from 4-amino-3,5,6,7-tetrahydro-s-indacen-1(2H)-one 5. Tetra deuterated analogues were synthesised in 10 chemical steps starting with 5-bromo-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-one 9, whereas the hexa deuterated analogue was synthesised in four chemical steps starting with ethyl-3-furoate 24. All of the compounds exhibited similar activity to MCC950 (IC 50  = 8 nM). These deuterated analogues are useful as internal standards in LC-MS analyses of biological samples from in vivo studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Surfactin analogues produced by Bacillus subtilis strains grown on rapeseed cake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jajor, Paweł; Piłakowska-Pietras, Dorota; Krasowska, Anna; Łukaszewicz, Marcin

    2016-12-01

    Microbiologically produced surface acting compounds (biosurfactants) have very interesting properties with many potential industrial applications. Lipopeptides is a particularly promising group of biosurfactants in respect to the potentially huge number of various chemical structures. The chemical diversity results from fatty acid moiety (e.g. length, saturation, branching or hydroxylation) and type and sequence of the amino acids in the peptide chain. The limiting factor for the design and analysis of various lipopeptides is the ability of the targeted biosynthesis. Biosynthesis of particular lipopeptides may be potentially achieved by strain selection, culture conditions, or molecular engineering. The well-known lipopeptedes (surfactins, iturins, and fengycins) producer is B. subtilis. The aim of this study was to study targeted surfactin structural analogues biosynthesis in response to culture conditions in view of the design and production of tailor-made lipopeptides. Two B. subtilis strains (KB1 and #309) were tested for surfactin production. Both strains produced a mixture of five major surfactin analogues with the number of carbons in an alkyl chain ranging from 12 to 16. The two strains differed with respect to their oxygen demand for optimal surfactin biosynthesis (lower oxygen demand for KB1). The amount of air influenced the relative ratios of surfactin analogues. Lower oxygen amount decreased the share of C15 analogues while it increased the share of C12 analogues. Thus, the biosynthesis of a desired surfactin analogue may controlled by both strain and culture conditions.

  13. Deficiencies in fat-soluble vitamins in long-term users of somatostatin analogue.

    PubMed

    Fiebrich, H-B; Van Den Berg, G; Kema, I P; Links, T P; Kleibeuker, J H; Van Beek, A P; Walenkamp, A M E; Sluiter, W J; De Vries, E G E

    2010-12-01

    Somatostatin analogues are administered to control hormone hypersecretion in acromegaly and carcinoid patients. Somatostatin analogues can increase fat in the stools, which can lead to loss of fat-soluble vitamins. The effect of long-term somatostatin analogue use on vitamin levels remains unknown. To investigate the prevalence of fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies in long-term somatostatin analogue users. All acromegaly and carcinoid patients using somatostatin analogues for ≥ 18 months visiting the University Medical Center Groningen between December 2008 and April 2009 were eligible. Vitamin levels of fat-soluble vitamins in blood, clinical and vitamin-dependent laboratory parameters were collected. In all, 19 acromegaly and 35 carcinoid patients were included. Twelve patients experienced steatorrhoea; two carcinoid patients experienced night blindness. Forty-two (78%) were deficient for one or more vitamins, and 32% (n = 17) had multiple deficiencies. Deficiencies for vitamin A, D, E, K1 and E in erythrocytes occurred in 6%, 28%, 15%, 63% and 58% of the patients. Prevalence of vitamin D, E and K1 deficiencies was similar in both patient groups. Treatment duration did not influence vitamin levels. The length of intestinal resection and age correlated negatively with vitamin A levels. Fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies are frequent during long-term somatostatin analogue treatment. Therefore, fat-soluble vitamins should be monitored in these patients. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Computer-aided rational design of novel EBF analogues with an aromatic ring.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shanshan; Sun, Yufeng; Du, Shaoqing; Qin, Yaoguo; Duan, Hongxia; Yang, Xinling

    2016-06-01

    Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) are important in insect olfactory recognition. These proteins bind specifically to insect semiochemicals and induce their seeking, mating, and alarm behaviors. Molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations were performed to provide computational insight into the interaction mode between AgamOBP7 and novel (E)-β-farnesene (EBF) analogues with an aromatic ring. The ligand-binding cavity in OBP7 was found to be mostly hydrophobic due to the presence of several nonpolar residues. The interactions between the EBF analogues and the hydrophobic residues in the binding cavity increased in strength as the distance between them decreased. The EBF analogues with an N-methyl formamide or ester linkage had higher docking scores than those with an amide linkage. Moreover, delocalized π-π and electrostatic interactions were found to contribute significantly to the binding between the ligand benzene ring and nearby protein residues. To design new compounds with higher activity, four EBF analogues D1-D4 with a benzene ring were synthesized and evaluated based on their docking scores and binding affinities. D2, which had an N-methyl formamide group linkage, exhibited stronger binding than D1, which had an amide linkage. D4 exhibited particularly strong binding due to multiple hydrophobic interactions with the protein. This study provides crucial foundations for designing novel EBF analogues based on the OBP structure. Graphical abstract The design strategy of new EBF analogues based on the OBP7 structure.

  15. Novel synthesis of cyclic amide-linked analogues of angiotensins II and III.

    PubMed

    Matsoukas, J M; Hondrelis, J; Agelis, G; Barlos, K; Gatos, D; Ganter, R; Moore, D; Moore, G J

    1994-09-02

    Cyclic amide-linked angiotension II (ANGII) analogues have been synthesized by novel strategies, in an attempt to test the ring clustering and the charge relay bioactive conformation recently suggested. These analogues were synthesized by connecting side chain amino and carboxyl groups at positions 1 and 8, 2 and 8, 3 and 8, and 3 and 5, N-terminal amino and C-terminal carboxyl groups at positions 1 and 8, 2 and 8, and 4 and 8, and side chain amino to C-terminal carboxyl group at positions 1 and 8. All these analogues were biologically inactive, except for cyclic [Sar1, Asp3, Lys5]ANGII (analogue 10) which had high contractile activity in the rat uterus assay (30% of ANGII) and [Lys1, Tyr(Me)4, Glu8]ANGII (analogue 7) which had weak antagonist activity (PA2 approximately 6). Precyclic linear peptides synthesized using 2-chlorotrityl chloride resin and N alpha-Fmoc-amino acids with suitable side chain protection were obtained in high yield and purity and were readily cyclized with benzotriazol-1-yloxytris(dimethylamino)-phosphonium hexafluorophosphate as coupling reagent. Molecular modeling suggests that the ring structure of the potent analogue can be accommodated in the charge relay conformation proposed for ANGII.

  16. The mucosal toxicity of different benzalkonium chloride analogues evaluated with an alternative test using slugs.

    PubMed

    Adriaens, E; Dierckens, K; Bauters, T G; Nelis, H J; van Goethem, F; Vanparys, P; Remon, J P

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the mucosal toxicity of different benzalkonium chloride (BAC) analogues using slugs as the alternative test organism. The effect of different BAC analogues on the mucosal tissue of slugs was determined from the protein, lactate dehydrogenase, and alkaline phosphatase released from the foot mucosa after treatment. Additionally, mucus production and reduction in body weight of the slugs were measured. The eye irritation potency of the molecules was evaluated with the Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) assay. The antimicrobial activity of the different BAC analogues was also assessed. All BAC analogues induced severe damage to the mucosal epithelium of the slugs, and the irritation increased with decreasing alkyl chain length: BAC-C16 < BAC-C14 < BAC-C12 approximately BAC-mix. A similar ranking was obtained with the BCOP assay for eye irritation. The relative order of activities among the three BAC analogues was the same, i.e., BAC-C14 > or = BAC-C16 > BAC-C12. The BAC-C14 exhibited higher activity than the BAC-mix. The toxicity and activity of BAC analogues depend on the alkyl chain length. The use of BAC-C14 as a conservative agent in pharmaceutical preparations instead of the BAC-mix should be considered.

  17. [Cloning, expressing of exendin-4 analogue and bioactivity analysis in vivo].

    PubMed

    Li, Taiming; Gu, Chunjiao; Ge, Xiaoyu; Li, Zhezhe; Wang, Dan; Ma, Yanhong; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Meiyou; Li, Li; Liu, Jingjing

    2012-07-01

    To construct, express and purify Exendin-4 analogue and detect its biological activity in vivo. Insert gene sequence into fusion partner ofpED plasmid which is helped to purification, entitled the new recombinant plasmid 5 Exendin-4 analogue polypeptide gene and fusion partner gene was linked by acid hydrolysisgene, transformed to E. coli BL21 and the fusion protein was induced by lactose. After acid hydrolysis, the Exendin-4 analogue polypeptide separated from fusion chaperon. Anion charge chromatography were used to further purification. 6 to 8 week-old ICR mice were injected (s.c) with Exendin-4 analogue, blood glucose and plasma insulin level was detected in different period after oral glucose tolerance test. The results show that high expression of inclusion body was induced by lactose, which accounted for 40% of germ proteins, the Exendin-4 analogue was obtained with the purity of 91.8% after being purified by anion charge chromatography. Bioactivity assay showed that the level of blood glucose of mouse which treated with exendin-4 analogue was obviously decreased to normal (P < 0.01), and the level of plasma insulin was increased obviously (P < 0.01).

  18. Rapid One-step Enzymatic Synthesis and All-aqueous Purification of Trehalose Analogues.

    PubMed

    Meints, Lisa M; Poston, Anne W; Piligian, Brent F; Olson, Claire D; Badger, Katherine S; Woodruff, Peter J; Swarts, Benjamin M

    2017-02-17

    Chemically modified versions of trehalose, or trehalose analogues, have applications in biology, biotechnology, and pharmaceutical science, among other fields. For instance, trehalose analogues bearing detectable tags have been used to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis and may have applications as tuberculosis diagnostic imaging agents. Hydrolytically stable versions of trehalose are also being pursued due to their potential for use as non-caloric sweeteners and bioprotective agents. Despite the appeal of this class of compounds for various applications, their potential remains unfulfilled due to the lack of a robust route for their production. Here, we report a detailed protocol for the rapid and efficient one-step biocatalytic synthesis of trehalose analogues that bypasses the problems associated with chemical synthesis. By utilizing the thermostable trehalose synthase (TreT) enzyme from Thermoproteus tenax, trehalose analogues can be generated in a single step from glucose analogues and uridine diphosphate glucose in high yield (up to quantitative conversion) in 15-60 min. A simple and rapid non-chromatographic purification protocol, which consists of spin dialysis and ion exchange, can deliver many trehalose analogues of known concentration in aqueous solution in as little as 45 min. In cases where unreacted glucose analogue still remains, chromatographic purification of the trehalose analogue product can be performed. Overall, this method provides a "green" biocatalytic platform for the expedited synthesis and purification of trehalose analogues that is efficient and accessible to non-chemists. To exemplify the applicability of this method, we describe a protocol for the synthesis, all-aqueous purification, and administration of a trehalose-based click chemistry probe to mycobacteria, all of which took less than 1 hour and enabled fluorescence detection of mycobacteria. In the future, we envision that, among other applications, this protocol may be applied to

  19. Recombinant DNA derived monomeric insulin analogue: comparison with soluble human insulin in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Vora, J P; Owens, D R; Dolben, J; Atiea, J A; Dean, J D; Kang, S; Burch, A; Brange, J

    1988-11-12

    To compare the rate of absorption from subcutaneous tissue and the resulting hypoglycaemic effect of iodine-125 labelled soluble human insulin and a monomeric insulin analogue derived by recombinant DNA technology. Single blind randomised comparison of equimolar doses of 125I labelled soluble human insulin and insulin analogue. Study in normal people at a diabetes research unit and a university department of medical physics. Seven healthy male volunteers aged 20-39 not receiving any other drugs. After an overnight fast and a basal period of one hour two doses (0.05 and 0.1 U/kg) of 125I labelled soluble human insulin and insulin analogue were injected subcutaneously into the anterior abdominal wall on four separate days. To find a fast acting insulin for meal related requirements in insulin dependent diabetics. MEASUREMENTS and main results--Residual radioactivity at the injection site was measured continuously for the first two hours after injection of the 125I labelled preparations and thereafter for five minutes simultaneously with blood sampling. Frequent venous blood samples were obtained over six hours for determination of plasma immunoreactive insulin, insulin analogue, glucose, and glucagon values. Time to 50% of initial radioactivity at the injection site for the insulin analogue compared with soluble insulin was 61 v 135 minutes (p less than 0.05) with 0.05 U/kg and 67 v 145 minutes (p less than 0.001) with 0.1 U/kg. Concentrations in plasma increased faster after the insulin analogue compared with soluble insulin, resulting in higher plasma concentrations between 10 and 150 minutes (0.001 less than p less than 0.05) after 0.05 U/kg and between 40 and 360 minutes (0.001 less than p less than 0.05) after 0.1 U/kg. The hypoglycaemic response to insulin analogue was a plasma glucose nadir at 60 minutes with both doses compared with 90 and 120 minutes with soluble insulin at 0.5 and 0.1 U/kg respectively. The response of glucagon substantiated the earlier and

  20. Recombinant DNA derived monomeric insulin analogue: comparison with soluble human insulin in normal subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Vora, J. P.; Owens, D. R.; Dolben, J.; Atiea, J. A.; Dean, J. D.; Kang, S.; Burch, A.; Brange, J.

    1988-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare the rate of absorption from subcutaneous tissue and the resulting hypoglycaemic effect of iodine-125 labelled soluble human insulin and a monomeric insulin analogue derived by recombinant DNA technology. DESIGN--Single blind randomised comparison of equimolar doses of 125I labelled soluble human insulin and insulin analogue. SETTING--Study in normal people at a diabetes research unit and a university department of medical physics. SUBJECTS--Seven healthy male volunteers aged 20-39 not receiving any other drugs. INTERVENTIONS--After an overnight fast and a basal period of one hour two doses (0.05 and 0.1 U/kg) of 125I labelled soluble human insulin and insulin analogue were injected subcutaneously into the anterior abdominal wall on four separate days. END POINT--To find a fast acting insulin for meal related requirements in insulin dependent diabetics. MEASUREMENTS and main results--Residual radioactivity at the injection site was measured continuously for the first two hours after injection of the 125I labelled preparations and thereafter for five minutes simultaneously with blood sampling. Frequent venous blood samples were obtained over six hours for determination of plasma immunoreactive insulin, insulin analogue, glucose, and glucagon values. Time to 50% of initial radioactivity at the injection site for the insulin analogue compared with soluble insulin was 61 v 135 minutes (p less than 0.05) with 0.05 U/kg and 67 v 145 minutes (p less than 0.001) with 0.1 U/kg. Concentrations in plasma increased faster after the insulin analogue compared with soluble insulin, resulting in higher plasma concentrations between 10 and 150 minutes (0.001 less than p less than 0.05) after 0.05 U/kg and between 40 and 360 minutes (0.001 less than p less than 0.05) after 0.1 U/kg. The hypoglycaemic response to insulin analogue was a plasma glucose nadir at 60 minutes with both doses compared with 90 and 120 minutes with soluble insulin at 0.5 and 0.1 U

  1. Emotions and Habitability study in Moon Mars Analogue.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, Alexandre; Lia Schlacht, Irene

    Euro Moon Mars mission have been conducted by students and field researchers in the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) a habitat installed by the Mars Society (MS) in the Utah desert. The campaign was supported by ILEWG International Lunar Exploration Working Group, ESTEC, NASA Ames, and partners. It investigated human aspects of isolation in a Mars analogue base. The project is in line with the ILEWG which coordinates several MDRS missions, and contributes to the preparation of future Mars sample return missions. The objective is to study and improve the habitat dynamics in a closed and small environment. Investigation cover different fields as emotional, sociological and psychological aspects and a food study but also habitability aspects. The study has been conducted by asking to the crew members to perform task and fill in questionnaires before, during and after the simulation. Video recovering, pictures and heart rate counting will also be used. One of the main study subject, conducted by Bernard Rimé, concerns the sharing of emotions in an isolated environ-e ment. Another is "Mars Habitability Experiment", which responsible is Irene Schlacht, will try to determine whether humans need variability of stimuli such as it happens in the natural environment -e.g. seasonal changing -to gain efficiency, reliability and well-being. This study have been conducted from February 19 to April 19 on two crews presenting different aspects that could lead to various behaviours. The first crew is made of people from different countries that don't know each other very well. On the opposite, the second crew members have the same cultural background -they come from the same country, university -and they know each other for at least six months. This allow studying how the extreme conditions of the isolation affect the crew efficiency, creativity and sanity according to its homogeneity. Report on the science and technical results, and implications for Earth-Mars comparative stud

  2. A probable martian analogue in muttom in southern india

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wankhede, Tushar; Rajesh, V. J.; Charri, Abhishek

    2012-07-01

    Mars, a terrestrial planet fourth from the Sun in the solar system, is widely known as the red planet. The iron oxide sand/dust is predominant on its surface and gives the reddish appearance. Recent explorations have exposed abundance of haematite-rich loose materials in the surface of Mars especially at Meridiani Planum. Sedimentary structures like bedding, cross-bedding, ripple marks, gullies, mud cracks etc. are identified in this area. It is essential to look for some terrestrial analogues for the iron oxide rich sand/dust in order to explore their genetic mechanisms in Martian surface. Red sand beds occur above the crystalline basement or younger calcareous sandstone/limestone as isolated patches of partly indurated or unindurated dunes and sheets fringing the south western coastal lands of Tamil Nadu. Calcretes, source of carbonates, also occur at places within these red sand beds. Muttom soils are dark red in color on fresh surfaces. The red sand beds are dominated by iron-bearing minerals such as hematite and ilmenite. Local patches of heavy mineral deposition by the action of wind and water were also observed in the Muttom area. Preliminary spectral analyses confirmed the presence of iron bearing minerals like hematite and ilmenite which are also present in Mars. Many sedimentary structures like gullies, channels, polygonal mud cracks, erosion pits and dunes were present in Muttom area similar to those observed on Martian surface. Meridiani planum outcrops are composed of some siliciclastics grains, and hematite, and only few deposits on Earth match this description. The siliciclastics grains are primarily quartz grain coated with hematite. Quartz is also found in Muttom which, may have been transported by the action of wind while in the Mars siliciclastics is the alteration product of basalt. The structures are more or less similar to those observed at Meridiani Planum. Previous workers interpreted these red sands as `unique' formed either by a mixed

  3. Analogue experiments as benchmarks for models of lava flow emplacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garel, F.; Kaminski, E. C.; Tait, S.; Limare, A.

    2013-12-01

    experimental observations of the effect of wind the surface thermal structure of a viscous flow, that could be used to benchmark a thermal heat loss model. We will also briefly present more complex analogue experiments using wax material. These experiments present discontinuous advance behavior, and a dual surface thermal structure with low (solidified) vs. high (hot liquid exposed at the surface) surface temperatures regions. Emplacement models should tend to reproduce these two features, also observed on lava flows, to better predict the hazard of lava inundation.

  4. Analogue of Caldera Dynamics: the Controlled Salt Cavern Collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jousset, P. G.; Rohmer, J.

    2012-12-01

    Caldera collapse (or pit-crater) dynamics are inferred from geological observations and laboratory experiments. Here, we present an analogue of caldera collapse at field scale and possible analogy with large scale caldera dynamics. Through an original exploitation technique in sedimentary environment, a salt layer is emptied, leaving a brine-filled cavern, which eventually collapses after overburden falls into the cavern. Such a collapse was monitored in East France by many instruments (including GPS, extensometers, geophones, broadband seismological sensors, tiltmeter, gravity meter, … ), which allowed us to describe mechanisms of the collapse. Micro-seismicity is a good indicator of spatio-temporal evolution of physical properties of rocks prior to catastrophic events like volcanic eruptions or landslides and may be triggered by a number of causes including dynamic characteristics of processes in play or/and external forces. We show evidence of triggered micro-seismicity observed in the vicinity of this underground salt cavern prone to collapse by a remote M~7.2 earthquake, which occurred ~12000 kilometres away. High-dynamic broadband records reveal the strong time-correlation between a dramatic change in the rate of local high-frequency micro-seismicity and the passage of low-frequency seismic waves, including body, Love and Rayleigh surface waves. Pressure was lowered in the cavern by pumping operations of brine out of the cavern. We demonstrate the near critical state of the cavern before the collapse by means of 2D axisymmetric elastic finite-element simulations. Stress oscillations due to the seismic waves may have exceeded the strength required for the rupture of the complex media made of brine and rock triggering micro-earthquakes and leading to damage of the overburden and eventually collapse of the salt cavern. The increment of stress necessary for the failure of a Dolomite layer is of the same order or magnitude as the maximum dynamic stress magnitude

  5. The SCITEAS experiment: Optical characterizations of sublimating icy planetary analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommerol, A.; Jost, B.; Poch, O.; El-Maarry, M. R.; Vuitel, B.; Thomas, N.

    2015-05-01

    We have designed and built a laboratory facility to investigate the spectro-photometric and morphologic properties of different types of ice-bearing planetary surface analogs and follow their evolution upon exposure to a low pressure and low temperature environment. The results obtained with this experiment are used to verify and improve our interpretations of current optical remote-sensing datasets. They also provide valuable information for the development and operation of future optical instruments. The Simulation Chamber for Imaging the Temporal Evolution of Analogue Samples (SCITEAS) is a small thermal vacuum chamber equipped with a variety of ports and feedthroughs that permit both in-situ and remote characterizations as well as interacting with the sample. A large quartz window located directly above the sample is used to observe its surface from outside with a set of visible and near-infrared cameras. The sample holder can be easily and quickly inserted and removed from the chamber and is compatible with the other measurement facilities of the Laboratory for Outflow Studies of Sublimating Materials (LOSSy) at the University of Bern. We report here on the results of two of the first experiments performed in the SCITEAS chamber. In the first experiment, fine-grained water ice mixed with dark organic and mineral matter was left to sublime in vacuum and at low temperature, simulating the evolution of the surface of a comet nucleus approaching the Sun. We observed and characterized the formation and evolution of a crust of refractory organic and mineral matter at the surface of the sample and linked the evolution of its structure and texture to its spectro-photometric properties. In the second experiment, a frozen soil was prepared by freezing a mixture of smectite mineral and water. The sample was then left to sublime for 6 h to simulate the loss of volatiles from icy soil at high latitudes on Mars. Colour images were produced using the definitions of the

  6. Response of Staphylococcus Aureus to a Spaceflight Analogue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castro, S. L.; Ott, C. M.

    2010-01-01

    The decreased gravity of the spaceflight environment creates quiescent, low fluid shear conditions. This environment can impart considerable effects on the physiology of microorganisms as well as their interactions with potential hosts. Using the rotating wall vessel (RWV), as a spaceflight analogue, the consequence of low fluid shear culture on microbial pathogenesis has provided a better understanding of the risks to the astronaut crew from infectious microorganisms. While the outcome of low fluid shear culture has been investigated for several bacterial pathogens, little has been done to understand how this environmental factor affects Staphylococcus aureus. S. aureus is an opportunistic human pathogen which presents a high level of infection risk to the crew, as it has been isolated from both the space shuttle and International Space Station. Given that approximately forty percent of the population are carriers of the bacteria, eradication of this organism from in flight environments is impractical. These reasons have lead to us to assess the response of S. aureus to a reduced fluid shear environment. Culture in the RWV demonstrated that S. aureus grown under the low-shear condition had lower cell concentrations after 10 hours when compared to the control culture. Furthermore, the low-shear cultured bacteria displayed a reduction in carotenoid production, pigments responsible for their yellow/gold coloration. When exposed to various environmental stressors, post low-shear culture, a decrease in the ability to survive oxidative assault was observed compared to control cultures. The low fluid shear environment also resulted in a decrease in hemolysin secretion, a staphylococcal toxin responsible for red blood cell lysis. When challenged by the immune components present in human whole blood, low-shear cultured S. aureus demonstrated significantly reduced survival rates as compared to the control culture. Assays to determine the duration of these alterations

  7. Li depletion in solar analogues with exoplanets. Extending the sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado Mena, E.; Israelian, G.; González Hernández, J. I.; Sousa, S. G.; Mortier, A.; Santos, N. C.; Adibekyan, V. Zh.; Fernandes, J.; Rebolo, R.; Udry, S.; Mayor, M.

    2014-02-01

    Aims: We want to study the effects of the formation of planets and planetary systems on the atmospheric Li abundance of planet host stars. Methods: In this work we present new determinations of lithium abundances for 326 main sequence stars with and without planets in the Teff range 5600-5900 K. The 277 stars come from the HARPS sample, the remaining targets were observed with a variety of high-resolution spectrographs. Results: We confirm significant differences in the Li distribution of solar twins (Teff = T⊙ ± 80 K, log g = log g⊙ ± 0.2 and [Fe/H] = [Fe/H]⊙ ± 0.2): the full sample of planet host stars (22) shows Li average values lower than "single" stars with no detected planets (60). If we focus on subsamples with narrower ranges in metallicity and age, we observe indications of a similar result though it is not so clear for some of the subsamples. Furthermore, we compare the observed spectra of several couples of stars with very similar parameters that show differences in Li abundances up to 1.6 dex. Therefore we show that neither age, mass, nor metallicity of a parent star is the only cause for enhanced Li depletion in solar analogues. Conclusions: We conclude that another variable must account for that difference and suggest that this could be the presence of planets that causes additional rotationally induced mixing in the external layers of planet host stars. Moreover, we find indications that the amount of depletion of Li in planet-host solar-type stars is higher when the planets are more massive than Jupiter. Based on observations collected at the La Silla Observatory, ESO (Chile), with the HARPS spectrograph at the 3.6 m ESO telescope, with CORALIE spectrograph at the 1.2 m Euler Swiss telescope and with the FEROS spectrograph at the 1.52 m ESO telescope; at the Paranal Observatory, ESO (Chile), using the UVES spectrograph at the VLT/UT2 Kueyen telescope, and with the FIES, SARG, and UES spectrographs at the 2.5 m NOT, the 3.6 m TNG and the 4

  8. Systematic Review of the Cost Effectiveness of Insulin Analogues in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Ng, Chin Hui; Tan, Yui Ping; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn

    2017-02-01

    Insulin analogues have a pharmacokinetic advantage over human insulin and are increasingly used to treat diabetes mellitus. A summary of their cost effectiveness versus other available treatments was required. Our objective was to systematically review the published cost-effectiveness studies of insulin analogues for the treatment of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We searched major databases and health technology assessment agency reports for economic evaluation studies published up until 30 September 2015. Two reviewers performed data extraction and assessed the quality of the data using the CHEERS (Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards) guidelines. Seven of the included studies assessed short-acting insulin analogues, 12 assessed biphasic insulin analogues, 30 assessed long-acting insulin analogues and one assessed a combination of short- and long-acting insulin analogues. Only 17 studies involved patients with T1DM, all were modelling studies and 12 were conducted in Canada. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) for short-acting insulin analogues ranged from dominant to $US435,913 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained, the ICERs for biphasic insulin analogues ranged from dominant to $US57,636 per QALY gained and the ICERs for long-acting insulin analogues ranged from dominant to $US599,863 per QALY gained. A total of 15 studies met all the CHEERS guidelines reporting quality criteria. Only 26 % of the studies assessed heterogeneity in their analyses. Current evidence indicates that insulin analogues are cost effective for T1DM; however, evidence for their use in T2DM is not convincing. Additional evidence regarding compliance and efficacy is required to support the broader use of long-acting and biphasic insulin analogues in T2DM. The value of insulin analogues depends strongly on reductions in hypoglycaemia event rates and its efficacy in lowering glycated haemoglobin

  9. Sharp phase variations from the plasmon mode causing the Rabi-analogue splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yujia; Sun, Chengwei; Gan, Fengyuan; Li, Hongyun; Gong, Qihuang; Chen, Jianjun

    2017-06-01

    The Rabi-analogue splitting in nanostructures resulting from the strong coupling of different resonant modes is of importance for lasing, sensing, switching, modulating, and quantum information processes. To give a clearer physical picture, the phase analysis instead of the strong coupling is provided to explain the Rabi-analogue splitting in the Fabry-Pérot (FP) cavity, of which one end mirror is a metallic nanohole array and the other is a thin metal film. The phase analysis is based on an analytic model of the FP cavity, in which the reflectance and the reflection phase of the end mirrors are dependent on the wavelength. It is found that the Rabi-analogue splitting originates from the sharp phase variation brought by the plasmon mode in the FP cavity. In the experiment, the Rabi-analogue splitting is realized in the plasmonic-photonic coupling system, and this splitting can be continually tuned by changing the length of the FP cavity. These experimental results agree well with the analytic and simulation data, strongly verifying the phase analysis based on the analytic model. The phase analysis presents a clear picture to understand the working mechanism of the Rabi-analogue splitting; thus, it may facilitate the design of the plasmonic-photonic and plasmonic-plasmonic coupling systems.

  10. Vitamin D and Its Analogues Decrease Amyloid-β (Aβ) Formation and Increase Aβ-Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Jakob; Lehmann, Johannes; Regner, Liesa; Nelke, Christopher; Janitschke, Daniel; Benoist, Céline; Streidenberger, Olga; Stötzel, Hannah; Endres, Kristina; Beisswenger, Christoph; Bals, Robert; Lammert, Frank; Hartmann, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by extracellular plaques in the brain, mainly consisting of amyloid-β (Aβ), as derived from sequential cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein. Epidemiological studies suggest a tight link between hypovitaminosis of the secosteroid vitamin D and AD. Besides decreased vitamin D level in AD patients, an effect of vitamin D on Aβ-homeostasis is discussed. However, the exact underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated and nothing is known about the potential effect of vitamin D analogues. Here we systematically investigate the effect of vitamin D and therapeutically used analogues (maxacalcitol, calcipotriol, alfacalcidol, paricalcitol, doxercalciferol) on AD-relevant mechanisms. D2 and D3 analogues decreased Aβ-production and increased Aβ-degradation in neuroblastoma cells or vitamin D deficient mouse brains. Effects were mediated by affecting the Aβ-producing enzymes BACE1 and γ-secretase. A reduced secretase activity was accompanied by a decreased BACE1 protein level and nicastrin expression, an essential component of the γ-secretase. Vitamin D and analogues decreased β-secretase activity, not only in mouse brains with mild vitamin D hypovitaminosis, but also in non-deficient mouse brains. Our results further strengthen the link between AD and vitamin D, suggesting that supplementation of vitamin D or vitamin D analogues might have beneficial effects in AD prevention. PMID:29257109

  11. Vitamin D and Its Analogues Decrease Amyloid-β (Aβ) Formation and Increase Aβ-Degradation.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Marcus O W; Thiel, Andrea; Lauer, Anna A; Winkler, Jakob; Lehmann, Johannes; Regner, Liesa; Nelke, Christopher; Janitschke, Daniel; Benoist, Céline; Streidenberger, Olga; Stötzel, Hannah; Endres, Kristina; Herr, Christian; Beisswenger, Christoph; Grimm, Heike S; Bals, Robert; Lammert, Frank; Hartmann, Tobias

    2017-12-19

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by extracellular plaques in the brain, mainly consisting of amyloid-β (Aβ), as derived from sequential cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein. Epidemiological studies suggest a tight link between hypovitaminosis of the secosteroid vitamin D and AD. Besides decreased vitamin D level in AD patients, an effect of vitamin D on Aβ-homeostasis is discussed. However, the exact underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated and nothing is known about the potential effect of vitamin D analogues. Here we systematically investigate the effect of vitamin D and therapeutically used analogues (maxacalcitol, calcipotriol, alfacalcidol, paricalcitol, doxercalciferol) on AD-relevant mechanisms. D₂ and D₃ analogues decreased Aβ-production and increased Aβ-degradation in neuroblastoma cells or vitamin D deficient mouse brains. Effects were mediated by affecting the Aβ-producing enzymes BACE1 and γ-secretase. A reduced secretase activity was accompanied by a decreased BACE1 protein level and nicastrin expression, an essential component of the γ-secretase. Vitamin D and analogues decreased β-secretase activity, not only in mouse brains with mild vitamin D hypovitaminosis, but also in non-deficient mouse brains. Our results further strengthen the link between AD and vitamin D, suggesting that supplementation of vitamin D or vitamin D analogues might have beneficial effects in AD prevention.

  12. Comparison of medication adherence in diabetes mellitus patients on human versus analogue insulins.

    PubMed

    Machado-Alba, Jorge Enrique; Medina-Morales, Diego Alejandro; Echeverri-Cataño, Luis Felipe

    2017-02-01

    Objetive: This study evaluated the results of treatment adherence scales in two cohorts of patients with diabetes mellitus treated either with human or analogue insulins. A cohort study was conducted in diabetes mellitus patients older than 18 that were being treated with human or analogue insulins. Two instruments were applied to each patient [medication possession ratio, Morisky-Green test] to evaluate treatment adherence. A total of 238 patients, were included. The majority (69.4%) of the subjects had human insulin and 30.6% had insulin analogue prescriptions. Out of the total, 163 (68.5%) cases were classified as adherent to therapy, according to the type of insulin, as follows: 69.9% for conventional and 65.3% for analogues; without differences between the groups (CI95%:0.450-1.458). The adherence to treatment was more probable in patients with elementary-secondary education (OR:2.341; CI95%:1.199-4.568) and less probable for those in the age range of 31-45 years (OR:0.427; CI95%:0.187-0.971). The results of this study show that there are no significant statistical differences in adherence when comparing human with analogue insulin therapy. Strategies to improve treatment adherence are particularly important since they improve the clinical results.

  13. Pharmacological characterisation of strychnine and brucine analogues at glycine and alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Anders A; Gharagozloo, Parviz; Birdsall, Nigel J M; Zlotos, Darius P

    2006-06-06

    Strychnine and brucine from the plant Strychnos nux vomica have been shown to have interesting pharmacological effects on several neurotransmitter receptors, including some members of the superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels. In this study, we have characterised the pharmacological properties of tertiary and quaternary analogues as well as bisquaternary dimers of strychnine and brucine at human alpha1 and alpha1beta glycine receptors and at a chimera consisting of the amino-terminal domain of the alpha7 nicotinic receptor (containing the orthosteric ligand binding site) and the ion channel domain of the 5-HT3A serotonin receptor. Although the majority of the analogues displayed significantly increased Ki values at the glycine receptors compared to strychnine and brucine, a few retained the high antagonist potencies of the parent compounds. However, mirroring the pharmacological profiles of strychnine and brucine, none of the analogues displayed significant selectivity between the alpha1 and alpha1beta subtypes. The structure-activity relationships for the compounds at the alpha7/5-HT3 chimera were significantly different from those at the glycine receptors. Most strikingly, quaternization of strychnine and brucine with substituents possessing different steric and electronic properties completely eliminated the activity at the glycine receptors, whereas binding affinity to the alpha7/5-HT3 chimera was retained for the majority of the quaternary analogues. This study provides an insight into the structure-activity relationships for strychnine and brucine analogues at these ligand-gated ion channels.

  14. Introducing New Antimalarial Analogues of Chloroquine and Amodiaquine: A Narrative Review.

    PubMed

    Parhizgar, Arezoo Rafiee; Tahghighi, Azar

    2017-03-01

    Antimalarial drugs with the 4-aminoquinoline scaffold such as the important drugs, chloroquine (CQ) and amodiaquine (AQ), have been used to prevent and treat malaria for many years. The importance of these drugs is related to their simple usage, high efficacy, affordability, and cost-effectiveness of their synthesis. In recent years, with the spread of parasite resistance to CQ and cross-resistance to its other analogues have decreased their consumption in many geographical areas. On the other hand, AQ is an effective antimalarial drug which its usage has been restricted due to hepatic and hematological toxicities. The significance of the quinoline ring at quinoline-based antimalarial drugs has prompted research centers and pharmaceutical companies to focus on the design and synthesis of new analogues of these drugs, especially CQ and AQ analogues. Accordingly, various derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated in vitro and in vivo against the resistant strains of the malaria parasite to solve the problem of drug resistance. Also, the pharmacokinetic properties of these compounds have been evaluated to augment their efficacy and diminish their toxicity. Some of these analogues are currently in clinical and preclinical development. Consequently, the recent researches showed yet 4-aminoquinoline scaffold is active moiety in new compounds with antiplasmodial activity. Hence, the aim of this review article is to introduce of the novel synthetic analogues of CQ and AQ, which may constitute the next generation of antimalarial drugs with the 4-aminoquinoline scaffold.

  15. Differential Top10 promoter regulation by six tetracycline analogues in plant cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, John; Allen, George C.; Gatz, Christiane; Thompson, William F.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    The effects of five tetracycline analogues, anhydrotetracycline, doxycycline, minocycline, oxytetracycline, and tetracycline, on Top10 promoter activity in NT1 tobacco tissue culture cells have been analysed. The concentration that repressed Top10 promoter activity, the level of transgene repression and the kinetics of transgene de-repression were determined for each analogue, and could not be predicted from in vitro binding affinity to the tetracycline repressor or from comparison with animal cells. Doxycycline had the most potent effect on the Top10 promoter and completely inhibited transgene expression at 4 nmol l(-1). Tetracycline was the most versatile of the analogues tested; tetracycline inhibited the Top10 promoter at 10 nmol l(-1) and was easily washed out to restore Top10-driven expression in 12-24 h. A study was also made of the suitability for plant research of a novel tetracycline analogue, GR33076X. In animal cells, GR33076X de-repressed Top10 promoter activity in the presence of inhibitory concentrations of anhydrotetracycline. In NT1, it is shown that GR 33076X can antagonize repression of the Top10 promoter in the presence of tetracycline, but not of anhydrotetracycline or of doxycycline. Different tetracycline analogues can therefore be used to regulate the Top10 promoter in plant cells and this property may be exploited in planning an optimum course of transgene regulation.

  16. Differential Top10 promoter regulation by six tetracycline analogues in plant cells.

    PubMed

    Love, John; Allen, George C; Gatz, Christiane; Thompson, William F

    2002-09-01

    The effects of five tetracycline analogues, anhydrotetracycline, doxycycline, minocycline, oxytetracycline, and tetracycline, on Top10 promoter activity in NT1 tobacco tissue culture cells have been analysed. The concentration that repressed Top10 promoter activity, the level of transgene repression and the kinetics of transgene de-repression were determined for each analogue, and could not be predicted from in vitro binding affinity to the tetracycline repressor or from comparison with animal cells. Doxycycline had the most potent effect on the Top10 promoter and completely inhibited transgene expression at 4 nmol l(-1). Tetracycline was the most versatile of the analogues tested; tetracycline inhibited the Top10 promoter at 10 nmol l(-1) and was easily washed out to restore Top10-driven expression in 12-24 h. A study was also made of the suitability for plant research of a novel tetracycline analogue, GR33076X. In animal cells, GR33076X de-repressed Top10 promoter activity in the presence of inhibitory concentrations of anhydrotetracycline. In NT1, it is shown that GR 33076X can antagonize repression of the Top10 promoter in the presence of tetracycline, but not of anhydrotetracycline or of doxycycline. Different tetracycline analogues can therefore be used to regulate the Top10 promoter in plant cells and this property may be exploited in planning an optimum course of transgene regulation.

  17. Influence of prostaglandin analogues on epithelial cell proliferation and xenograft growth.

    PubMed Central

    Tutton, P. J.; Barkla, D. H.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of two prostaglandin (PG) analogues, 16,16-dimethyl PG E2 and 16,16-dimethyl PG F2 alpha and of the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, flurbiprofen, on epithelial cell proliferation was assessed using a stathmokinetic technique. The epithelia examined were those of the jejunal crypts, the colonic crypts and that of dimethylhydrazine-induced adenocarcinomas of rat colon. The influence of the two prostaglandin analogues, and of flurbiprofen, on the growth of a human colorectal tumour propagated as xenografts in immune-deprived mice was also assessed. The PG E2 analogue transiently inhibited xenograft growth, but was without effect on the mitotic rate in the rat tissues. The PG F2 alpha analogue was also found to inhibit xenograft growth but, unlike the PG E2 analogue, it was found to be a strong inhibitor of cell proliferation in rat colonic tumours, and an accelerator of proliferation in jejunal-crypt cells. The only statistically significant effect of flurbiprofen was to accelerate cell division in the rat colonic tumours. PMID:7362778

  18. Influence of prostaglandin analogues on epithelial cell proliferation and xenograft growth.

    PubMed

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1980-01-01

    The influence of two prostaglandin (PG) analogues, 16,16-dimethyl PG E2 and 16,16-dimethyl PG F2 alpha and of the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, flurbiprofen, on epithelial cell proliferation was assessed using a stathmokinetic technique. The epithelia examined were those of the jejunal crypts, the colonic crypts and that of dimethylhydrazine-induced adenocarcinomas of rat colon. The influence of the two prostaglandin analogues, and of flurbiprofen, on the growth of a human colorectal tumour propagated as xenografts in immune-deprived mice was also assessed. The PG E2 analogue transiently inhibited xenograft growth, but was without effect on the mitotic rate in the rat tissues. The PG F2 alpha analogue was also found to inhibit xenograft growth but, unlike the PG E2 analogue, it was found to be a strong inhibitor of cell proliferation in rat colonic tumours, and an accelerator of proliferation in jejunal-crypt cells. The only statistically significant effect of flurbiprofen was to accelerate cell division in the rat colonic tumours.

  19. Nitrogen isotopic fractionation during plasma synthesis of Titan's aerosols analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuga, M.; Carrasco, N.; Marty, B.; Marrocchi, Y.; Bernard, S.; Rigaudier, T.

    2013-12-01

    The Cassini-Huygens mission recently provided measurements of the abundance of nitrogen isotopes in Titan's atmosphere. The 14N/15N ratio in the two most abundant N-bearing molecules in Titan's atmosphere was found to be 183×5 for N2 [1] and 56×8 for HCN [2]. Those two molecules are greatly enriched in the heavier isotope 15N compared to our terrestrial atmosphere and Titan's HCN is about three times richer in 15N than its potential photochemical precursor N2. This implies an important fractionation process in the HCN production chain, which is tentatively attributed to an isotopic selectivity of the photodissociation of N2 in Titan's ionosphere [3-4]. The organic aerosols, forming the Titan's orange characteristic haze layers, also contain large amounts of nitrogen [5], and thus represent a third important nitrogen reservoir in Titan's atmosphere. These organic aerosols are presumably produced in the upper atmosphere by chemical reactions between N2 and CH4 induced by solar radiation and electron bombardment from Saturn's magnetosphere. As HCN is a possible precursor for aerosol polymerization [6-7], the 15N enrichment observed in HCN may be linked to the polymerization process. Unfortunately, no data exists on the isotopic nitrogen abundance in Titan's aerosols, and this question remains open. To address this issue, laboratory aerosols analogues have been produced in a N2-CH4 plasma and their nitrogen isotopic composition have been investigated. In this study, the experimental aerosols, called " tholins ", have been synthetized in the PAMPRE reactor (LATMOS, France). This setup is dedicated to simulate chemical processes occurring in Titan's atmosphere and consists in an RF plasma discharge initiated in a N2-CH4 gas mixture at room temperature [8-9]. For our purpose, tholins were produced at different initial CH4 percentages (1, 2, 5, 10%), representative of the variation of the CH4 concentration in Titan's atmosphere. 15N/14N ratio of the N2 gas used in the

  20. Design, synthesis and exploring the quantitative structure-activity relationship of some antioxidant flavonoid analogues.

    PubMed

    Das, Sreeparna; Mitra, Indrani; Batuta, Shaikh; Niharul Alam, Md; Roy, Kunal; Begum, Naznin Ara

    2014-11-01

    A series of flavonoid analogues were synthesized and screened for the in vitro antioxidant activity through their ability to quench 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical. The activity of these compounds, measured in comparison to the well-known standard antioxidants (29-32), their precursors (38-42) and other bioactive moieties (38-42) resembling partially the flavone skeleton was analyzed further to develop Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) models using the Genetic Function Approximation (GFA) technique. Based on the essential structural requirements predicted by the QSAR models, some analogues were designed, synthesized and tested for activity. The predicted and experimental activities of these compounds were well correlated. Flavone analogue 20 was found to be the most potent antioxidant. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Synthesis and Structure activity relationships of EGCG Analogues, A Recently Identified Hsp90 Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Khandelwal, Anuj; Hall, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the principal polyphenol isolated from green tea, was recently shown to inhibit Hsp90, however structure-activity relationships for this natural product have not yet been produced. Herein, we report the synthesis and biological evaluation of EGCG analogues to establish structure-activity relationships between EGCG and Hsp90. All four rings as well as the linker connecting the C- and the D-rings were systematically investigated, which led to the discovery of compounds that inhibit Hs90 and display improvement in efficacy over EGCG. Anti-proliferative activity of all the analogues was determined against MCF-7 and SKBr3 cell lines and Hsp90 inhibitory activity of four most potent analogues was further evaluated by western blot analyses and degradation of Hsp90-dependent client proteins. Prenyl substituted aryl ester of 3,5-dihydroxychroman-3-ol ring system was identified as novel scaffold that exhibit Hsp90 inhibitory activity. PMID:23834230

  2. Immediate, non-submerged, root-analogue zirconia implant in single tooth replacement.

    PubMed

    Pirker, W; Kocher, A

    2008-03-01

    This report demonstrates the successful clinical use of a modified root-analogue zirconia implant for immediate single tooth replacement. A right maxillary premolar was removed and a custom-made, root-analogue, roughened zirconia implant with macro-retentions in the interdental space was fabricated and placed into the extraction socket 4 days later. Four months after root implantation a composite crown was cemented. No complications occurred during the healing period. An excellent esthetic and functional result was achieved with the composite crown. No clinically noticeable bone resorption or soft-tissue recession was observed at 26 months follow up. Significant modifications such as macro-retentions seem to indicate that primary stability and excellent osseointegration of immediate root-analogue zirconia implants can be achieved, while preventing unesthetic bone resorption. The macro-retentions must be limited to the interdental space to avoid fracture of the thin buccal cortex. This successful case warrants further clinical research in well controlled trials.

  3. Sansanmycin natural product analogues as potent and selective anti-mycobacterials that inhibit lipid I biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Anh T.; Watson, Emma E.; Pujari, Venugopal; Conroy, Trent; Dowman, Luke J.; Giltrap, Andrew M.; Pang, Angel; Wong, Weng Ruh; Linington, Roger G.; Mahapatra, Sebabrata; Saunders, Jessica; Charman, Susan A.; West, Nicholas P.; Bugg, Timothy D. H.; Tod, Julie; Dowson, Christopher G.; Roper, David I.; Crick, Dean C.; Britton, Warwick J.; Payne, Richard J.

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is responsible for enormous global morbidity and mortality, and current treatment regimens rely on the use of drugs that have been in use for more than 40 years. Owing to widespread resistance to these therapies, new drugs are desperately needed to control the TB disease burden. Herein, we describe the rapid synthesis of analogues of the sansanmycin uridylpeptide natural products that represent promising new TB drug leads. The compounds exhibit potent and selective inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological agent of TB, both in vitro and intracellularly. The natural product analogues are nanomolar inhibitors of Mtb phospho-MurNAc-pentapeptide translocase, the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of lipid I in mycobacteria. This work lays the foundation for the development of uridylpeptide natural product analogues as new TB drug candidates that operate through the inhibition of peptidoglycan biosynthesis. PMID:28248311

  4. Synthesis and characterization of an anomeric sulfur analogue of CMP-sialic acid.

    PubMed

    Cohen, S B; Halcomb, R L

    2000-09-22

    alpha-2,3-Sialyltransferase catalyzes the transfer of sialic acid from CMP-sialic acid (1) to a lactose acceptor. An analogue of 1 was synthesized in which the anomeric oxygen atom was replaced with a sulfur atom (1S). The key step in the synthesis of 1S was a tetrazole-promoted coupling of a cytidine-5'-phosphoramidite with a glycosyl thiol of a protected sialic acid. Compounds 1 and 1S were characterized for their activity in a sialyl transfer assay. The rate of solvolysis in aqueous buffer of analogue 1S was 50-fold slower than that of 1. Analogue 1S was found to be substrate for alpha-2,3-sialyltransferase. The K(m) of 1S was just 3-fold higher than that of 1, while the k(cat) of 1S was 2 orders of magnitude lower compared to 1.

  5. Synthesis of indolizidinone analogues of cytotoxic alkaloids: monocyclic precursors are also active.

    PubMed

    Boto, Alicia; Miguélez, Javier; Marín, Raquel; Díaz, Mario

    2012-05-15

    Readily available proline derivatives can be transformed in just two steps into analogues of cytotoxic phenanthroindolizidine alkaloids. The key step uses a sequential radical scission-oxidation-alkylation process, which yields 2-substituted pyrrolidine amides. A second process effects the cyclization to give the desired alkaloid analogues, which possess an indolizidine core. The major and minor isomers (dr 3:2 to 3:1) can be easily separated, allowing their use to study structure-activity relationships (SAR). The process is versatile and allows the introduction of aryl and heteroaryl groups (including biphenyl, halogenated phenyl, and pyrrole rings). Some of these alkaloid analogues displayed a selective cytotoxic activity against tumorogenic human neuronal and mammary cancer cells, and one derivative caused around 80% cell death in both tumor lines at micromolar doses. The cytotoxicity of some monocyclic precursors was also studied, being comparable or superior to the bicyclic derivatives. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Lobatamide C: total synthesis, stereochemical assignment, preparation of simplified analogues, and V-ATPase inhibition studies.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ruichao; Lin, Cheng Ting; Bowman, Emma Jean; Bowman, Barry J; Porco, John A

    2003-07-02

    The total synthesis and stereochemical assignment of the potent antitumor macrolide lobatamide C, as well as synthesis of simplified lobatamide analogues, is reported. Cu(I)-mediated enamide formation methodology has been developed to prepare the highly unsaturated enamide side chain of the natural product and analogues. A key fragment coupling employs base-mediated esterification of a beta-hydroxy acid and a salicylate cyanomethyl ester. Three additional stereoisomers of lobatamide C have been prepared using related synthetic routes. The stereochemistry at C8, C11, and C15 of lobatamide C was assigned by comparison of stereoisomers and X-ray analysis of a crystalline derivative. Synthetic lobatamide C, stereoisomers, and simplified analogues have been evaluated for inhibition of bovine chromaffin granule membrane V-ATPase. The salicylate phenol, enamide NH, and ortho-substitution of the salicylate ester have been shown to be important for V-ATPase inhibitory activity.

  7. Design of novel analogues of short antimicrobial peptide anoplin with improved antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Chen, Jianbo; Zheng, Xin; Yang, Xiaoli; Ma, Panpan; Cai, Ying; Zhang, Bangzhi; Chen, Yuan

    2014-12-01

    Currently, novel antibiotics are urgently required to combat the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria. Antimicrobial peptides with membrane-lytic mechanism of action have attracted considerable interest. Anoplin, a natural α-helical amphiphilic antimicrobial peptide, is an ideal research template because of its short sequence. In this study, we designed and synthesized a group of analogues of anoplin. Among these analogues, anoplin-4 composed of D-amino acids displayed the highest antimicrobial activity due to increased charge, hydrophobicity and amphiphilicity. Gratifyingly, anoplin-4 showed low toxicity to host cells, indicating high bacterial selectivity. Furthermore, the mortality rate of mice infected with Escherichia coli was significantly reduced by anoplin-4 treatment relative to anoplin. In conclusion, anoplin-4 is a novel anoplin analogue with high antimicrobial activity and enzymatic stability, which may represent a potent agent for the treatment of infection. Copyright © 2014 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Chromophoric Nucleoside Analogues: Synthesis and Characterization of 6-Aminouracil-Based Nucleodyes.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Noam S; Moore, Curtis E; Wilhelmsson, L Marcus; Tor, Yitzhak

    2016-06-03

    Nucleodyes, visibly colored chromophoric nucleoside analogues, are reported. Design criteria are outlined and the syntheses of cytidine and uridine azo dye analogues derived from 6-aminouracil are described. Structural analysis shows that the nucleodyes are sound structural analogues of their native nucleoside counterparts, and photophysical studies demonstrate that the nucleodyes are sensitive to microenvironmental changes. Quantum chemical calculations are presented as a valuable complementary tool for the design of strongly absorbing nucleodyes, which overlap with the emission of known fluorophores. Förster critical distance (R0) calculations determine that the nucleodyes make good FRET pairs with both 2-aminopurine (2AP) and pyrrolocytosine (PyC). Additionally, unique tautomerization features exhibited by 5-(4-nitrophenylazo)-6-oxocytidine (8) are visualized by an extraordinary crystal structure.

  9. Algicidal Activity of Bacillamide Alkaloids and Their Analogues against Marine and Freshwater Harmful Algae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Tao, Yuanyuan; Liu, Qisheng; Liu, Na; Jin, Zhong; Xu, Xiaohua

    2017-08-07

    Harmful algal blooms have become a great challenge to global aquatic ecosystems over the past decades. Given their low toxicity, high selectivity, and environment-friendly properties, the use of natural products and their analogues as algicides has proven to be particularly efficient. In the present study, algicidal activity of naturally occurring bacillamides A-C, alkaloid ( 1 ), and neobacillamide A, as well as their synthetic analogues were investigated intensively. Bioassay results showed that, relative to natural bacillamide alkaloids, aniline-derived analogue ( 10d ) exhibited higher algicidal potential against three freshwater harmful algae Mycrocyctis aeruginosa, Scenedesmus obliquus, and Chlorella pyrenoidosa , suggesting that it could be used as a promising lead compound to develop novel algicide for controlling harmful algal blooms.

  10. Natural Abenquines and Their Synthetic Analogues Exert Algicidal Activity against Bloom-Forming Cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Nain-Perez, Amalyn; Barbosa, Luiz Cláudio Almeida; Maltha, Célia Regina Álvares; Forlani, Giuseppe

    2017-04-28

    Abenquines are natural quinones, produced by some Streptomycetes, showing the ability to inhibit cyanobacterial growth in the 1 to 100 μM range. To further elucidate their biological significance, the synthesis of several analogues (4f-h, 5a-h) allowed us to identify some steric and electronic requirements for bioactivity. Replacing the acetyl by a benzoyl group in the quinone core and also changing the amino acid moiety with ethylpyrimidinyl or ethylpyrrolidinyl groups resulted in analogues 25-fold more potent than the natural abenquines. The two most effective analogues inhibited the proliferation of five cyanobacterial strains tested, with IC 50 values ranging from 0.3 to 3 μM. These compounds may be useful leads for the development of an effective strategy for the control of cyanobacterial blooms.

  11. Algicidal Activity of Bacillamide Alkaloids and Their Analogues against Marine and Freshwater Harmful Algae

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bo; Tao, Yuanyuan; Liu, Qisheng; Liu, Na; Jin, Zhong; Xu, Xiaohua

    2017-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms have become a great challenge to global aquatic ecosystems over the past decades. Given their low toxicity, high selectivity, and environment-friendly properties, the use of natural products and their analogues as algicides has proven to be particularly efficient. In the present study, algicidal activity of naturally occurring bacillamides A–C, alkaloid (1), and neobacillamide A, as well as their synthetic analogues were investigated intensively. Bioassay results showed that, relative to natural bacillamide alkaloids, aniline-derived analogue (10d) exhibited higher algicidal potential against three freshwater harmful algae Mycrocyctis aeruginosa, Scenedesmus obliquus, and Chlorella pyrenoidosa, suggesting that it could be used as a promising lead compound to develop novel algicide for controlling harmful algal blooms. PMID:28783131

  12. Synthesis and biological activity of pyrrole analogues of combretastatin A-4.

    PubMed

    Jung, Eun-Kyung; Leung, Euphemia; Barker, David

    2016-07-01

    A series of pyrrole analogues of combretastatin (CA-4) were synthesized and tested for their anti-proliferative activity. The highly diastereoselective acyl-Claisen rearrangement was used to provide 2,3-syn disubstituted morpholine amides which were used as precursors for the various analogues. This synthesis allows for the preparation of 1,2- and 2,3-diaryl-1H-pyrroles which are both geometrically similar to CA-4. These pyrrolic analogues were tested for their anti-proliferative activity against two human cell lines, K562 and MDA-MB-231 with 2,3-diaryl-1H-pyrrole 35 exhibiting the most potent activity with IC50 value of 0.07μM against MDA-MB-231 cell line. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of synthetic ceramide analogues on gastritis and esophagitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Hyo; Um, Seung In; Nam, Yoonjin; Park, Sun Young; Dong, Je Hyun; Ko, Sung Kwon; Sohn, Uy Dong; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-09-01

    The effects of ceremide analogues on esophagitis and gastritis in rats were examined. Gastritis induced by indomethacin was significantly reduced after CY3325 and CY3723 treatment, whereas other analogues had no effect. The amount of malondialdehyde in gastritis was significantly reduced by CY3325 or CY 3723. CY3325 or CY 3723 decreased the glutathione levels in gastritis. The myeloperoxidase level in gastritis is increased, and its increment was decreased by CY3325 and CY3723. In reflux esophagitis, the ulceration was decreased by CY3325, CY3723. The gastric volume and acid output are reduced, whereas the pH value is increased by CY3325 or CY3723 after esophagitis. These results suggest that ceramide analogues, CY3325 and CY3723, can prevent the development of gastritis and reflux esophagitis in rats.

  14. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of the first podophyllotoxin analogues as potential vascular-disrupting agents.

    PubMed

    Labruère, Raphaël; Gautier, Benoît; Testud, Marlène; Seguin, Johanne; Lenoir, Christine; Desbène-Finck, Stéphanie; Helissey, Philippe; Garbay, Christiane; Chabot, Guy G; Vidal, Michel; Giorgi-Renault, Sylviane

    2010-12-03

    We designed and synthesized two novel series of azapodophyllotoxin analogues as potential antivascular agents. A linker was inserted between the trimethoxyphenyl ring E and the tetracyclic ABCD moiety of the 4-aza-1,2-didehydropodophyllotoxins. In the first series, the linker enables free rotation between the two moieties; in the second series, conformational restriction of the E nucleus was considered. We have identified several new compounds with inhibitory activity toward tubulin polymerization similar to that of CA-4 and colchicine, while displaying low cytotoxic activity against normal and/or cancer cells. An aminologue and a methylenic analogue were shown to disrupt endothelial cell cords on Matrigel at subtoxic concentrations, and an original assay of drug washout allowed us to demonstrate the rapid reversibility of this effect. These two new analogues are promising leads for the development of vascular-disrupting agents in the podophyllotoxin series.

  15. Effects of analogues of substance P fragments on the MAO activity in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Turska, E; Lachowicz, L; Koziołkiewicz, W; Wasiak, T

    1985-01-01

    The influence in vitro of analogues of Sp5-11 and SP6-11 substance P fragments on the activity of monoamine oxidase (MAO) in homogenates and crude mitochondrial fractions of rat brain was examined. The rat brain was divided into: I--cerebral cortex, II--hippocampus, III--midbrain, IV--thalamus with hypothalamus, V--cerebellum and VI--medulla oblongata. The obtained results proved that the analogues of SP fragments inhibit selectively the activity of the enzyme in the homogenates of cerebral cortex, hippocampus, midbrain and cerebellum. In the crude mitochondrial fractions the applied analogues of SP fragments caused a slight increase of the enzyme activity. The most significant changes in the activity of MAO were observed in hippocampus homogenate fraction.

  16. Synthesis of the biologically active natural product cyclodepsipeptides apratoxin A and its analogues.

    PubMed

    Doi, Takayuki

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the synthetic studies conducted on a marine natural product, cyclodepsipeptide apratoxin A. Total synthesis of the oxazoline analogue of apratoxin A was achieved. The conversion of oxazoline to thioamide, as well as thioamide formation from a serine-derived compound, were both unsuccessful. However, thiazoline formation from a cysteine-derived compound led to the total synthesis of apratoxin A. An in vivo study on synthetic apratoxin A revealed that it has potent antitumor activity, but with significant toxicity. Solid-phase synthesis of apratoxin A was accomplished using a preformed thiazoline derivative as a coupling unit. This method was used to synthesize several azido-containing analogues as precursors of molecular probes, and these analogues exhibited potent biological activity.

  17. Sansanmycin natural product analogues as potent and selective anti-mycobacterials that inhibit lipid I biosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Anh T.; Watson, Emma E.; Pujari, Venugopal; Conroy, Trent; Dowman, Luke J.; Giltrap, Andrew M.; Pang, Angel; Wong, Weng Ruh; Linington, Roger G.; Mahapatra, Sebabrata; Saunders, Jessica; Charman, Susan A.; West, Nicholas P.; Bugg, Timothy D. H.; Tod, Julie; Dowson, Christopher G.; Roper, David I.; Crick, Dean C.; Britton, Warwick J.; Payne, Richard J.

    2017-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is responsible for enormous global morbidity and mortality, and current treatment regimens rely on the use of drugs that have been in use for more than 40 years. Owing to widespread resistance to these therapies, new drugs are desperately needed to control the TB disease burden. Herein, we describe the rapid synthesis of analogues of the sansanmycin uridylpeptide natural products that represent promising new TB drug leads. The compounds exhibit potent and selective inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological agent of TB, both in vitro and intracellularly. The natural product analogues are nanomolar inhibitors of Mtb phospho-MurNAc-pentapeptide translocase, the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of lipid I in mycobacteria. This work lays the foundation for the development of uridylpeptide natural product analogues as new TB drug candidates that operate through the inhibition of peptidoglycan biosynthesis.

  18. Luciferase-Specific Coelenterazine Analogues for Optical Contamination-Free Bioassays.

    PubMed

    Nishihara, Ryo; Abe, Masahiro; Nishiyama, Shigeru; Citterio, Daniel; Suzuki, Koji; Kim, Sung Bae

    2017-04-19

    Spectral overlaps among the multiple optical readouts commonly cause optical contamination in fluorescence and bioluminescence. To tackle this issue, we created five-different lineages of coelenterazine (CTZ) analogues designed to selectively illuminate a specific luciferase with unique luciferase selectivity. In the attempt, we found that CTZ analogues with ethynyl or styryl groups display dramatically biased bioluminescence to specific luciferases and pHs by modifying the functional groups at the C-2 and C-6 positions of the imidazopyradinone backbone of CTZ. The optical contamination-free feature was exemplified with the luciferase-specific CTZ analogues, which illuminated anti-estrogenic and rapamycin activities in a mixture of optical probes. This unique bioluminescence platform has great potential for specific and high throughput imaging of multiple optical readouts in bioassays without optical contamination.

  19. Vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption of prime ice analogues of Pluto and Charon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavithraa, S.; Lo, J.-I.; Rahul, K.; Raja Sekhar, B. N.; Cheng, B.-M.; Mason, N. J.; Sivaraman, B.

    2018-02-01

    Here we present the first Vacuum UltraViolet (VUV) photoabsorption spectra of ice analogues of Pluto and Charon ice mixtures. For Pluto the ice analogue is an icy mixture containing nitrogen (N2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4) and water (H2O) prepared with a 100:1:1:3 ratio, respectively. Photoabsorption of icy mixtures with and without H2O were recorded and no significant changes in the spectra due to presence of H2O were observed. For Charon a VUV photoabsorption spectra of an ice analogue containing ammonia (NH3) and H2O prepared with a 1:1 ratio was recorded, a spectrum of ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) was also recorded. These spectra may help to interpret the P-Alice data from New Horizons.

  20. Vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption of prime ice analogues of Pluto and Charon.

    PubMed

    Pavithraa, S; Lo, J-I; Rahul, K; Raja Sekhar, B N; Cheng, B-M; Mason, N J; Sivaraman, B

    2018-02-05

    Here we present the first Vacuum UltraViolet (VUV) photoabsorption spectra of ice analogues of Pluto and Charon ice mixtures. For Pluto the ice analogue is an icy mixture containing nitrogen (N 2 ), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH 4 ) and water (H 2 O) prepared with a 100:1:1:3 ratio, respectively. Photoabsorption of icy mixtures with and without H 2 O were recorded and no significant changes in the spectra due to presence of H 2 O were observed. For Charon a VUV photoabsorption spectra of an ice analogue containing ammonia (NH 3 ) and H 2 O prepared with a 1:1 ratio was recorded, a spectrum of ammonium hydroxide (NH 4 OH) was also recorded. These spectra may help to interpret the P-Alice data from New Horizons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Synthesis and biological evaluation of cyclopropyl analogues of 2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Dappen, M.S.; Pellicciari, R.; Natalini, B.

    1991-01-01

    A series of cyclopropyl analogues related to 2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP5) were synthesized and their biological activity was assessed as competitive antagonists for the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. In vitro receptor binding using (3H)-L-glutamate as the radioligand provided affinity data, while modulation of (3H)MK-801 binding was used as a functional assay. The analogues were also evaluated in (3H)kainate binding to assess selectivity over non-NMDA glutamate receptors. Of the compounds tested, 4,5-methano-AP5 analogue 26 was the most potent selective NMDA antagonist; however, potency was lower than that for (((+/-)-2-carboxypiperidin-4-yl)methyl)phosphonic acid (CGS 19755, 5).

  2. Synthesis and Biochemical Evaluation of Thiochromanone Thiosemicarbazone Analogues as Inhibitors of Cathepsin L

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A series of 36 thiosemicarbazone analogues containing the thiochromanone molecular scaffold functionalized primarily at the C-6 position were prepared by chemical synthesis and evaluated as inhibitors of cathepsins L and B. The most promising inhibitors from this group are selective for cathepsin L and demonstrate IC50 values in the low nanomolar range. In nearly all cases, the thiochromanone sulfide analogues show superior inhibition of cathepsin L as compared to their corresponding thiochromanone sulfone derivatives. Without exception, the compounds evaluated were inactive (IC50 > 10000 nM) against cathepsin B. The most potent inhibitor (IC50 = 46 nM) of cathepsin L proved to be the 6,7-difluoro analogue 4. This small library of compounds significantly expands the structure–activity relationship known for small molecule, nonpeptidic inhibitors of cathepsin L. PMID:24900494

  3. Field Exploration and Life Detection Sampling for Planetary Analogue Research (FELDSPAR): Variability and Correlation in Biomarker and Mineralogy Measurements from Icelandic Mars Analogues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, D.; Amador, E.; Cable, M. L.; Cantrell, T.; Chaudry, N.; Cullen, T.; Duca, Z.; Jacobsen, M.; Kirby, J.; McCaig, H.; hide

    2018-01-01

    In situ exploration of planetary environments allows biochemical analysis of sub-centimeter-scale samples; however, landing sites are selected a priori based on measurable meter- to kilometer-scale geological features. Optimizing life detection mission science return requires both understanding the expected biomarker distributions across sample sites at different scales and efficiently using first-stage in situ geochemical instruments to justify later-stage biological or chemical analysis. Icelandic volcanic regions have an extensive history as Mars analogue sites due to desiccation, low nutrient availability, and temperature extremes, in addition to the advantages of geological youth and isolation from anthropogenic contamination. Many Icelandic analogue sites are also rugged and remote enough to create the same type of instrumentation and sampling constraints typically faced by robotic exploration.

  4. Structure-function correlation of chloroquine and analogues as transgene expression enhancers in nonviral gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jianjun; Zeidan, Ryan; Mishra, Swaroop; Liu, Aijie; Pun, Suzie H; Kulkarni, Rajan P; Jensen, Gregory S; Bellocq, Nathalie C; Davis, Mark E

    2006-11-02

    To understand how chloroquine (CQ) enhances transgene expression in polycation-based, nonviral gene delivery systems, a number of CQ analogues with variations in the aliphatic amino side chain or in the aromatic ring are synthesized and investigated. Our studies indicate that the aliphatic amino moiety of CQ is essential to provide increased gene expression. Further, the enhancements are more dramatically affected by changes to the aromatic ring and are positively correlated to the strength of intercalation between DNA and the CQ analogues. Quinacrine (QC), a CQ analogue with a fused acridinyl structure that can strongly intercalate DNA, enhances transfection similarly to CQ at a concentration 10 times lower, while N(4)-(4-pyridinyl)-N(1),N(1)-diethyl-1,4-pentanediamine (CP), a CQ analogue that has a weakly intercalating pyridinyl ring, shows no effect on gene expression. Subtle change on the 7-substituent of the chloroquine aromatic structure can also greatly affect the ability of the CQ analogues to enhance transgene expression. Transfection in the presence of N(4)-(7-trifluoromethyl-4-quinolinyl)-N(1),N(1)-diethyl-1,4-pentanediamin e (CQ7a) shows expression efficiency 10 times higher than in the presence of CQ at same concentration, while transfection in the presence of N(4)-(4-quinolinyl)-N(1),N(1)-diethyl-1,4-pentanediamine (CQ7b) does not reveal any enhancing effects on expression. Through a number of comparative studies with CQ and its analogues, we conclude that there are at least three mechanistic features of CQ that lead to the enhancement in gene expression: (i) pH buffering in endocytic vesicles, (ii) displacement of polycations from the nucleic acids in polyplexes, and (iii) alteration of the biophysical properties of the released nucleic acid.

  5. Physical Properties of Granulates Used in Analogue Experiments of Caprock Failure and Sediment Remobilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukowski, N.; Warsitzka, M.; May, F.

    2014-12-01

    Geological systems consisting of a porous reservoir and a low-permeable caprock are prone to hydraulic fracturing, if pore pressure rises to the effective stress. Under certain conditions, hydraulic fracturing is associated with sediment remobilisation, e.g. sand injections or pipes, leading to reduced seal capacity of the caprock. In dynamically scaled analogue experiments using granular materials and air pressure, we intent to investigate strain patterns and deformation mechanisms during caprock failure and fluidisation of shallow over-pressured reservoirs. The aim of this study is to improve the understanding of leakage potential of a sealing formation and the fluidisation potential of a reservoir formation depending on rock properties and effective stress. For reliable interpretation of analogue experiments, physical properties of analogue materials, e.g. frictional strength, cohesion, density, permeability etc., have to be correctly scaled according to those of their natural equivalents. The simulation of caprock requires that the analogue material possess a low permeability and is capable to shear failure and tensional failure. In contrast, materials representing the reservoir have to possess high porosity and low shear strength. In order to find suitable analogue materials, we measured the stress-strain behaviour and the permeability of over 25 different types of natural and artificial granular materials, e.g. glass powder, siliceous microspheres, diatomite powder, loess, or plastic granulate. Here, we present data of frictional parameters, compressibility and permeability of these granular materials characterized as a function of sphericity, grain size, and density. The repertoire of different types of granulates facilitates the adjustment of accurate mechanical properties in the analogue experiments. Furthermore, conditions during seal failure and fluidisation can be examined depending on the wide range of varying physical properties.

  6. Validity and reproducibility of cephalometric measurements obtained from digital photographs of analogue headfilms.

    PubMed

    Grybauskas, Simonas; Balciuniene, Irena; Vetra, Janis

    2007-01-01

    The emerging market of digital cephalographs and computerized cephalometry is overwhelming the need to examine the advantages and drawbacks of manual cephalometry, meanwhile, small offices continue to benefit from the economic efficacy and ease of use of analogue cephalograms. The use of modern cephalometric software requires import of digital cephalograms or digital capture of analogue data: scanning and digital photography. The validity of digital photographs of analogue headfilms rather than original headfilms in clinical practice has not been well established. Digital photography could be a fast and inexpensive method of digital capture of analogue cephalograms for use in digital cephalometry. The objective of this study was to determine the validity and reproducibility of measurements obtained from digital photographs of analogue headfilms in lateral cephalometry. Analogue cephalometric radiographs were performed on 15 human dry skulls. Each of them was traced on acetate paper and photographed three times independently. Acetate tracings and digital photographs were digitized and analyzed in cephalometric software. Linear regression model, paired t-test intergroup analysis and coefficient of repeatability were used to assess validity and reproducibility for 63 angular, linear and derivative measurements. 54 out of 63 measurements were determined to have clinically acceptable reproducibility in the acetate tracing group as well as 46 out of 63 in the digital photography group. The worst reproducibility was determined for measurements dependent on landmarks of incisors and poorly defined outlines, majority of them being angular measurements. Validity was acceptable for all measurements, and although statistically significant differences between methods existed for as many as 15 parameters, they appeared to be clinically insignificant being smaller than 1 unit of measurement. Validity was acceptable for 59 of 63 measurements obtained from digital photographs

  7. Synthesis and biological properties of enzyme-resistant analogues of substance P.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, B E; Lee, C M; Hanley, M R; Iversen, L L

    1981-02-01

    Six analogues of substance P were synthesized with the aim of developing a metabolically stable peptide that would retain the biological activity of substance P. A recently isolated and characterized substance-P-degrading enzyme from human brain with a high specificity for substance P described in the preceding paper in this journal was used as a model for the enzymatic inactivation of substance P. The synthetic analogues were designed to protect the peptide bonds on the carboxyl side of residues 6, 7 and 8 of substance P, which represent the sites of cleavage by substance-P-degrading enzyme. To test for increased enzymatic resistance, the analogues were incubated with the enzyme, the digests were separated on a high-performance liquid chromatography reverse-phase column and the peptide fragments were collected and identified by amino acid analysis. Of the analogues described, an heptapeptide analogue of residues 5-11, less than Glu-Gln-Phe-MePhe-MeGly-Leu-MetNH2, showed almost complete resistance both towards substance-P-degrading enzyme and to degradation on exposure to rat hypothalamic slices. This analogue was about a third as potent as substance P in competing for binding to receptor sites for this peptide in rat brain membranes and a tenth as potent in eliciting contractions of the guinea pig ileum. The peptides were synthesized using the solid-phase technique with polydimethylacrylamide as a solid support and the coupling was achieved with pre-formed symmetrical anhydrides in dimethylacetamide. Fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl was used as an alpha-amino protecting group in conjunction with t-butyloxycarbonyl as an epsilon-amino protecting group. Ammoniolytic cleavage from the resin was followed by stepwise elution from an SP-Sephadex column, deprotection with trifluoroacetic acid and chromatography on a Bio-Rex 70 ion-exchanger. The peptides were finally purified on a semi-preparative reverse-phase column.

  8. [Insecticidal action of synthetic girgensohnine analogues and essential oils on Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae)].

    PubMed

    Cuadros, Juliana; Carreño, Aurora L; Kouznetsov, Vladimir V; Duque, Jonny E

    2017-03-29

    The alkaloid girgensohnine has been used as a natural model in the synthesis of new alkaloid-like alpha-aminonitriles with insecticidal effect against disease vectors. To evaluate the biocide activity of girgensohnine analogues and essential oils of Cymbopogon flexuosus, Citrus sinensis and Eucalyptus citriodora in stage I and stage V Rhodnius prolixus nymphs. We used a topical application model in tergites and sternites, as well as exposure to treated surfaces with different exploratory doses of each of the molecules and essential oils to determine the lethal doses (LD50 and LD95). Analogue 3 showed the highest insecticidal activity with 83.3±16.7% of mortality when applied on tergites, 38.9±4.8% on sternites and 16.7±0% on treated surfaces in stage I nymphs at 72 hours (h) and 500 mg.L-1. In stage V nymphs, the compounds induced mortality only in sternums (11.1±9.6% for analogue 6 and 5.5±4.7% for analogues 3 and 7 at 72 h and 1500 mg.L-1). The lethal doses for molecule 3 on tergites in stage I nymphs were LD50 225.60 mg.L-1 and LD95 955.90 mg.L-1. The insecticidal effect of essential oils was observed only in stage I nymphs, with 11.1±4.8% for C. flexuosus when applied in sternites, while using exposure to surfaces treated it was 5.6±4.8% for C. sinensis applied on tergites and 8.3±0% on sternites at 72 h and 1000 mg.L-1. Synthetic girgensohnine analogues, and C. flexuosus and C. sinensis essential oils showed insecticidal activity in R. prolixus. Analogue 3 showed the greatest insecticidal activity among all molecules and oils evaluated under our laboratory conditions.

  9. Amide Analogues of CD1d Agonists Modulate iNKT-Cell-Mediated Cytokine Production

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are restricted by the non-polymorphic MHC class I-like protein, CD1d, and activated following presentation of lipid antigens bound to CD1d molecules. The prototypical iNKT cell agonist is α-galactosyl ceramide (α-GalCer). CD1d-mediated activation of iNKT cells by this molecule results in the rapid secretion of a range of pro-inflammatory (Th1) and regulatory (Th2) cytokines. Polarization of the cytokine response can be achieved by modifying the structure of the glycolipid, which opens up the possibility of using CD1d agonists as therapeutic agents for a range of diseases. Analysis of crystal structures of the T-cell receptor−α-GalCer–CD1d complex led us to postulate that amide isosteres of known CD1d agonists should modulate the cytokine response profile upon iNKT-cell activation. To this end, we describe the synthesis and biological activity of amide analogues of α-GalCer and its non-glycosidic analogue threitol ceramide (ThrCer). All of the analogues were found to stimulate murine and human iNKT cells by CD1d-mediated presentation to varying degrees; however, the thioamide and carbamate analogues of ThrCer were of particular interest in that they elicited a strongly polarized cytokine response (more interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), no interleukin-4 (IL-4)) in mice. While the ThrCer-carbamate analogue was shown to transactivate natural killer (NK) cells, a mechanism that has been used to account for the preferential production of IFN-γ by other CD1d agonists, this pathway does not account for the polarized cytokine response observed for the thioamide analogue. PMID:22324848

  10. The Need for Analogue Missions in Scientific Human and Robotic Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snook, K. J.; Mendell, W. W.

    2004-01-01

    With the increasing challenges of planetary missions, and especially with the prospect of human exploration of the moon and Mars, the need for earth-based mission simulations has never been greater. The current focus on science as a major driver for planetary exploration introduces new constraints in mission design, planning, operations, and technology development. Analogue missions can be designed to address critical new integration issues arising from the new science-driven exploration paradigm. This next step builds on existing field studies and technology development at analogue sites, providing engineering, programmatic, and scientific lessons-learned in relatively low-cost and low-risk environments. One of the most important outstanding questions in planetary exploration is how to optimize the human and robotic interaction to achieve maximum science return with minimum cost and risk. To answer this question, researchers are faced with the task of defining scientific return and devising ways of measuring the benefit of scientific planetary exploration to humanity. Earth-based and spacebased analogue missions are uniquely suited to answer this question. Moreover, they represent the only means for integrating science operations, mission operations, crew training, technology development, psychology and human factors, and all other mission elements prior to final mission design and launch. Eventually, success in future planetary exploration will depend on our ability to prepare adequately for missions, requiring improved quality and quantity of analogue activities. This effort demands more than simply developing new technologies needed for future missions and increasing our scientific understanding of our destinations. It requires a systematic approach to the identification and evaluation of the categories of analogue activities. This paper presents one possible approach to the classification and design of analogue missions based on their degree of fidelity in ten

  11. Structure activity relationship study of curcumin analogues toward the amyloid-beta aggregation inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Endo, Hitoshi; Nikaido, Yuri; Nakadate, Mamiko; Ise, Satomi; Konno, Hiroyuki

    2014-12-15

    Inhibition of the amyloid β aggregation process could possibly prevent the onset of Alzheimer's disease. In this article, we report a structure-activity relationship study of curcumin analogues for anti amyloid β aggregation activity. Compound 7, the ideal amyloid β aggregation inhibitor in vitro among synthesized curcumin analogues, has not only potent anti amyloid β aggregation effects, but also water solubility more than 160 times that of curcumin. In addition, new approaches to improve water solubility of curcumin-type compounds are proposed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Photophysical properties of a synthetic, carbonyl-containing (N=6+CO) carotenoid analogue

    SciTech Connect

    Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M.

    Retinyl-1 is a synthetic carotenoid analogue belonging to the retinal analogues family. It has six conjugated carbon–carbon double bonds with a carbonyl group conjugated to the π-electron system. Presence of the carbonyl group in vicinity of the conjugated carbon–carbon backbone leads to unique excited state properties that are extremely sensitive to solvent polarity and temperature. The simplicity of the synthesis of Retinyl-1 and ease of attachment to synthetic tetrapyrrole chromophores make Retinyl-1 attractive for use in artificial photosynthetic systems.

  13. The effect of pre-existing vulnerability factors on a laboratory analogue trauma experience.

    PubMed

    Laposa, Judith M; Alden, Lynn E

    2008-12-01

    This study examined how pre-existing emotional and personality vulnerability factors affect responses to an analogue trauma experience. Sixty-eight undergraduate participants viewed a distressing film and completed measures of trait anxiety, intelligence, depression, trait dissociation, as well as changes in state anxiety, then recorded intrusions over the following week. Results revealed that trait anxiety, depression, trait dissociation, change in anxiety, and post-state anxiety were associated with intrusion frequency. Post-state anxiety mediated the relationship between trait anxiety, depression and trait dissociation, and intrusions. Implications for PTSD theories and laboratory trauma analogue research examining specific elements of cognitive models of PTSD are discussed.

  14. Effect of a stable prostacyclin analogue on canine renal allograft rejection.

    PubMed Central

    Tobimatsu, M; Ueda, Y; Toyoda, K; Saito, S; Konomi, K

    1987-01-01

    The effect of OP-41483 (Ono Pharmaceutical Co., Osaka, Japan), a stable prostacyclin analogue, on canine renal allograft rejection was investigated. Administration for 4 days after transplantation significantly increased renal cortical blood flow and urine output when compared with untreated dogs with renal allografts. Serum creatinine levels remained relatively low during postoperative days 1-4. Mean animal survival time was prolonged. Vascular lesions and mononuclear cell infiltration were greatly diminished in biopsy specimens removed on day 4. This stable prostacyclin analogue provided a degree of protection against canine renal allograft rejection. Images Figs. 1A and B. PMID:3545109

  15. Identification of a new tadalafil analogue, N-3-hydroxypropylnortadalafil, in a supplement product.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hui-Chun; Lin, Yun-Lian; Huang, Yen-Chun; Tsai, Chia-Fen; Wang, Der-Yuan

    2018-06-01

    A novel tadalafil analogue, which exhibits similarity to 2-hydroxypropylnortadalafil, was found in dietary supplements using adulterants screening and isolated using column chromatography. By using extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR and MS spectral analyses, the structure was determined as 6-(1,3-Benzodioxol-5-yl)-2,3,6,7,12,12a-hexahydro-2-(3-hydroxypropyl)pyrazino(1',2':1,6)pyrido(3,4-b)indole-1,4-dione, and the analogue was named N-3-hydroxypropylnortadalafil. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Recycling antimalarial leads for cancer: Antiproliferative properties of N-cinnamoyl chloroquine analogues.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Bianca C; Fernandes, Iva; Mateus, Nuno; Teixeira, Cátia; Gomes, Paula

    2013-12-15

    Cinnamic acids and quinolines are known as useful scaffolds in the discovery of antitumor agents. Therefore, N-cinnamoylated analogues of chloroquine, recently reported as potent dual-action antimalarials, were evaluated against three different cancer cell lines: MKN-28, Caco-2, and MCF-7. All compounds display anti-proliferative activity in the micromolar range against the three cell lines tested, and most of them were more active than their parent drug, chloroquine, against all cell lines tested. Hence, N-cinnamoyl-chloroquine analogues are a good start towards development of affordable antitumor leads. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Inhibition of experimental ascending urinary tract infection by an epithelial cell-surface receptor analogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edén, C. Svanborg; Freter, R.; Hagberg, L.; Hull, R.; Hull, S.; Leffler, H.; Schoolnik, G.

    1982-08-01

    It has been shown that the establishment of urinary tract infection by Escherichia coli is dependent on attachment of the bacteria to epithelial cells1-4. The attachment involves specific epithelial cell receptors, which have been characterized as glycolipids5-10. Reversible binding to cell-surface mannosides may also be important4,11-13. This suggests an approach to the treatment of infections-that of blocking bacterial attachment with cell membrane receptor analogues. Using E. coli mutants lacking one or other of the two binding specificities (glycolipid and mannose), we show here that glycolipid analogues can block in vitro adhesion and in vivo urinary tract infection.

  18. Natural and Semisynthetic Analogues of Manadoperoxide B Reveal New Structural Requirements for Trypanocidal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Chianese, Giuseppina; Scala, Fernando; Calcinai, Barbara; Cerrano, Carlo; Dien, Henny A.; Kaiser, Marcel; Tasdemir, Deniz; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio

    2013-01-01

    Chemical analysis of the Indonesian sponge Plakortis cfr. lita afforded two new analogues of the potent trypanocidal agent manadoperoxide B (1), namely 12-isomanadoperoxide B (2) and manadoperoxidic acid B (3). These compounds were isolated along with a new short chain dicarboxylate monoester (4), bearing some interesting relationships with the polyketide endoperoxides found in this sponge. Some semi-synthetic analogues of manadoperoxide B (6–8) were prepared and evaluated for antitrypanosomal activity and cytotoxicity. These studies revealed crucial structure–activity relationships that should be taken into account in the design of optimized and simplified endoperoxyketal trypanocidal agents. PMID:23989650

  19. Efficient synthesis of dichlorodenafil, an unapproved sildenafil analogue appearing in non-prescription supplements.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Yup; Hwang, In Gyun; Oh, Jae Ho; Kang, Il Hyun; Kwon, Sung Won; Kim, Deukjoon

    2013-01-01

    We have developed an efficient synthesis of dichlorodenafil (4), an unapproved sildenafil analogue isolated from dietary supplements. Our sequence employs POCl(3)-mediated chlorination of readily available chloroacetyl compound 7 followed by selective hydrolysis of the chloro-heterocycle function. Our synthesis confirms the structure of the illegal additive, and will provide regulatory agencies with ready access to authentic standard samples of dichlorodenafil (4) to aid in their mission to protect the public from unapproved and potentially harmful erectile dysfunction (ED) drug analogues that are added to herbal and dietary supplements without providing users with appropriate toxicological or pharmacological information.

  20. Naturally Inspired Peptide Leads: Alanine Scanning Reveals an Actin‐Targeting Thiazole Analogue of Bisebromoamide

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Heather J.; Boys, Sarah K.; Makda, Ashraff; Carragher, Neil O.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Systematic alanine scanning of the linear peptide bisebromoamide (BBA), isolated from a marine cyanobacterium, was enabled by solid‐phase peptide synthesis of thiazole analogues. The analogues have comparable cytotoxicity (nanomolar) to that of BBA, and cellular morphology assays indicated that they target the actin cytoskeleton. Pathway inhibition in human colon tumour (HCT116) cells was explored by reverse phase protein array (RPPA) analysis, which showed a dose‐dependent response in IRS‐1 expression. Alanine scanning reveals a structural dependence to the cytotoxicity, actin targeting and pathway inhibition, and allows a new readily synthesised lead to be proposed. PMID:27304907

  1. Late Pleniglacial vegetation in eastern-central Europe: are there modern analogues in Siberia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magyari, Enikő Katalin; Kuneš, Petr; Jakab, Gusztáv; Sümegi, Pál; Pelánková, Barbora; Schäbitz, Frank; Braun, Mihály; Chytrý, Milan

    2014-07-01

    To characterize Late Pleniglacial (LPG: 26.5-15 ka cal BP) and particularly Last Glacial Maximum (LGM: 21 ± 2 ka cal BP) vegetation and climate, fossil pollen assemblages are often compared with modern pollen assemblages. Given the non-analogue climate of the LPG, a key question is how glacial pollen assemblages and thereby vegetation compare with modern vegetation. In this paper we present three LPG pollen records from the Carpathian Basin and the adjoining Carpathian Mountains to address this question and provide a concise compositional characterization of the LPG vegetation. Fossil pollen assemblages were compared with surface pollen spectra from the Altai-Sayan Mountains in southern Siberia. This area shows many similarities with the LPG vegetation of eastern-central Europe, and has long been considered as its best modern analogue. Ordination and analogue matching were used to characterize vegetation composition and find the best analogues. Our results show that few LPG pollen assemblages have statistically significant analogues in southern Siberia. When analogue pairings occur they suggest the predominance of wet and mesic grasslands and dry steppe in the studied region. Wooded vegetation types (continental and suboceanic hemiboreal forest, continental taiga) appear as significant analogues only in a few cases during the LGM and more frequently after 16 ka cal BP. These results suggest that the LPG landscape of the Carpathian Basin was dominated by dry steppe that occurred outside the river floodplains, while wet and mesic grasslands occurred in the floodplains and on other sites influenced by ground water. Woody vegetation mainly occurred in river valleys, on wet north-facing hillsides, and scattered trees were likely also present on the loess plateaus. The dominant woody species were Larix, Pinus sylvestris, Pinus mugo, Pinus cembra, Picea abies, Betula pendula/pubescens, Betula nana, Juniperus, Hippophaë rhamnoides, Populus, Salix and Alnus. The pollen

  2. Relative activities on and uptake by human blood platelets of 5-hydroxytryptamine and several analogues

    PubMed Central

    Born, G. V. R.; Juengjaroen, Kanchana; Michal, F.

    1972-01-01

    1. The specificity of platelet receptor sites for 5-HT uptake and for the rapid morphological change and aggregation was investigated with 5-hydroxy-tryptamine (5-HT) and seventeen analogues as well as with some antagonists of 5-HT. 2. The analogues, with the exception of 5-hydroxy-N'N'-dibutyltryptamine, caused the rapid morphological change in platelets. In concentrations below those needed to produce the agonistic action (viz. 0.05-2.0 μM), these analogues themselves inhibited competitively the shape change caused by 5-HT. 3. The velocity of change in shape caused by 5-HT was reduced in low Na media. 4. Ten analogues produced platelet aggregation; three of these, viz. 5-methoxy-α-methyltryptamine, 5-hydroxy-α-methyltryptamine and 5-hydroxy-N'N'-diisopropyltryptamine), were approximately equipotent with 5-HT. Six analogues did not induce platelet aggregation. 5. All the analogues which prevented the initial change in shape of platelets caused by 5-HT also inhibited its aggregating effect, apparently competitively with low Ki values (0.02-1.6 μM). 6. As with the inhibition of shape change, the inhibition of aggregation shows relatively low structural specificity of the receptor site. 7. Methysergide was a potent inhibitor of shape change and aggregation (Ki∼0.03 μM); imipramine was much less inhibitory (Ki∼5-10 μM). 8. Only one analogue (5-hydroxy-α-methyltryptamine) was taken up like 5-HT by platelets. All the other analogues inhibited the uptake of 5-HT by platelets (Ki=0.2-2.7 μM). 9. Methysergide was a weak inhibitor of 5-HT uptake (Ki∼125 μM) whereas imipramine was very effective (Ki∼0.3 μM). 10. Our results show that the initial change in shape of platelets is required for and precedes aggregation. The structural specificity of the platelet receptor concerned with shape change and aggregation caused by 5-HT appears low whereas the uptake mechanism is a highly specific one. The uptake probably proceeds through more than one step, the

  3. Engineering Silicone Rubbers for In vitro Studies: Creating AAA Models and ILT Analogues with Physiological Properties

    PubMed Central

    Corbett, T.J.; Doyle, B.J.; Callanan, A.; Walsh, M.T.; McGloughlin, T.M

    2010-01-01

    Background In vitro studies of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) have been widely reported. Frequently mock artery models with intraluminal thrombus (ILT) analogues are used to mimic the AAA in vivo. While the models used may be physiological, their properties are frequently either not reported or investigated. Method of Approach This study is concerned with the testing and characterisation of previously used vessel analogue materials and the development of new materials for the manufacture of AAA models. These materials were used in conjunction with a previously validated injection moulding technique to manufacture AAA models of ideal geometry. To determine the model properties (stiffness (β) and compliance) the diameter change of each AAA model was investigated under incrementally increasing internal pressures and compared to published in vivo studies to determine if the models behaved physiologically. A FEA study was implemented to determine if the pressure – diameter change behaviour of the models could be predicted numerically. ILT analogues were also manufactured and characterised. Ideal models were manufactured with ILT analogue internal to the aneurysm region and the effect of the ILT analogue on the model compliance and stiffness was investigated. Results The wall materials had similar properties to aortic tissue at physiological pressures (Einit 2.22MPa and 1.57MPa (aortic tissue: 1.8MPa)). ILT analogues had similar Young’s modulus to the medial layer of ILT (0.24 and 0.33MPa (ILT: 0.28MPa)). All models had aneurysm sac compliance in the physiological range (2.62 – 8.01×10-4/mmHg (AAA in vivo: 1.8 – 9.4×10-4/mmHg)). The necks of our AAA models had similar stiffness to healthy aortas (20.44 – 29.83 (healthy aortas in vivo: 17.5±5.5)). Good agreement was seen between the diameter changes due to pressurisation in the experimental and FEA wall models with a maximum error of 7.3% at 120mmHg. It was also determined that the inclusion of ILT analogue

  4. Exploration of charge states of balanol analogues acting as ATP-competitive inhibitors in kinases.

    PubMed

    Hardianto, Ari; Yusuf, Muhammad; Liu, Fei; Ranganathan, Shoba

    2017-12-28

    (-)-Balanol is an ATP mimic that inhibits protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) with limited selectivity. While PKA is a tumour promoter, PKC isozymes act as tumour promoters or suppressors, depending on the cancer type. In particular, PKCε is frequently implicated in cancer promotion, making it a potential target for anticancer drugs. To improve isozyme selectivity of balanol, exhaustive structural and activity relationship (SAR) studies have been performed in the last two decades, but with limited success. More recently, fluorination on balanol has shown improved selectivity for PKCε, although the fluorine effect is not yet clearly understood. Understanding the origin to this fluorine-based selectivity will be valuable for designing better balanol-based ATP mimicking inhibitors. Computational approaches such as molecular dynamics (MD) simulations can decipher the fluorine effect, provided that correct charges have been assigned to a ligand. Balanol analogues have multiple ionisable functional groups and the effect of fluorine substitutions on the exact charge state of each analogue bound to PKA and to PKCε needs to be thoroughly investigated in order to design highly selective inhibitors for therapeutic applications. We explored the charge states of novel fluorinated balanol analogues using MD simulations. For different potential charge states of these analogues, Molecular Mechanics Generalized Born Surface Area (MMGBSA) binding energy values were computed. This study suggests that balanol and the most potent fluorinated analogue (5S fluorine substitution on the azepane ring), have charges on the azepane ring (N1), and the phenolic (C6''OH) and the carboxylate (C15''O 2 H) groups on the benzophenone moiety, when bound to PKCε as well as PKA. To the best our knowledge, this is the first study showing that the phenolate group is charged in balanol and its analogues binding to the ATP site of PKCε. Correct charge

  5. Mesoporous Prussian blue analogues: template-free synthesis and sodium-ion battery applications.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yanfeng; Binder, Andrew J; Guo, Bingkun; Zhang, Zhiyong; Qiao, Zhen-An; Tian, Chengcheng; Dai, Sheng

    2014-03-17

    The synthesis of mesoporous Prussian blue analogues through a template-free methodology and the application of these mesoporous materials as high-performance cathode materials in sodium-ion batteries is presented. Crystalline mesostructures were produced through a synergistically coupled nanocrystal formation and aggregation mechanism. As cathodes for sodium-ion batteries, the Prussian blue analogues all show a reversible capacity of 65 mA h g-1 at low current rate and show excellent cycle stability. The reported method stands as an environmentally friendly and low-cost alternative to hard or soft templating for the fabrication of mesoporous materials.

  6. Efficient synthesis of RITA and its analogues: derivation of analogues with improved antiproliferative activity via modulation of p53/miR-34a pathway.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jinshun; Jin, Xiuli; Bu, Yiwen; Cao, Deliang; Zhang, Nannan; Li, Shangfu; Sun, Qinsheng; Tan, Chunyan; Gao, Chunmei; Jiang, Yuyang

    2012-12-28

    A novel approach to synthesize RITA by practical palladium-catalyzed C-C bond-forming Suzuki reactions at room temperature was developed, which was used for deriving a series of substituted tricyclic α-heteroaryl (furan/thiophene) analogues of RITA under mild conditions. These novel analogues showed notable antiproliferative activity against cancer cell lines with wild-type p53 (i.e., HCT116, A549, MCF-7 and K562), but much less activity in HCT116/p53(-/-) cells. In particular, compound 1f demonstrated promising antiproliferative activity compared to RITA, with IC(50) = 28 nM in MCF-7 vs. 54 nM for RITA, and cancer cell selectivity. Compound 1f markedly activated p53 in HCT116 cells at 100 nM, triggering apoptosis. Importantly, we found that both RITA and compound 1f induced G(0)/G(1) cell cycle arrest by up-regulating miR-34a, which in turn down-regulated the expression of cell cycle-related proteins CDK4 and E2F1. In summary, this study reports an effective synthetic approach for RITA and its analogues, and elucidates a novel antiproliferative mechanism of these compounds.

  7. VNIR spectral modeling of Mars analogue rocks: first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pompilio, L.; Roush, T.; Pedrazzi, G.; Sgavetti, M.

    Knowledge regarding the surface composition of Mars and other bodies of the inner solar system is fundamental to understanding of their origin, evolution, and internal structures. Technological improvements of remote sensors and associated implications for planetary studies have encouraged increased laboratory and field spectroscopy research to model the spectral behavior of terrestrial analogues for planetary surfaces. This approach has proven useful during Martian surface and orbital missions, and petrologic studies of Martian SNC meteorites. Thermal emission data were used to suggest two lithologies occurring on Mars surface: basalt with abundant plagioclase and clinopyroxene and andesite, dominated by plagioclase and volcanic glass [1,2]. Weathered basalt has been suggested as an alternative to the andesite interpretation [3,4]. Orbital VNIR spectral imaging data also suggest the crust is dominantly basaltic, chiefly feldspar and pyroxene [5,6]. A few outcrops of ancient crust have higher concentrations of olivine and low-Ca pyroxene, and have been interpreted as cumulates [6]. Based upon these orbital observations future lander/rover missions can be expected to encounter particulate soils, rocks, and rock outcrops. Approaches to qualitative and quantitative analysis of remotely-acquired spectra have been successfully used to infer the presence and abundance of minerals and to discover compositionally associated spectral trends [7-9]. Both empirical [10] and mathematical [e.g. 11-13] methods have been applied, typically with full compositional knowledge, to chiefly particulate samples and as a result cannot be considered as objective techniques for predicting the compositional information, especially for understanding the spectral behavior of rocks. Extending the compositional modeling efforts to include more rocks and developing objective criteria in the modeling are the next required steps. This is the focus of the present investigation. We present results of

  8. Nematic order-disorder state transition in a liquid crystal analogue formed by oriented and migrating amoeboid cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemkemer, R.; Teichgräber, V.; Schrank-Kaufmann, S.; Kaufmann, D.; Gruler, H.

    2000-10-01

    In cell culture, liquid crystal analogues are formed by elongated, migrating, and interacting amoeboid cells. An apolar nematic liquid crystal analogue is formed by different cell types like human melanocytes (=pigment cells of the skin), human fibroblasts (=connective tissue cells), human osteoblasts (=bone cells), human adipocytes (=fat cells), etc. The nematic analogue is quite well described by i) a stochastic machine equation responsible for cell orientation and ii) a self-organized extracellular guiding signal, E_2, which is proportional to the orientational order parameter as well as to the cell density. The investigations were mainly made with melanocytes. The transition to an isotropic state analogue can be accomplished either by changing the strength of interaction (e.g. variation of the cell density) or by influencing the cellular machinery by an externally applied signal: i) An isotropic gaseous state analogue is observed at low cell density (ρ < 110melanocytes/mm^2) and a nematic liquid crystal state analogue at higher cell density. ii) The nematic state analogue disappears if the bipolar shaped melanocytes are forced to become a star-like shape (induced by colchicine or staurosporine). The analogy between nematic liquid crystal state analogue formed by elongated, migrating and interacting cells and the nematic liquid crystal phase formed by interacting elongated molecules is discussed.

  9. Developing Equipotent Teixobactin Analogues against Drug-Resistant Bacteria and Discovering a Hydrophobic Interaction between Lipid II and Teixobactin.

    PubMed

    Zong, Yu; Sun, Xiuyun; Gao, Hongying; Meyer, Kirsten J; Lewis, Kim; Rao, Yu

    2018-04-26

    Teixobactin, targeting lipid II, represents a new class of antibiotics with novel structures and has excellent activity against Gram-positive pathogens. We developed a new convergent method to synthesize a series of teixobactin analogues and explored structure-activity relationships. We obtained equipotent and simplified teixobactin analogues, replacing the l- allo-enduracididine with lysine, substituting oxygen to nitrogen on threonine, and adding a phenyl group on the d-phenylalanine. On the basis of the antibacterial activities that resulted from corresponding modifications of the d-phenylalanine, we propose a hydrophobic interaction between lipid II and the N-terminal of teixobactin analogues, which we map out with our analogue 35. Finally, a representative analogue from our series showed high efficiency in a mouse model of Streptococcus pneumoniae septicemia.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of mitoQ and idebenone analogues as mediators of oxygen consumption in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Duveau, Damien Y; Arce, Pablo M; Schoenfeld, Robert A; Raghav, Nidhi; Cortopassi, Gino A; Hecht, Sidney M

    2010-09-01

    Analogues of mitoQ and idebenone were synthesized to define the structural elements that support oxygen consumption in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Eight analogues were prepared and fully characterized, then evaluated for their ability to support oxygen consumption in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. While oxygen consumption was strongly inhibited by mitoQ analogues 2-4 in a chain length-dependent manner, modification of idebenone by replacement of the quinone methoxy groups by methyl groups (analogues 6-8) reduced, but did not eliminate, oxygen consumption. Idebenone analogues 6-8 also displayed significant cytoprotective properties toward cultured mammalian cells in which glutathione had been depleted by treatment with diethyl maleate. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sapc - Application for Adapting Scanned Analogue Photographs to Use Them in Structure from Motion Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salach, A.

    2017-05-01

    The documentary value of analogue scanned photographs is invaluable. A large and rich collection of archival photographs is often the only source of information about past of the selected area. This paper presents a method of adaptation of scanned, analogue photographs to suitable form allowing to use them in Structure from Motion technology. For this purpose, an automatic algorithm, implemented in the application called SAPC (Scanned Aerial Photographs Correction), which transforms scans to a form, which characteristic similar to the images captured by a digital camera, was invented. Images, which are created in the applied program as output data, are characterized by the same principal point position in each photo and the same resolution through cutting out the black photo frame. Additionally, SAPC generates a binary image file, which can mask areas of fiducial marks. In the experimental section, scanned, analogue photographs of Warsaw, which had been captured in 1986, were used in two variants: unprocessed and processed in SAPC application. An insightful analysis was conducted on the influence of transformation in SAPC on quality of spatial orientation of photographs. Block adjustment through aerial triangulation was calculated using two SfM software products: Agisoft PhotoScan and Pix4d and their results were compared with results obtained from professional photogrammetric software - Trimble Inpho. The author concluded that pre-processing in SAPC application had a positive impact on a quality of block orientation of scanned, analogue photographs, using SfM technology.

  12. The CanMars Analogue Mission: Lessons Learned for Mars Sample Return

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osinski, G. R.; Beaty, D.; Battler, M.; Caudill, C.; Francis, R.; Haltigin, T.; Hipkin, V.; Pilles, E.

    2018-04-01

    We present an overview and lessons learned for Mars Sample Return from CanMars — an analogue mission that simulated a Mars 2020-like cache mission. Data from 39 sols of operations conducted in the Utah desert in 2015 and 2016 are presented.

  13. Pyrrolidinones derived from (S)-pyroglutamic acid: penmacric acid and analogues.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Muhammed; Bailey, Jonathan H; Dickinson, Laura C; Edwards, Hermia J; Goswami, Rajesh; Moloney, Mark G

    2003-07-07

    Alkylation reactions using alpha-halolactams or lactam enolates derived from bicyclic lactam templates can proceed with high endo- or exo- diastereoselectivity respectively. In the latter case, stereochemical correction by means of enolate generation and hindered phenol quench is possible with moderate efficiency. This protocol has been applied to the synthesis of protected penmacric acid and its analogues.

  14. Swift heavy ion irradiation of interstellar dust analogues. Small carbonaceous species released by cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dartois, E.; Chabot, M.; Pino, T.; Béroff, K.; Godard, M.; Severin, D.; Bender, M.; Trautmann, C.

    2017-03-01

    Context. Interstellar dust grain particles are immersed in vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and cosmic ray radiation environments influencing their physicochemical composition. Owing to the energetic ionizing interactions, carbonaceous dust particles release fragments that have direct impact on the gas phase chemistry. Aims: The exposure of carbonaceous dust analogues to cosmic rays is simulated in the laboratory by irradiating films of hydrogenated amorphous carbon interstellar analogues with energetic ions. New species formed and released into the gas phase are explored. Methods: Thin carbonaceous interstellar dust analogues were irradiated with gold (950 MeV), xenon (630 MeV), and carbon (43 MeV) ions at the GSI UNILAC accelerator. The evolution of the dust analogues is monitored in situ as a function of fluence at 40, 100, and 300 K. Effects on the solid phase are studied by means of infrared spectroscopy complemented by simultaneously recording mass spectrometry of species released into the gas phase. Results: Specific species produced and released under the ion beam are analyzed. Cross sections derived from ion-solid interaction processes are implemented in an astrophysical context.

  15. Mutations in the pantothenate kinase of Plasmodium falciparum confer diverse sensitivity profiles to antiplasmodial pantothenate analogues

    PubMed Central

    Tjhin, Erick T.; Siddiqui, Ghizal; Marquez, Rodolfo; Saliba, Kevin J.

    2018-01-01

    The malaria-causing blood stage of Plasmodium falciparum requires extracellular pantothenate for proliferation. The parasite converts pantothenate into coenzyme A (CoA) via five enzymes, the first being a pantothenate kinase (PfPanK). Multiple antiplasmodial pantothenate analogues, including pantothenol and CJ-15,801, kill the parasite by targeting CoA biosynthesis/utilisation. Their mechanism of action, however, remains unknown. Here, we show that parasites pressured with pantothenol or CJ-15,801 become resistant to these analogues. Whole-genome sequencing revealed mutations in one of two putative PanK genes (Pfpank1) in each resistant line. These mutations significantly alter PfPanK activity, with two conferring a fitness cost, consistent with Pfpank1 coding for a functional PanK that is essential for normal growth. The mutants exhibit a different sensitivity profile to recently-described, potent, antiplasmodial pantothenate analogues, with one line being hypersensitive. We provide evidence consistent with different pantothenate analogue classes having different mechanisms of action: some inhibit CoA biosynthesis while others inhibit CoA-utilising enzymes. PMID:29614109

  16. Synthesis and Biological Activity of Phospholipase C-Resistant Analogues of Phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-bisphosphate

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Honglu; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Zheng; Liman, Emily R.; Prestwich, Glenn D

    2008-01-01

    The membrane phospholipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2) is an important regulator in cell physiology. Hydrolysis of PtdIns(4,5)P2 by phospholipase C (PLC) releases two second messengers, Ins(1,4,5)P3 and diacylglycerol. To dissect the effects of PtdIns(4,5)P2 from those resulting from PLC-generated signals, a metabolically-stabilized analogue of PtdIns(4,5)P2 was required. Two analogues were designed in which the scissile O-P bond was replaced with a C-P bond that could not be hydrolyzed by PLC activity. Herein we describe the asymmetric total synthesis of the first metabolically-stabilized, phospholipase C-resistant analogues of PtdIns(4,5)P2. The key transformation was a Pd(0)-catalyzed coupling of an H-phosphite with a vinyl bromide to form the desired C-P linkage. The phosphonate analogues of PtdIns(4,5)P2 were found to be effective in restoring the sensitivity of the TRPM4 channel to Ca2+ activation. PMID:16637624

  17. 8-Amido-Bearing pseudomycin B (PSB) analogue: novel antifungal agents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y Z; Sun, X; Zeckner, D J; Sachs, R K; Current, W L; Chen, S H

    2001-01-22

    During the course of a structure-activity relationship (SAR) study on novel depsinonapeptide pseudomycin B, we synthesized a total of 12 8-amidopseudomycin analogues via standard two-step sequence from either ZPSB 2 or AllocPSB 3. A number of these amides exhibited good in vitro antifungal activities.

  18. Divergent synthetic approach to 6”-modified α-GalCer analogues

    PubMed Central

    Pauwels, Nora; Aspeslagh, Sandrine; Vanhoenacker, Gerd; Sandra, Koen; Yu, Esther D.; Zajonc, Dirk M.; Elewaut, Dirk; Linclau, Bruno; Van Calenbergh, Serge

    2011-01-01

    A synthetic approach is presented for the synthesis of galacturonic acid and d-fucosyl modified KRN7000. The approach allows for late-stage functionalisation of both the sugar 6”-OH and the sphingosine amino groups, which enables convenient synthesis of promising 6”-modified KRN7000 analogues. PMID:22042483

  19. Synthesis and photochemistry of pH-sensitive GFP chromophore analogues

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nobel GFP chromophore analogues containing 2-thienyl-, 5-methyl-2-furyl-, 2-pyrryl, and 6-methyl-2-pyridyl-groups were synthesized, and their fluorescence spectra were recorded across pH range of 1 to 7. The GFP chromophores prevent photoisomerizaiton in acidic media and increase their fluorescent a...

  20. Synthesis of methylene- and difluoromethylenephosphonate analogues of uridine-4-phosphate and 3-deazauridine-4-phosphate.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Scott D; Mirzaei, Farzad; Sharifi, Ali; Bearne, Stephen L

    2006-12-08

    Cytidine triphosphate synthetase (CTPS) catalyzes the formation of cytidine triphosphate from glutamine, uridine-5'-triphosphate (UTP), and adenosine-5'-triphosphate. Inhibitors of CTPS are of interest because of their potential as therapeutic agents. One approach to potent enzyme inhibitors is to use analogues of high energy intermediates formed during the reaction. The CTPS reaction proceeds via the high energy intermediate UTP-4-phosphate (UTP-4-P). Four novel analogues of uridine-4-phosphate (U-4-P) and 3-deazauridine-4-phosphate (3-deazaU-4-P) were synthesized in which the labile phosphate ester oxygen was replaced with a methylene and difluoromethylene group. The methylene analogue of U-4-P, compound 1, was prepared by a reaction of the sodium salt of tert-butyl diethylphosphonoacetate with protected, 4-O-activated uridine followed by acetate deprotection and decarboxylation. It was found that this compound undergoes relatively facile dephosphonylation presumably via a metaphosphate intermediate. The difluoromethylene derivative, compound 2, was prepared by electrophilic fluorination of protected 1. This compound was stable and did not undergo dephosphonylation. Synthesis of the methylene analogue of 3-deazaU-4-P, compound 3, was achieved by ribosylation of protected 4-(phosphonomethyl)-2-hydroxypyridine. Electrophilic fluorination was also employed in the preparation of protected 4-(phosphonodifluoromethyl)-2-hydroxypyridine which was used as the key building block in the synthesis of difluoro derivative 4. These compounds represent the first examples of a nucleoside in which the base has been chemically modified with a methylene or difluormethylenephosphonate group.

  1. The chemistry of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) analogues containing C-nucleosides related to nicotinamide riboside.

    PubMed

    Pankiewicz, Krzysztof W; Watanabe, Kyoichi A; Lesiak-Watanabe, Krystyna; Goldstein, Barry M; Jayaram, Hiremagalur N

    2002-04-01

    Oncolytic C-nucleosides, tiazofurin (2-beta-D-ribofuranosylthiazole-4-carboxamide) and benzamide riboside (3-beta-D-ribofuranosylbenzamide) are converted in cell into active metabolites thiazole-4-carboxamide- and benzamide adenine dinucleotide, TAD and BAD, respectively. TAD and BAD as NAD analogues were found to bind at the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (cofactor NAD) site of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), an important target in cancer treatment. The synthesis and evaluation of anticancer activity of a number of C-nucleosides related to tiazofurin and nicotinamide riboside then followed and are reviewed herein. Interestingly, pyridine C-nucleosides (such as C-nicotinamide riboside) are not metabolized into the corresponding NAD analogues in cell. Their conversion by chemical methods is described. As dinucleotides these compounds show inhibition of IMPDH in low micromolar level. Also, the synthesis of BAD in metabolically stable bis(phosphonate) form is discussed indicating the usefulness of such preformed inhibitors in drug development. Among tiazofurin analogues, Franchetti and Grifantini found, that the replacement of the sulfur by oxygen (as in oxazafurin) but not the removal of nitrogen (tiophenfurin) of the thiazole ring resulted in inactive compounds. The anti cancer activity of their synthetic dinucleotide analogues indicate that inactive compounds are not only poorly metabolized in cell but also are weak inhibitors of IMPDH as dinucleotides.

  2. Synthesis and biological evaluation of Fotemustine analogues on human melanoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Winum, Jean Yves; Bouissière, Jean Luc; Passagne, Isabelle; Evrard, Alexandre; Montero, Véronique; Cuq, Pierre; Montero, Jean Louis

    2003-03-01

    Two new analogues of Fotemustine have been synthesized and tested on two melanoma cell lines. Compounds 4 and 8 proved to be more potent than the reference compound on A375 cell line which express the MGMT enzyme involved in the chemoresistance of tumoral cells.

  3. Synthesis of the insecticide prothrin and its analogues from biomass-derived 5-(Chloromethyl) furfural

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Prothrin, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, was synthesized from the biomass-derived platform chemical 5 (chloromethyl)furfural in six steps and overall 65% yield. Two structural analogues of prothrin were also prepared following the same synthetic approach. Preliminary testing of these furan-base...

  4. A precision analogue integrator system for heavy current measurement in MFDC resistance spot welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Yu-Jun; Zhang, Zhong-Dian; Xia, Zhen-Xin; Zhu, Shi-Liang; Zhang, Rui

    2016-02-01

    In order to control and monitor the quality of middle frequency direct current (MFDC) resistance spot welding (RSW), precision measurement of the welding current up to 100 kA is required, for which Rogowski coils are the only viable current transducers at present. Thus, a highly accurate analogue integrator is the key to restoring the converted signals collected from the Rogowski coils. Previous studies emphasised that the integration drift is a major factor that influences the performance of analogue integrators, but capacitive leakage error also has a significant impact on the result, especially in long-time pulse integration. In this article, new methods of measuring and compensating capacitive leakage error are proposed to fabricate a precision analogue integrator system for MFDC RSW. A voltage holding test is carried out to measure the integration error caused by capacitive leakage, and an original integrator with a feedback adder is designed to compensate capacitive leakage error in real time. The experimental results and statistical analysis show that the new analogue integrator system could constrain both drift and capacitive leakage error, of which the effect is robust to different voltage levels of output signals. The total integration error is limited within  ±0.09 mV s-1 0.005% s-1 or full scale at a 95% confidence level, which makes it possible to achieve the precision measurement of the welding current of MFDC RSW with Rogowski coils of 0.1% accuracy class.

  5. Individual Events as a Laboratory for Argument: Analogues for Limited Preparation Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Jack

    To better serve as a laboratory for argument, individual events competition should represent analogues of "real world" argumentation/communication situations. The individual events laboratory must fulfill a pedagogical function, and should also "create" knowledge about argumentation strategies, specific fields of argument, and…

  6. NMR studies of multiple conformations in complexes of Lactobacillus casei dihydrofolate reductase with analogues of pyrimethamine

    SciTech Connect

    Birdsall, B.; Tendler, S.J.B.; Feeney, J.

    1990-10-01

    {sup 1}H and {sup 19}F NMR signals from bound ligands have been assigned in one- and two-dimensional NMR spectra of complexes of Lactobacillus casei dihydrofolate reductase with various pyrimethamine analogues. The signals were identified mainly by correlating signals from bound and free ligands by using 2D exchange experiments. Analogues with symmetrically substituted phenyl rings give rise to {sup 1}H signals from four nonequivalent aromatic protons, clearly indicating the presence of hindered rotation about the pyrimidine-phenyl bond. Analogues with symmetrically substituted phenyl rings give rise to {sup 1}H signals from four nonequivalent aromatic protons, clearly indicating the presence of hindered rotationmore » about the pyrimidine-phenyl bond. Analogues containing asymmetrically substituted aromatic rings exist as mixtures of two rotational isomers (an enantiomeric pair) because of this hindered rotation and the NMR spectra revealed that both isomers (forms A and B) bind to the enzyme with comparable, though unequal, binding energies. In this case two complete sets of bound proton signals were observed. The relative orientations of the two forms have been determined from NOE through-space connections between protons on the ligand and protein. Ternary complexes with NADP{sup {plus}} were also examined.« less

  7. Field-programmable analogue arrays for the sensorless control of DC motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, J.; Dueñas, I.; Ortega, S.; Del Valle, J. L.

    2018-02-01

    This work presents the analogue implementation of a sensorless controller for direct current motors based on the super-twisting (ST) sliding mode technique, by means of field programmable analogue arrays (FPAA). The novelty of this work is twofold, first is the use of the ST algorithm in a sensorless scheme for DC motors, and the implementation method of this type of sliding mode controllers in FPAAs. The ST algorithm reduces the chattering problem produced with the deliberate use of the sign function in classical sliding mode approaches. On the other hand, the advantages of the implementation method over a digital one are that the controller is not digitally approximated, the controller gains are not fine tuned and the implementation does not require the use of analogue-to-digital and digital-to-analogue converter circuits. In addition to this, the FPAA is a reconfigurable, lower cost and power consumption technology. Simulation and experimentation results were registered, where a more accurate transient response and lower power consumption were obtained by the proposed implementation method when compared to a digital implementation. Also, a more accurate performance by the DC motor is obtained with proposed sensorless ST technique when compared with a classical sliding mode approach.

  8. Cross-reactivity of amphetamine analogues with Roche Abuscreen radioimmunoassay reagents

    SciTech Connect

    Cody, J.T.

    1990-01-01

    Cross-reactivity of amphetamine analogues with the Abuscreen amphetamine radioimmunoassay reagents was determined for both the standard and high specificity antibody systems. Compounds tested included 2-methoxyamphetamine, 4-hydroxymethamphetamine, 2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine (DMA), 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine (DOB), 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxy-beta-phenethylamine (BDMPEA), 3,4,5-trimethoxyamphetamine (TMA), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), N,N-dimethyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine and N-hydroxy-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (N-OH MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine, 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (DOM), and 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine (mescaline). Blank negative reference material was spiked with 1,000 to 100,000 ng/mL of the amphetamine analogue and used as sample in the assays. MDA was the only analogue that showed cross reactivity equal to or greater than that of amphetamine. None of the other analogue compounds demonstrated a positive resultmore » at even the highest concentration; however several showed depressed counts at various concentration levels.« less

  9. REVIEW OF THE SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM MUTAGENICITY OF BENZIDINE, BENZIDINE ANALOGUES, AND BENZIDINE-BASED DYES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mutagenicity of benzidine analogues (including benzidine-based dyes) was reviewed with a primary emphasis on evaluating results of the Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity assay. Many of these amines are mutagenic in tester strains TA98 and TA100 but require exogenous mammalian ...

  10. Synthesis and Evaluation of Chlorinated Substrate Analogues for Farnesyl Diphosphate Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Heaps, Nicole A.; Poulter, C. Dale

    2011-01-01

    Substrate analogues for isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP), where the C3 methyl groups were replaced by chlorine, were synthesized and evaluated as substrates for avian farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPase). The IPP analogue (3-ClIPP) was a co-substrate when incubated with dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) or geranyl diphosphate (GPP) to give the corresponding chlorinated analogues of geranyl diphosphate (3-ClGPP) and farnesyl diphosphate (3-ClFPP), respectively. No products were detected in incubations of 3-ClIPP with 3-ClDMAPP. Incubation of IPP with 3-ClDMAPP gave 11-ClFPP as the sole product. Values of KM3-ClIPP (with DMAPP) and KM3-ClDMAPP (with IPP) were similar to those for IPP and DMAPP, however values of kcat for both analogues were substantially lower. These results are consistent with a dissociative electrophilic alkylation mechanism where the rate-limiting step changes from heterolytic cleavage of the carbon-oxygen bond in the allylic substrate to alkylation of the double bond of the homoallylic substrate. PMID:21344952

  11. Cellular and Animal Model Studies on the Growth Inhibitory Effects of Polyamine Analogues on Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Thomas, T J; Thomas, Thresia

    2018-03-13

    Polyamine levels are elevated in breast tumors compared to those of adjacent normal tissues. The female sex hormone, estrogen is implicated in the origin and progression of breast cancer. Estrogens stimulate and antiestrogens suppress the expression of polyamine biosynthetic enzyme, ornithine decarboxylate (ODC). Using several bis(ethyl)spermine analogues, we found that these analogues inhibited the proliferation of estrogen receptor-positive and estrogen receptor negative breast cancer cells in culture. There was structure-activity relationship in the efficacy of these compounds in suppressing cell growth. The activity of ODC was inhibited by these compounds, whereas the activity of the catabolizing enzyme, spermidine/spermine N ¹-acetyl transferase (SSAT) was increased by 6-fold by bis(ethyl)norspermine in MCF-7 cells. In a transgenic mouse model of breast cancer, bis(ethyl)norspermine reduced the formation and growth of spontaneous mammary tumor. Recent studies indicate that induction of polyamine catabolic enzymes SSAT and spermine oxidase (SMO) play key roles in the anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of polyamine analogues and their combinations with chemotherapeutic agents such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and paclitaxel. Thus, polyamine catabolic enzymes might be important therapeutic targets and markers of sensitivity in utilizing polyamine analogues in combination with other therapeutic agents.

  12. Cellular and Animal Model Studies on the Growth Inhibitory Effects of Polyamine Analogues on Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Thresia

    2018-01-01

    Polyamine levels are elevated in breast tumors compared to those of adjacent normal tissues. The female sex hormone, estrogen is implicated in the origin and progression of breast cancer. Estrogens stimulate and antiestrogens suppress the expression of polyamine biosynthetic enzyme, ornithine decarboxylate (ODC). Using several bis(ethyl)spermine analogues, we found that these analogues inhibited the proliferation of estrogen receptor-positive and estrogen receptor negative breast cancer cells in culture. There was structure-activity relationship in the efficacy of these compounds in suppressing cell growth. The activity of ODC was inhibited by these compounds, whereas the activity of the catabolizing enzyme, spermidine/spermine N1-acetyl transferase (SSAT) was increased by 6-fold by bis(ethyl)norspermine in MCF-7 cells. In a transgenic mouse model of breast cancer, bis(ethyl)norspermine reduced the formation and growth of spontaneous mammary tumor. Recent studies indicate that induction of polyamine catabolic enzymes SSAT and spermine oxidase (SMO) play key roles in the anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of polyamine analogues and their combinations with chemotherapeutic agents such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and paclitaxel. Thus, polyamine catabolic enzymes might be important therapeutic targets and markers of sensitivity in utilizing polyamine analogues in combination with other therapeutic agents. PMID:29533973

  13. Constructing Adequate Non-Speech Analogues: What Is Special about Speech Anyway?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Stuart; Iverson, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Vouloumanos and Werker (2007) claim that human neonates have a (possibly innate) bias to listen to speech based on a preference for natural speech utterances over sine-wave analogues. We argue that this bias more likely arises from the strikingly different saliency of voice melody in the two kinds of sounds, a bias that has already been shown to…

  14. Theoretical IR spectra of the diketene molecule, its isomers and their mono- and disulphur analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rode, J. E.; Dobrowolski, J. Cz; Jamróz, M. H.; Borowiak, M. A.

    2001-05-01

    Theoretical infrared spectra of diketene (4-methylene-2-oxetanone), its 3- and 2-methylene isomers and their mono- and disulphur analogues were calculated at the MP2/6-311++G ∗∗ level. The effect of methylene and sulphur substitution on the IR spectra is discussed in terms of potential energy distribution (PED) analysis.

  15. Attributions about Perpetrators and Victims of Interpersonal Abuse: Results from an Analogue Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Shlien-Dellinger, Rania K.; Huss, Matthew T.; Kramer, Vertrie L.

    2004-01-01

    This analogue study (written vignettes and videotapes) examines the influence of victim-perpetrator relationship (spouse or acquaintance), sex of perceiver, and type of abuse (psychological vs. physical) on attributions about victims and perpetrators of domestic abuse. College student participants (73 men, 108 women) were randomly assigned to…

  16. 20(S)-Protopanaxadiol (PPD) analogues chemosensitize multidrug-resistant cancer cells to clinical anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junhua; Wang, Xu; Liu, Peng; Deng, Rongxin; Lei, Min; Chen, Wantao; Hu, Lihong

    2013-07-15

    Novel 20(S)-protopanoxadiol (PPD) analogues were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for the chemosensitizing activity against a multidrug resistant (MDR) cell line (KBvcr) overexpressing P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Structure-activity relationship analysis showed that aromatic substituted aliphatic amine at the 24-positions (groups V) effectively and significantly sensitized P-gp overexpressing multidrug resistant (MDR) cells to anticancer drugs, such as docetaxel (DOC), vincristine (VCR), and adriamycin (ADM). PPD derivatives 12 and 18 showed 1.3-2.6 times more effective reversal ability than verapamil (VER) for DOC and VCR. Importantly, no cytotoxicity was observed by the active PPD analogues (5μM) against both non-MDR and MDR cells, suggesting that PPD analogues serve as novel lead compounds toward a potent and safe resistance modulator. Moreover, a preliminary mechanism study demonstrated that the chemosensitizing activity of PPD analogues results from inhibition of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) overexpressed in MDR cancer cells. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Standardised Observation Analogue Procedure (SOAP) for Assessing Parent and Child Behaviours in Clinical Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Cynthia R.; Butter, Eric M.; Handen, Benjamin L.; Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Mulick, James; Lecavalier, Luc; Aman, Michael G.; Arnold, Eugene L.; Scahill, Lawrence; Swiezy, Naomi; Sacco, Kelley; Stigler, Kimberly A.; McDougle, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Observational measures of parent and child behaviours have a long history in child psychiatric and psychological intervention research, including the field of autism and developmental disability. We describe the development of the Standardised Observational Analogue Procedure (SOAP) for the assessment of parent-child behaviour before…

  18. Sex Differences in a Human Analogue of the Radial Arm Maze: The ''17-Box Maze Test''

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Q.; Abrahams, S.; Jussab, F.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated sex differences in spatial memory using a human analogue of the Radial Arm Maze: a revision on the Nine Box Maze originally developed by Abrahams, Pickering, Polkey, and Morris (1997) called the 17-Box Maze Test herein. The task encourages allocentric spatial processing, dissociates object from spatial memory, and…

  19. The anti-inflammatory activity of dillapiole and some semisynthetic analogues.

    PubMed

    Parise-Filho, Roberto; Pastrello, Michelli; Pereira Camerlingo, Carla Emygdio; Silva, Gisele Juni; Agostinho, Leonardo Aguiar; de Souza, Thaís; Motter Magri, Fátima Maria; Ribeiro, Roberto Rodrigues; Brandt, Carlos Alberto; Polli, Michelle Carneiro

    2011-11-01

    Piper aduncum L. (Piperaceae) produces an essential oil (dillapiole) with great exploitative potential and it has proven effects against traditional cultures of phytopathogens, such as fungi, bacteria and mollusks, as well as analgesic action with low levels of toxicity. This study investigated the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of dillapiole. Furthermore, in order to elucidate its structure-anti-inflammatory activity relationship (SAR), semisynthetic analogues were proposed by using the molecular simplification strategy. Dillapiole and safrole were isolated and purified using column chromatography. The semisynthetic analogues were obtained by using simple organic reactions, such as catalytic reduction and isomerization. All the analogues were purified by column chromatography and characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR. The anti-inflammatory activities of dillapiole and its analogues were studied in carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model. Dillapiole and di-hydrodillapiole significantly (p<0.05) inhibited rat paw edema. All the other substances tested, including safrole, were less powerful inhibitors with activities inferior to that of indomethacin. These findings showed that dillapiole and di-hydrodillapiole have moderate anti-phlogistic properties, indicating that they can be used as prototypes for newer anti-inflammatory compounds. Structure-activity relationship studies revealed that the benzodioxole ring is important for biological activity as well as the alkyl groups in the side chain and the methoxy groups in the aromatic ring.

  20. Novel inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth based on modified pyrimidine nucleosides and their analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shmalenyuk, E. R.; Kochetkov, S. N.; Alexandrova, L. A.

    2013-09-01

    The review summarizes data on the synthesis and antituberculosis activity of pyrimidine nucleoside derivatives and their analogues. Enzymes from M. tuberculosis as promising targets for prototypes of new-generation drugs are considered. Nucleosides as inhibitors of drug-resistant M. tuberculosis strains are characterized. The bibliography includes 101 references.

  1. Occurrence and profiles of bisphenol analogues in municipal sewage sludge in China.

    PubMed

    Song, Shanjun; Song, Maoyong; Zeng, Luzhe; Wang, Thanh; Liu, Runzeng; Ruan, Ting; Jiang, Guibin

    2014-03-01

    Extensive use of bisphenol A and its analogues has caused increasing concern over the potential adverse health impacts of these chemicals. In this study, the presence and profiles of 13 bisphenols (BPs) were investigated in 52 municipal sewage sludge samples collected from 30 cities in China. Tetrabromobisphenol A was the most frequently observed analogue (geometric mean: 20.5 ng/g dw). Bisphenol A (4.69 ng/g dw), bisphenol S (3.02 ng/g dw), and bisphenol F (3.84 ng/g dw) were found with similar frequency. Other BP analogues such as tetrachlorobisphenol A, bisphenol AF, bisphenol E, and dihydroxybiphenyl were identified for the first time in sewage sludge in China. Significant correlations were found among BP concentrations, but no relationships were found with wastewater treatment plant characteristics. Profiles of the relative estradiol equivalents suggested that the estrogenic potential of BP mixtures may be associated with the occurrence and contributions of specific analogues. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Analogue scale modelling of extensional tectonic processes using a large state-of-the-art centrifuge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Heon-Joon; Lee, Changyeol

    2017-04-01

    Analogue scale modelling of extensional tectonic processes such as rifting and basin opening has been numerously conducted. Among the controlling factors, gravitational acceleration (g) on the scale models was regarded as a constant (Earth's gravity) in the most of the analogue model studies, and only a few model studies considered larger gravitational acceleration by using a centrifuge (an apparatus generating large centrifugal force by rotating the model at a high speed). Although analogue models using a centrifuge allow large scale-down and accelerated deformation that is derived by density differences such as salt diapir, the possible model size is mostly limited up to 10 cm. A state-of-the-art centrifuge installed at the KOCED Geotechnical Centrifuge Testing Center, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) allows a large surface area of the scale-models up to 70 by 70 cm under the maximum capacity of 240 g-tons. Using the centrifuge, we will conduct analogue scale modelling of the extensional tectonic processes such as opening of the back-arc basin. Acknowledgement This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (grant number 2014R1A6A3A04056405).

  3. Antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic activity of melatonin analogues on melanoma and breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Dugnani, Silvana; Calastretti, Angela; Spadoni, Gilberto; Bedini, Annalida; Rivara, Silvia; Mor, Marco; Canti, Gianfranco; Scaglione, Francesco; Bevilacqua, Annamaria

    2017-01-01

    Melatonin plays different physiological functions ranging from the regulation of circadian rhythms to tumor inhibition, owing to its antioxidant, immunomodulatory and anti-aging properties. Due to its pleiotropic functions, melatonin has been shown to elicit cytoprotective processes in normal cells and trigger pro-apoptotic signals in cancer cells. The therapeutic potential of melatonin analogues prompted us to investigate the in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity of new melatonin derivatives and explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. The experiments revealed that the new melatonin analogues inhibited the growth of melanoma and breast cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In addition, our results indicated that melatonin derivative UCM 1037 could induce apoptosis in melanoma and breast cancer cells, as well as cell necrosis, in MCF-7. Together, apoptosis and necrosis could be two possible mechanisms to explain the cytotoxic effect of the melatonin analogue against cancer cells. The suppression of tumor growth by the melatonin analogues was further demonstrated in vivo in a xenograft mice model. A decrease in the activation of MAPK pathway was observed in all cancer cells following UCM 1037 treatment. Overall, this study describes a promising antitumor compound showing antiproliferative and cytotoxic activity in melanoma and breast cancer cells. PMID:28978121

  4. Antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic activity of melatonin analogues on melanoma and breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gatti, Giuliana; Lucini, Valeria; Dugnani, Silvana; Calastretti, Angela; Spadoni, Gilberto; Bedini, Annalida; Rivara, Silvia; Mor, Marco; Canti, Gianfranco; Scaglione, Francesco; Bevilacqua, Annamaria

    2017-09-15

    Melatonin plays different physiological functions ranging from the regulation of circadian rhythms to tumor inhibition, owing to its antioxidant, immunomodulatory and anti-aging properties. Due to its pleiotropic functions, melatonin has been shown to elicit cytoprotective processes in normal cells and trigger pro-apoptotic signals in cancer cells. The therapeutic potential of melatonin analogues prompted us to investigate the in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity of new melatonin derivatives and explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. The experiments revealed that the new melatonin analogues inhibited the growth of melanoma and breast cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In addition, our results indicated that melatonin derivative UCM 1037 could induce apoptosis in melanoma and breast cancer cells, as well as cell necrosis, in MCF-7. Together, apoptosis and necrosis could be two possible mechanisms to explain the cytotoxic effect of the melatonin analogue against cancer cells. The suppression of tumor growth by the melatonin analogues was further demonstrated in vivo in a xenograft mice model. A decrease in the activation of MAPK pathway was observed in all cancer cells following UCM 1037 treatment. Overall, this study describes a promising antitumor compound showing antiproliferative and cytotoxic activity in melanoma and breast cancer cells.

  5. An expeditious synthesis of imatinib and analogues utilising flow chemistry methods.

    PubMed

    Hopkin, Mark D; Baxendale, Ian R; Ley, Steven V

    2013-03-21

    A flow-based route to imatinib, the API of Gleevec, was developed and the general procedure then used to generate a number of analogues which were screened for biological activity against Abl1. The flow synthesis required minimal manual intervention and was achieved despite the poor solubility of many of the reaction components.

  6. Revealing the drug-resistant mechanism for diarylpyrimidine analogue inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Qin, Fang; Ye, Wei; Li, Zeng; Ma, Songyao; Xia, Yan; Jiang, Yi; Zhu, Jiayi; Li, Yixue; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Hai-Feng

    2011-09-01

    Diaryltriazine (DATA) and diarylpyrimidine (DAPY) were two category inhibitors with highly potent activity for wild type (wt) and four principal mutant types (L100I, K103N, Y181C and Y188L) of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT). We had revealed the drug-resistant mechanism of DATA analogue inhibitors with molecular dynamics simulation and three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) methods. In this work, we investigated the drug-resistant mechanism of DAPY analogue inhibitors. It was found that DAPY analogue inhibitors form more hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic contacts with wild type and mutants of HIV-1 RT than DATA inhibitors. This could explain that DAPY analogue inhibitors are more potent than DATA for the wild type and mutants of HIV-1 RT. Then, 3D-QSAR models were constructed for these inhibitors of wild type and four principal mutant types HIV-1 RT and evaluated by test set compounds. These combined models can be used to design new chemical entities and make quantitative prediction of the bioactivities for HIV-1 RT inhibitors before resorting to in vitro and in vivo experiment. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. DAS photonics developments for analogue and digital photonic links for intra-satellite communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasco, Julián.; Rico, Eloy; Genovard, Pablo; Sáez, Cristina; Navasquillo, Olga; Martí, Javier

    2017-11-01

    During past years, special efforts have been invested to develop optical links, both digital and analogue, for space applications, such as reference signal distribution or digital communication cables. The aim of this paper is to present the current DAS developments for these applications as well as future work to increase TRL levels and flight opportunities.

  8. Natural analogues for processes affecting disposal of high-level radioactive waste in the vadose zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuckless, J. S.

    2003-04-01

    Natural analogues can contribute to understanding and predicting the performance of subsystems and processes affecting a mined geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste in several ways. Most importantly, analogues provide tests for various aspects of systems of a repository at dimensional scales and time spans that cannot be attained by experimental study. In addition, they provide a means for the general public to judge the predicted performance of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository in familiar terms such that the average person can assess the anticipated long-term performance and other scientific conclusions. Hydrologists working on the Yucca Mountain Project (currently the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Repository Development) have modeled the flow of water through the vadose zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada and particularly the interaction of vadose-zone water with mined openings. Analogues from both natural and anthropogenic examples confirm the prediction that most of the water moving through the vadose zone will move through the host rock and around tunnels. This can be seen both quantitatively where direct comparison between seepage and net infiltration has been made and qualitatively by the excellent degree of preservation of archaeologic artifacts in underground openings. The latter include Paleolithic cave paintings in southwestern Europe, murals and artifacts in Egyptian tombs, painted subterranean Buddhist temples in India and China, and painted underground churches in Cappadocia, Turkey. Natural analogues also suggest that this diversion mechanism is more effective in porous media than in fractured media. Observations from natural analogues are also consistent with the modeled decrease in the percentage of infiltration that becomes seepage with a decrease in amount of infiltration. Finally, analogues, such as tombs that have ben partially filled by mud flows, suggest that the same capillary forces that keep water in the

  9. [Ocular Surface Evaluation in Patients Treated with Prostaglandin Analogues Considering Preservative Agent].

    PubMed

    Mlčáková, E; Mlčák, P; Karhanová, M; Langová, K; Marešová, K

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ocular surface in patients treated with prostaglandin analogues considering contained preservative agent. 60 patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension treated with prostaglandin analogue monotherapy were enrolled in this observational study. 20 patients with glaucoma suspect or ocular hypertension without local or systemic glaucoma medication formed the control group. Demographic data and medical history were recorded for each participant. Patients filled in the Ocular surface disease index© (OSDI) questionnaire and underwent an ophthalmological examination including assessment of conjunctival hyperaemia according to Efron, tear film break up time (BUT) and fluorescein staining according to the Oxford grading scheme. Treated participants were divided into 3 groups according to the preservative contained in the currently used prostaglandin analogue: the preservative-free group (18 patients), the polyquaternium group (17 patients) and the benzalkonium chloride (BAK) group (25 patients). The control group had significantly lower fluorescein staining than the preservative-free group (p=0.001), the polyquaternium group (p=0.007) and the BAK group (p=0.002). The conjunctival hyperaemia was significantly lower in the preservative-free group compared to the polyquaternium group (p=0.011). There was no significant difference among the other groups. The difference neither in the OSDI score nor in the BUT was statistically important. This study confirmed that the ocular surface is worse in patients treated with prostaglandin analogue monotherapy than in people without glaucoma medication. A significant difference among treated patients depending on a preservative agent was not proved.Key words: benzalkonium chloride, glaucoma, ocular surface disease, preservatives, prostaglandin analogues.

  10. Aberrant Apoptotic Response of Colorectal Cancer Cells to Novel Nucleoside Analogues.

    PubMed

    Harmse, Leonie; Dahan-Farkas, Nurit; Panayides, Jenny-Lee; van Otterlo, Willem; Penny, Clement

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increased understanding of colorectal cancer and the introduction of targeted drug therapy, the metastatic phase of the disease remains refractory to treatment. Since the deregulation of normal apoptosis contributes to the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer, novel nucleoside analogues were synthesized here and evaluated for their ability to induce apoptosis and cause cell death in two colorectal adeno-carcinoma cell lines, Caco-2 and HT-29. Three novel nucleoside analogues assessed here showed cytotoxic activity, as measured by the MTT assay against both cell lines: the IC50 values ranged between 3 and 37 μM, with Caco-2 cells being more sensitive than HT-29 cells. Compared to camptothecin, the positive control, the nucleoside analogues were significantly less toxic to normal unstimulated leukocytes (p>0.05). Moreover, the nucleosides were able to induce apoptosis as measured by an increase in caspase 8 and caspase 3 activity above that of the control. This was additionally supported by data derived from Annexin V-FITC assays. Despite marginal changes to the mitochondrial membrane potential, all three nucleosides caused a significant increase in cytosolic cytochrome c (p>0.05), with a corresponding decrease in mitochondrial cytochrome c. Morphological analysis of both cell lines showed the rapid appearance of vacuoles following exposure to two of the nucleosides, while a third caused cellular detachment, delayed cytoplasmic vacuolisation and nuclear abnormalities. Preliminary investigations, using the autophagic indicator monodansylcadaverine and chloroquine as positive control, showed that two of the nucleosides induced the formation of autophagic vacuoles. In summary, the novel nucleoside analogues showed selective cytotoxicity towards both cancer cell lines and are effective initiators of an unusual apoptotic response, demonstrating their potential to serve as structural scaffolds for more potent analogues.

  11. Geological trainings for analogue astronauts: Lessons learned from MARS2013 expedition, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orgel, C.; Achorner, I.; Losiak, A.; Gołębiowska, I.; Rampey, M.; Groemer, G.

    2013-09-01

    The Austrian Space Forum (OeWF) is a national organisation for space professionals and space enthusiasts. In collaboration with internal partner organisations, the OeWF focuses on Mars analogue research with their space volunteers and organises space-related outreach/education activities and conducts field tests with the Aouda.X and Aouda.S spacesuit simulators in Mars analogue environment. The main project of OeWF is called "PolAres" [1]. As the result of lessons learned from the Río Tinto 2011 expedition [4], we started to organise geological training sessions for the analogue astronauts. The idea was to give them basic geological background to perform more efficiently in the field. This was done in close imitation of the Apollo astronaut trainings that included theoretical lectures (between Jan. 1963-Nov. 1972) about impact geology, igneous petrology of the Moon, geophysics and geochemistry as well as several field trips to make them capable to collect useful samples for the geoscientists on Earth [3] [5]. In the last year the OeWF has organised three geoscience workshops for analogue astronauts as the part of their "astronaut" training. The aim was to educate the participants to make them understand the fundamentals in geology in theory and in the field (Fig. 1.). We proposed the "Geological Experiment Sampling Usefulness" (GESU) experiment for the MARS2013 simulation to improve the efficiency of the geological trainings. This simulation was conducted during February 2013, a one month Mars analogue research was conducted in the desert of Morocco [2] (Fig. 2.).

  12. Human factors research as part of a Mars exploration analogue mission on Devon Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binsted, Kim; Kobrick, Ryan L.; Griofa, Marc Ó.; Bishop, Sheryl; Lapierre, Judith

    2010-06-01

    Human factors research is a critical element of space exploration as it provides insight into a crew's performance, psychology and interpersonal relationships. Understanding the way humans work in space-exploration analogue environments permits the development and testing of countermeasures for and responses to potential hazardous situations, and can thus help improve mission efficiency and safety. Analogue missions, such as the one described here, have plausible mission constraints and operational scenarios, similar to those that a real Mars crew would experience. Long duration analogue studies, such as those being conducted at the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station (FMARS) on Devon Island, Canada, offer an opportunity to study mission operations and human factors in a semi-realistic environment, and contribute to the design of missions to explore the Moon and Mars. The FMARS XI Long Duration Mission (F-XI LDM) was, at four months, the longest designed analogue Mars mission conducted to date, and thus provides a unique insight into human factors issues for long-duration space exploration. Here, we describe the six human factors studies that took place during F-XI LDM, and give a summary of their results, where available. We also present a meta-study, which examined the impact of the human-factors research itself on crew schedule and workload. Based on this experience, we offer some lessons learnt: some aspects (perceived risk and crew motivation, for example) of analogue missions must be realistic for study results to be valid; human factors studies are time-consuming, and should be fully integrated into crew schedules; and crew-ground communication and collaboration under long-term exploration conditions can present serious challenges.

  13. (D-Phe/sup 12/)bombesin analogues: a new class of bombesin receptor antagonists

    SciTech Connect

    Heinz-Erian, P.; Coy, D.H.; Tamura, M.

    1987-03-01

    Previous attempts to develop analogues of bombesin that function as specific receptor antagonists have been unsuccessful. Alteration of the histidine in luteinizing hormone releasing factor has resulted in analogues that function as competitive antagonists. In the present study the authors have used a similar strategy and altered the histidine in bombesin. (D-Phe/sup 12/)bombesin, (D-Phe/sup 12/,Leu/sup 14/)bombesin, and (Try/sup 4/, D-)je/sup 12/) bombesin did not stimulate amylase release from guinea pig pancreatic acini when present alone, but each analog inhibited bombesin-stimulated secretion. For each analog, detectable inhibition occurred at 1 ..mu..M and half-maximal inhibition at 4 ..mu..M. Each analog inhibited amylasemore » release by bombesin and other agonists that stimulate secretion by interacting with bombesin receptors. The analogues of bombesin did not alter stimulation by substance P or other agonists that interact with other receptors. The inhibition of the action of bombesin was competitive with Schild plots having slopes of 1.0. Each analog also inhibited binding of /sup 125/I-labeled (Try/sup 4/) bombesin but not /sup 125/I-labeled substance P. These results demonstrate that (D-Phe/sup 12/) analogues of bombesin function as bombesin receptor antagonists and are the only bombesin receptor antagonists that interact only with the bombesin receptor. Because of their specificity, these analogues may prove useful for defining the role of bombesin in various physiological or pathological processes.« less

  14. The monoamine oxidase inhibition properties of selected structural analogues of methylene blue.

    PubMed

    Delport, Anzelle; Harvey, Brian H; Petzer, Anél; Petzer, Jacobus P

    2017-06-15

    The thionine dye, methylene blue (MB), is a potent inhibitor of monoamine oxidase (MAO) A, a property that may, at least in part, mediate its antidepressant effects in humans and animals. The central inhibition of MAO-A by MB has also been linked to serotonin toxicity (ST) which may arise when MB is used in combination with serotonergic drugs. Structural analogues and the principal metabolite of MB, azure B, have also been reported to inhibit the MAO enzymes, with all compounds exhibiting specificity for the MAO-A isoform. To expand on the structure-activity relationships (SARs) of MAO inhibition by MB analogues, the present study investigates the human MAO inhibition properties of five MB analogues: neutral red, Nile blue, new methylene blue, cresyl violet and 1,9-dimethyl methylene blue. Similar to MB, these analogues also are specific MAO-A inhibitors with cresyl violet (IC 50 =0.0037μM), Nile blue (IC 50 =0.0077μM) and 1,9-dimethyl methylene blue (IC 50 =0.018μM) exhibiting higher potency inhibition compared to MB (IC 50 =0.07μM). Nile blue also represents a potent MAO-B inhibitor with an IC 50 value of 0.012μM. From the results it may be concluded that non-thionine MB analogues (e.g. cresyl violet and Nile blue) also may exhibit potent MAO inhibition, a property which should be considered when using these compounds in pharmacological studies. Benzophenoxazines such as cresyl violet and Nile blue are, similar to phenothiazines (e.g. MB), representative of high potency MAO-A inhibitors with a potential risk of ST. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Analyzing surface features on icy satellites using a new two-layer analogue model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, K. M.; Leonard, E. J.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Yin, A.

    2017-12-01

    The appearance of similar surface morphologies across many icy satellites suggests potentially unified formation mechanisms. Constraining the processes that shape the surfaces of these icy worlds is fundamental to understanding their rheology and thermal evolution—factors that have implications for potential habitability. Analogue models have proven useful for investigating and quantifying surface structure formation on Earth, but have only been sparsely applied to icy bodies. In this study, we employ an innovative two-layer analogue model that simulates a warm, ductile ice layer overlain by brittle surface ice on satellites such as Europa and Enceladus. The top, brittle layer is composed of fine-grained sand while the ductile, lower viscosity layer is made of putty. These materials were chosen because they scale up reasonably to the conditions on Europa and Enceladus. Using this analogue model, we investigate the role of the ductile layer in forming contractional structures (e.g. folds) that would compensate for the over-abundance of extensional features observed on icy satellites. We do this by simulating different compressional scenarios in the analogue model and analyzing whether the resulting features resemble those on icy bodies. If the resulting structures are similar, then the model can be used to quantify the deformation by calculating strain. These values can then be scaled up to Europa or Enceladus and used to quantity the observed surface morphologies and the amount of extensional strain accommodated by certain features. This presentation will focus on the resulting surface morphologies and the calculated strain values from several analogue experiments. The methods and findings from this work can then be expanded and used to study other icy bodies, such as Triton, Miranda, Ariel, and Pluto.

  16. Fuzzy logic-based analogue forecasting and hybrid modelling of horizontal visibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuba, Zoltán; Bottyán, Zsolt

    2018-04-01

    Forecasting visibility is one of the greatest challenges in aviation meteorology. At the same time, high accuracy visibility forecasts can significantly reduce or make avoidable weather-related risk in aviation as well. To improve forecasting visibility, this research links fuzzy logic-based analogue forecasting and post-processed numerical weather prediction model outputs in hybrid forecast. Performance of analogue forecasting model was improved by the application of Analytic Hierarchy Process. Then, linear combination of the mentioned outputs was applied to create ultra-short term hybrid visibility prediction which gradually shifts the focus from statistical to numerical products taking their advantages during the forecast period. It gives the opportunity to bring closer the numerical visibility forecast to the observations even it is wrong initially. Complete verification of categorical forecasts was carried out; results are available for persistence and terminal aerodrome forecasts (TAF) as well in order to compare. The average value of Heidke Skill Score (HSS) of examined airports of analogue and hybrid forecasts shows very similar results even at the end of forecast period where the rate of analogue prediction in the final hybrid output is 0.1-0.2 only. However, in case of poor visibility (1000-2500 m), hybrid (0.65) and analogue forecasts (0.64) have similar average of HSS in the first 6 h of forecast period, and have better performance than persistence (0.60) or TAF (0.56). Important achievement that hybrid model takes into consideration physics and dynamics of the atmosphere due to the increasing part of the numerical weather prediction. In spite of this, its performance is similar to the most effective visibility forecasting methods and does not follow the poor verification results of clearly numerical outputs.

  17. Conformational analysis of compstatin analogues with molecular dynamics simulations in explicit water.

    PubMed

    Tamamis, Phanourios; Skourtis, Spiros S; Morikis, Dimitrios; Lambris, John D; Archontis, Georgios

    2007-09-01

    The cyclic 13-residue peptide compstatin is a potential therapeutic agent against the unregulated activation of the complement system. A thorough knowledge of its structural and dynamical properties in solution may assist the design of improved complement inhibitors. NMR studies have suggested that the 5-8 segment of free compstatin folds into a critical for activity 5-8 beta turn and the rest of the peptide is mainly disordered. Earlier computational studies of compstatin analogues with a polar-hydrogen/generalized-Born approximation reproduced the 5-8 turn, but also indicated the formation of beta-hairpin or alpha-helical elements and the existence of interactions between certain charged or aromatic sidechains. However, these features are absent or partly present in the NMR spectra, due to extensive conformational averaging. In order to check the compstatin properties with a more rigorous model of the intra- and intermolecular interactions, we conduct here 98-ns all-atom/explicit-water simulations of three compstatin analogues with variable activity; a native analogue, the more active mutant V4W/H9A and the inactive mutant Q5G. The 5-8 beta-turn population is in good accord with NMR. For the systems studied here, the simulations suggest that the 5-8 turn population does not correlate strictly with activity, in agreement with earlier mutational studies. Furthermore, they show structural differences among the analogues outside the 5-8 region. The possible role of these differences in activity is discussed. The probability of beta-hairpin or alpha-helix elements is much smaller with respect to the polar-hydrogen/GB simulations, and the persistent Trp4-Trp7 or Asp6-Arg11 sidechain interactions of the earlier GB studies are not reproduced. The present simulations extend the NMR data and improve our understanding of the properties of compstatin and related analogues.

  18. Preparing to return to the Moon: Lessons from science-driven analogue missions to the Mistastin Lake impact structure, Canada, a unique lunar analogue site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osinski, G. R.; Barfoot, T.; Chanou, A.; Daly, M. G.; Francis, R.; Hodges, K. V.; Jolliff, B. L.; Mader, M. M.; McCullough, E. M.; Moores, J. E.; Pickersgill, A.; Pontefract, A.; Preston, L.; Shankar, B.; Singleton, A.; Sylvester, P.; Tornabene, L. L.; Young, K. E.

    2013-12-01

    Impact cratering is the dominant geological process on the Moon, Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and the moons of Mars - the objectives for the new Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI). Led by members of the Canadian Lunar Research Network (CLRN), funded by the Canadian Space Agency, and with participants from the U.S., we carried out a series of analogue missions on Earth in order to prepare and train for future potential robotic and human sample return missions. Critically, these analogue missions were driven by the paradigm that operational and technical objectives are conducted while conducting new science and addressing real overarching scientific objectives. An overarching operational goal was to assess the utility of a robotic field reconnaissance mission as a precursor to a human sortie sample return mission. Here, we focus on the results and lessons learned from a robotic precursor mission and follow on human-robotic mission to the Mistastin Lake impact structure in Labrador, northern Canada (55°53'N; 63°18'W). The Mistastin structure was chosen because it represents an exceptional analogue for lunar craters. This site includes both an anorthositic target, a central uplift, well-preserved impact melt rocks - mostly derived from melting anorthosite - and is (or was) relatively unexplored. This crater formed ~36 million years ago and has a diameter of ~28 km. The scientific goals for these analogue missions were to further our understanding of impact chronology, shock processes, impact ejecta and potential resources within impact craters. By combining these goals in an analogue mission campaign key scientific requirements for a robotic precursor were determined. From the outset, these analogue missions were formulated and executed like an actual space mission. Sites of interest were chosen using remote sensing imagery without a priori knowledge of the site through a rigorous site selection process. The first deployment occurred in

  19. Streamlined Total Synthesis of Trioxacarcins and Its Application to the Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Analogues Thereof. Discovery of Simpler Designed and Potent Trioxacarcin Analogues.

    PubMed

    Nicolaou, K C; Chen, Pengxi; Zhu, Shugao; Cai, Quan; Erande, Rohan D; Li, Ruofan; Sun, Hongbao; Pulukuri, Kiran Kumar; Rigol, Stephan; Aujay, Monette; Sandoval, Joseph; Gavrilyuk, Julia

    2017-11-01

    A streamlined total synthesis of the naturally occurring antitumor agents trioxacarcins is described, along with its application to the construction of a series of designed analogues of these complex natural products. Biological evaluation of the synthesized compounds revealed a number of highly potent, and yet structurally simpler, compounds that are effective against certain cancer cell lines, including a drug-resistant line. A novel one-step synthesis of anthraquinones and chloro anthraquinones from simple ketone precursors and phenylselenyl chloride is also described. The reported work, featuring novel chemistry and cascade reactions, has potential applications in cancer therapy, including targeted approaches as in antibody-drug conjugates.

  20. Identification of human-selective analogues of the vascular-disrupting agent 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA)

    PubMed Central

    Tijono, S M; Guo, K; Henare, K; Palmer, B D; Wang, L-C S; Albelda, S M; Ching, L-M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Species selectivity of DMXAA (5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid, Vadimezan) for murine cells over human cells could explain in part the recent disappointing phase III trials clinical results when preclinical studies were so promising. To identify analogues with greater human clinical potential, we compared the activity of xanthenone-4-acetic acid (XAA) analogues in murine or human cellular models. Methods: Analogues with a methyl group systematically substituted at different positions of the XAA backbone were evaluated for cytokine induction in cultured murine or human leukocytes; and for anti-vascular effects on endothelial cells on matrigel. In vivo antitumour activity and cytokine production by stromal or cancer cells was measured in human A375 and HCT116 xenografts. Results: Mono-methyl XAA analogues with substitutions at the seventh and eighth positions were the most active in stimulating human leukocytes to produce IL-6 and IL-8; and for inhibition of tube formation by ECV304 human endothelial-like cells, while 5- and 6-substituted analogues were the most active in murine cell systems. Conclusion: Xanthenone-4-acetic acid analogues exhibit extreme species selectivity. Analogues that are the most active in human systems are inactive in murine models, highlighting the need for the use of appropriate in vivo animal models in selecting clinical candidates for this class of compounds. PMID:23481185

  1. Eco-Friendly Insecticide Discovery via Peptidomimetics: Design, Synthesis, and Aphicidal Activity of Novel Insect Kinin Analogues.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuanliang; Qu, Yanyan; Wu, Xiaoqing; Song, Dunlun; Ling, Yun; Yang, Xinling

    2015-05-13

    Insect kinin neuropeptides are pleiotropic peptides that are involved in the regulation of hindgut contraction, diuresis, and digestive enzyme release. They share a common C-terminal pentapeptide sequence of Phe(1)-Xaa(2)-Yaa(3)-Trp(4)-Gly(5)-NH2 (where Xaa(2) = His, Asn, Phe, Ser, or Tyr; Yaa(3) = Pro, Ser, or Ala). Recently, the aphicidal activity of insect kinin analogues has attracted the attention of researchers. Our previous work demonstrated that the sequence-simplified insect kinin pentapeptide analogue Phe-Phe-[Aib]-Trp-Gly-NH2 could retain good aphicidal activity and be the lead compound for the further discovery of eco-friendly insecticides which encompassed a broad array of biochemicals derived from micro-organisms and other natural sources. Using the peptidomimetics strategy, we chose Phe-Phe-[Aib]-Trp-Gly-NH2 as the lead compound, and we designed and synthesized three series, including 31 novel insect kinin analogues. The aphicidal activity of the new analogues against soybean aphid was determined. The results showed that all of the analogues exhibited aphicidal activity. Of particular interest was the analogue II-1, which exhibited improved aphicidal activity with an LC50 of 0.019 mmol/L compared with the lead compound (LC50 = 0.045 mmol/L) or the commercial insecticide pymetrozine (LC50 = 0.034 mmol/L). This suggests that the analogue II-1 could be used as a new lead for the discovery of potential eco-friendly insecticides.

  2. Modern Climate Analogues of Late-Quaternary Paleoclimates for the Western United States.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mock, Cary Jeffrey

    This study examined spatial variations of modern and late-Quaternary climates for the western United States. Synoptic climatological analyses of the modern record identified the predominate climatic controls that normally produce the principal modes of spatial climatic variability. They also provided a modern standard to assess past climates. Maps of the month-to-month changes in 500 mb heights, sea-level pressure, temperature, and precipitation illustrated how different climatic controls govern the annual cycle of climatic response. The patterns of precipitation ratios, precipitation bar graphs, and the seasonal precipitation maximum provided additional insight into how different climatic controls influence spatial climatic variations. Synoptic-scale patterns from general circulation model (GCM) simulations or from analyses of climatic indices were used as the basis for finding modern climate analogues for 18 ka and 9 ka. Composite anomaly maps of atmospheric circulation, precipitation, and temperature were compared with effective moisture maps compiled from proxy data to infer how the patterns, which were evident from the proxy data, were generated. The analyses of the modern synoptic climatology indicate that smaller-scale climatic controls must be considered along with larger-scale ones in order to explain patterns of spatial climate heterogeneity. Climatic extremes indicate that changes in the spatial patterns of precipitation seasonality are the exception rather than the rule, reflecting the strong influence of smaller-scale controls. Modern climate analogues for both 18 ka and 9 ka clearly depict the dry Northwest/wet Southwest contrast that is suggested by GCM simulations and paleoclimatic evidence. 18 ka analogues also show the importance of smaller-scale climatic controls in explaining spatial climatic variation in the Northwest and northern Great Plains. 9 ka analogues provide climatological explanations for patterns of spatial heterogeneity over several

  3. The monoamine oxidase inhibition properties of selected structural analogues of methylene blue

    SciTech Connect

    Delport, Anzelle

    The thionine dye, methylene blue (MB), is a potent inhibitor of monoamine oxidase (MAO) A, a property that may, at least in part, mediate its antidepressant effects in humans and animals. The central inhibition of MAO-A by MB has also been linked to serotonin toxicity (ST) which may arise when MB is used in combination with serotonergic drugs. Structural analogues and the principal metabolite of MB, azure B, have also been reported to inhibit the MAO enzymes, with all compounds exhibiting specificity for the MAO-A isoform. To expand on the structure-activity relationships (SARs) of MAO inhibition by MB analogues, themore » present study investigates the human MAO inhibition properties of five MB analogues: neutral red, Nile blue, new methylene blue, cresyl violet and 1,9-dimethyl methylene blue. Similar to MB, these analogues also are specific MAO-A inhibitors with cresyl violet (IC{sub 50} = 0.0037 μM), Nile blue (IC{sub 50} = 0.0077 μM) and 1,9-dimethyl methylene blue (IC{sub 50} = 0.018 μM) exhibiting higher potency inhibition compared to MB (IC{sub 50} = 0.07 μM). Nile blue also represents a potent MAO-B inhibitor with an IC{sub 50} value of 0.012 μM. From the results it may be concluded that non-thionine MB analogues (e.g. cresyl violet and Nile blue) also may exhibit potent MAO inhibition, a property which should be considered when using these compounds in pharmacological studies. Benzophenoxazines such as cresyl violet and Nile blue are, similar to phenothiazines (e.g. MB), representative of high potency MAO-A inhibitors with a potential risk of ST. - Highlights: • MB analogues, cresyl violet and Nile blue, are high potency MAO-A inhibitors. • Nile blue also represents a potent MAO-B inhibitor. • Potent MAO-A inhibition should alert to potential serotonin toxicity.« less

  4. Behavior of a fluorescent analogue of calmodulin in living 3T3 cells.

    PubMed

    Luby-Phelps, K; Lanni, F; Taylor, D L

    1985-10-01

    We have prepared and partially characterized a lissamine-rhodamine B fluorescent analogue of calmodulin, LRB-CM. The analogue had a dye/protein ratio of approximately 1.0 and contained no free dye or contaminating labeled proteins. LRB-CM was indistinguishable from native calmodulin upon SDS PAGE and in assays of phosphodiesterase and myosin light chain kinase. The emission spectrum of LRB-CM was insensitive to changes in pH, ionic strength, and temperature over the physiological range, but the apparent quantum yield was influenced somewhat by divalent cation concentration. LRB-CM injected into living Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts became associated with nitrobenzoxadiazole-phallacidin staining stress fibers in some interphase cells. LRB-CM and acetamidofluorescein-labeled actin co-injected into the same cell both became associated with fibers in some cells, but in most cases association of the two analogues with fibers was mutually exclusive. This suggests that calmodulin may differ from actin in the timing of incorporation into stress fibers or that we have distinguished distinct populations of stress fibers. We were able to detect no direct interaction of LRB-CM with actin by fluorescence photobleaching recovery (FRAP) of aqueous solutions. Interaction of LRB-CM with myosin light chain kinase also was not detected by FRAP. This suggests that the mean lifetime of the calmodulin-myosin light chain kinase complex is too short to affect the diffusion coefficient of calmodulin. We examined various fluorescent derivatives of proteins and dextrans as suitable control molecules for quantitative fluorescent analogue cytochemistry in living cells. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextrans were found to be preferable to all the proteins tested, since their mobilities in cytoplasm were inversely dependent on molecular size and there was no evidence of binding to intracellular components. In contrast, FRAP of LRB-CM in the cytoplasm of living 3T3 cells suggested that the analogue interacts

  5. Behavior of a fluorescent analogue of calmodulin in living 3T3 cells

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    We have prepared and partially characterized a lissamine-rhodamine B fluorescent analogue of calmodulin, LRB-CM. The analogue had a dye/protein ratio of approximately 1.0 and contained no free dye or contaminating labeled proteins. LRB-CM was indistinguishable from native calmodulin upon SDS PAGE and in assays of phosphodiesterase and myosin light chain kinase. The emission spectrum of LRB-CM was insensitive to changes in pH, ionic strength, and temperature over the physiological range, but the apparent quantum yield was influenced somewhat by divalent cation concentration. LRB-CM injected into living Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts became associated with nitrobenzoxadiazole- phallacidin staining stress fibers in some interphase cells. LRB-CM and acetamidofluorescein-labeled actin co-injected into the same cell both became associated with fibers in some cells, but in most cases association of the two analogues with fibers was mutually exclusive. This suggests that calmodulin may differ from actin in the timing of incorporation into stress fibers or that we have distinguished distinct populations of stress fibers. We were able to detect no direct interaction of LRB-CM with actin by fluorescence photobleaching recovery (FRAP) of aqueous solutions. Interaction of LRB-CM with myosin light chain kinase also was not detected by FRAP. This suggests that the mean lifetime of the calmodulin-myosin light chain kinase complex is too short to affect the diffusion coefficient of calmodulin. We examined various fluorescent derivatives of proteins and dextrans as suitable control molecules for quantitative fluorescent analogue cytochemistry in living cells. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextrans were found to be preferable to all the proteins tested, since their mobilities in cytoplasm were inversely dependent on molecular size and there was no evidence of binding to intracellular components. In contrast, FRAP of LRB-CM in the cytoplasm of living 3T3 cells suggested that the analogue

  6. Effects of analogues of hydra peptide morphogen on DNA synthesis in the myocardium of newborn albino rats.

    PubMed

    Sazonova, E N; Yakovenko, I G; Kryzhanovskaya, S Yu; Budylev, A A; Timoshin, S S

    2012-01-01

    DNA-synthetic activity of myocardial cells was studied by (3)H-thymidine autoradiography in newborn albino rats after intraperitoneal injection of hydra peptide morphogen and its analogues. Administration of hydra peptide morphogen stimulated proliferative activity in the myocardium. Short analogues of hydra peptide morphogen, 6C and 3C peptides, produced a similar effect. Administration of arginine-containing analogue of hydra peptide morphogen significantly reduced the number of DNA-synthesizing nuclei in the ventricular myocardium of newborn albino rats. The role of the structure of the peptide molecule in the realization of the morphogenetic effects of hydra peptide morphogen is discussed.

  7. Light Meets Water in Nonlocal Media: Surface Tension Analogue in Optics.

    PubMed

    Horikis, Theodoros P; Frantzeskakis, Dimitrios J

    2017-06-16

    Shallow water wave phenomena find their analogue in optics through a nonlocal nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) model in 2+1 dimensions. We identify an analogue of surface tension in optics, namely, a single parameter depending on the degree of nonlocality, which changes the sign of dispersion, much like surface tension does in the shallow water wave problem. Using multiscale expansions, we reduce the NLS model to a Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) equation, which is of the KPII (KPI) type, for strong (weak) nonlocality. We demonstrate the emergence of robust optical antidark solitons forming Y-, X-, and H-shaped wave patterns, which are approximated by colliding KPII line solitons, similar to those observed in shallow waters.

  8. Light Meets Water in Nonlocal Media: Surface Tension Analogue in Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horikis, Theodoros P.; Frantzeskakis, Dimitrios J.

    2017-06-01

    Shallow water wave phenomena find their analogue in optics through a nonlocal nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) model in 2 +1 dimensions. We identify an analogue of surface tension in optics, namely, a single parameter depending on the degree of nonlocality, which changes the sign of dispersion, much like surface tension does in the shallow water wave problem. Using multiscale expansions, we reduce the NLS model to a Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) equation, which is of the KPII (KPI) type, for strong (weak) nonlocality. We demonstrate the emergence of robust optical antidark solitons forming Y -, X -, and H -shaped wave patterns, which are approximated by colliding KPII line solitons, similar to those observed in shallow waters.

  9. An efficient green synthesis of 2-arylbenzothiazole analogues as potent antibacterial and anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, Mohit; Sinha, Sohini; Banerjee, Swagata; Paira, Priyankar

    2016-01-01

    We have demonstrated a novel and green approach for the synthesis of 2-substituted benzothiazole analogues. A number of 2-aryl and heteroaryl benzothiazole scaffolds were synthesized using Amberlite IR-120 resin under microwave irradiation. The catalytic role and reusability of the resin was well established here. 2-Substituted benzothiazole analogues (3a-l) were also tested against several bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella) and cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and HeLa). The stability of compound 2-phenyl benzothiazole (3a) and 2-pyridin-2-yl-benzothiazole (3k) in GSH (0.01mM dissolved in DMSO) was measured by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Compound 3k also shows remarkable fluorescence in MeOH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Short-acting insulin analogues versus regular human insulin for adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Fullerton, Birgit; Siebenhofer, Andrea; Jeitler, Klaus; Horvath, Karl; Semlitsch, Thomas; Berghold, Andrea; Plank, Johannes; Pieber, Thomas R; Gerlach, Ferdinand M

    2016-06-30

    Short-acting insulin analogue use for people with diabetes is still controversial, as reflected in many scientific debates. To assess the effects of short-acting insulin analogues versus regular human insulin in adults with type 1 diabetes. We carried out the electronic searches through Ovid simultaneously searching the following databases: Ovid MEDLINE(R), Ovid MEDLINE(R) In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE(R) Daily and Ovid OLDMEDLINE(R) (1946 to 14 April 2015), EMBASE (1988 to 2015, week 15), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; March 2015), ClinicalTrials.gov and the European (EU) Clinical Trials register (both March 2015). We included all randomised controlled trials with an intervention duration of at least 24 weeks that compared short-acting insulin analogues with regular human insulins in the treatment of adults with type 1 diabetes who were not pregnant. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed trials for risk of bias, and resolved differences by consensus. We graded overall study quality using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) instrument. We used random-effects models for the main analyses and presented the results as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for dichotomous outcomes. We identified nine trials that fulfilled the inclusion criteria including 2693 participants. The duration of interventions ranged from 24 to 52 weeks with a mean of about 37 weeks. The participants showed some diversity, mainly with regard to diabetes duration and inclusion/exclusion criteria. The majority of the trials were carried out in the 1990s and participants were recruited from Europe, North America, Africa and Asia. None of the trials was carried out in a blinded manner so that the risk of performance bias, especially for subjective outcomes such as hypoglycaemia, was present in all of the trials. Furthermore, several trials showed inconsistencies in

  11. The development and validation of the Visual Analogue Self-Esteem Scale (VASES).

    PubMed

    Brumfitt, S M; Sheeran, P

    1999-11-01

    To develop a visual analogue measure of self-esteem and test its psychometric properties. Two correlational studies involving samples of university students and aphasic speakers. Two hundred and forty-three university students completed multiple measures of self-esteem, depression and anxiety as well as measures of transitory mood and social desirability (Study 1). Two samples of aphasic speakers (N = 14 and N = 20) completed the Visual Analogue Self-Esteem Scale (VASES), the Rosenberg (1965) self-esteem scale and measures of depression and anxiety. (Study 2). Study 1 found evidence of good internal and test-retest reliability, construct validity and convergent and discriminant validity for a 10-item VASES. Study 2 demonstrated good internal reliability among aphasic speakers. The VASES is a short and easy to administer measure of self-esteem that possesses good psychometric properties.

  12. In Vitro Neuroprotective and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Natural and Semi-Synthetic Spirosteroid Analogues.

    PubMed

    García-Pupo, Laura; Zaldo-Castro, Armando; Exarchou, Vassiliki; Tacoronte-Morales, Juan Enrique; Pieters, Luc; Vanden Berghe, Wim; Nuñez-Figueredo, Yanier; Delgado-Hernández, René

    2016-07-29

    Two spirosteroid analogues were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro neuroprotective activities in PC12 cells, against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity and mitochondrial damage in glucose deprivation conditions, as well as their anti-inflammatory potential in LPS/IFNγ-stimulated microglia primary cultures. We also evaluated the in vitro anti-excitotoxic and anti-inflammatory activities of natural and endogenous steroids. Our results show that the plant-derived steroid solasodine decreased PC12 glutamate-induced excitotoxicity, but not the cell death induced by mitochondrial damage and glucose deprivation. Among the two synthetic spirosteroid analogues, only the (25R)-5α-spirostan-3,6-one (S15) protected PC12 against ischemia-related in vitro models and inhibited NO production, as well as the release of IL-1β by stimulated primary microglia. These findings provide further insights into the role of specific modifications of the A and B rings of sapogenins for their neuroprotective potential.

  13. Synthesis and RNA polymerase incorporation of the degenerate ribonucleotide analogue rPTP.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, K; Negishi, K; Briggs, M S; Smith, C L; Hill, F; Churcher, M J; Brown, D M; Loakes, D

    1998-05-01

    The synthesis and enzymatic incorporation into RNA of the hydrogen bond degenerate nucleoside analogue 6-(beta-d-ribofuranosyl)-3, 4-dihydro-8H-pyrimido[4,5-c]-[1,2]oxazin-7-one (P) is described. The 5'-triphosphate of this analogue is readily incorporated by T3, T7 and SP6 RNA polymerases into RNA transcripts, being best incorporated in place of UTP, but also in place of CTP. When all the uridine residues in an HIV-1 TAR RNA transcript are replaced by P the transcript has similar characteristics to the wild-type TAR RNA, as demonstrated by similar melting temperatures and CD spectra. The P-substituted TAR transcript binds to the Tat peptide ADP-1 with only 4-fold lowered efficiency compared with wild-type TAR.

  14. Synthesis of isocryptolepine analogues and their structure-activity relationship studies as antiplasmodial and antiproliferative agents.

    PubMed

    Aroonkit, Pasuk; Thongsornkleeb, Charnsak; Tummatorn, Jumreang; Krajangsri, Suppachai; Mungthin, Mathirut; Ruchirawat, Somsak

    2015-04-13

    Novel isocryptolepine analogues have been conveniently synthesized and evaluated for antimalarial and antiproliferative activities. We have found 3-fluoro-8-bromo-isocryptolepine (1n) to have the highest activities against chloroquine-resistant K1, chloroquine-sensitive 3D7, and chloroquine- and mefloquine-resistant SKF58 and SRIV35 strains. Several fluorine-substituted analogues (1b, 1n, and 1q) also showed excellent selectivities while maintaining good to excellent activities against all four Plasmodium falciparum strains. Additionally, antiproliferative properties of isocryptolepine derivatives against HepG2, HuCCA-1, MOLT-3 and A549 cancer cell lines are reported for the first time in this study. 2-Chloroisocryptolepine (1c) and benzo-fused-2-chloroisocryptolepine (1i) showed significant bioactivities whereas several novel fluorinated compounds and 2-chloro-8-bromoisocryptolepine (1f) displayed excellent selectivities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of novobiocin analogues that manifest anti-proliferative activity against several cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Burlison, Joseph A; Avila, Christopher; Vielhauer, George; Lubbers, Donna J; Holzbeierlein, Jeffrey; Blagg, Brian S J

    2008-03-21

    Recent studies have shown that the DNA gyrase inhibitor, novobiocin, binds to a previously unrecognized ATP-binding site located at the C-terminus of Hsp90 and induces degradation of Hsp90-dependent client proteins at approximately 700 microM. As a result of these studies, several analogues of the coumarin family of antibiotics have been reported and shown to exhibit increased Hsp90 inhibitory activity; however, the monomeric species lacked the ability to manifest anti-proliferative activity against cancer cell lines at concentrations tested. In an effort to develop more efficacious compounds that produce growth inhibitory activity against cancer cell lines, structure-activity relationships were investigated surrounding the prenylated benzamide side chain of the natural product. Results obtained from these studies have produced the first novobiocin analogues that manifest anti-proliferative activity against several cancer cell lines.

  16. New analogues of brefeldin A from sediment-derived fungus Penicillium sp. DT-F29.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhi-Fei; Qin, Le-Le; Ding, Wan-Jing; Liu, Yu; Ma, Zhong-Jun

    2016-10-01

    Four new analogues of brefeldin A named 7, 7-dimethoxybrefeldin C (3), 6β-hydroxybrefeldin C (4), 4-epi-15-epi-brefeldin A (5), 4-epi-8α-hydroxy-15-epi-brefeldin C (6), together with four known analogues (1, 7-9) were isolated from a fermentation of the sediment-derived fungus Penicillium sp. DT-F29. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic and chemical methods. In the bioactivity assays, only compounds 1 and 8 showed significant inhibitory activities against human lung adenocarcinoma cell. In addition, compound 1 was first reported for the potent ability to reactivate latent HIV with EC50 value of 0.03 μM.

  17. Resonant electrodynamic heating of stellar coronal loops: An LRC circuit analogue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ionson, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    The electrodynamic coupling of stellar coronal loops to underlying beta velocity fields. A rigorous analysis revealed that the physics can be represented by a simple yet equivalent LRC circuit analogue. This analogue points to the existence of global structure oscillations which resonantly excite internal field line oscillations at a spatial resonance within the coronal loop. Although the width of this spatial resonance, as well as the induced currents and coronal velocity field, explicitly depend upon viscosity and resistivity, the resonant form of the generalized electrodynamic heating function is virtually independent of irreversibilities. This is a classic feature of high quality resonators that are externally driven by a broad band source of spectral power. Applications to solar coronal loops result in remarkable agreement with observations.

  18. Discovery, Characterization, and Analogue Synthesis of Bohemamine Dimers Generated by Non-enzymatic Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Fu, Peng; Legako, Aaron; La, Scott; MacMillan, John B

    2016-03-01

    Dibohemamines A-C (5-7), three new dimeric bohemamine analogues dimerized through a methylene group, were isolated from a marine-derived Streptomyces spinoverrucosus. The structures determined by spectroscopic analysis were confirmed through the semi-synthetic derivatization of monomeric bohemamines and formaldehyde. These reactions, which could occur under mild conditions, together with the detection of formaldehyde in the culture, revealed that this dimerization is a non-enzymatic process. In addition to the unique dimerization of the dibohemamines, dibohemamines B and C were found to have nm cytotoxicity against the non-small cell-lung cancer cell line A549. In view of the potent cytotoxicity of compounds 6 and 7, a small library of bohemamine analogues was generated for biological evaluation by utilizing a series of aryl and alkyl aldehydes. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Use of somatostatin analogues to treat chylothorax in a child with Generalised Lymphatic Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Brodlie, Malcolm; Abdelgalil, Sara; Mansour, Sahar; Spencer, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Generalised Lymphatic Dysplasia is a rare condition that may be associated with significant chylothoraces. The management of such effusions is often challenging. We present the case of a 15-year-old girl with bilateral chylothoraces and lymphoedema of her limbs. A clinical diagnosis of Generalised Lymphatic Dysplasia was made and long-term treatment with somatostatin analogues (somatostatin initially followed by monthly octreotide) was initiated. Over 12 months there was symptomatic benefit with some objective improvement in lung function and no adverse effects. After a year of treatment there was some reaccumulation of fluid, however this did not require any intervention. This is the first paediatric report of the use of somatostatin analogues to manage chylothorax in Generalised Lymphatic Dysplasia and we conclude that they represent a potentially useful treatment modality. Experience is only anecdotal however and further studies are required to establish an evidence base with regard to efficacy and safety. PMID:26056769

  20. Synthesis of the 2-methylene analogue of the HRV 3C protease inhibitor thysanone (2-carbathysanone).

    PubMed

    Schünemann, Katrin; Furkert, Daniel P; Choi, Eun Cho; Connelly, Stephen; Fraser, John D; Sperry, Jonathan; Brimble, Margaret A

    2014-02-14

    The Human Rhinovirus (HRV) is the major aetiological agent for the common cold, for which only symptomatic treatment is available. HRV maturation and replication is entirely dependent on the activity of a virally encoded 3C protease that represents an attractive target for the development of therapeutics to treat the common cold. Herein we report the synthesis and biological evaluation of the 2-methylene analogue of the HRV 3C protease inhibitor (-)-thysanone (1) namely 2-carbathysanone (2), in an attempt to decipher the structural features in the natural product that are responsible for the 3C protease activity. 2-Carbathysanone (2) (and related analogues (±)-cis-23, (±)-cis-30, (±)-31) did not inhibit HRV 3C protease, indicating that the lactol functionality present in (-)-thysanone (1) is a critical structural feature required for inhibition.

  1. Cellular and behavioral effects of stilbene resveratrol analogues: implications for reducing the deleterious effects of aging.

    PubMed

    Joseph, James A; Fisher, Derek R; Cheng, Vivian; Rimando, Agnes M; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2008-11-26

    Research suggests that polyphenolic compounds contained in fruits and vegetables that are rich in color may have potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The present studies determined if stilbene (e.g., resveratrol) compounds would be efficacious in reversing the deleterious effects of aging in 19 month old Fischer 344 rats. Experiment I utilized resveratrol and six resveratrol analogues and examined their efficacies in preventing dopamine-induced decrements in calcium clearance following oxotremorine-induced depolarization in COS-7 cells transfected with M1 muscarinic receptors (MAChR) that we have shown previously to be sensitive to oxidative stressors. Experiment II utilized the most efficacious analogue (pterostilbene) from experiment I and fed aged rats a diet with a low (0.004%) or a high (0.016%) concentration of pterostilbene. Results indicated that pterostilbene was effective in reversing cognitive behavioral deficits, as well as dopamine release, and working memory was correlated with pterostilbene levels in the hippocampus.

  2. Natural geochemical analogues of the near field of high-level nuclear waste repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Apps, J.A.

    1995-09-01

    United States practice has been to design high-level nuclear waste (HLW) geological repositories with waste densities sufficiently high that repository temperatures surrounding the waste will exceed 100{degrees}C and could reach 250{degrees}C. Basalt and devitrified vitroclastic tuff are among the host rocks considered for waste emplacement. Near-field repository thermal behavior and chemical alteration in such rocks is expected to be similar to that observed in many geothermal systems. Therefore, the predictive modeling required for performance assessment studies of the near field could be validated and calibrated using geothermal systems as natural analogues. Examples are given which demonstrate the need for refinementmore » of the thermodynamic databases used in geochemical modeling of near-field natural analogues and the extent to which present models can predict conditions in geothermal fields.« less

  3. Substituent Effects on Desferrithiocin and Desferrithiocin Analogue Iron Clearing and Toxicity Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Bergeron, Raymond J.; Wiegand, Jan; Bharti, Neelam; McManis, James S.

    2012-01-01

    Desferrithiocin (DFT, 1) is a very efficient iron chelator when given orally. However, it is severely nephrotoxic. Structure-activity studies with 1 demonstrated that removal of the aromatic nitrogen to provide desazadesferrithiocin (DADFT, 2) and introduction of either a hydroxyl group or a polyether fragment onto the aromatic ring resulted in orally active iron chelators that were much less toxic than 1. The purpose of the current study was to determine if a comparable reduction in renal toxicity could be achieved by performing the same structural manipulations on 1 itself. Accordingly, three DFT analogues were synthesized. Iron clearing efficiency and ferrokinetics were evaluated in rats and primates; toxicity assessments were carried out in rodents. The resulting DFT ligands demonstrated a reduction in toxicity that was equivalent to that of the DADFT analogues and presented with excellent iron clearing properties. PMID:22889170

  4. Effect of a synthetic indolicidin analogue on lipid peroxidation in thermal burns.

    PubMed

    Lazarenko, V A; Lyashev, Yu D; Shevchenko, N I

    2014-08-01

    Experimental simulation of burn was followed by accumulation of LPO products and suppression of antioxidant enzyme activity in the burn wound. Application of a synthetic analogue of indolicidin led to an increase in MDA and acylhydroperoxide concentrations in the burn wound on experimental day 1. Further application of the peptide in a dose of 100 mg/kg had no significant effect on the studied parameters, while the peptide in a dose of 500 mg/kg was followed by a decrease in the level of LPO products on days 10 and 14. Changes in antioxidant enzyme activities in rats treated with 500 mg/kg indolicidin analogue had a two-phase pattern: an increase on day 4 was followed by a decrease.

  5. Spectral measurements of Terrestrial Mars Analogues: support for the ExoMars - Ma_Miss instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Angelis, S.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Ammannito, E.; Di Iorio, T.; Carli, C.; Frigeri, A.; Capria, M. T.; Federico, C.; Boccaccini, A.; Capaccioni, F.; Giardino, M.; Cerroni, P.; Palomba, E.; Piccioni, G.

    2013-09-01

    The Ma_Miss (Mars Multispectral Imager for Subsurface Studies) instrument onboard of ExoMars 2018 mission to Mars will investigate the Martian subsoil down to a depth of 2 meters [1]. Ma_Miss is a miniaturized spectrometer, completely integrated within the drilling system of the ExoMars Pasteur rover; it will acquire spectra in the range 0.4-2.2μm, from the excavated borehole wall. The spectroscopic investigation of the subsurface materials will give us precious information about mineralogical, petrologic and geological processes, and will give insights about materials that have not been modified by surface processes such as erosion, weathering or oxidation. Spectroscopic measurements have been performed on Terrestrial Mars Analogues with the Ma_Miss laboratory model (breadboard). Moreover spectroscopic investigation of different sets of Terrestrial Mars Analogues is being carried on with different laboratory setups, as a support for the ExoMars-Ma_Miss instrument.

  6. A comparative study on the crystal structure of bicycle analogues to the natural phytotoxin helminthosporins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Luiz Cláudio de Almeida; Teixeira, Robson Ricardo; Nogueira, Leonardo Brandão; Maltha, Celia Regina Alvares; Doriguetto, Antônio Carlos; Martins, Felipe Terra

    2016-02-01

    Herein we described structural insights of a series of analogues to helminthosporin phytotoxins. The key reaction used to prepare the compounds corresponded to the [3 + 4] cycloaddition between the oxyallyl cation generated from 2,4-dibromopentan-3-one and different furans. Their structures were confirmed upon IR, NMR and X-ray diffraction analyses. While bicycles 7, 8 and 9 crystallize in the centrosymmetric monoclinic space group P21/c, compound 10 was solved in the noncentrosymmetric orthorhombic space group P212121. The solid materials obtained were shown to be racemic crystals (7, 8, 9) or racemic conglomerate (10). In all compounds, there is formation of a bicycle featured by fused tetrahydropyranone and 2,5-dihydrofuran rings. They adopt chair and envelope conformations, respectively. Crystal packing of all compounds is stabilized through C-H•••O contacts. Conformational aspects as well as similarities and differences among the crystal structures of the synthesized analogues are discussed.

  7. Examination of the mechanism of human brain aspartoacylase through the binding of an intermediate analogue.

    PubMed

    Le Coq, Johanne; Pavlovsky, Alexander; Malik, Radhika; Sanishvili, Ruslan; Xu, Chengfu; Viola, Ronald E

    2008-03-18

    Canavan disease is a fatal neurological disorder caused by the malfunctioning of a single metabolic enzyme, aspartoacylase, that catalyzes the deacetylation of N-acetyl-L-aspartate to produce L-aspartate and acetate. The structure of human brain aspartoacylase has been determined in complex with a stable tetrahedral intermediate analogue, N-phosphonomethyl-L-aspartate. This potent inhibitor forms multiple interactions between each of its heteroatoms and the substrate binding groups arrayed within the active site. The binding of the catalytic intermediate analogue induces the conformational ordering of several substrate binding groups, thereby setting up the active site for catalysis. The highly ordered binding of this inhibitor has allowed assignments to be made for substrate binding groups and provides strong support for a carboxypeptidase-type mechanism for the hydrolysis of the amide bond of the substrate, N-acetyl- l-aspartate.

  8. Low-frequency analogue Hawking radiation: The Bogoliubov-de Gennes model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutant, Antonin; Weinfurtner, Silke

    2018-01-01

    We analytically study the low-frequency properties of the analogue Hawking effect in Bose-Einstein condensates. We show that in one-dimensional flows displaying an analogue horizon, the Hawking effect is dominant in the low-frequency regime. This happens despite nonvanishing grey-body factors, that is, the coupling of the Hawking mode and its partner to the mode propagating with the flow. To show this, we obtained analytical expressions for the scattering coefficients, in general flows and taking into account the full Bogoliubov dispersion relation. We discuss the obtained expressions for the grey-body factors. In particular, we show that they can be significantly decreased if the flow obeys a conformal coupling condition. We argue that in the presence of a small but non-zero temperature, reducing grey-body factors greatly facilitates the observation of entanglement, that is, establishing that the state of the Hawking mode and its partner is non-separable.

  9. Synthesis and RNA polymerase incorporation of the degenerate ribonucleotide analogue rPTP.

    PubMed Central

    Moriyama, K; Negishi, K; Briggs, M S; Smith, C L; Hill, F; Churcher, M J; Brown, D M; Loakes, D

    1998-01-01

    The synthesis and enzymatic incorporation into RNA of the hydrogen bond degenerate nucleoside analogue 6-(beta-d-ribofuranosyl)-3, 4-dihydro-8H-pyrimido[4,5-c]-[1,2]oxazin-7-one (P) is described. The 5'-triphosphate of this analogue is readily incorporated by T3, T7 and SP6 RNA polymerases into RNA transcripts, being best incorporated in place of UTP, but also in place of CTP. When all the uridine residues in an HIV-1 TAR RNA transcript are replaced by P the transcript has similar characteristics to the wild-type TAR RNA, as demonstrated by similar melting temperatures and CD spectra. The P-substituted TAR transcript binds to the Tat peptide ADP-1 with only 4-fold lowered efficiency compared with wild-type TAR. PMID:9547267

  10. Synthesis and evaluation of chalcone analogues based pyrimidines as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bukhari, S N A; Butt, A M; Amjad, M W B; Ahmad, W; Shah, V H; Trivedi, A R

    2013-11-01

    Hypertension is a widespread and frequently progressive ailment that imparts a foremost threat for cardiovascular and renal disorders. Mammoth efforts are needed for the synthesis of innovative antihypertensive agents to combat this lethal disease. Chalcones have shown antihypertensive activity through inhibition of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE). Hence, a series of chalcone analogues is synthesized and used as precursor for the synthesis of novel series of pyrimidines. Precursor chalcones were prepared by reacting aldehydes and ketones in presence of sodium hydroxide followed by synthesis of corresponding pyrimidines by reaction with urea in presence of potassium hydroxide. Both groups were then evaluated for their effects on ACE. The results depicted that pyrimidines were more active than chalcones with methoxy (C5 and P5) substitution showing best results to inhibit ACE. Given that chalcone analogues and pyrimidines show a potential as the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors.

  11. Martian Analogue Sample Characterization and Spectral Library Development at the Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Richard V.

    2002-01-01

    An extensive collection of Martian analogue samples housed at the Johnson Space Center is the focus of ongoing research by the JSC Mars soil genesis group and their collaborators. Because the major element composition of Martian meteorites and in situ analyses of Martian soils and rocks indicate that Mars is predominantly an iron-rich basaltic world, the focus of active sample collection and analysis is basaltic materials and their hydrolytic (both aqueous and hydrothermal) and sulfatetic alteration products. Described below are the scope of the JSC Mars analogue sample collection, the characterization process, and plans to incorporate the data into spectral libraries for the Mars 2003 Mars Exploration Rover (MER) and Mars 2005 Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) CRISM missions.

  12. Quantitative Detection of Nucleoside Analogues by Multi-enzyme Biosensors using Time-Resolved Kinetic Measurements.

    PubMed

    Muthu, Pravin; Lutz, Stefan

    2016-04-05

    Fast, simple and cost-effective methods for detecting and quantifying pharmaceutical agents in patients are highly sought after to replace equipment and labor-intensive analytical procedures. The development of new diagnostic technology including portable detection devices also enables point-of-care by non-specialists in resource-limited environments. We have focused on the detection and dose monitoring of nucleoside analogues used in viral and cancer therapies. Using deoxyribonucleoside kinases (dNKs) as biosensors, our chemometric model compares observed time-resolved kinetics of unknown analytes to known substrate interactions across multiple enzymes. The resulting dataset can simultaneously identify and quantify multiple nucleosides and nucleoside analogues in complex sample mixtures. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Characterization of electronic structure and physicochemical properties of antiparasitic nifurtimox analogues: A theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soriano-Correa, Catalina; Raya, A.; Esquivel, Rodolfo O.

    American trypanosomiasis, also known as Chagas' disease, is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi). It is well known that trypanosomes, and particularly T. cruzi, are highly sensitive towards oxidative stress, i.e., to compounds than are able to produce free radicals. Generally, nifurtimox (NFX) and benznidazol are most effective in the acute phase of the disease; therefore, nitroheterocycles constitute good models to design other nitrocompounds with specific biological characteristics. Thus, we have performed an ab initio study at the Hartree-Fock and Density Functional Theory levels of theory of several NFX analogues recently synthesized, to characterize them by obtaining their electronic, structural, and physicochemical properties, which might be linked to the observed antichagasic activity. The antitrypanosomal activity scale previously reported for the NFX analogues studied in this work is in good agreement with our theoretical results, from which we can conclude that the activity seems to be related to the reactivity along with the acidity observed for the most active molecules.

  14. A metasurface-based prism analogue for terahertz rainbow spectrum manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Shen; Li, Chao; Li, Shichao; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Fang, Guangyou

    2017-06-01

    Optical prisms can spread compound light spatially into a rainbow and have widespread applications in spectroscopy and imaging. Limited by the natural materials as well as technologies, there has been no natural counterpart of the optical prism that works in the Terahertz (THz) band so far. In this letter, a THz prism analogue based on metasurfaces working in the transmission diffraction mechanism is first proposed to generate the THz rainbow spectrum. The physics of different modes excited by the interaction between the incident wave and the metasurface is investigated in theory and simulation. A coherent enhancement method was developed to improve the mode competition of the rainbow spectrum over other unwanted leaky modes to guarantee the high transfer efficiency of the wavelength dependent transmission diffraction. The experimental results show that the prism analogue can spread the incident spectrum from 0.15 to 0.22 THz in an angular scope of about 30.8° with comparatively high transferring efficiency.

  15. Analogue of the quantum Hanle effect and polarization conversion in non-Hermitian plasmonic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Ginzburg, Pavel; Rodríguez-Fortuño, Francisco J; Martínez, Alejandro; Zayats, Anatoly V

    2012-12-12

    The Hanle effect, one of the first manifestations of quantum theory introducing the concept of coherent superposition between pure states, plays a key role in numerous aspects of science varying from applicative spectroscopy to fundamental astrophysical investigations. Optical analogues of quantum effects help to achieve deeper understanding of quantum phenomena and, in turn, to develop cross-disciplinary approaches to realizations of new applications in photonics. Here we show that metallic nanostructures can be designed to exhibit a plasmonic analogue of the quantum Hanle effect and the associated polarization rotation. In the original Hanle effect, time-reversal symmetry is broken by a static magnetic field. We achieve this by introducing dissipative level crossing of localized surface plasmons due to nonuniform losses, designed using a non-Hermitian formulation of quantum mechanics. Such artificial plasmonic "atoms" have been shown to exhibit strong circular birefringence and circular dichroism which depends on the value of loss or gain in the metal-dielectric nanostructure.

  16. Design and Synthesis of Novel Arctigenin Analogues for the Amelioration of Metabolic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Analogues of the natural product (−)-arctigenin, an activator of adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase, were prepared in order to evaluate their effects on 2-deoxyglucose uptake in L6 myotubes and possible use in ameliorating metabolic disorders. Racemic arctigenin 2a was found to display a similar uptake enhancement as does (−)-arctigenin. As a result, the SAR study was conducted utilizing racemic compounds. The structure–activity relationship study led to the discovery of key substitution patterns on the lactone motif that govern 2-deoxyglucose uptake activities. The results show that replacement of the para-hydroxyl group of the C-2 benzyl moiety of arctigenin by Cl has a pronounced effect on uptake activity. Specifically, analogue 2p, which contains the p-Cl substituent, stimulates glucose uptake and fatty acid oxidation in L6 myotubes. PMID:25941553

  17. Design and synthesis of novel arctigenin analogues for the amelioration of metabolic disorders.

    PubMed

    Duan, Shudong; Huang, Suling; Gong, Jian; Shen, Yu; Zeng, Limin; Feng, Ying; Ren, Wenming; Leng, Ying; Hu, Youhong

    2015-04-09

    Analogues of the natural product (-)-arctigenin, an activator of adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase, were prepared in order to evaluate their effects on 2-deoxyglucose uptake in L6 myotubes and possible use in ameliorating metabolic disorders. Racemic arctigenin 2a was found to display a similar uptake enhancement as does (-)-arctigenin. As a result, the SAR study was conducted utilizing racemic compounds. The structure-activity relationship study led to the discovery of key substitution patterns on the lactone motif that govern 2-deoxyglucose uptake activities. The results show that replacement of the para-hydroxyl group of the C-2 benzyl moiety of arctigenin by Cl has a pronounced effect on uptake activity. Specifically, analogue 2p, which contains the p-Cl substituent, stimulates glucose uptake and fatty acid oxidation in L6 myotubes.

  18. Analogue step-by-step DC component eliminator for 24-hour PPG signal monitoring.

    PubMed

    Pilt, Kristjan; Meigas, Kalju; Lass, Jaanus; Rosmann, Mart; Kaik, Jüri

    2007-01-01

    For applications where PPG signal AC component needs to be measured without disturbances in its shape and recorded digitally with high digitalization accuracy, the step-by-step DC component eliminator is developed. This paper describes step-by-step DC component eliminator, which is utilized with analogue comparator and operational amplifier. It allows to record PPG signal without disturbances in its shape in 24-hours PPG signal monitoring system. The experiments with PPG signal have been carried out.

  19. Synthesis of analogues of Eunicea gamma-cembranolides containing cyclic ethers via saponification.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, A D; Piña, I C; Acosta, A L; Ramírez, C; Soto, J J

    2001-02-09

    A method for the synthesis of derivatives of the lead structures euniolide (1), 12,13-bisepieupalmerin (2), and eupalmerin acetate (3) containing tetrahydrofuran and tetrahydropyran ring systems was developed on the basis of alkali-induced intramolecular oxacyclizations. Representatives of the new analogues were submitted to the in vitro antitumor cell-line-screening program of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). While it was shown that a variety of structural modifications are possible, these transformations led typically to nontoxic synthetic cembranoids.

  20. Lead Diversification through a Prins-Driven Macrocyclization Strategy: Application to C13-Diversified Bryostatin Analogues.

    PubMed

    Wender, Paul A; Billingsley, Kelvin L

    2013-01-01

    The design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of a novel class of C13-diversified bryostatin analogues are described. An innovative and general strategy based on a Prins macrocyclization-nucleophilic trapping cascade was used to achieve late-stage diversification. In vitro analysis of selected library members revealed that modification at the C13 position of the bryostatin scaffold can be used as a diversification handle to regulate biological activity.

  1. Quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis of the pharmacology of para-substituted methcathinone analogues.

    PubMed

    Bonano, J S; Banks, M L; Kolanos, R; Sakloth, F; Barnier, M L; Glennon, R A; Cozzi, N V; Partilla, J S; Baumann, M H; Negus, S S

    2015-05-01

    Methcathinone (MCAT) is a potent monoamine releaser and parent compound to emerging drugs of abuse including mephedrone (4-CH3 MCAT), the para-methyl analogue of MCAT. This study examined quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) for MCAT and six para-substituted MCAT analogues on (a) in vitro potency to promote monoamine release via dopamine and serotonin transporters (DAT and SERT, respectively), and (b) in vivo modulation of intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS), a behavioural procedure used to evaluate abuse potential. Neurochemical and behavioural effects were correlated with steric (Es ), electronic (σp ) and lipophilic (πp ) parameters of the para substituents. For neurochemical studies, drug effects on monoamine release through DAT and SERT were evaluated in rat brain synaptosomes. For behavioural studies, drug effects were tested in male Sprague-Dawley rats implanted with electrodes targeting the medial forebrain bundle and trained to lever-press for electrical brain stimulation. MCAT and all six para-substituted analogues increased monoamine release via DAT and SERT and dose- and time-dependently modulated ICSS. In vitro selectivity for DAT versus SERT correlated with in vivo efficacy to produce abuse-related ICSS facilitation. In addition, the Es values of the para substituents correlated with both selectivity for DAT versus SERT and magnitude of ICSS facilitation. Selectivity for DAT versus SERT in vitro is a key determinant of abuse-related ICSS facilitation by these MCAT analogues, and steric aspects of the para substituent of the MCAT scaffold (indicated by Es ) are key determinants of this selectivity. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  2. A general approach to the synthesis of 5-S-functionalized pyrimidine nucleosides and their analogues.

    PubMed

    Kananovich, Dzmitry G; Reino, Alli; Ilmarinen, Kaja; Rõõmusoks, Marko; Karelson, Mati; Lopp, Margus

    2014-08-14

    A general and efficient approach was developed for the introduction of S-functionality at the C-5 position of cytosine and uracil nucleosides and their analogues. The key step is a palladium-catalyzed C-S coupling of the corresponding 5-bromo nucleoside derivative and alkyl thiol. The butyl 3-mercaptopropionate coupling products were further converted to the corresponding disulphides, the stable precursors of 5-mercaptopyrimidine nucleosides.

  3. Screening of synthetic PDE-5 inhibitors and their analogues as adulterants: analytical techniques and challenges.

    PubMed

    Patel, Dhavalkumar Narendrabhai; Li, Lin; Kee, Chee-Leong; Ge, Xiaowei; Low, Min-Yong; Koh, Hwee-Ling

    2014-01-01

    The popularity of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) enzyme inhibitors for the treatment of erectile dysfunction has led to the increase in prevalence of illicit sexual performance enhancement products. PDE-5 inhibitors, namely sildenafil, tadalafil and vardenafil, and their unapproved designer analogues are being increasingly used as adulterants in the herbal products and health supplements marketed for sexual performance enhancement. To date, more than 50 unapproved analogues of prescription PDE-5 inhibitors were found as adulterants in the literature. To avoid detection of such adulteration by standard screening protocols, the perpetrators of such illegal products are investing time and resources to synthesize exotic analogues and devise novel means for adulteration. A comprehensive review of conventional and advance analytical techniques to detect and characterize the adulterants is presented. The rapid identification and structural elucidation of unknown analogues as adulterants is greatly enhanced by the wide myriad of analytical techniques employed, including high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), liquid chromatography mass-spectrometry (LC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, vibrational spectroscopy, liquid chromatography-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry (LC-FT-ICR-MS), liquid chromatograph-hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer with information dependent acquisition, ultra high performance liquid chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-TOF-MS), ion mobility spectroscopy (IMS) and immunoassay methods. The many challenges in detecting and characterizing such adulterants, and the need for concerted effort to curb adulteration in order to safe guard public safety and interest are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Carvedilol analogue inhibits triggered activities evoked by both early and delayed afterdepolarizations.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Mitsunori; Xiao, Jianmin; Zhou, Qiang; Vembaiyan, Kannan; Chua, Su-Kiat; Rubart-von der Lohe, Michael; Lin, Shien-Fong; Back, Thomas G; Chen, S R Wayne; Chen, Peng-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Carvedilol and its analogues suppress delayed afterdepolarizations (DADs) and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardias by direct action on the cardiac ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR2). To test a hypothesis that carvedilol analogue may also prevent triggered activities (TAs) through the suppression of early afterdepolarizations (EADs). Intracellular Ca(2+) and membrane voltage were simultaneously recorded by using optical mapping technique in Langendorff-perfused mouse and rabbit hearts to study the effect of carvedilol analogue VK-II-36, which does not have significant beta-blocking effects. Spontaneous intracellular Ca(2+) elevations (SCaEs) during diastole were induced by rapid ventricular pacing and isoproterenol infusion in intact rabbit ventricles. Systolic and diastolic SCaEs were simultaneously noted in Langendorff-perfused RyR2 R4496(+/-) mouse hearts after creating atrioventricular block. VK-II-36 effectively suppressed SCaEs and eliminated TAs observed in both mouse and rabbit ventricles. We tested the effect of VK-II-36 on EADs by using a rabbit model of acquired long QT syndrome, in which phase 2 and phase 3 EADs were observed in association with systolic SCaEs. VK-II-36 abolished the systolic SCaEs and phase 2 EADs, and greatly decreased the dispersion of repolarization and the amplitude of phase 3 EADs. VK-II-36 completely prevented EAD-mediated TAs in all ventricles studied. A carvedilol analogue, VK-II-36, inhibits ventricular tachyarrhythmias in intact mouse and rabbit ventricles by the suppression of SCaEs, independent of beta-blocking activity. The RyR2 may be a potential target for treating focal ventricular arrhythmias triggered by either EADs or DADs. Copyright © 2013 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Novel lipophilic chloroquine analogues for a highly efficient gene transfer into gynecological tumors.

    PubMed

    Keil, O; Bojar, H; Prisack, H B; Dall, P

    2001-10-08

    Liposomal vectors based on cationic lipids have been proven to be an attractive alternative to viral vectors in gene therapy protocols with regard to safety and manufacturing concerns. In order to improve the transfection efficiency we have synthesized two novel carboxycholesteryl-modified chloroquine analogues. Due to their potential endosomal buffering capacity these compounds enable the efficient transfection of various gynecological tumors and therefore are promising reagents in gene therapy applications.

  6. Bivalent metal-based MIL-53 analogues: Synthesis, properties and application

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yongxin; University of the Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100049; Liu, Dan, E-mail: liudan2007@ciac.ac.cn

    Trivalent metal-based MIL-53 (Al{sup 3+}, Cr{sup 3+}, Fe{sup 3+}, In{sup 3+}) compounds are interesting metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) with breathing effect and are promising gas sorption materials. Replacing bridging μ{sub 2}-OH group by neutral ligands such as pyridine N-oxide and its derivatives (PNOs), the trivalent metal-based MIL-53 analogous structures could be extended to bivalent metal systems. The introduction of PNOs and bivalent metal elements endows the frameworks with new structural features and physical and chemical properties. This minireview summarizes the recent development of bivalent metal-based MIL-53 analogues (Mn{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}), typically, focusing on the synthetic strategies and potentialmore » applications based on our own works and literatures. We present the synthetic strategy to achieve structures evolution from single-ligand-walled to double-ligand-walled channel. Properties and application of these new materials in a wide range of potential areas are discussed including thermal stability, gas adsorption, magnetism and liquid-phase separation. Promising directions of this research field are also highlighted. - Graphical abstract: The recent development of bivalent metal-based MIL-53 analogues (Mn{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}) on their synthetic strategies, properties and potential applications was reviewed. - Highlights: • Structure features of bivalent metal-based MIL-53 analogues are illustrated. • Important properties and application are presented. • Host–guest interactions are main impetus for liquid-phase separation. • Promising directions of bivalent metal-based MIL-53 analogues are highlighted.« less

  7. Pion and proton showers in the CALICE scintillator-steel analogue hadron calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilki, B.; Repond, J.; Xia, L.; Eigen, G.; Thomson, M. A.; Ward, D. R.; Benchekroun, D.; Hoummada, A.; Khoulaki, Y.; Chang, S.; Khan, A.; Kim, D. H.; Kong, D. J.; Oh, Y. D.; Blazey, G. C.; Dyshkant, A.; Francis, K.; Lima, J. G. R.; Salcido, R.; Zutshi, V.; Salvatore, F.; Kawagoe, K.; Miyazaki, Y.; Sudo, Y.; Suehara, T.; Tomita, T.; Ueno, H.; Yoshioka, T.; Apostolakis, J.; Dannheim, D.; Folger, G.; Ivantchenko, V.; Klempt, W.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Ribon, A.; Schlatter, D.; Sicking, E.; Uzhinskiy, V.; Giraud, J.; Grondin, D.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Morin, L.; Brianne, E.; Cornett, U.; David, D.; Ebrahimi, A.; Falley, G.; Gadow, K.; Göttlicher, P.; Günter, C.; Hartbrich, O.; Hermberg, B.; Karstensen, S.; Krivan, F.; Krüger, K.; Lu, S.; Lutz, B.; Morozov, S.; Morgunov, V.; Neubüser, C.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Smirnov, P.; Tran, H. L.; Buhmann, P.; Garutti, E.; Laurien, S.; Matysek, M.; Ramilli, M.; Briggl, K.; Eckert, P.; Harion, T.; Munwes, Y.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-Ch.; Shen, W.; Stamen, R.; Norbeck, E.; Northacker, D.; Onel, Y.; van Doren, B.; Wilson, G. W.; Wing, M.; Combaret, C.; Caponetto, L.; Eté, R.; Grenier, G.; Han, R.; Ianigro, J. C.; Kieffer, R.; Laktineh, I.; Lumb, N.; Mathez, H.; Mirabito, L.; Petrukhin, A.; Steen, A.; Berenguer Antequera, J.; Calvo Alamillo, E.; Fouz, M.-C.; Marin, J.; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Verdugo, A.; Corriveau, F.; Bobchenko, B.; Chistov, R.; Chadeeva, M.; Danilov, M.; Drutskoy, A.; Epifantsev, A.; Markin, O.; Mironov, D.; Mizuk, R.; Novikov, E.; Rusinov, V.; Tarkovsky, E.; Besson, D.; Buzhan, P.; Ilyin, A.; Popova, E.; Gabriel, M.; Kiesling, C.; van der Kolk, N.; Simon, F.; Soldner, C.; Szalay, M.; Tesar, M.; Weuste, L.; Amjad, M. S.; Bonis, J.; Callier, S.; Conforti di Lorenzo, S.; Cornebise, P.; Dulucq, F.; Fleury, J.; Frisson, T.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Pöschl, R.; Raux, L.; Richard, F.; Rouëné, J.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; de la Taille, Ch.; Anduze, M.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J.-C.; Clerc, C.; Cornat, R.; Frotin, M.; Gastaldi, F.; Matthieu, A.; Mora de Freitas, P.; Musat, G.; Ruan, M.; Videau, H.; Zacek, J.; Cvach, J.; Gallus, P.; Havranek, M.; Janata, M.; Kvasnicka, J.; Lednicky, D.; Marcisovsky, M.; Polak, I.; Popule, J.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Sicho, P.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Jeans, D.; Weber, S.

    2015-04-01

    Showers produced by positive hadrons in the highly granular CALICE scintillator-steel analogue hadron calorimeter were studied. The experimental data were collected at CERN and FNAL for single particles with initial momenta from 10 to 80 GeV/c. The calorimeter response and resolution and spatial characteristics of shower development for proton- and pion-induced showers for test beam data and simulations using GEANT4 version 9.6 are compared.

  8. Synthesis and biochemical evaluation of benzoylbenzophenone thiosemicarbazone analogues as potent and selective inhibitors of cathepsin L

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Erica N.; Song, Jiangli; Kumar, G. D. Kishore; Odutola, Samuel O.; Chavarria, Gustavo E.; Charlton-Sevcik, Amanda K.; Strecker, Tracy E.; Barnes, Ashleigh L.; Sudhan, Dhivya R.; Wittenborn, Thomas R.; Siemann, Dietmar W.; Horsman, Michael R.; Chaplin, David J.; Trawick, Mary Lynn; Pinney, Kevin G.

    2016-01-01

    Upregulation of cathepsin L in a variety of tumors and its ability to promote cancer cell invasion and migration through degradation of the extracellular matrix suggest that cathepsin L is a promising biological target for the development of anti-metastatic agents. Based on encouraging results from studies on benzophenone thiosemicarbazone cathepsin inhibitors, a series of fourteen benzoylbenzophenone thiosemicarbazone analogues were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their inhibitory activity against cathepsins L and B. Thiosemicarbazone inhibitors 3-benzoylbenzophenone thiosemicarbazone 1, 1,3-bis(4-fluorobenzoyl)benzene thiosemicarbazone 8, and 1,3-bis(2-fluorobenzoyl)-5-bromobenzene thiosemicarbazone 32 displayed the greatest potency against cathepsin L with low IC50 values of 9.9 nM, 14.4 nM, and 8.1 nM, respectively. The benzoylbenzophenone thiosemicarbazone analogues evaluated were selective in their inhibition of cathepsin L compared to cathepsin B. Thiosemicarbazone analogue 32 inhibited invasion through Matrigel of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells by 70% at 10 μM. Thiosemicarbazone analogue 8 significantly inhibited the invasive potential of PC-3ML prostate cancer cells by 92% at 5 μM. The most active cathepsin L inhibitors from this benzoylbenzophenone thiosemicarbazone series (1, 8, and 32) displayed low cytotoxicity toward normal primary cells [in this case human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)]. In an initial in vivo study, 3-benzoylbenzophenone thiosemicarbazone (1) was well-tolerated in a CDF1 mouse model bearing an implanted C3H mammary carcinoma, and showed efficacy in tumor growth delay. Low cytotoxicity, inhibition of cell invasion, and in vivo tolerability are desirable characteristics for anti-metastatic agents functioning through an inhibition of cathepsin L. Active members of this structurally diverse group of benzoylbenzophenone thiosemicarbazone cathepsin L inhibitors show promise as potential anti-metastatic, pre

  9. Synthesis of Quercetin-imprinted Polymer Spherical Particles with Improved Ability to Capture Quercetin Analogues.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Antonelle; Josse, Thomas; Mespouille, Laetitia; Blankert, Bertrand; Dubois, Philippe; Duez, Pierre

    2017-07-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are composed of specific cavities able to selectively recognise a template molecule. Used as chromatographic sorbents, MIPs may not trap related structures due to the high rigidity of their cross-linking. To improve the capture of quercetin analogues by modulating the synthesis strategy for a quercetin-imprinted polymer (Qu MIP). An additional comonomer bearing a short oligoethylene glycol (OEG) unit was used to prepare a Qu MIP that was compared to a traditional one formulated in a similar fashion, but without the OEG-comonomer. The Qu MIPs were prepared in bead form through fluorocarbon suspension polymerisation. After solid phase extraction (SPE) assessment of their imprinted cavities, the MIPs were evaluated by HPLC for their recognition properties towards quercetin and other polyphenols, including flavonoids, phenolic acids and curcumin. The Qu MIPs were finally SPE-tested on a white onion extract. The incorporation of OEG units modulated the selectivity of the Qu MIP by improving the recognition of quercetin related structures (12-61% increase in the imprinting effect for distant analogues). It also allowed limiting or suppressing non-specific hydrophobic interactions (decrease of about 10% in the rate of quercetin retention on the non-imprinted polymer). The SPE application of the MIP to a white onion extract indicates its interest for the selective extraction of quercetin and its analogues. The OEG-modified Qu MIP appears to be an attractive tool to discover new drug candidates from natural sources by extracting, amongst interfering compounds, structural analogues of quercetin. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Quantitative structure–activity relationship analysis of the pharmacology of para-substituted methcathinone analogues

    PubMed Central

    Bonano, J S; Banks, M L; Kolanos, R; Sakloth, F; Barnier, M L; Glennon, R A; Cozzi, N V; Partilla, J S; Baumann, M H; Negus, S S

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Methcathinone (MCAT) is a potent monoamine releaser and parent compound to emerging drugs of abuse including mephedrone (4-CH3 MCAT), the para-methyl analogue of MCAT. This study examined quantitative structure–activity relationships (QSAR) for MCAT and six para-substituted MCAT analogues on (a) in vitro potency to promote monoamine release via dopamine and serotonin transporters (DAT and SERT, respectively), and (b) in vivo modulation of intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS), a behavioural procedure used to evaluate abuse potential. Neurochemical and behavioural effects were correlated with steric (Es), electronic (σp) and lipophilic (πp) parameters of the para substituents. Experimental Approach For neurochemical studies, drug effects on monoamine release through DAT and SERT were evaluated in rat brain synaptosomes. For behavioural studies, drug effects were tested in male Sprague-Dawley rats implanted with electrodes targeting the medial forebrain bundle and trained to lever-press for electrical brain stimulation. Key Results MCAT and all six para-substituted analogues increased monoamine release via DAT and SERT and dose- and time-dependently modulated ICSS. In vitro selectivity for DAT versus SERT correlated with in vivo efficacy to produce abuse-related ICSS facilitation. In addition, the Es values of the para substituents correlated with both selectivity for DAT versus SERT and magnitude of ICSS facilitation. Conclusions and Implications Selectivity for DAT versus SERT in vitro is a key determinant of abuse-related ICSS facilitation by these MCAT analogues, and steric aspects of the para substituent of the MCAT scaffold (indicated by Es) are key determinants of this selectivity. PMID:25438806

  11. Structure of Mandelate Racemase with Bound Intermediate Analogues Benzohydroxamate and Cupferron†

    PubMed Central

    Lietzan, Adam D.; Nagar, Mitesh; Pellmann, Elise A.; Bourque, Jennifer R.; Bearne, Stephen L.; St Maurice, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Mandelate racemase (MR, EC 5.1.2.2) from Pseudomonas putida catalyzes the Mg2+-dependent interconversion of the enantiomers of mandelate, stabilizing the altered substrate in the transition state by 26 kcal/mol relative to the substrate in the ground state. To understand the origins of this binding discrimination, we solved the X-ray crystal structures of wild-type MR complexed with two analogues of the putative aci-carboxylate intermediate, benzohydroxamate and cupferron, to 2.2-Å resolution. Benzohydroxamate is shown to be a reasonable mimic of the transition state/intermediate since its binding affinity to 21 MR variants correlates well with changes in the free energy of transition state stabilization afforded by these variants. Both benzohydroxamate and cupferron chelate the active site divalent metal ion and are bound in a conformation with the phenyl ring coplanar with the hydroxamate and diazeniumdiolate moieties, respectively. Structural overlays of MR complexed with benzohydroxamate, cupferron, and the ground state analogue (S)-atrolacatate reveal that the para-carbon of the substrate phenyl ring moves by 0.8–1.2 Å between the ground state and intermediate state, consistent with the proposal that the phenyl ring moves during MR catalysis while the polar groups remain relatively fixed. Although the overall protein structure of MR with bound intermediate analogues is very similar to MR with bound (S)-atrolactate, the intermediate-Mg2+ distance shortens, suggesting a tighter complex with the catalytic Mg2+. In addition, Tyr 54 moves nearer to the phenyl ring of the bound intermediate analogues, contributing to an overall constriction of the active site cavity. However, site-directed mutagenesis experiments revealed that the role of Tyr 54 in MR catalysis is relatively minor, suggesting that alterations in enzyme structure that contribute to discrimination between the altered substrate in the transition state and the ground state by this proficient enzyme

  12. Inhibitory Effects of Lysine Analogues on t-PA Induced Whole Blood Clot Lysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    aminocaproic acid (EACA) and trans-4-amino- methyl cyclohexane carboxylic acid (AMCA) are used to prevent excessive bleeding in patients with... aminocaproic acid (EACA) and the others have lower affinity binding sites (K&=5 mM) (5). The lysine analogues EACA and trans-4-aniinomethyl...JL, Wissler FC. Quantitative determination of the binding of epsilon- aminocaproic acid to native plasminogen. J Biol Chem 253, 727-732, 1978. 6

  13. Antimycobacterial activity generated by the amide coupling of (-)-fenchone derived aminoalcohol with cinnamic acids and analogues.

    PubMed

    Slavchev, Ivaylo; Dobrikov, Georgi M; Valcheva, Violeta; Ugrinova, Iva; Pasheva, Evdokia; Dimitrov, Vladimir

    2014-11-01

    Aminoethyl substituted 2-endo-fenchol prepared from (-)-fenchone was used as scaffold for the synthesis of series of 31 amide structures by N-acylation applying cinnamic acids and analogues. The evaluation of their in vitro activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv showed for some of them promising activity-up to 0.2 μg/ml, combined with relatively low cytotoxicity of the selected active compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Calculation of laminar heating rates on three-dimensional configurations using the axisymmetric analogue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, H. H., II

    1980-01-01

    A theoretical method was developed for computing approximate laminar heating rates on three dimensional configurations at angle of attack. The method is based on the axisymmetric analogue which is used to reduce the three dimensional boundary layer equations along surface streamlines to an equivalent axisymmetric form by using the metric coefficient which describes streamline divergence (or convergence). The method was coupled with a three dimensional inviscid flow field program for computing surface streamline paths, metric coefficients, and boundary layer edge conditions.

  15. Synthesis and SAR studies of marine natural products ma'edamines A, B and their analogues.

    PubMed

    Saha, Sanjay; Reddy, Ch Venkata Ramana; Xu, Shili; Sankar, Saranya; Neamati, Nouri; Patro, Balaram

    2013-09-15

    The synthesis of several analogues of ma'edamines A and B are reported. The synthesized compounds were tested on hormone receptor positive and HER2 positive breast cancer cell lines, by MTT assay. MED-114, 115, 117, 119, 120, 124, 128 and 131 were found to be equally active as Lapatinib on HER2 +ve cell line SKBR3. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. An analogue of Weyl’s law for quantized irreducible generalized flag manifolds

    SciTech Connect

    Matassa, Marco, E-mail: marco.matassa@gmail.com, E-mail: mmatassa@math.uio.no

    2015-09-15

    We prove an analogue of Weyl’s law for quantized irreducible generalized flag manifolds. This is formulated in terms of a zeta function which, similarly to the classical setting, satisfies the following two properties: as a functional on the quantized algebra it is proportional to the Haar state and its first singularity coincides with the classical dimension. The relevant formulas are given for the more general case of compact quantum groups.

  17. Characterization of the intrinsic activity for a novel class of cannabinoid receptor ligands: Indole Quinuclidine analogues

    PubMed Central

    Franks, Lirit N.; Ford, Benjamin M.; Madadi, Nikhil R.; Penthala, Narsimha R.; Crooks, Peter A.; Prather, Paul L.

    2014-01-01

    Our laboratory recently reported that a group of novel indole quinuclidine analogues bind with nanomolar affinity to cannabinoid type-1 and type-2 receptors. This study characterized the intrinsic activity of these compounds by determining whether they exhibit agonist, antagonist, or inverse agonist activity at cannabinoid type-1 and/or type-2 receptors. Cannabinoid receptors activate Gi/Go-proteins that then proceed to inhibit activity of the downstream intracellular effector adenylyl cyclase. Therefore, intrinsic activity was quantified by measuring the ability of compounds to modulate levels of intracellular cAMP in intact cells. Concerning cannabinoid type-1 receptors endogenously expressed in Neuro2A cells, a single analogue exhibited agonist activity, while eight acted as neutral antagonists and two possessed inverse agonist activity. For cannabinoid type-2 receptors stably expressed in CHO cells, all but two analogues acted as agonists; these two exceptions exhibited inverse agonist activity. Confirming specificity at cannabinoid type-1 receptors, modulation of adenylyl cyclase activity by all proposed agonists and inverse agonists was blocked by co-incubation with the neutral cannabinoid type-1 antagonist O-2050. All proposed cannabinoid type-1 receptor antagonists attenuated adenylyl cyclase modulation by cannabinoid agonist CP-55,940. Specificity at cannabinoid type-2 receptors was confirmed by failure of all compounds to modulate adenylyl cyclase activity in CHO cells devoid of cannabinoid type-2 receptors. Further characterization of select analogues demonstrated concentration-dependent modulation of adenylyl cyclase activity with potencies similar to their respective affinities for cannabinoid receptors. Therefore, indole quinuclidines are a novel structural class of compounds exhibiting high affinity and a range of intrinsic activity at cannabinoid type-1 and type-2 receptors. PMID:24858620

  18. Are there pre-Quaternary geological analogues for a future greenhouse warming?

    PubMed

    Haywood, Alan M; Ridgwell, Andy; Lunt, Daniel J; Hill, Daniel J; Pound, Matthew J; Dowsett, Harry J; Dolan, Aisling M; Francis, Jane E; Williams, Mark

    2011-03-13

    Given the inherent uncertainties in predicting how climate and environments will respond to anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, it would be beneficial to society if science could identify geological analogues to the human race's current grand climate experiment. This has been a focus of the geological and palaeoclimate communities over the last 30 years, with many scientific papers claiming that intervals in Earth history can be used as an analogue for future climate change. Using a coupled ocean-atmosphere modelling approach, we test this assertion for the most probable pre-Quaternary candidates of the last 100 million years: the Mid- and Late Cretaceous, the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), the Early Eocene, as well as warm intervals within the Miocene and Pliocene epochs. These intervals fail as true direct analogues since they either represent equilibrium climate states to a long-term CO(2) forcing--whereas anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases provide a progressive (transient) forcing on climate--or the sensitivity of the climate system itself to CO(2) was different. While no close geological analogue exists, past warm intervals in Earth history provide a unique opportunity to investigate processes that operated during warm (high CO(2)) climate states. Palaeoclimate and environmental reconstruction/modelling are facilitating the assessment and calculation of the response of global temperatures to increasing CO(2) concentrations in the longer term (multiple centuries); this is now referred to as the Earth System Sensitivity, which is critical in identifying CO(2) thresholds in the atmosphere that must not be crossed to avoid dangerous levels of climate change in the long term. Palaeoclimatology also provides a unique and independent way to evaluate the qualities of climate and Earth system models used to predict future climate.

  19. Are there pre-Quaternary geological analogues for a future greenhouse warming?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haywood, A.M.; Ridgwell, A.; Lunt, D.J.; Hill, D.J.; Pound, M.J.; Dowsett, H.J.; Dolan, A.M.; Francis, J.E.; Williams, M.

    2011-01-01

    Given the inherent uncertainties in predicting how climate and environments will respond to anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, it would be beneficial to society if science could identify geological analogues to the human race's current grand climate experiment. This has been a focus of the geological and palaeoclimate communities over the last 30 years, with many scientific papers claiming that intervals in Earth history can be used as an analogue for future climate change. Using a coupled ocean-atmosphere modelling approach, we test this assertion for the most probable pre-Quaternary candidates of the last 100 million years: the Mid- and Late Cretaceous, the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), the Early Eocene, as well as warm intervals within the Miocene and Pliocene epochs. These intervals fail as true direct analogues since they either represent equilibrium climate states to a long-term CO2 forcing-whereas anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases provide a progressive (transient) forcing on climate-or the sensitivity of the climate system itself to CO2 was different. While no close geological analogue exists, past warm intervals in Earth history provide a unique opportunity to investigate processes that operated during warm (high CO2) climate states. Palaeoclimate and environmental reconstruction/modelling are facilitating the assessment and calculation of the response of global temperatures to increasing CO2 concentrations in the longer term (multiple centuries); this is now referred to as the Earth System Sensitivity, which is critical in identifying CO2 thresholds in the atmosphere that must not be crossed to avoid dangerous levels of climate change in the long term. Palaeoclimatology also provides a unique and independent way to evaluate the qualities of climate and Earth system models used to predict future climate. ?? 2011 The Royal Society.

  20. Growth inhibition of squamous cell carcinoma xenografts with the polyamine analogue BE 4444.

    PubMed

    Auchter, R M; Pickart, M A; Nash, G A; Qu, R P; Harari, P M

    1996-09-01

    The capacity of radiation to cure advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is compromised by the proliferation of surviving tumor cells during the course of therapy (overall duration, often 7-9 weeks). Antiproliferative agents that inhibit tumor proliferation, even in the absence of direct cytotoxicity, may be useful adjuncts for concurrent use with radiation. Modulation of endogenous polyamine (PA) metabolism has the potential to inhibit cell growth. The PA analogue 1,19-bis(ethylamino)-5,10,15-triazanonadecane (BE 4444) is a synthetic compound that demonstrates antiproliferative effects in human tumor cells. To evaluate the PA analogue BE 4444 for its inhibitory effect on the growth of human squamous cell carcinoma xenografts in nude mice. Xenografts of human squamous cell carcinomas were grown in nude mice; then, BE 4444 was injected intraperitoneally (5 mg/kg) on a twice-daily schedule for 8 days. Tumor growth measurements were performed twice weekly for 8 weeks and compared with those of control mice that were injected with sterile saline solution on the same schedule. The PA levels in the tumor and normal tissue samples were assayed at the completion of treatment. Tumor volume in the BE 4444-treated mice was reduced by 62% compared with tumor volumes in control mice, and the tumor growth rate was reduced by 64%. This growth inhibition was maintained through completion of the experiment. Levels of endogenous PAs were not significantly different from control levels, suggesting that the mechanism of action for BE 4444 is not simply PA biosynthesis inhibition. The PA analogue BE 4444 is an inhibitor of human squamous cell cancer growth. Further studies are in progress to characterize the potential value of PA analogues as adjuncts to radiation therapy for rapidly proliferating squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.

  1. Synthesis of a new family of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates, analogues of TPases transition states.

    PubMed

    Dayde, Bénédicte; Benzaria, Samira; Pierra, Claire; Gosselin, Gilles; Surleraux, Dominique; Volle, Jean-Noël; Pirat, Jean-Luc; Virieux, David

    2012-05-07

    A 6-step procedure was developed for the synthesis of a new family of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (ANPs), "PHEEPA" [(2-pyrimidinyl-2-(2-hydroxyethoxy)ethyl)phosphonic acids] in overall yields ranging from 4.5% to 32%. These compounds, which possess on one side a hydroxy function and on the other side a phosphonate group, can be considered either as potential antiviral agents or as transition state analogues of nucleoside phosphorylases such as thymidine phosphorylase.

  2. Activation of anti-oxidant Nrf2 signaling by enone analogues of curcumin.

    PubMed

    Deck, Lorraine M; Hunsaker, Lucy A; Vander Jagt, Thomas A; Whalen, Lisa J; Royer, Robert E; Vander Jagt, David L

    2018-01-01

    Inflammation and oxidative stress are common in many chronic diseases. Targeting signaling pathways that contribute to these conditions may have therapeutic potential. The transcription factor Nrf2 is a major regulator of phase II detoxification and anti-oxidant genes as well as anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective genes. Nrf2 is widespread in the CNS and is recognized as an important regulator of brain inflammation. The natural product curcumin exhibits numerous biological activities including ability to induce the expression of Nrf2-dependent phase II and anti-oxidant enzymes. Curcumin has been examined in a number of clinical studies with limited success, mainly owing to limited bioavailability and rapid metabolism. Enone analogues of curcumin were examined with an Nrf2 reporter assay to identify Nrf2 activators. Analogues were separated into groups with a 7-carbon dienone spacer, as found in curcumin; a 5-carbon enone spacer with and without a ring; and a 3-carbon enone spacer. Activators of Nrf2 were found in all three groups, many of which were more active than curcumin. Dose-response studies demonstrated that a range of substituents on the aromatic rings of these enones influenced not only the sensitivity to activation, reflected in EC 50 values, but also the extent of activation, which suggests that multiple mechanisms are involved in the activation of Nrf2 by these analogues. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  3. Starting a European Space Agency Sample Analogue Collection for Robotic Exploration Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, C. L.; Mavris, C.; Michalski, J. R.; Rumsey, M. S.; Russell, S. S.; Jones, C.; Schroeven-Deceuninck, H.

    2015-12-01

    The Natural History Museum is working closely with the European Space Agency (ESA) and the UK Space Agency to develop a European collection of analogue materials with appropriate physical/mechanical and chemical (mineralogical) properties which can support the development and verification of both spacecraft and scientific systems for potential science and exploration missions to Phobos/Deimos, Mars, C-type asteroids and the Moon. As an ESA Collection it will be housed at the ESA Centre based at Harwell, UK. The "ESA Sample Analogues Collection" will be composed of both natural and artificial materials chosen to (as closely as possible) replicate the surfaces and near-surfaces of different Solar System target bodies of exploration interest. The analogue samples will be fully characterised in terms of both their physical/mechanical properties (compressive strength, bulk density, grain shape, grain size, cohesion and angle of internal friction) and their chemical/mineralogical properties (texture, modal mineralogy, bulk chemical composition - major, minor and trace elements and individual mineralogical compositions). The Collection will be fully curated to international standards including implementation of a user-friendly database and will be available for use by engineers and scientists across the UK and Europe. Enhancement of the initial Collection will be possible through collaborations with other ESA and UK Space Agency supported activities, such as the acquisition of new samples during field trials.

  4. Gas-phase lifetimes of nucleobase analogues by picosecond pumpionization and streak techniques.

    PubMed

    Blaser, Susan; Frey, Hans-Martin; Heid, Cornelia G; Leutwyler, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    The picosecond (ps) timescale is relevant for the investigation of many molecular dynamical processes such as fluorescence, nonradiative relaxation, intramolecular vibrational relaxation, molecular rotation and intermolecular energy transfer, to name a few. While investigations of ultrafast (femtosecond) processes of biological molecules, e.g. nucleobases and their analogues in the gas phase are available, there are few investigations on the ps time scale. We have constructed a ps pump-ionization setup and a ps streak camera fluorescence apparatus for the determination of lifetimes of supersonic jet-cooled and isolated molecules and clusters. The ps pump-ionization setup was used to determine the lifetimes of the nucleobase analogue 2-aminopurine (2AP) and of two 2AP˙(H2O)n water cluster isomers with n=1 and 2. Their lifetimes lie between 150 ps and 3 ns and are strongly cluster-size dependent. The ps streak camera setup was used to determine accurate fluorescence lifetimes of the uracil analogue 2-pyridone (2PY), its self-dimer (2PY)2, two isomers of its trimer (2PY)3 and its tetramer (2PY)4, which lie in the 7-12 ns range.

  5. Furan Decorated Nucleoside Analogues as Fluorescent Probes: synthesis, photophysical evaluation and site-specific incorporation

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Nicholas J.; Tor, Yitzhak

    2007-01-01

    The synthesis and photophysical evaluation of modified nucleoside analogues in which a five-membered heterocycle (furan, thiophene, oxazole and thiazole) is attached to the 5 position of 2′-deoxyuridine are reported. The furan containing derivative is identified as the most promising responsive nucleoside of this family due to its emission quantum efficiency and degree of sensitivity to its microenvironment. The furan moiety was then attached to the 5 position of 2′-deoxycytidine as well as the 8 position of adenosine and guanosine. Photophysical evaluation of these four furan containing nucleoside analogues reveal distinct differences in the absorption, emission and quantum efficiency depending upon the class of nucleoside (pyrimidine or purine). Comparing the photophysical properties of all furan containing nucleosides, identifies the furan thymidine analogue, 5-(fur-2-yl)-2′-deoxyuridine, as the best candidate for use as a responsive fluorescent probe in nucleic acids. 5-(fur-2-yl)-2′-deoxyuridine was then converted to the corresponding phosphoramidite and site specifically incorporated into DNA oligonucleotides with greater than 88% coupling efficiency. Such furan-modified oligonucleotides form stable duplexes upon hybridization to their complementary DNA strands and display favorable fluorescent features. PMID:18431439

  6. Can concreteness training buffer against the negative effects of rumination on PTSD? An experimental analogue study.

    PubMed

    Schaich, Anja; Watkins, Edward R; Ehring, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    Trauma-related rumination has been found to be an important maintaining factor for PTSD. On the background of the processing mode account of ruminative thinking, this study tested whether the relationship between rumination and analogue PTSD symptoms can be modified by training participants in a concrete mode of processing. Healthy participants were trained in either an abstract or a concrete style of processing. Afterwards, they watched a stressful film. The interactive effect of training condition and trait rumination on intrusive memories of the film was examined. Following abstract training, a positive relationship between trait rumination and intrusive memories of the film emerged. As hypothesized, this relationship disappeared following concrete training. include the lack of a no-training control group and the analogue paradigm used. The study provides preliminary evidence that the relationship between trait rumination and analogue PTSD symptoms can be modified. If replicated in future studies, it may be promising to examine the value of concreteness training for prevention and/or treatment of PTSD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Applications of molecular physics 'biotechnology' to the rational design of an improved phenytoin analogue.

    PubMed

    Weaver, D F

    1992-12-01

    This study exploits molecular physics, in conjunction with a large scale computing environment, as a tool for understanding the clinical phenomenology of phenytoin (PHT) toxicology at a molecular level and for employing this understanding in an attempt to design improved drugs. The application of molecular physics techniques, such as quantum mechanics and molecular force field calculations, to the process of rational anticonvulsant drug design remains virtually unexplored. A 3-step strategy for applying these techniques to the design of an improved PHT molecule is presented. Step 1 employs quantitative structure-activity relationship calculations on 80 PHT analogues to ascertain the portion of the PHT molecule necessary for bioactivity (i.e. the 'bioactive face' of PHT); the N3-C4(O)-C5-R fragment of PHT was identified as the bioactive face. Step 2 employs molecular modelling studies to determine the portion of the PHT molecule necessary for the teratogenic, mutagenic and connective tissue toxicities of PHT (i.e. the 'biotoxic face'); the C2(O)-N3 fragment of PHT was identified as the biotoxic face. Step 3 experiments design an 'improved' PHT analogue, which maintains the bioactive face while eliminating the integrity of the biotoxic face; 2-deoxy-5,5-diphenylhydantoin was designed and synthesized as the improved PHT analogue. This compound had biological activity equivalent to PHT, but was unable to bind to nucleic acids or to chelate metals involved in connective tissue metabolism.

  8. Insulin analogues in type 1 diabetes mellitus: getting better all the time.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Chantal; Gillard, Pieter; Benhalima, Katrien

    2017-07-01

    The treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus consists of external replacement of the functions of β cells in an attempt to achieve blood levels of glucose as close to the normal range as possible. This approach means that glucose sensing needs to be replaced and levels of insulin need to mimic physiological insulin-action profiles, including basal coverage and changes around meals. Training and educating patients are crucial for the achievement of good glycaemic control, but having insulin preparations with action profiles that provide stable basal insulin coverage and appropriate mealtime insulin peaks helps people with type 1 diabetes mellitus to live active lives without sacrificing tight glycaemic control. Insulin analogues enable patients to achieve this goal, as some have fast action profiles, and some have very slow action profiles, which gives people with type 1 diabetes mellitus the tools to achieve dynamic insulin-action profiles that enable tight glycaemic control with a risk of hypoglycaemia that is lower than that with human short-acting and long-acting insulins. This Review discusses the established and novel insulin analogues that are used to treat patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and provides insights into the future development of insulin analogues.

  9. Membrane-Targeting DCAP Analogues with Broad-Spectrum Antibiotic Activity against Pathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We performed a structure–activity relationship study of 2-((3-(3,6-dichloro-9H-carbazol-9-yl)-2-hydroxypropyl)amino)-2-(hydroxymethyl)propane-1,3-diol (DCAP), which is an antibacterial agent that disrupts the membrane potential and permeability of bacteria. The stereochemistry of DCAP had no effect on the biological activity of DCAP. The aromaticity and electronegativity of the chlorine-substituted carbazole was required for activity, suggesting that its planar and dipolar characteristics orient DCAP in membranes. Increasing the hydrophobicity of the tail region of DCAP enhanced its antibiotic activity. Two DCAP analogues displayed promising antibacterial activity against the BSL-3 pathogens Bacillus anthracis and Francisella tularensis. Codosing DCAP analogues with ampicillin or kanamycin increased their potency. These studies demonstrate that DCAP and its analogues may be a promising scaffold for developing chemotherapeutic agents that bind to bacterial membranes and kill strains of slow-growing or dormant bacteria that cause persistent infections. PMID:25941556

  10. The somatostatin analogue octreotide confers sensitivity to rapamycin treatment on pituitary tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Cerovac, Vesna; Monteserin-Garcia, Jose; Rubinfeld, Hadara; Buchfelder, Michael; Losa, Marco; Florio, Tullio; Paez-Pereda, Marcelo; Stalla, Günter K; Theodoropoulou, Marily

    2010-01-15

    Rapamycin and its analogues have significant antiproliferative action against a variety of tumors. However, sensitivity to rapamycin is reduced by Akt activation that results from the ablative effects of rapamycin on a p70 S6K-induced negative feedback loop that blunts phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-mediated support for Akt activity. Thus, sensitivity to rapamycin might be increased by imposing an upstream blockade to the PI3K/Akt pathway. Here, we investigated this model using the somatostatin analogue octreotide as a tool to decrease levels of activated Ser(473)-phosphorylated Akt (pAkt-Ser(473)) in pituitary tumor cells that express somatostatin receptors. Octreotide increased levels of phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1 that were suppressed by rapamycin, subsequently decreasing levels of pAkt-Ser(473) through effects on phosphotyrosine phosphatase SHP-1. Octreotide potentiated the antiproliferative effects of rapamycin in immortalized pituitary tumor cells or human nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma cells in primary cell culture, sensitizing tumor cells even to low rapamycin concentrations. Combined treatment of octreotide and rapamycin triggered G(1) cell cycle arrest, decreasing E2F transcriptional activity and cyclin E levels by increasing levels of p27/Kip1. These findings show that adjuvant treatment with a somatostatin analogue can sensitize pituitary tumor cells to the antiproliferative effects of rapamycin.

  11. Irinotecan-induced mucositis: the interactions and potential role of GLP-2 analogues.

    PubMed

    Mayo, Bronwen J; Stringer, Andrea M; Bowen, Joanne M; Bateman, Emma H; Keefe, Dorothy M

    2017-02-01

    A common side effect of irinotecan administration is gastrointestinal mucositis, often manifesting as severe diarrhoea. The damage to the structure and function of the gastrointestinal tract caused by this cytotoxic agent is debilitating and often leads to alterations in patients' regimens, hospitalisation or stoppage of treatment. The purpose of this review is to identify mechanisms of irinotecan-induced intestinal damage and a potential role for GLP-2 analogues for intervention. This is a review of current literature on irinotecan-induced mucositis and GLP-2 analogues mechanisms of action. Recent studies have found alterations that appear to be crucial in the development of severe intestinal mucositis, including early apoptosis, alterations in proliferation and cell survival pathways, as well as induction of inflammatory cascades. Several studies have indicated a possible role for glucagon-like peptide-2 analogues in treating this toxicity, due to its proven intestinotrophic, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects in other models of gastrointestinal disease. This review provides evidence as to why and how this treatment may improve mucositis through the possible molecular crosstalk that may be occurring in models of severe intestinal mucositis.

  12. Synthesis and exploration of novel curcumin analogues as anti-malarial agents.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Satyendra; Karmodiya, Krishanpal; Surolia, Namita; Surolia, Avadhesha

    2008-03-15

    Curcumin, a major yellow pigment and active component of turmeric, has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities. Recent studies have indicated that curcumin inhibits chloroquine-sensitive (CQ-S) and chloroquine-resistant (CQ-R) Plasmodium falciparum growth in culture with an IC(50) of approximately 3.25 microM (MIC=13.2 microM) and IC(50) 4.21 microM (MIC=14.4 microM), respectively. In order to expand their potential as anti-malarials a series of novel curcumin derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to inhibit P. falciparum growth in culture. Several curcumin analogues examined show more effective inhibition of P. falciparum growth than curcumin. The most potent curcumin compounds 3, 6, and 11 were inhibitory for CQ-S P. falciparum at IC(50) of 0.48, 0.87, 0.92 microM and CQ-R P. falciparum at IC(50) of 0.45 microM, 0.89, 0.75 microM, respectively. Pyrazole analogue of curcumin (3) exhibited sevenfold higher anti-malarial potency against CQ-S and ninefold higher anti-malarial potency against CQ-R. Curcumin analogues described here represent a novel class of highly selective P. falciparum inhibitors and promising candidates for the design of novel anti-malarial agents.

  13. Incorporation of Methionine Analogues Into Bombyx mori Silk Fibroin for Click Modifications.

    PubMed

    Teramoto, Hidetoshi; Kojima, Katsura

    2015-05-01

    Bombyx mori silk fibroin incorporating three methionine (Met) analogues-homopropargylglycine (Hpg), azidohomoalanine (Aha), and homoallylglycine (Hag)-can be produced simply by adding them to the diet of B. mori larvae. The Met analogues are recognized by methionyl-tRNA synthetase, bound to tRNA(Met), and used for the translation of adenine-uracil-guanine (AUG) codons competitively with Met. In the presence of the standard amount of Met in the diet, incorporation of these analogues remains low. Lowering the amount of Met in the diet drastically improves incorporation efficiencies. Alkyne and azide groups in Hpg and Aha incorporated into silk fibroin can be selectively modified with Cu-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reactions (click chemistry). Since Met residues exist only at the N-terminal domain of the fibroin heavy chain and in the fibroin light chain, good access to the reactive sites is expected and domain-selective modifications are possible without perturbing other major domains, including repetitive domains. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Evidence of soft bound behaviour in analogue memristive devices for neuromorphic computing.

    PubMed

    Frascaroli, Jacopo; Brivio, Stefano; Covi, Erika; Spiga, Sabina

    2018-05-08

    The development of devices that can modulate their conductance under the application of electrical stimuli constitutes a fundamental step towards the realization of synaptic connectivity in neural networks. Optimization of synaptic functionality requires the understanding of the analogue conductance update under different programming conditions. Moreover, properties of physical devices such as bounded conductance values and state-dependent modulation should be considered as they affect storage capacity and performance of the network. This work provides a study of the conductance dynamics produced by identical pulses as a function of the programming parameters in an HfO 2 memristive device. The application of a phenomenological model that considers a soft approach to the conductance boundaries allows the identification of different operation regimes and to quantify conductance modulation in the analogue region. Device non-linear switching kinetics is recognized as the physical origin of the transition between different dynamics and motivates the crucial trade-off between degree of analog modulation and memory window. Different kinetics for the processes of conductance increase and decrease account for device programming asymmetry. The identification of programming trade-off together with an evaluation of device variations provide a guideline for the optimization of the analogue programming in view of hardware implementation of neural networks.

  15. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of new di- and polyamine caffeine analogues.

    PubMed

    Jasiewicz, Beata; Sierakowska, Arleta; Jankowski, Wojciech; Hoffmann, Marcin; Piorońska, Weronika; Górnicka, Agnieszka; Bielawska, Anna; Bielawski, Krzysztof; Mrówczyńska, Lucyna

    2018-04-18

    A series of new di- and polyamine-caffeine analogues were synthesized and characterized by NMR, FT-IR and MS spectroscopic methods. To access stability of the investigated caffeine analogues Molecular Dynamic simulations were performed in NAMD 2.9 assuming CHARMM36 force field. To evaluate the antioxidant capacity of new compounds, three different antioxidant assays were used, namely 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH • ) scavenging activity, ferrous ions (Fe 2+ ) chelating activity and Fe 3+ →Fe 2+ reducing ability. In vitro, the ability of new derivatives to protect human erythrocytes against oxidative haemolysis induced by free radical from 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (AAPH) was estimated. The cytotoxic activity was tested using MCF-7 breast cancer cells and human erythrocytes. All compounds showed the antioxidant capacity depending mostly on their ferrous ions chelating activity. In the presence of AAPH, some derivatives were able to effectively inhibit the oxidative haemolysis. Two derivatives, namely 8-(methyl(2-(methylamino)ethyl)-amino)caffeine and 8-(methyl(3-(methylamino)propyl)amino)caffeine, showed cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 breast cancer cells but not against human erythrocytes. Therefore, it is concluded that the selected di- and polyamine caffeine analogues, depending on their chemical structure, were able to minimize the oxidative stress and to inhibit the tumour cell grow. The confirmed antioxidant and cytotoxic properties of some caffeine derivatives make them attractive for potential applications in food or pharmaceutical industries.

  16. Benzyloxynitrostyrene analogues - A novel class of selective and highly potent inhibitors of monoamine oxidase B.

    PubMed

    Van der Walt, Mietha M; Terre'Blanche, Gisella; Petzer, Jacobus P; Petzer, Anél

    2017-01-05

    This study examines a series of novel 3-benzyloxy-β-nitrostyrene analogues as a novel class of inhibitors of the monoamine oxidase (MAO) enzymes. MAO inhibitors are considered useful for the treatment of depression and Parkinson's disease, and have recently attracted attention as potential therapeutic agents for a range of disorders including Alzheimer's disease, prostate cancer and certain cardiomyopathies. This study shows that the 3-benzyloxy-β-nitrostyrene analogues are potent inhibitors of the MAO-B isoform with IC 50 values in the nanomolar range (39-565 nM). Significantly, effectiveness towards MAO-B inhibition seems to be governed by the introduction of a 4″-fluoro-substituent on the benzyloxy ring, with compound 2b exhibiting the highest degree of MAO-B inhibition potency (IC 50  = 0.039 μM) and selectivity (SI = 166) among the compounds investigated. Since some of the 3-benzyloxy-β-nitrostyrene analogues possess potencies that are comparable to that of the reversible inhibitor, safinamide (IC 50  = 0.080 μM), it may be concluded that this class may be promising leads for the development of reversible and selective MAO-B inhibitors, that may be useful for the management of Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Antimicrobial activity of antihypertensive food-derived peptides and selected alanine analogues.

    PubMed

    McClean, Stephen; Beggs, Louise B; Welch, Robert W

    2014-03-01

    This study evaluated four food-derived peptides with known antihypertensive activities for antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microorganisms, and assessed structure-function relationships using alanine analogues. The peptides (EVSLNSGYY, barley; PGTAVFK, soybean; TTMPLW, α-casein; VHLPP, α-zein) and the six alanine substitution peptides of PGTAVFK were synthesised, characterised and evaluated for antimicrobial activity using the bacteria, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Micrococcus luteus and the yeast, Candida albicans. The peptides TTMPLW and PGTAVFK inhibited growth of all four microorganisms tested, with activities of a similar order of magnitude to ampicillin and ethanol controls. EVSLNSGYY inhibited the growth of the bacteria, but VHLPP showed no antimicrobial activity. The alanine analogue, PGAAVFK showed the highest overall antimicrobial activity and PGTAVFA showed no activity; overall, the activities of the analogues were consistent with their structures. Some peptides with antihypertensive activity also show antimicrobial activity, suggesting that food-derived peptides may exert beneficial effects via a number of mechanisms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The western Qaidam Basin as a potential Martian environmental analogue: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anglés, Angélica; Li, Yiliang

    2017-05-01

    The early Martian environment is interpreted as warmer and wetter, before a significant change in its global climatic conditions irreversibly led to the current hyperarid environments. This transition is one of the most intriguing processes of Martian history. The extreme climatic change is preserved in the salt deposits, desiccated landscapes, and geomorphological structures that were shaped by the evaporation of water. However, until a manned journey to Mars is feasible, many Martian materials, morphological structures, and much of its evolutionary history will continue to be poorly understood. In this regard, searching and investigating Martian analogues are still meaningful. To find an Earth environment with a whole set of Martian structures distributed at a scale comparable to Mars is even more important to test landing crafts and provide optimized working parameters for rovers. The western Qaidam Basin in North Tibetan Plateau is such a Martian analogue. The area harbors one of the most extreme hyperarid environments on Earth and contains a series of ancient lakes that evaporated at different evolutionary stages during the rise of the Tibetan Plateau. Large quantities of salts and geomorphological features formed during the transition of warmer-and-wet to colder-and-dry conditions provide unique references to study the modern Martian surface and interpret the orbital data. We present numerous similarities and results of investigations that suggest the Qaidam Basin as a potential analogue to study modern geomorphic processes on Mars, and suggest that this is an essential site to test future Mars sample return missions.

  19. Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Fe, and Ni abundance for a sample of solar analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Valdivia, Ricardo; Bertone, Emanuele; Chávez, Miguel

    2017-05-01

    We report on the determination of chemical abundances of 38 solar analogues, including 11 objects previously identified as super-metal-rich stars. We have measured the equivalent widths for 34 lines of 7 different chemical elements (Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Fe and Ni) in high-resolution (R ˜ 80 000) spectroscopic images, obtained at the Observatorio Astrofísico Guillermo Haro (Sonora, Mexico), with the Cananea High-resolution Spectrograph. We derived chemical abundances using atlas12 model atmospheres and the Fortran code moog. We confirmed the super-metallicity status of six solar analogues. Within our sample, BD+60 600 is the most metal rich star ([Fe/H] = +0.35 dex), while for HD 166991, we obtained the lowest iron abundance ([Fe/H] = -0.53 dex). We also computed the so-called [Ref] index for 25 of our solar analogues, and we found that BD+60 600 ([Ref] = +0.42) and BD+28 3198 ([Ref] = +0.34) are good targets for exoplanet search.

  20. SAMHD1 enhances nucleoside-analogue efficacy against HIV-1 in myeloid cells

    PubMed Central

    Ordonez, Paula; Kunzelmann, Simone; Groom, Harriet C. T.; Yap, Melvyn W.; Weising, Simon; Meier, Chris; Bishop, Kate N.; Taylor, Ian A.; Stoye, Jonathan P.

    2017-01-01

    SAMHD1 is an intracellular enzyme that specifically degrades deoxynucleoside triphosphates into component nucleoside and inorganic triphosphate. In myeloid-derived dendritic cells and macrophages as well as resting T-cells, SAMHD1 blocks HIV-1 infection through this dNTP triphosphohydrolase activity by reducing the cellular dNTP pool to a level that cannot support productive reverse transcription. We now show that, in addition to this direct effect on virus replication, manipulating cellular SAMHD1 activity can significantly enhance or decrease the anti-HIV-1 efficacy of nucleotide analogue reverse transcription inhibitors presumably as a result of modulating dNTP pools that compete for recruitment by viral polymerases. Further, a variety of other nucleotide-based analogues, not normally considered antiretrovirals, such as the anti-herpes drugs Aciclovir and Ganciclovir and the anti-cancer drug Clofarabine are now revealed as potent anti-HIV-1 agents, under conditions of low dNTPs. This in turn suggests novel uses for nucleotide analogues to inhibit HIV-1 in differentiated cells low in dNTPs. PMID:28220857

  1. Synthesis, spectral characterization and larvicidal activity of acridin-1(2H)-one analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subashini, R.; Bharathi, A.; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Rajakumar, G.; Abdul Rahuman, A.; Gullanki, Pavan Kumar

    Acridin-1(2H)-one analogue of 7-chloro-3,4-dihydro-9-phenyl-2-[(pyridine-2yl) methylene] acridin-1(2H)-one, 5 was prepared by using 7-chloro-3,4-dihydro-9-phenylacridin-1(2H)-one, 3 and picolinaldehyde, 4 in the presence of KOH at room temperature. These compounds were characterized by analytical and spectral analyses. The purpose of the present study was to assess the efficacy of larvicidal and repellent activity of synthesized 7-chloro-3,4-dihydro-9-phenyl-acridin-1(2H)-one analogues such as compounds 3 and 5 against the early fourth instar larvae of filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus and Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex gelidus (Diptera: Culicidae). The compound exhibited high larvicidal effects at 50 mg/L against both the mosquitoes with LC50 values of 25.02 mg/L (r2 = 0.998) and 26.40 mg/L (r2 = 0.988) against C. quinquefasciatus and C. gelidus, respectively. The 7-chloro-3,4-dihydro-9-phenyl-acridin-1(2H)-one analogues that are reported for the first time to our best of knowledge can be better explored for the control of mosquito population. This is an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of Japanese encephalitis vectors, C. quinquefasciatus and C. gelidus.

  2. Insulin biosimilars: the impact on rapid-acting analogue-based therapy.

    PubMed

    Franzè, S; Cilurzo, F; Minghetti, P

    2015-04-01

    The impending expiration of patent protection for recombinant insulins provides the opportunity to introduce cost-saving copies, named biosimilars, onto the market. Although there is broad experience in the production and characterisation of insulins, the development of copies is still a challenge. In this paper, the main features of insulins and the EU regulatory framework for their biosimilar products are reviewed. The main focus is on rapid-acting insulin analogues (Humalog(®); Novolog(®)/NovoRapid(®); Apidra(®)). Since they differ by one or two amino acids in chain B, production of one biosimilar for all three drug products is not feasible. However, from post-marketing-collected clinical data, rapid-acting insulin analogues seem to have similar therapeutic efficacy. It is reasonable to suppose that, for prescription to treatment-naïve patients, the cheaper biosimilar would be the preferred choice of physicians, either spontaneously or induced by health insurance. Therefore, its introduction will affect the market share of all the other rapid-acting insulin analogues.

  3. Structural and Biochemical Studies of Actin in Complex with Synthetic Macrolide Tail Analogues

    DOE PAGES

    Pereira, Jose H.; Petchprayoon, Chutima; Hoepker, Alexander C.; ...

    2014-07-22

    The actin filament-binding and filament-severing activities of the aplyronine, kabiramide, and reidispongiolide families of marine macrolides are located within the hydrophobic tail region of the molecule. Two synthetic tail analogues of aplyronine C (SF-01 and GC-04) are shown to bind to G-actin with dissociation constants of (285±33) and (132±13) nM, respectively. The crystal structures of actin complexes with GC-04, SF-01, and kabiramide C reveal a conserved mode of tail binding within the cleft that forms between subdomains (SD) 1 and 3. Our studies support the view that filament severing is brought about by specific binding of the tail region tomore » the SD1/SD3 cleft on the upper protomer, which displaces loop-D from the lower protomer on the same half-filament. With previous studies showing that the GC-04 analogue can sever actin filaments, it is argued that the shorter complex lifetime of tail analogues with F-actin would make them more effective at severing filaments compared with plasma gelsolin. In conclusion, structure-based analyses are used to suggest more reactive or targetable forms of GC-04 and SF-01, which may serve to boost the capacity of the serum actin scavenging system, to generate antibody conjugates against tumor cell antigens, and to decrease sputum viscosity in children with cystic fibrosis.« less

  4. The effects of dissociation on information processing for analogue trauma and neutral stimuli: a laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Shira A; Beck, J Gayle

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of high and low levels of dissociation on information processing for analogue trauma and neutral stimuli. Fifty-four undergraduate females who reported high and low levels of trait dissociation were presented with two films, one depicting traumatic events, the other containing neutral material. Participants completed a divided attention task (yielding a proxy measure of attention), as well as explicit memory (free-recall) and implicit memory (word-stem completion) tasks for both films. Results indicated that the high DES group showed less attention and had poorer recall for the analogue trauma stimuli, relative to the neutral stimuli and the low DES group. These findings suggest that high levels of trait dissociation are associated with reductions in attention and memory for analogue trauma stimuli, relative to neutral stimuli and relative to low trait dissociation. Implications for the role of cognitive factors in the etiology of negative post-trauma responses are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Synthesis and biological evaluation of enantiomerically pure cyclopropyl analogues of combretastatin A4.

    PubMed

    Ty, Nancy; Pontikis, Renée; Chabot, Guy G; Devillers, Emmanuelle; Quentin, Lionel; Bourg, Stéphane; Florent, Jean-Claude

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the influence of stereochemistry on biological activities of cis-cyclopropyl combretastatin A4 (CA4) analogues, we have prepared several cyclopropyl compounds in their pure enantiomeric forms. The key reactions in our synthesis are the cyclopropanation of a (Z)-alkenylboron compound bearing a chiral auxiliary, and the cross-coupling of both enantiomeric cyclopropyl trifluoroborate salts with aryl and olefinic halides. Three pairs of cis-cyclopropyl CA4 analogues were evaluated for their potential antivascular activities. The diarylcyclopropyl compounds with SR-configuration (-)-1b, (-)-2b and the cyclopropylvinyl enantiomer (+)-3a with RR-configuration were the most potent tubulin polymerization inhibitors. A correlation was noted between anti-tubulin activity and rounding up activity of endothelial cells. The cytotoxic activity on B16 melanoma cells was in the submicromolar range for most compounds, but unlike the anti-tubulin activity, there was no difference in cytotoxic activity between racemic and enantiomerically pure forms for the three series of compounds. Molecular docking studies within the colchicine binding site of tubulin were in good agreement with the tubulin polymerization inhibitory data and confirmed the importance of the configuration of the synthesized cis-cyclopropyl CA4 analogues for potential antivascular activities. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of constrained heterocyclic analogues of combretastatin A4.

    PubMed

    Arthuis, Martin; Pontikis, Renée; Chabot, Guy G; Seguin, Johanne; Quentin, Lionel; Bourg, Stéphane; Morin-Allory, Luc; Florent, Jean-Claude

    2011-09-05

    A series of combretastatin A4 (CA4) analogues with a lactam or lactone ring fused to the trimethoxyphenyl or the B-phenyl moiety were synthesized in an efficient and stereoselective manner by using a domino Heck-Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction. The vascular-disrupting potential of these conformationally restricted CA4 analogues was assessed by various in vitro assays: inhibition of tubulin polymerization, modification of endothelial cell morphology, and disruption of endothelial cell cords. Compounds were also evaluated for their growth inhibitory effects against murine and human tumor cells. B-ring-constrained derivatives that contain an oxindole ring (in contrast to compounds with a benzofuranone ring) as well as analogues bearing a six-membered lactone core fused to the trimethoxyphenyl ring are endowed with significant biological activity. The most potent compound of this series (oxindole 9 b) is of particular interest, as it combines chemical stability and a biological activity profile characteristic of a vascular-disrupting agent. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Spectroscopic characterization of metal bound phytochelatin analogue (Glu-Cys)4-Gly.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yongsheng; Yan, Yong-Bin; Liu, Jinyuan

    2005-10-01

    The metal ion binding properties of a phytochelatin (PC) analogue, (Glu-Cys)4-Gly (named as EC4), have been studied by a divalent metal ion binding assay monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy, circular dichroism and NMR spectroscopy. Spectro- photometric titration with different divalent metal ions have revealed that the stiochoimetry of metal-bound EC4 was 1:1, and its metal binding affinities with different divalent metal ions in the order of Cd(II)>Cu(II)>Zn(II)>Pb(II)>Ni(II)>Co(II). UV-visible spectroscopic analysis of metal complexes indicated that four sulfur atoms in cysteine residues are attributable to ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT) between divalent metal ions and EC4, and further confirmed by 1D H1 NMR study and Circular Dichroism. In addition, Circular Dichroism spectra of both free and metal-bound forms of EC4 revealed that metal coordination drives the nonapeptide chain to fold into a turned conformation. The comprehensive analysis of spectroscopic properties of the nonapeptide complexed with metal ions not only provides a fundamental description of the metal ion binding properties of PC analogue, but also shows a correlation between metal binding affinity of PC analogue and the induction activity of metal ions.

  8. Understanding Rubredoxin Redox Sites by Density Functional Theory Studies of Analogues

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yan; Niu, Shuqiang; Ichiye, Toshiko

    2012-01-01

    Determining the redox energetics of redox site analogues of metalloproteins is essential in unraveling the various contributions to electron transfer properties of these proteins. Since studies of the [4Fe-4S] analogues show that the energies are dependent on the ligand dihedral angles, broken symmetry density functional theory (BS-DFT) with the B3LYP functional and double-ζ basis sets calculations of optimized geometries and electron detachment energies of [1Fe] rubredoxin analogues are compared to crystal structures and gas-phase photoelectron spectroscopy data, respectively, for [Fe(SCH3)4]0/1-/2-, [Fe(S2-o-xyl2)]0/1-/2-, and Na+[Fe(S2-o-xyl)2]1-/2- in different conformations. In particular, the study of Na+[Fe(S2-o-xyl)2]1-/2- is the only direct comparison of calculated and experimental gas phase detachment energies for the 1-/2- couple found in the rubredoxins. These results show that variations in the inner sphere energetics by up to ~0.4 eV can be caused by differences in the ligand dihedral angles in either or both redox states. Moreover, these results indicate that the protein stabilizes the conformation that favors reduction. In addition, the free energies and reorganization energies of oxidation and reduction as well as electrostatic potential charges are calculated, which can be used as estimates in continuum electrostatic calculations of electron transfer properties of [1Fe] proteins. PMID:22881577

  9. Formation of solar system analogues - I. Looking for initial conditions through a population synthesis analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronco, M. P.; Guilera, O. M.; de Elía, G. C.

    2017-11-01

    Population synthesis models of planetary systems developed during the last ˜15 yr could reproduce several of the observables of the exoplanet population, and also allowed us to constrain planetary formation models. We present our planet formation model, which calculates the evolution of a planetary system during the gaseous phase. The code incorporates relevant physical phenomena for the formation of a planetary system, like photoevaporation, planet migration, gas accretion, water delivery in embryos and planetesimals, a detailed study of the orbital evolution of the planetesimal population, and the treatment of the fusion between embryos, considering their atmospheres. The main goal of this work, unlike other works of planetary population synthesis, is to find suitable scenarios and physical parameters of the disc to form Solar system analogues. We are specially interested in the final planet distributions, and in the final surface density, eccentricity and inclination profiles for the planetesimal population. These final distributions will be used as initial conditions for N-body simulations to study the post-oligarchic formation in a second work. We then consider different formation scenarios, with different planetesimal sizes and different type I migration rates. We find that Solar system analogues are favoured in massive discs, with low type I migration rates, and small planetesimal sizes. Besides, those rocky planets within their habitables zones are dry when discs dissipate. At last, the final configurations of Solar system analogues include information about the mass and semimajor axis of the planets, water contents, and the properties of the planetesimal remnants.

  10. A Facile Semi-Synthetic Approach towards Halogen-Substituted Aminobenzoic Acid Analogues of Platensimycin.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lin; Tian, Kai; Pan, Jian; Jiang, Lin; Yang, Hu; Zhu, Xiangcheng; Shen, Ben; Duan, Yanwen; Huang, Yong

    2017-02-09

    Platensimycin (PTM), produced by several strains of Streptomyces platensis, is a promising drug lead for infectious diseases and diabetes. The recent pilot-scale production of PTM from S. platensis SB12026 has set the stage for the facile semi-synthesis of a focused library of PTM analogues. In this study, gram-quantity of platensic acid (PTMA) was prepared by the sulfuric acid-catalyzed ethanolysis of PTM, followed by a mild hydrolysis in aqueous lithium hydroxide. Three PTMA esters were also obtained in near quantitative yields in a single step, suggesting a facile route to make PTMA aliphatic esters. 1-[Bis(dimethylamino)methylene]-1H-1,2,3-triazolo[4,5-b]pyridinium 3-oxid hexafluorophosphate (HATU)-catalyzed coupling of PTMA and 33 aminobenzoates resulted in the synthesis of 28 substituted aminobenzoate analogues of PTM, among which 26 of them were reported for the first time. Several of the PTM analogues showed weak antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Our study supported the potential utility to integrate natural product biosynthetic and semi-synthetic approaches for structure diversification.

  11. Thermo-reversible supramolecular hydrogels of trehalose-type diblock methylcellulose analogues.

    PubMed

    Yamagami, Mao; Kamitakahara, Hiroshi; Yoshinaga, Arata; Takano, Toshiyuki

    2018-03-01

    This paper describes the design and synthesis of new trehalose-type diblock methylcellulose analogues with nonionic, cationic, and anionic cellobiosyl segments, namely 1-(tri-O-methyl-cellulosyl)-4-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-d-glucopyranosyloxymethyl]-1H-1,2,3-triazole (1), 1-(tri-O-methyl-cellulosyl)-4-[(6-amino-6-deoxy-β-d-glucopyranosyl)-(1→4)- 6-amino-6-deoxy-β-d-glucopyranosyloxymethyl]-1H-1,2,3-triazole (2), and 4-(tri-O-methyl-cellulosyloxymethyl)-1-[β-d-glucopyranuronosyl-(1→4)-β-d-glucopyranuronosyl]-1H-1,2,3-triazole (3), respectively. Aqueous solutions of all of the 1,2,3-triazole-linked diblock methylcellulose analogues possessed higher surface activities than that of industrially produced methylcellulose and exhibited lower critical solution temperatures, that allowed the formation of thermoresponsive supramolecular hydrogels at close to human body temperature. Supramolecular structures of thermo-reversible hydrogels based on compounds 1, 2, and 3 were investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Detailed structure-property-function relationships of compounds 1, 2, and 3 were discussed. Not only nonionic hydrophilic segment but also ionic hydrophilic segments of diblock methylcellulose analogues were valid for the formation of thermo-reversible supramolecular hydrogels based on end-functionalized methylcellulose. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 25OHD analogues and vacuum blood collection tubes dramatically affect the accuracy of automated immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Songlin; Cheng, Xinqi; Fang, Huiling; Zhang, Ruiping; Han, Jianhua; Qin, Xuzhen; Cheng, Qian; Su, Wei; Hou, Li’an; Xia, Liangyu; Qiu, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Variations in vitamin D quantification methods are large, and influences of vitamin D analogues and blood collection methods have not been systematically examined. We evaluated the effects of vitamin D analogues 25OHD2 and 3-epi 25OHD3 and blood collection methods on vitamin D measurement, using five immunoassay systems and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Serum samples (332) were selected from routine vitamin D assay requests, including samples with or without 25OHD2 or 3-epi 25OHD3, and analysed using various immunoassay systems. In samples with no 25OHD2 or 3-epi 25OHD3, all immunoassays correlated well with LC-MS/MS. However, the Siemens system produced a large positive mean bias of 12.5 ng/mL and a poor Kappa value when using tubes with clot activator and gel separator. When 25OHD2 or 3-epi 25OHD3 was present, correlations and clinical agreement decreased for all immunoassays. Serum 25OHD in VACUETTE tubes with gel and clot activator, as measured by the Siemens system, produced significantly higher values than did samples collected in VACUETTE tubes with no additives. Bias decreased and clinical agreement improved significantly when using tubes with no additives. In conclusion, most automated immunoassays showed acceptable correlation and agreement with LC-MS/MS; however, 25OHD analogues and blood collection tubes dramatically affected accuracy. PMID:26420221

  13. 25OHD analogues and vacuum blood collection tubes dramatically affect the accuracy of automated immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Yu, Songlin; Cheng, Xinqi; Fang, Huiling; Zhang, Ruiping; Han, Jianhua; Qin, Xuzhen; Cheng, Qian; Su, Wei; Hou, Li'an; Xia, Liangyu; Qiu, Ling

    2015-09-30

    Variations in vitamin D quantification methods are large, and influences of vitamin D analogues and blood collection methods have not been systematically examined. We evaluated the effects of vitamin D analogues 25OHD2 and 3-epi 25OHD3 and blood collection methods on vitamin D measurement, using five immunoassay systems and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Serum samples (332) were selected from routine vitamin D assay requests, including samples with or without 25OHD2 or 3-epi 25OHD3, and analysed using various immunoassay systems. In samples with no 25OHD2 or 3-epi 25OHD3, all immunoassays correlated well with LC-MS/MS. However, the Siemens system produced a large positive mean bias of 12.5 ng/mL and a poor Kappa value when using tubes with clot activator and gel separator. When 25OHD2 or 3-epi 25OHD3 was present, correlations and clinical agreement decreased for all immunoassays. Serum 25OHD in VACUETTE tubes with gel and clot activator, as measured by the Siemens system, produced significantly higher values than did samples collected in VACUETTE tubes with no additives. Bias decreased and clinical agreement improved significantly when using tubes with no additives. In conclusion, most automated immunoassays showed acceptable correlation and agreement with LC-MS/MS; however, 25OHD analogues and blood collection tubes dramatically affected accuracy.

  14. Transition-state characterization: a new approach combining inhibitor analogues and variation in enzyme structure.

    PubMed

    Phillips, M A; Kaplan, A P; Rutter, W J; Bartlett, P A

    1992-02-04

    A new strategy of potentially broad application for probing transition-state (TS) analogy in enzymatic systems is described in this paper. The degree to which a series of phosphonate inhibitors act as TS analogues of rat carboxypeptidase A1 has been determined for the wild-type enzyme, for the R127K, R127M, and R127A mutants, and for the R127A mutant in the presence of 0.5 M guanidine hydrochloride. The impact that the mutations have on the inverse second-order rate constants (Km/kcat) for substrate hydrolysis is mirrored by the effect on the inhibition constants (Ki) for the corresponding phosphonate inhibitors. These results demonstrate that the phosphonate moiety mimics some of the electronic as well as the geometric characteristics of the TS. A similar but distinctly separate correlation is observed for tripeptide analogues in comparison to analogues of the dipeptide Cbz-Gly-Phe, reflecting an anomalous mode of binding for the latter system. The selective rate increases and corresponding enhancement in inhibitor binding observed on addition of 0.5 M guanidine hydrochloride to the R127A mutant indicate that the exogenous cation can assume the role played by Arg-127 in stabilizing the TS and in providing substrate selectivity at the P2 position.

  15. Adjuvant role of vitamin B analogue (sulbutiamine) with anti-infective treatment in infection associated asthenia.

    PubMed

    Shah, Siddharth N

    2003-09-01

    Asthenic symptoms such as weakness accompany illness. This study investigates whether the centrally acting cholinergic agent, vitamin B analogue (sulbutiamine), is effective and acceptable in relieving these symptoms in infectious disease when combined with specific anti-infective treatment. In a prospective uncontrolled, non-randomised, commercial, observational study, 1772 patients with an infectious disease and asthenic symptoms, drawn from the practice of 350 randomly selected physicians throughout India, received vitamin B analogue (sulbutiamine) in addition to specific anti-infective treatment for 15 days. The primary outcome variable was complete resolution of asthenic symptoms with treatment. The number (%, 95% confidence interval) of patients with complete resolution of all asthenic symptoms was 916 (51.7, 49.4-54). In the remaining patients, severe asthenia was reduced but persisted in 11 (0.6, 0-26); and moderate asthenia in 94 (5.3, 0-17.6). The response was greater in patients with acute infection and symptoms more related to cerebral function. Side effects occurred in 10 (0.6%), patients and well being improved significantly. Vitamin B analogue (sulbutiamine) may be a useful adjunct to specific anti-infective treatment.

  16. Bioaccumulation and biomagnification of emerging bisphenol analogues in aquatic organisms from Taihu Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Chen, Meng; Shan, Guoqiang; Chen, Pengyu; Cui, Shuo; Yi, Shujun; Zhu, Lingyan

    2017-11-15

    Due to regulations on bisphenol A (BPA) in many countries, a variety of bisphenol analogues are being widely manufactured and applied. However, there is a big knowledge gap on bioaccumulation and biomagnification of these emerging bisphenols in aquatic organisms. The bioaccumulation and magnification of nine bisphenol analogues in aquatic organisms at different trophic levels collected from Taihu Lake, China, were evaluated. The total concentrations of the nine bisphenols in the lake waters were in the range of 49.7-3480ng/L (mean, 389ng/L). BPA, bisphenol AF (BPAF) and bisphenol S (BPS) were the most predominant analogues in the water. The mean natural logarithm bioaccumulation factor (log BAFs) of BPAF, bisphenol C (BPC), bisphenol Z (BPZ) and bisphenol E (BPE) were greater than BPA, and there was a significantly positive correlation between log BAFs of the biphenols and their octanol-water partition coefficients (log K ow ). The trophic magnification factors of BPAF, BPC and BPZ were 2.52, 2.69 and 1.71, respectively, suggesting that they had the potential to biomagnify in the food web. The results of this study call for further investigations on risk assessment of these emerging pollutants in the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A proposal to encourage intuitive learning in a senior-level analogue electronics course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berjano, E.; Lozano-Nieto, A.

    2011-05-01

    One of the most important issues in the reorganisation of engineering education is to consider new pedagogical techniques to help students develop skills and an adaptive expertise. This expertise consists of being able to recognise the nature of a problem intuitively, and also recognising recurring patterns in different types of problems. In the particular case of analogue electronics, an additional difficulty seems to be that understanding involves both analytic skills and an intuitive grasp of circuit characteristics. This paper presents a proposal to help senior students to think intuitively in order to identify the common issue involved in a group of problems of analogue electronics and build an abstract concept based on, for example, a theory or a mathematical model in order to use it to solve future problems. The preliminary results suggest that this proposal could be useful to promote intuitive reasoning in analogue electronics courses. The experience would later be useful to graduates in analytically solving new types of problems or in designing new electronic circuits.

  18. Design and activity of novel lactoferrampin analogues against O157:H7 enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Jenniffer; Ortiz, Claudia; Guzmán, Fanny; Cárdenas, Constanza; Fernandez-Lafuente, Roberto; Torres, Rodrigo

    2014-04-01

    Lactoferrampin 265-284 (LFampin 265-284) is a peptide consisting of residues 265-284 of N1-domain of bovine Lactoferrin (LF). This peptide has several cationic groups in the C-terminal lobe, exhibiting an antibacterial activity against a wide range of microorganisms. However, LFampin 265-284 exhibits low antimicrobial activity against the O157:H7 enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC O157:H7) when compared with Lactoferrin chimera and Lactoferricin. Here, we have designed three analogues of LFampin 265-284 based on the distribution of cationic groups, hydrophobicity, size, and sequence. Analogues were synthesized by solid phase chemistry using Fmoc methodology obtaining peptides with 95% purity. All peptides maintain the ability to adopt helical conformations (checked by circular dichroism spectra and molecular simulations). Some of these analogues exhibited a significant increase in antimicrobial activity by counting colony forming units against EHEC O157:H7 compared to native LFampin 265-284, with MIC of 10 and 40 µM for 264G-D265K and 264G-D265K/S272R, respectively. The incorporation of a GKLI sequence in the N-terminal lobe increased dramatically its antibacterial activity, an effect which has been attributed to the addition of cationic groups in the N-terminal side that may stabilize the helical conformation of the new designed peptides. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Human versus animal: contrasting decomposition dynamics of mammalian analogues in experimental taphonomy.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Kathryn L; Forbes, Shari L; Tibbett, Mark

    2013-05-01

    Taphonomic studies regularly employ animal analogues for human decomposition due to ethical restrictions relating to the use of human tissue. However, the validity of using animal analogues in soil decomposition studies is still questioned. This study compared the decomposition of skeletal muscle tissues (SMTs) from human (Homo sapiens), pork (Sus scrofa), beef (Bos taurus), and lamb (Ovis aries) interred in soil microcosms. Fixed interval samples were collected from the SMT for microbial activity and mass tissue loss determination; samples were also taken from the underlying soil for pH, electrical conductivity, and nutrient (potassium, phosphate, ammonium, and nitrate) analysis. The overall patterns of nutrient fluxes and chemical changes in nonhuman SMT and the underlying soil followed that of human SMT. Ovine tissue was the most similar to human tissue in many of the measured parameters. Although no single analogue was a precise predictor of human decomposition in soil, all models offered close approximations in decomposition dynamics. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of a small analogue of the anticancer natural product leinamycin.

    PubMed

    Keerthi, Kripa; Rajapakse, Anuruddha; Sun, Daekyu; Gates, Kent S

    2013-01-01

    Leinamycin (1) is a Streptomyces-derived natural product that displays nanomolar IC(50) values against human cancer cell lines. In the work described here, we report the synthesis and characterization of a small leinamycin analogue 19 that closely resembles the 'upper-right quadrant' of the natural product, consisting of an alicyclic 1,2-dithiolan-3-one 1-oxide heterocycle connected to an alkene by a two-carbon linker. The results indicate that this small analogue contains the core set of functional groups required to enable thiol-triggered generation of both redox active polysulfides and an episulfonium ion intermediate via the complex reaction cascade first seen in the natural product leinamycin. The small leinamycin analogue 19 caused thiol-triggered oxidative DNA strand cleavage in a manner similar to the natural product, but did not alkyate duplex DNA effectively. This highlights the central role of the 18-membered macrocycle of leinamycin in driving efficient DNA alkylation by the natural product. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.